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Full text of "The bleeder's digest : a campus blood collection reference manual"

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THE BLEEDER'S DIGEST: 

\ CAMPUS BLOOD COLLECTION 

REFERENCE MANUAL 



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CAC DOCUMENT NO. 192 



THE BLEEDER'S DIGEST: 

A CAMPUS BLOOD COLLECTION 
REFERENCE MANUAL 



by 

Melissa Bean 
John Hackmann 
Paul Pisarik 



March 16, 1976 



Blood Donor Research Group 

Center for Advanced Computation 

105 Advanced Computation Building 

University of Illinois 

Urbana, IL 61801 

(217) 333-4975 



supported by 

Illinois Regional Medical Program 
Contract US IRMP HEW SUBC/OG-58 

Findings and conclusions do not necessarily 
represent the views of IRMP 



Digitized by tine Internet Arciiive 

in 2012 witli funding from 

University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign 



http://archive.org/details/bleedersdigestca192bean 



INTRODUCTION TO THE MANUAL 

This manual was written for students and blood donor recruiters 
Interested in starting a campus blood program or in improving an already 
existing blood program. 

A comprehensive outline of the organization and operation of one 
successful blood program, that of Volunteer Illini Projects at the 
University of Illinois (at Urbana-Champaign) , is the base on which this 
manual is built. Before the implementation of the program, the University 
of Illinois with a student population of 35,000, produced less than 1500 
pints per year, and in some years, none. Presently, 6000-7000 pints are 
collected at spaced intervals throughout the year by several agencies to 
benefit hospitals throughout the entire state of Illinois. 

This manual doesn't have all the answers; indeed, every successful 
blood program we have seen has been unique in some way because of the 
particular situation: student attitudes (or apathy) , the distance from 
the blood bank, paid blood centers competing for donors, the budgets of 
the blood banks and the college administration — and perhaps most 
importantly — the skill, effort, and interests of the various individual 
personalities involved. 

Every good blood collection program is to a certain degree a seat- 
of-the-pants operation. You will be on your own to make decisions and 
be creative with the resources you have. This is one reason why blood 
donor recruiters find their job rewarding — it brings out their organi- 
zational talents. A strong feeling of satisfaction can come after a 
successful drive. 

And the people — donors and volunteers — are really great. It 
creates a good feeling to be in the midst of people giving of themselves, 
literally, cooperating, and feeling very positive about it. Anyone who 
has spent a lot of time around volunteer blood donors is going to feel 
better about people in general. 

Let us know about your blood program — you can send in the enclosed 
post card, or write us at the Blood Donor Research Group. More materials 
that may be of use to you are available; if you would like a bit of these, 
please indicate. 

Consulting by mail, telephone or in person may help to speedily 
resolve certain problems, and we will do this within the limits of 
available resources on your request. 



A WORD ABOUT THE AUTHORS 



Melissa Bean was Chairperson of the Volunteer Illini Projects Blood 
Program 1974-75. She is now enrolled at the Chicago College of Osteopathic 
Medicine. 

Paul Pisarik was the 1975-76 Chairperson of the VIP Blood Program. He 
is a pre-medical student. 

John Hackmann helped Initiate the program and his interest in blood 
programs led him to form the Blood Donor Research Group, which produced 
this manual and is carrying out more research and dissemination efforts 
supporting voluntary blood collection programs nationwide. 




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All illustrations are taken from crayon drawings made by donors 
in the canteen area after giving at blood drives run by the Volunteer 
Projects Blood Program at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 

Introduction 

Foreword 1 

Ingredients for Success 3 

Goals of the Program: A Safe Pentiful, Low-Cost and 

Demand-Responsive Blood Supply 5 

Why Are College Campuses So Important? 9 

The Significance of Altruism 11 

Important Telephone Number List (abbr. ITNL) 13 

Organization of the Student Blood Program Committee 17 

A. Blood program director 17 

B. Blood program committees 18 

C. Selection of director 22 

D. Selection of committeeheads and members 23 

E. Volunteers 2A 

Central Campus Drives 27 

A. Annual planning 27 

.1. Arrangements to be made 6 months in advance ... 27 

2. Physical set-up at the drive 31 

3. Cooperation with your local blood bank 

during the bloodmobile 33 

4. Summer drives 34 

5. Faculty and staff participation in the program . 35 

6. Christmas and summer pledge cards 36 

7. At the end of the year 36 

B. Per drive planning 39 

1. Things to do BEFORE the drive 39 

2. Things to do AT the drive 42 

3. Things to do AFTER the drive 53 

Suggestions for a Dormitory Blood Drive 55 

A. Annual planning 55 

1. Arrangements to be made 6 months in advance ... 55 

2. Physical set-up at the drive 59 

3. At the end of the year 60 

B. Per drive planning 61 

1. Things to do BEFORE the drive 61 

2. Things to do AT the drive 65 

3. Things to do AFTER the drive 69 



LIST OF APPENDICES 

A List of Books and Articles Related to Blood 

B Policy Issues 

C Blood Assurance 

D Sample Donor Eligibility Sign 

E Red Cross Eligibility Guidelines 

F Tips to Making the Volunteer and Donor Schedule Sheets 

G Scheduling Donors 

H Making Phone Calls to and Answering Phone Calls from Donors and 
Volunteers 

I Basic Donor Recruitment Principles 

J Summary of Results of a Blood Donor Motivation Study 

K Checklist for Inspecting Potential Bloodmobile Sites 

L Blood Donor Inventory Software Package 

M Mailing to Donors 

N Statistics to be Measured at End of Each Drive 

Sample Letters to be Sent to Faculty, Staff, Volunteers, and Parents 

P Definitions 

Q Sample Usage of Newspapers 

R Sample Volunteer Manual 



FOREWORD 



Before you start reading any other section of the manual, several 
points must be made about the nature of this manual and the way it was 
written: 

a. This is a reference manual — don't feel obliged to read it 
from cover to cover. Look at the table of contents and see 
what sections you are particularly interested in and just go 
through them. If there are any terms that are unfamiliar to 
you, that may have been defined in sections that you won't be 
reading, look them up in the definition list in Appendix P. 

b. For the sections that you do read, you don't have to follow 
what is written there word for word. Though the manual was 
written to be applicable to any campus, some of the suggestions 
contained herein may be peculiar to the bureaucracy at the 
University of Illinois while others, not included, may be 
needed for your own campus. Also the organization of the 
blood program contained in this manual is not the only possible 
one for a successful program. You can use your own creative 
skills to organize a program for your own campus, using this 
one as a model or reference. 

c. Since the Red Cross will frequently be the drawer on campuses, 
this booklet has been written with the intention that the Red 
Cross will be the drawing agency at the central c ampus drives . 
With a few minor modifications the description can accomodate 
any other blood drawing agency. Also, there are numerous 
differences in the operations of the various Red Cross Blood 
Centers, so even for a Red Cross Blood Center there will be 
differences from this manual. 

d. A large emphasis in this manual is made on having dormitory 
blood drives. The reasoning for this is that students donate 
often in their dorm because of peer influence and convenience. 
They know that they are near their rooms if they should have a 
reaction, or want to get a book while they wait. The atmosphere 
is more informal, and they can witness the procedure for 
drawing blood and see how relatively little it hurts. As an 
added advantage, there are many first time donors in these 

dorm drives and these people can add significantly to the 
donor population bases. 

e. In describing the procedures for running a dormitory blood 
drive, it is assumed that a smaller blood drawing agency, 
other than the Red Cross, will handle this. In our experience 
dorm drives only produce approximately 60 pints a day for a 
three day drive, at most 100 per day, and the Red Cross may 
find this uneconomical. A small or flexible agency such as a 
local blood bank might not have as many expenses in setting up 
a dorm blood drive. (Our dorms have about 1000 residents.) 



One final word: if you are attempting to organize a blood 
program (that need not be as elaborate as the one described in 
this manual) DO NOT MAKE A HALF-HEARTED ATTEMPT. You must be 
sincere about organizing it. You will have to see many people 
in your university to get the needed approval and cooperation 
to set up your program. If they see that you don't really care 
if the program gets off the ground, they will not take the 
time to be as eager or cooperative to help you. Also, there 
usually will be organizations and persons already involved in 
some way or with experience in blood collection programs; 
these people will have something to offer and may want to help 
you. 




Note on Language: 

If you have already gone through and skimmed the manual, you may 
have come across two words that you've never seen before and probably 
won't find in a dictionary — te and ter. Te is equivalent to he/she 
and ter is equivalent to his/her and him/her. In the course of writing 
this manual we found that him/her or he/she were very awkward to write — 
let alone read so I adopted the above genderless words. Getting used to 
their meaning and function in a sentence won't be too hard if you subcon- 
sciously think of te as being "he" and ter as being "her" ~ each gender 
getting represented equally in the use of pronouns. 



INGREDIENTS FOR SUCCESS 



What are the essential ingredients for success? Student interest 
in the blood collection program; administration support; a flexible and 
knowledgable blood bank recruiter: without all of these, the program 



While every situation is somewhat different, several features of 
the blood programs we are familiar with seem important : 

The program should be run by students who help arrange the dates 
for the drives, recruit and organize the student volunteers, and recruit 
donors from the student, faculty, and staff population; this is in 
contrast to a program run essentially by the drawing agency that recruits 
volunteers from the campus. Placing more responsibility in the student 
staff jobs in the blood program will make them much more rewarding; it 
means more people available for the task at hand; it means better reference 
with other students and it means more access to the campus resources. 
However, this approach does mean more work, and requires some understanding 
of blood banking on the part of the students. 

An ongoing student organization can provide continuity for the 
program. Many students, especially those in the health related cirriculums 
are very interested in joining and working with such a group. 

Emphasis should be placed on education , not motivation , in advertising. 
Decisions to participate, in an activity for the public good should be 
made by well-informed individuals who feel they are making their own 
decisions. Playing on guilt, telling people everyone should give, or 
appealing to emotionalism, e.g., "this little girl would die" or "Dracula 
will get you if you don't give", are undesirable and unnecessary. If 
donors feel they have made their own decision, they will continue to 
give more readily. 

The program must be donor orientated . Presenting the act as an 
opportunity, not a duty, encourages donors. Donating blood should be 
viewed as a valuable activity for the donor, as well as for the potential 
recipient. Many people like to give blood — to help others, to overcome 
personal fear, etc. It should be the goal of the program to give as 
many people as possible an opportunity to donate — the right to give as 
expressed in The Gift Relationship . (Richard Tittmus, Pantheon Books, 1971) 

The blood program that you are trying to develop should encourage 
individuals to give for their own reasons. The need for blood should 
accurately be presented and donors should be invited to participate if 
they feel that this is the way in which they would like to help other 
people. Altruism is the most common motivation for donors on campuses. 
However, it must be recognized people give blood for a wide, almost 
unbelievable variety of reasons from "wanting to know my blood type" to 
"helping others" to "free cookies and coke." Any reason that does 
not adversely affect the health of the recipient or donor, or the cost 
of the blood, is legitimate. As a practical matter, then, no one 
ideology — even altruism — should be stressed. 




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GOALS OF THE PROGRAM: 
A SAFE. PLENTIFUL. LOW-COST AND DEMAND-RESPONSIVE 

BLOOD SUPPLY 



The ultimate goals of the blood program committee and the blood 
drawing agency are those of the donor and the recipient : to have a 
plentiful, safe, low-cost, and demand-responsive supply of human blood 
for transfusion. These are the goals of the National Blood Policy as 
enunciated by the United States Department of Health, Education and 
Welfare, and also the goals of every responsible blood bank. 

College campus collections satisfy well these criteria: 

A volunteer blood supply will be safe . It is estimated nationally 
that ten to fifteen percent of the units of blood now supplied are 
purchased. The greater incidence of post-transfusion hepatitis in 
recipients of purchased blood than in recipients of voluntarily donated 
blood has been established, and has received much attention. Everyone 
agrees a reduction in the incidence of hepatitis will be of great value. 
Estimates count 3,500 to 35,000 deaths annually. Other costs are distri- 
buted over tens of thousands of non-fatal cases, and these costs include 
the suffering of these individuals, costs of their medical care and 
communities loss of earnings, and other tangible and intangible exter- 
nalities. Hospitals switching to an all-volunteer blood supply have 
witnessed a decrease in hepatitis, but such a switch can be effected 
only if sufficient, and this means increasing, supplies of volunteer 
blood are available. 

A volunteer blood supply will be plentiful . Donors who learn to 
give blood simply because it is needed will do so when asked. Individual 
benefits or rewards are usually not necessary, donors can be, and are, 
motivated to give a great deal of blood in many locations without indi- 
vidual benefit. Contract donors or private assurance, really insurance, 
donors, who learn to give on a quid pro quo basis for blood assurance* 
often have no motivation to give more than required, since promised 
benefits to them will not increase. Appeals of altruism reach many 
people who would not otherv/ise be motivated. In our pilot project half 
of all donors did not know, even after they gave, that they were covered 
under any blood plan for future benefits; and the only benefit that was 
offered, blood assurance was guaranteed everyone, donor or not. Yet 
these donors gave a mean 2.27 pints/year and 20 pints/hundred population/ 
year for an annual total of 7,000 units. The demand nationally, about 4 
pints/hundred/year, can be met in large part by responsive campus 
populations. 

In fact, many blood banks draw assurance plan donors once a year or 
even every two or four years, and at least one blood bank boasts that 
its donors are drawn only every four or five years. The argument for 
such an approach is basically that everyone should give blood, implying 
that blood is a heavy burden that must be borne, and hopefully spread 
out so it is not borne too heavily. 



* (See Appendix C, Blood Assurance) 



This view, and tl)e underutillzation of donors it leads to. Is not 
tenable In our current situatioii because blood is still in inadequate 
supply, so more units should be drawn, not less, and empirical evidence 
demonstrates clearly that many donors receive strong personal satisfaction 
from their donation and are positively motivated to continue. 

A v olunteer blood supply will be low-cost . Recruiting donors 
should be less expensive than buying blood. In Urbana, donors a few 
years ago were phoned in and paid $25/plnt. In the current all-volunteer 
program, the cost is perhaps $2-4/pint. These savings to the blood bank 
help keep down the cost of blood. Recruiting altruistic donors is 
effective because they are usually frequent repeaters. Elimination of 
non-replacement fees for covered group members can reduce a patient's 
bill for blood., A plentiful blood supply will result in fewer emergency 
drawings: less outdating wastage resulting from less hoarding behavior; 
less technician time spent in solicitation, etc., all of which can help 
keep down the cost of blood. 

A volunteer blood supply will be demand-responsive . Donors giving 
according to need will come in when called upon — indeed, many feel 
quite special when called. An emergency call is an opportunity, not a 
demand; among donors who are rewarding themselves, it is not a burden. 
Furthermore, education is effective among college students and the 
donors will be expecting special appeals in July/August and during 
December -January holidays, when blood supplies are least in balance with 
demand. Weekly 'blood donation dates' can possibly be conducted. 



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WHY ARE COLLEGE CANPUSES SO IMPORTANT? 



The populations of college campuses have a number of characteristics 
which greatly facilitate blood collection programs: 

Yet colleges and universities throughout the country are 
underutilized. Increasing existing blood programs on campuses 
will help meet the increasing need for safe blood. Currently, 
perhaps 8% or so of blood collected comes from the campuses. 
We feel much more than this amount can be provided from the 10 
million college students. 

, 56.4% of eighteen and nineteen year olds were in school in 

1970 according to the Federal Census. Almost all of these are 
in cojlege, in addition to a number of seventeen year olds and 
some others who begin college at later ages. Thus, over a 
period of years, a majority of all people in the United States 
can be reached via campus programs. 

College-age people are healthier than the general population, 
hence more often eligible to be donors. 

Flexible schedules facilitate donations with minimal loss of 
work time. 

Population concentration and campus media help optimize 
advertising effectiveness. 

Altruism among college students is well-established; it is the 
dominant motive in the pilot project. 

. Students are just coming of age to give; in the presence of 
student-run, highly visible program, blood donation, like 
voting and driving, can be looked forward to as a 'ritual of 
initiation', becoming quite accepted. 

Preliminary research indicates 45% of all donors gave their 
first pint between the ages of 18 and 22. 

A 'ripple effect' is predicted. That is, after a person 
donates blood once or twice he is much more likely to donate 
in the future than a person who is currently a non-donor. 
Since the act of giving influences later acts of giving, that 
is, inflates the expected lifetime donation distribution for 
an individual, it is most effective in terms of total expected 
future units per recruitment dollar to spend that dollar on 
the youngest eligible population. This point is crucial — 
like Britain, the United States is still relying upon WI^JII 
donor.^ , and it will not be too much longer before their ranks 
will be depleted. 



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THE SIGNIFICANCE OF ALTRUISM 



There is a major goal toward which a voluntary blood system can 
contribute — altruism in this society. The issue of freedom to behave 
altruistically and the role of social policy instruments in extending 
and safeguarding that freedom is central to a blood collection system. 
The social value of an individual's moral choice to give freely, not to 
sell, and the role of agency and governmental policy encouraging or 
discouraging such moral choices is the theme of The Gift Relationship by 
Professor Richard Titmuss. No understanding of the blood collection 
system as i_t exists today in the United States and as iJt could exist is 
complete without an understanding of this book. 

D. Mac N. Surgenor recognized in his article, "Human Blood and the 
Renewal of Altruism" that "our policy on blood donation must be social 
policy in Professor Titmuss' terms, not scientific or economic policy." 

Dr. Aaron Kellner, the Director of the New York Blood Center, has 
called attention to what may be a far more urgent social and moral force 
for altruism, namely, the likelihood of a pending breakthrough in tissue 
transplantation: "Surely we do not wish to bring human kidneys, eyes, 
lungs, livers, and hearts into the marketplace!" 

Kidney transplants are made now, and each transplant, of course, 
requires a donor. But it is now unwritten policy at a transplant center 
not to accept a kndney from a donor who is unrelated to the patient. 
Altruism is not accepted as a legitimate motivation, despite the finding 
that donors who sacrificed a kidney before the ban continue to have a 
higher self-esteem, even in cases where the grafted kidney has ceased to 
function or the recipient has died, and the donors did not expect or 
want any reward other than that of a personal nature. Yet kidney donors 
are now denied the right to give. 

Titmuss argues convincingly for a right to give . He shows that 
stifling altruism can lead to social evils. The hepatitis risk in paid 
blood is believed to be primarily a result of the lying of paid donors 
in answer to medical history questions. What is the social cost of 
system that encourages people to be dishonest? 

"To coerce a man is to deprive him of freedom. Yet, as (The Gift 
Relationship ) has shown comparatively, private market systems in 
the United States and other countries not only deprive men of 
their freedom to choose to give or not to give but by so doing 
escalate other coercive forces in the social system which lead to 
the denial of other freedoms (and maybe life itself) to other men 
who biologically are in no position to choose — the young and the 
old, the sick, the excluded and the inept as well as the sellers of 
blood." (Titmuss, 1971) 

Without a renewal of citizen participation in modern health care 
its costs can be expected to continue to rise along with peoples aliena- 
tion from and resentment of health care agencies; blood donation is a 
very necessary and concrete citizen participation. 



11 



Blood donation can be considered a good arena in which to develop 
models of altruistic behavior; the experience of kidney donors shows that 
such a model already has other applications. 




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IMPORTANT TELEPHONE NUMBER LIST (abbr. ITNL) 
(Name and Telephone Number) 



1. Representative from the agency (s) that 
will be drawing on your campus. 

2. Person in charge of recruiting and 
contacting local Red Cross Volunteers. 

3. Head of local Red Cross Chapter. 

4. Head of local blood drawing agency. 

5. Person in charge of reserving rooms in 
central campus building (student 
union) . 

6. Person in charge of reserving rooms in 
other buildings on campus. 

7. Person to talk to concerning the set 
up of chairs and tables for the drive 
in the central campus building. 

8. Person to talk to concerning the set 
up of chairs and tables for the drive 
in other buildings on campus. 

9. Person from whom refreshments should 
be ordered for central campus drives. 

10. Person in charge of campus parking. 
Often parking permits are needed for 
the blood drawing agency staff. 

11. Person in charge of student health 
service. 

Need to keep this person informed of 
all the blood drives so that te can 
have a doctor on call. 

12. Emergency room at student health 
service. 

13. Doctor on call for blood drives. 

14. Ambulance firm. 



Name Phone 



This is needed in the case of a severe reaction to giving blood or an 
accident. 



13 



Name Phone 



15. Person in charge of the central campus 
building. 

Perhaps this person could donate or 
give a discount on refreshments or 
priority for room reservations. 

16. Student newspaper. 

Try to get one contact for publicity. 

17. University mailing center. 

This would be used for volunteer and 
donor mailings. 

18. Stenographic bureau. 

Such a service would be used for 
making flyers and letters to donors. 

19. Publicity agent for university. 

This person could help publicize your 
blood program throughout the state 
and give recognition to the donors. 

20. University car pool. 

A car or van to take people from the 
drive site to the drawing agency may 
be needed. 

21. Any advisors to this blood program. 



22. Head of university student housing. 

This person usually must give permis- 
sion for drives in the dormitories. 

23. Resident Directors and blood drive ^ 

24. director of every dormitory and the 
cafeteria in each dormitory. 

Need to communicate with Resident 
Directors and the cafeteria food 
service in each. 

Dormitory Resident Director Blood Drive Director Phone 



14 



Name Phone 

25. Director of blood program. 

26. Volunteer Relations chairperson. 

27. Logistics chairperson. 

28. Donor Relations chairperson. ________ 

29. Publicity chairperson. 

30. Computer Services chairperson. 



Other names and numbers you will need: 

31. 

32. 

33. 

34. 

35. 



Note: 

Putting all the names of your contacts and their phone numbers in one place 
will probably save you time; you can photocopy these pages for use by others 
in the blood program. 



15 



ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDENT BLOOD PROGRAM COMMITTEE 



A large blood collection program will require a staff and a lot of 
volunteers. This section was written with large campuses, say 10,000 
or more students in mind. Persons from smaller campuses will get an 
idea of the functions that need to be performed, but probably will not 
want or need so many committees. The committee names and titles, of 
course, make little difference. 



A. 



BLOOD PROGRAM DIRECTOR 



This person is the key person in the operation of a blood program. 
The Director is responsible for all the annual planning of the blood 
program and once the program is underway te must hold regular meetings 
with and check-up on all ter committees to make sure they are doing 
what they should be and experiencing little difficulty. Te is thus 
ulitmately responsible for the success or failure of the blood drives. 




17 



B. BLOOD PROGRAM COMMITTEES 

There are five functions that are necessary for a highly efficient 
blood program. They are: 

Volunteer Relations 
Donor Relations, including Research 
Logistics 

Publicity, including a Speaker Bureau 
Computer Services, including a newsletter 
subcommittee 

Their descriptions follow below. (Computer Services is not essential if 
you cannot get computer time. Its alternative will be discussed at the 
end of this section.) 



1. Volunteer Relations committee ^ 

This committee 'a primary responsibility is to contact, recruit, 
and coordinate the volunteers for the blood drive. This includes: 

a. Contacting and recruiting new volunteers at the beginning 
of the semester (methods for doing this are discussed in the next section 
under 'Volunteers'). 

b. Contacting and recruiting new volunteers throughout the 
year. 

c. Keeping track of all the volunteers and how many hours 
they work (to be used for volunteer recognition at the end of the year). 

d. Keeping volunteers inform.ed of the time, days, and loca- 
tion of the blood drive by means of a volunteer manual or a newsletter 
or both. 

e. Giving feedback to the volunteers as to the success of 
past drives. 

f. Calling and scheduling volunteers before each drive. 

g. Supervising the volunteers at the drive. 



I 



2. Donor Relations committee 

This comittee's responsibilities are to recruit donors for the 
drives by personally or individually (i.e., by mail or phone) communi- 
cating with old donors: by encouraging additional pints from them and 



18 



asking them to recruit new donors. In addition, this committee tries to 
provide as many services for the donor as possible. All these responsi- 
bilities include: 

a. Sending letters to all eligible donors with the dates and 
location(s) of the drive, asking them to give blood again, and asking 
them to help in the recruitment effort by asking their friends to give. 

b. Calling and scheduling donors for each drive. 

c. Updating the medical eligibility sign and sheets (if 
necessary) . 

d. Keeping lists of donors, temporarily disqualified donors, 
those donors who have experienced discomfort, and those donors who made 
appointments but didn't keep them for communication purposes after the 
drive. 

e. Handing out questionnaires to donors, perhaps annually, 
regarding their motivation, their opinions of how the drive is being 
run, etc. in the canteen area. This is the responsibility of the 
Research subcommittee. (See Appendix J_ for an actual questionnaire and 
its results.) 

f. Having a person analyzing the statistics from the drive 
such as number of first time donors, number of permanent rejects, etc. 
(see Appendix N ) . This is another responsibility of the Research 
subcommittee. 

g. Keeping a complaint box in the canteen area and with the 
help of the Director answering the complaints. 

h. Providing educational material and information to both 
donors and volunteers concerning areas of blood collection, and any 
other pertinent information on blood. 

i. Being in charge of distributing and collecting Christmas 
and summer pledge cards (see Vacation Pledge Cards for more information 
on this) . 

j . Mailing to donors their Red Cross blood donor cards and 
those of any other blood drawing agency that you may be working with. 



3. Logistics committee 

The primary concern of this committee is the physical arrange- 
ments of the drive. This includes: 

a. Reserving rooms for the drive. 

b. Ordering refreshments. 

19 



c. Ordering parking permits, 

d. Getting loaders and unloaders. 

e. Giving the telephone numbers of a doctor on call and an 
ambulance firm to the head nurse or bead technician at the drive. 

f . Making arrangements for a car or van to transport donors, 
if necessary. 



4. Publicity committee 

This committee is concerned with recruiting new donors directly 
and using "public" information to primarily recruit new donors and 
secondarily remind old donors of the upcoming blood drive. This includes: 

a. Using as many of the possible types and kinds of media to 
publicize the blood drive. 

b. Getting the total pints collected every day during a blood 
drive to the newspaper for the next day's publication. 

c. Talking to organized housing such as fraternities, sorori- 
ties, and dormitories about the giving of blood, what blood is used 

for — generally educating potential donors. This is the responsibility 
of the Speaker's Bureau subcommittee. 



5. Computer Services comm ittee 

This committee helps the other committees with maintaining 
their specific lists of people (donors, temporary rejects, etc.). This 
includes: 

a. Computerizing the name, donor number (often the social 
security number), blood type, and donation date of 

1) Donors 

2) Permanent and temporary rejects 

3) Persons who didn't show up for their appointments 

b. Computerizing the volunteer's name, donor number, and 
number of hours worked. 

c. Making up mailing labels or phone lists for any desired 
group or subgroup of people that any of the other committees may want. 



20 



d. Helping the Research subcommittee of Donor Relations with 
any lists of people they may need for statistics purposes. 

e. Producing newsletters and specific blood drive announce- 
ments for the other committees. This is the responsibility of the 
Newsletter subcommittee. 



6. Alternatives to Compu ter Services committee 

If you cannot get ahold of computer assistance in storing and up- 
dating the lists that the Donor Relations and Volunteer Relations have, 
these tasks will have to be undertaken by those committees themselves. 
This means that those two committees will need more committee people not 
only to update and store volunteer information, but also to hand address 
envelopes any time a mailing must be made. However, many programs do 
not make mailings although we have found them highly effective. 

The Newsletter subcommittee in this case can become a committee 
by itself. 



21 



C. SEf,i;r;TI.ON OF DIRECTOR 

The JJrst thing to do In prepar.it ion for the upcoming year';, blood 
program i;. Lo select the director of the blood program. If the upcomin,", 
year Is Llio f i rst year for your blood program then anyone who Is orga- 
nizing it could, upon mutual agreement with all others organizing the 
program, become the director, but if the blood program has been in 
operation for a while then the procedures following might be utilized in 
the selection of that director. It is necessary that any procedures 
claimed for selection of directors and chairpersons both be understood 
by the volunteers and actually followed. This is just fair play. 

Generally only the committee chairpersons or their committee people 
will apply for the directorship. The Director should have no problem 
evaluating any chairperson's performance in the past year, but the 
committee members' evaluation might be more difficult since the Director 
probably will not have had direct contact with them. For these applicants, 
te must rely on the committee chairperson's evaluation of how involved 
each candidate had been throughout the year and how te interacted with 
the other committee members. 

It would be highly desirable, for the blood program director to 
have as many of the following characteristics as possible: 

1. Must be a person who likes to organize (the first few years of 
your blood program will need a lot of it). 

2. Must be prepared to devote considerable time to the program. 

3. After the program runs for a few years, should be a person who 
has been familiar with the program and actively involved in it. 

4. Must be authoritative, yet must be able to work well with ter 
committees. 

5. If planning on summer drives, should be willing to stay on in 
the summer to organize the summer drives. 

6. Must be self-confident and responsible. 

New director should be chosen by February so that the dates for the 
next year's drives can be decided by the end of March. It is also 
important to choose these drives early so that room reservations can be 
made in the student union or wherever you are holding your drives. 

The new director must take time to plan any changes te may want to 
make the following year. Te should learn as much as possible about 
blood programs, redefine the committees, if te wants, assemble a staff 
for the following year, and find volunteers for any summer drives. 



22 



D. SELECTION OF COMMITTEE HEADS AND MEMBERS 

When choosing committee heads, the Director must look to the person's 
interest and past experience in the areas related to the committee te 
chooses. Almost everyone who expresses a desire to be a committee 
member can be put on a committee since there are always people who 
unfortunately lose interest in their committees because of classes, 
tests, etc., as the year progresses. It is important that the committee 
be measurably larger to account for this, although it may initially be 
somewhat more difficult for the committee head to coordinate ter members. 

The committee heads should discuss what their committee goals and 
tasks are with the Director first and then with ter committee members. 
Though committee heads should be responsible for their committee members 
and their tasks, the Director must take the final responsibility for 
what is not done. It is therefore important to have a strong leader as 
a committee head. Te can relieve a lot of the director's burden. If 
the committee head lacks confidence or is not responsible enough, the 
Director must maintain sufficient contact with that individual and ter 
committee to insure that the tasks it is supposed to do are done. If 
this continues for any length of time, the best procedure probably would 
be to find a new committee head. 

It is important to get younger class members involved in the com- 
mittees, so that it will be easier to organize committees for the 
following year. By the end of the year, there should be several younger 
staff members being trained so that they are capable of carrying out all 
of the blood drive tasks efficiently and perhaps even better than the 
previous year. 



23 



E. VOLUNTEERS 

V/hen you start your blood program at the beginning of a semester, 
you will, or at le.•l^3t should have, the first drive during the first week 
of classep. . iJut this poses a problem -- where are you golnj^*, to got the 
volunteers for it? Unlike the other planning for the blood program, 
volunteers cannot be arranged for the semester before the program starts 
since students won't have any real idea of how hard a course load they 
will be carrying that next semester and therefore will not want to 
commit themselves to working with the blood program. If you want volun- 
teers, you must be prepared to get them during the registration period 
of your university, usually the week before classes start (and hence 
also a week before the drive). You could do the following: 



1. Talk with your university administration the semester before 
and ask them for permission to have a table at a strategic location in 
your place of registration (e.g., a place where all the students must 
enter or leave) . 



2. Put together a "volunteer manual" the semester before. An 
example included in Appendices. This manual should include: 

a. The times, dates, and locations for all the drives. 

b. A detailed description of all the positions students may 
fill for both Red Cross drives and other blood drawing agency drives you 
may have. 

c. A description of the blood program and perhaps what you 
are trying to accomplish with it. Any benefits to the university com- 
munity such as "blood assurance" should also be discussed. (Blood 
assurance is discussed in Appendix JC.) 

d. A procedure for the volunteers to call your blood program 
office before a drive to volunteer to work. This calling should take 
place at least five days before a drive so that in case there aren't 
enough volunteers the Volunteer Relations committee can start phoning 
some more volunteers. 



3. Make up a donor eligibility sign (see Appendix D) and a sign 
saying something to the effect of "Register here, volunteers and donors, 
for the blood drive to be held at the Union from Sep 3 to Sep 5 from 



24 



10:15 a.m. to 4:15 p.m." Place the donor eligibility sign next to your 
table at the place of registration. A lot of people who really wouldn't 
want to ask anyone behind the table about donating, lest they be pressured 
into signing up, will read the sign just to see if they would be eligible 
to give. If they are eligible, and not too scared, they might show up 
at the drive as "walk- ins". 



4. Get some people who are interested in organizing the blood 
program (e.g., chalrpeople, director) to sit behind the table. They 
should do several things: 

a. Answer any medical questions the potential donors may 
have that aren't answered by the sign with the more extensive donor 
eligibility guideline sheets (see Appendix jE) . 

b. Sign up volunteers for the drive using the volunteer 
schedule sheets (see Appendix F^) and give them the volunteer manual. 

c. Sign up any volunteers who would like to work on any of 
the committees that you will have. 

d. Sign up donors using the donor schedule sheets (see 
Appendices F and G) and give remainder slips telling dates, times 
and place of donation. 




J fit V^j ST 



nsmi 



CENTRAL CAMPUS DRIVES 



A central campus drive is what we call the normal blood drive — a 
big, 100-300 unit a day mobile operation set up in a gym, student union, 
or other central campus area that has high traffic and high visibility. 

A. ANNUAL PLANNING (CENTRAL CAMPUS DRIVE) 

1. You should start planning in the first few weeks of the semester 
preceding the semester in which you wish to start drawing donors. In 
setting up the drawing dates good communication is extremely important. 
Make sure that all affected and interested parties are represented when 
the blood drive dates and other specifics are decided upon. In particular 
this should include the representative of the Red Cross whose number you 
may have written down on the Important Telephone Number List (ITNL #1) 
the person in charge of recruiting the local Red Cross volunteers (ITNL 
#2), the Director of (or the person trying to organize) the university 
blood program (ITNL //25) , and any interested persons who want to be 
involved in the program. The names and phone numbers of these people 
could already be gathered and entered in the telephone list. All dates 
should be agreed upon to some large degree of satisfaction by all 
involved and should be confirmed in writing, if possible, among all the 
parties involved. 

a. When selecting dates, the following factors must be taken 
into consideration: 

1) Try to have a big drive every month to give donors 
frequent chances to donate. Also large drives are essential to maintain 
program visibility, and blood agencies need a steady supply of blood. 

2) Since donors are eligible to give blood eight weeks 
after they have last given, drives might be spaced so that the donor 
pool that gives at the first drive is eligible to give again at the 
third drive, and so that the second drive donors are eligible for the 
fourth drive, etc. 

3) Student schedules (holidays, vacations, finals, 
etc.) must be considered. Exam weeks and periods when students are not 
present are obviously poor drawing dates; also the several days immediately 
preceding vacations are poor dates. 

4) Try to provide blood drives at times when blood will be 
especially needed (before holidays, etc.). 

5) Two and three day drives near the end of the week 
are the best (weekdays only) . The second and third days of a drive are 
generally better since publicity by word of mouth builds up pint donations. 

6) Availability of the bloodmobile site must be also 
considered; but this should be no real problem ±f^ you start planning a 
semester ahead. 



27 



b. When trying to find a suitable location for the drive, 
several factors must be considered, such as: campus student traffic, 
centralized location, visibility and availability of site, size of rooms 
(must be large enough), facilities, atmosphere (temperature regulation, 
pleasant, well-lit, no bugs, etc,)- Some minor considerations are: 
ease for loaders and unloaders (are there many stairs?), parking spaces, 
and a nearb}' telephone for emergencies, communication purposes, and 
appointments. See Appendix K for a complete checklist of considera- 
tions. 

Ideal places are rooms in the student union, a well-lit 
gym, or any other large room with the above characteristics near the 
center of student activity during the day. Location is very important 
for a successful blood program. Both volunteers and donors shouldn't 
have to go too far from their normal traffic pattern to participate in 
the program. 

c. In terms of goal (desired number of pints to be collected) 
for each drive, this depends tremendously on where you decide to have 
the bloodmobile, the effectiveness of your publicity, as well as a host 
of other variables. If you have never had a drive at a particular 
location, let the Red Cross make a guess as to how many pints they could 
draw after they analyze any facts that you can give them about student 
traffic by the location as well as the location's visibility. Only 
after the first year of operation could you get a feel for the number 

of pints that could be collected at a particular location taking into 
account variables such as visibility of site, traffic by site, time of 
academic year (mid-terms, finals), ^nd even the seasons of the year. 

d. Times for the drive ijiust also be decided upon. This will 
have to depend upon the traffic pattern in the building that you're in. 
Having a blood drive in your student union last through 6:30 p.m. when 
most of the students leave 4:30 p.m. to go home to eat dinner would of 
course be foolish. Times are again a matter of experience, but our 
experience was that from 10:15 a.m. to 4:15 p.m. are just about the best 
for our drives. The rationale for starting 15 minutes after the hour is 
that classes usually end at 10 minutes before the hour and this extra 15 
minutes gives donors and volunteers 25 minutes to reach the bloodmobile 
site at the beginning of the drive. Also at the end of the day, the 
extra 15 minutes will mean that more donors will have a chance to get to 
the bloodmobile site after their 3:00-4:00 p.m. classes end and give 
blood. Some agencies may be willing to draw longer hours or be flexible. 

e. Wlien you have the meeting with your blood bank representa- 
tive, make sure that both of you tour the facility in which you will be 
setting up the bloodmobile and have that person sketch where te would 
like to have the different stations and also have ter give you the 
number of tables and chairs, waste cans, and coat racks tliat te would 
like to have. Take this plan, make a few xeroxes, keep a couple copies 
for yourself, and give a copy to the maintenance staff that will have to 
set up the chairs and tables (IT'NL #7 or 8). 

f. Talk to your blood bank representative and see what they 
will supply for each drive in terms of coffee, juice, punch, cream, 
sugar, cookies, pretzels, hot and cold cups, napkins, spoons, etc. if 



28 



o 




^ 




the campus administration or student union will not provide thein free. 
Different agencies will have different preferences as to what they can 
conveniently and cheaply bring and what they would like the campus to 
provide. 

Also ask the agencies what positions, such as medical 
history, canteen worker, etc., on the bloodmobile will be provided for 
them. Some of these positions can only be done by the nurses that a 
local Red Cross chapter tries to recruit. The other ones can be done by 
college volunteers. 

g. Drawing agencies have many aids to help you attract 
donors to the bloodmobile. Inquire about them. Some of these include 
such things as many different multicolored posters, fliers, and even 
newspaper inserts that can have your entire schedule of drives printed 
on them. 

The Red Crosses, and some other agencies also, also have 
many nice little things for a donor after te gives, like "Be nice to me, 
I gave blood today" stickers, little blood drop pins, and for the more 
experienced donor, gallon donor pins, and decals. This all may seem 
trivial, but it serves an important purpose. It gives the donor recogni- 
tion for what te has done and it also publicizes the drive. 

h. Talk to the blood bank representative about a "blood 
assurance" plan for your university community (see Appendix iC) . In 
brief blood assurance means that if any member of your university com- 
munity (students, faculty, or staff) or ter immediate family receives 
blood, te will not have to recruit donors to replace the pints used or 
pay a replacement fee. Depending on how many pints you can expect to 
draw, the coverage could even be extended to the larger family of the 
university community, say, retired faculty and staff. 

1. Reservations for the rooms that you would like usually 
must be made very far in advance. If you want a room in your student 
union, chances are that a lot of other groups and organizations would 
.also like to have them. But since you have six or seven months before 
your first drive, chances are that you will be first in line for the 
rooms. Contact the person in charge of reserving rooms in the building 
that you will be drawing in (ITNL #5 or 6) and make your reservations. 

j . Now is not too early a time to think about providing 
refreshments. If you can talk to the person in charge of your union 
(ITNL #15) and tell ter of your plans for the blood drive, perhaps te 
may provide all your refreshments at a discount or even free from the 
union's food service. 

In any case ask the person the procedure for placing an 
order for the refreshments for the drive. Get the name of the person 
responsible for placing your order and ter phone number (ITNL //9). To 
give you an example of how much has to be ordered the following is the 
amounts and kinds of refreshments needed for a drive that expects about 
200 donors: 

5 gallons coffee 
10 gallons ice water 
10 cases of 28 oz. Coke 

100 dozen cookies (4 cookies per donor. Most are eaten 

by volunteers!) 

30 



Don't forget to order also hot and cold cups, napkins, 
spoons, cream and sugar. 

k. Talk to the person in charge of parking (ITNL #10) and 

see if you can get some agreement to get special parking permits and 

parking places designated for the nurses at the drive. Often the nurses 

don't know the area. They will have a hard time finding parking places 

and they won't be able to run out to feed the parking meters before the 
meters expire. 

Also see if you can get permission to get the Bloodmobile 
truck parked somewhere outside the building and in the thick of the 
student thoroughfare, this is great publicity for the blood drive. 

1. Once your blood program is in operation, you are going to 
have to have some room where you can store all the records of your 
program, the signs from the drive, and many other miscellaneous things, 
and a phone that interested donors and volunteers can call to make 
appointments and from which committee people can call donors and volun- 
teers. This phone number should be a stable one as many donors will 
remember and use it. The importance of appointments is discussed in the 
introduction and in Appendix B^. 

m. The head nurse at the drive will ask you for the phone 
number of a doctor on call and an ambulance firm. An ambulance firm 
will probably be no problem, but finding a doctor who would be on call 
may be harder. Check with your health service and see if they can help 
you or with neighborhood hospitals if they would be willing to offer 
such a service for your program. 

n. Talk to the administration of your university and see if 
they would let you have some computer time and space to store all the 
various data, listed in this manual, that will make for a fairly sophis- 
ticated blood program. Discuss the blood program primarily in terms of 
community service. The administration may well be interested in blood 
assurance as well, as this is commonly seen as a fringe benefit. The 
software for the type of filing you will need to do is described in 
Appendix L. The Appendix also describes where you can write to obtain 
the software programs. 



2. Physical set up at the drive (large Red Cross mobile) : 

a. A brief list of the stations and what is done at each is 
below (a more extensively described list is in a later section) . 

1) Receptionist — registers all donors, answers 
questions on eligibility to give blood, handles donor flow, registers 
volunteers, and shows volunteers who to go to to be assigned and ex- 
plained jobs. 



31 



volunteers) . 



2) Typists — fill out registration form for donor. 

3) Temperature takers — take temperature and weight. 

4) Blood pressure (performed by local Red Cross Chapter 



5) Medical histories (performed by local Red Cross 
Chapter volunteers) . 

6) Bottle labeling (performed by local Red Cross 
Chapter volunteer) . 

7) Escorts to donor table — take donor and ter blood 
container to drawing tables. 

8) Donation — the Red Cross nurse handles this. 

9) Walkers — escorts from drawing table to canteen 
area. 

10) Canteen area — donor is requested to stay here and 
eat and drink for about 15 minutes to see if te has any reactions to ter 
giving blood. 

11) Segmenting machine — the tubing from pint of blood 
must be segmented (the Red Cross takes care of this) . 

12) Lab sheet typist — all donors are listed on a Red 
Cross tally sheet (the local Red Cross Chapter handles this, but students 
may also do it) . 

b. Equipment that must be present at each drive: 

1) Typewriters — not all Red Crosses require that the 
registration form must be typed; some will allow neat block printing. 
If done legibly, this is quieter and has fewer mistakes. 

2) Pens and paperclips. 

3) Name tags for volunteers and supervisors — these 
help to recognize the volunteer and help the supervisor to be able to 
call volunteers by their first name. Also if any problems come up, the 
volunteers and the nurses both will know who the supervisor is. 

4) All the donor schedule sheets, volunteer schedule 
sheets, and supervisor schedule sheets (for examples of the first two 
see Appendix jF) . 

5) Donor eligibility sign with a more complete donor 
eligibility guideline sheet — the sign is to be placed in front of the 
receptionist's table so that it attracts people. Since it tells the 
major eligibility requirements not as many questions will be asked of 
the receptionist. 



32 



6) Canteen area supplies — magazines, donor question- 
naires, crayons and paper for inspired donors to draw with (some drawings 
are so creative, they can be used for publicity; many drawings in this 
book were from canteen tables), Christmas and summer pledges, and recogni- 
tion items such as "Be nice to me, I gave blood today" stickers, gallon 
donor pins, etc. 

7) Custodian supplied items: 

a) Coat racks and hangers for volunteers and 
donors. 

b) Mop, broom, and bucket in case of accident or 
clean up. 

c) Extension cords — 25 and 50 foot. 

d) Tables and chairs in quantities that the Red 
Cross wants. 

e) A few large trash cans. 

c. Procedures to be developed for the drive: 

1) A way of labeling the stations so donors know where 
to go. 

2) A way of keeping the donors in the order that they 
registered. This can be done by numbering the registration cards in the 
upper left hand corner from 1 to however many donors show up at the tem- 
perature station. This is especially useful when there is a backup at 
medical histories and some donors get stuck waiting for longer than they 
should while others "push" their way to the front of the waiting line. 

3) A way of keeping track of volunteers and the times 
they worked. This can be done by having volunteers register at the 
receptionist's desk before and after they work. 



3. Cooperation with your local blood bank during the bloodmobile. 

In some locations there will be a fixed facility blood bank, 
either a community blood bank or the university hospital blood bank, for 
example, that is willing and able to draw donors during periods when the 
central campus drawing agency is overcrowded or closed. Generally, the 
facility will have to be physically close to campus, have a strong need 
for blood, and have a flexible, cooperative attitude to make this combina- 
tion approach work. 

More blood will be drawn and the donor will be convenienced if 
this cooperation can be achieved. 

In all likelihood you will find donors who would like to give 
before their classes start in the morning (and consequently before the 
drive) and those who would like to give after their classes are over 
(and consequently after the drive). If you have a blood bank close to 



33 



your bloodmobile site there is something you can do to give these people 
an opportunity to donate their blood. Borrow a private car or rent a 
university car and drive these people over to the blood bank from let's 
say 8:30-10:15 a.m. and 4:15 to 5:00 p.m. and then promise to drive them 
back when they are finished. 

You could also work out an arrangement with the blood bank to 
have donors taken over there if the drive gets so bogged down with 
donors that it is taking over an hour and a ha] f for a donor to go 
completely through all the stations. This pre-supposes that the donor 
won't mind going to the blood bank, but if you tell ter that it would 
take less time to donate there rather than at this location (which 
usually will be true), then te will probably be persuaded to go. 

Also, another arrangement could be worked where if the blood 
bank needs a particular type of blood desperately and the drive is 
crowded, the receptionist could explain the situation to donors of that 
blood type and ask if they wouldn't mind going to the blood bank and 
donating there. If donors are told that their particular blood type is 
needed immediately, generally do not mind going to another blood bank. 



4. Summer Drives. 

During the summer, the university you are at has a fraction of 
its student population remaining on campus. This obviously affects the 
blood drives you may want to have — not only in terms of the number of 
pints collected but also in the availability of volunteers to work at 
the drive. 

If you do decide to hold a summer drive, you should do the 
following: 

a. Send a letter to all volunteers 1-2 months ahead of the 
finals second semester telling them of the drive (s) during the summer 
and asking them to help out if they are planning to stay on campus over 
the summer. Ask them to send you their summer address and summer phone 
number so you can contact them later. 

b. Send a letter to all donors after the last blood drive. 

1) Thanking them for the donations that they have made 
over the year. 

2) Telling them they can give blood over the summer at 
their home community blood bank. 

3) Telling those who will be staying on campus over the 
summer of the blood drive (s) you plan to have. (You must write them iiow 
since a lot of people change their residence at the end of the second 
semester.) 



34 



c. Set up a table at summer school registration where donors 
and volunteers can sign up to give blood and work respectively. 

Although this drive is smaller, the procedure for it is 
the same as it was for the regular school year. 



5 . Faculty and staff participation in the blood program. 

Throughout this booklet, recruiting students over the course 
of the year and during the summer has been very much emphasized. But 
what about the faculty and staff that can make up to twenty percent of 
the university population? This segment of the population should be 
included. Many of them would probably like to give blood. 

In discussing the faculty's and staff's participation in the 
blood program, mention should be made of one of the purposes of the 
blood program: to provide blood to responsible agencies throughout the 
entire year. But summer vacation and especially Christmas are times of 
the year when blood donations are low and only a fraction of the normal 
student population is on campus to help alleviate this biannual blood 
shortage. The answer lies in the faculty and staff. If they are actively 
solicited to give blood during the Christmas and summer vacation periods, 
they will respond very well to help avert the shortages of blood that 
usually occur during these times. 

If your university town has a local blood bank, then perhaps a 
letter could be sent through campus mail to all faculty and staff telling 
them of the need for blood over vacation periods and seeing if they 
would like to be available to give their blood over these periods (an 
example of this letter is in Appendix 0) . If they would, they could 
fill out a coupon in the letter v/lth their name, address, phone number 
and blood type and mail it to the blood program office. These pledges 
to give blood can then be taken to the blood bank which then calls the 
prospective donor at such a time as te is needed. The blood banks have 
been very appreciative of these pledges, since they represent a source 
of already committed donors willing to give blood. A very high percen- 
tage of these donors respond when called, and this helps the blood banks 
at the time of year when they need blood the most. 

If there is no blood bank in your community, the faculty and 
staff can still become involved. You can have a special Red Cross blood 
drive just for them over Christmas and you can have them donate at the 
summer Red Cross blood drive along with the students. You should still 
send them the letter described above along with the dates and times of 
the drive, but instead of filling out a pledge to give blood, have them 
fill out an appointment for a specific time and day if they would like 
to donate and have them send it in to your blood program office. 



35 



6. Christ mas and summer pledge cards. 

Students are usually faithful donors. One problem, though, is 
the fact that they are often out of reach of their regular drawing 
agency during Christmas and summer vacation — times which traditionally 
experience blood shortages. The pledge card project attempts to connect 
vacationing student donors with nearby drawing agencies during these 
critical periods. 

The pledge card asks the student to give a pint of blood over 
the vacation in ter hometown, if called. Tlie blood drawing agency that 
receives a filled-out pledge card knows that the donor is expecting to 
be called and willing to give if needed. The agency will have the 
student's most up-to-date vacation address and local phone number, as 
well as the dates te will be available. 

The following steps summarize the most successful procedure 
among those we have used: 

a. Cards are distributed at the canteen of each blood drive. 
It is best if each student is handed one individually. 

b. Collect cards at end of drive — boxes on table provide 
easy method for donors to return cards. 

c. Sort cards — know the geographical area covered by each 
drawing agency in your state. 

d. Mail cards off — make sure the agencies will receive 
them a day or two before students are likely to arrive in the area. 

Things to watch: Some agencies may balk at having "their" 
donors give to another agency during the vacations. Such possessiveness 
cuts down the short-term and long-term supply of blood and should be 
discouraged. 

When more than one agency is operating in an area arrange to 
have them share cards. Both agencies are part of the supply system, and 
thus both deserve help. Further, two agencies working on the same cards 
may result in a higher response rate from the donors. 

Have the response from the donor noted on the card by the 
agency when the donor is called. If the donor has made an appointment, 
have the agency note if te shows and gives. This allows you to compile 
statistics to give credit to the campus blood programs and to see if 
enough cards are being used to make Lhe project worthwhile. 

A separate booklet is available from the Blood Donor Research 
Group called "Pledge Card Projects for Holiday Blood Donations." It 
includes sample pledge cards and posters, a full description of the 
project, and a discussion of our experience with pledge cards. 



36 



7. At the end o f the year. 

Thanks and recognition should be given to all who are deserving. 
This includes all your volunteers and donors, all of the local Red Cross 
volunteers, all university officials who have helped you, and any other 
persons and organizations who contributed their time, effort, goods, or 
services to the drives. This can be simply done by writing a letter to 
the editor of your college newspaper or taking an ad out in the newspaper. 

Special recognition sliould be made to those volunteers who put 
in an exceptional amount of time for the drives and all those donors who 
have donated one gallon or more of blood in their blood donatinj', career. 

The new Director should have long ago been chosen and (rained 
by the "old" one, new committee heads shoiild liave been chosen, and most 
of the arrangements for next year's drives should have been already 
made. Planning for a summer drive should have started. 

The "old" Director should get together with ter "old" committee 
heads, evaluate the year's effort and make any suggestions on how to 
improve the blood program to the new staff. 




(^IV£ AS WELL AS 
REClEVETH/5 

YEAn: 

OO.MATE 




38 



B. PER DRIVE PLANNING (CENTRAL CAMPUS DRIVE) 

1. .Things to do BEFORE the drive. 

a. Logistics committee: 

1) Check to see that the room is still reserved one 



week before. 



2) Order refreshments one week before. 

3) See to it that parking permits are ordered one week 



before; 



a) For Red Cross nurses. 

b) For local Red Cross Chapter volunteers. 

c) For the Red Cross Bloodmobile truck to park on 
the central thoroughfare of campus. 

4) See to it that 4 to 5 people will be present an hour and 
a half to 2 hours before the drive to unload the Bloodmobile truck (and 
also an hour after the drive stops accepting donors on the last day to 

load the truck up). This should be settled a couple days before the drive. 

5) Make sure you know the telephone numbers of a doctor 
on call and an ambulance firm to give to the head nurse at the start of 
the drive. 

6) Make sure you know where you can get all of the 
following a couple days before the drive; they must be brought to the 
drive on the first day: 

Typewriters, pens, paperclips, nametags, donor-volunteer-supervisor 
schedule sheets, donor eligibility sign, guideline sheets, magazines, 
"Be nice to me" stickers, gallon pins and decals, questionnaires 
(if any), and crayons and drawing paper. 

7) Make arrangements to get a private car or university 
car to drive people over to the local blood bank a week before. 

b. Volunte er Relatio ns committee: 

1) Make up the volunteer schedule sheets one and a half 
weeks before (see Appendix F) . 

2) If you don't have a volunteer manual, start phoning 
volunteers a week before the drive to schedule them for it (see Appendix 
H). 

3) If you have a volunteer manual, have someone sit by 
the phone to collect volunteer names. This job should be coordinated 
with Donor Relations (see Appendix H) . 



39 



4) If you are not getting enough volunteers two or 
three days before the drive, start phoning them up (see Appendix H) . 

5) You could send a newsletter to all volunteers one 
week before the drive to recruit them or even after the drive to tell 
them how the drive went, to get some of the volunteers to join committees, 
be assigned to special projects (pledge cards), or to be recruited for 
the next drive (see Appendix M) . 

6) You should have supervisors assigned for the dif- 
ferent times of the drive (and have only one in charge at a time) a 
couple days before the drive. 

C. nnnnr Bplations rnmmif fppr 

1) A letter should be received by all eligible donors a 
week to a half week before the bloodmobile telling tlicm the particulars 
about the drive (see Appendix M) . Once or twice a semester may be as 
often as this should be done* 

2) Make up the donor schedule sheets 1 1/2 weeks before 
the drive (see Appendix F^) . 

3) Have someone answer phones for donors to call in 
their appointments one to one half week before the drive. Again coor- 
dinate with Volunteer Relations (see Appendix H) . 

4) If the sign-ups are a little slow, then have your 
committee people start phoning eligible donors from previous donor lists 
about two days before the drive (see Appendix H) . 

5) Make sure the donor eligibility sign is updated (if 
it has to be) a few days before the drive. 

d. Publicity committee: 

1) The following is a list of ideas for publicity — by 
no means is this list the only sources you might use: 

a) Daily college newspaper. (See examples. Appendix Q) 

I. Ads to be run one or two days before and 
each day of the drive. 

II. Feature articles — the Publicity committee 
can try to arrange for these; however the best way to get articles is to 
know people on the newspaper staff. Also inviting reporters to the 
first big drive helps. 

III. Editorials. 

IV. Letters to the editor. 



40 



V. A blood thermometer — try to get the 
newspaper to give you a small area on the front page for each day of the 
drive and the day after for a thermometer showing the number of pints 
collected relative to the program's yearly goal. This means that 
someone must call the newspaper's office each day after the drive ends 
to let them know how many pints were collected. 

b) Other campus newspapers and magazines, perhaps 
appealing to more specific campus groups, should also be utilized. 



c) Red Cross can possibly print up posters, etc, 

d) The Red Cross also has some recruitment films. 



pamphlets, etc. 



e) The official school calendar should be sent the 
list of blood drive dates and locations. 

f) If there are organizations that sponsor movies, 
see if they would help publicize the drive by showing a slide with the 
date, location and times of the drive on it right before they show their 
movies. 

g) You can have leaflets and fliers printed up 
and, along with the Red Cross posters, put up in university buildings, 
dormitories, and stores in the campus area. 

h) Leaflets can be sent to all floor resident 
advisors with a note asking them to post flyers on their floor and 
encourage their floor to donate. Perhaps this could also be done for 
the fraternities and sororities. 

i) Volunteers could also do some publicity work. 
Wlien a volunteer receives notification of an approaching drive from the 
Volunteer Relations committee, perhaps te should receive 5 or 6 fliers 
to post or distribute, and te could be asked to tell ter friends about 
the drive and to encourage them to donate. 

j) Radio stations — many allot a certain amount 
of time to Public Service Announcements. Perhaps a tape could be 
prepared for distribution to radio stations. 

k) Blood Program T-shirts for volunteers and 
donors might be a means of advertising and simultaneously providing much 
needed recognition for these people for their contribution to the program. 
The front could have the blood program insignia with the back having the 
person's blood type. 

2) Make sure that everything that the committee decides 

to do is done well ahead of the drive since many of the media, organizations, 
and businesses have to have a minimum of a week or two to do whatever 
you want them to do. 

3) Establish a speaker's bureau. This group of com- 
mittee people will be responsible to go to organized housing such as 
fraternities and sororities and dorms to speak about a blood drive 

41 



coining up. This is a good way to publicize the drive and at the same 
time inform the donor and potential donor about some facts on blood and 
the process of giving blood. 

e. Computer Services coimnltteej 

1) This coiranittee will make up computer printed labels 
for any desired group or subgroup of people that any of tlie committees 
would want for either letter purposes or phone lists. 

2) The Newsletter subcommittee will work with the 
Director, Donor Relations and Volunteer Relations in writing the letters 
to donors and volunteers. A sample Newsletter is in Appendix M. 

f . Director. 

T}ie Director's role should be supervisory in nature once 
the blood drive is going. Te should make sure everybody is doing what 
they should be and if any conimittee is having some difficulty, te should 
help them out. But there are some things that a Director can only do 
terself such as: 

1) Talk to the person in charge of the local Red Cross 
Chapter volunteers to make sure that everything is in order. 

2) Talk to the person in charge of setting up the Red 
Cross drive to make sure everything is in order. 

3) Monitor the progress of the blood program and 
propose modifications where necessary. 

4) Formulate all public statements — policy and 
progress. 



2. Things to do AT the drive: 

a. Logistics qoinrpittee — all these things must be done on 
the first day of the drive before it begins: 

1) Make sure that tlie Red Cross nurses, chapter volun- 
teers, and Bloodmobile truck have their parking permits and are parked 
in their reserved spots. 

2) Make sure unloaders have come. 

3) Make sure the refreshments are at the drive. 

4) Make sure the room is set up as it should be. 

5) Make sure the university or private car has been 
brought to the drive and parked in its reserved spot. 



42 



6) Have someone give the head nurse the telephone 
number of a nearby doctor on call, the telephone number of an ambulance 
firm, and the location of the nearest phone (and directions on how to 
use it if it is a university phone) . 

7) Take the typewriters, paperclips, and a few pens to 
the typists' station. 

8) Take the name tags, a few pens, donor-volunteer- 
supervisor schedule sheets, donor eligibility sign and eligibility 
guidelines to the receptionist station. 

9) Take the "Be nice to me, I gave blood today" stickers, 
gallon pins and decals, crayons and drawing paper, magazines, and 
questionnaires (if any) to the canteen area. 

b. Volunteer Relations committee: 

1) If there aren't enough volunteers for the other days 
in the drive, the coiranittee people will have to phone them. 

2) Supervisor's Role — there must always be someone 
present who is "in charge" and capable of answering questions. 

a) A schedule of all supervisors is to be kept at 
the reception desk so that the check- in person will know to whom to direct 
any volunteers, questions or problems during the drive. 

b) The supervisor is in charge of opening up the 
drive and closing the drive at the end of the day. 

c) Te should check in with the head nurse when te • 
begins so that te will know who is supervising. 

d) Te should arrive a little early so te can talk 
to the previous supervisor to be informed of the situation as it 
exists. 

e) Te should have a name tag with ter name and 
"supervisor" written on it and te should make sure all the volunteers 
also have a name tag. 

f) Te assigns jobs to those volunteers who don't 
have one. 

g) Once all volunteers have jobs, the supervisor 
must give each volunteer instructions on what their particular station 
needs to have done. (These instructions follow the supervisor's role). 

h) These instructions should be given to the 

volunteer each time; it is very easy to forget the details of what must 

be done for each station even if the volunteer has done the task the day 
befora. 



43 



i) Te helps the receptionist keep a list of who 
worked and for how long. This could be used at the end of the year for 
volunteer recognition. 

j) Te must make sure that the flow of donors 
doesn't get bogged down in any one 
help in the congested areas. 

k) Te should always remain cheerful and courteous 
to all volunteers, nurses, and donors. Te should try to encourage 
interaction between the volunteers and try to learn their names from 
their name tags. 

1) If te notices that a donor has been rejected, 
te should talk to ter and if it is only a temporary rejection, encourage 
ter to come back. Often would-be donors are quite upset and take their 
rejection quite personally. Many blood banks use the terra 'de feral' 
instead of 'reject'. If te is short on volunteers ask that person if te 
would like to spend the hour te would have donated, volunteering. If 
someone has been permanently rejected, make sure te understands why and 
suggest that te become a blood drive volunteer if te would like to help 
in that way. 

m) Te should make sure that the donors are staying 
in order. To do this te may have to have a volunteer stand at medical 
histories (often the bottleneck of the bloodmobile) and call out the 
numbers that the person at temperatures wrote on their registration 
card. 

n) Twenty minutes before the hour, the supervisor 
should go around with the volunteer schedule list and check to see which 
volunteers will be leaving, so that te will know where new volunteers 
will have to be placed. 

o) When volunteers leave te should make sure they 
check out at the receptionist desk, so the time they worked can be 
recorded, 

p) If it looks like there are not enough volunteers 
either see if the volunteers there could stay longer than the time they 
signed up for or just redistribute the volunteers you do have to cover 
the stations where they are needed most. The supervisor shouldn't be 
afraid to help out terself where te is needed most. 

q) The people on the volunteer schedule sheet 
should be placed first; then the walk- in volunteers. Extra volunteers 
could be put on walking donors and talking to donors on the drawing 
table. 

r) If the local Red Cross Chapter is short of 
volunteers, the student volunteers could help out (only on lab sheet 
typing and bottle labeling) . 



44 



s) It is not good to have too many volunteers, 
since it is important that all volunteers feel that they are needed. 

t) The donor is the major concern — making the 
experience as pleasant as possible and getting ter through the donation 
line as quickly as possible. 

u) It is good to have an overlap of old and new 
volunteers for a few minutes so that the newcomer has time to adjust to 
the task. 

v) Keep communications with the blood bank open 
if the blood drive becomes crowded with donors. 

w) At the end of the day the supervisor should 
fill out whatever forms the head nurse has for ter (number of donors 
scheduled and number of volunteer hours) . 

x) If there are any items outside the donor room, 
they should be taken inside at the end of the drive day so they won't be 
lost. 

3) Receptionist (Check-in) (1-2 required for a drive of 
about 200 donors/day) . 

a) The receptionist should be able to answer 
donors' questions or at least be able to refer the donor to someone who 
can. (The medical questions not answered by disqualification sheets 
should be taken to the head nurse) . 

b) This person will be taking appointments for the 
day's drive and marking donors' names off as they arrive. Donors should 
then be directed to the typists. If the local blood bank is looking for 
certain blood types, donors with that type (who are willing) should be 
drawn there. 

c) Donors wanting appointments for the next day(s) 
of the drive can have them written down on the spot, or they can be given 
the blood program telephone number. 

d) Walk-in donors can be taken as the situation 
permits; this is where the check- in person's judgment is important. Too 
many donors taken at once will create a bottleneck inside the drawing 
rooms and result in longer waiting lines and frustrated donors (see 
Appendix G^) . If it seems to be crowded inside, ask the donor to go to 
the local blood bank, if this is being done, or to come back in a few 
minutes (if you think it will be cleared out then) , or to make an 
appointment for the next day. This ability to judge the situation comes 
from experience at the drives, so it is generally a good idea to have a 
volunteer who has worked at the drives before as a receptionist. 

e) New volunteers should check-in here and be 
directed to the supervisor. When the volunteer finishes working te 
should check-out here also, so there is an accurate record of the number 
of hours that te has worked. 



45 



f) This person will be in charge, of keeping track 
of how many prospective donors show up at the drive on the tally sheets 
prepared by the Red Cross (head nurse has these) . 

g) When the receptionist is not busy, te can 
talk to people who have finished donating to get some estimate of how 
fast donors are getting out. Ideally, it would be less than an hour; 
realistically, it is usually one to one and one-half hours, 

4) Typists (2-3). 

If a donor has a plastic Red Cross donor card, te 
should go to the person at the card machine. If the donor does not have 
a plastic card, a typist should complete a registration form with the 
following information: 

a) Type the LAST NAME first in all capitals, then 
the first name, and don't forget the donor's middle initial. 

b) Type p>ermanent address. This has nothing to do 
with using campus address for voting purposes. Either campus or out-of- 
town address can be used, although most will be off-campus. Don't 
forget to include the zip code! 

c) Home telephone — use the phone number at 
permanent address; however, the donor's local phone number should also 
be typed in if the donor's permanent address is off campus so the donor 
can be recruited by phone, if necessary. 

d) Wliere employed — type "student" if student, or 
"faculty", etc... 

e) Group identification — if an out-of-town 
address was given above, but campus address here. 

f) Chapter — usually blank forms have been run 
through the card machine with this information along with the date. 

g) Date — fill it in if it hasn't been run 
through the machine. Use numerical form for date. 

h) Date of birth — use numbers, e.g. 1/5/54. 

i) Social security number — this must be typed 
into the "remarks" box on the right hand side of the registration form 
for Red Cross purposes. It must also be put into the "Replacing f or" 
space for donor coding purposes . 

j) Sex 

k) The donor must sign the registration form, and 
any donor cards should be paper clipped to the front of the card. 

1) If donor hands you a card from another blood 
bank, you can use this to type the basic information. Long names are 
easier to copy than to listen to. 



m) Replacement forms are also generally kejJt at 
this table. A donor wishing to credit his pint of blood to someone else 
must provide the name of the patient, where and when the patient was 
hospitalized and the address of the patient. All requested information 
must be obtained so that credit for blood can be sent. 

n) Typists should give the donor ter registration 
card and show ter where the coat racks are and instruct ter to go to the 
temperature station. 

5) Card machine operators (1) . This machine is basically 
like a service station credit card machine. 

This volunteer is at the same table as the typists 
and can be an alternate typist if the drive is slower or if the drive is 
short on volunteers. Only Red Cross plastic cards work in the machine. 

a) Make sure that the information on the plastic 
card is correct. If it is not and the donor wants it changed, a new 

card must be typed up and the old plastic card attached to the registration 
form with a paper clip. 

b) If the information is correct, check to make 
sure the person has not donated within the past eight weeks. 

c) Make sure the donor writes down ter local phone 
number, local address, and puts ter social security number in the two 
places mentioned in the "typists" instructions. 



card. 



card. 



than once, 



the head nurse, 



d) Make sure the donor signs the registration 

e) Paper clip the plastic card to the front of the 

f) Do not run over the card with the machine more 

g) If you have any trouble with the machine, tell 
6) Temperature takers (].-2) . 



a) Greet the donor and take ter registration card. 
Ask for ter weight and record it on the card. Donor must be 17-61 years 
old; donors usually must weight 110 pounds (check your agency's rules). 

b) When asking weight, do it quietly; some people 
prefer not to have it shouted across the room. 

c) Make sure that the donor has signed the form. 

d) When the donors come to the station, have their 
cards on the table in the order that they arrive. In order to facilitate 
this orderliness number the cards from 1 through the number of people 
that pass through this station at the top of the form. 



47 



c) Check the thermometer befor(> inserting it into 
the donor's mouth to make sure that is has been shaken down below 94 
degrees Fahrenheit, and that the tip is not broken or cracked. Make 
sure volunteer is seated. 

f) Leave the thermometer in the donor's mouth 
about three minutes. 'I'he temjjerature shovild be between 96.6-99.6 degrees 
F. If the First temperature reading is below or above this range, ask 
the donor if te would mind using a different thermometer, and then 
insert a new one and reread temperature. Write down both temperatures 
and circle the first one. If this second temperature doesn't lie in the 
range specified, send him on to the next station anyv/ay. ONLY THE NURSE 
AT THE NEXT STATION CAN TELL A DONOR THAT TE CANNOT DONATE BECAUSE OF 
TER TEMPERATURE. 

g) After taking the thermometer out of the donor's 
mouth, wipe it off with a clean, wet gauze. Use a new piece of gauze 
for each thermometer. DO NOT REUSE THE THERMOMETER"."" 

h) Put used thermometers in the plastic container. 
Make sure they are all lying the same way. Stack the thermometers one 
layer thick and put a square of paper toweling between each layer. 

i) The donor should be given ter card and told to 
go to the blood pressure station. 

After having ter blood pressure checked by a 
local volunteer Red Cross nurse, the donor should continue to medical 
histories where another trained local Red Cross volunteer nurse will ask 
ter a list of questions to determine the prospective donor's eligibility. 
This nurse will also prick the donor's ear for a blood test, and then 
direct the donor to the bottle labeling station. The local Red Cross 
nurses are also in charge of this. Refreshments will be set up here, 
and donors should be invited to help themselves to coke and cookies. 

7) Escorts to the donor tables (1-2) . 

a) When one of the donor tables in a drawing unit 
is open, remove the labeled container and the registration card from the 
bottle labeling table. These cards should be laid out in order for you 
by the bottle labelers. But be observant; if the Red Cross nurse at a 
drawing table has an emergency, don't take the donor to ter until the 
situation has been taken care of, 

b) Check to make sure that the numbers on the 
container and the registration card match. 

c) Call the full name of the donor (middle initial 
too) and make sure you have the right person. Do not hurry the donor — 
if te is eating, give ter time to finish. 

d) Carry the container and the donor's registration 
card as you escort the donor to the unit where a table is open. 



48 



e) Lay container and card down on the table and 
have the donor sit on the table. 

f) If the drive is busy or there is a real short- 
age of volunteers, this person may have to double as a walker (to canteen 
after donating) also. 

The Red Cross nurse will now draw a pint of 
blood from the donor. When the donor is finished, te will have the 
donor raise the arm that the unit of blood was taken from and hold a 
bandage on the puncture site. When the nurse has the donor sit up, the 
donor is ready to be walked to the canteen. 

8) Walkers (2-6). 

a) The walker's most important function is to make 
sure no one gets hurt. If a donor starts to feel faint, etc.: 

I. Protect ter head. 

II. Get the person to the floor as fast and 
as safely as possible. 

III. Summon canteen nurse. 

IV. Move the cot to the person. Do not move 
the person to the cot. 

b) Nurse will generally do any or all: 

I. Put ter legs up. 

II. Have ter breathe into a paper bag. 

III. Cover with blankets, if needed. 

IV. Make ter drink milk. 

V. Keep watch on pulse. 

c) If there are enough walkers, it is all right to 
talk to the recovering donor, providing the donor is up to it and the 
nurse does not seem to mind. 

d) Walkers should be alert to nurses. The nurse 
will signal when the donor is ready to go to the canteen, and the walker 
should not keep the nurse waiting. 

e) When walking a donor to the canteen, hold the 
bandaged arm; this leaves the donor's "good" arm to pull out a chair in 
the canteen. It also keeps the donor from falling and putting pressure 
on that arT 

f) The walker .^^ST HOLD ON TO EVERY DONOR. A 
donor often claims to feel fine^ procests someone's holding ter and tlicn 

"-\XI.uS. 



49 



g) Donors should not lean on bandaged arm. 

h) Take the finished blood unit and the card over 
to the custodian table. Needless to say the unit should be e ntirely 
disconn ected from the donor before removing it from the donor table! 

i) Guys walking girl donors and vice versa works 
out well! ! 

9) Canteen workers (1-2). 

The local Red Cross is in charge of this station; how- 
ever, it also helps to have student volunteers here to pass out refreshments, 

a) The floor supervisor should introduce the 
volunteer to the Red Cross nurse in charge and other volunteers. 

b) The Red Cross nurse generally shows the volun- 
teers what to do. This includes: 

I. Giving each donor a cup of water — te 
must drink this first. 

II. Then asking the donor if te prefers coke 
or coffee (cream/sugar) . 

III. Giving the donor two cookies. 

IV. Giving the donor an "I gave blood today" 
sticker if te likes. 

c) Donors can have as much as they want. 

d) If you run out of something in the canteen, 
talk to the supervisor. Te should know where refreshments are. 

e) Canteen volunteers should watch to make sure 
people look OK. Any change in color should be watched. Usually the 
nurse takes care of this. 

f) If a person feels faint, have ter put ter head 
between ter legs and a volunteer should move a cot over to the person. 
Summon nurse. 

g) Stay calm . Distract other donors if one has a 
reaction before a chain reaction starts. If one faints, often a few 
others will too. 

h) When working with food, be sanitary. Handle 
the cookies as little as possible and use napkins. 

1) The donor should keep ter arm on the table so 
that the nurse can make sure it is not still bleeding. 

j) The donor must stay in the canteen 15 minutes 
(by nurse's watch!!). 



50 



k) The donor gallon pins are handed out in the 
canteen; this provides immediate reinforcement for these donors. 

10) Lab sheet typist and segmenting machine. 

Wlien a person has finished donating and nurse has 
completely removed all tubing from the arm, then the walker should take 
the unit of blood to the custodian at the segmenting machine, and the 
registration card to the lab sheet typist. The Red Cross custodian is 
in charge of segmenting and may occasionally use an extra volunteer 
here. The local Red Cross volunteers are in charge of the lab sheets; 
however, sometimes volunteers must fill in. This typist must be good 
since accuracy is important. Custodian or head nurse will show the 
volunteer what to do. It is especially important that this typist not 
get behind at the end of the day, so it usually helps to put an extra 
typist here. 

11) nr1vf,T:a. (1-2). 

a) Make sure the driver knows how to get to the 
local blood bank. 

b) The driver should escort donors into the 
entrance of the blood bank, have them hang up their coats, and take 
their seats. Generally, be helpful. 

c) Before leaving, the driver should check in the 
canteen to see if any donors are ready to leave. Te shouldn't wait more 
than a minute for anyone. It is important to keep the car moving. 

d) If a donor has to make a class on the way back, 
the driver can drop that donor off if convenient. Near the end of the 
day if it is not as busy, say around 5:00 or so, a donor can be driven 
home if te prefers. Don't make anyone too late because of giving blood. 
However, driving people around can cause huge delays to the other donors 
who will be waiting for rides. 

e) Emergency procedures — generally you may want 
to have anmionia capsules in the car in case someone feels faint. The 
blood bank also has ammonia capsules. The usual procedure is to watch 
the donor's head. Don't let the person hit terself. Just use common 
sense in all cases. 

f) The car keys should be left at the reception 
desk if the driver stops taking donors to the local blood bank. 

g) The driver is sometimes the only communication 
between the blood bank aftd campus. We have to find out from ter if 
things are backed up or going smoothly over there. 

h) MOST IMPORTANT ~ KEEP THE CAR MOVING!! 

c. Donor Relations Committee: 

1) If there aren't enough donors for the other days in 
the drive, the committee people will have to call donors from the file. 

51 



2) Handle any telephone appointments that are made 
during the drive for the next day and add them to the donor schedule 
sheets the receptionist has (if they are for the next day) . 

3) Keep a list of donors (names, social security num- 
bers, blood types) who are temporarily disqualified or who experience 
discomfort for a special communication after the drive. 

4) Keep a suggestion box in the canteen area. 

5) Be in charge of handing out any questionnaires in 
the canteen from the Research subcomndttee. 

6) Inform donors about blood either at the canteen area 
or at check- in with simple signs such as the one on page, seven. 

7) Take charge in distributing and collecting Christmas 
and summer pledges at the canteen area. 

8) Have a person responsible for picking up the pink 
and yellow Red Cross registration forms from the head nurse at the end 
of each drive day. 

d. Publicity committee: 

1) Get the total pints of blood collected each night 
and give it to the daily campus newspaper (to put on the front page as a 
blood thermometer if possible) . The committee can also tell the newspaper 
if the drive is behind its quota. 

2) Check to see that all the advertisements are correct 
and are in operation, 

3) The committee can sell blood T-shirts at the canteen 
area. 

e. Computer Services (if applicable): 

1) The pink and yellow Red Cross registration forms 
should be gotten from Donor Relations from the previous day to allow 
coding of the Information. 

2) Extra volunteers at the drive could start coding 
donor information from the pink and yellow registration forms. 

f • Director: 

1) Te should try to be at the opening, peak hours, and 
closing of the drive each day. 

2) Te should make up a check list to make sure everyone 
is doing what they should be doing. 



52 



3. Things to do AFTER the drive: 

a. Logistics committee; 

1) Make sure that typewriters, signs, donor-volunteer- 
supervisor schedule sheets, pens, paperclips, canteen supplies, and 
anything else you may have brought to the drive are all returned to 
their respective places iinined l ately after the drive. 

2) Make sure that 4 to 5 loaders show up an hour after 
the drive stops accepting donors. 

3) Make sure that the bill for the lefreshments is 
given to the proper people and paid promptly. 

b. Volunteer Relations committee: 

1) Supervisor should close the drive. 

2) As work trails off in the last hour of the drive, 
tell volunteers that they can go home and thank them for their time. 

c. Donor Relations committee: 



1) Make sure that the Computer Services committee gets 
the names, social security numbers, blood types, and donation dates of 
each of the following: 

a) All donors. 

b) Temporary rejects. 

c) "No-shows". 

d) Permanent rejects. 

2) Make sure the Computer Services conmiittee gets the 
names, social security numbers and hours worked for all the volunteers. 

3) Have the Research subcommittee figure out the "vital 
statistics" of the drive listed in Appendix N. 

4) Answer complaints with the help of the Director on: 

a) Something the volunteers did at the drive. 

b) Something the Red Cross did (e.g. a nurse who 
seemed to draw blood badly from several donors) . 

c) Not receiving a blood card (only if these are 
issued by your particular Red Cross) . 



53 



5) Send the blood cards to the donors if the Red Cross 
doesn't send them out. Do this immediately after you receive the cards 
from the Red Cross. 

6) Have the Research subcommittee tally the results 
from any questionnaires that may have been handed out in the canteen 
area. 

7) Turn in the Christmas or summer pledge cards to the 
blood program office. 

d. Publicity committee: 

1) Make sure that the total count from the last day of 
the drive gets put into the newspaper the day following the bloodmobile. 

2) ideally all posters and announcements about the 
drive should be taken down inmiediately after the drive so the public 
doesn't get desensitized to them. 

e. Computer Services conanittee: 

1) Make sure that you get the names, social security 
numbers, blood types, and donation dates of each of the following from 
the Donor Relations Committee: 

a) All donors. 

b) Temporary rejects. 

c) "No-shows". 

d) Permanent rejects. 

2) Make sure tliat you get the names, social security 
numbers, and hours worked for all the volunteers from the Donor Relations 
committee also. 

3) Help the Research subcommittee of Donor Relations 
with any lists of people they may need. 

f . Director; 

Call a meeting of all committee heads to see what problems 
came up at the drive, and come up with their possible solutions. Also, 
look ahead to the next drive. 



54 



1 



SUGGESTIONS FOR A DORMITORY BLOOD DRIVE 



A. AMNUAL PLANNING (DORMITORY RT.OOI) DRIVE) 

1. When you start planning your dormitory drives, you must st.irl 
planning in the first few weeks of the semester preceding the semester 
in which you wish to start drawing donors. 

a. Talk to the person in charge of student housing at your 
university, Important Telephone Number 22 (ITNL #22), to check to make 
sure that holding bloodmobiles in the dormitories will be permissible. 

1) Bring along some evidence to show that the drawing 
agency has insurance to cover any accidents that donors may have while 
at the bloodmobile. 

2) Try to persuade ter to have a resident advisor (a 
person who is in an administrative capacity on the floor of the dorm) or 
a resident director (a person who is in charge of a dorm) to take charge 
of a bloodmobile in ter dorm. A person associated with the university 
is usually much more informed on the bureaucratic red tape needed to get 
equipment and services for the bloodmobile and is usually more responsible. 
But you must ask this student housing director early in the semester 
preceding the semester you want to hold your drives so prospective 
resident advisors and directors can agree to undertake this responsibility. 

3) If a resident advisor or director will not take 
charge of the bloodmobile, then a student living in the dorm would be 
the next best thing. This student should (if possible) be a floor 
president or the hall president so that te could use ter authority to 
get volunteers to help out at the drive, 

b. If you are also having central campus drives, have the 
same da tes for these drives as the dorm drives. If you don't, you may 
be unnecessarily confusing prospective donors. 

c. If you are not also having central campus drives, make 
sure In setting up the drawing dates that good communication exists 
among all interested parties. Make sure that all affected and interested 
parties are represented when the blood drive dates and all of the specifics 
are decided upon. In particular this should include the representative 

of the drawing agency with which you will have drawing in the dorm (ITNL 
//A), the director of student housing (ITNL //22) , the Director of (or the 
person trying to organize) the university blood program (ITNL #25) , and 
any interested persons who want to be involved in the program. All 
dates should be agreed upon to some large degree of satisfaction by all 
involved and must be confirmed in writing among all the parties involved. 

d. When selecting dates, the following factors must be taken 
into consideration: 

1) Try to have a blood drive every month. 



55 



2) Since donors are eligible to give blood eight weeks 
after they have last given, space drives so that the donor pool that 
gives at the first drive is eligible to give again at the third drive, 
and so that the second drive donors are eligible for the fourth drive, 
etc., so in other words there can be a drive every two months in a 
particular dorm for at least one day. (For example, if you are going to 
have a three-day drive a month and four dormitories — A, B, C, and D — 
in which to hold them, the arrangement of dorms could be as follows: 



month 1 


AAB 


month 2 


CCD 


month 3 


ABB 


month 4 


CDD) 



3) Student schedules (holidays, vacations, finals, 
etc.) must be considered. Exam weeks and periods when students are not 
present are obviously poor drawing dates; also several days immediately 
preceding vacations are poor dates. 

4) Try to provide blood drives at times when it will be 
especially needed (before holidays, etc.). 

5) Two- or three-day drives near the end of the week 
are the best (weekdays only) . The second and third days of a drive are 
generally busier since publicity by word of mouth builds up pint donations, 

6) Availability of the bloodmobile site must be con- 
sidered also; but this should be no real problem i_f you start planning a 
semester ahead. 

e. Wlien trying to find out if a dorm is suitable enough to 
hold a bloodmobile in, remember that you are trying to get people from 
the surrounding area to give blood also — not only those students 
living in the dorm. The factors to be considered are: 

1) Campus student traffic close to the dorm. If you 
have, let say, a sports complex next to a particular dorm, then that 
dorm will have a good chance of attracting a lot of non-dorm students. 



lounge) . 



lit, etc.). 



2) Visibility of drawing site (probably a student 

3) Availability of the site. 

4) Size of site (must be large enough). 

5) Facilities. 

6) Atmosphere (temperature regulation, pleasant, well- 



7) Minor considerations such as ease for loaders and 
unloaders (are there many stairs?), parking spaces and a nearby tele- 
phone for emergencies, communication purposes, and appointments. 



56 



i 



H) Student composition in terms of freshmen, sopho- 
mores, juniors, and seniors. If the program lias been going on for a few 
years, the upperclassmen will be more apt to give and encourage the 
underclassmen to do likewise. 

f. Different dorms will have to have different goals. Tt 
depends tremendously on who is in charge of the dorm, the effectiveness 
of the publicity, what the composition of students is, how large the 
dorm is, if there are any other dorms nearby, if there is any substantial 
campus traffic close to the dorm, time of the academic year (midterms, 
finals, etc.), even seasons of the year. 

If you have never had a drive at a particular location, 
let the drawing agency make a guess as to how many pints they could draw 
after analyzing any facts you can give them about the above variables. 
Only after the first year of operation could you get a feel for the 
number of pints that could be collected at a particular dorm. (A 
complex of 1200-1500 students in our experience can be expected to give 
approximately 60-90 pints of blood a day for a three-day drive.) 

g. Times for the drive must also be decided upon. The hours 
should include times when students are in the dorm. Lunch and dinner 
times are slow for donations since a lot of students are eating, but 
before or after them is fine. Times are again a matter of experience. 

h. Once you have all of the above arrangements in order, 
make copies of the dorm schedule and mail it to the director of student 
housing and all the resident directors (ITNL #23) and advisors. Ask the 
resident directors in a letter to reserve the main lounge for the days 
that the blood drive will be in their dorm. 

i. Have the head of the drawing agency accompany the director 
of the blood program to all the lounges where te will be drawing, make a 
sketch of how te would like the furniture arranged, and make requests 
for additional furniture if needed. Make copies of these sketches, keep 
one of each, and send a couple of a particular dorm to the resident 
director of that dorm so te can give it to the custodian staff who will 
arrange the furniture. 

j . Talk to the drawing agency and see what they will supply 
for each drive in terms of coffee, juice, punch, cookies, pretzels, hot 
and cold cups, napkins, spoons, cream and sugar, etc. The drawing 
agency will have preferences as to what it can conveniently and cheaply 
bring and what they would like the site to provide. 

k. Once you know what the site will be expected to provide 
in terms of refreshments, talk to the person in charge of the cafeteria 
in every dorm you will be in (ITNL #23) and tell ter of your plans for 
the blood drive and what refreshments you need and perhaps te may provide 
all your refreshments at a discount from the cafeteria's food service. 
Ask this person also the procedure for placing an order for the refreshments 
for the drive. 



57 



1. Also when you meet with your drawing agency ask what 
I)()sirlons on tlie bloodmobile will have to be staffed by volunteers. Ask 
lor the procedural steps for these stations (in a manner similar to tlie 
descriptions of the positions volunteers must fill at a Red Cross drive) 
so you could t)'pe It up and use It for the volunteer manual. 

m. Ask your drawing agency if they have any aids to help you 
attract donors to the bloodmobile. Some of these could include things 
such as posters, fliers, newspaper Inserts, etc. 

The agency also may have nice little things for a donor 
after te donates that give recognition. These recognition devices also 
help to publicize the drive. 

n. Talk to your drawing agency representative and see if it 
would be possible to get some kind of "blood assurance" plan for your 
university community (see Appendix C) . In brief, blood assurance means 
that if any member of your university community (students, faculty, or 
staff) or ter immediate family receives blood, te will not have to 
recruit donors to replace the pints used or pay a replacement fee. 

o. Talk to the person in charge of parking (ITNL #10) and 
see if you can get some agreement to get special parking permits and 
parking places designated for the technicians at the drive. Often the 
technicians won't know the area they are drawing in. TTiey will have a 
hard time finding parking places and they won't be able to run out to 
feed the parking meter every time it expires. 

p. Once your blood program is in operation, you are going to 
have to have some room where you can store all the records of your 
program, the signs from the drive, and many other miscellaneous things, 
as well as a phone that interested donors and volunteers can call to 
make appointments, and from which committee people can call donors and 
volunteers. The importance of appointments is discussed in the intro- 
duction and in Appendix B. 

q. You will have to have the phone number of a doctor on 
call and an ambulance firm. An ambulance firm will probably be no 
problem, but finding a doctor who would be on call may be harder. Check 
with your health service or with neighborhood hospitals and see if they 
would be willing to offer such a service. 

r. Talk to the administration of your university and see if 
they would let you have some computer time and space to store all the 
various data listed in this manual that will make for a fairly sophisti- 
cated blood program. Discuss the blood program primarily in terms of 
coTranunity service. The administration may well be interested in blood 
assurance as well, as this is commonly seen as a fringe benefit. The 
software for any type of filing you will need to do is described in 
Appendix L,. The appendix also describes where you can write to actually 
obtain the software programs. 



58 



2. Physical set-up at the drive. 

a. A list of the stations and what must be done at each 
should be made up by the head of the drawing agency that you work with; 
however the following should be included in the list of stations: 

1) Receptionist — registers all donors, answers ques- 
tions on eligibility to give blood, handles donor flow, shows volunteers 
who to go to to be assigned and explained jobs, and registers volunteers. 

2) Walkers — escort donor from drawing table to 
canteen area. 

3) Canteen area — donor should be requested to stay 
here about 15 minutes (and eat if te wants) to see if te has any reactions 
after giving blood. 

b. Equipment that must be present at each drive: 

1) Typewriters — may not be needed if the drawing 
agency prints its registration forms. 

2) Pens and paperclips. 

3) Nametags for volunteers and supervisors — helps to 
recognize the volunteer and help the supervisor to be able to call 
volunteers by their first name. Also if any problems come up, the 
volunteers and the technicians both will know who the supervisor is. 

4) All donor schedule sheets, volunteer schedule sheets, 
and supervisor schedule sheets (for examples of the first two see Appendix 

5) Donor eligibility sign — to be placed in front of 
receptionist's table. Good for two reasons — attracts people and tells 
of major eligibility requirements so that not as many questions are 
asked of receptionist. More detailed eligibility requirements should 
be written down for receptionist. 

6) Canteen area supplies — magazines, donor question- 
naires, crayons and paper for inspired donors to draw with (some drawings 
are so creative they can be used for publicity), and donor recognition 
items (such as Red Cross "Be nice to me, I gave blood today" stickers 
and pins) . 

7) Custodian-supplied items: 

a) Coat racks and hangers for volunteers and 
donors. 

b) Mop, broom, and bucket in case of accident or 
clean up. 

c) Extention cords — 25 and 50 feet. 



59 



d) Tables and chairs In quantities that drawing 
agency wants. 

e) A few large trash cans. 

c. Procedures to be developed for drive. 

1) A way of labeling the stations so donors know where 



to go. 



2) A way of keeping the donors in the order that they 
registered. This can be done by numbering the registration cards in the 
upper left hand corner from 1 to however many donors show up at wherever 
temperatures are taken. 

3) A way of keeping track of volunteers and the times 
they worked. This can be done by having volunteers register at the 
receptionist's desk before and after they work. 



3. At the end of the year. 

Thanks and recognition should be given to all who have helped. 
This includes all your volunteers and donors, all of the local Red Cross 
volunteers, all university officials who have helped you, and any other 
persons and organizations who contributed their time, effort, goods, or 
services to the drives. This can be simply done by writing a letter to 
the editor of your college newspaper or taking an ad out in the newspaper. 

Special recognition should be made to those volunteers who put 
in an exceptional amount of time for the drives and all those donors who 
have donated one gallon or more of blood in their blood donating career. 

The new Director should have long ago been chosen and trained 
by the "old" one, new committee heads should have been chosen, and most 
of the arrangements for next year's drives should have been already 
made. Planning for a summer drive should have started. 

The "old" Director should get together with ter "old" committee 
heads, evaluate the year's effort and make any suggestions on how to 
improve the blood program to the new staff. 



60 



B. PER DRIVE PLANNING (DORMITORY BLOOD DRIVE) 
1. Things to do before the drive. 

a. Logistics coinmittee : 

1) See to it that parking permits are ordered and given 
to the Dorm Director at least a day before the drive. 

2) A couple days before the drive, see to it that A to 
5 people will be present an hour and a half to two hours before the 
drive to unload the blood bank's supplies (and also an hour after the 
drive stops accepting donors on the last day to load the supplies) . 

3) Give the Dorm Director the phone numbers of a doctor 
on call and an ambulance (so te can give them to the blood bank) . 

4) Order the refreshments for the drive within the 
necessary time from the cafeteria food service. 

5) Have ready for pick-up by the Director two weeks 
before the drive: volunteer name tags, "Be nice to me" stickers, 
magazines, pens, and any questionnaires for the donors. 

b. Volunteer Relations committee : 

1) Have the volunteer schedule sheets made \ip for the 
drive and ready for pick-up by the Director two weeks before the drive 
(see Appendix F) . 

2) Have someone sit by the phone to collect volunteer 
names. This should be coordinated with Donor Relations (see Appendix H ) . 

3) If contacted by a Dorm Director with insufficient 
volunteers (at least two days before the drive) , start phoning volunteers 
from the master list. This master list would include volunteers from 
other dorms and if you have a central campus drive program, it would 
also include students who don't live in dorms (see Appendix H^) . 

4) At least a couple days before the drive, assign 
supervisors for the drive and have only one in charge at a time. 

5) The different stations at the drive and their proce- 
dures should be given to the Director two weeks before the drive. 

c. Donor Relations committee : 

1) A letter could be sent to all eligible donors in 
the dorm, neighboring dorms, and surrounding community a week to a half 
week before the bloodmobile telling them the particulars about the drive 
(see Appendix M) . 

2) Make up the blank donor schedule sheets (Appendix F^) 
and have them ready for pick-up by the Director two weeks before the 
drive. 



3) Have someone answer phones for donors to call in 
their appointments. Again coordinate with Volunteer Relations. Start 
between one week and one half week before the drive (see Appendix H) . 

4) If contacted by the Dorm Director with not enough 
donor slgn-ups two days before the drive start phoning eligible donors 
From previous donor lists who live in the vicinity (see Appendix H) . 

5) Make up an eligibility sign and a more extensive 
eligibility sheet according to the specifications of the blood bank and 
give it to the Director two weeks before the drive. 

d. Publicity committee; 

1) The following is a list of ideas for publicity — by 
no means is this list meant to be complete: 

a) College newspaper (see examples. Appendix Q^) 

I. Ads to be run one or two days before and 
each day of the drive. 

II. Feature articles — the publicity commit- 
tee can try to arrange for these; however the best way to get articles 
is to know people on the newspaper staff. Also inviting reporters to 
the first big drive helps. 

III. Editorials. 

IV. Letters to the editor. 

V. A blood thermometer — try to get the 
newspaper to give you a small area on the front page for each day of the 
drive and the day after for a thermometer showing the number of pints 
collected relative to the program's yearly goal. This means that someone 
must call the newspaper's office each day after the drive ends to let 
them know how many pints v/ere collected. 

b) Other campus newspapers and magazines, perhaps 
appealing to more specific campus groups, should also be utilized. 

c) Posters, fliers, etc., may be gotten from the 
blood bank. 

d) The official school calendar should be sent the 
list of blood drive dates and locations. 

e) If there are organizations that sponsor movies, 
see if they would help publicize the drive by showing a slide with the 
date, location and times of the drive right before they show their 
movies . 

f) You can have leaflets, fliers, and signs put up 

in the dorm, neighboring dorms, and in the surrounding university community. 



62 



g) Leaflets can be sent to all floor resident 
advisors in the dorm you are drawing in with a note asking them to post 
tlie flyers on their floor and encourage their Floor to (Uin.ite. 

ii) Vi) I iinteers could .ilso do sonic- |)ul)li(ily work. 
When a volunteer receives notification of an approacliing drive I rom Llie 
Volunteer Relations committee, perhaps te should receive 5 or 6 Diers 
to post or distribute and could be asked to tell ter friends about the 
drive and to encourage them to donate. 

i) Radio stations — many allot a certain amount 
of time to Public Service Announcements. Perhaps a tape could be 
prepared for distribution to the radio stations. 

j) Blood program T-shirts for volunteers and 
donors might be a means of advertising and simultaneously providing much 
needed recognition for these people for their contribution to the 
program. The front could have the blood program insignia with the back 
having the person's blood type. 

2) Make sure that everything that the committee decides 
to do is done well ahead of the drive since many of the media and organi- 
zations and businesses have to have a minimum of a week or two to do 
whatever you want them to do. 

3) Have posters and the instructions on how to fill 
them out ready for pick up by the Director two weeks before the drive. 

4) Establish a speaker's bureau. This group of committee 
people will be responsible to go to organized housing such as fraternities, 
sororities, and dorms to speak about a blood drive coming up. This is a 
good way to publicize the drive and at the same time inform the donor 

and potential donor about some facts on blood and the process of giving 
blood. 

e. Computer Services committee: 

1) This committee will make up labels for any desired 
group or subgroup of people that any of the committees want for either 
letter purposes or phone lists. 

2) The Newsletter subcommittee should work with the 
director. Donor Relations and Volunteer Relations in writing the letters 
to donors and volunteers. 

f . Plrs^ttf]:; 

1) Make sure that you get the following from your 
committees two weeks before the drive and give it to the Dorm Director: 

a) Volunteer name tags, "Be nice to me" stickers, 
magazines, and pens. 

b) Volunteer schedule sheets. 



63 



c) Descriptions of the tasks for each of the 
stations at the drive. 

d) Donor schedule sheets. 

e) Eligibility sign and the more extensive eligi- 
bility guideline sheets. 

f) Posters and instructions on how to fill them 
out . 

g) Donor questionnaires. 

2) Monitor the progress of the blood program and 
propose modifications where necessary. 

3) Formulate all public statements — policy and 
progress. 

g. Dorm Director; 

1) Make sure that you get a "package" from the Director 
two weeks before the drive. 

2) Make sure that the bloodmobile site is reserved. 

3) Sign-ups for both volunteers and donors should be 
conducted at the entrance to the cafeteria during dinner for at least 4- 
5 days before the drive. 

4) Make sure that the custodians have a copy of the 
floor plan for the bloodmobile site and any requests for additional 
furniture. 

5) Keep in communication with the head of the blood 
bank to inform ter on the number of donor sign-ups and to receive any 

extra instructions. 

6) If there aren't enough donors, call the Donor 
Recruitment chairperson at least two days before the drive and ter 
committee will phone eligible donors in the vicinity to donate at the 
drive. 

7) If there aren't enough volunteers, call the Volunteer 
Relations chairperson at least two days before the drive and ter committee 
will phone volunteers in the vicinity to work at the drive. 

8) Take the posters, fill in the time, date, and place 
on them, and put them up in the dorm, neighboring dorms, and surrounding 
university community one and a half weeks before the drive. 

9) If Volunteer Relations cannot get enough supervisors, 
be prepared to assign an experienced volunteer to be in charge of the 
drive. Someone must be in charge at all times. 



64 



10) Make sure that you get the parking permits from the 
Logistics committee at least a couple days before the drive and give 
them to the blood bank when they arrive. 

11) Try to find some typewriters (if you need them for 
the registration cards). 



2. Things to do AT the drive. 

a. Logistics committee: 

Make sure that the loaders have come and unloaded the 
necessary supplies 1 1/2-2 hours before the drive begins. 

b. Volunteer Relations committee: 



1) If there aren't enough volunteers for the other days 
in the drive, the committee people will have to phone them up. 

2) Supervisor's Role — there must always be someone 
present who is in charge and capable of answering questions. 

a) A schedule of all supervisors is to be kept at 
the reception desk so that the check-in person will know to whom to 
direct any volunteers, questions, or problems during the drive. 

b) The supervisor is in charge of opening up the 
drive and closing it at the end of the day. 

c) Te should check in with the ranking technician 
when te begins so that te will know who is supervising. 

d) The new supervisor should arrive on duty a few 
minutes early in order to be informed of the situation by the departing 
supervisor. 

e) Te should have a name tag with ter name and 
"supervisor" written on it and te should make sure all the volunteers 
also have a name tag. 

f) Te assigns jobs to those volunteers who don't 
have one . 

g) Once all volunteers have jobs, the supervisor 
must give each volunteer instructions on what their particular station 
needs to have done. 

h) These instructions should be given to the 
volunteer each time; it is very easy to forget the details of what must 
be done for each station even if the volunteer has done the task the day 
before. 



65 



1) Te helps the receptionist keep a list of who 
worked and for how long. This could be used at the end of the year for 
volunteer recognition. 

j) Te must make sure that the flow of donors 
doesn't get bogged down in any one area, by shifting volunteers around to 
help in the congested areas. 

k) Te should remain cheerful and courteous to all 
volunteers, nurses, and donors. Te should try to encourage interaction 
between the volunteers and try to learn their names from their name 
tags. 

1) If te notices that a donor has been rejected, 
te should talk to ter and if it is only a temporary rejection, encourage 
ter to come back. Often would-be donors are quite upset and take their 
rejection quite personally. If the supervisor is short on volunteers 
ask that person if te would like to spend the hour te would have donated, 
volunteering. If someone has been permanently rejected, make sure te 
understands why and the supervisor might suggest that te become a blood 
drive volunteer instead. 

m) Te should make sure that the donors are staying 
in order, at least to the extent that donors don't get upset. To do 
this te may have to have a volunteer stand at the bottleneck of the 
bloodmobile and call out the numbers that the person at temperatures 
wrote on their registration cards. 

n) Twenty minutes before the hour, the supervisor 
should go around with the volunteer schedule list and check to see which 
volunteers will be leaving, so that te will know where new volunteers 
will have to be placed. 

o) When volunteers leave te should make sure they 
check out at the receptionist desk, so the time they worked can be 
recorded. 

p) If it looks like there are not enough volunteers 
either see if the volunteers there could stay longer than the time they 
signed up for or just redistribute the volunteers you do have to cover 
the stations where they are needed most. The supervisor shouldn't be 
afraid to help out terself where te is needed most. 

q) The people on the volunteer schedule sheet 
should be placed first, then the walk- in volunteers. Extra volunteers 
could be put to walking donors and talking to donors on the drawing 
table. 

r) It is not good to have too many volunteers, 
since it is important that all volunteers feel that they are needed. 

s) The donor is the major concern — making the 
experience as pleasant as possible and getting ter through the donation 
line as quickly as possible. 



66 



t) It is good to have an overlap af old and new 
volunteers for a few minutes so that the newcomer has time to adjust to 
the task. 

u) If there are any items outside the donor room, 
they should be taken inside at the end of the drive day so they won't be 
lost. 

3) Receptionist: 

a) The receptionist should be able to answer 
donors' questions or at least be able to refer the donor to someone who 
can. (The medical questions not answered by the eligibility sheets 
should be taken to the head technician.) 

b) This person will be taking appointments for the 
day's drive and marking donors' names off as they arrive. Donors should 
then be directed to the typists. 

c) Walk-in donors can be taken as the situation 
permits; this is where the receptionist's judgment is important. Too 
many donors taken at once will create a bottleneck inside the drawing 
rooms and result in longer waiting lines and frustrated donors (see 
Appendix G) . If it seems to be crowded inside, ask the donor to make an 
appointment for later in the day or the next day. This ability to judge 
the situation comes from experience at the drives, so it is generally a 
good idea to have a volunteer who has worked at the drives before as a 
receptionist. 

d) New volunteers should check-in here and be 
directed to the supervisor. When the volunteer finishes working, te 
should check out here also, so there is an accurate record of the 
number of hours that te has worked. 

e) When the receptionist is not busy, te can 
talk to people who have finished donating to get some estimate of how 
fast donors are getting out. Ideally, it would be less than an hour, 
realistically, it is usually between 1 to 1 1/2 hours. 

4) The other stations may vary depending upon what the 
blood bank will let you do. This committee should already have these 
positions and should have given the Dorm Director a copy. 

c. Donor Relations coni]p ; n't;<i^<[^; 

1) If there aren't enough donors for the other days, 
the committee people will have to call donors from the file. 

2) Handle any telephone appointments that are made 
during the drive and add them to the donor schedule sheets the recep- 
tionist has (only if they are for the next day) . 

3) Keep a list of donors (names, social security num- 
bers, blood types) who are temporarily disqualified or who experience 
discomfort for a special communication after the drive. 



67 



4) Keep a suggestion box in the canteen area. 

5) Inform donors about blood either at the canteen area 
or at the receptionist with simple signs such as the one on page seven. 

6) Take charge of handing out any questionnaires in the 
canteen from the Research subcommittee. 

7) Have a person be responsible to collect the names, 
social security numbers and blood types of all those who donated, from 
the blood bank at the end of the day. 

d. Publicity committee; 

1) Get the total pints of blood collected each night 
and give it to the daily campus newspaper (to put on the front page as a 
blood thermometer if possible) . The committee can also tell the paper 
if the drive is behind its quota. 

2) Check to see that all the advertisements are correct 
and are in operation. 

3) The committee can sell blood T-shirts at the canteen 
area. 

e. Computer Services^ 

1) Get the donor information from the Donor Relations 
committee from the previous day. 

2) If there are some extra volunteers at the drive, 
they could start coding the donor information. 

f . Director: 

Make up a check list to make sure all the committees and 
the Dorm Director are doing what they should be doing. 

g. D orm Director; 

1) Make sure that the room is set up correctly. 

2) Be sure that you have the phone numbers of the 
ambulance and hospital and give them to the head person at the drive. 

3) Make sure that you give the parking permits to the 
blood bank. 

4) Make sure that the eligibility sign is up along with 
the donor schedule sheets and the volunteer schedule sheets at the 
registration table. 

5) Make sure that you have enough typewriters (if you 
need them) . 



68 



6) Give the person from publicity the final count each 
day so that person could tell the newspaper the total for the day. 



3. Things to do AFTER the Drive. 

a. Logistics committee: 

1) Make sure that the loaders show up an hour after the 
drive stops accepting donors. 

2) Make sure that the bill for the refreshments is 
given to the proper people and paid promptly. 

b. Volunteer Relations committee: 



1) Supervisor should close the drive. 

2) If there is nothing for volunteers to do in the last 
hour of the drive, tell them that they may go home and thank them for 
their time. 

c. Donor Relations committee: 



1) Make sure that the Computer Services committee gets 
the names, social security numbers, blood types, and donation dates of 
each of the following: 

a) All donors. 

b) Temporary rejects. 

c) "No-shows". 

d) Permanent rejects. 

2) Make sure that the Computer Services committee gets 

the names, social security numbers, and hours worked for all the volunteers, 

3) Have the Research subcommittee figure out the "vital 
statistics" of the drive listed in Appendix N. 

4) Answer complaints with the help of the Director on: 

a) Something the volunteers did at the drive. 

b) Something the blood bank did at the drive. 

c) Not receiving a blood card. 



69 



5) Send the blood cards to the donors if the blood bank 
doesn't send them out. Do this immediately after you receive the cards 
from the blood bank. 

6) Have the Researc-.h subcoiranittee tally the results 
from any questionnaires that may have been handed out in the canteen 
area. 

d. Publicity committee: 

Make sure that the total count from the last day of the 
drive gets put into the newspaper the day following the bloodmobile. 

e. Computer S ervices committee: 

1) Make sure that you get the names, social security 
numbers, blood types, and donation dates of each of the following from 
the Donor Relations committee: 

a) All donors. 

b) Temporary rejects. 

c) "No--shows". 

d) Permanent rejects. 

2) Make sure that you get the names, social security 
numbers, and hours worked for all the volunteers from the Donor Relations 
committee also. 

3) Help the Research subcommittee of Donor Relations 
with any lists of people they may need. 

f . Dorm Director: 

1) Make sure that the following get turned in to the 
Director or the blood program office the day after the drive. 

a) Volunteer-donor-supervisor schedule sheets. 

b) Eligibility sign and the more extensive 
eligibility guidelines sheets. 

c) Pens and leftover paperclips. 

d) Leftover name tags and "Be nice to me" stickers. 

e) Magazines. 

f) Donor questionnaires. 

2) All posters should ideally be torn down immediately 
after the drive — so that the public doesn't become desensitized to 
them. 



70 



1) Talk to the Dorm Director to see if there were any 



problems. 



2) Talk to the committees, to see if there were any 
problems and to plan for the next drive. 



lilkfH 



CM. 




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72 



Appendix A 
LIST OF BOOKS AND ARTICLES RELATED TO BLOOD 



If you would like to know a little more on blood and the blood 
service complex in the United States, below are some books and articles 
you may find interesting. If there are some articles below that you 
would like to read, but cannot find in your university's library, just 
write to: 

John Hackmann 

Blood Donor Research Group 

105 Advanced Computation Building 

Urbana, Illinois 61801 

The articles and books that have an asterisk (*) are ones that I 
highly recommend that you read. 



Books 



* Journey , Robert and Suzanne Massie (Alfred A. Knopf, 1973). 

Blood — The Biology , Pathology , and Mythology of the Body's Most 
Precious Fluid , Earle Hackett, (Saturday Review Press, 1973). 

*The Gift Relationship : From Human Blood to Social Policy , Richard 
M. Titmuss, (Random House, 1971). 



Articles 



On The Gift Relationship 

*1971 Book Review of: "The Gift Relationship. From Human Blood to 

Social Policy," R.M. Titmuss, Review by: O.W. Anderson, 

International Journal of H ealth Services , Vol. 1, No. 4, 1971, 
pp. 421-423. 

1972 "Anderson-Titmuss Debate Over The Gift Relationship: From 
Human Blood to Social Policy," a reply to Dr. Anderson by 
Titmuss; a rejoinder to Dr. Titmuss by Anderson, D.W., Inter- 
national Journal of Health Services , Vol. 2, No. 2, 1972, 
pp. 317-318. 

1972 "Human Blood and the Renewal of Altruism: Titmuss in Retro- 
spect," 0. Mac N. Surgenor, Comments on Titmuss — Anderson 
Debate over the Gift Relationship, International Journal of 
Health Services , Vol. 2, No. 3, August 1972, pp. 443-453. 

*1971 "Why Give to Strangers?," Richard M. Titmuss, Lancet , January 
16, 1971, pp. 123-125. 



On Donor Recruitment 

*1957 "Blood Donor Recruitment: A Case Study on the Psychology of 
Communication," Harry A. Grace, Journal of Social Psychology , 
Vol. 46, 1957, pp. 269-276. 

1975 "Effects of Donor Recruitment Methods on Population Responses," 
G.T. Ford and E.L. Wallace, Transfusion , Vol. 15, No. 2, Mar-Apr 
1975, pp. 159-164. 

1975 "Attitudes Underlying Reluctance to Donate Blood," W.P. Bartel, 

W. Stelzner, and J. Higgins, Transfusion , Vol. 15, No. 3, May-Jun 
1975, pp. 275-277. 

1971 "On Stimulating the Gift of Blood," William Bevan, Science , Vol. 
173, August 13, 1971, p. 357. 

1972 "Stimulating Blood Donation," Richard H. Aster, Science , Vol. 175, 
January 28, 1972, pp. 28-29. 

On Blood Banking In General 

*1971 "Blood Banking," Helen B. Shaffer, Editorial Research Reports , 
Vol, 1, May 5, 1971, pp. 327-344. 

1973 "Blood Services: Prices and Public Policy," D. Mac N. Surgenor, 
E.L. Wallace, P.D. Gumming, B.D. Mierzwa and F.A. Smith, Science , 
Vol. 180, April 27, 1973, pp. 384-89. 

*1974 "The Blood Business," Seymour Lusterman, The Conference Board 
Record , February 1974, pp. 47-53. 

1972 "Blood Banking: Money is at Root of System's Evils," Constance 
Holden, Science , Vol. 175, March 24, 1972, pp. 1344-1348. 

1972 "Blood Banking: Tangled System Resists Swift Change," by Constance 
Holden, Science, Vol. 175, March 31, 1972, pp. 1444-6. 

On Blood Banking and the F.D.A. 



1972 "FDA to Regulate All Blood Banks," C. Holden, Science , Vol. 177, 
September 8, 1972, p. 869. 

1972 "Controls Constrict Sources," Donald F. Phillips, Hospitals JAHA , 
Vol. 46, December 16, 1972, pp. 41-44. 

1973 "Protecting Blood Banks' Liquid Assets," Harold C. Hopkins, FDA 
Consumer , June 1973, pp. 10-14. 

On Blood Banking and the H.E.W. 

,vi974 "The National Blood Policy," Donald F. Phillips, Hospitals JAHA , 
Vol. 48, June 16, 1974, pp. 70-76. 



1973 "All-Volunteer Blood Banks, Strict Processing Sought by HEW for 
Safe, Plentiful Supplies," Jonathan Spivak, The Wall Street 
Journal , July 2, 1973. 

1973 "Blood Bankers Pressured to Unite," Constance Holden, Science , 
Vol. 182, October 12, 1973, p. 146. 

On "Poison Blood" 

*1973 "Profiteering in Poison Blood," Thomas Thompson, New Times , 
No. 2, November 2, 1973, pp. 36-39. 

*1975 "Blood Farming," Stuart Baur, New York , May 19, 1975, pp. 50-52 
and on. 

On the Constitutionality of Some Blood Laws 

1973 "Constitutionality of Exemption Laws on Guarantee of Purity for 
Blood Transfusions and Tissue and Organ Transplants," William J. 
Cursan, J.D., S.M. Hyg. , New England Journal of M edicine , Vol. 
288, March 1, 1973, pp. 457-9. 

On Computer Software 

1969 "Aspects of a Computer-assisted System for Calling Blood Donors 

froir Specialized Panel," D.F. Hopkins and G.R. Milne, Transfusion . 
Vol. 9, No. 5, September to October, 1969, pp. 255-60. 



Appendix B 
POLICY ISSUES 



When you start your blood program, you are going to run across 
several issues on which you will have to make decisions. This appendix 
lists some policies that your blood program may want to adopt and the 
reasoning behind them. 

1. "Blood from our town should stay in our town." We disagree with 
that statement. Remember, it is people who ultimately use blood, 
not blood banks — they are the agent who makes the transfusion 
possible. Take the position that blood should be obtained where 
it is available and used where needed. We believe donors will 
support this approach. 

Large university communities often have a surplus of potential 
donors capable of producing thousands of pints more than is needed 
in that immediate area. Any single drawing agency in your state 
may be unable to properly utilize all of the pints that are avail- 
able on your campus, since blood that isn't frozen lasts only for 
21 days, and frozen blood is still economically unfeasible for 
general use. Your blood program may want to work with several 
agencies to better utilize your blood resources and help out other 
parts of the state during their blood shortages. 

2. An effective message to attract donors is "No one in your group or 
community will have to pay for blood or be penalized for failing to 
replace it." There are two main charges to the patient: a processing 
fee, usually $15-$40 per unit, and a responsibility fee, also 

called a penalty or non-replacement fee, usually $15-$25. The 
processing fee covers the costs of drawing the donor, the plastic 
bags for blood, technician time, overhead, etc.; this fee is paid 
by third party payers, such as Blue Cross, the Medicare program, 
and private health carriers. About 90% of people are covered by 
one of these and hence themselves pay no processing fee. The non- 
replacement fee usually must be paid by the individual blood recipient. 
Forgiveness of the fee for units replaced is intended to be ai\ 
incentive to donate. 

If blood is freely given, and the donor group uses less blood than 
its members donate, then you will want to make sure that for each 
extra pint donated some individual is relieved of the burden of the 
non-replacement fee. Arrangements of this type are often called 
"Donor Clubs," and extra credits are often used for indigents, 
elderly people who cannot replace, or heavy blood users. Easing 
the psychological and financial burden of people who cannot bear 
the burdens is another service your expanded blood program can 
offer. (See Appendix £. ) 

3. A policy that is important to the success of a blood program is to 
have the donor get through the entire donation process as quickly 
and as safely as possible. A realistic time goal should be set at 
about an hour. College students frequently only have hour breaks 



during which they are willing to donate. If, due to overcrowding 
with donors, the process takes any longer, some of them will end up 
late for their classes and will not want to bother donating again. 
(This potential problem can be taken care of by proper donor 
scheduling, described in Appendices G and H) . 

The donor should always be the major concern during the drive. Ter 
experience should be as pleasant as possible. 

4. When you try to recruit donors for a drive, concentrate on "old" 
donors — donors that have given before — before you try convincing 
people who have never given before. The reason is simple: "old" 
donors have shown that they are willing to donate blood since they 
have done it before. They can also help in recruiting new donors 
since person to person persuasion especially among friends is a 
tremendous tool in recruiting new donors. Only after you make 
arrangements to do this should you go out and speak to a potential 
donor group to try to persuade them to donate blood. 

5. Another extremely important part of the blood program should be to 
provide educational material and information to both donors and 
volunteers concerning blood and blood collection. A better informed 
donor population will understand the need for a constant supply of 
blood and probably respond more often to appeals to give blood at 
the drives. 

6. Once your program has been going for a while, stress the importance 
of making appointments for donating blood. Advance appointments 
make it easier for your blood program to predict the success of the 
drive (and take appropriate measures if it doesn't appear that 
there will be enough donors) and it encourages a steady donor flow. 
Doiiors making appointments can often be scheduled at times when the 
drive is usually less crowded. If this is not done, most students 
wiJ.l show up at the drive after a class, and you will be unable to 
admit all of them without causing the donation time to go very much 
above an hour. 

7. When you advertise a blood drive, do not use motifs such as vampires. 
Emotional appeals are not considered desirable; first because it is 
not as likely to encourage an informed decision on the part of the 
donor and second, because blood donation is already often an emotion- 
ally charged act and it is very undesirable to amplify such fears 
for some donors. The coiranittee should also not use a crisis approach 
in their publicity efforts either, since this may make the population 
lose confidence in its drawing agencies. If this approach is used 
very often, the public soon becomes desensitized. 

8. If the county that your university is in has a county blood bank, 
all advertising for a Red Cross drive must appeal only to the 
university community. Therefore utilization of the local community 
newspapers and television stations is not as effective as other 
media which appeal more directly to the student population. 



Appendix C 
BLOOD ASSURANCE 



The three most serious problems facing the blood transfusion service 
in the United States are: 

o AVAILABILITY : Blood of all needed types is not always available 

in sufficient amounts when and where it is needed. 

o QUALITY : Sometimes, even when blood of the proper types l£ 

available, it has been supplied by paid donors 
who are much more likely to be carriers of serious 
or even fatal diseases transmitted through trans- 
fusion than volunteer donors. 

o COST : To increase the supply of voluntarily-donated 

blood, many hospitals require transfused patients 
to recruit sufficient donors to replace blood 
they have received or pay a monetary "replacement 
fee" for each unit of blood not replaced. 

BLOOD ASSURANCE deals with this third problem. After a transfused 
patient is released from the hospital, membership in a blood assurance 
program will relieve ter of any obligation to recruit replacement donors 
or to pay non-replacement fees. 

Blood assurance benefits are available to individuals who have 
themselves given blood or who are members of groups which, collectively, 
have donated significant amounts of blood. It is only right to free 
such individuals from obligations to replace or pay fees in lieu of 
blood, since they have acted to contribute voluntarily to the available 
blood supply. 

Thus, blood assurance is primarily an economic benefit for those 
covered: i^ blood was found for them when they needed it, at least 
they won't have to pay for it or find donors to replace what they have 
used. 



COMMUNITY OR GROUP BLOOD ASSURANCE PLANS ARE 
PREFERRED TO INDIVIDUAL 

Anyone in the community may need blood; it can only be gathered 
from people in the community. Therefore, blood is appropriately treated 
as a community resource and as a community benefit. 

Individual and family 'contract' plans, where a donation covers 
only one family for a limited time period, are often successful in 
their limited goals. However, we do not believe that these devices are 
necessary or sufficient to obtain a sufficient supply of blood. 



While protecting some against non-replacement ft-es, siuli plan.s are 
undesirable to those who by fate or circumstance, af.e or illness, cannot 
be enrolled. These plans are particularly pernicious since they can ] tmit 
donations. They rarely encourage more than one pj.nt a year from a 
'contract' donor and his family, or schedule additional dates for group 
plans after group quotas (reflecting anticipated needs of the group) 
have been reached. Many healthy donors thus do not give as often as 
they are willing. 

Indigent, disabled, and elderly blood recipients not enrolled in 
the plans mentioned above are often charged a penalty fee for units that 
were given to obtain coverage for the donor under those plans. Many 
blood agencies believe that there would not be enough blood donated if 
penalty fees were not charged, in spite of evidence that the blood is 
there to be had if those segments of the population who do give blood 
were properly encouraged to give more. 



Appendix D 
SAMPLE DONOR ELIGIBILITY SIGN 



YOU CM GIVE BLOOD IF: 

1. it has been 8 weeks or more since your last donation. 

2. you weigh over 110 pounds. 

3. you are 17 years of age or older. 

4. you have never had hepatitis. 

5. it has been more than 3 years since you had malaria or took 
anti-malarial pills. 

6. you have eaten within the past 4 hours (you should have some- 
thing in your stomach) , 

7. you have not taken tetracycline within the past 48 hours (for 
complexion only); antibiotics (for any other reasons) within the 
past 2 weeks; or injections of antibiotics in the last 30 days. 

8. you do not have acute symptoms of a cold or allergy. 

9. you have not been pregnant within the past 6 weeks. 

QUESTIONS? refer to Doiior Guidelines at the registration table, 



This sign should have on it eligibility requirements that are most often 
used to reject potential donors. 



Appendix F 
RED CROSS DONOR ELIGIBILITY GUIDELINES 



Thi:; is a representative eligibility guideline to aid you in 
determining donor eligibility. Persons receiving phone appointments 
as well as the receptionist at the drive should have a copy of the 
guidelines. 



ELIGIBLE DONOR 

1. In good health. 

2. Donor must weigh ... at least 110 pounds. 

3. Donor must be no younger than 17 and no older than 61 years of age. 
If a regular donor gives ter age as 61 through 65, they can be 
accepted. Regular donors over 66 years of age can give only with 
written consent from their personal physician within two weeks of 
donation. First time donors over 50 may require evaluation. 

4. Satisfactory hemoglobin. 

5. Prefer donor has eaten solid food within the previous four hours 
(i.e., a good meal). Others will require evaluation. 

6. Has not donated blood within the past eight weeks. 

NON-ELIGIBLE DONORS: 

1. Acute s)miptoms of a cold or flu (to include cough and sore throat). 

2. Infections require an evaluation. 

3. Temperature of 99.8 or above. 

4. History of yellow jaundice or hepatitis. 

5. Contact with person who has had yellow jaundice or hepatitis within 
the past six months. 

6. If a member of family is on a kidney machine or any hospital employee 
who is presently working with a kidney machine. 

7. Received blood or blood components within the previous six months. 

8. Proven carrier of malaria, Plasmodium malariae. 

9. If donor has taken anti-malarial drugs within the past three years, 
or has been in a malarious zone such as Viet Nam within the previous 
six months. 



10. Has had a tatoo, ears pierced, or acupuncture in the past six 
months. 

11. Pregnancy during last six weeks. 

12. Heart disease including stroke, heart murmur and/or history of 
heart disease, rheumatic fever. Definite evaluation required. 

13. Major surgery during previous six months. Minor surgery requires 
evaluation. 

14. Recent active tuberculosis. After five years, may be accepted with 
evaluation. 

15. Diabetes requiring medical control. 

16. Cancer, except for skin cancer, which will be evaluated. 

17. Chronic kidney disease (see number 6, Non-Eligible). 

18. Bronchial asthma which is symptomatic at time of donation. 

19. Fainting spells — epilepsy (for protection of donor). 

20. Convulsions after first two years of life. 

21. Skin infections require evaluation. Vein puncture site must be 
free of skin disease (see number 2, Non-Eligible). 

22. Dental work — includes cleaning within previous 24 hours. 

23. Tooth extractions or any oral surgery within 72 hours. 

24. Immunizations or vaccinations must be evaluated. 

25. All medications must be evaluated: 

a. Antibiotics — IM medications, if less than one month has 
elapsed since last dosage (including penicillin). Oral medi- 
cations if less than two weeks since last dosage (including 
penicillin); 48 hours, if taken for acne (tetracycline). 

b. Donor on blood pressure medication may be accepted with 
written permission of personal physician. 

In most cases, diet pills and birth control pills are acceptable. 

26. Unexplained weight loss requires evaluation. 

27. POLYCTHEMIA VERA (too many red cells) — Cannot be accepted unless 
donor presents written request for drawing by ter private physician, 

28. Exposure to infectious diseases MUST be evaluated. (Measles, 
mumps, chicken pox, etc.) 



29. Hazardous occupation must be evaluated. Commercial pilots and crew 
may not fly for 14 days. Private pilots are grounded for 72 hours. 
Bus drivers cannot drive for 12 hours. Heavy machine operators, 
climbers, etc., 12 hours. 

30. Extreme nervousness or fatigue. 

31. Emotional disturbance. 

32. High and low blood pressure requires evaluation. Many acceptable. 
Also see number 25(b) above. 

33. Pulse irregularities, requires evaluation. 

34. Hayfever and Allergy — only if donor has symptoms on the day of 
donating or if the donor is receiving desensitization injections. 



Appendix F 
TIPS TO MAKING THE VOLUNTEER AND DONOR SCHEDULE SHEETS 



Volunteer Schedule Sheet 

The volunteer schedule sheet should have a section corresponding to 
every hour the blood drive is open, with a section looking something 
like: 

(hour) ( e.g. ,10a.in.) Name Phone No. 

Receptionist 

Temperatures 



Walker 



Typist 



Canteen 



All positions needed at a blood drive should be listed, with lines 
corresponding to the number of persons needed for every position. 

The receptionist should check off the person's name when the 
volunteer shows up to work at the drive. The first space is for the 
volunteer's name which should be written down every hour te will work. 
The second space is for te social security number which only needs to be 
written down for the first hour that te will work that day. The last 
space is for the total number of hours that the volunteer will have 
worked that day. This will be told to the receptionist by the volunteer 
when te leaves. This should be written down next to the volunteer's 
social security number. (The volunteer's social security number and 
hours worked are needed for storage and year end recognition purposes 
respectively) . 

Donor Schedule Sheet 

The donor schedule sheet should have an appropriate number of lines 
of the type illustrated below for every 15 minute period (see Appendix G 
to determine what an appropriate number of lines is) : 



The box at the left of the line should be checked off by the recep- 
tionist when the donor shows up at the drive. The donor's name should 
then go in the first space, ter social security number in the second 
space, and ter blood type in the third space. If the donor is then 
asked to donate at the local blood bank (because the drive has not 
opened or, is closed, is too crowded for any more donors at the time, 
ter his/her blood type is in dire need at the blood drawing agency) , the 
receptionist should make a notation to this effect in the left hand 
margin next to ter name (for record keeping purposes) . 



10:15a 

a 



D- 



10:30 Q. 



D. 



D- 



BLOOD DRIVE APPOINTMENT SHEET 

Wednesday, April 29 

Blood Type 
Name Social Security No. (if know n) 



I 



CC4. 



• ^J 



Appendix G 
SCHEDULING DONORS 



Determining the appropriate number of lines or in other words the 
number of donors to schedule in a given unit of time is illustrated 
below (taken from page 4 of the American National Red Cross booklet. 
Scheduling Blood Donors [ARC 1777, Jan. 1971]). 

For the sake of illustration, let's plan to collect 200 pints of 
blood in a drive that operates between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m. 

1. Multiply the quota by the percentage usually medically deferred 
(~1.3%) to determine how many persons will be deferred: 

200 X 13% = 26 

2. Multiply the quota by the percentage of expected "no shows" (~5%) 
to determine of those who made appointments (which should be about 
half of your quota) how many will not show up: 

200 X 5% = 10 

3. Add the number deferred, the number of "no shows," and the quota to 
determine the number to be scheduled: 

26 deferred 
10 "no shows" 
4 -200 quota 
236 must be scheduled to obtain 
200 pints of blood 

4. Divide the number of persons scheduled by the number of hours of 
operation (6) to determine the number of donors to be scheduled 
each hour: 

236 T 6 = 39.4 40 

5. Divide the number of donors scheduled each hour by 4 to determine 
how many donors should be allowed to donate for each 15 minute 
period: 

40 V 4 = 10 

This is ideally how many donors should be scheduled or allowed to 
donate every 15 minutes, but this will almost never happen at a college 
bloodmobile. Even though you may schedule the donors who make appoint- 
ments (which again should be about 50% of your quota) evenly around the 
hour, those who don't make appointments ("walk- ins") will tend to come 
all at once after one of their classes ends — usually on the hour. 



To solve this dilemma you must do three things. The first is to 
determine the maximum number of donors that could be scheduled every 15 
minutes. To do this you must find out how many beds are set-up and how 
long a donor lays on this bed. Let's assume there are 12 beds and It 
takes 15 minutes for a donor to actually give his blood on ihe hod. 
This means that a bed could accommodate 4 donors an liour. With 12 beds 
a maximum of 4 x 12 or 48 donors could give in an hour's span — or 12 
donors every 15 minutes. 

Even though the maximum number of donors is 12 every 15 minutes you 
should schedule 14-18 donors in the first quarter hour because you may 
only get 7-8 donors in each succeeding 15-minute interval of the hour. 
(When figuring out how many donors should be scheduled — 14, 15, 16, 
17, or 18 — keep in mind that the length of time it takes for a donor 
to go through from registration to canteen should be between an hour and 
an hour and a half.) If, for example, you get 16 donors the first 
quarter hour and 8 the next three, the total for the hour will be 42 — 
less than the 48 donor maximum for the hour and very close to your 
hourly quota. 

Once you take all the donors who have made appointments for the 
first quarter hour and a suitable number of "walk-ins" to make up the 
14-18 donors, the second thing you must do is to ask some of those 
waiting who weren't scheduled if they wouldn't mind going to the local 
blood bank to donate. 

Once those people have been decided upon, the third thing you must 
do is to ask the remaining people to make appointments for later in the 
hour or later in the day or for another day during this blood drive. 



Appendix H 

MAKING PHONE CALLS TO AND ANSWERING PHONE CALLS 
FROM DONORS AND VOLUNTEERS 



1. If you are answering phone calls, begin with "blood program" or 
"blood drive". 

2. If you are making the phone calls, 

a. Phone around dinner time (4-7 p.m.) to have the best chance of 
contacting the person you are trying to reach. 

b. Once you contact your person, 

1) Give your name and that you're from the blood program. 

2) Give the dates, times, and place (s) of the blood drive. 

3) Ask if te would like to donate or voltinteer (whichever 
is appropriate) . 

a) If the person can't, thank ter and hang up. 

b) If te is willing, go on to the following appropriate 
sections. 

3. If the person on the phone is willing to volunteer , 

a. Ask the person what day and time te would like to volunteer. 

b. Ask the person if te has ever worked at a drive before. 

1) If the person has worked before and knows all the stations, 
ask ter to make a choice of job (e.g.. Temperatures) and 
mark it down on the volunteer schedule sheet (see Appendix 
JF on how to make one) along with the day, time, and 
social security number (for coding purposes later). 

2) If the person has never worked at a drive before or has 
worked, but doesn't know all the stations, briefly 
describe all the stations and ask ter to make a choice 
and mark it down on the volunteer schedule sheet along 
with the day, time, and social security number. 

c. If you are short on volunteers for particular days, times, or 
stations, you may want to suggest to that person the day, time, 
or station instead of asking ter. Usually mornings are hard to 
fill with volunteers. 

d. Don't forget to mention the location of the drive where the 
volunteer will work. 

e. When you finish, thank ter and repeat the time and day of ter 
volunteering. 



A. If the person on the phone is a prospective donor, but has questions 
on eligibility to give blood: 

a. First try to answer the person's question by looking it up on 
the donor eligibility sheets (see Appendix F. for a representa- 
tive donor eligibility guideline sheet). 

b. If that doesn't fully answer the question, you may do two 
things: 

1) If the donor wants to donate at a drive where the local 
blood bank will be drawing, give ter the phone number of 
the blood bank so te may ask them ter question. 

2) If the donor wants to donate at a Red Cross drive, have 
the person stop by the drive and ask the head Red Cross 
nurse, who has final say on all eligibility requirements. 

5. If the person on the phone is willing to make an appointment to 
donate: 

a. Find out the day and time of the donation and write it down on 
the donor schedule sheet. You must get the name, social 
security number and, if known, the blood type of the donor 
(see Appendices F and G for directions on making and filling 
out a donor schedule sheet). 

b. Tell the person where the blood drive is being held (if it is 
held in more than one place) . 

c. Thank ter and repeat the time and day of ter donation. 

d. Try to schedule donors on the quarter or half hour, if at all 
possible, because most walk- ins occur between the three- 
quarter and quarter hours as classes end. 

e. The time for donation should be about 1 hour (and the blood 
program should see to it that this occurs!) but don't guar- 
antee it! 

f . If the person wants to donate the day te is calling, ask ter 
to just stop by the drive and make an appointment or walk- in 
preferably on the quarter or half hour. It would make for 
administrative hassles to be taking appointments to the drive 
site every 15 minutes for the same day. 



Appendix I 
BASIC DONOR RECRUITMENT PRINCIPLES* 



1. The way that donors are recruited for a bloodraobile directly affects 
how the public feels about your blood program. Students who have 
been excessively pressured by their peers to donate, or threatened 
or frightened by other recruitment tactics, will not support your 
program and may indeed recommend that their friends not donate at 
your drives. 

2. The reasons that donors, who had once given at one of your drives, 
have not given since should be examined and appropriate measures 
(if any) taken to remedy them. If donors have not had a fairly 
pleasant experience in donating their blood, they will simply not 
bother coming back again. 

3. Effective donor recruitment cannot depend on gimmicks, threats, or 
haphazard efforts. The best recruitment is personal contact with 
the potential donor: a conversation where te is hopefully persuaded 
to give blood. In terms of the potential donor's motivation to 
give blood, the relationship between the two people is also very 
important. A friend asking a friend to donate has the best chance 
of succeeding. 

4. Potential donors should be told the truth. A donor should not be 
told that the venapuncture "doesn't hurt at all" — let ter know 
that it "may prick." If a donor expects giving blood to be com- 
pletely painless, and it does hurt a little, te may not give again. 
If the experience is as expected, then that donor not only will 
donate again, but will encourage friends to give also. 

5. Potential donors should also be made aware of what the donating 
procedure entails and what te must or must not do before donating 
ter blood (i.e., not taking tetracycline 48 hours before donating 
and having to eat at least 4 hours before donating). In this way 

te will be better informed and better equipped to inform ter friends. 



Adapted from pages 4 and 5 of the American National Red Cross booklet. 
Workbook for the Donor Recruitment Chairman, (ARC 1778, Feb 1971). 



Appendix J 

excerpts from: 

SUMMARY OF RESULTS OF BLOOD DONOR MOTIVATION STUDY 

by John M. Hackmann 



The following results are from a questionnaire mailed to every fifth 
donor who gave blood in the Volunteer Illini Project's (VIP's) blood 
collection program from July 1972 through April 1973 at the University 
of Illinois at Urbana- Champaign (the first year of the expanded blood 
program) . It is hoped that the results will be of practical significance 
to people trying to organize a blood program on their university campus 
by providing some information on donor motivation to give blood. The 
questionnaire was written by David P. Eisenman, VIP Blood Program Advisor. 



THE U OF I DRIVE HAS ATTRACTED 
MANY WHO HAD NEVER GIVEN BEFORE 



56% of the donors gave their first 
pint this year; since only 14% of 
the donors were 18, the program is 
eliciting many "first-pints" from 
people who have been eligible a year 
or more. Many first time donors are 
reluctant — 42%. Also, 18% of those 
feel their reluctance was justified. 
Therefore personal, sensitive responses 
are called for. 



MANY U OF I DONORS CONTINUE TO 
GIVE WHILE ON CAMPUS 



MORE THAN 1 OUT OF 4 AT EACH 
DRIVE ARE FIRST-TIME DONORS. 



REPEAT DONORS ARE YOUNGER. 



MOST DONORS ARE YOUNG, BUT 
MANY OLDER PEOPLE GIVE. 



A full 80% of all donors gave for 
the first time at some U of I drive; 
of the 44% repeat donors, 2/3 had 
first given at the U of I , meaning 
many are oriented to giving here. 

27% of the time, the person approaching 
the desk has never given before. 
This might be good to keep in mind 
when talking to prospective donors. 

Mean age of one-time donors is 22.5 
years; mean age of repeat donors is 
21.3 years. 

Mean age is 21.8 years, but 14% are 
18, 23% are 19, 17% are 20, 17% are 
21, 23% are 22-29, and 6% are 30 and 
over. 



MEN AND WOMEN GIVE IN THE SAME 
PROPORTION AS THE CAMPUS 
POPULATION. 



60% of undergraduates are male, 40% 
female. 71% of graduate students are 
male, 29% are female. The proportion 
of donors is not significantly different 
from the campus population. 



MAKING AN APPOINTMENT IS NOT 
PREFERRED TO WALKING IN, EVEN 
THOUGH MOST DONORS HAVE MADE 
AT LEAST ONE APPOINTMENT. 



47% prefer appointments, 46% walk in. 
But 62% have made at least one appoint- 
ment. 



DONORS KNOW BLOOD SHORTAGES 
EXIST, HOW LONG BLOOD CAN BE 
KEPT, AND HOW OFTEN THEY CAN 
GIVE. 



ALMOST ALL DONORS SPEND 1/2 
HOUR TO 1-1/2 HOURS TO GIVE: 
THEY REPORT A VARIETY OF 
REACTIONS . 



85% replied that there is not usually 
enough blood. Estimates for the most 
blood one can give were 5.4/man/yr. 
and 5.0/woman/yr. But most thought 
accidents create the largest need for 
blood, when actually it is surgery, 
especially elective surgery. Also, 
donors estimated the need for blood at 
33 pts/100 people/yr; in fact, the 
need is more like 3 pts/100 people/yr. 
in Illinois. About 3/4 of the donors 
knew how long blood can be stored. 

"Giving blood takes:" 



15 minutes 


2% 


30 minutes 


14% 


1 hour 


68% 


1-1/2 hours 


14% 


2 hours 


3% 



"After spending the required fifteen 
minutes in the canteen, most donors 
feel: 

Feel no different at all 46% 
Are a little tired for an 

hour 27% 

Are tired for a day or so 21% 
Feel better than they did 

before they gave 5% 

Feel some effect for a 

week 3% 

The results of Section Three: Opinions 
are included in the copy of the ques- 
tionnaire attached at the end. 



MOST DONORS HAVE FAMILY OR 
FRIENDS WHO ARE DONORS. 



82% had a close friend or relative who 
has given. 77% know one or more of 
their four closest firends to be a 
donor, and 71% know one or more of four 
closest friends to be a donor this year, 
60% have a donor parent, 44% other rela- 
tives donors. Several donors report 
20 or more of their friends and relatives 
have given . 



MOST DONORS HAVE BEEN 
ENCOURAGED TO GIVE, BUT 
MOST REPORT THEIR DECISION 
TO GIVE WAS MADE PRIVATELY. 



60% were "encouraged", mostly by friends 
(77%) . But 72% report their decision 
was a private one. It is interesting 
that only 1% of "encouraged" donors 
were encouraged by their parents, 
although 60% of donors had a donor 
parent . 



USUALLY DONORS GIVE AGAIN 
FOR THE SAME REASONS. 



40% report no change in reason while 28% 
report a change. But 60% of those report- 
ing "a general desire to help people" 
report that they continue to give for the 
same reason. 



DONORS GAVE FOR I4ANY REASONS, 
THE MOST COMMON BEING A GEN- 
ERAL DESIRE TO HELP PEOPLE. 



The next page gives the distribution of 
reasons. The first twenty-six were 
taken directly from The Gift Relationship 
by Richard Titmuss to permit a comparison 
with the only other study of blood donor 
motivation this author found. "General 
desire to help people is by far the big- 
gest category, followed by "personal 
appeal". A comparison by sex is included. 



CONCENTRATION ON NEED NOT 
COVERAGE 



Since repeat donors are primarily respon- 
sible for the volume VIP collects (if 
each donor gave exactly one pint per year, 
his "quota" under many "blood assurance" 
plans, which are really blood replacement 
cost insurance plans, VIP would have col- 
lected only 3,300 instead of 6,000 pints) 
a successful program should concentrate 
on altruistic repeat donors. This was 
done last year, in that publicity stressed 
need , not coverage , and mailing lists of 
donors were maintained to encourage 
repeaters. 



Categories (ined tn c lac-.^ifying donor':; anr.wt.TS to the qiK'stion: 
'Could you say why you first decidi-d to be a blood donor?'* 



British Donors U of T lilood Donors 



Total , 
London Study 



26.1* 

1.1* 
9.8 
0.8 



6.J. 



3.5 

6.7 
5.0 
1.1 



1.8 




Total, _ 
U of I Study V 



35.1) 



3.0 



6.Y 



v^ 



^ ( 



32 



1 



6 

1 

9 
5 

1 



100. o;8 



100. ojs 



*^ Description 

32 General desire to help people; a 

good thing to do 
To help Goc'ety or the state 
0+ Medical-research, "Health Services", 

Red Cross, etc. 
Babies 

2 Gratitude for good health 

Repayment for transfusion they 
received 

3 Repayment for transfusion of a friend 
i* Repayment for future needs 

Replacing another member of the 

family who can no longer give 

1 Awareness of need: through Job or 

volunteer work 

Awareness of need: as a hospital 

patievit 

1 Awareness of need: visiting in a 

hospital 
0+ Awareness of need: witnessing or 
reading oT an accident 

Awareness of need: as a motorist 

1 Duty: religious 
5 Duty: societal 
1 In a war effort 

1 While in armed forces 

1 Rare blood group 

1 To obtain benefit : Blood type 

discovery 
To obtain benefit: Health check 
0+ To obtain benefit: "Giving is 

healthy" 
13 Personal appeal 
3 General appeal 
k Miscellaneous 

5 More than one type of answer 



The following sub-categories were used in the U of I study and put back in the 
above categories for comparison with the London study: 



0+ 

5 

3 





0+ 



1 
1 


h 



Giving people something for free 

No Answex' 

Curiosity, impulse, desire for a 

new experisnce 
Specific support for the conversion 

to an all-volunteer blood 

collection system in Illinois 
Accepted Christ 
Help group reach ^oal 
Personal growth, overcoming fear 
Class credit 
Duty: Participation in blood 

assurance plan 
Needed tne money 
General Awareness of need 



* Categories were used for comparison with results in The Gift Relationship 
by Prof. Richard Titmuss (Random House, 1971). A copy is available in the 
VIP office. 



DONORS AGREE CONSIDERABLY ON 
SOME REASONS THAT MOST MOTI- 
VATED THEM AND LEAST MOTIVATED 
THEM. 

The instructions were: 

"Put an "X" next to the three reasons that have most motivated you 
to give blood and an "0" next to the three reasons that have least 
motivated you." 



REASON : 






Ratio 


%"X" %"0" 


X/0 


71 3 


23.7 


54 2 


27.0 



45 

34 
28 

21 



8 

13 
9 

15 



5.6 

2.6 
3.1 

1.4 



"MOST" 

It makes me feel good to help people, even strangers 
I heard about shortages of blood and felt I should 

help 
Maybe someday I'll need blood; if people don't give, 

other people could die 
I want blood coverage for myself or my family 
A lot of people can't give blood; it's up to those 

of us who can 
I benefit from society; therefore I should contribute 

to society 



"LEAST' 



19 


61 


.3 


15 


48 


.3 


4 


43 


.1 


6 


42 


.1 


6 


25 


.2 


6 


8 


.8 



I got credit in a course I'm taking for giving blood 
I wanted to know my blood type 

My blood is a rare type and relatively hard to get 
People I know were giving; it seemed like the thing 

to do 
I was replacing blood used by someone I know or 

heard about 
My blood type is always needed since many people 

have the same type as mine 



FIVE REASONS APPEAR TO BE THE 
"CONVENTIONAL WISDOM" OF WHY 
OTHERS DON'T GIVE. 



77% "Afraid it will hurt" 

44% "Don't have the time" 

28% "Can't give; they would be rejected" 

24% "Afraid of feeling weak afterwards" 

20% "Afraid of fainting" 

Thus "fear" and "being afraid" are the 
big reasons donors think other don't give 
— but Titmuss found that few say they are 
afraid. Only one of four of these same 
donors said they were reluctant out of 
some fear. 



Richard Titmuss, The Gift Relationship (Random House, 1971) 



MOST DONORS WANTED TO GIVE 
MORE OFTEN. 



58% reported they did not give as often 
as they would have liked to; donors 
reported they would like to give a mean 
of 3.3 pints/year in college. (This is 
a higher figure than the 2.9 above, 
probably because only 40% answered this 
particular question.) 94% said they 
would give as much or more than last 
year; 70% said they would give more 
pints this year. 



SOME SUGGESTIONS WERE OFFERED 
TO ENCOURAGE MORE DONATIONS. 



MANY DONORS WERE REACHED BY 
SEVERAL PUBLICITY EFFORTS. 



Here is the break-down on suggestions: 

More dates, different dates 8% 

Push human side 1% 

Better advertising 5% 

Remind appointments 1% 

More room for walk-ins 0+% 

Earlier advertising 0% 

Tell people why the are 0+% 

rejected 

Other, more than one 9% 

No Answer 74% 

"How did you first find out about this 
year's expanded blood program?" 



Newspapers 


27% 


Posters, flyers 


10% 


Card at registration 


6% 


Radio or TV 


1% 


Floor official or house 




government 


1% 


Teacher or adviser 


1% 


"What program?" 


1% 


Other, more than one 


39% 


No Answer 


4% 



WOMEN ARE REJECTED MORE 
FREQUENTLY . 



26% of the women have been rejected at 
least once; men 13%. This is a signifi- 
cant difference statistically. Overall 
one donor is rejected for every 8 pints, 
and 18% of donors are rejected at least 
once. 



RED CROSS BLOOD MOBILES: 
WHAT THE DONORS THINK. 



74% report they have given, or tried to 
give, to the Red Cross; this represents 
in the sample 274 donors coming to give 
480 times. Thus 62% of the attempts to 
give were to the Red Cross. 



"What did you like bes t about giving 
blood at the Red Cross Blood mobiles?" 



People are funny, friendly, 24% 

or caring 

Cookies, cake, canteen 3% 

Convenient, fast, close 25% 

Professional staff 3% 

Easy way to help others 0+% 

Ear test 0% 

Other, more than one 18% 

No Answer 27% 

"It was right on campus and easy to get 

to." 
"Friendly people" 
"Convenient" 
"People are nice, careful, sensitive to 

your needs." 



"What did you like least about Red Cross 
Blood mobiles?" 

Hard tables, flat position 5% 

Long lines, waiting, 27% 

bottlenecks 

Unfriendly, impersonal, or 5% 

complaining nurses 

No screens between waiting 1% 

and donating areas 

Needle 1% 

Seating arrangements cause 1% 

confusion 

Unskilled people taking blood 2% 

Other, more than one 16% 

No Answer 42% 

"Once the seating arrangement met with 

confusion. Those just coming got 

taken first." 
"The lack of ways of keeping people in 

line from station to station." 
"Having to wait; it took two hours" 
"Badly placed needle" 
"I don't like lying on the tables." 
"Feel like a reptile" 
"The nurses" 
"The students put you at ease, the 

staff was kind of mechanical." 
"Impersonality of the situation" 



DONORS FIRST GIVE AT ALL AGE 
LEVELS, BUT USUALLY WHEN YOUNG. 



Mean age of VIP donors was 19.7 years; 
the mode (most frequent) was 18, and 
the median age (half older, half 
younger) was 19. 

16-19 63% 

20-24 31% 

25-29 6% 
30 <1% 



A FEW DONORS SAID THEY WOULD 
NOT GIVE AGAIN AT A U OF I 
DRIVE. 



10% told why they would not give again. 

Too long a wait 1% 

Graduating, leaving 6% 

Ineligible 2% 

Might get sick 0+% 

Bad experience 1% 

Only would give for friend 0% 

Give regularly elsewhere 0% 

Other, more than one 0+% 

No Answer 90% 



MANY DONORS COMMENTED ON THE "Everybody seemed very competent and 
STUDENT VOLUNTEERS IN THE friendly." 

BLOOD PROGRAM. "They were all very friendly, outgoing, 

reassuring, and sure of what they 
were doing." 
"Great people; they weren't pushy, 

just very nice, very encouraging 
and sympathetic to first time 
donors who are afraid. I got sick 
after I donated the first time and 
everyone was s£ nice about it!" 
"...Can tell they appreciate your giving 

blood." 
"They cared about each individual." 

DONORS' OPINIONS 

Here we ask donors their ideas on how society should deal with the need for 
adequate supplies of safe, disease-free blood, and their attitudes regarding 
voluntary blood donors. 

AGREE DISAGREE NO ANSWER 



18 



53 



68 



93 



48 



80 



45 



30 



51 



Everyone who is able to give blood should be 
required to, rather like jury duty. 

There would be plenty of volunteer blood dona- 
tion if it were more convenient for most people 
to give blood. 

Many hospitals make patients pay $25 a pint for 
any transfused blood they fail to replace by 
recruiting donors. If this fee were dropped, 
removing this incentive to recruit replacement 
pints, blood shortages would worsen. 

Americans try to buy out of too many problems. 
Instead, we ought to look for ways to Increase 
social awareness and get common action from 
everybody. 

At this point in my life, I don't get many oppor- 
tunities to help others in any important way. 



AGREE DISAGREE NO ANSWER 

65 33 2 Many people will give blood only if they know 

someone who needs it. 

18 81 2 In our society you either have to pay people 

to do something or make them do it. Generally 
speaking, large-scale voluntary action is 
impractical today in the United States. 

95 4 1 Giving blood makes a person feel good for 

helping someone else. 

8 87 5 The way to solve the blood problem is to find 

tests to detect diseases in blood and then 
just buy blood from anyone willing to sell it 
if his blood passes the tests. 

63 33 4 It's OK for hospitals to make a charge for 

blood as an incentive to get the patient to 
recruit donors to replace what he received. 
But If the patient and his family are all 
ineligible and he can't find friends, he 
should not be charged. 

4 93 3 "Do-gooders" make too many demands on us as 

individuals. Most of their causes should be 
taken up bj' government or individuals directly 
affected, not by people like me. 

57 41 2 If people could be sure that every pint of 

blood they gave went to help someone, without 
a charge being made for it, more people would 
give blood. (NOTE: NO pint given in a U of I 
Blood Drive is sold. Recipients pay only a 
lab fee and a hospital fee for the transfusion, 
not for the blood.) 

81 15 4 Blood Drives probably give most students their 

easiest and best opportunity to help others 
while they are in college. 

59 37 5 What this country needs is a comprehensive 

health program for all citizens supported 
entirely through taxes. 



Appendix K 
CHECKLIST FOR INSPECTING POTENTIAL BLOODNOBILE SITES* 



Location 



Date Inspected 



REQUIREMENTS 


YES 


NO 


COMMENTS 




Adequate ventilation 


j 




S 


Quiet 


1 
> 




Atmosphere 


Cheerful 


r 






Clear, free of dust 








Floor not slippery 








Sufficient lig^hting 


li 




Heating/air conditioning 






Free of flies and insects 














Layout , 
Location 


Campus student traffic 






Centralized location 






Availability 


., . 




Floor can be cleared 






Visibility of site in bldg 


1 




Is room large enough? 






Ground floor preferred 






Ease for loading/unloading 


i 




Student composition (dorms) 


t 




Parking for: 

Blood drawing staff 
Blood mobile trucks 
Red Cross volunteers 


1 




S 




'i 




y' 

\ 




1 Shuttle to blood bank 


k 




1 


I 






Electrical outlets j \ 




Facilities 


Clean rest rooms 






Telephone i 






Ordering refreshments | 




. » i 




' Equipment 
' needed (to 

; be supplied 


Chairs j 




Tables | 




Coat racks and hangers ■ 




Trash cans (large) ; 


Mop 


! 


' by site) 


Bucket 


! 




Broom 






Heavy duty extention cord 


j 


\ 


(50 and 25 feet) 


i 



* Taken from "Checklist for Inspecting Potential Bloodmobile Sites" page 3 of the 
American National Red Cross booklet — Physical Arrangements for Bloodmobile 
Visits (ARC 177 3, April 1970) 



Appendix L 
BLOOD DONOR INVENTORY SOFTWARE PACKAGE 



This is a collection of computer programs designed to make mailing, 
phone, and address lists for blood donor recruitment. These programs 
access a file (called the Donor Master File) which contains for each 
donor : 

social security number 

name 

local address 

local zip 

local phone number 

home address 

home zip 

sex (desired for some component drawings) 

blood type 

date of last donation 

acceptance code (i.e., donor, temporary reject 

or permanent reject) 
rare blood factor (if any) 

The social security number was chosen as the unique identification 
for donors because names are prone to spelling errors, abbreviation 
errors, and nickname errors and the practice of taking social security 
numbers of blood donors is widespread. 

Because college students move very frequently, it is a problem to 
keep abreast of their current local address. To help you with this 
problem, you should consult your university office of admissions and 
records. If this office is given an individual's social security number, 
it usually can give you that person's current address and even home 
address if you need it. If this is done at the beginning of every 
semester, your records will be up-to-date. (Home addresses are kept so 
summer mailings can be made encouraging students to donate at home.) 
The social security number is never printed. 

Mailing Lists 

Typical strategy for making a mailing list, for example, might be 
to make a subset of the Donor Master File. First, a subset is made 
only of those donors who are currently eligible. Then the zip codes 
could be used to further limit the size of the subset to those who could 
be expected to respond to this particular bloodmobile. 

Subsets can be made by: 

range of zip codes 

list of specific social security numbers 
range over last donation date 
acceptance code 



blood type 

1% sample of all donors 
10% sample of all donors 
subset of subsets 

You "can limit any list to eligible donors within reasonable com- 
muting distance, or all known donors, or any other subset criterion. 

Phone List 

To make a photie list, a subset is specified according to the 
desired blood type or types (and perhaps the zip code or codes) . The 
list is printed in order by blood type, with name, address, phone, and 
blood type (and perhaps last donation date) for each donor in the subset. 

An interesting phone list that could be made is a list of temporary 
rejects from 30 days ago or more. These people are often eligible and 
eager to give blood now. Some indication of the length of time you 
expect this person to be ineligible (pregnancy, surgery, etc.) should 
be kept, but many temporary rejects were simply anemic on the day they 
tried to give blood, or have other reasons of indefinite time length. 

Address Lists 

Address lists are sorted in order by zip code, then street name, 
then street number, then apartment number. 

These lists are particularly suited to dormitory bloodmobiles, as 
each dormitory floor recruiter can be given a list of donors in ter 
housing unit, making personal contact feasible. 

Updating the File 

The task of keeping the Donor Master File up to date is fairly 
simple. Once a month an update card is coded for each donor who gave 
blood at an on-campus drive, including social security number, blood 
type, date the blood was given and acceptance code. Then a name attach- 
ment card is coded for all new donors (not in the Donor Master File) . 
The name attachment card is used to file the name, local address, local 
zip code, phone number, and sex into the Donor Master File based on 
social security number. In addition, once a month all University related 
walk-in donors and call-in donors (i.e. not drive donors) to the local 
blood bank (if you are working with one) are coded and entered. 

If you v/ould like to have more information on these programs or 
actually obtain them, please write to: 

John M. Hackmann 

Blood Donor Research Group 

105 Advanced Computation Building 

Urbana, Illinois 61801 

(217) 333-4975 



Appendix M 
HAILINGS TO DONORS 



Letters mailed to all eligible donors just prior to a drive are a 
major, though expensive, recruitment tool. One study of mail solicita- 
tion at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign showed that 
people who received mail solicitation were 30% more likely to donate. 
Thus, though the total number of donors generated by a mailing would not 
be sufficient to justify its cost in any one university drive, the 
increased general awareness of the program to the donor, along with any 
educational information about blood you may want to include in it, may 
provide enough justification for it. 

The procedure to send a letter to donors should be something like 
the following: 

1. Have the Donor Relations committee draft a letter with the dates, 
times, and location(s) of the drive. A "big pitch" isn't really 
necessary to get these people to donate, since they already made 
the decision to be a blood donor. Make the letter straightforward 
and informative and have it checked by the Director. 

2. Have the letter typed up and copied (ITNL #18). 

3. If you don't have the assistance of computer facilities: 

a. Hand address the envelopes 

b. Fold the letters and "stuff" them into the envelopes 

c. Separate them according to zip code (if you have more than one 
zip code in your college community) 

d. Bulk mail them (bulk-rate postage is a fraction of first class rates) 

4. If you do have computer facilities: 

a. Have mailing labels made up 

b. Give the mailing labels and letters to your mailing center 
(ITNL #17) and they should label the envelopes for you, fold 
and stuff the letters, and bulk mail them. Often they can put 
labels directly on your folded letter, further reducing costs. 

5. Make sure that you leave yourself plenty of time before the drive to 
get your mailing out. 



Citing an "acute shortage of blood/' the Doctors did not want to call the sitna- 
Greater Nev; York Blooc^ Program has appe- - tion a crisis . . .but they are concerned 
aled to doctors in the metropolitan area because tho, iVi&t w^eefe OH. 10 day^ a^tOA 
to postpone all but urgent surgery .,, Nm VzoA'^ ^4 tAaditionaUiy a tow poAA.- 

od ^on. donaJUovib, 

— from The New York Times, last week 



To: October Blood Donors 
From: VIP Blood Program 

Did you know that a person can give blood every other month -- up to five 
times a year? 

GIVING ANOTHER PINT NOW WOULD BE AN ESPECIALLY VALUABLE CONTRIBUTION. 

Blood inventories are low. And, as tlie T imes points out, donors are scarce. 

Having monthly blood drives allows us to give more blood, and to give it 
when it is especially needed. Our 575 pints in December, for example, helped 
central Illinois and Chicago through t-he holidays witJi out shortages like 
New York's. 



We Imow people are pressed for time right now --we are, ourselves. We've 
added nurses and beds to cut waiting times to zero, ^"'e'll do even better 
than last month, when over 75% of our donors got in and out in less tlian 
an hour, total time. 

With Red Cross and local inventories lov,^ we need 750 donors this week. As 
of Sunday night, less than 200 were signed up. 

PLEASE give another pint NOW. if you haven't given since Thanksgiving.* 



TODAY, TO^DPR^'Af, P^ IVEDNESDAY -- JANUARY BLOOD DRIVE 

January 8, 9, ?- 10 
mini Room C, Illini Union 

9 a.m. - 6 p.m. 

Walk- ins welcome. Appointments: VIP at 333-1020 
Best times see^n to be 11:30 - 1:30 and after 4 p.m. 



'uitH Inlji^-. a friend I 



SAMPLE DONOR NEWSLETTER 



HAVE you GWEN QLOOV LATELV? [VOU CAN GIVE C\/ERV UIGHT WEEfCS, UP TO 6 PIUTS/ VEAll) \ 
Gll/fc WtXT Wee/C iUov, n, U, U] at SHtmAtJ hall, LAR.oa. ISR I AppOA.ntm(inUt S33''1020\ 

ypi.uNiEEiij_ujiNa^ROJ^ ^M:)gi?,i^gQGgAMJiJJli^!n,^ J TJLg. NOV. :u 



Do nutlona. Ahead oj j..i.st Year . . . 
'. . T^But aeTund^^'h'i s" Yo.ir 's Coal 

Cilice June 1, lt?75, about 3600 
pints of blood have been given 
by U of I students and staff 
through on-campus bloodmobiles 
and direct donations at 'the CCBB 
(Champaign County Blood Bank.) 
Last year 2000 pints had been 
contributed at tliis time. 

This year's goal of 10,000 pints 
reflects expansion of the program 
to include blood agencies from 
the entire State of Illinois. 
In the past our blood remained 
primarily within central Illi- 
nois, We worked mostly with the 
Peoria Regional Red Cross and 
the CCBB. 

This year more blood will go to 
Chicago, through Mid- America Red 
Cross and increased CCBB exports. 
We help southern and western Illi- 
nois through the Galesburg and St. 
Louis Red Cross Blood Centers. 

We had hoped to collect 4000 
pints by Nov. I; so, although 
we are running 80% aliead of last . 
year, we need to keep up the ef- 
fort if we are to reach our new 
goal and give the agencies tne 
blood they ^re counting on, 

Vou can help by continuing to 
give every tim e ^fou are el i^;ible 
and able , and by encouraging your 
friends to become blood donors. 



Every year blood' stio'-tages appear across Mn- i>»o. 
in December and continue typically thru January, 
The reason seems to be that accident and disease 
rates are up, but donors are traveling or invol- 
ved in holiday plans so donations fall off. 

The result is often very serious. Patients like 
hemophiliacs and leukemics who need blood all the 
time are threatened with unnecessary pain and 
even with irreversible damage. Other patients 
who ^f.e schetlaled for non-einergency surgery find 
their operations cancelled. This can iiave serious 
financial and psychological consequences. 

foA. ^(LveMxZ LjecLU U o^ J 6tadzvU6 and '{>ta£{y have. 
heJ^-ped olU du-u..ng tlm M-iyvtz/i holiday euew tkougk 
cZa&6(L6 oAz not maoXuiQ, Dooors who will be eli- 
gible to give during the vacation period fill out 
pledge cards. VIP distributes them to the blood 
banks nearest the donors' vacation addresses. 



IF YOU GAVE IN OCTOBER, YOU WILL NEXT BE ELIGIBLE. 
TO GIVE ON DECEflBER 20 — JUST WHEN THE VACATION 
BEGINS. THE PLEDGE PROJECT NEEDS YOU l\ Fill j 
out one of the enclosed cards and return it to i 
VIP, 328 mini Union. Then you'll be available j 
if blood is needed near your home over break. ' 



Pints given at home may be the most important q;E 
all the blood U of I students give all year. But 
remember — blood is always needed . Each donor 
makes the maximum contribution by giving every 
time he has an opportunity and can spare the time, 

I f you' re eligibl e to^ gi ve at the November or De- 
cember drive9» don ' t f i 1 1 ou t a p ledge ca rd yet . 
Try to give on camjjus if you can. If you can't, 
you can send a pledge in to us before you leave 
for vacation in December. Please pass a pledge 
on to a friend. Our goal is 1500 pledges. 



HOViJ CAia WE DO BETTER? VJE isJElilD YCU lO TELL US J 



At the October drive in the Union a donor told us he finds it difficult to read while 
waitijig at the different stations. His problem is he is afraid he'll lose his place. 
From now on each donor will be given a number at the Temperatures station, written in 
the corner of his meidcal history sheet. Then we'll do our best to keep you in order 
as you go through. And if you think you've lost your place, just ask if your n'omber 
is up. Then you'll be able to read or chat without worrying. IF YOU HAVE SUGGESTIONS 
let us know. Send a note to "SUGGESTIONS — VIP BLOOD PROGRAM, 320 Illini Union. 



Our goal is to make it easy to give blood, 
keep coming back, several times each year. 



Our program can succeed only if donors 
Help us do a bettei job to serve you. 



-2~ 

BLOOD PROGRAM T-SHIRTS AVAILABLE AT DRIVES WHY DON'T MORE PEOPLE C7IVE BLOOD? 



The first batch of T-shirts has arriveOand 
can be picked up by those who ordered them 
at the VIP office, 328 Illini Union. The 
shirts have tne blood program logo on the 
front and the donor's blood type on back. 



T-shirt order forms 
will be available 
at the November 
bloodmobiles . 

The price is $3.60, 
our cost. The de- 
sign is white on 
red background. 

DID YOU KNOW... 



According to the Blood Donor Research 
Group at the University, the literature on 
blood donation indicates that non-donors 
are just as aware of the importance of 
blood donation as donors. They also thinV 
""""*" '■■ ' ^' blood donation is a 



SEPTEMBER DONORS: TIME TO GIVE AGAIN i! I go^^i thing to do. 



Elgkt wcefe/6 will be up j^o/i donoKA out 
t'm JSR and GkhqoKlj 'Ofuvz bloodmobiles 
in SzptmbeJif iiut In tirm ^on, tke No-- 
vQfr.koA dUve., ' Thd REV CROSS and.CCBS 
i\UZl acce.pt you cut any o^ tkcse. places 
and :U.mQj,: 



^HERMAN ^^ALL 



WED., THURS., FRI., NOV. 12, 13, 
10 ~ 12 A.M., 1-6 P.M. 



1^ 



WED., THURS, 

11:30 



Blood is a living 

tissue. It cannot 

routinely be kept 

longer than three 

weeks . That is 

one reason we 

hoJd frequent 

campus bloodmobiles -- r.Iiat way Illinois 

always has blood from U of I students. 

Another reason for frequent drives is to 
give donors as many opportunities as pos- 
sible to give. REPEAT DONATIONS are the 
only way we can meet our goal. 



ISR 
FRIDAY ONLY 

5:30 



GIVE AT THE NOVEMBER DLOODMOblLES 



The difference comes 
down to fear. Non- 
donors usually indi- 
cate that they ex- 
pect blood donation 
to be painful . And 
they arc afraid they 
couldn't take the 
discomfort. 

A survey of U of I 
donors indicated 
that 35% feel com- 
pletely "normal" an 
hour after donating. 

5% say they feel 
better; the remaining 10% report some ef- 
fects lasting from a day to a week. 

YOU CAN HELP recruit new donors by telling 
frankly your experiences as a donor. The 
research group has found that most people 
become donors because someone they know 
and trust told them about giving. 



CHANC ELLOR, BLOOD AGENCIES, _ CAf^PUS OFFICES SUP POR T VIP DL OOD PROGRAM 

Those of us managing the VIP Blood Program are grateful to our group of over 100 stu- 
dent volunteers wiio help with the drives and with backup projects (such as making this 
mailing!). The program also requires considerable material support, both dollars and 
in-kind contributions. 

The mini Union, v/hich is studeat-fee-supported, has provxded space, set-up assistance 
ciud food at no charge since the expanded blood program began in 1972. v;e are grateful 
to Harold Licht and Earl Finder, as well as ?;arjorie Arkwright, for their help in the 
Union. Itow that bloodmobilss are being held in residence halls, their staffs are gi- 
ving us similar assistance, which helx:>s enormously. 

i-Jailings of notices and blood donor cards, ana set-up costs when bloodmobiles are set 
up in classroom builaings, require funds. Chancellor Pcltason has found private funds 
to nelp us through our first three years. We itot>e this is the last year we will need 
access to these scarce dollars. 

Tj:e Champaign County Blood Bank ^s now making monthly contributions to VIP. This news- 
letter is being paid for from these funds. Tho Peoria Regional Red Cross Blood Center 
makes £-:^mi-annual payments to VIP to offset mailing costs and other cash expenses. 

We also receive unbelievable patience and assistance from numerous campiis offices and 
person/.el. 'Jhis newsier ter we would like to single out iMyron Stipp of Campus Parking 
:hose nelp with our parking logistics has been nothing short of noroic. 

Jt.:VIC. ■Ji' ^"^op us a line. We'll answer them in future newsletters. 



LVcRY iNlf.; LGivlOR MEANS DOZENS OF PINTS, OVtU HIS LIFETIME. ShiARE THE DONOR EXPEklEiCE 



Appendix N 
STATISTICS TO BE MEASURED AT END OF EACH DRIVE 



1. Percentage of goal obtained 

to show how good the overall effort of the blood program was 
in recruiting donors for the bloodmobile. 

2. Percentage and number of first time donors 

to see how well you are building up your donor population 

3. Percentage of donors deferred 

to be used as a better percentage figure in scheduling 
donors (Appendix G) 

4. Percentage of donor reactions 

to compare between drives. If it is abnormally high in a 
particular place and time, an examination of the physical set- 
up may reveal the cause (such as no air conditioning on a 
humid 95° (F) day). Needless to say, a remedy for this should 
be sought for the next drive. 

5. Percentage of "no shows" 

to be used as a better percentage figure in scheduling donors 
(Appendix G) 

6. Percentage of people who made appointments 

to see what percentage of your goal should be appointments 
before a drive to insure that, with walk- ins, you will reach 
your goal. 

7. If you have a dormitory drive, percentage of donors who live in the 
dorm 

to see where the majority of donors in a dorm drive come from 
and hence how to better recruit donors for a drive in that 
dorm. 

8. Number of volunteer hours 

to see how many volunteer hours it is necessary to schedule to 
get a certain number of pints. 



Appendix 

SAMPLE LETTERS TO BE SENT TO 

FACULTY. STAFF. VOLUNTEERS 

AND PARENTS 



UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT U R B A N A - C H A M P A I G N 



OFFICE OF THE VICE CHANCELLOR 107 COBLE MALL 

FOR ACADEMIC AFFAIRS CHA^1PAIG^: , :i'"-IOIS 61820 



NOVEMBER 2H , 1072 



To: Parents oF Students at the r'rLana-Chanipaign Campus 



From: David Eisenman, Staff Associate "' " ' '"^ 



iJM ^ 



Your son or daughter may be one of several tliousand students who have already given 
blood this fall at the new monthly blood drives sponsored by Volunteer Illini Pro- 
jects. VIP's program helps the Champaign County Blood Bank and the Peoria Regional 
Red Cross Blood Program meet growing Illinois blood needs. Besides meeting county 
and regional needs, both agencies ship blood throughout the State in rt spofjsc to 
emergencies . 

In gratitude for this considerably expanded U of I effort, the Red Cross has inclu- 
ded all students, faculty, and staff at Urbana-Champaign AND THEIR IMMEDIATE FAMI- 
LIES in a Blood Entitlement Program . 

Throughout the United States, there are three chronic problems with blood: 

-often it is not available when you need it; 

•sometimes when it is_ available, it transmits fatal diseases; 
•frequently patients have to pay a stiff fee for every pint they 
can't arrange to replace. 

This last problem is solved for you and for every other U of I family. The Red 

Cross will see to it that you do not have to pay for, or find donors to replace , 

any blood you or your children receive anywhere in tlie United States or Canada this 
year (through September 15, 1973) . 

But no one can guarantee that adequate, safe, blood will actually be available when 
a member of your family needs it. That depends critically on you and on the other 
potential blood donors in your own community. 

Red Cross coverage of U of I families in no way lessens the need for y our blood in 
your community. Increased student donations are improving the over-all blood supply 
in Illinois. Regional centers can rush blood to local hospitals in emergencies. 
But that takes time and at best can only supplement what you have available locally. 

The members of VIP, with whom I have been working, want me to encourage you to join 
us in converting Illinois to an all-volunteer blood system. This is the year to 
end the problems of inadequate, unsafe, and uneconomical blood supplies in Illinois. 

This time of the year is especially good to contact you local community or hospital 
blood bank, or the Red Cross. (In Chicago, contact "Bi^oOD BROTHERS", 332-2272.) 
Sickness and accidents increase in the winter weather, but donors tend to fall off 
in number . 

Call your nearest blood collecting agency today to register to give blood. They 
will be very grateful for your offer of assistance. 

nd teil tiiem the U of I students sent you. 



University of Illinois at Urbana- Champaign 

OFFICE OF THE VICE CHANCELLOR FOR ACADEMIC AFFAIRS 107 COBLE HAIL CHAMPAIGN, ILLINOIS 61820 

December 5, 1975 

To: All Academic and Non-Academic Staff 

From: David Eisenman, Staff Associate 

Advisor to the VIP Blood Program 333-4975 



Enclosed is your RED CROSS Blood Assurance card for this year . See the reverse 
side of this note for a more complete explanation of blood assurance than ap- 
pears on the card. 




A PARTICULAPJ.Y CRITICAL SEASON FOR THE ILLINOIS BLOOD SUPPLY IS ABOUT TO BEGIN 



From roughly Christmas week through January, hospitals all over the country 
experience shortages of blood. Sickness and accidents go up. Blood donations 
go down. Consequently, surgery is postponed and sometimes emergency patients 
suffer unnecessarily from lack of blood or blood components. 

Last Christmas/New Years roughly 350 University staff responded to a letter 
like this one. The Champaign County Blood Bank called in a very high fraction 
of that number, and Champaign suffered no blood shortage. 



YOUR HELP IS NEEDED AGAIN THIS YEAR. Blood use in this community has gone up 
substantially since last year. If you are willing and able to give blood over 
the semester break, please fill out the coupon below and return it, indicating 
the period (s) in which you will be available. 



NOTE: A number of local church congregations have begun blood programs with the 
Champaign County Blood Bank. If your church is participating, simply ask 
that ycur pint be credited to your church's program, even if you are 
called in through the University program. All donation programs are 
coordinated and are committed to mutual support. 



Volunteer Illini Projects Blood Program, 328 Illini Union 

CZDyeS. I'll give a pint in Champaign if called over the holiday. 
i I I 've given blood at the Champaign County Blood Bank before. 

Name: Blood Type (if known): Rh 

Home Address: Home Phone: 



Campus Address: Campus Phone: 

Datt of Last Donation (if known): 



Are you goxng to oe out of town during the vacation? From: To: 



(SEE OTHER SIDE) 



WHAT IS BLOOD ASSURANCE? 



The three most serious problems facing the blood transfusion service in the 
United States are: 

o AVAILABILITY ; Blood of all needed types is not always available in 

sufficient amounts when and where it is needed. 

o QUALITY ; Sometimes, even when blood of the proper types is 

available, it has been supplied by paid donors who are 
much mor'' likely to be carriers of serious or even 
fatal diseases transmitted through transfusion than 
volunteer donors. (In Illinois, blood used in trans- 
fusions must be labeled as to source.) 

o COST : To increase the supply of voluntarily-donated blood, 

many hospitals require transfused patients to recruit 
sufficient donors to replace blood they have received 
or pay a monetary "replacement fee" for each unit of 
blood not replaced. 

BLOOD ASSURANCE deals only with this third problem. After a transfused patient 
is released from the hospital, membership in a blood assurance program will 
relieve him of any obligation to recruit replacement donors or to pay non- 
replacement fees. 

Blood assurance benefits are available to individuals who have themselves given 
blood or who are members of groups which, collectively, have donated significant 
amounts of blood. It is only right to free such individuals from obligations to 
replace or pay fees in lieu of blood, since they have acted to contribute volun- 
tarily to the available blood supply. 

Thus, blood assurance is primarily an economic benefit for those covered: if_ 
blood was found for them when they needed it, at least they won't have to pay 
for it or find donors to replace what they have used. 

HOWEVER, NO PERSON OR ORGANIZATION CAN GUARANTEE THAT VOLUNTARILY-DONATED BLOOD 
WILL BE AVAILABLE FOR ANY PERSON WHENEVER AND WHEREVER IT IS NEEDED. 

All hospitals and blood service organizations are ethically bound to do their 
best to find blood for EVERY patient, whether or not a member of a blood assur- 
ance program. Their ability to provide voluntarily-donated blood for any patient 
depends solely and entirely on whether enough people have given blood voluntarily 
in advance of that patient's need. Hospitals and blood banks routinely exchange 
blood and assist one another in responding to emergency situations. But they 
can only share what has al ready been donated. IF NOBODY GIVES, NOBODY GETS. 

Most healthy people between the ages of 17 and 65 who weight more than 110 
pounds can give Dlood as often as SIX TIMES A YEAR, with a minimum, of eight 
weeks between donations. The Champaign County Blood Bank will be happy to 
answer questions about the eligibility of any prospective donor. Their phone 

numh.ir is 36''-220". 

THE BTi; QUESTION - WHETHER THERE WILL HE BLOOD AVAILABl.F ]F YOU OR A MEMBER OF 
YOUR FAMILY NEEDS IT - CAN ONLY BE ANS\^RED BY YOU "^M) YOUR NKIGHBORS GIVING 
BLOOD REGULARLY AS OFTEN AS YOU POSSIBLY CAN. 




Volunteer I Mini Projects, Incorporated 

328 mini Union North 

Urbana, Illinois 61801 

(217) 333-1020 



Dear Volunteer, 

You may have already received a letter from me a week or so ago about 
volunteering for some of the first blood program activities of the school 
year, but this letter was written to you because you have shown us that you 
are interested in t.aking charge of a blood drive in your housing unit or 
neighborhood on campus or in taking a staff responsibility with the blood 
program. Listed below are descriptions of the various committees that you 
may want to work under. 

PUBLICITY COMMITTEE head - Regina Unti 
needs approximately 4+ people 

This committee will be responsible for all media coordination ie. 
radio announcements, newspaper ads, D.I. notices, posters, etc, for the 
Union drives and will help the dorm coordinators organize their publicity. 

DONOR RELATIONS MP RBCRUITl^iENT head needed, preferably who has previoieLy 

worked on either of the donor relations or 
donor recruitment committees 
needs approximately 8+ people 

This committee will have several responsibilities: 

1). recruiting donors for both the Union and dorm drives. This will 
involve speaking and s?iowing short fij.ns to various groups as potential 
donors ( dom i Tories or fraternities £ind sorci'lties ), studying various means 
of donor recruitment (there is a professor interested in doing a research 
project on this) and mailings to inform donors of upcoming blood drives for 
which they are eligible to give. This committee will also be in charge of 
continuing donor recruitment (bymsans of mailings) over Christmc s and 
summer vacations. 

2). supplyir/g donors with as many services as possible. This will include 
the mailing of Red Cross ;md Champaign County Blood Bank (GCBB) donation cards, 
planning and executing special events at the blood, drives, taking surveys 
involving aonor feedback, working wit}^. Computer services (another committee) 



established 1963 



- 2 - 

to code donor information onto computer tape, and handling any complaints that 
the donors may have about anything: at the drives, 

5). providing educational materii 1 and information to both donors and 
volunteers concerning areas of blood collection and any other pertinent 
information on blood. 

VOLUNTEER RELATIONS AUD LOGISTICS head - Donna Bernardoni 
needs quite a few people. 

This committee's primary responsibility will be to contact, recruit, 
and coordinate the volimteers for the blood drives - both Union and dorm. 
This includes contacting and recruiting new volxmteers at the beginning of 
the semester and throiighout the year, updating the mailing list and file 
cards, giving feedback to the vol\mteers and keeping them informed of the 
time and location of the blood drives, and supervising at the blood drives. 

In order to accomplish all these objectives, there are going to have 
to be several other positions in this committee. These positions are 
described below; 

a), dorm coordinator for each dorm complex, (~10 total) This person's 
duties will include signing up volxanteers and donors for their drive and 
handling publicity for that dorm complex, 

b), floor blood program representative (^vSO total). This will be a 
person on every floor of a university dorm to help the dorm coordinator with 
his responsibilities on a floor by floor basis, 

c), someone to be in charge of the 8 Red Cross visits to the dorms. 
By "in charge" I mean making sure the dorm coordinators and floor blood 
prograia representatives know what they are supposed to be doing, serving as 
an intermediate between the dorm volunteers and the blood program committees, 
and making sure that all the physical arrangements have been made ie, making 
sure the lottnges are reserved, food is ordered, tables have been set up, etc, 

d). Someone to be in charge of the 9 COBB dorm drives. 

e). Fraternities and sororities coordimtor. This person will be in 
charge of getting donors and volunteers from the fraternities and sororities 
on campus and handling publicity for them. This person will hopefully work 
with the cooperation of tlie Panhellic Council. 

f). Trained volvmteers head. For the Champaign County Blood Bank's 
dorm drives student volimteers can talie medical histories and hematocrits in 
addition to regular volunteer work. Ti- ese volunteers must be trained at the 
JC3B. The trained vclunteers head will work with Charles 
13rummond at COBB to schediile interested volunteers to be trained> 




n 



- 3 - 

COMPUTER SERVICES Jan Bogorad and Paula Carlin 
need approximately 1 more person. 

Codec donor information onto computer tapes and helps getting out 
mailing for any of the other committees. Persons applying should have some 
computer programming knowledge. 

If you are interested in working on any of the above committees please 
fill out the bottom 2/3 of this sheet and mail it to VIP. (before you come 
down to school) ArvCcW'i m<*o iC^y 






I 



cut on this line, fold in half, place stamp on it, and drop in the mail box. 



ureoSojj pooxa :uq.q.'B 



1.08 L9 STOUTxxi '^uBqjfl 
qq-jOH uoTun Turixi Qz<i 

ortr 'sOiOarQHci initii HaaiMiOA 



/ / 



Name Campus phone 



Campus address Date you will be on campus: 

Check which one you would like to work under; 

Publicity 

Donor Relations and Recruitment ( head) 

Computer Services 

Volunteer Relations and Logistics (just on committee) 

Red Cross coordinator 

CCBB coordinator (may already be taken) 

Dorm complex coordinator (name of complex ) 

Floor blood representative (name of dorm and floor n\xmber 



) 



_Fratemities and Sororities coordinator 
jTrained Volunteers Head 

(staple or tape halves together) 



^ 



Appendix P 
DEFINITIONS 



Altruism 

Unselfish concern for others; usually evidenced by non-monetary 
helping behavior. 

Assurance, Blood 

The eligible donor makes a donation of one pint of blood each year 
in return for which he and his family are insured for their blood 
needs for one year. The plan has several variations. It could be 
for a group of people who donate a number of pints equal to a fixed 
percentage of its membership or families. It could be a community- 
wide plan. See Appendix C. 

Blood Banks 

Blood banks are concerned with the collection of blood from donors. 
Some (e.g., hospital blood banks) will also be concerned with 
processing, cross-matching and transfusion. If not in a hospital 
they will be concerned with collecting, distributing and supplying 
whole blood. 

Blood Labeling Act 

In Illinois the Blood Label Act, enacted in 1972, requires that 
all blood for transfusion be labeled either "Blood from Volunteer 
Donor" or "Purchased Blood", since there is a greater risk of 
infecting patients with hepatitis if the blood is drawn from paid 
donors. The act also requires that if purchased blood is used, the 
attending physician must enter in the patients medical record "his 
reasons for such action." The impact of this law has been to 
virtually eliminate use of paid blood in Illinois. 

Components, Blood 

Portion of blood separated by physical process at the blood banks, 
whole blood 
packed red blood cells 
fresh frozen plasma 
platelet rich plasma 
platelet concentrates 
cryoprecipitate 

Credit Donor 

Donates blood to replace blood used by himself, his family or 
friends. It is possible that he can ask that his pint be used 
as a credit for an unnamed recipient of blood. 

Derivatives, Blood 

They are separated from plasma by chemical means. Done in a pharma- 
ceutical house, in contrast to components which are made at blood 
banks . 

Drawing Agencies 

Organizations that are equipped with personnel and equipment to 
draw blood. They may exist in a hospital or independently of a 
hospital (e.g.. Red Cross and Community Blood Banks). 



Inducements 

Inducements to donate blood may be as extreme as an implied reduction 
in a prison sentence to the distribution of lapel pins designating 
the number of donations given. 

Outdating 

Whole blood is outdated if it is not used within 21 days of being 
drawn. Also referred to as wastage. (It is possible to salvage 
the plasma, so "wasting" is misleading.) 

Packed Cells 

Whole blood minus a high percent of the plasma. 

Plasma 

Blood is composed of a vast number of minute cells suspended in 
pale yellow fluid. The pale yellow fluid is plasma. It is valuable 
for transfusion fluid and can be stored several months. 

Plasmapheresis 

A process in which a donor gives a pint of blood, the red cells are 
separated from the plasma (the liquid part of the blood as distin- 
guished from the suspended elements), and are then injected back 
into the donor. It is used to produce plasma for anti-hemophiliac 
factor and other blood proteins. 

Platelet-pheresis 

Donors give 2 pints of blood at a single session. After the first 
pint has been drawn the donor waits in a 'donor chair' while a high 
speed centrifuge separates the plasma and the platelets from the 
whole blood. When this is done, the red cells, white cells and 
some plasma are returned to the donor's veins. Then another pint 
is withdrawn and returned in the same session. 

Platelets 

Take part in the clotting of blood and so help to stop bleeding 
when blood vessels are cut or damaged. Platelets are tiny and 
make up a small but critical fraction of whole blood. 

Replacement 

After use of blood, patients and their families are encouraged to 
find family and friends to give blood in order to replace the blood 
used by the patient. If the blood itself is not replaced the 
patient is sometimes charged a fee called a non-replacement fee. 
In effect, some hospitals "loan" blood on condition the loan is 
repaid in blood or money. 

Shelf-life 

After 21 days of storage under refrigeration, where blood has lost 
some of its usefulness because many red cells have been altered and 
chemical changes have occurred, making it less desirable for trans- 
fusion. Regulations prohibit transfusion of blood more than 21 days 
old. 

Walk- in Donor 

Donor who appears at a drive or permanent drawing center without an 
appointment. 



Appendix Q 
SAMPLE USAGE OF NEWSPAPERS 



Blood 
drive 
totals 



The Volunteer 
mini Projects- 
sponsored 1)1 Dod 
drive continues 
today and 
Thi rsday in II- 
lini Rooms K 
and r of the II- 
lini L'nion. F'er- 
sons who want to 
donate blood to- 
day should go to 
the Union, wlule 
those who want 
to donate Thurs- 
day canmako an 
:i{>|)ointinent h> 
o;i!liiiK :!:t:M02o. 
<v!- tar K') vi'li 
«»iii ;in appoini- 
nienl. 



7,000 



• 6,000 



> 4.000 



•3,000 



UlUC amcfal Wotice 



5/l4V7-f 



GIVE BLOOD 
TODAY 

English Building, Lower Gyrti 

9 a.m. — 4 p.m. 

Appointments for tomorrow: 
VIP at 333-1020 



Blood drive total 

Volunteer lUini Projects 
collected 237 pints pf blood at Garner 
and Illinois Street Residence Halls 
Friday, This brings the year's total 
to 2,637 pints, 

VIP's next blood drive will be 
October 22, 23 and 24 at the Illini 
Union from 10:15a, m, fo4:l5 p.m. at 
and Floridii Avenue Residence Halls 
Ironi 11;3() a.m. to 7 p.m. 

Persons wishing to make ap- 
pointments lo give l)lood may call 
333-1020 between 8 a.m. and 4 p.m. 
Walk-in donors are welcome, ac- 
cording to Paul Pisarik, director of 
VIP's blood drive. 



Goal for this year: 
9,750 pints 




5000 




- 1000 

Siinimof hUjud 
clnv.-tot.ll 7bO 



<^^^' 



iff'ii'fi 



Letters 



Donate blood today, Friday 



To the Editor : 

Students, faculty, staff: you are invited to 
donate blood Thursday and Friday in the 
English Building Lower Gym, A good tur- 
nout wdl ensure that blood supplies will be 
maintained over spring vacation. 

The University of Illinois had provided 
6,000 to 7,000 pints a year since the state 
went to an all-volunteer blood system two 
years ago. The elimination of the paid donor 
has been accompanied by a significant drop 
in the incidence of hepatitis in the Chicago 
area. 

Many donors ask where the blood goes. 
About half of our total is distributed in 



Central Illinois by the Red Cross, and the 
other half is used right here in the local 
hospitals and is collected by the Champaign 
County Blood Bank. 

Chicago hospitals receive blood from both 
these agencies on refjuest. Thus the 
University blood program provides needed 
pints all over the state, helping to assure 
that fresh blood is on the shelf whenever and 
wherever it is needed. 

Call Volunteer Illini Projects. 333-1020, 
for an appointment or walk in at the English 
Building Lower Gym, 9:45 am, to 3:45 p,m, 
today or Friday, 

JOHNHACKMANN 



Appendix R 



AMPLE VOLUNTEER MANUAL 




VOLUNTEER ILLINI PROJECT'S 

BLOOD PROGRAM 

Volunteer Manuol 



with 



b y 

PAUL PISARIK 
Director 
material from a report 

MELISSA BEAN 



b y 



Sept. 1975 



I would like to welcome you to Volunteer Illini Project's 
Blood Program. The blood program here at the u of I is unique 
in two aspects from any other college blood program. First it 
is the largest blood program in the country and secondly the 
program besides scheduling donors to give blood during the 
regular school year schedules them to give at the Champaign 
County Blood Bank (CCBB) during the summer and Christmas 
vacations — the times when blood is needed the most. Most of 
the people who are scheduled at CCBB over vacation periods are 
University faculty and staff. In addition to this we sent 
pledge cards to all University donors asking them to donate 
over the tsuiimicr at tli'fir n«=»1 gliliorhoori bloori i^ank. 

The goal of our Blood Program is to provide an adequate 
supply of safe, inexpensive blood throughout the state of 
Illinois , Any blood agency with which we work (and there are 
five such agencies this year) must demonstrate that it makes 
efficient use of the pints we give them and must not charge 
recipients a 'replacement fee'. Next to collecting blood 
this is the next most immediate thing we are concentrating 
our effort on. We hope to completely abolish this fee from tii& 
blood bank here in Chanibana and eventually throughout the 
state. This replacement fee is a fee that is charged to a 
blood recip' .nt if he doesn't replace the blood that he used 
with that of a friend's or relative's blood. This may not 
be hard to do in the cases where only a few pints of blood 
are used^ but in the cases where 20 to 30 pints of blood are 
used, replacing them becomes practically impossible and the 
patient is stuck with paying 300 to 600 dollars out of his 
own pocket (this is not covered by insurance ) . 

As a result of our program, all the students, faculty, 
retired University of Illinois (Urbana campus) employees and ,, 
their immediate families enjoy 'blood assurance' by the American 
Red Cross . This coverage is explained on the red cards that 
most of you got when you picked up your ID cards. In short, 
this blood assurance means that the University community or 
its immediate family is entitled to all of the blood it needs 
anywhere in the United States or Canada without incurring 
xeplscement obligations or charges for the blood beyond 
laboratory costs. Similarly for every pint the University 
community gives , a patient somewhere receives a pint which 
he is not obligated tD replace. The Rtndents, faculty, and 
staff represent about 45,000 families. If 6750 pints of blood 
or more are donated by the meii±>ers of the University Community 
each year, this community will have gathered enough blood 
to meet the needs of it families. 



- 2 « 

What I have written above gives a general description of 
the Blood Program. The reason that I included thic in the manual 
was to better inform you about the program in case any donor 
at a drive would have any questions about it. Now a few words' 
about the volunteer in general and the time that I feel a 
volunteer should give. Most of the projects in VIP require 
that the volunteers put in about 4 hours per week — depending 
of course on the program. The Blood Program asks the volunteer 
to put in only 2-4 hours per month (in other words 2-4 hours 
per drive) — a quarter of the time that other projects require. 
But last year we had a hard time getting voIj nteers to work at 
the drives. You don't know how frustrating it is to sit at a phone 
and call and call and only get more people saying that they are 
busy and can't find the time, than people who will work. I can 
well understand that we university students have classes and 
homework and in many cases have a job, but surely in the span 
of time from V/ednesday morning to Friday afternoon (the days 
that all the drives are on) volunteers have at least a couple 
of hours that they can volunteer. If not, then they really 
shouldn't have signed up to be a volunteer. With all the 
responsibilities that I have with the blood program, I feel that 
working at the drives is the best part of being with the blood 
program. I would rather do that than go through some of the 
administrative hassles that I have to go through. 

What I v;ould like you to do is this. Before each drive, 
about the B'riday before the week of the drive, call the VIP 
office (333-1020) and tell Susan, tie secretary there, what you 
would like to do at the drive and the dates and times . The 
different thingg that you can do at the drives and the dates and 
times of all the drives are listed in this manual. If it is 
at all possible, try to schedule a 2 hour time so that there is 
less of a turnover of volunteers . Please try to work a little 
at each blood drive. The reason I would like you to call the 
Friday before the week of the drive is so that the Volunteer 
Relations and Logistics Committee can have enough time either to 
tell the dorms in which the blood drive is being held of the 
number of volunteers that still need to be gotten or in the case 
of a Union drive, to have enough time to sit next to the phone 
and start phoning all those volunteers who had not yet called 
to work at the dr-ive. Another reason is that a number of 
volunteers complained last year that they were never called 
upon to volunteer . With the 200 volunteers we have had last 
year, it was hard to call everyone before the drive and before 
our patience ran out. 

One final work to those volunteer who live close to or in 
FAR and PAR: we still need a dorm coordinator for each of these 
two dorm complexes, as well as floor representatives for most 
of the floors. The coordinators' re^^ponsibilities are to somehow 



- 3 - 

get a person en most of the floors to be a floor blood represen- 
tative (whose main responsibility will be to help put up pub- 
licity posters and alternate with the other floor representatives 
in sitting in the cafeteria for 5 nights prior to the drive to 
sign up donors and volunteers . The other responsibility is to 
mal:e sure that all the physical arrangements have been made, i.e. 
making sure the lounges are reserved, food is ordered, tables 
have been set up, etc. This person will be aided by Volunteer 
Relations and Logistics Chairperson and the Publicity Chairperson 
in anything that they may need. If you are interested, please 
phone the VIP office and the secretary will give me your phone 
nninber and I'll get into contact with you or phono mo directly 
at 332-0848. 

Now we are ready to get to the nitty-gritty. Listed below 
are the different things that you can do at the Red Cross drives 
and the CCBB drives. Note that there are certain things you can 
do for CCBB that you aren't allov/ed to do for Red Cross, so I 
will list the different things you can do for each drive 
separately along with what each station will be responsible to 
do. The last page of the manual is the schedule for all the 
drives for the rest of the school year. Please tear this sheet 
off the rest of the booklet and put it up on you wall or 
bulletin board. On the left hand side of the chart for each 
drive is the date of tie Friday the week before that particular 
drive. This is again the date before which you should call to 
volunteer for that drive. This schedule is subject to slight 
changes as the year progresses . 

RED CROSS BLOOD DRIVE VOLUNTEER POSITIONS 

RECEPTIONI ST 

1. The receptionist should be able to answer donors 
questions or at least be able to refer the donor to someone who 
can. (Medical questions not answered by disqualification sheets 
provided or the disqualification sign should be taken to head 
nurse.) 

2. This person will be taking appointments for the day's 
drive and marking donor's names off as they arrive. Donors 
should then be directed to tlie typists. 

3. Donors wanting appointments for the next day(s) of the 
drive should be given the VIP office number (333-1020) and 
directed to the nearest university phone. 

4. Walk-in donors can be taken as the situation permits. 
This ability to judge the situation comes from experience. 

5 . Nev; volunteers should be directed to the supervisor . 



- 4 - 

6. This person will be in charge in keeping track of how 
many prospective donors show up at the drive on the tally sheets 
prepared by the Red Cross (head nurse has these) . 

7, When the receptionist is not so busy, he/she can talk 
to people who have finished donating to yet some epttimate of how 
fast donors are getting out. Ideally, it would be less than an 
hour, but realistically it is one to one and a half hours. 

yypiSTS 

1. The typist will be given a sample form of how the 
registration form should be typed out. It should have the 
donors full name, permanent address, home phone number, where 
employed (eg, U of I student), campus address, date, date of 
birth, social security number (in two places), and sex, 

2. Donor must sign the registration from and any donor 
cards should be paper clipped to the front of the card. 

3 . If the donor hands you a: card from another blood 
bamk you can use this to type the basic information. Long 
names are easier to copy than to listen to. 

4. Replacement forms are also generally kept at this table. 
A donor wishing to credit his pint of blood to someone else must 
provide the name of the patient, where and when the patient, was 
hospitalized and the address of the patient. All requested 
information must be obtained so that credit for the blood can 
be sent. If the person is requesting a replacement for a 
member of this university or his family, then the person should be 
informed of the University of Illinois *s Blood Assurance Plan 
with ttie Peoria Red Cross and should be directed to the 
Insurance Office , B-6 , Cpble Hall , to fill out the necessary 
forms . 

5. Typists should give the donor his registration card and 
show him where the coat racks are and instruct him to go to the 
temperature station, 

CARD MACHINE OPER ATORS (this is listed on the volunteer sign up 

sheets as being under typists) 
This volunteer is at the same table as the typists. Only Red 
Cross plastic cards work in the machine . 

1. Make sure that the information of the plastic card is 
correct. If it is not and the donor wants it changed, a new 
card must be typed up and the old plastic card attached to the 
registration forxn with a paper clips 

2. If the information is correct, check to make sure the 
person has not donated within the past eight weeks . 



- 5 - 

3. Make sure the donor writes down his campus phone number, 
campus address, and puts his social security number in two places 
as mentioned before. 

4. Make sure that the donor signs the registration card. 

5. Paper clip the plastic card to the frortof the card. 

6. Do not run over the card with the machine more than 
once, 

7. If you have any problem with the machine^ tell the head 
nurse . 

TEMPERATU RE TAKERS 

1. Greet 1±ie donor and take his registration card. Ask 
for his/her weight and record it on the card. Donor must be 
17-61 years of age? donors must wiigh 110 pounds (women) and 
130 pounds (men) . 

2. Wlien asking wcigHt., dr» 1+- quietly r «oinc p«?ople do not 
like to have it shouted across the room. 

3. Make sure that the donor has signed the forro. 

4. When the donors come to the station, have their cards 
on the table in order that they arrive. In order to facilitate 
this orderliness number the cards from 1 through the number of 
donors that pass through this station at the top of the form. 

5. Check the theonoroeter before inserting it into the donors 
nriouCh to make sure it has been shaken down below 94 degrees 
Fahrenheit, and that the tip is not broken or cracked. Make sure 
the volunteer is seated. 

6» Leave the thermometer in the donors mouth about three 
minutes. The temperature should be between 95.6 and 99.6 degrees 
F. If this temperature reading is above or below this range, ask 
the donor if he/she wouldn't mind using a different tliermometer , 
and then insert a new one and reread the temperature. Write down 
both temperatures and circle the second one. If this second 
temperature doen't lie in the range specified, send him on to 
the next station anyway „ ONLY THE NURSE AT THE NEXT STATION 
CAW TEI.T, A DONOR TEAT HE TANIMOT DONATE BECAUSE OF HIS TBMPERAUTRE , 

7. After taking the thermometer out of the donors mouth, 
wipe it off .with a clean, wet gauze. Use a new piece of gauze 
for each thermometer. DO NOT REUSE THE THERMOMETER. 



8. Put the used thermometers in the plastic container. 
Make sure the thermometers are all lying the same way. Staclv 
the therr.oi-ieters ona layer thick and put a squjxre of paper 



- 6 - 

toweling between each layer. 

9. The donor should be given his card and told to go to 
the blood pressure station. 

WALIOSRS 

1. The walkers most important function is to make sure no 
one gets hurt. If a donor starts to feel faint, etc.: 

a. Protect his head. 

b. Get the person to the ground as fast and as safely 
as possible . 

c . Summon canteen nurse . 

d. Move the cot to the person. Do not move the person 
to the cot. 

2. The nurse will generally do any or all of the following: 

a . Put their legs up • 

b . Have them breathe into a paper bag . 

c. Cover the person with blankets, if needed. 

d. Keep watch on the pulse, 

e. Have the person drink milk. 

3. If there are enough walkers, it is all right to talk 
to the recovering donor, providing the donor is up to it and 
the nurse does not seem to mind. 

4. walkers should be alert to nurses. The nurse will 
signal when the donor is ready to go to the canteen, and the walker 
cixc'oiri not keep the nurse waiting. 

5. When walking a donor to the canteen, hold the bandaged 
arm; this leaves the donors good arm to pull a chair in th*» 
canteen. It also keeps the donor from failing and p\i*-i-ing 
pressure on tliat arm. 

6. The walker MUST HOLD ONE TO EVERY DONOR. A donor often 
claims to feel fine, protests someones holding him, and then 
faints . 

7. Donors should not lean on bandaged arm. 

8. Taka the finished blood unit and the card over to the 
custodian table. Needless to say, the unit should be entirely 
disconnected txam the donor, before removing it from the donor 
table . 

9. Guys walking girls and vice versa works out welllll 

C ANTSSN WORKERS 

The local Red Ci-oss is in charge of this station; however, it 

helps to have student volunteers here to pass out refreshments . 

1. The floor supervisor should introduce the VIP volunteer 
to the Red Cross lady in charge and other volunteers, 

2, The Red Cross lady generally shows the voluntoars what 



-. 7 - 

to do. This is : 

a, giving each donor a cup of water— they roust drinlc 
this first. 

b. then asking them if they prefer Coke or coffee 
(cream/sugar) 

c. giving the donor two cookies 

d, giving donor a 'be nice to me, I gave blood today' 
sticker . 

3 • Donors can have as much as they want . 

4. If you run out of something in the canteen, the women 
in the kitchen can get if for you (go through the swinging f=looio 
in the Illinl Rooms) , The VIP supex visor shonlH icru.w where 
refreshements are too. 

5. Canteen volunteers should watch to make sure people look 
OK, Any change in color should be watched. Usually the nurse 
takes care of this . 

6. If the person feels faint, have him put his head betweeit 
his legs and a volunteer should move a cot to the person. Summon 
a nurse • 

7. STAY CAIi4. Distract other donors if one has a reaction 
before a chain reaction starts. If one faints, often so will a 
f ow ot-.hftrs . 

8. When working with food, be sanitary. Handle the cookies 
as little as possible and use napkins . 

9. The donor should keep his arm on the table so that the 
nurse can make sure that it is not still bleeding . 

10. The donor must stay in the canteen 15 minutes (by the 
nursGS watch 1 1 ) 

11. The donor gallon pins are handed out in the canteen; this 
provided imniadlate reinformement for these donors . 

CHAMPAIGN COtJNTY BLOOD BANK VOLUWTEER POSITIONS (for all drives 
labeled CCBB) . VOLUNTEERS FOR THIS MUST BE TRAINED AT THE 
CHAMPAIGN COUNTY BLOOD BANK, TRAINING TNPTWDES Tif^KlN^; ^JSDICAL 
HISTORIES, JIFMATOCRITS , TEMPERATURES AND TYPING BLOOD. CAN CALL 
THE VIP OFFICE FOR MORE INFORMATION ON HOW HCW CAN BE TRAINED. 

MEDICAL HIST ORIES 

1. Be familiar with CCBB donor guidelines and know v;ho to 
ask questions of at the blood bank (one of the technicians who 
doesn't look so busy) . 



- a - 

2. When the donor comes in, ask him to hang up his coat 
and to be seated. 

3. Have the person fill out the information on the front of 
the registration card. First make sure the information on the 
front of the card is correct. (Should have local address, local 
phone, and social security number for VIP purposes too.) 

4. Ask. all the medical history questions and mark the 
prospective donors response on the card. 

5. Make sure donor reads and signs card. 

HEMATOCRI TS _A.NP .BLOOD T YPING 

1. Have the donor sit at the table and check to see that 
the registration card is filled out and signed. 

2. Take the donors middle finger (donor may prefer you use 
the hand that he doesn't write with) . 

3. Squeeze finger gently in the direction of palm to 
finger tip. 

4. Dampen cotton ball with alcohol and wipe off finger tip. 

5. Twist off cap of finger lancet. 

6. Try to relax donor, perhaps ask him to turn his head 

^v^'ay . 

7. While gently, but firmly, holding donors hand, jab 
needle into finger forcefully enough to break the skin and collect 
several drops of blood. Don't be afraid to give a forceful 
prlr-v so that the person doesn't have to be stuck again. 

8. Wips off the first drop of blood, since this may be 
diluted with alcohol and fill two capillary tuben . One will be 
for typing purposes and the other for a hematocrit. Put the 
capillary tubes in sealing clay. 

9. Give donor cotton to hold over puncture site. 

HEMATOCRI T 

1. Put the capillary tube with blood into tlie centrifuge 
and leave for three minutes . 

2. Remove the tube, align on the device for reading 
hematocrits; and determine the approximate percentage of red blood 
cell/whole blood. The minimum acceptable standards are men- -41% 

and women — ^Q%. 



- 9 - 



3. Record results. 



BLOOD TYPING 

1. Blood type Reaction to 

O Neither anti A or antl B agglutinates . 

A Anti A agglutinates when ndded; anti B 

doesn't agglutinate. 
B Anti B agglutinates; antl A doesn't 

agglutinate. 
AB Anti A, anti B, both agglutinate. 

2. Use capillary tube of blood and put two drops on glass 
slide — add anti A to one and anti B to the other, stir, and note 
results . 

3. Rh factor test can also be done. Put another drop of 
blood on another slide, a^-^ anti~Rh and put on top of heating 
device. Mix gently (move slide from side to side). If agglut- 
ination occurs, donor is probably Rh+, meaning he has the Rh+ 
antigen. 

4. These typing tests are not necesaarily entirely aceutato. 
since there are other less common type factors; however th€»B*^ ^t^ 
the most ooiiunon blood types. 

TEMPiSRATUIlS 

1. Cover thermometer with a new plastic cover after shaking 
it out down below 94 degrees Fahrenheit. 

2 . Piit the thermometer under donors tongue and leave for 
approximately three minutes . 

3. Remove the thermometer from the donors mouth, throw the 
plastic covering away, read the thermometer and record results. 

4„ DO NOT GIVE THE P22RSON THERMOMETER WHILE THSY ARE liAVING 
THEIR FINGER PRICICED 1 I 1 1 1 

CANT?JEN 

1. Th9 donor vd 11 be sent into the donor recovery area for 
a period of no less than 15 minutes during v;hich time the canteen 
person will watch him to insure that there are no imiu<^diate adverse 
reactions (such as fainting, dizziness, etc.). 

2. The canteen volunteer must remain calm if an emergency 
situation should arise. 

3. I:c a person feels faint ask him to put his head between 
}:;.s legs z-nzi cvill a nurse. Ammonia cnpsules are available from 
t".ie niiri>e . 



- 10 - 

4. If this happens, distract other donors while the nurse 
cares for the ill donor, so that a chain reaction doesn't start 
and other donors start passing out. 

5. Give donors whatever they want to eat. 

6. Talk with donors and try to put them at ease. 

7. After fifteen minutes, if there have been no problems, 
the donor may leave.