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No I. APRIL 1817. 

VOL. I. 


NER, ESQ. M. r. 

OF the many eminent and good men 
whom Great Britain may proudly 
boast of having produced, who have 
dedicated their lives to the service of 
the state, and have ministered to the 
improvement and the happiness of their 
countrymenj not less by the exercise 
of splendid talents in the public coun- 
cils of the nation, than by the bright 
example they have afforded in private 
life, of inflexible integrity, and the 
practice of every amiable virtue, there 
is certainly not one whose death has 
excited a deeper or more universal re- 
gret, than that of MR FRANCIS HOR- 
NER. To the nation at large, as well 
as to those fortunate, though now af- 
flicted, individuals, who were attached 
to him by the dearer ties of consan- 
guinity and friendship, the loss of this 
excellent man is indeed irreparable. 

Statesmen beheld in him an exam- 
ple ever to be admired, and ever to be 
emulated, of great parts, and still great- 
er worth, wholly and sincerely devoted 
to the attainment of the noblest of 
objects, our country's good, and the 
general improvement of mankind. It 
was their delight to contemplate, in 
this highly-gifted individual, a com- 
bination almost without a parallel, of 
every virtue, and every acquirement, 
which can dignify and adorn the char- 
acter of a public man ; a powerful 
understanding, various and profound 
knowledge, a sound and penetrating 
judgment, original and enlightened 
views, a correct and elegant taste, 
an impressive yet modest eloquence, 
a fervent but chastened zeal, never- 
failing discretion, a high and inde- 
pendent feeling, and, above all, a 
VOL. I. 

most unimpeachable honour. Where 
now, alas ! shall good men search for, 
or searching find, a union so inestim- 
able of intellectual and moral excel- 
lence, to cheer their hopes, and con- 
firm their virtuous purposes, in these 
times of political difficulty and of re- 
laxing principle. 

Splendid, however, as these his pub- 
lic virtues were, the knowledge of 
them served only to enhance the plea- 
sure, which it was the peculiar happi- 
ness of his relations and friends to en- 
joy, from the contemplation of his pri- 
vate worth. Dutiful, affectionate, and 
social ; gentle, cheerful, and unassum- 
ing ; full of kindness and full of chari- 
ty ; he was the joy and pride of his 
family, dear to every friend, and a per- 
fect pattern of goodness in all the re- 
lations of domestic life. For these sor- 
rowing individuals, this only consola- 
tion now remains, silently to dwell 
on the remembrance of his numerous 
virtues, and to fix the love of them 
for ever on their hearts. 

Of the exalted estimation in which 
Mr HORNER'S character was univer- 
sally held, no testimony can be more 
gratifying or more unequivocal, than 
the tone of deep and feeling regret 
with which his death was announced 
in all the public prints ; and the strain 
of unexampled eulogy which was 
poured forth on his high attainments, 
and his generous nature, in the House 
of Commons, by political opponents as 
well as by private friends, on the me- 
lancholy occasion of moving for a new 
writ for the borough which he repre- 
sented in Parliament. 

The following paragraph, admirable 
alike for its elegance and its truth, 
appeared in the Morning Chronicle of 
Friday, the S8th of February 1817. 

Memoir of Francis Homer, Esq. 


" It is with deep concern we have 
to announce the death of Francis Hor- 
ner, Esq. Member of Parliament for 
St Mawes. This melancholy event 
took place at Pisa on the 8th instant. 
We have had seldom to lament a 
greater loss, or to bewail a more irre- 
parable calamity. With an inflexible 
integrity, and ardent attachment to 
liberty, Mr Homer conjoined a tem- 
perance and discretion not alwaysfound 
to accompany these virtues. The res- 
pect in which he was held, and the 
deference with which he was listened 
to in the House of Commons, is a 
striking proof of the effect of moral 
qualities in a popular assembly. With- 
out the adventitious aids of station or 
fortune, he had acquired a weight and 
influence in Parliament, which few 
men, whose lives were passed in op- 
position, have been able to obtain ; and 
for this consideration he was infinitely 
less indebted to his eloquence and 
talents, eminent as they were, than to 
the opinion universally entertained of 
his public and private rectitude. His 
understanding was strong and com- 
prehensive, his knowledge extensive 
and accurate, his judgment sound and 
clear, his conduct plain and direct. 
His eloquence, like his character, was 
grave and forcible, without a particle 
of vanity or presumption, free from 
rancour and personality, but full of 
deep and generous indignation against 
fraud, hypocrisy, or injustice. He 
was a warm, zealous, and affectionate 
friend high-minded and disinterested 
in his conduct firm and decided in 
his opinions modest and unassuming 
in his manners. To his private friends 
his death is a calamity they can never 
cease to deplore. To the public it is a 
loss not easily to be repaired, and, in 
times like these, most severely to be 

In the House of Commons, on Mon- 
day, March 3d, 1817, LORD Mou- 
I'ETH rose, and spoke as follows : 
" I rise to move that the speaker do 
issue his writ for a new member to 
serve in Parliament for the borough of 
St Mawes, in the room of the late 
Francis Homer, Esq. 

" In making this motion, I trust it 
will not appear presumptuous or offi- 
cious, if I address a few words to the 
House upon this melancholy occasion. 
I am aware that it is rather an unusual 
course ; but, without endeavouring to 
institute a parallel with other instances, 


I am authorised in saying that the 
course is not wholly unprecedented. 

" My lamented friend, of whom I 
never can speak without feelings of the 
deepest regret, had been rendered in- 
capable for some tirrte past, in conse- 
quence of the bad state of his health, 
of applying himself to the labours of 
his profession, or to the discharge of 
his parliamentary duties. He was 
prevailed upon to try the effects of a 
milder and more genial climate the 
hope was vain, and the attempt fruit- 
less : he sunk beneath the slow but 
destructive effect of a lingering dis- 
ease, which baffled the power of me- 
dicine and the influence of climate ; 
but under the pressure of increasing 
infirmity, under the infliction of a de- 
bilitating and exhausting malady, he 
preserved undiminished the serenity 
of his amiable temper, and the com- 
posure, the vigour, and firmness of his 
excellent and enlightened understand- 
ing. I may, perhaps, be permitted; 
without penetrating too far into the 
more sequestered paths of private life, 
to allude to those mild virtues those 
domestic charities, which embellished 
while they dignified his private char- 
acter. I may be permitted to observe, 
that, as a son and as a brother, he was 
eminently dutiful and affectionate; 
but I am aware that these qualities, 
however amiable, can hardly, with 
strict propriety, be addressed to the 
consideration of Parliament. When, 
however, they are blended, interwoven, 
and incorporated in the character of a 
public man, they become a species of 
public property, and, by their influ- 
ence and example, essentially augment 
the general stock of public virtue. 

" For his qualifications as a public 
man I can confidently appeal to a wider 
circle to that learned profession of 
which he was a distinguished orna- 
ment to this House, where lu's exer- 
tions will be long remembered with 
mingled feelings of regret and admi- 
ration. It is not necessary for me to 
enter into the detail of his graver 
studies and occupations. I may be 
allowed to say generally, that he rais- 
ed the edifice of his fair fame upon a 
good and solid foundation upon the 
firm basis of conscientious principle. 
He was ardent in the pursuit of truth ; 
he was inflexible in his adherence to 
the great principles of justice and of 
right. Whenever he delivered in this 
House the ideas of his clear and intcl- 


Memoir of Francis Homer, Esq. 

ligent mind, he employed that chaste, 
simple, but at the same time, nervous 
and impressive style of oratory which 
seemed admirably adapted to the elu- 
cidation and discussion of important 
business : it seemed to combine the 
force and precision of legal argument 
with the acquirements and knowledge 
of a statesman. 

" Of his political opinions it is not 
necessary for me to enter into any de- 
tailed statement ; they are sufficiently 
known, and do not require from me 
any comment or illustration. I am 
confident that his political opponents 
will admit, that he never courted po- 
pularity by any unbecoming or un- 
worthy means ; they will have the 
candour to allow, that the expression 
of his political opinions, however firm, 
manly, and decided, was untinctured 
with moroseness, and unembittered 
with any personal animosity or rancor- 
ous reflection. From these feelings he 
was effectually exempted by the opera- 
tion of those qualities which formed 
the grace and the charm of his private 

" But successful as his exertions 
were, both in this House and in the 
Courts of Law, considering the con- 
tracted span of his life, they can only 
be looked upon as the harbingers of his 
maturer fame, as the presages and the 
anticipations of a more exalted reputa- 
tion. But his career was prematurely 
closed. That his loss to his family 
and his friends is irreparable, can be 
readily conceived ; but I may add, that 
to this House and the country it is a 
loss of no ordinary magnitude ; in these 
times it will be severely felt. In these 
times, however, when the structure of 
the constitution is undergoing close 
and rigorous investigation, on the part 
of some with the view of exposing its 
defects, on the part of others with that 
of displaying its beauties and perfec- 
tions, we may derive some consolation 
from the reflection, that a man not 
possessed of the advantages of heredi- 
tary rank or of very ample fortune, 
was enabled, by the exertion of his 
own honourable industry by the suc- 
cessful cultivation of his native talents, 
to vindicate to himself a station and 
eminence in society, which the proud- 
est and wealthiest might envy and ad- 

" I ought to apologize to the House, 
not, I trust, for having introduced the 
subject to their notice, for of that I 


hope I shall stand acquitted, but for 
having paid so imperfect and inade- 
quate a tribute to the memory of my 
departed friend." 

Mr CANNING. " Of all the instances 
wherein the same course has been a- 
dopted, as that which my Noble Friend 
has pursued with so much feeling and 
good taste on this occasion, I do not 
remember one more likely than the 
present to conciliate the general appro- 
bation and sympathy of the House. 

" I, Sir, had not the happiness (a hap- 
piness now counterbalanced by a pro- 
portionate excess of sorrow and regret) 
to be acquainted personally, in private 
life, with the distinguished and ami- 
able individual whose loss we have to 
deplore. I knew him only within the 
walls of the House of Commons. And 
even here, from the circumstance of 
my absence during the last two ses- 
sions, I had not the good fortune to 
witness the later and more matured 
exhibition of his talents ; which (as I 
am informed, and can well believe) at 
once kept the promise of his earlier 
years, and opened still wider expecta- 
tions of future excellence. 

" But I had seen enough of him to 
share in those expectations, and to be 
sensible of what this House and the 
country have lost by his being so pre- 
maturely taken from us. 

" He had, indeed, qualifications emi- 
nently calculated to obtain and to de- 
serve success. His sound principles 
his enlarged views his various and 
accurate knowledge the even tenor 
of his manly and temperate eloquence 
the genuineness of his warmth, when 
into warmth he was betrayed and, 
above all, the singular modesty with 
which he bore his faculties, and which 
shed a grace and lustre over them all ; 
these qualifications, added to the known 
blamelessness and purity of his private 
character, did not more endear him to 
his friends, than they commanded the 
respect of those to whom he was op- 
posed in adverse politics ; they ensur- 
ed to every effort of his abilities an at- 
tentive and favouring audience ; and 
secured for him, as the result of all, a 
solid and unenvied reputation. 

" I cannot conclude, sir, without ad- 
verting to a topic in the latter part of 
the speech of my Noble Friend, upon 
which I most entirely concur with 
him. It would not be seemly to mix 
with the mournful subject of our pre- 
sent contemplation any thing of a con- 

Memoir of Francis Homer, Esq. 


troversial nature ; but when, for the 
second time within a short course of 
years, the name of an obscure borough 
is brought before us as vacated by the 
loss of conspicuous talents and charac- 
ter,* it may be permitted to me, with 
my avowed and notorious opinions on 
the subject of Parliamentary Constitu- 
tion, to state, without offence, that it 
is at least some consolation for the im- 
puted theoretical defects of that con- 
stitution, that in practice it works so 
well. A system of representation can- 
not be wholly vicious, and altogether 
inadequate to its purposes, which sends 
to this House a succession of such men 
as those whom we have now in our 
remembrance, here to develope the ta- 
lents with which God has endowed 
them, and to attain that eminence in 
the view of their country, from which 
they may be one day called to aid her 
counsels, and to sustain her greatness 
and her glory." 

not whether I ought, even for a mo- 
ment, to intrude myself on the House : 
I am utterly incapable of adding any 
thing to what has been so well, so 
feelingly, and so truly stated on this 
melancholy occasion ; and yet I hope, 
without the appearance of presump- 
tion, I may be permitted to say, from 
the bottom of my heart, I share in 
every sentiment that has been ex- 

"It was my good fortune, some few 
years back, to live in habits of great in- 
timacy and friendship with Mr Hor- 
ner : change of circumstances, my 
quitting the profession to which we 
both belonged, broke in upon those 
habits of intercourse ; but I hope and 
believe I may flatter myself the feeling 
was mutual. For myself, at least, I 
can most honestly say, that no change 
of circumstances no difference of po- 
litics no interruption to our habits 
of intercourse, even in the slightest 
degree diminished the respect, the re- 
gard, and the affection I most sincerely 
entertained for him. 

" This House can well appreciate the 
heavy loss we have sustained in him 
as a public man. In these times, in- 
deed in all times, so perfect a combi- 
nation of commanding talents, indefa- 

* Mr Windham, who represented St 
Mawes in 1806, died member for Higham 
Ferrers in 1810. 

tigable industry, and stern integrity, 
must be a severe public loss ; but no 
man, who has not had the happiness 
the bkssing, I might say to have 
known him as a friend ; who has not 
witnessed the many virtues and en- 
dearing qualities that characterized him 
in the circle of his acquaintance, can 
adequately conceive the irreparable 
chasm in private life this lamentable 
event has made. 

" In my conscience, I believe, there 
never lived the man, of whom it could 
more truly be said, that, whenever he 
was found in public life, he was re- 
spected and admired whenever he was 
known in private life, he was most af- 
fectionately beloved. 

" I will no longer try the patience 
of the House : I was anxious, indeed, 
that they should bear with me for a 
few moments, whilst I endeavoured, 
not to add my tribute to the regard 
and veneration in which his memory 
ought, and assuredly will be held; 
but whilst I endeavoured, however 
feebly, to discharge a debt of grati- 
tude, and do a justice to my own feel- 

Mr WYNN said, " that his Noble 
Friend (Lord Morpeth), and his Right 
Hon. Friend who had last spoken (Mr 
M. Sutton), had expressed themselves 
concerning their departed friend with 
that feeling of affection and esteem 
which did them so much honour, and 
which was heightened by their habits 
of intimacy, and their opportunities of 
observing his character ; but the vir- 
tues by which he was distinguished 
were not confined within the circle of 
his acquaintance, or concealed from 
the view of the world. Every one who 
saw Mr Horner had the means of 
judging of his temper, his mildness, 
and his personal virtues; for they were 
seen by all. He carried with him to 
public life, and into the duties and the 
business of his public station, all that 
gentleness of disposition, all that ame- 
nity of feeling, which adorned his pri- 
vate life, and endeared him to his pri- 
vate friends. Amidst the heats and 
contests of the House, amidst the ve- 
hemence of political discussion, amidst 
the greatest conflicts of opinion and 
opposition of judgment, he maintained 
the same mildness and serenity of dis- 
position and temper. No eagerness of 
debate, no warmth of feeling, no en- 
thusiasm for his own opinions, or cou- 


viction of the errors of others, ever 
betrayed him into any uncandid con- 
struction of motives, or any asperity 
towards the conduct of his opponents. 
His loss was great, and would long be 

Sir S. ROMILLY said, " that the long 
and most intimate friendship which 
he had enjoyed with the Honourable 
Member, whose loss the House had to 
deplore, might, he hoped, entitle him 
to the melancholy satisfaction of saying 
a few words on this distressing occa- 
sion. Though no person better knew, 
or more highly estimated, the private 
virtues of Mr Homer than himself, 
yet, as he was not sure that he should 
be able to utter what he felt on that 
subject, he would speak of him only 
as a public man. 

" Of all the estimable qualities which 
distinguished his character, he con- 
sidered as the most valuable, that in- 
dependence of mind which in him was 
so remarkable. It was from a con- 
sciousness of that independence, and 
from a just sense of its importance, 
that, at the same time that he was 
storing his mind with the most various 
knowledge on all subjects connected 
with our internal economy and foreign 
politics, and that be was taking a con- 
spicuous and most successful part in 
all the great questions which have 
lately been discussed in Parliament, 
he laboriously devoted himself to all 
the painful duties of his profession. 
Though his success at the bar was not 
at all adequate to his merits, he yet 
stedfastly persevered in his labours, 
and seemed to consider it as essential 
to his independence, that he should 
look forward to his profession alone 
for the honours and emoluments to 
which his extraordinary talents gave 
him so just a claim. 

" In the course of the last twelve 
years the House had lost some of the 
most considerable men that ever had 
enlightened and adorned it : there was 

Memoir of Francis Horncr, Esq. 7 

commanding eloquence had been rising 
with the important subjects on which 
it had been employed how every 
session he had spoken with still in- 
creasing weight and authority and 
eifect, and had called forth new re- 
sources of his enlightened and com- 
prehensive mind and not be led to 
conjecture, that, notwithstanding the 
great excellence which, in the last 
session, he had attained, yet if he had 
been longer spared, he would have 
discovered powers not yet discovered 
to the House, and of which perhaps 
he was unconscious himself. He should 
very ill express what he felt upon this 
occasion, if he were to consider the 
extraordinary qualities which Mr Hor- 
ner possessed apart from the ends and 
objects to which they were directed. 
The greatest eloquence was in itself 
only an object of vain and transient 
admiration ; it was only when enno- 
bled by the uses to which it was ap- 
plied, when directed to great and vir- 
tuous ends, to the protection of the 
oppressed, to the enfranchisement of 
the enslaved, to the extension of know- 
ledge, to dispelling the clouds of igno- 
rance and superstition, to the advance- 
ment of the best interests of the coun- 
try, and to enlarging the sphere of 
human happiness, that it became a 
national benefit and a public blessing ; 
that it was because the powerful ta- 
lents, of which they were now de- 
prived, had been uniformly exerted in 
the pursuit and promoting of such 
objects, that he considered the loss 
which they had to lament as one of 
the greatest which, in the present state 
of this country, it could possibly have 

Mr W. ELLIOT. " Amongst hiso- 
ther friends, sir, I cannot refuse to my- 
self the melancholy consolation of pay- 
ing my humble tribute of esteem and 
affection to the memory of a person, 
of whose rich, cultivated, and enlight- 
ened mind I have so often profited, 

this, however, peculiar in their present and whose exquisite talents whose 
loss. When those great and eminent 

men, to whom he alluded, were taken 
from them, the House knew the whole 
extent of the loss it had sustained, for 
they had arrived at the full maturity 
of their great powers and endowments. 
But no person could recollect how, in 
every year since his lamented friend 
had first taken part in their debates, 
his talents had been improving, his 
faculties had been developed, and his 

ardent zeal for truth whose just, se- 
date, and discriminating judgment 
whose forcible, but chastened eloquence 
and, above all, whose inflexible vir- 
tue and integrity rendered him one of 
the most distinguished members of 
this House, one of the brightest orna- 
ments of the profession to which he 
belonged, and held him forth as a 
finished model for the imitation of the 
rising generation. 


Memoir of Francis Horner, Esq. 


" The full amount of such a loss, at 
such a conjuncture, and under all the 
various circumstances and considera- 
tions of the case, I dare not attempt 
to estimate. My Learned Friend (Sir 
S. Romilly) has well observed, that, 
if the present loss be great, the future 
is greater : for, by dispensations far 
above the reach of human scrutiny, 
he has been taken from us at a period 
when he was only in his progress to- 
wards those high stations in the state, 
in which, so far as human foresight 
could discern, his merits must have 
placed him, and which would have 
given to his country the full and 
ripened benefits of his rare and admi- 
rable qualities." 

Mr C. GRANT " had known his la- 
mented friend before he had distin- 
guished himself so much as he had 
subsequently done, and could not be 
silent when such an opportunity oc- 
curred of paying a tribute to his me- 
mory. Whatever difference of opinion 
they might have on public questions, 
he could suspend that difference to 
admire his talents, his worth, and his 
virtues. It was not his talents alone 
that were developed in his eloquence. 
His eloquence displayed his heart : 
through it were seen his high-minded 
probity, his philanthropy, his benevo- 
lence, and all those qualities which 
not only exacted applause, but excited 
love. It was the mind that appeared 
in speeches that gave them character. 
He would not enter into the account 
of his private life, although his private 
virtues were at least on a level with 
his public merits. Amid all the cares 
and interests of public life, he never 
lost his relish for domestic society, or 
his attachment to his family. The 
last time that he (Mr G.) conversed 
with him, he was anticipating with 
pleasure the arrival of a season of lei- 
sure, when he could spend a short 
time in the bosom of his family, and 
amid the endearments of his friends. 
When he looked at his public or pri- 
vate conduct, his virtues, or his ta- 
lents, he would be allowed to have 
earned applause to which few other 
men ever entitled themselves." 

LordLASCELLES " hoped to be ex- 
cused for adding a few words to what 
had been said, though he had not the 
honour of a private acquaintance with 
Mr Homer, whom he knew only in 
this House, where they had almost 
uniformly voted on opposite sides on 

every great question. Notwithstand- 
ing these differences, he had often 
said in private, that Mr Horner was 
one of the greatest ornaments of his 
country; and he would now say in 
public, that the coantry could not have 
suffered a greater loss. The forms of 
Parliament allowed no means of ex- 
pressing the collective opinion of the 
House on the honour due to his me- 
mory ; but it must be consolatory to 
his friends to see, that if it had been 
possible to have come to such a vote, it 
would certainly have been unanimous." 
The subject of this well-merited 
praise, and of all these sincere but in- 
effectual regrets, was born at Edin- 
burgh, on the 16th of August 1778. 
In the month of October, 1786, he en- 
tered the high school of that city ; and 
having remained at this seminary for 
six years, during the four first of which 
he was the pupil of Mr Nicol, and the 
two last of the celebrated Dr Adam, 
he passed on to the university in Oc- 
tober 1792. In November 1795, he 
was placed under the care of the Rev. 
Mr Hewlett in London, with whom 
he lived, and who superintended his 
education for a period of two years. 
He then returned to Edinburgh, and 
applied himself to the study of the law, 
and passed advocate in the year 1800. 
Soon after, he took up his residence in 
London, with the view of preparing 
himself for the English bar. In 1 806, 
he was appointed by the East India 
Company one of the commissioners 
for the liquidation of the debts of the 
Nabob of Arcot ; but resigned this 
laborious situation in little more than 
two years, finding that the duties 
which it imposed on him were incom- 
patible with the application due to his 
professional pursuits. In October 1 806, 
he was returned Member of Parlia- 
ment for St Ives. The following year, 
he was elected Member for Wendover, 
and was called to the English bar. 
In 1813, he was chosen to represent 
the borough of St Mawes in the pre- 
sent parliament. 

The disease which proved fatal to 
Mr Horner was an induration and 
contraction of the lungs ; a malady, 
the existence of which is not marked 
by any decided symptom, and which 
is wholly beyond the reach of medi- 
cal aid. He died at Pisa on the 8th of 
February 1817, aged thirty-eight years 
and six months, and was interred in the 
Protestant bury ing-ground atLcghorn. 


On the Sculpture of the Greeks. 



'it' faaiv ivifi "Xovrii 
IljaSXjj^* aX/xA.u;ov, ax.^a.1 
'Tra X'^.a.xa, 2v< 
Tf lioa; if a; if^affet- 
Toif*,' a.v 'A.0ava;. 

Sophoclis Ajax, v. 1217. 

FOR the last two thousand years, a 
few blocks of marble, cut in resem- 
blance of the human body, have form- 
ed the almost solitary subject of uni- 
form opinion among all men, and ex- 
cited, without qualification, the uni- 
versal admiration of the world. The 
Romans took them from the Greeks, 
and were not ashamed to confess them- 
selves overcome by the artists of a na- 
tion which they had subdued. In the 
midst of wars and of triumphs, the 
nations of Modern Europe treat these 
marbles as they do cities and provinces 
gain possession of them by victories, 
and cede them by treaties. The an- 
cients who have written concerning 
them, speak of them, like ourselves, 
in hyperbolical expressions of enthu- 
siasm ; and by the general consent of 
Greeks, Romans, and Barbarians, these 
master-pieces of art have been raised 
to the rank of so many unfailing stand- 
ards, by a comparison with which 
alone the excellencies of the produc- 
tions of nature herself can be duly 
appreciated and admired. It is yet 
more wonderful, that though these 
admirable figures have for some cen- 
turies been made the subject of un- 
ceasing imitation, they maintain to 
this hour an undisputed superiority 
over all the productions of the mo- 
derns. We are never weary of ask- 
ing, by what art they have been pro- 
duced? and this problem has never 
yet been entirely solved. In order to 
answer it in a satisfactory manner, it 
is not enough to shew wherein consists 
the perfection of the ancient statues, 
and by what rules of execution they 
have been rendered so perfect as they 
are ; it is necessary to go deeper into 
the subject, and to examine what may 
have been the causes of this perfection ; 
that is to say, by what train of actions 
and opinions the Greeks arrived at the 
formation and realization of those 
principles by which it has been pro- 
duced. To do this well, we must for- 
get our own habits and manners ; we 
must transport ourselves into Greece 
herself into the country of a people 
VOL. I. 


in every thing which respects the fine 
arts very different from ourselves ; and 
we must endeavour to determine the 
nature and the causes of their taste, 
without allowing ourselves to be se- 
duced by the depravity of our own. 

The character of the individual was 
every thing among the Greeks. They 
cultivated his moral part, and they 
perfected his physical part, because 
his physical and his moral qualities 
were alike necessary for the purposes 
of the state. The case is very differ- 
ent among modern nations. What 
signifies the beauty, or even the virtue 
of an individual, to the overgrown 
empires of the west ? Removed, as we 
are, to an inconceivable distance from 
the Greeks in our appreciation of the 
model, it is no great wonder that we 
should have little in common with 
them on the principles of the imita- 
tion. Much difficulty might have 
been spared us, had the numerous 
writings of the Greek artists descend- 
ed to our hands ; these, however, have 
all perished in the lapse of centuries ; 
and a few scattered notices, gathered 
from the allusions of their poets and 
philosophers, are all that we have in 
their room. Among the moderns, on 
the other hand, systems concerning 
the theory, as well as the practice, of 
the arts, on the essence of the beauti- 
ful, on the ideal, and on the principles 
of imitation, have been so multiplied, 
that which ever side we take in any of 
these very difficult questions, we are 
sure to meet with abundance of cele- 
brated writers with whom we must 
contend, and jealous opinions which 
we must either confute or reconcile. 

Those authors who, in treating of 
the history of the arts, have recog- 
nized the superiority of the Greeks 
over their modern imitators, have ge- 
nerally attributed this superiority to 
the influences of climate, of religion, 
of political liberty, of the facility with 
which the naked figure was studied, 
and the recompenses with which their 
artists were distinguished. They have 
thought that the genius, the physical 
beauty, and a certain charm of charac- 
ter, which they regard as having been 
peculiar to the Greeks, were the pro- 
duct of the temperature of their cli- 
mate. They have said, that the ve- 
neration of the Greeks for the statues 
of their gods, and the majestic ideas 
of religion, had elevated the imagina- 
tion of artists above the sphere of 

Oft the Sculpture of the Greeks. 


sense ; that the entire liberty which 
the Greeks enjoyed (that constant 
source of all their revolutions and all 
their jealousies) had spread abroad 
among them the seeds of noble and 
sublime sentiments ; that the habit of 
seeing the naked figure, a habit derived 
not only from the nature of their public 
games, but even from the character of 
their ordinary costume, was of itself 
sufficient to lead many to the imitation 
of the human body ; and that, in fine, 
the honours with which the artists 
were signalized, and, above all the rest, 
the noble use which was made of their 
works, by consecrating them as the re- 
compense of illustrious actions, must 
have furnished to the enthusiasm of 
their youth, at once opportunity and 
impatience for distinction. 

It is impossible to doubt that all 
these different causes have contributed 
to the perfection of the artists. These 
theories are, in many respects, full of 
justice and truth, but they involve, at 
the same time, many errors, and it 
is no difficult matter to detect the in- 
sufficiency of the systems which they 
would propose. 

The history of the arts, in truth, 
whether we compare Greeks with 
Greeks, or Greeks with other nations, 
presents many phenomena which can 
only be explained by a great multipli- 
city of researches. In this study, as 
in that of the natural sciences, we 
must be not unfrequently content to 
make almost as many definitions as 
there are individuals. 

1. The Greeks had received from 
the hand of nature a climate full of 
contrasts a sky sometimes of the pur- 
est azure, sometimes surcharged with 
the most dark and the most tempestu- 
ous clouds destructive winds the 
extremities of heat and cold delight- 
ful rallies, full of fertility and cultiva- 
tion and naked mountains, trod only 
by a few wandering goat-herds ca- 
verns full of deep mephitic vapours 
freezing springs and boiling fountains, 
all peopled with supernatural inhabit- 
ants, by the superstitious fancy of the 
heroic times. The natural effects of 
these circumstances were an extreme- 
ly delicate and irritable organization 
a spirit active and curious, but capable 
of every excess a character change- 
able, turbulent, and passionate, alike 
disposed, to love, to vanity, and to su- 

But, first of all, it must strike us as 


an astonishing circumstance, that with- 
in a territory by no means extensive, 
and under the influence of a climate 
almost every where the same, the dif- 
ferent states of Greece by no means 
culti voted the arts with the same zeal 
or the same success. Despised in 
Crete, and proscribed at Sparta, they 
were never thought of in Arcadia, 
Acbaia, ^tolia, Phocis, or Thessaly. 
In Boeotia (in the native country of 
Hesiod, Pindar, and Corinna) they 
were proverbially disregarded and con- 
temned. In Corinth, they remained 
stationary in the second rank; but at- 
tained, alike, the full consummation of 
their glory in Sicyon and in Athens. 
It must moreover be evident, that the 
brilliant qualities which the Greeks 
derived from the influence of their 
climate, might have been as likely to 
lead them astray as to conduct them 
aright. The poetical genius which was 
habitual to them, was very far from 
resembling in every thing that which 
is the inspiration of painting and of 
sculpture. These Athenians, in every 
thing else so light, so imprudent, so 
irascible, who alternately crowned and 
exiled their great men who slum- 
bered during peace, and formed vast 
projects of empire in the midst of ir- 
reparable defeats, shewed, in their 
taste relative to the fine arts, a wisdom 
and a coolness which may be said to 
form the exact reverse of their natural 
disposition. Faithfully attached to the 
same principles, they avoided, during 
a long course of ages, all error and all 
novelty. Somewhere else, then, than 
in the mere heat and effervescence of 
the Athenian blood, must we seek for 
the causes of this firmness, and of the 
perfection to which it conducted. 

2. Although there may be some 
ground for believing that the forms 
of the human body were in general 
more beautiful among the ancient 
Greeks than they were among the 
greater part of modern nations, the 
difference between them and us, in this 
respect, could never have been so con- 
siderable as to have had any great in- 
fluence on the arts. The countries in 
which these arts had made the great- 
est progress, were by no means those 
which abounded in the most beautiful 
models. " Quotus enim quisque for- 
mosus est ?" says Cicero : " Athanis 
cum essem, e grege epheborum vix sin- 
guli reperiebantur." Phryne was of 
Thebes, Glycera of Thespis, Aspasio of 


On the Sculpture of the Greeks. 

Miletus ; and as we, to praise our fine 
women, call them Grecian beauties, the 
European Greeks were accustomed to 
call their mistresses Ionian beauties, 
xAf TO lavtxat. Besides, the difficulty 
would be by no means resolved by 
this difference of form, even were it 
granted in its fullest extent ; for I 
imagine there are few who will deny, 
that the difference between our most 
handsome men and the most hand- 
some Athenian, is much less consider- 
able than the difference between our 
most beautiful statues and the master- 
pieces of the Greeks Moreover, the 
Greeks had no models in nature for 
their architectural monuments: never- 
theless, the same character, the evi- 
dent product of the very same prin- 
ciples, is displayed in their temples 
as in their statues ; and, equally as in 
them, it is to be seen in their vases, 
in their furniture and in the most 
common of their utensils. 

3. The same remarks may, with a 
very little variation, be applied to their 
religion, and to the facility of seeing 
the naked figure. It was the virgins 
of Sparta who were so much celebrated 
for displaying their charms in the 
public festivals, and yet the Spartans 
were no lovers of the arts. Shut up 
within the impenetrable walls of their 
apartments, the women of the other 
Grecian states did not appear even at 
the Olympic games, and courtezans 
were the only models of the artists. 
Our artists, on the other hand, who 
see every day, without restraint, heads 
and hands of the most exquisite ele- 
gance, well worthy of the finest days 
of Miletus or of Sparta, produce nei- 
ther heads nor hands which can bear 
the most remote comparison with the 
antique. As for the spirit of religion, 
I confess I am greatly inclined to 
banish it altogether from the number 
of those infmences which were favour- 
able to the arts of Greece. Easily ex- 
cited, and disposed for unquestioning 
admiration, it is little fitted for the ex- 
ercise of a severe judgment; it becomes 
every day more and more attached to 
its ancient idols, and adores in them 
less that which it sees in reality than 
what it believes is to be seen. The 
devout Greek, who bowed himself at 
Olympus before the Jupiter of Phi- 
dias, revered at Argos, at Thespis, 
and even in the bosom of Athens, fi- 
ures of J uno, of Venus, of the Graces, 
and of Love, which were nothing more 

than rude masses of stone, or ill-fa- 
shioned pieces of timber. He adored, 
at Mount Elaius, a horse-headed Ce- 
res ; at Phygalia, an Eurynome, who 
was half woman and half fish, like 
the idol of the barbarians of Gath ; 
and at the temple of Ephesus itself, 
which was one of the seven wonders 
of the world, a gigantic or hierogly- 
phical monster, with nine or ten tiers 
of breasts. Civil usages and manners, 
and the general taste, had happily 
more effect on the religion of Greece 
than that religion -had upon them. 
But for the revolution which national 
genius, taste, and the arts themselves, 
operated in the creed of the Greeks, 
that people, so celebrated for the beau- 
ty of their gods, would have remain- 
ed prostrate before the monsters of 
the Nile, under the despotism of their 
priests. The religion of the Greeks, 
moreover, is far from being the only 
one which has attributed to deities the 
forms of men. If this religion, by 
the poetical mystery which it involv- 
ed, favoured the perfection of the arts, 
and lifted the imagination of the art- 
ists above the sphere of the senses, why 
is it that the Christian religion pro- 
duces no similar effects ? Did the 
poetry or the religion of the Greeks 
contain any thing more lofty and more 
imposing than the imagery of the 
Scriptures ? The beauty of Angels is 
all that imagination can represent as 
most admirable and most divine. Mar- 
tyrs, Prophets, and Apostles, are at 
least equal in dignity with Philoso- 
phers, Fauns, and Pentathletae. The 
dying resignation of the holy Stephen 
is surely as good a subject as the ex- 
piring shudder of a hireling gladiator. 
Moses found lying among the bul- 
rushes by the daughter of Pharoah, 
is as picturesque an incident as the 
discovery of (Edipus by the shepherds 
of Cithasron. Samson was as strong 
as Milo; and many beauties are re- 
corded in the Bible, who were at 
least as worthy of the chisel of a Phi- 
dias, as the Laises and the Elpinices 
of an Athenian brothel. 

4. With regard to poetical liberty, 
we see in Greece, as every where else, 
free people, who have rejected the 
arts; and others, ruled by despots, who 
have cultivated them with the greatest 
success. Did the arts languish at 
Sicyon, under Aristatus and the Cyp- 
selides ; at Athens, under Hippias ; 
at Saraos, under Polycrates ; at Syra- 

12 On the Sculpture of the Greeks. 

cuse, under Dionysius or Gelon ? or 
were the Spartans enslaved at the time 
when they banished Timotheus ? and 
was it not from a free republic that 
Plato proposed to exclude both Homer 
and Phidias? But there are other 
causes, concerning the power of which 
there can be less matter of dispute. 
The abundance and the beauty of the 
fruits of the earth are the reward of 
the labours and the wisdom of the cul- 
tivator, and the very same rule holds 
concerning the productions of genius. 
5. It is an ancient maxim, written in 
every page of the history of the world, 
that honours are the food of the arts. 
But honours, properly so called, that 
is, recompenses accorded to artists, 
are far from being of themselves suffi- 
cient to conduct the arts to perfec- 
tion. The arts require subjects of 
exertion capable of inspiring noble 
ideas, and a sane inflexible theory, 
which the general taste has sanctioned 
and protects, and which is above being 
altered or impaired by the fluctuation 
of individual opinion. In order to 
appreciate the causes of their progress 
and of their decline, and most of all 
those of their absence, in climates the 
most favourable in the midst of riches, 
of intelligence, and even of liberty it- 
self we must principally examine 
whether, in the countries under our 
present observation, they were so hon- 
oured and protected, or altogether 
abandoned to their own exertions; 
whether they were enslaved or left at 
liberty; whether they were reduced 
to flatter the tastes of private frivolity, 
or directed by the government itself to 
the public utility, and the glory of the 
state. These causes are more power- 
ful than climate, or riches, or peace, 
or liberty; but these causes are depen- 
dent on the will of legislatures. It 
becomes then matter of the highest 
interest, to examine by what motives 
certain legislatures of Greece were in- 
duced to make the arts the subject of 
their most anxious solicitude, while 
among so many of their neighbours 
they were altogether neglected or pro- 

In the first place, the Greeks are not 
more celebrated for the masterpieces of 
art, than for the unequalled series 
of their political dissensions. That 
spirit of rivalship, which had so long 
agitated their petty hordes in the first 
ages of their history, lost nothing of 


its energy in the midst of those nume- 
rous states which had succeeded them. 
Their legislators had wished to make 
use of this dangerous principle of 
emulation none of them seems even 
to have endeavoured to destroy it. 
The laws of the different states were 
different. Their characters, determin- 
ed by those laws, were, in many in- 
stances, little similar, except in the 
jealousy and hatred with which they 
were mutually agitated against each 
other. But this very spirit of rival- 
ship, which entailed upon them so 
many calamities, gave birth at the 
same time to those prodigies of genius 
and art with which the world has so 
long been astonished. Every thing 
had a definite character every thing 
was great in a little space because 
every human faculty was developed 
by the contending passions of the 
Greeks. We see wars by land and 
wars by see armies and fleets rapidly 
destroyed and incessantly renewed 
victories at which we cannot too much 
wonder andhistorians still more won- 
derful It seems to us, in reading the 
history of Attica, Boeotia, and the Pel- 
oponnesus, that we are occupied with 
that of some immense territory, or ra- 
ther of the whole world. 

One great line of distinction among 
the Greeks was that, never altogether 
forgotten, of their various origination. 
The Dorians and the lonians never 
ceased to regard each other as different 
people. The one were proud of their 
ancient conquest the other of their 
yet more ancient liberty and civiliza- 
tion. Sparta was the patroness of the 
Doric states, and of oligarchy ; Athens 
of the lonians, and democracy. These 
unhappy divisions, fomented by inter- 
nal ambition and external violence 
by Persia in the first instance, next 
by Macedon, and last of all by the 
treacherous policy and the overwhelm- 
ing force of Rome seemed to increase 
in strength as Greece advanced in her 
decline, and never terminated but in 
her ruin. It is evident, that in this 
constant opposition of spirits and of 
interests, the arts could by no means 
be every where appreciated in the 
same manner. Aristotle reckons up no 
less than one hundred and fifty-eight 
various forms of government, which 
had existed, or which still existed, in 
Greece in his own days. Ic is evident, 
that the arts, not being equally neces- 


On the Sculpture of the Greeks- 

sary in all these governments, could not 
possibly receive in them all the same 
degree of favour. 

Again the difference of local posi- 
tion divided the Greeks into two class- 
es ; those who applied themselves to 
commerce, and those who did not. 
The one honoured it because it was 
necessary to their existence ; the other 
despised it as useless to themselves, 
and exaggerated the inconveniences 
which sometimes attend its extension. 
Commerce would never have been 
adapted for the haughty Thessalians, 
Breotians, and Spartans. It was not 
the detail of commerce alone which 
these men condemned, but commerce 
in its most general and liberal form 
as the parent of factitious and dan- 
gerous wealth. The states whose 
territory was poor, looked on com- 
merce as a mean of increasing their 
power ; those, again, which were fa- 
voured by nature, could see in it only 
a principle of danger and destruction. 

It seems to be a very general opi- 
nion, that commerce and the fine arts 
are inseparately connected : neverthe- 
less, in reviewing the history of the 
most celebrated commercial cities, it 
is impossible not to observe, that these 
two sources of wealth have by no 
means been in every instance united. 
Commerce, in fact, when left to follow 
its own proper inclinations, is little 
attentive to the fine arts, or rather 
appears to be wholly ignorant of the 
important benefits which may be de- 
rived from their cultivation. The in- 
terests which occupy the mind of the 
trader, are too important to admit of 
any such participation. Surrounded 
by his merchandise and his ledgers, it 
is not always an easy matter for him 
to lift his view towards the higher 
regions of taste and intellect. Who, 
besides, would be willing to devote 
himself to long and painful studies, 
to labours which are little lucrative, 
and as little esteemed, when he has 
so many means of fortune in his 
power, and sees every day the com- 
parative promptitude and facility, 
with which commercial wealth is re- 
alized ? If the arts then prosper in 
commercial cities, they are far from 
doing so by the mere effect of the re- 
finement of commercial men. The 
particular vigilance, on the contrary, 
and unremitting care of the legislature, 
are necessary ; and these, not unfre- 
qucntly, in total opposition to the 


general spirit of the people. Com- 
merce is the parent of many evils, to 
which antidotes must be discovered. 
It instigates to luxury ; it polishes 
the manners, and it corrupts them. 
Kich in moveable property, its ten- 
dency is to make all men cosmopo- 
lites. Such, at least, was the opinion 
of the Greek philosophers, and the 
severity of their doctrines on this head 
is well known. The arts, said they, 
are necessary in commercial countries, 
not only in respect to their manufac- 
tures, for the enlightening and direc- 
tion of the taste, but, in a moral 
point of view, for the animation of 
virtue and of patriotism. To decorate 
our native country with superb monu- 
ments of art to embellish the pub- 
lic festivals to immortalize illustrious 
actions and to place before the eyes 
of the people the true and undegraded 
images of purity and beauty, is at 
once to ennoble the ideas of men, to 
excite and nourish national pride and 
enthusiasm, and to plant the most 
generous of passions in the room of 
meanness and cupidity. 

Plato rejected from his republic both 
commerce and the arts ; but it was 
with a very important restriction. " If 
commerce must be introduced into our 
republic," says he, "it is necessary that 
the arts come with it ; that so, by be- 
holding every day the masterpieces of 
painting, sculpture, and architecture, 
full of grace and purity in all their 
proportions, dispositions least inclined 
for the perception of elegance may 
be, as it were, removed into a purer 
and more healthy atmosphere, and 
learn, by degrees, a taste for the 
beautiful the becoming and the de- 
licate. They will learn to observe, 
with accuracy, what is lovely or de- 
fective in the works of art and of na- 
ture ; and this happy rectitude of 
judgment will become a second nature 
to their souls."* But in what re- 
gards governments, the same favour 
will be granted to the fine arts there 
only where the same benefits are ex- 
pected to accrue from their cultiva- 
tion. Their object is to make men 
love their country by the attraction 
of honourable recompenses ; how then 
can they be useful in an oligarchy ? 
If they are there employed, it is al- 
ways with regret. Immense edifices 
are sometimes built ; but there are 

* De Rep. L. viii. 


On the Sculpture of the Greeks. 

few statues or pictures. The patriot- 
ism of the nobles is excited by inter- 
ests too powerful to require any sub- 
ordinate assistance. If the govern- 
ment be founded on justice and virtue, 
the danger of luxury is apprehended ; 
if it be tyrannical, the still greater 
danger of intelligence and discontent. 
Honours, in which the artist is par- 
taker with the hero, if they become 
necessary in such a government as 
this, announce the feebleness of its 
laws, and give presage of its ruin. 
Cato refused the honour of a statue, 
this might perhaps be pride in him, 
but it was also the effect of his system : 
in the opinion of Cato, he did no 
more in rejecting the statue than ful- 
fil a duty incumbent on every patri- 

On the other hand, all the fine arts 
harmonize well with the monarchical 
form of government. The throne 
cannot be too much adorned. The 
power of the prince is increased by the 
splendour of the arts with which he 
is surrounded. What have they not 
done for the majesty of Francis, Leo, 
and Lewis? If the influence of par- 
ticular tastes does not always permit 
them to enjoy durable success, it is 
nevertheless true, that the well-directed 
favours of a few princes have, at some 
remarkable periods, ensured to them 
the admiration of every succeeding 


*o e ' 

With regard to democracy I mean 
those governments in which the de- 
mocratical principle is predominant 
the political liberty enjoyed by the 
artists under such a form of polity, 
has been too often confounded with 
the importance it sometimes attaches 
to the fine arts, with the occasion and 
the means which it affords for deliber- 
ate improvement, and maturity of ex- 
cellence. A state governed in this man- 
ner, may be rich or poor, commercial or 
without commerce. If it be poor, of 
small extent, far from the sea, and 
happy in its simplicity, the inhabit- 
ants of this fortunate land will have 
no need of adventitious and empassion- 
ating aids. But if, on the other hand, 
it is desired to unite commerce with 
liberty, and riches with morality, the 
attempt is assuredly a bold one, its 
success the masterpiece of legislative 
genius. It is necessary to inspire with 
love to his country, not the rich man 
alone, the noble, or the merchant, but 
him who knows not riches, but to feel 

that he is deprived of them nor hon- 
ours, but in those which he accords to 
other men ; who, far from public offices, 
but too easily forgets the public in- 
terest, and almost always considers it 
as something separated from his own ; 
whose carelessness, in fine, is yet more 
dangerous than either his errors or 
his impetuosity. The true objects for 
which the arts are fostered by such 
a government as this, is to impose 
on his imagination by majestic and 
imperishable monuments to feed his 
enthusiasm by statues and pictures 
by the commemoration of the illustri- 
ous deeds and the national grandeur, 
with the glory and the antiquity of 
the common ancestors of the people ; 
to immortalize for him the history of 
his country to create magnificent 
public possessions for those who are 
poor in personal goods to inspire and 
to nourish that national pride, which 
is one of the most unfailing signs of 
good laws, and one of the best omens 
of political endurance. The import- 
ance of their destination under such a 
government as this, calls down on the 
arts the anxious benevolence of the 
legislature. They find, moreover, yet 
another cause of perfection in the ne- 
cessity of placing works intended for 
such purposes under the eyes of the 
public ; and consequently, in order to 
save the glory of the whole nation, 
they are obliged to follow no guide 
but the general taste. The union of 
these two causes in Athens, gave rise 
to the most brilliant and durable suc- 
cesses ; and the motto at the head of 
this paper is a fair transcript of those 
feelings of romantic admiration with 
which every Athenian regarded the 
beauties and the magnificence of his 
native land. 

But is it really true, that liberty 
would not be sufficient of herself alone 
to ensure the prosperity of the arts ? 
The best way to answer this question 
is, to review the facts by which I con- 
ceive the theory I have laid down is 
to be supported. We have seen that 
the Greek people were divided into 
two classes, those who cultivated com- 
merce, and those who did not. The 
arts followed the same division ; in 
general, the commercial states were 
more favourable to the arts, and the 
uncommercial less. Among those 
which had no sort of application to 
commerce, whatever the tbrm of go- 
vernment might be, the arts were ne- 


On the Sculpture of the Greeks. 

glected, or even prohibited and ban- 
ished. Among those trading states 
which were oligarchical in their go- 
vernment, the arts took little root, and 
never reached above the secondary 
rank of excellence. Among those 
commercial states again, which were 
governed by kings, and yet more con- 
stantly among those which were go- 
verned by a democracy, they attain- 
ed the summit of perfection. Among 
these last, the masterpieces which ex- 
cite our wonder were for the greater 
part produced. From these facts we 
may, I apprehend, extract a propor- 
tional scale, by which we may mea- 
sure the progress, not of the Greeks 
alone, but of all ancient nations and 
even of the moderns themselves. To 
enter minutely into this part of the 
subject would require a volume. The 
justice of my general positions will, I 
trust, be sufficiently manifest to any 
one who throws even a hasty glance 
over the names and the history of the 
ancient states ; of Achaia, ever poor 
and ever virtuous, but ever destitute 
of the arts ; of rude and mountain- 
ous Phocis, where even the presence 
of all the treasures, and all the master- 
pieces of Delphos, could not work any 
change on the natural habits of the 
people ; of Macedon, of Sparta, 
of Crete, of Thebes ; and above all, 
of Corinth and of Carthage two 
states which, as they were the most 
favourably situated for commercial 
speculations, so they gave themselves 
up with the least restriction to the in- 
fluence of the pure commercial spirit, 
whose legislatures, in short, at no 
time sought to superadd to their solid 
prosperity the embellishment and re- 
finement of the arts. 

Rome, in fine, which, in spite of the 
turbulence of her tribunes, was ever 
governed by the senate, whose proud 
and haughty spirit loaded the banks 
of the Tiber with edifices the most 
extensive and imposing, received with 
difficulty the painting and the sculp- 
ture of the Greeks. Towards the fall 
indeed of the republic, and under the 
emperors, these became a subject of 
amusement and ostentation ; but that 
legislation which had done every thing 
for their victories, had by no means 
disposed the spirit of the Romans ibr 
the appropriation of the arts, and 
accordingly the habit of seeing them 
cultivated by conquered nations, made 
them view them at all times TJS the 

occupation of slaves. Cicero himself 
found it proper to affect in public a 
contempt for the arts, as well as for 
philosophy,* although we well know 
that both formed the chief ornament 
and delight of his retirement. Sallust 
the attic Sallust, in describing the 
corruption of the arrny led by Sylla 
into Greece, places the taste which the 
soldiers there acquired for the fine arts, 
in the same rank with their drunken- 
ness and their debauchery, t Virgil 
told the Romans, that to animate brass 
and marble was an object little wor- 
thy their ambition ; and Seneca (even 
in the days of Nero, himself an artist), 
inspired with some remnant of the 
spirit of a vir consutaris, asks contemp- 
tuously by what right the unmanly 
arts of painting, sculpture, and fiddling, 
are entitled to the appellation of liberal ? 

If, on the other hand, we recall to 
our remembrance those states in which 
the arts have been carried to the sum- 
mit of excellence, we shall find every 
where the confirmation of the same 
theory. Argos, constantly governed 
by a democracy, and sharing in the 
advantages of commerce much less 
than those states which were her 
rivals, was as much celebrated as any 
of them for the excellence of her 
artists, although far from being dis- 
tinguished by the number of her 
monuments. The same was the case 
at Samos, Sicyon, Rhodes, Agrjgen- 
tum, and Syracuse, as well as in 
Athens herself, and her colonies. 
Every where we find the arts flour- 
ishing most in those commercial 
states which were governed in the 
most democratical manner, or where 
the democracy was scarcely ever in- 
terrupted, except by the short-liv- 
ed reigns of a few princes who owed 
their elevation altogether to the favour 
of the people. 

Nothing was the product of chance. 
Every where the state of the arts 
corresponded to the will of the le- 
gislature. It would be in vain to 
trust to commerce, or even to liberty 
herself, ibr carrying them to perfec- 
tion ; commerce and liberty are of use to 
them, only because they tend to pro- ; 
cure for them the particular favour of ' 
the legislature, and it is to that fa- 
vour alone, however obtained, that 
they always owe any thing which de- 

* Cic. iii. Verr. passim, 
t De bcllo Cat. c. ii. 


serves the name of more than a mere 
temporary triumph. Such, as we have 
seen, is the picture every where pre- 
sented to us by the history of the arts 
among the ancients ; at Sparta, at 
Rome, at Marseilles, the republican 
austerity rejected them ; at Carthage 
commercial ignorance neglected them ; 
at Athens they were encouraged from 
motives of policy ; and they prosper- 
ed at Sicyon and Syracuse, by the 
wisdom and magnificence of enlight- 
ened princes. In all climates nature 
fits men for the enjoyment of the arts; 
in every climate, and under every form 
of government, their success is the re- 
sult of public munificence, and the fa- 
vour of the laws. Q. 


FOR the following particulars res- 
pecting the present state of the city of 
Venice, and especially for the descrip- 
tion of its great mole or pier, we are 
indebted chiefly to the communication 
of a gentleman of this city, who lately 
visited that celebrated spot. 

Venice, it is well known, is built on 
a cluster of islets, situated among the 
shallows which occur near the head of 
the Adriatic Gulf. The houses and 
spires seem to spring from the water ; 
canals are substituted for paved streets, 
and long narrow boats, or gondolas, 
for coaches. Some parts of the city 
are elegant, exhibiting fine specimens 
of the architecture of Palladio ; but 
the splendid Place of St Mark is no 
longer thronged by Venetian nobles ; 
the cassinos are comparatively desert- 
ed ; and the famed Rialto bridge has 
ceased to be distinguished for its rich 
shops and their matchless brocades. 
The ancient brazen horses have re- 
turned from their travels to Paris ; but 
Venice has not been suffered to resume 
its consequence as the capital of an in- 
dependent state ; the bucentaur is rot- 
ten, and there is no longer any Doge 
to wed the Adriatic. 

The great mole is situated about 
seventeen miles to the south of Venice. 
It was begun so long ago as the year 
1751, and it was not completed when 
the French revolution broke out. On 
one part of the wall were inscribed 
these words : " Ut sacra aestuaria, ur- 
bis et libertatis sedes, perpetuo con- 
servetur, colosseas moles ex solido 
marmore contra mare posucrc cura- 

Description of Venice. 

tores aquarum." This truly colossal 
rampart passes through a morass, from 
1'Isle di Chiusa on the west, along 
1'Isle di Murassi, to the Bocca del 
Porto on the east, being an extent 
nearly of three miles. Towards the 
land side, it is terminated by a wall 
about ten feet high and four feet 
broad. If one stands on the top of 
this wall, the whole is seen slanting 
on the other side till it majestically 
dips into the Adriatic ; and the mag- 
nitude of the undertaking forcibly 
strikes the spectator's mind. The 
slanting part of the work commences 
about two feet and a half below the 
top of the wall, and descends towards 
the water by two shelves or terraces. 
A great part of the embankment is of 
close stone-work : this vast piece of 
solid masonry is about fifty feet broad, 
measuring from the top of the wall 
to the water's edge. The stones are 
squared masses of primitive limestone, 
or " solid marble ;" they are very 
large, and are connected by Puzzulana 
earth, brought from Mount Vesuvius. 
Beyond this pile of masonry many 
loose blocks of marble are placed, and 
extend a considerable way into the 
Adriatic. When very high tides oc- 
cur, accompanied with wind, the waves 
break over the whole pier ; and some- 
times, on these occasions, part of the 
loose blocks are thrown up and lodged 
upon the level part of the rampart : 
it may be questioned, therefore, if this 
exterior range of loose masses of stone 
be not likely to prove rather detrimen- 
tal than useful. Near to this pier, 
on the side next the sea, there is water 
for vessels of considerable size. The 
great object of the work is to guard 
the Lagoon on its south and most 
assailable point, " contra mare," as the 
inscription bears ; and but for it, Ve- 
nice, it is thought, would by this time 
have been in ruins, from the gradual 
encroachments of the sea. It is kept 
in good order, and seems lately, during 
the dominion of the French, to have 
received extensive repairs. This mag- 
nificent work is said to have excited 
even the admiration of Napoleon, 
which he has marked by this inscrip- 
tion : " Ausu Romano, sere Veneto." 

It may be noticed, that the part of 
the rampart next to the entrance of 
the harbour, was the scene of many 
combats between the French troops 
and the English sailors, during the 
blockade of Venice by our navy. The 

On Banks for Savings. 

rigour of this blockade is not gener- 
ally known ; so effectual did it prove, 
that numbers of the native inhabit- 
ants, particularly of the lower orders, 
such as gondoliers, absolutely perished 
through famine. 

On the Isle di Murassi, already 
mentioned, are a number of houses, of 
a pretty enough appearance at a dis- 
tance, but miserable on a nearer view ; 
they are inhabited by fishermen, who, 
with their wretched and squalid wives 
and children, flock around a stranger, 
begging with deplorable looks and 
tones of penury and want. The great 
Laguna, or shallow lake, also already 
mentioned, varies in depth from half 
a foot to three and four feet and more. 
From the eastern termination of the 
pier at the Bocco del Porto, the course 
of the deeper channel, accessible to 
very large vessels to the port of Ve- 
nice, is marked out by wooden stakes, 
or beacons, placed at short distances. 

The long continued blockade of the 
English annihilated the commerce of 
the port, and proved very disastrous to 
the Venetian vessels, many of which be- 
came ruinous, and have been found 
incapable of repair. For some days 
during September last (1816), only 
two vessels cleared out at the custom- 
house one for Constantinople, and 
another for Corfu. About half a doz- 
en of small craft, Swedish, Danish, 
Dutch, and Italian, were then lying 
at the births, waiting for cargoes, but 
with little expectation of obtaining 
them. During the war, capital was 
wasted, and mercantile spirit extin- 
guished; it is not surprising, there- 
fore, to find the commerce of Venice 
at the lowest ebb. The merchants are 
now endeavouring to obtain from the 
Austrian government some advantages, 
at the expense of the rival ports of 
Leghorn and Trieste, but with slender 
hopes of success ; and it is not perhaps 
without reason, that the Venetians 
have begun to despair of any signal 
revival of the commerce of this ancient 
and once celebrated emporium to 
which Europe, it may be remarked, 
was indebted for the invention of pub- 
lic banks. 


AMONO the numerous modern dis- 
coveries, by which the limits of hu- 
VOL. I. ' 


man power have been extended, and 
the condition of the lower orders 
of society ameliorated, a very con- 
spicuous place ought to be assigned 
to the establishment of Saving Banks. 
They have originated in a spirit of 
pure benevolence placed within the 
reach of the lowest and most help- 
less portion of the community the 
means of a secure and profitable de- 
posite, of which they are now eagerly 
availing themselves and in propor- 
tion as they are multiplied and ex- 
tended, so must necessarily be the in- 
dustry, the frugality, the foresight, 
and the comparative independence, of 
the lower classes. What is no small 
recommendation no complicated or 
expensive machinery is required for 
either their formation or their manage- 
ment ; the time of the contributors 
needs not be wasted in discussions and 
arrangements to which their know- 
ledge and habits are but ill adapted ; 
and no opportunity is afforded for 
combination. Every one may lodge 
and withdraw his little hoard accord- 
ing to his convenience, instead of the 
time and amount being prescribed 
and enforced by penalties, by which 
the savings of many years may, with- 
out any delinquency which it was in 
the contributor's power to avoid, be 
suddenly transferred to his less needy 
or more fortunate associates. To give 
facility and encouragement to the la- 
bourer to save a little when it is in 
his power to save, with the most per- 
fect liberty to draw it back, with in- 
terest, when his occasions require it, 
is the primary object, and ought to be 
the sole object, of this institution. 
Much of the distress of the lower or- 
ders may thus come to be relieved 
from their own funds, instead of their 
having recourse to poor rates or pri- 
vate charity. 

It does not seem necessary to enter 
into the details of these establishments, 
which are now sufficiently numerous 
to furnish room for selection, what- 
ever may be the local circumstances 
in which it may be proposed to intro- 
duce them. Nor is it consistent with 
my present purpose, and the limits to 
which this letter must be confined, to 
examine the rules by which their busi- 
ness is conducted. Little, that is of 
real utility on this head, can be added 
to what has been already laid before 
the public, in the numerous pamphlets 
and reports which this interesting 


On Banks for Savings. 


novelty has produced, and in the pe- 
riodical works in which their merits 
have been discussed. What is want- 
ed, is not the knowledge, of minute 
particulars regarding the plan and 
conduct of the establishment, which 
ought to be varied, perhaps, with any 
considerable difference in the num- 
ber and character of the contributors, 
and in the tract of country over which 
it is expected to extend. I shall there- 
fore content myself at present with a 
few remarks on the nature and pur- 
pose of Saving Banks in general, which 
after all that has been written on the 
subject, do not seem to be well under- 
stood even by some of those who have 
made the most meritorious exertions 
in promoting them. 

It cannot be too frequently recom- 
mended to those who may take the 
lead in establishing banks for sav- 
ings, to study to combine simplicity 
with security, and to give to them such 
a constitution as may not contain with- 
in itself the seeds of dissension and 
party spirit. While the security of 
the funds is not impaired, a preference 
should always be given to what is sim- 
ple, and promises to be permanent, 
over what is artificial, of a remote or 
doubtful tendency, or merely calculat- 
ed for producing a temporary effect. 
Upon this principle I would venture 
to suggest, that a Saving Bank should 
approach as nearly as possible in its 
character to a. Mercantile Bank that 
no inquiry into the character or con- 
duct of the depositors should be toler- 
ated for a moment that the choice 
of managers should not in general be 
Vested in the depositors, nor the mana- 
gers themselves taken from that body, 
and that it should be kept entirely 
distinct from Benefit Societies, Annu- 
ity Schemes, Loan Banks ; and its 
provisions strictly confined to its own 
proper object of safe custody and 
prompt payment with interest. 

In hazarding this opinion, it is not 
necessary to deny the influence of great 
names on the list of honorary and ex- 
traordinary members, in giving a mo- 
mentary eclat to a new institution, 
and in inspiring the public with con- 
fidence in its respectability. But it 
may well be doubted, whether, after the 
advantages of a Saving Bank have been 
generally understood, a parade of inef- 
ficient officers will contribute much to 
its permanency, and to its utility among 
the lower classes. My own opinion cer- 

tainly is, that to place the Lord Lieu- 
tenant, the Members of Parliament, 
and the Sheriff of the county, for the 
time being, among the honorary mem- 
bers of so humble an institution as a 
bank for the savings of the labourers 
of a small district, is calculated to call 
down ridicule on the whole undertaking. 
But should these gentlemen, consti- 
tuted members of the bank merely in 
virtue of their official situations, choose 
to interfere with the details of its busi- 
ness, either directly or indirectly, with- 
out having first acquired by their per- 
sonal character, or the interest they 
may have taken in the prosperity of 
the institution, the confidence of the 
great body of the depositors, there is 
every reason to believe that the con- 
sequences would be most pernicious. 
The lower classes would be ready to 
suspect, whether with or without rea- 
son is of little consequence, that the 
knowledge of their circumstances, and 
the control over their funds, possess- 
ed by these official characters, might 
be employed in enforcing obnoxious 
measures of public policy. And on 
every occasion, when the popular feel- 
ing is opposed to the enactments of 
the legislature, how soon soever it may 
subside, we might expect to see such a 
run made upon our Saving Banks, as 
happens on a larger scale of business, 
whenever the creditors of individuals, 
of societies, or of the public, begin to 
lose confidence in the prudence or 
ability with which the affairs of their 
debtors are conducted. Add to this, 
the habitual jealousy which the lower 
classes have been taught to entertain 
of their rulers, so frequently kindled 
into phrenzy by the arts of the disaf- 
fected ; and it may be laid down as a 
rule, that in these simple institutions, 
which ought to have no other object 
than the ostensible one, every ground 
for suspecting the influence of govern- 
ment should be carefully excluded, as 
not only unnecessary, but likely to be 

With this impression, it is impos- 
sible not to feel some degree of alarm 
at the Bill introduced into Parliament 
last Session by Mr Rose. As I do not 
know the provisions of this Bill in its 
amended form, I shall only venture to 
observe, that the clause which requires 
the funds of the Saving Banks to be 
invested in government securities, 
ought on no account to be extended 
to Scotland, where banks of the most 


undoubted responsibility are always 
ready to receive, and to pay four per 
cent, interest for money deposited ; 
and some of which have displayed so 
much liberality, as to allow even five 
per cent, on the deposites of Saving 
Banks. It may be doubted, whether 
such a clause would be advisable even 
for England. The first and imme- 
diate advantage of such a provision, it 
is said, is greater security; and the 
next and more remote one, that it will 
give the lower classes a greater interest 
in the stability of the government. But 
its disadvantages are not less obvious, 
and to many may appear to prepon- 
derate in the scale. From every just 
view of the nature and object of Sav- 
ing Banks, every thing that has the 
appearance of compulsion must be ex- 
cluded. This is one fundamental 
principle which should not be lost 
sight of in any of its operations. 
Against this greater security, too, 
must be placed the perpetual and often, 
even to well-informed people, the un- 
accountable fluctuation of the public 
funds, produced, as is well known, by 
means not always the most creditable, 
and therefore more likely to irritate 
the minds of the depositors than to 
attach them to their rulers. Besides, 
it may be asked, what is the amount 
of this security, in so far as individual 
contributors are concerned ? They can- 
not go to the stock exchange to make 
the purchases themselves, but their 
money must pass through the hands 
of two or more individuals before it 
can be invested in the public funds, 
and through as many again when they 
choose to withdraw it ; so that the res- 
ponsibility of their own directors must, 
at least in the first instance, be their 
principal dependence ; to say nothing 
of the delay that must occur in the 
payments of the bank, unless a con- 
siderable proportion of the deposites 
be retained by the treasurer, and con- 
sequently be unproductive. The Quar- 
terly Iteviewers observe, (No 31) 
that " the investment of money be- 
longing to friendly banks should be 
left to the direction of their members, 
or to that of the trustee whom they 
may appoint, and from whom they 
may require security for its proper ap- 
plication ;" an observation which im- 
plies, indeed, that the different char- 
acters of a creditor and of a member 
of a Saving Bank, must necessarily be 
identified in the plan of ils constitu- 

On Banks for Savings. 19 

tioii, but which is not the less just 
when this obvious distinction of char- 
acter is, as I am inclined to think it 
should be, preserved, both in its ori- 
ginal constitution and in the conduct 
of its affairs. 

I have already expressed my con- 
viction, that a Saving Bank, in its char- 
acter, ought as nearly as possible to 
approach to a common trading bank, 
or to that branch of its business which 
consists in receiving and returning 
money deposited ; and, as in Scotland, 
with interest for the time it has been 
under its care. Whatever departure 
from this principle, therefore, may be 
desirable in the commencement of a 
very limited local establishment, such 
as the parish bank of Ruth well, in 
Dumfriesshire, the inconvenience and 
danger that must be felt from the po- 
pular election of the officers of a nu- 
merous and extensive association, com- 
posed, with few exceptions, of the 
least informed portion of the commu- 
nity, seem to outweigh all the advan- 
tages which have been ascribed to it. 
While the institution is in its infancy, 
and the zeal for its success, which in 
some measure supplies the want of ex- 
perience in the managers, may be par- 
amount to every other feeling in the 
minds of the depositors, there may be 
no great inconvenience in general meet- 
ings and periodical elections, which, 
at this early period, it cannot be diffi- 
cult for its philanthropic founders and 
patrons to direct or control. But it 
is by no means probable that men, 
whose education and property entitle 
them to influence the proceedings of 
such associations, will always be found 
ready to undertake so difficult a task, 
and always successful in the attempt. 
There is certainly more reason to fear, 
after the zeal of novelty has subsided, 
and the founders have been removed 
by death or otherwise, that the man- 
agement of the concern may become the 
object of caballing and intrigue among 
the members themselves, or among 
others in a station very little higher, 
and be seized by men whose know- 
ledge of busine?-, or whose integrity, is 
far from being their chief recommen- 
dation. It would display little know- 
ledge of human nature to predict dif- 
ferent consequences from the popular 
election of the officers of Saving Banks 
in a great town, where the association 
must contain a large portion of hetero- 
geneous and repulsive materials. 

On Banks for Savings. 


It may naturally be asked, who shall 
be the officers of these banks, if they 
are not to be chosen by the contribu- 
tors themselves, either out of their 
own body, or from the higher classes ? 
To this I might answer, by referring 
to the highly respectable self-consti- 
tuted banking companies in every part 
of Britain ; but I am aware, that the an- 
alogy between these and Saving Banks 
is by no means complete. The object 
of the one is the profit of the partners, 
whereas that of the other ought to be 
to promote the welfare of the labour- 
ing classes ; and, on this account, the 
services of its managers should be 
either altogether gratuitous, or paid 
for at so low a rate, as to hold out no 
inducement, in the shape of emolu- 
ment, to such men as it would be safe 
to intrust with its funds. But if there 
be a want of benevolent individuals 
among the higher classes, of their own 
accord to incur the responsibility, and 
assume the direction of those Saving 
Banks, which by their constitution 
exclude popular elections, it does not 
readily appear, that the circumstance 
of being elected by the members, per- 
haps in the face of much opposition, 
will inspire benevolence, or insure 
efficiency. For, let it be observed, 
that whether the officers be or be not 
named by the depositors, it is indis- 
pensable to the success of the establish- 
ment, that they should be men of pro- 
perty and education, much above the 
level of the depositors themselves. 
Even Mr Duncan, the founder of the 
Ruthwell Bank, and the advocate of 
the popular system, has confined the 
choice of its office-bearers, in the first 
instance, to the donors and annual be- 
nefactors of the society. It cannot well 
be doubted, that there are in almost 
every country parish, and certainly in 
every town, a few respectable indivi- 
duals, able and willing to undertake 
the management of a Saving Bank, 
who might not, however, choose to at- 
tempt the far more arduous task of 
preserving order in a large assembly, 
or of appearing in it as candidates for 
nomination, and mixing in the dis- 
cussions, which, on such an occasion, 
can hardly fail to be introduced. 

It may be said, however, that there 
can be no need for going out of the 
society itself for the necessary office- 
bearers ; and the organization of Bene- 
fit Societies may be adduced, in proof 
of the competency of the depositors in 

a Saving Bank to the management ot 
all its details ; and the success of these 
Societies as a further proof of the ad- 
vantages to be expected from the choice 
of their own functionaries by the de- 
positors. But a Saving Bank and a 
Benefit Society are usually as different 
in the information and circumstances 
of their members, as in their objects. 
The frequent meeting of benefit so- 
cieties, or of their committees, is ne- 
cessary for the admission of new mem- 
bers, and for carrying into effect, as 
occasions require, the very purpose of 
their establishment. The cases of ap- 
plicants must be speedily examined, 
and such allowances made to them 
out of the funds as they are entitled 
to receive by the rules of the society. 
The responsibility of the managers is 
not confined to the security of the 
funds, but extends also to the mode in 
which they are employed, and the re- 
ceipts and disbursements must there- 
fore be investigated at short intervals. 
Every member has an equal and un- 
divided interest in the welfare of the 
concern, from which he cannot with- 
draw himself at pleasure, like the de- 
positor in a Saving Bank. The part- 
ners of a company in which the mem- 
bers reciprocally insure one another, 
are held together by a bond of con- 
nexion, which can terminate only with 
their lives, or the dissolution of the 
partnership. Every member must 
therefore be known to the great body 
of his associates, all of whom are 
nearly on the same level. But it is of 
importance to observe, that this level 
is placed somewhat higher than that 
of the great body of depositors in Sav- 
ing Banks. The most numerous mem- 
bers of benefit societies are not of the 
class of common labourers, but men 
bred to trades, who have had the ad- 
vantage of being educated in their 
youth, or have since acquired that 
knowledge of business which is neces- 
sary to success in their professions, in 
which many of them arrive at inde- 
pendence. From the very different 
objects and materials of a benefit so- 
ciety, therefore, it cannot be inferred, 
that the principle of their organization 
is either necessary or suitable to that 
of a Bank for Savings. 

If we are to look forward to the gene- 
ral establishment, and to the perman- 
ence of Saving Banks, some fears may 
be entertained for the constant and ef- 
fective operation of that part of the ma- 

On Banks for Savingt. 


chinery which is composed of the he- 
nevolence of the higher orders. It is 
not altogether improbable, when these 
banks have become very numerous, 
and stood so long and so firm, as to 
seem to require only that protection 
which the law confers on all the hon- 
est pursuits of private interest, that 
the zeal of that class, from which it is 
proposed the managers should be 
drawn, may not always be found suf- 
ficient for the conduct of their affairs. 
Should this apprehension be realized, 
much stronger reasons than at present 
will then be felt for having recourse to 
the alternative of the popular system ; 
and with much less danger of incon- 
venience, after all the details of man- 
agement have become familiar by long 
practice. But though I am not so 
well acquainted with the local arrange- 
ments of England, as to suggest the 
mode of eventually supplying this 
desideratum, by means of the resident 
magistracy or clergy ; yet, if Saving 
Banks shall be found in any consider- 
able degree to operate favourably upon 
the habits and condition of the lower 
classes, and particularly in diminish- 
ing poor-rates, there is every reason to 
hope, that the voluntary and gratui- 
tous services of men of property and 
education will always be supplied in 
abundance. In Scotland, there is per- 
haps still less reason to fear the want 
of such talents and disinterestedness. 
In every parish there are at least two 
respectable individuals, the clergyman 
and schoolmaster, who may be confi- 
dently expected to undertake the exe- 
cutive department ; and the landed 
proprietors of this country, justly a- 
larmed at the progress of poor-rates in 
England, and anxious to ward off the 
evil from themselves, certainly would 
not hesitate to give the most ample 
security for the faithful administration 
of all the affairs of the institution. 

From these remarks on the object 
of Saving Banks, and the principle on 
which they should be formed and con- 
ducted, it will be seen that I am de- 
cidedly averse to the measure that has 
been recommended, of combining with 
them a scheme for converting the de- 
posites into annuities. Those who, 
from the best motives, would thus 
hasten to rear the superstructure be- 
fore the stability of the foundation has 
been proved, ought to consider, that 
the more complicated and laborious the 
duties of the managers may become, 

the less probability there is of their 
being faithfully discharged by men 
who give their services without a pe- 
cuniary reward. The benefit to which 
the depositors would be entitled, if 
their stock were converted into an an- 
nuity, must depend upon a variety of 
circumstances, in particular upon their 
age; and the errors in calculation, 
which may justly be expected to occur, 
if an annuity scheme were ingrafted 
upon a Saving Bank in country par- 
ishes, would, in all probability, soon 
bring ruin upon the whole establish- 
ment. It may be doubted, indeed, 
how far it may be advisable to urge it 
as a duty in the lower classes, to save 
a part of that income which barely 
suffices for their own maintenance, or 
to excite a blind zeal for accumulation, 
even though, as in the case of Saving 
Banks, they be allowed to withdraw 
their deposites at pleasure. In pro- 
portion as the zeal of all concerned 
may at first be somewhat immoderate, 
so is the danger that disappointment 
may be succeeded by indifference. All 
that is really necessary, or perhaps ex- 
pedient, is to afford to the labouring 
classes the opportunity of depositing 
their earnings under safe custody, and 
of drawing them out again with in- 
terest, when they are too small in a- 
mount to be received by mercantile 
banks ; and if the advantages of the 
measure do not form a sufficient in- 
ducement to them to avail themselves 
of it, it were idle to expect success to 
Saving Banks, as it is unjustifiable to 
seek it, by any other means of excite- 

To obviate the objections which I 
am aware may be made to this exclu- 
sion of popular interference, I must 
beg leave to conclude this part of the 
subject with observing, that hitherto 
I have chiefly had in view the Saving 
Banks of Scotland, in which the depo- 
sitors are understood to be, at least the 
far greater number of them, of the very 
lowest description of accumulators. It 
is for such people, principally, that 
there is felt a want of Saving Banks 
in this country ; for all our mercantile 
banks are in the practice of receiving 
so small a sum as 10 in one payment, 
and returning it on demand with in- 
terest; and their agents are spread 
throughout almost every part of the 
country. But I can easily suppose, 
that a higher class of depositors may 
avail themselves of this institution in 

22 Anecdotes of the Pastoral Life. 

England, where it is not customary 
for the mercantile banks to allow in- 
terest even upon the largest deposites. 
If associations of this kind, in that 
country, should therefore comprise a 
large proportion of men of informa- 
tion, and the number of their mem- 
bers be consequently very limited, 
they may certainly find their account 
in managing their own affairs ; but 
the character of such societies has 
but a very slight affinity with that of 
Saving Banks. 

Having been led to notice the re- 
markable difference in the conduct of 
English and Scottish banks, in regard 
to the advantage they allow to de- 
positors, I cannot avoid observing, 
that the practice of the latter, in pay- 
ing interest on deposites of so small 
an amount as 10, has materially con- 
tributed to diffuse among the lower 
orders of this country, that abstinence 
and foresight by which they are so 
favourably distinguished from the 
same class in England. The desire of 
accumulating a little capital is never, 
except among the very worst paid 
labourers, or such as have large fami- 
lies, repressed in this country, by the 
difficulty of finding for it a secure and 
profitable depository. Partly to this 
circumstance, perhaps, though it has 
been generally overlooked, it may be 
owing that so many Scotsmen have 
been enabled to rise from the class of 
labourers ; and, by habits of applica- 
tion and economy, which are very 
generally combined, establish them- 
selves in a few years in the learned 
professions, or arrive at independence 
through the more lucrative pursuits 
of commerce. In England, on the 
contrary, there is no such facility to 
the secure and profitable investment 
of small savings : monied men, at 


recently published. It is written with 
so much ability, and with such an 
appearance of precision and of close 
reasoning, that those who take a deep 
interest in so promising an institution, 
cannot fail to be astonished, as well 
as somewhat alarmed, at the extraor- 
dinary opinion of its author, when, 
after a very imperfect, though an im- 
posing view of their probable utility, 
he comes to this conclusion, that, 
" taken by themselves, it is at least 
a doubt whether Saving Banks * may 
not produce as great a quantity of evU 
as good." Hi. 

20t/i February, 1817. 


No I. 


LAST autumn, while I was staying 
a few weeks with my friend Mr 
Grumple, minister of the extensive 
and celebrated parish of Woolenhorn, 
an incident occurred which hath af- 
forded me a great deal of amusement ; 
and as I think it may divert some of 
your readers, I shall, without further 
preface, begin the relation. 

We had just finished a wearisome 
debate on the rights of teind, and the 
claims which every clergyman of the 
established church of Scotland has for 

* It is a curious circumstance, that an 
appropriate term for those banks should 
still be wanting. " Saving Banks," though 
the most common appellation by which they 
are known, seems to please nobody. The 
Edinburgh reviewers long since found fault 
with it as it was then printed. The writer 
of the article referred to in the text tells us, 
that some adjunct is wanted to distinguish 
this from other species of banks, and no 
good one has yet been found. He rejects 
least bankers, the most convenient and " Provident Institution," and Frugality 

.. i r* ^\ -i . , Hunk". prmnllv wim '* Savmrr Kanlr ' 

accessible of this description, 

-pay no 

interest; and landed proprietors can- 
not always be safe depositories, while 
the laws of England protect their 
estates from the just demands of their 

On a future occasion I may proba- 
bly offer you some remarks on the 
moral effects to be looked for from the 
introduction and increase of Saving 
Banks, when I shall venture to exam- 
ine what I think is a most injudicious, 
and by no means impartial, article on 
this subject, in the Part of the Supple- 
ment to the Encyclopaedia Britawiicu 

Bank," equally with " Saving Bank ;' 
and thinks that " Poor's Bank," would be 
the best, if it were not humiliating. Mr 
Duncan gave the Ruthwell Institution the 
ample title of the " Parish Bank Friendly 
Society of Ruthwell." The Quarterly re- 
viewers will not consent to this, and pro- 
pose the term " Friendly Bank," with the 
name of the place prefixed. But the Edin- 
burgh and other banks, in which the depo- 
sitors are strangers to each other, and do not 
interfere in the management, are not very 
aptly designated by this latest invention, 
unless it be understood to apply to the man- 
agers exclusively Be so good as insert this 
note for the purpose of exercising the in- 
genuity of your readers. Hi. 

Anecdotes of the Pastoral Life. 

a grass glebe ; the china cups were 
already arranged, and the savoury tea- 
pot stood basking on the ledge of the 
grate, when the servant-maid entered, 
and told Mr Grumple that there was 
one at the door who wanted him. 

We immediately heard a debate in 
the passage, the parson pressing his 
guest to come ben, which the other 
stoutly resisted, declaring aloud that 
" it was a' nonsense thegither, for he 
was eneuch to fley a' the grand folk 
out o' the room, an' set the kivering 
o' the floor a-swoomin." The parlour 
door was however thrown open, and, 
to my astonishment, the first guests 
who presented themselves were two 
strong honest-looking collevs, or shep- 
herd's dogs, that came bouncing and 
capering into the room, with a great 
deal of seeming satisfaction. Their 
master was shortly after ushered in. 
He was a tall athletic figure, with a 
black beard, and dark raven hair hang- 
ing over his brow ; wore clouted shoes, 
shod with iron, and faced up with 
copper ; and there was altogether 
something in his appearance the most 
homely and uncouth of any exterior I 
had ever seen. 

" This," said the minister, " is 
Peter Plash, a parishioner of mine, 
who has brought me in an excellent 
salmon, and wants a good office at my 
hand, he says, in return." " The bit 
fish is naething, man," said Peter, 
sleeking down the hair on his brow ; 
" I wish he had been better for your 
sake but gin ye had seen the sport 
that we had wi' him at Pool-Midnight, 
ye wad hae leughen till ye had burstit." 
Here the shepherd, observing his two 
dogs seated comfortably on the hearth- 
rug, and deeming it an instance of 
high presumption and very bad man- 
ners, broke out with " Ay, White- 
foot, lad ! an' ye're for being a gentle- 
man too ! My certy, man, but ye're 
no blate ! I'm ill eneuch, to be sure, 
to come into a grand room this way, 
but yet I wadna set up my impudent 
nose an' my muckle rough brisket 
afore the lowe, an' tak a' the fire to 
mysel Get aft' wi' ye, sir ! An' you 
too, Trimmy, yelimmer ! what's your 
business here ?" So saying, he at- 
tempted, with the fringe of his plaid, 
to drive them out ; but they only ran 
about the room, eyeing their master 
with astonishment and concern. They 
had never, it seemed, been wont to be 
separated from him cither by night or 

by day, and they "could not understand 
why they should be driven from the 
parlour, or how they had not as good 
a right to be there as he. Of course, 
neither threats nor blows could make 
them leave him ; and it being a scene 
of life quite new to me, and of which 
I was resolved to profit as much as 
possible, at my intercession matters 
were made up, and the two canine 
associates were suffered to remain 
where they were. They were soon 
seated, one on each side of their mas- 
ter, clinging fondly to his feet, and 
licking the wet from his dripping 

Having observed that, when the 
shepherd entered, he had begun to 
speak with great zest about the sport 
they had in killing the salmon, I 
again brought on the subject, and 
made him describe the diversion to 
me. " O man !" said he, and then 
indulged in a hearty laugh (77707* 
was always the term he used in ad- 
dressing either of us sir seemed to 
be no word in his vocabulary) " O 
man, I wish ye had been there ! I'll 
lay a plack ye wad hae said ye never 
saw sic sport sin' ever ye war born. 
We gat twall fish a" thegither the-day, 
an' sair broostals we had wi' some o' 
them ; but a' was naething to the 
killin o' that ane at Pool-Midnight. 
Geordie Otterson, Mathew Ford, an* 
me, war a' owre the lugs after him. 
But ye's hear : When I cam on to 
the craigs at the weil o' Pool-Mid- 
night, the sun was shinin bright, the 
wind was lown, an' wi' the pirl* 
being away, the pool was as clear as 
crystal. I soon saw by the bells 
coming up, that there was a fish in 
the auld hauld ; an' I keeks an' I 
glimes about, till, faith ! I sees his 
blue murt fin. My teeth were a' wa- 
terin to be in him, but I kend the 
shank o' my wastert wasna half length. 
Sae I cries to Geordie, " Geordie," 
says I, " aigh man ! here's a great 
chap just lyin steeping like a aik 
clog." Off comes Geordie, shaugle 
shauglin a' his pith ; for the creature's 
that greedy o' fish, he wad ven- 
ture his very saul for them. I kend 
brawly what wad be the upshot. 
" Now," says I, " Geordie, man 
yoursel for this ae time. Aigh, man ! 
he is a terrible ane for size See, 
yonder he's lying." The sun was 




shinin ae clear that the deepness o' 
the pool was a great cheat. Geordie 
bait his lip for perfect eagerness, an' 
his een war stelled in his head he 
thought he had him safe i' the pat ; 
but whenever be put the grains o' the 
leister into the water, I could speak 
nae mair, I kend sae weel what was 
comin ; for I kend the depth to an 
inch. Weel, he airches an' he vizies 
for a good while, an' at length made a 
push down at him wi' his whole might. 
Tut ! the leister didna gang to the 
grund by an ell an' Geordie gaed 
into the deepest part o' Pool-Midnight 
wi' his head foremost! My sennins 
turned as suple as a dockan, an' I 
just fell down i' the bit wi' lauchin 
ye might hae bund me wi' a strae. 
He wad hae drowned for aught that I 
could do ; for when I saw his heels 
flinging up aboon the water as he had 
been dancin a hornpipe, I lost a' power 
thegither ; but Mathew Ford harled 
him into the shallow wi' his leister. 

" Weel, after that we cloddit the 
pool wi' great stanes, an' aff went the 
fish down the gullots, shinin like a 
rainbow. Then he ran, and he ran ! 
an' it was wha to be first in him. 
Geordie got the first chance, an' I 
thought it was a' owre ; but just when 
he thought he was sure o' him, down 
cam Mathew full drive, smashed his 
grains out through Geordie's and gart 
him miss. It was my chance next ; 
an' I took him neatly through the 
gills, though he gaed as fast as a shell- 

" But the sport grew aye better. 
Geordie was sae mad at Mathew for 
taigling him, an' garring him tine the 
fish (for he's a greedy dirt), that they 
had gane to grips in a moment ; an' 
when I lookit back, they war just 
fightin like twae tarriers in the mids 
o' the water. The witters o' the twa 
leisters were fankit in ane anither, 
an' they couldna get them sindrie, else 
there had been a vast o' blude shed ; 
but they were knevillin, an' tryin to 
drown ane anither a' that they could ; 
an' if they hadna been clean fore- 
foughen they wad hae done't ; for 
they were aye gaun out o' sight an' 
comin howdin up again. Yet after a', 
when I gaed back to redd them, they 
were sae inveterate that they wadna 
part till I was forced to haud them 
down through the water and drown 
them baith." 

" But I hope you have not indeed 

Anecdotes of the 'Pastoral Life. 


drowned the men," said I. " Ou na, 
only keepit them down till I took the 
power fairly frae them till the bullers 
gae owre coming up ; then. I carried 
them to different sides o' the water, 
an' laid them down agroof wi' their 
heads at the inwith ; an' after gluther- 
ing an' spurring a wee while, they 
cam to again. We dinna count muckle 
o' a bit drowning match, us fishers. 
I wish I could get Geordie as weel 
doukit ilka day; it wad tak the 
smeddum frae him for, O, he is a 
greedy thing ! But I fear it will be a 
while or I see sic glorious sport again." 

Mr Grumple remarked, that he 
thought, by his account, it could not 
be very good sport to all parties ; and 
that, though he always encouraged 
these vigorous and healthful exercises 
among his parishioners, yet he regret- 
ted that they could so seldom be con- 
cluded in perfect good humour. 

" They're nae the waur o' a wee 
bit splore/' said Peter ; " they wad 
turn unco milk- an'- water things, an' 
dee away a' thegither wantin a broolzie. 
Ye might as weel think to keep a ale- 
vat working wantin barm." 

" But, Peter, I hope you have not 
been breaking the laws of the country 
by your sport to-day ?" 

" Na, troth hae we no, man 
close-time disna come in till the day 
after the morn ; but atween you an' 
me, close-time's nae ill time for us. 
It merely ties up the grit folk's hands, 
an' thraws a' the sport into our's the- 
gither. Na, na, we's never complain 
o' close-time ; if it warena for it there 
wad few fish fa' to poor folk's share." 

This was a light in which I had 
never viewed the laws of the fishing 
association before ; but as this honest 
hind spoke from experience, I have 
no doubt that the statement is founded 
in truth, and that the sole effect of 
close- time, in all the branches of the 
principal river, is merely to tie up the 
hands of every respectable man, and 
throw the fishing into the hands of 
poachers. He told me, that in all the 
rivers of the extensive parish of Wool- 
cn/iorn, the fish generally run up 
during one flood, and went away the 
next ; and as the gentlemen and far- 
mers of those parts had no interest in 
the preservation of the breeding salmon 
themselves, nor cared a farthing about 
the fishing associations in the great 
river, whom they viewed as monopo- 
lizers of that to which they had no 


On the Culture of Sugar in the United States. 

right, the fish were wholly abandoned 
to the poachers, who generally con- 
trived, by burning lights at the shal- 
lows, and spearing the fish by night, 
and netting the pools, to annihilate 
every shoal that came up. This is, 
however, a subject that would require 
an essay by itself. 

Our conversation turned on various 
matters connected with the country; 
and I soon found, that though this 
hind had something in his manner 
and address the most uncultivated I 
had ever seen, yet his conceptions of 
such matters as came within the 
sphere of his knowledge were perti- 
nent and just. He sung old songs, 
told us strange stories of witches and 
apparitions, and related many anec- 
dotes of the pastoral life, which I think 
extremely curious, and wholly un- 
known to the literary part of the com- 
munity. But at every observation that 
he made, he took care to sleek down 
his black hair over his brow, as if it 
were of the utmost consequence to his 
making a respectable appearance, that 
it should be equally spread, and as 
close pressed down as possible. When 
desired to join us in drinking tea, he 
said " it was a' nonsense thegither, for 
he hadna the least occasion ;" and 
when pressed to take bread, he per- 
sisted in the declaration that " it was 
great nonsense." He loved to talk of 
sheep, of dogs, and of the lasser, as he 
called them ; and conversed with his 
dogs in the same manner as he did 
with any of the other guests ; nor did 
the former ever seem to misunderstand 
him, unless in his unprecedented and 
illiberal attempt to expel them from 
the company. " Whitefoot ! haud aff 
the woman's coat-tails, ye blockhead ! 
Deil hae me gin ye hae the mense of 
a miller's horse, man." Whitefoot 
instantly obeyed. " Trimmy ! come 
back aff the fire, dame ! Ye're sae wat, 
ye raise a reek like a cottar wife's lum 
come back, ye limmer !" Trimmy 
went behind his chair. 

It came out at last that his business 
with Mr Grumple that day was to 
request of him to go over to Stridc- 
kirton on the Friday following, and 
unite him, Peter Plash, in holy wed- 
lock with his sweetheart and only joe, 
Jean Windlestrae ; and he said, if I 
" would accompany the minister, and 
take share of a haggis wi' them, I wad 
see some good lasses, and some good 
sport too, which was far better." You 
V 7 ol. I. 


may be sure I accepted of the invita- 
tion with great cordiality, nor had I 
any cause to repent it. I have, since 
that time, had many conversations 
with Peter, of which I have taken 
notes ; but the description of a country 
wedding, together with the natural 
history of the Scottish sheep, the 
shepherd's dog, and some account of 
the country lasses, I must reserve for 
future communications. H. 


WHILE the example of the success- 
ful efforts made by the negroes in 
Hispaniola for the recovery of their 
freedom and independence, and the 
recent commotions in our own West 
India colonies, have powerfully at- 
tracted the public attention, it seems 
to have entirely overlooked the rising 
competition which must, at no distant 
period, materially affect the demand 
for the staple commodity of these dis- 
tant settlements. From a short state- 
ment given in Mr Pitkin's Statistical 
View of the Commerce, &c. of the 
United States, published last year, it 
appears, that in 1810 above TEN MIL- 
LIONS of pounds weight of sugar had 
been manufactured from the cane in 
the state of Louisiana :* and so rapid- 
ly has its cultivation extended, that 
in 1814, only four years afterwards, 
not less than FIFTEEN MILLIONS of 
pounds, or above 8,300 hogsheads, 
were made in the same district. The 
culture of the cane has also been in- 
troduced into Georgia, and there seems 
little reason to doubt of its succeeding 
equally well as in Louisiana. " In 
1805," says Mr Pitkin, " Thomas 
Spalding, Esq., a gentleman of wealth 
and enterprise, procured one hundred 
cane plants from the West Indies, for 
the purpose of trying them on his 
plantation, on an island near the sea- 
coast of Georgia. After repeated 
trials, in which he was guided princi- 
pally by his own judgment and ex- 
perience, he completely succeeded. 
About three years since, he made a 

* Hennepin, quoted by Labat, asserts 
that the sugar cane is indigenous in Louisi- 
ana, and was found growing spontaneously 
near the mouth of the Mississippi on its 
first discovery. Edwards' Hist. West In- 
dies. Vol. ii. 208, 4to etl. 

On the Culture of Sugar in the United States. 


small quantity of sugar of a good qua- 
lity ; and in 1814, he had one hun- 
dred acres in cane, which produced 
seventy-Jive thousand weight of prime 
sugar, and four thousand gallons of 
molasses; and but for the want of 
boilers, which, on account of the war, 
could not be brought to his plantations, 
he would have produced one hundred 
thousand weight. The culture of the 
cane is found not to be more laborious 
than that f cotton, and is not liable 
to so many accidents. One thousand 
pounds per acre is not considered a 
great crop. This at ten cents, (5^d.) 
would be one hundred dollars. Al- 
most every planter along the sea coast 
of Georgia is now turning his attention, 
more or less, to the culture of the su- 
gar cane; and from experimentsalready 
made, the cane is found to grow luxu- 
riantly as far north as the city of 
Charleston in South Carolina." 

These facts render it nearly certain 
that America will soon be in a situa- 
tion to export sugar ; and I confess 
that I contemplate the probability of 
that event without any feeling of re- 
gret, and am even convinced it will be 
much to the advantage of this country. 
If the Americans cannot undersell 
our planters, the latter have nothing to 
fear from their competition ; but if 
they can afford us a valuable necessary 
at a cheaper rate, very cogent reasons 
indeed would be required to shew, 
why we should not become their cus- 
tomers, There is surely nothing so 
very attractive, or advan tageous, in the 
possession of the West India islands, 
as to induce us to tax ourselves for 
their support, for such, to the con- 
sumers, is the real effect of every mo- 
nopoly. Sufficient employment for 
capital can still be found in this coun- 
try, and it is not necessary to force it 
into the colony trade, by giving an 
undue preference to its products over 
those of other countries ; and even if 
such employment could not be found, 
it would be impolitic in government to 
give any factitious encouragement to 
one department of industry, inasmuch 
as it is certain some other branch 
must be thereby proportionally de- 
pressed. No bad consequences have 
resulted to us from purchasing the 
cotton of the United States ; on the 
contrary, it has been attended with the 
happiest effects. The Americans have 
taken an equivalent in our manufac- 
tured goods, and it is always reckoned 

good policy to import raw materials 
with a view to export them when 
wrought up. If we shall hereafter 
purchase sugar from America, it will 
enable her merchants to order still 
larger quantities of our manufactures. 
They will not, we may rest assured, 
send us their produce gratis, and they 
cannot take money in payment, the 
real value of gold and silver being 
greater here than on the opposite side 
of the Atlantic. But supposing them 
to receive payment in gold and silver, 
it would only shew, that we found it 
more advantageous to export manufac- 
tures to countries abounding in those 
metals, and then to pay them over to 
the Americans, rather than export 
directly to the latter. 

The remarks I have just made, 
apply equally to the case of any other 
power who might come into competi- 
tion with our own sugar colonies : and 
now that peace has been restored to 
the country, and the attention of the 
legislature is no longer attracted by 
the momentous discussions to which an 
arduous and long protracted contest 
gave rise, I do hope that our system 
of colonial policy will be thoroughly 
investigated. I am not aware that 
it has been materially changed since 
Dr Smith exposed its mischievous 
tendency ; and I confess, I cannot see 
the utility of employing our soldiers 
and sailors at an infinite expense, to 
preserve a precarious authority over 
isles situated in an unhealthy and 
pestiferous climate, if we can purchase 
their products cheaper elsewhere. 

No colonies were ever reckoned so 
important to this country, as those 
which now form the powerful repub- 
lic of the United States. But has 
their independence had any bad effects 
on the wealth, commerce, or industry, 
of Great Britain ? The reverse is 
decidedly the fact. Without the ex- 
pense of maintaining armaments to 
defend these distant and extensive 
territories, we have continued to enjoy 
every previous advantage resulting 
from their commercial intercourse. As 
long as we can afford to sell manufac- 
tured goods to the Americans, cheaper 
than they can prepare them at home, 
and cheaper than they can purchase 
from any other power, we shall 
continue to supply their market to 
precisely the same extent we should 
have done had they still remained 
our colonies. Surely no person ima- 


Memorandums of a View- Hunter. 

gines, that had America been depend- 
ent on this country, we could have 
compelled her to purchase our mer- 
chandise, though really higher than 
that of other states. Our colonial 
system was always more liberal than 
that of Spain ; but did all the re- 
strictions, regulations, and guarda-cos- 
tas, of that power, prevent her colonies 
from being deluged with the commo- 
dities of England, France, and Ger- 
many ? No custom-house regulations, 
however rigorously enforced, can ever 
command or preserve any market ; it is 
solely by the comparative cheapness 
and quality of the goods offered for 
sale, that the demand is regulated. 

The dread of being deprived of co- 
lonial produce, if we had no colonies, 
appears equally futile and unfounded. 
What country can be mentioned, 
which, though it had no share in the 
colony trade, ever wanted its products, 
if disposed to pay for them ? Coun- 
tries possessing extensive colonies are 
frequently reduced to great difficulties 
by foreigners refusing to buy their 
commodities, but when did we hear 
of any people refusing to sell ? This 
is altogether a visionary danger : the 

Years. Imported. 

1801, 1 43,61 l,596lbs. 

1802, 78,476,165 

f 1803, 85,740,537 

1804, 129,969,997 

1805, 205,792,755 

1806, 200,737,940 

1807, 215,836,202 

1808, 86,694,229 

1809, 64,081,840 

1810, 68,368,792 

1811, 73,976,609 

1812, 72,437,561 


desire to sell lias always been, and 
must always be, as strong as the incli- 
nation to purchase. 

With the present colonial system 
the slave trade can only be considered 
as nominally abolished. I do not 
imagine any such keen and determined 
opposition would have been made to 
the slave registration bill, if vast num- 
bers of those wretched beings had not 
still found their way to our islands. 
But when the cultivation of the sugar 
cane shall become general in America, 
it is to be presumed that this infamous 
traffic will be really put an end to. 
A government residing on the spot, 
can see that the laws preventing fresh 
importations are rigorously executed ; 
but the same thing cannot possibly be 
effected by a far distant government, 
whose agents must often be interested 
in a continuance of the traffic, which 
they are officially engaged to suppress. 

The following table shews the quan- 
tity of sugar imported into the United 
States, and again exported, and, conse- 
quently, the quantity of foreign growth 
consumed in that republic from 1801. 
to 1812, both inclusive. It is extracted 
from Mr Pitkins' work, page 255. 


97,734,209 Ibs. 









Average consumption of foreign sugar in the United ) 
States, during the twelve years ending with 1812, / 

45,877,387 Ibs. 

50,279,219 Ibs. 


London, 5fh Mar. 1817. 


IF you can find room for some brief 
sketches of a view-hunter, who has a 
little enthusiasm in his line, and who, 
like not a few of his countrymen, has 
been a view-hunting lately in France, 
his memorandum book is very much 
at your service. The sketches have at 
least one merit they are warm from 
the life. 

No I. 

To Dover. 

Preparing the race-ground 

for the races. This raised a train of 

idea* about the D , S , the fair 

M , and all that, varied but pleas- 
ing. Pretty clean-looking village of 
Bridge in the bottom. The country 
rich with gentlemen's houses and gai- 
den-like enclosures. The track was 
now new to me. This had been the 
boundary of my former uips on the 

Memorandums of a View-Hunter. 


Dover road. The dale to the right, 
with hamlets, villages, churches, gen- 
tlemen's seats, appears peculiarly ele- 
gant, contrasted with the plainness on 
the left. The road is carried along the 
east side of a valley. This valley is 
narrow and rich of the glen sort 
and, as we approach Dover, it has se- 
veral pleasing vista-openings in the 
Scottish style. 

We got a small peep of the channel, 
two or three miles from Dover. The 
town itself is scarcely seen till we en- 
ter. On descending to the bottom, in 
which it stands, we took up a little 
man about twenty, one of the most 
free and easy persons I have ever met 
with. He introduced himself to us in 
a moment, arid gave us all the infor- 
mation we wanted; indeed, much more 

than my companion S seemed to 

want. But I was pleased with the 
rattle for the moment. /He, however, 
did not lack either sense or discrimi- 
nation. He pointed out the stream 
that creeps in the bottom, as being 
reckoned the richest in England of its 
size, for manufacturing returns. So 
he said. Saw several paper manufac- 
tories and flour mills. One of the 
former, he said, was famous for fine 
paper ; the scenery of its banks pleas- 
ing, and from this account it became 
more interesting. It seems to descend 
from a vista on the right, and to run 
only four or five miles. 

Our attention was attracted by a 
group of young women promenading 
in a green field on its banks, near a very 
small rustic chapel and church-yard ; 
the latter only about fifty feet square. 
The whole formed a fine rural picture. 
On descending to the level of the 
stream, we found both the footway 
and the road covered with walkers; 
for this was Sunday afternoon, and the 
weather was uncommonly fine. When 
we entered the town, we still found 
the footway for it has a footway on 
each side, and this was one of the few 
we were to see for many a hundred 
mile still crowded with promenaders. 
The people well dressed, particularly 
the women. The girls very pretty. 
Seldom have seen so many fine faces 
in a town of the same size ; but it was 
Kent. A smile on every countenance. 
I like to see the evening of the Sab- 
bath-day kept in this cheerful but de- 
corous manner. 

I shall compare this with what I see 
at Calais, said I to my companions of 
the top. 



At the Paris hotel. Very good house. 
Civil and attentive. Full of passen- 
gers to and from the Continent. Walk- 
ed out with my companions, Dr B. 
and Mr S. to view-hunt a little on the 
heights on so fine an afternoon. The 
town built on a narrow slip of land at 
the bottom of steep chalky cliffs. As- 
cended a circular excavation in the 
chalk. Three winding stairs up it, of 
about 200 steps. Made some years ago. 
Sentinels both at the entry below and 
above. Part of the works of defence, 
on the top of the hill, a little to the 
right of this. Ascend it by ladder 
stairs on the outside. These have a 
fine effect, combined with the fortifi- 
cations. The castle, also, has a vener- 
able and picturesque appearance from 
this station. 

I inquired about Shakspeare's cliff 
of the soldiers. A decent-looking mi- 
litiaman, who was carrying a pretty 
child, while two more were playing 
round him, pointed it out to me a 
mile or so off. A few halfpence made 
the little folks very happy, and the 
parent's fond eye gh'sten with delight. 
I cast a wishful look to this favourite 
cliff: The declining day was so fine. 
But Dr B. said, he was so fatigued he 
could not think of it ; and as I could 
not leave him so abruptly, I was obliged 
to give up the project, but not with- 
out regret that was constantly recur- 
ring. This is the inconvenience of a 
view-hunter entangling himself with 
any non-view-hunter as a travelling 
companion. He is prevented from 
seeing half of what he may see. A 
word to view-hunters. I determined 
to give my companions the slip for the 
future, except at meals. 

I then proposed ascending to the 
citadel. The way at first steep, and 
nearly on the edge of the precipice. 
Dr B. said to some of the soldiers 
who pointed out our way, as they were 
reclining on the declivity, that it look- 
ed like ascending to the skies. No- 
thing of that sort, said a drummer. I 
have climbed it often, and I never 
found I was a bit nearer heaven than 
before. The pert drummer might not 
be very far wrong with respect to him- 

The view of the harbour, which is 
a tide one, and very extensive, having 
gates between the outer and inner 
station, with the ships so far below us, 
formed an interesting picture. The 
sea was delightfully calm. The white 


Memorandums of a View-Hunter. 

cliffs of France, whither we were go- 
ing, had their effect. The sight set 
us a talking of the probability of the 
junction of Great Britain formerly 
with the Continent. The sameness of 
the soil, and other geological pheno- 
mena, and the proximity, seemed to 
make a junction likely ; the vast length 
of the British channel, and the wide 
German Ocean approaching so near, 
render a separation from the first as 
natural. In short, whether this part 
of the channel was once an isthmus, 
and Albion a peninsula, or not, will 
ever be a doubtful speculation. We 
have nothing but conjectural reasons, 
and these appear to be as strong on the 
one side as the other. 

Two very bonny lasses, with a fine 
child, ascended at the same time with 
us, but still nearer the precipice. I 
begged them, for Heaven's sake, not to 
go so near. They laughed, and went 
still nearer ; and sat down almost on 
the very edge of the tremendous pre- 
cipice, which, even at the distance 
we were standing, made us shudder. 
Goodbye, my poor dears, said I to 
them; I shall see you no more. They 
gave me some jocular reply. Such is 
the effect of custom. 

Went up to the citadel. Not al- 
lowed to enter. A nice-looking wo- 
man and her husband on the draw- 
bridge. She seemed quite frightened. 
On raising my eyes, I soon found the 
cause of her terror. They were going 
to fire the evening gun from the ram- 
part. The picture was truly fine. 
The poor female was crouching down 
on the bridge, though the gun was 
full twelve feet above her, and stop- 
ping her ears ; and the artillery men 
were standing in order by it, waiting 
till the sun, who was now going down, 
should sink under the hill. We were 
at unequal distances, watching the 
hand that held the lighted match. 
This was applied. The height seemed 
to shake under us. The thunder ran 
round the hills for some time, and re- 
turned again. The varied and pleas- 
ing form of these winding heights, 
with their picturesque ornaments, 
the glens between them, which put 
me in mind of some of the glens of 
the Grampians, though in miniature, 
and the brilliant tints which the sun 
had left behind him, received such an 
addition from this simple and familiar 
incident, that Dr B., who seemed to 
possess a very moderate share of view- 
hunting enthusiasm, exclaimed, 'Tis 


truly grand and beautiful. I felt the 
justness of the observation home, and 
I echoed it with the most cordial as- 

As we marched off, highly delighted 
with this short evening view-hunt, 
we were assailed by a host of native 
enemies. These were hornets. I did 
not mind them, and they soon left 
me. But Dr B. was quite alarmed. 
In vain I advised him to let them 
alone. The more he laboured to chase 
these buzzers away, tlie more furious 
and numerous did they return to the 
attack. I have frequently found these 
insects near cannon and ordnance de- 
pots. I do not know why. 

While we sat at tea, a little valetu- 
dinarian Jew, whom they called Mo- 
ses, offered his services in the money- 
changing line. He said he followed 
this business merely for the sake of a 
little amusing employment. He charg- 
ed a penny more for his Louises (of 
twenty francs) than I had paid in 
London, or 16s. 4d. He wanted very 
much to tempt me to part with some 
of the slips of paper I had received 
from Hammersley, for French gold, 
no doubt by way of amusement also. 
But in vain he offered me a douceur, 
as I meant to keep my paper till I got 
to Paris. He loitered in the coffee- 
room, and again and again he attempt- 
ed to bribe me to part with it. Pho ! 
thought I, as I sipt my tea ; and is the 
theory of our bullion committee come 
to this in practice. The notes of the 
Bank of England, alone, are now from 
eight to ten millions more than when 
this learned body, far above the pre- 
judices of metal- money times no doubt, 
were theorizing; and yet here is a 
Jew (for the sake of mere amusement, 
it is granted) offers me more gold for 
my paper money, than even its mint 
price warrants. His urgency, also, 
certainly looks very much like his con- 
sidering paper really more valuable 
than gold. 'Tis a pity that facts will 
still be giving the negation flat to cer- 
tain favourite theories. We shall, 
however, reach something like good 
sense on money at length, perhaps. I 
say good, and not common sense ; for 
the common sense on the subject of 
money, as on many others, has a good 
deal of that negative kind of sense in 
it, which is styled nonsense. 

All this, it is to be noticed, I thought, 
and not said. From some remark that 
had fallen from Dr B. I perceived he 
was an adherent of the metal money 


party, and I was a decided partisan of 
paper. Now, it is well known, that a 
regular argumentation on paper and 
metal money, unless abruptly termi- 
nated by a quarrel or a duel, to say 
nothing of disturbing all around us 
with our noise, seldom, on a mode- 
rate calculation, abates in its violence 
in less than two hours and a half. 
But I wished to retire to bed early, 
and therefore I did not offer battle. 

My bed-room was just under a per- 
pendicular cliff of chalk, say, from ISO 
to 200 feet high. Suppose now, thought 
I to myself, this cliff should tumble 
down in the night. However, thought 
I to myself again, this perpendicular 
cliff has stood during % the nights of 
several thousand years, and why should 
it, of all nights, fall down on the very 
night that I sleep at Dover? And 
sleep there I did, and very soundly 
too. In three minutes I was uncon- 
scious of existence, and dreamt neither 
of Jews changing money for mere 
amusement, metal nor paper, bullion 
committees, nor yet perpendicular cliffs 
of chalk. 

And now, sir, with your permission, 
I shall postpone my invasion of France 
till next month. 



As the following account of the 
steam frigate lately built in America, 
has, so far as 1 know, not yet been 
published in this country, I have 
taken the liberty of transmitting it for 
your Magazine. It was communi- 
cated to me some time ago by Samuel 
L. Mitchill, M.D.F.R.S.E. of New 
York, one of the commissioners who 
superintended its construction. I am, 
Sir, yours, &c. D. BREWSTER. 

Edinburgh, March Uh, 18 iT. 

Report of Henry Rutgers, Samuel L. 
Mitchill, and Thomas Morris, the 
commissioners superintending the 
construction of a Steam Vessel of 
War, to the secretary of the navy. 

New York, December 28, 1815. 
SIR, The war which was terminated 
by the treaty of Ghent, afforded, during 
its short continuance, a glorious dis- 
play of the valour of the United States 
by land and by seait made them better 
known to foreign nations, and, what 
is of much greater importance, it con- 

American Steam Frigate. 


tributed to make them better acquaint- 
ed with themselves it excited new 
enterprises it educed latent talents 
it stimulated to exertions unknown to 
our people before. 

A long extent of coast was exposed 
to an enemy, powerful above every 
other on the ocean. His commanders 
threatened to lay waste our country 
with fire and sword, and, actually, in 
various instances^ carried their menaces 
into execution. It became necessary, 
for our defence, to resist, by every 
practicable method, such a formidable 

It was conceived, by a most inge- 
nious and enterprising citizen, that 
the power of steam could be employed 
to propel a floating battery, carrying 
heavy guns, to the destruction of any 
hostile force that should hover on the 
shores, or enter the ports of our Atlan- 
tic frontier. The perfect and admir- 
able success of his project, for moving 
boats containing travellers and bag- 
gage by the same elastic agent, opened 
the way to its employment for carry- 
ing warriors and the apparatus for 

The plan was submitted to the con- 
sideration of the executive of an en- 
lightened government. Congress, in- 
fluenced by the most liberal and 
patriotic spirit, appropriated money 
for the experiment ; and the navy de- 
partment, then conducted by the Ho- 
nourable William Jones, appointed 
commissioners to superintend the con- 
struction of a convenient vessel under 
the direction of Robert Fulton, Esq. 
the inventor, as engineer, and of 
Messrs Adam and Noah Brown, as 
naval constructors. The enterprise, 
from its commencement, and during 
a considerable part of its preparatory 
operations, was aided by the zealous 
co-operation of major-general Dear- 
born, then holding his head-quarters 
at the city of New York, as the offi- 
cer commanding the third military dis- 
trict. The loss of his valuable counsel, 
in conducting a work which he had 
maturely considered, and which he 
strongly recommended, was the con- 
sequence of his removal to another 
section of the union, where his pro- 
fessional talents were specially requir- 

The keels of this steam frigate were 
laid on the 20th day of June, 18 14. 
The strictest blockade the enemy could 
enforce, interrupted the coasting trade, 


American Steam Frigate. 

and greatly enhanced the price of tim- 
ber. The vigilance with which he 
guarded our coast against intercourse 
with foreign nations, rendered difficult 
the importation of copper and iron. 
The same impediment attended the 
supplies of coal, heretofore brought to 
New York from Richmond and Li- 
verpool. Lead, in like manner, was 
procured under additional disadvan- 
tages. These attempts of the enemy 
to frustrate the design were vain and 
impotent. All the obstacles were sur- 
mounted. Scarcity of the necessary 
woods and metals was overcome by 
strenuous exertions ; and all the block- 
ading squadron could achieve, was not 
a disappointment in the undertaking, 
but merely an increase of the expense. 

So, in respect to tradesmen and la- 
bourers, there was an extraordinary dif- 
ficulty. Ship-wrights had repaired to 
the lakes for repelling the enemy, in 
such numbers, that comparatively 
speaking, few were left on the sea- 
board. A large portion of the men 
who had been engaged in daily work, 
had enlisted as soldiers, and had march- 
ed under the banners of the nation to 
the defence of its rights yet, amidst 
the scarcity of hands, a sufficient num- 
ber was procured for the purpose 
which the commissioners had in charge. 
An increase of wages was the chief 
impediment, and this they were ena- 
bled practically to overcome. 

By the exemplary combination of 
diligence and skill, on the part of 
the engineer and the constructors, the 
business was so accelerated, that the 
vessel was launched on the 29th day of 
October, amidst the plaudits of an 
unusual number of citizens. 

Measures were immediately taken 
to complete her equipment ; the boiler, 
the engine, and the machinery, were 
put in board with all possible expedi- 
tion. Their weight and size far sur- 
passed any thing that had been wit- 
nessed before among us. 

The stores of artillery in New York 
not furnishing the number and kind 
of cannon which she was destined to 
carry, it became necessary to transport 
guns from Philadelphia. A prize 
taken from the enemy, put some fit 
and excellent pieces at the disposition 
of the navy department. To avoid the 
danger of capture by the enemy's 
cruizers, these were carried over the 
miry roads of New Jersey. Twenty 
heavy cannon were thus conveyed by 


the strength of horses. Carriages of 
the most approved model were con- 
structed, and every thing done to 
bring her into prompt action, as an 
efficient instrument of war. 

About this time, an officer pre- 
eminent for bravery and discipline, 
was commissioned by the government 
to her command. Prior to this event, 
it had been intended by the commis- 
sioners to finish her conformably to the 
plan originally submitted to the execu- 
tive. She was a structure resting upon 
two boats, and keels separated from end 
to end by a canal 15 feet wide, and 156 
long. One boat contained the cauldrons 
of copper to prepare her steam. The 
vast cylinder of iron, with its piston, 
lever, and wheels, occupied a part of its 
fellow ; the great water-wheel revolved 
in the space between them ; the main 
or gun deck supported her armament, 
and was protected by a bulwark 4 feet 
10 inches thick, of solid timber. This 
was pierced by 30 port holes, to enable 
as many 32 pounders to fire red hot 
balls; her upper or spar deck was plain, 
and she was to be propelled by her 
enginery alone. 

It was the opinion of Captain Porter 
and Mr Fulton, that the upper deck 
ought to be surrounded with a bul- 
Avark and stanchions that two stout 
masts should be erected to support 
latteen sails that there should be 
bowsprits for jibs, and that she should 
be rigged in a corresponding style. 
Under authorities so great, and with 
the expectation of being able to raise 
the blockade of New London, by de- 
stroying, taking, or routing the ene- 
my's ships, all these additions were 
adopted, and incorporated with the 

It must here be observed, that, dur- 
ing the exhaustion of the treasury, 
and the temporary depression of pub- 
lic credit, the commissioners were ex- 
ceedingly embarrassed ; their pay- 
ments were made in treasury notes, 
which they were positively instructed 
to negotiate at par. On several occa- 
sions even these were so long with- 
held, that the persons who had ad- 
vanced materials and labour were im- 
portunate for payment, or silently dis- 
contented. To a certain extent, the 
commissioners pledged their private 
credit. Notwithstanding all this, the 
men, at one time, actually broke off. 
The work was retarded, and her com- 
pletion was unavoidably deferred, to 

American Steam Frigate. 


the great disappointment of the com- 
missioners, until winter rendered it 
impossible for her to act. 

Under all this pressure, they never- 
theless persevered in the important 
object confided to them. But their 
exertions were further retarded, by the 
premature and unexpected death of 
the engineer. The world was de- 
prived of his invaluable labours, before 
he had completed this favourite under- 
taking. We will not inquire, where- 
fore, in the dispensations of Divine 
Providence, he was not permitted to 
realize his grand conception. His dis- 
coveries, however, survive for the bene- 
fit of mankind, and will extend to un- 
born generations. 

At length all matters were ready for 
a trial of the machinery to urge such 
a bulky vessel through the water. 
This essay was made on the first day 
of June, 1815. She proved herself 
capable of opposing the wind, and of 
stemming the tide, of crossing cur- 
rents, and of being steered among ves- 
sels riding at anchor, though the wea- 
ther was boisterous and the water 
rough. Her performance demonstrat- 
ed, that the project was successful 
no doubt remained that a floating 
battery, composed of heavy artillery, 
could be moved by steam. The com- 
missioners returned from the exercise 
of the day, satisfied that the vessel 
would answer the intended purpose, 
and consoled themselves that their care 
had been bestowed upon a worthy ob- 

But it was discovered that various 
alterations were necessary. Guided 
by the light of experience, they caused 
some errors to be corrected, and some 
defects to be supplied. She was pre- 
pared for a second voyage with all 
practicable speed. 

On the 4th day of July she was 
again put in action. She performed 
a trip to the ocean, eastward of Sandy 
Hook, and back again, a distance of 
fifty-three miles, in eight hours and 
twenty minutes. A part of this time 
she had the tide against her, and had 
no assistance whatever from sails. Of 
the gentlemen who formed the com- 
pany invited to witness the experi- 
ment, not one entertained a doubt of 
her fitness for the intended purpose. 

Additional experiments were, not- 
withstanding, necessary to be sought, 
for quickening and directing her mo- 

tion. These were devised and exe- 
cuted with all possible care. 

Suitable arrangements having been 
made, a third trial of her powers was 
attempted on the llth day of Septem- 
ber, with the weight of twenty-six of 
her long and ponderous guns, and a 
considerable quantity of ammunition 
and stores on board ; her draft of water 
was short of eleven feet. She changed 
her course, by inverting the motion of 
the wheels, without the necessity of 
putting about. She fired salutes as 
she passed the forts, and she overcame 
the resistance of wind and tide in her 
progress down the bay. She perform- 
ed beautiful manoeuvres around the 
United States frigate, Java, then at an- 
chor near the light-house. She moved 
with remarkable celerity, and ihe was 
perfectly obedient to her double helm. 
It was observed, that the explosions 
of powder produced very little con- 

The machinery was not affected by 
it in the smallest degree. Her pro- 
gress, during the firing, was steady 
and uninterrupted. On the most ac- 
curate calculations, derived from heav- 
ing the log, her average velocity was 
five and one-half miles per hour. Not- 
withstanding the resistance of currents, 
she was found to make head way at 
the rate of two miles an hour against 
the ebb of the East River, running 
three and one-half knots. The day's 
exercise was satisfactory to the re- 
spectable company who attended, be- 
yond their utmost expectations. It 
was universally agreed, that we now 
possessed a new auxiliary against every 
maritime invader. The city of New 
York, exposed as it is, was considered 
as having the means of rendering itself 
invulnerable. The Delaware, the 
Chesapeake, Long Island Sound, and 
every other bay and harbour in the 
nation, may be protected by the same 
tremendous power. 

Among the inconveniences observa- 
ble during the experiment, was the 
heat endured by the men who attend- 
ed the fires. To enable a correct judg- 
ment to be formed on this point, one 
of the commissioners (Dr Mitchill,) 
descended, and examined by a ther- 
mometer the temperature of the hold 
between the two boilers. The quick- 
silver, exposed to the radiant heat of 
the burning fuel, rose to one hundred 
and sixteen degrees of Fahrenheit's 

On Sitting below the Salt. 

scale. Though exposed thus to its 
intensity, he experienced no indisposi- 
tion afterwards. The analogy of pot- 
teries, forges, glass-houses, kitchens, 
and other places where labourers are 
habitually exposed to high heats, is 
familiar to persons of business and of 
reflection. In all such occupations, 
the men, by proper relays, perform 
their services perfectly well. 

The government, however, well un- 
derstand, that the hold of the present 
vessel could be rendered cooler by 
other apertures for the admission of 
air, and that in building another steam 
frigate, the comfort of the firemen 
might be provided for, as in the ordi- 
nary steam-boats. 

The commissioners congratulate the 
government and the nation on the 
event of this noble project. Honour- 
able alike to its author and its patrons, 
it constitutes an era in warfare and the 
arts. The arrival of peace, indeed, 
has disappointed the expectations of 
conducting her to battle. That last 
and conclusive act, of showing her su- 
periority in combat, it has not been in 
the power of the commissioners to 

If a continuance of tranquillity 
should be our lot, and this steam ves- 
sel of war be not required for the pub- 
lic defence, the nation may rejoice that 
the fact we have ascertained is of in- 
calculably greater value than the ex- 
penditure, and that if the present 
structure should perish, we have the 
information never to perish, how, on 
a future emergency, another may be 
built. The requisite variations will 
be dictated by circumstances. 

Owing to the cessation of hostilities, 
it has been deemed inexpedient to 
finish and equip her as for immediate 
and active employ. In a few weeks 
every thing that is incomplete could 
receive the proper adjustment. 

After so much has been done, and 
with such encouraging results, it be- 
comes the commissioners to recom- 
mend that the steam frigate be officer- 
ed and manned for discipline and prac- 
tice. A discreet commander, with a 
selected crew, could acquire experience 
in the mode of navigating this pecu- 
liar vessel. The supplies of fuel, the 
tending of the fire, the replenishing of 
the expended water, the management 
of the mechanism, the heating of shot, 
the exercise of the guns, and various 
other matters, can only become fa- 

VOL. I. 


miliar by use. It is highly important 
that a portion of seamen and marines 
should be versed in the order and 
economy of the steam frigate. They 
will augment, diffuse, and perpetuate 
knowledge. When, in process of time, 
another war shall call for more struc- 
tures of this kind, men, regularly 
trained to her tactics, may be des- 
patched to the several stations where 
they may be wanted. If, on any such 
disposition, the government should 
desire a good and faithful agent, the 
commissioners recommend Captain 
Obed Smith to notice, as a person who 
has ably performed the duties of in- 
spector from the beginning to the end 
of the concern. 

Annexed to the report, you will 
find, Sir, several statements explana- 
tory of the subject. A separate report 
of our colleague, the Honourable 
Oliver Wolcott, whose removal from 
New York precluded him from at- 
tending to the latter part of the bu- 
siness with his accustomed zeal and 
fidelity, is herewith presented. A 
drawing of her form and appearance, 
by Mr Morgan, as being likely to give 
satisfaction to the department, is also 
subjoined, as are likewise an inventory 
of her furniture and effects, and an 
account of the timber and metals con- 
solidated in her fabric. 

It is hoped these communications 
will evince the pains taken by the 
commissioners to execute the honour- 
able and responsible trust reposed in 
them by the government. 





IT is very pleasing to observe with 
what care the most popular writers of 
this age are obliged to guard against 
introducing any circumstances, even 
in their works, of a nature entirely 
fictitious, which do not harmonize with 
the manners of the period wherein the 
scene of their story is laid. The exam- 
ple of such authors as Scott, Southey, 
and Byron, who display so much 
erudition even in the most trifling 
matters of costume, must soon put an 
end to the rage for historical poems 
and romances from the pens of such 
half-informed writers as Miss Porter, 
Miss Holford,and the like. The novels 

On Sitting below the Salt. 


' founded on fact/ as they are called, 
with which some of these female con- 
noisseurs have thought fit to present 
the world, abound everywhere in vio- 
lations of historical truth as gross, and 
in sins against costume as glaring, 
as ever astounded the reader of a ro- 
mance of the thirteenth century. As 
in these productions of that dark age, 
Achilles and Hector are always painted 
like true knights of Languedoc or Ar- 
morica, with saltires and fesses on 
their shields, with mottos, merrymen, 
pennons, gonfalons, caps of mainten- 
ance, close viziers, tabarts, trumpeters, 
and all the trappings of Gothic chi- 
valry, so, in the " Scottish Chiefs," 
we find Sir William Wallace, " that 
stalwart knycht of Elderslee," meta- 
morphosed into an interesting young 
colonel, making love to a delicate lady, 
with one arm in a sling, and a cam- 
bric handkerchief in his hand quot- 
ing Ossian, warbling ballads, and re- 
covered from a sentimental swoon by 
the application of a crystal smelling- 
bottle. It would have been cruel 
indeed to have brought so fine a 
gentleman to the block on Tower-hill ; 
so Miss Porter contrives to smuggle 
Sir William out of the way on the fatal 
morning, and introduces a dead porter 
to have his head chopped off in- his 

These observations were suggested to 
me, by hearing some persons, in a com- 
pany where I was the other day, call in 
question the accuracy of the author of 
the ' Tales of my Landlord,' in respect 
to an antiquarian remark which he has 
introduced in two different parts of his 
work. The first occurs in the descrip- 
tion of the feast, in p. 251 of the 
' Black Dwarf.' " Beneath the Salt- 
cellar," says he, (a massive piece of 
plate which occupied the middle of the 
table,) " sate the sine nomine turba, 
men whose vanity was gratified by oc- 
cupying even the subordinate space at 
the social board, while the distinction 
observed in ranking them was a salvo 
to the pride of their superiors." In 
the same manner, in the tale of ( Old 
Mortality/ in the admirable picture 
of the Laird of Miln wood's dinner, the 
old butler, Cuddie, &c. sat " at a con- 
siderable distance from the Laird, and, 
of course, below the salt." The critics, 
whose remarks it was my fortune to 
hear, were of opinion, that this usage of 
placing guests above or below the salt, 
according to the degree of nobility in 


their blood, was a mere invention ot 
the facetious author, and entirely with- 
out any foundation in history, or, as 
one of them expressed it, totum merum 
sal. It struck me at the time, that 
the usage was not so new to my ears 
as it seemed to be to theirs, and, on 
coming home, I looked into a volume 
of old English ballads, where I found 
the following verse : 
" Thou art a carle mean of degre, 
Ye salte yt doth stande twain me and thee ; 
But an thouhadst been of ane gentyl stray ne, 
I wold have bitten my gante* againe." 

An instance of the importance at- 
tached to the circumstance of being 
seated above the salt, occurs in a much 
later work " The Memorie of the 
Somervilles," a curious book, edited 
last year by Mr Walter Scott. " It 
was," says Lord Somerville, (who 
wrote about the year 1680) "as much 
out of peike as to give obedience to 
this act of the assemblies, that Wal- 
ter Stewart of Allontoune, and Sir 
James his brother, both heretors in 
the parish of Cambusnethen, the first, 
from some antiquity, a fewar of the 
Earle of Tweddill's in Auchtermuire, 
whose predecessors, until this man, 
never came to sit above the salt- 
foot, when at the Laird of Cambus- 
nethen's (Somerville's) table ; which 
for ordinary every Sabboth they dyned 
at, as did most of the honest men of 
the parish of any account." Vol. ii. 
p. 394. 

The same author is indeed so fami- 
liar with this usage as one of every-day 
observance, that he takes notice of it 
again in speaking of a provost of Edin- 
burgh : "He was a gentleman of very 
mean family upon Clyde, being bro- 
ther german to the Goodman of Allen- 
tone, whose predecessors never came to 
sit above the salt-foot." P. 380, ibid. 

I have observed, in several houses of 
distinction, certain very large and massy 
pieces of plate of a globular form, and 
commonly with two handles, which, 
although they go by a different name, 
I have at times suspected to be no 
other than " salt-foots," or, as it 
should be written, salt-vats. To 
whatever uses these may be applied, I 
have always been inclined to say with 

" Nunquam ego te turn esse Matulam cre- 

I shall endeavour to procure a draw- 

* i. e. glove. 


Craniological Controversy. 

ing of a very beautiful one, in the pos- 
session of an honourable person in this 
neighbourhood, and send it you, along 
with a few further remarks, if possi- 
ble, before the publication of your se- 
cond Number. Yours respectfully, 

J. M. 
Stockbridge, March 17, 1817. 


Some Observations on the late Pamph- 
lets of Dr Gordon and Dr Spurzheim. 


No speculations have engaged more 
attention, or have more frequently af- 
forded a topic for conversation, since 
the time of Joanna Southcote, than 
those of Drs Gall and Spurzheim. 
Your readers, I presume, have heard 
of these gentlemen and their doctrines, 
and perhaps may be amused by a few 
remarks on the craniological controver- 
sy. One of these learned persons, who 
lately lectured in this city, has been 
remarkably active in the promulgation 
of his new system, and has devoted 
many years to its explanation, in all 
the principal cities and towns of Eu- 
rope. Of this system it is unnecessary 
here to give any detailed account. Its 
outlines have been made so generally 
known by the unwearied eloquence of 
Dr Spurzheim, in his writings and 
by his lectures, that I beg to refer the 
very few persons, who have not heard 
the latter to the perusal of the former. 
I shall here offer only some general 
observations on a treatise lately pub- 
lished on the subject by Dr Gordon, 
and on a pamphlet by Dr Spurzheim, 
intended as a reply. 

The craniological system of Drs 
Gall and Spurzheim has been very 
fully detailed and discussed in all the 
literary journals of this country, and 
they have been very unanimous in 
deciding on its merits. The Edin- 
burgh Review stood foremost in oppo- 
sition to this new system, and pointed 
out more fully and clearly than the 
rest, the anatomical errors on which it 
was founded. Dr Spurzheim, en- 
couraged by his success in England 
relying, it may be also, on his per- 
sonal address, and on the plausible 
sophistry with which he explained his 
system for its ready reception with 
the multitude of readers, who were of 
course incapable of detecting its er- 
rors resolved to visit Edinburgh ; 


and there to repress the voice of op- 
position by the influence that might 
accompany his immediate presence. 

On concluding his lectures at Bath 
and Clifton, he there announced his 
intention of visiting this northern 
capital ; at the same time exciting the 
sympathy of his audience, by declar- 
ing, " that he was going amongst his 
enemies." At Clifton, particularly, 
he had gained many proselytes ; and 
so occupied were the ladies there in 
settling the manifestations of mind 
from the bumps on each other's skulls, 
that carefully to braid the hair, in or- 
der to conceal wrong propensities, be- 
came a matter of very serious atten- 
tion. The following fact, which ac- 
tually occurred at a party in Clifton, 
will shew with what a nice accuracy 
Dr Spurzheim had taught his fair dis- 
ciples to discover in their neighbours 
particular manifestations of mind ; 
and I give it as a short lesson of cau- 
tion to their sister craniologists in Ed- 
inburgh, of which there are not a few. 
A lady in a large party remarked 
pretty audibly, that on a certain head 
very near her, she perceived a suspi- 
cious bump. The lady to whom the 
head belonged, hearing this observa- 
tion, turned to the informant, and, de- 
claring that she would instantly re- 
move this organ which had excited a 
suspicion of a wrong propensity, im- 
mediately took from her hair a small 
comb, which, lying concealed, had 
caused the manifestation. 

Dr Spurzheim arrived in Edinburgh 
soon after the commencement of the 
last summer session at this university. 
He gave several demonstrations of a 
calfs and sheep's brain in Dr Bar- 
clay's lecture-room ; and as soon as he 
could procure a human brain, he be- 
gan his demonstrations on that organ 
in the class-room of Professor Thom- 
son and Dr Gordon. Here was a 
fair opportunity to put to shame the 
critics of Edinburgh, who had so se- 
verely ridiculed his system. This was 
the time to support his written dis- 
coveries by actual demonstration. His 
new and superior mode of dissecting 
the human brain, could now readily 
be made manifest by a public exhi- 
bition of his skill before some of the 
most eminent professors and practi- 
tioners in the kingdom. A human 
brain was placed before him ; that 
organ on which his system was found- 
ed, and his alleged discoveries respect- 

Craniological Controversy. 


ing which had already gained him 
such celebrity. The interpreter of 
mind took up his scalpel, and the 
learned men of the city sat around in 
silent expectation. In such a situa- 
tion, there was one course which, it 
might be imagined, Dr Spurzheim 
would certainly have pursued. As the 
colleague of Dr Gall, he had been ac- 
cused, in no very ambiguous terms, 
by the Edinburgh Review, of wilful 
misrepresentation, and of gross ig- 
norance in a science which he pre- 
tended to have enriched by new dis- 
coveries. These accusations, being 
anonymous, he certainly was not bound 
to notice. Convinced, however, as he 
must have been, that such heavy 
charges against him were well known 
to his audience, he surely must have 
felt peculiarly anxious to do away any 
bad impression they might have made, 
by a minute and clear exposition of 
his leading doctrines, and a decisive 
demonstration of the correctness of his 
anatomical views. Strong in his own 
integrity, and in the soundness of his 
system, we can conceive him gladly 
preparing to confound his enemies, by 
appealing to the testimony of their 
own senses, and claiming, for an ac- 
tual exhibition of new anatomical facts, 
a belief in the theories which he had 
deduced from their existence. How 
Dr Spurzheim availed himself of 
such an opportunity is well known 
to all who witnessed his dissection. 
Far from establishing his claims to 
pretended discoveries by actual de- 
monstration, it appears that he in- 
volved himself and his system in 
further discredit, by his visible ina- 
bility to display the new structure he 
had so confidently described. He left 
very little doubt, I believe, on the 
minds of his audience, as to the merits 
of craniology. In order, however, still 
further to obviate misrepresentation, 
and to place the claims of Gall and 
Spurzheim in a proper light, Dr Gor- 
don drew up a treatise, entitled, " Ob- 
servations on the Structure of the 
Brain, comprising an estimate of the 
claims of Drs Gall and Spurzheim to 
discovery in the anatomy of that or- 
gan." On the title-page of this treat- 
ise he placed his name. This, let it 
be observed, was no anonymous attack 
which an individual could pass over 
without notice. It is a treatise in 
which the author personally brings 
forward accusations most' direct and 

pointed, and which, if well founded, 
go very far to affect the credit and 
character of Dr Spurzheim. 

This gentleman and his colleague 
have asserted, that no anatomist be- 
fore themselves believed that the brain 
was, throughout, of a fibrous struc- 
ture. This, therefore, they claim as 
a discovery peculiarly their own, and 
considering it one of high importance, 
they style it, " La premiere et la plus 
importante des decouvertes, celle sans 
la quelle toutes les autres seroient im- 
parfaites." Dr Gordon proves very 
satisfactorily, that from the time of 
Malpighi in 1664, downwards, such 
a fibrous structure was believed to ex- 
ist every where throughout the cere- 
bral mass. To such proofs Dr Spurz- 
heim, in his pamphlet, returns no an- 
swer. This first and most important 
of their discoveries turns out, there- 
fore, to be no discovery at all and 
it will be seen that all the others are 
indeed " imparfaites." 

Drs Gall and Spurzheim wished to 
appropriate to themselves the method 
of scraping the brain, as a mode of 
dissection peculiar to themselves, and 
best calculated to display its structure. 
Dr Gordon asserts, that this method 
was not invented by them. To this 
assertion Dr Spurzheim assents by his 

One of the most important points 
in his arid Dr Gall's anatomical dis- 
coveries, concerns, as we are told by 
Dr Spurzheim, the two orders of fi- 
bres, viz. diverging, and converging or 
uniting. It is in fact upon the existence 
of these peculiarly arranged fibres, and 
upon theproof of a statement which has 
been positively advanced, that the 
brown matter secretes the white, that 
the whole system of Drs Gall and 
Spurzheim depends. I beg your read- 
ers particularly to notice, that it is up- 
on the communication between the 
brown matter and the white medullary 
substance, to which it serves as a cov- 
ering, that the doctrines of craniology 
depend for their chief support. Ima- 
gine no such communication to exist, 
and the brown capsule of the brain, 
and cerebellum, is nothing more than 
an unconnected covering to the white 
substance beneath. Now, in this case, 
if mind can be manifested by external 
signs on the head, these signs being 
caused by swellings, or a peculiar con- 
formation of some substance within 
the cranium that substance must, 

1 8 1 7 . j Craniological 

be the brown matter, and the brown 
matter alone. The white medullary 
substance, with all its curious cavities 
and arrangements, has nothing to do 
in such mental manifestations, and the 
whole nervous system is alike exclud- 
ed. Dr Spurzheim, however, main- 
tains, that the whole medullary sub- 
stance is secreted by the brown, and 
that a communication can be shewn to 
exist between them by a system of di- 
verging and converging fibres. Sure- 
ly he must have discovered these fi- 
bres by an actual dissection his writ- 
ings assert this ; their existence is a 
sine-qua-non to his whole system. 
Now Dr Gordon distinctly states, that 
Spurzheim never did demonstrate such 
communication between the brown 
and nervous matter he did not de- 
monstrate these diverging and con- 
verging fibres when called upon to do 
so ; and moreover, Dr Gordon posi- 
tively denies that any such arrange- 
ment can be shewn to exist in the 
cerebral mass. How does Dr Spurz- 
heim attempt to parry this home- 
thrust, which goes to terminate his 
craniological existence ? Very simply, 
by an exclamation of " Hey ho ! is it 
so ?" 

In another part of his pamphlet, 
indeed, p. 27, he offers to shew con- 
verging fibres to any one who shall 
procure " a fresh brain ;" and at p. 
38, mentioning the " reinforcing fi- 
bres," which Dr Gordon denies are 
susceptible of demonstration, he offers 
" to demonstrate all these statements 
to any one who shall procure a fresh 
brain." Every one who knows the 
very great difficulty there is in pro- 
curing a recent brain, will easily per- 
ceive that Dr Spurzheim is making 
merry with his readers. He was pro- 
vided at his demonstration with a 
brain in the most recent state, why 
did he not then " demonstrate all these 
facts ?" he did not do so he was 
unable to do so, and his whole sys- 
tem falls to the ground. 

" Upon every occasion," says Dr 
Gordon, " where he was called upon 
to make good those affirmations which 
constitute the leading features of his 
system, he endeavoured to excuse him- 
self from the task, by denying that he 
had ever maintained any such struc- 
ture to be demonstrable." P. 114. 

As a reply to such serious accusa- 
tions, Dr Spurzheim produced a 
pamphlet, professing to be " An Ex- 

Controversy. 37 

amination of the Objections made in 
Britain against the Doctrines of him- 
self and Colleague." We sat down to 
a perusal of it with a considerable de- 
gree of curiosity, and we closed it, 
quite satisfied as to the merits of these 
far-famed craniologists. 

Never was there a more evident at- 
tempt to evade the overwhelming force 
of unwelcome facts, than has been 
made by Dr Spurzheim on this " ex- 
amination." Instead of meeting fair- 
ly and decisively the objections so 
strongly urged against him ; instead 
of a ckar refutation, or a manly con- 
fession of mistake and error ; there is 
little else in this pamphlet but a most 
general and unconnected repetition of 
his former theories and assertions. 
We see in it only the signs of an im- 
becile irritability, evidently sensible 
to reproach ; conscious that it is but 
too well founded, but unwilling to 
confess its justice, and unable to avoid 
its sting. 

At p. 37, Dr Spurzheim wishes to 
" amuse," his readers by an anecdote, 
which we must not forget to notice. 
It is an account of a dissection which 
took place in the lloyal Infirmary last 
December, and it will be seen how 
slyly a very formidable accusation is 
brought forward against Dr Gordon. 
We know that this gentleman was 
present at this dissection ; but it hap- 
pened not to be the week in which his 
official duty as one of the surgeons to 
the Infirmary would have given him 
the superintendence. This duty be- 
longed to one of his colleagues, the 
next in seniority. Dr Gordon had 
therefore no necessary concern with 
this dissection it was a point of eti- 
quette not to interfere with it. We 
can assert, that the presence of Dr 
Spurzheim in the theatre was known 
neither to Dr Gordon nor to the sur- 
geon who presided ; no intentional ob- 
struction could therefore be offered to 
his views by either of these gentlemen. 
We regret with Dr Spurzheim, that a 
dissection so interesting as this really 
was, afforded, as we are compelled to ac- 
knowledge, so little gratification or im- 
provement to the students who crowded 
the anatomical theatre. Why were the 
whole posse-comitatus of the hospital, 
clinical and surgical clerks, assist- 
ant-surgeons, apothecaries, and dress- 
ers, permitted to stand round the 
dissecting table, and totally to prevent 
the students from seeing the body? 

38 On Foundling Hospitals. 

The lower seat which surrounds the 
area is particularly for the accommo- 
dation of this medical suite, but on 
this occasion it was unoccupied ; and 


new beauty, it will be very soon for- 
gotten. There is nothing indeed which 
can make us regret the fall of this ill- 
fated system. It seems to have been 

with heads and bodies, forming a pret- a mere exhalation of human thought, 

ty opaque circle over and around the which has risen, and is passing away 

table, the view of several hundred stu- before us, in all its native duskiness ; 

dents was completely intercepted. with no rainbow tinge to allure our 

Since the brain has had its day as gaze by its beauty not one celestial 
the basis of a system, we see no rea- hue to lighten the dull materiality of 
son why that organ in the human 
body, which is popularly supposed to 
be the seat of passion, shall not in 
its turn serve to amuse the credulity of 
mankind. Why may not the human 
heart be registered in a good sized 
quarto volume, with plates and re- 
ferences, and be made the basis to a 
system of CORDIOLOGY ? Some in- 
quirer may arise, who is fond enough MANY of your readers must be aware 
of travelling, and sufficiently anxious that Mr John Watson, Writer to the 
for a transient reputation to run over Signet, bequeathed a sum of money to 
Europe, and give lectures on its fibres trustees, to be applied, " at the sight 

of the Magistrates of the city of Edin- 

its aspect. A. M. 

Edinburgh, March 3, 1817. 


and emotions. He may surely dis- 
cover such a difference in the twisting 
of these fibres ; in the curvature of 
its valves ; the sweeping of its ar- 
teries ; or the arrangement of its 
nerves ; as may afford a very amusing 
explanation of human passion. The 
heart, indeed, is not just as open to 
examination in the living subject as the 
skull ; and we doubt whether any lady 
could be found sufficiently in love 
with science, and a new system, to 
expose her heart for the sake of either, 
to the manipulation of a cordiologist. 
But comparative anatomy will supply 
us with data, and there needs but 
a little inference, a little reasoning 
from analogy, and a great deal of sup- 
position, to help us out. From the 
form of the chest we may presume 
the structure of the heart within it ; 
we might have some good manifes- 
tations of passion by the jugular vein ; 
and a great many mysteries commonly 
referred to the human heart, may pro- 
bably be explained by peculiarities of 
palpitation, caused by a modification 
in the shape or bumpiness of its apex ; 
or in the arrangement of its tranverse 

Such patch- work systems of conjec- 
ture and speculation are fortunately 
destined, by the immutable and eter- 
nal laws of truth, to last but for a sea- 
son. Craniology has almost " lived its 
little hour." In this city we are certain, 
that, with the absence of Dr Spurz- 
heim, and the introduction of some 
other novelty, as a French-douce or a 

burgh, to such pious and charitable 
uses within the said city," as the trus- 
tees should think proper ; and that 
the trustees, after announcing it to be 
their final and unalterable resolution 
to apply this bequest to the establish- 
ment of a Foundling Hospital, declar- 
ed, That upon their decease, the man- 
agement of the charity should devolve 
upon the keepers and commissioners 
of the Writers to the Signet. Mr 
Watson died in 17 62, and his widow 
in 1770. The Writers to the Signet 
became possessed of the trust-funds, 
according to the destination of the tes- 
tator's trustees ; and after much liti- 
gation with the Magistrates of Edin- 
burgh, their right to the management 
was confirmed by our Supreme Court. 
These funds, originally small, have 
been so well employed that they are 
said now to amount to more than 

Now, my object is to know whether 
this sum is to be applied to the esta- 
blishment of a foundling hospital ? and 
if it be, when it is intended so to em- 
ploy it? or whether it be in contem- 
plation to apply to Parliament to au- 
thorise its appropriation to such chari- 
table purposes as may be thought, in 
the present circumstances of society 
and of public opinion, to be more wor- 
thy of encouragement ? 

From the litigation to which this 
part of Mr Watson's testamentary 
deed has given rise, and the very dif- 
ferent opinions entertained as to the 

1817.]] On Greek 

merits of this destination of his pro- 
perty, as well as from many other in- 
stances of a similar description, it is 
impossible not to perceive how little 
encouragement is held out to such 
charitable, or, it may be, ostentatious 
donations. In the progress of society, 
as in that of the age and fortune of 
individuals, that which at one stage 
appears most interesting and praise- 
worthy, is beheld at another with in- 
difference or aversion. I. 
March 1817. 


No I. 

(JEschyli Prometheus.) 

THE drama has formed an interest- 
ing and important part of the litera- 
ture of every nation into which it has 
been introduced, and no nation that 
has cultivated literature at all is en- 
tirely without it. Among the Atheni- 
ans, scenical representations were fre- 
quented with a degree of enthusiasm 
of which we cannot easily form an 
adequate notion. A successful play 
was the most certain and the shortest 
road to literary fame, and even to for- 
tune and preferment in the state. The 
dramatic poets were men of eminent 
genius, and not more remarkable for 
the qualities of mind that form the 
poet, than for those that constitute the 
philosopher. Euripides was the dis- 
ciple and the friend of Socrates, who 
saw the important moral purposes to 
which the drama might be applied, 
and the divine philosopher did not 
think it beneath him to aid the poet 
in the correction of his pieces. In 
the Greek theatre, not only was the 
taste of the people formed to a simple 
and natural style of composition, and 
their minds inspired with a love of 
virtue, but their piety and their ima-i 
gination were equally improved by 
the unfolding of the beauties of a 
poetical mythology. It was not mere- 
ly a place of public amusement, but 
rather a temple for the purification of 
the national manners, and the worship 
of the gods, more moral in its ten- 
dency than their sacrifices and festi- 
vals. It is to be understood, that 
these observations apply only to tra- 
gedy, for the Greek comedy was often 
licentious and immoral. 

It was fortunate for the Greeks that 
in their literature they had no ino- 

Tragedy. 39 

dels to copy. It was the growth of 
their own soil, rooted in their usages, 
laws, legends, mythology, and pecu- 
liar modes of thinking and confor- 
mation of character, and was native 
to Greece as the vine to her moun- 
tains. It was drawn directly from 
nature, and the likeness was pleas- 
ing, because it was the faithful copy 
of a fair original ; not, as too fre- 
quently happens among the ancient 
Romans and the modern nations of 
Europe, a servile imitation a tame 
copy of a copy ; it was like nature 
herself, fresh, and rich, and vigorous, 
and unconstrained, ever varying and 
ever graceful. 

On a first view of the Greek tra- 
gedy, what strikes the reader, if he is 
at all conversant in the drama of the 
moderns, is its simplicity. The char- 
acters are few, and the fable neither 
intricate nor the incidents surprising. 
Its whole interest arises out of the 
simple expression of natural feeling in 
situations of suffering and sorrow; yet 
scanty as the materials are, by their 
judicious arrangement, a beautiful 
superstructure is raised. It may be 
likened to a fine painting, in which 
the figures are correctly drawn and 
skilfully grouped the costume ap- 
propriate the drapery easy and grace- 
ful the expression of the passions, 
such as naturally flow from the cir- 
cumstances of the actors the story 
perspicuous and the lights and shades 
disposed with such art as to give to 
the whole the most pleasing effect. 

It has been often repeated, and as of- 
ten acknowledged, that the composition 
of a tragedy is one of the most difficult 
of all the efforts of human intellect. It 
requires a knowledge of the nature of 
man, and of those general laws by 
which he is governed in every stage of 
society, which is the portion only of a 
gifted few, of those main springs of 
thought, and feeling, and action, that 
are universal, and of all the varieties 
of their modification produced by his 
moral, physical, and political state 
the temperature or severity of climate 
the purity of religion or the grossness 
of superstition the exaltation of liber- 
ty or the degradation of slavery. The 
dramatic writer must be endowed with 
the eye that can unveil the human 
heart, detect the passions in their 
source, and trace them in their intri- 
cate windings, and give to all fit ut- 
terance. He must be possessed of a 
pliancy of mind, by which he may 


place himself almost simultaneously in 
the situation of all his characters of a 
sympathy with the beings of his own 
imagination, which will enable him to 
think with their minds, to feel with 
their hearts, and speak with their 
tongues, as if they were real charac- 
ters to become at once a Shylock and 
a Portia a Hamlet and the Queen 
Mother. So to conceive and to paint 
character, as to clothe it in the garb of 
nature, to model it to symmetry, and 
to inspire it with the animation of life, 
not merely in description, but in re- 
presentation so to invent a fable as to 
make it at once probable and interest- 
ing, to lead us into the society of men 
and women in the moment of suffering 
or heroism, and to light the whole with 
a radiant atmosphere of poetry from 
the frequency of the failure, must be 
concluded to be one of the most ardu- 
ous of the enterprises of genius. Hence 
the miscarriages of men, even of great 
poetical talents; of whom some have 
brought upon the stage characters so 
cold and so correct, so stiff and so 
formal, so unlike the men and wo- 
men with whom we mingle in real 
life, that we have no more sympa- 
thy with them than with the inha- 
bitants of the moon. They are mere 
puppets, through which their authors 
pour forth their declamations on stale 
morality, and without the smallest re- 
gard to propriety; every thing is spoken 
in the same tone, and with the same 
emphasis. With these writers, every 
breeze is a whirlwind, and every feel- 
ing an ecstasy. They do not suit the 
language to the sentiment, nor study 
the processes of Nature, who never errs 
in fitness, but gives to every stream its 
own particular key-sound, according 
to the weight of its waters and the ra- 
pidity of its descent. These hints, 
crude and undigested as they are, will 
be of practical application in my re- 
marks on Greek Tragedy. 

^Eschylus, in a glorious age, had 
perhaps a fairer claim to originality 
than any of his contemporaries. He did 
not improve, but create tragedy. He 
not only paved the way in which Shak- 
speare was afterwards to move with a 
splendour that should eclipse his own 
and every other name, but he gave to 
the acting manager the mechanism of 
scenery that was to represent the beau- 
ties of the landscape, not merely to 
delight the eye of the spectator, but 
to give a fit place for the action. 

The claims of this writer to the 

On Greek Tragedy. 


high reputation which he has obtained 
among the poets of Greece, is now to 
be examined ; and I shall begin with 
a short analysis of the play of Prome- 
theus. It is founded on a well-known 
fable. In the wars of the gods, Pro- 
metheus had joined the party of Jupi- 
ter, to whom he gave important aid in 
the unnatural expulsion of his father, 
Saturn, from the throne of heaven. 
Jupiter, however, forgetful of past 
services and of solemn oaths, was no 
sooner seated on the throne, than he 
began to exercise his authority in acts 
of the most abominable tyranny over 
gods and men. His amusement was 
in insulting the subject gods, but men 
he determined to exterminate, by at 
once depriving them of food and fire. 
Prometheus was not like the submis- 
sive throng of courtier gods, so far cor- 
rupted by the contagion of servility, 
as not to feel pity for the distresses of 
mankind. In defiance of the tyrant, 
he interposed to save them from the 
threatened destruction,' and not only 
gave them fire and food, but instruct- 
ed them in many of the useful and or- 
namental arts. Jupiter, enraged at this 
act of disobedience to his despotic man- 
dates, condemned him to be chained 
to a rock on Mount Caucasus, there to 
remain till he should expiate his crime, 
and offer submission ; and this sen. 
tence was carried into execution with 
many circumstances of cruelty and in- 
sult. This preface was necessary to 
the right understanding of the play. 

The main object of JEschylus, in 
writing this tragedy, was to exhibit to 
his countrymen, in Jupiter, a ferocious 
tyrant, stained with every crime ; and 
in Prometheus, a suffering patriot. 
Among the Athenians, such a subject 
could not fail to awaken the deepest 
interest. Never was an altar erected 
to freedom in any country on earth 
where her flame burnt purer than in 
that city ; and this drama was an of- 
fering worthy of such a shrine. 

The fable is more than commonly 
simple, and all the characters mytho- 
logical or allegorical except one. They 
are, Prometheus a Chorus of Ocean 
Nymphs lo, the Daughter of Inachus 
Ocean Vulcan Force and Vio- 
lence; of whom the two latter, under 
the direction of Vulcan, bind Prome- 
theus to a rock with chains of ada- 
mant. In their presence, neither pain, 
nor the insults of Force, who is a well 
painted executioner nor the sympa- 
thy of Vulcan, who is his kinsman 


On Greek Tragedy. 

draws from him a single word ; but as 
soon as they retire, he apostrophizes the 
rivers, the ocean, the earth, the air, 
and the sun ; and calls upon them to 
witness the injustice of his punish- 
ment. The sound of his lamentations 
draws to the scene of his sufferings a 
company of ocean nymphs, who form 
the Chorus, and consequently never 
leave the stage.* They come as friends, 
to sooth and to sympathise ; and to 
them he explains, that by his counsels 
Jupiter had succeeded in his designs 
on his father's throne, and that in him 
they may see what reward they have 
to expect who serve a tyrant. To 
them he likewise narrates, at full 
length, the favours he had conferred 
on man. With Ocean, who was also 
attracted to the place by his com- 
plaints, he holds a dialogue on the same 
subject, who, after having reasoned 
with him in vain on the inutility of 
resistance, and advised submission, 
quits the stage. lo then enters. She, 
Eke Prometheus, was the victim of the 
cruelty and the crimes of Jupiter, and 
was wandering over the earth in soli- 
tary wretchedness, goaded on by the 
jealousy of Juno. Prometheus fore- 
tells her future wanderings, and gives 
a short but rapid and poetical descrip- 
tion of the countries which she is to 

* The most remarkable feature of differ- 
ence between the ancient and modern dra- 
mas was the Chorus, a company of persons 
who might naturally be supposed present 
on the occasion, and interested in the events 
which were going on. The number of the 
chorus was at first indefinite. ^Eschylus, 
in his Eumenides, brought no fewer than 
fifty on the stage, but was obliged by the 
civil authority to reduce them to twelve. 
Sophocles was afterwards permitted to add 
three ; and after that time fifteen seems to 
have been the number to which the chorus 
was restricted. This company was con- 
stantly on the stage. One of them, who 
was called Choragus, or Choryphasus, the 
leader or president of the chorus, generally 
spoke for the rest ; but their odes were sung 
by the whole band, accompanied with music 
and dancing. It was the office of the chorus 
to deduce from the events represented those 
moral reflections which the principal actors 
were too busy, or too impassioned, to make ; 
to direct the leading characters with their 
counsel ; and, during the intervals of the 
action, to sing their odes, in which they 
prayed to the gods for success to the vir- 
tuous, lamented their misfortunes, and took 
occasion, from the events, to enforce upon 
their audience the lessons of religion and 

VOL. I. 


traverse. In the last scene, Mercury 
appears, commissioned by Jupiter to 
extort from Prometheus a secret at 
which he had hinted in his conversation 
with lo, that it was in the decrees 
of fate that the tyrant himself should 
be dethroned, and that he alone knew 
the means by which the danger might 
be averted. On the sight of this min- 
ion of the despot, he addresses him in 
the language of sarcasm and defiance, 
confessing his knowledge of the secrets 
of fate, and his resolution never to re- 
veal them till his bonds should be 
loosed. The rock to which he is fixed 
is struck with thunder, and he de- 
scends to the infernal regions amid the 
convulsions of nature. 

Such, divested of all poetical or- 
nament, is an abstract of this sin- 
gular play. Here there is none of 
the interest that arises from the hur- 
ry of incident, and the unexpected 
change of fortune. From the con- 
clusion of the first scene to the be- 
ginning of the last, the action stands 
still the intermediate scenes being 
merely conversational, and in nowise 
forwarding the plot. The only thing 
like business is in the first scene, where 
Prometheus is chained ; and in the 
last, when he sinks amid the thunder. 
Nor are the subordinate characters 
more interesting than the incidents, 
displaying none of those fine creations 
in which the charm of dramatic poetry 
consists, nor of the language well ima- 
gined, yet suitable to the situation of the 
speaker. They do nothing more than 
utter common places of sympathy and 
submission to the powers that be ; and 
what is said by one, may, with equal 
propriety, be put into the mouth of 
any other. In what then, it may be 
asked, does the merit of this tragedy 
consist ? In the character of Prome- 
theus alone ; in the benevolence that 
refines, and in the sublimity that ele- 
vates, the soul of man ; in the con- 
sciousness of rectitude, that reposes on 
itself, independent of fortune ; in the 
glorious energy of spirit, that resists 
oppression, though armed with omni- 
potence ; and in the fortitude that 
rises superior to unmerited sufferings. 
It was the love of independence, and 
the hatred of tyranny, and the un- 
quenchable daring of a lofty mind, 
that rendered it the delight of the 
Athenians. It was the bright reflec- 
tion of their own souls, and the fair 
image returned to them again with all 

12 On Greek 

the joy of self-exultation. This was 
the halo that shone from heaven, and 
shed over the tragedy a lustre by 
which it was sanctified in the eye of 

I have brought heavy charges against 
this performance as a drama, and it is 
only justice that I should bring for- 
ward some of its beauties in detail : 
and here enough of matter will be 
found to soften the rigour of criticism. 
However wide the tragedies of JEschy- 
lus may be of the standard of excel- 
lence established in the land that gave 
Shakspeare birth, yet in all ages and 
in all countries he must be considered 
an eminent poet. In the ye that kin- 
dles as it rolls over the beauties of na- 
ture, and in the imagination that teems 
with great conceptions, he is inferior 
to few poets. There is a grandeur and 
loftiness of soul about him, generated 
by the elevation of freedom, that is 
blazing forth on every fit occasion, a 
mysterious sublimity that cannot be 
understood, much less felt, by the 
slaves of a despot. 

The following is a feeble attempt to 
render the meaning of the beautiful 
passage in which Prometheus describes 
the degraded state in which he found 
man, and by what means he had raised 
him from it ; and it will be well if the 
meaning is given the inspiration of 
poetry evaporates at the touch of trans- 
" Eyes had they, but they saw not ; they 

had ears, 

But heard not: Like the shadows of a dream, 
For ages did they flit upon the earth, 
Rising and vanishing, and left no trace 
Of wisdom or of forethought. Their abodes 
Were not of wood nor stone, nor did the sun 
Warm them ; for then they dwelt in light- 
less caves. 
The season's change they knew not ; when 

the Spring 

Should shed its roses, or the Summer pour 
Its golden fruits, or icy Winter breathe 
In barrenness and bleakness on the year. 
To heaven I rais'd their eyes, and bade them 


The time the constellations rose and set, 
By which their labours they might regulate. 
I taught them numbers: letters were my gift, 
Bv which the poet's genius might preserve 
The memory of glorious events. 
I to the plough bound the submissive ox, 
And laid the panniers on the ass's back, 
That they might mankind in their labours aid. 
I to the chariot trained the willing steed, 
The luxury and glory of the wealthy. 
I to the tall mast hung the flaxen pinions, 
To bear the vessel bounding o'er the billows. 
In sickness, man, without a remedy, 
Was left to perish, till my pity taught 


The herbs' sweet influences, and the balm 
That wak'd the bloom upon the faded cheek. 
And strung the nerveless arm with strength 


I was man's saviour, but have now no power 
From these degrading bonds myself to save." 
The most sublime passage in this 
sublime poem is that in which Pro- 
metheus replies to Mercury, when, in 
the name of Jupiter, he denounces 
a terrible vengeance if he refuse to 
reveal the secrets of fate touching the 
dethronement of the thunderer. 

P. To be a slave, thy words sound 

wondrous well, 

The words of wisdom and authority. 
The tyrant is but young in power, and deems 
His place inaccessible to sorrow, 
But bear him this defiance : I have seen 
Two hated despots hurl'd from the same 


And in him I shall soon behold a third, 
Flung thence in an irreparable ruin. 
Think not that I do fear thy upstart gods, 
Beings of yesterday ; but hie thee hence, 
Go tell him that his thunders have no power 
To humble me, or wrest my secret from me. 
M. It was thy proud rebellion brought 

thee here, 

Else hadst thou from calamity been free. 
P. Thinkst thou that I would change 

these galling bonds 

For slavery, and be the thing that thou art ? 
No ! I would rather hang upon this rock 
For aye, than be the slave of Jupiter. 
Thus I return his insults, thus defy him. 
Yet must he fall ; but he shall never learn 
From me whose hand shall strike the whelm- 
ing blow : 

There is no pang by which he may prevail. 
No ! let him launch at me the flaming bolt, 
Load with the white-wing'd snow the weary 


And to its centre rock it by the earthquake, 
He shall not shake me from my firm resolve." 
There is so striking a resemblance 
between this passage and Satan's ad- 
dress to Infernal Horrors in the first 
book of Paradise Lost, that there is 
reason to believe that Milton's far- 
famed line, 

" Betterto reign in hell than serve in heaven." 
might have been suggested by this : 
" Xo ! I would rather hang upon this rock 
For aye, than be the slave of Jupiter." 

It would be easy, were not this ar- 
ticle already swelled too much in 
length, to draw such a parallel betwixt 
the two characters, as to give strong 
reason to suspect that Milton took his 
first idea of that of Satan from Prome- 
theus. Yet this is to detract little from 
the glory of one of the greatest of our 
poets. An accidental spark is suffi- 
cient to kindle the fires of a volcano. 

18 17. ~j Scottish Gypsies. 


" Hast thou not noted on the bye-way sitle, 
Where aged sauglis lean o'er the lazy tide, 
A vagrant crew, far strangled through the glade, 
With trifles busied, or in slumber laid ; 
Their children lolling round them on the grass, 
Or pestering with their sports the patient ass ? 
The wrinkled beldame there you may espy, 
And ripe young maiden with the glossy eye, 
Men in their prime, and striplings dark and dun, 
Scathed by the storm and freckled with the sun : 
Their swarthy hue and mantle's flowing fold, 
Bespeak the remnant of a race of old : 
Strange are their annals ! list, and mark them well- 
For thou hast much to hear and I to tell." HOGG. 

THAT an Asiatic people should have 
resided four hundred years in the 
heart of Europe, subject to its civilized 
polity and commingled with its varied 
population, and yet have retained al- 
most unaltered their distinct oriental 
character, customs, and language, is 
a phenomenon so singular as only to be 
equalled, perhaps, by the unaccount- 
able indifference with which, till very 
lately, this remarkable fact appears to 
have been regarded. Men of letters, 
while eagerly investigating the customs 
of Otaheite or Kamschatka, and losing 
their tempers in endless disputes about 
Gothic and Celtic antiquities, have wit- 
nessed with apathy and contempt the 
striking spectacle of a Gypsey camp, 
pitched, perhaps, amidst the moulder- 
ing entrenchments of their favourite 
Picts and Romans. The rest of the 
community, familiar from infancy with 
the general character and appearance 
of these vagrant hordes, have probably 
never regarded them with any deeper 
interest than what springs from the 
recollected terrors of a nursery tale, 
or the finer associations of poetical and 
picturesque description. It may, in- 
deed, be reckoned as one of the many 
remarkable circumstances in the his- 
tory of this singular race, that the best 
and almost the only accounts of them 
that have hitherto appeared in this 
country, are to be found in works of 
fiction. Disregarded by philosophers 
and literati, the strange, picturesque, 
and sometimes terrific features of the 
gypsey character, have afforded to our 
poets and novelists a favourite subject 
for delineation ; and they have exe- 
cuted the task so well, that we have 
little more to ask of the historian, 
than merely to extend the canvass, and 
to affix the stamp of authenticity to 
the striking representations which they 

have furnished. In presenting to the 
public the following desultory notices, 
we are very far from any thoughts of 
aspiring to this grave office nor in- 
deed is it our province. Our duty is 
rather to collect and store up (if we 
may so express it,) the raw materials 
of literature to gather into our repo- 
sitory scattered facts, hints, and obser- 
vations, which more elaborate and 
learned authors may afterwards work 
up into the dignified tissue of history 
or science. With this idea, and with 
the hope of affording to general readers 
something both of information and 
amusement on a subject so curious and 
so indistinctly known, we have collect- 
ed some particulars respecting the Gyp- 
sies in Scotland, both from public re- 
cords and popular tradition ; and, in 
order to render the picture more com- 
plete, we shall introduce these by a 
rapid view of their earlier history re- 
serving to a future occasion our obser- 
vations on their present state, and on 
the mysterious subject of their nation- 
al language and origin. 

That this wandering people attracted 
considerable attention on their first ar- 
rival in Christendom in the beginning 
of the fifteenth century, is sufficiently 
evident, both from the notices of con- 
temporary authors, and from the vari- 
ous edicts respecting them still existing 
in the archives of every state in Europe. 
Their first appearance and pretensions 
were indeed somewhat imposing. They 
entered Hungary and Bohemia from 
the east, travelling in numerous hordes, 
under leaders who assumed the titles 
of Kings, Dukes, Counts, or Lords 
of Lesser Egypt, and they gave them- 
selves out for Christian Pilgrims, who 
had been expelled from that country 
by the Saracens for their adherence 
to the true religion. However doubt- 

44 Scottish. Gypsits. 

ful may now appear their claims to 
this sacred character, they had the ad- 
dress to pass themselves on some of 
the principal sovereigns of Europe, 
and, as German historians relate, even 
on the Pope himself, for real pilgrims; 
and obtained, under the seals of these 
potentates, various privileges and pass- 
ports, empowering them to travel 
through all Christian countries under 
their patronage, for the space of seven 
years. Having once gained this foot- 
ing, however, the Egyptian pilgrims 
were at no great loss in finding pre- 
tences for prolonging their stay ; and 
though it was soon discovered that 
their manners and conduct corres- 
ponded but little to the sanctity of 
their first pretensions, yet so strong 
was the delusion respecting them, and 
so dexterous were they in the arts of 
imposition, that they seem to have 
been either legally protected or silently 
endured by most of the European go- 
vernments for the greater part of a 

When their true character became 
at length fully understood, and they 
-were found to be in reality a race of 
profligate and thievish impostors, 
who from their numbers and audacity 
had now become a grievous and intol- 
erable nuisance to the various coun- 
tries that they had inundated, severe 
measures were adopted by different 
states to expel them from their terri- 
tories. Decrees of expulsion were is- 
sued against them by Spain in 14D2, 
by the German empire in IS 00, and by 
France in 1561 and 1612. Whether 
it was owing, however, to the ineffi- 
cient systems of police at that time 
in use, or, that the common people 
among whom they were mingled fa- 
voured their evasion of the public 
edicts, it is certain, that notwithstand- 
ing many long and bloody persecu- 
tions, no country that had once ad- 
mitted " these unknown and uninvit- 
ed quests," has ever again been able 
to get rid of them. When rigorously 
prosecuted by any government on ac- 
count of their crimes and depreda- 
tions, they generally withdrew for a 
time to the remote parts of the coun- 
try, or crossed the frontiers to a neigh- 
bouring jurisdiction only to return to 
their accustomed haunts and habits as 
soon as the storm passed over. Though 
their numbers may perhaps have since 

* Grellmann. 

been somewhat diminished in particu- 
lar states by the progress of civiliza- 
tion, it seems to be generally allowed 
that their distinctive character and 
modes of life have nowhere undergone 
any material alteration. In Germany, 
Hungary, Poland, in Italy, Spain, 
France, and England, this singular 
people, by whatever appellation they 
may be distinguished, Cingari, Zi- 
geuners, Tziganys, Bohemiens, GHanos, 
or Gypsies, still remain uncombined 
with the various nations among whom 
they are dispersed, and still continue 
the same dark, deceitful, and disorderly 
race as when their wandering hordes 
first emigrated from Egypt or from 
India. They are still every where 
characterized by the same strolling 
and pilfering propensities, the same 
peculiarity of aspect, and the same 
pretensions to fortune- telling and ' war- 

The estimate of their present num- 
bers, by the best informed continent- 
al writers on the subject, is almost 
incredible. " Independently," says 
Grellmann, " of the multitudes of 
gypsies in Egypt and some parts of 
Asia, could we obtain an exact estimate 
of them in the countries of Europe, 
the immense number would probably 
greatly exceed what we have any idea 
of. At a moderate calculation, and 
without being extravagant, they might 
be reckoned at between seven and eight 
hundred thousand." 

The gypsies do not appear to have 
found their way to this Island till 
about 100 years after they were first 
known in Europe. Henry VIII. and 
his immediate successors, by several 
severe enactments, and by re-export- 
ing numbers of them at the public 
expense, endeavoured to expel from 
their dominions " this outlandish peo- 
ple calling themselves Egupeians," 
but apparently with little better suc- 
cess than their brother sovereigns in 
other countries ; for in the reign of 
Elizabeth the number of them in Eng- 
land is stated to have exceeded 10,000, 
and they afterwards became still 
more numerous. If they made any 
pretension to the character of fpil* 
grims, on their arrival among our 
southern neighbours, it is evident 
at least that neither Henry nor 

* Grellmann. See also Hume on Crim. 
Law of Scotland, vol. ii. p. 344-. Macken- 
zie's Obs. on Stat. p, S3.'?. 


Scottish Gypsies. 

Elizabeth were deceived by their im- 
postures. Both these monarchs, in- 
deed, (particularly the former), were 
too much accustomed to use religion, as 
well as law, for a cloak to cover their 
own violent and criminal conduct, to 
be easily imposed upon by the like 
artifices in others. We find them ac- 
cordingly using very little ceremony 
with the ' Egyptian pilgrims,' who, 
in several of their statutes, are describ- 
ed by such designations as the follow- 
ing : ' Sturdy roags,' ' rascalls, vaca- 
bonds,' ' masterless men, ydle, va- 
graunte, loyteringe, lewde, and yll- 
disposed persons, going aboute usinge 
subtiltie and unlawful games or plaie,' 
' such as faynt themselves to have 
knowledge in physiognomye, palmes- 
trie, or other abused sciences' ' tellers 
of destinies, deaths, or fortunes, and 
such lykefantasticall imaginatiouns.' 

In king Edward's journal we find 
them mentioned along with other 
' masterless men.' The following as- 
sociation of persons seems curious : 
' June 22, 1549. There was a privy 
search made through Suffolk for all 
vagabonds, gipsies, conspirators, pro- 
phesiers, all players, and such like. * 

A more distinct account of the Eng- 
lish gypsies, on their first arrival, is to 
be found in a work quoted by Mr 
Hoyland, which was published in the 
year 1612, to detect and expose the 
art of juggling and legerdemain. " This 
kind of people," says the author, 
" about a hundred years ago, beganne 
to gather on head, at the first heere, 
about the southerne parts. And this, 
as I am informed, and can gather, was 
their beginning : Certain Egyptians 
banished their country, (belike not for 
their good conditions, ) arrived heere in 
England, who for quaint tricks and 
devices not known heere at that time 
among us, were esteemed and had in 
great admiration ; insomuch, that 
many of our English luyterers joined 
with them, and in time learned their 
crafty cozening." " The speach which 
they used was the right Egyptian 
speach, with whom our Englishmen 
conversing, at last learned their lan- 
guage. These people, continuing 
about the country, and practising 
their cozening art, purchased them- 
selves great credit among the coun- 
try people, and got much by pal- 

* Appendix to Burnet's Hist, of Reforma- 
tion, vol. ii. 

mistry and telling of fortunes ; in- 
somuch, they pitifully cozened poor 
country girls both of money, silver, 
spoons, and the best of their apparele, 
or any goods they could make." 
" They had a leader of the name of 
Giles Hather, who was termed their 
king; and a woman of the name of 
Calot was called queen. These riding 
through the country on horseback, and 
in strange attire, had a prettie traine 
after them." After mentioning some 
of the laws passed against them, this 
writer adds: " But what numbers 
were executed on these statutes you 
would wonder ; yet, notwithstanding, 
all would not prevail, but they wan- 
dered as before uppe and downe, and 
meeting once in a yeare at a place ap- 
pointed ; sometimes at the Peake's 
Hole in Derbyshire, and other whiles 
by Retbroak at Blackheath." * 

It is probable that the gypsies en- 
tered Scotland about the same period 
in which they are stated by these ac- 
counts to have first pitched their tents 
in the sister kingdom. The earliest 
notice of them, however, that we have 
been able to discover in our national 
records, is contained in the celebrated 
writ of Privy Seal, passed in the 28th 
year of James V. (1540), in favour of 
" Johnne Faw, Lord and Erie of Litill 
Egipt." A complete copy of this do- 
cument, which has been carefully col- 
lated with the original record in the 
Register House, will be found in ano- 
ther department of our Magazine. 
This writ was renewed by the Earl of 
Arran as Regent of Scotland in 1553, 
nearly in the same words, t It appears 
from these very curious edicts, that 
John Faw, under the character of 
' Lord and Erie of Litill Egipt,' had 
formerly obtained letters under the 
Great Seal, enjoining all magistrates, 
&c. to support his authority " in exe- 
cutioun of justice vpon his cumpany 
and folkis, conforme to the laws of 
Egipt, and in punissing of all thaim 
that rebellis aganis him." He com- 
plains that certain of his followers had, 
nevertheless, revolted from his juris- 
diction, robbed and left him, and 
were supported in their contumacious 
rebellion by some of the king's lieges ; 
" Sua that he (the said Johnne, thair 
lord and maister) on na wyse can ap- 
prehend nor get thamc, to have thame 

* Hoy land's Historical Survey. 
f Registrum Secret! Sigilli, vol. xxv. fol. 6?. 

Scottish Gypsies. 

hame aganc within thair awin cuntre," 
" howbeit he has biddin and reraanit 
of lang tyme vpon thame, and is 
bundin and oblist to bring hame with 
him all thame of his company that ar 
on live, and ane testimoniale of thame 
that ar deid ;" the non-fulfilment of 
which obligation, he pretends, will 
subject him to " hevy dampnage and 
skaith, and grete perell of tynsell 
(loss) of his hcretage." The names 
of these rebellious Egyptians are exact- 
ly the same in both edicts, and having 
been given in to the Scottish govern- 
ment by the chieftain himself, may be 
supposed to be correctly reported. We 
shall be glad if any of our learned 
readers can help us to trace their ety- 

It affords a striking evidence of the 
address of these audacious vagrants, 
and of the ignorance of the times, to 
find two of our sovereigns imposed 
upon by this gypsey chieftain's story, 
about his ' band' and ' heretage.' 
This was at least 120 years after the 
first arrival of these hordes in Europe. 
We hear no more of the return of 
Earl John and his company to ' thair 
awin cuntre.' 

In the following year (1554), l< An- 
dro Faw, capitane of the Egiptianis," 
and twelve of his gang, specified by 
name, obtained a remission for " the 
slfiuchter of Niniane Smaill, commit 
within the toune of Lyntoune, in the 
moneth of March last bypast, vpoun 
suddantie." * 

The gypsies appear to have kept 
their quarters in the country without 
further molestation for the next twen- 
ty-five years; and their enormities, as 
well as their numbers, it would seem, 
had greatly increased during the long 
political and religious struggles that 
occupied the greater part of Mary's 
disastrous reign. At length, in 1579, 
the government found it necessary to 
adopt the most rigorous methods to 
repress the innumerable swarm of strol- 
ling vagabonds of every description, 
who had overspread the kingdom. A 
new statute was enacted by parliament, 
" For pwnishment of the strang and 
ydle beggaris, and relief of the puir 
and impotent." In the comprehen- 
sive provisions of this act, we find 
bards, minstrels, and vagabond scholars, 
(lachrymabile dictu !) conjoined in ig- 
nominious fellowship with the Egyptian 

* Bcgist. Sccreti Sigilli, vol. xxvii. fol. 3 3G. 

jugglers. The following passages, pre- 
scribing the mode of punishment, and 
specifying some of the various sorts of 
vagrants against whom it is denounced, 
are particularly curious : " That sic 
as makis thame selffis fuilis, and ar 
bairdts, or vtheris siclike rynarris a- 
bout, being apprehendit, salbe put in 
the kingis waird and yrnis, sa lang as 
they haue ony guidis of thair awin to 
leif on ; and fra they haue not quhair- 
upoun to leif of their awin, that thair 
earis be nailit to the trone, or to ane 
vther trie, and thair earis cuttit of, and 
banist the cuntrie ; and gif thairefter 
that they be found agane that they be 
hangit." " And that it maybe knawin 
quhat maner of personis ar meanit to 
be strang and idle beggaris, and vaga- 
boundis, and worthie of the pwnish- 
ment before specifiit, it is declairit, 
that all ydle personis ganging about in 
ony cuntrie of this realme, vsing sub- 
till, crafty, and vnlauchfull playis, as 
juglaru'yjast and lowis, and sic vthers ; 
the idle people calling thame selffis E- 
gyptianis, or ony vtheris that fenzies 
thame selffis to have knowledge ef pro- 
phecie, channeing, or vtheris abvsit 
sciences, quhairby they persuaid the 
people that they can tell their weardis 
deathis, and fortunes, and sic vther 
fantasticall imaginationes ;" " and 
all mcnstrullis, sangstaris, and tailtcll- 
aris, not avouit in speciall service be 
sum of the lordis of parliament, or 
greit barronis, or be the heid burrowis 
and cities, for thair commoun mens- 
trallis;" " all vagabund scholaris of 
the vniuersities of Sanctandrois, Glas- 
gw, and Abirdene, not licencit be the 
rector and deane of facultie to ask 
almous," &c. &c. * 

This statute was repeatedly renewed, 
and strengthened with additional 
clauses, during the twenty-five years 
ensuhjg, " anent the counterfaictEgyp- 
tianis ;"t all which, however, proved 
so utterly ineffectual in restraining the 
crimes and depredations of these ban- 
ditti, that in 1603, the Lords of Privy 
Council judged it expedient to issue a 
decree and proclamation, banishing 
the whole race out of Scotland for ever, 
under the severest penalties. This 
edict is not extant, (that part of the 
record which contained it being lost), 
but itwas ratified and enforced in 1609, 

* Acta Parl. vol. iii. p. 139. 
K Acta ParJ. vol. iii. p. 576. vol. iv. pr. 


by an act of parliament to the same 
effect " Commanding the vagabound- 
is, sorneris, and commoun thieffis, 
commounlie callit Egyptianis, to pas 
furth of this realme, and nevir to re- 
turne within the samyn, vnder the 
paine of death," and declaring it law- 
ful to all his Majesty's subjects, to ap- 
prehend and execute any of them that 
might be found in the country after a 
certain day, " as notorious and con- 
demned thieffis by ane assyse only to 
be tried that they are callit, knawin, 
repute, and haldin Egiptianis."* 

It appears, that not only the lower 
classes, but also many persons of note, 
either out of compassion, or from less 
reputable motives, still continued, af- 
ter the promulgation of this law, and 
in spite of repeated reprehensions from 
the Privy Council, to afford shelter 
and protection to the proscribed Egyp- 
tians. In February 1615, we find a 
remission under the Privy Seal, grant- 
ed to William Auchterlony of Cayrnie, 
for resetting^ of John Faw and his fol- 
lowers. On the 4th July 1616, the 
Sheriff of Forfar is severely reprimand- 
ed for delaying to execute some gyp- 
sies who had been taken within his 
jurisdiction, and for troubling the 
Council with petitions in their behalf. J 
In November following, appears a 
" proclamatioun aganis Egyptianis and 
their ressettaris; in December 1619, 
we find another proclamation against 
' resellers' of them ;|| in April 1620 
another proclamation of the same 
kind ;11 and in July 1620, a com- 
mission against ' resellers ;' all with 

* Acta Parl. vol. iv. p. 440. 

f The nature of this crime, in Scotch 
Law, is fully explained in the following 
extract from the original, which also ap- 
pears curious in other respects : The pardon 
is gianted " pro receptione, supportatione, 
et detentione supra terra suas de Balmadie, 
et infra eius habitationis domum, aliuq. edi- 
ficia eiusdem, Joannis Fall, Etlilopis, lie 
JSgiptian, eiusq. vxoris, puerorum, servo- 
rum, et associatorum ; Necnon pro mini- 
strando ipsis cibum, potum, pecunias, hos- 
picium, aliaq. necessaria, quocunq. tempore 
vel occasione preterita, contra acta nostri 
Parliament! vel Secreti Concilii, vel contra 
quecunq. leges, alia acta, aut constitutiones 
huius nostri regni Scotiae in contrarium 
facta." Regist. Secreti Sigilli, vol. Ixxxiii, 
fol. 291. 

J Resist. Secreti Concilii, Jul. 4. 1616. 

Ibid. Nov. 9. 1616. 

i| Ibid. Dec. 21. 1619. 

Ibid. Apr. 19. 1620. 

Scottish Gypsies. 47 

very severe penalties.* The nature of 
these acts will be better understood 
from the following extract from that 
of 4th July 1816, which also very well 
explains the way in which the gypsies 
contrived to maintain their footing in 
the country, in defiance of all the ef- 
forts of the legislature to extirpate 
them. "Itisoftreuthe, thai the theivis 
and lymmaris foirsaidis, haueing for 
some shorte space afler ihe said act of 

parliament (1609), dispersit 

thame selffis in certane darne and ob- 
scure places of the cuntrey, 

thay wer not knawne to wander abroad 
in troupis and companies, according to 
thair accustomed maner ; yitt shorllie 
thairefter, finding that the said act of 
parliament wes neglectit, and that no 

inquirie nor wes maid for 

thame, thay begane to tak new breth 

and courage, and vnite 

thame selffis in infamous companies 

and societies vnder com- 

manderis, and continuallie sensyne lies 
remanit within the cuntrie, commit- 
ting alsweill oppin and avowed reiffis 

in all partis murtheris, as 

pleine stouthe and pykarie, quair 
thay may not be maisteril ; and thay 
do shamefullie and meschantlie abuse 
the simple and ignorant people, by 
telling of fortunes, and vsing of 
charmes, and a nomber of jugling 
trikis and falsettis, vnworthie to be 
hard of in a cuntrey subject to reli- 
gioun, law, and justice ; and thay ar 
encourageit to remane within the cun- 
trey, and to conlinew in thair thevish 
and jugling trickes and falsettis, not 
onlie throw default of the executiounof 
the said act of parliament, hot whilk 
is worse, that gritt nomberis of his Ma- 
jestie's subjects, of whom some oute- 
wardlie pretendis lo be famous and vn- 
spolled genlilmcn, lies gevin and gevis 
oppen and avowed protectioun, resett, 
supplie, and mantenance vpon thair 
ground and landis, to the saidis vaga- 
boundis, sorcnaris, and condampned 
thevis and lymmaris, and sufferis 
thame to remane dayis, oulkis, and 
monethis togidder thairvpoun, without 
controlemcnl and with connivence and 
oversicht," &c. " So thay do leave a 
foull, infamous, and ignominious spott 
vpoun thame, thair houses, and pos- 
teritie, that thay ar patronis to thievis 
and lymmaris," &c. ike. 
There is still, however, sufficient evi- 

Ibid. Jul. 6. 1620. 


Scottish Gypsies. 


dence on record, of the summary root- 
and-branch justice that was frequently 
executed upon this unhappy race, in 
terms of the above statute. The 
following may serve for specimens : 
In July 1611, four Faaswere sentenc- 
ed to be hanged as Egyptians. They 
pleaded a special licence from the Privy 
Council, to abide within the country ; 
but they were held (from failure of 
their surety,) to have infringed the 
terms of their protection, and were ex- 
ecuted accordingly. In July 1616, 
two Faas and a Baillie were capitally 
convicted on the same principle. In 
January 1 624, Captain John Faa and 
seven of his gang (five of whom were 
Faas,) were doomed to death on the 
statute and hanged. A few days 
after, Helen Faa, relict of the captain, 
Lucretia Faa, and other women, to the 
number of eleven, were in like manner 
convicted, and condemned to be drown- 
ed.* A similar case occurs in 1636.t 
This we have inserted at length in 
another department of our present 
Number, as a fair specimen of these 
sanguinary proceedings. In later 
times, the statute began to be inter- 
preted with a more merciful spirit 
towards these wretched outcasts, and 
they were hanged only when convicted 
(as happened, however, pretty fre- 
quently,) of theft, murder, and other 
violent offences against public order. 

Instead of carrying forward, in this 
manner, our own desultory sketch, we 
shall place at once before our readers, 
the accurate and striking account given 
of the Scottish gypsies, by a celebrated 
anonymous author of the present day, 
and by the distinguished person whose 
authority he has quoted. Considering 
how very unnecessary, and how diffi- 
cult it would be to convey the same 
information in other words and al- 
lowing due attention to the conveni- 
ency of those who may not have the 
book at hand to refer to we do not 
apprehend that any apology is necessary 
for availing ourselves of the following 
passage from the well-known pages of 
Guy Manner ing. 

" It is well known," says the author, 
" that the gypsies were, at an early 
period, acknowledged as a separate and 
independent race by one of the Scot- 
tish monarchs; and that they were less 
favourably distinguished by a subse- 

* Hume on Critn. Law, vol. ii. p. 339. 
f Regist. Secret! Condlii, Nov. 10. 1636. 

quent law which rendered the charac- 
ter of gypsey equal, in the judicial 
balance, to that of common and habitu- 
al thief, and prescribed his punishment 
accordingly. Notwithstanding the se- 
verity of this and other statutes, the 
fraternity prospered amid the distresses 
of the country, and received large ac- 
cessions from among those whom fa- 
mine, oppression, or the sword of war, 
had deprived of the ordinary means of 
subsistence. They lost, in a great 
measure, by this intermixture, the na- 
tional character of Egyptians, and be- 
came a mingled race, having all the 
idleness and predatory habits of their 
eastern ancestors, with a ferocity which 
they probably borrowed from the men 
of the north who joined their society. 
They travelled in different bands, and 
had rules among themselves, by which 
each tribe was confined to its own 
district. The slightest invasion of the 
precincts which had been assigned to 
another tribe, produced desperate skir- 
mishes, in which there was often 
much bloodshed. 

" The patriotic Fletcher of Saltoun 
drew a picture of these banditti about 
a century ago, which my readers will 
peruse with astonishment. 

' There are, at this day, in Scot- 
land (besides a great many poor fa- 
milies, very meanly provided for by 
the church boxes, with others who, by 
living upon bad food, fall into various 
diseases) two hundred thousand people 
begging from door to door. These are 
not only no way advantageous, but a 
very grievous burden to so poor a 
country. And though the number of 
them be perhaps double to what it 
was formerly, by reason of this pre- 
sent great distress, yet in all times 
there have been about one hundred 
thousand of these vagabonds, who 
have lived without any regard or sub- 
jection either to the laws of the land, 
or even those of God and nature ; 

could ever discover, or be informed, 
which way one in a hundred of these 
wretches died, or that ever they were 
baptized. Many murders have been 
discovered among them ; and they are 
not only a most unspeakable oppression 
to poor tenants (who, if they give not 
bread, or some kind of provision, to 
perhaps forty such villains in one day, 
are sure to be insulted by them), but 
they rob many poor people who live 
in houses distant from any neighbour- 

hood. In years of plenty, many thou- 
sands of them meet together in the 
mountains, where they feast and riot 
for many days ; and at country wed- 
dings, markets, burials, and other the 
like public occasions, they are to be 
seen, both man and woman, perpetual- 
ly drunk, cursing, blaspheming, and 
fighting together. 

" Notwithstanding the deplorable 
picture presented in this extract, and 
which Fletcher himself, though the 
energetic and eloquent friend of free- 
dom, saw no better mode of correcting 
than by introducing a system of do- 
mestic slavery, the progress of time, 
and increase both of the means of life 
and of the power of the laws, gradually 
reduced this dreadful evil within more 
narrow bounds. The tribes of gypsies, 
jockies, or cairds, for by all these 
denominations such banditti were 
known, became few in number, and 
many were entirely rooted out- Still, 
however, enough remained to give oc- 
casional alarm and constant vexation. 
Some rude handicrafts were entirely 
resigned to these itinerants, particu- 
larly the art of trencher-making, of 
manufacturing horn-spoons, and the 
whole mystery of the tinker. To these 
they added a petty trade in the coarser 
sorts of earthen-ware. Such were their 
ostensible means of livelihood. Each 
tribe had usually some fixed place of 
rendezvous, which they occasionally 
occupied and considered as their stand- 
ing camp, and in the vicinity of which 
they generally abstained from depre- 
dation. They had even talents and 
accomplishments, which made them 
occasionally useful and entertaining. 
Many cultivated music with success ; 
and the favourite fiddler or piper of a 
district was often to be found in a 
gypsey town. They understood all 
out-of-door sports, especially otter- 
hunting, fishing, or finding game. In 
winter, the women told fortunes, the 
men showed tricks of legerdemain ; 
and these accomplishments often help- 
ed away a weary or a stormy evening in 
the circle of the " farmer's ha'." The 
wildness of their character, and the 
indomitable pride with which they 
despised all regular labour, command- 
ed a certain awe, which was not dimi- 
nished by the consideration, that these 
strollers were a vindictive race, and 
were restrained by no check, either of 
fear or conscience, from taking despe- 
rate vengeance upon those who had 
VOL. I. 

Scottish Gypsies. 49 

offended them. These tribes were in 
short the Parias of Scotland, living 
like wild Indians among European 
settlers, and, like them, judged of 
rather by their own customs, habits, 
and opinions, than as if they had been 
members of the civilized part of the 
community. Some hordes of them 
yet remain, chiefly in such situations 
as afford a ready escape either into a 
waste country, or into another juris- 
diction. Nor are the features of their 
character much softened. Their num- 
bers, however, are so greatly dimi- 
nished, that, instead of one hundred 
thousand, as calculated by Fletcher, 
it would now perhaps be impossible to 
collect above five hundred throughout 
all Scotland." 

Having, in the preceding pages, en- 
deavoured to give our readers a general 
outline of what may be termed the 
public annals of our Scottish Gypsies, 
we now proceed to detail some of those 
more private and personal anecdotes, 
concerning them, with which we have 
been furnished chiefly from local tradi- 
tions, or the observation of intelli- 
gent individuals. These we shall re- 
late without much regard to arrange- 
ment, and, for the present, without 
any further remarks of our own than 
may be requisite merely for connect- 
ing or explaining them. It may be 
proper generally to mention, that 
though we deem it unnecessary to 
quote our authorities by name in every 
particular case, or for every little a- 
necdote, yet we can very confidently 
pledge ourselves, in every instance, 
for the personal credibility of our in- 

The intrigue of the celebrated 
Johnnie Faa with the Earl of Cassilis' 
lady, rests on ballad and popular au- 
thority. Tradition points out an old 
tower in Maybole, as the place where 
the frail countess was confined. The 
portrait shown as hers in the Abbey of 
Holyroodhouse, however, is not ge- 
nuine. Of this affair of gypsey gal- 
lantry, Mr Finlay, in his notes to the 
old ballad of the Gypsie Laddie, gives 
the following account, as the result of 
his inquiries regarding the truth of 
the traditionary stories on the subject : 
" The Earl of Cassilis had married 
a nobleman's daughter contrary to her 
wishes, she having been previously 
engaged to another ; but the persua- 
sion and importunity of her friends 
at last brought her to consent. Sir 


Scottish Gypizes. 

John Faw of Dunbar, her former lov- 
er, seizing the opportunity of the earl's 
absence on a foreign embassy, disguis- 
ed himself and a number of his retain- 
ers as gypsies, and carried off the lady, 
' nothing loth.' The earl having re- 
turned opportunely at the time of the 
commission of the act, and nowise in- 
clined to participate in his consort's 
ideas on the subject, collected his vas- 
sals, and pursued the lady and her par- 
amour to the borders of England ; 
where, having overtaken them, a bat- 
tle ensued, in which Faw and his 
followers were all killed, or taken 
prisoners, excepting one, 

- the meanest of them all, 
Who lives to weep, and sing their fall. 

It is by this survivor that the ballad 
is supposed to have been written. 
The earl, on bringing back the fair 
fugitive, banished her a mensa et thoro, 
and, it is said, confined her for life in 
a tower at the village of Maybole, in 
Ayrshire, built for the purpose ; and 
that nothing might remain about this 
tower unappropriated to its original 
destination, eight heads carved in 
stone, below one of the turrets, are 
said to be the effigies of so many of 
the gypsies. The lady herself, as well 
as the survivor of Faw's followers, 
contributed to perpetuate the remem- 
brance of the transaction ; for if he 
wrote a song about it, she wrought it 
in tapestry ; and this piece of work- 
manship is still preserved at Culzean 
Castle. It remains to be mentioned, 
that the ford, by which the lady and 
her lover crossed the river Doon from 
a wood near Cassilis House, is still de- 
nominated the Gypsie steps."* 

Mr Finlay is of opinion that there 
are no good grounds for identifying 
the hero of this adventure with John- 
nie Faa, who was king or captain of 
the gypsies about the year 1590, and 
he supposes that the whole story may 
have been the invention of some feud- 
al or political rival, to injure the char- 
acter, and hurt the feelings of an op- 
ponent. As Mr F. however, has not 
brought forward any authority to sup- 
port this opinion, we are inclined still to 
adhere to the popular tradition, which, 
on the present occasion, is very uniform 
and consistent. We do not know 
any thing about the Sir John Faw of 
Dunbar, whom he supposes to have 

* Finlay's Scottish Ballads, vol. i . p. 39. 

been the disguised knight, but we 
know for certain, that the present 
gypsey family of Faa in Yetholm have 
been long accustomed to boast of their 
descent from the same stock with a very 
respectable family of the name of Faw, 
or Fall, in East Lothian, which we 
believe is now extinct. 

The transformation of Johnnie Faa 
into a knight and gentleman, is not the 
only occasion on which the disguise of 
a gypsey is supposed to have been as- 
sumed for the purpose of intrigue. 
The old song of ' Clout the Caudron is 
founded upon such a metamorphosis, 
as may be seen from the words in 
Alkn Ramsay's Tea-table Miscellany ; 
but an older copy preserves the name 
of the disguised lover : 

" Yestreen I was a gentleman, 

This night I am a tinkler ; 

Gae tell the lady o' this house, 

Come down to Sir John Sinclair." 

Notwithstanding the severe laws fro 
quently enacted by the Scottish legis- 
lature against this vagrant race, and, 
as we have seen, often rigorously en- 
forced, they still continued grievously 
to molest the country about the end of 
the seventeenth and beginning of the 
eighteenth century. They traversed 
the whole mountainous districts of 
the south, particularly Roxburghshire, 
Selkirkshire, and Tweeddale,and com- 
mitted great and daring depredations. 
A gang of them once broke into the 
House of Pennycuick, while the greater 
part of the family were at church. Sir 
John Clerke, the proprietor, barri- 
cadoed himself in his own apartment, 
where he sustained a sort of siege 
firing from the windows upon the 
robbers, who fired in return. By 
an odd accident, one of them, while 
they strayed through the house in 
quest of plate and other portable ar- 
ticles, began to ascend the stair of a 
very narrow turret. When he had 
got to some height, his foot slipt ; and 
to save himself, in falling, the gyp- 
sey caught hold of what was rather an 
ominous means of assistance a rope, 
namely, which hung conveniently for 
the purpose. It proved to be the bell- 
rope, and the fellow's weight, in fall- 
ing, set the alarm-bell a-ringing, and 
startled the congregation who were as- 
sembled in the parish church. They 
instantly came to rescue the laird, and 
succeeded, it is said, in apprehending 
some of the gypsies, who were execut- 
ed. There is a written account of 


Scottish Gypsies. 

this daring assault kept in the records 
of the family. 

Tweeddale was very much infested 
by these banditti, as appears from Dr 
Pennycuick's history of that county, 
who mentions the numerous execu- 
tions to which their depredations gave 
occasion. He also gives the following 
account of a bloody skirmish which 
was fought between two clans of gyp- 
sies near his own house of Romanno. 
" Upon the 1st of October 1677, there 
happened at Romanno, in the very spot 
where now the dovecoat is built, a 
memorable polymachy betwixt two 
claims of gipsies, the Fawes and 
Sliawes, who had come from Hadding- 
toun fair, and were going to Harestains 
to meet with two other clanns of those 
rogues, the Baillies and Browns, with 
a resolution to fight them ; they fell 
out at Romanno amongst themselves, 
about divideing the spoyl they had got 
at Haddingtoun, and fought it man- 
fully ; of the Fawes were four brethren 
and a brother's son ; of the Shawes, 
the father with three sons, with seve- 
ral women on both sides : Old Sandie 
Faw, a bold and proper fellow, with 
his wife, then with child, were both 
kill'd dead upon the place, and his 
brother George very dangerously 
wounded. February 1678, old Robin 
Shaw the gipsie, with his three sons, 
were hang'd at the Grass-mercat for 
the above-mentioned murder commit- 
ted at Romanno, and John Faw was 
hang'd the Wednesday following for 
another murder. Sir Archibald Prim- 
rose was justice-general at the time, 
and Sir George M'Kenzie king's ad- 
vocat."* Dr Pennycuick built a dove- 
cote upon the spot where this affray 
took place, which he adorned with the 
following inscription : 

" A. D. 1683. 

The field of Gipsie blood which here you see, 
A shelter for the harmless Dove shall be." 

Such skirmishes among the gypsies 
are still common, and were former- 
ly still more so. There was a story 
current in Teviotdale, but we can- 
not give place and date, that a gang 
of them came to a solitary farm- 
house, and, as is usual, took possession 
of some waste out- house. The family 
went to church on Sunday, and ex- 
pecting no harm from their visitors, 

* Pennycuick's Description of Tweed- 
dale, Edit. Edin. J.715, p. H. 

left only one female to look after the 
house. She was presently alarmed by 
the noise of shouts, oaths, blows, and 
all the tumult of a gypsey battle. It 
seems another clan had arrived, and 
the earlier settlers instantly gave them 
battle. The poor woman shut the 
door, and remained in the house in 
great apprehension, until the door be- 
ing suddenly forced open, one of the 
combatants rushed into the apartment, 
and she perceived with horror that his 
left hand had been struck off. With- 
out speaking to or looking at her, he 
thrust the bloody stump, with desper- 
ate resolution, against the glowing bars 
of the grate ; and having staunched 
the blood by actual cautery, seized a 
knife, used for killing sheep, which 
lay on the shelf, and rushed out again 
to join the combat. All was over be- 
fore the family returned from church, 
and both gangs had decamped, carry- 
ing probably their dead and wounded 
along with them : for the place where 
they fought was absolutely soaked with 
blood, and exhibited, among other re- 
liques of the fray, the amputated hand 
of the wretch wnose desperate conduct 
the maid-servant had witnessed. 

The village of Denholm upon Te- 
viot was, in former times, partly occu- 
pied by gypsies. The late Dr John 
Leyden, who was a native of that par- 
ish, used to mention a skirmish which 
he had witnessed there between two 
clans, where the more desperate cham- 
pions fought with clubs, having har- 
row teeth driven transversely through 
the end of them. 

About ten years ago, one John 
Young, a tinker chief, punished with 
instant death a brother tinker of infe- 
rior consequence who intruded on his 
walk. This happened inAberdeenshire, 
and was remarked at the time chiefly 
from the strength and agility with 
which Young, constantly and closely 
pursued, and frequently in view, main- 
tained a flight of nearly thirty miles. 
As he was chased by the Highlanders 
on foot, and by the late General Gordon 
of Cairnfield and others on horseback, 
the affair much resembled a fox chase. 
The pursuers were most of them game- 
keepers ; and that active race of men 
were so much exhausted, that they 
were lying by the springs lapping wa- 
ter with their tongues like dogs. It 
is scarce necessary to add, that the 
laws of the country were executed on 
Young without regard to the consid- 

Scottish Gypsies. 


eration that he was only enforcing the 
gypsey subordination. 

The crimes that were committed 
among this hapless race were often 
atrocious. Incest and murder were 
frequent among them. In our recol- 
lection, an individual was tried for a 
theft of considerable magnitude, and 
acquitted, owing to the absence of one 
witness, a girl belonging to the gang, 
who had spoken freely out at the pre- 
cognition. This young woman was 
afterwards found in a well near Corn- 
hill, with her head downwards, and 
there was little doubt that she had 
been murdered by her companions. 

We extract the following anecdotes 
from an interesting communication on 
this subject, with which we have been 
favoured by Mr Hogg, author of ' The 
Queen's Wake.' " It was in the 
month of May that a gang of gypsies 
came up Ettrick ; one party of them 
lodged at a farm-house called Scob- 
Cleugh, and the rest went forward to 
Cossarhill, another farm about a mile 
farther on. Among the latter was one 
who played on the pipes and violin, 
delighting all that heard him ;. and the 
gang, principally on his account, were 
very civilly treated. Next day the 
two parties again joined, and proceed- 
ed westward in a body. There were 
about thirty souls in all, and they had 
five horses. On a sloping grassy spot, 
which I know very well, on the farm 
of Brockhoprig, they halted to rest. 
Here the hapless musician quarrelled 
with another of the tribe, about a girl, 
who, I think, was sister to the latter. 
Weapons were instantly drawn, and 
the piper losing courage, or knowing 
that he was not a match for his anta- 
gonist, fled, the other pursuing close 
at his heels. For a full mile and a half 
they continued to strain most violent- 
ly, the one running for life, and the 
other thirsting for blood, until they 
came again to Cossarhill, the place they 
had left. The family were all gone 
out, either to the sheep or the peats, 
save one servant girl, who was baking 
bread at the kitchen table, when the 
piper rushed breathless into the house. 
She screamed, and asked what was the 
matter ? He answered, " Nae skaith 
to you nae skaith to you for God in 
heaven's sake hide me !" With that 
he essayed to hide himself behind a 
salt barrel that stood in a corner but 
his ruthless pursuer instantly entering, 
his panting betrayed him. The ruf- 

fian pulled him out by the hair, drag- 
ged him into the middle of the floor, 
and ran him through the body with 
his dirk. The piper never asked for 
mercy, but cursed the other as long 
as he had breath. The girl was struck 
motionless with horror, but the mur- 
derer told her never to heed or regard 
it, for no ill should happen to her. It 
was this woman's daughter, Isabel 
Scott, who told me the story, which 
she had often heard related with all 
the minute particulars. If she had 
been still alive, I think she would have 
been bordering upon ninety years of 
age ; her mother, when this happen- 
ed, was a young unmarried woman 
fit, it seems, to be a kitchen-maid in a 
farm-house, so that this must have 
taken place about 100 years ago. By 
the time the breath was well out of 
the unfortunate musician, some more 
of the gang arrived, bringing with 
them a horse, on which they carried 
back the body, and buried it on the 
spot where they first quarrelled. His 
grave is marked by one stone at the 
head, and another at the foot, which 
the gypsies themselves placed ; and it 
is still looked upon by the rustics, as a 
dangerous place for a walking ghost to 
this day. There was no cognizance 
taken of the affair, that any of the old 
people ever heard of but God forbid 
that every amorous minstrel should be 
so sharply taken to task in these days ! 

" There is a similar story, of later 
date, of a murder committed at Low- 
rie's-den, on Soutra Hill, by one gyp- 
sey on another : but I do not remem- 
ber the particulars farther, than that 
it was before many witnesses ; that 
they fought for a considerable time 
most furiously with their fists, till at 
last one getting the other down, drew 
a knife, and stabbed him to the heart 
when he pulled the weapon out, the 
blood sprung to the ceiling, where it 
remained as long as that house stood ; 
and that though there were many of 
the gang present, none of them offered 
to separate the combatants, or made 
any observation on the issue, farther 
than one saying " Gude faith, ye 
hae done for him now, Rob !" The 
story bears, that the assassin fled, but 
was pursued by some travellers who 
came up at the time, and after a hot 
chace, was taken, and afterwards hang- 

The travellers here mentioned, we 
happen to know, were the lute Mr 


Scottish Gypsies. 

Walter Scott, writer to the signet, then 
a very young man, and Mr Fairbairn, 
long afterwards innkeeper at Black- 
shiels, who chanced to pass about the 
time this murder was committed, and 
being shocked at the indifference with 
which the bystanders seemed to re- 
gard what had passed, pursued, and 
with the assistance of a neighbouring 
blacksmith, who joined in the chase, 
succeeded in apprehending the mur- 
derer, whose name, it is believed, was 
Robert Keith. The blacksmith judged 
it prudent, however, to emigrate soon 
after to another part of the country, 
in order to escape the threatened ven- 
geance of the murderer's clan. 

" In my parents' early years," con- 
tinues Mr Hogg, " the Faas and the 
Bailleys used to traverse the country 
in bodies of from twenty to thirty in 
number, among whom were many 
stout, handsome, and athletic men. 
They generally cleared the waters and 
burns of fish, the farmers' out-houses 
of poultry and eggs, and the lums of all 
superfluous and moveable stuff, such 
as hams, &c. that hung there for 
the purpose of reisting. It was like- 
wise well known, that they never 
scrupled killing a lamb or a wether 
occasionally ; but they always man- 
aged matters so dexterously, that no 
one could ever ascertain from whom 
these were taken. The gypsies were 
otherwise civil, full of Immour and 
merriment, and the country people 
did not dislike them. They fought 
desperately with one another, but were 
seldom the aggressors in any dispute 
or quarrel with others. Old Will of 
Phaup, a well-known character at the 
head of Ettrick, was wont to shelter 
them for many years; they asked no- 
thing but house-room and grass for 
their horses ; and though they some- 
times remained for several days, he 
could have left every chest and press 
about the house open, with the cer- 
tainty that nothing would be missing; 
for he said, ' he aye ken'd fu' weel that 
the tod wad keep his ain hole clean.' 
But times altered sadly with honest 
Will which happened as follows : 
The gypsies (or tinklers, as they then 
began to be called) were lodged at a 
place called Potburn, and the farmer 
either having bad grass about his 
house, or not choosing to have it eaten 
up, had made the gypsies turn their 
horses over the water to Phaup ground. 
One morning about break of day, Will 
found the stoutest man of the gang, 

Ellick Kennedy, feeding six horses on 
the Coomb-loan, the best piece of grass 
on the farm, and which he was care- 
fully haining for winter fodder. A 
desperate combat ensued but there 
was no man a match for Will he 
threshed the tinkler to his heart's con- 
tent, cut the girthing and sunks off 
the horses, and hunted them out of 
the country. A warfare of five years 
duration ensued between Will and the 
gypsies. They nearly ruined him ; and 
at the end of that period he was glad to 
make up matters with his old friends, 
and shelter them as formerly. He 
said, ( He could maistly hae hauden his 
ain wi' them, an' it hadna been for 
their warlochry, but the deil-be-licket 
he could keep fra their kenning they 
ance fand out his purse, though he 
had gart Meg dibble't into the kail- 
yaird.' Lochmaben is now one of 
their great resorts being nearly stock- 
ed with them. The redoubted Rachel 
Bailley, noted for her high honour, is 
viewed as the queen of the tribe." 

A woman of the name of Rachel Bail- 
ley, (but not the same person, we be- 
lieve, that our correspondent alludes to) 
a few years ago, in Selkirkshire, afford- 
ed a remarkable evidence of the force 
of her gypsey habits and propensities. 
This woman, having been guilty of re- 
peated acts of theft, was condemned 
by Mr W. Scott, sheriff of that coun- 
ty, to imprisonment in the bridewell 
there, on hard labour, for six months. 
She became so excessively wearied of 
the confinement, to which she had not 
been accustomed, and so impatient of 
the labour of spinning, although she 
span well, that she attempted suicide, 
by opening her veins with the point of 
a pair of scissors. In compassion for 
her state of mind, she was set at liber- 
ty by the magistrate ; but she had not 
travelled farther than Yair Bridge-end, 
being about four miles from Selkirk, 
when she thought proper to steal a 
watch from a cottage, and being taken 
with it in her possession, was restored 
to her place of confinement just about 
four hours after she had been dis- 
missed from it. She was afterwards 
banished the county. 

The unabashed hardihood of the gyp- 
sies in the face of suspicion, or even of 
open conviction, is not less character- 
istic than the facility with which they 
commit crimes, or then: address in con- 
cealing them. A gypsey of note, still 
alive (an acquaintance of ours), was, 
about twenty years ago, tried for a 

54 Scottish Gypsies. 

theft of a considerable sum of money at 
a Dalkeith market. The proof seemed 
to the judge fully sufficient, but the ju- 
ry being of a different opinion, brought 
in the verdict Not Proven ; on which 
occasion, the presiding judge, when he 
dismissed the prisoner from the bar, 
informed him, in his own characteristic 
language, " That he had rubbit shouth- 
ers wi' the gallows that morning;" and 
warned him not again to appear there 
with a similar body of proof against 
him, as it seemed scarce possible he 
should meet with another jury who 
would construe it as favourably. Upon 
the same occasion, the prisoner's coun- 
sel, a gentleman now deceased, thought 
it proper also to say something to his 
client on the risk he had run, and the 
necessity of future propriety of con- 
duct ; to which the gypsey replied, to 
the great entertainment of all around, 
" That he was proven an innocent man, 
and that naebody had ony right to use 
siccan language to him." 

We have much satisfaction in being 
enabled to relate the following char- 
acteristic anecdotes, in the words of 
another correspondent of the highest 
respectability : 

" A gang, of the name of Winters, 
long inhabited the wastes of Northum- 
berland, and committed many crimes ; 
among others, a murder upon a poor 
woman, with singular atrocity, for 
which one of them was hung in chains, 
near Tone-pitt, in Reedsdale. His 
mortal reliques having decayed, the 
lord of the manor has replaced them 
by a wooden effigy, and still maintains 
the gibbet. The remnant of this gang 
came to Scotland about fifteen years 
ago, and assumed the Roxburghshire 
name of Winterip, as they found their 
own something odious. They settled 
at a cottage within about four miles of 
Earlston, and became great plagues to 
the country, until they were secured, 
after a tight battle, tried before the 
circuit court at Jedburgh, and ba- 
nished back to their native country of 
England. The dalesmen of Reed- 
water shewed great reluctance to re- 
ceive these returned emigrants. After 
the Sunday service at a little chapel 
near Otterbourne, one of the squires 
rose, and, addressing the congregation, 
told them they would be accounted no 
longer Reedsdale men, but Reedsdale 
women, if they permitted this marked 
and atrocious family to enter their dis- 
trict. The people answered, that they 
would not permit them to come that 


way ; and the proscribed family, hear- 
ing of the unanimous resolution to op- 
pose their passage, went more souther- 
ly by the heads of Tyne, and I never 
heard more of them, but have little 
doubt they are all hanged. 

" Will Allan, mentioned by the 
Reedwater Minstrel,* I did not know, 
but was well acquainted with his son, 
Jamie, a most excellent piper, and at 
one time in the household of the 
Northumberland family ; but being 
an utterly unprincipled vagabond, he 
wearied the benevolence of all his pro- 
tectors, who were numerous and power- 
ful, and saved him from the gallows 
more than once. Upon one occasion, 
being closely pursued, when surprised 
in some villany, he dropped from the 
top of a very high wall, not without 
receiving a severe cut upon the fingers 
with a hanger from one of his pursu- 
ers, who came up at the moment he 
hung suspended for descent. Allan 
exclaimed, with minstrel pride, ' Ye 
hae spoiled the best pipe hand in Bri- 
tain.' Latterly, he became an abso- 
lute mendicant, and I saw him refu- 
sed quarters at the house of my uncle, 
Mr at (himself a most ex- 
cellent Border piper.) I begged hard 
to have him let in, but my uncle was 
inexorable, alleging his depredations 
on former occasions. He died, I be- 
lieve, in jail, at Morpeth. 

" My father remembered old Jean 
Gordon of Yetholm, who had great 
sway among her tribe. She was quite 
a Meg Merrilies, and possessed the 
savage virtue of fidelity in the same 
perfection. Having been often hospi- 
tably received at the farm-house of 

* " A stalwart Tinkler wight was he, 
An' weel could mend a pot or pan, 
An' deftly Wull could throw a flee, 
An' neatly weave the willow wan' ; 

" AH' sweetly wild were Allan's strains, 
An' mony a jig an' reel he blew, 
Wi' merry lUts he charm'd the swains, 
Wi' barbed spear the otter slew," &c. 

Lay of the Reedwater Minstrel. 
Newcastle, 1809. 

In a note upon a preceding passage of the 
same poem, the author (whose name was 
George Rokesby) says 

" Here was the rendezvous of the va- 
grant train of Faat , tinklers, Sfc. The ce- 
lebrated Wull Allan frequently sojourned 
here, in the progress of his fishing and ot- 
ter-hunting expeditions ; and here often re- 
sounded the drones of his no less celebrated 
son, Jamie Allan, the Northumberland 


Scottish Gypsies. 

Lochside, near Yetholm, she had care- 
fully abstained from committing any 
depredations on the farmer's property. 
But her sons (nine in number) had 
not, it seems, the same delicacy, and 
stole a brood-sow from their kind en- 
tertainer. Jean was so much morti- 
fied at this ungrateful conduct, and so 
much ashamed at it, that she absented 
herself from Lochside for several years. 
At length, in consequence of some 
temporary pecuniary necessity, the 
Goodman of Lochside was obliged to 
go to Newcastle to get some money to 
pay his rent. Returning through the 
mountains of Cheviot, he was benight- 
ed, and lost his way. A light, glim- 
mering through the window of a large 
waste barn, which had survived the 
farm-house to which it had once be- 
longed, guided him to a place of shel- 
ter ; and when he knocked at the door, 
it was opened by Jean Gordon. Her 
very remarkable figure, for she was 
nearly six feet high, and her equally 
remarkable features and dress, render- 
ed it impossible to mistake her for a 
moment; and to meet with such a 
character in so solitary a place, and 
probably at no great distance from her 
clan, was a terrible surprise to the 
poor man, whose rent (to lose which 
would have been ruin to him) was 
about his person. Jean set up a loud 
shout of joyful recognition ' Eh, 
sirs ! the winsome gudeman of Loch- 
side ! Light down, light down ; for 
ye manna gang farther the night, and 
a friend's house sae near.' The farm- 
er was obliged to dismount, and ac- 
cept of the gypsey's offer of supper and 
a bed. There was plenty of meat in 
the barn, however it might be come 
by, and preparations were going on for 
a plentiful supper, which the farmer, 
to the great increase of his anxiety, 
observed, was calculated for ten or 
twelve guests, of the same description 
no doubt with his landlady. Jean left 
him in no doubt on the subject. She 
brought up the story of the stolen 
sow, and noticed how much pain and 
vexation it had given her. Like other 
philosophers, she remarked that the 
world grows worse daily ; and, like 
other parents, that the bairns got out 
of her guiding, and neglected the old 
gypsey regulations, which command- 
ed them to respect, in their depreda- 
tions, the property of their benefactors. 
The end of all this was, an inquiry 
what money the farmer had about him, 

and an urgent request, that he would 
make her his purse-keeper, as the 
bairns, so she called her sons, would 
be soon home. The poor farmer made 
a virtue of necessity, told his story, 
and surrendered his gold into Jane's 
custody. She made him put a few 
shillings in his pocket, observing it 
would excite suspicion should he be 
found travelling altogether pennyless. 
This arrangement being made, the 
farmer lay down on a sort of shake- 
down, as the Scotch call it, upon some 
straw, but, as will easily be believed, 
slept not. About midnight the gang 
returned with various articles of plun- 
der, and talked over their exploits in 
language which made the farmer trem- 
ble. They were not long in discover- 
ing their guest, and demanded of Jane 
whom she had got there ? " E'en the 
winsome gudeman of Lochside, poor 
body," replied Jane : " he's been at 
Newcastle seeking for siller to pay his 
rent, honest man, but deil-be-licket 
he's been able to gather in, and sae he's 
gaun e'en hame wi' a toom purse and 
a sair heart." " That may be, Jane," 
replied one of the banditti ; " but we 
maun ripe his pouches a bit, and see 
if it be true or no." Jean set up her 
throat in exclamations against this 
breach of hospitality, but without pro- 
ducing any change of their determi- 
nation. The farmer soon heard their 
stifled whispers and light steps by his 
bedside, and understood they were 
rummaging his clothes. When they 
found the money which the providence 
of Jean Gordon had made him retain, 
they held a consultation if they should 
take it or no, but the smallness of the 
booty, and the vehemence of Jean's 
remonstrances, determined them in the 
negative. They caroused and went 
to rest. So soon as day dawned, Jean 
roused her guest, produced his horse, 
which she had accommodated behind 
the kalian, and guided him for some 
miles till he was on the high road to 
Lochside. She then restored his whole 
property, nor could his earnest in- 
treaties prevail on her to accept so 
much as a single guinea. 

" I have heard the old people at Jed- 
burgh say, that all Jean's son's were 
condemned to die there on the same 
day. It is said the jury were equally 
divided ; but that a friend to justice, 
who had slept during the whole dis- 
cussion, waked suddenly, and gave his 
vote for condemnation, in theemphat- 

Scottish Gypsies. 


ic words, " Hang them a" Jean was 
present, and only said, " The Lord 
help the innocent in a day like this !" 
Her own death was accompanied with 
circumstances of brutal outrage, of 
which poor Jean was in many respects 
wholly undeserving. Jean had among 
other demerits, or -merits, as you may 
choose to rank it, that of being a staunch 
Jacobite. She chanced to be at Car- 
lisle upon a fair or market day, soon 
after the year 1746, where she gave 
vent to her political partiality, to the 
great offence of the rabble of that city. 
Being zealous in their loyalty when 
there was no danger, in proportion to 
the lameness with which they had sur- 
rendered to the Highlanders in 1745, 
they inflicted upon poor Jean Gordon 
no slighter penalty than that of duck- 
ing her to death in the Eden. It was 
an operation of some time, for Jean 
was a stout woman, and, struggling 
with her murderers, often got her head 
above water ; and while she had voice 
left, continued to exclaim at such in- 
tervals, " Charlie yet ! Charlie yet !" 
When a child, and among the scenes 
which she frequented, I have often 
heard these stories, and cried piteously 
for poor Jean Gordon. 

" Before quitting the border gypsies, 
I may mention, that my grandfather 
riding over Charterhouse-moor, then a 
very extensive common, fell suddenly 
among a large band of them, who were 
carousing in a hollow of the moor, 
surrounded by bushes. They instant- 
ly seized on his horse's bridle, with 
many shouts of welcome, exclaiming 
(for he was well known to most of 
them) that they had often dined at his 
expense, and he must now stay and 
share their good cheer. My ancestor 
was a little alarmed, for, like the gude- 
man of Lochside, he had more money 
about his person than he cared to ven- 
ture with into such society. However, 
being naturally a bold lively man, he 
entered into the humour of the thing, 
and sate down to the feast, which con- 
sisted of all the varieties of game, 
poultry, pigs, and so forth, that could 
be collected by a wide and indiscrimi- 
nate system of plunder. The feast 
was a very merry one, but my relative 
got a hint from some of the older gyp- 
sies to retire just when 
' The mirth and fun grew fast and furious,' 
and mounting his horse accordingly, 
he took a French leave of his enter- 
tainers, but without experiencing the 
?east breach of hospitality. I believe 

Jean Gordon was at this festival. 
To the admirers of good eating, gyp- 
sey cookery seems to have little to re- 
commend it. I can assure you, how- 
ever, that the cook of a nobleman of 
high distinction, a person who never 
reads even a novel without an eye to 
the enlargement of the culinary science, 
has added to the Almanach des Gour- 
mands, a certain Potage a la Meg 
Merrills de Derncleugh, consisting of 
game and poultry of all kinds, stewed 
with vegetables into a soup, which 
rivals in savour and richness the gal- 
lant messes of Comacho's wedding ; 
and which the Baron of Bradwardine 
would certainly have reckoned among 
the Epulw lautiorcs. 

" The principal settlements of the 
gypsies, in my time, have been the two 
villages of Easter and Wester Gordon, 
and what is called Kirk-Yetholm. 

Making good the proverb odd, 
Near the church and far from God. 

A list of their surnames would be very 
desirable. The following are among 
the principal clans : Faas, Bailleys, 
Gordons, Shaws, Browns, Keiths, 
Kennedies, Ruthvens, Youngs, Taits, 
Douglasses, Blythes, Allans, Mont- 

Many of the preceding stories were 
familiar to us in our schoolboy days, 
and we well remember the peculiar 
feelings of curiosity and apprehension 
with which we sometimes encountered 
the formidable bands of this roaming 
people, in our rambles among the Bor- 
der hills, or when fishing for perch in 
the picturesque little lake at Lochside. 
The late Madge Gordon was at that time 
accounted the queen of the Yetholm 
clans. She was, we believe, a grand- 
daughter of the celebrated Jean Gor- 
don, and was said to have much re- 
sembled her in appearance. The fol- 
lowing account of her is extracted 
from the letter of a friend, who for 
many years enjoyed frequent and fa- 
vourable opportunities of observing 
the characteristic peculiarities of the 
Yetholm tribes. "Madge Gordon 
was descended from the Faas by the 
mother's side, and was married to a 
Young. She was rather a remarkable 
personage of a very commanding pre- 
sence and high stature, being nearly 
six feet high. She had a large aquiline 
nose penetrating eyes, even in her 
old age bushy hair that hung around 
her shoulders from beneath a gypsey 
bonnet of straw a short cloak of a 

peculiar fashion, and a long staff near- 
ly as tall as herself. I remember her 
well ; every week she paid my father 
a visit for her almous, when I was a 
little boy, and I looked upon Madge 
with no common degree of awe and 
terror. When she spoke vehemently 
(for she had many complaints) she used 
to strike her staff upon the floor, and 
throw herself into an attitude which 
it was impossible to regard with indif- 
ference. She used to say that she 
could bring from the remotest parts of 
the island, friends to revenge her quar- 
rel, while she sat motionless in her 
cottage ; and she frequently boasted 
that there was a time when she was 
of considerable importance, for there 
were at her wedding fifty saddled 
asses, and unsaddled asses without 
number. If Jean Gordon was the 
prototype of the character of Meg 
Merrilies, I imagine Madge must have 
sat to the unknown author as the re- 
presentative of her person. 

" I have ever understood," says the 
same correspondent, speaking of the 
Yetholm gypsies, " that they are ex- 
tremely superstitious carefully notic- 
ing the formation of the clouds, the 
flight of particular birds, and the 
soughing of the winds, before attempt- 
ing any enterprise. They have been 
known for several successive days to 
turn back with their loaded carts, 
asses, and children, upon meeting with 
persons whom they considered of un- 
lucky aspect ; nor do they ever pro- 
ceed upon their summer peregrinations 
without some propitious omen of their 
fortunate return. They also burn the 
clothes of their dead, not so much 
from any apprehension of infection 
being communicated by them, as the 
conviction that the very circumstance 
of wearing them would shorten the 
days of the living. They likewise 
carefully watch the corpse by night 
and day till the time of interment, 
and conceive that ' the deil tinkles 
at the lykewake' of those who felt in 
their dead thraw the agonies and ter- 
rors of remorse. I am rather uncer- 
tain about the nature of their separate 
language. They certainly do frequent- 
ly converse in such a way as complete- 
ly to conceal their meaning from other 
people ; but it seems doubtful whe- 
ther the jargon they use, on such oc- 
casions, be not a mere slang invented 
for very obvious purposes. I recollect 
of having heard them conversing in 
Voi. I. 

Scottish Gypsies. 67 

this manner and whether it was an 
imaginary resemblance I know not 
but the first time I listened to Hin- 
dhustanee spoken fluently, it reminded 
me of the colloquies of the Yetholm 

On the subject of the gypsey lan- 
guage, our readers will remark a curi- 
ous coincidence between the observa- 
tion just quoted, and the first of the 
following anecdotes, which we are en- 
abled to state upon the authority and 
in the words of Mr Walter Scott a 
gentleman to whose distinguished as- 
sistance and advice we have been on 
the present occasion very peculiarly 
indebted, and who has not only fur- 
nished us with many interesting par- 
ticulars himself, but has also oblig- 
ingly directed us to other sources of 
curious information : 

" Whether the Yetholm gypsies 
have a separate language or not, I im- 
agine might be ascertained, though 
those vagrants always reckon this a- 
mong their arcana majora, A lady 
who had been in India addressed some 
gypsies in the Hindhustanee language, 
from the received opinion that it is si- 
milar to their own. They did not ap- 
parently understand her, but were ex- 
tremely incensed at what they con- 
ceived a mockery ; so it is probable the 
sound of the language had an affinity 
to that of their own. 

" Of the Highland gypsies I had the 
following account from a person of ob- 
servation, and highly worthy of credit. 
There are many settled in Kintyre,who 
travel through the highlands and low- 
lands annually. They frequently take 
their route through the passes of Loch 
Katrine, where they are often to be met 
with. They certainly speak among 
themselves a language totally distinct 
from either Gaelic or Lowland Scotch. 
A family having settled near my in- 
former for a few days, he wormed some 
of the words out of a boy of about 
twelve years old, who communicated 
them with the utmost reluctance, say- 
ing, his grandfather would kill him if 
he knew of his teaching any one their 
speech. One of the sentences my in- 
former remembered it sounded like 
no language I ever heard, and I am 
certain it has no affinity with any 
branch of the Gothic or Celtic dialects. 
I omitted to write the words down, 
but they signified, ' I will stick my 
knife into you, you black son of a 
devil' a gypsey-like exclamation. My 

Scottish Gypsies. 

C April 

informer believed that many crimes 
and even murders were committed a- 
mong them, which escaped the cogni- 
zance of the ordinary police ; the se- 
clusion of their habits, and the solitary 
paths which they chose, as well as the 
insignificance of their persons, with- 
drawing them from the ordinary in- 
spection and attention of the magis- 

" The Scottish lowknd gypsies have 
not in general so atrocious a character, 
but are always poachers, robbers of 
hen-roosts, black-fishers, stealers of 
wood, &c. and in that respect incon- 
venient neighbours. A gang of them, 
Faas and Baillies, ktely fought a 
skirmish with the Duke of Buc- 
cleuch's people and some officers of 
mine, in which a fish-spear was driven 
into the thigh of one of the game- 

" A lady of rank, who has resided 
sometime in India, ktely informed me, 
that the gypsies are to be found there 
in the same way as in England, and 
practise the same arts of posture-mak- 
ing and tumbling, fortune-telling, 
stealing, and so forth. The Indian 
gypsies are called Nuts, or Bazeegurs, 
and are believed by many to be the re- 
mains of an original race, prior even 
to the Hindhus, and who have never 
adopted the worship of Bramah. They 
are entirely different from the Farias, 
who are Hindhus that have lost caste, 
and so become degraded. 

There is a very curious essay con- 
cerning the Nuts in the seventh 
volume of the Asiatic Researches, 
which contains some interesting ob- 
servations on the origin and lan- 
guage of the European gypsies. But 
we have been tempted to extend this 
article already far beyond the li- 
mits we propose usually to allot to any 
subject in the course of a single 
Number ; and though we have still 
many curious particulars to detail, we 
find these must necessarily be de- 
layed till our next appearance. We 
cannot, however, quit this subject 
for the present without noticing with 
particular approbation a little work 
lately published by Mr Hoyknd of 
Sheffield, entitled, " A Historical Sur- 
vey of the Customs, Habits, and pre- 
sent State of the Gypsies ; designed to 
develope the origin of this singular 
people, and to promote the ameliora- 
tion of their condition." The author 
has industriously collected the sub- 
tance of what previous historians or 

travellers hare rekted of them, from 
their first appearance in Europe down 
to our own times. He has also taken 
great pains to procure information re- 
specting their present state in Britain 
by sending circular queries to the 
chief provincial magistrates, and by 
personally visiting several of their en- 
campments for the purpose of setting 
on foot some pkn for their improve- 
ment and civilization. Mr Hoyknd, 
we understand, is a member of the re- 
spectable society of Friends or Quakers 
whose disinterested and unwearied 
exertions in the cause of injured hu- 
manity are above all praise. It is 
enough to say of the present object, 
that it is not unworthy of that Chris- 
tian philanthropy which accomplished 
the abolition of the skve trade. We 
shall.account ourselves peculiarly hap- 
py, should our humble endeavours in 
any degree tend to promote Mr H.'s 
benevolent purpose, by attracting pub- 
lic attention to this degraded race of 
outcasts the Farias of Europe- 
thousands of whom still exist in Bri- 
tain, in a state of barbarism and 
wretchedness scarcely equalled by that 
of their brethren in India. From 
such of our readers as may have had 
opportunities of observing the man- 
ners, or investigating the origin and 
peculiar dialect of this singular peo- 
ple, we respectfully invite communi- 
cations. Even solitary or seemingly 
trivial notices on such a subject ought 
not to be neglected: though singly 
unimportant, they may lead collec- 
tively to valuable results. But we need 
not multiply observations on this point 
since our idea is already so well ex- 
pressed in the following extract from 
the same valuablecommunication which 
we last quoted. " I have always con- 
sidered," says Mr Scott, " as a very 
curious phenomenon in Society, the 
existence of those wandering tribes, 
having nearly the same manners and 
habits in all the nations of Europe, 
and mingling everywhere with civil 
society without ever becoming amal- 
gamated with it. It has been hitherto 
found difficult to trace then* origin, 
perhaps because there is not a suffi- 
cient number of facts to go upon. I 
have not spared you such as I have 
heard or observed, though many are 
trivial : if others who have better op- 
portunities would do the same, some 
general conclusions might result from 
the whole." 

(To be continued.) 

1817-3 Col. Beaufoy's Journey to the Summit of Mount Blanc. 



COLONEL BEAUFOY, a philosopher 
of considerable eminence, has lately 
published, in the Annals of Philosophy 
(No 50, Feb. 1817,) an interesting 
account of a journey which he made 
to the summit of Mount Blanc in the 
month of August of the year 1787. 
From about the year 1776, various 
unsuccessful attempts had been made, 
by different adventurers, to reach the 
summit of this stupendous mountain. 
The first of these attempts was made 
in that year by M. Couteran, accom- 
panied by three guides from the neigh- 
bouring valley. After travelling four- 
teen hours, during v.hich they had 
made their way over many of the most 
hazardous and fatiguing parts of the 
ascent, they arrived at the eminence 
next to mount Blanc, at about 13,000 
feet above the Mediterranean ; but 
perceiving that four hours would still 
be necessary to accomplish their enter- 
prise, that the day was far advanced, 
and that clouds were beginning to en- 
velope the summit, they were obliged, 
with much regret, to give up the pro- 
ject they had so nearly accomplished. 
The next attempt was made in Sep- 
tember of the year 1784, by M. Bour- 
rit, accompanied by six guides ; but 
he was so affected by the intensity of 
the cold, when he had very nearly ac- 
complished the object of his journey, 
that he found it to be a matter of ab- 
solute necessity to relinquish any hope 
of making farther progress. In the 
following year, 1785, Marie Coutet 
and James Balma reached a sheltered 
place at a very considerable elevation, 
where they passed the night, and were 
afterwards proceeding towards the 
summit of the mountain, when a vio- 
lent storm of hail obliged them to de- 
sist. On the 13th of the same mouth, 
Saussure and Bourrit, with twelve 
guides, after having advanced about 
7808 feet above the level of the sea, 
were also prevented by a fall of snow 
from accomplishing their design. At 
last, on the 8th of August of the year 
1786, Dr Paccard, a physician of Cha- 

mouni, accompanied by a guide who 
was skilled in the passes, and availing 
himself of the knowledge of the route 
which had been acquired by the at- 
tempts of former travellers, succeeded, 
after many discouraging accidents, in 
actually gaining the summit of the 
mountain. The travellers remained 
about half an hour on a spot which 
had never probably been trod by any 
human foot, and where the cold was 
so intense as not only to freeze the 
provisions and ink which they carried 
along with them, but also to affect 
their own bodies with several very 
unpleasant and dangerous symptoms. 

The success of this expedition of Dr 
Paccard appears to have encouraged 
Saussure to a second attempt ; and, 
accordingly, on the 14th of August 
1787, he succeeded in conveying to 
the top of the mountain a pretty large 
assortment of philosophical instru- 
ments, and of other conveniencies for 
the success of the expedition. He re- 
mained on the summit of the mountain 
four hours, enjoying the satisfaction 
of a most extensive prospect, and 
diligently employing this favourable 
opportunity in the performance of sev- 
eral interesting and instructive experi- 
ments. At this vast elevation, of some- 
thing more than 15,000 feet above the 
level of the sea, respiration was very 
sensibly affected a burning thirst 
seemed almost to parch the skin, and 
a particular aversion was at the same 
time felt for every kind of spirituous 
liquors the only alleviation which 
the sensations of the travellers admit- 
ted, being that derived from copious 
and repeated draughts of fresh water. 
It will be seen in the sequel, that pre- 
cisely the same effects were experien- 
ced in the subsequent ascent which we 
are about to consider. 

The expedition of Col. Beaufoy was 
the third successful attempt to gain 
the summit of the mountain. It was 
undertaken only rive days after that of 
M. Saussure, which we have now re- 
lated ; and to a few extracts from the 
Colonel's paper, comprehending what 
seems most remarkable in the journey, 
we shall now direct the attention of 
our readers. 


60 Col. Ueaufoy's Journey to the Summit of Mount Blanc. 

After detailing the preparations he the clearness of the air was such, as 
had made for the successful prosecu- led me to think that Jupiter's satellites 
tion of his journey, and giving an ac- 
count of his progress during the first 
five hours after his departure, by 


which time he had arrived at the se- 
cond glaciere, called the Glaciere de 
la Cote, the Colonel thus continues his 
narrative : " Our dinner being finish- 
ed, we fixed our cramp irons to our 
shoes, and began to cross the glaciere ; 
but we had not proceeded far, when 
we discovered that the frozen snow 
which lay in the ridges between the 
waves of ice, often concealed, with a 
covering of uncertain strength, the 
fathomless chasms which traverse this 
solid sea ; yet the danger was soon in 
a great degree removed, by the expe- 
dient of tying ourselves together with 
our long rope, which, being fastened 
at proper distances to our waists, se- 
cured from the principal hazard such 
as might fall within the opening of 
the gulf. Trusting to the same pre- 
caution, we also crossed upon our lad- 
der, without apprehension, such of the 
chasms as were exposed to view ; and 
sometimes stopping in the middle of 
the ladder, looked down in safety up- 
on an abyss which baffled the reach of 
vision, and from which the sound of 
the masses of ice, that we repeatedly 
let fall, in no instance ascended to the 
ear. In some places we were obliged 
to cut footsteps with our hatchet ; yet 
on the whole the difficulties were far 
from great, for in two hours and a half 
we had passed the glaciere. We now, 
with more ease and much more expe- 
dition, pursued our way, having only 
snow to cross ; and in two hours ar- 
rived at a hut, which had been erected 
in the year 1786 by the order and at 
the expense of M. de Saussure." 

At this hut the travellers slept ; and 
the following is a very striking account 
of the night scene which was observed 
at this elevated station : "At two 
o'clock I threw aside my blankets, and 
went out of the hut to observe the ap- 
pearance of the heavens. The stars 
shone with a lustre that far exceeded 
the brightness which they exhibit 
when seen from the usual level ; and 
had so little tremor in their light, as 
to leave no doubt on my mind, that, 
if viewed from the summit of the 
mountain, they would have appeared 
as fixed points. How improved in 
those altitudes would be the aids which 
the telescope gives to vision I indeed 

might be distinguished by the naked 
eye; and had he not been in the 
neighbourhood of the moon, I might 
possibly have succeeded. He continu- 
ed distinctly visible for several hours 
after the sun was risen, and did not 
wholly disappear till almost eight." 

With the morning dawn the com- 
pany proceeded on their expedition; 
and the following passage will convey 
a very distinct idea of the dangers and 
horrors to which this journey is ex- 
posed. " Our route was across the 
snow ; but the chasms which the ice 
beneath had formed, though less nu- 
merous than those that we had passed 
on the preceding day, embarrassed our 
ascent. One in particular had opened 
so much in the few days that inter- 
vened between M. De Saussure's ex- 
pedition and our own, as for the time 
to bar the hope of any further pro- 
gress; but at length, after having 
wandered with much anxiety along its 
bank, I found a place which I hoped 
the ladder was sufficiently long to cross. 
The ladder was accordingly laid down, 
and was seen to rest upon the opposite 
edge, but its bearing did not exceed 
an inch on either side. We now con- 
sidered, that should we pass the chasm, 
and should its opening, which had en- 
larged so much in the course of a few 
preceding days, increase in the least 
degree before the time of our descent, 
no chance of return remained. We al- 
so considered, that if the clouds, which 
so often envelope the hill, should rise, 
the hope of finding, amidst the thick 
fog, our way back to this only place 
in which the gulf, even in its present 
state, was passable, was little less than 
desperate. Yet after a moment's pause 
the guides consented to go with me, 
and we crossed the chasm. We had 
not proceeded far, when the thirst, 
which, since our arrival in the upper 
regions of the air, had been always 
troublesome, became almost intolera- 
ble. No sooner had I drank than the 
thirst returned, and in a few minutes 
my throat became perfectly dry. A- 
gain I had recourse to the water, and 
again my throat was parched. The air 
itself was thirsty : its extreme of 
dryness had robbed my body of its 

After surmounting a succession of 
similar dangers, and continuing to ex 
perience the same disheartening sensa- 


Remarkable Case of Margaret Lya.ll. 

tions, the company at length arrived 
at about 150 fathoms below the level 
of the summit. Their feelings at this 
moment are well depicted in the fol- 
lowing passage. " The pernicious ef- 
fects of the thinness of the air were 
now evident on us all : a desire, almost 
irresistible, of sleep came on. My 
spirits had left me : sometimes, indif- 
ferent as to the event, I wished to lie 
down ; at others I blamed myself for 
the expedition ; and, though just at the 
summit, had thoughts of turning back 
without accomplishing my purpose. 
Of my guides many were in a worse 
situation ; for, exhausted by excessive 
vomiting, they seemed to have lost all 
strength, both of mind and body. But 
shame at length came to our relief. I 
drank the kst pint of water that was 
left, and found myself amazingly re- 
freshed. My lungs with difficulty 
performed their office, and my heart 
was affected with violent palpitation. 
At last, however, but with a sort of 
apathy which scarcely admitted the 
sense of joy, we reached the summit 
of the mountain ; when six of my 
guides, and with them my servant, 
threw themselves on their faces, and 
were immediately asleep." 

We have only room for one other 
extract, in which an account is given 
of the effect produced upon the mind 
of the spectator by the view from the 
vast height to which the travellers had 
attained. " When the spectator be- 
gins to look round him from this ele- 
vated height, a confused impression of 
immensity is the first effect produced 
upon his mind ; but the blue colour, 
deep almost to bkckness, of the canopy 
above him, soon arrests his attention. 
He next surveys the mountains, many 
of which, from the clearness of the air, 
are to his eye within a stone's throw 
from him ; and even those of Lombardy 
seem to approach his neighbourhood : 
while, on the other side, the vale of 
Chamouni, glittering with the sun- 
beams, is to the view directly below 
his feet, and affects his head with gid- 
diness. On the other hand, all objects, 
of which the distance is great and the 
level low, are hid from his eye by the 
blue vapour which intervenes, and 
through which I could not discern the 
Lake of Geneva, though, at the height 
of 15,700 English feet, which, accord- 
ing to Saussure, was the level on which 
I stood ; even the Mediterranean sea 
must have been within the line of 
vision. The air was still, and the day 


so remarkably fine, that I could not 
discover in any part of the heavens the 
appearance of a single cloud." 

In this expedition the latitude of 
Mount Blanc was very accurately de- 
termined, and some experiments were 
also made respecting the power of a 
burning-glass at the summit of the 
mountain, compared with its effect in 
the vale of Chamouni. The chief in- 
terest of the narrative, however, is de- 
rived from the information which it 
communicates respecting the dangers 
of the journey itself, and from the 
corroboration it has given to the testi- 
mony of other travellers respecting the 
effect produced upon the human body 
in such elevated situations. We do 
not know that any account has yet 
been published of the attempts which 
have been made, subsequent to that 
of Colonel Beaufoy, to accomplish the 
same journey, but we have reason to 
believe, that of late years the summit 
of the mountain has been frequently 


Who continued in a State of Sleep 
nearly Six Weeks, 

By the Rev. JAMES BREWSTER, Mi" 
mater of Craig. 

(From the Transactions of the Royal Society 
of Edinburgh. Read Feb. 19, 1816.) 

Manse of Craig, Feb. 19, 1916. 


THE enclosed account was drawn 
up at the request of Robert Graeme, 
Esq. when all the circumstances were 
fresh in my own recollection, and that 
of all with whom I had occasion to 
confer on the subject. Since you re- 
quested me to send yoii a correct copy 
of the whole case, I have renewed my 
inquiries among the friends of the 
young woman, and submitted my ac- 
count to several persons, who were 
most capable of supplying any omis- 
sions, or correcting any mistakes. I 
can confidently vouch for the general 
accuracy of the statement, but would 
not wish its credibility to rest entirely 
on my single testimony. I have there- 
fore procured the signature of the 
young woman's father, and of several 
gentlemen, with whom you are more 
or less acquainted, and who frequently 
saw her during her illness. The ac- 
count of her recovery, on the 8th of 

02 Remarkable Cafe 

August, indeed, rests wholly on the 
testimony of the father, which there is 
not the smallest reason to doubt. I 
am sensible that many of the circum- 
stances which I have mentioned may 
appear to be unnecessarily minute, or 
even altogether unimportant ; but, in 
detailing so remarkable a case, I did 
not think myself qualified or entitled 
to select according to my own judg- 
ment ; and considered it to be my 
business as a reporter, merely to re- 
late, as clearly and correctly as possi- 
ble, whatever was observable in the 
situation of the patient. I have noted, 
also, her previous employment, the 
places where she resided, and some of 
the individuals who attended to her 
case, partly to render the account 
more intelligible, and partly to enable 
others to make further inquiries for 
themselves. I may mention farther, 
in case you may not be aware of the 
circumstance, that there is a similar 
case recorded in the Transactions of 
the Royal Society of London for 1705, 
vol. xxiv. p. 2177. Yours, &c. 

To Dr. Brewster. 

MARGARET LvALi.,ayoung woman 
about twenty-one years of age, daugh- 
ter of John Lyall, shoemaker in the 
parish of Mary town, served, during the 
winter half-year preceding Whitsun- 
day 1815, in the family of Peter Ark- 
ley, Esq. of Dunninald, in the parish 
of Craig. At the last mentioned term, 
she went as servant to the Rev. Mr 
Foote of Logie ; but, in a few days 
after entering her place, was seized 
with a slow fever, which confined her 
to bed rather more than a fortnight. 
During the latter part of her illness 
she was conveyed to her father's house ; 
and, on the 23d of June, about eight 
days after she had been able to leave 
her bed, she resumed her situation 
with Mrs Foote, who had, in the mean 
time, removed to Budden, in the pa- 
rish of Craig, for the benefit of sea- 
bathing. She was observed, after her 
return, to do her work rather in a 
hurried manner ; and, when sent upon 
any errand, to run or walk very quick- 
ly, as if impatient to finish whatever 
she had in hand. Her health, how- 
ever, appeared to be perfectly restored, 
except that her menses were obstructed. 
On Tuesday morning, June 2 7th, about 
four days after her return to service, 
she was found in bed in * deep sleep, 
with the appearance of blood having 

of Margaret Lyall. C April 

flowed from her nose ; and about half 
a Scotch pint of blood was perceived 
on the floor, at her bed-side. All at- 
tempts to awaken her were utterly 
ineffectual : and she was conveyed in 
a cart to her father's house, about half 
a mile distant from Budden. Dr Gib- 
son, physician in Montrose, having 
been called, a pound of blood was 
taken from her arm ; but she still re- 
mained in the same lethargic state, 
without making the slightest motion, 
or taking any nourishment, or having 
any kind of evacuation, till the after- 
noon of Friday, the 30th day of June, 
when she awoke of her own accord, 
and asked for food. At this period 
she possessed all her mental and bo- 
dily faculties; mentioned distinctly, 
that she recollected her having been 
awakened on Tuesday morning at two 
o'clock, by a bleeding at her nose, 
which flowed very rapidly ; said, that 
she held her head over the bed-side 
till the bleeding stopped ; but de- 
clared, that from that moment she 
had no feeling or remembrance of any 
thing, and felt only as if she had taken 
a very long sleep. An injection was 
administered with good effect, and she 
went to sleep as usual ; but, next 
morning, (Saturday July 1,) she was 
found in the same state of profound 
sleep as before. Her breathing was so 
gentle as to be scarcely perceptible, 
her countenance remarkably placid, 
and free from any expression of dis- 
tress ; but her jaws were so firmly 
locked, that no kind of food or liquid 
could be introduced into her mouth. 
In this situation she continued for the 
space of seven days, without any mo- 
tion, food, or evacuation either of urine 
or faeces. At the end of seven days 
she began to move her left hand; and, 
by pointing it to her mouth, signified 
a wish for food. She took readily 
whatever was given to her, and shewed 
an inclination to eat more than was 
thought advisable by the medical at- 
tendants. Still, however, she disco- 
vered no symptoms of hearing, and 
made no other kind of bodily move- 
ment than that of her left hand. Her 
right hand and arm, particularly, ap- 
peared completely dead and devoid of 
feeling, and even when pricked with a 
pin, so as to draw blood, never shrunk 
in the smallest degree, or indicated the 
slightest sense of pain. At the same 
time, she instantly drew back the left 
arm, whenever it was touched by the 
point of the pin. She continued to take 

Remarkable Case of Margaret LynJL 

food, whenever it was offered to her ; 
and when the bread was put into her 
left hand, and the hand raised by an- 
other person to her mouth, she imme- 
diately began to eat slowly, but unre- 
mittingly, munching like a rabbit, till 
it was finished. It was remarked, that 
if it happened to be a slice of loaf which 
she was eating, she turned the crust 
when she came to it, so as to introduce 
it more easily into her mouth, as if 
she had been fully sensible of what 
she was doing. But when she had 
ceased to eat, her hand dropped upon 
her chin or under lip, and rested there, 
till it was repkced by her side, or upon 
her breast. She took medicine, when 
it was administered, as readily as food, 
without any indication of disgust; and, 
in this way, by means of castor oil and 
aloetic pills, her bowels were kept 
open; but no evacuation ever took 
place without the use of a laxative. 
It was observed, that she always gave 
a signal, by pushing down the bed- 
clothes, when she had occasion to make 
any evacuation. The eye-lids were 
uniformly shut, and, when forced 
open, the ball of the eye appeared 
turned upwards, so as to shew only 
the white part of it. Her friends 
shewed considerable reluctance to al- 
low any medical means to be used for 
her recovery ; but, about the middle of 
July, her head was shaved, and a krge 
blister applied, which remained nine- ' 
teen hours, and produced an abundant 
issue, yet without exciting the small- 
est symptom of uneasiness in the pa- 
tient. Sinapisms were also applied to 
her feet, and her legs were moved 
from hot water into cold, and vice 
versa, without any appearance of sen- 
sation. In this state she remained, 
without any apparent alteration, till 
Tuesday the 8th day of August, pre- 
cisely six weeks from the time when 
she was first seized with her lethargy, 
and without ever appearing to be 
awake, except, as mentioned, on the 
afternoon of Friday the 30th of June. 
During the whole of this period, her 
colour was generally that of health ; 
but her complexion rather more de- 
licate than iusual, and occasionally 
changing, sometimes to paleness, and 
at other times to a feverish flush. 
The heat of her body was natural ; 
but, when lifted out of bed, she ge- 
nerally became remarkably cold. The 
state of her pulse was not regularly 
marked; but, during the first two 
weeks, it was generally at ,W ; du- 


ring the third and fourth week, about 
60 ; and, on the day before her re- 
covery, at 70 or 72 ; whether its in- 
crease was gradual, was not ascertained. 
She continued, during the whole pe- 
riod, to breathe in the same soft and 
almost imperceptible manner as at 
first ; but was observed occasionally, 
during the night time, to draw her 
breath more strongly, like a person 
who had fallen asleep. She discover- 
ed no symptoms of hearing, till about 
four days before her recovery ; when, 
upon being requested (as she had of- 
ten been before, without effect) to 
give a sign if she heard what was said 
to her, she made a slight motion with 
her left hand, but soon ceased again 
to shew any sense of hearing. On 
Tuesday forenoon, the day of her re- 
covery, she shewed evident signs of 
hearing ; and by moving her left hand, 
intimated her assent or dissent in a 
tolerably intelligent manner ; yet, in 
the afternoon of the same day, she 
seemed to have again entirely lost all 
sense of hearing. About eight o'clock 
on Tuesday evening, her father, a 
shrewd intelligent man, and of a most 
respectable character, anxious to avail 
himself of her recovered sense of hear- 
ing, and hoping to rouse her faculties 
by alarming her fears,* sat down at 
her bed-side, and told her that he had 
now given consent, (as was in fact 
the case,) that she should be removed 
to the Montrose Infirmary ; that, as 
her case was remarkable, the doctors 
would naturally try every kind of ex- 
periment for her recovery ; that he 
was very much distressed, by being 
obliged to put her entirely into their 
hands ; and would " fain hope" that 
this measure might still be rendered 
unnecessary, by her getting better be- 
fore the time fixed for her removal. 
She gave evident signs of hearing him, 
and assented to his proposal of having 
the usual family-worship in her bed- 
room. After this was over, she was 
lifted into a chair till her bed should be 

* Lest it might be supposed, that this 
procedure of the father implied a suspicion 
on his part of some deception being practis- 
ed by the young woman, it may be proper 
to state, that it was suggested by his own 
experience in the case of another daughter, 
who had been affected many years before in 
a very extraordinary degree with St Vitus's 
dance, or, as it is termed in this country, 
" The louping ague ;" and who was almost 
instantaneously cured by the application of 

Remarkable Case of Margaret Lyall. 

made; and her father, taking hold of 
her right hand, urged her to make an 
exertion to move it. She began to move 
first the thumb, then the rest of the 
fingers iu succession, and next her 
toes in like manner. He then opened 
her eye-lida, and presenting a candle, 
desired her to look at it, and asked, 
whether she saw it. She answered, 
" Yes," in a low and feeble voice. 
She now proceeded gradually, and in 
a very few minutes, to regain all her 
faculties ; but was so weak as scarcely 
to be able to move. Upon being in- 
terrogated respecting her extraordina- 
ry state, she mentioned, that she had 
no knowledge of any thing that had 
happened; that she remembered, in- 
deed, having conversed with her 
friends at her former awakening, (Fri- 
day afternoon, 30th of June) but felt 
it a great exertion then to speak to 
them ; that she recollected also hav- 
ing heard the voice of Mr Cowie, 
minister of Montrose, (the person who 
spoke to her on the forenoon of Tues- 
day the 8th of August,) but did not 
hear the persons who spoke to her on 
the afternoon of the same day ; that 
she had never been conscious of hav- 
ing either needed or received food, of 
having been lifted to make evacua- 
tions, or of any other circumstance in 
her case. She had no idea of her 
having been blistered ; and expressed 
great surprise, upon discovering that 
her head was shaved. She continued 
in a very feeble state for a few days, 
but took her food nearly as usual, and 
improved in strength so rapidly, that 
on the last day of August she began 
to work as a reaper in the service of 
Mr Arklcy of Dunninald ; and con- 
tinued to perform the regular labour 
of the harvest for three weeks, with- 
out any inconvenience, except being 
extremely fatigued the first day. 

After the conclusion of the harvest, 
she went into Mr Arkley's family, as 
a servant; and on the 27th day of 
September, was found in the morning 
by her fellow-servants in her former 
state of profound sleep, from which 
they were unable to rouse her. She 
was conveyed immediately to her fa- 
ther's house, (little more than a quar- 
ter of a mile distant), and remained 
exactly fifty hours in a gentle, but 
deep sleep, without making any kind 
of evacuation, or taking any kind of 
nourishment. Upon awakening, she 
arose apparently in perfect health, 

took her breakfast, and resumed her 
work as usual at Dunninald. On the 
llth of October, she was again found 
in the morning, in the same lethargic 
state ; was removed to the house of 
her father, where she awoke as before, 
after the same period of fifty hours 
sleep ; and returned to her service, 
without seeming to have experienced 
any inconvenience. At both of these 
times her menses were obstructed. Dr 
Henderson, physician in Dundee, who 
happened to be on a visit to his friends 
at Dunninald, prescribed some medi- 
cines suited to that complaint; and 
she has ever since been in good health, 
and able to continue in service.* 

(Signed) JAS. BREWSTER, 
Minister of Craig. 

I hereby certify the preceding ac- 
count of my daughter Margaret's ill- 
ness and recovery to be correct in every 
circumstance, according to the best of 
my recollection. 

(Signed) JOHN LYAL. 

We hereby attest, That the above- 
mentioned particulars in the extraor- 
dinary case of Margaret Lyall, are 
either consistent with our personal 
knowledge, or agreeable to all that we 
have heard from the most creditable 

PETER ARKLEV of Dunninald. 

A. FERGUSON, Minister, Maryton. 

WM. GIBSON, Physician, Montrose. 

* On the morning of September 21, 
1816, Margaret Lyall, whose case is des- 
cribed above, was found in an out-house 
at Dunninald, hanged by her own hands. 
No cause could be assigned for this unhap- 
py act. Her health had been good since 
the month of October 1815 ; and she had 
been comfortable in her situation. It was 
thought by die family, that a day or two 
preceding her death, her eyes had the ap- 
pearance of rolling rather wildly ; but she 
had assisted the day before in serving the 
table, and been in good spirits that evening. 
On the following morning she was seen to 
bring in the milk as usual, and was heard 
to say, in passing rather hurriedly through 
a room, where the other maids were at 
work, that something had gone wrong a- 
bout her dairy ; but was not seen again till 
she was found dead about half an hour af- 
ter. She is known to have had a strong 
abhorrence of the idea of her former distress 
recurring ; and to have occasionally mani- 
fested, especially before her first long sleep, 
the greatest depression of spirits, and even 
disgust of life. 

1817.]] Grant by Macbeth, -Writ in favour of Johnne Faw. 




To the Culdees of Lochleven, by Mac- 
beth son of Finlach, and Gmoch 
daughter of Bodhe, King and Queen 
of Scotland. 

[This ancient document, which we have 
extracted from the chartulary of St An- 
drews, may be regarded as a curiosity not 
only as relating to the history of the Culdees 
and the far-famed Macbeth, but also on ac- 
count of the savage story of the " Saxum 

Qualiter Machlet filius Finlach et 
Gruoch dederunt Sancto Servano 

MACHBET filius Finlach contulit pro 
sufFragiis orationum, et Gruoch filia 
Bodhe, Rex et Regina Scotorum, Kyr- 
kenes, Deo Omnipotent! et Keledeis 
prefate insule Lochleune, cum suis 
finibus et terminis. Hii enim sunt 
fines et termini de Kyrkenes, et uillu- 
le que dicitur Porthmokanue : de loco 
Moneloccodhan usque ad amnem qui 
dicitur Leuine ; et hoc in latitudine : 
Item, a publica strata que ducit apud 
Hinhirkethy, usque ad Saxum Hiber- 
niensium ; et hoc in longitudine. 

Et dicitur Saxum Hiberniensium, 
quia Malcolmus Rex, filius Duncani, 
concessit eis salinagium quod scotice 
dicitur Chonnane. Et venerunt Hiber- 
niensis ad Kyrkenes, ad domum cu- 
jusdam vire nomine Mochan, qui tune 
fuit absens, et solummodo mulicres 
erant in domo, quas oppresserunt viu- 
lenter Hiberniensis ; non tamcn sine 
rubore et verecundia : rei etiam even- 
tu ad aures prefati Mochan pervento, 
iter quam citius domi festinauit, et 
inuenit ibi Hibernienses in eadem do- 
nio cum matre sua. Exhortatione 
etenim matri sue sepius facta ut extra 
domum ueniret (que nullatenus uoluit, 
sed Hibernienses uoluit protegere, et 
eis pacem dare) ; quos omnes prefatus 
uir, in ultione tanti facinoris, ut op- 
pressores mulierum et barbaros et sa- 
crilegos, in medio flamme ignis, vna- 
cum matre sua, uiriliter combussit; et 
ex hac causa dicitur locus ille Saxum 

(Ex Resist roPrwra,lu.sSan<:ti Andrew, 

VOL. I. 


In favour of ' Johnne Faw, Lord and 
Erie of Lit ill Egypt,' granted by 
King James the fifth, Feb. 15th 
1540. (Referred to at page 45.J 

JAMES be the grace of God, King 
of Scottis : To oure Sheriffis of Edin- 
burgh principall and within the con- 
stabularie of Hadingtoun, Berwick, 
Roxburgh, &c. &c. provestis, alder- 
men, and baillies of our burrowis and 
cietois of Edinburgh, &c. c. greting : 
Forsamekill as it is humilie menit 
and schewiu to Ws, be our louit 
Johnne Faw, Lord and Erie of Litill 
Egipt, That quhair he obtenit oure 
lettres vnder our grete seile, direct to 
yow all and sindry oure saidis shereffis, 
stewards, baillies, prouestis, aldermen, 
and baillies of burrois ; and to all and 
sindry vthiris havand autoirite within 
our realme, to assist to him in execu- 
tioun of justice vpon his cumpany and 
folkis conforme to the lawis of Egipt, 
and in punissing of all them that re- 
bellis aganis him : Neuirtheles, as we 
ar informyt, Sebastiane Lalow, Egip- 
tiane, ane of the said Johnis cumpany, 
with his complices and part takaris 
vndir written, that is to say, Anteanc 
Donea, Satona Fingo, Nona Finco, 
Phillip Hatseyggaw, Towla Bailyow, 
Grasta Neyn, Geleyr Baillyow, Ber- 
nard Beige, Demeo Matskalla (or 
Macskalla), Notfaw Lawlowr, Martyn 
Femine,* rebellis and conspiris aganis 
the said Johnne Faw, and ncs removit 
thame alluterly out of his company, 
and takin fra him diuerss soumes of 
money, jowelh's, claithis, and vtheris 
gudis, to the quantite of ane grete, 
soume of money ; and on na wise will 
pass hame with him, howbeit he lies 
biddin and remanit of lang tyme vpoun 

* The names of the thirteen Egyptians 
referred to at page 46, who obtained a remis- 
sion for the slaughter of Ninian Smaill, in 
1553-4, are as follows : " Andro Faw, 
capitane of the Egiptianis, George Faw, 
Robert Faw, and Anthony Faw, his sonis" 
" Johnne Faw, Andro George Nichoah, 
George Sebastiane Colyne, Gewge Colyne, 
Julie Colyne, Johnne Colyne, James Haw, 
Johnne Browne, and George Browne, ligip- 

Act of Privy Council ' anent some Egyptianis.' 


thame, and is bundin and oblist to 
bring hame with him all thame of his 
cumpany that ar on live, and ane tes- 
timoniale of thame that ar deid ; And 
als the said Johnne hes the said Se- 
bastianis obligatioun, maid in Dun- 
fermling befor oure Maister Houssald, 
that he and his cumpany suld remane 
with him, and on na wyse depart fra 
him, as the samyn beris ; In contrar 
the tenor of the quhilk, the said Se- 
bastiane, be sinister and wrang infor- 
matioun, fals relatioun, and circumven- 
tioun of ws, hes purchest our writingis, 
dischargeing him, and the remanent of 
the personis abone written, his com- 
plicis and part takeris of the said 
Johnis cumpany, and with his gudis 
takiu be thame fra him, causis certane 
our liegis assist to thame and thair 
opinionis, and to fortify and tak thair 
part aganis the said Johnne, thair lord 
and roaister ; Sua that he on na wyse 
can apprehend nor get thame, to haue 
thame hame agane within thair awin 
cuntre,eftir the tenoar of his said band, 
to his hevy dampnage and skaith, and 
in grete perrell of tynsell of his here- 
tage, and expres aganis justice : OURE 
will is heirfor, and we charge yow strait - 
lie, and commandis, that incontynent, 
thir our lettres sene, ye, and ilkane of 
yow, within the boundis of your offi- 
ces, command and charge all our liegis, 
that nane of thame tak upon hand to 
resett, assist, fortify, supplie, rruui- 
teine, defend, or tak part with the said 
Sebastiane and his complices abone 
written, for na buddis, nor uthir way, 
aganis the said Johnne Faw, thair lord 
and maister ; Bot that thai, and ye, in 
likewyse, tak and lay handis upoun 
thame quhaireuir thay may be appre- 
hendit, and bring thaim to him, to be 
punist for thair demeritis, conforme to 
his lawis ; and help and fortify him to 
puniss and do justice upoun thame for 
thair trespasses ; and to that effect 
len to him youre presonis stokis, fet- 
teris, and all uther things necessar 
thereto, as ye and ilk ane of yow, and 
all utheris owre liegis, will ansuer to 
ws thairupon, and under all hieast 
pane and charge that efter may follow; 
Sua that the said Johnne haue na caus 
of complaynt heirupoun in tyme cum- 
ing, nor to resort agane to us to that 
effect, notwithstanding ony our writ- 
ingis, sinisterly purchest, or to be 
purchest, be the said Sebastiane in the 
contrar ; And als charge all our liegis, 
that nane of thaim molest, vex, in- 
quiet, or trouble the said Johnne Faw 


and his company, in doing of thair 
lefull besynes, or utherwayes, within 
our realme, and in their passing, re- 
manyng, or away-ganging furth of the 
samyn, under the pane abone written ; 
And siclike, that ye command and 
charge all skipparis, maisteris, and 
marinaris, of all schippis within our 
realme, at all portis and havynnis 
quhair the said Johnne and his cum- 
pany sail happen to resort and cum, to 
ressave him and thame thairin, upoun 
thair expensis, for furing of thame 
furth of our realme to the partis be- 
yon sey ; as yow, and ilk ane of thame 
siclike, will ansuer to ws thairupoun, 
and under the pane forsaid. Sub- 
scruit with oure hand, and under oure 
privie seile, at Falkland, the fivetene 
day of Februar, and of oure regne the 
xxviii yeir. Subscript, per Regem. 
(Ex Registro Secret i tiigilli, vol. xiv. 
fol. 59.) 


' Anent some Egyptianis' 
(Referred to at page 48.J 
Apud Edf. 10 Novembris 1636. 
FORSAMEIKLE as Sir Arthure Doug- 
las of Quhittinghame haveing latelie 
tane and apprehendit some of the va- 
gabound and counterfut thieves and 
fimmars, callit the Egyptians, he pre- 
sentit and deliverit thame to the Shi- 
reff principall of the shirefdome of 
Edinburgh, within the constabularie 
of Hadinton, quhair they have remain- 
ed this month or thereby ; And quhair- 
as the keeping of thame longer, within 
the said tolbuith, is troublesome, and 
burdenable to the toune of Hadinton, 
and fosters the saids theives in ane opi- 
nion of impunitie, to the incourageing 
of the rest of that infamous byke of 
lawles limmars to continow in thair 
theivish trade ; Thairfore the Lords of 
Secret Counsell ordans the Sheriff of 
Hadinton, or his deputs, to pronunce 
doome and sentence of death aganis so 
manie of thir counterfoot theives as 
are men, and aganis so manie of the 
weomen as wants children ; Ordaning 
the men to be hangit, and the weomen 
to be drowned ; and that suche of the 
weomen as hes children to be scourgit 
throw the burgh of Hadinton, and 
brunt in the cheeke ; and ordans and 
commands the provest and baillies of 
Hadinton to caus this doome be execute 
vpon the saids persons accordinglie. 
(Ex 2tegistro Secret i Concilii-J 


The Wife of Auchtertmichtie. 



[This poem (as Lord Hailes remarks) 
is " a favourite among the Scots." It af- 
fords a very good specimen of the native 
and rustic humour with which our grave 
forefathers loved to relax the usual austerity 
of their deportment. It has been well pre- 
served both by writing and tradition. In 
Fife and some other parts of the country, it 
is still current as a popular ballad ; and it 
has been twice edited from the Bannatyne 
MS., first by Allan Ramsay in his ever- 
green, and afterwards by Lord Hailes. The 
former published it, according to his usual 
practice, with additions and alterations of 
his own ; the latter adhered correctly to his 
original. The present edition is taken from 
the same MS. but collated with another, 
and apparently, an older copy, in the Ad- 
vocates' Library, from which several altera- 
tions, and the whole of the llth stanza, 
have been supplied.] 

IN Auchtermuchtie thair wond ane man, 

A rach husband, as I hard tauld, 

Qulia weill could tippill out a can, 

And naither luvit hungir nor cauld : 

Quhill ance it fell upon a day, 

He yokkit his pleuch vpon the plaine ; 

Gif it be true, as I heard say, 

The day was foull for wind and raine. 


He lousit the pleuch at the landis end, 
And draife his oxin name at evin ; 
Quhen he cam in he luldt ben, 
And saw the wif baith dry and clene 
Sittand at ane fyre beik and bauld, 
With ane fat sowp, as I hard say : 
The man being verry weit and cauld, 
Betwein thay twa it was na play. 


Quoth he, Qtihair is my horsis corne ? 
My ox hes naithir hay nor stray ; 
Dame, ye maun to the pleuch the morn, 
I sail be hussy, gif 1 may. 
Gudeman, quoth scho, content am I 
To take the pleuch my day about, 
Sa ye will rewll baith calvis and ky, 
And all the house baith in and out. 


But sen that ye will hussyskep ken, 
First ye maun sift and syne maun kned ; 
And ay as ye gang but and ben, 
Luk that die bairnis fyle not the bed ; 
And ay as ye gang furth and in, 
Keip weill the gaizlines fra the gled ; 
And lay ane saft wysp to the kill ; 
We haif ane deir fcrme on our heid. 


The wyfe shco sat vp late at evin, 
(I pray God gif hir evill to fare), 
Scho kirnd the kirne, and skumd it clene, 
And left the gudeman but the bledoch baire : 
Than in the morning vp scho gat, 
And on hir hairt laid hir disjune. 

And priend als meikle in hir lap 
Micht serve thrie honest men at nune. 


Says Jok, will thou be maister of wark, 
And thou sail haud, and I sail kail ; 
I'se promise the ane gude new sark, 
Outhir of round claith or of small. 
Scho lowsit the oxin aught or nine. 
And hynt ane gad-staff in hir hand : 
Vp the gudeman raise aftir syne, 
And saw the wyf had done command. 


He cawd the gaizlines furth to feid, 
Thair wes bot sevensum of them all ; 
And by thair cumis the greedie gled, 
And cleiket vp fyve, left him bot twa : 
Than out he ran in all his mane, 
Sune as he hard the gaizles cry ; 
Bot than, or he came in againe, 
The calfes brak luse and soukit the ky. 


The calfes and ky met in the lone, 
The man ran with ane rung to red ; 
Than thair comes ane ill-willie kow 
And brodit his buttok quhill that it bled, 
Than up he tuik ane rok of tow, 
And he salt down to sey the spinning ; 
I trow he loutit owre neir the lowe ; 
Quo he, this wark hes an ill beginning. 


Then to the kirn he next did stoure, 
And jumlit at it quhill he swat : 
Quhen he had rumblit a full lung hour, 
The sorrow scrap of butter he gatt. 
Albeit na butter he could gett, 
Yet he wes cummerit with the kime ; 
And syne he het the milk owre het, 
And sorrow a drap of it wald yirne. 


Then ben thair cam ane greidie sow, 
I trow he kund hir littil thank, 
For in scho schot hir ill-fard mow, 
And ay scho winkit and ay scho drank. 
He cleikit vp ane crukit club, 
And thocht to hit her on the snout ; 
The twa gaizlines the glaidis had left, 
That straik dang baith their harnis out. 


He set his foot vpon the spyre, 
To have gotten the fleshe doun to the pat, 
Bot he fell backward into the fyre, 
And clourd his croun on the kerning stock. 
He hang the meikle pat on the cruik, 
And with twa canns ran to the spout, 
Or he wan back againe (alaik) 
The fyre burnt all the boddom out. 


Than he laid kindling to the kill, 
Bot scho start all vp in ane low ; 
Quhat evir he heard, quhat evir he saw, 
That day he had na will to wow. 
Than he gaid to take vp the bairnis, 
Thocht to have fund thame fair and cleng ; 
The first that he gat in his armis 
Was all bedirtin to the eyne. 


The first that he gat in his armis, 
It was all dirt up to the eyne ; 

Account of the Highland Host. 


The de'il cut aff thair hands, quo he, 
That filld yow all sa fou yestrein. 
He traillit the foull sheetis down the gait, 
Thocht to haif wascht thame on ane stane ; 
The burne was risin grit of spait, 
Away fra him the sheetis hes tane. 


Than up he gat on ane know head, 
On the gudewyfe to cry and schout ; 
Scho hard him as she hard him nocht, 
But stoutlie steird the stottis about 
Scho draif the day unto the nicht, 
Scho lowsit the pleuch and syne cam hame; 
Scho fand all wrang that sould bene richt, 
I trow the man thocht richt grit schame. 


Quoth he, My office I forsaik, 
For all the dayis of my lyfe ; 
For I wald put ane house to wraik 
Gin I war twentie dayis gudewyfe, 
Quoth scho, Weill mot ye bruke your place, 
For trewlie I sail neir accept it ; 
Quoth he, Feind fall tha lyaris face, 
Bot yit ye may be blyth to gett it 


Than up Echo gat ane meikle rung, 
And the gudeman maid to the doir; 
Quoth he, Deme, I sail hald my tung, 
For an we fecht I'll gett the waur. 
Quoth he, quhan I forsuik my pleuch, 
I trow I bot forsuik my seill, 
Sa I will to my pleuch agane, 
For this house and I will nevir do weill. 


[In the beginning of the year 1678, (about 
eighteen months before the breaking out of 
the memorable insurrection which led to 
the battles of Drnmclog and Bothwell- 
Bridge), ten thousand Highlanders were 
brought down from their mountains and 
quartered upon the Western Counties, for 
the purpose of suppressing the field meet- 
ings and conventicles of the presbyterians. 
This Highland Host, as it was called, af- 
ter committing many disorders, and, ' eat- 
ing up* the disaffected, was ordered home 
again by the government, the undisciplin- 
ed Gael being found too ignorant and rapa- 
cious to observe on all occasions the proper 
distinction between the loyal and ' lovable' 
supporters of prelacy, and the contumacious 
and uncourtly covenanters. The following 
account is extracted from the Woodrow 
MSS. in the Advocates' Library : It ap- 
pears to have been written by an eye-witness, 
but has no signature. 

" A Copie of a Letter from the Host 
about Glasgow. 

We arrived here about 8 or 9 dayes 
agoe : At our first coming we observ- 
ed that the countrey had been much 
terrified with the report of it, and 
therefore had carried and conveyed 
away much of their goods ; nor were 

we less surprised to finde them so 
peaceable and submissive. At Stirling 
and about it, our Highlanders were 
somewhat disorderly in their quarters, 
particularly by raising fire in two or 
three places. Vpon our way hither 
such of them as went with us took 
their free quarters liberally ; and the 
rest who took another way to Kilpa- 
trick, have been yet ruder in killing 
sheep and other cattel, and also in rob- 
ing any loose thing they found in their 
way. We are now all quartered in 
and about this town, the Highlanders 
only in free quarters. It would be 
truely a pleasant sight, were it at an 
ordinary weaponshaw, to see this High- 
land crew. You know the fashion of 
their wild apparel, not one of ten of 
them had breaches, yet hose and shoes 
are their greatest need and most clever 
prey, and they spare not to take them 
every where: In so much that the 
committee here, and the councel with 
you (as it is said) have ordered some 
thousands of pairs of shoes to be made 
to stanch this great spoil. As for their 
armes and other militaire accoutre- 
ments, it is not possible for me to de- 
scribe them in writing ; here you may 
see head pieces and steel-bonnets rais- 
ed like pyramides, and such as a man 
would affirme, they had only found in 
chamber boxes ; targets and shields of 
the most odde and anticque forme, and 
pouder homes hung in strings, gar- 
nished with beaten nails and plates of 
burnished brass. And truely I doubt 
not but a man, curious in our antiqui- 
ties, might in this host finde explica- 
tions of the strange pieces of armour 
mentioned in our old lawes, such as 
bosnet, iron-hat, gorget, pesane, wam- 
brassers and reerbrassers, panns, leg- 
splents, and the like, above what any 
occasion in the lowlands would have 
afforded for several hundreds of yeers. 
Among their ensigns also, beside 
other singularities, the Glencow men 
were very remarkable, who had for 
their ensigne a faire bush of heath, 
wel spred and displayed on the head of 
a staff, such as might have affrighted a 
Roman eagle. But, sir, the pleasant- 
ness of this shew is indeed sadly mix- 
ed and marred j for this unhallowed, 
and many of them unchristened, rab- 
ble, beside their free quarters, wherein 
they kill and destroy bestial at their 
pleasure, without regain! to the com- 
mands of some of their discreeter offi- 
cers, rob all that comes to hand, win- 

Account of the Highland Host. 

ther in houses or in the highwayes ; so 
that no man maye passe saifly from 
house to house ; and their insolencie in 
the houses where they are quartered 
fills poor women and children with 
terror, and both men and women with 
great vexation. They make also ex- 
cursions in tens and twelves upon other 
places, and specially under cloud of 
night, and break into houses with 
bended pistols and naked swords, curs- 
ing and swearing that they shall burne 
and kill if all be not readily given that 
they demand. I hear not yet of any 
killed by them, but severals are griev- 
ously wounded and beaten ; and in 
effect, the poor people's lives, goods, 
and chastities, are exposed to the cruel- 
ty of these strange locusts. Many of 
the countrey people have left and aban- 
doned their houses and all to their 
mercy. The other day I heard, that, 
at the burying of a child, the burial 
company was assaulted by some of these 
ruffians ; and, after a great scuffle, 
the mortcloth was robbed off the cof- 
fine, and that notwithstanding all that 
their officers could do to hinder or re- 
cover it. They tell me also, that some 
of these savages, not knowing what the 
coffine meaned, as being a thing with 
them not usual, would have broken it 
open and searched it, if not restrained 
by their neighbours. In some places 
they beginne to exact money over and 
above their victuals, and also to make 
the people pay for dry quarters (that 
is, for men that they have not), and for 
assistant quarters (that is, where they 
contract and make the places they leave 
free pay in money, and yet the places 
that they lye upon do really maintain 
all.) I am furder told, that evil com- 
pany is like to corrupt good manners ; 
and that even many of the militia 
forces and Perthshire gentlemen be- 
ginne to take free quarters. But it is 
like that a little more time with our 
march westward will furnish much 
more matter of this kind ; for the 
marches are indeed the sorest and most 
afflicting to the poor people, seeing 
that partly for the service, partly un- 
der pretence thereof, horses are forced, 
and many of them not restored ; as 
likewise there is little order kept in the 
march, but they run out and spread 
themselves over the countrey and catch 
all that they can lay hold upon ; for in 
these occasions, whatever thing they 
can get is clear prey, without any fear 
of recovery. And yet all these are 


said to be but whips, wherewith this 
country is scourged, in respect of the 
scorpions intended for Ayrshire ; and 
some of the committee being spoke to 
about the abuse of free quarters, said, 
that the quarters now taken were but 
transient quarters, but after the returns 
made about the Band, there would be 
destructive quarters ordered against its 
refuisers. Yet I would not have you 
think that all those Highlanders be- 
have after the same manner. No, there 
is a difference both among the men 
and leaders. And the M. of Athol's 
men are generally commended both as 
the best appointed and best behaved. 
Neither do I hear of any great hurt 
as yet done by the E. of Murray's 
men in Cathcart parish : but all of 
them take free quarters, and that at 
their own discretion. The standing 
forces have hitherto carried pretty re- 
gularly, and appear very ready on all 
occasions to restraine and correct the 
Highlanders' insolencies, of which I 
could give you several instances ; but 
when these men, who were lately this 
people's only persecutors, are now com- 
mended by them for sobrietie, and in 
effect are looked on by many of them 
as their guardians and protectors, you 
may easily judge what is the others' 
deportment. Feb. 1, 1678. 
( Woodrow MSS. 47o. vol. xcix. 29.) 

From " A Mock Poem upon the Expe- 
dition of the Highland Host ; ly COL. 

CLELAND. Edit. 1697. 


WHEN this wsis done their ranks were broken ; 
Some ran for dring their drought to slocken : 
Some were chasing hens and cocks, 
Some were loosing horse from yocks ; 
Some with snapwarks, some with bowes, 
Were charging reers of loops and ewes ; 
Their stomacks so on edge were set, 
That all was fish came in the nett ; 
Trumpets sounded, skeens were glanceing, 
Some were Tonald Co-cper danceing : 
Some cryed, here to her Laird and Lady, 
Some to her mother and her daddie, 
And Sir King too if the Laird please- 
Then up with plaids * * * * 
Some were stealing, some were riveing, 
Some were wives and lasses grieving : 
Some for cold did chack and chatter ; 
Some from plaids were wringing water : 
Yea to be short, moe different postures, 
Thau's sewed on hangings, beds, and bol- 

stures : 

Moe various actings modes and stances, 
Than's read in Poems or Romances. 


Original Poetry. 




A Reverie. 

SWEET Village ! on thy pastoral hill 

Arrayed in sunlight sad and still, 

As if beneath the harvest-moon, 

Thy noiseless homes were sleeping ! 

It is the merry month of June, 

And creatures all of air and earth 

Should now their holiday of mirth 

With dance and song be keeping. 

But, loveliest Village ! silent Thou, 

As cloud wreathed o'er the Morning's brow, 

When light is faintly breaking, 

And Midnight's voice afar is lost, 

Like the wailing of a wearied ghost, 

The shades of earth forsaking. 

'Tis not the Day to Scotia dear, 

A summer Sabbath mild and clear ! 

Yet from her solemn burial-ground 

The small Kirk- Steeple looks around, 

Enshrouded in a calm 

Profound as fills the house of prayer, 

li'er from the band of virgins fair 

Is breathed the choral psalm. 

A sight so steeped in perfect rest 

Is slumbering not on nature's breast 

In the smiles of earthly day ! 

'Tis a picture floating down the sky, 

By fancy framed in years gone by, 

And mellowing in decay ! 

That thought is gone ! the Village still 

With deepening quiet crowns the hill, 

Its low green roofs are there ! 

In soft material beauty beaming, 

As in the silent hour of dreaming 

They hung embowered in air ! 

Is this the Day when to the mountains 

The happy shepherds go, 

And bathe in sparkling pools and fountains 

Their flocks made white as snow ? 

Hath gentle girl and gamesome boy, 

With meek-eyed mirth or shouting joy, 

Gone tripping up the brae ? 

Till far beliind their town doth stand, 

Like an image in sweet Fairy Land, 

When the Elves have flown away ! 

O sure if aught of human breath 

Within these walls remain, 

Thus deepening in the hush of death, 

'Tis but some melancholy crone, 

Who sits with solemn eyes 

Beside the cradle all alone, 

And lulls the infant with a strain 

Of Scotia's ancient melodies. 

What if these homes be filled with life ? 
'Tis the sultry month of June, 
And when the cloudless sun rides high 
Above the glittering air of noon, 

All nature sinks opprest, 

And labour shuts his weary eye 

In the mid-day hour of rest. 

Yet let the soul think what it will, 

Most dirge-like mourns that moorland rill ! 

How different once its flow ! 

When with a dreamy motion gliding 

Mid its green fields in love abiding, 

Or leaping o'er the mossy linn, 

And sporting with its own wild din, 

Seemed water changed to snow. 

Beauty lies spread before my sight, 

But grief-like shadows dim its light, 

And all the scene appears 

Like a church-yard when a friend is dying, 

In more than earthly stillness lying, 

And glimmering through our tears ! 

Sweet Woodbum ! like a cloud that name 

Comes floating o'er my soul ! 

Although thy beauty still survive, 

One look hath changed the whole. 

The gayest village of the gay 

Beside thy own sweet river, 

Wert Thou on Week or Sabbath day ! 

So bathed in the blue light of joy, 

As if no trouble could destroy 

Peace doomed to last for ever. 

Now in the shadow of thy trees, 

On a green plat, sacred to thy breeze, 

The fell Plague-Spirit grimly lies 

And broods, as in despite 

Of uncomplaining lifelessness, 

On the troops of silent shades that press 

Into the church-yard's cold recess, 

From that region of delight. 

Last summer, from the school-house door, 
When the glad play-bell was ringing, 
What shoals of bright-haired elves would 


Like small waves racing on the shore, 
In dance of rapture singing ! 
Oft by yon little silver well, 
Now sleeping hi neglected cell, 
The village-maid would stand, 
While resting on the mossy bank, 
With freshened soul the traveller drank 
The cold cup from her hand ; 
Haply some soldier from the war, 
Who would remember long and far 
That Lily of the Land. 
And still the green is bright wifli flowers. 
And dancing through the sunny hours, 
Like blossoms from enchanted bowers 
On a sudden wafted by, 
Obedient to the changeful air, 
And proudly feeling they are fair, 
Glide bird and butterfly. 
But where is the tiny hunter -rout 
That revelled on with dance and shout 
Against their airy prey ? 


Original Poetry. 


Alas ! the fearless linnet sings, 
And the bright insect folds its wings 
Upon the dewy flower that springs 
Above these children's clay. 
And if to yon deserted well 
Some solitary maid, 
As she was wont at eve, should go- 
There silent as her shade 
She stands a while then sad and slow 
Walks home, afraid to think 
Of many a loudly-laughing ring 
That dipped their pitchers in that spring, 
And lingered round its brink. 

On on through woful images 
My spirit holds her way ! 
Death in each drooping flower she sees : 
And oft the momentary breeze 
Is singing of decay. 
So high upon the slender bough 
Why hangs the crow her nest ? 
All undisturbed her young have lain 
This spring-time in their nest ; 
Nor as they flew on tender wing 
E'er fear'd the cross-bow or the sling. 
Tame as the purpling turtle-dove, 
That walks serene in human love, 
The magpie hops from door to door ; 
And the hare, not fearing to be seen, 
Doth gambol on the village green 
As on the lonely moor. 
The few sheep wandering by the brook 
Have all a dim neglected look, 
Oft bleating in their dumb distress 
On her their sweet dead shepherdess. 
The horses pasturing through the range 
Of gateless fields, all common now, 
Free from the yoke enjoy the change, 
To them a long long Sabbath-sleep ! 
Then gathering in one thunderous band, 
Across the wild they sweep, 
Tossing the long hair from their eyes 
Till far the living whirlwind flies 
As o'er the desart sand. 
From human let their course is free- 
No lonely angler down the lea 
Invites the zephyr's breath 
And the beggar far away doth roam, 
Preferring in his hovel-home 
His penury to death. 
On that green hedge a scattered row 
Now weather-stained once white as snow- 
Of garments that have long been spread, 
And now belong unto the dead, 
Shroud-like proclaim to every eye, 
" This is no place for Charity !" 

O blest are ye ! unthinking creatures ! 

Rejoicing: in your lowly natures 

Ye dance round human tombs ! 

Where gladlier sings the mountain lark 

Than o'er the church-yard dim and dark 

Or where, than on tke churchyard wall, 

From the wild rose-tree brighter fall 

Her transitory blooms ! 

What is it to that lovely sky 

If all her worshippers should die ! 

As happily her splendours play 

On the grave where human forms decay, 

As o'er the dewy turf of Morn, 
Where the virgin, like a woodland Fa 
On wings of joy was borne. 
Even now a soft and silvery haze 
Hill Village Tree is steeping 
In the loveliness of happier days, 
Ere rose the voice of weeping ! 
When incense-fires from every hearth 
To heaven stole beautiful from earth. 

Sweet Spire ! that crown'st the house of God! 

To thee my spirit turns, 

While through a cloud the softened light 

On thy yellow dial burns. 

Ah, me ! my bosom inly bleeds 

To see the deep-worn path that leads 

Unto that open gate ! 

In silent blackness it doth tell 

How oft thy little sullen bell 

Hath o'er the village toll'd its knell, 

In beauty desolate. 

Oft, wandering by myself at night, 

Such spire hath risen in softened light 

Before my gladdened eyes, 

And as I looked around to see 

The village sleeping quietly 

Beneath the quiet skies, 

Methought that mid her stars so bright, 

The moon in placid mirth, 

Was not in heaven a holier sight 

Than God's house on the earth. 

Sweet image ! transient in my soul ! 

That very bell hath ceased to toll 

When the grave receives its dead 

And the last time it slowly swung, 

'Twas by a dying stripling rung 

O'er the sexton's hoary head ! 

All silent now from cot or hall 

Comes forth the sable funeral ! 

The Pastor is not there ! 

For yon sweet Manse now empty stands, 

Nor in its walls will holier hands 

Be e'er held up in prayer. 

EARTH'S loveliest land I behold in my 


All gay in the summer, and drest in sun- 
In the radiance which breaks on the purified 

Of the thin-bodied ghosts that are flitting 

from hence. 
The blue distant Alps, and die blue distant 

Bound the far varied harvests of Lombardy's 

plain : 
The rivers are winding in blue gleaming 

Round the Ruins of Old round the Hill of 

the Vines 
Round the grove of the orange the green 

myrtle bower- 
By Castle and Convent by Towu and by 


Original Poetry, 

Through the bright summer azure the north 

breezes blow, 
That are cooled in their flight over regions 

of snow, 

Or westerly gales, on whose wandering wings 
The wave of the ocean its silver dew flings. 
Bright, bright is the prospect, and teeming 

the soil 
With the blessings of promise with corn, 

wine, and oil, 
Where the cypress, and myrtle, and orange 

And around the dark olive gay wantons the 

Woods leafy and rustling o'ershadow the 

With their forest of branches and changes 

of green ; 
And glossy their greenness where sunshine 

is glistening, 
And mellow their music where Silence is 

And the streamlets glide through them with 

glassier hue, 
And the sky sparkles o'er them with heaven- 

lier blue. 
How deep and how rich is the blush of the 

That spreading and wild o'er the wilderness 

What waftures of incense are filling the 

For the bloom of a summer unbounded is 


The soft and voluptuous Spirit of Love 

Rules in earth and in ether, below and a- 

In the blue of the sky, in the glow of the 

In the sigh of the wind, and the now of the 
stream ! 

At his presence the rose takes a ruddier 

And the vine-bud exhales a more wanton 
perfume ; 

E'en the hoarse surging billows have sof- 
tened their roar, 

And break with a musical fall on the shore. 

But less in this Eden has young Love his 

Than in that virgin's bosom, wild throbbing 

and swelling, 
That bounds 'gainst her zone, and will not 

be represt, 
Whilst full of the god that possesses her 

Love has kindled her cheek with his deep 

crimson dye, 

And lit with his radiance her eloquent eye, 
Ever restless and changing, and darkening, 

and brightening, 
Now melting in dew, and now flashing in 

O, black is her eye, black intensely ; and 

Are the ringlets luxuriant that float down 

her back ; 

And equally sweet is her lip of the roses, 
When it opens in smiles, or in silence re- 

* * 

O sooner the bird shall escape from the snare 

Of the fowler, than man from her thraldom 
beware ! 

If you meet but one glance of her magical 

From your bosom for ever must liberty fly ! 

Let there breathe but one thrilling and sil- 
very tone 

From the syren your heart is no longer 
your own. 


Recited by the Author \ in a Party of Jtis 
Counfrytnen, on tfte Day tfuU the News 
arrived of our final Victory over the 

Now, Britain, let thy cliffs o' snaw 
Look prouder o'er the merled main ! 

The bastard Eagle bears awa, 

And ne'er shall ee thy shores again. 

Bang up thy banners red an* riven ! 

The day's thy ain the prize is won ! 
Weel may thy lions brow the heaven, 

An' turn their gray beards to the sun. 

Lang hae I bragged o' thine and thee, 
Even when thy back was at the wa' ; 

An' thou my proudest sang sail be, 
As lang as I hae breath to draw. 

Gae hang the coofs wha boded wac, 
An' cauldness o'er thy efforts threw, 

Lauding the fullest, sternest fae, 

Frae hell's black porch that ever flew. 

O he might conquer idiot kings, 
These bars in nature's onward plan ; 

But fool is he the yoke that flings 
O'er the unshackled soul of man. 

'Tis like a cobweb o'er the breast, 
That binds the giant while asleep, 

Or curtain hung upon the east, 

The day-light from the world to keep ! 

Come, jaw your glasses to the brim ! 

Gar in the air your bonnets flee ! 
" Ourgude auld king !" I'll drink to him, 

As lang as I hae drink to pree. 

This to the arms that well upbore 

The Rose and Shamrock blooming still 

An' here's the burly plant of yore, 
" The Thristk o' the Norlaii 1 hill /" 

Auld Scotland ! land o' hearts the wale ! 
Hard thou hast fought, and bravely won : 
Lang may thy lions paw the gale, 
And turn their dewlaps to the sun ! 


Review. Dr Chalmers's Discourses. 


A Series of Discourses on the Christian 
Revelation, viewed in Connexion 
with the Modern Astronomy. By 
pp. 275. Third edition. Glasgow, 
Smith & Son ; Edinburgh, William 
Whyte; 1817. 

ONE of the worst features of the 
present times is the separation that 
has taken place between science and 
religion. During the early part of the 
history of English literature, we find 
great talents combined with a sublime 
piety, and the most enlightened phi- 
losophy with a fervent and glowing 
devotion ; and they who explained to 
us the system of nature, defended the 
cause, and venerated the authority, of 
revelation. The piety of Milton, of 
Boyle, and of Newton, was not less 
remarkable than the superiority of 
their other endowments ; and it will 
ever be regarded as a striking circum- 
stance, that those giant minds, who 
have exalted the glory of English li- 
terature above that of all other na- 
tions, and whom we are accustomed 
to consider as an honour to the species 
itself, were distinguished above all 
other men for their habitual and so- 
lemn veneration of religion. 

Since the age of these distinguished 
writers the connexion between sci- 
ence and religion seems gradually to 
have been becoming less intimate. 
We are unwilling to arrange ourselves 
with those gloomy individuals who 
are found in every age to declaim a- 
gainst the peculiar depravity of their 
own times ; but it is impossible not to 
see, that the profound reverence for 
sacred things, which distinguished the 
illustrious characters of a former age, 
is not now the characteristic of those 
by whom science is promoted, and 
knowledge extended. An enlarged 
acquaintance with the works of nature 
is no longer the assured token of that 
deep-toned and solemn piety, which 
elevated the character, and purified the 
manners, of the fathers of our philo- 
sophy. Science is now seen without 
religion, and religion without science; 
and the consequence is, that the sa- 
cred system of revelation, however 

VOL. I. 

magnificent and beautiful in itself, is 
in danger of being considered as fitted 
only to be the creed of less enlightened 
minds, and of failing in some measure, 
from this unfortunate opinion, to 
produce those important effects upon 
mankind, for the accomplishment of 
which it is so pre-eminently adapted. 
The volume before us is calculat- 
ed, we think, in no common degree, 
to counteract this unhappy declen- 
sion. It is written with an enthu- 
siasm, and an eloquence, to which 
we scarcely know where to find any 
parallel ; and there is, at the same 
time, so constant a reference to the 
improved philosophy of modern times, 
that it possesses an air of philo- 
sophical grandeur and truth, which 
the productions of a more popular and 
declamatory eloquence can never at- 
tain. Were the taste of the author 
equal to his genius, and his judgment 
always sufficient to control the fervours 
of his imagination, the labours of Dr 
Chalmers could not fail to be infinitely 
beneficial. But here lies our author's 
chief deficiency. His genius is of 
the kind that is marked by its pecu- 
liarities as much as by its superiority ; 
and this circumstance, we think, is the 
more to be regretted, as there is mani- 
festly no necessary connexion between 
the excellencies and defects by which 
his works are characterised. The 
natural relations of the intellectual 
powers might have been more correctly 
maintained in his mind, while all his 
faculties continued to be exerted with 
the same constancy and vigour, 
and the same originality and inven- 
tion might have been combined with 
greater dignity, and more uniform ele- 
gance. We have therefore but a short 
process to institute, in order to admit 
our readers into a knowledge of the 
character of our author's mind. In 
our intercourse with the world, we oft- 
en meet with persons in whom what 
we call genius predominates over every 
other feature ; and who, though not 
superior to their fellows in taste, judg- 
ment, or understanding, are yet infin- 
itely superior to them in the capacity 
of forming striking combinations of 
ideas, or in the endowments of an excur- 

Review. Dr Chalmers's Discourses. 


sive or elevated imagination. This is 
precisely the case with the author whose 
works we are considering. Genius in 
him shines paramount to every other 
quality of his mind. In every page 
of the volume, which has suggested 
these observations, there is something 
bold, original, and striking ; and yet 
there is every now and then some pe- 
culiarity of expression that offends a 
cultivated taste, or some wildness of 
sentiment that excites astonishment 
and wonder rather than sympathy. 

The author of these discourses is so 
well known to our readers in this part 
of the island, that it would be quite 
superfluous on their account to say 
any thing of his private history, but 
for the sake of our readers in the south, 
we suspect it may be necessary to tell, 
in a single sentence, who Dr Chalmers 
is, and how he has attained that un- 
common celebrity he now enjoys a- 
mong us. 

Till within these few years, Dr 
Chalmers was scarcely known beyond 
the circle of his personal friends. He 
obtained, at an early period, a living 
in an obscure part of the country ; and 
being naturally of an inquisitive and 
active disposition, he devoted himself, 
in the leisure of his professional en- 
gagements, to an ardent prosecution of 
scientific knowledge. Accident, ac- 
cording to report, led him, some few 
years ago, to examine with more than 
ordinary attention the foundations of 
the Christian faith ; and as the result 
of his investigations was a deep im- 
pression of the strength of the evidence 
by which it is supported, he now 
brought to the illustration and defence 
of religion a double portion of the en- 
thusiasm he had already devoted to 
science. Hitherto he had been at- 
tached to that party in our church 
which aspires to the title of moderate 
or liberal he now connected himself 
with those who wish to be thought more 
strict and apostolic. His reputation as a 
preacher, as might have been expected 
from the warmth and fervour of his 
eloquence, began now rapidly to extend 
itself; and the whole country was soon 
filled with the fame of his eloquence 
and his merits. The reputation he had 
thus acquired was not diminished but 
enhanced, by his occasional appear- 
ances in the congregations of this me- 
tropolis. His speeches last year in the 
General Assembly of the Scottish 
Church, and his sermons before the 

Lord High Commissioner and for the 
sons of the clergy, made known his 
merits to most of the eminent men in 
this part of the kingdom, and will be 
long remembered in this quarter as the 
most brilliant display of eloquence and 
of genius which we have ever had the 
good fortune to witness. 

Such is our author's brief and simple 
story, previous to the publication of 
the present volume. We must not 
induce our readers, however, to be- 
lieve that the public were as yet all a- 
greed in their opinion of Dr Chalmers' 
merits. His former publications had 
been distinguished rather by a fertility 
of imagination than by a deliberate and 
cool judgment. He had been accus- 
tomed, it was said, to take up an opi- 
nion as it were by accident, and to de- 
fend it with enthusiastic ingenuity and 
energy, though at the same time he was 
overlooking something so obvious and 
palpable, that the most simple novice 
might detect the fallacy of his argu- 
ment. He had written on the national 
resources, and had attributed every 
thing to agriculture, demonstrating 
our perfect independence of the luxu- 
ries of trade and commerce. He had 
published a treatise on the Evidences 
of Christianity, and had denied that the 
internal evidence was of any impor- 
tance. Some detached sermons which 
he had given to the public had been 
deformed by an austerity at which the 
polite world revolted ; and it was 
thought that the new work which was 
announced would be found obnoxious 
to the same censures. With respect 
to this work, now that it has been 
published, we conceive that there 
can be but one opinion that it is 
a piece of splendid and powerful 
eloquence, injured indeed by many 
peculiarities of expression, by provin- 
cial idioms and colloquial barbarisms, 
but, at the same time, more free from 
the author's peculiar blemishes than 
any of his former productions, and 
forming, notwithstanding its many 
faults, a work likely to excite almost 
universal admiration. That it would 
be improved, we think, every one will 
likewise allow, were there less same- 
ness of sentiment and of expression 
were there fewer words of the author's 
own invention were the purity of the 
PJnglish language, in short, as much 
attended to as its power and energy. 
If the author would only cultivate his 
taste as much as his imagination, he 


might do more for the cause he has &t 
heart, the cause of Christianity, than 
any other person with whom we are 

The principal object of the dis- 
courses in the present volume is to 
prepare the mind for the direct evi- 
dence of Christianity to do away that 
presumption which is supposed to exist 
a priori against this astonishing dis- 
pensation to shew the infidel that 
there are things in nature hardly less 
wonderful than the redemption of man 
and that, amazing as is the scheme 
of revelation, it is yet in perfect ana- 
logy with the known attributes of God. 
Men of science, who see the opera- 
tions of nature conducted according to 
uniform laws, and without the visible 
interference of an external agent, are 
apt to take up a prepossession against 
any system of miracles ; and when 
philosophy unfolds the volume of cre- 
ation, and the understanding expatiates 
delighted on the laws and motions 
of planetary worlds, it is natural for 
us to imagine that science has out- 
stript the discoveries of religion, and 
that the records of the gospel are 
thrown into the shade by the triumphs 
of reason. " These are the prejudices 
which lie at the foundation of natural 
science ;" and our author has exposed 
them with an ability and a success 
scarcely inferior to that of Butler him- 
self, and in a manner certainly " bet- 
ter adapted to the taste and literature 
of the times." He shews, that the 
faith of Christians is in reality some- 
thing noble and sublime ; and that, 
" elevated as the wisdom of him may 
be, who has ascended the heights of 
science, and poured the light of de- 
monstration over the most wondrous 
of nature's mysteries that even out 
of his own principles it may be proved, 
how much more elevated is the wisdom 
of him who sits with the docility of a 
little child to his Bible, and casts down 
to its authority all his lofty imagina- 

The limits of a publication of this 
kind prevent us from entering into a 
minute examination of the work before 
us ; and as we are sensible that we 
could do no justice to an analysis of 
these discourses, without allotting to 
it a greater space than is consistent 
with the plan of our publication, we 
shall conclude these general hints by 
recommending the volume, in the 

Review* Dr Chalmers's Discourse!. 

strongest manner, to the perusal of our 
readers. To Dr Chalmers we would 
earnestly recommend, in his future 
productions, to avoid that eccentric 
phraseology, and that occasional un- 
couthness and vulgarity of expression, 
which cannot but counteract, in a very 
considerable degree, the effect of his 
enthusiastic and touching eloquence. 
His object is a style " adapted to the 
taste and literature of the times ;" and 
the common defence of popular theo- 
logians, that they write to impress the 
heart and the understanding, and not 
to sooth or gratify a fastidious taste, 
will not avail Dr Chalmers, who writes 
expressly for the literary world, and 
who must be sensible that it cannot 
benefit his cause to appear before them 
with those very blemishes which are 
most revolting to their peculiar habits 
and associations. 

Upon the whole, we are convinced 
that the effect of these discourses must 
be great and salutary. They will tend 
to shew the worshippers of reason and 
of science, that Christianity is in reality 
something transcendently sublime, in- 
teresting, and valuable ; and to con- 
vince the world in general that a warm 
and habitual piety is really one of the 
characteristics of superior minds, while 
scepticism arises from an incapacity of 
profound emotion or grand conception. 
If the world were once convinced of 
this, the associations of the young and 
the gay would no longer interest them 
in favour of infidelity. Religion would 
become again universally loved, hon- 
oured, and practised ; and the English 
character, instead of being gradually 
degraded to the diminutive model 
which is held out by the "most flippant 
and unprincipled of our neighbours, 
would probably revert with unexpected 
celerity to its ancient style of grandeur 
and simplicity. It is only necessary 
that genius, which has been so long en- 
listed, throughout all Europe, on the 
side of infidelity, should again rouse 
itself in the cause of religion, to accom- 
plish so desirable a revolution in the 
opinions and character of men. If a 
few great and original minds, like that 
of Dr Chalmers, should arise to advo- 
cate the cause of Christianity, it would 
no longer be the fashion to exalt the 
triumphs of reason and of science, in 
order to throw contempt on llie dis- 
coveries of the gospel. 


Review. Harold the Dauntless. 

Harold the Dauntless ; a Poem. By 
the Author of " The Bridal of Trier- 
main." 1817, Constable & Co. pp. 

THIS is an elegant, sprightly, and 
delightful little poem, written appar- 
ently by a person of taste and genius, 
but who either possesses not the art 
of forming and combining a plot, or 
regards it only as a secondary and sub- 
ordinate object. In this we do not 
widely differ from him, but are sensi- 
ble meantime, that many others will ; 
and that the rambling and uncertain 
nature of the story, will be the prin- 
cipal objection urged against the poem 
before us, as well as the greatest bar 
to its extensive popularity. The char- 
acter of Mr Scott's romances has ef- 
fected a material change in our mode 
of estimating poetical compositions. 
In all the estimable works of our 
former poets, from Spencer down to 
Thomson and Cowper, the plot seems 
to have been regarded only as good or 
bad, in proportion to the advantages 
which it furnished for poetical descrip- 
tion ; but of late years, one half, at 
least, of the merit of a poem is sup- 
posed to rest on the interest and man- 
agement of the tale. 

We speak not exclusively of that 
numerous class of readers, who peruse 
and estimate a new poem, or any poem, 
with the same feelings and precisely 
on the same principles as they do a 
novel. It is natural for such persons 
to judge only by the effect produced 
by the incidents ; but we have often 
been surprised that some of our literary 
critics, even those to whose judgment 
we were most disposed to bow, should 
lay so much 'stress on the probability 
and fitness of every incident which 
the fancy of the poet may lead him to 
embellish in the course of a narrative 
poem, a great proportion of which 
must necessarily be descriptive. The 
author of Harold the Dauntless seems 
to have judged differently from these 
critics, and in the lightsome rapid 
strain of poetry which he has chosen, 
we feel no disposition to quarrel with 
him on account of the easy and care- 
less manner in which he has arranged 
his story. In many instances, he un- 
doubtedly shows the hand of a mas- 
ter, and (as the director-general of our 
artists would say,) " has truly studied 
and seized the essential character of 
the antique his attitudes and drape- 
ries are unconfined, and varied with 


demi-tints, possessing much of the 
lustre, freshness, and spirit of Rem- 
brandt. The airs of his heads have 
grace, and his distances something of 
the lightness and keeping of Salvator 
Rosa. The want of harmony and 
union in the carnations of his females, 
is a slight objection, and there is like- 
wise a meagre skeetiness in his contrasts 
of chiaroscuro ; but these are all re- 
deemed by the felicity, execution, and 
master traits, distinguishable in his 
grouping, by which, like Murillo or 
Carraveggio, he sometimes raises from 
out the rubbish masses of a colossal 

But the work has another quality ; 
and though its leading one, we do 
not know whether to censure or ap- 
prove it. It is an avowed imitation, 
and therefore loses part of its value, 
if viewed as an original production. 
On the other hand, regarded solely 
as an imitation, it is one of the closest 
and most successful, without being 
either a caricature or a parody, that 
perhaps ever appeared in any lan- 
guage. Not only is the general man- 
ner of Scott ably maintained through- 
out, but the very structure of the 
language, the associations, and the 
train of thinking, appear to be pre- 
cisely the same. It was once alleged 
by some writers, that it was impossi- 
ble to imitate Mr Scott's style, but 
it is now fully proved to the world, 
that there is no style more accessible 
to imitation ; for it will be remarked, 
(laying parodies aside, which any one 
may execute), that Mr Davidson and 
Miss Holford, as well as Lord Byron 
and Wordsworth, each in one instance, 
have all, without, we believe, intend- 
ing it, imitated him with considerable 
closeness. The author of the Poetic 
Mirror has given us one specimen of 
his most polished and tender style, 
and another still more close of his 
rapid and careless manner; but all of 
them fall greatly short of The Bridal 
of Triermain, and the poem now before 
us. We are sure the author will laugh 
heartily in his sleeve, at our silliness 
and want of perception, when we con- 
fess to him that we never could open 
either of these works, and peruse his 
pages for two minutes with attention, 
and at the same time divest our minds 
of the idea, that we were engaged in 
an early or experimental work of that 
great master. That they are generally 
inferior to the works of Mr Scott, in 

Review. Harold the Dauntless, 


vigour and interest, admits not of dis- 
pute ; still they have many of his wild 
and softer beauties ; and if they fail 
to be read and admired, we shall not 
on that account think the better of the 
taste of the age. 

With regard to the former of these 
poems, we have often heard, from 
what may be deemed good authority, 
a very curious anecdote, which we 
shall give merely as such, without 
vouching for the truth of it. When 
the article entitled ' The Inferno of 
Altisidora,' appeared in the Edinburgh 
Annual Register for 1809, it will be 
remembered, that the last fragment 
contained in that singular production, 
is the beginning of the romance of 
Triermain. Report says, that the 
fragment was not meant to be an imi- 
tation of Scott but of Coleridge ; and 
that for this purpose the author bor- 
rowed both the name of the hero and 
the scene from the then unpublished 
poem of Christabelle ; and further, 
that so few had ever seen the manu- 
script of that poem, that amongst 
these few the author of Triermain 
could not be mistaken. Be that as 
it may, it is wsll known, that on the 
appearance of this fragment in the 
Annual Register, it was universally 
taken for an imitation of Walter Scott, 
and never once of Coleridge. The au- 
thor perceiving this, and that the poem 
was well received, instantly set about 
drawing it out into a regular and 
finished work; for shortly after, it 
was announced in the papers, and con- 
tinued to be so for three long years ; 
the author, as may be supposed, hav- 
ing, during that period, his hands oc- 
casionally occupied with heavier metal. 
In 1813 the poem was at last pro- 
duced, avowedly and manifestly as an 
imitation of Mr Scott ; and it may 
easily be observed, that from the 27th 
page onward, it becomes much more 
decidedly like the manner of that 
poet than it is in the preceding part 
which was published in the Register, 
and which undoubtedly does bear some 
similarity to Coleridge in the poetry, 
and more especially in the rythm, as, 

' Harpers must lull him to his rest, 
With the slow tunes he loves the best, 
Till sleep sink down upon his breast, 
Like the dew on a summer hill.' 

It was the dawn of an autumn day, 

The sun was struggling with frost-fog gray , 

That, like a silvery crape, was spread 
Round Skiddaw's dim and distant head.' 

What time, or where 

Did she pass, that maid with the heavenly 


With her look so sweet, and her eyes so fair, 
And her graceful step, and her angel air, 
And the eagle-plume on her dark-brown hair, 
That pass'd from my bower e'en now ?' 

' Although it fell as faint and shy 
As bashful maiden's half-formed sigh, 
When she thinks her lover near.' 

' And light they fell, as when earth receives, 
In morn of frost, the withered leaves 
That drop when no winds blow.' 

' Or if 'twas but an airy thing, 
Such as fantastic slumbers bring, 
Framed from the rainbow's varying dyes, 
Or fading tints of western skies.' 

These, it will be seen, are not ex- 
actly Coleridge, but they are precisely 
such an imitation of Coleridge as, we 
conceive, another poet of our acquaint- 
ance would write : on that ground, 
we are inclined to give some credit to 
the anecdote here related, and from it 
we leave our readers to guess, as we 
have done, who is the author of the 
poems in question. 

It may be argued by the capricious, 
and those of slow-motioned souls, that 
this proves nothing; but we assure 
them it proves all that we intend or 
desire to have proved ; for we think 
the present mode of endeavouring to 
puzzle people's brains about the au- 
thors of every work that appears ex- 
tremely amusing. It has likewise a 
very beneficial and delightful conse- 
quence, in as much as it makes many 
persons to be regarded as great au- 
thors, and looked up to as extraordi- 
nary characters, who otherwise would 
never have been distinguished in the 
slightest degree from their fellows. 
We shall only say, once for all, that 
whenever we are admitted behind the 
curtain, we shall never blab the secrets 
of the green-room, for we think there 
is neither honour nor discretion in so 
doing ; but when things are left for 
us to guess at, we may sometimes 
blunder on facts that will astonish 
these mist-enveloped authors, as well 
as their unfathomable printer, who we 
think may soon adopt for a sign-board 
or motto, Mr Murray's very appro- 
priate and often-repeated postscript 
(t? No admittance behind the scenes. 
And, at all events, if we should some- 

times mistake, it will only be produc- 
tive of a little more amusement in the 
discussion of the literary capabilities 
of some new individuals, with their 
styles and manners, even down to the 
composition of a law paper. 

We cannot give long extracts from 
every work which we propose to no- 
tice, but we have no hesitation in 
saying, that the poem of Harold is 
throughout easy and flowing; never 
tame, and often exhibits great spirit. 
But it is apparent that the author had 
no plan in going on, farther than the 
very affected and unnatural one, now 
rendered trite by repetition, of making 
his hero wed his page, who turns out 
to be a lady in disguise. All the rest 
of the poem seems to run on at mere 
random. The introduction begins 
with the following stanzas. 
" There is a mood of mind weall have known, 
On drowsy eve, or dark and low'ring day, 
When the tired spirits lose their sprightly 

And nought can chace the lingering hours 


Dull on our soul falls Fancy's dazzling ray, 
And, Wisdom holds his steadier torch in vain, 
Obscured the painting seems, mistimed the 


Nor dare we of our listless load complain, 
For who for sympathy may seek that cannot 

tell of pain ! 
Ennui ! or, as our mothers call'd thee, 

Spleen ! 

To thee we owe full many a rare device ; 
Thine is the sheaf of painted cards, I ween, 
The rolling billiard-ball, the rattling dice, 
The turning lathe for framing gimcrack nice ; 
The amateur's blotch 'd pallet thou may'st 

Retort and airpump, threatening frogs and 


(Murders disguised by philosophic name,) 
And much of trifling grave, and much of 

buxom game. 

Then of the books to catch thy drowsy glance 
Compiled, what bard the catalogue may quote! 
Plays, poems, novels, never read but once; 
But not of such the tale fair Edgeworth wrote, 
Timt bears thy name, and is thine antidote ; 
And not of such the strain my Thomson sung, 
Delicious dreams inspiring by his note, 
What time to Indolence his harp he strung ; 
Oh ! might my lay be rank'd that happier 

list among !" 

The dry humour, and sort of half 
Spenserian cast of these, as well as 
all the other introductory stanzas in 
the poern, we think excellent, and 
scarcely outdone by any thing of the 
kind that we know of; and there are 
few parts, taken separately, that have 
not something attractive to the lover 
of natural poetry, while any one page 

Review. Armata. Aprii 

will shew how extremely it is like to 
the manner of Scott. 

A professed imitator will not, we 
presume, value himself much on his 
pretensions to originality, else we might 
perhaps give the author some offence 
by remarking, that the demeanour of 
Harold in the fane of St Cuthbert, is 
too like that of Wat o' the Cleuch 
in Jedburgh abbey, to be viewed as 
purely incidental ; and it is not a little 
singular, that he should have judged 
it meet to borrow from another imita- 
tor, who, in that style and instance, is 
so decidedly his inferior. 

We shall only add, that Harold the 
Dauntless is a fit and reputable com- 
panion to Triermain. The poetry is 
more equal, and has more of nature 
and human character; yet when duly 
perused and reflected on, it scarcely 
leaves on the mind, perhaps, so dis- 
tinct and powerful an impression. 

Armata. A Fragment. London, Mur- 
ray, 1817. pp. 210. 
IT is a remarkable fact, that no crisis 
of our political existence, during the 
last half-century, has called forth so 
few of our pamphleteer speculators on 
statistics as the present; when the 
unexampled difficulties which have op- 
pressed our agriculture, our manufac- 
tures, and our commerce, difficulties 
from whose operation no one amongst 
us has been exempt, and whose extent 
no one amongst us can define, present 
so wide a field to our soi-disant philo- 
sophers and statesmen. Whether this 
silence be owing to a want of ability, 
or a want of inclination to encounter a 
subject of such magnitude, it is not now 
our business to determine. Two plans, 
however, have been brought forward, 
which we are assured will relieve us 
from all our embarrassments. Major 
Cartwright prescribes for us universal 
suffrage and annual parliaments, while 
a distinguished member of the Legis- 
lature is not less sanguine in his ex- 
pectation, that our farmers and our 
manufactures will find a remedy for 
all their distresses in the plains of 
South America ! The subject having 
been thus neglected, it was with not 
less pleasure than surprise, that on 
reading the tract before us, we found 
that the author, whoever he be de- 
velopes in a masterly manner the causes 
which have brought us into our pre- 
sent alarming situation, and explains 
the measures which, he thinks, ought to 
be adopted to work out our deliverance. 

I S 1 7. "2 Review. Stories far Children. 79 

It will be doubtless, he asked, how space in the political world during the 
it is that such subjects should be treat- last thirty years ; and although in the 
ed of under the title of ARMATA ? 

and it is therefore necessary that we 
should inform our readers that AUMA- 
TA is the name of a country placed by 
the author in an imaginary world ; in 
depicting which country, he gives a 
most eloquent and animated descrip- 
tion of the policy of Great Britain, 
tracing the history of her distresses 
from the beginning of the contest with 
America downwards, through the re- 
volutionary war with France to the 
present day. How far it was neces- 
sary to resort to a new world, in order 
to find a vehicle for the conveyance of 
his ideas on the distresses of Great 
Britain, may be matter of doubt ; but 
be that as it may, the author has dis- 
played, in the investigation of the 
question, deep knowledge of the sub- 

second edition of Armata, which is 
now before us, the author does not 
avow himself, yet, as it is a work which 
even the eminent person alluded to 
might be proud to acknowledge, and as 
it speaks the same sentiments, which 
he has always maintained, we are in- 
clined to give credit to the rumour 
which has named him the author of 
this spirited and able performance. 

Stories for Children; selected from 
the History of England, from the 
Conquest to the Revolution. 18mo. 
pp. 186. 1817. Second edition, Lon- 
don, Murray. 

PARTIAL as we confess ourselves to 
be to the pleasing recollections of our 
early years, we must admit that the 
little folks of this generation have 

ject, and has discussed it in a style of many advantages which we did not 
brilliant eloquence, tempered, how- 
ever, with a degree of moderation, too 
seldom witnessed in works on the 
political topics of the present day. The 
following character of Mr Fox, is a 
fair specimen of the author's powers 
of writing. 

" My confidence in this opinion is the 
more unshaken, from the recollection that 
I held it at the very time, in common with 
a man whom, to have known as 1 did, 
would have repaid all the toils and perils 
you have undergone. I look upon you, in- 
deed, as a benighted traveller, to have been 
cast upon our shores after this great light 
were set Never was a being gifted with an 
understanding so perfect, nor aided by a 
perception which suffered nothing to escape 
from its dominion He was never known 
to omit any thing which in the slightest de- 
gree could affect the matter to be considered, 
nor to confound things at all distinguish- 
able, however apparently the same ; and 
his conclusions were always so luminous and 
convincing, that you might as firmly de- 
pend upon them as when substances in na- 
ture lie before you in the palpable forms 
assigned to them from the foundation of the 
world Such were his qualifications for the 
office of a statesman ; and his profound 
knowledge, always under the guidance of the 
sublime simplicity of his heart, softening, 
without unnerving the giant strength of his 
intellect, gave a character to his eloquence 
which I shall not attempt to describe, know- 
ing nothing by which it may be compared." 
pp. 8688. 

It has been said, and we believe 
without having been contradicted, that 
this work is the production of a very 
eloquent and distinguished member of 
the Legislature, who has filled a large 

enjoy. The juvenile library of our 
day was of limited extent ; and though 
amply furnished with Mother Bunch, 
&c. it could not boast of the admir- 
able productions of a Mrs Barbauld, a 
Miss Edgeworth, and a number of 
other eminent writers who have not 
disdained the humble, but most useful, 
task of teaching " the young idea how 
to shoot." The manner in which 
these meritorious authors have com- 
bined instruction with entertainment, 
we consider as one of the great im- 
provements of modern times. His- 
tory is now rendered " as attractive 
as a fairy tale," and our little mas- 
ters and misses may be as familiar with 
the characters of real life as their pre- 
decessors were with Blue Beard and 
Little Red Riding Hood. 

We have been particularly gratified 
with the little book which has given 
rise to these reflections. The author 
has expressed so shortly, and so well, 
the reasons which led him to compose 
charming stories for his own family, 
and induced him to favour the world 
with them, that we think our readers 
will be pleased to see them in his own 

" Every person has, I suppose, felt the 
difficulty of paying the contribution of stories 
which children are so anxious to levy. I 
happen to have one little girl whose curi- 
osity and shrewdness have frequently em- 
barrassed me ; I have found that fictions 
led to inquiries which it was not easy to 
satisfy, and that supernatural fictions (such 
as fairy tales) vitiated the young taste, and 
disgusted it from its more substantial nour- 
ishment, while the fictions of common life, 

Review. -Stories for Children. 

such as histories of Jenny and Tommy, 
of dolls and tops) though very useful as 
lessons, had not enough of the marvellous 
to arrest the attention to the degree neces- 
sary for amusement. These considerations 
led me to tell my little girl the following 
stories, which I found to amuse her in a very 
high degree, without having any of the dis- 
advantages which result from relations mere- 
ly fictitious. My principal object was not 
to instruct but to amuse, and I therefore did 
not attempt any think like a course of his- 
tory ; but as I have, in general, adhered to 
historical fact, and departed from it only 
(when history was doubtful or silent) in fa- 
vour of some popular prejudices, whatever 
lasting impression may be made on the 
young mind, will be, on the whole, consist- 
ent with truth, and conducive to its further 
and more substantial improvement." 

As a specimen of the happy manner 
in which our author unites the utmost 
elegance of language, with that sim- 
plicity which adapts itself to the ten- 
derest years, we select his story of 
Wat Tyler: 


Richard II. horn 1366 Died 1399 

Reigned 22 years. 

" There are often great riots in England, 
which are sometimes very dangerous, for 
when mobs assemble nobody knows what 
such a great crowd of foolish ignorant peo- 
ple may do ; but one time, about four hun- 
dred years ago, there happened the most 
dangerous riots that ever were known, for 
all the country people armed themselves 
with clubs, and staves, and scythes, and 
pitchforks, and they rose in such great num- 
bers, that they drove away all the king's 
soldiers, and got possession of the city of 

" The chief leaders of this mob were not 
gentlemen nor soldiers, but common peas- 
ants and tradesmen, who were called after 
the names of their trades, Wat Tyler, Hob 
Carter, and Tom Miller ; and as these fel- 
lows could neither read nor write, and were 
poor ignorant wretches, they took a great 
hatred to all gentlemen, and every body who 
could read and write, and they put some of 
them to death ; and the whole city was kept 
for several days in the greatest confusion 
and danger, and all quiet honest people 
were afraid for their lives. 

" The king at this time was called Rich- 
ard, not Cceur de Lion, but another king 
Richard, who was called Richard the Second. 
He was the grandson of Edward the Third ; 
but he was neither so wise nor so fortunate 
as his grandfather, who was a great king. 
Richard was very young, not more than 
seventeen years old, and it is not surprising 
that he hardly knew how to stop the pro- 
ceedings of this riotous mob ; for his sol- 
diers were driven away, many of his minis- 
ters were put to death, and the rest of them 
were forced to fly. 

" At kst the king thought it best to go 
and meet the mob, and hear what they had 
to say. So he went with the lord mayor, 
and a few other lords and gentlemen, to a 
place called Smithfield, where the mob were 
encamped as if they had been an army. 
When Wat Tyler, who was their chief 
leader, saw the young king coming, he ad- 
vanced to meet him, and then they began 
to talk and dispute together ; but at length 
Wat Tyler was so insolent to the king, that 
his conduct was not to be borne ; and al- 
though it was in sight of his own army, the 
lord mayor of London had the courage to 
strike him down with his mace, and then the 
other gentlemen put Wat Tyler immediate- 
ly to death. 

" The rioters seeing Wat Tyler, their 
leader, fall, prepared to revenge themselves 
on the king and his party ; and the whole, 
even the king himself, would undoubtedly 
have been murdered on the spot, but that 
Richard, young as he was, saved them all 
by his own courage ; for when he saw the 
mob so furious, instead of seeming fright- 
ened, he rode up to them alone, and said 
to them, in a good-humoured manner, 
' What is the matter my good people ? Are 
you angry that you have lost your leader ? 
I am your king, and I will be your leader 

" The mob was astonished and over- 
awed by the king's courage, and they im- 
mediately obeyed him, and followed him 
out into the fields ; for the king was glad 
to get them out of the city, where they were 
committing all manner of mischief. 

" When he had them in the fields, he 
had such a strong guard of his own soldiers 
that he was no longer afraid of the rioters. 
So he commanded them all to disband, and 
go quietly to their own houses ; which ac- 
cordingly they immediately did, and not a 
life was lost after the death of Wat Tyler, 
who very well deserved his fate for his re- 
bellion against the king, and for all the 
mischief and murders that his rebellion had 

We rather think this story may be 
read with advantage atpresentby child- 
ren of a larger growth as we certainly 
did not expect that Wat Tyler would 
have been held up as a patriot even to a 
Spafields mob. We regret that we 
have not room for further extracts, 
" The Murder in the Tower," in par- 
ticular, is very affectingly told. But 
the specimen we have already quoted 
will render it quite superfluous for u& 
to say one word more in praise of this 
excellent little work, which we have 
no doubt will soon form a part of 
every juvenile library ; and we can 
assure the distinguished author, from 
our own experience, that these stories 
have been as " successful in other fa- 
milies as they have been in his own." 

Periodical Works. Edinburgh Review. 




1. Childe Harold's Pilgrimage, Canto 
the Third, and The Prisoner of Chilian, 
and other Poems. By LORD BYRON. 
In this article the Reviewers do not 
confine themselves altogether to these 
two publications, but the Corsair be- 
ing the last work of Lord Byron of 
which they had given a particular ac- 
count, they introduce their examina- 
tion of the present works by notices of 
Lara, The Siege of Corinth, and other 
intermediate pieces. This Third Canto 
of Childe Harold, the Reviewers are 
persuaded, will not be pronounced in- 
ferior to either of the former; and they 
think that it will probably be ranked 
above them by those who have been 
most delighted with the whole. Of 
The Prisoner of Chilian they speak in 
the language of praise ; but the rest of 
the poems are said to be less amiable, 
and most of them, the Reviewers fear, 
have a personal and not very charit- 
able application. 

2. A Letter to the Roman Catholic 
Priests of Ireland, on the expediency of 
reviving the Canonical mode of electing 
Bishops by Dean and Chapter, &c. By 
C. O. There is no further notice of 
the book or its author. It is a disserta- 
tion on the Catholic question, in which 
the Reviewer endeavours to shew that 
no securities whatever should be re- 
quired from the Catholics as the con- 
dition of their emancipation. 

3. Defence of Usury : .showing the 
impolicy of the present legal restraints 
on the term of pecuniary bargains, in 
Letters to a Friend. To which is added, 
a Letter to Adam Smith, Esq. LL.D. 
on the discouragements opposed by the 
above restraints to the progress of in- 
ventive industry. The third edition : 
to which is also added, second edition, 
a Protest against Law Taxes. By 
JEREMY BENTHAM, Esq. of Lincoln s 
Inn. In this article the Reviewer be- 
gins with examining the reasons that 
have been urged in defence of the 
usury laws, and finds that they pro- 
duce none of the good which they pre- 
tend to have in view ; and then pro- 
ceeds to point out the mischiefs which 
they create in all directions. These 

VOL. I. 

laws are considered to be also insuf- 
ficient, and inconsistent with their 
avowed purposes, as they allow of tran- 
sactions substantially usurious. The 
penalties imposed upon all who assist 
suitors in courts of justice, with the 
means of enforcing their rights, sti- 
pulating for a certain premium, which 
the law of England denominates main- 
tenance and champerty, are reprobated 
as the growth of a barbarous age ; and 
a very strong case is extracted from Mr 
Bentham's treatise, to show the ruin- 
ous consequences of this law to needy 
suitors. The repeal of the usury laws, 
however, is held to be imprudent at 
this particular crisis, as " all persons 
now owing money would inevitably 
have their creditors coming upon them 
for payment." It is to be wished the 
Reviewer had taken into consideration 
the effects which this repeal might 
produce upon the terms of loans to 
government, and upon the price of 
the public funds. The Protest a- 
guinst Law Taxes is highly extol- 
led. The privilege of sueing in for- 
ma pauperis is shewn to be of little 
value. Stamps on law proceedings are 
censured ; and the vulgar argument, 
that such taxes operate as a check to 
litigation, is said to be " triumphantly 
refuted" by Mr Bentham. 

4. Wesentliche Betrachtungen oder 
Geschichte des Krieges Zwischen den 
Osmanen imd Russen in den Jahren 
1768 bis 1774, von RESMI ACHMEJU 
EFENDI, aus dem Tiirkischen ubersetzt 
und durch Anmerkungen erlardert von 
This book is a history of the war be- 
tween Russian and the Ottoman Porte, 
in the years 1768 1774, originally 
written in Turkish by Resmi Achmed 
Efendi, and translated into German by 
M. Von Diez. The Reviewer has con- 
trived, by the playfulness and pleasan- 
try of his style, to render this short 
article very amusing. The work it- 
self, he says, is dull enough in all con- 
science, but it is a literary curiosity. 

5. National Difficulties practically 
explained, and Remedies proposed as 
certain, speedy, and effectual, for the 
relief of all our present embarrassments. 
The questions proposed for discus- 

Periodical Works.- Edinburgh Revieiv. 

sion in this article are, 1st, In what 
manner were the people of this coun- 
try, who are now idle, formerly em- 
ployed ? The substance of the answer 
is, that foreign trade was " the source 
from which employment flowed to 
all classes of her industrious inhabi- 
tants." 2d, By what means were they 
deprived of this employment? The 
answer is, that this commerce was 
suddenly pent up, partly by a train of 
ill-concerted measures at home, and 
partly by the policy of the enemy 
abroad, within the narrow bounds of 
the British territory. " We sought 
to ruin the enemy's trade, and we 
have succeeded in ruining our own." 
And 3d, Whether there is any pro- 
bability that it (employment) ever will 
be regained ? This is the most import- 
ant question. " We have no proof," the 
Reviewer says, " that the consumption 
of our manufactures, either in Europe 
or in America, has fallen off." Our error 
has been in overstocking these markets; 
but the goods will be consumed, and 
trade revive. The most important of 
the other causes of the distress which 
prevails are, the decline of agriculture, 
and the increase of taxation. 

6. The Works of Henry Howard, 
Earl of Surrey, and of Sir Thomas 
Wyatt the Elder. Edited by GEORGE 
fellow of All Souls College, Oxford. 
For one of these quartos, that which 
contains the works of the Earl of Sur- 
rey, the Reviewers are inclined to make 
every allowance, and to muster up every 
thing favourable ; but Sir Thomas 
Wyatt " was in no true sense of the 
word a poet ;" and as their object is to 
consider poets and poetry, they take 
leave of him at once. This article con- 
tains a summary of the Life of the 
Earl of Surrey, and a critique on his 
poetry. " We see not the slightest 
ground," say the Reviewers, " for de- 
priving Chaucer, in any one respect, 
of his title of Father of English Poe- 
try," and " we are heartily ready to 
allow, that Surrey well deserves that of 
the eldest son, however much he was 
surpassed by the brothers that imme- 
diately followed him." 

7. Narrative of a Journey in Egypt, 
and the Country beyond the Cataracts. 
By THOMAS LEGH, Esq. M.P. The 
Reviewers speak well of this work. 
After accompanying Mr Legh on his 
journey, and extracting a very inter- 
esting part of the narrative, they con- 


elude with some account of the Waha- 
bees of Arabia, chiefly taken from the 
Travels of Ali Bey. 

8. The Statesman s Manual ; or the 
Bible the Best Guide to Political Skill 
and Foresight ; a Lay Sermon, ad- 
dressed to the higher classes of Society ; 
with an Appendix. By S. T. COLE- 
RIDGE, Esq. This article abounds in 
ridicule and metaphor as well as in ar- 
gument. If any one delights in see- 
ing a poor author cut up, he must be 
amply gratified by this indignant and 
scornful performance. 

9. Letters from St Helena. By 
WILLIAM WARDEN, Surgeon on board 
the Northumberland. The Reviewers 
point out some mistakes in Mr War- 
den's historical recollections, but ob- 
serve, " that there is an air of plain- 
ness and sincerity in his account of 
what he saw and heard, that recom- 
mends it strongly to the confidence of 
his readers." Only a small portion of 
the article is devoted to Mr Warden's 
book. The greater part is occupied 
' ' with a short and general view of the 
public and political life of Napoleon, 
with such facts and anecdotes inter- 
spersed, as have been furnished to us, 
on good authority, from persons fa- 
miliarly connected with him at differ- 
ent periods of his fortune, or obtained 
from some of our countrymen, who 
saw and conversed with him during 
his residence in the isle of Elba." This 
delectable compilation would have done 
honour to M. Bertrand himself. It 
is distinguished throughout by an ex- 
aggerated representation of what is 
praise-worthy in the character and 
conduct of Napoleon, and, what is in- 
finitely worsej by a palpable anxiety to 
apologize for nis greatest enormities. 

10. Delia Patria di Cristoforo Co- 
lombo. Dissertazione pubblicato nelle 
Memorie dell' Accademia Imperiale 
dellc Sclenze di Torino. Restampata 
con Quints, Documenti, Lettere diverse, 
&c. and Regionamento nel Quale sicon- 

forma I' Opinion Generale intorno alia 
Patria di Cristoforo Colombo, Pre- 
sentato alf Accademia delle Science, 
Lettere, e Arti di Genova, Nell' A- 
dunanza del di 16. Decembre IB 12, 
dagli Accademici Serra, Carregae Pi~ 
aggio. The object of the first of these 
works is to prove that Columbus was 
a Piedmontese, and of the latter, that, 
as has been generally held, he was a 
Genoese. The Reviewers are of this 
last opinion. To this discussion is 


Periodical Works. Quarterly Review. 

subjoined a most interesting letter, 
written by Columbus upon his return 
from the first voyage in which he dis- 
covered the New World, and despatch- 
ed from Lisbon, where he landed, to 
one of the Spanish king's council. It 
has been almost entirely overlooked by 

1 1 . Statements respecting the East 
India, College, with an appeal to facts, in 
refutation of the charges lately brought 
against it in the Court of Proprietors. 
By the Rev. T. R. MA'LTHUS, &c. 
Mr Malthus and the Reviewers, alter 
et idem perhaps, agree in thinking that 
some sort of instruction is really de- 
sirable for the future Judges and 
Magistrates of India, and this indeed 
is a point tolerably well proved, though 
not till after a good deal of time and 
labour has been employed about it. 
But whether the College at Hertford 
be the very best institution for the pur- 
pose is not quite so clear. The argu- 
ments in defence of it are of too gene- 
ral a nature, and the " disturbances" 
on which the objection to it rests, too 
slightly noticed, to enable the public 
to come to any decided opinion, with- 
out having access to information of a 
more definite and tangible character. 


1. Narrative of a Journey in Egypt 
and the Country beyond the Cataracts. 
By THOMAS L'EGH, Esq. M.P. " On 
the present occasion," say the Review- 
ers, " we have nothing to find fault with 
but the omissions." Mr Lcgh may re- 
joice that he has escaped so well from 
the ordeal of these opposite Courts of 

2. Counsellor PHIL LIP s's Poems and 
Speeches. Mr Phillips's sins against 
good taste are not a little aggravated 
in the eyes of these Reviewers by his 
political opinions. 

3. A Treatise on the Records of the 
Creation, and on the Moral Attributes 
of the Creator, with particular refer- 
ence to the Jeivish History, and to the 
consistency of the principle of Popu- 
lation with the Wisdom and Goodness of 
the Deity. By JOHN BIRD SUM NEK, 
M.A. Mr Burnett, a gentleman of 
Aberdeenshire, bequeathed a sum to 
be set apart till it should accumulate 
to 1600, which was then to be given 
to the authors of the two best Essays 
on the subject of Mr Sumner's book, 
to the first in merit 1200, ami to the 


second 4-00. The second prize was 
assigned to Mr Sumner, of whose Trea- 
tise the Reviewers present a pretty full, 
and apparently an impartial, examina- 
tion in this interesting article. Their 
observations on the principle of popu- 
lation lead to conclusions very differ- 
ent from those of Mr Malthus, and are, 
we hope, better supported by history 
and experience. 

4. A Voyage round the World, from 
180(> to 1802/ in which Japan, Kam- 
schattca, the Aleutian Islands, and the 
Sandwich Islands, were visited, fyc. By 
a poor young sailor, who had lost both 
feet, and was found by Mr Smith, the 
Editor of the volume, in one of the 
steam-boats that ply on the Clyde, 
playing 6n the violin for the amuse- 
ment of the passengers. " The hope 
that an account of his voyage might 
be of service to an unfortunate and 
deserving man, and not unacceptable 
to those who take pleasure in contem- 
plating the progress of mankind in the 
arts of civilization, gave rise to the pre- 
sent publication." The book itself 
contains much that is curious, and 
adds not a little to our still very im- 
perfect knowledge of the remote regions 
visited by the author. 

4. Shakspeare' s Himself again ! &c. 
By ANDREW BECKET. An article full 
of irony and banter, apparently a well 
deserved chastisement of this unfor- 
tunate commentator. 

6. Tracts on Saving Banks. There 
is a great deal of information about 
those banks collected in this article, 
but the Reviewer is two zealous and 
too sanguine to perceive the inconve- 
niences which must be felt from a- 
dopting the plans of Mr Duncan ; and, 
while he bestows well-merited praise 
on the benevolent exertions of this gen- 
tleman, we think that he hardly does 
justice to some of the other fellow 

7. Covper's Poems and Life. The 
third volume of the poems, edited by 
John Johnson, LL.D., the first work 
embraced by this Review, is consider- 
ed as decidedly inferior to its predeces- 
sors. The other two treatises are me- 
moirs, said to be written by Cowper 
himself, and never before published. 
From what we see of them here, the 
only subject of regret is, that they 
should ever have been published at all. 
The article contains a general character 
of Cowper's poetry and letters. 

Periodical Works. Quarterly Review. 


8. A Sketch of Ike British fur Trade 
in North America, with Observations 
relative to the North-west Company of 
Montreal ; by the EARL of SELKIRK : 
and Voyage de la Mer At/antique a 
I'Ocean Pacifique par le Nord-ouest 
dans la Mer Glacialt ; par le Capi- 
taijie Laurent Ferrer Maldonado I an 
1588. Nouvelkment traduit, &c. 
Lord Selkirk, some years ago, attempt- 
ed to divert the tide of emigration from 
the Highlands of Scotland to the Unit- 
ed States, and turn it to Prince Ed- 
ward's Island, within the territories of 
Great Britain. More lately, his views 
of colonization seem to have become 
more extensive; and having purchased 
about a third part of the stock of the 
Hudson's Bay Company, he obtained 
from their governors a grant .of a wide 
extent of country, held, or supposed 
to be held, under their charter, of 
which he proceeded to take possession. 
The settlers on this tract have been 
molested, it appears, by the servants of 
the North-west Company, between 
which and the Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany there had long subsisted a deadly 
feud ; and some very extraordinary 
proceedings are understood to have 
taken place on both sides. According 
to Lord Selkirk, the fur trade is not in 
the best hands, nor carried on in a very 
honourable manner. The North-west 
Company is pointedly accused, indeed, 
of great violence and injustice, for 
which, as the law at present stands, it is 
extremely difficult, or altogether im- 
possible, to call its servants to account. 
Of the Hudson's Bay Company, the 
Reviewers do not think so well as Lord 
Selkirk does. The rest of this article, 
and that which is of a far deeper in- 
terest, relates to the North-west pass- 
age. The relation of Maldonado's voy- 
age is held to be a clumsy and audaci- 
ous forgery. The Reviewers firmly 
believe, however, that a navigable 
passage from the Atlantic to the Paci- 
fic, round the northern coast of Ame- 
rica, does exist, and may be of no 
difficult execution. In support of this 
opinion, they proceed to examine the 
various unsuccessful attempts that have 
been made at different periods. No 
human being, they say, has yet ap- 
proached the coast of America on the 
eastern side, from 66^ to 72, and here 
it is thought the passage may be found. 

9. Childe Harold's Pilgrimage, Can' 
to III, ; and the Prisoner of ChiUun, 
and other Poems. By LORD BYRON. 
If the heart of Lord Byrou be not 

dead to every emotion of pleasure and 
gratitude/this article must stir up these 
feelings in no common degree. The 
Reviewer displays throughout, not on- 
ly the powers of a poet and of a critic 
of the highest order, but the delicacy 
and solicitude of a friend, without, 
however, shutting his eyes to the ec- 
centricities and misjudged exhibitions 
of this lugubrious and indignant mis- 
anthrope. There are one or two di- 
gressions in it somewhat curious, for 
they may be thought to identify the 
Reviewer, upon much the same 
grounds as Childe Harold has been 
supposed to speak the sentiments of 
Lord Byron. In the first, he disputes 
the proposition, that rapidity of com- 
position and publication endangers the 
fame of an author of great talents. A 
little after it is stated, as an axiom, 
that " every author should, like Lord 
Byron, form to himself, and commu- 
nicate to the reader, a precise, defined, 
and distinct view of the landscape, 
sentiment, or action, which he intends 
to describe to the reader." Lord By- 
ron's political opinions, of course, meet 
with no favour ; but his sins of omis- 
sion, as well as commission, though 
pointed out in forcible language, do 
not call forth those expressions of con- 
tumely and bitterness, which so often 
disgrace the subalterns in political hos- 
tilities. There is something very 
serious, or, so different are peoples' 
tastes, perhaps amusing, at the conclu- 
sion of this article. It is impossible 
not to see in it the goodness of the 
writer's heart, though we make no 
doubt that others may pretend to dis- 
cover also a slight infusion of amiable 
simplicity. For our own parts, we 
cannot help suspecting that there is a 
reasonable portion of affectation in 
some of Lord Byron's dolorous verses ; 
and that to treat him like a spoilt 
child will not have much efficacy in 
removing the complaint. If any one 
should hereafter think it necessary, in 
order to establish his superiority of ta- 
lent, to begin with distinguishing him- 
self in the circles of vice and folly, des- 
pising the restraints to which ordinary 
mortals have agreed to submit, he may 
be led to doubt of the certainty of this 
mode of proving his claim, when he is 
assured, that the moral and religious 
regimen, here prescribed to Lord By- 
ron, has been very faithfully observed, 
both in the private and public life of 
several of the most distinguished writ- 
ers of the present age. 

Literary and Scientific Intelligence, 

10. Wardens Letters " Mr ;< War- 
den's pretences and falsehoods/' say 
the Reviewers, " if not detected on 
the spot, and at the moment when the 
means of detection happen to be at 
hand, might hereafter tend to deceive 
other writers, and poison the sources of 
history." The motive of the Reviewers 
is therefore a very laudable one, and 
the ' detection' will no doubt be very 
satisfactory to a certain class of read- 
ers. But the historian ! Sources of 
history ! If the historian and philo- 
sopher should sit down to this, and the 
corresponding article in the Edinburgh 
Review, about a hundred years hence, 
what must he think of the political 
parties, and of the state of literature, 
in Britain in the year 1816 ? Mr War- 
den is a " blundering, presumptuous, 
and falsifying scribbler;" and the 
proof is, that he actually brought the 
materials of this book from St Helena 
in the shape of notes, instead of hav- 
ing really despatched letters from sea, 
and from St Helena, to a correspond- 
ent in England ! 

11. Parliamentary Reform. That 
part of this article which corresponds 
with its title, contains sentiments, a- 
bout the justness of which there will 
be little difference of opinion among 

m 85 

well informed men. None but the 
most ignorant can expect, and none 
but the most wrongheaded, or unprin- 
cipled, will teach the people to expect 
any relief, under the present distresses 
of the country, from universal suf- 
frage and annual parliaments. But the 
Reviewer does not confine himself to 
topics in the discussion of which he 
would have carried along with him the 
approbation of all those whose appro- 
bation is of any value. Unfortunate- 
ly, we think, for the cause of which 
he is so able an advocate, he has intro- 
duced a great deal of extraneous mat- 
ter, concerning which men of the 
clearest heads and purest intentions 
cannot be brought to agree. He has 
also counteracted the effects which the 
soundness of his judgment, and the 
powers of his eloquence, might have 
otherwise produced upon misguided 
or unthinking reformers, by indulging 
in a strain of violent exaggeration and 
reproach. So wide a departure from 
the Roman poet's maxim of suaviter in 
modo, fortiter in re, brings him too 
near to the style of the orators and 
authors whom he so justly exposes, 
and is inconsistent with the respect 
which so able a writer owes to himself 
and to his readers. 


Da CLARKE, the celebrated traveller, 
who is now professor of mineralogy at Cam. 
bridge, has lately been employed in the 
performance of some very curious and im- 
portant experiments with a blowpipe, of a 
power far exceeding that of any similar in- 
strument which has formerly been used. 
This instrument is in reality the invention 
of Mr Brooke, although, when Dr Clarke 
employed it in his first experiments, he ap. 
pears to have considered it as the invention 
of Mr Newman, who was the only artist 
employed in making it, and from whose 
hands Dr Clarke had probably received it. 
This mistake, however, the doctor has now 
been careful to correct. The instrument 
consists essentially of a close box, hi which 
air is condensed by means of a syringe. 
From this box, the air which in the experi- 
ments of Dr Clarke consisted of two volumes 
hydrogen, and one volume oxygen gas, high- 
ly condensed, is allowed to rush upon the 
flame of a lamp or candle ; and by the 
powerful heat thus produced, Dr Clarke 
found that every substance which he tried, 
excepting charcoal and plumbago, were ca- 
pable of being fused. All the most refrac- 
tory stones, th& earths, namely, lime, ba- 
rytes, stroinian, magnesia, alumina, and 

silica, were melted into glass, slag, or en- 
amel. Dr Clarke has since stated, however, 
that plumbago has also yielded to the power 
of this instrument ; and from the following 
quotation from the doctor's communica- 
tion, in the Annals of Philosophy for 
March, it will be seen that he considers 
charcoal itself as not decidedly refractory 
when the fusing power is in all its perfec- 
tion: " As far," says the doctor, " as 
mineral substances are concerned, the char 
acter of infusibility is forever annihilated. 
Every mineral substance, not excepting 
plumbago, has been fused. There remains 
therefore, only one substance, namely char-, 
coal, to maintain this character ; and if I 
have leisure for a subsequent dissertation, 
I trust I shall be able to shew, that char- 
coal itself exhibits some characteristics of a 
fusible body." The most remarkable, how. 
ever, of all the results obtained during these 
brilliant experiments, was the reduction of 
barytes and strontian to their metallic 
bases : to these the doctor has since add- 
ed a long list of other metallic salts and 
ores, which he has been able to reduce to 
their pure metallic state, and of which spe- 
cimens have repeatedly been transmitted for 
the inspection of the most illustrious scien- 

Literary and Scientific Intelligence. 


tific characters whom tliis country contains, 
The instrument itself, by means of which 
all those important results have been ob- 
tained, has]also received some improvements 
from the hand of the doctor, by which not 
only greater safety is obtained in the use of 
it, but a very considerable degree both of 
power and of facility has been added to the 
energy which it originally possessed ; while 
the splendid scientific results which its em- 
ployment has developed, have also been ac- 
companied by some of the most brilliant 
phenomena which chemistry has to exhibit. 
The combustion of iron has been particularly 
mentioned as actually exhibiting a shower of 
fire. " The general result of my observa- 
tions," says the author, " has excited in 
my mind a hope that the means I have used 
will be employed upon a more extended 
scale to aid the manufactures of this coun- 
try. By increasing the capacity of the re- 
servoir, and the condensing power of the 
apparatus, the diameter of the jet may be 
also enlarged ; and the consequence will 
be, that a power of fusion the most extra- 
ordinary, as a work of art, 'which the world 
ever witnessed, may be employed with the 
utmost economy both of space and expen- 
diture, and with the most certain safety." 
We hope these splendid anticipations will 
soon be realized : and, upon the whole, we 
cannot help expressing our satisfaction that 
the employment of this powerful instru- 
ment, in the developement of such striking 
results, has fallen to the lot of a gentleman 
who has already rendered such essential 
service to the literature of his country, and 
whom, from the evidence afforded by his 
works (for we have not the honour of any 
more intimate acquaintance with him), we 
are really disposed to regard as not only 
one of the most accomplished scholars, but 
one of the best men also, which this country 

The Lockhart Papers are announced for 
publication, consisting of memoirs concern- 
ing the affairs of Scotland, from Queen 
Anne's accession to the commencement of 
the Union ; with commentaries, containing 
an account of public affairs from the Union 
to the queen's death. All these papers were 
composed by, and are chiefly in the hand- 
writing of, George Lockhart, Esq. of Carn- 
wath, who was a very able and distinguish- 
ed member of the Scottish and British Par- 
liaments, and an unshaken disinterested 
partizan of the fallen family of Stuart. 
They contain also a register of letters be- 
tween the son of James II. generally called 
the Chevalier de St George, or the old Pre- 
tender, and George Lockhart ,: with an ac- 
count of public affairs from 1716 to 1728 ; 
and journals, memoirs, and, circumstantial 
details, in detached pieces, of the young 
Pretender's expedition to Scotland in 1745; 
his progress, defeat, and extraordinary ad- 
ventures and escape after the battle of Cul- 
loden in 1746, by Highland officers in his 
army. All these manuscripts are in the 
possession of Anthony Aufrere of Hoveton 

in Norfolk, Esq. who married Matilda, 
only surviving daughter of General James 
Lockhart of Lee and Carnwath, Count of 
the Holy Roman empire, grandson of the 
author of the Memoirs. This work will be 
comprised in two quarto volumes, of six or 
seven hundred pages each ; it admirably 
connects with the Stuart and Culloden pa- 
pers, and is calculated to excite and reward 
the attention of all lovers of national history 
and political anecdote. 

A paper has been read to the Royal So- 
ciety by Dr Brewster, containing the re- 
sults of a very extensive and ingenious se- 
ries of experiments on the action of regu- 
larly crystallized bodies upon light. From 
these experiments Dr Brewster has deter- 
mined all the laws by which the pheno- 
mena are regulated, and has been enabled 
to compose formula;, by which the tints, 
and the direction of the axis of the parti- 
cles of light, may in every case be calculat- 
ed a priori. The law of double refraction 
investigated by La Place, and the laws of 
the polarising force deduced by M. Biot, are 
shewn to be merely simple cases of laws of 
much greater extent and generality, being 
applicable only to a few crystals, while those 
investigated by Dr Brewster are applicable to 
the vast variety of crystallized bodies which 
exist in nature. 

We understand that Professor Leslie 
has very lately made an important addition 
to his curious and beautiful discovery of ar- 
tificial congelation. He had found by his 
early experiments, that decayed whinstone, 
or friable mould, reduced to a gross pow- 
der and dried thoroughly, will exert a power 
of absorbing moisture, scarcely inferior to 
that of sulphuric acid itself. But circum- 
stances having lately drawn his attention to 
this subject, he caused some mouldering 
fragments of porphyritic trap, gathered from 
the sides of that magnificent road now form- 
ing round the Gallon Hill, to be pounded 
and dried carefully before the fire in a ba- 
chelor's oven. This powder, being thrown 
into a wine-decanter fitted with a glass stop- 
per, was afterwards carried to the College ; 
and, at a lecture a few days since in the 
Natural Philosophy Class (which he has 
been teaching this session in the absence of 
Professor Playfair in Italy), he shewed the 
influence of its absorbing power on his hy- 
grometer, which, enclosed within a small 
receiver of an air-pump, fell from 90 to 
320, the wetted bulb being, consequently, 
cooled about 60 of Fahrenheit's scale. The 
professor, therefore, proposed on the instant 
to employ the powder to freeze a small body 
of water. He poured the powder into a saucer 
about 7 inches wide, and placed a shallow 
cup of porous earthen-ware, 3 inches in dia- 
meter, at the height of half an inch above, 
and covered the whole with a low receiver. 
On exhausting this receiver till the gage 
stood at 2-10ths of an inch, the water in a 
very few minutes ran into a cake of ice. 
With the same powder an hour afterwards, 
he froze a largo body of wuter in three mi- 

Literary and Scientific Intelligence, 

nutes ; and he will, no doubt, push these 
ingenious and interesting experiments much 
farther. It appears that such earth will 
absorb the hundredth part of its weight of 
moisture without having its power sensibly 
impaired, and is even capable of absorbing 
as much as the tenth part, It can hence 
easily be made to freeze the eighth part of 
its weight of water, and might even repeat 
the process again. In hot countries, the 
powder will, after each process, recover its 
power by drying in the sun. Ice may there- 
tore be procured in the tropical climates, 
and even at sea, with very little trouble, and 
no sort of risk or inconvenience. 

In the Bath Literary and Philosophical 
Society, the Rev. Mr Wright has described 
a very ingenious method of working a ship's 
pump by mechanical means, when the crew 
are too few in number to attend to that du- 
ty, and particularly in a heavy gale. It was 
used by Capt. Leslie in June last, during a 
voyage' from Stockholm to America, when 
the crew were exhausted with pumping, and 
the ship was sinking. He fixed a spar a- 
loft, one end of which was ten or twelve feet 
above the top of his pumps, and the other 
extremity projected over the stern ; to each 
end of the spar he fastened a block : he then 
fastened a rope to the spears of his pump, 
and after passing it through both pulleys a- 
long the spar, dropped it into die sea astern : 
to this end he fastened a cask of 110 gallons 
measurement, and containing 60 or 70 gal- 
lons of water, which answered as a balance- 
weight : and the motion of die ship made 
the machinery work. When the stern of 
the ship descended, or any agitation of the 
water raised the cask, the pump-spears de- 
scended, and the contrary motion raised the 
spear, and the water flowed out. The ship 
was thus cleared in four hours. 

At a meeting of die commissioners ap- 
pointed to manage the yearly grant of 
i'10,000, voted by Parliament for finishing 
the college of Edinburgh, the plan of Mr 
W. Playfair being adopted, die prize of 100 
guineas was adjudged to that gentleman. 
According to Mr Playfair's plan, the exter- 
ior of the building, as originally planned by 
Adams, is to be retained with very little al- 
teration ; but there will be a total departure 
from the internal arrangements. The south- 
ern sid of the quadrangle is to be occupied 
almost entirely by the library, which will 
be 190 feet long, and one of die most ele- 
gant rooms in the kingdom. The western 
side is to be appropriated to the museum, 
and the other two sides are to be occupied 
chiefly as class rooms. 

A new mode of giving additional strength 
to iron and steel, is proposed by Mr Daniell. 
His plan is to twist metal in the same mari- 
ner as strength and compactness are given 
to hemp and flax. 

The trigonometrical survey of Great Bri- 
tain, under the direction of the Ordnance 
Board, proceeds without interruption. The 
maps of three-fifths of England and Wales 
are already completed. In the course of 


the summer, the British surveyors are to be 
joined by two eminent French academici- 
ans, with a view of connecting the trigono- 
metrical surveys of die two countries, and 
thus not only attaining a greater degree of 
geographical accuracy, but obtaining, per- 
haps, a more satisfactory solution of the 
problem respecting the true figure of the 
earth. The French gentlemen appointed 
to assist Colonel Mudge and Captain Colby 
are, M. Biot and M. Mathieu of the Insti- 
tute of France, whose principal object is, to 
measure die length of the pendulum at 
Greenwich, Edinburgh, and the Orkneys. 

A new and ingenious instrument, called 
the Colorigrade, has lately been constructed 
by M. Biot, for giving names to different 
colours, according to the place which they 
occupy in Newton's scale. By this means 
colours may be described accurately and 

A new species of resin from India, has 
been analysed by J. F. Daniell, Esq. F.R.S. 
It consists of 

Extractive matter soluble in water, 0.4 
Resin soluble in alcohol and ether, 62.6 
Itesin insoluble in alcohol and ether, 37.0 


It forms a very admirable varnish, which is 
not only highly transparent, but bears the 
heat of die warmest climate without crack- 
ing or changing colour. 

Mr Pond, die astronomer royal, has dis- 
covered in the stars a. Aquilas a. Lyra?, and 
a. Cygni, a constant parallax of half a se- 
cond ; but he is disposed to ascribe it to 
some other cause than that of the ordinary 
parallax. Dr Brinkley of Dublin found 
the parallax to be two seconds. 

A stone is said to have been lately found 
at Pompeii, on which the linear measures 
of die Romans are engraved. 

The Congo sloop of war is arrived at 
Deptford. Several large cases, containing 
the natural productions of Africa, collected 
in the late expedition to the Congo, have 
been sent to Sir Joseph Banks, for die pur- 
pose of being assorted in their respective 
classes : many of them are of a kind hither- 
to unknown, and the whole will shortly be 
submitted to the inspection of the public. 

Mr Murray has succeeded in fusing two 
emeralds into one uniform mass ; also two 
sapphires into one, by die compressed mix- 
ture of die gaseous constituents of water in 
the oxihydrogen blow pipe. 

Mr Locateli, the celebrated mathema- 
tician of Milan, has invented a new piece 
of mechanism (says a Paris paper), bymeans 
of which vessels may ascend rivers without 
die assistance of a steam-engine. The first 
experiment, which was made on a small 
boat, completely succeeded. The inventor 
asserts, that his plan is applicable even to a 
man of war, and that it will secure her from 
the danger of shipwreck. The strength of 
a single man, or at most that of a horse, is 
sufficient to put this machine in motion. 


Work* Preparing for Publication. 


THE Journal of the late Captain Tuckey, 
on a Voyage of Discovery into the Interior 
of Africa, to explore the Source of the 
Zaire, or Congo with a Survey of that 
river beyond the cataracts will soon be 
published by authority. 

The Plays and Poems of James Shirley, 
now first collected and chronologically arrang- 
ed, and the text carefully collated and restor- 
ed, with occasional Notes, and a Biographical 
and Critical Essay, are preparing for pub- 
lication ; by William Gifford, Esq. ; hand- 
somely printed by Bulmer, in 6 vols 8vo. 
uniformly with Massinger and Ben Jon son. 

Specimens of the British Poets, with 
Biographical and Critical Notices, and an 
Introductory Essay on British Poetry, are 
preparing for press ; by Thomas Camp- 
bell, Esq. author of the Pleasures of Hope, 
&c. In 4 vols post 8vo. 

Mr A. J. Valpy has in the press a new 
edition of the Greek Septuagint, in one large 
vol. 8vo. The text is taken from the Ox- 
ford edition of Bos, without contractions 
Also, a new edition of Homer's Iliad, from 
the text of Heyne, with English notes, in- 
cluding many from Heyne and Clarke ; one 
vol. 8vo And Catullus, with English 
notes ; by T. Forster, Esq. Jun. 12mo. 

A work of Biblical Criticism on the Books 
of the Old Testament, and Translations of 
Sacred Songs, with Notes critical and ex- 
planatory, will soon appear ; by Samuel 
Horsley, LL.D. F.R.S. F.A.S. late lord 
bishop of Asaph. 

In the course of this month will be pub- 
lished, a Treatise touching the Libertie of 
a Christian Man ; written in Latin, by Dr 
Martyne Luther, and translated by James 
Bell ; imprinted by R. Newberry and H. 
Bynneman, 1579 ; dedicated " to Lady 
Anne, Countesse of Warwicke ;" with the 
celebrated Epistle from M. Luther to Pope 
Leo X. : edited by W. B. Collyer, D.D. 
F.A.S. and dedicated (by permission) to the 
Duke of Sussex. 

Mr Joseph Lancaster has printed pro- 
posals for publishing, by subscription, in 
one volume octavo, a Matter-of-fact Ac- 
count of many singular and providential 
Events, which have occurred in his public 
and private Life. 

J. E. Bicheno, Esq. will soon publish an 
Inquiry in to the Nature of Benevolence, prin- 
cipally with a view to elucidate the moral 
and political Principles of the Poor Laws. 

Mr W. Savage, printer, of 'London, has 
issued proposals for publishing, by sub- 
scription, Practical Hints on Decorative 
Printing, with specimens, in colours, en- 
graved on wood ; containing instructions 
for forming black and coloured printing 
inks for producing fine press-work and 
for printing in colours. 

A new edition of Dr Thomson's System 
of Chemistry is in the press, and will speed- 
ily be published. The work will be en- 
tirely remodelled, and will be comprised in 
four octavo volumes. 

The second edition of Mr Murray's Ele- 
ments of Chemical Science is in the press, 
and will be forthwith published. This edi- 
tion will contain a succinct and lucid view 
of those important and beautiful discoveries 
which have illuminated the rapid and bril- 
liant march of chemistry. 

Dr Spurzheim's new work, entitled, Ob- 
servations on the Deranged Manifestations 
of the Mind, or Insanity, is in the press. 

In a few weeks will be published, a new 
work, entitled, Boarding-school Correspon- 
dence, or a Series of Letters between a Mo- 
ther and her Daughter at School ; a joint 
production of Mrs Taylor, author of " Ma- 
ternal Solicitude," " Practical Hints to 
Young Females," &c. and of Miss Taylor, 
author of "Display," " Essays in Rhyme," 

The Memoirs of John Duke of Marl- 
borough, chiefly drawn from his private 
correspondence and the family documents 
preserved at Blenheim, as well as from other 
authentic sources, never before published, 
are preparing with all speed by Wm Coxe, 
archdeacon of Wilts. 

An Account of the Island of Java ; by 
Thomas Stamford Raffles, Esq. late lieu- 
tenant-governor there. With a map and 
numerous plates, by Daniel. 

Pompeiana, or Observations on the To- 
pography, Edifices, and Ornaments, of Pom- 
peii ; by Sir W. Cell and J. P. Gandy, 
Esq. with numerous engravings, are in the 

Mr Mill's long expected History of Bri- 
tish India is now in the press, and will be 
published in three 4to volumes. 

Journey through Asia Minor, Armenia, 
and Koordistan, in the years 1813 and 1814 ; 
with Remarks on the Marches of Alexan- 
der, and the retreat of the Ten Thousand ; 
by John Macdonald Kenneir, Esq. 4to. 

Early thb present month will be publish- 
ed, a Narrative of a Voyage to Hudson's 
Bay, in his Majesty's ship Rosamond ; con- 
taining some account of the North Eastern 
Coast of America, and of the Tribes inha- 
biting that remote region ; illustrated with 
plates; by Lieut. Edward Chappell, R.X. 

A work on the Principles of Political 
Economy and Taxation, is preparing by 
David Kicardo, EJ..J. 

An Authentic Narrative is preparing of 
the Loss of the American brig Commerce, 
wrecked on the western coast of Africa, in 
the month of August 1S1.5; with an Ac- 
count of the sufferings and captivity of her 
surviving officers and crew, on the great 


Works Preparing for Publication. 

African Desert ; by James Riley, her late 
master and supercargo. 

We are happy to announce, that the con- 
tinuation of the State Trials to the present 
time, edited by Thomas Jones Howell, Esq. 
is in course of publication. The first vo- 
lume, which has just appeared, comprises 
the period from 1783 to 1793, and contains 
many cases of the highest interest and im- 
portance. We understand that, for the 
accommodation of such persons as possess 
Hargrave's State Trials, a separate title- 
page has been printed so as to render " the 
Continuation" applicable to that as well as 
to the octavo edition ; as, by a curious co- 
incidence, the folio and the octavo editions 
terminate at nearly the same period. By 
this very admirable mode of publication, 
those who wish to possess the modern State 
Trials, either as a separate work or as a 
supplement to either of the collections, may 
be provided with it accordingly. 

Algebra of the Hindus, with Arithmetic 
and Mensuration ; translated from the Sans- 
crit, by H. T. Colebrooke, Esq. 4to. 

No II. of the new and enlarged edition 
of H. Stephens' Greek Thesaurus, is just 
published. To this number is added an 
Index of all the words which are discussed 
in this and the previous number, distin- 

guishing by a star such as are not contain- 
ed in the Thes. as published by H. Steph. 
All the arrangements being now completed 
by the very recent arrival of Professor 
Schasfer's copious MS. materials, which the 
editors have purchased at considerable ex- 
pense, the work will proceed without de- 
lay, and the editors confidently expect that 
they will be able to announce the publica- 
tion of the third number very speedily. 
The two first numbers contain about 2000 
words omitted by Stephens. A learned pu- 
pil of Lenneps is now engaged in transcrib- 
ing the notes of Ruhnken and Valkenaer, 
written on the margin of a Leyden Scapula. 
The editors have carefully perused the parts 
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Journal Universel des Sciences Medicales. 
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Histoire Particuliere des Provinces Bel- 
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Comtes ; par M. Davcz. 3 vols 8vo. 

Register. Foreign Intelligence. 



IN the Chamber of Deputies, on the 8th 
January, the Election Law, consisting of 
twenty Articles, was passed by a majority 
of 132 against 100. The main question for 
discussion was, Shall the Deputies be cho- 
sen by the electors directly, or shall the 
great body of electors name a certain num- 
ber from among themselves, by whom the 
Deputies shall be chosen ? By this law 
the Deputies are to be chosen directly by 
the electors in one single assembly, as in 
England. All Frenchmen who have at- 
tained the age of thirty, and pay 300 francs 
of taxes per annum, are to be allowed to 

A royal ordinance, dated the 8th of Jan- 
uary, contains the following article: " Every 
vessel, whether French or Foreign, which 
shall attempt to introduce into any of our 
colonies Blacks for sale, shall be confiscated ; 
and if French, the captain shall be held in- 
capable of holding a command." 

The Houses of Lafitte of Paris, Barings 
of London, Parish of Hamburgh, and Hopes 
of Amsterdam, have taken upon themselves 
the advance of the loan wanted by France, 
which is 12,000,000 British, or 300,000,000 
of francs. Report adds, that one half will 
be required in money, and the other half in 
provisions and clothing. The Gazette de 
France states, that this loan was finally sign- 
ed on the 13th February. 

On the 9th of January, M. de Serre 
brought up the report of the Committee on 
the law relative to personal liberty. It is 
a modification of that of last year, and en- 
ables the crown to confine, under specific 
forms, persons suspected of conspiring or 
attempting the overthrow of the established 
constitution. After a debate of several days 
this law was carried in the Chamber of De- 
puties by 136 to 92. 

In the Chamber of Deputies the debate 
on the law respecting the public journals is 
terminated. It was voted by a majority of 
128 against 89. All the journals of France 
are thus rendered dependent upon the king's 
authority, by which any of them may be 
immediately suppressed. 

By the first April 30,000 of the allied 
troops, being one fifth of the whole, will 
quit the French territory. The official note 
of the four plenipotentiaries of Austria, 
England, Prussia, and Russia, declares, 
That the high personal character of the 
king, and the principles and conduct of his 
present ministry, together with the sanc- 

tion of the opinion of the Duke of Welling- 
ton, are the sole causes of the relief thus af- 
forded to France. 

In the Chamber of Deputies the minis- 
ters were left in a minority of 89 to 108, on 
the important question of what we would 
call the Navy Estimates. The minister of 
that department had calculated upon a grant 
of 50,000,000 of francs. He had already 
appropriated upwards of 48,000,000 ; but 
the commission appointed to report upon 
the loan recommended 44,000,000, and this 
sum was carried by the numbers above cit- 
ed. The Chamber has at length finally 
agreed to the budget by a majority of 47. 
The total expenditure of that country is fix- 
ed at about 45,000,000 sterling. 

Jan. 15. The king has created a large 
number of knights of St Michael, for the 
purpose of distinguishing men who hare 
rendered themselves celebrated in literature, 
science, and the arts, or by useful discover- 
ies. This does great honour to the king. 
It is the only order of knighthood, we be- 
lieve in Europe, that pays such a tribute of 
honour and respect to those who may well 
be called the benefactors of mankind. 

Application it is said has been made by 
the French government to our ministers, for 
issuing the usual orders to our settlements, 
for giving facility to an expedition under 
Mons. Freycinet, censistingof the Uranie fri- 
gate and a corvette, about to sail from France 
to finish their survey of New Holland. 

The price of provisions at Boulogne is 
thus given, in a letter from an officer to his 
friend at Christchurch, dated the 5th March. 
A leg of mutton from T^d. to 8d. per lib. ; 
beef and pork, 7d ; inferior sorts, 5d. ; 
poultry very dear ; wild fowl cheap ; a good 
widgeon or wild duck, from 6d. to 9d. ; a 
pair of very good soles, lOd. which is con- 
sidered dear ; a turbot, from 8 Ib. to 10 Ib. 
for 2s 6d. or 3s. ; 26 eggs for lOd ; ve- 
getables very cheap : all articles of living 
are one-third dearer than in June 1816. 

In the Chamber of Deputies, March 5th, 
4,000,000 francs were appropriated from 
the revenue arising from the sale of the na- 
tional forests for the support of the church. 
On the law respecting the customs, ministers 
had a majority of 134. This act is intend- 
ed to exclude, by heavy duties, the import 
of cottons, sugar, and iron. 

The Moniteur of the 22d March contains 
the new law relating to bills of exchange, 
as passed by the two Chambers, and sanc- 
tioned by the royal assent. It enacts, that 
the holder of a bill of exchange, drawn on 
the Continent or islands of Europe, and pay- 
able in the European territories of France, 

whether payable at sight, or at one or more 
days or months, or usages at sight, must 
demand payment or acceptance within six 
months from its date, on forfeiture of all 
claim upon the endorsers, or even the draw- 
er, if the latter has made provision for it. 

The Duke of Richelieu and the Duke of 
Feltre were introduced. The former de- 
livered to the president his majesty's pro- 
clamation, conceived in the following 
terms .- 

Louis, ly the Grace of God, <Jc. 

The session for 1816 of the Chamber of 
Peers and the Chamber of Deputies is and 
remains closed. 

(Signed) Louis. 
Thuilkries, March 26, 1817. 

The Chamber broke up immediately af- 
ter the proclamation had been read. 


Intelligence has been received at Amster- 
dam, that the Dutch commissioners receiv- 
ed the island of Java from the English on 
the 19th of August. 

On the 19th of February, at Brussels, 
the Princess of Orange was delivered of a 
son, who is to take the title of Duke of 

The States General have finally rejected a 
proposition for prohibiting the exportation 
of grain. 

The Dutch papers communicate a mea- 
sure calculated to injure, if not to ruin, the 
trade at Antwerp. A toll is ordered to be col- 
lected upon all vessels entering or leaving the 
Scheldt, in addition to the custom-house du- 
ties. Its weight is represented as incompati- 
ble, not only with any prosperous commerce, 
but with any other intention than that of des- 
troying it, for the toll is seven times greater 
than the freight of goods brought from a 
short distance England for instance. The 
king has been petitioned for its removal, 
and the latest reports give reason to believe 
that the application has been successful. 

The episcopal Prince de Broglie at Ghent, 
still occupies the public attention, by refus- 
ing to acknowledge the temporal supremacy 
of the crown. Shortly after BONAPARTE 
assumed the imperial diadem, this prelate 
ventured to act upon the same principle ; 
but the Emperor, as jealous as himself of 
his authority, conveyed orders to M. d'Hou- 
DELOT, die prefect, and to M. d'EuLA- 
BUHATH, the general of division, to put the 
bishop under military arrest, and to com- 
pose a regiment of the numerous seminarists 
who embrace the orthodox tenets of their 
unbending pastor. This ridiculous scene 
really took place. The youths " un pen 
gaudies," in their black robes, were march- 
ed to the place publique , and, in the pre- 
sence of an immense multitude, were march- 
ed and countermarched, and taught all the 
evolutions of military discipline by corporals 
and Serjeants of the national guard. In the 
uight they were quartered in barracks, and 
VOL. I. 

ign Intelligence. 97 

were not permitted to return to their holy 
duties before a month or six weeks. This 
measure was arbitrary ; but during the whole 
reign of Napoleon, the name of the Prince 
de Broglie never once reached the public 


The strict prohibition of journals publish, 
ed in England or the Netherlands, which 
had for some time been suspended, is re- 
newed with great severity, probably on ac- 
count of the popular discontent manifested 
at some late acts of the government. The 
frequent arrest for political offences is said 
to be regarded with particular disgust 

Letters from Spain of the 4th Feb. state, 
that in consequence of a new impost levied 
on charcoal at Valencia, which bore very 
hard on the poor in the winter season, the 
people murmured, and at last deputed com- 
missioners to wait on the governor (Elio) 
with their complaints. Instead of listening 
to them, Elio put the commissioners in 
prison ; the people rushed to arms, and li- 
berated them ; and the governor, in his 
turn, was obliged to fly to the citadel. The 
insurgents kept possession of the city all 
the 17th January ; but on the 18th, sup- 
plies of troops arriving, they were over- 
powered, and the governor liberated. He 
attempted to put to death some of the riot- 
ers without trial, but the judges of the 
High Court of Justice declared, they could 
allow no citizens to be executed without a 
trial. The governor threatened to imprison 
the judges. The citizens were emboldened 
by this vigorous conduct of the judges, and 
affairs wore so serious an aspect, that Elio 
posted off to Madrid to lay the matter be- 
fore the king. 

The report of some commotions having 
arisen in Valencia, agrees very well with 
what we know of the present state of popu- 
lar feeling in Spain, viewed in connection 
with such instances as the following, of the 
cruelty of their semi-barbarous government. 
" Pamplona, Feb. 10th. On the 2d, 3d, 
and 4th of this month, and in the prison of 
this city, the torture was inflicted on Captain 
Olivan, who for this purpose was brought 
down from the citadel, where he had been 
confined during eight months, merely be. 
cause he was suspected of disaffection to 
government Amidst the most excruciating 
pangs, no other than energetic declarations 
of his own innocence were heard, as well as 
of that of more than thirty other officers 
confined with him under similar drcum- 

The English government lately solicited, 
that a field in the neighbourhood of Tarra- 
gona, in which 300 English soldiers and 
some officers fell gloriously defending that 
fortress, should not be cultivated, or other- 
wise disturbed, offering to purchase it : but 
the city of Tarragona, emulating the feeling 
of our government, nobly made a present of 
the ground. 


Register. Foreign Intelligence. 


Previous to the 18th Feb. a great number 
of persons had been executed at Madrid, 
under charges of treason against the person 
and authority of the sovereign. Nothing 
yet has transpired concerning the fate of the 
unfortunate Arguelles and his companions, 
who have been transported to a desert island 
of the Mediterranean. To those who know 
the true character of the present Spanish 
government, it will be no matter of surprise 
if this notice conclude their history. 

An edict for the prohibition of certain 
books, divided into two principal classes, 
was published at Madrid on the 2d of 
March. In the first are comprehended 
those which are prohibited, even to the per- 
sons to whom the Inquisition may have 
granted licenses or particular permissions ; 
the other comprises works which are only 
prohibited to such persons as have not ob- 
tained those licenses. The works of the 
first class are eight in number, and are pro- 
hibited as defamatory of the supreme au- 
thority of the pope and clergy The second 
prohibition falls upon forty-seven works, 
which are described as full of a corrupt and 
revolutionary spirit. In this last class, M. 
De Constant's Principles of Policy La 
Croix's Elements of the Rights of the Peo- 
ple Blanchard's Felix and Paulina and 
Adelaide and Theodore, or Letters on Edu- 
cation, are included. 


On the 15th of December, a catholic 
priest proceeded on foot to the cathedral of 
Adria, in Lombardy, and returned thanks 
for having attained his 1 lOtk year, without 
infirmities or sickness ! He was accompani- 
ed by an immense concourse of people, and 
chanted the cathedral service in a firm, 
manly, and dignified voice. 

The German papers have brought us a 
document of greater importance than usual, 
in the shape of a new constitution for Sicily. 
That interesting portion of Europe has lost 
nothing by the restoration of the legitimate 
sovereign to die throne of his ancestors. 
The king of Naples, unlike his namesake 
and cousin the sovereign of Spain, has sig- 
nalized his restoration by confirming and 
extending the blessings of a free constitu- 

The emigration of our countrymen to 
Italy is so extensive, that 400 English fam- 
ilies now reside at Naples alone. 

Between 500 and 600 English are now 
resident at Rome, including branches from 
the noble families of Devonshire, Jersey, 
Westmoreland, Lansdown, Berest'ord, King, 
Cowper, Compton, Dunstanville, Denbigh, 
Carnarvon, and Breadalbane Thedutchess 
of Devonshire gives parties every week, and 
is a great patroness of the fine arts. 

Cunova The pope had attached to the 
title of Marquis of Ischia, which he confer- 
red on the sculptor Canova, an annual pen- 
sion of 3000 crowns. This celebrated artist 
has disposed of this revenue in the following 

manner : First, a fixed donation to the Ro- 
man academy of archeology of 600 crowns. 
Second, 1070 crowns to found annual prizes, 
and a triennial prize for sculpture painting 
and architecture, which the young artists of 
Rome and the Roman states only are com- 
petent to obtain. Third, 100 crowns to the 
academy of St Lue. Fourth, 120 crowns 
to the academy of the Lynx ; and fifth, 
1010 crowns to relieve poor, old, and in- 
firm artists residing in Rome. - 

Foreign papers, dated in March, reckon 
above 800 English families to be resident 
in the three cities of Florence, Leghorn, 
and Pisa. The number of young English 
who are receiving their education in various 
schools in Italy may be estimated at 1500. 


By the new regulations in the Prussian 
dominions, heavy taxes are to be imposed 
upon English goods, while the manufactures 
of other countries are to be subject to small- 
er duties. The continental system, seems 
to have created manufacturers, who are now 
in danger of being ruined by the competition 
of England. 

A German paper contains the following, 
as it is asserted, accurate account of the 
Austrian army. 

Infantry, 349,200 

Light Infantry, 85,800 

Cavalry, 75,000 

Artillery, 20,000 

Total, 5^0,000 

The king of Wirtemberg has abolished 
the censorship of the press ; and by conci- 
liatory firmness towards his people, is likely 
to become one of the most popular sove- 
reigns in Europe. The States were opened 
on the 3d March, at Stutgard, by the king 
in person, when the project of the new con- 
stitution was presented to that body. It 
consists of 337 articles, and is highly fa- 
vourable to the liberty of the subject. 


By the latest accounts, the present go- 
vernment of this country appears to stand 
on very slippery ground ; and something 
more than even all the characteristic pru- 
dence and worldly wisdom of Bernadotte 
will be required to support him on the Scan- 
dinavian throne Stockholm, March 18 : 
alarming reports of a political nature have 
arisen. One Lindhorne, a publican, de- 
nounced, on the 13th, certain seditious 
language which he had overheard. The 
affair, of which the object was no less than 
a total subversion of the present order of go- 
vernment, has immediately given rise to the 
strictest investigation, and has appeared 
sufficiently important to induce all the high 
colleges (or public boards), and deputations 
of the armed force, the nobility, the citi- 
zens of Stockholm, and the peasants, to 
wait on the Crown Prince, and assure him 
of their fidelity and attachment. 


Register. Foreign Intelligence. 


By an ukase of the Emperor Alexander, 
the 'male population of Poland has, with 
few exceptions, been made liable to the mi- 
litary conscription, from twenty to thirty 
years of age A rescript to the governor of 
Cherson, in favour of the Duchobooze, a 
sect of dissenters from the Greek Church, 
is highly honourable to the humane feelings 
and enlightened views of this monarch. 


Letters from Constantinople of the 1st 
February state, that the British minister is 
still in negotiation relative to the affairs of 
the Ionian Islands, of which the divan per- 
tinaciously refuses to acknowledge the in- 
dependence. Yet it was not unknown at 
Constantinople, that General Maitland had 
arrived at Corfu, and had convoked the 
Grand Senate to pronounce definitely on 
the administration or organization of the 
state. If we may credit letters from Vienna, 
inserted in the Paris papers, it would seem 
that the Porte has to contend with a rebel- 
lious subject in the person of the Pacha of 
Bagdad, who having been formally deposed 
by a firman from Constantinople, refused to 
resign his power, and acknowledge his suc- 
cessor It is also stated in the same jour- 
nals, that the Pacha of Egypt, the most 
powerful of the Turkish governors in the 
Mediterranean, is preparing to dispute the 
sovereignty of that province with the Otto- 
man Porte, 


The president of the United States trans- 
mitted to both Houses of Congress, on the 
4th December, a message by Mr Todd, his 
secretary, of which we can only give the 
general outline. It begins by noticing the 
partial failure of the crops, the depression 
of particular branches of manufactures, and 
of navigation, complains of the British 
government for prohibiting a trade between 
its colonies and the United States in Ameri- 
rican vessels notices the attack on the Ame- 
rican flag by a Spanish ship of war, and 
the uncertain state of the relations with 
Algiers expresses much satisfaction at the 
tranquillity that has been restored among 
the Indian tribes, and between these tribes 
and the United States recommends a re- 
organization of the militia, provision for the 
uniformity of weights and measures, the 
establishment of a university within the dis- 
trict which contains the seat of government, 
an amendment of the criminal law and 
suggests, that the regulations which were 
intended to guard against abuses in the 
slave trade should be rendered more effectu- 
al. The expediency of a re-modification of 
the judiciary establishment, and of an addi- 
tional department in the executive branch 
of the government, are recommended to the 


consideration of Congress. On the subject 
of finance the president expresses much sa- 
tisfaction. The actual receipts of the re- 
venue during 1816 are said to amount to 
about 47,000,000 of dollars, and the pay- 
ments to only 38,000,000 ; thus leaving a 
surplus in the treasury, at the close of the 
year, of about 9,000,000 of dollars. The 
aggregate of the funded debt, on the 1st 
January 1817, is estimated not to exceed 
110,000,000 of dollars, the ordinary annual 
expenses of government are taken at less 
than 20,000,000, and the permanent re- 
venue at 25,000,000. The state of the cur- 
rency and the establishment of the national 
bank are then noticed; and Mr Madison 
concludes this moderate and well-written 
document, by referring to the near approach 
of the period at which he is to retire from 
public service, and with animated expres- 
sions of satisfaction at the tranquillity and 
prosperity of the country. 

It is pleasing to observe the facility with 
which useful institutions are adopted, under 
the harmony at present subsisting among 
mankind. The Provident or Saving Banks, 
which have been established so beneficially 
in Britain, are likely to be soon very gene- 
rally resorted to in the United States. The 
plan was in progress at Boston before the 
close of 1816, and was countenanced by a 
large body of the state legislature. 

From the report of the late secretary to 
the treasury, it appears that the gross revenue 
for the year 1816 amounted to 59,403,978, 
and the expenditure to 38,745,799 dollars, 
leaving an excess of receipts, amounting to 
20,658,179, exclusive of the sum in the 
treasury on the 1st of January 1816. 

A bill has been brought into Congress, to 
prevent citizens of the United States from 
selling vessels of war to the subjects of any 
foreign power, and more effectually to pre- 
vent the arming and equipping of vessels of 
war intended to be used against nations in 
amity with the United States. This bill is 
supposed to be chiefly directed against the 
insurgents of Spanish America, and to have 
been brought forward through the represen- 
tations of the Spanish minister. 

It has been officially announced, that Mr 
Monro has been elected president, and Mr 
Tomkins vice-president, for the constitu- 
tional term of four years from the 4th of 
last month. 

An act of Congress has passed, by which 
all British vessels entering the ports of the 
United States, from our colonial possessions, 
are to be subjected to an additional duty of 
two dollars per ton. This proceeding is re- 
sorted to, in consequence of the exclusion of 
the American shipping from our West India 

It has been proposed, in the House of 
Representatives, to reduce the peace estab- 
lishment to 5000 men, and also to repeal 
all the internal taxes. 

The exports from the United States, for 
the year ending 30th September 1814, 

Register -Foreign Intelligence. 


amounted to 81, 920, 452 dollars, of which 
64,781,896 were of domestic materials, and 
17,158,556 foreign. 

A report from the committee on manu- 
factures was presented to the legislature of 
the state of New York on the 20th January, 
which recommends, for the encouragement 
of the infant manufactories of the United 
States, particularly of woollen and cotton, 
either a permanent augmentation of the 
duties on their import, or a prohibition of 
all such as can be supplied by the home 


By the Newfoundland Gazettes, we learn 
that a question of great importance attracts 
the attention of the inhabitants of that island, 
and one which is of much interest to the 
inhabitants of Great Britain. The validity 
of marriages solemnized by dissenting mi- 
nisters has been disputed, and reference 
made on the subject to the statute law of 

The legislature of Jamaica, it appears, 
have strictly complied with the request of 
his Majesty's government, to prevent any 
infringement of the laws for the abolition of 
the slave trade. 


The cause of the insurgents in Spanish 
America ebbs and flows with such rapid 
and uncertain vicissitude, that it is extremely 
difficult to give any thing like a correct view 
of the state of the contest in these widely 
extended regions. We see them defeated, 
and driven from place to place, rallying, 
returning, and victorious in their turn ; but 
no decisive advantage seems as yet to have 
been gained by either party, nor does there 
appear, in the accounts which have reached 
this country, sufficient materials from which 
to form a decided opinion on the future pro- 
gress and final results of a contest which is 
marked by want of system and energy on 
both sides. Whatever may be the result of 
the present struggle, however, the time can- 
not be far distant when these extensive 
countries will form several rich, powerful, 
and independent states, a consummation de- 
voutly to be wished for their own sakes, 
and for the general prosperity of the civil- 
ized world, of which they are probably des- 
tined to form one of the most valuable and 
interesting divisions Lord Cochrane and 
Sir Robert Wilson are said to be about to 
embark in the cause of Spanish American 
independence. Such strongly constructed 
and unquiet minds seem to be necessary to 
the progress of human affairs ; and in this 
seen* of trouble, their energies may produce 
a happy effect upon the hitherto feeble acd 
unenlightened subjects of one of the worst 
governments that ever oppressed and de- 
graded the human race Sir Gregor M'Gre- 
gor who has so much distinguished himself 
in this contest, is the son of the late Captain 
Daniel M'Grrgor, a gentleman of Argyle- 


shire in Scotland, who was long an officer in 
India. He is under thirty years of age, 
served as a captain with the British army in 
Spain, was afterwards colonel in the British 
service, and had a Spanish order of knight- 
hood conferred upon him, and was allowed 
by the Prince Regent to assume the title in 
his native country. 

The Portuguese troops have invaded the 
territory of Monte Video ; but whether in 
consequence of an arrangement with Old 
Spain, or with a view to conquest on their 
own account, does not seem to be very clear- 
ly ascertained. It is not likely that their 
interference will materially affect the general 
result, except in so far as it may have a ten- 
dency to curry the flame of revolution into 
their own transatlantic territories. 


We have received what is called the re- 
vived constitution of Hayti, or rather of that 
part of the island which is under the govern- 
ment of Petion. It is comprehended in 1 1 
articles, which are subdivided into upwards 
of 200 sections ; and, like most other exhi- 
bitions of this sort, it makes a sufficiently 
respectable appearance on paper. 

The Haytian Royal Gazettes notice the 
king of France's proposals to Christophe, 
and the indignation of his sable Majesty and 
his minister the Duke of Marmalade, at the 
insolent superscription of the papers, which, 
instead of being most respectfully addressed 
to " His Majesty the King of Hayti," were 
directed only to " Monsieur the General 
Christophe, at Cape Francois." The letters 
were returned unopened. 

EAST INDIES. Calcutta papers an- 
nounce the agreeable intelligence, that Cap- 
tain Webb has crossed die several ranges of 
the snowy mountains, and entered Tartary. 
It is his opinion that he might, without 
great difficulty, from the situation whence 
he last wrote, penetrate into the heart of 
Russia. Much may be expected from Cap- 
tain Webb's scientific skill towards a correct 
knowledge of these stupendous heights, 
whose summits have been found to rise more 
than 28,000 feet above the level of the sea, 
nearly 8,000 feet higher than Chimboraze, 
the loftiest of the Andes. 

At a late meeting of the Asiatic Society, 
a curious document was communicated, re- 
specting several classes of robbers and mur- 
derers, known in the south of India by the 
name of Phanaegars, and in the upper pro- 
vinces by the appellation of Thugs ,- the 
peculiarity of whose practice is the employ- 
ment of a noose, which they throw round 
the traveller whom they have fallen in with 
on the road, apparently by accident, and 
whom they thus strangle and rob ; they live 
in a regidar society, and roam the country 
in gangs, under a .regular sirdar, or chief. 

Register. Foreign Intelligence. 

CEYLON. The dutch planters of Ceylon 
have adopted some judicious regulations for 
the gradual abolition of slavery ; all children 
born of slaves, after the 1 2th of August last, 
are to be considered free, but to remain in 
their master's house, and serve him for 
board, lodging, and clothing ; the males 
till the age of 14, and the females till 12 
after which to be fully emancipated. 

CHINA. Although no official intelligence 
has been received by government from Lord 
Amherst, since his arrival at Pekin, yet 
there is reason to believe, from private ac- 
counts from Canton, of the 17th November, 
that the British embassy to that court has 
entirely failed ; though it is impossible at 
present to assign the reasons. Another cir- 
cumstance mentioned in these letters, threat- 
ens to produce still more unfortunate effects. 
The Alceste British frigate, commanded by 
Captain Maxwell, was fired at by the forts on 
either side of the river ; but the ship, being 
immediately moored within pistle shot of 
one of them mounting forty guns, with two 
broadsides silenced both batteries. The 
Alceste was then suffered to proceed quietly 
to her destination ; and what is most singu- 
lar, up to the 17th November, not the 
slightest notice had been taken of the affair 
by the governor of Canton. 

PEHsrA. The government of Persia, it 
is said, have applied for the permission of 
the British government to take British offi- 
cers on half pay into their army, with a 
view of introducing modern tactics into the 
military establishment of that country ; an 
attack being apprehended on the part of 
Russia. It is even stated in a letter from 
Calcutta, of the 1,5th October, that the 
Archduke Constantine has entered Persia 
at the head of 100,000 Russians ; but this 
report as yet gains little credit in this coun- 

accounts of the expedition to explore the 
river Congo, or Zaire, reached the Ad- 
miralty some weeks ago. Melancholy as 
the result has been, from the great mor- 
tality of officers and men, owing to the ex- 
cessive fatigue rather than to the effects of 
climate, the journals of Captain Tuckey, 
and the gentlemen in the scientific depart- 
ments, are, it is said, highly interesting and 
satisfactory, as far as they go, and we be- 
lieve they extend considerably beyond the 
first rapid, or cataract. It would seem, in- 


deed, that the mortality was entirely owing 
to the land journey beyond these rapids, 
and that Captain Tuckey died of complete 
exhaustion after leaving the river, and not 
from fever. 

We lament to learn, that when the Doro- 
thy transport was at Cabendo, in the end Of 
October last, there were ten Portuguese 
ships in the port waiting for slaves, and two 
from Spain. 

The Congo discovery vessel arriyed at 
Portsmouth from Bahia last month. The 
journal of the lamented Captain Tuckey is 
said to describe the country he explored for 
226 miles, as a rocky desert, and thinly 
peopled region, not worthy of further re- 

March 29. Information has just been 
received of the death of Major Peddie, be- 
fore he reached the Niger. Lieutenant 
Campbell is now the commanding officer ; 
and, we understand, proceeded to carry 
into execution the orders received by Major 

ST HELENA Tke Orontes frigate, 
which left St Helena on the 4th January, 
has brought to England Colonel Poniowski, 
the Polish officer who followed Bonaparte, 
and who was sometime since banished from 
that island to the Cape, for improper con- 
duct ; and Lord Somerset has now sent him 
to Europe. Les Casas and his son have been 
also sent to the Cape in the Griffin sloop of 
war, in consequence, it is said, of their 
concerting a plan of correspondence with 

A letter, addressed by order of Bonaparte 
to Sir Hudson Lowe, governor of St Helena, 
by General Montholon, brought to this 
country by Napoleon's usher of the cabinet, 
M. St Santini, has ben published, in 
which the Ex-emperor loudly complains of 
the rigorous manner in which he is treated 
by Sir Hudson Lowe. But the conduct of 
this officer was defended by Earl Bathurst, 
in the debate to which Lord Holland's late 
motion on the subject gave rise, and the in- 
sinuations thrown out by Bonaparte against 
the British government were very satisfac- 
torily repelled. 

ISLE OF FHANCE. On the 25th of 
September, a great fire happened at Port- 
Louis, which is said to have destroyed pro- 
perty to the value of a million and a half 
Sterling. Nineteen streets were entirely 
consumed, including hospitals, prisons, bar- 
racks, magazines, and other public build- 
ings. The greater number of the unfortu- 
nate inhabitants have been reduced to abso- 
lute poverty. 


Register. -I'roceedings of Parliament. 


Tuesday, 28<7i January. The Prince 
Regent came to the House of Lords with 
the usual state at three o'clock, and opened 
the Session of Parliament with the following 
speech from the throne : 

My Lords and Gentlemen, 
It is with the deepest regret that I am 
again obliged to announce to you, that no 
alteration has occurred in the state of his 
Majesty's lamented indisposition. 

I continue to receive from Foreign Powers 
the strongest assurances of their friendly 
disposition towards this country, and of 
their earnest desire to maintain the general 

The hostilities to which I was compelled 
to resort, in vindication of the honour of the 
country, against 'the government of Algiers, 
have been attended with the most complete 

The splendid achievement of his Majesty's 
fleet, in conjunction with a squadron of the 
King of the Netherlands, under the gallant 
and able conduct of Admiral Viscount Ex- 
mouth, led to the immediate and uncondi- 
tional liberation of all Christian captives 
then within the territory of Algiers, and to 
the renunciation by its government of the 
practice of Christian slavery. 

I am persuaded, that you will be duly sen- 
sible of the importance of an arrangement 
so interesting to humanity, and reflecting, 
from the manner in which it has been ac- 
complished, such signal honour on the 
British nation. 

In India, the refusal of the Government 
of Nepaul to ratify a treaty of peace which 
had been signed by its Plenipotentiaries 
occasioned a renewal of military operations. 
The judicious arrangements of the Go- 
vernor-general, seconded by the bravery and 
perseverance of his Majesty's forces, and of 
those of the East India Company, brought 
the campaign to a speedy and successful 
issue ; and peace has been finally establish- 
ed, upon the just and honourable terms of 
the original treaty. 

Gentlemen of the House of Commons, 
I have directed the estimates of the cur- 
rent year to be laid before you. 

They have been formed upon a full con- 
sideration of all the present circumstances 
of the country, with an anxious desire to 
make every reduction in our establishments 
which the safety of the empire and sound 
policy allow. 

I recommend the state of the public in- 
come and expenditure to your early and se- 
rious attention. 

I regret to be under the necessity of in- 
forming you, that there has been a deficien- 
cy in the produce of the revenue in the last 
year ; but I trust that it is to be ascribed 
to temporary causes ; and I have the conso- 

lation to believe, that you will find it prac- 
ticable to provide for the public service 
of the year, without making any addition 
to the burdens of the people, and without 
adopting any measure injurious to that sys- 
tem, by which the public credit of the coun- 
try has been hitherto sustained. 
My Lords and Gentlemen, 

I have the satisfaction of informing you, 
that the arrangements which were made in 
the last Session of Parliament, with a view 
to a new silver coinage, have been completed 
with unprecedented expedition. 

I have given directions for the immediate 
issue of the new coin, and I trust that this 
measure will be productive of considerable 
advantages to the trade and internal trans- 
actions of the country. 

The distresses consequent upon the ter- 
mination of a war of such unusual extent 
and duration, have been felt, with greater 
or less severity, throughout all the nations 
of Europe, and have been considerably ag- 
gravated by the unfavourable state of the 

Deeply as I lament the pressure of these 
evils upon this country, I am sensible that 
they are of a nature not to admit of an im- 
mediate remedy ; but whilst I observe with 
peculiar satisfaction the fortitude with which 
so many privations have been borne, and 
the active benevolence which has been em- 
ployed to mitigate them, I am persuaded 
that the great sources of our national pro- 
sperity are essentially unimpaired, and I en- 
tertain a confident expectation, that the na- 
tive energy of the country will at no distant 
period surmount all the difficulties in which 
we are involved. 

In considering our internal situation, you 
will, I doubt not, feel a just indignation at 
the attempts which have been made to take 
advantage of the distresses of the country, 
for the purpose of exciting a spirit of sedi- 
tion and violence. 

I am too well convinced of the loyalty 
and good sense of the great body of his 
Majesty's subjects, to believe them capable 
of being perverted by the arts which are 
employed to seduce them ; but I am deter- 
mined to omit no precautions for preserving 
the public peace, and for counteracting the 
designs of the disaffected : and I rely with 
the utmost confidence on your cordial sup- 
port and co-operation, in upholding a sys- 
tem of law and government, from which we 
have derived inestimable advantages, which 
has enabled us to conclude, with unexam- 
pled glory, a contest whereon depended the 
best interests of mankind, and which has 
been hitherto felt by ourselves, as it is ac- 
knowledged by other nations, to be the most 
perfect that has ever fallen to the lot of any 


Register. Proceedings of Parliament. 


Lord SIDMOUTH, after strangers had 
withdrawn, informed the House, that as the 
Prince Regent was returning from the 
House and the carriage was passing in the 
Park, at the back of the garden of Carleton 
House, the glass of the carriage window 
had been broken by a stone, as some repre- 
sented it, or by two balls tired from an air- 
gun, as others stated it, which appeared to 
be aimed at his itoyal Highness. 

Both Houses examined witnesses on this 
communication, and presented addresses to 
the Prince Regent. 

The address on the speech from the 
Throne was moved and seconded by the 
Earl of DARTMOUTH and Lord ROTHES 
in the House of Lords ; and in the House 
of Commons by Lord VALLETORT and 
Mr DAWSON. Earl GREY moved an a- 
mendment in the Lords, which was nega- 
tived without a division ; and the original 
address was carried in the House of Com- 
mons, in opposition to an amendment mov- 
ed by Mr PONSONBY, by a majority of 


Monday, Feb. 3 Lord SIDMOUTH 

presented the following message, which was 
read by the Lord Chancellor : "His Royal 
Highness the Prince Regent, acting in the 
name and on the behalf of his Majesty, has 
thought proper to order to be laid before 
the House of Lords, papers containing an 
account of certain meetings and combina- 
tions held in different parts of the country, 
tending to the disturbance of the public 
tranquillity, the alienation of the affections 
of the people from his Majesty's person and 
government, and to the overthrow of the 
whole frame and system of the laws and 
constitution ; and his Royal Highness re- 
commends these papers to the immediate 
and serious consideration of the House." 


Lord MELVILLE, after taking a review 
of the cause, the mode, and the effects of die 
expedition to Algiers, and paying a well- 
merited tribute of applause to the promp- 
titude, skill, and gallantry, displayed in 
that memorable achievement, moved the 
thanks of the House to Lord Exmouth, Sir 
David Milne, and the officers, seamen, and 
marines ; and also to Admiral Capellen, 
and the officers and crews under his com- 
mand ; which motions were unanimously 
agreed to. 

Feb 4. Lord SIDMOUTH rose to pro- 
pose to their Lordships, an answer to the 
message which he had last night laid before 
them from the Prince Regent. Their Lord- 
ships would, he had no doubt, concur in 
the address which he should have the hon- 
our to propose, as it would pledge their 
Lordships to nothing except to an exami- 
nation of the evidence. He would refrain 
from all reference to any ulterior proceed- 

ings, and recommend that nothing should 
be said or done until the report of the Com- 
mittee should be laid before the House. The 
atrocious outrage lately committed against 
the Prince Regent was certainly regarded 
with the utmost horror and reprobation by 
an overwhelming majority of the nation ; 
and he felt it his duty to state, that the 
present communication was not at all con- 
nected with that outrage. 

After some general remarks by Lord 
Grosvenor, Lord Holland, the Earl of 
Liverpool, Earl Grey, and the Marquis of 
Buckingham, the address was agreed to, 
and the papers on the table were ordered to 
be referred to-morrow to a committee of 
Secrecy, consisting of eleven Lords, to be 
then chosen by ballot. 


Feb. 6. The Earl of LIVERPOOL took 
a review of the cause of this war, and of the 
operations which led to its successful termi- 
nation, and moved that the thanks of the 
House be given to the Most Noble the 
Marquis of Hastings, for the able and ju- 
dicious arrangements by which the war in 
Nepaul had been brought to a successful 
conclusion. The motion was agreed to; 
after which, thanks were voted to Sir David 
Ochterlony, and the troops under his com- 


Feb. 18. The Earl of HARHOWBY pre- 
sented the report of the Secret Committee 
appointed to inquire into certain meetings 
and combinations endangering the public 
tranquillity, which was laid on the table, 
and ordered to be taken into consideration 
on Friday, and that the House be summon- 
ed for that day. 


Feb. 21. Lord SIDMOUTH introduced 
a bill, under the title of " A bill to enable 
his Majesty to secure, and detain in custody, 
such persons as his Majesty shall suspect of 
treasonable intentions against his Majesty's 
person and government." His Lordship in- 
timated, that it was thought most conveni- 
ent for their Lordships to discuss the prin- 
ciple of the measure on the second reading 
of the bill, which he intended to propose 
should take place on Monday next. Read 
a first time, and ordered to be read a second 
time on Monday. 

Feb. 2-1 Lord SIDMOUTH, after mov- 
ing the order of the day for the second read- 
ing of the bill, observed, that whatever 
differences of opinion might exist as to this 
and other measures in contemplation, he 
was confident that no Noble Lord could 
have read and reflected upon the report of 
the Committee upon the table, without the 
deepest regret, calculated as it was to shock 
every feeling of loyalty to the Throne, and 
of affection for the illustrious individual e? - 
ercising its functions, and to cast a loatl - 
some stigma upon the character and dispt - 


sition of the country. His Lordship then 
at great length commented on the leading 
points of the report ; urged the necessity of 
the measure for the preservation of the con- 
stitution and the salvation of the country ; 
and concluded with moving, that the bill be 
now read a second time. 

After an animated debate, protracted till 
past two in the morning, the House divid- 
ed. Contents 150 ; non-contents 35. The 
bill was then committed, reported, read a 
third time, passed, and ordered to be sent 
to the Commons. 


Dissentient, Because it does not appear 
to us that, in the report of the Secret Com- 
mittee, there has been stated such a case of 
imminent and pressing danger as may not 
be sufficiently provided against by the powers 
of the Executive Government under the ex- 
isting laws, and as requires the suspension 
of the most important security of the liberty 
of the country. 



Feb. 28. The House having gone into 
a Committee on the Malt Duty, and Offices' 
Contribution Bill, Lord REDESDALE rose, 
pursuant to notice, to propose an amend- 
ment The bill contained a clause of a very 
peculiar description, stating, That whereas 
his Royal Highness the Prince Regent, and 
many persons holding public offices, were 
desirous of contributing a certain portion of 
the incomes derived from these offices to- 
wards the public service, it was enacted, 
that it should be lawful to give the proper 
instructions to the officers of the Exchequer 
to receive such contributions, &c. The 
contributions were to be voluntary ; but then 
they would be voluntary only in the sense 
in which the contribution for beer-money 
was formerly raised among their Lordships' 
servants. When a new servant made his 
appearance for the first time, he was called 
upon to pay this beer-money ; and if he re- 
fused, the process of hooting was resorted 
to, and they continued to hoot him until he 
paid the money. But he would not consent 
to be hooted out of his money, and he trust- 
ed that others would not be induced to be 
taxed in this way, under pretence of a vo- 
luntary contribution. His Lordship then 
proceeded at some length to contend, that 
men who held official situations frequently 
injured their private fortunes by the ex- 
penses which they felt it necessary to incur, 
and to which their salaries were in many 
instances inadequate. His Lordship there- 
fore disapproved of the whole clause ; but 
his amendment was negatived without a di- 

Register. Proceedings of Parliament. 



Friday, Jan. 31. Sir FRANCIS BUR- 
DETT, having some petitions to present, 
praying for a Reform in the Representation 
of that House, acknowledged that he had 
not felt it his duty to read them throughout, 
but declared that he had read their prayer. 
referred to the Speaker to know whether the 
Hon. Baronet had read the petition he was 
about to present, when 

The SPEAKER said, there were two clear 
points on this subject ; the first was, that it 
was the duty of a Member to state the sub- 
stance of the petition he was about to pre- 
sent ; secondly, it was the Member's duty 
to know if it was couched in respectful lan- 
guage ; if not, he departed from the line of 
his duty in offering it This was the estab- 
lished practice of the House. 

Monday, Feb. 3. Lord CASTLEREAGH 
presented a message from the Prince Re- 
gent, similar to that presented in the House 
of Lords. 


On the motion of Lord CASTLEREAGH, 
votes of thanks, similar to those voted in 
the House of Lords, were agreed to. 


Feb. 5 On the motion of Lord CAS- 
TLEREAGH, the House proceeded to ballot 
for die Committee of Secrecy, and after the 
prescribed forms were gone through, 

Mr BRODGEN appeared at the Bar with 
the report of the Committee appointed to 
scrutinize the lists given in for composing 
the Committee of Secrecy, when, the report 
having been read, twenty-one gentlemen 
were named of the Committee. 


Mr ROSE moved to bring in a Bill for 
regulating Provident Institutions or Saving 
Banks. In reply to some remarks from Mr 
Curwen, respecting the increasing burden of 
the poor-rates, Mr Rose said that he felt 
great anxiety that it should not go forth to 
the public that the poor-rates would be con- 
siderably diminished by the measure lie now 
proposed. He merely wished it to be un- 
derstood, that as far as it went, it would 
tend to afford very great relief, not only by 
diminishing the wants and distresses of the 
labouring poor, but also by teaching them 
to rely in future on themselves for happiness 
and independence. 


Feb. 6 Mr CANNING gave a history of 
the rise and extending power of the Goork- 
has, with an account of the war, and its 
close ; and concluded with moving votes of 
thanks similar to those agreed to hi the 
House of Lords. 


Feb. 7. The CHANCELLOR of the Kx- 
having moved the order of die 

Register . Proceedings of Parliament. 

day for the House resolving itself into the 
said Committee, observed, that he intended 
to propose only such votes as would go to 
the renewal of certain usual annual taxes, 
and a grant of Exchequer Bills to replace 
those which were now out. The several 
duties on malt, sugar, &c. were then mov- 
ed ; as also that *24,000,000 be raised by 
Exchequer Bills for the service of the year 

After some observations by Sir C. Monck 
and Mr Calcraft, the resolutions were agreed 


Feb. 7 Lord CASTIEREAGH (the 

House being in a Committee on that part 
of the Regent's Speech which related to the 
Finances), in an elaborate speech of great 
length, and embracing a variety of views of 
the state of the country past, present, and 
prospective, did not disguise or extenuate 
the present distress, but still maintained, 
that with the characteristic vigour and 
energy of the British character, and an 
economy pervading every department of the 
public service, we should soon be restored 
to our high situation among the nations. 
He then entered into a detail of the reduc- 
tions of the national expenditure which were 
contemplated, making a total annual dimi- 
nution, in all the different branches, of six 
millions and a half, and thereby reduc- 
ing the current expenses of this year to 
*8,373,000 ; and that there might be a fur- 
ther saving of above a million anticipated in 
the next year, which would bring the expendi- 
ture down to i'17,300,000 ; and that of this 
sum there was not more than 13,000,000 
applicable to current services, for there were 
now paid in pensions, and half-pay to the 
officers and men in the army, navy, and 
ordnance departments, who had contributed 
to bring the war to so glorious a termina- 
tion, upwards of four millions. A certain 
proportion of the pensions would annually 
be available for the public service by the 
decease" of those who enjoyed them. A 
hundred thousand men were now in the re- 
ceipt of pensions and half-pay. He had 
made inquiries as to what, upon ordinary 
calculations, might be expected to accrue 
annually from the falling in of their allow- 
ances. By assuming the medium age of 
40, one half of the whole would cease to 
exist in the course of 20 years, making 2,500 
annually ; and, as the allowances are four 
millions, the sum becoming available every 
year for the public service, in the reduction 
of the public burdens, would be 100,000. 
In making up the estimates, a sketch of 
which he (Lord C.) had submitted to the 
House, Ministers were actuated by the most 
anxious desire to cfi'ect every possible re- 
duction ; to carry into effect every plan of 
economy that was consistent with our situa- 
tion and security ; and to bring the expendi- 
ture of the nation as much as possible within 
its means. His Lordship took a review of 
the general distress that prevailed all over 
VOL. I. 

Europe ; he praised the generous sympathy 
which bound all classes of society together in 
this happy land, and those spontaneous ef- 
forts made u> lighten the burdens of the des- 
titute, by sharing them. In the highest 
quarter, in the head of the government of 
this country, the same feelings and sympa- 
thies were shared that actuated his people. 
He not only sympathized with their distress, 
but was prepared to share their privations ; 
and, from the spontaneous movement of his 
own mind, had expressed his determination 
to abstain from receiving, in the present state 
of distress, so much of the civil list as he 
could refuse, consistently with maintaining 
the dignity of his station, without doing 
what Parliament would disapprove of in- 
curring. (General Cheering.) His Royal 
Highness had given his commands to inform 
the House, that he meant to give up for the 
public service a fifth part of the fourth class 
of the civil list, which, it ought to be ob- 
served, was the only branch connected with 
the personal expenses, or the royal state of 
the Sovereign ; for all the other heads of 
charge included in the civil list, except the 
privy purse, were as much for paying pub- 
lic services as the sums included in the es- 
timates he had this night mentioned 
(Hear, hear ! ) That branch of the civil 
list amounted to 209,000 ; and his Royal 
Highness offered, out of this and the privy 
purse, 50,000 (Hear, hear!) for the 
public service. His Royal Highness had 
directed and applauded the exertions of his 
people, he had shared in their glories, and 
now generously sympathized in their suffer- 
ings, and determined to share their priva- 
tions (Hear I ) The servants of the Crown 
had resolved to follow the example of their 
Royal Master, and to surrender that part of 
their salaries which had accrued to them 
since the abolition of the property tax. 
(Hear, hear ! ) His Lordship came then to 
the last branch of the subject, the forma- 
tion of a Committee, for the purpose of in- 
quiring into the income and expenditure of 
the country, on the mode of choosing which, 
and on the duties they were to perform, his 
Lord expatiated for some time, and then 
concluded with proposing the appointment 
of a Committee, to consist of 21 members, 
" for the purpose of inquiring into the reve- 
nue and expenditure of the country for the 
years ending the 5th January 1815, the 5th 
January 1816 and 1817, and also for the 
years ending the 5th January 1818 and 
1819, with a view to the investigation of 
measures for affording relief to the country, 
without detriment to the public service ; and 
to report thereon, from time to time, their 
opinions to the house." Before he sat 
down, it would be right to mention, that he- 
proposed the committee should be invested 
with full powers to send for persons, papers, 
and records, ( Hear, hear ! ) that they should 
possess all the means of pursuing their in- 
quiries to the bottom. 

The noble Lord concluded with reading 

Regi$ter.-~-Proceedings of Parliament. 


the following list : Lord Castlereagh, Chan- 
cellor of the Exchequer, Mr Ponsonby, Mr 
Bankes, Mr Long, Mr Tierney, Lord Bin- 
ning, Sir J. Newport, Mr Peel, Mr C. W. 
Wynne, Mr Arbuthnot, Mr Frankland 
Lewis, Mr Huskisson, Mr N. Calvert, Mr 
Davies Gilbert, Mr Cartwright, Mr Hoi- 
ford, Mr Edward Littleton, Lord Clive, Mr 
Gooch, and Sir T. Ackland. 

Mr TIERNEY, and many other members, 
delivered their sentiments at great length, 
both against and for this nomination, after 
which the House divided. For the Com- 
mittee 210; against it 1 17. 

Two other divisions took place, on a mo- 
tion to substitute other names in the room 
of Lord Binning and Mr Huskisson, but 
the majority decided that they were to stand 
as part of die Committee. 


Tuesday,Fcb.l\ LordCASTLEiiEAGH, 
in reply to General Ferguson, stated that 
the Noble Marquis (Cambden) alluded to 
had resigned all the emoluments and pro- 
fits of the office he held (Tellership of the 
Exchequer, and only retained the regulated 
salary of 2500. (Cheering.) The Noble 
Marquis had been for some time desirous 
of making this sacrifice, but as his office was 
in the nature of a vested right, and as he 
did not know what effect this surrender 
might have on others in a similar situation, 
he delayed till the meeting of Parliament. 
Seeing, however, the example of retrench- 
ment and sacrifice set in the highest quar- 
ter, he no longer hesitated, and offered now 
all the emoluments of his appointment 
(Hear, licar ! ) 


Feb. 14. A great many petitions hav- 
ing been presented praying for a Reform 
in Parliament, most of them claiming uni- 
versal suffrage and annual elections, as the 
ancient constitution of the kingdom, Mr 
BROUGHAM spoke to the following effect : 
" Sir, I have in all cases gone as far as it 
was possible for me to go, to assist in opening 
the door of this House to the people's com- 
plaints : and I have done all that I could 
and not less than the Noble Lord (Cochrane) 
to discountenance, as far as my little influ- 
ence would allow me, any proposition which 
appeared to me to be calculated to impede, 
cramp, and hamper, the exercise of popular 
rights (Hear, hear, hear I ) I therefore 
put myself on my country, in competition 
with the Noble Lord, as to which of us has 
shewn himself to be the greater friend of 
the people of England. (Hear, hear, hear ! ) 
But, Sir, I will not shew my friendship for 
the people, by telling them falsehoods. 
(Hear, hear, hear ! ) I will not be a party 
in practising delusion on the people. (Hear, 
hear, Jiear ! ) I will not take advantage of 
the warmth of popular meetings, a great 
proportion of the individuals constituting 
which are necessarily ignorant of the nicer 
points of history and antiquity, to induce 
the people 'to sign such petitions as those 

which have lately been presented to this 
House. (Hear, hear, liear ! ) Sir, I would 
not be a party in telling the people, (mon- 
strous assertion !) that twelve hundred years 
ago this country enjoyed a free and perfect 
constitution (Hear, hear, hear ! ) This, 
sir, is a specimen of the historical know- 
ledge, of the antiquarian research, of the 
acquaintance with constitutional law of these 
wiseacres out of doors, who, after poring 
for days and nights, and brooding over their 
wild and mischievous schemes, rise up with 
their little nostrums and big blunders to a- 
mend the British Constitution ! (Laughter 
and loud cheers.) And then, sir, we are 
pronounced ignorant and daring who refuse 
to subscribe to the creed of these true re- 
formers, who know accurately what hap- 
pened in this country five hundred years be- 
fore authenticated history begins I (Hear /> 
and we are told, that he who will not believe 
the self-evident propositions of these gen- 
tlemen, which it is said are so reasonable as 
not to admit of the least controversy, are 
dishonest as well as ignorant and daring. 
The people of England have presented hun- 
dreds of petitions to this House. I believe 
above a million of people have declared to 
this House some opinion or other on the 
question of reform. These persons have been 
collected together at meetings, to which they 
flocked simply because they felt severe dis- 
tress. They knew from their own experience, 
and from the nature of their sxifferings, that 
they in a great measure originated in the 
mal-administration of public affairs. There 
is one conclusion, sir, which we ought to 
draw from all these considerations ; namely, 
that severe distress is the real cause of this 
popular agitation ; and that as far as the 
people call upon us for great retrenchments 
and some reform, the call is well founded, 
and must be heard. I heartily hope that it 
may be heard before it is too late, and that 
the people may by that means be taken and 
kept out of the hands of those who would 
betray them into misery a hundred fold 
greater than that which they at present en- 
dure." (Hear, hear /) 


Wednesday, Feb.19, MrB.BATHUHST 
appeared at the bar with the report of the 
Committee of Secrecy, to whom certain 
papers, laid before the House by command 
of his Royal Highness the Prince Regent, 
had been referred Ordered to be printed, 
and taken into consideration on Monday 


Feb. 21. Mr CURWEN, in a clear and 
argumentative speech, took a wide and com- 
prehensive view of the Poor Laws, in their 
origin, progress, and present oppressive 
magnitude. We can only give a few 
detached passages. The great evils were 
increasing still, and would increase much 
more, unless some remedy were applied 
to bring things back to their original 
state. We had, it was to be recollected, 


Register. Proceedings of Parliament. 


become, from an agricultural, a commercial 
country. In 1776 the poor rates were stat- 
ed at a million and a half; now in the 
course of forty years, they might be taken 
altogether at eight millions and a half. 
This monstrous sum must excite the deep- 
est regret: but it was not merely the a- 
mount that was to be deplored, for the sum 
of happiness and consolation was not in- 
creased by it ; but, on the contrary, there 
was an augmentation of human misery. 
Something must now be applied. He was 
well aware that the amount was so great 
that it was impossible to cut it down at once. 
We had, in the course of years, in fact tak- 
en away the care of the people from them- 
selves ; and the result of this conduct un- 
fortunately was, that they regarded the pre- 
sent time as every thing, and the future as 
nothing. It was now our interest and our 
duty, to endeavour to rescue them from this 
condition, and to revive and elevate their 
minds by the operation of some other prin- 
ciple. If we did not, we should lend our- 
selves to the destruction of their industry, 
their virtue, and their happiness. A for- 
eigner must look with astonishment at the 
enormous sum of nine millions raised for 
the relief of the poor. Few foreign Sove- 
reigns had so great a revenue for all the 
purposes of their governments. He could 
make his appeal to those gentlemen who were 
Magistrates, to say, whether the poor were 
at present happy, contented, and grateful ! 
No ! they must answer, that they were un- 
happy, dissatisfied, ungrateful to those who 
afforded them temporary relief, and without 
real comfort. (Hear!) They looked on 
every thing with a jaundiced eye, and dis- 
content of mind. He had visited Ireland, 
and when he first saw the wretched Irish 
cabins, with the smoke issuing through the 
door, his feelings of disgust were so strong, 
that he turned away, desirous of not enter- 
ing : but when he did go in, he found a 
surprising revolution, and the least looked- 
for that he could have imagined. He saw 
within the place the exercise of all the affec- 
tions of the heart, while potatoes were the 
food, and butter-milk the only luxury. He 
thought the Irish peasant happier than an 
English pauper. He saw a proof that hap- 
piness was chiefly seated in the mind. The 
poor Irishman did not appear broken in 
spirit or degraded. He travelled a thou- 
sand miles in that country, making obser- 
vations on the state of the poorer classes 
wherever he went Nothing, he was con- 
vinced, was so dangerous to the poor as 
pauperism : yet there were not less than 
two millions of British subjects in that de- 
grading condition. Could the House re- 
quire a stronger stimulus than this afflicting 
consideration, to impel them to the appli- 
cation of an instant remedy ! After ages of 
inconveniences had passed, the remedy could 
operate only by slow degrees ; but still he 
must assume the possibility of its efficacy. 
It was not possible for the Legislature to 

prevent premature and imprudent mar- 
riages ; but it must be their object to inspire 
the poor with some forethought of the mi- 
series that might come upon an unprovided 
offspring. The great object of a proper 
Committee would be, to find means of shew- 
ing to the people their own interest and ad- 
vantage, in taking their happiness into their 
own hands. He gave a melancholy picture 
of the demands in the shape of Poor Rates, 
in the West Riding of Yorkshire, where one 
farmer, occupying 210 acres of land, was 
called upon to pay a guinea a day ; and in 
Sussex, Shropshire, and other counties, he 
mentioned assessments at 18s. 20s. 24s. and 
26s. ; and' even higher. After stating a 
number of laborious calculations, to enforce 
or elucidate his arguments, he said it was 
his intention to call on the fund-holder, the 
money-lender, and the trade of the country, 
to bear their proportion of the burthen ; but 
it was his great aim to lessen the number of 
claimants, to reduce pauperism within nar- 
rower limits, and to restore to the mass of 
population that independent spirit, which 
would teach them to trust to themselves 
and their own exertions for support. After 
developing his plans and intentions, he 
moved for a Committee to be appointed, to 
consider the state of the Poor Laws and the 
Labouring Poor. 

Lord CASTLEREAGH complimented the 
Hon. Member on the calm, deliberate, and 
judicious manner in which he had introduced 
this important subject ; and admitted, that 
his claim on him for his general view of the 
subject was fair. He was anxious to sup- 
port inquiry, as were all around him. Min- 
isters would dedicate their time to it most 
cheerfully, as far as was consistent with their 
other avocations. His Lordship then en- 
tered into a most explicit statement of his 
view of the subject, which we regret ex- 
ceedingly that we cannot give. 

A Committee was then appointed, and 
ordered to report from time to time to the 


Monday, Feb. 24 Lord CASTLERE AGH 
prefaced the measures he had to submit to 
the House with expressions of extreme re- 
gret at the necessity which compelled him, 
in the discharge of his public duty, to bring 
them forward ; he then entered into a very 
copious analysis and illustration of the re- 
port, but without adding any thing material 
to the statements thereof, or disclosing the 
facts and evidence on which it'was founded, 
assigning the same reasons that Lord Sid- 
mouth used in the other House. In order 
to counteract and repress the treasonous 
practices now afloat in the country, the Mi- 
nisters of the Crown deemed it necessary, 
1st, That a bill should be passed, suspend- 
ing the Habeas Corpus Act : 2d, For the 
more effectually preventing seditious meet- 
ings and assemblies : 3d, For extending the 
same legal protection to the person of the 

Register. British Chronicle. 


Prince Regent as to the King ; 4th, For the 
better prevention and punishment of persons 
attempting to seduce the military from their 
duty and allegiance. The last two he would 
propose to make perpetual; the first two 
only temporary, perhaps to the close of the 
present session or the commencement of the 
next. He concluded with moving for leave 
to bring in a bill for the more effectually 
preventing of seditious meetings. 

The debate was long and animated ; and 
on a division the numbers were, ayes 190 ; 
noes 14 ; majority 176. The bill was read 
a first time, and ordered to be read a second 
time on Wednesday. 

Lord CASTLEREAGH then presented a 
bill to extend to the person of the Prince 
Regent the statute of 36 George III. for the 
better preservation of his Majesty's person ; 
and a bill to extend the 37th of his Majesty, 
for rendering more penal the seduction of 
the soldiery. They were both read a first 
time, and ordered to be read a second time 
on Wednesday. 


Feb. 25 A very long debate ensued on 
a motion of Sir M. W. RIDLEY, the pur- 
port of which was to diminish the number 
of the Lords of the Admiralty, which was 
lost on a division ; there being for the ori- 
ginal motion 152 ; for the previous question 
moved, by Lord Castlereagh, 208 ; majo- 
rity 86. 


Feb. 26 On the first reading of this bill 
being moved by Lord CASTLEREAGH, it 
was warmly opposed by Mr BENNET and 
other members. On a division the numbers 
were, ayes 273; noes 98; majority 175. 
In the course of the debate, the LORD AD- 
VOCATE of Scotland said, that he was in- 

formed that a secret conspiracy was organ- 
ized in Glasgow, which had communica- 
tions with societies in England. That con- 
spiracy was held together by means of a 
secret oath, which he read to the House : 

" In the presence of Almighty God, I 
A. B. do voluntarily swear, that I will pur- 
severe in my endeavouring to form a bro- 
therhood of affection amongst Britons of 
every description who are considered worthy 
of confidence ; and that I will persevere in 
my endeavours to obtain for all the people 
of Great Britain and Ireland, not disquali- 
fied by crimes or insanity, the elective fran- 
chise at the age of twenty -one, with free 
and equal representation, and annual par- 
liaments ; and that I will support the same 
to the utmost of my power, either by moral 
or physical strength, as the case may require. 
(Loud cries of Hear.) And I do further 
swear, that neither hopes, fears, rewards, or 
punishments, shall induce me to inform or 
give evidence against any member or mem- 
bers, collectively or individually, for any act 
or expression done or made, or to be done 
or made, in or out, in this or similar socie- 
ties, under the punishment of death, to be 
inflicted on me by any member or members 
of such society. So help me God, and keep 
me stedfast !" (Hear, from all sides of the 

Feb. 28 On the motion of the CHAN- 
CELLOR of the EXCHEQUER, the bill was 
read a third time and passed. Ayes 265 ; 
noes 103 ; majority 162. Another division 
took place on a motion of Mr PONSONBY, 
that the act should expire on the 29th May, 
instead of 1st July. Against the motion 
239 : for it 97 : majority 142. 
(To fc continued.) 



THE Prince Regent has been pleased to 
grant out of the funds at the disposal of 
his Majesty, .1000, in aid of the sub- 
scription for relief of the labouring classes 
within the city of Edinburgh and suburbs. 

A useful discovery. A. machine has been 
constructed under the immediate auspices 
of the Lord Mayor of London, calculated 
to render the most essential services. Its 
object is to act in case of the overturning of 
carts, waggons, &c. heavily laden, when by 
its use an immediate remedy is produced, 
and danger obviated, in cases where horses 
become entangled, and their lives endan- 
gered. The application of the machine has 
been already proved to be instantaneous in 

its effects. The experiment was made at 
the brewhouss of Calvert & Company a few 
days since, with a dray, on which were 
placed three butts of beer. The expense 
does not exceed 30s. From a conviction 
of its great utility, the Lord Mayor has 
caused one to be placed in the care of each 
of the watchhouse-keepers in the six princi- 
pal districts of the city, viz. Giltspur Street, 
Fleet Market, Mansion House, London 
Bridge, Bishopsgate, and Aldgate. 

2. A Jlat, yet lively contradiction. 
[To the proprietor of the Dublin Evening 
Post.] " Sir, Having ttrcn an account of 
my daith in your paper, I request you will 
contradict it 



RegisterBritish Chronicle. 


6 This being die Princess Charlotte's 
birth-day, when her Royal Highness com- 
pleted her 21st year, the day was celebrated 
at Claremont, and in London, by her Royal 
Highness's tradesmen illuminating their 
houses, and by other rejoicings. 

7. The gazette of last night contains 
an address from the corporation of Dub- 
lin to the Prince Regent, thanking, in 
the warmest terms, his Royal Highness 
for his munificent contribution of 2000, 
in aid of the fund for the relief of the la- 
bouring classes of that city. 

8. The committee for distributing re- 
lief to the labouring classes in the city 
of Edinburgh have now on their list 
above 1600 persons. The men are em- 
ployed in working on Leith Walk, at the 
head of the Links, on the ground at the 
east side of the Mound, and on the Cal- 
ton Hill. The subscription amounts to 
upwards of 6000. 

East India House A special meeting 
of proprietors of East India stock was 
held in Leadenhall Street, to take into 
further consideration the question of ap- 
pointing an additional European profes- 
sor of the oriental languages in their col- 
lege at Hertford, at a salary of 400, 
and a further allowance of lOO per 
annum ; when, after a long and ani- 
mated discussion respecting the character 
of this establishment, the resolution was 
put to the vote, and carried in the affirm- 

8. For several hours this morning, 
the fog throughout the whole of the me- 
tropolis was so intense, that candles were 
used in every shop and counting-house. 
About twelve o'clock, however, the sun 
burst out again in all its glory, and a fine 
summer-like day succeeded. 

8 The body of William Pinkerton, 
smuggler, was found in the Great Canal, 
at the Plash, near Rockvilla distillery. 
This man has been missing since the be- 
ginning of last month, and when found had 
a flask of whisky tied to his back. 

Singular Occurrence. On Thursday 
the 2d instant, the body of a woman was 
found tied to a boat, near the landing- 
place of the Royal Hospital at Green- 
wich, on which an inquest was held be- 
fore one of the coroners of Kent, when 
an old man came forward, and swore that 
the deceased was his daughter, and that 
she was the wife of Israel Friday, an out- 
pensioner of Greenwich College. He 
then went into a long account of a quar- 
rel which took place between Friday and 
his wife the day before the body was 
found. Other witnesses also swore to 
the deceased being the daughter of the 
old man. The coroner thereupon directed 
diligent search to be made after Friday, 
the husband. The jury met again on the 
10th instant, when the constables report- 
ed that they had not been able to find 

Friday, but that they had found his wife 
alive and hearty. The coroner repri- 
manded the witnesses severely for want 
of discrimination ; but every one allowed 
that the great likeness there was between 
the living woman and the deceased might 
have deceived better judges, particularly 
as both the women had similar private 
marks on their arms. 

Hawkers. Yesterday John Barlow was 
examined under the hawker's act, charged 
with going from house to house, and of. 
fering for sale Cobbett's Political Register, 
price twopence, the same being unstamped, 
and he not having a hawker's license. He 
was convicted in the penalty of 10, and 
in default to be committed for three months 
to the house of correction. 

9._ Inverness. Died at Ardersier, in 
this vicinity, a gander, well known to 
have been full grown when the founda- 
tion of Fort George was laid, in the year 
1748. His helpmate died only two years 

Ireland. The Marquis of Londonder- 
ry, in addition to his liberal donation to 
the poor on his Lordship's Derry estate, 
has advanced 1000 for the purpose of 
purchasing fuel and provisions, which are 
to be delivered out to them at very low 

10. Shocking Story. A melancholy 
catastrophe took place at Bolsover, in 
the county of Derby, a few days ago. It 
appears that a poor woman of the name 
of Wylde, took the horrid resolution of 
destroying herself and her four children 
by poison. The deadly preparation was 
procured, and the children called up at 
an early hour in the morning, under the 
pretence of giving them a medicine for 
the worms. She administered it to them, 
and also a considerable quantity to herself, 
in the presence of her husband. Its dead- 
ly effects were soon visible, and terminated 
in their death, leaving the agonized hus- 
band in a state of mind which it would be 
vain to attempt to describe. 

13. Ely It is with extreme regret we 
state that a tremendous breach has taken 
place in the Burnt Fen Bank, near Mr 
Seaber's, on the river Lark, by which near 
15,000 acres of land are inundated. 

Melancholy Accident A letter froia 

Lochgoilhead, dated the 3d January 1817, 
to a gentleman in Glasgow, says " On 
Monday last a boat left this, in order 
to go to Greenock; when sailing down 
Lochgoil, they were hailed by a person 
that wanted to cross ; they condescended, 
and, being upon the lee shore, gave the 
boat the two sails, which before had but 
one. Half way over opposite the Wain- 
inan, came on a squall, and run the boat 
down by not relieving the sheets. Eight 
persons were on board, of which five were 
drowned, ami a sixth died after being got 
on shore. 


Remitter. British Chronicle. 

Carr Rock." We are sorry," says 
an Edinburgh paper, " in the space of a 
few weeks, to have again to notice the 
fatal effects of a very dangerous reef 
of rocks, which extend from the shore at 
Fifeness, fully a mile and a half to sea- 
ward, and terminating in Carr Rock. 
The sloop Janet of St Andrews, forty 
tons register, Elder master, bound from 
Alloa, with coals, sprang & leak off the 
Carr Rock about six o'clock on the even- 
ing of the 6th. The crew, finding that 
the water gained fast upon them, were 
making to the shore, to run the vessel 
upon Balcombie Sands, when she unfor- 
tunately struck upon one of the outer 
rocks of the Brigs, near the Carr. The 
crew immediately took to the boat, and 
landed in safety. Robert Watson, Lord 
Kdlic's fisherman, who has been resi- 
dent at Fifeness about sixty years, is 
enabled, from what he recollects of the 
shipwrecks at the Carr Rock, to re- 
mark, that there has been, in his time, 
" at least sixty vessels lost upon the 
Carr ! for if she missed her mark one 
year, she is sure to hit twice the year fol- 

17. A meeting of the advocates for a 
reform in Parliament, was held at Free- 
mason's Tavern this day, when several 
resolutions were adopted, expressing the 
necessity for a constitutional reform in 
the representation, the abolition of use- 
less offices and unmerited pensions, and 
a reduction ot the military establishment. 

IBELAND. A meeting convened by 
requisition, took place on the 13th inst. 
at the Green of Harold's Cross, Dublin, 
when a respectful address was voted to 
his Royal Highness the Prince Regent, 
humbly praying that he would give his 
royal countenance and support to the 
measure of parliamentary reform. Se- 
veral resolutions were also carried, stat- 
ing the public distress, and declaring that 
the object of the meeting was reform, 
not revolution. A petition to Parliament, 
founded on the resolutions, was read and 

20 The trial of the rioters for plun- 
dering Mr Beckwith's premises on the 2d 
of December, the day of the first Spa- 
fields meeting, commenced this morning 
at 10 o'clock, at the old Bailey, when 
John Cashman was found guilty, John 
Hooper, Richard Gamble, William Gun- 
nel, and John Carpenter, not guilty 
Cashman has since been executed. The 
trial of the other rioters was resumed on 
the 21st, but none of them were capitally 

22 The loss of the Mistletoe schooner, 

tender to the flag-ship at Portsmouth, 
with all her crew, upon the coast of 
Sussex, whilst cruising in search of smug- 
glers, can no longer be doubted ; she 
must have foundered in one of the vio- 

lent gales. It is ascertained that the 
vessel sunk off Rottingdean is not the 
Mistletoe, but some merchantman. The 
officers who have unfortunately perished 
in her are, Lieut. Wade Blake (com- 
mander) ; Mr J. Duncan, second master ; 
Mr Tiuly, master's mate ; Mr J. Bren- 
ham, midshipman ; Mr Thomas Kennel, 
pilot; and thirty -two able seamen and 

James Watson, senior, who has at- 
tracted so much of public notice, was in- 
dicted for having assaulted Joseph Rhodes 
with a sharp instrument, with which he 
struck and stabbed him. The jury re- 
turned a verdict of acquittal, when seve- 
ral persons below, and in the galleries, 
gave very indecorous demonstrations of 

23. This day a meeting of 'delegates, 
from various petitioning bodies in Great 
Britain for reform in parliament, was 
held at the Crown and Anchor Major 
Cartwright in the chair ; when it was re- 
solved, that representation should be co- 
existent with taxation, and that property 
ought to form no part of a member of 
Parliament's qualification virtue and ta- 
lents being sufficient. 

Common Council. Mr Waithman mov- 
ed a number of resolutions on the subject 
of parliamentary reform. These resolu- 
tions do not go so far as those of the de- 
legates just mentioned, having for their 
object " the shortening of the duration of 
Parliaments, and a fair and equal distri- 
bution of the elective franchise to all free- 
holders, copyholders, and householders pay- 
ing taxes, with such regulations as would 
preserve the purity and integrity of the 
members, and render the House of Com- 
mons an efficient organ of the people." 
The resolutions were carried with not more 
than ten dissenting voices. 

Hatton Garden Mr Hunt, Mr Cob- 
bett, and the boy, Thomas Dogood, who 
tore down a posting-bill, entitled, " Mr 
Hunt hissed out of the city of Bristol," 
came to this office, when a good deal of 
conversation passed between the magistrate 
and Messrs Hunt and Cobbett, respecting 
the committal of Dogood, 'and the con- 
duct of the officer, Limbrick, who appre- 
hended him, which led to no result. 

Dreadful Catastrophe. On Friday even- 
ing, the 3d instant, about eleven o'clock, 
Mr Cobbett, jun. of Kingston, having 
just retired to rest with his wife, to 
whom he had been married but a few 
weeks, put an end to his existence by 
blowing his brains out with a pistol (of 
three barrels) which he had previously 
concealed under his pillow. The horrid 
circumstance has occasioned his wife to 
be insensible ever since, and she is not 
expected to live. Coroner's verdict, In- 

Coroner's Inquest. An inquisition was 


taken before Mr Stirling, coroner for 
Middlesex, upon the body of Mary Ann 
Golding, the daughter of John and Eliza- 
beth Golding, of No 30, Molineux Street, 
Mary-le-bone, whose death was occasion- 
ed by the barbarous treatment of her 
parents. The deceased was only five 
years of age. The jury viewed the body ; 
its appearance was shocking, being cov- 
ered with marks of violence from the 
neck downwards to the thigh. The back 
had several old wounds upon it ; the legs 
were bruised ; and the whole frame was 
emaciated. The evidence taken before the 
jury disclosed a repetition of acts of bru- 
tality on the part of the child's parents, 
which left no doubt on the minds of the 
jury, that they had been the cause of her 
death. After an hour's consultation, the 
jury returned the following verdict : " The 
deceased died in convulsions, caused by the 
cruel treatment of her unnatural parents." 

25. Johanna Southcote. The delusion 
at this time practised upon the believers 
in the predictions and doctrine of the late 
prophetess, is matter of great astonishment 
An interdict arrived at Newark on Sunday, 
the 19th instant, from a disciple of the 
conclave at Leeds, inhibiting those of the 
faith, amongst other things, from attend- 
ing to their ordinary business during the 
ensuing eight or nine days ; and a manu- 
facturer's shop in that place is at this time 
entirely deserted, and the business of many 
small dealers suspended in consequence. 

The following letter has been sent by 
the Secretary of State for the Home De- 
partment to the Lord Lieutenant of the 
county of Leicester, and, we believe, to 
the Lords Lieutenants of several other 

counties Whitehall, Jan. 11, 1817. 

My Lord, It being deemed expedient 
under present circumstances, that the civil 
power should he strengthened in the county 
under your Grace's charge, I have to re- 
quest that you will recommend to the ma- 
gistrates in the principal towns within the 
same (in which the measure is not al- 
ready adopted), to encourage the enrol- 
ment of respectable householders, to act, 
as occasion may require, as special con- 
stables for a fixed period of time, not less 
than three months ; and I have farther 
to request that your Grace will communi- 
cate to the commanding officers of the 
several yeomanry corps within the coun- 
ty of Leicester, the wish of his Majesty's 
government, that they will hold them- 
selves, and the corps under their respec- 
tive commands, in a state of preparation 
to afford prompt assistance to the civil 
authorities in case of necessity. I have, 

The Lord Lieutenant of the 
County of Liecester. 

One of the Leith smacks arrived from 
London on the 26th instant, having on 
board nearly forty tons of the new silver 

Register. British Chronicle. 


coinage. This valuable cargo, amount- 
ing to 300,000, was insured at Lloyd's 

at the low rate of 10s. 6d. per 100, a 

strong proof of the confidence placed in 
the superior class of Leith smacks. 

On Saturday, the llth January, the 
inhabitants of New Lanark met in the 
New Institution, for the purpose of tak- 
ing into consideration the propriety of 
presenting an address to Robert Owen, 
Esq. expressive of their high satisfaction 
with his conduct, and that of the other 
proprietors, in introducing various ame- 
liorations in the condition of their com- 
munity ; and more particularly in reduc- 
ing the time of working in their mills an 
hour a-day; which regulation took place 
the first Jan. 1815, the tune of labour 
being from six to seven previously to that 
date ; since which it has been from six 
to six only. This proposition being un- 
animously agreed to, a committee was 
appointed to prepare and present the 
same. It was then resolved, that the 
village should be illuminated on the 
Tuesday evening following, in testimony 
of their regard for his disinterested con- 
duct in the management of the establish- 
ment, and also in commemoration of the 
purchase of the mills by the present pro- 

28 Yesterday a third meeting of the 
reform delegates was held at the King's 
Arms Tavern, Palace Yard. There were 
upwards of thirty delegates present, who 
affected to represent one hundred and 
ninety towns throughout the kingdom. 
After some discussion, which brought out 
nothing new or interesting, it was agreed 
that those delegates, having petitions to 
present to Parliament, should assemble this 
day at three o'clock, in Palace Yard, to 
put them into the hands of Sir F. Bur- 
dett and Lord Cochrane The meeting was 
then finally dissolved. 

This being the day fixed for the meet- 
ing of Parliament, the Prince Regent left 
Carl ton House at half-past one, and re- 
paired to St James's palace His Royal 
Highness took his seat in the state car- 
riage accompanied by the Duke of Mon- 
trose, master of the horse, and Lord James 
Murray, a lord in waiting ; the other 
royal attendants followed in other car- 
riages. The procession to the House was 
not seriously disturbed; some discontent- 
ed voices mixed their murmurs with the 
applause of the more loyal, yet there was 
no such expression of disapprobation as 
to excite alarm On the return of the 
royal procession, the discontent broke out 
into the most outrageous abuse, and even 
into acts of violence The life guards were 
insulted, and gravel-stones and other 
missiles were thrown at the roy;il carriage : 
between Carlton-house gardens and the 
stable-yard, one glass of the state coach 
was struck three times and broken. It ap- 
pears from the evidence of Lord James 


Register. British Chronicle. 


Murray, that his Lordship was inclined 
to think one or two bullets had been fired 
at the coach, but no gun or pistol was 
seen, no smoke appeared, no report was 
heard, no bullet has been found As soon 
as the Prince Regent alighted from the 
state coach, he informed Sir N. Conant, 
the magistrate in waiting, of the outrage 
that had occurred, and the Duke of Mon- 
trose was immediately despatched to the 
office of the home department in search 
of Lord Sidmouth. The prince, after wait- 

or proceeded to the Common Council- 
Chamber, where Lord Exmouth had been in 
waiting a considerable time in consequence 
of invitation, to receive the sword voted 
to him, as a mark of public approbation 
and thanks for his splendid victory in the 
bombardment of Algiers The noble Lord 
was attended by ten captains of his fleet 
who had shared the dangers and glory 
of that expedition. The Lord Mayor 
accompanied the presentation by an ap- 
propriate speech ; to which Lord Exmouth 

ing at St James's some time for the noble replied by the most cordial expression of 
secretary, went in his private carriage to his grateful feelings for the honour con- 
ferred upon him by the city of London. 

Carlton House ; and whether the mob had 
relented from their malignant violence, or 
whether the tumultuous part of them had 
withdrawn to attend their favourite Hunt, 
his Royal Highness was saluted with huz- 
zas. About the time of these violent pro- 
ceedings, that is, about half-past two, near- 
ly twenty of Hunt's delegates made a pro- 
cession by Charing-cross through Parlia- 
ment street, with about half a dozen pe- 
titions on rolls of parchment in favour of 
reform, carried on their arms like muskets, 
they marching in a military step. Hunt, it 
is said, wished the parchments to be un- 
rolled, that the length of them might as- 
tonish the passers-by. His myrmidons, 
however, did not choose to comply with 
this request ; upon which he observed, that 
he never had to do with such cowardly 
persons before. 

A proclamation was issued on Wednes- 
day morning, the 29th instant, offering 
1000 reward for the apprehension of the 
person or persons guilty of the late treason- 
able attempt on the life of the Prince 

On the same day, the joint address of 
congratulation of both Houses of Parlia- 
ment to the Prince Regent, on his late 
happy escape, was presented to His Royal 
Highness at Carlton House, which he re- 
ceived with all the accustomed state seat- 
ed upon the throne. The attendance of 
Lords and Commons on this occasion was 
very numerous headed by the Lord 
Chancellor and Speaker of the House of 
Commons. From ten o'clock in the morn- 
ing till five in the afternoon, Carlton House 
was crowded with the nobility and gentry 
of both sexes making their anxious inquir- 
ies, and offering their sentiments of con- 
gratulation ; and addresses from all parts 
of the country will doubtless be speedily 
presented on this most interesting public 

31. The livery of London met in 
Common Hall, and passed some additional 
resolutions in favour of parliamentary re- 
form ; the most important of which was 
one for triennial Parliaments, which was 
carried by a large majority against an 
amendment, by which it was proposed to 
declare in favour of annual Parliaments. 

LORD EXMOUTH. After the adjourn- 
ment of the Common Hall, the Lord May- 

After the ceremony, his lordship and 
his colleagues, accompanied by the Lord 
Mayors, Sheriffs, and several other mem- 
bers of the corporation, proceeded to Iron- 
monger's Hall to partake of a banquet 
prepared for him by the company, who 
took a peculiar interest in the results of 
that victory. The circumstance which 
rendered that event so interesting to the 
Ironmonger's Company was, that they are 
the trustees of an estate of 2000 a year 
bequeathed many years ago by one of 
their members, a Mr Betton, who had 
the misfortune to be captured by a Bar- 
bary Corsair, and was several years in 
slavery, from which he was ultimately 
ransomed. In memory of his own suffer- 
ings, and in gratitude for his liberation, 
he directed that 1000 of the legacy above- 
named should be annually appropriated 
for the ransom of British captives, who 
might chance to be enslaved by any of 
the Barbary States. The company have 
religiously obeyed the injunctions of the 
humane testator, and commissioned a re- 
gular agent at Mogadore for the purpose. 

IRELAND The Committee appointed 
to appropriate the general fund for the 
relief of the poor of Dublin have deter- 
mined to give premiums, at the rate of 
5 per acre, for the planting of early po- 
tatoes within two miles of the castle of 
Dublin. The managers of the Cork in- 
stitution have voted L.700 for the same 
purpose ; the premiums to be distributed 
under such regulations as the Committee 
shall see fit. 

Desperate Poachers We had hoped 
that the determined resistance to well 
known laws had been confined on this 
side of the Tweed to the pursuit of the pure 
spirit of malt ; we regret to hear, however, 
that a desperate affray lately took place on 
Lord Blantyre's estate near Haddington, be- 
twixt three poachers and his lordship's game- 
keeper and two assistants. Alter a most de- 
termined resistance, in which shots were ex- 
changed and severe wounds given, (one of 
the poachers having his arm broken) two out 
of the three were taken into custody. This 
was mainly effected by the timely appearance 
of a countryman at the moment when the de- 
predators had the best of the fight (Edin- 
burgh Courant.) 

1817-3 Register. Commercial Report. US 

The most interesting of the other occur- want of reflection which recognised no other 
rences of this month, which our limits do mode of relief than by means of pecuniary 
not permit us to detail, were the severe donations. The practice has been, almost 
gales, which have occasioned much damage universally, to employ those who were able 
on different parts of the coast ; the dis- to work, and to allow them such wages as 
tressed condition of the labouring classes, would save them from want, though at the 
partly owing to the last unfavourable bar- same time so moderate as to induce them 
vest iind the high price of provisions ; to return to their former habits of indepen- 
and the unparalleled exertions made in dent industry as soon as the demand for la- 
every part of the united kingdom for their bour should revive. Happily, at the mo- 
relief. The benevolence of the higher or- rnent we are now writing, several of our 
ders, while it was never at any former pe- manufacturing towns begin to resume their 
riod so extensively displayed, has not been, former activity ; and our prospects are be- 
on the present occasion, alloyed by that coming daily less gloomy and doubtful. 


COLONIAL PRODUCE. Sugars have of late been in considerable demand, without 
much improvement in prices. Muscavados proper for refining have been purchased 
freely at a small advance. The stocks of Refined Sugars being very small, and consid- 
erable orders having arrived from the Continent, this article has a little improved. The 
sales of Brazil and East India Sugars, lately brought forward, have gone off briskly, at 
prices a shade higher. Coffee has been in some demand for exportation, though not 
such as to diminish greatly the superabundant stock of this article, which has for many 
years past been produced in too large quantity for the consumption. Cottons continue 
in steady demand, without much variation in prices. In East India descriptions there 
has been considerable briskness, at an advance of |d. to ^d. per Ib. Tobaccos extremely 
dull, and prices lower. Rums having fallen considerably in price, the exporters were 
induced to come into the market, and much business has been done in this article. The 
last Tea sale at the East India House, which finally closed on the 14th ult. proved 
that the general freedom of trade with every part of Europe to China, and parti- 
cularly the exertions of the Americans to supplant the English in the European 
market, have not had the expected effect : for the average prices shewed an advance of 
2d. per Ib. 

EUROPEAN PRODUCE. In articles from the Baltic, little business is doing, and 
prices declining. Hemp from l to 2 per ton, and Tallow Is. to 2s. per cwt. Sowing 
Linseed in considerable demand, and ll()s. has been refused. Clover Seeds are also on 
the advance, and the stock of American very limited : Red 130s. to 140s. per cwt. 
There has been much briskness in the Provision trade, and prices have advanced. 
Brandies and Genevas a shade lower in price. The Wine trade with the Cape of Good 
Hope is increasing, and now may be called extensive. The remission of the duties has 
effected this ; but, at the same time that it renders essential service to that settlement, it 
gives occasion to the introduction, by fraud, into the Cape, of large quantities of Foreign 
Wines, which are from thence exported to this country as the native produce, to the 
great injury of the revenue : the present prices, 28 to .32 per ton. In the demand 
for the Manufactures of this country, we are happy to announce some improvement, 
though not yet such as to be very generally felt ; still we think the worst is past, and 
that the late universal depression will in a short time be considerably removed ; not, 
however, that we hope the sanguine expectations of speculators, at the conclusion of the 
war, can ever be realized. From the most important Continental markets, France and 
Austria, our manufactures are completely shut out ; and other states into which they 
are admitted, have been for a long time inundated, what with our excessive exports and 
the produce of native manufactures. The same applies to the North American market ; 
and the present distracted state of South America has much diminished our trade witli 
that important Continent. 

VOL. I. T 

Register. Commercial Report. 




Cocoa, W. In. 
Coffee, W. In. ord. 3 

Cotton, W. I. c. 

S. I. fine 

Figs, Turkey 
Flax, Riga 
Hemp, Riga R. 43 
Hops, new, Po. 13 

Iron, Brit. Bars 10 

, Pigs 

Oil, Salad 
Galipoli '. 
Rags, Hamburg 
Raisins, Bloom 

or Jar. new 
Rice, Car. new 
. East India 



to 4 



























44 to 























































Spice, Cinnamon 



Pepper, Black 


Spirits, Brandy, 


. Geneva, 


Rum, Jamai. 

. Leew. IsL 
Sugar, Jam. Br. 
^ fine 

E. India 

Lump, fine 
Tallow, Russia, 
_ Yellow 
Tea, Bohea 

. ... Hyson, fine 
Wine, Mad. old 90 

Port, old 120 




4 8 


1 2 

to0 II 

to 3 8 

to 6 1 

to 7| 

to 1 3 

6 9 to 7 


















































to 120 


to 125 


to 120 

Premiums of Insurance at Lloyd's Coffee-house. Guernsey or Jersey, 20s. Cork, 
Dublin, or Belfast, 20s. Hamburgh, li gs. Madeira, 1| gs. Jamaica, 50s. 

Course of Exchange, April 4. Amsterdam, 39 : 6 B. Hamburgh, 36 : 2. Paris, 
25 : 40. Madrid, 354 effect Lisbon, 57. Dublin, 12|. 

Gold in bars, 3 : 18 : 6 per oz. New doubloons, 3 : 15 : 6. Silver in bars, 5s. Id. 

The following is an account of the official value of the Exports from Great Britain in 
each year from 1792 to 1816, both inclusive, distinguishing the value of British Pro- 
duce and Manufactures from that of Foreign and Colonial Merchandize : 



























British Produce 


Foreign and 



18,336,851 6,129,998 24,466,849 

13,832,268 5,784,417 19,676,685 

16,725,402 8,386,043 25,111,445 

16,338,213 8,509,126 24,847,339 

19,102,220 8,923,848 28,026,063 

16,903,103 9,412,610 26,315,743 

19,672,10!* 10,617,526 30,290,029 

24,084,213 9,556,144 33,640,357 

24,304,283 13,815,837 38,120,120 

25,699,809 12,087,047 37,786,856 

26,993,129 14,418,837 41,411,966 

22,252,027 9,326,468 31,578,495 

23,935,793 10,515,574 34,451,867 

23,004,337 9,950,508 34,954,846 

27,402,635 9,124,499 36,527,184 

25,171,422 9,395,149 36,566,571 

26,691,962 7,862,395 34,554,267 

35,104,122 15,182,768 50,286,900 

34,923,575 10,946,204 45,869,859 

24,131,734 8,277,937 32,409,671 

31,244,723 11,998,449 43,243,172 
The records of this year were destroyed by fire. 

36,092,167 20,499,347 56,591,514 

44,053,455 16,930,439 60,985,894 

36,714,534 14,545,933 51,260,467 


Inspector-General of the Imports and Exports of Great Britain. 

Custom House, London, 13th March 1817. 

1 8 1 7.3 Register. Commercial Report. 

Weekly Price of Stocks from 1st to 31st March 1817. 

4th. llth. 18th. 

Bank Stock 

5 per cent, reduced 

5 per cent, consols - - 

4 per cent consols - - 

5 per cent. Navy Ann. . 
Imperial .> per cent. Ann. - 
India Stock .. 

- Bonds . 
5$A. Exchequer Bills - 
Omnium .. 
Consols for Ace. . 
American 3 per cent. . 

- -- New Loan, 6 per gent. 
French 5 per cent. .. 





ALPHABETICAL LIST of ENGLISH BANKRUPTCIES, announced between 1st and 31st 
March 1817, extracted from the London Gazette. 

Atmore, R. Foulsham, Norfolk, grocer 
Adams, L. & J. Barker, Doncaster, iron-founders 
Abrahams, L. Craven Buildings, London, glass- 

Ardern, R. Stockport, hatter 
Bold, J. O. Liverpool, merchant 
Birdwood, S. Plymouth, linen-draper 
Baber, J. St James's Street, London, dress-maker 
Blackwell, R. Manchester, manufacturing-chemist 
Bannister, R. Royd in Meltham, Yorkshire, wool- 
len-cloth manufacturer 
Brown, J. Chesterfield, Derbyshire, grocer 
Brooke, J. Rawfold, Yorkshire, oil-manufacturer 
Brown, E. & T. Hindle, Blackburn, grocers 
Brookes, W. Paternoster Row, London, silk-manu- 

Breeze, W. Stafford, potter 
Uiiiion, J. Edward Street, London, ironmonger 
Baines, P. Preston, coal-merchant 
Beech, J. Stone, Staffordshire, linen-draper 
Bates, J. Halifax, merchant 
Curtis, E. Chiswick, Middlesex, surgeon 
Cree, R. Plymouth Dock, linen-draper 
Charlton, J. Forster, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, ship- 

Dean, P. B. & J. Fairbrother, Tottington, Lanca- 
shire, cotton-spinners 

Dunn, L. George Street, Mile-end, rope-maker 
Davidson, J. Warwick Court, London, merchant 
Drakely, J. & E. Clementson, Market-bosworth, 

Leicestershire, hosiers 

Dutton, T. King Street, Cheapside, London, ware- 
Davies, J. Popping Court, London, stereotype 

founder and printer 
Drew, R. Bradninch, merchant 
Dutton, G. Brown's Buildings, London, cheese- 

Dowley, J. Willow Street, Bankside, corn-merchant 
Foster, J. Liverpool, timber-merchant 
Fell, J. Ratcliffe Highway, London, ironmonger 
Gage, M. Mitcham, brewer 

Grosvenor, J. Hart's Hill, Worcestershire, rope- 

Graftou, E. Liverpool, glass-dealer 
Galey, J. & W. Birmingham, brush manufacturers 
Geary, W. Norwich, hosier 
Harvey, W. G. Battle, gunpowder-manufacturer 
Holmes, J. A. Holmes & J. Holmes, Tong, York- 
shire, woolstaplers 
Hilling, J. a. Norwich, jeweller 
I lenriques, J. Cheltenheim, jeweller 
Kilshaw, E. Lancashire, soap-boiler 
Knott, J. Manchester, manufacturer 
Lane, R. jun. Norwich, bookseller 
Lush, J. Frome, Somerset, clothier 

Little, W. Southshields, linen-draper 

Lancaster, J. Whitley, Yorkshire, woollen-cloth 


Middleton, J. King's Lyn, insurance-broker 
Medex, M. Bread street. London, merchant 
Murray, W. Bath, money-scrivener 
Morrall, W. Birmingham, factor 
Morrice, D. Tenby, rope-manufacturer 
Marshall, J. King's Head Court, Newgate Street, 

London, wholesale linen-draper 
Muir, A. Leeds, linen-draper 
Marsh, T. Liverpool, spirit dealer 
Miblett, F. Bread Street, Cheapside, money-scri- 

Noyes, R. Bulford, Wilts, paper-manufacturer 
Nash, R. Kingstone-upon-Thames, seed-crusher 
Price, G. Threadneedle Street, London, hardware- 

Porter, R. & H. Porter, Rood Lane, London, ship- 

Price, J. Bristol, ironmonger 
Pearson, T. North Shields, linen-draper 
Plaistow, J. & G. Liverpool, coopers 
Pearson, J. Portsmouth, draper 
Parsons, R. Swansea, iron-master 
Phillips, J. Fenchureh Buildings, London, watch- 

Robertson, G. Liverpool, merchant 
Robinson, W. & S. S. Clapham, Liverpool, mer- 

Siordet, J. M. & J. L. Siordet, Austin Friars, Lon- 
don, merchants 

Summerset, J. Shorsted, Kent, farmer 
Scott, R. B. Spring-Gardens, London, printer 
Scott, W. Nottingham, lace-manufacturer 
Southell, W. Liverpool, cabinet-maker 
Steevens, W. Bristol, coal-merchant 
Speirs, J. Birmingham, linen-draper 
Tugood, J. Lancaster, ironmonger 
Thompson,T.E.T.NetherCoinpton, flax spinners 
Townshend, J. Ludgate Street, London, ware- 

Thomas, M., R. Fillis& W. Cock, Plymouth, con- 

Toulman, W. Carmarthen Street, London, money- 

Taylor, A. North Shields, sail-maker 
Thomas, P. Mitre Court, London, merchant 
Todd, G. Newcastle-upon-Tyne, spirit-merchant 
Wilkinson, J- Sculcoats, Yorkshire, merchant 
Wells, J. Poland Street, London, cheesemonger 
Woodburn, J. Millthorp, Westmoreland, timber 


Willey, W. Leicester, draper 
Wrqe, J. Tong, York, worsted-manufacturer 
Whitley, J. Daw Green, York, vintner 

ALPHABETICAL LIST of SCOTCH BANKRUPTCIES, announced between 1st and 31st 
March 1817, extracted from the Edinburgh Gazette. 

Alexander & Samuel, Lcith, merchants 
Hrown, George, Airdrie, watch and dock maker 
Bryce & Aitken, Farenze Printfield, parish of Neil- 

ston, calico-printers 
C'ouper, John, Stenton, tenant, partner of Scott, 

Hurt, and Co. tanners, Kilconquhar 
Craifr, George, Prestonpans, merchant 
Clark, Daniel, Auchaleek, near Campbletown, 


Donall, Thomas, Wick, merchant 
Donald, William, Grcenook, merchant 
Fleming, Robert, Peathill, merchant ami carrier 

between Glasgow and Stirling 

Ford, James, Esq. of Finhaven, Montrosc, merchant 
Fraser, Alexander, Aberdeen, merchant 
Hamilton, John, Dumbarton, merchant 
M'Gouns, Watson, & Co. Greenock, merchants 
M'Licsh, David, jun. Perth, merchant 
Mitchell, Alexander, Fiddesbeg of Fovcran, Aber- 

deenshire, tanner and cattle dealer 
Michael, William, and Son, Inverary, merchants 
Nixon, Richard, Dunbar, merchant 
Reid, Robert, Thornhill, merchant 
Mcwurt, John, Dalnaspctdle, Perthshire, drover 

iiml cattle dealer 
Watt, James, Aberdeen, flesher 

Register. -Agricultural Repori. 

A winter rather mild, though wet, and marked by the long prevalence of strong galss 
from the west, has been succeeded by an early spring, and of late, by very favourable 
Weather for committing the seeds to the ground. The spring crops will therefore prob- 
ably occupy the usual space ; but there is every reason to suspect that a much less extent 
of wheat than usual was sown in autumn, and that only upon the driest soils could there 
be any considerable addition made to it since. The grounds sown with the wheat of last 
season are in several instances unpromising. Live stock of all kinds have passed the 
winter well. The weather has been propitious to the early lambs. The corn markets 
have fluctuated little for some weeks, excepting in the article of mferior whent, which at 
present is hardly saleable : and if the supply of foreign wheat be as liberal as it is expect- 
ed to be, a large portion of what remains of the last year's crop of British wheat is not 
likely to be in demand at any price. Perhaps oats are the only species of grain on which 
some farther advance may be expected, the stock of this gram in the high lands, and that 
of potatoes, which in many places are used as a substitute, generally, being now nearly 
consumed. Premiums have been offered by the Highland Society of Scotland, and by 
the Irish Societies, for encouraging the culture of early potatoes, which it is to be hoped 
may alleviate the pressure of scarcity and dearth during the summer The late markets 
for horses, cattle, and sheep, indicate an improvement in the demand ; sheep, in particu- 
lar, have advanced considerably in this part of the island Upon the whole, the prospects 
of all those farmers whose chief dependence is not placed upon a wheat crop, which was 
in by far the greater number of instances ruinously deficient last harvest, both in quantity 
and quality, may be said to be much better than at the corresponding period last year. 

Liverpool, Saturday, April . 

Little business doing, and no variation in the 

Wheat, i. d. t. d Beans, Irish, t. t. 

per 70 libs. per quar. 50 to 60 
English . 19 to 20 6 Peas, per quar. 

i n ft tn 9n n D, ,;>,., *n 

London, Corn E> 

Wheat, per qr. s. s- 
Select samples 124 to 130 
White runs. 80 to 116 
Red ditto. . 70 to 110 

(change, April 7. 
Beans, old s. s. 
per quarter . 60 to 68 
Tick . . 27 to 39 
Old . . . 58 to 64 
Pease, boiling . 42 to 58 
Gray . . . 48 to 54 
Brauk . . . 65 to 78 
Flour, per sack 105 
Second . . 85 to 95 
Scotch . . 80 to 90 
Pollard, per qr. 24 to 30 
Second . . 16 to 20 
Bran . . . . 10 to 11 

Quart, loaf, 15d. to 17%d 

. April 7. 
Cinquefoil /. i. 
per quar. 36 to 50 
Rye-grass(Pacey)36 to 44 
Common . 12 to 34 
Clover, English, 
Red, per cwt. 63 to 126 
White . . 65 to 120 
For. red CO to 130 
White 51 to 115 
Trefoil . 10 to 42 
Rib grass . 30 to 72 
Carraway(Eng.)66 to 72 
Foreign 45 to 54 
Coriander 14 to 18 

Barley English 21 to 52 
Malt . . . 60 to 80 

Oats,Feed(new)16 to 86 
Old 40 to 45 

Poland (new) 18 to 38 
Old 40 to 46 

Potato (new) 58 to 46 
Old . . . to 

Foreign ... 25 to 48 
Beans, pigeon . 36 to 43 

Seeds, T 
Mustard, brown, j. *. 
Old, per bush. 14 to 18 
New ditto . 10 to 16 
Old White 8 to 10 
New ditto 5 to 8 
Tares . . . . 8 to 10 
Turnip, green 
round 26 to 32 
White . 26 to 32 
Red . 34 to 42 
Canary, per q 76 to 80 
New . . 65 to 75 
Hempseed 115 to 126 
New . 96 to 105 

New 1 to 20 Boiling 


Welsh . 

Irish New 

Dantzic . 



Barley, per 60 libs 

70 to 80 

19 6 to 20 Rice, p. c. (in b.)40 to 41 
19 to 20 Flour. 
9 to 12 OiAmerican p. bar. 75 to 78 
19 to 20 Sour do. . . 69 to 70 

Provisions, ^ 
Beef, per tierce f05 

English ". 6 to 9 P er barrel 66 to JO 
Scotch . . 6 to 9 6 Pork - P er bar* 61 8 to 85 
Irish . . 7 to 7 6 Ba c con ' P cw ,t- 
Malt p. 9 gls. 12 to 14 6 ~ ? hort ""ddles 68 to 70 
Oats per 45 Ib. j Long ditto . 64 to 66 

Eng. potato 5 to 63 Bu "? r > P er cwt - 
common 4 9 to 59 ~ el . tast . * 
Irish potato 5 6 to 62 Colerain 
common 5 5 to 5 6 twry , 
Scot, potato 5 6 to 6 
common 5 3 to 56 

Welsh potato 5 to 5 6 
common 4 6 to 49 

orK > 3d . 

78 to 80 

76 to 78 

72 to 74 


New Rapeseed, per last, 48 to 50. Linseed Oil- 
Cake, at the mill, 16, 16s. per thousand 
Jlape-Cake, 9, to 10. 

2d pickled 86 to 88 


.Clover, p. bush. 
Oatmeal, per 240 Ib. White . 120 to 140 
English . . .56 to 58 Red . . 110 to 120 
Scotch . . . 52 to 56 Flaxseed, per 
Irish . . . .50 to 52 hhd. sowing . 510 
Beans, English 56 to 60 Raptseed, p. l.40 to 45 


1st, 57s. Od. 

2d, 47s. Od. 

3d, 38s. Od. 



1st, 44s. Od. 

2d, 40s. Od. 

3d, 36s. Od. 


1st, 44s. Od. 

2d 35s. Od. 

3d 30s. Od. 

Average of Wheat, 2 : 2 : 

Pease & Beans. 

1st, 38s. Od. 

2d, 35s. Od. 

3d, 32s, Od. 


OW Wheat, 72s. to 74s. Pease, 34s. to 38s Beans, 34s. to 38s. 


1st 54s. Od. 

2d, 40s. Od. 

3d, 26s. 6d. 


1st, 45s. Od. 

2d, 40s. Od. 

3d, 35s. Od. 


1st, 42s. Od, 

2d, 34s. Od. 

3d, 28s. Od. 

Average of Wheat, 1:19:11. 


1st 37s. Od. 

2d, 35s. Od. 

3d 31s. Od. 


1st, 37s. Od. 

2d, 35s. Od. 

3d, 31s. Od. 

Note The boll of wheat, beans, and pease, is about 4 per cent, more than half a quarter, 
or 4 Winchester bushels ; that of barley and oats nearly 6 Winchester bushels. 

181 7. 3 Register. Agricultural Report, 117 


By ihc Quarter of Eight Winchester Bushels, and of Oatmeal per Boll of 140 Us Avoir- 
dupois,from the Official Returns received In the Week ending March 29, 1817. 

Middlesex, ~~~~~ ,~ 

*. d. 
109 10 
105 4 
93 4 
96 10 
98 9 
108 4 
92 3 
103 11 
102 4 
101 3 
111 7 
112 2 
123 8 
116 10 
105 7 
111 2 
109 3 


102 6 
111 10 
112 9 
111 2 
83 5 
79 6 
87 4 
70 7 
76 9 
96 10 
104 11 
94 6 
108 2 
98 5 

108 6 
112 6 
99 3 
104 8 
123 8 
122 8 
123 4 
117 5 
96 9 
114 10 

x. (I. 
59 3 
54 6 
63 2 


50 6 

60 9 



54 10 

79 8 

*. d. 
45 10 
46 2 
43 2 
46 2 
43 10 
43 6 
44 6 
56 4 
51 5 
59 3 
52 3 
51 8 
52 6 
40 11 
50 4 
41 9 
62 4 
52 6 

43 2 
44 8 
48 4 
28 5 
40 8 
47 11 
41 2 
48 8 
60 3 
58 9 

63 7 
60 4 
59 9 
63 4 
61 3 

43 8 
54 3 
58 11 
54 7 
61 10 
54 10 
55 11 
45 8 
52 11 

*. d. 
34 8 
33 8 
34 10 
29 8 
29 2 
37 4 
35 10 
37 6 
39 9 
37 6 
28 5 
33 1 
31 8 
29 1 
33 6 

32 9 
28 9 


32 4 
38 8 
29 5 
20 3 
34 9 
29 5 
32 10 
40 2 
43 2 
41 6 
43 9 

40 It 
40 8 
44 5 
18 10 
18 1 
29 5 

22 10 
28 10 
28 2 

*. d. 
45 11 
46 8 
42 6 
58 8 
67 6 
61 8 
66 8 
74 8 
78 2 
49 4 
64 5 
45 10 
45 9 

56 6 
34 9 
38 10 
33 7 
44 11 

64 4 

79 9 

58 9 
50 4 

*. d. 
51 9 
49 4 
41 3 


56 5 
45 10 

73 9 

48 6 
53 7 
57 7 
51 2 

45 6 
56 6 

47 3 

61 6 


H ertford, ~~ ~~~~~, 

Bedford ~- l:j.,,s,,,,,-rrr 

Huntingdon, ~ 
Northampton, -~~ 

Rutland, - r 

Leicester, ~~~. . 
Derby, ,m,,,,rr r , T i -, -,,, 


Salon. ,. 


Hereford, ,,,,nm* n m,, 

Worcester, , 

VfHt8,,,*,,,r r ,,,M, fr ,, r rr, 

BerkS, ,;jj,i,,j, --i,,r,,,r rr , 

Oxford, . 


Brecon, ~^~~****~**~ 

Radnor, ^^^^^,^^1^^ 

ESSeX, *,*,,,,, r ,*,,,*rt*rr 

Kent, 1 , M^WMMOT*.^. 

SUSSeX tJjr ,s, trrt ,rrriT rr r- rr 


Norfolk, <~ 

LinCOln ),, Tr ,,,r r ,r,,,r,r,r- 

York >. 
Durham, --.-^jj,,jj--,i.-.-,rr 
Northumberland, ~~~ 

J.anCi tStPr 1 r---r f rf -rrr.-jrsrr 

Chester, ,,.,, 

Flint, -,.,,, 
Denbeigh, ,,,STSSJJJJ.,JSJ 

jA nglpsea, i rrr r, r ,r,ji,,ii, 

Carnarvon ,~~~ n ~^~ 

Cqrfl i gan , T , r,frt*rs j-r ., jj jj 

Pembroke, ,~~~. 
Glamorgan, ~~. 
Somerset, ^,,^^. 

Monmouth, ~~~ 
Devon ,~~~-~^^,~. 

Hants, ~~~^^^ 

All England and Wales. 

Wheat, 104s. 9d Rye, Gli. lOcl. Barley, 51s. hd Oats, 3'Js. fid. Beans, 51s. Id. Pease, 55s. 2d. 
Oatmeal, 40s. 7d. Beer or Big, Os. od. 

Average Pricet of Corn, per quarter, of the Twelve Maritime Districts, for the Week 

ending March 22. 
Wheat, 101s. 10d Rye, C3s. 3d. Barley, 51s. 2 Oats, 32s. Id Beans, 5Cs. 6d Pease, 53s. 

Average of Scotland fur the Four Weeks preceding 15fh March. 

Wheat, 71s- 1U. llye, 58s. 3d. Barley, 47$. Id. Oats, .>7s. M Bi-aiis- GOs. 'Jd IVase, C. 

Oatmeal, 3i'. lOil Beer or Big, -I'-'s. 7d 


Register. -Meteorological Report. 


Extracted from the Register kept on the Banks of the Tay, four miles east from 
Perth, Latitude 56 25', Elevation ISSJctt. 

JANUARY 1817. 


Thermometer. Mean of greatest daily heat, 


temperature, 10 A.M. 

.... 10 P.M. 

of daily extremes, 

of 10 A.M. and 10 P.M. 

of 4 daily observations, 

Barometer. Mean, 10 A.M. (temp, of mer. 48) 

10 P.M. (temp, of mer. 54) 

of both, (temp, of mer. 51) 

Hygrometer (Leslie's). Mean dryness, 10 A.M. 
10 P.M. 
of both, 

Rain, 1.901 in. Evaporation, 1.400 in 















Thermometer. Greatest heat, 50th day, 
Greatest cold, loth, 
Highest, 10 A.M. 50th. 

Lowest, 15th, 

Highest, 10P.M. K'lh, 

Lowest, 14th, 

Barometer. Highest, 10 A.M. 31st, 

Lowest, 17th, 

Highest, 10 P.M. 31st, 

Lowest, 20th, 

Hygrometer. Highest, 10 A.M. 11th, 

Lowest 1th, 

Highest, 10 P.M. 13th, 
Lowest, 5th, 








28. 175 






Fair days 19; rainy days 12. Wind West of meridian, including North, 21 ; East of meridian, including 

South, 7. 




Thermometer. Mean of greatest daily heat, 


temperature, 10 A.M. 

10 P.M. 

of daily extremes, 

of 10 A.M. and 10P.M. 

of 4 daily observations, 

Barometer. Mean, 10 A.M. (temp, of mer. 50) 

10 P.M. (temp, of mer. 52) 

of both, (temp, of mer. 51) 

Hygrometer (Leslie's). Mean drynt-ss, 10 A.M. 

10 P.M. 

of both, 

Rain, 1.684 in. Evaporation, 1.753. 

Fair days 13; rainy days 15. Wind West of meridian, including North, 27; East of meridian, including 

South, 1. 


Thermometer. Greatest heat, 28th day. 
Greatest cold, 10th, 
Highest, 10 A.M. 17th, 
Lowest 13th, 



Highest, 10 P.M. 7th, 
Lowest 12th, 



) 29.515 

Lowest, 21st, 


) 29.498 

Highest, 10P.M. 1st, 


. 12.1 
. 7.2 

Hygrometer. Highest, 10 A.M. 27th, 
Lowest 13th, 


, a.6 

Highest, 10 P.M. 14th, 
Lowest 4th. 



Thermometer. Mean of highest every day, 
............ lowest, - 

............ 10A.M. - - 

............ IOP.M. - - 

............ highest and lowest, 

............ 1(1 A.M. and 10 P.M. 

............ 1 daily observations, 

i3.irometer. Mean of Id A.M. - - - 
............ IOP.M. - - - 

............ 2 daily observations, - 

verometer. Mean of 10 A.M. - - - 
............ IOP.M. - - - 

............ 2 daily observations - 

R-in, .958 in. Evaporation, 2.010 inches. 

45.2 1 1 


L'!i.5. r ;i 


;. ."'-"-' 


Thermometer. Greatest heat, li'th dav, 
Greatest cold, 20th, " - 
Highest, 10A.M. 13th, 

Lowest i'Oth, 

Highest, lOl'.M. nth, 

Lowest 20th, 

Barometer. Highest, 10A.M. 17th, 

Lowest, 6th, 

Highest, IOP.M. 17th. 

Lowest 3d, 

Hygrometer. Highest, 10 A.M. 13th, 

Lowest, 5th, 

Highest, 10 P.M. 18th, 
Lowest, 3d, 

'-'_'. IHM 

it;, i ii KI 


Number of fair days 1H; rainy days 13. Wind from Western side of horizon, including the North, '. 
from Eastern sied, including the South, 5. 

1817.]] Birth f and Marriages. 




1817. Jan, 2 In Devonshire Place, the 
lady of Maj.-Gen. Sir Wm Anson, K.C.B. 
a son. 4. In Hertford Street, the Countess 
of Clonmell, a son and heir. At Holy- 
combe, Sussex, the wife of C. W. Taylor, 
Esq. M. P. a son and heir. At Cortachy 
Castle, the lady of the Hon. Donald Ogilvy, 
a daughter. At Montreal, the Countess of 
Selkirk, a daughter 11. In Wimpole 
Street, the lady of Hon. J. T. Melville, a 
son. 14. In Wimpole Street, the lady of 
Right Hon. Lord Bridport, a daughter. 
15. At Clova, Lady Niven Lumsden, a 
daughter. 16. Viscountess Folkestone, a 
daughter. 26. At Salton Hall, Lady Elea- 
nor Balfour, a daughter. 27. In Charlotte 
Street, Pimlico, the wife of Michael Countze, 
Esq. three boys and one girl. 31. At the 
Admiralty, the wife of John Wilson Croker, 
Esq. a son. 

Feb. 4. At Powerscourt House, Chelten- 
ham, the lady of Sir Hungerford Hoskyns, 
Bart, of Harewood House, co. Hereford, a 
son. At Valenciennes, the wife of Lieut- 
Col. Macgregor, 88th Regiment, a daugh- 
ter. 6. At Edinburgh, the lady of General 
Macpherson Grant, Esq. M. P. a daughter. 
11. At Edinburgh, the wife of George 
Francis Dundas, a son. 17. Viscountess 
Duncannon, a daughter. 20. At Brussels, 
the Princess of Orange, a son 27. The 
wife of William Henry Ashhurst, Esq. M.P. 
a daughter. 

March 3. At Aqualate Hall, Salope, the 
lady of Sir John Fenton Boughay, Bart a 
daughter 5. At Guines, in France, the 
lady of John Abercromby, Esq. 2d Dragoon 
Guards, a son 6. At Wells, the lady of 
the Hon. Dr Ryder, Bishop of Gloucester, a 
daughter. 8. At Bath, the lady of Rear- 
Admiral Sir John Gore, K.C.B. a daughter. 
12. At Runcorn, Cheshire, the wife of 
Captain Bradshaw, R. N. a son and heir. 
13. At Yester House, the Marchioness of 
Tweeddale, a daughter. 14. Mrs Buchanan 
of Auchintorlie, a son and heir. 17. At 
Methley Park, co. York, Viscountess Pol- 
lington, a son 21. At Melbury, the Coun- 
tess of Ilchestcr, a son. 


Jan. 6. Lord Huntingfield to Miss Blois, 
daughter of Sir C. Blois, Bart of Cockfield 
Hall, Suffolk 8. H. J. Conyers, Esq. only 
son of J. Conyers, Esq. of Copthall, Essex, 
to Harriet, second daughter of Right Hon. 
T. Steel 9. At Strone, Captain William 
Cameron, 79th Regiment, to Miss Jane 
Cameron, daughter to Captain Donald 
Cameron of Strone. Lieutenant-Colonel 
Beresford, deputy quarter-master-general 
in Nova Scotia, to *Mary, daughter of the 
Rev. J. Gilby, rector of Barmston, county 
of York. 13. By special license, Lieut - 
Col. Sir Guy Campbell, Bart, to Frances 

Elizabeth, eldest daughter and co-heiress of 
Montague Burgoyne, Esq. of Mark Hall, 
Essex. At Broadtield, Wm Macknight 
Crawford, Esq. of Ratho, to Jean, second 
daughter of the late John Crawford, Esq. of 
Broadfield 14. Rev. T. Clarke, vicar of 
Mitchel-dever, Hants, to Anna Maria, 
youngest daughter of the late Hon. John 
Gray 20. John Becket, Esq. under secre- 
tary of state for the home department, to 
Lady Anne Lowther, third daughter of the 
Earl of Lonsdale 21. Thomas Boswell, 
Esq. of Blackadder, co. Berwick, to Lucy 
Anne, eldest daughter of. Robert Preston, 
Esq. of New Sidney Place, Bath 22. The 
Earl of Longford to the lady Georgiana 
Lygon, daughter of the late, and sister of 
the present, Earl of Beauchamp. At Bou- 
logne, Col. William Staveley, C.B. to Sarah, 
eldest daughter of T. Mather, Esq. 23. At 
Musselburgh, Major John Sutherland Sin- 
clair of the Royal Artillery, to Frances, 
youngest daughter of Captain David Ram- 
say of the Royal Navy 27. At Ugbrooke 
Park, Devon, Hon. Mr Langdale of Haugh- 
ton, co. York, to the Hon. Charlotte Clif- 
ford, daughter of Lord Clifford 28. Lieut- 
Col. H. F. Muller, 1st Royal Scots Foot, to 
Susan, second daughter of the late P. Wyatt 
Crowther, Esq. comptroller of the city of 
London. 29. Captain Ord, Royal Artillery, 
second son of Craven Ord, Esq. of Green- 
sted Hall, Essex, to Miss Blagrave, niece 
to the late Lady Cullum of Hardwicke 
House, Suffolk 30. Peter Herve, Esq. 
founder of " the National Benevolent In- 
stitution," to Miss Nicholls of Hampstead, 
daughter of the late J. Nicholls, Esq. of 
Lincoln's Inn. 

Feb. 1. William Henry Layton, Esq. 
eldest son of Rev. T. Layton, vicar of Chig- 
well, to Frances Elizabeth, second daughter 
and co-heiress of Ellys Anderson Stephens, 
Esq. of Bower Hall, Essex. 3. Captain J. 
L, Stuart of the Bengal Army, grandson of 
Francis, late Earl of Moray, to Sarah, sixtli 
daughter of the late Robert Morris, Esq. 
M.P. for Gloucester A. Donaldson Camp- 
bell, Esq. of Glasgow, to J. Maria, daugh- 
ter of Colonel Dunlop of Househill, co. 
Renfrew 4. At Ickham Church, Kent, 
and at the Chapel at Hales Place, Edward 
Quillinan, Esq. 3d Dragoon Guards, to 
Jemima, second daughter of Sir Egertoii 
Brydges of Lee Priory, near Canterbury, 
Bart^M.P 5. Sir Watkin Williams Wyn- 
ne, Bart to Lady Harriet Clive, eldest 
daughter of the Earl of Powis 6. At Del- 
vine, Robert Smythe, Esq. of Methven, to 
Susan, eldest daughter of Sir Alexander 
Muir Mackenzie, Bart 11. Sir John 
Anstruther of Anstruther, Bart. M. 1'. to 
Jessie, third daughter of Major-General 
Dewar of Gilston. 15. Major-General 
Moore, to Cecilia, only child of W. Watson, 
Esq. of Queen's Square. 17. Philip Zacha- 

Marriages and Deaths. 


riah Cox, Esq. Captain of 23d Lancers, to 
Louisa Frances, youngest daughter of the 
late Tho. Waleston, Esq. of Walton-hall, 
co. York 22. Thomas Stamford Raffles, 
Esq. of Bemer's-street, to Sophia, daughter 
of James Watson Hull, Esq. late of Great 
Baddow 27. George Ulric Barlow, Esq. 
eldest son of Sir George Barlow, Bart. G.C. B. 
to Hilare, third daughter of Sir R. Barlow. 
March 5 At Albury-vale, Surrey, Jas. 
Simpson, Esq. advocate, to Eliza, second 
daughter of the late Jonas Maldin, Esq. of 


Jan. 1. At Berlin, the celebrated che- 
mist Klaproth, in the 71st year of his age. 
2. At Foveran-house, Andrew Robertson, 
Esq. of Foveran, aged 86 In his 66th 
year, Sir Martin Stapylton, Bart, of Myton- 
hall, county of York. 4. In the 77th year 
of his age, Sir Arthur Owen, Bart. He is 
succeeded in his title by his nephew, Wil- 
liam Owen, of the Temple, barrister-at-law. 
8. At Hainfield, in Styria, Godfrey Win- 
ceslaus, Count of Purgstall, &c. only son of 
the. late .Winc'eslaus, Count of Purgstall, &c. 
and of Jane Anne, second daughter of the 
late Hon. George Cranston 9. At Wells, 
Tho. Clark, Esq. of Westholme-house. He 
was descended from a branch of the ancient 
and well-known family of his name of Pen- 
nicuick, near Edinburgh 10. At West 
Ham, Essex, George Anderson, Esq. F.L.S. 
son of the late Dr James Anderson, author 
of Essays on Agriculture, The Bee, and 
other works. At St Andrews, Rev. Dt 
Robertson, profesor of oriental languages. 
11. At Edinburgh, Mr Moss, long the 
dramatic favourite of the Edinburgh public, 
ari'd well known for the excellence with 
which he pourtrayed Lingo, and many other 
characters of the same stamp 14. At Clif- 
ton, Lady Miller, widow of the- late Sir 
Thomas Miller of Glenlee, Bart 15. At 
Dundee, Charles Craig, weaver, at the ad- 
Tanced age of 108 -20. At Edinburgh, 
General Drummond of Strathallan.. 21. At 
Johannisberg, aged 76, "the Prince Ho- 
henloe-WaldenbergiBartenstein, Bishop of 
Breslau 23. At Turin, the Count de Bar- 
ruel-Bauvert. He was one of the hostages 
for Louis XVI 24 At Warsaw, General 
'Bronickowski, who commanded the Polish 
legion of the Vistula, in France. 26. In 
GrosYenoi-place, Caroline, Dowager Coun- 
tess of Buckinghamshire. 28. Lieut.-Col. 
Norris, of the engineers in the East India 
Company's service Lieut.-Col. Finlayson. 
Lately at Aron, Galway, in his 120th 
year, Mr Dirrane. He retained his facul- 
ties to the last, could read without spectacles, 
and till within the last three or four years, 
would walk some miles a-day. 

Feb. 2 At Seagrove, near Leith, Dame 
Jane Hunter Blair, widow of the late Sir 
James Hunter.Blair of Dunskeyand Robert- 
land, Bart. Aged 85, General Carleton, 

colonel of die 2d battalion COth foot, and 
great uncle to the present Lord Dorchester. 
3. Sir Isaac Pennington, Knt. M.D. Re- 
gius professor of physic, Cambridge. 4. Mrs 
Christiana Howell, in her 107th year. She 
was sister to the late Colonel Monro of the 
royal marines 6. The Right Hon. Lady 
Glenbervie 7. At the Jews' Hospital, 
Mile-end, aged 104, Henry Cohen. He was 
taken ill in the morning, and expired in the 

evening, retaining his faculties to the last 

8. At Pisa, Francis Homer, Esq. M.P. (See 
our first article.) In her 89th year, the 
Dowager Lady Carew 11. Aged 82, Sir 
John Palmer, Bart 14. At Marseilles, 
Lieut-Gen, the Hon. Sir John Abercromby, 
G.C.B. and Member of Parliament for the 

county of Clackmannan At her hotel, in 

Paris, aged 85, the Countess of Coislin, for- 
merly one of the attendants on the Queen of 
Louis XV. and grand-aunt of the duchess of 
Pia of Bavaria 15. At Edinburgh, Lady 
Miller, wife of Sir William Miller of Glen- 
lee, Bart 17. Aged 80, Rear-Admiral 
Alexander Edgar. He was the last male de- 
scendant of the Edgars of Wedderlie, in Ber- 
wickshire, one of the oldest families in Scot- 
land, as appears by deeds as far back as 1 1 70. 
19. At Edinburgh, the Lady of Sir Alex- 
ander Don of Newton-Don, Bart. M.P 

21. At Stirling, the Rev. John Russel, one 
of the ministers of that town, in the 44th 
year of his ministry At Little Dunkeld, 

Perthshire, aged 102, Mr J. Borrie 23. 

The Right Hon. Lady Amelia Leslie, second 

daughter of the late Earl of Rothes 24. 

Lady Henrietta Cecilia Johnstone Lately, 

at Rudding Park, in her 83d year, the Dow- 
ager Countess of Aberdeen. At Cammaes, 
in the parish of Llanhadrick, Anglesea, aged 
105, Mary Zebulon. At Trawnstynydd, 
county of Merioneth, aged 110, Edmund 
Morgan, being, as it is believed, the oldest 
inhabitant of Wales. He retained his facul- 
ties to the hour of his death At Eglinton 
Castle, aged 74, Eleonora, Countess of Eg- 
linton. The ci-devant Prince Primate of 
the Rhine, and Grand-duke of Frankfort. 

March 2 At Brighton, in her 74th 
year, Theodosia, Countess of Clanwilliam. 
Her ladyship was lineally descended from 

the illustrious Earl of Clarendon 3. At 

Edinburgh, Major-Gen. William Lockhart, 
late of the 30th regiment 5. At Gilcom- 
ston, Aberdeenshire, aged 101, John Mac- 
Bain. He was present at the battle of Cul- 
loden, and was attached to the corps brought 
into the field by Lady M'Intosh 9. In 
Bolton-row, in her 75th year, Jane, Coun- 
tess of Uxbridge, mother of the present Mar- 
quis of Anglesea. 12. In his 84th year, G. 
P. To wry, Esq. commissioner of the Victual- 
ling-office, father of Lady Ellenborough 
13. Sir William Innes, Bart, of Balvenie, at 
the age of about 100 years. The title is now 
extinct. 15. At the encampment at Honni- 
ton, Mrs Boswill, sister to the Queen of the 
Gypsies. She was interred witli great pomp. 

OliTCT & Boyd, Printers, Edinburgh. 




No II.] 

MAY 1817, 

[VOL. I. 




THE learned Selden has traced the 
etymology of MARSHAL under all its 
variations of Mariscaldus, Marscaldus, 
and Marscalcus, from the Teutonic 
" schalk," a servant, and " maere," a 
horse, or rather a mare the mare, it 
seems, being always the better horse*, 
and therefore very properly used ge- 
nerically to designate the species 
adding, that the term strictly describes 
a person who busied himself about 
horses and the manege. 

This popular derivation is, in some 
degree, countenanced by the epithet 
having been applied to innkeepers, 
grooms, farriers, and horse-doctors, as 
is proved by sundry passages from 
Becanust, the capitularies of Charle- 
magne, and other authorities. It is, 
however, at the same time, evinced to 
have very early received other signifi- 
cations, having no reference either to 
the above quadrupeds or to their at- 

Marshal notoriously denoted a civil 
officer whose jurisdiction lay alone 
within the state rooms of a palace 
" marechal de palais" an adept in 
the ceremonies and forms of court 
etiquette ; and, at the same time, any 
superior domestic servant, or steward, 
in which last sense it is used in this 
passage from Barbour : 

* " Marescalcus, equorum minister vel 
potius equarum, quod pracstare olim vide- 
liatur genus faemineum, ut apud Graecos in 
.lovis Olympiad certeminibus," &c. Seld. 

f Bee. Lib. Francicorura. 

" He callit his marschall till him tyt, 
And bad him luke on all maner ; 
That he ma till his gem gud cher ; 
For he wald in his chambre be, 
A weill gret quhile in private." 


Edward the Second's valet is called 
" marescallus aule regis.""^ It was 
indiscriminately given to stewards of 
bishops and abbots,^ governors of jails 
and prisons, and officers attending 
upon courts of law,) | &c. &c. 

These were not unfrequently depu- 
ties of the hereditary marshal of the 
kingdom, but most commonly they 
were " servientes" or functionaries of 
rather a higher order. 

There was also an old English office, 
of a singular import to modern ears, 
held heritably by grand sergeantry, 
and attached to a manor, " mares- 
callus de meretricibus in hospitio regis." 

An ancient roll of Edward the Third 
indicates, that " Johannes de War- 
blynton, filius et haeres Thomae de 
War blyn tone, fecit finem cum rege, 
&c. quod dictus Thomas tenuit ma- 

* Quoted by Dr Jameson under this 
word. Vid. also Du Cange, voce Marescal- 

f" " Rex concessit valetto Galfrido de 
Mildenhall, marescatto aule regis, unum 
messuagium in Bredon." (17 Ed. II. 
Abbreviat Rot Orig. Scaccar.) 

" Marescallus Kpiscopi," " Marescal- 
lus Abbatis," with their explanations. Du 

" Marescallus Banci Regis," in statuto 
Edwardi III. ar. 5, c. 8. Cui podssiinum 
incarceratoruni incumbebat Inde " Ma- 
resclialciu," dictus ipse career Loudomensis. 

|| " Marescallus Curi;e," in Bulla Aurea 
Caroli IV. Imper. cap. 27. Ib. 


nerium de Shirefield, tanquara ma- 
rescallus de meretricious in hospitio 

Such an establishment was then an 
ordinary appendage of court etiquette ; 
it was as indispensable as a foreign or- 
chestra, or a regiment of grenadiers to 
any German prince and their imitators 
in our own times. 

His most Christian Majesty, how- 
ever, was not so very Turkish as to 
permit the superintendence to one of 
his own sex, as we find from the royal 
expenditure of his household at the 
commencement of the sixteenth cen- 

" A Olive Sainte, dame des Jilles de 
joye suivant la cour du roy%, 90 livres, 
par lettres donnees a Watteville le 12. 
May 1535, pour lui aider, et auxdites 
filles a vivre et supporter les depenses 
qu'il leur convient faire a suivre ordi- 
nairement la eour. Alius, an. 1539. 
A Cecile Viefville, dame des filles de 
joye suivant la cour, 90 livres, par 
lettres du 6. Janv. 1538, tantpour elle, 
que pour les autres femraes, et filles 
de sa vacation, a departir entr'elles pour 
leur droit, du 1. jour de May dernier 
passe', qui etoit du a cause du bouquet 
qu'elles presentment au roy ledit jour, 
que pour leurs estrains, du 1. Janvier ; 
ainsi qu'il est accoustume de faire de 
tout temps. Eadem occurrunt annis 
1540, 41, 42, 44, 46." 

The old adage in papal times, " Ju- 
dcEi vel meretrices," was not always 
equally vilifying. Carpentier remarks, 
" Quae (sc. meretrices) hie uti infumes 
habentur, de comitatu regio fuenint, 
pensionibus etiam donisque dotatse." 

* It is noticed in Borthwick's Remarks 
on British Antiquities, but more fully in 
Madoxe's Baronia Anglica, p. 242, note, 
where the office is proved to have existed as 
far back as the time of Henry II. 

j- Comput. aerarii Reg. ap. Carpentier, 
vocc. Meretricialis, Vestis. 

Hence the origin of courtezan, now 
only used in a restricted and bad sense. 

Selden, quoth Lord Lyttelton, (Life of 
Henry II. vol. iv. p. 50), would not have 
admitted among the grand sergeantries War- 
blington's office, " of tlw, meanest and most 
disfionourable nature ; and he is angry with 
Madox for having so classed it ! This is 
a good illustration of Chalmer's remark, 
(Cal. vol. i. 626), that this lord's " notions 
and language are altogether modern" In- 
dependently of other considerations, it may 
be stated, that Blount, in his Tenures, has 
quoted an old deed, where it is expressly 
said to be held by '* grand sergeantry." 

Office of Mareschal. 


The said John Warblington must 
have been as versatile and expansive 
as Mercury ; for he not only performed 
the more familiar duties of this deli- 
cate charge, but also the high legal 
office of coroner within the liberties of 
the palace was clerk of the market to 
the household, or purveyor-general 
thereof broke condemned felons upon 
the wheel exercised the duties of a 
gauger, and enforced the observance 
of his self-regulated standard of weights 
and measures.* 

The etymology, then, of the excel- 
lent Selden would appear not to be 
altogether conclusive; and Wachtert 
would seem to be more fortunate, in 
deducing the term from " mer, mar," 
major vel princeps, and schalk, as be- 
fore, a servant, i. e. officer of any 
kind thus making it to signify any 
considerable officer or superintendent, 
or, according to Jameson (who seems 
rather to incline to this deduction), 
upper servant, or steward not neces- 
sarily of the crown alone ; a much 
more extended signification, and one 
which accounts for the term having 
characterised so many various and he- 
terogeneous employments. 

I have forgot to allude to the more 
ordinary sense, indicative of high mi- 
litary command, J either as exercised 
by the marshal of Scotland over the 
royal guards, previous to the union, or 
by field marshals, or marshals of ar- 
mies, personages familiar to all. An 
office of a similar nature, to com- 
pare small things with great, would 
appear formerly to have been common 
in the Highlands of Scotland, as we 
learn from the following amusing des- 
cription in an ancient MS. History of 
the Name of Mackenzie, composed be- 
fore the year 1667, by John Mac- 
kenzie of Applecross, extant in the 
Advocates' Library. 

" Alexander M'Kenzie of Coull was 
a naturall son of Collin, the 12 laird 
of Kintail, gotten wyt Marie M'Ken- 

* " Johannes de Warblington, coro- 
nator marescalciie ac clericus mercati hos- 
pitii regis ad placitum. 

" Idem tenet in feodo serjantiam essendi 
marescalli meretricum in hospitio, et dis- 
membrandi malefactores adjudicates, et 
mensurandi galones et bussellos." Rot. 
Pat. 22, Ed. III. 

f- Wachter, Glossar. voe. Marescallus. 

$ " Marescalli postea dicti, qui excrci- 
tibus, et copiis militaribus praeerant." Du 

Rutkven's Printing Press. 

zie, daughter to Rovie M'Kenzie of 
Davoch-maluack. His first patrimonie 
was his sword and bow, quherewith 
he did such worthie service, that he 
conqueist first the love of his chiefte 
and broyer, the lard of Kintail, wyt 
the love of all his countreymen ; so as 
his broyer made choise of him to be 
his mareschall of all his armie in all 
ye wares he had wyt Glengarrie and 
M'Leod of the Lewis. He command- 
ed sexscore of the prettiest men that 
ware in his broyer's armie, and especi- 
allie the Clanwurchie were under his 
command, quho served him as under 
officers to discharge the dutie of man- 
schall. His dutie wes, that in ye ar- 
mies marching to ye enemies land, he 
should still guard the rier ; and as the 
armie rested in ther camp, he still went 
in expeditiones to bring them hership* 
and provision, quhilk hcrschips were 
distributed as he liked, with the con- 
sent of the superior. His own pert of 
the hership was ilk cow quhose ear wet 
longer then hir horn, ilk black cow that 
had not a white spott in her bodie, ilk 
white cow that hald not a black spott in 
her bodie, and ilk horse that wes wytin 
three years; and his under officers 
had all the hedes of all the cowes that 
were killed in the camp. But some- 
times he distributed his part of the 
herships amongst the best deshervin 
of the shouldiers, quhilk made the 
shouldiers so desperat quich were un- 
der his command, that they resolved 
ayer to die or be victorious quhenever 
they ingadged. He had power to fine 
all the shouldiers that did not goe 
right in ther cloathes and armes, and 
wytall to dfcern all the contravershies ; 
quhilk place he managed so fortunatlie, 
that he was sent in all expeditiounes, 
and in everie expeditioune he wes vic- 
torious. His good service gott him 
the reall affectioune of his breyer, so 
that his breyer, in his death-bed, left 
him his own sword, quhilk was the 
gretest merit a kinsman could haive, 
to have the sword of such a braive con- 
queror, as a testimonie of faithfull ser- 

The situation appears to have been 
lucrative ; for he adds, " Ane estate 
from his brother he needed not ; ffor 
befor his broyer's death, by his oune 
prudent managment of ye benefit of 

* " Herschip, Heiwchip, Heiriscip, the 
act of plundering, devastation. Booty, 
prey, &c." Jameson. 


ye impleyment he had, and of quhat- 
ever jell to his hand, he conqueist to 
himself a reasonable estate, quhilk he 
dailie augmented during the rest of 
his wurthie dayes. He married to his 
first wife Annabel M'Kenzie, daughter 
to Murdo M'Kenzie of Fairburn, and 
relich," &c. &c. &c. 

The place was not hereditary; at 
least the historian, himself a male de- 
scendant and grandson of the marshal, 
does not affirm that it was ever again 
held by any of his kindred. 
(To be continued.) 


As one of the objects of this Magazine 
is to disseminate useful knowledge, we 
cannot attain the end in view with 
better effect than by giving some ac- 
count of a most important improve- 
ment in the mechanical part of print- 
ing, by Mr John Kuthven, printer, of 
this place. This very ingenious me- 
chanician having diligently studied his 
profession for upwards of twenty years, 
observed that there were numerous de- 
fects in the construction of the print- 
ing presses commonly employed, the 
principle of which is unaltered from 
the time of the invention of printing. 
The excessive and dangerous labour 
occasioned to the workmen, and the 
very imperfect adaptation of the press 
to many purposes, were the most ob- 
vious defects; to remedy which, by 
any improvement of the original ma- 
chine, Mr Ruthven found, after dili- 
gent study, to be quite impracticable ; 
he therefore resolved on attempting 
something new ; and after much la- 
bour, he has succeeded in producing 
not only a highly useful press, but in 
giving a most beautiful application of 
a combination of levers, for the pro- 
duction of parallel motion, with a de- 
gree of power hitherto unequalled. 

For the better understanding of the 
account we propose to give, it will be 
well to premise a few observations on 
the printing-press commonly used. 

The screw has hitherto been the 
power employed to produce pressure, 
while the types were placed on a move* 
able carriage, which was moved, after 
the ink had been applied, under the 
surface for pressing. In consequence 
of this, the power has always been li- 
mited, the radius of the lever which 
moves the screw being confined. It 
is also a consequence that not more 

Ruthven's Printing Press. 


than one half of a large sheet could be 
printed at one descent of the screw. 
A most serious evil results from this, 
especially in printing duodecimo, be- 
cause the pressure necessarily is ap- 
plied twice to the centre pages of each 
sheet, while it is applied only once to 
the other pages. To these disadvan- 
tages may be added, the difficulty of 
ascertaining and regulating the degree 
of pressure ; the irregularity of the 
motion of the lever ; the severe labour, 
and excessive exertion of the work- 
man ; the nice accuracy in placing the 
types under the centre ; there being 
no difference, in point of trouble and 
labour, in printing a card and a folio ; 
and the necessity for placing small 
work always in the same spot, which 
necessarily wears out one part sooner 
than the others. In obviating these 
defects, Mr Ruthven has completely 
succeeded ; and after giving some ac- 
count of the construction of the new 
printing press, we shall point out the 
superior excellencies of it as briefly as 

The general appearance of the large 
press is well represented in fig. 1. ; of 
which fig. 2. is a complete section. In 
this press the types are placed on a sta- 
tionary coffin or tablet, P ; the paper is 


put on in the usual manner on the tym- 
pan , a, (fig. 1 . )and secured by thefrisket, 
b. On turning over the tympans thus 
arranged, the platen, N (fig. 2.), sup- 
ported by the wheels, QQ, is drawn 
over the coffin by the handle, U, till the 
lower parts of the screw bolts, M M, be 
fully secured in the clutches, L L (fig. 
2.) ; the lever or handle, A, is then turn- 
ed over in the front of the press till stop- 
ped, when it will be nearly in a hori- 
zontal position. It is then restored to 
its original situation, the platen push- 
ed back, the tympans raised, and the 
printing is completed. The mode in 
which this movement is produced is 
concealed by the check, R. 

The action which takes place in the 
above-described process will be best 
understood by a' reference to, and ex- 
amination of, the section, fig. 2. The 
platen is, in this, represented in its 
proper situation over the types. The 
parts of the external structure have 
been already sufficiently explained ; it 
only remains to point out those which 
are exposed in the section. Beneath 
the tablet, P, and immediately behind 
the check, R, are the levers, I I, hav- 
ing their fulcra at K K ; to which are 
attached the clutches, L L, communi- 
cating as above-mentioned with M M ; 

Fig. 1. 


Ruthven's Printing Press. 
Fig. 2. 


Fig. 3 

Fig. !, 

the motion to which is given by the 
bolt, H, forming a point of union be- 
tween the levers, I I. When their 
ends are depressed by means of the 
crank, E G F, which is moved by the 
handle, A, communicating to the 
crank, B C, and the connecting rod, 
D, the platen or upper surface, N, is 
forcibly drawn down upon the types. 

To maintain the relative position of 
the several levers, the balance- weight, 
S, is applied. T T T is the frame- work 
supporting the whole of the machinery. 
Such is as minute an account of Mr 
Ruthven's printing press as is neces- 
sary for general information. It is 
here proper to state some of the points 
of superiority which it has, very de- 
cidedly, over all other contrivances of 
the same kind. These may be very 
briefly detailed, as we have already 
pointed out the most glaring defects 

which first solicited Mr Ruthven's at- 
tention. 1st, In the new patent press 
the types remain stationary. 2d, The 
platen is the size of the whole sheet, 
3d, Time is saved by its being brought 
over from the side. 4th, There is 
nearly half an inch between the tym- 
pans and the platen while passing over 
the types, by which all blurring is a- 
voided. 5th, Any degree of pressure 
(from an ounce to twenty tons) may 
be correctly and uniformly given at 
pleasure. 6th, The platen being 
drawn down' by the two ends, and the 
resistance sustained against the under 
surface of the tablet, affords the most 
complete and uniform security to all 
the parts ; while, contrary to every 
other example known to us of the ap- 
plication of pressure, the frame is 
wholly independent of, and unaffected 
by, the force employed. 7th, As com- 


plete parallelism between the two sur- 
faces (viz. of the platen and coffin) is 
maintained by means of the two screws, 
O O, so a small piece of work may be 
done at either end without a support- 
ing block at the opposite extremity. 
8th, This press being entirely unat- 
tached, requires no levelling or stay- 
ing ; and one for demy royal requires 
a space of only forty-two inches < square. 
9th, The motions of the pressmen, 
though less severe, are sufficiently si- 
milar to enable him, in the course of 
one or two hours, to work with equal 
facility as at the common press. 10th, 
The principles above described are e- 
qually applicable to presses of aU sizes. 
Fig. 3. represents one of the size of a 
cubic foot, which is capable of printing 
off an octavo page with greater celerity 
than a larger press, and may be work- 
ed on a common table without being 
fixed. The advantages of foolscap- 
presses of this construction will be 
found very important. 

An ingenious application of the prin- 
ciples of this press has been made to 
copying manuscripts ; for that pur- 
pose (although it may with perfect ef- 
fect be done with the small printing 
presses) Mr Ruthven has contrived the 
press represented in fig. 4. which is 
made without the printing apparatus, 
and having, instead of the clutches, 
permament pillars to connect the upper 
surface with the levers. The paral- 
lelism of the two surfaces is regulated 
by two graduated scales and indices at 
each end, as may be seen in the an- 
nexed figure. 

We are persuaded, that when, in 
addition to the excellencies already 
described, the extreme simplicity of 
the new patent press, and its little lia- 
bility to derangement, are taken into 
consideration, it will in a short time 
supersede every other printing ma- 
chinery that has hitherto been in use. 
^ M. 


THE increasing taste for the fine 
arts in this great literary capital, and 
the pretty eager attention now paid to 
them by the public in general, inspire 
a hope that you will allot a place in 
your Magazine for so interesting a de- 
partment of polite and useful know- 


Engraving on Stone. 

Nothing can be more conducive to 
the promotion of the arts than publici- 
ty, which may be greatly accelerated 
through the medium of your publica- 
tion, by the admission of discussions 
on the works of ancient and modern 
artists, explanations of their modes of 
representation, or descriptions of the 
implements or apparatus used by them 
for that purpose. To those desirous 
of information, you may thus furnish 
facilities of acquiring it ; and to those 
willing to communicate the result of 
their experience, a reputable <and easy 
channel to publicity. To the inex- 
perienced, nothing is more discourag- 
ing than the difficulty with which 
practical information is to be obtained, 
with regard to the composition or 
management of the substances or im- 
plements to be employed in the arts 
in general. With this view, and 
trusting to a coincidence of opinion on 
your part, I beg leave to request the 
insertion of the following article on 
LITHOGRAPHY, or the art of engrav- 
ing on stone, which I hope may be 
the means of calling forth other com- 
munications, either on the practice or 
criticism of the fine arts. 

This art has been long and succes- 
fully practised on the Continent, and 
we believe Germany has the honour 
of its invention. It was introduced 
into this country by a person of the 
name of Andre, about fifteen years 
ago, who attempted the publication of 
a periodical work, containing speci- 
men* of It by some of the most emi- 
nent artists in London, but which has 
been discontinued. It was also used 
in the Quarter-Master General's office, 
for the purpose of printing military 
plans, &c. In this country, however, 
it has never reached that state of per- 
fection to which it has arrived on the 
Continent, as may be seen by a com- 
parison of the works of Spix on cra- 
niology (in the College Library), Al- 
bert Durer's Missal, and the Bavarian 
Flora, all of which are printed at 
Munich, and also the Flora Monacen- 
sis, and the last number of the Jour- 
nal des Scavans ; and these also fur- 
nish a proof of what may yet be done 
in the detail of this extraordinary in- 

The great advantages which this 
art possesses over every other kind of 
engraving, are, first, that any person 
who can draw, can also execute the 

Anecdote of the Highlanders in 1745. 129 

gum water and lamp black, and after 
it is dry, the design is drawn with the 
point of an etching needle, in the same 

being enabled to have any number of way as on copper, cutting through the 
copies taken at less than half the ex- covering of gum and black, till the 
-*- '-> surface of the stone is reached, and 


engraving with the same ease with 
which he uses the pencil on paper; 
and, secondly, the circumstance of his 

pense of ordinary copperplate print- 
Nothing equal, it is true, to the 
tone, or minute elegance of the best 
line engraving can be produced, but 
an inspection of the works already 
mentioned, will show how admirably 
it is adapted to represent objects of a 
picturesque description, natural his- 
tory, outlines, anatomical subjects, 
plans, &c. It is also applicable to the 
purpose of multiplying writings, as 
the subject can be written on the pre- 
pared paper, afterwards transferred to 
the stone, and then printed without 
delay, at no further expense than the 
printing. In this way all the procla- 
mations of the state at Munich are 
made public. 

Directions. A slate of white lias 
(Bath stone), about one inch thick, 
must be made perfectly level, and 
polished with very fine sand. The 
subject is then drawn on the stone 
with a common pen, and a prepared 
liquid of the consistence of common 
ink, and with the same facility ; after 
this the stone is washed over with di- 
luted nitric acid, which slightly cor- 
rodes that part of the stone only which 
has not been drawn on with the pen. 
The liquid is made with gum lac, dis- 
solved in ley of pure soda, with a little 
soap, and coloured with lamp black. 
The liquid upon the stone., after the 
design is drawn, must be allowed to 
dry for about four days, and then 
soaked in water till perfectly saturated ; 
in this state (with the water on the 
surface), a common printing ball is 
dabbed over it as in type printing. 
This ink adheres to such parts as have 
been drawn upon, the other parts of 
the stone being wet, repel the printing 
ink ; the impression is then taken, by 
passing it through a press with a single 
cylinder. When the print is wished 
to resemble a chalk drawing, the stone 
is left rather rough, by using a coarser 
sand to polish it ; and instead of the 
ink and pen being used, a crayon made 
of the same materials (only with a 

then rubbing the solution into the 
lines or scratches. This done, it must 
be allowed to dry for the above men- 
tioned time, and then soaked as before 
in water, when the gum will dissolve, 
leaving the lines only ; upon which 
the printing ink is applied, as before 
explained, and the impression taken. 

Should this plan find a place in the 
Magazine, it is proposed to give, in 
some f your subsequent numbers, a 
short account of the history of the dis- 
covery, and of the methods used in 
common etching upon copper, together 
with some receipts for the preparation 
of the grounds, &c. 


(Communicated by MARY LADX 
CLERK to the Publisher.} 


ACCORDING to your request this morn- 
ing, I send you some account of the 
particulars that attended my birth, 
which I do with infinite pleasure, as 
it reflects great honour on the High- 
landers (to whom I always feel the 
greatest gratitude), that at the time 
when their hearts were set on plunder, 
the fear of hurting a sick lady and 
child instantly stopped their intentions. 
This incident occurred November 
15, 1745. My father, Mr D'Acre, 
then an officer in his Majesty's militia, 
was a prisoner in the castle of Carlisle, 
at that time in the hands of Prince 
Charles. My mother (daughter of Sir 
George le Fleming, Bart, bishop of 
Carlisle) was living at Rose-Castle, six 
miles from Carlisle, where she was de- 
livered of me. She had given orders 
that I should immediately be privately 
baptized by the bishop's chaplain (his 
lordship not being at home), by the 
name of Rosemary D'Acre. At that 
moment a company of Highlanders 
appeared, headed by a Captain Mac- 
donald ; who, havzog heard there was 

larger quantity of the lamp black) is -much plate and valuabiec Jn the castle, 

applied in the same manner as a pencil. 
There is another method by which it 
may be done, namely, by covering the 
stone over with a thin mixture of 
VOL. I. 

came to plunder it. Upon tbe ap- 
proach of the Highlanders, an oU 
gray-headed servant ran out, and en- 
treated Captain Macdonald not to pro- 


ceed, as any noise or alarm might oc- 
casion the death of both lady and 
child. The captain inquired when the 
lady had been confined? <f Within 
this hour," the servant answered : 
Captain Macdonald stopped. The ser- 
vant added, " They are just going to 
christen the infant." Macdunald, tak- 
ing off his cockade, said, " Let her be 
christened with this cockade in her 
cap ; it will be her protection now, 
and after, if any of our stragglers 
should come this way : We will await 
the ceremony in silence ;" which they 
accordingly did, and then went into 
the coach-yard, and were regaled with 
beef, cheese, ale, c. They then went 
off, without the smallest disturbance. 
My white cockade was safely pre- 
served, and shewn to me from time to 
time, always reminding me to respect 
the Scotch, and the Highlanders in 
particular. I think I have obeyed the 
injunction, by spending my life in 
Scotland, and also by hoping at last to 
die there. 


P. S. If the above anecdote can be 
of any interest to you or the public, it 
is very much at your service. I have 
mentioned all the names of the persons 
concerned, which you may retain or 
leave out, as you think fit. 

Miss, Law, Prince's Street, hearing 
of the above anecdote, sent me a pre- 
sent of the Prince's picture, and that 
of his lady, the Princess Stollberg. 

Edinburgh, April 21st, 1817. 


THE following inscription was lately 
discovered when digging in the church 
of St Hilary, in the isiand of Jersey. 
If we except one barbarism, and one 
strong license, the epitaph iiK-y bear a 
comparison with most of the inscrip- 
tions in the Latin Anthology. 

Knysea de stirpe mcum Corrmbia partum 
Vindicat. Hillarius jam tenet ossa sactr. 
Per Sporades Gallosque piuui comitata rna- 


Deferor hue : visa est sors milii nulla gravis. 
Viximus unaninies, et prima prole beati ; 
In nuindum duplici morte secunda venit. 
Pignora dividimus : comitatur me morien- 

Mortua ; solatur filia prima patrcm. 

Inscription in the Church of St Hilary. 


Tin-: Greeks had no name to express 
what we understand by the word hos- 
pital. Nsa-o*o.^,ov has a different mean- 
ing in the classical Greek writers, .and 
is first used, as we now translate it, by 
St Jerome and St Isidore. At Athens, 
provision was made in the prytaneum 
for the maintenance of those who had 
been severely wounded in war, as well 
as for that of their wives and children ; 
but there was no asylum for even 
these persons in case of sickness. Far 
less was any such accommodation with- 
in the reach of the poor citizens, or 
the mercenaries who always formed a 
large proportion of the Athenian force. 
At Lacedemon, where, according to 
the rule of Lycurgus, all the citizens 
eat in common, there was nevertheless 
no establishment which bore any re- 
semblance to our hospitals. The He- 
lots were abandoned in case of sick- 
ness ; and a similar fate attended even 
theEphori themselves, if they happen- 
ed to have no private fortune. This 
neglect of the Athenian and Spartan 
legislatures was imitated by the other 
Grecian states. In the oath of Hippo- 
crates, that illustrious physician swears, 
" that he will all his life visit the sick 
and give them his advice gratis." At 
that time the medical practitioners 
were both surgeons and apothecaries, 
so it would appear that Hippocrates 
furnished the sick in his neighbour- 
hood with medicines without expect- 
ing any reward. 

Among the Romans, in like manner, 
we should seek in vain for any estab- 
lishments intended to alleviate the 
sufferings of the indigent sick. No- 
thing of the sort is mentioned among 
the pious institutions of Numa ; and 
Servius, who distributed the people in- 
to classes, never thought of the nume- 
rous classes of poor, sick, and infirm. 
During the time of the republic there 
were frequent distributions of land, 
and divisions of the spoils taken from 
the enemies of the state, which ame- 
liorated in some degree the lot of those 
who were called the cy.pite ceni>i, be- 
cause they could offer nothing to the 
service of their country but their va- 
lour and their life. Yet all these 
largesses and gratifications were dis- 
tributed among those who enjoyed 
good health, and no establishments 
for the sick were erected cither under 

On the Origin of Hospitals for the Sicl; 

the republic or under the emperors. 
These last indeed erected baths and 
t henna' for the use of the poor, and 
also made public distributions of food ; 
and in these respects their example 
was followed by the wealthy patri- 
cians, who affected to give every day 
to their poor clients what went by the 
name of the sportula. We see by the 
descriptions of Juvenal, that the poor 
and infirm dependants of these nobles 
had no other resource to look to ; for, 
according to him, the most acute dis- 
tempers could not prevent them drag- 
ging their steps to the portico, and 
soliciting their share in the sportula. 
" Quid maeies segri veteris quern tempore 

Torret quarta dies olimque domcstica febris, 

It is easy to see that no public a- 
syhim was open for their reception. 
.Both Greeks and Romans, then the 
two most polished nations of antiqui- 
ty, consecrated no retreats for the un- 
fortunate. This was most probably 
the consequence of their constitutions 
and forms of government. Divided at 
all times into freemen and slaves, the 
legislatures of these two nations never 
bestowed much attention on the second 
of these great bodies of men but al- 
ways regarded them as of a different 
race, and, as it were, the dregs of hu- 
manity. A slave dangerously ill was 
left entirely to the care of his fellows 
in servitude ; in many instances his 
master would not even be at the ex- 
pense of burying his corpse, and allow- 
ed it to be thrown out to the vultures. 
The Esquiline Mount, whitened, ac- 
cording to Horace, by the great num- 
ber of bones left there in heaps by 
these birds of prey, is a sufficient proof 
how little care was taken of the fune- 
rals of the poor. These unhappy men, 
of whom there was always a great 
number even in the best days of Athens 
and Rome, had then no other resource 
in their calamities but private charity, 
the strength of their constitutions, or 
the crisis of nature. 

The temple of Esculapius, in the 
island of the Tiber, was indeed a sort 
of hospital, although far from corres- 
ponding exactly to what we call by 
that name ; at least, the law of the 
Emperor Claudius, which declares that 
slaves abandoned by their masters in 
the island of Esculapius, should be held 
tree in case of their recovery, seems to 
intimate that there was in that place 

a seigncurial hospital destined for 
their reception. Hut it is not till the 
establishment of Christianity that we 
can find any traces of those institu- 
tions, which are now so common in 
Christendom, for the accommodation 
of the infirm and the unfortunate. In 
spite of all the persecutions to which 
the first Christians were exposed, we 
find, that about the year 258, Lauren- 
tius, chief of the deacons, assembled a 
great number of poor and sick, who 
were supported by the alms of the 
church. But it was in the year 380 
that the first regular hospital was 
built. St Jerome informs us, that 
Fabiola, a Roman matron of distin- 
guished piety, founded, for the first 
time, a nosocomium, that is, as he 
himself explains it, " a house in the 
country for the reception of those un- 
happy sick and infirm persons who 
were before scattered among the places 
of public resort, and for the purpose 
of furnishing them in a regular man- 
ner with nourishment, and those me- 
dicines of which they might stand in 
need." This establishment was situ- 
ated at some distance from the city, 
and in a healthy part of the country. 

When Constantine transferred the 
seat of the empire to Byzantium, he 
caused an honmtium to be erected for 
the use of those strangers and pil- 
grims who had by his time begun to 
visit the East from motives of religion. 
This edifice was constructed after the 
model of the house which Hircanus 
had built at Jerusalem, about 150 
years before the commencement of our 
era. That prince sought, by the es- 
tablishment to which I allude, to puri- 
fy himself, in the eyes of the Jews, 
from the stain which he had contract- 
ed by the sacrilegious rifling of the 
tomb of David. The riches which he 
had procured in that impious manner, 
would, he flattered himself, be less 
unfavourably regarded, if he should 
share them with the poor pilgrims, 
whom zeal or curiosity drew in multi- 
tudes to the capital of Judsca. This, 
according to Isidore, is the origin of 
the name Ss* li^m, i. e. hospital for 
strangers, which was given to this 
building. In the year of our Lord 
550, the Emperor Justinian construct- 
ed, at Jerusalem, the celebrated hos- 
pital of St John, which was the cradle 
of the military order of the knights of 
Rhodes and Malta. His successors 
imitated his example with so muc.h 

On " Sitting below Ike Salt" 


zeal, that Ducange thinks Constanti- 
nople contained at one time thirty-five 
different charitable institutions of this 
nature. Those who travelled to the 
holy land were there received gratis 
into commodious hotels, and from these 
the caravansaries of the East have taken 
their origin buildings which a few 
centuries ago attracted so much admi- 
ration from Europeans, accustomed to 
the hostelleries of their own countries, 
at that time at once dear and filthy. 
The Emperor Julian attributed in a 
great measure to these charitable insti- 
tutions the rapid progress of Christian- 
ity, and had it in view to attempt the 
re-establishment of Paganism by simi- 
lar means. " We pay not sufficient at- 
tention (says he in a letter to Arsaces, 
sovereign pontiff of Galatia) to those 
means which have most contributed to 
the extension of the Christian super- 
stition I mean kindness to strangers, 
and attention to the burial of the poor. 
Erect forthwith, in all your cities, hos- 
pitals for the reception of strangers, 
not only those of your own faith, but 
all indifferently ; and if they stand in 
need of money, let them be supplied 
by the imperial officers." 

In the Byzantine historians, and in 
the ancient charters, these hospitals 
receive different names, as, Nosoco- 
miuni, retreat for the sick Xenodo-* 
chium, Xenon, retreat for strangers 
Ptochium, Ptochodochium, Ptochotro- 
phium, hospital for the poor and men- 
dicants Breplwtrophium, asylum for 
indigent children Orpkanotrophium, 
orphan hospital Gerocomium, hospi- 
tal for old men Pandochceum, gratui- 
tous hotel or caravansary Morotro- 
phium, hospital for idiots. 

In the very interesting work of 
Durand, entitled, ' ' Parallele des Edi- 
fices de tout genre," we find a com- 
parative view of the plans of a great 
many different hospitals of various 
kinds, such as those of Milan, Geneva, 
Plymouth, St Louis at Paris, Langres, 
the Incurables at Paris, the Lazaretto 
fbr persons afflicted with the plague at 
Milan, &c. The great hospital at 
Milan, on account of its vast dimen- 
sions, and the form of a cross in which 
it is built, and also on account of the 
numerous galleries which every where 
surround the building, was long look- 
ed upon as the best model of hospital 
architecture. The architects of the 
different hospitals in Paris, as well as 
those of this country, have all taken 
useful hints from it. A report was 


formed, by order of the French govern- 
ment, about the year 1788, in which a 
committee of medical persons and ar- 
chitects, gave their united opinions as 
to the general rules which ought to be 
observed in all buildings of this na- 
ture. Their principal remarks are these 
that all the wards should be sepa- 
rate that a free communication, by 
means of covered galleries, should be 
kept up between all parts of the house 
so large as to admit of the utmost 
purity of air, and to be serviceable, as 
promenades, .for the convalescents. 

The hospitals of this city, and of 
Glasgow, have been long regarded with 
much admiration by all visitors ; and 
the Lunatic asylum, lately erected in 
the latter city, is perhaps the most 
noble monument of the professional 
talents of the late Mr Stark.* Q. 
Edinburgh, March 1817. 


IN your last number I read a short 
paper, entitled, " On sitting below the 
Salt," in which the author gives se- 
veral quotations to prove that the an- 
cient custom mentioned in the " Black 
Dwarf" and " Old Mortality," of 
placing the guests above or below the 
salt, according to their respective dig- 
nities, was not a mere fabrication of 
the writer's brain. In common with 
your correspondent, I have heard men 
of information, and even of antiquarian 
research, express their doubts as to 
the existence of such a custom during 
any period of our history. 

Being an ardent admirer of the two 
works which have recently called our 
attention to this fashion of our an- 
cestors, and as it is in these works 
alone, in as far as my information en- 
ables me to judge, that such a prac- 
tice has been alluded to in modern 
times, I feel anxious to contribute to- 
wards the exculpation of their myste- 
rious author, from the charge of 
mingling the spirit of fiction with the 
voice of truth. 

In addition, therefore, to the proofs 
which have been adduced in your first 
Number, I beg leave to call your at- 
tention to the following extracts, which 
have escaped the notice of J. M. ; and 
which, besides shewing the universali- 

* The reader may find much information 
upon this interesting subject, in Beckniann'g 
History of Inventions, vol. 4. 


On " Siding below the Salt." 

ty of the practice, are somewhat curi- 
ous in themselves, and worthy the 
perusal of your readers. 

I find the distinction of seats, in re- 
lation to the position of the salt-vat, 
familiarly known to English writers as 
far back as 1597, at which time were 
published the earlier works of Joseph 
Hall, successively bishop of Exeter 
and Norwich, and one of our first legi- 
timate satirists. As Hall's satires have 
never been printed in a commodious 
form, they may not have fallen into 
the hands of the generality of your 
readers, and as the one which contains 
the allusion to the custom in question 
is short, and affords a good example 
of that writer's style, I shall insert it 
at full length. 

" A gentle Squire would gladly entertaine 
Into his house some trencher-chaplaine ; 
Some willing man that might instruct his 


And that would stand to good conditions. 
First, that he lie upon the truckle-bed, 
Whiles his young maister lieth o'er his head. 
Second, that he do, on no default,. 
Ever presume to sit above the salt, 
Third, that he never change his trencher 


Fourth, that he use all common courtesies ; 
Sit beare at meales, and one half rise and 


Last, that he never his young master beat, 
But he must ask his mother to define, 
How many jerkes she would his breech 

should line. 

All these observed, he could contented be 
To give five markes and winter liverie." 

Satire VI. B. 2d. 

In an entertaining old book, by 
Nixon, entitled, " Strange Foot-Post 
with a packet full of strange petitions," 
London, 1613, 4to, the author, speak- 
ing of the miseries of a poor scholar, 
makes the following observations : 

" Now, as for his fare, it is lightly 
at the cheapest table, but he must sit 
under the salt, that is an axiome in 
such places : then having drawne his 
knife leisurably, unfolded his napkin 
mannerly, after twice or thrice wiping 
his beard, if he have it, he may reach 
the bread on his knife's point, and 
fall to his porrige, and between every 
sponefull take as much deliberation as 
a capon craming, lest he be out of his 
porrige before they have buried part 
of their first course in their bellies." 
(F. 3.) 

In the works of our early dramatists 
there are not unfrequent allusions of 
;t similar nature. 

Thus, ia the play called Cynthia's 

i ;. 

Revels, by Ben Jonson, I find the fol-. 
lowing passage : 

" Merc. He will censure or dis- 
course of any thing, but as absurdly 
as you would wish. His fashion is 
not to take knowledge of him that is 
beneath him in clothes. He never 
drinks below the salt." Act II. Scene 

And in the " Unnatural Combat" of 
Massinger, the same custom is alluded 

" Stc-c: My Lord much wonders, 
That you that are a courtier as a soldier, 
In all things else, and every day can vary 
Your actions and discourse, continue con- 
To this one suit. 

Belg. To one ! 'tis well I have one 
Unpawn'd in these days ; every cast com- 

Is not blest with the fortune, I assure you. 
But why the question ? does this offend 

Stew. Not much, but he believes it is the 

You ne'er presume to sit above the salt." 

Act III. Scene /. 

" It argues little (says Gifford on 
the above passage) for the delicacy of 
our ancestors, that they should admit 
of such distinctions at their board ; 
but in truth they seem to have placed 
their guests below the salt, for no bet- 
ter purpose than that of mortifying 

That this custom was not limited 
to our own island, but was familiar 
at least in France, is evinced by the 
following passage from Perat, who 
flourished about the middle of the six- 
teenth century. In speaking of the 
manners suitable to men of noble birth, 
in regard to the different kinds of ridi- 
cule and pleasantry, he says of one 
species, " Neque ejusmodi dicacitates 
nobilitatem honestant : quamvis enim 
clientium caterva, amicorum humili- 
ores, totaque omnino infra salinum sti- 
pata cohors, scurrantem dominum, et 
(ut ait Klaccus,) imi Deri.iorem lecti, 
cachinnationibus suis insulsis adulari 
soleant ; ii taraen," &c. DC last. 
Nob. p. 36. 

The foregoing quotations, however 
curious in themselves, may, I fear, in 
regard to the subject which they are 
intended to illustrate, have appeared 
redundant or unnecessary to some of 
your readers, particularly after the 
satisfactory instances brought forward 
by J. M. of the prevalence of the 
same custom. 

Op. a general view, if would form a 

Fall of Volcanic Dust in the Island of Barbadoes. 


curious subject of research, and might 
throw considerable light on the man- 
ners and institutions of our ancestors, 
to investigate thoroughly the history 
of this singular fashion, and to mark 
the different changes which an indi- 
vidual of talent and enterprise was al- 
lowed to make in taking up his posi- 
tion at table, according to the increase 
of his wealth and consequent utility, 
and the effects of such changes on his 
general habits, and on the behaviour 
of those who wei-c formerly his com- 
panions in obscurity. 

The passages 'quoted by J. M. from 
that most curious work, the Memorie 
(if the Somervilles, clearly demonstrate 
the wide distinction of rank that exist- 
ed in this country at comparatively a 
recent period, between noble and igno- 
ble tenures between the Goodman, 
Rcntaller or Yeoman, and the Laird or 
Huron. It would be an interesting 
inquiry, to trace the circumstances 
which contributed to break down the 
jealous barriers of feudal honours, and 
to point out the period and manner 
in which the nature of the holding came 
to be at last almost overlooked in aug- 
menting or disparaging gentility. 

On a more minute investigation, it 
would be equally curious to examine 
the specific distinctions which existed 
between the two men who were placed 
together, the one above and the other 
below the salt-vat, and to study that 
beautiful combination of character, by 
which they formed the links in the 
social chain which united the nobility 
of one end of the table, with the hum- 
ble tenants of the other, leading by 
an almost imperceptible transition from 
the meanest appendage of a feudal 
feast, to the mailed retainer and the 
plumed baron. 

But I am unwilling to anticipate the 
observations of your correspondent, 
who will, I trust, make good his pro- 
mise, of favouring the public with a 
continuation of his remarks. 

In the mean time, to exercise the 
learning and ingenuity of your anti- 
quarian friends, I beg leave to propose 
the following queries, the solution of 
which will tend greatly to facilitate the 
labours of future inquirers. 

1st, Were the two great classes of 
society assembled at the same table, 
connected by means of two individuals 
on each side, seated together, the one 
as it were placed opposite to the upper 
or noble half of the salt- vat, the other 
to the lower or ignoble half, and com* 


bining, in their persons, the different 
characters of both parties ? Or, 2dly, 
Did these opposite extremes unite in 
the person of an individual on cither 
side of the table, placed immediately 
in front of the salt- vat? Or, 3dly, Was 
there no such " union of extremest 
things" pennitted, but a vacant space 
or gap opposite the salt-vat on both 
sides, leaving a blank in the fair chain 
of gradation , similar to that which has 
been caused in the scale of nature's 
works by the extinction of the mighty 
Mastodon, which formerly inhabited 
the salt-licks of North AmcrirM ? 

Hoping that the preceding quota- 
tions, observations, and queries, may 
meet with a favourable reception, if* 
not on their own account, at least from 
the chance of their exciting the- atten- 
tion of others more able to communi- 
cate information on such curious to- 
pics, I remain, respectfully, your obe- 
dient servant, P. F. 
Edinburgh, 1st May 1817. 


[The following excellent letter, contain, 
ing an account of the fall of volcanic dust 
in Barbadoes, has been communicated to 
us by a friend.] 


IN compliance with your request, I 
have drawn up a detail of the circum- 
stances (as far as I was an eye-witness) 
of the fall of volcanic dust in the island 
of Barbadoes, which occurred on May 
1st, 1812, and which was produced 
by an eruption of the volcano in the 
neighbouring island of St Vincent, 
lying to leeward, or to the westward 
of Barbadoes. 

I was at that time resident on the 
north-east coast of the island of Bar- 
badoes, or in what is termed the wind- 
ward part of that island, about eleven 
miles from the principal town. On 
the shore of this district, it may be 
proper to remark, there is almost con- 
stantly a heavy surf rolling, produced 
by the trade-wind impelling the sea 
on a coast completely iron-bound by 
rocks and rocky shoals. 

During the night preceding May 
1st, I was awakened by what I took 
to be signal-guns of distress from some 
ships wrecked at no great distance; 
in a very short tiine the explosions 
became so frequent, as to induce me 
rather to believe that they proceeded 
from two vessels engaging each other. 
In the town, these explosions, as I 


Fall of Volcanic Dust in the Island of Barladoes. 

understood afterwards, were regarded 
as the discharges of cannon ; so much 
so, that the garrison of St Ann's castle 
was kept under arms for the remainder 
of the night. 

The explosions having ceased, no- 
thing occurred to excite my attention 
during the remainder of the night ; 
but when I arose, on the light of morn- 
ing beginning very faintly to appear, I 
was struck with surprise on approach- 
ing the window, by seeing what I took 
to he a very dense black cloud threat- 
ening rain, as a thunder storm was not 
to be expected at that period of the year: 
the horizon, along the edge of the sea, 
was clearly defined by the morning 
light ; but, immediately above it, the 
black cloud seemed to fringe the sur- 
face of the sea, and to cover the whole 
atmosphere. At this time I had not 
observed any fall of dust ; but I was 
afterwards informed by my servants, 
that particles of dust had been falling 
for the greater part of the night, though 
in small quantity ! On returning to 
the other part of the room, and fixing 
my eyes steadily on the window, I 
was greatly astonished by the gradual 
disappearance of the faint light which 
had been visible before, and in a few 
minutes afterwards, by finding that I 
had totally lost sight of the sash of 
the window an occurrence which I 
well knew never takes place in the 
most'stormy or in the darkest night of 
the West Indies. I groped my way 
to the window, and touched the glass 
without seeing it ; and on opening the 
sash, I first perceived that particles 
of dust were flying about; but the 
darkness was so profound, that I could 
not discover the outline of the neigh- 
bouring hills, the trees around the 
house, or, in short, any one object. 
I soon after quitted the house, and 
found that the earth was covered with 
dust ; that it fell in a constant thick 
shower, occasionally with considerable 
force ; and that the windows, on the 
windward side of the house, were in- 
crusted with it : but the darkness was 
so great, that a white handkerchief 
held close to the face could not be 
seen, and it was impossible for me to 
walk in the garden without the risk 
of striking against the trees or other 
large objects. I then first remarked 
a smell of some burnt matter, and I 
fancied I saw, or I really saw, on look- 
ing upwards attentively, a lurid red 
appearance of the clouds, over head, 
through the profound darkness. 


At this time, a perfect calm, and 
the most remarkable stillness, unin- 
terrupted by the usual noise of the 
surf of the sea, was observable, and 
was rendered more evident by the 
crash of the limbs of the trees of a 
very large wood which was adjacent 
to the house, and which formed an 
awful contrast to the extreme stillness 
of the atmosphere. On holding a 
lantern to some of the trees, I found 
that the limbs of the more flexible 
ones were bent almost to the ground 
by the weight of the dust which ad- 
hered to them. The fall of dust dur- 
ing the period of darkness was inces- 
sant, but at some times it was harder 
and thicker than at others. It ceased 
between twelve and one o'clock. I 
first began to discover the sashes of 
the windows, and the outlines of the 
trees, soon after twelve ; and at one I 
could plainly distinguish the lurid red 
clouds of a fiery aspect which hung low, 
and swept past the island ; it was at 
this time that I was first struck by the 
noise of a tremendous surf, and on 
looking to the sea, I evidently saw it 
lashing the shore, having, as it would 
appear, risen to its utmost height and 
fury from a state of perfect quiescence 
in the shortest possible space of time ; 
as during the period of darkness not 
the slightest murmur of the sea could 
be heard. 

The aspect of the country around 
was now become wintry and dreary ; 
the sugar canes were levelled with the 
earth ; the smaller plants were laid 
prostrate: and the limbs of the trees 
were either broken oft' or bent down- 
wards, as the wood was flexible or 
brittle, and the whole surface of the 
soil was covered with grayish ashes to 
the depth of an inch. 

The next morning I rode to the 
beach, and could clearly perceive, by 
the mark which the sea had left ou 
the dust lying on the green sward, 
that it had risen to a height which 
had covered the whole of the sands, 
and reached the adjacent shrubs and 
grass. The perpendicular height which, 
to have effected this, it must have 
risen, I then measured, and I perfect- 
ly recollect that it was very great ; as, 
however, I have left the memoranda, 
(which I penned at the time) of all 
the circumstances of this event in Bar- 
badoes, I will not venture to state from 
memory that measurement. 

If regard be had to the relative si- 
tuation of the island of Barbadoes, it 

136 Anecdotes of Antiquaries. 

is evidently a most singular circum- 
stance attendant on the fall of vol- 
canic dust, that the eruption of a vol- 
cano taking place in the island of St 
Vincent, twenty leagues to leeward of 
Barbadoes, should have projected that 
immense mass of heavy matter to a 
height above the influence of the north- 
eastern trade-wind, so that it should 
have been carried in a contrary direc- 
tion to it, and then have been preci- 
pitated by its gravity on the island of 
Barbadoes and beyond it ; for in this 
xvay only can we account for the vol- 
tfanic dust having made its way seem- 
ingly against the trade-wind, which, 
a l that period of the year especially, is 
steady and uniform. 

It is also worthy of remark, that the 
explosions of the volcano should have 
bee:.i heard at the distatice of twenty 
leagues, though the wind was against 
the progress of the sound. 

A long period of drought succeeded 
to the tall of dust, and during that 
period the columns of the lighter parts 
of the dust, which were raised and 
driven by the wind, proved a most un- 
pleasant annoyance to those who were 
exposed to them, and exhibited a very 
.singular appearance when viewed from 
any distance. 

I may now notice an occurrence 
which took place subsequently to the 
tall of dust, and which I am inclined 
to believe was in some degree connect- 
ed with that event. 

As soon as the crop of corn (zea 
maize and holcus sorsum), and of po- 
tatoes, (sweet potato, or convolvulus 
batatas, of the West Indies) the plant- 
ing of which had been long retarded 
by the preceding drought, and took 
place shortly after the fall of the dust, 
were established, swarms of cater- 
pillars, of a variety of species, sudden- 
ly made their appearance, and destroy- 
ed the growing corn and the foliage of 
the potatoes. The sudden production 
of these animals, and their immense 
quantities, scarcely can be conceived. 
It will be sufficient to mention, that, 
in one instance, in a field of potatoes, 
not a single caterpillar was observable 
early in the morning, and before noon 
of the same day, they were discovered 
in such abundance as to require to be 
swept up and carried off in the earthen 
vessels used in the sugar manufactory 
to contain molasses, and which hold 
about five gallons each. The cater- 
pillars, however, which destroyed the 


growing crops of corn, were neither so 
suddenly produced, nor in such vast 
numbers, as those which fed on the 
foliage of the potato; but successive 
generations of them continued to fol- 
low each other, so that scarcely any 
corn was reaped, and the island of 
Barbadoes suffered a sort of famine for 
many months. 

How far the production of these ca- 
terpillars was connected with the pre- 
sence of the volcanic dust, may be a 
question difficult of solution ; but it 
may not be irrelevant to mention, that 
the dust had the property, from the 
large quantity of iron it contained, of 
absorbing and retaining the solar heat, 
so as to be painfully hot to the touch : 
this heated state was probably favour- 
able to the evolution of larvae. 

As soon as the dust was mixed with 
the soil, or was washed from it, so as 
to lie in less abundance on the surface, 
the caterpillars gradually disappeared. 
It may not be unworthy of mention, 
that the destruction of the foliage of 
the potatoes by the caterpillars did not 
in any degree diminish the crop : on 
the contrary, the return was unusually 
abundant, and ultimately saved Bar- 
badoes from a continuance of the fa- 
mine which the loss of the crops of 
corn exposed it to. From this circum- 
stance I am induced to infer, that the 
dust, though it never seemed to unite 
intimately with the soil, had a fer- 
tilizing property. The chemical ana- 
lysis of this dust is already before the 
public. I have the honour to be, sir, 


I HAVE just seen the first Number of 
your Magazine on a table in the study 
of a much-respected friend of mine, 
whose talents have gained for him a 
distinguished rank among the learned 
and elegant writers of Caledonia. 

I observe you announce, that a por- 
tion of the publication is to be set a- 
part as an " Antiquarian Repertory." 

As oft as you can procure well-au- 
thenticated articles, connected with 
antiquity, whether they are deemed of 
importance in the estimation of some 
of your readers, or unprofitable in that 
of others, you will do well to publish 
them, for " even out of the chaff a 
pottage is made." But beware that 


you are not " bronzed;" and take 
care you have reasonable proofs, that 
what you publish is authentic. 

Now, in point, Mr Editor, I will 
tell you a story, a story well-known, 
though, of course, not to nine-tenths 
of your readers. 

A venerable, learned, and worthy 
country gentleman, who, had he been 
in life, would have found a pleasure 
in contributing to your " Repertory," 
happened, in the course of a forenoon 
walk, to come upon some industrious 
people.who were engaged in clearing 

away the extensive moss of . In 

the course of their operations, one of 
them met with a substance which re- 
sisted his spade. The spade was 
thrown aside, and the pick-axe grasped 
to " split in flinders" this resisting 
substance. " Softly," my friend," said 
the antiquary ; " continue with your 
spade, and trench round ; perhaps 
you may raise, entire, a Roman urn. 
For I have always been of opinion," 
said he to himself, " that this was 
the line of march of the Romans." 
The illiterate peasant knew as much 
about an " urn," as, mayhap, he did 
about " Roman." But his respect for 
the ' ' venerable " was too great not to 
obey his orders. Well, then, he 
trenched, till at last IT made its ap- 
pearance. " A Roman camp-kettle," 
with enthusiastic pleasure, said the 
antiquary to himself. " Carry it to the 
HOUSE, Duncan, and I shall amply 
reward you." He did so, and was 
amply rewarded, befitting so inestima- 
ble a treasure. For in all his actings 
he dealt justly succoured the needy 
was a represser of vice a promoter 
of industrious virtue. Such was our 
venerable antiquary. 

It was placed on a table in his study. 
He viewed it with admiration and de- 
light, it confirmed him in his opin- 
ion, its goblet form, its moveable 
semi-circular handle ; all conspired. 
" Unquestionably," said he, " the 
Romans must have made this their 
line of march, and not ihat, as some 
ignorant writers have asserted. 

Pursuing these ideas, it has been 
insinuated that he wrote a learned dis- 
sertation about this kettle, preparatory 
to its being presented elsewhere. It 
is further said, that it was presented 
and received with equal veneration 
and thanks. 

However, to make " a long tale 
short," Mr Editor, I shall not at full 
VOL. I. 

Anecdotes of Antiquaries. 137 

length detail the amusing colloquy 
which took place, upon an after occa- 
sion, between the venerable and the 
real owner of the kettle. Suffice it to 
say, he was no Roman, but a sturdy 
Highlander, who would have given hard 
blows to any Roman who dared to in- 
vade his kettle, or any thing else be- 
longing to him. In a word, then, his 
story was this; that his wife " Shan- 
et" had, twelve months ago, bought 

this identical kettle in the town of 

and in her way home, having indulged 
too freely to cure a colic, mistook her 
path through the moss, plumped into 
what is called a peat-bog, and was 
glad to quit her kettle and save her- 
self ; that Duncan's description of the 
size, shape, &c. of the kettle, and 
Janet's, exactly agreed ; and that there 
was no doubt but it was their " nown" 
kettle. " If your honour will only 
gie me back the kettle, I'll hing it in 
the very middle kaiber o' the pothie, 
to be a warning to Shanet to get t runic 
no more." " That is impossible, Don- 
ald," said the venerable ; " but there 
is as much money for you as will buy 
two such kettles ; and in order to cor- 
rect Janet's colics, there is, beside, a 
copy of Macniel's History of Will and 
Jean, which you may cause your son, 
Peter, read to his mother again and 
again, and you yourself will not be 
the worse for listening to the moral 
tale." Donald accepted of the boon, 
and, having repeatedly said " Got pless 
and thank your honour," withdrew. 

Now, Mr Editor, this is not a 
" bronze," no story of fancy ; some 
of your readers will at once recognize 
it, and will blame me for telling it so 

Well I have just another story to 
tell you, by way of introduction to 
our future acquaintance, and then, for 
the present, I have done. 

A select knot of antiquaries set out 
to explore classic ground. " Here, 
here !" exclaimed one. " Now we 
have it look here ! look at this 
stone ; perfectly distinct and plain ! 
mark the letters ! R. I. L. as clear 
as day, although our researches may 
sometimes he covered in obscurity. 
Quite plain and intelligible R. I. L. 
Thus far, and no farther," he exulting- 
ly exclaimed ; " Romani Imperil Li- 
men! The antiquaries gathered around, 
and were struck with wonder : " We 
shall," said one of them, " find, to a 
certainty, an urn, containing the bones 


On Combustion. 

of some valorous Roman general." 
Let us to work, said they, with one 
concurring voice, and with their mat- 
tocks they set furiously to the busi- 
ness. Before they had proceeded far, 
their attention was attracted by the 
hallooing and bellowing of a sturdy 
peasant, who was hastening towards 
the spot. When he had approached 
them, and stopping till he had gather- 
ed wind, he exclaimed, " Hoot, hoot, 
lads ! what's that you're about ? mind 
what the Bible says, Cursed be he 
who removes a landmark." " Peace, 
clown," said the junior antiquary, 
" you are ignorant of the matter; R. /. 
L. that is, Romani Imperii Limes." 
" Hoot, toot, lads!" said the country- 
man, " I ken Latin as weel as you do 
yoursel. Do ye think I was na bred 
wi' Mr Doig, at Falklan school, wha 
could hae learned the very kaes that 
biggit in the auld palace to speak 
Latin, as my auld granny said, gin 
they had only leeted till him. And 
you say, too, I am ignorant o' the mat- 
ter. But faith, birky, let me tell you, 
I should ken mair o' the matter than 
you, for was na I present whan auld 
Rab Roughcast, the mason, hewed and 
pat in that very stane, in my gutcher 
Robin Rantletree's time. Romani 
Imperii Limes, wi' a ban to ye ! I be- 
lieve ye are nae better than a band o' 
tinklers, wha wad claim Rab Innes' 
Lands as the property of ony Roman. 
But there's auld Rab Innes himsel, 
poor feckless body, coming we're no 
owre thrang neebours, yet I wadna 
like to see him wranged for a' that. 
But I'se gae my ways, and gif he lets 
you remove the landmark, I say again, 
accursed be he wha does sae." 

This onset gave the antiquaries no 
stomach to encounter Rab Innes, and 
they precipitately took a direction 
which separated them equally from 
Rab Innes and young Rantletrees, 
leaving the R. I. L. in quiet posses- 
sion of the field. 

Now, Mr Editor, you must not sup- 
pose that I intend to throw any dis- 
credit upon your Antiquarian Reper- 
tory. Quite the reverse. All that I 
mean to deduce from what I have said 
is, a caution to you against being taken 
in by a gudewife's " kail-pat" for a 
' Roman camp-kettle," or by the land- 
mark betwixt two decent cock lairds 
for a Itomani Imperii Limes. 

In proof of my sincerity, I shall, 
D. V., before your June Number gof 

to press, furnish you with some very 
curious matter connected with the an- 
cient manners and history of our coun- 
try ; and I think, that out of the great 
materials I am possessed of, the article 
will be upon " Border Bonds of Man- 
rent." I am, &c. STRILA. 

Edinburgh, 23rf April 1817. 


IT appears, from the notices inserted 
in the scientific journals, that the at- 
tention of Sir Humphry Davy is at 
present particularly directed to the 
consideration of the chemical process 
of combustion ; and though we do not 
consider ourselves entitled to suppose 
that all our readers can possess that 
minute acquaintance with this subject, 
which might justify us in presenting 
it to them in considerable detail, we 
yet think, that on so very interesting a 
topic it is possible to convey such gen- 
eral information as may be sufficient- 
ly understood by every description of 
readers. No phenomenon, it is evi- 
dent, presents a subject of more inter- 
esting speculation to a mind of just 
philosophical taste. The instantane- 
ous transition from a state of darkness 
to that of clear and useful illumination, 
which is produced by the presence of 
a lighted taper the beautiful form 
which the flame itself is disposed to 
assume the varied tints which char- 
acterize this appearance frotn the mild 
blue of its base to the white or orange 
of its waving summit and the unfail- 
ing steadiness with which it maintains 
its place, so long as the materials of 
its nourishment are afforded, present 
an assemblage of striking appearances. 
which, but for the inattention induced 
by its almost-habitual presence, is bet- 
ter fitted, perhaps, to awaken the in- 
terest of a thinking mind than any 
other phenomenon of daily occurrence. 
It is a fact, however, that the re- 
searches and theories of modern che- 
mistry have as yet been able to ad- 
vance but a very little way towards a 
satisfactory explanation of these ap- 
pearances. The most obvious suppo- 
sition unquestionably is, that the light 
and heat which are essential to the phe- 
nomenon, are derived from the burning 
body itself and this, accordingly, it. 
is universally known, was the opinion 
entertained by the followers of Stahl, 
whose doctrines exercised an unlimited 
influence, before the introduction of 


On Combustion. 


the present views, over the philoso- 
phers and chemists of modern Europe. 
According to this philosopher, then, 
combustion was merely the evolution 
from the burning body, when placed 
in circumstances adapted to this effect, 
of a peculiarly subtile and active prin- 
ciple, to which, from the ordinary ap- 
pearance which its evolution assumes, 
he gave the name of Phlogiston light 
and heat being those properties of this 
body by which it adapts itself to the 
observation of our powers of percep- 
tion. This theory, we have said, from 
the high reputation which its author 
had obtained, was long unanimously 
adopted by philosophers and being 
in perfect agreement with the most 
natural and obvious judgment of man- 
kind, scarcely a suspicion was allowed 
to intervene, that there could be any 
thing imperfect or inaccurate in the 
theory. The progress of philosophical 
opinion upon this subject, however, 
presents, we think, a very instructive 
instance of a disposition which seems 
universally characteristic of mankind, 
that, we mean, of employing any fa- 
vourite principle to account for every 
appearance which presents itself, how- 
ever little warranted such an appli- 
cation may be by the circumstances 
most characteristic of the phenomenon 
in question. It is accordingly very 
generally known, that about the latter 
part of the last century, and while the 
doctrines of Stahl were in all their 
vigour, the existence and properties of 
oxygen were discovered, and immedi- 
ately excited the utmost attention in 
all who were devoted to philosophical 
pursuits. The discovery was, in re- 
ality, both beautiful and instructive 
in a very uncommon degree. The 
increased illumination communicated 
by this gas to any ignited body which 
the operator immersed in it the pure 
and apparently etherial nature of the 
gas itself the very energetic proper- 
ties it was found to possess and the 
vast variety of bodies into whose com- 
position it was discovered to enter 
all contributed to point out this sub- 
stance as one of the most important 
instruments in the economy of nature, 
and insensibly produced a very gene- 
ral disposition to receive its operation 
as a complete account of any former 
unexplained phenomena, with whose 
existence and properties it might have 
any connexion. While the minds of 

men, accordingly, were in this state, 
it was opportunely discovered, that 
when a burning body is introduced in- 
to ajar of common air, the mouth of 
the jar being at the same time invert- 
ed over water, the oxygenous portion 
of the air is altogether consumed, and 
the burning body is found to have ac- 
quired an additional weight, precisely 
corresponding with that of the oxygen 
which had disappeared. From this 
discovery it was immediately conclud- 
ed, that combustion is in fact nothing 
else than the combination of oxygen 
with the combustible body that the 
light and heat are the consequences of 
this combination, being necessarily 
given out by the combining oxygen 
and that the whole process of com- 
bustion is explained, when it is stat- 
ed to be the consequence of the se- 
paration of oxygen, first, from the 
other constituent of the air, and next, 
from the light and heat which it con- 
tained before it began to experience 
this separation, and also, of the com- 
bination of this gas with the body 
whose combustion was actually ob- 
served. A few of the more intelligent 
and cautious of the learned might still 
entertain a very invincible opinion, 
that the phenomenon in question had 
not really been accounted for but the 
great multitude of the studious, who 
seldom condescend to a very careful 
examination of any particular subject, 
received the doctrine as impregnably 
established while, in the public de- 
monstrations of professed teachers, the 
difficulties that remained were either 
entirely unnoticed, or were hastily 
concealed from the view of the curious, 
by ambiguous language, or unsatisfac* 
tory conjecture. 

From the application of this state- 
ment, however, we conceive ourselves 
bound to exempt all the more enlight- 
ened and illustrious chemists. Sjr 
Humphry Davy, we believe, in his 
public lectures, always expressed him- 
self upon this subject with much be- 
coming freedom of opinion and Dr 
Thomson has repeatedly stated, in 
his excellent system, that he still 
considered the explanation of the phe- 
nomena of combustion as in a very 
imperfect state. The opinion of this 
latter philosopher, indeed, if we are 
not much mistaken, has Always coin- 
cided exactly with that which we are 
anxious at present to sxibmit to the 


Original of Milton's Satan. 

notice of our readers, viz. that in the 
common explanation of this phenome- 
non, only one of the circumstances 
connected with it, that is, the disap- 
pearance of the oxygen, had in reality 
been accounted for, while the exhibi- 
tion of light and heat, which really 
constitute what is essential to the phe- 
nomenon, are altogether unexplained. 
Conceiving that this view of the 
matter must now be very generally ad- 
mitted, it is with much satisfaction 
that we perceive Sir Humphry Davy to 
be actively engaged in the investiga- 
tion of what has justly been denomi- 
nated the most important problem in 
chemistry. His attention seems to 
have been naturally directed .to this 
investigation, by his recent invaluable 
discovery of the safety-lamp for coal 
mines, and by the very curious pro- 
perties of flame which were suggested 
by that discovery ; and he has accord- 
ingly read several papers, at different 
meetings of the lloyal Society, detail- 
ing the experiments he has made, with 
the view of elucidating the properties 
of flame. His opinion, as recently ex- 
pressed, seems to be, that flame con- 
sists of gaseous bodies heated above 
whiteness. Many other curious pro- 
perties, however, of ignited bodies 
have been discovered by him in the 
course of his recent researches and 
we have little doubt, that before he 
relinquishes the investigation, he will 
either be able to go farther towards 
a solution of the difficulty than former 
experimentalists have been able to ad- 
vance, or will at least succeed, by ex- 
hibiting an accurate statement of the 
case, in giving currency to a more sci- 
entific mode of considering this sub- 
ject, than that which has so long been 
implicitly adopted by the multitude of 
more superficial and careless inquirers. 
It is at all times a treat of the high- 
est kind, to follow the progress of sci- 
entific discovery but the gratification 
derived from this source is necessarily 
enhanced to an incalculable amount, 
when there seems reason to appre- 
hend, as in the present instance, that 
the perseverance of the philosopher is 
on the point of being rewarded, by 
the developement of some views of 
prominent importance. The curiosi- 
ty of a liberal irii;;d admits, in fact, of 
no higher gvitificution (the delight of 
the discoverer himself excepted) than 
tfeat of being permitted to watch the 



IN the learned and elegant disserta- 
tion, in your last number, on the Pro- 
metheus of .^Eschylus, an old opinion 
has been revived, that Milton took the 
character of his Satan from the Pro- 
metheus of the Athenian poet. Both 
personages are stern and unbending, 
and so far, certainly, the resemblance 
holds good ; but such a Satan as Mil- 
ton had to delineate was already 
sketched with a masterly hand by the 
Italian poet, Marino, in his poem on 
" The Slaughter of the Innocents," 
one book of which, " The Suspicion of 
Herod," was translated into English 
by Crashaw, and given to the public 
long before Paradise Lost was written. 
The poem of Marino I have never been 
able to procure even a sight of; but I 
have sent you some extracts from the 
translation, which, owing to the gene- 
ral bad taste of Crashaw, it is probable 
few of your readers are acquainted 
with ; and those who are, will readih 
pardon you for reprinting some of the 
finest lines our poetry can boast of. 
The suggestion, that Milton has bor- 
rowed from them, is not new, but has 
been little attended to. 


From " The Suspicion of Herod,'"' 
translated by Crashaw, from Marino, 
beginning at stanza 5. 

BELOW the bottom of the great abyss, 
There, where one centre reconciles all things. 
The world's profound heart pants ; there 

placed is 
Mischief's old Master; close about him 


A curl'd knot of embracing snakes, &c. 
The Judge of Torments, and the King of 

He fills a burnish'd throne of quenchless 

fire ; 

And for his old fair robes of light, he wears 
A gloomy mantle of dark flames ; the tire 
That crowns his hated head on high appears. 
Where seven tall horns (his empire's pride) 

aspire ; 

And, to make up Hell's majesty, each horn 
Seven crested Hydras horribly adorn. 
His eyes, the sullen dens of Death and 


Startle the dull air with a dismal red : 
Such his fell glances as the fatal light 
Of staring comets, that look kingdomes 



Original of Milton's Satan. 

His breath Hell's lightning is, and each 

deep groan 
Disdains to think that Heaven thunders 

alone ! 

Three rigorous virgins, waiting still be- 

Assist the throne of the iron-scepter'd King ; 
With whips, of thorns and knotty vipers 

They rouse him, when his rank thoughts 

need a sting. 
Thus reigns the wrathful King, and while 

he reigns, 

His sceptre and himself both he disdains. 
Disdainful wretch ! how hath one bold sin 


Thee all the beauties of thy once bright eyes ? 
How hath one black eclipse canccll'd and 


The glories that did gild thee in thy rise ? 
Proud morning of a perverse day ! how lost 

Art thou unto thyself ! 

From Death's sad shades, to the life- 
breathing air, 

This mortal enemy to mankind's good 
Lifts his malignant eyes, wasted with care, 

He calls to mind the old quarrel, and what 


Set the contending sons of Heaven on fire : 
Oft in his deep thought he revolves the dark 
Sybil's divining leaves ; he does inquire 
Into the old prophecies, trembling to mark 
How many present prodigies conspire 
To crown their past predictions, &c. 

Heaven's golden-winged herald late he 


To a poor Galilean virgin sent : 
How low the bright youth bowed, and with 

what awe 

Immortal flowers to her fair hand present- 
He saw, how in that blest day-bearing 

The Heaven-rebuked shades made haste 


How bright a dawn of angels with new light 
Amaz'd die midnight world, andmade a day 

Of which the morning knew not 

He saw a threefold sun, with rich increase 
Make proud the ruby portals of the East. 
He saw the temple sacred to sweet Peace 

Adore her Prince's birth 

He saw the falling Idols all confess 

The coming Deity. 

He saw Heaven blossom with a new-born 


On which, as on a glorious stranger, gazed 
The golden eyes of Night, whose beam made 


The way to Bethlem, and as boldly blazed 
(Nor asked leave of the sun) by day as night. 
Struck with these great concurrences of 


Symptoms so deadly unto Death and him, 
Fain would he have forget what fatal strings 
Eternally bind each rebellious limb. 
He shook himself, and spread his spacious 



Which, like two bosom 'd sails, embraced 

the dim air 

With a dismal shade, &c. 
He tossed his troubled eyes, embers that glow 
Now with new rage, and wax too hot for 

With his foul claws he fenced his furrowed 

And gave a ghastly shriek, whose horrid 

Ran trembling through the hollow vaults of 

Yet, on the other side, he fain would start 

Above his fears, and think it cannot be, &c. 


While new thoughts boil'd in his enraged 


His gloomy bosom's darkest character 
Was in his shady forehead seen exprest. 
The. forehead's shade in grief's expression 


Is what in sign of joy among the blest 
The face's lightning, or a smile, is here. 
These stings of care that his strong heart 

A desperate " Oh me !" drew from his 

deep breast. 
" Oh me !" thus bellowed he ; " oh me ! 

what great 

Portents before mine eyes their powers ad- 
vance ? 

And serves my purer sight only to beat 
Down my proud thought, and leave it in a 

trance ? 

Frown I, and can great Nature keep her seat. 
And the gay stars lead on their golden dance ? 
Can His attempts above still prosperous be, 
Auspicious still, in spite of Hell and Me ? 
" He has my Heaven, (what would he 

more ?) whose bright 
And radiant sceptre this bold hand should 


And, for the never-fading fields of light, 
My fair inheritance, he confines me here 
To this dark house of shades, horrour and 

To draw a long-lived death, where all my 


Is the solemnity my sorrow wears, 
That mankind's torment waits upon my tears. 
" Dark dusky man, he needs would single 


To make the partner of his own pure ray : 
And should we Powers of Heaven, spirits of 


Bow our bright heads before a king of clay ? 
It shall not be ! said I ; and clomb the north. 
Where never wing of Angel yet made way. 
What though I mist my blow? yet I 

struck high, 
And to dare something, is some victory. 

"Is He not satisfied ? means He to wrest 
Hell from me too, and sack my territories ? 
Vile human nature, means he not t' invest 
(O my despite !) with his divinest glories ? 
And rising with rich spoils upon his breast, 
With his fair triumphs fill all future stories ! 
Must the bright arms of Heaven rebuke 

these eyes. 

White's New Invented Horizon. 

Mock me, and dazzle my dark mysteriee ? 
" Art thou not Lucifer ? he to whom the 

Of stars that gild the morn in charge were 

given ? 

The nimblest of the lightning-winged loves, 
The fairest and the first-born smile of 
heaven ? 
* * 

Ah wretch ! what boots thee to cast back 

thy eyes 
Where dawning Hope no beam of comfort 

shews ? 

While the reflection of thy forepast joys 
Renders thee double to thy present woes ! 
Rather make up to thy new miseries, 
And meet the mischief that upon thee grows. 
If Hell must mourn, Heaven sure shall 

sympathise : 

What force cannot effect, fraud shall devise. 
" And yet whose force fear I ? Have I 

so lost 

Myself? my strength too, with ray inno- 
cence ? 
Come, try who dares, Heaven, Earth, what- 

e'er dost boast 

A borrowed being, make thy bold defence ! 
Come thy CREATOR too ! what though it 


Me yet another fall ? we'd try our strengths. 
Heaven saw us struggle once ; as brave a 

Earth now should see, and tremble at the 

sight !" 
Thus spoke th' impatient prince, and 

made a pause. 
His foul hags rais'd their heads, and clapp'd 

their hands, 

And all the Powers of Hell, in full applause, 
Hourish'd their snakes, and toss'd their 

flaming brands. 

" I thank you all, but one must single 


Thrice howl'd the caves of night, and 

thrice the sound, 
Thund'ring upon the banks of those black 

Hung through the hollow vaults of Hell 

profound : 

At last her list'ning ears the noise o'ertakes, 
She lifts her sooty lamps, and looking round, 
A general hiss from the whole tire of snakes 
Rebounding, through Hell's inmost caverns 

In answer to her formidable name ! 

* * 

Scarce to this monster could the shady King 
The horrid sum of his intentions tell ; 
But she (swift as the momentary wing 
Of lightning, or the words he spoke) left 

She rose, and with her to our world did 


Pale proof of her fell presence 

* * 

Heaven saw her rise, and saw Hell in the 



IT is well known, that, at sea, when 
the natural horizon is obscured by 
thick or foggy weather, the sun's meri- 
dian altitude, for ascertaining the lati- 
tude of the ship's place, cannot be ob- 
served ; consequently, the navigator 
has nothing to depend on, until noon 
next day, to regulate his future pro- 
ceedings, except his dead reckoning. 
In the English Channel, the North 
Sea, the Banks of Newfoundland, the 
Coast of America, and many other 
places of the world, the fogs are often 
so thick, and of such long continuance, 
as to render it impossible to ascertain 
the true position of the ship, for want 
of the latitude. Under such circum- 
stances, although the sun is seen very 
distinctly, and felt very powerfully, 
there is no other alternative but to 
keep the ship at sea : for no man in 
his senses will run for a port, in such 
weather, without being pretty certain 
of his latitude. 

To obviate these hitherto insur- 
mountable obstacles, Mr Gavin White, 
grocer in Kinross, has, by a wonderful 
effort of uncultivated genius, invented 
a very simple apparatus, with which, 
when fixed, by an easy process, to the 
common quadrant, an artificial horizon 
can thereby be obtained, and the sun's 
meridian altitude observed, the same 
as if ascertained with a quadrant and 
natural horizon, in the common way 
made use of on board a ship at sea. 

This apparatus is, at present, made 
so as to screw on to my brass sextant, 
with which I have made many obser- 
vations, not only for determining the 
latitude, but also for ascertaining the 
true apparent time ; which, from the 
accuracy of the whole, enables me to 
pronounce the invention one of very 
great importance to science and navi- 

A large series of observations have 
been made with it, both on shore and 
on board the Ramillies, now in Leith 
Roads, which have been forwarded 
to some gentlemen, eminently distin- 
guished for scientific knowledge and 
acquirements, in this city ; who, with 
a very laudable zeal for the promotion 
of science, have interested themselves 
in such a manner, as, it is hoped, Avill 
ultimately prove highly beneficial both 
to the invention and inventor. 

W. BAIX, Master, Royal Navy. 

Anecdotes of the Pastoral Life. 



THE wedding-day at length arrived ; 
and as the bridegroom had charged 
us to be there at an early hour, we set 
out on horseback, immediately after 
breakfast, for the remote hamlet of 
Stridekirtin. We found no regular 
path, but our way lay through a coun- 
try which it is impossible to view with- 
out soothing emotions. The streams 
are numerous, clear as crystal, and 
wind along the glens in many fantas- 
tic and irregular curves. The moun- 
tains are green to the tops, very high, 
and form many beautiful soft and 
shaded outlines. They are, besides, 
literally speckled with snowy flocks, 
which, as we passed, were feeding or 
resting with such appearance of un- 
disturbed repose, that the heart nat- 
urally found itself an involuntary 
sharer in the pastoral tranquillity that 
pervaded all around. 

My good friend, Mr Grumple, could 
give me no information regarding the 
names of the romantic glens and 
mountains that came within our view ; 
he, however, knew who were the pro- 
prietors of the land, who the tenants, 
what rent and stipend each of them 
paid, and whose teinds were unex- 
hausted ; this seemed to be the sum 
and substance of his knowledge con- 
cerning the life, character, and man- 
ners, of his rural parishioners, save that 
he could sometimes adduce circum- 
stantial evidence that such and such 
fanners had made money of their land, 
and that others had made very little 
or none. 

This district, over which he presides 
in an ecclesiastical capacity, forms an 
extensive portion of the Arcadia of 
Britain. It was likewise, in some late 
ages, noted for its zeal in the duties of 
religion, as well as for a thirst after 
the acquirement of knowledge con- 
cerning its doctrines ; but under the 
tuition of such a pastor as my relative 
appears to be, it is no wonder that 
practical religion should be losing 
ground from year to year, and scepti- 
cism, the natural consequence of laxity 
in religious duties, gaining ground in 

It may be deemed, perhaps, rather 
indecorous, to indulge in such reflec- 
tions respecting any individual who 
has the honour to be ranked as a mem- 


ber of a body so generally respectable 
as our Scottish Clergy, and who, at 
the same time, maintains a fair worldly 
character ; but in a general discussion 
in any thing that relates to the com- 
mon weal of mankind, all such inferior 
considerations must be laid aside. And 
the more I consider the simplicity of 
the people of whom I am now writing 
the scenes among which they have 
been bred and their lonely and se- 
questered habits of life, where the 
workings and phenomena of nature 
alone appear to attract the eye or en- 
gage the attention, the more I am 
convinced that the temperament of 
their minds would naturally dispose 
them to devotional feelings. If they 
were but taught to read their Bibles, 
and only saw uniformly in the min- 
isters of religion that sanctity of char- 
acter by which the profession ought 
ever to be distinguished, these people 
would naturally be such as every well- 
wisher to the human race would de- 
sire a scattered peasantry to be. But 
when the most decided variance be- 
tween example and precept is forced 
on their observation, what should we, 
or what can we, expect? Men must 
see, hear, feel, and judge accordingly. 
And certainly in no other instance is a 
patron so responsible to his sovereign, 
his country, and his God, as in the 
choice he makes of spiritual pastors. 

These were some of the reflections 
that occupied my mind as I traversed 
this beautiful pastoral country with 
its morose teacher, and from these I 
was at length happily aroused by the 
appearance of the cottage, or shep- 
herd's steading, to which we were 
bound. It was situated in a little 
valley in the bottom of a wild glen, or 
hope, as it is there called. It stood 
all alone ; but besides the dwelling- 
house, there was a little byre that held 
the two cows and their young, a 
good stack of hay, another of peats, 
a sheep-house, and two homely gar- 
dens; and the place had altogether 
something of a snug, comfortable ap- 
pearance. Though this is only an in- 
dividual picture, I am told it may be 
viewed as a general one of almost ev- 
ery shepherd's dwelling in the south 
of Scotland ; and it is only such pic- 
tures that, in the course of these tales, 
I mean to present to the public. 

A number of the young shepherds 
and country-lasses had already arriv- 
ed, impatient for the approaching wed- 

Anecdotes of the Pastoral Life. 


ding ; others were coming down the 
green hills in mixed parties all around, 
leading one another, and skipping with 
the agility of lambs. They were all 
\valking barefooted and barelegged, 
male and female the men were dress- 
ed much in the ordinary way, only that 
the texture of their clothes was some- 
what coarse, and the women had black 
beavers, white gowns, and " green 
coats kilted to the knee." When they 
came near the house they went into 
little sequestered hollows, the men 
and women apart, " pat on their hose 
an' shoon, and made themsels a' trig 
an' witching," and then came and 
joined the group with a joy that could 
not be restrained bjr walking, they 
run to mix with their youthful asso- 

Still as they arrived, we saw, on our 
approach, that they drew up in two 
rows on the green, and soon found 
that it was a contest at leaping. The 
chepherds were stripped to the shirt 
and drawers, and exerting themselves 
in turn with all their might, while 
their sweethearts and sisters were look- 
ing on with no small share of interest. 
We received a kind and hospitable 
welcome from honest Peter and his 
fatherj who was a sagacious-looking 
old carle, with a broad bonnet and 
gray locks ; but the contest on the 
green still continuing, I went and 
joined >the circle, delighted to see a 
pastime so appropriate to the shep- 
herd's life. I was utterly astonished 
at the agility which the fellows dis- 

They took a short race of about 
twelve or fourteen paces, which they 
denominated the ramrace, and then 
rose from the footing-place with such 
a bound as if they had been going to 
mount and fly into the air. The crook- 
ed guise in which they flew shewed 
great art the knees were doubled up- 
ward the body bent forward and 
the head thrown somewhat back ; so 
that they alighted on their heels with 
the greatest ease and safety, their joints 
being loosened in such a manner that 
not one of them was straight. If they 
fell backward on the ground, the leap 
was not accounted fair. Several of the 
antagonists took the ramrace with a 
staff in their hand, which they left at 
the footing-place as they rose. This 
I thought unfair, but none of their op- 
ponents objected to the custom. I 
measured the distance, and found that 


two of them had actually leapt twen- 
ty-two feet, on a level plain, at one 
bound. This may appear extraordi- 
nary to those who never witnessed 
such an exercise, but it is a fact of 
which I can adduce sufficient proof. 

Being delighted as well as astonish- 
ed at seeing these feats of agility, I 
took Peter aside, and asked him if I 
might offer prizes for some other ex- 
ercises. " Hout na," said Peter ; 
" ye'll affront them ; let them just 
alane ; they hae eneuch o' incitement 
e'now, an' rather owre muckle atween 
you an' me ; forebye the brag o' the 
thing as lang as the lasses stand and 
look at them, they'll ply atween death 
an' life." What Peter said was true, 
instead of getting weary of their 
sports, their ardour seemed to increase ; 
and always as soon as the superiority 
of any individual in one particular ex- 
ercise was manifest, another was in- 
stantly resorted to ; so that ere long 
there was one party engaged in wrest- 
ling, one in throwing the stone, and 
another at hop-step-and-leap, all at 
one and the same time. 

This last seems to be rather the fa- 
vourite amusement. It consists of 
three succeeding bounds, alj with the 
same race ; and as the exertion is 
greater, and of longer continuance, 
they can judge with more precision 
the exact capability of the several com- 
petitors. I measured the ground, and 
found the greatest distance effected in 
this way to be forty-six feet. I am 
informed, that whenever two or three 
young shepherds are gathered together, 
at fold or bught, moor or market, at 
all times and seasons, Sundays except- 
ed, one or more of these athletic exer- 
cises is uniformly resorted to ; and 
certainly, in a class where hardiness 
and agility are so requisite, they can 
never be too much encouraged. 

But now all these favourite sports 
were terminated at once by a loud cry 
of " Hurra ! the broose ! the broose !" 
Not knowing what the broose meant, 
I looked all around with great preci- 
pitation, but for some time could see 
nothing but hills. At length, how- 
ever, by marking the direction in 
which the rest looked, I perceived, at 
a considerable distance down the glen, 
five horsemen coming at full speed on 
a determined race, although on such a 
road, as I believe, a race was never be- 
fore contested. It was that by which 
we had lately come, and the only one 

Anecdotes of the Pastoral Life. 

that led to the house from all the four 
quarters of the world. For some time 
it crossed " the crooks of the burn/' 
as they called them ; that is, it kept 
straight up the bottom of the glen, 
and crossed the burn at every turning. 
Of course every time that the group 
crossed this stream, they were for a 
moment involved in a cloud of spray 
that almost hid them from view, and 
the frequent recurrence of this render- 
ed the effect highly comic. 

Still, however, they kept apparently 
close together, till at length the path 
left the bottom of the narrow valley, 
and came round the sloping base of a 
hill that was all interspersed with 
drains and small irregularities of sur- 
face ; this producing no abatement of 
exertion or speed, horses and men 
were soon foundering, plunging, and 
tumbling about in all directions. If 
this was amusing to view, it was still 
more so to hear the observations of the 
delighted group that stood round me 
and beheld it. " Ha, ha, ha ! yon- 
der 's ane aff ! Gude faith ! yon's Jock 
o' the Meer-Cleuch ; he has gotten 
an ill-faur'd flaip. Holloa ! yonder 
gaes another, down through a lair to 
the een-holes ! Weel done, Aedie o' 
Aberlosk ! Hie till him, Tousy, outher 
now or never ! Lay on, ye deevil, an' 
hing by the mane f Hurray !" 

The women were by this time 
screaming, and the men literally jump- 
ing and clapping their hands for joy 
at the deray that was going on ; and 
there was one little elderly-looking 
man whom I could not help noting ; 
he had fallen down on the ground in 
a convulsion of laughter, and was spur- 
ring and laying on it with both hands 
and feet. One, whom they denomi- 
nated Davie Scott o' the Ramseycleugh 
Burn, amid the bay of dogs, and the 
shouts of men and women, got first to 
the bridegroom's door, and of course was 
acknowledged to have won the bruose ; 
but the attention was soon wholly 
turned from him to those behind. 
The man whose horse had sunk in the 
bog, perceiving that all chance of ex- 
tricating it again on the instant was 
out of the question, lost not a mo- 
ment, but sprung to his feet threw 
off his clothes, hat, and shoes, all at 
one brush and ran towards the goal 
with all his mu'ht. Jock o' the Meer 
Cleuch, who was still a good way far- 
ther back, and crippled besides with 
his fall, perceiving this, mounted a- 
VOL. I. 


gain whipped on furiously, and 
would soon have overhied his pedes- 
trian adversary ; but the shepherds 
are bad horsemen, and, moreover, 
Jock's horse, which belonged to Gi- 
deon of Kirkhope, was unacquainted 
with the sheep-drains, and terrified at 
them ; consequently, by making a 
sudden jerk backwards when he should 
have leapt across one of them, and 
when Jock supposed that he was just 
going to do so, he threw his rider a 
second time. The shouts of laughter 
were again renewed, and every one 
was calling out, " Now for the mell ! 
Now for the mell ! Deil tak the hind- 
most now !" These sounds reached 
Jock's ears ; he lost no time in mak- 
ing a last effort, but flew at his horse 
again remounted him and, by urg- 
ing him to a desperate effort, actually 
got a-head of his adversary just when 
within ten yards of the door, and thus 
escaped the disgrace of winning the 

I was afterwards told, that in former 
ages it was the custom on the Border, 
when the victor in the race was pre- 
sented with the prize of honour, the 
one who came in last was, at the same 
time, presented with a mallet or large 
wooden hammer, called a mell in the 
dialect of the country, and that then 
the rest of the competitors stood in 
need to be near at hand, and instantly 
to force the mell from him, else he 
was at liberty to knock as many of 
them down with it as he could. The 
mell has now,* for many years, been 
only a nominal prize ; but there is 
often more sport about the gaining of 
it than the principal one. There was 
another occurrence which added great- 
ly to the animation of this, which I 
had not time before fully to relate. 
About the time when the two unfor- 
tunate wights were unhorsed in the 
bog, those who still kept on were met 
and attacked, open mouth, by at least 
twenty frolicsome collies, that seemed 
fully as intent on sport as their mas- 
ters. These bit the hind-legs of the 
horses, snapped at their noses, and 
raised such an outrage of barking, that 
the poor animals, forespent as they 
were, were constrained to lay them- 
selves out almost beyond power. Nor 
did the fray cease when the race was 
won. Encouraged by the noise and 
clamour which then arose about the 
gaining of the mell, the staunch collies 
continued the attack, and hunted th<? 

Anecdotes of the Pastoral Life. 


racers round and round the houses 
with great speed, while the horses 
were all the time wheeling and fling- 
ing most furiously, and their riders, 
in desperation, vociferating and cursing 
their assailants. 

All the guests now crowded toge- 
ther, and much humour and blunt wit 
passed about the gaining of the broose. 
Each of the competitors had his diffi- 
culties and cross accidents to relate ; 
and each affirmed, that if it had not 
been such and such hindrances, he 
would have gained the brooze to a cer- 
tainty. Dane Scott o' the Ramsey- 
cleuch-burn, however, assured them, 
that " he was aye hauding in his yaud 
wi' the left hand, and gin he had liket 
to gie her out her head, she wad hae 
gallopit amaist a third faster." " That 
may be," said Aedie o' Aberlosk, " but 
I hae come better on than I expectit 
wi' my Cameronian naig. I never saw 
him streek himsel sae afore I dare say 
he thought that Davie was auld Cla- 
vers mountit on Hornie. Poor fallow !" 
continued he, patting him, " he has a 
good deal o' anti-prelatic dourness in 
him ; but I see he has some spirit, for 
a' that. I bought him for a powney, 
but he's turned out a beast." 

I next overheard one proposing to 
the man who left his horse, and ex- 
erted himself so manfully on foot, to 
go and pull his horse out of the quag- 
mire. " Na, na," said he, " let him 
stick yonder a while, to learn him 
mair sense than to gang intill an open 
well-ee and gar ane get a mell. I saw 
the gate I was gawn, but I couldna 
swee him aff; sae I just thought o' 
Jenny Ely the, and plunged in. I 
kend weel something was to happen, 
for I met her first this morning, the 
ill-hued carlin : but I had need to 
haud my tongue ! Gudeman, let us 
see a drap whisky." He was presented 
with a glass. " Come, here's Jenny 
Blythe," said Andrew, and drank it 
off. " I wad be nae the waur o' a wee 
drap too," said Aberlosk, taking a glass 
of whisky in his hand, and looking 
stedfastly through it. " I think I see 
Jock the elder here," said he ; " ay, 
it's ' just him come, here's the five 
kirks o Eskdale" He drank it oft'. 
" Gudeman, that's naething but a 
Tarn-Park of a glass : if ye'll fill it 
again, I'll gie a toast ye never heard 
afore. This is Bailey's Dictionary," 
said Aedie, and drank it off again. 
*' But when a' your daffin's owre, 


Aedie," said John, " what hae ye 
made o' our young friend ?" " Ou ! 
she's safe eneuch," returned he; " the 
best- man and John the elder are wi' 

On looking round the corner of the 
house, we now perceived that the bride 
and her two attendants were close at 
hand. They cume at a quick canter, 
She managed her horse well, kept her 
saddle with great ease, and seemed 
an elegant sprightly girl, of twenty- 
four or thereabouts. Every cap was 
instantly waved in the air, and the 
bride was saluted with three hearty 
cheers. Old John, well aware of what 
it behoved him to do, threw off his 
broad bonnet, and took the bride re- 
spectfully from her horse kissed and 
welcomed her home. " Ye're wel- 
come hame till us, Jeany, my bonny 
woman," said he ; " may God bless 
ye, an' mak ye just as good an' as 
happy as I wish ye." It was a beau- 
tiful and affecting sight to see him 
leading her toward the home that was 
now to be her own. He held her hand 
in both his the wind waved his long 
gray locks his features were length- 
ened considerably the wrong way, and 
I could perceive a tear glistening on 
his furrowed cheek. 

All seemed to know exactly the parts 
they had to act ; but every thing came 
on me like magic, and quite by sur- 
prise. The bride now stopped short 
on the threshold, while the old man 
broke a triangular cake of short-bread 
over her head, the pieces of which he 
threw about among the young people. 
These scrambled tor them with great 
violence snd eagerness; and indeed 
they seemed always to be most in their 
element when any thing that required 
strength or activity was-presented. For 
my part, I could not comprehend what 
the sudden convulsion meant, (for in 
a moment the crowd was moving like 
a whirlpool, and tumbling over one 
another in half dozens) till a little girl, 
escaping from the vortex, informed me 
that " they war battling wha first to 
get a haud o' the bride's bunn." I was 
still in the dark, till at length I saw 
the successful candidates presenting 
their favourites with small pieces of 
this mystical cake. One beautiful maid, 
with light locks, blue eyes, and cheeks 
like the vernal rose, came nimbly up 
to me, called me familiarly by my 
name, looked at me with perfect seri- 
ousness, and without even a smile on 

1817.3 Greek 

her innocent face, asked me if I was 
married. I could scarcely contain my 
gravity, while I took her by the hand, 
and answered in the negative. " An' 
hae ye no gotten a piece o' the bride's 
cake ?" " Indeed, my dear, . I am 
sorry I have not." ' ' O, that's a great 
shame, that ye hae nae gotten a wee 
bit ! I canna bide to see a stranger 
guided that gate. Here, sir, I'll gie ye 
the tae half o' mine, it will ser' us 
baith ; an' I wad rather want mysel 
than as civil a gentleman that's a 
stranger should want." 

So saying, she took a small piece of 
cake from her lap, and parted it with 
me, at the same time rolling each of 
the pieces carefully up in a leaf of an 
old halfpenny ballad ; but the whole 
of her demeanour showed the utmost 
seriousness, and of how much import 
she judged this trivial crumb to be. 
" Now," continued she, " ye maun 
lay this aneath your head, sir, when 
ye gang to your bed, and ye'll dream 
about the woman ye are to get for 
your wife. Ye'll just think ye see 
her plainly an' bodily afore your een ; 
an' ye'll be sae weel acquainted wi' her, 
that ye'll ken her again when ye see 
her, if it war arnang a thousand. It's 
a queer thing, but it's perfectly true ; 
sae ye maun mind no to forget." 

I promised the most punctual ob- 
servance of all that she enjoined, and 
added, that I was sure I would dream 
of the lovely giver ; that indeed I 
would be sorry were I to dream of 
any other, as I deemed it impossible 
to dream of so much innocence and 
beauty. " JVow mind no to forget" 
rejoined she, and skipped lightly away 
to join her youthful associates. 

As soon as the bride was led into 
the house, old Nelly, the bridegroom's 
mother, went aside to see the beast on 
which her daughter-in-law had been 
brought home ; and perceiving that it 
was a mare, she fell a-crying and 
wringing her hands. I inquired, with 
some alarm, what was the matter. 
" O dear, sir," returned she, " it's for 
the poor bairnies that'll yet hae to dree 
this unlucky mischance Laike-a-day, 
poor waefu' brats ! they'll no lie in a 
dry bed for a dozen o' years to come !" 

" Hout ! haud your tongue, Nelly," 
said the best man, the thing's but a 
freat a' thegither. But really we coud- 
na help it : the factor's naig wan tit a 
fore-fit shoe, an' was beckin like a wa- 
ter-craw. If I had ridden five miles 

Tragedy. 147 

to the smiddy wi' him, it is ten to ane 
but Jock Anderson wad hae been 
drunk, an' then we wadna hae gotten 
the bride hamc afore twall o'clock at 
night ; sae I thought it was better to 
let them tak their chance than spoil 
sae muckle good sport, an' I e'en set 
her on Wattie Brydcn's pownie. The 
factor has behaved very ill about it, 
the muckle stoottin gowk ! If I had 
durst, I wad hae gien him a deevil of 
a thrashin ; but he says, ' Faith it's 
that yes, indeed that he will send 
them yes, faith it's even a a new 
tikahed every year.' " 

The ceremony of the marriage next 
ensued ; but as there was nothing pe- 
culiar about it (except that it took 
place in the bridegroom's house, and 
not at the bride's former home, which 
was out of the parson's reach) ; and as 
it was, besides, the dullest part of that 
day's exercise, I shall not say much 
about it, only that every thing was 
done decently and in order. But I 
have run on so long with this Num- 
ber, that I fear I must postpone the 
foot-race, the dinner discourse, and 
final winding up of the wedding, till 
a future opportunity. H. 


No II. 

(jEschyli Cha'phori Sophoclis Elec- 

WHEN we study the history of our 
race, which is little else than a chroni- 
cle of crimes and follies, of blood shed 
in vulgar wars, and intellect wasted 
on unworthy purposes, the eye that 
wanders with disgust over the blotted 
page, turns with delight to the con- 
templation of the virtues and the ge- 
nius by which it is semetimes bright- 
ened ; nor are periods wanting, in 
which, degraded as man has generally 
been, he exhibits such moral and in- 
tellectual grandeur, as to make even 
the most cynical abate of the harshness 
with which he usually judges of hu- 
man nature. Of these favoured times, 
in an eminent degree, was the age in 
which /Eschylus flourished. Never, 
perhaps, did there exist at once, a 
greater number of men distinguished 
by virtue and talent. To prove this 
assertion, nothing more were neces- 
sary than to give a list of the honest 
statesmen who then presided in the 
councils of Athens, of the warriors 

148 Greek Tragedy. 

who devoted their lives to her inde- 
pendence, of the architects, sculp- 
tors, painters, poets, historians, and 
philosophers, whose names are, even 
at this day, shedding a glory over her 
ruins, brighter than that which illu- 
mines the maturity and vigour of any 
other state. This age may be deno- 
minated the spring of the world, and 
its productions, even in their decay, 
retain much of the freshness, and the 
bloom, and the beauty, of that delight- 
ful season. Their statues do not ap- 
pear so much to be imitations of na- 
ture, as nature herself, starting into 
life, and assuming her finest forms. 
The ruins of their temples give us 
models of the grandest design and the 
most beautiful execution. Socrates 
taught a system of the purest morals 
and the most sublime theology, of 
which he exemplified the one in his 
life, and sanctioned the other by his 
death. In history, Thucydides and 
Xenophon have not yet been surpass- 
ed ; and the dramatic writers gave to 
the drama a form which their succes- 
sors may have modified and improved, 
never changed. War was not then 
waged to aggrandize one and to de- 
grade the many it was the generous 
struggle of a whole people, determined 
to perish amid the ruins of their coun- 
try, rather than receive a foreign yoke. 
In the battles of liberty, in which 
^schylus, and Pindar, and Socrates, 
fought, a little band of freemen resist- 
ed and baffled the whole power of a 
mighty empire ; and war, that in com- 
mon cases depresses talent, and ex- 
tinguishes all the arts but such as are 
subservient to the purposes of destruc- 
tion, kindled a flame of enthusiasm 
that cherished and developed the seeds 
of whatever was great and good in man; 
and were we asked to name a period 
in which he is seen in the noblest 
view, our minds would turn to the 
years that elapsed from the Persian 
invasion, to the extinction of the liber- 
ties of Greece by Philip. The dura- 
tion of freedom, and the glory of 
Greece, was short ; but let it be re- 
membered, that national glory was 
the offspring of national independence, 
and that they perished together. The 
lovers of mankind may lament, and 
the abt ttors of despotism may rejoice, 
that thtir existence was of so short a 
date ; but a few such years are worth 
myriads of ages of monkish slumber, 
and one such victory as Salamis or 

C Ma 7 

Bannockburn is of more value than 
the innumerable triumphs of the vul- 
gar herd of conquerors. 

Hence the curiosity which every 
thing connected with that extraordi- 
nary people has excited, and the en- 
thusiasm with which the ruins of their 
city have been explored, and the works 
of their poets and sages studied ; yet 
it has happened, unfortunately for li- 
terature and the arts, that little mor& 
than the wrecks of their genius have 
survived. A pillar, or a capital, or a 
frieze, is all that remains of the tem- 
ple that was the glory of the age that 
reared it ; and of the ninety tragedies 
which the fertility of the genius of 
^schylus produced, only seven have 
descended to us, and these in a mu- 
tilated and imperfect state; yet though 
in many passages it is obvious that 
the poetry has suffered from the care- 
lessness of transcribers, and not less, 
perhaps, from the ambitious learning 
of the commentators, we can judge of 
these seven as wholes ; and the more 
narrowly we examine them, the more 
cause shall we find to justify the ad- 
miration of his contemporaries, and of 
succeeding ages. 

It is not the object of the writer of 
this essay to indulge in verbal criti- 
cism on the Greek text, or to attempt 
to restore imperfect readings by con- 
jectural emendations, much less to aim 
at bringing forward original views of 
the Greek Tragedy. His, design is 
simply to offer such obvious remarks 
as are most suitable to a miscellany of 
this kind, and to give such abstracts, 
and extract such passages, as may en- 
able the reader to judge for himself of 
these celebrated productions. He is 
now to analyze two plays written on 
the same subject, the Chcephori of JEs- 
chylus, and the Electra of Sophocles. 

While Agamemnon was at Troy, 
his queen, Clytemnestra, had an illicit 
intercourse with ^Egysthus. Fearing 
the punishment due to their disloyal- 
ty, they surprised him on his return 
to Argos, murdered him, and usurped 
his throne. Electra, who at the time 
of her father's death was arrived at 
womanhood, secretly sent to Phocis, 
under the care of an aged and faithful 
tutor, her infant brother Orestes, well 
aware that her mother and ./Egysthus 
would soon remove this only obstacle 
to the secure possession of that throne 
which they had obtained by adultery 
and murder. The punishment of the? 


Greek Tragedy. 

guilty pair, which is the subject of 
these plays, is supposed not to have 
taken place till twenty years after the 
transaction of which I have been speak- 
ing. Electra, who was a woman of a 
lofty and unconquerable spirit, during 
that long interval, suffered every spe- 
cies of indignity from an unnatural 
mother, and the murderer of her fa- 
ther, who now sat upon his throne. 
The only effect of ill treatment, on 
such a mind, was to fix there a settled 
purpose of revenge. She was one of 
that class of beings, whom an attempt 
to humble exasperates, not subdues ; 
and from the depth of her degradation, 
she looked forward to the return of 
her brother as the event that was to 
avenge her wrongs, and restore the 
honours of the family of Agamemnon. 
He at length appears, and a recognition 
takes place between him and his sister, 
at the tomb of their father, where 
they swear mutual vengeance over his 
ashes. With the advice of Pylades, 
they arrange their plans, by which it 
is agreed that Orestes should assume 
the character of a messenger from 
Phocis, with the news of his own 
death. He thus gains admittance to 
Clytemnestra and Egysthus, to whom 
this was the most welcome intelli- 
gence ; and stabs them with a poignard 
which he had concealed under his 

These are the main incidents in 
these dramas. In each there are slight 
variations, and a marked difference 
in the dramatic management ; but in 
the following examination, it will be 
seen which of the rival poets has 
made the most skilful use of his ma- 
terials. From this skeleton of the 
plan it will appear that these plays 
approach nearer our ideas of regular 
tragedy than the Prometheus. 

The first scene of the Choophori dis- 
covers Orestes at the tomb of his fa- 
ther, on %vhich he lays a lock of his 
hair, a customary rite among the an- 
cients ; but seeing a company of fe- 
males approach, whom from their ap- 
pearance he supposes to be Electra and 
her maidens, he retires to a covert to 
see what was the object of their visit. 
He soon discovers that he was right 
in his conjectures. It was Electra, 
and a band of Argive virgins who 
form the Chorus. On that very night 
Clytemnestra, who had been disturbed 
by portentous dreams, had sent her 
to offer expiatory libations at the tomb 

of her murdered husband. After of- 
fering the sacrifice, as directed by her 
mother, Electra discovers the lock of 
hair left by Orestes, and from various 
reasons concludes that it could have 
been brought there' by none else than 
him. Its resemblance to her own in 
colour, ami the certainty that no one 
but a real mourner would have per- 
formed this pious office to the spirit of 
a prince who had been long forgotten 
by all except herself and her brother, 
carried conviction to her mind that he 
was at no great distance, and that the 
time for which she had so long and so 
ardently prayed was at length arrived. 
So completely had this idea taken pos- 
session of her mind, that even his toot- 
prints, which coincided with her own 
in measurement, to her ardour ap- 
peared proof unquestionable. She ad- 
dresses the Chorus as follows : 

" E. Long has my agitated soul been 


By fortune's keenest arrows ; grief and rage 
Alternately have swayed my withered heart, 
But at the sight of this small lock of hair 
Large tears of joy flow from my thirsty eyes. 
"Tis his ! what hand but ttis could place it 

there ? 
Hope trembles in my bosom. Ye bright 

tresses ! 
Oh ! had ye voices to allay my fears ! 

Orestes. ( Starting from concealment.) 
Thy prayers are granted. 

E. Say, what prayers are granted ? 

O. Behold the man for whom thou oft 

hast prayed. 
E. Stranger, how knowest thou what my 

prayers have been ? 
O. I know that they are offered for Or- 

E. Tell me, I pray thee, how they are 

accomplished ? 

O. Sister, I am Orestes, seek no further. 
E. Oh ! how may I believe thee, mayst 

thou not 

By treachery be seeking my undoing ? 
O. That only were to plot my own des- 

struction ; 

This moment thou wert easier of belief, 
A single hair, a foot-print, served as proof, 
And now that thou beholdst me, thou re- 

ject'st me ; 
Look on this robe which thou thyself didst 

Thou doubtest me, thou wilt not that em- 


E. My beloved Orestes ! Joy of my tears, 
Light, hope, and safety, of my father's 

house ; 

Courage, my brother, and thou shalt obtain 
Thy reft inheritance, thou guiding star 
Of all my fortunes ; father, mother, sister, 
All nature's dearest names, are met in thee: 
Oh ! Jupiter, regard our righteous cause. 


Greek Tragedy. 


O. Father of gods and men, oh ! hear 

my prayer ; 

Behold the generous offspring of the eagle, 
Who basely perish'd in the hideous folds 
Of a fell serpent : now the orphan brood 
Are famished and defenceless in their eyrie;; 
Oh ! plume their wings, and give them to 


Their royal father, and again establish 
The undermined foundations of the palace." 
After a dialogue of considerable 
length, and, in many places, of great 
beauty, they invoke the ghost of Aga- 
memnon to aid them in the work of 

" O. Open, O earth, and send my father 

To see the conflict. 

E. Proserpine, inspire 
Our souls with energy our arms with 

O. Oh, father, bear in mind the bloody 


Where thou wert slain. 
E. The veil with which they bound thee. 
O. The toils in which, like a wild beast, 

they caught thee. 

Why does thy spirit start not from the grave 
When that thou hearest of these unnatural 

deeds ? 
E. Why liftst thou not thy venerable 


Pity thy children sitting on thy tomb ! 
Oh ! blot not from the earth an ancient race ; 
Thou livest in us, and be it to avenge thee." 
He at last gains admittance to the 
palace, and murders ,<Egysthus and 
Clytemnestra. At first he glories in 
the deed, tnit the power of conscience 
soon prevails ; and in a fit of phrenzy 
he fancies he sees the furies of his 

" O, ( To the Chorus.) See there they are ! 

dost thou not see them there ? 
The dragons rear and hiss among their hair ! 
I can abide no longer. 

Cho. My dear Orestes ! 
Thy fancy's vain creations do distract thee. 
O. These are no imaginations. See, they 


The dogs of hell my mother's angry furies ! 
Cho. Thy hands are red with blood ; in 

such a state 

'Tis natural thy mind should be disturbed. 
O. Save me, Apollo ! see, they rush on 

me ! 
The blood is dropping from their glaring 


Ye see them not but I do see them well 
They fix their eyes on me I cannot stay." 
I shall now give a short analysis of 
the Electra, which is justly considered 
one of the finest plays of the Greek 
stage. Sophocles was not a man of so 
sublime a mind as jrEschylus ; but 
what he wants in loftiness and fire of 

spirit, he compensates by a delicacy of 
taste, and a tenderness of feeling, 
which, if they do not render him the 
greatest of the ancient poets, make 
him at least one of the most interest- 
ing of them. Nature had endowed 
him with an imagination which was 
ever under the guidance of a sound 
understanding ; not overleaping her 
own boundaries ; nor irregular and er- 
ratic in its course, and astonishing by 
its blaze, like the comet ; but, like the 
evening-star, steady in its progress 
through the fields of light, ever bril- 
liant, and ever beautiful. He is al- 
ways in the elementary of our nature 
therefore he always takes possession 
of the heart ; and though he does not 
reign there with absolute dominion, 
like Shakespeare or Homer, he is a 
guest whom we receive with pleasure, 
and dismiss with regret ; and if he 
does not fill us with the idea that he 
is the greatest poetical genius of the 
dramatic writers of his country, he has 
certainly produced better plays than 
any of them. Less impetuous and 
less daring than yEschylus, and less 
pathetic than Euripides, he knew how 
to turn his talents to account better 
than either. His mind could grasp 
his subject, and mould it according to 
his will, which generally led him into 
the path of nature ; and he seldom so 
far loses sight of the whole, as to say 
more in any one part than is necessary 
to the developement of his plot or his 
characters, nor less than is required for 
perspicuity. Like the statuaries, he 
seems to have fixed in his mind a 
standard of ideal excellence; and if 
he does not, like some of them, al- 
ways reach it, he comes nearer it than 
any of his competitors for dramatic 
glory ; and it is not easy for us to con- 
ceive, that the tragic art should in a 
few years have made such advances to 
perfection, as appears in some of the 
pieces of this elegant writer. The 
drama was then like a rich field new- 
ly broken up by the plough, and its 
fertility was amazing. Sophocles pro- 
duced no fewer than a hundred and 
forty plays. Only seven of these have 
survived the wrecks of time, or the 
dilapidations of barbarian or monkish 
ignorance ; but these are so skilful in 
design, and so beautiful in execution, 
are such masterpieces of art, and 
yet such faithful exhibitions of na- 
ture, as to make us greatly lament 
the loss of the whole. 

181 7/3 

Greek Tragedy. 

In the analysis of the Electra, it 
will be only necessary to mention 
the incidents in which it differs from 
the Chrephori, as the main story is 
the same in both. The great dif- 
ference of the dramatic management 
lies in the recognition ; and the lock 
of hair, of which so important a use 
is made in the one, is barely men- 
tioned in the other. Another char- 
acter is besides introduced, Chryso- 
themis, the sister of Electra, a woman 
of a gentle and timid mind, subdued 
by the tyranny of her mother and 
jiEgysthus, and well contrasted with 
Electra. Clytemnestra, who in the 
play of uEschylus seldom appears till 
the scene of her own assassination, is 
here much on the stage, and, by the 
bitterness of unmerited reproach, ex- 
asperates the haughty spirit of Elec- 
tra. During a dialogue between the 
mother and daughter, composed of 
mutual recrimination, the tutor enters, 
and informs them abruptly that he 
was sent from Phocis with the intelli- 
gence of the death of Orestes, who had 
been killed by a fall from a chariot in 
the Pythian games. These tidings 
produced in the mind of Clytemnestra 
an unnatural joy, that she was at no 
pains to conceal, and plunged Electra 
into despair. She had hitherto endured 
life, merely from the hope of the re- 
turn of Orestes and this was a blow 
so terrible and so unexpected, that she 
sank beneath it. After Clytemnestra 
had quitted the stage, and a conversa- 
tion of some length had passed between 
the sisters, in which Electra, in the 
simple and affecting language which 
real sorrow always suggests, mourns 
the fate of Orestes, he himself appears, 
disguised as a traveller, and an attend- 
ant bears a small casket. I transcribe 
this scene, which is perhaps the finest 
of the Greek stage. 

" O. Is that the palace of ./Egysthus ? 
Cho. It is : thou hast been well directed 

O. Lady, wilt thou inform him that a 

From Phocis craves the honour of an au- 

dience ? 
E. Alas ! he brings sad proofs of our 

O. I understand tliee not ; but Strophius 

sent me hither 
To bear JEgysthus tidings of Orestes. 

E. What tidings, stranger ? Fear is in 

my soul. 

O. The little casket that thou seest con tains 
The ashes of the dead. 

E. It is too plain. 
O. These are the ashes of the young 

E. Give me that treasure, I conjure thee, 


By all the gods, deny me not that boon. 
(It is given to her, and she proceeds. ) 
Ye dear remains of my beloved Orestes, 
Vain were the hopes that shone like thee in 

When I did send thee hence ! Then didst 

thou bloom, 

Like a sweet flower, in infant loveliness ; 
Now art thou withered, not to bloom again. 
Oh ! would that I had died when I did 

send thee 

Into a foreign land did rescue thee 
From murder ; on that day thou might'st 

have lain 

In the same grave with thy beloved father ; 
But thou hast perished in a foreign country, 
A friendless exile, and I was not near thee. 
Wretch that I am ! I did not with these 

Perfume thy precious corpse, nor did I ga- 


Thy ashes from the pile, as it became me ; 
But thou wert dressed by mercenary hands. 
My star of hope is set. Alas ! how fruitless 
Were the sweet cares with which I tended 


While yet an infant ! For I was to thee 
A nurse, a mother I was all to thee. 
How joy did dance through my delighted 

When, hanging round my neck, thou didst 


With music in my ear, the name of Sister. 
Thy death has like the whirlwind swept away 
All that remained to me of love and life. 
Long I have had no father who could aid me ; 
My enemies insult me, and my mother 
Revels in joy ; and thou, who oft didst send 
Assurance to me that thou wouldst arise 
The glorious avenger of my wrongs, 
Shalt never wake to look on me again ; 
And for thy beautiful and manly form, 
And fair affection's smile upon thy face, 
And thy sweet voice, all I receive is ashes. 
But, oh ! that I were with thee in that cas- 

ket ! 

For it were good to mingle ashes with thee, 
And lie in loved repose in the same tomb. 

O. How shall I address her ? This is more 
Than I can bear : my feelings will have 

E. What grievest thou for ? I understand 

thee not. 
O. Oh, lady ! art thou not the famed 

Electra ? 

E. I am Klectra, but most miserable. 
Thou hast no sorrows, stranger; why weep'st 

thou ? 

O. Because I pity thy calamities. 
E. Thou knowest but few of them. 
O. What worse than these ? 
E. I am condemned to dwell with mur- 

O. Whose murderers ? 


Greek Tragedy. 


E. My father's murderers. 
O. Ill-fated lady ! how I pity thee ! 
E. Thou art the only man that pities me. 
O. For I alone feel a true sympathy 
In thy misfortunes. 

E. Art thou of my kindred ? 
O. (Pointing to the Choriu.) If these 
were friendly, I should tell thee all. 
E. Fear not them, for they are ever 

O. Lay down the casket. Thou shall 

hear the truth. 
E. Stranger, ask not that, I supplicate 


By all thy hopes, oh ! rob me not of that. 
O. Restore the casket ! 

E. Brother of my soul ! 
How miserable were I , if bereft 
Of this possession ! 

O. Lady, cease to mourn. 
E. Shall I not mourn a brother's death ? 

O. Mourn not. 
E. What ! am I thus dishonoured of the 

O. Thou art of none dishonoured. 

E. Are not these 

My brother's ashes ? And shall I not mourn ? 
O. They are not. 
E. Where are they then ? Oh ! give me 

them ! 
O. The living need no tomb. 

E. What meanest thou 
O. I only speak the truth. 

E. Oh ! lives Orestes ? 
O. Lady, he lives indeed, if I do live. 
E. Art thou Orestes ? 

O. Take that ring : observe it. 
E. Oh ! happy hour ! 

0. Yes, happy hour indeed ! 
E. Light of my life ! and art thou come 

at last ? 
O. Expect no other brother. 

E. Do I clasp 

My brother to that heart which has not felt, 
For many a lonely year, the pulse of joy ? 
O. Thus ever be thy joys." 
From these gentle feelings, Electra 
rises to the true sublimity of her cha- 
racter, and, like a demon, instigates 
her brother to the murder of their 
mother. When their plans are fully 
arranged, Orestes enters the palace, 
and, from behind the scenes, Clytem- 
nestra is heard crying in a loud voice. 
" Cly. The royal halls are full of mur- 
derers ! 

Where are my friends ? 
E. ( To the Clwrus.) Hush ! hear ye not 

a voice ? 
Cho. Yes, sounds of woe, that shake my 

soul with horror. 
Cly. I am murdered ! Oh ! where art 

thou, JSgysthus ? 
E. Hush ! again she shrieks. 

Cly. My son ! my son ! 
Have mercy on thy mother ! 

E. Thou hadst no mercy 
<)n him, and on my father thy own husband. 

Cly. I am murdered ! 

E. Again ! Repeat the blow, 
And strike with the unerring force of ven- 
Cly. Murder ! I die ! 

E. Oh ! had ^Egysthus falle 
By the same stroke !" 


YOUR readers must have remarked in 
the newspapers, for some years by- 
gone, accounts of an yearly festival in 
memory of Shakespeare, held at a place 
called ALLOA, situated, I believe, 
somewhere on the banks of the Forth ; 
a town which I think I have once or 
twice heard mentioned, though on 
what account I do not at present re- 
collect, if it was not in consequence of 
this very club, or a famous STEAM 
BOAT, on a new plan, that was there 

Curious to learn how the anniver- 
sary of Shakespeare first came to be 
celebrated in such a remote corner of 
our country, I have made every in- 
quiry I could anent it, in order to lay 
the account before your readers ; but 
to very little purpose. I have been 
told that this poetic union had its ori- 
gin about sixteen years ago, and was 
first set on foot in opposition to a Mu- 
sical Club (it must be an extraordi- 
nary place this Alloa) which was 
established there at the same time. 
The latter, however, like its own en- 
chanting strains, died away, and has 
left no trace behind ; but the poetical 
brotherhood continued stedfast, flour- 
ished, ;gained ground, and promises to 
be permanent. The members have a 
hall, a library, and a store of wines, 
spirits, &c. To this store or cellar every 
one of them has a key, and is at liberty 
to treat his friends from it to any ex- 
tent he pleases without check or con- 
trol. There is something extremely 
liberal and unreserved in this, and 
were we members of this club, we 
would certainly prefer this privilege 
to any literary one that can possibly 
be attached to it. 

The festival this year, I am told, last- 
ed eight days complete; and my inform- 
er assures me, that (taring on the 23d, 
the anniversary of their patron's birth) 
during all that time every man of 
them went sober to his bed. I be- 
lieve the gentlemen thought so, which 
was much the same as if it had really 
been the case. Their principal a- 


Shakespeare Club ofAlloa. 

musements are songs, recitations, li- 
terary toasts, and eulogiums ; and the 
meeting, it appears, was greatly enliv- 
ened this year by the attendance of 
a Mr Stevenson, a young professional 
singer, whose powers of voice promise 
the highest excellence yet attained in 
Scottish song. I have likewise been 
so far fortunate as to procure the 
sole copy of a poetical address de- 
livered by the President, on his 
health being drank, which gives a 
better definition of the club than 
any thing I could possibly have ob- 
tained. It would surely be a great 
treat to your readers, could you pro- 
cure some of their eulughtms literally 
as delivered, that we might see what 
kind of ideas the people of that out- 
lundish place entertain about poets and 
poetry in general. The following ap- 
pears to be somewhat in the style of 
the Poet Laureate. 

Brethren, know you the import of this 

meeting ? 

This festival, in which from year to year 
We feel a deeper interest ? List to me. 
I have a word to say one kindly meant 
As a remembrancer of days gone by, 
And bond of future time Here have we 


These many fleeting years; each in his place; 
Have seen the self same friendly faces greet 


With kindred joy, and that gray bust of him, 
Our patron bard, with flowers and laurels 


There is a charm in this a something blent 
With the best genial feelings of the heart ; 
Each one will own it. Turn we to the past : 
Survey th' events and changes that have been 
In lands and nations round us, since we first 
Joined in poetic unity. That view 
Is fraught with tints so grand, so wonderful, 
That Time's old annals, though engraved 
with steel, 

And cast in blood, no parallel unfold 

In these we had our share we took a part 
With arm, but more with heart With sul- 
len eye 

We saw the vessels waning from our port ; 
Our native Forth, that wont to be a scene 
Of speckled beauty with the shifting sail, 
The veering pennon, and the creaking barge, 
Deep-loaded to the wale, with fraughtage 


Heaved on in glassy silence, tide on tide, 
And wave on wave lashed idly on our strand. 
Sore altered were the times ! We bore it all, 
Determined, by our country and our King 

To stand, whate'er the issue When the 


Look'd more than usual dark when em- 
pires fell 

Prostrate as by enchantment and the threat 
Of stern invasion sounded in our ears, 
VOL. I. 


We looked up to the Ochils and our minds 
Dwelt on the impervious Grampian glens 


As on a last retreat for we had sworn 
That Bancho's old unalienable line 
Should there find shelter 'mid a land and 


By man ne'er conquered, should a sore ex- 

Urge the expedient. In this hall the while 
Constant we met weekly and yearly met, 
And in the pages of our Bard revered, 
Our canonized Shakespeare, learned to scan 
And estimate the sanguine springs that 

The world's commotion. There we saw 


The workings of ambition the deceit 
Of courts and conclaves traced the latent 


Of human crimes and human miseries : 
His is the Book of Nature ! Now the days 
Of tumult are o'erpast. Our crested helms 
In heaps lie piled our broad Hungarian 

Which erst with martial sound on stirrup 

Cumbering the thigh, or gleaming in the 


Like bending meteors like a canopy 
Of trembling silver : all are laid aside ! 
Piled in the armoury, rusting in the sheath ! 
There let them lie. O ! may the gloomy 


Of home commotion never force the hands 
Of Brethren to resume them ! Times indeed 
Are changed with us ! The sailor's song ia 


Pale discontent sits on the Labourer's brow ; 
Blest be the Ruler's heart who condescends 
Some slight indulgence at this trying hour, 
Nor like the Prince of Israel, who despised 
The old men's counsel, threats a heavier 


Changes must happen but in silence still 
We wait the issue, with a firm resolve 
To cherish order. In our manual there 
Our bond of union broadly is defined 
The mob's enormities ; for reason, faith, 
Nor prudence govern there. All this, when 


With retrospective glance, gives to this day, 
And to this social bond, no common share 
Of interest and regard. Nay, more, my 

Ourselves are changed in feature and in 

Since first we met. Then light of heart we 


Ardent and full of hope, and wedded all 
To the aspirings of the heaven-born muse. 
But years have altered us! Sedateness now 
Is settled on each brow Friends have de- 
And families sprung around us. Thus our 

Our loves, and feelings, like ourselves, are 

Softened to sadness mellowed to a calm 

1.34 Scottish Gypsies. 

Which youth and passion ruffle may no 

more ! 
How different all our views, our hopes, and 


From those we knew on that auspicious day 
We took the name we bear the greatest 


The world e'er listed Kingdoms may de- 
And Empires totter, change succeed to 

But here no change presents uncoped with 

Stands our immortal Shakespeare he whose 


This day we celebrate. O ! be this day 
For ever sacred to his memory 
And long may we, my Brethren, though 


To the four winds of heaven, meet again, 
Happy and free, on this returning day. 
And when the spare and silvery locks of age 
Wave o'er the wrinkled brow and faded eye, 
Memento of a change that is to be ; 
May we survey this day and all behind 
Without regret, and to the future look 
With calm composure and unshaken hope. 
No 5, Devon Street, May 1817. 



(Continued from page 58.) 

" ON Yeta's banks the vagrant gypsies place 
Their turf-built cots ; a sun-burnt swarthy 

race ! 
From Nubian realms their tawny line they 

And their brown chieftain vaunts the name 

of king: 
With loitering steps from town to town they 

.Their lazy dames rocked on the panniered 


From pilfered roots, or nauseous carrion, fed, 
By hedge-rows green they strew the leafy 


While scarce the cloak of tawdry red conceals 
The fine-turned limbs, which every breeze 

reveals : 
Their bright black eyes thro' silken lashes 


Around their necks their raven tresses twine ; 
But chilling damps, and dews of night, im- 

Its soft sleek gloss, and tan the bosom bare. 
Adroit the lines of palmistry to trace, 
Or read the damsel's wishes in her face, 
Her hoarded silver store they charm away, 
A pleasing debt, for promised wealth to pay. 
But, in the lonely barn, from towns re- 
The pipe and bladder opes its screaking 


To aid the revels of the noisy rout, 
Who wanton dance, or push the cups about: 

Then for their paramours the maddening 

Shrill, fierce, and frantic, echoes round the 


No glimmering light to rage supplies a mark, 
Save the red firebrand, hissing through the 

dark ; 

And oft the beams of mom, the peasants say, 
The blood-stained turf, and new-formed 

graves, display. 

Fell race, unworthy of the Scotian name ! 
Your brutal deeds your barbarous line pro- 
With dreadful Gallas linked in kindred 


The locust brood of Ethiopia's sands, 
Whose frantic shouts the thunder blue defy, 
And launch their arrows at the glowing sky. 
In barbarous pomp, they glut the inhuman 


With dismal viands man abhors to taste ; 
And grimly smile, when red the goblets 

When mantles red the shell but not with 

wine !" LEYDEN. 

THE village of Kirk-Yetholm, in 
Roxburghshire, has long been remark- 
able as a favourite haunt of the Scottish 
Gypsies ; and it still continues, in the 
present day, to be their most import- 
ant settlement, and the head-quarters 
of their principal clans. The original 
causes of this preference may be readily 
traced to its local situation, which af- 
forded peculiar facilities for the indul- 
gence of their roaming and predatory 
habits, and for the evasion of legal re- 
straints and penalties. Though remote 
from the principal public roads, they ob- 
tained, from this station, a ready access 
to the neighbouring districts of both 
kingdoms, by various wild and unfre- 
quented by-paths, little known since 
the days of the border forays, except 
to themselves and a few cattle-drov- 
ers. The hills and waters, also, teemed 
with game and fish, and the upland 
farms and hamlets required a constant 
supply of tinkering, crockery, and horn 
spoons, and abounded with good cheer, 
while magistrates and constables, and 
country-towns, were ' few and far be- 
tween. All these were advantages of 
no trivial nature to the vagrant com- 
munity, and they seem, accordingly, 
to have been neither overlooked nor 
left unimproved by the colonists of 

The village itself lies quite embo- 
somed among the Cheviot hills, and 
besides its claims to celebrity as the 
modern metropolis of the " Lortlis of 
Littil Egipt," it is not undeserving of 
some notice, also, on account of the 

Scottish Gypsies. 

simple and sequestered beauty of its 
scenery. It hangs upon the lower 
declivity of a steep rocky hill, call- 
ed Stairroch, on the southern bank of 
the Bowmont, or as Leyden, in the 
elegant poem above quoted, has named 
it the Yeta. This is a fine trouting 
stream, which issues, a few miles a- 
bove, from the west side of Cheviot ; 
and after winding through a narrow 
pastoral valley, unsheltered with wood, 
but bounded everywhere by smooth 
steep hills of the most beautiful ver- 
dure, flows down between the two vil- 
lages of Kirk and Town Yetholm. 
The Bowmont is here joined by a large 
brook from the bottom of a picturesque 
recess among the neighbouring hills, 
which pours into it the superfluous 
waters of the little lake of Loch- Tower 
or Lochside, A short way below this 
it enters England, and afterwards falls 
into the Till near Flodden Field.. 

Between the two villages is stretched 
a broad and level haugh, which the 
Bowmont occasionally overflows. At 
Fasten's Even this always forms the 
theatre for the toughest foot-ball match 
now played in the south of Scotland. 
Town- Yetholm lies rather low, and 
exhibits nothing remarkable either in 
the character of its inhabitants or its 
internal appearance ; but a small co- 
nical hill, whose rocky summit retains 
the vestiges of some ancient entrench- 
ments, rises between it and Loch- 
Tower, and presents a very pleasing 
view on approaching from the north. 
It is cultivated on all sides quite to 
the top, and the small village-ten- 
ants, by whom it is chiefly occupied, 
have parcelled out its sloping declivi- 
ties into parks, or little enclosures, of 
almost Chinese variety, each of which 
annually exhibits, on a small scale, the 
diversified operations and variegated 
vegetation of Scottish husbandry. 

The aspect of the opposite village, 
to which the gypsey population is en- 
tirely confined, is of a different char- 
acter : a mill and a church-yard ris- 
ing from the brink of the water the 
church itself low and covered with 
thatch -beyond which appear the 
straggled houses of the village, built 
in the old Scottish style, many of them 
with their gable-ends, backs, or cor- 
ners, turned to the street or toun-gate 
and still farther up, the Tinkler- 
Row, with its low, unequal, straw- 
covered roofs, and chimneys bound 
with rushes and hay-ropes men ynd 

women loitering at their doors, or la- 
zily busied among their carts and 
panniers and ragged children scram- 
bling on the midden-steads (which rise 
before every cottage) in intimate and 
equal fellowship with pigs, poultry, 
dogs, and cuddies. 

This description, though brief and 
general, may perhaps appear to some 
readers more minute than the occasion 
requires; but some little indulgence, 
we trust, will be allowed, if not on 
account of our own early partialities, 
at least for the sake of the now- 
classical scenery of gypsey heroism 
the native haunts of Jean Gordon, 
alias Meg Merrilies, 

The general aspect of the surround- 
ing country, however, cannot be said 
to bear any striking analogy to the 
more dark and savage features of the 
gypsey character. Though the moun- 
tains of Cheviot can never fail to a- 
waken in the breast of a Scotsman a 
thousand elevating emotions, there is 
little in their natural scenery that 
deserves the epithets of terrible or 
sublime. It is wild, indeed, but 
without ruggedness and interesting 
rather than picturesque. Its chief 
characteristic is pastoral simplicity 
with something of that homely and 
affecting bareness peculiar to Scottish 
landscape : like the Border scenery 
in general, the green banks of Bow- 
mont seem more calculated to soothe 
the fancy and soften the heart, than to 
exasperate the passions by exciting the 
imagination. To sources very differ- 
ent from the influences of external na-' 
ture must be traced the strange pe- 
culiarities of these wild and wayward 
tribes. In the same Arcadian vallies, 
reside at the present moment a pea- 
santry distinguished for superior in- 
telligence, morality, and delicacy of 
feeling whose moss-trooping ances- 
tors, little more than a hundred years 
ago, were nevertheless sufficiently fa- 
miliar with ' stouthe reif and pykarie,' 
with feudal rancour and bloody revenge 
but the moral causes, which have 
happily changed the Border reivers 
into a religious and industrious peo- 
ple, have scarcely yet begun to dawn 
upon the despised and degraded Gyp- 

Tradition affords no intelligence res- 
pecting the time when the first Gypsey 
colony fixed their residence at Kirk- 
Yetholm. The clan of Faas are gene- 
rally supposed to have established 

156 Scottish Gypsies. 

themselves there at a very remote 
period ; and the pretensions of the 
present chieftain of that name to un- 
mixed nobility of blood, as the lineal 
descendant of the renowned ' Erie 
Johnne/ are probably as well founded, 
at least if not so splendidly illustrat- 
ed, as the proud genealogy of the fa- 
mous Prince de Paz, which certain 
northern heralds, it is said, had lately 
the merit of tracing up to the ancient 
royal blood of Scotland ! 

The tribe of Youngs are next to the 
Faas in honour and antiquity. They 
have preserved the following tradition 
respecting their first settlement in Yet- 
hohn : At a siege of the city of Na- 
mur (date unknown) the laird of 
Kirk-Yetholm, of the ancient family 
of Bennets of Grubet and Marlfield, 
in attempting to moimt a breach at 
the head of his company, was struck 
to the ground, and all his followers 
killed or put to flight, except a gypsey, 
the ancestor of the Youngs, who re- 
solutely defended his master till he re- 
covered his feet, and then springing past 
him upon the rampart, seized a flag, 
which he put into his leader's hand. 
The besieged were struck with panic 
the assailants rushed again to the breach 
Namur was taken and Captain 
Bennet had the glory of the capture. 
On returning to Scotland, the laird, out 
of gratitude to his faithful follower, 
settled him and his family (who had 
formerly been wandering tinkers and 
heckle-makers) in Kirk-Yetholm, and 
conferred upon them and the Faas a 
feu of their cottages for the space of 
nineteen times nineteen years which 
they still hold from the Marquis of 
Tweeddale, the present proprietor of 
the estate. The other families now 
resident in this village (as we shall af- 
terwards see) are of more recent intro- 
duction. They seem to have gradually 
retreated to this as their last strong 
hold, on being successively extirpated 
from their other haunts and fastnesses 
upon the borders. 

We mentioned in our last Number, 
that Mr Hoyland, in the prosecution 
of his meritorious design for ameliorat- 
ing the condition of this unfortunate 
race, had addressed a circular to the 
chief provincial magistrates, with a 
list of queries respecting their present 
state, &c. These, being transmitted 
to the sheriffs of the different Scottish 
counties, produced replies, several of 
which Mr Hoyland has published. Of 


tht-se notices by far the most interest- 
ing are, a short report of Mr Walter 
Scott, sheriff of Selkirkshire, and an 
account of the Yetholm Gypsies by 
Bailie Smith of Kelso which we shall 
extract in full ; for though they relate, 
in some points, to particulars already 
detailed, they are altogether too graphi- 
cal and curious to be subjected to any 
abridgement. Mr Scott writes as fol- 
lows : 

" A set of people possessing the 
same erratic habits, and practising the 
trade of tinkers, are well known in 
the borders ; and have often fallen un- 
der the cognizance of the law. They are 
often called Gypsies, and pass through 
the county annually in small bands, 
with their carts and asses. The men 
are tinkers, poachers, and thieves up- 
on a small scale. They also sell crock- 
ery, deal in old rags, in eggs, in salt, 
in tobacco, and such trifles; and 
manufacture horn into spoons. I be- 
lieve most of those who come through 
Selkirkshire reside, during winter, in 
the villages of Horncliff and Spittal, 
in Northumberland, and in that of 
Kirk-Yetholm, Roxburghshire. 

" Mr Smith, the respectable Bailie*" 
of Kelso, can give the most complete 
information concerning those who re- 
side at Kirk-Yetholm. Formerly, I 
believe, they were much more des- 
perate in their conduct than at pre- 
sent. But some of the most atrocious 
families have been extirpated ; I allude 
particularly to the Winters, a North- 
umberland clan, who, I fancy, are all 
buried by this time. 

" Mr Iliddell, Justice of Peace for 
Roxburghshire, with my assistance 
and concurrence, cleared this county 
of the last of them, about tight or 
nine years ago. They were thorough 
desperadoes, of the worst class of 
vagabonds. Those who now travel 
through this county give offence 
chiefly by poaching and small thefts. 
They are divided into clans, the prin- 
cipal names being Faa, Baillie, Young, 
Ruthven, and Gordon. 

" All of them are perfectly ignor- 
ant of religion, and few of their child- 
ren receive any education. They marry 
and cohabit amongst each other, anil 
are held in a sort of horror by the 
common people. 

* " Bailie is a magisterial designation in 
Scotland, agreeing in rank with th;tt of Al- 
derman in England." 


Scottish Gypsies. 


" I do not conceive them to be the 
proper Oriental Egyptian race, at least 
they are much intermingled with our 
own national outlaws and vagabonds. 
They are said to keep up a communi- 
cation with each other throughout Scot- 
land, and to have some internal go- 
vernment and regulation as to the 
districts which each family travels. 

" I cannot help again referring to 
Mr Smith of Kelso, a gentleman who 
can give the most accurate information 
respecting the habits of those itiner- 
ants, as their winter-quarters of Yet- 
holm are upon an estate of which he 
has long had the management." 

In consequence of this reference, 
Mr Hoyland applied to Bailie Smith, 
and was furnished by that gentleman 
with an interesting report, dated No- 
vember 1815, from which he has given 
the following extracts : 

" A considerable time having elap- 
sed since I had an opportunity or 
occasion to attend to the situation of 
the colony of gypsies in our neigh- 
bourhood, I was obliged to delay my 
answer to your inquiries, until I could 
obtain more information respecting 
their present numbers. 

" The great bar to the benevolent 
intentions of improving their situation 
will be, the impossibility to convince 
them that there either is, or can be, 
a mode of life preferable, or even 
equal, to their own. 

" A strong spirit of independence, 
or what they would distinguish by 
the name of liberty, runs through the 
whole tribe. It is no doubt a very li- 
centious liberty, but entirely to their 
taste. Some kind of honour, peculiar 
to themselves, seems to prevail in 
their community. They reckon it a 
disgrace to steal near their homes, or 
even at a distance, if detected. I 
must always except that petty theft 
of feeding their shelties and asses on 
the farmer's grass and corn, which 
they will do, whether at home or a- 

" When avowedly trusted, even in 
money transactions, they never de- 
ceived me, nor forfeited their promise. 
1 am sorry to say, however, that when 
checked in their licentious appropria- 
tions, &c. they are much addicted both 
to threaten and to execute revenge. 

" Having so far premised with re- 
spect to their general conduct and cha- 
racter, I shall proceed to answer, as 
tar as I am able, the four queries sub- 

joined to the circular which you sent 
me, and then subjoin, in notes, some 
instances of their conduct in particu- 
lar cases, which may perhaps eluci- 
date their general disposition and cha- 

" Query 1st. What number of gyp- 
sies are in the county ? 

" A. I know of none except the 
colony of Yetholm, and one family 
who lately removed from that place to 
Kelso. Yetholm consists of two towns, 
or large villages, called Town- Yetholm 
and Kirk- Yetholm. The first IB on 
the estate of Mr Wauchope of Nid- 
dry; the latter on that of the Mar- 
quis of Tweeddale. The number of 
the gypsey colony at present in Kirk- 
Yetholm amounts to at least 109 men, 
women, and children ; and perhaps 
two or three may have escaped notice. 
They marry early in life, in general 
have many children, and their num- 
ber seems to be increasing." 

" Query 2d. In what do the men 
and women mostly employ themselves ? 

" B. I have known the colony be- 
tween forty and fifty years. At my 
first remembrance of them, they were 
called the Tinklers (Tinkers) of Yet- 
holm, from the males being chiefly 
then employed in mending pots and 
other culinary utensils, especially in 
their peregrinations through the hilly 
and less populous parts of the country. 

" Sometimes they were called Hom- 
ers, from their occupation in making 
and selling horn spoons, called cutties. 
Now their common appellation is 
Muggers, or, what pleases them bet- 
ter, Potters, They purchase, at a 
cheap rate, the cast or faulty articles 
at the different manufactories of earth- 
enware, which they carry for sale all 
over the country ; consisting of groups 
of six, ten, and sometimes twelve or 
fourteen persons, male and female, 
young and old, provided with a horse 
and cart to transport the pottery, be- 
sides shelties and asses to carry the 
youngest of the children, and such 
baggage as they find necessary. 

" In the country, they sleep in 
barns and byres, or other out-houses ; 
and when they cannot find that ac- 
commodation, they take the canvas 
covering from the pottery cart, and 
squat below it like a covey of partridges 
in the snow, 

" A few of the colony also employ 
themselves occasionally in making be- 
soms, foot-basses, &c. from heath. 


Scottish Gypsies. 

broom, and bent, and sell them at 
Kelso, and the neighbouring towns. 
After all, their employment can be 
considered little better than an apology 
for idleness and vagrancy. 

" They are in general great adepts 
in hunting, shooting, and fishing ; in 
which last they use the net and spear, 
as well as the rod ; and often supply 
themselves with a hearty meal by their 
dexterity. They have no notion of 
being limited in their field sports, 
either to time, place, or mode of de- 

" I do not see that the women are 
any otherwise employed, than attend- 
ing the young children, and assisting 
to sell the pottery, when carried through 
the country." 

" Query 3d. Have they any settled 
abode in winter, and where ? 

" C. Their residence, with the ex- 
ception of a single family, who some 
years ago came to Kelso, is at Kirk- 
Yetholm, and chiefly confined to one 
row of houses, or street of that town, 
which goes by the name of Tinkler- 
Row. Most of them have leases of 
their possessions, granted for a term of 
nineteen times nineteen years, for pay- 
ment of a small sum yearly ; some- 
thing of the nature of a quit-rent. 
There is no tradition in the neigh- 
bourhood concerning the time when 
the gypsies first took up their residence 
at that place, nor whence they came. 

" Most of their leases, I believe, 
were granted by the family of the 
Lennets of Grubet ; the last of whom 
was Sir David Bennet, who died about 
sixty years ago. The late Mr Nisbet 
of Dirleton then succeeded to the 
estate, comprehending the baronies of 
Kirk-Yetholm and Grubet. He died 
about the year 1783; and not long 
after, the property was acquired by 
the late Lord Tweeddale's trustees. 

" During the latter part of the life 
of the late Mr Nisbet, he was less 
frequently at his estate in Roxburgh- 
shire than formerly. He was a great 
favourite of the gypsies, and was in 
use to call them his body guards, and 
often gave them money, &c. 

" On the other hand, both the late 
and present Mr Wauchope were of 
opinion, that the example of these 
people had a bad effect upon the mo- 
rals and industry of the neighbour- 
hood ; and seeing no prospect of their 
removal, and as little of their reforma- 
tion, considered it as a duty to the 

public, to prevent the evil increasing, 
and never would consent to any of the 
colony taking up their residence in 

" They mostly remain at home 
during winter; but as soon as the 
weather becomes tolerably mild in 
spring, most of them, men, women, 
and children, set out on their pere- 
grinations over the country, and live in 
a state of vagrancy, until again driven 
into their habitations by the approach 
of winter. 

" Seeming to pride themselves as a 
separate tribe, they very seldom inter- 
marry out of the colony ; and in rare 
instances where that happens, the 
gypsey, whether male or female, by 
influence and example, always induces 
the stranger husband or wife to adopt 
the manners of the colony, so that no 
improvement is ever obtained in that 
way. The progeny of such alliances 
have almost universally the tawny 
complexion and fine black eyes of the 
gypsey parent, whether father or mo- 

" So strongly remarkable is the 
gypsey cast of countenance, that even 
a description of them to a stranger, 
who has had no opportunity of for- 
merly seeing them, will enable him to 
know them wherever he meets with 
them. Some individuals, but very 
rarely, separate from the colony alto- 
gether ; and when they do so early in 
life, and go to a distance, such as to 
London, or even Edinburgh, their ac- 
quaintances in the country get favour- 
able accounts of them. A few betake 
themselves to regular and constant em- 
ployments at home, but soon tire, and 
return to their old way of life. 

" When any of them, especially a 
leader or man of influence, dies, tney 
have full meetings, not only of the 
colony, but of the gypsies from a dis- 
tance ; and those meetings, or lyke 
wakes, are by no means conducted with 
sobriety or decency." 

" Query 4th. Are any of their 
children taught to read, and what pro- 
portion of them ? With any anecdotes 
respecting their customs and conduct. 

" D. Education being obtained at 
a cheap rate, the gypsies in general 
give their male children as good a one 
as is bestowed on those of the labour- 
ing people and farm servants in the 
neighbourhood ; such as reading, writ- 
ing, and the first principles of arith- 
metic. They all apply to the clergy- 


man of the parish for baptism to their 
children ; and a strong superstitious 
notion universally prevails with them, 
that it is unlucky to have an unchris- 
tened child long in the house. Only 
a very few ever attend divine service, 
and those as seldom as they can, just 
to prevent being refused as sponsors 
at their children's baptism, 

" They are in general active and 
lively, particularly when engaged in 
field sports, or in such temporary pur- 
suits as are agreeable to their habits 
and dispositions ; but are destitute of 
the perseverance necessary for a settled 
occupation, or even for finishing what 
a moderate degree of continued labour 
would enable them to accomplish in a 
few weeks." 

Notes ly Mr SMITH, intended to elu- 
cidate his Answers to the Queries A 
and B, on their licentious liberty. 

" I remember that about forty-five 
years ago, being then apprentice to a 
writer, who was in use to receive the 
rents as well as the small duties of 
Kirk-Yetholm, he sent me there with 
a list of names, and a statement of 
what was due ; recommending me to 
apply to the landlord of the public- 
house, in the village, for any informa- 
tion or assistance which I might need. 

" After waiting a long time, and 
receiving payment from most of the 
t'euars, or rentallers, I observed to him 
that none of the persons of the names 
of Faa, Young, Blythe, Bailley, &c. 
who stood at the bottom of the list 
for small sums, had come to meet me, 
according to the notice given by the 
baron officer, and proposed sending to 
inform them that they were detaining 
me, and to request their immediate 

" The landlord, with a grave face, 
inquired whether my master had de- 
sired me to ask money from those 
men. I said, not particularly ; but 
they stood on the list. ' So I see,' 
said the landlord ; ' but had your 
master been here himself, he had not 
dared to ask money from them, either 
us rent or feu duty. He knows that it 
is as good as if it were in his pocket. 
They will pay when their own time 
domes ; but do not like to pay at a set 
time with the rest of the barony, and 
still less to be craved.' 

" I accordingly returned without 
their money, and reported progress. I 

Scottish Gypsies. 159 

found that the landlord was right : 
my master said with a smile, that it 
was unnecessary to send to them, after 
the previous notice from the baron 
officer ; it was enough if I had received 
the money, if offered. Their rent and 
feu duty was brought to the office in 
a few weeks. I need scarcely add, 
those persons all belonged to the tribe. 

" Another instance of their licen- 
tious independent spirit occurs to me. 
The family of Niddry always gave a 
decent annual remuneration to a baron 
bailie, for the purpose of keeping good 
order within their barony of Town- 
Yetholm. The person whom I re- 
member first in possession of that 
office, was an old man called Doctor 
Walker, from his being also the vil- 
lage surgeon ; and from him I had the 
following anecdote : 

" Between Yetholm and the border 
farms in Northumberland, there were 
formerly, as in most border situations, 
some uncultivated lands, called the 
Plea Lands, or Debateablc Lands, the 
pasturage of which was generally eaten 
up by the sorners and vagabonds on 
both sides of the marches. 

" Many years ago, Lord Tankervillc 
and some other of the English border- 
ers made their request to Sir David 
Bennet, and the late Mr Wauchope of 
Niddry, that they would accompany 
them at a riding of the Plea Lands, 
who readily complied with their re- 
quest. They were induced to this, as 
they understood that the gypsies had 
taken offence, on the supposition that 
they might be circumscribed in the 
pasture for their shelties and asses, 
which tlicy had held a long time, 
partly by stealth, and partly by vio- 

" Both threats and entreaties were 
employed to keep them away ; and at 
last Sir David obtained a promise from 
some of the heads of the gang, that 
none of them should show their 'faces 
on the occasion. 

" They however got upon the hills 
at a little distance, whence they could 
see every thing that passed. At first 
they were very quiet. But when they 
saw the English Court Book spread 
out on a cushion before the clerk, and 
apparently taken in a line of direction 
interfering with what they considered 
to be their privileged ground, it was 
with great difficulty that the most mo- 
derate of them could restrain the rest 
from running down and taking ven- 

160 Scottish Gypsicc. 

geance, even in sight of their own lord 
of the manor. 

" They only abstained for a short 
time; and no sooner had Sir David 
and the other gentlemen taken leave 
of each other in the most polite and 
friendly manner, as border chiefs are 
wont to do since border feuds ceased, 
and had departed to a sufficient dis- 
tance, than the clan, armed with 
bludgeons, pitchforks, and such other 
hostile weapons as they could find, 
rushed down in a body; and before 
the chiefs on either side had reached 
their home, there was neither English 
tenant, horse, cow, nor sheep, left 
upon the premises. 

" Notes on Answers C and D. Pecu- 
liar cast of gypsey features, every- 
where distinguishable, fyc. 

" When first I knew any thing 
about the colony, old Will Faa was 
king or leader, and had held the sove- 
reignty for many years. 

" Meeting at Kelso with Mr Walter 
Scott, whose discriminating habits and 
just observation I had occasion to 
know from his youth, and at the same 
time seeing one of my Yetholm friends 
in the horse market, I merely said to 
Mr Scott, " Try to get before that 
man with the long drab coat, look at 
him on your return, and tell me 
whether you ever saw him, and what 
you think of him." He was so good 
as to indulge me ; and rejoining me, 
said, without hesitation, " I never 
saw the man that I know of; but he 
is one of the gypsies of Yetholm, that 
you told me of several years ago." I 
need scarcely say that he was perfectly 

The descendants of Faa now take 
the name of Fall, from the Messrs 
Falls of Dunbar, who, they pride 
themselves in saying, are of the same 
stock and lineage. When old Will 
Faa was upwards of eighty years of 
age, he called on me at Kelso, in his 
way to Edinburgh, telling me that he 
was going to see the laird, the late Mr 
Nisbet of Dirleton, as he understood 
that he was very unwell ; and himself 
being now old, and not so stout as he 
had been, he wished to see him once 
more before he died. 

" The old man set out by the near- 
est road, which was by no means his 
common practice. Next market-day, 
some of the farmers informed me that 
they had been in Edinburgh, and had 

seen Will Faa upon the Bridge, (the 
South Bridge was not then built) ; that 
he was tossing about his old brown 
hat, and huzzaing with great vocifera- 
tion, that he had seen the laird before 
he died. Indeed Will himself had no 
time to lose ; for, having set his face 
homewards by the way of the sea 
coast, to vary his route, as is the gen- 
eral custom of the gang, he only got 
the length of Coldinghara, when he 
was taken ill, and died. 

" His death being notified to his 
friends at Yetholm, they and their ac- 
quaintance at Berwick-Spittal, Horn- 
cliff, &c. met to pay the last honours 
to their old leader. His obsequies 
were continued three successive days 
and nights, and afterwards repeated at 
Yetholm, whither he was brought for 
interment. I cannot say that the fu- 
neral rites were celebrated with de- 
cency and sobriety, for that was by no 
means the case. This happened in 
the year 1783 or 1784, and the late 
Mr Nisbet did not long survive." 

We have occupied so much of our 
space with Mr Smith's interesting and 
accurate details, that we can only find 
room at present for a limited portion 
of our remaining original materials, 
and must restrict ourselves to a few 
additional traits. Of the kingly de- 
meanour and personal achievements of 
old Will Faa, many curious particu- 
lars are related. He never forgot his 
high descent from the ' Lords of Little 
Egypt.' He also claimed kindred with 
the Messrs Falls of Dunbar, with whom 
he affected to maintain some sort of 
family intercourse ; and he is said to 
have paid them a regular visit once 
a-year. On solemn occasions he as- 
sumed, in his way, all the stately de- 
portment of sovereignty. He had 
twenty-four children, and at each of 
their christenings he appeared dressed 
in his original wedding-robes. These 
christenings were celebrated with no 
small parade. Twelve young hand- 
maidens were always present as part 
of the family retinue, and for the pur- 
pose of waiting on the numerous guests 
who assembled to witness the cere- 
mony, or to partake of the subsequent 
festivities. Besides Will's gypsey as- 
sociates, several of the neighbouring 
farmers and lairds, with whom he was 
on terms of friendly intercourse (among 
others, the Murrays of Cherrytrees), 
used to attend these christenings. In 


virtue of his high magisterial office, 
Will exercised the functions of country 
keeper (as it was called), or restorer of 
stolen property ; which he was able 
often to do, when it suited his own 
inclination or interest, very effectually, 
through his extensive influence among 
the neighbouring tribes, and his abso- 
lute dominion over his own. 

Upon the death of old Will, a sort 
of civil war broke out among the Yet- 
holm clans : an usurper thrust him- 
self into the office of the deceased, but 
was dispossessed, after a battle, by the 
loyal subjects who adhered to the legi- 
timate heir. This bold rebel was the 
leader of an inferior tribe, and the im- 
mediate successor of another doughty 
chief, usually known by the appropri- 
ate title of the Earl of Hell. He is 
alluded to at page 54, being the same 
individual, who, on the occasion there 
mentioned, " had rubbit shouthers wi' 
the gallows." 

Among the many traditionary gyp- 
sey anecdotes which we used formerly 
to hear related, was the following very 
characteristic one of Jean Gordon. 
We avoided mentioning it in a more 
appropriate place last Number, having 
forgot some of the names which serve 
to authenticate it, and which we are 
now enabled to supply through the 
kindness of a correspondent. It hap- 
pened that Jean's husband, Geordie 
Faa, was murdered at one of their 
clan-meetings by Rob Johnstone, ano- 
ther gypsey, who stabbed him with a 
graip, a sort of large three-pronged 
fork used about farm offices. John- 
stone was instantly apprehended and 
committed to Jedburgh jail ; out of 
which, however, he soon contrived to 
break, and got clear off the country. 
But it was easier to escape from the 
grasp of justice than to elude gypsey 
vengeance: Jean Gordon traced the 
murderer like a blood-hound follow- 
ed him to Holland and from thence 
to Ireland, where she got him seized 
and brought back to Jedburgh ; and 
she at length obtained a full reward 
for her toils, by enjoying the gratifica- 
tion of seeing him hanged on the Gal- 
low-hill. Some time afterward, Jean 
being up at Sourhope, a sheep-farm on 
Bowmont Water, the goodman there 
said to her, " Weel, Jean, ye hae got 
.Rob Johnstone hanged at last, and out 
o' the way." " Aye, gudeman !" re- 
plied Jean, lifting up her apron by the 
VOL. I. 

Scottish Gypsies. 161 

two corners, " and a' that fu' o' gowd 
has nae done't." Jean's "apron-fu' o' 
gowd," may perhaps remind some of 
our readers of Meg Merrilies' pock of 
jewels and the whole transaction in- 
deed forcibly recalls the powerful pic- 
ture of that stern and intrepid heroine. 

Two curious documents, relating to 
the early history of the gypsies in 
Scotland, which we had overlooked in 
our former researches, have been point- 
ed out to us by a learned friend. The 
first is a letter from King James the 
Fourth to the King of Denmark, dated 
1506, in favour of Anthony Gawino, 
Earl of Little Egypt, and his follow- 
ers ; which serves to ascertain pretty 
exactly what we formerly wanted 
the date of the first arrival of the race 
in this country. His majesty specifies, 
that this miserable train had visited 
Scotland by command of the pope, 
being upon a pilgrimage ; that they 
had conducted themselves properly, 
and now wished to go to Denmark : 
He therefore solicits the extension of 
his royal uncle's munificence toward 
them ; adding, at the same time, that 
these wandering Egyptians must be 
better known to him, because the 
kingdom of Denmark was nearer to 
Egypt ! This epistle is mentioned in 
a short but comprehensive account of 
the gypsies, in the tenth volume of 
the Edinburgh Encyclopaedia. 

The other article is an Act of the 
Lords of Council, dated at Stirling, 
June 6, 1541, and refers to the dis- 
pute, formerly mentioned, between 
Johnne Faw and his rebellious sub- 
jects, who it appears had now mutual- 
ly agreed " to passe home, and to haue 
the sarnyn decydit before the Duke of 
Egipt" It is evident, that both the 
chieftain and his followers had greatly 
declined in credit with the Scottish 
government since the preceding year : 
He is no longer complimented with 
his high title ; the letters and privi- 
leges formerly granted had been re- 
voked ; and the Lords of Council pro- 
ceed forthwith (for certain cogent 
reasons) to pass sentence of banish- 
ment upon the whole race, at thirty 
days warning, and under the pain of 

Copies of both these papers will be 
found in our Antiquarian Repertory. 
C To be continued.) 


Memorie of the Somervilles. 



THIS book was published last year 
from the original MS. in the posses- 
sion of the present Lord Somerville. 
It is the composition of his ancestor, 
James Somerville, who died in the 
year 1690, who is styled in the title- 
page, James Eleventh Lord Somer- 
ville, but who in reality never found 
it convenient, in the low state to which 
the affairs of his family were then re- 
duced, to assume any higher, designa- 
tion than that of the "Laird of Drum." 
His father was an officer of consider- 
able eminence in the Scottish army 
during the civil wars, but the author 
himselr' is of a different way of think- 
ing, being indeed a great stickler for 
the Divine right both of kings and of 
bishops. He is, notwithstanding, a 
very worthy sort of person, and gives 
good advice to his children, for whose 
benefit only he professes to write, in a 
manner that does him much honour. 

The history of the Somerville fami- 
ly, during the first ages of its appear- 
ance in Scotland, is extremely inac- 
curate ; dates and facts are often jum- 
bled in a most absurd manner ; and 
indeed nothing can be more uninter- 
esting than both the subject and the 
manner of this whole part of the work. 
When, however, the author comes to 
treat of events more near his own time, 
or when he favours us with the result 
of his own reflections upon any gener- 
al topic, there is commonly a consid- 
erable admixture both of shrewdness 
and naivete. Some of the anecdotes 
which he relates are, moreover, singu- 
larly picturesque, and for this reason 
we have thought fit to present our 
readers with a few of the most inter- 
esting passages. 

The first which we shall extract is 
the history of a domestic tragedy, which 
occurred in the reign of King Robert 
II. and about the year 1371. The 
story is told with much feeling, and 
requires no commentary. 

" Much about the beginning of this king's 
reigne, ther happened a sad accident in the 
faniilie of Sir John Harring, laird of Kd- 
mondstoune in Clidesdale, and of Gillmer- 
toune in Mid Lothian. This gentleman 
haveing two beautifull daughters, the eldest 
named Margaret, and the youngest Geilles, 
both in expectatione to be sharers in a great 

part of ther father's estate, because he had 
no male children of his oune bodie but a 
brother's sone named Patrick, whom he de- 
signed to have marryed .upon his eldest 
daughter, and given him the greatest part 
of his lands eftir his death ; but the mis- 
carriage of his eldest daughter, which had 
a tragicall end, frustrated all his hope and 
expectatione that way. For this young 
lady, as she was beautifull, inclyneing to 
melanchollie, appeared to be very devote 
in observeing strictly all rites and ceremo- 
nies of religion then in use, wherby it came 
to passe, frequenting much the abbacie of 
Newbottle, she became acquainted with a 
young monk of the Sistertian order, or the 
refyned Benedicts, belonging to that ab- 
bacie ; who having insinuated himself much 
in her favour under ane specious pretext of 
holyness, did often converse with this lady 
in her most private reteirements, both in the 
abbacie and at her father's house in Gill- 
mertoune, without the least suspitione that 
he intended any villanie ; but this rascal, 
by his divellish rhctorick and allurements, 
soe far prevailled upon the simplicitie of 
this gentlewoman, that at lenth he deboshed 
her; and because he thought nether the 
abbacie nor her father's house to be safe for 
their intrigues of love, they agreed their 
meeting should be at a little ferme belong- 
ing to John Herring, called the Grange, a 
quarter of a myle or therby from Gillmer- 
toune, neer by the road that leads to New- 
bottle. The mistress of this couhtry-house 
being a young and a lascivious widow, some 
tyme before hade been ensnared, and play- 
ed the wanton with his comerad ; this house 
was therfore thought the most convenient 
for them to meet at, which they often did", 
to the great scandal of the monkes' profes- 
sione, and dishonour of the women, espe- 
cially of the young ladie, which occasioned 
all ther mines in the end. For, notwith- 
standing of the secresie of this affair, and 
circumspectione for appoynting fitt hours 
for their deeds of darkness, yet there was 
some suspitione from the too much famili- 
aritie betwext Sir John's daughter and this 
woman soe tar below her qualitie ; ther of- 
ten being together, and the frequenting of 
her house, gave occasions of scandal to all ; 
which coming to Sir John's ears, being a 
forward and furious man, he threatened his 
daughter with noe lesse than death, if ever 
it came to his knowledge that she went to 
the Grange, or frequented that woman's 
companie eftirwards. This she promised 
to her father to observe, but with noe in- 
tentione to keep the same 4 for noe sooner 
was the darkness of the ensueing night 
come, but at her accustomed hour she goes 
out at the back entry that leads to the 
Grange, where the two brothers in iniquitie 


Memorie of the Somervilles. 

had aryved some tyme before, to whom, 
fftir ther dalliance, she imparts her father's 
suspitione and terrible threatenings against 
her, which these gallants litle regarded, 
protesting that they would make her father 
doe penance for that very suspitione, little 
dreameing that they themselves was soe 
neer destructione, for that very night all of 
them was brought to their end by a cruell 
revenge ; for Sir John, missing his daugh- 
ter out of her chamber, concluded where 
she was, and went presently to the place 
with two of his domesticks, where finding 
the doors of the house shut, and noe answear 
made to his demands, nor the doors opened 
notwithstanding of this threatnings, in a 
rage he sets fyre to the thatch with a [torch] 
his servant caryed, which immediately (the 
wind being somewhat high) set the wholl 
onsteed in a fyre, and burned it downe to 
the ground.* Ther perished in the flame 
and mines above eight or nine persons ; for 
which cruell act, as it was highly aggravat- 
ed in all the horrible circumstances by the 
churchmen then in being, this poor gentle- 
man was forced to flee the country for a 
tyme, his estate being forefaulted by the 

The next extract relates to the visit 
paid by King James III. to the Lord 
Somerville, at his castle of Cowthally, 
near Carnwath, in the month of July 

" At which tyme the king, being dis- 
posed to take his pleasure at the poutting in 
Calder and Camwath Muires, he acquaintes 
the Lord Somervill with his resolutione, 
who, by accident, was then at court ; his 
majestic being pleased withall to shew him 
he was resolved for some dayes to be his 
guest Wherupon the Lord Somervill im- 
mediately despatches ane expresse to Cow- 
thally (who knew nothing of the king's 
journey), with a letter to his lady, Dame 
Marie Baillzie, wherein, according to his 
ordinary custome when any persones of 
qualitie wer to be with him, he used to 
wryte in the postscript of his letters, Speates 
and Raxes ; and in this letter he had re- 
doubled the same words, because of the ex- 
traordinary occasione and worthyness of his 
guest. This letter being delyvered, and the 
messenger withall telling his lord was very 
pressing, that it might be speedily and se- 
curely put in her ladyship's hands, where- 
upon she hastily breakes it up, commanding 
the Stewart to read the same, because she 
could read non herself. This gentleman 
being but lately entered to his service, and 
unacquainted with his lord's hand and cus- 
tome of wrytting, when he comes to the 

* Gilmerton Grange, where this tragedy 
was acted, is near the village of Gilmerton, 
about four miles from Ivdinburgh. It is 
still called by the old people JBnr>itdi>lc, 
from that singular and melancholy event, 
which is well remembered in the vicinage. 


postscript of the letter, he reads Speares and 
Jacks instead of Spcutcs and Raxes : where- 
upon my lady, all amazed, without consi- 
dering her husband's ordinary forme of 
wrytting, falles a-weeping, supposeing her 
lord had fallen at variance with some about 
the court, the king beginning about this 
tyme to discountenance his ancient nobilitie, 
and they again to withdraw both their affec- 
tiones and due alledgeance from him. Efter 
the reading of the letter, James Inghs of 
Eistscheill was presently sent for, and com- 
mandement given to him and the officers, 
that all the vassalles, with the able tennents 
that wer within the two barronies of Carn- 
wath, Cambusnethen, and baillzierie of 
Carstairs, should be ready with their horse 
and armes to wait upon William Cleilland 
of that ilk be eight in the morning the en- 
suing day, and that in order to ther going 
for Edinburgh. This command being punc- 
tually observed by the vassalles and the 
substantial! tennents that wer in use, and 
obleidged to ryde, by ther holdings and 
tackes-, upon such occasions, they conveened 
to the number of two hundred, with the 
laird of Cleilland, and William Chancellor 
of Quathquan, with the Baillzie upon ther 
heads.* By eleven a clock they were ad- 
vanced in ther journey for Edinburgh to 
the side of that hill that is somewhat be west 
the Corsetthill. His majestic haveing break- 
fasted by nyne in the morning, had taken 
horse, and was come the lenth of that little 
waiter a myle on this syde of the Corsett- 
hill, bussie, even then, at his sport upon 
the rode, when the first of all the little 
company that was with him observed the 
advance of a troope of men, with ther 
lances, within a myle of him, or thereby. 
Whereupon, all astonished, he calles hastily 
for the Lord Somervill, who, being at some 
distance, came upon the spurre. The king 
being of ane hastie nature, in great fury 
demanded what the matter meaned, and if 
he had a mynde to betiay him, and seize 
upon his person the second tyme by ane 
other treacherous hunting : and withall 
swearing his head should pay for it, if he 
himself escaped the hands of these traitors, 
who could be noe other but his vassalles 
and followers, brought togither off purpose 
for some ill designe. The Lord Somervill, 
without making any reply, immediately 
castes himself from his horse to the ground, 
and falles upon his knees, protesting, with 
many solemn oaths, that he understood not 
what the matter meaned, nor what the 
company was, nor the cause of ther being 
in yonder place ; thairfore he humblie 
begged of his majestie that he would allow 
him to goe see what they wer, friends or 
foes; and, for securitie, he had with him 
his eldest sone and heir, William, barrone 
of Carnwath ; ift' all was not weill, and his 
majestie safe from all hazard, he desyred 
that his sone's head may be strucken oft' 

* L e. at their head. 

Memorie oftiie Somervilles. 


upon the place. This the king acceptes, 
and commands him to ryde up and discover 
what they wer, and the intent of ther being 
ther ; and, according as he found occasione, 
to returne or give a signe for his retireing. 

In the meantyme, his majestic, with his 
traine, being about twentieth horse, placed 
themselves upon the hight of the muir, to 
marke the Lord SomervuTs goeing, and the 
carriage of the horsemen they beheld, who 
now made ane halt, when they first ob- 
served the king's company, not knowing 
what they wer ; but seeing them draw to- 
gither, they apprehended they wer noe 
friends ; thairfore they resolved to advance 
noe further, seeing a horseman comeing up 
to them with all the speed he could make, 
until they knew for what intent he came. 
The Lord Somervill was yet at some dis- 
tance, when he was presently knoune by 
severall of the company to be ther lord and 
master ; whereupon the laird of Cleilland, 
and William Chancellor of Quathquan, 
galloped out to meet him. He was not a 
litle surprized when he saw them, and de- 
manded the occasione that had brought 
them togither in that posture and number. 
To which they answeared, It was by his 
lordsliip's directione and his ladye's com- 
mand : that they wer comeing to Edinburgh 
to waitt upon him, fearing he had fallen at 
variance and feed with some one or other 
about the court He desyred to see the 
letter. They told him the Baillzie had it. 
By this tyme they wer joyned to the com- 
pany, where, calling for the letter, he made 
the same to be read, where ther was no 
such directione nor orders given as they 
pretended. He enquired who read the 
letter to his lady ; they answered, his new 
Stewart ; who being present, was commanded 
to read it again, which he did ; and come- 
ing to the postscript, reads Spears and 
Jacks, instead of Speates and Raxes ; and 
herein lay the mistake, that the Lord So- 
mervill knew not whether to laugh or be 
angry at the fellow. But mynding the fear 
he left the king in, and what apprehensiones 
and jealousies his majestic might intertaine 
upon his long communing with them, he 
commanded that they should depart every 
man to their respective dwellings : and he 
himself, with the laird of Cleilland and 
severall other gentlemen, returned to the 
king, who remained still upon the same 
place where he had parted from him ; unto 
whom being come he relates the wholl story, 
whereat the king laughed heartily, calles 
for a sight of the letter, and reades it him- 
self, swearing it was noe great mistake, for 
he might have been guiltie of that error 
himself. His majestic having given back 
the letter, it went from hand to hand a- 
mongst these few courtiers that was there, 
as they proceeded on their journey, the let- 
ter itself containing noe matter of any con- 
sequence but a naked compliment the Lord 
Somervill had written to his lady. This is 
that story of the Speates and Raxes so much 

discoursed of then, as it is to this day a- 
mongst persons of qualitie ; for of late the 
Duke of Lauderdale, when he was com- 
missioner, at a full table of the greatest part 
of the nobilitie in Scotland, then dyneing 
with him, related the wholl story almost in 
the same termes that I have set it doune. 
The king being come to Cowthally, he had 
his entertainement great, and his welcome 
heartie, albeit ray lady Somervill was some- 
what out of contenance, all the discourse 
being anent the Speares and Jackes, which 
the king could not forget, thinking it both 
a good sport and ane easy mistake, because 
of the neer spelling and sounding of the 
words ; and, withall his majestic was pleas- 
ed highly to commend the Lady Somer- 
v ill's love and respect to her husband, in 
being so active and diligent to conveen 
soe quickly her husband's friends and fol- 
lowers, in case ther had been any necessitie 
for them, telling my lady that he hoped 
she would use the same care and diligence 
to conveen her lord's followers when he 
should call him and them to his service." 

In the next passage we have a cu- 
rious view of the interior of the same 
baronial residence during a visit of 
James V. 

" The divertisement his majestic had 
without doores was balking ; being now in 
the midle of Jully, the poutes wer for flight 
whereof they killed many : these fields, not 
being soe much laboured then as now, yield- 
ed great store, which was the cause the king 
resorted thither afterward when he mynded 
his sport ; but the recreatione he received 
in the fields gave him no such content as what 
he had within doores with the ladyes, who, 
seeing the young king amorously inclyned, 
allowed him all the liberty that in honour 
he could requyre, or ther modesty permitt. 
" Amongst all the ladyes that was there, 
he fancyed non soe much as Katherine Car- 
michaell, the captain of Craufuird's daugh- 
ter, a young lady much about sexteinth 
years ol age, admired for her beautie, hand- 
somenes of persone, and vivacity of spirit, 
whereby she attracted all eyes that beheld 
her, but soe strongly the king's, that most 
of his discourse was with her, and he took 
it ill when he was interrupted, soe that all 
the ladyes and noblemen that was present 
took notice thereof, and gave way to his 
majestie's courting. I know ther was some 
malitious tongues then, as there is not a 
few to this day, affirmes that it was at this 
tyme, and in Cowthally-house, that the king 
first procured this ladye's private favoures ; 
but, by ther leave, it is a great mistake, and 
a most malitious calumnie ; for, albeit it 
be true it was at this wedding he first 
saw this young lady, and did affect her ex- 
tremely, beginning then his intrigues of 
love, yet had he noe opportunity allowed 
him to obtaine that which he aftirward re- 
ceaved att the castle of Crawfuird, her fa- 
ther's house. The Lady Somervill being 

1817/3 Memorie of the Somervilles, 

both virtuous and wise, observing the king's 
passione, commanded two of Cambusne- 


then's daughters, and as many of her oune, 
being then girles about eleven years of age, 
in whom the king took likewayes delight to 
discourse with, never to leave the roume, 
unless Mistress Katherine Carmichaell came 
with them, the which they particularly ob- 
served. But to put this beyond all cavill, 
this same lady being efterward marryed up- 
on young Cambusnethen, acknowledged to 
her mother-in-law, that it was neer a year 
efter she saw the king att Cowthally before 
his majestie obtained any favour from her, 
but what in civillitie she might have given 
to any persone of honour ; and doubtlesse, 
if it had been otherways, the Lady Cambus- 
nethen would have divulged quickly the 
same to the prejudice of my Lord Somer- 
ville's familie, to which she had no great 
lykeing, notwithstanding of ther late sub- 
missione to the king, and the civilitie they 
paid to each other, because of ther neer re- 

" This marriage being over, the king 
went for Stirling, being waited upon by the 
Lord Somervill there some few dayes ; and 
now being to retourne to his oune house, 
he comes to kisse his majestie's hand. The 
king told him, with a kynde and pleasant 
countenance, the great intertainement and 
fair company he left att Cowthally made 
him resolve ere long for another visit, hope- 
ing he should be wellcome. Haveing 
said this, and raiseing him from his knee, 
the Lord Somervill replyed, what he had at 
present was by his majesties favour, and 
the bounty of his royall predecessors, con- 
ferred upon him, and his foerbearers, of 
which he was ever myndefull, and therfore 
was obleidged, as a duetifull subject, to at- 
tend his majesties pleasure in all tilings, 
haveing been soe highly honoured by his 
royall presence at his daughter's marriage, 
that was beyond all expressione of thankes. 
Upon this he retired, haveing receaved the 
particular thankes of all these noblemen and 
gentlemen that attended the king during 
his residence att Cowthally. Being return- 
ed, he lived at home until! the latter end of 
September. Upon Saturnes day, at night, 
the king lighted att his house with Robert 
Bartone, who was in speciall favour with 
him, and efterwards made thesaurer ; James 
Hamilton of Finhard, who lykewayes be- 
fore his death was thesaurer, and lykewayes 
master of the king's works ; Oliver Sin- 
clair, a brother of the house of Rosseline ; 
Sir David Lindsay of the Mount ; * * 
* * and John Tennant, (efterward Laird 
of Cairness) a domestick and wairdropper to 
the king, who personated (four years after 
this) his majestie, as he travelled incog- 
nito through France in suite of his queen. 
These, with other seven, wer only his ma- 
jesties retinue when he came to Cowthally. 
This surprizeall might have startled any 
other albeit good housekeepers, but was all 
one to this lord, that keeped soe plentifull 

a table, and had soe provident a lady, that 
upon all occasiones gave evidence of an ex- 
cellent house-wife. The Lord Somervill 
told the king, he was only sorry he had not 
advertisement of his majestie's comeing, 
that himself and his friends might have 
waited upon him ; but he was soon made 
to understand the king's comeing incognito, 
and would admitt of noe more company 
save himself and other two besyde these that 
came with him. By this, and some other 
circumstances, he guessed some part of the 
king's earand, who, dureing supper, asked 
severall questions at the Lord Somervill 
(standing behind his chair) anent the Cap- 
taine of Crawfuird, his qualitie, condition, 
and what he might have in estate, and by 
his office. Wherein being resolved soe far 
as my lord knew, the king took occasione 
first to regrate the meannesse of his fortune, 
and the smallnesse of his sallary ; and efter 
some spaces, began to praise his daughter's 
breeding and beautie with some transport, 
at lentil insinuate as much by his discourse 
that he would see to the bettering of the fa- 
ther's estate and advancement of the daugh- 
ter. Eftir supper the king held a long dis- 
course with the Lady Somervill in his oune 
bed-chamber, which was named efter him 
soe long as the house remained in its in- 
tegrity What the import of ther discourse 
was these that wer present did but guesse, 
for they stood at some distance ; however, 
it appeared that the king was very pressing 
to obtaine some promise of her, which, with 
much civilitie, she begged his majestie par- 
done ; and at length, somewhat loud, of 
purpose to be heard, and to be free from 
the king's importunity, spoke thus, " Sir, 
her father's house is much fitter, where your 
majestie may expect kynde wellcome, being 
proprietar of the same, in honouring that 
familie with your royall presence." Upon 
which the king called the Lady Carmichaell 
that was next to them, and said, " Your 
neighbour here, the Lady Somervill, is the 
most courteous, or rather most scrupulous, 
persone under heaven for another concerne ; 
but I will have my revenge in being often 
her guest, to eat up all the beef and pud- 
ding too of this (country). 

" Airly upon the Sabbath the king caus- 
ed the Lord Somervill send a horseman to 
Craufuird castle, to advertise the captaine 
he would be there against night ; and with- 
all, forbade to make any great provisione, 
seing his train would not exceed a duzone. 
This advertisement was soe unexpected and 
short, that the captaine knew not what to 
think of it ; however, he caused putt all 
things in the best order that might be, and 
prepared for the king's coming. But ther 
was non soe much surprized with the news 
as the young lady, the captaine'* daughter, 
who, suspecting the king's earrand from 
what she had mett with from him at the 
marriage in Cowthally, she could have wish- 
ed herself not only out -of her father's house 
but out of the world. Soe much terrour 


and affrightment did seize upon her personc, 
that she knew not what to resolve on. Some 
tymes she thought it fitt to acquaint her fa- 
ther and mother with her feares ; and then 
againe, without acquainting them with her 
thoughts, to slip doune to Lamingtoune- 
house, or the toune of Douglasse. But as 
modesty tyed up her tongue from the first, 
soe the shortness of tyme, and (the want of) 
ane handsome pretext, hindered the later, 
for it was not possible to have keeped the 
knowledge of her removeall that day from 
the king, which might have incensed him 
exceedingly against her father, the greatest 
part of whose fortune was mostly at that 
tyme at the king's disposeing, as heretable 
keeper of the castle of Craufuird. Thus, 
unresolved what to doe, or how to carry to- 
wards the king, in great trouble of spirit, 
poor lady, she remained in a carelesse dresse 
untill his rnajestie's arryvealL 

" The king, haveing breakfasted and 
heard messe att the colledge church of Carn- 
wath, made foirward on his journey to the 
castle of Craufuird, being accompanyed with 
non but the Lord Somervill, and these few 
he brought from Edinburgh with him. He 
was mett by the captaine of Craufuird with 
some horsemen, some few myles on this 
side of the castle, with whom he discoursed 
familiarly untill ther arryveall at the house, 
where his majestie was receaved at the gate 
by the lady and two of her daughters. What 
entertainement his majestie receaved from 
the captaine and his lady, and kyndenesse 
from ther beautifull daughter upon his 
amorouse addresse to her, is noe part of that 
which I have in hand ; yet I am apt to be- 
lieve, from several! circumstances and papers 
that I have seen, that this interview pro- 
ceeded noe farther than to useher the way, 
and give opportunitie to these more parti- 
cular and privat favoures his majestie re- 
ceaved eftirward from this lady in the same 
house. Whatever wer the intysing motives 
that prevailled over her vertue, and brought 
her to the king's embracement, was best 
knoune to herself; and although noe act of 
this nature be warrantable before God, yet 
much may be said to take off the reproach, 
and justifie her to the world. It was her 
king, not a subject, that made love to her ; 
a gallant young prince, for persone and parts 
die world then had not the better, laying 
asyde his dignitie and that supreme orbe 
wherein he moved. One of meaner degree, 
with half of these qualifications wherewith 
this royall king was indued, might have 
prevailed much upon the budding aft'ec- 
tiones of a tender virgin, unacquainted with 
the blandishment of great ones and the en- 
tertainements of a royal court, whereinto 
your court ladyes are soe accustomed to ad- 
dresses of persones of eminency, that they 
can putt oft' or conferre ther private favores 
as ther interest or inclinatione leades them ; 
*nd yet if they trip, you shall not know it, 

Memorie of the Somervilles. 

or if you doe, you must not divulge it, un- 
lesse you be desperately resolved to forfault 
both your life and fortune to the fury of 
ther amoures. Besydes these inducements, 
and her father's interest, she might have 
before her eyes the example of Elizabeth 
Moore, Rowallane's daughter, who bare to 
King Robert the Second three sones, long 
before her marriage ; and at lenth, not- 
withstanding of the king's haveing two sons 
in marriage by the Earle of Rosse's daughter, 
she dying, and herself taken to be his queen, 
her sones was reputed and declared righteous 
successores to the crowne, and that by con- 
sent of Parliament 

" These reasones, with the splendent as- 
pect of royall majestie, backed with a sove- 
raigne power, might prevaill much upon this 
innocent lady, and inclyne her to a com- 
plyance, as not weill knowing how to refuise 
the kynde offeres of soe obleidgeing a prince, 
the effects whereof, in four yeares tyme, 
made her mother of two boyes and ane 
daughter to the king." 

The reader will observe in what a 
style of courtly submission the author 
talks of the insult offered by the royal 
visitor, both to his own ancestor the 
Lady Somerville, and to the Captain of 
Crawfurd's family. In several posterior 
passages we find hints of the manner 
in which he regarded this sort of royal 
condescension. The ladies so honour- 
ed seem to be not a whit more conta- 
minated by it in his eyes, than they 
were in those of his kinsman, the Laird 
of Cambusnethan, who married suc- 
cessively two concubines of James V. 
These ladies, according to one passage, 
" very much illustrate the family ;" 
and in another we are told, that their 
husband " was a plain country gen- 
tleman, and an excellent housekeeper, 
h.ft/>/>y in both his mart iages for beau- 
filf'iill und rerfuous ladies.' Vol. 2. 
p. 19. A second long digression is 
made in another place, in vindication 
of the character of one of them, and 
the noble author concludes in these 
words " Thus far have I digressed 
in vindication of this excellent lady, 
that it may appear it was neither her 
choyse, nor any vitious habit that pre- 
vailled over her chastity, but ane ine- 
viteable fate that the strongest resist- 
ance could scarcely withstand" Vol. 
1. p. 388 anticipating, as the Editor 
hus already observed, the indulgent 
maxim of Prior, 

" That when weak women go astray 
Their stars are more in fault than they." 

Letter from James IV. fyc. Act respecting John Faw, Sjc. 




In favour of Anthony Gawino, Earl of 
Little Egypt, %c. 1506. 

(Referred to at page 161.J 

ILLUSTRISSIME, &c. Anthonius 
Gawino, ex Parva Egypto comes, et 
caetera ejus comitatus, gens afflicta et 
miseranda, dum Christianam orbem 
peregrinationes studio, Apostolicae Se- 
dis (ut refert) jussu, suorum more 
peregrinans, fines nostri regni dudum 
advenerat, atque in sortis sute, et mi- 
seriarum hujus populi, refugium, nos 
pro humanitate imploraverat ut nos- 
tros liinites sibi impune adire, res 
cunctas, et quam habet societatem 
libere circumagere liceret. Impetrat 
facile quae postulat miserorum homi- 
num dura fortuna. Ita aliquot menses 
bene et catholice, (sic accepimus,) bic 
versatus, ad te, Rex et Avuricule, in 
Daciam transitum paret. Sed oceanum 
transmissurus nostras literas exoravit, 
quibus celsitudinem tuam horum cer- 
tiorum redderemus, simul et calami- 
tatem ejus gentis Regiai tuae munin- 
centise commendaremus. Ceterum er- 
rabundae Egypti fata, moresque, et 
genus, eo tibi quam nobis credimus 
notiora, quo Egyptus tuo regno vici- 
nior, et major hujusniodi horainum 
frequentia tuo diversatur imperio. II- 
lustrissime, &c. 

(MS. Reg-. 13. B. II.) 


Respecting John Faw, $c. Jun. 6. 1511. 
(Referred to at page 161.) 

THE quhilk day anentis the com- 
plain tis gevin in be Jhone Faw and 
his brether, and Sebastiane Lowlaw, 
Egiptianis, to the Kingis Grace, ilkane 
pleinzeand vpoun vther of diverse faltis 
and Iniuris ; And that It is aggreit 
amang thame to passe hamc,and to huue 
the samyn decydit before the Duke of 
Egipt. The Lordis of Counsale being 
avisit with the pointis of the saidis 
compluiutis, and vnderstanding perfit- 
lie the gret thiftis and scathis done be 
the saidis Egiptianis vpoun our sov- 
erane Lordis lieges, quhairuer thae cum 
or resortis ; Ordunis letters to be direct 

to the provestis and bailies of Edin- 
burgh, Sanct Johnstoun, Dundee, Mon- 
ross, Aberdene, Sactandrois, Elgin, 
Forress, and Inuerness ; And to the 
Schirefis of Edinburgh, Fif, Perth, 
Forfair, Kincardin, Aberdene, Elgyn 
and Foress, Banf, Crummarty, Inuer- 
ness, And all vtheris schirefis, stew- 
artis, provestis, and bailies, quhair it 
happinnis the saidis Egiptianis -to re- 
sort ; To command and charge thame, 
be oppin proclamatioun at the mercat 
croces of the heid burgh of the schiref- 
domes, to depart furth of this realme, 
with their wifis, barnis, and com- 
panies, within xxx dayis efter thai be 
chargit therto, vnder the pane of deid ; 
Notwithstanding ony vtheris letters, 
or privelegis, granted to thame be the 
Kingis Grace ; Becaus his Grace, with 
avise of the lordis, lies dischargit the 
samyn for the causis forsaidis; with 
certificatioun and thai be fundin in this 
realme, the saidis xxx dayis being past, 
thai salbe tane and put to deid. 
(MS. Act. Dom. Con. vol. 15.fol. 155.) 


[The following extracts form part of a 
series of depositions made before the Kirk 
Session of Perth, 1623, and are copied from 
the original MS. signed, as below, by the 
clerks of Session and Presbytery. They are 
chiefly interesting on account of the allu- 
sions they contain to several curious popular 
charms and superstitions. We have now 
before us a number of other original papers 
relating to the history of witchcraft, from 
which, perhaps, we may hereafter give some 
extracts of a more strange and striking de- 
scription, if we find that these can be sepa- 
rated from the profane and revolting details 
of which they contain more than enough 
to shock even such readers as have the most 
voracious appetite for the horrible.] 

Depositiounes of Isso'l Haldane suspect 
of Wychvraft, confessit be her the 10 
of May 1623, as folio wis 

Item Being askit if scho hed onye 
conversatione with the Farye Folk 
Answerit, that ten yeiris syne, lying 
in her bed, scho wes taikin furth, 
quhidder be God or the Deuill scho 
knawis no 1 . ; wes caryit to ane hill 
side; the hill oppynit, and scho en- 

Confessions of Witchcraft. 


terit in ; thair scho stayit thrie clayis, 
viz. fra thurisday till sonday at xij 
houris. Scho mett a man with ane 
grey beird, quha brocht her furth a- 

Item That same day John Roch 
deponit that about that same tyme he 
beand in James Chrystie the wrichtis 
buith, caussing the wricht mak ane 
cradill to him, becaus his wyff wes 
neir the down lying, the said Issobell 
Haldane com by, desyreit him no 1 , to 
be sa hastie, for he neidit no 1 . ; his 
wyff sould nocht be lichter till that 
tyme fyve-oulkis, and then the bairne 
suld neuer ly in the craidill, hot be 
borne, bapteisit, and neuer sook, bot 
die and be tayne away: And as the 
said Issobell spak sa it cam to pass in 
euerie poynt. The said Issobell be- 
ing demandit how scho knew that, 
answerit that the man with the grey 
beird tauld her. 

Item The said Johne Roch deponit 
that Mar 1 . Buchannane, spous to Dau- 
id Reid, being in helth at her ordinare 
wark, the said Isso 1 . 1 . Haldane come 
to hir and desyreit hir mak hir for 
deith, for befoir Fastingis evin, q 1 ^ 
wes within few dayis, scho suld be 
taikin away : And as scho said, so it 
wes befoir that terme the woman died. 
Being askit how scho knew the 
terme of hir lyfe, the said Isso 1 . 1 . an- 
swerit scho hed speirit it at y* same 
man with the grey beird, and he hed 
tauld her. 

(May 16.) Patrick Ruthuen, skyn- 
ner in Perth, compeirit and declairit, 
that he being wychit be Margaret 
Hormscleuch, Issobell Haldane com 
to see him : scho com in to the bed 
and streichit hir self abone him, hir 
heid to his heid, hir handis ower him, 
and so furth, mumbling some wordis, 
he knew nocht quhat they war. The 
said Issobell confessit the said cure, 
and deponit, that before the said Pa- 
trick wes wychit scho met him, and 
foirbad him to go till scho had gone 
with him. 

(May 19.) Compearit Stephen Ray 
in Muretoun, and deponit that time 
yeiris syne that Issoj 1 ^ Haldane hauing 
stollin sum here furtn of the Hall of 
Balhouffye he followit hir and brocht 
hir bak agane : Scho chaipit him on the 
schulder, saying Go thy way, thow 
/sail no 1 , win thv self ane bannok of breid 

for yeir and day : And as scho thret- 
tinit sa it cam to pas ; he dwynit 
hauelie diseiseit. The said Issobell 
confessis the away taking of the here, 
the diseise of the man ; and affirmeis 
that onlye scho said He that delyu- 
erit me from the farye folk sail tak a- 
mendis on the'. 

Item The same day scho confest 
scho maid thrie seuerall kaikis, euerie 
ane of them of ix curneis of meill got- 
ten fra ix wemen that wer maryit 
madynis ; maid ane hoill in the crown 
of euerie ane of theme, and pat ane 
bairne throw it thrie tymes in the 
name of * * * * * * t 
to wemen that pat the saidis bairneis 
thryse throw backwand wseing the 
saidis wordis. 

Item The said Issobell confest that 
scho went silent to the well of Ruth- 
uen and returneit silent, bringing wat- 
ter frome thence to wasch John Gowis 
bairne : quhen scho tuik the watter 
frome the well scho left ane pairt of 
the bairneis sark at it, q' scho tuik 
with hir for that effect, and quhen 
scho cam ham scho wousch the bairne 
thairwith. Inlyk maner scho confest 
scho hed done the elyk to Johne Pow- 
ryis bairne. 

(May 2^.) The said Isso 1 . 1 . confessit 
that scho hed gewin drinkis to cure 
bairneis ; amangis the rest that Dauid 
Moreis' wyff com to hir, and thryse 
for Goddis saik askit help to hir bairne 
thet wes ane scharge ; aud scho send 
furth hir sone to gather sochsterrie 
leaveis, quhairof scho directit the 
bairneis mother to mak ane drink : 
Bot the bairneis mother deponit that 
the said Isso 1 . 1 . Haldane, on being re- 
quirit cam to hir house and saw the 
bairne, said it wes an scharge taikin 
away, Tuik on hand to cure it, and 
to that effect gaiff the bairne a drink, 
efter the ressait q r of the bairne short- 
lie died. 

WILLIAME YOUNG, Scribe to the 
Presbytrie of Pcarth, at com- 
mand of the samyn, u<( my hand. 

JAMES DAUIDSONF, Notarie pub- 
lic, and Clerke to the Session ne 
of Perth, at their command and 
directioun, ivith my hand. 

j- Sdl. ' in nomine Dei Patris et Filii 
et Spiritus Sancti. 


Original Poetry. 




ADIEU, my loved parent, the trial is o'er, 
The veil o'er thy couch of forgetfulness 

spread ; 
Thy kind heart shall grieve for my follies 

no more, 
Nor the suppliant tear for thy wanderer be 


Long over thy head has the tempest blown 


But riches, unknown, were unvalued by thee; 
In the wild wast thou born, in the wild didst 

thou dwell, 
The pupil of Nature, benevolent and free ; 

And never, in all her uncultured domain, 
Was nourished a spirit more genial and kind; 
Chill poverty could not thy ardour restrain, 
Nor cloud thy gay smile, or the glow of thy 

When winter- wreaths lay round our cottage 

so small, 
When fancy was ardent, and feeling was 


how I would long for the gloaming to fall, 
To sit by thy knee and attend to thy song ! 

The song of the field where the warrior bled ; 
The garland of blossom dishonoured too 

soon ; 
The elves of the green-wood, the ghosts of 

the dead, 
And faries that journeyed by light of the 


1 loved thee, my parent my highest desire 
Was 'neath independence to shield thy gray 

But fortune denied it extinguished the 

And, now thou art gone, my ambition is fled. 

I loved thee ! and now thou art laid in thy 

Thy memory I'll cherish, while memory is 

mine ; 
And the boon that my tongue aye from 

Heaven shall crave, 
Shall be the last blessing that hung upon 


Though over thy ashes no tombstone is seen, 
The place shall be hallowed when ages are 

No monument tells, 'mid the wilderness 

Where the minstreless lies of the Border the 


But over that grave will the lover of song, 
And the lover of goodness, stand silent and 

sigh ; 
And the fays of the wild will thy requiem 


And shed on thy coverlet dews of the sky : 
Vor-, I. 

And there, from the rue and the rose's per- 

Hisdew-web of dawn shall the gossamerwon; 

And there shall the daisy and violet bloom, 

And I'll water them all with the tears of a 

Adieu, my loved parent ! the trial is past 

Again thy loved bosom my dwelling may be; 

And long as the name of thy darling shall 

All due be the song and the honour to thee ! 
, H. 


How wild and dim this Life appears ! 
On"e long, deep, heavy sigh ! 
When o'er our eyes, half-clos'd in tears, 
The images of former years 
Are faintly glimmering by ! 
And still forgotten while they go, 
As on the sea-beach wave on wave 
Dissolves at once in snow. 
Upon the blue and silent sky 
The amber clouds one moment lie, 
And like a dream are gone ! 
Though beautiful the moon-beams play 
On the lake's bosom, bright as they, 
And the soul intensely loves their stay, 
Soon as the radiance melts away 
We scarce believe it shone ! 
Heaven-airs amid the harp-strings dwell, 
And we wish they ne'er may fade 
They cease ! and the soul is a silent cell, 
Where music never played. 
Dream follows dream through the long 


Each lovelier than the last- 
But ere the breath of morning-flowers. 
That gorgeous world flies past. 
And many a sweet angelic cheek, 
Whose smiles of love and kindness speak, 
Glides by us on this earth 
While in a day we cannot tell 
Where shone the face we loved so well 
In sadness or in mirth. N. 


THE landscape hath not lost its look ; 
Still rushes on the sparkling river ; 
Nor hath the gloominess forsook 
These granite crags that frown for ever, 
Still hangs around the shadowy wood, 
Whose sounds but murmur solitude : 
The raven's plaint, the linnet's song, 
The stock-dove's coo, in grief repining, 
In mingled echoes steal along : 
The setting sun is brightly shining ; 
And clouds above, and hills below, 
Are brightening with his golden glow. 

It is not meet it is not fit 
Though Fortune all our hopes hath thwarted, 
While on the very stone I sit 
Where first we met, and last we parted, 

170 Original Poetry. 

That absent from my mind should be 
The thought that loves and looks to thee ! 
Each happy hour that we have proved, 
While love's delicious converse blended, 
As 'neath the twilight star we roved, 
Unconscious where our progress tended 
Still brings my mind a soft relief, 
And bids it love the joys of grief ! 

What soothing recollections throng, 
Presenting many a mournful token, 
That heart's remembrance to prolong, 
Which then was blest, and now is broken ! 
I cannot Oh ! hast thou forgot 
Our early loves this hallowed spot ! 
I almost think 1 see thee stand ; 
I almost dream I hear thee speaking ; 
I feel the pressure of thy hand ; 
Thy living glance in fondness seeking 
Here all apart by all unseen 
Thy form upon my arm to lean ! 

Tho' beauty bless the landscape still, 
Tho' woods surround, and waters lave it, 
My heart feels not the vivid thrill, 
Which long ago thy presence gave it ; 
Mirth, music, friendship, have no tone 
Like that, which with thy voice hath flown ! 
And Memory only now remains, 
To whisper things that once delighted : 
Still still I love to tread these plains, 
To seek this sacred haunt benighted, 
And feel a something, sadly sweet, 
In resting on this mossy seat 

POUR thy tears wild and free, 

Balm best and holiest ; 
Fallen is the lofty tree, 

Low as the lowliest ! 
Rent is the eaglet's plume, 

Towering victorious ; 
Read on the hero's tomb 

The end of the glorious. 

Lean on that shivered spear, 

It threatens no longer ; 
Snapt like its high compeer, 

The willow is stronger. 
See on its dinted edge 

The last day-beam flashes, 
If thine be the soul to stand 

And number its gashes. 

Press not that hallowed mould, 

In darkness enshrouded, 
Ashes, yet scarcely cold, 

Beneath it are crowded : 
Thy feet o'er some noble heart 

May stumble unheeding ; 
O'er thy familiar friend 

Perchance may be treading. 

Oh ! ye were scattered fast, 

Sons of the morning ! 
Triumph, but seen and past, 

Your proud brows adorning, 
After such mortal toil 

To slumber so soundly, 
Can aught to the heart of man 

Speak so profoundly ? 

, 1815. 0. 


Now flaming no more on the soft-heaving 

The sun's parting splendour is shed ; 

Night's dark-rolling shades have enveloped 
the plain, 

And the twilight's faint visions have fled. 

No longer in Day's gaudy colouring glows 

The landscape, in Nature's diversity gay : 

The loud-lowing herds are now lulled to re- 

And hushed are the sounds from the hamlet 

that rose, 
And the music that flowed from the spray. 

How solemn the Hour ! In their splendid 


The planets revolving are seen ; 
And the proud towering hills 'neath their 

glimmering appear 

As the shadows of things that have been. 
Dread Silence, her empire o'er Nature to 


Forbids that a whisper be heard in the vale, 
Save the breeze breathing soft through the 

far-stretching grove, 
And the light curling waves in sweet cadence 

that move 
Where the lake's gently kissed by the gale. 

From behind yon dark hill, in deep sable ar- 

The moon soars majestic and slow ; 

And her mild-beaming rays sweetly pierce 
thro' the shade 

Of the thicket that waves on its brow 

And now her full orb o'er the mountain 

Sublime hi bright glory she glows hi the sky ; 

A stream of soft light o'er the vallies de- 
scending ; 

On the lake's sUver breast trees and cottages 

With the splendours effulgent on high. 

Great Ruler of all ! while transported I view 

This fabric so glorious and fair, 

Oh ! teach me, with rapture and reverence 

To trace benign DEITY there 

Serene as yon orbs in thy radiance shine, 

And light, life, and joy to creation impart, 

So fair from my soul beam thine image di- 

And fervent, diffusive, unchanging like 

May benevolence glow in my heart. S. 

Written in Spring 1812. 
REDEEMED from Winter's deadening reigu, 
The joyful year revives again ; 
And flings, with rule-rejecting mirth, 
Her gladdening glories o'er the earth. 
Through her full veins the transports run, 
And hark ! the woodland hymn's begun 
From the close-foliaged grove the thrill 
Comes softened up the breezy hill, 
With ceaseless bleat, and frequent low, 
And mountain-rivulets' dashing flow, 
And all the stir and din below. 


Original Poetry. 


The blent, but soon selected, call 
Of man, who loves and blesses all, 
With kingly accent, sweet though high, 
Completes the full-toned harmony. 

Its thorns are in my breast yet still 
I love this Earth with all its ill ! 
Though lone and heartless in the strife, 
I dread the long fatigue of life 
And none to whom 'twere sweet to say, 
" These heavens how bright ! this earth 

how gay !" 

With meeting soul and kindred mood 
Endear the charms of solitude 
Though every hour has on its wing 
A sadder tear, a sharper sting 
And balm and blessing were in 'vain 
This friendless heart was formed for pain. 


From the German of Goethe. 


THE sea-wave falls the sea-wave flows ; 

On lonely rock the Fisher lies, 
In clear cool stream his hook he throws, 

And views the bait with wistful eyes ; 

And as his silent task he plies, 
Behold ! the floods apart are flung, 

And where the circling eddies rise, 
A Mermaid's form hath upward sprung ! 

And soft her tones and sweet her song : 

" O, Fisher ! why my train decoy ? 
" With craft of man still wise in wrong 

" Why seek to change to death their joy ? 

" O ! wist thou here what tasks employ 
" What bliss the tribes of ocean know, 

" No more thy days should care annoy, 
" But peace be sought these waves below !" 

" And seeks not aye the glorious sun, 

" And beauteous moon, our watery rest? 
" And springs not each, its course to run, 

" Wave-wash'd, in tenfold glory drest ? 

" And charms not Thee in Ocean's breast 
" This nether heaven of loveliest blue ? 

" Charms not thine own fair form imprest 
" In liquid limning soft and true ?" 

The sea-wave falls the sea-wave flows 

At length around his feet is flung ; 
He starts the flame within him glows, 

That erst on love's embraces hung ! 

And sweeter yet the sea-maid sung, 
And sought, half-met, the charmed shore ; 

Her arms around her victim flung 
And ne'er was seen that Fisher more ! 

m J. F. 


From tJic French of Ardans. 
(Almanack des Muses, pour 1815.J) 


LED by the light of bards of yore 
The minstrel seeks Illissus' shore ; 
Like them inspired with holy rage 
That Greece, erewhile so great and sage, 
Greece, lovely still his footsteps tread ; 

And, O ! though cold and silent now, 
He feels that land still strong to bow 

The pilgrim's heart with reverential dread! 

But where are they the Men of yore 

Whose deeds of fame that may not die, 
Bade rise upon their native shore 

The home of holy Liberty ? 
O ! rouse Ye at my voice of pain ! 

O ! rise and look on Graecia now ! 
Reft of the gifts Ye gave in vain, 

The servile neck behold her bow, 
And hug, with trembling hand, the chain 

The Tartar binds around her brow ! 


Oh ! bowed to earth and crushed and 

Greece to my pensive eye appears 

A widow desolate, with quenchless tears 
Weeping her gods and all her heroes gone ! 
Alas ! o'er all this lovely clime 

In heart and soul by slavery wrung, 
The dastard sons of sires sublime 

Scarce know the land whereon they 

sprung ; 

And feel of all its glories gone, 
Or weak regret or memory none ! 


Greece Greece alas ! is all entombed- 
And all that fired, and blessed, and bloomed, 

Survive but in her ashes now ! 
And only strangers sorrow there 
O'er ills the deadliest lands must bear 

Where tyrants reign and bondsmen bow ! 
Yes ! on these plains of yore so blest, 
Where sleep in death's unbroken rest 

The hearts with Sparta's king that bled, 
Their rankling chains a race of slaves 
Drag o'er a thousand heroes' graves, 

Nor ever dream what dust they tread ! 


But, ho ! the tomb's dark thraldom break- 

At length, Immortal Slumberers, waking, 
Arise arise ! whose mighty story 

Shall live while nature's self endures ! 
O come arrayed in all your glory, 

And Greece may live and yet be yours ! 
And, hark ! the slave hath burst his chain, 
And Triumph's raptures shares again ! 
New-born, he feels a Spartan's soul sublime, 
And thrusts the Tartar from his sacred clime ! 

But ah ! in vain the voice of grief 

Is raised where all is desolate ! 
No answering sound affords relief 

To hearts that wail the wrongs of fate ; 
Death broods o'er these abandoned plains, 
And horror's frozen silence reigns ! 
Alas ! the dream that soothed his soul 

Too fleetly fled die minstrel mourns ; 
Alas ! when past th' infernal goal 

No demigod to earth returns ! 
And hark ! while here my voice of woe 
Is raised around their dwellings low 
Repeating many a hero's name 
With Sparta's linked or Athens' fame, 
A turbaned Turk with sacrilegious blow 
Lays the last column of Minerva low ! 

J. F. 

172 Review. Duchess of Angouleme's Journal. j^May 


Private Memoirs, which, with the Work 
of M. Hue, and the Journal of Clery, 
complete the History of the Captivity 
of the Royal Family of France in 
the Temple. Translated from the 
French, with Notes by the Trans- 
lator ; 12rao, pp. 138. London, 
Murray ; Edinburgh, Blackwood. 

THERE is something interesting even 
in the title of this little publication. 
Sovereigns and princes are so far re- 
moved from the observation of the rest 
of mankind, that public curiosity has 
always been directed with peculiar 
eagerness to their private history. We 
feel a very natural desire to " enter 
within the vail," which ceremony in- 
terposes between them and their sub- 
jects ; to see them lay aside the over- 
powering lustre, which prevented our 
near approach and our steady gaze ; and 
to observe how far they, who never ap- 
peared to our imaginations but in the 
full meridian of felicity and of power, 
approach in their retirement the level 
of humanity, and are influenced by the 
common motives and feelings of men. 

The memoirs of princes, therefore, 
are always read with avidity, even 
though there be nothing very extra- 
ordinary in their details. We con- 
template with interest any portrait, 
which exhibits the minds of such ex- 
altated personages without the disguise 
of court costume: we have a secret 
pride in comparing them with our- 
selves; and in observing how com- 
pletely their superiority vanishes, when 
they are viewed apart from those ex- 
ternal advantages, which threw around 
them an adventitious glare. 

The abatement of admiration, how- 
ever, which such memoirs generally 
produce, is amply compensated by the 
better feelings which they excite. 
We enter with full sympathy into the 
joys and sorrows to which we see royal 
hearts equally accessible with our own. 
The familiarity into which we seem 
admitted with them is repaid with a 
proportionate degree of amity. Their 
faults, estimated by their temptations, 
are scanned with a very indulgent eye; 
and their virtues derive additional lus- 
tre, not only from the extent of their 

influence, but from the difficulty of 
maintaining them amidst the innu- 
merable facilities afforded to vice, by 
the obsequiousness and flattery of ser- 
vile dependants. Their happiness ap- 
pears so far above all ordinary compe- 
tition, that we view it without envy ; 
and over their miseries, perpetually 
contrasted in our minds with the 
brighter aspect of their lot, we shed a 
tear of unmingled compassion. 

Never have the best of these feelings 
been more powerfully awakened in 
our own breasts, than by the perusal 
of this journal. Nothing, indeed, can 
be conceived more interesting than 
the circumstances in which it has ap- 
peared. It is continued to the day of the 
dauphin's death, and of course con- 
tains much information which Clery 
and Hue, in their journals, could not 
give. It is composed from notes, 
either made by stealth at the mo- 
ment, with pencils which the princess 
had found means to conceal from her 
persecutors, or added immediately after 
her release from prison, and has there- 
fore an air of simplicity and nature, 
which the feeling of the moment alone 
could impress. It was written without 
any view to publication, and therefore 
represents, without disguise or conceal- 
ment, the miseries and the conduct of 
the ill-fated captives. It is written 
by the Orphan of tha Temple, whose 
restoration to her former dignity af- 
fords some compensation for her pro- 
tracted sufferings ; and who, by her 
virtues and her heroism, has com- 
manded the admiration of the world, 
and proved how much she had profit- 
ed in the school of affliction. This 
interesting little work is not accom- 
panied by any name, but it is avowed 
at Paris ; and it is impossible to read 
one page of it, without being con- 
vinced that it is the genuine produc- 
tion of the illustrious personage to 
whom it is ascribed. 

The narrative commences from the 
1 3th of August 1792, when the king 
and his family were committed to the 
Temple. They were accompanied to 
this melancholy abode by the Princess 
de Lamballe, of the house of Savoy, 
widow of Louis de Bourbon, Prince of' 

1917.] Review. Duchess of Angoukme's Journal. 173 

Lamballe. Her attachment to the journal) " the horrible man who had 
queen was enthusiastic 

broken open the door of the king on 
the 20th of June I 792, and who had 
been near assassinating him. This 
man never left the tower, and was in- 
defatigable in endeavouring to torment 

The prepar- 
ations for the journey to Montmedy 
separated them for a time ; and Ma- 
dame de Lamballe sought refuge in 
England ; but when she heard of the 

queen's recapture, no earnestness of him. One time he would sing before 
entreaty, or fear of danger, could pre- the whole family the Carmagnole, and 
vent her from rejoining her royal 
friend, whom she accompanied and 
cheered during her dreadful trials, with 
unequalled magnanimity and affec- 
tion. The unfortunate queen was not 
long permitted to enjoy the soothing 

conversation of this generous com- 
panion. The tyrannical mandate of 
the Commune de Paris forced Madame 
de Lamballe from the Temple, to ex- 
piate the crime of her devoted attach- 
ment to the royal sufferer, by a death 
attended with circumstances of atroci- 

a thousand other horrors; again, know- 
ing that the queen disliked the smoke 
of tobacco, he would puff it in her 
face, as well as in that of the king, as 
they happened to pass him." Such 
were the indignities to which they 
were daily exposed : but the horror of 
the picture is relieved by the devoted 
affection of this amiable family for 
each other, which seemed to beguile 
them of the sense of their individual 
misery, to console them for all they 
had lost, to support them under all 

ty, " unparalleled even in the annals of they had to suffer, and to fortify them 

France." This barbarous event was 
communicated to the unhappy family 
in the Temple, in a manner which 
strongly marked the brutality of the 
Revolutionists. " At three o'clock, 
(3d of September) just after dinner, 
as the king was sitting down to tric- 
trac with the queen, (which he played 
for the purpose of having an oppor- 
tunity of saying a few words to her 
unheard by the keepers,) the most hor- 
rid shouts were heard. Several offi- 
cers of the guard and of the munici- 
pality now arrived, the former insist- 
ed that the king should shew himself 
at the windows ; fortunately the latter 
opposed it ; but, on his majesty's ask- 
ing what was the matter, a young offi- 
cer of the guard replied : " Well, since 
you will know, it is the head of Ma- 
dame de Lamballe that they wish to 
show you." At these words the queen 
was overcome with horror ; it was the 
only occasion in which her firmness 
abandoned her. The noise lasted till 
five o'clock. The prisoners learned 
that the people had wished to force the 
door, and that the municipal officers 
had been enabled to prevent it only by 
putting across it a tricoloured scarf, and 
by allowing six of the murderers to 
march round the tower with the head 
of the princess, leaving at the door her 
body, which they would have dragged 
in also. When this deputation enter- 
ed, Kocher (the goaler) shouted for 
joy, and brutally insulted a young wo- 
man, who turned sick with horror at 
this spectacle." This Rocher was (to 
adopt again the emphatic words of the 

against all they had to fear. The 
health and education of the dauphin 
was their principal care. For the sake 
of his health, they went every day to 
walk in the garden, though Louis never 
failed to be insulted by the guards, 
The king taught him geography ; the 
queen, history, and to get verses by 
heart ; and Madame Elizabeth gave 
him little lessons in arithmetic. But 
of the hope which mingled with these 
soothing employments they were soon 
to be deprived. On the 22d of Sep- 
tember the republic was proclaimed ; 
and one evening in the beginning of 
October, the king, after he had sup- 
ped, was told to stop ; that he was not 
to return to his former apartments; and 
that he was to be separated from his 
family. At this dreadful sentence the 
queen lost her usual courage ; and the 
officers were so much alarmed by her 
silent and concentrated sorrow, that 
they allowed her and the other prin- 
cesses to see the king, but at meal times 
only, and on condition that they should 
speak loud, and in good French. At 
length, on the llth-of December, the 
king was summoned to the bar of the 
Convention. The anxiety of his fa- 
mily during his absence may be easily 
conceived. The queen, to discover 
what was going on, condescended for 
the first time to question the officers 
who guarded her but they would tell 
her nothing. On his return in the 
evening, she requested to see him in- 
stantly, but received no answer. Next 
day she repeated her request to see the- 
king, and to read the newspapers, that 

Review. Duchess of Angouleme's Journal. 


she might learn the course of the trial, 
or if that should be refused, that the 
children at least might be permitted to 
see his majesty. The newspapers were 
refused ; but the children were allow- 
ed to see their father, on condition of 
being separated entirely from their 
mother. To this privation, however, 
the king was too generous to expose 

The circumstances immediately pre- 
ceding and attending the execution of 
the unhappy monarch are known to 
all : we cannot deny ourselves the 
satisfaction of transcribing the tribute 
paid by his daughter to the greatness 
of his conduct during his rigorous cap- 
tivity. " During his confinement, he 
displayed the highest piety, greatness 
of mind, and goodness ; mildness, 
fortitude, and patience, in bearing the 
most infamous insults, the most hor- 
rid and malignant calumnies; Chris- 
tian clemency, which forgave even .his 
murderers ; and the love of God, his 
family, and his people, of which he 
gave the most affecting proofs, even 
with his last breath, ad of which he 
went to receive the reward in the bo- 
som of his Almighty and all-merciful 

After the death of Louis, the perse- 
cutions of his family became every day 
more rigorous. A decree of the Com- 
mune, that the dauphin should be se- 
parated from his mother and the prin- 
cesses, gave rise to a scene of affliction, 
which is described with the most 
touching simplicity. 

" As soon as the young prince heard 
this sentence pronounced, he threw 
himself into the arms of his mother, 
and entreated, with violent cries, not 
to be taken from her. The unhappy 
queen was stricken to the earth by 
this cruel order. She would not part 
with her son ; and she actually de- 
fended, against the efforts of the offi- 
cers, the bed in which she had placed 
him. But these men would have him, 
and threatened to call up the guard 
and use violence. The queen exclaim- 
ed, that they had better kill her than 
tear her child from her. An hour was 
spent in resistance on her part, in 
threats and insults from the officers, 
in prayers and tears on the part of the 
two other princesses. At last they 
threatened even the life of the child, 
and the queen's maternal tenderness 
at length forced her to this sacrifice. 
Madame Elizabeth (the king's sister) 


and Madame Royale dressed the child, 
for his poor mother had no longer 
strength for any thing. Nevertheless, 
when he was dressed, she took him 
and delivered him into the hands of 
the officers, bathing him with her 
tears, foreseeing, possibly, that she was 
never to see him again." 

The only pleasure the queen now en- 
joyed was, seeing her child through a 
chink as he passed from his room to the 
tower : at this chink she used to watch 
for hours together. The barbarity 
with which the dauphin was treated 
has no parallel. He was committed 
to a man of the name of Simon, a 
shoemaker by trade, then one of the 
municipal officers. To this inhuman 
wretch, the boy's crying at being se- 
parated from his family, appeared an 
unpardonable crime and he soon im- 
pressed him with such terror that he 
did not dare to weep. Simon, to in- 
sult the miseries of the unhappy suf- 
ferers through the voice of this belov- 
ed child, made him every day sing at 
the windows the Carmagnole, and other 
revolutionary songs ; and taught him 
the most horrid oaths and impreca- 
tions against God, his own family, and 
the aristocrats. " The queen fortun- 
ately was ignorant of these horrors. 
She was gone before the child had learn- 
ed his infamous lesson. It was an in- 
fliction which the mercy of Heaven 
was pleased to spare her." While this 
unfortunate boy remained under the 
care of Simon, his bed had not been stir- 
red for six months, and was alive with 
bugs, and vermin still more disgusting. 
His linen and his person were covered 
with them. For more than a year he 
had no change of shirt or stockings ! 
every kind of filth was allowed to ac- 
cumulate about him, and in his room. 
His window, which was locked as well 
as grated, was never opened, and the 
infectious smell of this horrid room 
was dreadful. He never asked for any 
thing, so great was his dread of Simon 
and his other keepers. He passed liis 
days without any kind of occupation. 
They did not even allow him light in 
the evening. This situation affected 
his mind as well as his body, and it is 
not surprising that he should have 
fallen into the most frightful atrophy. 

But we must forbear to indulge far- 
ther in these melancholy details, ear- 
nestly recommending to our readers 
the perusal of the journal itself. The 
queen and Madame Elizabeth, a prin- 

1817.] Review. Ricardo on Political Economy. 175, 

cess distinguished by her virtues and found very useful to those who are not 
piety, were successively dragged from 

the Temple to the Conciergerie, and 
thence to the scaffold. The dauphin, 
though originally of a vigorous con- 
stitution, fell-a victim, at the age of 
ten years and two months, to the 
studied barbarity of his treatment. 

We have to regret that these me- 
moirs are not continued after the dau- 
phin's death, though Madame lloyale 
(now the Duchess of Angouleme) re- 
mained in the Temple six months after 
that event, exposed alone to the perse- 
cutions and insults of her enemies. 
She was released on the llth of De- 
cember, the seventeenth anniversary 
of her birth, to experience vicissitudes 
no less wonderful, though happier in 
their issue, than those through which 
she had already passed. 

Whatever opinion may be entertain- 
ed of the principles which led to the 
revolution in France, no diversity of 
sentiment can prevail with regard to 
the atrocities of the Revolutionists. It 
will ever remain a problem in the his- 
tory of mankind, that a people dis- 
tinguished by then: refinement, should 
have become all at once equally dis- 
tinguished by their barbarity ; that a 
people almost singular in their attach- 
ment to monarchy, should, under the 
reign of the best of their monarchs, 
have forgotten their loyalty and alle- 
giance ; and, in the wildness of repub- 
lican frenzy, have sought to annihilate 
every thing connected with a govern- 
ment, for which, but lately before, 
they thought it all their glory to live 
and to die. The poison administered 
by their philosophists might, perhaps, 
vitiate the principles of the whole mass 
of the community ; the corrupt exam- 
ple of a court might have diffused 
through all ranks its pernicious influ- 
ence ; but will these causes account 
for the violence of their revolutionary 
fury, unless we suppose, that the force 
of the revulsion, which burst asunder 
all their former political associations, 
tore up at the same time all the good 
principles of their nature, and drove 
them from the excess of admiration 
and devotion, to the opposite extreme 
of contempt and hatred ? 

The translation, conducted on the 
most correct ideas, combines, very suc- 
cessfully, the simplicity of the original 
with the purest English idiom. The 
translator has occasionally elucidated 
the text with notes, which will be 

intimately acquainted with the early 
history of the French revolution. 

On the Principles of Political Economy 
and Taxation. By DAVID RICARDO, 
Esq. Murray, London ; Blackwood, 
Edinburgh. 8vo. 1817. 

THE science of Political Economy owes 
its rise to the eighteenth century. 
Many facts, and several of the prin- 
ciples which now enter into treatises 
on that subject, had been previously 
ascertained, but it was reserved for 
Stuart, Turgot, Smith, and other emi- 
nent men of the last age, to combine 
them into one consistent and harmo- 
nious whole, and to analyze, in a much 
more accurate manner than had ever 
been done before, the sources of wealth, 
and the laws which regulate its distri- 
bution among the different classes of 
society. Since the publication of the 
Wealth of Nations, political economy 
has been greatly improved. That 
great work, by shewing its infinite 
importance to our best interests, by 
proving that no legislative measures 
could be adopted clashing with its 
principles, but what must be vitally 
injurious to the community at large, 
and by successfully exposing many 
absurd theories, enactments, and prac- 
tices, hitherto looked upon , as the ac- 
me of genius and wisdom, contributed 
in a very high degree to draw public 
attention to the science of which it 
still continues the .brightest ornament. 
More lately, the profound and original 
inquiries of Mr Malthus have cast a 
new light on many subjects, which 
had either been entirely neglected, or 
only cursorily noticed by Dr Smith ; 
while the extraordinary events of the 
last twenty years have enabled us in va- 
rious instances, to try the deductions of 
theory by the touchstone of experi- 
ence. The suspension of cash pay- 
ments at the Bank of England, with 
the subsequent depreciation of our 
currency, and derangement of the ex- 
changes, rendered us much better ac- 
quainted with the theory of banking 
and money. And amid all the com- 
plicated evils arising from our general 
factitious system, the orders in coun- 
cil, the corn laws, and such like mea- 
sures, have at least served to bring 
under our view a variety of unprece- 
dented phenomena in economics, and 
by interesting the public, and giving 

Review. Ricardo on Political Economy. 


rise to much animated discussion, have 
conspired to disseminate and improve 
the science. 

Among the writers who have signal- 
ized themselves in these discussions, 
Mr llicardo holds a distinguished place. 
His Essay on the " High Price of 
Bullion," first clearly pointed out the 
circumstances regulating the amount 
of circulating medium in all commer- 
cial countries ; and his Essays " On 
the Profits of Stock," and on " Cur- 
rency," develop principles of the ut- 
most importance, and abound in views 
equally just, novel, and ingenious. 
Such being the case, a more than or- 
dinary interest must be excited by 
the appearance of the work before 
us, in which this able economist has 
explained his opinions respecting some 
of the fundamental doctrines of the sci- 
ence, and in which, as it appears to us, 
he has established some highly impor- 
tant principles, and rectified many pre- 
vailing errors. 

Nothing has contributed in a greater 
degree to perplex and confuse the in- 
vestigations respecting the principles of 
political economy, than the confound- 
ing together of what Dr Smith has 
termed value in use, and value in ex- 
change. Air is extremely useful ; it is 
not possible to exist without it ; but as 
it can be had at pleasure, as all can ac- 
quire it without any exertion, it has no 
exchangeable value. Utility, then, as 
Mr Ricardo has observed, is not the 
measure of exchangeable value, al- 
though it is absolutely essential to it. 
If a commodity Were in no way use- 
ful, in other words, if it could in no 
way contribute to our gratification, 
it would be destitute of exchangeable 
value, however scarce it might be, or 
whatever quantity of labour might be 
necessary to procure it. 

" Possessing utility, commodities derive 
their exchangeable values from two sources : 
from their scarcity, and from the quantity 
of labour required to obtain them. 

" There are some commodities, the value 
of which is determined by their scarcity a- 
lone. No labour can increase the quantity 
of such goods, and therefore their value 
cannot be lowered by an increased supply. 
Their value is wholly independent of the 
quantity of labour originally necessary to 
produce them, and varies witli the varying 
wealth and inclinations of those who are de- 
sirous to possess them. 

" These commodities, however, form a 

very small part of the mass of commodities 

daily exchanged in the market. By far the 

greater part of those goods, which are the 


objects of desire, are procured by labour ; 
and they may be multiplied, not in one 
country alone, but in many, almost without 
any assignable limit, if we are disposed to 
bestow the labour necessary to obtain them. 
" In speaking then of commodities, of 
their exchangeable value, and of the laws 
which regulate their relative prices, we mean 
always such commodities only as can be in- 
creased in quantity by the exertion of human 
industry, and on the production of which 
competition operates without restraint." 

In the early stages of society, the 
exchangeable value of these commodi- 
ties, or the rule which determines how 
much of one shall be given in exchange 
for another, depends solely on the com- 
parative quantity of labour expended 
on each. 

" The real price of every thing," 
says Dr Smith, " what every thing 
really costs to the man who wants to 
acquire it, is the toil and trouble of 
acquiring it. What every thing is real- 
ly worth to the man who has acquired 
it, and who wants to dispose of it, or 
exchange it for something else, is the 
toil and trouble which it can save to 
himself, and which it can impose on 
other people. * * * If, among a nation 
of hunters, for example, it usually cost 
twice the labour to kill a beaver which 
it does to kill a deer, one beaver should 
naturally exchange for, or be worth, 
two deer. It is natural, that what is 
usually the produce of two days', or 
two hours' labour, should be worth 
double of what is usually the produce 
of one day's or one hour's labour." 

That this is the only real foundation 
of exchangeable value seems indisputa- 
ble ; and hence it follows, that every 
increase in the quantity of labour must 
augment the value of that commodity 
on which it is necessarily expended, as 
every diminution of that quantity must 
proportionally lower its value. 

It may perhaps be thought, that al- 
though this is the case in early stages 
of society, in an advanced state it 
would be different ; but Mr llicardo 
has shewn that, in all cases, commodi- 
ties vary in value conformably to this 
principle. It is of no consequence 
among how many hands the labour of 
making a pair of stockings is divided. 
If the aggregate quantity is on the 
whole either diminished or increased, 
the exchangeable value of the stock- 
ings will fall or rise in proportion. 

From what we have already stated, 
a most important consequence, first 
pointed out by Mr Ilicardoj necessarily 

1817.^ Review. Ricardo on Political Economy. '177 

results, viz. That no increase in the labour REDUCES the price of commodi- 
wages of labour can increase the rela- ties, 
tive exchangeable values of commodi- 


If a stocking manufacturer employs 
one hundred men, during ten days, in 
manufacturing stockings, which ex- 
change for the gloves manufactured by 
the same number of men in twenty 
flays, the values of these products are 
precisely equal. But if some more 
expeditious method of manufacturing 
gloves should be discovered, if one 
man was enabled to do as much work 
as was previously executed by two, the 
value of gloves, compared with stock- 
ings, (supposing, for the sake of sim- 
plifying the question, that the value of 
the raw materials consumed in both 
manufactures are equal,) would be re- 
duced one half. If an equal improve- 
ment had been made in the stocking 
manufacture, the relative values of 
both commodities would remain the 
same as at first ; a greater qxiantity of 
the one would merely be exchanged 
for a greater quantity of the other. It 
is obvious, however, that an increase 
in the wages of labour could not affect 
this conclusion. Suppose wages to rise 
10 per cent., the stocking manufacturer 
could not say to the glove manufac- 
turer that he must have a greater quan- 
tity of gloves in exchange for his stock- 
ings, on account of the increased wages 
of his workmen, because the other 
would answer, that the same rise af- 
fected him in precisely the same de- 
gree. The relation of proportional 
numbers is not altered by being all 
multiplied by the same number. If a 
pair of stockings be exchanged for a pair 
of gloves when wages are at Is. per 
diem, the same exchange would take 
place after wages had risen to 20s. per 
diem. In the one case a very small share 
only of the produce of the labourer's 
exertions would belong to himself, and 
a large share to his employer ; in the 
other, the labourer's share would be 
much augmented, and his employer's 
proportionally reduced. The value of 
the commodity would, in both cases, 
be the same, but it would be very dif- 
ferently divided. 

Mr Ricardo, however, has not only 
shewn that a rise in the wages of labour 
does not raise the price of the commo- 
dities purchased by that labour, but 
he has also shewn, that when /z.m/ 
capitals, and machinery, are employed 
in producing, a rise in the wages of 
VOL. I. 

" Suppose," says Mr Ricardo, " that 
an engine is made, which will last for 100 
years, and that its value is 20,000, Sup- 
pose too, that this machine, without any 
Ubour whatever, could produce a certain 
quantity of commodities annually, and that 
profits were 10 per cent., the whole value 
of the goods produced would be annually 
2000 : 2 : 11 ; for the profit of '20,000. 
at 10 per cent, is 2000 

And an annuity of 2s. lid. for 
100 years, at 10 per cent, will, 
at the end of that period, re- 
place a capital of 20,000, 2 11 

Consequently the goods must 
sell for 2000 211 

" If the same amount of capital, viz. 
20,000, be employed in supporting pro- 
ductive labour, and be annually consumed 
and reproduced, as it is when employed in 
paying wages, then to give an equal profit 
of 10 per cent, the commodities must sell 
for 22,000. Now suppose labour so to 
rise, that instead of 20,000 being sufficient 
to pay the wages of those employed in pro- 
ducing the latter commodities, 20,952 is 
required ; then profits will fall to 5 per 
cent. ; for as these commodities would sell for 
no more than '22,000, and to produce them 
20,952 would be requisite, there would 
remain no more than l,04S, on a capital 
of '20,952. If labour so rise, that 21,153 
were required, profits would fall to 4 per 
cent ; and if it rose, so that 21,359 was 
employed, profits would fall to 3 per cent. 

" But as iw wages would be paid by 
the owner of the machine when profits fell 
to 5 per cent, the price of his goods must 
fall to 1007:13:8, viz. 1000 to pay 
his profits, and 7 : 13 : 8 to accumulate 
for 100 years, at 5 per cent, to replace his 
capital o'f 20,000. When profits fall to 5 
per cent his goods must sell for 816 : 3: 2 ; 
and when at 3 per cent for 632 : 16: 7. 
By a rise in the price of labour, then, un- 
der 7 per cent, which has no effect on the 
prices of commodities wholly produced by 
labour, a fall of no less than 68 per cent is 
effected on those commodities wholly pro- 
duced by machinery lasting 100 years. If 
the proprietor of the machine sold his goods 
for more than 6'32 : 16 :7, he would ptr 
more than 3 per cent, the general profit of 
stock ; and as others could rumish them- 
selves with machines at the same price of 
20,000, they would be so multiplied, that 
he would be inevitably obliged to sink the 
price of his goods, till they afforded only the 
usual and general profits of stock." 

In proportion as the machine was 
more or less durable, prices would be 
more or less affected by a rise of wages ; 
but, for a further elucidation of this 
subject, our readers must peruse 3Ir 
Ricardq's own statements. 

Revitsu. fJBingley's Useful Knowledge. 


We have here supposed, for the sake 
of perspicuity, that the value of money 
was invariable, but whether it is ris- 
ing or falling has no effect on these 
conclusions. Like every other com- 
modity, the exchangeable value of 
money varies as the labour of produ- 
cing it is increased or diminished. 

It does not follow, from the very im- 
portant principles which Mr Ricardo 
has with so much talent and ingenu- 
ity endeavoured to establish, that 
wages may be increased in one coun- 
try, though they should remain sta- 
tionary in others, without any mis- 
chievous consequences being experi- 
enced. If the wages of labour in Great 
Britain, from the effects of taxation, 
from the operation of the corn laws, 
or from any other cause, are higher 
than in any other country of Europe, 
the profits of stock must be propor- 
tionally lower. Hence, there is an in- 
ducement to remit capital abroad to 
where it will yield a larger return ; and 
although capitalists, as well as other 
men, have a natural repugnance to re- 
move to foreign countries from the land 
of their fathers and their friends, yet, 
us Mr Ricardo has justly observed, 
" There are assuredly limits to the 
price, which, in the form of perpetual 
taxation, individuals will submit to 
pay for the privilege merely of living 
in their native country." 

The vast number of English fa- 
milies which have emigrated to the 
continent since the peace, is a too con- 
vincing proof of the accuracy of this 
statement ; and until the weight of 
our taxation is diminished, and the 
profits of stock rendered as high, and 
the expense of house-keeping as cheap, 
in this country as on the other side 
of the water, the tide of emigration 
will continue to roll on. 

Besides adventitious causes, such as 
taxation, &c. which may raise the 
wages of labour and lower the rate of 
profit, Mr Ricardo lays it down as a 
general principle, that in every country 
the profits of stock must be diminish- 
ed according as it becomes more diffi- 
cult to raise food. If corn, or manu- 
factured goods, always sold at the 
same price, profits would be high or 
low, in proportion as wages were low 
or high. But although corn rises in 
price because more labour is necessary 
to produce it, that cause will not raise 
the price of manufactured goods, in 


the production of which no additional 
quantity of labour is required. " If 
then," says Mr Ricardo, " wages con- 
tinued the same, profits would remain 
the same ; but if, as is absolutely cer- 
tain, wages should rise with the rise 
of corn, then profits would necessarily 

Mr Ricardo had already developed 
this principle, though more concisely, 
in his " Essay on the Profits of Stock," 
and had successfully applied it to shew 
the folly of restricting the corn trade ; 
for, by forcing us to have recourse to 
land of a very inferior quality for our 
supplies of food, the restrictive system 
necessarily lowers the profits of every 
kind of stock throughout the country, 
and increases the desire to transfer ca- 
pital abroad. 

Mr Ricardo has also given a satis- 
factory, and in many respects an ori- 
ginal, view of the nature of rent, and 
of the effects of taxation. As our li- 
mits, however, will not permit us to 
enter on these topics, we earnestly re- 
commend our readers to have recourse 
to the work itself, which contains much 
valuable and profound discussion, as 
well on these as on subjects to which 
it has not been possible for us even to 

Mr Ricardo's style is simple and 
unaffected ; but there are some parts 
of his work in which, perhaps, he is a 
little obscure, and others in which 
there appears too much of controversy. 
Of all the writers on Political Econo- 
my, M. Say stands unrivalled for per- 
spicuity, for natural and luminous 
arrangement, and for instructive and 
elegant illustration. 

Bingley's Useful Knowledge; or an 
Account of the various Productions 
of Nature, Mineral, Vegetable, and 
Animal, it-Inch are chiejly employed 
fur the use of Man. 3 vols 12mo* 
'London, Baldwin & Co. 1817. 

THIS work well entitles its author 
to rank among the friends of youth. 
It is really what it pretends to be, a 
repository of useful knowledge, con- 
taining a clear and interesting account 
of many of thjeise productions which 
are useful to man in the mineral, ve- 
getable, and animal kingdoms. 

That part of it which treats of ani- 
mals has been executed on a plan 


Review. Sing-ley 

similar to that of Mavor, Bigland, and 
others ; and the subjects of the two 
first parts are to be found in systems 
of mineralogy and botany ; but there 
is no work with which we are ac- 
quainted, in which so much valuable 
information in all these departments 
is comprised within the same extent. 
There is, we are persuaded, no class 
of readers to whom this book will not 
be both amusing and instructive. To 
those who have already studied the 
subjects in larger works, it will serve 
to recall the particulars which are 
most interesting, and may be advan- 
tageously employed as a book of refer- 
ence. Those, on the other hand, who 
have not entered upon such inquiries, 
will find a great deal to gratify their 
curiosity, conveyed in an agreeable 
manner. To young persons, especially 
young ladies, who have seldom an op- 
portunity of studying large systems of 
natural history, we would particularly 
recommend this work. If it were read 
in small portions daily, and an account 
of the pupil's progress rendered, either 
in writing or in conversation, the 
young would soon be found to have 
acquired more information on the 
topics of which it treats, than many 
who have perused larger systems in a 
vague and cursory manner. Besides 
affording much information, as it is 
arranged on the plan of the best sys- 
tems, it will insensibly accustom the 
mind to the classifications of natural 
history, and thereby prepare the reader 
for the study of more extensive works. 
We must not, however, forbear to 
mention some slight defects, which 
we would wish much to see supplied, 
whenever it comes to another edition. 
In addition to the general index, there 
should be a separate index to each 
volume. In the first volume, only 
some of the families of minerals are 
enumerated, and for no other reason 
than that the Table might all be con- 
tained in one page. Another defect 
in the same part of the work is, that 
little is said of what are called com- 
pound rocks, or even of the different 
soils ; and nothing at all of what every 
one has often occasion to hear men- 
tioned, we mean the manner in which 
the earth is supposed to have been 
formed. Now we think that it would 
be interesting, and at the same time 
easy, to give a short account of these 

s Useful Knowledge. I T.9 

rocks, and, above all, of the different 
kinds of soils, and also to give some 
idea of what is meant by the theories 
of the earth. Another subject which 
we should have expected to see no- 
ticed, is fossil remains. In this there 
is much to interest and amuse ; and it 
certainly falls within the author's plan. 
All these things would add little to 
the size, while they would greatly in- 
crease the value of the publication. It 
is proper also to remark, that the au- 
thor might have taken more frequerit 
occasion than he has done to impress 
on the minds of his readers the appear- 
ances of wisdom and goodness which 
are so often to be met with in the 
works of nature. In books intended 
for the use of the young, this is a duty 
that ought never to be omitted ; and 
Jthe performance of it constitutes one 
great excellence in the writings of 
Bigland and Mavor. Of the style and 
manner we cannot give a better idea, 
than by making an extract almost at 
random, which may be considered a. 
fair specimen of what the book con- 

" The common pear is a well-known 

garden fruit, derived from an English stock, 
the wild pear tree (Pyrus communis), which 
grows in hedges and thickets in Somerset- 
shire and Sussex. It would be an endless 
task to describe the different known varieties 
of the cultivated pear. Some of these are 
very large, and others extremely small : 
some have a rich and luscious flavour, and 
others, as the irozi pear, are so hard and 
disagreeable to the taste, as to be absolutely 
unfit to eat. Pears are chiefly used in des- 
serts; and one or two of the kinds are 
stewed with sugar, baked, or preserved in 

" The fermented juice of pears is called 
perry, and is prepared nearly in the same 
manner as that of apples is for cider. The 
greatest quantities of perry are made in 
Worcestershire and Herefordshire. The 
Squash, the Oldfield, and the Barland 
perry are esteemed the beit. Many of the 
dealers in champaigne wine are said to use 
perry to a great extent in the adulteration 
of t it : and indeed, real good perry is little 
inferior in flavour or quality to champaigne. 

" Of the wood of the pear tree, which is 
light, smooth, compact, and of a yellowish 
colour, carpenters' and joiners' touls arc 
usually made, as well as the common kind* 
of flat rulers, and measuring scales. It is 
also used for picture frames that are to be 
stained black. The leaves impart a yellow 
dye, and are sometimes employed to com- 
municate a green colour to blue cloth." 

180 Analytical Notices. Encyclopaedia SritannicaSvpplemctit. 



AMONG the many distinctions by 
which our northern metropolis is 
known in the literary world, it is not 
the least honourable, that the first 
Encyclopedia, in point of celebrity, if 
not of time, published in Britain, 
was projected and executed in Edin- 
burgh. On the plan of the Encyclo- 
pedia Britannica, important improve- 
ments have no doubt been made in 
other similar works ; but it was even 
from the first a most valuable reposi- 
tory of knowledge, and many of the 
leading articles in science and litera- 
ture were exeputed with an ability 
which has never been surpassed. Sci- 
ence, however, is unceasing in her pro- 
gress ; and is found, in the course of a 
few years, to have left far behind, the 
fields in which her votaries had for- 
merly accompanied her with all the 
delight of discovery. The records of 
her advancement given in Encyclope- 
dias soon become defective; and the 
deficiency must be supplied either by 
new editions, or by supplemental ar- 
ticles. The proprietors of the Britan- 
nica, though they have repeatedly 
been called upon, by an extended sale, 
to renew the editions of their work, 
have generally chosen to give, in the 
form of supplements, the additional 
information which the progress of sci- 
ence required. The Supplement which 
is now-going on, has attracted much of 
the public attention by the pomp of 
its announcement, and has deserved 
it, so far as published, by the splen- 
dour of its execution. 

Three Parts of it have already ap- 
peared : the first preceded by a disser- 
tation exhibiting a general view of the 
progress of metaphysical, ethical, and 
political philosophy, by Professor Du- 
gald Stewart ; and the third, which 
begins the second volume, by a simi- 
lar dissertation on the history of the 
mathematical and physical sciences, 
by Professor Playfair. These disser- 
tations are extremely valuable ; and 
did the Supplement contain nothing 
more, we should have considered it as 
a very precious donation to the literary 
world. In the short sketch which we 

propose to give of works of this nature, 
our plan and limits admit of no retro- 
spect beyond the last published Num- 
ber. Of Mr Stewart's dissertation, 
therefore, we shall only say, that we 
agree with some distinguished critics 
in considering it as the most splendid 
of his works, and as combining a nunir 
ber of qualities which place the author 
at the head of the elegant writers of 
philosophy in our language. 

The order which Air Playfair fol- 
lows in his discourse, is very properly 
determined by a regard to the subser-? 
viency of one science to the progress of 
another, and the consequent priority 
of the former in the course of regular 
study. He first traces, therefore, the 
progress of the pure mathematics, one 
of the two principal instruments which 
have been applied to the advancement 
of natural science. As the other in- 
strument is experience, the principles 
of the inductive method, or that branch 
of logic which teaches the application, 
of experiment and observation to the 
interpretation of nature, form, of course, 
the second object of his inquiry. He, 
next proceeds to treat of natural phi- 
losophy, under the divisions of mechan- 
ics, astronomy, and optics. Under the 
general denomination of mechanics he 
includes the theory of motion, as ap- 
plied not only to, solids, but to fluids, 
both incompressible and elastic. Optics 
he places after astronomy, because the 
discoveries in mechanics, he observes, 
have much less affected the progress of 
the former of these sciences than of 
the latter. A sixth division succeeds, 
containing the laws of the three un- 
known substances, if, indeed, they may 
be cajled substances, heat, electricity, 
and magnetism. As we intend hereafter 
to give, in another part of our work, u 
pretty full analysis of this dissertation, 
written by a correspondent, we shall 
content ourselves at present with this 
general outline of Mr Playfair 's plan. 
In the object which he modestly pro- 
poses to himself, to treat his subjects 
ivithclearnessand precision, Mr Play- 
fair has completely succeeded. No au- 
thor, indeed, with whom we are ac- 
quainted, excels him in luminous ar- 
rangement, or in perspicuous expres- 

1817/3 Analytical Notices. Encyclopaedia Brifannica Supplement. 181 

sion. At all times perfectly master of 
his subject, he conveys his ideas to 
his readers with a clearness, an ease, 
and elegant simplicity, which render 
his works, in our opinion, models of 
philosophical composition. 

Of the other articles in this part of the 
Supplement, the first is AUSTRALASIA. 
A vague idea had long prevailed among 
European geographers, that an immense 
continent existed beyond the limits of 
discovery in the south, and extended 
even to the pole. To this imaginary 
continent they gave the name of Terra. 
Australia Incognita. Though later re- 
searches have proved that there is no 
such continent, or at least that it can 
only be of a moderate size, and en- 
closed by impenetrable barriers of ice, 
yet in the three great oceans in the 
south of the globe, there have been 
discovered almost innumerable islands, 
which demanded, of course, some sys- 
tematic arrangement. With this view, 
the President de Brosses proposed that 
the lands and islands in the Austral 
world should be divided into three 
portions, those in the Indian ocean, 
and in the south of Asia, to be named 
Australasia ; those in the two Pacifies, 
Polynesia, from the number of islands ; 
and those in the Atlantic, to the south 
of Cape Horn, and the Cape of Good 
Hope, Ulugellaiiica. Under the name 
ef Australasia, the writer of this arti- 
cle comprehends 1. Notasia, or new 
Holland 2. Van Diemen's Land 3. 
Papua, or New Guinea 4. New Bri- 
tain, New Ireland, and neighbouring 
islands 5. Solomon's Islands 6. New 
Hebrides 7. New Caledonia 8. New 
Zealand, and isles to the southward 
9. Kerguelen's Islands, or Islands of 
Desolation 10. St Paul and Amster- 
dam 11. Numerous reefs and islets 
of coral scattered over the Australasian 
sea. After this enumeration, the three 
last particulars of which have seldom 
been classed by geographers under the 
name of Australasia, though they are 
so classed with evident propriety, the 
author proceeds to give a pretty full 
account of each of them, in the 
order in which they are named. One 
considerable advantage this article pos- 
sesses, in consequence of its being so 
lately published. When the corres- 
ponding article in the Edinburgh En- 
cyclopedia was written, it was known 
that Captain Flinders had ascertained 
Van Diemen's Land to be a large island 
separated from New Holland by a strait 

between one and two degrees in breadth 
that, in a subsequent voyage, he had 
circumnavigated New Holland and 
that, in a still later voyage, he had 
made many important discoveries. It 
was known that, after losing his ship, 
he had pet sail for England with his 
papers, plans, and charts of discovery, 
when he was most shamefully detain- 
ed at the Isle of France ; and that, in 
spite of an order for his liberation, 
procured in consequence of an appli- 
cation by the Royal Society of Lon- 
don to the National Institute of Paris, 
the governor refused to permit him to 
depart. When the article in the Sup- 
plement was written, it could be stated, 
that after a captivity of seven years, 
he had at length arrived in England 
in 1810, and published, in 1814, his 
discoveries in two volumes, accom- 
panied with an atlas of charts, which 
may be held forth as models in mari- 
time surveying. Captain Flinders has 
completed the survey in detail of the 
coasts of New Holland, with the ex- 
ception of the west and northwest 
coasts, which he was prevented from 
exploring by the loss of his ship. It is 
to be hoped, that the local government 
of New South Wales will take an ear- 
ly opportunity of completing the sur- 
vey in which Flinders was so unfor- 
tunately interrupted. In this article, 
too, are recorded the still more recent, 
and no less interesting, discoveries, 
made in the interior of this vast island 
by Mi Evans and Governor Mac- 
quarrie. The country, according to 
their accounts, was in all respects de- 
lightful, still improving as they pene- 
trated westward, and holding out the 
most inviting prospects to future col- 
onists. Little more is added, in this 
article, to the information which we 
already possessed respecting the islands 
of Australasia, excepting the discovery 
of a few islets to the south and south- 
west of Lord Auckland's group, 

The next article in the Supplement 
is ArsTiiiA, a new account of which 
was rendered indispensably necessary, 
by the recent events in which that, 
empire bore so conspicuous a share. 1 1 
begins with a very rapid sketch of tin- 
recent history of Austria, and to tin- 
account of the same events given in 
the corresponding article in the Edin- 
burgh Encyclopaedia, it has to add 
this unexpected and wonderful cir- 
cumstance, that in consequence of the 
downfall of Napoleon, Austria is now 

Analytical Notices, Encyclopaedia Britannica Supplement. 


restored to more than her former 
splendour. At the commencement of 
the French revolution, the Austrian 
dominions contained a population of 
25,000,000, as confirmed by the Con- 
gress of Vienna, their population is 
27,926,000. This mighty empire in- 
cludes, at present, Bohemia, Moravia, 
-Austrian Silesia, Lower Austria, Up- 
per Austria, Salzburg and Berchstol- 
gaden ; Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, 
Friuli, and Trieste ; Galicia, Bucko- 
wine, Hungary, Transylvania, Sclavo- 
nia, Croatia, Venetian States, Istria, 
Dalmatia, Tyrol, Lombardy, and other 
acquisitions in Italy. The power of 
this empire is less than we might ex- 
pect from its extent of population, 
owing, as is judiciously observed, to 
the want of that consonance of nation- 
al manners, and that congeniality of 
national feeling, which are essential to 
case in governing, and which have 
long formed the strength of France 
and Britain. 

The next article of considerable 
length is BAKING, leaving which to 
the consideration of bakers and phy- 
sicians, we pass on to .a very intelli- 
gent paper on the BALANCE of POWER. 
We regret that the author has not 
developed more fully the clear and en- 
lightened views which he entertains on 
this important subject, particularly as 
it is a subject not generally treated of in 
works of a similar nature. The policy 
of balancing the power of one state 
ngainst another, was never pursued 
but in modern Europe nor was it till 
the commencement of the sixteenth 
century, that the European states be- 
gan to be formed into one grand fede- 
ral league, to be the guardians of each 
other's interests. The ultimate inten- 
tion of this system of policy was, to se- 
cure every state in the full possession 
of all its rights, by checking the first 
encroachments of ambition, watching 
the movements of foreign powers, and 
uniting their respective force in sup- 
port of the weak against the strong. 
It was no part of this system to equal- 
ize the powers of the states compos- 
ing the grand community which is 
as impracticable as to preserve an equal- 
ity of property among the individual 
members of a nation. The question 
is not what amount of power above a- 
nother any state possesses, provided 
that power is fairly acquired, but whe- 
ther any state possesses its power in 
such circumstances, as to enable it to 

trespass at will on a weaker neighbour. 
The ancients had certainly some idea 
of such a political equipoise ; but whe- 
ther that idea was merely speculative, 
or whether it influenced their political 
conduct, is a question which has di- 
vided some of our ablest writers. Mr 
Hume maintains, that the authority 
of this system was scarcely less exten- 
sive in ancient than in modern Eu- 
rope ; while Mr Brougham affirms, 
that in this department of politics, the 
ancients displayed nothing beyond a 
speculative knowledge. The truth 
seems to lie between these assertions, 
The great principle of preserving a 
due balance of power, is to be traced 
in many of the transactions of the 
Grecian states ; but that principle was 
never so regular in its operation, nor 
so authoritative in its influence, as it 
has become among the modern nations 
of Europe. It was in Italy, divided 
into a number of small states and com- 
monwealths, that this principle first 
assumed the appearance of system. 
Early in the fifteenth century, we see 
the balance of power becoming an ob- 
ject of constant concern among these 
states and about the close of that 
century, these ideas began to extend 
to other quarters, and to influence the 
operations of mightier kingdoms. The 
beneficial effects of such a system are 
sufficiently obvious. It checked the 
frequency of wars it was a barrier 
against the strong, and a bulwark to 
the weak. We heartily concur with 
the author of this article, in reprobat- 
ing and lamenting the fatal violation 
of this salutary principle in the par- 
tition of Poland which presented the 
alarming example of a deliberate, un- 
checked conspiracy against the inde- 
pendent existence of an unoffending 
country. With regard to the interest 
of Great Britain in the balancing sys- 
tem, it is very justly remarked, that 
our commerce and our colonies render 
it absurd to talk of our being insulat- 
ed as an empire, because Britain is an 
island ; and that we could not always 
be as secure, and as free from uneasy 
apprehension, in a state of total insula- 
tion from foreign connexions, as with 
friends or confederates to employ or 
oppose a formidable enemy on his own 
confines. We accord, likewise, in the 
observation, that it is often proper to 
watch and to warn, to use the influ- 
ence of our remonstrances and coun- 
sels, without having recourse, except 

Analytical Notices. Encyclopedia Brilannica Supplement. 

in urgent cases, to the extremity of 

Of the BALTIC a very full, and, we 
are inclined to believe, a very correct 
account is given, under the different 
heads of general description, extent, 
depth, level, of its waters with those of 
the ocean, tides, superior and inferior 
currents, saltncss, temperature, winds, 
fisheries, coasts, canals, and commerce. 
The plan of the article is faulty, in 
embracing too much information, and, 
of course, occupying a space out of all 
due proportion with the rest of the 
work. Under the head of coasts, in 
particular, the author enters into a 
detailed account of towns which he 
should have merely enumerated, leav- 
ing a fuller description of them to be 
given either under their respective 
names, or under the names of the 
countries in which they are situated. 
The same observation will apply to his 
account of the rivers which fall into 
the Baltic, and the canals which com- 
municate with it. With these excep- 
tions, we think the article very satis- 

The next article which claims our 
attention is BANKING. After ex- 
plaining, in a very satisfactory man- 
ner, the purpose for which banks 
were originally established, and their 
general utility, the author proceeds 
to notice some of the recent trans- 
actions of the Bank of England, and 
to describe the effects produced by so 
powerful an engine on the circula- 
tion and commerce of the country, 
ilost of our readers, perhaps, know, 
that this bank, the most important in 
the world, whether we consider its 
wealth, or the amazing extent of its 
transactions, was established, by a char- 
ter of William and Mary, in July 1694. 
It was projected by William Pater son, 
a native of Dumfriesshire, who is said 
to have taken the bank of St George, 
in Genoa, for his model ; and who was 
assisted in arranging his plan by 
Michael Godfrey, a gentleman of great 
consideration in London. The charter 
was granted for the term of twelve 
years; and the corporation was deter- 
minable on a year's notice. The ori- 
ginal capital, lodged by the proprietors 
in the Exchequer, was 1,200,000, 
for which they received 8 per cent, in- 
terest, and were allowed, by govern- 
ment, 1000 additional in name of 
house expenses. The detail of the 
transactions of the bank, to the year 

1810, are given with more precision in 
the Edinburgh Encyclopaedia ; but the 
author of this article has the advan- 
tage of having written six years later, 
and can therefore state, that the loan 
of 3,000,000, with which, in con- 
sideration of the renewal of its char- 
ter, the bank agreed to accommodate 
government for six years without in- 
terest, and which was afterwards con- 
tinued during the war at an interest of 
3 per cent., was discharged in the year 
1814; that the additional 3,000,000., 
which, in 1808, the directors, in con- 
sideration of the immense profit ac- 
cruing from the use of the public 
money, agreed to lend to government 
without interest, until six months 
after the conclusion of a definitive 
treaty of peace, was continued to the 
public till the 5th of April 1816; that, 
according to an arrangement then 
made, the bank was allowed to add to 
its capital 2,910,600; and, in return, 
the loan of 3,000,000 was continued, 
at an interest of 3 per cent. In 1746, 
the advances to government, which 
form the undivided capital of the bank, 
amounted to 11,686,800; they now 
amount to 20,686,800. The increase 
of its circulation has been amazingly 
rapid. By the report laid before Par- 
liament lately, it appeal's, that in 1718 
the total amount of Bank of England 
notes in circulation was 1,829,930; 
in April 1816 it was 26,594,360. 
Never at any former period have the 
affairs of this bank been in so flourish- 
ing a state as at present. A principal 
cause of that prosperity is the im- 
mense amount of the national debt 
830,000,000 ; for the management 
of which the bank receives 340 per 
million for the first 600,000,000, and 
300 per million on the excess above 
600,000,000. It has likewise an al- 
lowance of 800 per million on the 
whole amount of every loan of which 
it receives the payment ; on every lot- 
tery contract it is allowed 1000; and 
it has the use of all the public money 
committed to its charge, besides several 
other allowances of less importance. 
But for the other sources of its wealth, 
and the general detail of its business, 
we must refer our readers to the arti- 
cle itself, which will be found equally 
clear in its statements and accurate in 
its information. The topics which it 
embraces, besides those to which we 
have already adverted, are the " ad- 
vantages resulting from the use of 

184 Analytical Notices. Encyclopaedia Britannica Supplement. 

paper in place of specie ; country 
banks in Britain ; system of banking 
in Britain ; mode of settling the daily 
transactions of the banks in London ; 
disadvantage! incident to a currency 
of paper ; policy to be adopted by the 
Bank of England in a disordered state 
of the circulation ; dangers to which 
banks of circulation are exposed ; in- 
terruption of credit in 1793 and 17.97; 
suspension of cash payments by the 
Hunk of England, and reasons for con- 
tinuing that suspension ; chartered 
banks of Scotland ;* Bank of Ireland ; 
and Bank of France. 

Of the article on BANKS FOR SAV- 
ijfos we forbear to say any thing at 
present, as the merits of that article 
have already been adverted to in our 
former Number, and we believe the 
subject will soon be resumed. 

In the account of the BARBARY 
STATES, which our limits allow us 
merely to mention, there is some re- 
cent and curious information, particu- 
larly with regard to the condition of 
Christian slaves. 

To the article BAROMETKR our at- 
tention must be more particularly di- 
rected. The able writer of this article, 
beginning with a concise and elegant 
summary of the opinions of the ancients 
concerning the system of the material 
world, and shewing how the mutual 
opposition of the academicians and pe- 
ripatetics discouraged the application 
of mathematical reasoning in physical 
research, then proceeds to trace the pro- 
gress of experimental science from the 
wild but beneficial projects of the al- 
chemists, through the more sober and 
regular steps which have raised her to 
her present commanding elevation. 
In this enlightened survey, he is led 
to mention some of the most curious 
and instructive facts in the history of 
knowledge and of the human mind. 
It is well known how much, after the 
restoration of letters, a reverence for 
antiquity, and particularly for the te- 
nets of Aristotle, repressed the ardour 
of philosophical adventure. It was a 

* There are at present in our metropolis 
three banks incorporated by charter ; name- 
ly, the Bank of Scotland, established by act 
of Parliament in 1695 ; the Royal Bank of 
Scotland, established by royal charter in 
1727 ; and the British Linen Company, 
originally incorporated in 1746, with a ca- 
pital of 100,000, for the encouragement 
of the linen manufacture. 

maxim of ancient philosophy, that na- 
ture abhors a vacuum ; and to this 
abhorrence were ascribed all the ef- 
fects which result from atmospherical 
pressure. An incident, apparently tri- 
vial, first led to the refutation of that 
absurd opinion. Some artisans in the 
service of the Grand Duke of Tus- 
cany, having been employed to con- 
struct a sucking pump for a very deep 
well, were surprised to find, that in 
spite of all their care in constructing 
the pump, they could not raise the 
water higher than 3'2 feet. For an ex- 
planation of this perplexing fact they 
applied to Galileo, whose ingenuity had 
already prepared a complete revolution 
in science. Galileo had, by some in- 
teresting experiments, obtained a tol- 
erably correct notion of the weight of 
air ; but the horror of a vacuum was 
an established principle, which he had 
not the boldness to question ; and he 
endeavoured to explain this seeming 
anomaly, by supposing the influence 
of the horror to be confined within 
certain limits, not exceeding the press* 
ure of a column of water 32 feet in 
height. He was dissatisfied with his 
own explanation ; instituted an ex- 
periment which brought him almost 
within sight of the truth ; and com- 
municating his doubts and his conjec- 
tures to his disciple Toricelli, led him 
into the tract of more successful ex- 

The celebrated experiment of Tori- 
celli, and the still more decisive expe- 
riments of Pascal, one of the finest and 
most original geniuses that France ever 
produced, at length exploded, though 
not without a violent struggle, the long 
received maxim of the abhorrence of ti 
vacuum ; and proved, with the evi- 
dence of demonstration, the pressure 
of the atmosphere. " On the whole," 
says the author of a well- written article 
on the same subject, in the Edinburgh 
Encyclopaedia, " the history of this re- 
search affords a signal instance of the 
slow and gradual progress of human 
knowledge. Galileo proved that the air 
was possessed of weight ; Toricelli 
conjectured that this fluid caused the 
ascent of water in pumps, as well as 
the suspension of mercury in the tube, 
which bears his name; and Pascal 
converted this conjecture into a de- 
monstration." We have been led so 
far beyond our limits, by the interest- 
ing nature of these facts, that we 
can barely mention the other subjects 

Analytical Notices. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Supplement. 185 

which this article embraces. An ac- 
count is given of the invention of the 
air pump, by Giiricke of Magdeburg, 
about the middle of the seventeenth 
century, of his statical balance and 
anemoscope : the introduction of ex- 
perimental science into England, and 
the institution of the Royal Society, 
are next related ; this naturally leads 
to the mention of some of its most ce- 
lebrated members, as Boyle and Hook, 
the latter of whom greatly improved 
the form of the air pump ; next come 
the experiments of Huygens, who, 
from the suspension of mercury in a 
glass tube exhausted of air, was led to 
infer the existence of a more subtile 
fluid, which he called aether : the cis- 
tern barometer is then described ; after 
which are detailed the various con- 
trivances for enlarging the scale of the 
variations of the barometer ; first in 
order is the barometer of Descartes ; 
then the double barometer of Huy- 
gens, the advantages and disadvant- 
ages of which are pointed out ; next, 
the more accurate double barometer, 
and the wheel barometer of Dr Hook ; 
the inclined barometer, ascribed to Sir 
Samuel Moreland ; the square baro- 
meter of Cassini and Bernoulli ; the 
conical barometer of Amontons ; the 
sectoral barometer proposed by Ma- 
gellan ; the adaptation of the differen- 
tial scale for measuring minute divi- 
sions, first proposed by Vernier, early 
in the seventeenth century, but long 
afterwards strangely neglected ; the 
article next proceeds to mention the 
circumstances which influence the va- 
riations of the barometer, viz. the effect 
of moisture within the barometric 
tube, the effect of the width of the 
tube the uniform convexity of the 
surface of pure mercury in properly 
constructed barometers, the quantity 
of depression in different tubes, the 
application of a leather bag to the sy- 
phon barometer, the effect of heat on 
the barometer, which leads to an ac- 
count of the successive improvements 
of the thermometer ; marine barome- 
ters are next described, the most ap- 
proved kind of which, manufactured by 
Mr Cary of London, is illustrated by a 
figure, in a well executed plate the 
difficulty of explaining the variations 
of the barometer are adverted to, and 
some hints are thrown out relative to 
these causes. On the whole, we think 
this a very able article, though, per- 
haps, a little too discursive. 
VOL. I. 

As a sequel to the article BAROME- 
TER, we have, from the same pen, a 
MENTS. The decisive experiment by 
which Pascal ascertained that the pres- 
sure of the atmosphere diminished ac- 
cording to its elevation, naturally sug- 
gested to him the possibility of mea- 
suring by the barometer the relative 
heights of distant places on the sur- 
face of the globe. The first attempts, 
however, were rude, as they proceed- 
ed on the inaccurate supposition that 
the lower mass of air is a fluid of uni- 
form density. We regret that our 
limits prevent us from accompanying 
Mr Leslie in tracing the successive 
steps by which the instruments and 
the rules employed in barometrical 
measurement have attained their pre- 
sent state of perfection. One interest- 
ing discovery, however, lately made 
by this mode of distant levelling, we 
must, in justice to our readers, men- 
tion. Two Prussian travellers, Engal- 
horde and Parrot, who proceeded, on 
the 13th July lH, from the mouth of 
the Kuban, on the Black Sea, to the 
mouth of the Terek, on the Caspian, 
ascertained, by a series of fifty-one ac- 
curate observations, that the Caspian 
is 334 English feet below the level of 
the ocean ; and that, at the distance 
of 189 miles from the Caspian, the 
country is depressed to the level of 
the ocean thus leaving an immense 
basin, from which the waters are sup- 
posed to have retired by a subterrane- 
ous percolation. 

In the article BATHING, the medi- 
cal and physical effects of the various 
kinds of baths, in various circum- 
stances, as determined by the obser- 
vations of Wright, Currie, Seguin, 
Parr, Haygarth, Fourcroy, Marcarfl, 
and other able physicians, are minutely 
and accurately detailed. 

The article BEAUTY we opened with 
peculiar interest ; and though we are 
very far from agreeing to the theory 
proposed, and the reasoning by which 
that theory is supported, we are ready 
to do full homage to the abilities dis- 
played in the discussion. We cannot 
say, however, that we greatly admire 
the style in which the article is com- 
posed. It is distinguished, indeed, by 
great vigour of conception, and by a 
command of language almost peculiar 
to its celebrated author ; but the vehe- 
mence of its tone, and the dogmatical 
confidence of its assertions, remind us 
2 A 

Analytical Notices. JSdinburgh. Encyclopaedia. 


more of the manner of a pleader at 
the bar, anxious at all events to make 
good his cause, than of the calm and 
dispassionate style of a philosophical 
inquirer of which Mr Alison and Mr 
Stewart, in their treatises on the same 
subject, had given so pleasing speci- 
mens. We shall not at present at- 
tempt any analysis of the contents of 
this article, as we hope soon to have 
a communication on the subject from 
a correspondent. 

Under the article BEE, the many 
curious and interesting facts relative 
to the physiology and economy of 
these remarkable insects, which have 
been discovered by the researches of 
Swammerdam, Maraldi, Reaumur, 
Schirach, and Huber, are detailed in 
a clear and systematic manner : but as 
these facts are now so generally known, 
we think it unnecessary to give any 
analysis of the article. 

BEGGAR is the next subject that 
claims our attention. The informa- 
tion contained in this article is chiefly 
drawn from the report of a committee 
of the House of Commons, appointed, 
in 1815, to inquire into the state of 
mendicity in the metropolis. Beggars 
are classed into those who beg from 
necessity, and those who beg from 
choice. With regard to the relative 
numbers of these classes, the informa- 
tion of the committee was quite con- 
tradictory. Two of the witnesses exa- 
mined, whose experience was equal or 
superior to that of all the rest taken 
together, asserted, that a proportion as 
large as one half were beggars from 
necessity, and some of them extremely 
worthy objects of compassion ; while 
others asserted, that all beggars, with 
hardly any exception, were beggars 
from choice. One fact, extremely hon- 
ourable to the working part of the 
community, seems to be well ascer- 
tained. Of the journeymen in the 
metropolis, no one is ever known to 
beg, though thousands of them, in 
the fluctuations of trade, have been 
reduced to the most cruel privations ; 
and not a few of them actually starve 
un pi tied and unknown ! The number 
of beggars in the metropolis the com- 
mittee have been unable to ascertain ; 
but it appears to be certain that it is 
gradually diminishing. Of the decep- 
tions practised by beggars very erro- 
neous notions have been entertained. 
In the number and variety of their con- 
trivances they are supposed to exercise 


wonderful ingenuity ; whereas their 
expedients are few, obvious, and coarse. 
Of the methods proposed for sup- 
pressing begging, there seems to be 
none so deserving of approbation as the 
scheme of the society at Edinburgh for 
that laudable purpose. Nothing can be 
more judicious than the principles on 
which the society proceeds ; and their 
exertions have met with the success to 
which they are so well entitled. It is 
objected to their plan, by the writer of 
this article, that it is not calculated 
for permanent or general use. Let 
their example be generally followed, 
and there can be little doubt that it 
will be found generally beneficial. 

proceeds from the same pen, and is 
marked by the same prepossessions as 
the article on Banks for Savings. It 
is unnecessary, therefore, to say any 
thing of it at present, as another op- 
portunity will offer of examining the 
doctrines and the principles which it 

Besides the articles to which we 
have already adverted, this part of the 
Encyclopaedia contains some good bio- 
graphical sketches of Joel Barlow, 
Barry, Barthez, Basedow, Beattie, 
Beaumarchais, Beccaria, Beckmann, 
and Beddoes. 

XI. Part I. 

Two different plans have been adopt- 
ed by the editors of Encyclopaedias, 
which may be distinguished by the epi- 
thets of alphabetical and scientific. In 
the Cyclopaedia edited by Dr Kees, there 
is indeed a vast treasure of valuable 
knowledge ; but the plan of that work 
appears to us, in several respects, es- 
sentially faulty. One grand objection 
to it is its extent, which places it for 
out of the reach of ordinary readers ; 
another objection, the consequence, 
indeed, of the former, is the enormous 
length of most of the articles, which, 
instead of being compendious treatises, 
are prolix and ill digested compila- 
tions, apparently intended to contain 
every thing that seems to bear, how- 
ever remotely, on the subject; but a 
still more important objection is the 
want of unity, occasioned by dividing 
a subject into separate departments, 
which are discussed in different, and 
often distant, parts of the work. The 
Edinburgh Encyclopaedia, on the other 


Analytical Notices. Edinburgh Encyclopaedia. 

hand, by a judicious plan of selection, 
reserves a due space for the discussion 
of important subjects, while it is over- 
loaded with no useless and lumber- 
some matter. Its plan is sufficiently 
extensive to embrace every thing use- 
ful in history, literature, and science, 
but not so extensive ; and herein lies 
its excellence, as to admit of the te- 
dious and perplexing tautology, which 
is unavoidable when the same subject 
is brought under the view of the read- 
er, in different articles, and in various 
forms. The respectable names which 
appear in the list of its contributors 
were, from the first, a pretty sure 
pledge of the ability with which it 
would be conducted ; and the pledge 
has been fully redeemed. Many of 
its leading articles may be held forth 
as the best treatises which have ap- 
peared on their respective subjects ; 
and the plan very properly adopted 
of having every article an original com- 
munication, marked by the signature 
of its author, has excited among the 
contributors a very beneficial emula- 
tion, and conferred on the work a uni- 
formity of excellence of which none of 
its rivals can boast. 

Our notice of the articles which 
this half volume contains must be ex- 
tremely brief; and this we are the 
less disposed to regret, as there are not 
many of them which can be supposed 
to be very generally interesting. The 
first in order is HERPETOI.OGY, the 
natural history of reptiles. Under the 
term reptiles, it is observed, naturalists 
have generally comprehended all those 
tribes of oviparous animals commonly 
called amphibia, including both ovipa- 
rous quadrupeds and serpents ; but in 
this article it is proposed to consider 
only the first order, reserving the his- 
tory of the serpent tribes for the arti- 
cle OPHIOLOGY. The account which 
is given of these animals, and of the 
history of the science, is methodical, 
clear, and comprehensive; accompanied 
with a full list of references, which will 
be found very useful to those whose 
attention is directed to this department 
of zoology. The reptile tribes are dis- 
tributed into three orders, Chelonians, 
Saurians, and Batracians. The first 
order comprehends turtles, of which 
there are six species, and tortoises, of 
which there are fifty-two species. The 
second order comprehends crocodiles, 
dragon, basilisk, tupinambis, guana, 
flying-dragon, agamas, stelhos, cha- 


meleons, geckos, anoles, lizards, taky- 
drome, scinks, efts, and chalcides. The 
third order comprehends the hylse or 
tree frogs, rana or common frog, bufo 
or toad ; these constitute one family, 
called the batracians, without tails ; 
the other family (or tailed batracians) 
consists of the salamander, proteus, 
and siren. In treating of the ana- 
tomy and physiology of these reptiles, 
the author gives a clear and compre- 
hensive account of their motions, sen- 
sation, digestion, circulation and ab- 
sorption, respiration and voice, secre- 
tion and excretion, integumation, ge- 
neration, and hibernation. 

HISTORY is the next article of im- 
portance. The plan proposed is, first, 
to point out and explain the various 
advantages of the study of history ; 
secondly, to enumerate those branches 
of study which ought to be entered 
upon, previous to, or contemporary 
with, the study of history ; thirdly, to 
give a brief and rapid sketch of the or- 
der in which ancient and modern histo- 
ries may most conveniently and advan- 
tageously be read ; fourthly, to point 
out the order in which the history of 
particular countries may be read, so 
that they may be illustrative of one 
another ; fifthly, to notice the differ- 
ent species of history, besides what 
is emphatically called history. Not- 
withstanding some defects, this article 
may be perused with considerable ad- 
vantage by those who wish to com- 
mence a regular course of historical 

The account of the province of 
HOLLAND is full of important and in- 
teresting information. Indeed the geo- 
graphical articles of this Encyclopaedia 
are distinguished in general by the ex- 
tensive and accurate knowledge which 
they display, and by a happy discri- 
mination, which rejects all extraneous 
matter, without omitting any thing 
that it is useful to know. The lan- 
guishing state of manufactures and 
commerce in that once flourishing 
country, affords a striking exemplifi- 
cation of the vicissitudes of national 
prosperity. We Itave no room for de- 
tails ; but, as a proof of the declining 
condition of the country, we may state, 
that, since the year 1 732, the popula- 
tion of this province had, even previ- 
ous to l?9(i, decreased by one thir- 
teenth of the whole ; that, except the 
internal trade with Germany, its com- 
merce is almost annihilated ; that many 

Analytical Notices. Edinburgh Encyclopaedia. 


of its principal manufactures have gone 
to decay ; and that the only one which 
is on the increase, is the distillation 
of ardent spirits. 

The article NEW HOLLAND supplies 
the information, which the publica- 
tion of Captain Flinders' discoveries 
has put us in possession of respecting 
this island, since the article Austral- 
asia was written. The author of these 
articles, however, seems to have known 
nothing of the journeys of Mr Evans 
and Governor Macquarrie into the in- 
terior a deficiency which, we doubt 
not, the attention of the Editor will 
take the earliest opportunity of supply- 
ing. In other respects the article is 
valuable ; containing an accurate and 
well-digested account of the coasts 
and bays, the mineralogy, botany, and 
zoology, of this immense island ; of 
its inhabitants, their arts, manners, and 

Our attention is next arrested by a 
very long article on HOROLOGY. We 
are told by the Editor, that he is in- 
debted for this article to Mr Thomas 
Reid ; and this may be regarded as a 
pretty sure pledge of its technical ac- 
curacy. On the whole, we consider it 
as the best account of horology that we 
have seen, so far as the practical part 
of it is concerned ; and as many of the 
improvements on various branches of 
the art were invented by Mr Reid him- 
self, no person, surely, could be better 
qualified to describe them. The de- 
partments of this curious art we shall 
merely mention, in the order in which 
they occur in Mr Reid's description. 

1. The escapement, or 'scapement, that 
part of a clock or watch connected 
with their beats on this part of the 
machinery Mr Reid has made several 
improvements ; connected with the 
escapement is the remontoir, the in- 
tention of which is, that the move- 
ment passing through the wheels 
should, at intervals, be made either to 
wind up a small weight, or to bend 
up a delicate spring, which alone 
should give its force to the 'scape- 
ment ; by which means the pendulum 
or balance was supposed to be always 
impelled by an equal and uniform 
force Mr Reid has described a re- 
montoir which he applied to the clock 
of St Andrew's Church in Edinburgh ; 

2. the compensation-balances, intend- 
ed to counteract the effects of heat and 
cold on time-keepers; 3. balance or 
pendulum springs ; 4. jewellery of 


pivot-holes ; 5. machinery for going 
in time of working, invented by Har- 
rison a contrivance of his own for 
this purpose is described by Mr Reid ; 
6. the dividing or cutting engine ; 7. 
equation-clocks, an ingenious contriv- 
ance to show both mean and apparent 
time, invented in London about 120 
years since ; 8. repeating clocks and 
watches ;. 9. compensation-pendulums, 
two kinds of which have been invent- 
ed by Mr Reid, the one with a zinc 
tube and steel rods, the other with a 
glass tube ; 10. wooden pendulum- 
rods, on which Mr Reid made some 
experiments, which he details ; 1 1 . on 
the sympathy or mutual action of the 
pendulums of clocks ; 12. on turret- 
clocks ; 13. on the method of fitting 
up astronomical clocks ; 14. on chimes 
and bells. 

To the amateurs of gardening, the 
article HORTICULTURE must prove an 
exquisite treat ; while to the practical 
gardener it will afford much valuable 
instruction. It is evidently written 
by a person who not only understands 
the subject in all its practical details, 
but who has brought to that delight- 
ful study an elegant taste, and a phi- 
losophical mind. We cannot afford, 
at present, to give any analysis of so 
long an article, or even to mention the 
various topics which it comprehends. 
His own definition of HORTICULTURE, 
however, will give some idea of the 
principal branches into which the sub- 
ject is divided. " By the term horti- 
culture," he observes, " is to be un- 
derstod the whole management of a 
garden, whether intended for the pro- 
duction of fruit, of culinary vegeta- 
bles, or of flowers. The formation of 
a garden may be included also, to a 
certain extent, under this subject : 
draining, enclosing, and the forming 
of screen plantations and hedges, may 
be considered as parts of horticulture, 
while the general situation of the fruit 
and the flower gardens, in regard to 
the mansion-house, and the position 
of some of their principal component 
parts, as shrubberies, hot-houses, par- 
terres, and walks, belong more pro- 
perly to landscape-gardening." 

Thus we have adverted, in a very 
cursory manner, to the leading articles 
in this half-volume. It contains, be- 
sides, several excellent articles in bio- 
graphy, geography, &c. On the whole, 
we think that this number supports 
well the credit of its predecessor*. 

1817-3 Literary and Scientific Intelligence. 189 


A NEW instrument, called a Capillary 
Hydrometer, for measuring the strength 
and specific gravity of spirituous liquors, has 
lately been invented by Dr Brewster. The 
principle of the instrument is to determine 
the specific gravity from the number of 
drops contained in a small glass bulb, so 
that we have only to fill this bulb with any 
mixture of alcohol and water, and count 
the number of drops necessary to empty it. 
When a bulb about 1^ inch in diameter 
was filled with water, it yielded only 724 
drops, whereas, with ordinary proof spirits, 
it yielded 2117 drops, giving no fewer than 
a scale of 1393 drops for measuring specific 
gravities from 0.920 to 1.000. A correction 
must be made for temperature as in all oth- 
er instruments. 

A remarkable fossil has lately been dis- 
covered in the parish of Alford, in the coun- 
ty of Surrey, some miles east of Guildford. 
It was found about eight feet under the 
surface in a bed of clay. Above the clay, in 
that particular part, is a bed of gravel, which 
extends to a considerable distance east and 
west, and varies in breadth from eleven 
yards to about forty, and has the appear- 
ance of having been the bed of a river. 
The fossil consists of hard clay covered with 
thin rectangular scales, lying in a regular 
order, about | of an inch long and | broad. 
These scales have been analyzed by Dr 
Thomson, and found to consist of 
Animal matter, 11.37 

Phosphate of lime, 65.51 

Carbonate of lime, 19.65 

Loss, 3.47 


This is nearly the composition of the scales 
of fishes as determined by Mr Hatchet 

A new mineral, consisting of sulphate of 
barytes and carbonate of strontian, has been 
lately discovered at Stromness, in the Ork- 
ney Islands, by Dr Thomas Traill of Liver- 
pool. An account of the analysis of this 
mineral by Dr Traill, was read at one of 
the late meetings of the Royal Society of 
Edinburgh. He proposes to call it bary- 
xtrontiamte from its composition, or strom- 

ncasitc from its locality N. B. We have 

-seen specimens of this mineral, and conjec- 
ture that it is a compound of the two known 
species, carbonate of strontian and sulphate 
<>t' barytes, and that with care the two mi- 
nerals might be separated from each other. 

A new artificial horizon has lately been 
invented by Mr White of Kinross, of which 
an account will be found among our Origi- 
nal Communications. 

Mr W. K. Northall of Wolverhampton 
announces, that he has discovered a new 
method of propelling boats by steam. The 
velocity of the boat may, by this plan, be 

easily increased from three to seven miles 
an hour. The weight of the machinery 
will not be more than three tons, and the 
space it will occupy is comparatively small. 
Mr J. B. Emmett of Hull has published 
some experiments, which he made during 
the summer of last year, with the view of 
ascertaining whether a gas might not be ob- 
tained from oil, equal to that obtained from 
coal, so as to prevent the injury threatened 
to the Greenland trade by the rapidly in- 
creasing use of the latter in the lighting of 
towns, &c. By distilling various oils, pre- 
viously mixed with dry sand or pulverized 
clay, at a temperature little below ignition, 
he obtained a gas which appeared to be a 
mixture of carburetted hydrogen and super- 
carburetted hydrogen gases. This gas pro- 
duces a flame equally brilliant, and often 
much more brilliant than that produced 
from coal. It differed very little in quality, 
whether obtained from mere refuse, or from 
good whale sperm, almond or olive oil, or 
tallow. The gas, when burnt, produces no 
smoke, and exhales no smell or unpleasant 
vapour. Whatever oil is used, it evolves 
much more light when burnt as gas than 
when consumed as oil ; in the latter case, 
the flame is obscured by a quantity of soot ; 
in the former, the soot remains in the dis- 
tilling vessel, and the flame burns with a 
clear light 

The water of the ebbing and flowing 
spring lately discovered in the harbour of 
Bridhngton, Yorkshire, and described in 
the PhSosophical Transactions for 1815, by 
Dr Storer, has been found to possess many 
excellent properties, and been administered 
with decided benefit in numerous cases of 
chronic disease. It has been analyzed by 
Mr Hume of Long-Acre, who finds that 
great purity is one of its most distinguishing 
properties, in which it may vie with Mal- 
verne well ; that although this stream is so 
nearly connected with the sea, which covers 
its whole vicinity twice a-day, yet it is alto- 
gether free from muriate of soda, every kind 
of sulphate, and magnesia. It is little hea- 
vier than distilled water, and contains no 
other aeriform substance than carbonic acid. 
The solid contents of a wine gallon amount 
to 134 grains, consisting of carbonate of 
lime, 3.750 ; silex, and a little oxide of iron, 
about .125. 

The Rev. F. H. Wollaston has submitted 
to the Royal Society a description of a ther- 
mometer constructed by him, for deter- 
mining the height of mountains, instead of 
the barometer. It is well known, that the 
temperature at which water boils diminishes 
as the height of the place increases at which 
the experiment is made ; and this diminu- 
tion was suggested, first by Fahrenheit, and 
afterwards by Mr Cavendish, as a medium 

1 90 Literary and Scientific Intelligence. 

for determining the heights of places above 
the sea. Mr Wollasum's instrument is as 
sensible as the commen mountain barome- 
ter. Every degree .-of Fahrenheit on it oc- 
cupies the length of an inch. The thermo- 
meter, with the lamp and vessel for boiling 
water, when packed into a case, weighs 
about 1J Ib. It is sufficiently sensible to 
point out the difference in height between 
the floor and the top of a common table. 
The difference, on two trials with it, com- 
pared with the same heights, measured by 
General Roy by the barometer, did not ex- 
ceed two feet 

Dr Leach, of the British Museum, has 
recently printed a very complete Catalogue 
of Birds and Quadrupeds, which are natives 
of Great Britain. It is perhaps the most 
correct Catalogue which, in our present im- 
perfect knowledge of British Ornithology, 
has been as yet compiled. 

Dr Leach has submitted to the Linnsean 
Society a description of a speeies of deer 
called the Wapiti, found on the banks of 
the Missouri. Four of these animals, which 
are extremely gentle, docile, and elegant, 
brought from America by Mr Taylor, are 
now exhibiting in the King's Mews. It is 
said to be domesticated by the natives of 
America ; and Mr Taylor is of opinion that 
it might be used with advantage in this 
country, in many cases, as a substitute for 

Mr Beech, a chemist of Manchester, on 
the important subject of gas-lights, states, 
that the oil of bitumen, or coal tar, which 
is considered as waste by those who make 
and burn gas, if mixed with dry saw-dust, 
exhausted logwood, or fustic, to the con- 
sistence of paste, and allowed to remain 
until the water has drained off, 2 cwt. of 
the mass, being put into the retort instead 
of coals, will produce more gas, and be less 
offensive, than the same quantity of cannel 
oal ; and the process may be repeated until 
the whole of the tar is consumed. This, he 
says, will not only be a saving of about one 
half the expense of coals, but will add to 
cleanliness and neatness, as the residuum is 
well known to have a very offensive smell. 

It has been generally believed, that Bona- 
parte was occupied in writing a history of 
his eventful life. Santini, his huksic.r du 
cabinet, lately returned from St Helena, 
states, that the work is already considerably 
advanced, having reached the termination 
of the Egyptian expedition, but that its 
future progress was in some measure arrest- 
ed by difficulties in procuring certain printed 
documents, a set of the author's military 
bulletins, and the Moniteur from France. 
So far as written, every yecir is said to form 
a large volume in manuscript; and it is 
computed that the whole, when completed, 
might extend to eight or ten printed volumes 
in quarto. Bonaparte, who has at all times 
been particularly careful of his own personal 
safety, not choosing to run the risk of being 
fired upon by some one of the numerous 


sentries placed around his dwelling, keeps 
himself within doors, and passes his time in 
dictating his memoirs to MM. Las Casas, 
De Montholon, and Bertrand. Our govern- 
ment, however, it appears, are not more dis- 
posed to grant facilities to the execution of 
the work of the imperial historian, than they 
were to the execution of his Berlin and Mi- 
lan decrees. To a late application of a Lon- 
don publisher, for permission to communi- 
cate with Bonaparte on the subject of pub- 
lishing his work, a direct refusal was given 
by Earl Bathurst. 

Two lizards were lately discovered in a 
chalk-bed in Suffolk, sixty feet below the 
surface ; and the publication of this fact has 
produced the following affidavit : We Wil- 
liam Mills and John Fisher, both of the 
parish of Tipton, in the county of Stafford, 
do hereby certify and declare, that a few 
years ago, in working in a certain coal-pit 
belonging to the Right Hon. Viscount Dud- 
ley and Ward, at what is called the Pieces, 
in the parish of Tipton aforesaid, and on 
cleaving or breaking the stratum of coal, 
which is about four feet thick, and in that 
situation lies about fifty yards from the sur- 
face of the earth, we discovered a living 
reptile of the snake or adder kind, lying 
coiled up, imbedded in a small hollow cell 
within the solid coal, which might be about 
twenty tons in weight. The reptile, when 
discovered, visibly moved, and soon after- 
wards crept out of the hole ; but did not 
live longer than ten minutes on being ex- 
posed to the air. The hollow in which it 
lay was split in two by means of an iron 
wedge, and was rather moist at the bottom, 
but had no visible water. It was nearly 
the size of a common tea-saucer ; and the 
reptile was about nine inches long, of a 
darkish ashy colour, and a little speckled. 


THE Musee Imperial- Royal has again 
been opened for public inspection ; and not- 
withstanding the pretty large drafts upon it 
by Messrs Blucher, Canova, and Co. it is 
still perhaps entitled to rank as the richest 
collection in the world. It contained, before 
the restitutions, 1 ,233 pictures. The cata- 
logue now published comprehends 1,101 
pieces : of these the French school furnishes 
233, some artists, not deemed formerly 
worthy a place, being now admitted. The 
German and Flemish schools seem nearly 
as numerous as before, though some of the 
best works are wanting. 

The petition of the booksellers of Paris, 
for the repeal or reduction of the heavy du- 
ties on the importation of foreign books into 
France, has received attention from the 
government. By the new tarif, books print- 
ed in foreign countries, in the dead or fo- 
reign languages, are only subjected to a 
duty of 10 francs per 50 kilogrammes me,' 
triques, about 2 cwt. 

Madame de Stael is said to have sold her 
Memoirs of M. Neckar (her father) to an 


Literary and Scientific Intelligence . 

association of English, French, and German 
booksellers, for *4,000 : the work is to ap- 
pear in the three languages at the same 

A report made to the council-general of 
hospitals in Paris, relative to the state of 
those establishments from 1803 to 1814, 
contains some important facts. They are 
divided into two classes, called hopitaux 
and hospices , the former, ten in number, 
being designed for the sick and diseased ; 
and the latter, which amount to nine, af- 
fording a provision for helpless infancy, and 
poor persons afflicted with incurable infir- 
mities. The Hotel Dieit, the most ancient 
of the hospitals, contains 1200 beds. The 
general mortality in the hospitals has been 
1 in 7, and in the hospices 1 in 64 ; and 
it has been more considerable among the 
women than the men. It is found, that 
wherever rooms of the same size are placed 
one over another, the mortality is greatest 
in the uppermost. In the Hospice de f Ac- 
couchement, in 1814, there were delivered 
2,700 females, of whom 2,400 acknowledged 
that they were unmarried. In the ten years 
from 1804 to 1814, there were admitted 
into the Hospice d'Allaitement, or Found- 
ling Hospital, 23,458 boys, and 22,463 
girls, total 45,921 children, only 4,130 of 
whom were presumed to be legitimate. Th 
mortality of infants in the first year after 
their birth was under 2-7ths. During the 
ten years, 355,000 sick were admitted into 
the hospitals, and 59,000 poor persons into 
the hospices. The total number that re- 
ceived relief out of these establishments in 
1813, which gives about the average of that 
period, was 103,000, of whom 21,000 be- 
longed to the department of the Seine. 
Some pains have been taken to ascertain the 
different causes of mental derangement. It 
appears, that among the maniacs the num- 
ber of women is generally greater than that 
of men. Among the younger females, lovs 
is the most common cause of insanity ; and 
among the others, jealousy or domestic dis- 
cord. Among the younger class of males, 
it is the too speedy developement of the 
passions, and with the others, the derange- 
ment of their affairs, that most frequently 
produces this effect. The calamities of the 
revolution were another cause of madness 
in both sexes ; and it is worthy of remark, 
that the men were mad with aristocracy, 
the women with democracy. Excessive 
grief occasioned lunacy in the men ; whereat 
the minds of the females were deranged by 
ideas of independence and equality. 

The National Institute of France lias this 
year adjudged the prize, founded by Lalande 
for the most interesting observation or the 
most useful memoir in astronomy, to M. 
Bessel, director of the Royal Observatory of 
Konigsberg As the Institute has received 
no satisfactory memoir for the premium of 
3,000 francs left by the late M. Ravrio, for 
any person who should discover a process 
by which mercury may be employed, with- 


out injury to the workman, in the art of 
gilding, the same subject is proposed anew 
for 1818 Two other prizes, gold medals, 
of the value of 3,000 francs each, remain- 
ing also unmerited by any of the memoirs 
which they have produced, are in like man- 
ner offered again for 1818. The subject 
of the first is " To determine the rise of 
the thermometer in mercury comparatively 
with its rise in air from 20 below to 200 
centigr. ; the law of cooling in a vacuum ; 
the law of cooling in air, hydrogen gas, and 
carbonic acid gas, to different degrees of 
temperature, and according to different 
states of rarefaction." The subject of the 
second prize is, " To determine the chemi- 
cal changes which fruits undergo during 
and after then- ripening." Another prize 
to the same amount is offered for 1819, for 
the following subject : " To determine by 
accurate experiments the detraction of lu- 
minous rays direct and reflected, when they 
pass separately or simultaneously near the 
extremity of one or many bodies of an ex- 
tent either limited or indefinite." 

On the first day of the publication of 
Germanicus at Paris, 1,800 copies were sold. 
The copyright has been purchased for 4,500 

The grand desideratum of rendering sea 
water potable, seems at length to be obtained 
by simple distillation. The French chemist* 
have been unable to discover in distilled sea 
water, any particle of salt or soda, in any 
form; and it is ascertained that one cask 
of coals will serve to distil six casks of water. 
A vessel going on a voyage of discovery, by 
order of the French government, com- 
manded by M. Freycinet, will only take 
fresh water for the first fortnight, and, in- 
stead thereof, coals, which will be but one 
sixth of the tonnage ; distilled sea water 
being perfectly as good as fresh water that 
has been a fortnight on board. 

M. Dorion has discovered that the bark 
of the pyramidal ash, in powder, thrown 
into the boiling juice of the sugar-cane, 
effects its clarification. The planters of Mar- 
tinique and Gaudaloupe have given him 
200,000 francs for communicating his dis- 

Perpetual Motion. Mr Maillardet of Neu- 
chatel announces, in a foreign journal, that 
he has succeeded in resolving the celebrat- 
ed problem of perpetual motion, so long re- 
garded as a scientific chimera. The piece 
of mechanism to which he applies his prin- 
ciple is thus described: It is a wheel, 
around the circumference of which there is 
a certain number of tubes, which alternate- 
ly radiate or turn in towards the centre, 
rendering the moving power at one time 
strong, at another weak ; but preserving 
throughout such an intensity of force, that 
it is necessary to keep it in check by a re- 

M. M. Majendie and Pelletier have com- 
municated to the Academy of Sciences at 
Paris, an interesting discovery upon ipecq[- 

Literary and Scientific Intelligence. 

cuanha. It appears that these gentlemen 
have succeeded in separating the principal 
substance to which the good effects of ipeca- 
cuanha in medicine are owing, from those 
adjuncts which give it that odour and taste 
so disagreeable to invalids. They have 
named this principal substance hemetine. 
A great number of experiments and obser- 
vations have been made, which fully con- 
firm the truth of the discovery. 

The recent sale of the library of the late 
Count Macarthy affords a standard for 
judging of the force of the bibliomania in 
France. Among articles which fetched the 
highest prices were the following : 
Psalmorum Codex, Mogunt. 1457, fol. sold 

for 12,000 francs. 
Psalmorum Codex, Moguitt. 1459, fol. 

3350 ft. 
G. Durandi Rationale Divinorum Offici- 

orum, Mogunt. 1459, fol. 2000 fr. 
Speculum Humanae Salvationis, fol. 1320 fr. 

(The same copy sold in 1769 for 1600 fr.) 
Historia BeaUe Mariae Virginis, per figuras, 

foL 1560 fr. (Sold in 1769 for 352 fr.) 
Ciceronis Qfficiorum, libri iii. Mogunt. 1465, 

sin. fol. 801 fr. 
Ciceronis Officiorum, libri iii. Mogunt. 1466, 

sm. foL 1190 fr. 
Gul. Ficheti Rhetorica, 4to. (One of the 

first books printed at Paris about 1470.) 

501 fr. 
Biblia in Lingua Vulgare, 1471, 2 vols fol. 

1199 fr. (Sold at the Duke de la Valliere's 

sale, in 1784, for 720 fr.) 
Quinctiliani Instit Orator. Venet. 1471, fol. 

1515 fr. 

Virgilii Opera, 1472, fol. 2440 fr. 
Anthologia Graeca, 4to, Florent. 1494. 

1000 fr. 
Apollonia Rhodia Argonauticon, libri iv. 

4to, Florent. 1496. 1755 fr. 
La Bible Historiee, traduite du Latin de 

Pierre Comestor, par Guyard Desmoulins, 

Paris, fol. with 410 miniatures. 1202 fr. 
Missale Mozarab. fol. Tvkti, 1500, et Bre- 

viarum Mozarab. ib. 1502, fol. 1020 fr. 
Euripidis Opera, studio Jos. Barnes, Cantab. 

1694, fol. 1800 fr. 
Xenophontis Opera, O.roii. 1703, 5 torn, in 

6 vols 8vo, large paper. 1960 fr. 
Xenophontis Cyropsedia, Oxoii. 1727, fol. et 

Xenophontis de Cyri Expeditione, libri vii. 

OXOH. 1735, fol. large paper. 2550 fr. 
Thuani Historic, Lund. 1733, 7 torn fol. 

bound in 14 vols, large paper. 1225 fr. 


Professor Kanngiesser of Breslaw has an- 
nounced an extensive work, in Latin, on 
archaiology, in which he promises some im- 
portant discoveries in that science. 

Goethe has produced the fourth volume of 
his Life, which he is publishing under the 
whimsical title of Truth and Fiction. 

Professor Berzelius has just discovered a 
new earth, to which he has given the name 
f t/to/i/c, from the Scandinavian god Tlior. 


M. Niebuhr, the Prussian envoy at Rome, 
has discovered, in the Vatican Library, the 
fragment yet wanting in Cicero's Oration 
pro Marco Rabirio, and a fragment of the 
Oration pro Plancio. These two fragments 
were discovered in the same MS. from 
which Amaduzzi has already extracted an 
unpublished fragment of Livy. The learn- 
ed Prussian envoy has also found some 
passages of the Works of Seneca. 

There is reason to hope that the research- 
es, which are actively continued at Pompeji, 
will soon lead to important discoveries. 
The works in the interior of the Forum of 
that ancient town, have already begun to 
lay open a peristyle of six columns, which 
must doubtless have belonged to some tem- 
ple. The number of labourers has been 
increased. The portico around the arena of 
the amphitheatre is already completely 
cleared ; and Padiglione, an able artist, has 
received directions to make a model of that 
monument on a small scale. 

By more recent accounts we learn, that 
magnificent monuments of ancient splen- 
dour still continue to be discovered in search- 
ing the ruins of Pompeji. Behind the tem- 
ple lately noticed, a public building has 
been found, built at right angles, 260 Nea- 
politan palms long, and 120 broad, and sur- 
rounded in the ulterior by a portico of 50 
columns. It is ornamented with beautiful 
paintings, some of which are very valuable ; 
among others one which represents a warrior 
precipitated from a car drawn by fiery 
horses. The pavement is of Mosaic, formed 
in part of small white and coloured stones, 
and in part of large slabs of marble of va- 
rious colours. Several inscriptions have 
been traced that ascertained the use of this 
monument. One of them indicates, that the 
right, luminum obstrumdorum (a right es- 
tablished by the Roman laws, preventing, in 
certain cases, neighbouring proprietors from 
having lights or prospects over the contigu- 
ous estates), had been purchased at the price 
of several thousand sesterces. This discovery 
has afforded new riches to sculpture seve- 
ral statues have been found. A Venus, five 
palms high, and a Hermophrod&tc, may be 
placed among the finest specimens of the 
Greek chisel that have come down to us. 
Several distinguished artists think, that in 
this Venus they have discovered one worthy 
to dispute pre-eminence with the Venus <lt 
Mcdicis. This opinion, inspired, perhaps, 
by the pleasure of the discovery, may be 
before long discussed, as these precious 
monuments of sculpture are to be trans- 
ported to the Musee Bourbon. In the same 
place have been found two arms of bronze, 
adorned with bracelets. The Chevalier 
Ardite, who directs the search, hopes to be 
enabled, in a short time, to expose the whole 
extent of Pompeji, which will probably be 
a mine fruitful in objects of the tine arts. 

Andrea Mustoxidi, a young native of 


Literary and Scientific Intelligence. 

Corcyra, who has already obtained some li- 
terary distinction, has addressed a letter to 
the Abbate Morelli, the learned librarian of 
St Mark, on the four celebrated Venetian 
horses, commonly supposed to be the work 
of Lysippus. In this tract, printed at Pa- 
dua, and dedicated to Lord Holland, the 
author successfully combats the opinion 
which gives a Roman origin to these mon- 
uments, and employs all his erudition and 
sagacity to prove that they came originally 
from the isle of Chio. This notion has 
since been adopted by the celebrated Ger- 
man writer, F. Schlegel. 


Safety Lamp. Mr Van Mons has com- 
municated the gratifying intelligence, that 
the safety lamp of Davy has completely 
succeeded in the Netherlands. " Fortified 
with it," he says, " we can penetrate into 
the foulest mines. We have even opened 
depots of gas, and procured its mixture with 
the proportion of atmospheric air, calculated 
to produce the most prompt inflammation 
and the strongest explosion, but the gas 
has never taken fire. We use gauze made 
of stronger wire than with you, in order to 
guard against any exterior damage from the 
awkwardness of workmen, and to prevent 
the men from opening the lamp ; we have 
also adopted the expedient of a small pad- 
lock, with the key of which the master 
miner is intrusted. The heating of the 
gauze cloth, however intense it may be, is 
not attended with any danger, for iron the 
most incandescent will not affect gas ; no- 
thing but flame will kindle it. Some at- 
tempts have been made to light a mine by 
means of its gas, but I am not acquainted 
with the result. I should think that such a 
project would be attended with many diffi- 

Hydrophobia Mr Van Mons has suc- 
ceeded in curing all cases of hydrophobia 
by means of oxygenated muriatic acid, em- 
ployed both internally and externally; which 
proves that in this malady the moral holds 
in dependence the physical powers. All 
cases of tardy hydrophobia may be consi- 
dered as the effect of imagination. Exam- 
ples have occurred of the disease reaching 
its last stage, when it has been completely 
dissipated by the sight of the animal by 
which the patient was bitten. 


Baron Ungern-Sternberg began, many 
years since, to search the archives and pri- 
vate libraries in Livonia for documents 
tending to complete or illustrate the history 
of that province. Of these he collected 
several thousands, and had them printed, 
with the assistance of Professor Brotze of 
Riga, under the title of Diplomatic (.'<>ili:>- 
of Livonia, This work, however, left several 
chasms, which it was the more difficult to 
fill up, as many of the archives of this pro- 
vince had been dr-troy< d by fire, war, and 

VOL. I. 

other accidents. In 1807, Dr Hennig pro- 
posed that copies should be procured of all 
the original acts relative to Livonia, Estho- 
nia, and the island of Oesel, preserved at 
Konigsberg, in the archives of the grand- 
master of the order to which these provinces 
formerly belonged. The proposal was ap- 
proved by the nobility of the provinces, and 
Dr Hennig appointed to carry it into exe- 
cution. With the permission of the Prus- 
sian government, that scholar proceeded to 
Konigsberg in 1809, and in 1812 had sent 
off copies of 2000 documents. As the un- 
dertaking proved too burdensome for the 
nobility, by whom it was previously sup- 
ported, the Emperor Alexander, at the in- 
stance of Karamsin, the historiographer, 
granted a yearly sum for its prosecution. 
The copies have since that time been for- 
warded to Petersburg, to be employed by 
Karamsin for his history of the Russian 
empire, and then deposited in the archives 
of foreign affairs. This enterprise is now 
completed, and 3160 documents, on subjects 
of interest for the history of the north, have 
been rescued from oblivion, to furnish new 
sources for the historian. 

The Bible Society of Petersburg has re- 
ceived from England the stereotype plates 
for printing the New Testament in modern 
Greek, with which 300,000 copies may be 
taken off. The sphere of action of this 
society is rapidly extending. At Tula and 
Woronesch, the auxiliary societies formed 
there have opened shops for the special pur- 
pose of selling the Holy Scriptures. Paul, 
the Armenian patriarch at Constantinople, 
has also declared his willingness to co-ope- 
rate in the object of the Bible Society ; and 
even the heathen Buraits of Siberia have 
intimated their ardent wish to possess " the 
word of the only God," (according to their 
own expression in their memorial addressed . 
to the civil governor of Irkutsk), in the 
Mongol language, and have voluntarily 
subscribed more than 9000 rubles towards 
the expense of printing it. The emperor 
has granted to the Bible Society of this city 
the privilege of establishing a printing-office 
at Abo. 

The Berlin Gazette gives the following 
account of Von Kotzebue's voyage round 
the world, which has been received from 
Kamschatka. Letters of an earlier date, 
which, after having doubled Cape Horn, he 
sent from the coast of Chili, have been lost, 
or at least are not yet come to hand. M. 
Von Kotzebue discovered three new islands 
in the South Sea, in 14 of latitude, and 
144 of longitude, to which he gave the 
names of Uomanzow (the author of the ex- 
pedition), Spiridon, and Krusenstern. Be- 
sides these, he discovered a long chain of 
islands in the same quarter, and two clus- 
ters of islands in the llth degree of latitude 
and 190th degree of longitude. (It is not 
specified whether the latitude is N. or S. or 
the longitude E. or W.) These he called 
after his ships, Rurich's Chain ; the two 

Works preparing for Publication. 


latter, Kutusof's Cluster (a group), and 
Suwarrof's Cluster. All these islands are 
covered with wood, partly uninhabited, and 
dangerous for navigators. The discoverer 
has sent to Count Romanzof a great many 
maps and drawings. On the 12th July O. S. 
Kotzebue designed to sail from Kamschatka 
to Behring's Straits, according to his instruc- 
tions. He hopes to return to Kamschatka 
in September 1817. On the whole voyage 
from Chili to that place, he had not a single 
person sick on board. He touched at Easter 
Island, but did not find the inhabitants so 
friendly as La Peyrouse describes them. 
He thinks that something must have hap- 


pened since that time, which has made 
them distrustful of the Europeans : perhaps 
it may be the overturning of their surpri- 
singly large statues, which Kotzebue looked 
for in vain, and found only the ruins of one 
of them near its base, which still remains. 
He saw no fruits from the seeds left by La 
Peyrouse, nor any sheep or hogs, which by 
this time must have multiplied exceedingly. 
A single fowl was brought him for sale. It 
seems we may hope much from this young 
seaman, who is not yet thirty years of age. 
He was obliged, for many reasons, to leave 
the learned Dane, Wormskrold, behind in 


DR DRAKE, the elegant author of the 
Literary Hours, has a new work in the 
press, entitled, Shakespeare and his Times ; 
including the biography of the poet, criti- 
cisms on his genius and writings, a disqui- 
sition on the object of his sonnets, a new 
chronology of his plays, and a history of the 
manners, customs, and amusements, su- 
perstitions, poetry, and elegant literature, 
of his age. 

Mr John Bell has in the press a new 
work, in royal octavo, entitled, The Con- 
sulting Surgeon. 

Dr J. A. Paris is preparing a Descriptive 
Catalogue of the Geological Specimens de- 
posited in the Museum of the Royal Geo- 
logical Society of Cornwall ; interspersed 
with observations tending to shew the eco- 
nomical application of geology to the agri- 
cultural, mining, and commercial interests 
of the county of Cornwall. 

Mr Parkinson, of Hoxton, intends to 
publish, in the course of May, an Essay on 
the Disease called the Shaking Palsy. 

Sir William Adams has in the press an 
Inquiry into the Causes of the frequent fail- 
ure of the Operations of extracting and de- 
pressing the Cataract, and the description of 
an improved series of operations. 

Dr Coote is printing the History of Eu- 
rope, from the Peace of Amiens in 1802 to 
the Peace of Paris in 1815. 

A History of Whitby, with a Statistical 
Survey of the Vicinity to the distance of 
twenty-five miles, by the Rev. George 
Young ; with the assistance of some papers 
left by the late Mr R. Winter, and some 
materials furnished by Mr John Bird ; is 
in the press, and will be published early in 

Shortly will be published, an Historical 
Display of the Effects of Physical and Mo- 
ral Causes on the Character and Circum- 
stances of Nations ; including a comparison 
of the ancients and moderns, in regard to 
their intellectual and social state ; by Mr 
John Bigland. 

A Poem will speedily be published, by 
the Right Hon. Sir Wm Drummond, un- 
der the title of Odin. This poem is con- 
nected with the most interesting era of the 
northern mythology, and refers principally 
to the origin of the Gothic empire, which 
the author, availing himself of the privilege 
of the poet, and offering besides some pro- 
bable conjectures, supposes to have been 
founded by Pharnaces. 

The third part of Neale's Illustrated His- 
tory of Westminster Abbey will be pub- 
lished the 1st of July. 

A new edition of Philidor on Chess i* 
nearly ready, with considerable improve- 
ments, and an original portrait of the author. 

The fifth edition is nearly ready for pub- 
lication of " the Genuine Epistles of the A- 
postolical Fathers, St Barnabas, St Ignatius, 
St Clement, St Polycarp, Shepherd of Her- 
mas, and Martyrdoms of St Ignatius anil 
St Polycarp ;" translated and published, 
with a preliminary discourse, by William, 
late Archbishop of Canterbury. 

The Rev. Henry Rutter has in the press 
a Key to the Old Testament, or a summary 
View of its several Books, pointing out the 
persons, events, and ordinances, that were 
figurative of Christ and his Church ; with a 
more minute detail of the Psalms and tile- 
Prophetic Writings. 

An Essay is printing, on Capacity antl 
Genius ; endeavouring to prove that then- 
is no original mental superiority between 
the most illiterate and the most learned of 
mankind, and that no genius, whether in- 
dividual or national, is innate, but solely 
produced by, and dependent on, circum- 
stances ; followed by an Inquiry into the 
Nature of Ghosts, and other Appearances 
supposed to be supernatural. 

Speedily will be published, in foolscap 
8vo, Evening Hours, a collection of origin- 
al poems. 

Speedily will be published, a Medico- 
chirurgical and Biographical Chart of Me- 
dical Science, from Hippocrates to the pre- 

Works preparing for Publication. 

sent time. It exhibits, in a condensed form, 
the progress and present state of that Science, 
with Short Notices of the most eminent 
Authors in this and other countries. 

Mr Bagster has been engaged for some 
time in printing a Polyglott Bible, in one 
4to volume. He proceeds with the care 
which so important a work demands ; the 
First Part, containing the Pentateuch, is 
now ready for delivery. It had been con- 
sidered a desideratum in literature, for a 
Student to have a Polyglott Bible, contain- 
ing the original texts and the versions used 
by the ancient churches, in a portable form, 
and at a moderate price ; and the present 
minor Polyglott Bible, it is expected, will 
fully answer these wishes. Another class 
of readers will be gratified, by the above 
work being printed in four small pocket 
volumes, each language a complete volume, 
possessing this peculiar excellence, that by 
the pages of each volume agreeing with 
every other, any two languages may be 
interleaved together ; and thus united in 
one volume, will not exceed the thickness 
of the common Pocket Bible. A fuller dis- 
play of the whole work is exhibited in a 
Prospectus of 32 pages, which is delivered 
gratis ; and which also details the nature of 
a supplementary volume, entitled " Scrip- 
ture Harmony ;" being a Concordance of 
parallel passages, agreeing page with page 
with the pocket volumes. 

Mr Thomas Taylor is engaged in writing 
a Treatise on Infinite Series, in which he 
professes, by a notation somewhat analogous 
to that of decimals, to have discovered 
expressions, which, when expanded, will 
give infinite series, not to be obtained 
by any other method at present known. 
One among these is an expression, the 
expansion of which produces the series 
1 *j-[~y y-f-g T\> & c< invented by 
Leibnitz, and which is equal to the area of 
a circle whose diameter is 1. Another ex- 
pression, when expanded, gives the series 
14~4~f~5~l~T 1 ft~l~2 1 5' & c - equal to the 
sixth part of the square of the circumfer- 
ence when the diameter is one. 

Mr Ackerman will shortly publish the 
first number of a series of Incidents of En- 
glish Bravery during the late Campaigns 
on the Continent, printed by the lithogra- 
phic process, from drawings by A. Atkin- 
son ; which will form six monthly num- 


The author of the amusing Tour of Dr 
Syntax, is engaged upon a new poetical 
work, entitled The Dance of Life, which 
will be accompanied with 21 engravings 
from Rowlandson. 

The First Volume of the Elgin Marbles, 
with an Historical and Topographical Ac- 
count of Athens, illustrated by about 40 
plates, drawn from the original sculptures, 
and etched by the Rev. F. J. Burrow, will 
speedily appear. 

Dr Brown of St Germains, Cornwall, is 
preparing for the press a work on the Irri- 
gation of Land, which he will treat in a 
perfectly novel manner. 

The Rev. Edward Cooper has in the 
press, in a 12mo volume, Letters addressed 
to a serious and humble Inquirer after Di- 
vine Truth, with a peculiar aspect to the 
circumstances of the present times. 

Mr Merrick has nearly ready for the 
press, a Translation of a Treatise on the 
General Principles of Chemical Analysis, in 
1 volume 8vo. 

Dr Wilson Phillips is about to publish 
an Experimental Inquiry into the Laws of 
the Vital F unctions, with some Observations 
on the Nature and Treatment of Internal 

Mr Thomas Gurton of Alcester is about 
to publish a Midland Flora, which will 
comprise descriptions of Plants indigenous 
to the central counties of England ; it will 
be illustrated by plates engraved by Mr 
James Sowerby. 

Mr Kendall has in the press, a Proposal 
for establishing in London a New Philan- 
thropical and Patriotic Institution, to be 
New Settlers in his Majesty's Colonies, and 
for encouraging New Branches of Colonial 
Trade ; with a Postscript on the Benefits to 
be derived from establishing Free Drawing 
Schools, and Schools of the Mathematics, 
and on other means of advancing the Na- 
tional Industry and Population. 

Mr William Mackenzie has in the press, 
the Swiss Patriots, a new Poem ; also, a 
new edition, with additions, of the Sorrows 
of Seduction, and other Poems. 

The Rudiments of the Latin Tongue ; 
revised by the Rev. John Muckersy, West 
Calder, 18mo. 

A Short Introduction to Arithmetic ; by 
John Christison, house-governor of Heriot's 
hospital, Edinburgh, 18mo. 

196 Monthly List of New Publications. 




Cathedral Antiquities of England, or an 
Historical, Architectural, and Graphical Il- 
lustration of the English Cathedral Churches; 
by John Britton, F.S.A. No II. being the 
second number of Winchester, medium 4to. 

Researches concerning the Laws, Theo- 
logy, Learning, Commerce, &c. of Ancient 
and Modern India ; by L. Crauford, Esq. 
2 vols 8vo. 18s. 

History and Antiquities of the Abbey 
Church of St Peter's, Westminster, with 
Architectural and Graphical Illustrations; 
by J. P. Neale. Part II. royal 4to. 16s. 


Memoir of the Early Life of W. Cowper, 
Esq. ; by himself, 8vo. 4s. 

Biographical Dictionary ; by Alexander 
Chalmers. Vol. XXXII. 8vo. 12s. 


Pomona Britannica ; by Geo. Brookshaw, 
Esq Part XI. royal 4to. 21s. 

Florae Graecse Prodromus et Flora Grasca 
Libthorpiana ; 4th and last Fasciculi. 

The Transactions of the Horticultural 
Society of London, Part V. (containing six 
coloured, and two other engravings) of Vol. 
II. 4to. l, 11s. 6d. 


Chemical Essays, 5 vols 12mo. 2, 2s. 


Comparative Chronology of the Classic 
Ages of Greece and Rome ; by J. Stanton. 

Decerpta ex P. Ovidii Nasonis Metamor- 
phoseon libris, ad optimorum Exemplarium 
Fidem recensita, Notulis Sermone Anglica- 
no exaratis illustrata, et Indice Nominum 
Propriorum uberrimo instructa : in usum 
Scholae Glasguensis; studio Joannis Dy- 
mock. Editio altera. 2s. 6d. 


A Descriptive Catalogue of Recent Shells ; 
by J. Dillwyn, 2 vols 8vo. l, 18s. 


The Innkeeper's Daughter, a Melo-dra- 
ma, in two acts ; by G. Soane, A.B. 2s. 6d. 
Robinson Crusoe, a grand Romantic 
Melo-drama ; by J. Pocock, 8vo. 2s. 

Adelgitha, or the Fruits of a Single Er- 
ror ; by M. G. Lewis. Now first published 
as acted at Covent-Garden Tneatre. 3s. 6d. 

Elphi Bey, or the Arab's Faith, a Musi- 
cal Drama, in three acts. First performed 
at the Theatre- Royal, Drury-Lane, April 
17th, 1817, 8vo. 2s. 6d. 

The Apostate, a Tragedy, in five acts, as 
performed at the Theatre- Royal, Covent- 
Garden ; by Robert Shiel, Esq. 8vo. 3s. 


An Account of the Origin, Principles, 

Proceedings, and Results, of an Institution 
for Teaching Adults to Read, established in 
Bucks and Berks in 1814, 8vo. 

On Public Education ; by the late Dean 
of Westminster. 5s. 

Correspondence between a Mother and 
her Daughter ; by Mrs Taylor of Ongar. 

A Key to Dr Noehden's Exercises for 
Writing German ; by J. R. Schultz. 3s. 6d. 

A New Analytical Table of the Gender 
of all the French Substantives generally 
used ; by C. Gros. 3s. 

A Grammar of the English Language ; 
by J. SutclifFe, 12mo. 3s. 

Classical Reading Lessons for every Day 
in the Year, selected chiefly from the best 
English Writers of the reign of George the 
Third ; by G. Sharpe, 12mo. 5s. 6d. 

The Grammatical Remembrancer; to 
which are added, Geographical Pronuncia- 
tion, or an Attempt to give the Pronuncia- 
tion of difficult Names of Places, domestic 
and foreign, and Terms peculiar to the Arts 
and Sciences. 2s. fid. 


An Inquiry into the Origin and Early 
History of Engraving upon copper and on 
wood ; by W. G. Ottley, F. S. A. 2 vols 
4to. 8, 8s. 


A Narrative of Occurrences in the Indian 
Countries of North America, since the con- 
nexion of the Earl of Selkirk with the Hud- 
son's Bay Company, and his attempt to es- 
tablish a Colony on the Red River. 5s. 

A View of die History, Literature, and 
Religion of the Hindoos ; by the Rev. W. 
Ward, 2 vols 8vo. 18s. 

Ormerod's History of Cheshire. Part 
III. 2, 12s. fid. 

Cobbett's Parliamentary History. Vol. 
XXIX. 1, 11s. fid. 

New Chart of History ; by F. Baily. 7s. 

The Lockhart Papers ; containing Me- 
moirs and Commentaries upon the Affairs 
of Scotland, from 1702 to 1715; by George 
Lockhart, Esq. of Carnwath. His Secret 
Correspondence with the Son of King James 
II. from 1718 to 1728, and his other Poli- 
tical Writings ; also Journals and Memoirs 
of the Young Pretender's Expedition in 
1745, by Highland Officers in his Army. 
Published from Original Manuscripts in the 
possession of Anthony Aufrere, Esq. of 
Hoveton, Norfolk, 2 vols 4to. 5, 5s. 


Points in Manumission, and Cases of 
Contested Freedom ; by J. Henry King, 
Esq. late President of the Court of Criminal 
and Civil Justice of Demerara and Issequi- 
bo. 6s. 

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AN extraordinary occurrence took place 
at the theatre at Paris on the 24th March, 
at the representation of Germanicus, a new 
tragedy, from the pen of M. Arnault, one 
of the banished members of the Institute. 
The Duke of Bern, who was in his box 
with his suite, honoured the noble senti- 
ments the tragedy is replete with by his 
repeated approbation. All was tranquil 
during the representation, excepting when 
the genuine beauties of the piece called 
forth the rapturous applauses of the audi- 

ence. But when the author was called for, 
as is customory at Paris, a serums skirmish 
ensued. In an instant a thousand sticks 
were brandished in the air : the royalist 
officers were violently assaulted with blud- 
geons by the half-pay officers, who were in 
much greater numbers. The pit was car- 
ried by the Bonapartists ; the boxes by the 
Royalists. The curtain drew up, and a 
numerous party of gendarmerie, with fixed 
bayonets, rushed into the pit, and order was 
restored ; but not till after many persons 
had been much hurt MM. De Cazes, 
and D'Angles waited on his Majesty, and 
represented that it would not be prudent 
that Germanicus should be repeated, as the 


two parties were so exasperated, that blood- 
shed would inevitably ensue. The king 
(signified his acquiescence. 

The animosity, revived by the representa- 
tion of the play of Germanicus, betwixt the 
Royalists and Bonapartists, has found an- 
other subject of contention the Gardes du 
Corps. This body, composed of persons of 
respectability, has always been an eye-sore 
o the party styled Liberaux, who contend, 
that it is highly improper that the sovereign 
should have a guard unconnected with the 
army. The infringement of certain privi- 
leges, to which this corps had considered 
themselves entitled, seems to have excited 
considerable disgust among them, and some 
disorders. Of the Duke D'Havre's com- 
pany nearly the whole have sent in their 
resignation, and by a royal ordonnance of 
10th April, that of Noailles has been dis- 

It will be seen from the following article, 
that arrests for criminal designs against the 
government of the Bourbons have not yet 
entirely ceased. On the 29th March, the 
Count de Croquembourg, a Belgian officer, 
formerly in the French service, and M. 
Arnoud de Briqueville, were apprehended 
at Paris, and their papers secured, on a 
charge of carrying on a treasonable corres- 
pondence with the French exiles in Bel- 
gium ; and, more recently, the wife of M. 
Regnauld de St Jean D'Angely was appre- 
hended on a charge of a similar correspond- 
ence with her husband, now an exile in the 
United States of America. A copy of a cu- 
rious letter, said to have been intercepted, 
is given in the London papers, but it is 
evidently of English manufacture. 

The French police has not permitted the 
journals to take any notice of the motion of 
Lord Holland with respect to the situation 
of Bonaparte, nor of the answer of Lord 

Late accounts give the following state of 
the present military force of France : The 
Garde Royale, 20,000 of all arms. In- 
fantry, 81 departmental legions, consisting 
each of from 300 to 500 men. The regi- 
ments of cavalry are eacli from 200 to 300 
strong. The corps of artillery and sappers 
complete, as fixed by ordonnance of the 
peace establishment. Besides these, France 
has in its service seven regiments of Swiss, 
and two regiments of Germans, the latter 
under the command of Prince Hohenloe. 

Died at Paris, on the 4th April, in the 
,59th year of his age, Marshal Massena, 
Prince of Kssling. He was one of the ablest 
:md most successful of those great officers 
whom the French revolution raised to dis- 
tinction, the great blemish in his charac- 
ter, as in that of the English Marlborough, 
was avarice. 

The state of the weather during the month 
of April seems to have been particularly 
unfavourable in France, and great public 
anxiety prevails respecting the vintage and 
harvest. At Toulouse, and other places in 

Register. Foreign Intelligence. 


the south, daily prayers have been offered up 
during some weeks for rain From San- 
cerre, department of the Cher and Loire, on 
the contrary, we learn, that for three days 
preceding the 5th April, hail and snow had 
fallen without interruption ; that the fruits 
in general had been blasted, and the vine- 
yards threatened with a total destruction of 
this year's crop. The distress in the pro- 
vinces is excessive. Bread is every where 
7 sols (3d.), in many 9 Ci^d.), and in some 
10 and 11 sols a-pound. 

By a late ordonnance of the king, the 
standards of the ancient company of horse- 
grenadiers of his guard are to be deposited in 
the hands of the family of La Rochejaquelin. 
His Majesty has given permission to that 
family to make these ensigns the supporters 
of their arms, and to unite them by the fol- 
lowing device: " Vendee, Bordeaux, Ven- 
dee," as a perpetual memorial of the faith- 
ful and devoted services rendered to the 
crown by that illustrious family. 


Two ships, under the flag of the Nether- 
lands, which were captured by a Moorish 
vessel in October last, have been restored. 

The king has done ample justice to the 
inhabitants of the city of Antwerp, for in a 
formal decree he declares the toll of Flush- 
ing to be abolished, and that the sums 
which have been levied upon the merchants 
shall be restored. 

On the llth April, a dreadful storm, ac- 
companied with lightning, assailed the town 
of Ath. A thunderbolt fell upon the steeple 
of the cathedral church, which it also set 
on fire, and in less than eight hours the 
whole edifice was reduced to ashes. 

A most horrible catastrophe is detailed in 
a recent Ghent journal. A poor peasant 
and his three children had applied to his 
brother, who was in easier circumstances, 
for relief : he met his brother on the road, 
who desired him to go to his house and ask 
his wife for bread and potatoes, which she 
inhumanely denied. The poor wretch, af- 
flicted at the situation of his starving chil- 
dren, resolved to kill them ; and for that 
purpose tied them all together with a string, 
and threw them into a deep well, and im- 
mediately leapt in after them. His brother, 
on his return, finding what had been done, 
blew out his wife's brains with a pistol, and 
immediately delivered himself up to justice. 
The public feeling is strong in his favour. 

The baptism of the Duke of Brabant, 
son of the Prince of Orange, took place on 
the 29th March, at Brussels, in the presence 
of their Majesties, the Princess Dowager of 
Orange and Branswic, the Princes William 
and Frederic, the Grand Duke Nicholas of 
Russia, &c. The young prince received the 
names William- Alexander -Paul- Frederic- 
Louis. The Queen of Great Britain and 
the Prince IJegent were the sponsors by 


Register. Foreign Intelligence. 


Letters from Spain state, that in the RU 
oxa, a province or' Old Castile, the town of 
Armedillo has been overwhelmed by the 
falling of a mountain : every inhabitant 
perished. Nothing now appears but the top 
of the steeple. 

The earthquake which was felt at Barce- 
lona on the 18th March was likewise felt on 
the same day at Lerida, Saragossa, and 
Madrid. At Saragossa, the concussion was 
so violent as to throw down a painting in 
the chapel of the Virgin of the Pillar dur- 
ing mass, and the people fled from the 
church. At Madrid, the effects were still 
more alarming ; it overthrew a wall at the 
royal manufactory of porcelain, which kill- 
ed two men. A violent shock was felt at 
the palace of justice. The judges, who were 
sitting, deserted the hall, which trembled 
around them. The weather was again clear 
and serene, and the air had recovered its 
usual temperature. 

The Spaniards are carrying on the slave 
trade with unabated perseverance. Several 
of their ships have recently arrived at the 
Havannah, with slaves from Africa to the 
number of two thousand. 

A letter from Gibraltar states, that an 
affray had unfortunately occurred at the 
outposts, between some English and Span- 
ish troops, in which several of the latter 
were killed. Two English soldiers had 
been tried and executed. 

Letters have been received from Cadiz, 
dated March 28. They inform us, that on 
the 25th the expeditionary troops destined 
to act against South America were review- 
ed by their commander, Count Abisbal, 
in the public square ; and having re- 
ceived part of their pay, and with it 
made merry, they refused to re-embark. 
A regiment of lancers, and the regiment of 
Navarre, are said to have broken out into 
open mutiny, and bid defiance to the con- 
trol of their officers. They cried out, they 
would not go out to act as butchers to the 
Cadiz monopolists ; swore they would li- 
berate all confined in the prisons, and them- 
selves obtain their arrears of pay out of 
the Treasury. The other regiments were 
marched against them ; and, after a severe 
contest, they were compelled to embark on 
the following day. During the whole time 
the greatest alarm, prevailed in Cadiz ; the 
windows and doors of every house were shut 
up. A postscript of the same letter adds, 
that the contest was renewed on board, 
when a great number of men were shot, 
whose numbers, as well as 300 who had 
previously deserted, were replaced by part 
of the Cadiz garrison. 

Conspiracy to re-establish the Cortes. 
Madrid, April 9. A revolution was pre- 
pared and ready to break out in Barcelona, 
on Good Friday, the 4th instant ; at the 
head of which were to have been the illus- 
trious and patriotic Generals Lacy and Mil- 
}ano, well known in the peninsular war. 

VOL. I. 


This revolution, we are assured, was organ- 
ized for the express purpose of re-establish- 
ing the Cortes and Constitution, and the 
proclamations to this effect w^re couched 
in the same terms as those of Porlier iri 
Gallicia. The first acts were to have been 
the seizure of all the constituted authorities, 
as well as of the strong fortresses of Figueras 
and Monjui, in order to make the city of 
Barcelona the point of union for all the 
troops which were to assemble and co-oper- 
ate in the enterprize. The plan was, how- 
ever, discovered by the government before 
it could be carried into effect ; and, in con- 
sequence, eighteen officers of rank, among 
whom is General Lacy, were arrested, be- 
sides a great number of other persons of 
distinction. Millano had effected his escape. 
A considerable number of arrests have like- 
wise taken place in other parts of the king- 
dom. The prisons and castles are no long- 
er sufficient to contain all the prisoners. In 
Malaga, twelve persons of distinction were 
lately arrested ; and at Santiago, in Gallicia, 
several officers of the garrison, one chaplain, 
seven sergeants, and many private indivi- 
duals, have been thrown into prison, all 
implicated in the Barcelona conspiracy. 

April 3. -The Ex-empress Maria Louisa 
lives in a style of great splendour at Parma, 
but without ostentation. Her Minister of 
State and Grand Chancelloris a Mr M' Aulay, 
an Irishman by birth, possessed of consi- 
derable property in the king's county in 

The Pope Pius VII. has issued a bull of 
a most extraordinary nature against Bible 
Societies. This instrument is addressed to 
the Primate of Poland, and highly com- 
mends the archbishop for his zeal in having 
denounced to the Apostolic See " this de- 
filement of the faith so eminently dangerous 
to souls ;" and he goes on to say, that " it 
is evident, from experience, that the Holy 
Scriptures, when circulated in the vulgar 
tongue, have, through the temerity of men, 
produced more harm than benefit." The 
authenticity of this bull has been disputed. 


Mar. 25 In Prussia the new plan of 
finance is completed. It is founded on the 
introduction of a uniform land-tax through- 
out the kingdom, from Memel to the Mo- 

A very liberal and important edict has 
been issued at Berlin, respecting the forma- 
tion of a national representation ; and a com- 
mission, selected from members of the coun- 
cil of state, has been formed for carrying 
this intention of his Majesty into immediate 

The Germanic diet have unanimously ac- 
ceded to the request of the Grand Duke of 
Weimar, to take under their guarantee the 
constitution which he has granted to his 


Jtcgislcr. I-'crtign. Intelligence. 


Several Frenchmen, who had purchased 
houses and other national domains in the 
lilectorate of Hesse, having been deprived 
of their property by the Elector, the Court 
of France interfered, and instructed their 
minister at Frarikibrt to protest against any 
Frenchman being deprived of his property 
acquired by hima Jiik purchase. 

An article from Vienna, published in the 
French papers, gives the following account 
of a sect lately formed in Upper Austria, 
called Petzelians, from the name of the foun- 
der Petzel, or Peschel, a priest of Branau. 
Of this sect dreadful atrocities are related : 
they preach the equality and community of 
property ; they sacrifice men to purify o- 
thers from their sins ; and, it is added, that 
several were thus sacrificed during Passion 
Week, who died in the most horrible tor- 
ments. A girl of thirteen years of age was 
put to death in the village of Afflewang on 
Good Friday. Seven men have been vic- 
tims of this abominable faith. The author 
of the sect, Peschel, with eighty-six follow- 
ers, have been arrested. Order is now re- 
stored. Peschel is the clergyman who at- 
tended the unfortunate bookseller Palm to the 
place of execution, when he was shot by or- 
der of Bonaparte. He is now at Vienna, 
where he has been frequently examined by 
the ecclesiastical authorities, but shows such 
signs of mental derangement, that it has 
been resolved, by the advice of the said au- 
thorities, and on consulting several judicious 
physicians, to place him in some pious in- 
stitution to be taken care of. 

The marriage of Madame Murat with 
General Macdonald has been celebrated at 
Vienna. The ci-devant queen has just 
purchased the lordship of Lottingbrom, 
tour leagues from Vienna, in the neigh- 
bourhood of Baden. 

Some disputes had arisen between the 
king of Wirtemberg and the States of his 
kingdom, respecting the consolidation, desir- 
ed by the king, of the representatives of the 
ancient and new territories into one consti- 
tuent assembly. This measure had met 
with much opposition, but has at length 
been acceded to by a majority of the diet. 


The intelligence from the Grisons is dis- 
tressing in the extreme. A frightful aval- 
anche destroyed, on the 6th, the village 
of Nueros ; in this valley eleven houses 
and mills, with all their inhabitants and 
cattle, were overwhelmed. On the 8th, the 
curate and ninety-four persons, all wound- 
ed, were dug out ; many dead bodies were 
also found, but the fate of twenty-eight 
persons is still unknown. From the Tyrol 
the news is equally afflicting. At Nouders- 
the snow is as high as a church steeple. At 
Ichsgel, in the Pinzgau, .twenty-one houses 
wjre destroyed. Six leagues from Inspruck 
ten persons were killed. The course of the 
Inn v interrupted. Many hundred persons 
of the cantons of Basle, Soleure, &c. have 

embarked for America, and have been ac- 
companied by many inhabitants from Al- 
sace, and others are still to follow. These 
poor creatures cannot even pay their pas- 
sage without selling their persons for a term 
of years. The situation of the inhabitants 
of the canton of the Glaciers is not less dis- 
tres.-ing. Five hundred and eighty of the 
peasants of Argovia have taken their pas- 
sage from Amsterdam for America in a 
single ship, finding no resource from fa- 
mine but in desertion of their native coun- 


Stockholm, Mar. 7. Yesterday was cele- 
brated the solemn removal of the different 
military trophies taken by the Swedes in 
the last 200 years, amounting to near 5000, 
from the Saloon in the Royal Garden to 
the Retterholme Church. The deputies 
of the army gave a grand entertainment on 
tlie occasion, which the king and the Crown. 
Prince honoured by their presence, and 
their healths were drunk amidst the dis- 
charge of 286 pieces of cannon. 

Letters from Stockholm announce, that 
several regiments have received orders to 
put themselves in march to approach the 
capital. This is in consequence of an at- 
tempt meditated against the life *of the 
Crown Prince, Bernadotte. It appears that 
the projected assassination was to have 
taken place at a masqued ball, a scene of 
the same description as that which proved 
fatal to Gustavus III. The fete was held, 
but the Crown Prince and his son chose to 
be absent, having received a timely warning 
of their danger. 

The marshal of the Court, Gyllerstrom, 
has been banished ; and the Scandinavian 
Journal, and other publications of a ten- 
dency dangerous to the new dynasty, sup- 
pressed. The son of Gustavus, who was 
set aside to make room for Bernadotte, is 
living at the court of Wirtemberg, the king 
being his cousin. He is also a nephew of 
the Emperor Alexander. 

A conscription is now making throughout 
the kingdom, including all the youths fiom 
twenty to twenty-five years of age inclusive, 
to form a well disciplined and uniform mi- 
litia of about 300,000 men, from which, 
only in time of war, the regular regiments, 
raised partly by recruiting, partly furnish- 
ed and equipped by all the land owner-,, are 
to be reinforced and filled up. 

The king has issued an ordinance, in 
which the importation of wine, rum, and 
cotton goods, are strictly prohibited, in or- 
der, as it is stated, to assist in bringing 
down the rate of exchange. 


The seaport of Odessa seems in a fair 
way to become one of the most considerable 
towns in the Russian empire. Its extraor- 
dinary trade in corn has,, latterly, 

Register, Foreign Intelligence. 

the number of strangers, and its increase 
proceeds in a manner beyond all conception. 

The amount of goods imported into St 
Petersburg!! last year was above 90,000,000 
of roubles, and that of goods exported near- 
ly 11}-, millions. 

St JPetertbufgh, April 12 On Easter 

Sunday there was published a very remark- 
able imperial mandate, in favour of the 
Jews who are converted to Christianity. The 
following are some of the chief articles : . 

1. All Jews embracing the Christian re- 
ligion, no matter. of which confession, shall 
have privileges granted them, whatever pro- 
fession they may adopt, suitable to their 
knowledge and abilities. 

2. In the northern and southern govern- 
ments, lands shall be assigned them gratis, 
where such as please may settle at their own 
expense, under the name of Society of Jew- 
ish Christians. 

3. This society shall hffve its own pri- 

4. At St Pctersburgh a Board shall be 
formed, of which Prince Alexander Golyzin 
shall be president, under the denomination 
of " Board for the all airs of Jewish Chris- 
tians ;" on which, and on no other magis- 
trates (except in criminal cases), the society 
of Jewish Christians depends. 

.5. This Board is bound to attend to every 
thing relating to the settlements, and to re- 
port on it to the Emperor. In the settle- 
ments of the Jewish Christians, which are 
given to them as hereditary property for 
ever, the society can carry on any kind of 
professions, build cities, villages, or single 
dwellings ; the lands are given to the whole 
community, but not to individuals, and 
cannot be sold or mortgaged to strangers. 
In these settlements the Jewish Christians 
and their posterity have entire religious li- 
berty in the Christian confession of faith 
which they embrace. The society is under 
the immediate protection of the Emperor, 
and depends entirely on the Board in St 
Petersburg!!, to which alone it will give ac- 
count. No other local magistracy shall in- 
terfere with them ; their preachers are only 
under the Board. . The internal govern- 
ment of the society is under administration 
of the Society of the Jewish Christians, con- 
sisting of two superiors and four adjuncts, 
chosen by the Society from its own mem- 
bers, and confirmed by the Board. It 
manages the internal concerns, the police, 
&c. and lias a particular seal. It may ex- 
pel improper members, and receive new 
ones, but must report on this to the Board. 
The members of the society obtain the rights 
of citizens in the Russian empire. They 
may carry on trade at home and abroad, 
conformably to the general laws ; establish 
manufactories, &c. without being register- 
ed in any guild. In their settlements the 
.society may brew beer, distil brandy, &c. 
They are free from billeting of troops, and 
for twenty years from taxes ; are not bound 
to military service, &c. Foreign Jews who, 


after embracing Christianity, shall join this 
community, may leave the country when 
they have paid their debts, and the legal 
contributions for three years on the capi- 
tals which they have acquired in Russia. 
This regulation excites the more attention, 
because it is well known that our ambassa- 
dors in Germany are expressly ordered to 
give no more passports to those who desire 
to emigrate. 


The friends of humanity will lament to 
learn, that theGerman physician, Rosenfeld, 
one of those persons who ventured to ino- 
culate themselves with the plague, has fal- 
len a victim to his generous devotion. 

Some movements on the Persian frontiers 
have taken place, occasioned by the conduct 
of Ibrahim Pacha, commander of the Turk- 
ish fortress of Bejazid, who was discharged 
from his office and had fled to Persia ; but his 
not returning at the desire of the neighbour- 
ing Turkish governors, has caused the Turks 
to commit some excesses in the Persian vil- 
lages, for whicli the Persian Crown Prince 
threatens to exact reparation by force of 

The city of Constantinople has been again 
a prey to the ravages of tire, upwards of 
300 houses having been destroyed. 

The Pacha of Smyrna, the richest in all 
Turkey, has been beheaded by order of tho 
Grand Signior, for forwarding recruits and 
assistance to the Dey of Algiers. 

A private letter from Cairo mentions, that 
they had experienced a circumstance not 
remembered by the oldest inhabitant four 
days of successive torrents of rain, which 
had nearly destroyed whole villages. The 
houses having been built of unbaked clay, 
scarcely a dwelling escaped without injury, 
and had the rain continued a few days long- 
er, the city of Cairo itself must inevitably 
have been washed away. 



By the American papers, received 2d April, 
we see that the spirit of hostility to the in- 
troduction of British manufactures is still 
manifested, by resolutions and proposals, 
tending to show the inveteracy of a portion 
of the people against every thing i' 

The celebrated Air Randolph has retired 
from public life. 

An address has been presented by the 
citizens of Washington, to Mr Madison, on 
his retiring from the presidency. His re- 
ply relates chiefly to the welfare of that 
city ; and, amongst other matters, informs 
them, that ultimate good will follow from 
the disaster which befel the ca; ital. 

It appears the American Commodore, 
Chauncey, concluded a new Treaty with 
Algiers on the 25th December, on the. ba,,H 
of the Treaty of June 1S15. 

Register* Foreign Intelligence. 


Washington, March 5. The ceremony 
attendant on the entrance of the president 
elect on the dudes of his arduous station 
was simple but grand. He was attended 
from his private residence by the vice-pre- 
sident elect, and a large cavalcade of citi- 
zens on horseback, marshalled in due or- 
der. The president reached the Congress 
Hall a little before twelve ; and after the 
vice-president had taken the chair, and had 
the oath of office administered to him, a 
pertinent address was delivered by him on 
the occasion. This ceremony being ended, 
the Senate adjourned, and all the officers of 
stat., and judges, attended the president to 
the elevated portico erected for the occasion, 
where, in the presence of an immense con- 
course of citizens and foreigners, the pre- 
sident rose and delivered a speech of consi- 
derable length ; wherein, after enumerating 
all the advantages of the constitution, and 
the flourishing state of their commerce and 
finances, he calls upon the assistance of all 
his fellow citizens in support of that govern- 
ment which protects every citizen in the 
full enjoyment of his rights, and is able to 
protect the nation against injustice from 
foreign powers. In regard to their manu- 
factures, he says, that as they have the raw 
materials the production of their own soil 


A notification has been issued from the 
colonial department, to such as intend to 
emigrate to Canada, informing them that it 
is not the intention of government to pro- 
vide any gratuitous means of conveyance 
this season ; and that no person can proceed 
to North America as a settler, with any 
prospect of success, unless he departs from 
Europe early in the season, that is, before 
the 1st of June. 


April 1 The Portuguese government 

having transferred to Brazil some seeds of 
the tea-tree, have succeeded in naturalizing 
this plant at Rio Janeiro. It is cultivated 
at this moment with success by several 
Chinese, who have gone there for that pur- 

The Independent general, Marino, has 
entered into a treaty with the governor of 
the island of Trinidad, granting a free trade 
to his Britannic Majesty's subjects with the 
Independent districts of Venezuela, on con- 
dition that the Independents shall have the 
same privileges at Trinidad. 

Most contradictory account* are still 
received from this quarter of the globe. A 
letter, purporting to come from an officer 

anri industry they ought not to depend, in- connected with the revolutionary army, to 

' his friend at Philadelphia, speaks of the 
most horrid cruelties, and disgraceful enor- 
mities, practised both by Independents and 
Royalists, particularly by the armed vessels, 
without regard to age, sex, or country ; that 
the streets of St Thomas were filled with 
refugees from the Main, who were existing 
on the charity of the island. Another 

the degree they have done, on supplies from 
other countries. He recommends that their 
great naval resources should be carefully 
fostered in time of peace, and that their 
land forces should not be neglected ; but 
that it ought always to be held in view, that 
the safety of these states, and of every thing 
dear to a free people, must depend in an 
eminent degree on the militia. He rejoices 
that he enters on the discharge of his duties 
in the time of peace, and adds, that it shall be 
his sincere desire to preserve it, on just prin- 
ciples, with all nations, claiming nothing 
unreasonable of any, and rendering to each 
what is its due. After some well expressed 
compliments to his predecessor, he concluded 
a speech, replete with moderation and firm- 
ness, when the oath of office was adminis- 
tered to him by the chief justice of the 
United States. The oath was announced 
by a single gun, and followed by salutes 
from the naval yard, the battery from Fort 
Warburton, and from several pieces of ar- 
tillery on the ground. Mr Monroe was the 
American minister in this country in the 
year 1793, and afterwards in France. He 
served in the first American war, and lost a 
leg in it He is supposed to be rather in- 
clined to the Washington school. 

The British consul at New York, in 
consequence of the misery and wretched- 
ness of those who had emigrated from Bri- 
tain to the United States, has offered to 
them a settlement in the British dominions 
of Canada, or Nova Scotia, and issued a 
public notice to that effect. Passports have 
already been granted to 340 persons to pro- 
ceed to Upper Canada. 

writes from the head quarters of the army 
of the republic of Mexico : After exulting 
in their success both by land and sea, and 
the excellent disposition of the inhabitants, 
the letter concludes by saying, that " We 
are already on our march our army is 
daily increasing and I have no doubt that 
1 shall soon write you from the capital of 
Mexico, after having fixed the standard of 
liberty in every house of that populous and 
wealthy city." 

General Bolivar and Admiral Brion have 
declared the whole coast of the Spanish 
Main in a state of rigorous blockade. 

The West Indies, and the whole surface 
of the Atlantic, is infested with privateer 
vessels under the flag of the South Ameri- 
can Independents, which have committed 
great depredations. ' 

The Portuguese took possession of Monte 
Video on the 20th January, without firing 
a shot, and have issued proclamations de- 
claring oblivion of all past opinions ; that 
the security of persons and property is guar- 
anteed by the Portuguese army, and grant- 
ing them a free trade with all nations. 

The quiet manner in which this transfer 
has been effected, proves thai an amicable 
understanding must exist between the gov- 
ernment of the Brazils and the Indepen,- 

Register. Foreign Intelligence. 


dents of that part of South America which 
the Portuguese have invaded. 

A British ship has been seized at the 
Havannah when the captain was deprived 
f his sword the specie and stores taken 
away and the British colours torn down 
and destroved. 


The Calcutta Journal, Nov. 6, states, that 
a fatal rencontre took place between Cap- 
tain Heaviside, with a part of the officers and 
crew of the Hon. Company's ship Elphin- 
stone, and a party of Malays, in the month 
ef September, at Bcroo, on the north-east 
f Sumatra. Mr Macdonald, surgeon, and 
tire second officer, were killed on the spot, 
.and several others left for dead. Captain 
Heaviside was desperately wounded. 

The peace of the Peninsula is likely to 
be disturbed by the predatory excursions of 
Ameer Khan, who, at the head of an army 
f 80,000 Pindarrees, spreads terror and 
devastation around. As their only object is 
plunder, some of the Rajahs were desirous 
of calling in the assistance of the Company's 
troops, and a considerable force has been 
ordered to assemble under the command of 
Colonel John Adams, in the dominions of 
the Rajah of Berar. 

We understand the Prince Regent has 
brought the most satisfactory accounts of the 
state of every part of India. Trade was 
brisk, and so far from there being a glut of 
British goods in our settlements, there was 
actually a want of them. 


Accounts have been received relative to 
the mission to China. The embassy had 
xeturned to Canton ; and though the pre- 
sents were not accepted by the emperor, yet 
there was no reason to suppose that the 
good understanding between the two coun- 
tries would be in any way affected. Trade 
was carried on as usual, and three China ships 
left Canton after the embassy had returned 
from Pekin to Canton. This intelligence 
was brought by the Prince Regent. Whilst 
she was preparing, March 12th, to weigh 
anchor from St Helena for England, three 
large ships came in sight, and these proved 
to be the vessels so anxiously expected from 
China, namely, the General Hewitt, the 
Cattle Ifuntly, and the Cumberland. As 
soon as they came to anchor, an officer from 
the Prince Regent went on board the Ge- 
neral Hewitt, in order to obtain the latest 
intelligence from China respecting British 
affairs. Part of the presents intended for 
the emperor had been sold at Canton, and 
the remainder were put on board the 
General Hewitt, together with despatches 
for Kngland. The three ships left Canton 
on the i>th January. 

Imperial Decree, 

Dated the fifteenth Day of the seventh Moon 
of the twenty-first Year (6th September 
1816) of Kia-King, addressed to the Vice- 
roy Kiang, and the Fuynen Jung of Can- 
ton, and received the fifth of the eighth 

' Moon (25th September). 

The English Ambassadors, upon their 
arrival this time at Tien-sing, have not ob- 
served the laws of politeness,* in return for 
the invitation of the emperor. Reaching 
Tung-chow (four leagues from court), they 
gave assurances of readiness to perform the 
prostrations and genuflexions required by 
the laws of good manners (of the coun- 
try). Arrived at the imperial country-house 
(half a league from court), and when tve 
were upon the point of repairing to the hall 
(to receive the embassy), the first, as well 
as the second ambassador, under pretence 
of ill health, would not appear. We, in 
consequence, passed a decree, that they 
should be ordered to depart. Reflecting, 
however, that although the said ambassadors 
were- blameable in not adhering to the laws--' 
of politeness, their sovereign, who, from an 
immense distance, and over various seas, had 
sent to offer us presents, and to present with 
respect his letters, indicating a wish to shew 
us due consideration and obedience, had not 
deserved contempt, such being also against 
our maxim of encouragement to our infe- 
riors ; in consequence, from among the pre- 
sents of the said king, we chose the most 
trifling and insignificant, (which are) four 
charts, two portraits, and ninety-five engra- 
vings ; and in order to gratify him, have 
accepted them. We, in return, give, as a 
reward to the said king, a Yu-Yu,f a string 
of rare stones, two large purses and four 
small ones ; and we ordered the ambassa- 
dors to receive these gifts, and to return to 
their country (we having so enacted), in ob- 
servance of the maxim (of Confucius), 
" Give much, receive little." 

When the ambassadors received the said 
gifts, they became exceeding glad, and 
evinced their repentance. They have al- 
ready quitted Tung-chow. Upon their ar- 
rival at Canton, you, Kiang and Jung, will 
invite them to a dinner, in compliance with 
good manners, and will say to them as fol- 
lows : 

Your good fortune has been small: 
you arrived at the gates of the imperial 
house, and were unable to lift your eyes to 
the face of Heaven (the emperor). The 
great emperor reflected that your king sigh- 
ed after happiness (China ! ! !) and acted 

* Previous to coming to table, the guest 
makes a profound inclination, or actual pro- 
stration, according to the rank of the host. 

} Insignia of honour (a long carved stone) 
presented on days of fete to high mandarins 
9iid foreign ambassadors. 

Register. Proceedings of Parliamen t. 


with sincerity ; he therefore accepted some 
presents, and gifted your king with various 
precious articles. You must return thanks 
to the emperor for his benefits, and return 
with speed to your country, that your king 
may t'ecl a respectful gratitude for these 
acts of kindness. Take care to embark the 
rest of the presents with safety, that they 
may not be lost or destroyed. 

After this lecture, should the ambassadors 
supplicate you to receive the remainder of 
the presents, answer " In one word, a 
decree has passed ; we dare not, therefore, 
present troublesome petitions ;" and with 
this decision you will rid yourselves of the 
embassy. Respect this. 


The advertisements in the Sydney Ga- 
zette are of considerable interest, in convey- 
ing an idea of the great improvements in 
every 'description of European manufacture, 
of East India goods, West India produce, 
&o. They have their theatre, their Hyde 
Park, their races, and every description of 
amusement England in miniature. A 
new governor has lately been appointed, 
and it is said, it is no longer to be used as 
a depot for transported criminals, but that 
every encouragement is to be given to set- 
tlers, and that it is likely to secome a. 
colony of the greatest importance to the 
mother country. 




Alar. 3 The order of the day being 
read, for taking into consideration the 
amendments made by the Commons on this 
bill, the Earl of ROSSLYN said, he disap- 
proved of the original framing of the bill, 
which placed the liberties of the people of 
Scotland in a very different and far more 
precarious footing than it did those of Eng- 
land. In the former, an inferior magistrate 
was empowered to act under the bill ; where- 
as, in the latter, a responsible minister, or 
six privy councillors, only could act. So 
far he approved of the amendments ; but of 
the measure generally he disapproved. Af- 
ter some discussion, the amendments were 
agreed to. 

Afar. 4 The royal assent was given, by 
commission, to the Habeas Corpus Sus- 
pension Bill, the Malt Duty Bill, and se- 
veral private bills. The Anny Seduction 
Will, and Treasonable Practices Bill, were 
brought up from the Commons, and read a 
lirst time. 


Mar. 6. Viscount MELVILLE moved 
the order of the day for their Lordships 
going into a committee on the Navy and 
Army Seduction Bill, when Lord SHAFTES- 
BURY took the chair. The bill being gone 
through, was reported without any amend- 
ment, as was also the Regent's Protection 
Bill. Adjourned. 


Mar. 7 The Earl of LIVERPOOL 
moved the third reading of these bills ; but 
on some ambiguities being pointed out by 
Lord HOLLAND, it was agreed to postpone 
the third reading of the Treasonable Prac- 
tices Bill till Monday ; and the Army and 
Navy Seduction Bill, after some opposition 
by Lord GROSVENOR, was read a third 
time and passed. 


The Earl of DAHNLEY pressed the ne- 
cessity of adopting some measure very 

speedily for the relief of the people of Ire- 

Mar. 10 Lord HOLLAND gave notice, 
that he would, on an early day, move for 
copies of the instructions given tu the go- 
vernor of St Helena respecting the treat- 
ment of Napoleon Bonaparte ; and moved 
that the Lords be summoned on Tuesday 
se'nnight, which was ordered. 

Mar. 11. The bill for the protection of 
the Prince Regent was read a third time 
and passed. 


Mar. 11 Karl GROSVENOR called up- 
on their Lordships to agree to a motion, 
generally, for the abolition of sinecures or 
useless offices, to which he could not con- 
ceive any sound objection ; and after a speech 
of considerable length, he proposed these 
four resolutions : 1st, That sinecures should 
be abolished, after the expiration of the 
lives during which they were at present 
held: 2d, That useless places should be 
abolished forthwith, or properly regulated : 
3d, That places or offices should no more 
be granted in reversion : and then, 4th, He 
should propose a resolution in favour of 
some reform. The Karl of LAUDERDALE 
asserted, that there never was a period in 
our history when men in office were less cor- 
rupt, and perhaps never a time when tie 
public was more corrupt ; that the influence 
of the Crown in the House of Commons was 
far less than formerly, and abolishing these 
places would be no relief to the public bur- 
dens. After some discussion, the question 
was put. Contents o ; non-contents 45 ; 
majority against the motion 40. 

Mar. 13 Earl GROSVENOR presented 
a petition from Chalford in Gloucestershire 
against the corn laws, and praying for a. 
renewal of the property tax ; also one from 
Southwark, praying for the abolition of 
sinecures. Laid on the table. 


Mar. 14. Earl DARXLKY presented a 
petition from Belfast, praying for the stop- 
page of- the distilleries ; which was laid on 
the table. 


Register. Proceedings of Parliament. 

Mnr. 11 Lord DARN LEY presented a 

petition from Belfast, complaining of the 
distresses in the north of Ireland, from the 
scarcity and bad quality of corn. 


Mar. 17 Lord SIDMOUTII moved the 

first reading of this hill, and the Lords were 
ordered to be summoned for Thursday. 


Mar. 18. Lord HOLLAND moved for a 
great number of papers and correspondence, 
respecting the confinement and treatment of 
Bonaparte at St Helena, calling upon Go- 
vernment to vindicate themselves from as- 
persions thrown upon them in various pub- 
lications, for their harsh treatment of the 
ex-emperor. Earl BATHURST denied that 
any unnecessary severity was exercised to- 
wards Bonaparte ; and said that there is no 
other restraint upon Ins correspondence than 
what is usual respecting prisoners of war 
the letters must be opened. The sum al- 
lowed for his establishment is equal to that 
allowed for the governor i'12,000 per an- 
num ; and he has, besides, personal proper- 
ty, which he may expend for his own com- 
fort, if he find that allowance too small. 
His Lordship assured the house, that the 
inconveniences complained of were created 
by Bonaparte himself. The motion was ne- 


Mar. 21 In the case of Arnot v. Stuart, 
counsel were finally heard. Affirmed, with 
i'50 costs. 

The House went into a Committee on the 
some amendments were made. 


Mar. 24 Shepherd v. Waterston affirm- 
ed, with 120 costs to one of the parties, 
viz. Mr Harvey. 

Macdonald v. Stalker affirmed. 


Mar. 25. The order of the day for the 
third reading of this bill was read. Lord 
EKSKINE objected to the bill as unneces- 
sary, and considered the existing laws suffi- 
cient for every purpose. The Lord CHAN- 
CELLOR supported it. Lord SIDMOUTII 
introduced a clause to prohibit public meet- 
ings within a mile of Westminster Hall, 
with the exception of meetings at Covent- 
Garden and Southwark. Several Lords ob- 
jected to this clause, when the House di- 
vided. For the clause 111; against it, 23 ; 
majority 88. The clause was of course 
annexed to the bill, which was read a third 
time and passed. 

Mar. 2G. In the Scots appeal cause of 
Walker r. Weir, their Lordship's decision 
was, that the case be remitted back for fur- 
thev consideration. 

The Naval Stores Bill, and the Exche- 
quer Bills Bill, were read a third time and 


Mar. 27. The Karl of SIIAFTESBURY 
presented a voluminous report from the 


Appeal Committee, the recommendations in 
which were agreed to by the House. 


On the motion, that the consideration of 
ihe Habeas Corpus Suspension Bill be put 
off for three months, being negatived. 

Dissentient, Because we concur entirely 
in the reasons stated in the protest entered 
against the second reading of the said bill 
on the 24th February last, and because the 
delay that has taken place since the bill has 
been hurried through this House, contrary 
to its established forms and standing orders, 
(in consequence of which unbecoming haste 
the amendments have been found necessary), 
has confirmed and increased our conviction, 
that this measure which necessity alone can 
justify, is without any such justification. 



Lords HOLLAND and DARNLEY entered 
a protest, dissenting from the resolution of 
the Lords, refusing the motion for the pro- 
duction of papers regarding the treatment 
of Bonaparte in the island of St Helena.' 

Mar. 28 The Exchequer Courts Bill 
was returned from the Commons, their 
Lordships' amendments having been agreed 

Mar. 29 Mr BROGDEN, accompanied 
by several members, appeared at the Bar, 
and requested a conference with their Lord 
ships on the subject of the amendments in 
the Seditious Assemblies Bill, which was 
granted, and the alterations agreed to. 

Mar. 31 The SPEAKER of the House 

of Commons attended, with several mem- 
bers, and heard the royal assent given, by 
commission, to the Seditious Meetings and 
Naval Officers' Half-pay Bills. The House 
then, on the motion of the Earl of LIVER- 
POOL, adjourned till Wednesday fortnight. 



Mar. 3 Sir E. KNATCHBITLL wished 

to introduce a bill to alter and amend the 
Game Act, which was to prevent persons 
from going out at night armed to destroy 
game. The bill was brought up and read 
u first time. 


The SOLICITOR GENERAL rose to rhove 
the second reading of the bill for prevent- 
ing seditious assemblies. Of the various 
means, he said, employed by the fomentors 
of discontent, one of the most efficacious was, 
to call together a number of persons, to 
inflame them by harangues, to persuade 
them that the evils arising from the cir- 
cumstances ef the times would be remedied 
by their application ta Parliament, and to 
persuade them that they had a right to 
force Parliament to comply with their de- 
mands. These meetings, which might be 
turned to tvcry mischievous purpose, the 


bill was intended to control, by some regu- 
lations precisely of the same kind as those 
adopted at other critical times. After some 
discussion, and some remarks from Lord 
COCHRANE respecting the imprisonment of 
a Mr M' Arthur of Glasgow, who had been 
afterward released, the bill was then read a 
second time, and ordered to be committed 


Mar. 3. The Army and Navy Seduc- 
tion Bills, and the bill respecting Treason- 
able Practices, were read a third time and 

Register. Proceedings of Parliament. 


Sir FRANCIS BURDETT moved that the 
petitions which lay on the floor, signed by 
nearly a million of subscribers, should be 
received. ( Tfiere appeared to be nearly a 
waggon-load of petitions ; they lay in a 
heap, and almost covered the floor of tfie 
House ; it is understood there were 600 of 
them.) The SPEAKER. Bring them up. 
fa laugh.) Sir Francis, on the suggestion 
of the Speaker, agreed to the propriety of 
proceeding with the petitions some other 


Mar. 4. Lord COCHHANE, seeing the 
Learned Lord Advocate of Scotland in his 
place, begged to know if the statement was 
true, that some of the persons imprisoned at 
Glasgow had been discharged, there being 
no foundation for any charge against them. 
The LORD ADVOCATE stated, that he had 
received no information on the subject Sir 
FRANCIS BURDETT said, he had received 
a letter from Glasgow, stating, that the per- 
sons apprehended, and afterwards liberated, 
had been taken up on the evidence of spies. 
Several petitions for reform were presented 
by Lord Cochrane, some of which were ob- 
jected to, and others ordered to lie on the 
table. The SOLICITOR GENERAL moved 
some new clauses in the Seditious Assem- 
blies Bill, pro forma, and the House ad- 


Mar. 6. The CHANCELLOR of the Ex- 
CHEQUERmoved agrant of 200,000 on ac- 
count, for expenses of a civil nature in Great 
Britain, which formed no part of the or- 
dinary charge of the civil list. Agreed to. 

Lord PALMERSTON moved for i'500,000 
as a further sum for the expense of the land 
service, with the exception of the troops in 
France, and in the territories of the East 
India Company. Agreed to. 


moved for an investigation into the amount 
and state of human food in Ireland, with 
a view to determine whether it might be 
expedient to stop the distillation of grain in 
Ireland. Mr PEEL thought he should be 
able to satisfy the Hon. Gentleman and the 
House, that a prohibition of distillation 
would not lead to the result which he an- 
ticipated from it. The question was not 


merely whether they would prohibit the 
distillation in Ireland ; the trade with Ire- 
land was free, and, consequently, such a 
prohibition would give to the English distiller 
a preference in the Irish market It should 
be considered, that one of the evils attend- 
ing the stoppage of the regular distillation 
would be the stimulus thus given to illegal 
distillation, which would probably cause, on 
the whole, an increase in the consumption 
of corn ; and, as it would at least be a 
month before the stoppage could be affect- 
ed, he was persuaded that the proposed 
measure would not save one barrel of corn, 
but be productive of mischief rather than 
good. He should add, that the Irish Go- 
vernment had taken all practicable means 
in its power to obviate the dangers of scar- 
city, especially by taking upon themselves 
the responsibility of admitting American 
flour, which the letter of the law did not 
permit At the suggestion of Sir J. NEW- 
FORT the motion was withdrawn. 


Mar. 5 Mr BROUGHAM moved for 
copies of some correspondence, which had 
passed between the Chancellor of the Ex- 
chequer and certain Magistrates in the coun- 
try, respecting the new coin, and expressed 
in strong terms his indignation on discover- 
ing the letters W. \V. P. on the reverse of 
the new coin of the realm ; adding, that 
Cardinal Wolsey having impressed upon 
the king's coin a cardinal's hat, this was 
made one of the articles of impeachment 
against him. Mr W. W. POLE declared, 
that if there had been any such correspond- 
ence as that alluded to by the Hon. and 
learned Gentleman, he had never heard of 
it With regard to the letters W. W. P. 
the learned Gentleman ought to know that 
he was authorised, by indentures, to put 
what private marks he pleased on every 
piece of the new currency. The question 
was put and negatived, 


Mar. 7 The CHANCELLOR of the EX- 
CHEQUER, in reply to a question of Sir 
George Clerk, respecting the general equali- 
zation of weights and measures, assured 
him that a measure was in progress for the 
purpose to which he alluded. A commis- 
sion had been issued, and the whole was, 
for the present, under the superintendence 
of the Royal Society. 


Mr CALCRAFT presented two petitions 
from two parishes in Devonshire, in one of 
which the Poor Rates amounted to 18 or 19s. 
and in the other to one guinea in the pound 
to the landholders; that in one parish, con- 
taining 575 inhabitants, no less than 497 
were receiving parochial relief, and to this 
he begged to call the attention of Lord Cas. 
tlereagh. His Loruship said, he was con- 
vinced a great part of the rate would be 
found to be wages paid in the shape of poor 
rates ; a system which ought to tw discour- 

Register. Proceedings of Parliament. 

aged as much as possible. Mr CALCRAFT, 
in reply, stated, that he wished to call the 
attention of the Committee on the Poor 
Laws to the subject of making funded pro- 
perty rateable to the support of the poor, 
and that he had sanguine hopes that their 
labours would be attended with the most 
salutary effects. 


Mar. 10 Sir R. FERGUSON presented 
a petition from Arbroath, praying for a re- 
form in Parliament. It was not reasonable, 
he said, to think that the people in Scotland 
should be content, when they could not but 
know that Cornwall sent as many members 
to that House as all Scotland. Mr BRAND 
rose to confirm what had been said by the 
gallant General, as to the anxiety of the 
people in Scotland for a reform in Parlia- 
ment. Mr BOSWELL observed, there was 
not a single petition from the landholders 
of Scotland in favour of parliamentary re- 
form. Lord A. HAMILTON asserted, that 
the voters in that country were not commen- 
surate with the landholders. The LORD 
ADVOCATE had stated on a former night, 
and he would repeat "it now, that the people 
of Scotland, taking those classes of the com- 
munity who were most capable of forming 
a judgment on the subject, were nine-tenths 
of them opposed to any change in the re- 
presentation of that country in Parliament. 
After much discussion, the petition was or- 
dered to lie on the table. 


Lord PALMERSTON called the attention 
of the House to the Army Estimates, when 
the following sums were voted, from De- 
cember 25, 1816, to June 24, 1817 : 
For defraying the expenses of volunteer 

cavalry, - - - 37,000 
Ditto for Ireland, - - 15,682 10 
Chelsea Hospital, - - 25,000 
In-pensioners of Kihnainham 

Hospital, - '- - 8,300 
Out-pensioners of Chelsea, 393,200 6 
Ditto of Kilmainham, - 82,700 

moved for a grant of 1,000,000, to be 
advanced to the armies who fought at Wa- 
terloo. Also the sum of 5,152,000, to 
make good out-standing Exchequer Bills. 
Also 1,680,000 for the discharge of Irish 
Exchequer Bills. And the House resumed. 


Mar. 11. Mr PEEL introduced a bill 
for the better regulation of the Police in 
Ireland, which would gradually reduce the 
military establishment of that country. 


Mar. 12. The CHANCELLOR of the 
EXCHEQUER proposed that the sum of 
18,000,000 be raised by Exchequer Bills, 
Agreed to. 


The SPEAKER informed the House that 
he had caused the several petitions to be 
.sorted. The total number presented by the 

VOL. I, 


Hon. Baronet, Sir Francis Burdett, was 527, 
of which 468 were printed. After several 
were rejected for want of form, and others 
for impropriety of language, the question 
was put that the 468 printed petstions should 
be read, when Lord CASTLEREAGH con- 
tended, that the rules and practice of the 
House were against the entertaining printed 
petitions. The House divided. Ayes 6 ; 
noes 58 ; majority against receiving the pe- 
tions 52. 


Mar. 13 Mr BROUGHAM, in a long 
and elaborate speech, set forth the distresses 
of the lower classes of the community in 
fearful colours. The pressure in the cloth 
trade, great as it is represented, was less 
than in the other branches. At Birming- 
ham, out of 80,000 souls there were 27,000 
paupers, who were formerly able to earn 
from 2 to 3 a-week, who did not make 
more at present than from 7s. to 9s., in no 
instance more than 18s., and their- wives 
and children had no employment at all. 
In Lancashire there were 500,000 persons 
engaged in the weaving and spinning trade, 
who could formerly earn 13s. a-week, but 
then- wages in January last were as low as 
4s. 3d., and some inferior workmen so little 
as 2s. 6d. weekly, for the support of them- 
selves and families, and that many of them 
were actually reduced to live upon half a 
pound of oatmeal a-day, with a little salt 
and water. In Spittalfields and Coventry 
the distresses were nearly as great He did 
not attribute this state of things to the 
change from war to peace (except perhaps 
at Birmingham), but to our restrictions on 
trade, our neglect of commercial treaties, 
and our excessive taxation, and keeping up 
so large a standing army, which not only 
prevented the nations on the continent from 
considering us in the light of a commercial 
country, but excited such jealousy of our 
power as incited them co every possible 
means of injuring our trade. He contend- 
ed, that if the duties on foreign articles of 
consumption were greatly reduced, our trade 
would be much increased, in consequence 
the revenue would be eventually augment- 
ed, and all classes of society benefitted, 
He concluded with proposing resolutions 
tending to reprobate the conduct of minis- 
ters, and calling upon the House to take 
the subject into their serious consideration. 
Mr RwBiNSOK replied; and Lord CAS- 
TLEREAGH, after stating that commercial 
treaties were calculated to do more harm 
than good, moved the orders of the day. 
The House divided. For going into the 
orders of the day 118; for the resolutions 
63 ; majority in favour of ministers 55. 


Mar. 14 Sir G. WARRENDER propos- 
ed, that the sum of 1,140,000 be granted 
for the ordinary service of the navy for six 
lunar months, from the 1st of January 1817. 

Upon the third reading of this bill, Mr 

Register. Proceedings of Parliament. 


W. SMITH took occasion to make an 
attack upon the author of a Poem called 
Wat Tyler, which he condemned as the 
most seditious book that ever was written ; 
that government ought to repress this work, 
and punish its author, who was, he under- 
stood, the writer of the llth article in the 
31st Number of the Quarterly Review, 
which contained sentiments strangely in 
contradiction to the spirit with which the 
poem was written. Mr C. W. WYNN, in 
reply, said, he was surprised the Hon. Gen- 
tleman should amuse the House with criti- 
cisms upon two anonymous publications, 
and by personal reflections, in a place where 
the author could make no answer. Sir 
SAMUEL ROMILLY opposed the bill, ob- 
serving, that to control doctrine by force, 
was as idle as to attempt to take a besieged 
town by syllogism. Mr CANNING support- 
ed the bill, because, he said, persons went 
amongst the poor, not that they felt their 
distresses, or were anxious to relieve them, 
but that their voices might be called forth, 
and that they might take advantage of the 
inflammability of the people, to goad them 
on to a subserviency to their own wicked 
purposes. Mr BROUGHAM entered his 
protest against the measure of putting the 
power into the hands of a single magistrate, 
of arresting any person for uttering any 
thing which, in his opinion, tended to bring 
the government into contempt A division 
took place, when there apppeared for the 
thud reading, ayes 179; noes 44; ma- 
jority 135. 


Mar. 17. Mr WARD moved, that a 
sum not exceeding 258,000 be voted for 
the service of the Ordnance Department, 
fram the 1 st of January to the 30th of June 
1817 Agreed to. 


Lord A. HAMILTON presented a petition 
from the landholders and freeholders of the 
county of Lanark, praying for a repeal of 
this tax. 


Mar. 18 Mr LYTTLETON moved, 

that the existence of state lotteries is preju- 
dicial to the people, and must ultimately di- 
minish the financial resources of the country. 
contended, that most of the evils formerly 
attending upon lotteries had been done 
away with by the present mode of drawing, 
and he did not see how such a sum could 
be raised in a less objectionable way. Mr 
WILBEHFORCE, in feeling and eloquent 
terms, recapitulated the evils attending on 
lotteries. The House divided. For the re- 
solution 26 ; against it 72 ; majority 46. 


Mar. 19. Lord BINNING, in moving 
to bring in a bill for their better regula- 
tion, stated, that there were 1500 lunatics 
in confinement, and about 2000 at large in 
Scotland. Leave given. 

Mar. 20. On the motion of the Chancel- 
lor of the Exchequer for the third reading 
of the Exchequer Bills' Bill, Lord COCH- 
HANE insisted, that this system of Ex- 
chequer Bills was the real cause of the rise 
in the funds, in consequence of the bills be- 
ing deposited in the hands of the bank, who 
issued their notes to ministers, to enable 
them to go on without a loan. But this 
would ultimately be the ruin of the public 
credit The CHANCELLOR replied, that 
if the Noble Lord would take the trouble 
to inquire at the Stock Exchange, he would 
find his opinion was totally wrong. (Hear, 
/war, and much laughter. ) 


Mar. 21. Sir SAMUEL ROMILLY pre 
sented a petition from John Weir of Glas- 
gow, complaining that he had been unjust- 
ly detained in prison, on charge of sedition, 
for two or three days, and then discharged. 
The Scots Lunatic Asylum Bill was read 
a first time. 


Mar. 24 The Speaker being extremely 
ill, it was early in the evening understood, 
that all questions likely to excite discussion 
were to be put off. 


Mar. 25. Several petitions were present- 
ed from different places, praying relief from 
the poor rates ; one of which, from Sudbury, 
stated, that out of a population of 4000 
souls, 2000 received parochial aid ; and that 
the town lands paid 30s. per acre to the 
poor rates. 


Mar. 26 A message from the Lords 
stated, that they had added some amend- 
ments to the bill. It was ordered that the 
amendments be printed, and taken into 
consideration to-morrow. 


Mar. 27. Mr D'AVIES GILBERT ap- 
peared at the bar, and stated, that he held 
in his hand the First Report of the Com- 
mittee of Finance. (Hear, hear, and a 
general cry of read, read.) As soon as 
order was restored, the clerk began to read, 
and the substance amounted to this, that 
such offices as might be considered in the 
nature of sinecures, ought to be abolished 
on the death of the persons who now enjoy 
them. " They therefore recommend, that 
the following offices should be abolished, 
viz. Chief Justices of Eyre, north and south 
Auditor of the Exchequer Clerk of the 
Bills Four Tellers of the Exchequer the 
Warden of the Cinque Ports the Governor 
of the Isle of Wight and the Commissary- 
General of Musters." Mr GILBERT said, 
it was unnecessary to go farther. Enough 
had been read to satisfy the House of the 
spirit of the report. 

On the motion that the amendments t 
the Seditious Meetings 1 Bill be now read, 
they were postponed till to-morrow. 

Register, British Chronicle. 


moved, that the Lords' amendments to this 
bill should be taken into consideration. 
Lord COCHRANE considered it his duty to 
delay the progress of the bill by every means 
in his power ; and under that impression, 
he should have taken the sense of the House 
on every one of the fifty-four amendments ; 
but as he could not find a seconder, he 
must suppose the majority of the House 
were right, and that he was wrong. Seve- 
ral verbal amendments were read, and a- 
greed to. Mr BROUGHAM contended, that 
all the amendments could not be proper- 
ly considered at so short notice, and he 
should therefore move that the farther con- 
sideration of them be adjourned till Mon- 
day. The House divided, For the adjourn- 
ment 31 ; against it 77 ; majority <M>. The 
several other clauses were then gone through, 


and a Committee of Conference to commu- 
nicate with the Lords was appointed. 

DEN, and others, who had been appointed 
to manage a conference with the Lords, 
stated, that they had left the bill, and a 
copy of the amendments, for their Lord- 
ships' consideration. A message from the 
Lords informed the House, that their Lord- 
ships had agreed to the amendments. 


Mar. 31 The Speaker, attended by 
several Members, went up to the House of 
Lords, and heard the Royal Assent given 
to several bills. Mr VANSITTAHT moved, 
that the House, at its rising, should be ad- 
joured till Monday fortnight. Mr PQN- 
SONBY hoped, that Ministers would, in the 
meantime, take some measures that would 
lead to a complete removal of the distresses 
of the people. Adjourned till Monday fort- 



I. Meeting of Merc/umts.A meeting 
was held yesterday, at the London Tavern, 
of the principal merchants, bankers, and 
traders of the city of London, Sir Robert 
Wigram, Bart, in the chair ; and a declar- 
ation to the following effect was unanimous- 
ly adopted : After deploring.".. the criminal 
excesses which had lately disgraced the 
metropolis, it stated, " that they were 
fully sensible of the distresses and privations 
of the lower classes of people, and were 
anxiously desirous of using every practica- 
ble means of relief, at the same time pledg- 
ing themselves, individually and collectively, 
to support the government and constitution 
as by law established ; and to resist every 
attempt, whether of craft or violence, that 
may be directed against civil liberty or 
social peace." The opinion of this most 
respectable body of men has always had 
great influence upon the public mind, and 
will doubtless have a good effect at the pre- 
sent crisis. 

6 The Levee. .The Prince Regent's 
levee, at Carlton House, this day, was one 
of the most numerous that is recollected, 
as persons of rank and distinction, of all 
parties, were anxious to congratulate his 
Royal Highness on his escape from the late 
treasonable attempt on his person. 

6 Edinburgh Address At an extra- 
ordinary meeting of the Town-council of 
Edinburgh, on Monday the 3d instant, the 
Lord Provost, Magistrates, and Council, vot- 
ed a dutiful and loyal address to the Prince 
Regent, expressing their detestation of the 
gross outrage offered to his Royal Highness 
on his return from opening the Parliament, 
on Tuesday the 28th ult. Similar addresses 

have been voted by the Lord Provost and 
Magistrates of Glasgow, and by the Town- 
council of Paisley. Meetings for the same 
purpose have been called of the counties of 
Edinburgh, Haddington, Fife, Roxburgh, 
Renfrew, and in various other parts of Scot- 

Greenock. First Ship from the East 
Indies. Yesterday morning, the ship Anna 
Robertson, Macfarlane, from Calcutta, laden 
with sugar, cotton, indigo, &c. came into 
this port, being the first arrival in the Clyde, 
consequent on the breaking up of the East 
India Company's monopoly ; and it is truly 
gratifying to find, that the most sanguine 
anticipations then entertained of the bene- 
fits to be dcrirved from throwing this trade 
open, bid fair to be amply realized. 

8. Mildness of the Season As a proof 
of the extreme mildness of the season, the 
following plants were observed in blossom 
on the 30th ult in a garden in the neigh- 
bourhood of Glasgow, viz. the wall-flower, 
stock primrose, cowslip, polyanthus, daisy, 
hepatica, crocus, Christinas rose, green hel- 
lebore, winter aconite, white coltsfoot, whit- 
low grass, scurvy grass, golden saxifrage, 
and early flowering heath ; besides which, 
many gooseberry-bushes, currants, roses, 
honeysuckles, and even some plants of haw- 
thorn, had already unfolded their leaves. 

10. /'/<: Spa fields Me-'ting. Every 

precaution was taken to prevent any riot or 
disturbance from the meeting at Spatitlds, 
which was announced to take place this day. 
About one o'clock several thousand persons 
had'assembled, when Mr Hunt made his ap- 
pearance; and, after stating that LordCoch- 
rane could not attend, and that Sir Francis 
Burdett would not, he delivered a long and 


Register. British Chronicle. 


desultory speech, concluding with a string 
of resolutions, having for their object to ob- 
tain annual parliaments and universal suf- 
frage. The resolutions were then embodied 
into the form of a petition, and carried by 
acclamation. It was taken, by the chair- 
man of the meeting, down to the House of 
Commons, with the view of putting it into 
the hands of Lord Folkstone to be present- 
ed. The crowd gradually dispersed. Mr 
Hunt paraded through several of the prin- 
cipal streets, with an immense mob follow- 
ing his tandem, but, though rather turbu- 
lent, no mischief ensued. 

Mural Mmimnent.Soon after the com- 
pletion of the iron bridge at Bonar, in 
the county of Sutherland, George Demp- 
ster, Esq. of Dunnichen, expressed a wish 
to be allowed to have placed, at his 
expense, in a conspicuous place at Bonar 
Bridge, a mural monument, or tablet 
of marble, with an inscription, expres- 
sive, and as a lasting memorial, of the 
patriotic exertions of the Commissioners for 
Highland roads and bridges. The tablet, 
which is of white marble, about four feet 
in height, and three feet in breadth, with 
two pedestals of Portland stone, having been 
safely landed at Bonar, the heritors, &c. 
of the county of Sutherland, at their last 
Michaelmas Head Court, directed that it 
should be forthwith erected, agreeable to 
the wish of the patriotic donor, and voted 
thanks to Mr Dempster for the handsomegift, 
which were communicated to him by the 
convener. The inscription is as follows : 

Stop and read with gratitude 
The names of the Parliamentary Commis- 
sioners appointed, in the year 1803, to di- 
rect the making of about five hundred 
miles of roads through the Highlands of 
Scotland, and of numerous bridges, par- 
ticularly those at Beauly, Scuddel, Bonar, 
Fleet, and Helmsdale, connecting those 
roads ; viz. 

Right Honourable Charles Abbott. 
Right Honourable Nicholas Vansittart 
Right Honourable William Dundas. 
Sir William Pulteney, Bart. 
Isaac Hawkins Brown, Esq. 
Charles Grant, Esq. 
William Smith, Esq. 
To whom were afterwards added, 

Archibald Colquhoun, Esq. Lord Ad- 

Charles Dundas, Esq. 
Right Honourable Nathaniel Bond. 
This building was begun in September 1811, 
and finished in November 1812. 
Thomas Telford, architect. 
Simpson and Cargill, builders. 

This stone was placed here by 
GEORGE DEMPSTER of Dunnichen, in the 

year 1815. 

Organ. A superb organ has just been 
built, at an expense of 4000 guineas, as a 
present from the Countess of Loudon and 
Moira to the church at Calcutta. This in- 

strument is to be shipped for India by the 
next outward-bound fleet. 

13. Union Canal. On Saturday the 
8th, the petition for leave to bring into Par- 
liament the Bill for the Union Canal was 
despatched to London, signed and sealed by 
the cities of Edinburgh and Glasgow, and 
having the subscriptions of a number of re- 
spectable individuals of both cities, well- 
wishers to that much wanted and most use- 
ful undertaking. 

13. New Coin. The exchange of the 
new for the old silver coin commenced this 
day at the several banks and banking houses 
in this city and Leith ; and the issue is to 
be simultaneous throughout the kingdom. 
The new coins are very handsome, con- 
sisting of crowns, half-crowns, shillings, 
and sixpences. On the crowns and half- 
crowns is the head of his Majesty, with the 
words Georgius III. Dei Gratia, 1816 ; on 
the reverse, Rex. Fid. Def. Britanniarum, 
with the royal arms and motto encircled by 
the collar of the order of the Garter, sur- 
mounted with a crown. On the shillings 
and sixpences is his Majesty's head, with 
the words Geor. III. D. G. Britt Rex. 
F. D. 1816. The arms on the reverse are 
encircled with the Garter, surmounted with 
the crown. The raised rim protects the im- 
pressions, and each coin has a milled edge. 

14. Commitment to the Tower. Wut- 
son, Preston, Hooper, and Kean, alias 
Kearns, having been ordered to be commit- 
ted to the Tower, four hackney coaches 
were procured, and one prisoner put into 
each, under the care of a king's messenger 
and a Bow Street officer. Sir Anthony 
Conant rode in the first coach. They left the 
Secretary of State's office about five o'clock, 
and proceeded to the Tower. As soon as 
the coaches had entered, the gates were 
closed, and the Deputy-Governor and Col. 
Sutton, the colonel of the guard on duty, 
took charge of the prisoners, and conducted 
them to second rate apartments, which had 
been prepared for their reception ; each is 
confined in a separate room. Two wardens 
(yeomen of the guard) are to be in each 
room constantly with them ; and at the 
outside of each room door there are two 

15 Naval Monument. A numerous 

meeting of the subscribers to the naval mo- 
nument to be erected to the memory of the 
late Lord Melville, was held at Oman's 
Hotel, in Edinburgh, on Tuesday, when 
the state of the funds was laid before them ; 
and it was unanimousely resolved, that a 
committee be formed for carrying the said 
work into execution, and that they be in- 
structed to fix upon a place for erecting the 
said monument, to procure plans, to decide 
upon the same, and proceed forthwith in 
the execution thereof. 

\^~^Coitnty Meeting Yesterday, a 

very numerous meeting of the county of 
Edinburgh was held in the Parliament 
House, when an address to the Prince Re- 


Register. British Chronicle. 

gent, on the late outrages, was proposed, 
and unanimously agreed to. 

18 Dreadful Fire. The worsted mill, 

belonging to Messrs Edward and Joseph 
Pease of Darlington, has been entirely de- 
stroyed by fire. The damage is estimated 
at 35,000, and upwards of 500 people will 
be thrown out of employment for many 
months to come. 

The Gazette of this day contains a pro- 
clamation, offering a reward of 500 for 
the apprehension of James Watson the 
younger ; and likewise a reward of the 
same sum for the apprehension of Arthur 
Thistlewood ; with a full description of their 

20 The Queen's Birth-d(> ; i This day 
being appointed to celebrate her Ma- 
jesty's birth-d&y, her Majesty held a draw- 
ing-room, which displayed a most magni- 
ficent assemblage of rank and beauty. The 
Prince Regent had commanded notice to be 
given in the Gazette, that the celebration 
of the Queen's birth-day, and his own, 
should be considered as public court festi- 
vals, and that those who attended the court, 
should appear in dresses of British manu- 
facture only ; and he set a laudable example, 
in ordering all his state officers, and others 
of the royal establishment, to appear in new 
costly dresses, in which every article, not of 
British manufacture, was strictly prohibit- 
ed ; which, as a pattern to the higher or- 
ders generally, will be a great benefit to 
numberless industrious families. Indeed, 
all the company present shewed they had 
been equally anxious to relieve their suffer- 
ing countrymen, by affording them employ- 
ment, which is the only permanently useful 
mode of relief. 

20 A London Gazette was published 
this day. It consists of ten pages, and is 
entirely filled with addresses of congratula- 
tion to the Prince Regent on his late happy 

24 Pilgrimage to Jerusalem. Such is 

the infatuation of the believers in the doc- 
trines of that ridiculous old woman, Johanna 
Southcote, that several persons in Leeds are 
actually quitting comfortable situations in 
life, to embark on a pilgrimage to Jerusa- 
lem ! where they are fully perswaded, they 
are to live without money, or labour, or 
sorrow, or pain, for at least 1000 years ! 

24 Friends of Public Order A meet- 
ing of the friends of public order, retrench- 
ment, and reform, dined together on Satur- 
day last, at the Freemason's Tavern. At 
half-past five o'clock, Mr Lucas took the 
chair, with the Hon. Thomas Brand on his 
right, and Sir Francis Burdett on his left 
side. Amongst the company present were, 
the Hon. Douglas Kinnaird, J. Philpot 
Curran, Alderman Goodbehere, Mr Waitli- 
man, Mr Phillips, &c. A declaration was 
handed by the ahairman to his friend Mr 
Peter of Cornwall, with a request that he 
would preface the reading of it with some 
observations of his own ; when, after a 


speech of considerable length, he read the 
declaration, which stated the determination 
of the society to promote constitutional re- 
form in the Commons House of Parliament, 
and concluded in the following words : 
" Waving, therefore, the discussion of all 
particular tenets, and details of reform, re- 
sisting corruption on the one hand, and vio- 
lence on the other, this meeting pledges it- 
self to leave no legal and constitutional means 
unexerted, for inducing the legislature to 
take the grievances of the people into its 
early and serious consideration, and (by a- 
mending the state of representation) to ren- 
der the House of Commons, in fact, as it is 
of right, a control upon the executive go- 
vernment, and an express image of the feel- 
ings of the nation." Several gentlemen, 
particularly Mr Curran, delivered their sen- 
timents very freely, but all of them disclaim- 
ed the idea of annual parliaments and uni- 
versal suffrage ; and the meeting was con- 
ducted with that degree of moderation which 
should be an example to all the true friends 
and advocates of reform. 

Striking the Fiars. The act of sederunt 
of the Court of Session (December 21, 1723) 
constitutes the law with regard to the strik- 
ing of the fiars ; and as this is a subject of 
great and increasing importance, we insert 
the following short outline of its provi- 
sions : 

Is-, Fifteen persons, who have " know- 
ledge and experience of the prices and trade 
of victual" (not fewer than eight of them 
heritors) shall be chosen as a jury, to s