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Full text of "Bloomfield-North Fork baseline inventories : wildlife"

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BLM LIBRARY 







88049157 _ .OOMFIELD— NORTH FORK m 
BASELINE INVENTORIES-WILDLIFE 






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United States Department of the Interior 
Bureau of Land Manaqement 



Bloomfield— North Fork 
Baseline Inventories — Wildlife 



Bureau of Land Management 
Library 

Bldg. 50, Denver Federal Center 
Denver, CO 3G225 



May 1982 






Miles City District Office 
Miles City, Montana 






ABSTRACT 



The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) recently 
completed a wildlife study on two potential 
coal lease tracts in the Fort Union Coal Region. 
One area, the Bloomfield coal tract, is approxi- 
mately 26 square miles and the north Fork coal 
tract (Woodson Preference Flight Lease Applica- 
tion) is approximately 21 square miles. Wildlife 
data obtained from this study was used to 
apply coal lease unsuitability criteria to these 
areas and to make responsible decisions on the 
possible coal leasing of these tracts. 

Major habitats on the areas included: grass- 
lands (the prevalent natural vegetation), hard- 
wood draws, creek bottoms, badlands, agricul- 
tural lands, and small patches of sagebrush. 

Information was collected on the occurrence, 
relative abundance, and habitat relationships of 
all wildlife species on these areas. All informa- 
tion, except small mammal trap data, was 
placed in the BLM computer for data analysis. 

Major game species for the two areas included 
mule deer, white-tailed deer and antelope. Mule 
deer habitat occurred from the Sheep Mountain 
Divide and the area west of there on the Bloom- 
field study area and in the uplands on the north 
Fork study area. White-tailed deer were seen 
throughout the Bloomfield study area but were 



more or less confined to the creek bottom on 
north Fork. Only a few observations of antelope 
were recorded on either study area. 

Upland game birds included sharp-tailed 
grouse, ring-necked pheasant, gray partridge 
and Merriam's turkeys. Seven sharp-tailed 
grouse arenas were located on the north Fork 
tract versus two arenas on the Bloomfield tract. 
Ring-necked pheasants were found in the creek 
bottoms and woody draws. Only one gray par- 
tridge was seen. A flock of Merriam's turkeys 
was observed several times on the north Fork 
study area; however, they spend most of their 
time somewhat south of there. 

There was very little utilization of either study 
area by waterfowl. Only a few reservoirs 
occurred on the Bloomfield study area and 
most of the north Fork of Bums Creek dried up 
after spring runoff. 

Raptor utilization of both areas was relatively 
low; however, nests of prairie falcons and 
golden eagles were located. 

non-game species included: three species of 
amphibians and four species of reptiles, 52 
species of birds (Bloomfield) versus 76 species 
(north Fork), and 15 mammals (Bloomfield) 
versus 1 7 mammals (north Fork). 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 



This study was a Bureau of Land Management 
(BLM) project. Most of the work was done by 
BLM personnel in the Miles City District Office. 
William L. Matthews did the field work and pre- 
pared the report Gloria Gunther and Kathy 
Bockness did the typing. Richard Zander, Steve 
Gniadek, Jim Hetzer and Gerry Gill critically 
reviewed the report. 

The following BLM personnel in the Montana 
State Office provided assistance in data analy- 
sis and cartographic work: Don Johnson, Rose 



Davis, Debbie Weigel, Lela Seibel, Chuck Siga- 
foos, Dora Flanagan, Rick Kirkness, and Larry 
Davis. 

Most of the landowners were very helpful and 
cooperative, allowing access to their land and 
providing information about wildlife on their 
land. Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife, and 
Parks personnel in Region 7 were very helpful, 
with special thanks due to Jon Swenson and 
Arnold Dood. 



CONTENTS 

INTRODUCTlOn 

Background 

Description of the Study Area 

Bloomfield 

north Fork 

Climate 4 

Topography and Soils 4 

habitats 4 

MATERIALS AMD METHODS 9 

Game Species 9 

non-Game Species 9 

Amphibians and Reptiles 9 

Birds 9 

Mammals 9 

RESULTS AMD DISCUSSIOn 

Bloomfield 

Game Species 

Mule Deer 

White-tailed Deer 

Sharp-tailed Grouse 16 

Ring-necked Pheasant 16 

Waterfowl and Other Wetland Birds 16 

Raptors 21 

Furbearers and Predators 21 

non-Game Species 21 

Amphibians and Reptiles 21 

Birds 23 

Mammals 28 

north Fork 29 

Game Species 29 

Mule Deer 29 

White tailed Deer 29 

Antelope 33 

Sharp-tailed Grouse 33 

Ring necked Pheasant 33 

Gray Partridge 33 

Merriam's Turkey 38 

Waterfowl and Other Wetland Birds 38 

Raptors 43 

Furbearers and Predators 43 

non-Game Species 45 

Amphibians 45 

Birds 45 

Mammals 46 

LITERATURE CITED 47 

APPEnDICES 

A. Study Areas Location Map 49 

B. Average Temperature and Precipitation and Departures from normal 

for Glendive 1980-1981 50 

C. Windshield Survey Route (Bloomfield) 51 

D. Windshield Survey Route (north Fork) 52 

E. Bird Route and Small Mammal Trap Sites (Bloomfield) 53 

F. Bird Route and Small Mammal Trap Sites (north Fork) 54 

G. Mule Deer /White -tailed Deer Protection and Population Characteristics 55 

H. Deer harvest Statustics for Hunting District 743 56 

L Sharp-tailed Grouse Arenas and number of Males Observed 57 

J. Birds Identified on the Bloomfield Bird Route 58 

K. Summary of Breeding Bird Survey Results, Savage Route. 1968-1981 59 

L. Birds Identified on the north Fork Bird Route 61 



List of Tables 

Table 1. Amphibians and Reptiles Identified on the Study Area 21 

Table 2. Birds Identified on the Bloomfield Study Area 23 

Table 3. Mammals Identified on the Bloomfield Study Area 28 

Table 4. Results of Small Mammal Trapping (Bloomfield) 29 

Table 5. Birds Identified on the north Fork Study Area 38 

Table 6. Mammals Identified on the north Fork Study Area 45 

Table 7. Results of Small Mammal Trapping (north Fork) 46 



List of Figures 



Figure 1. Bloomfield Study Area 2 

Figure 2. north Fork Study Area 3 

Figure 3. habitats on the Bloomfield Study Area 5 

Figure 4. Habitats on the north Fork Study Area 6 

Figure 5. Mule Deer Observations (Bloomfield) 12 

Figure 6. Deer Wintering Areas (Bloomfield) 13 

Figure 7. White-tailed Deer Observations for Fall-Winter (Bloomfield) 14 

Figure 8. White-tailed Deer Observations for Spring-Summer (Bloomfield) 15 

Figure 9. Antelope Observations (Bloomfield) 17 

Figure 10. Sharp-tailed Grouse Arenas (Bloomfield) 18 

Figure 11. Sharp-tailed Grouse Observations (Bloomfield) 19 

Figure 12. Ring-necked Pheasant Observations (Bloomfield) 20 

Figure 13. Raptor nest Locations (Bloomfield) 22 

Figure 14. Mule Deer Observations (north Fork) 30 

Figure 15. Deer Wintering Areas (north Fork) 31 

Figure 16. White-tailed Deer Observations (north Fork) 32 

Figure 1 7. Sharp-tailed Grouse Arenas 34 

Figure 18. Sharp-tailed Grouse Observations for Fall-Winter (north Fork) 35 

Figure 19. Sharp-tailed Grouse Observations for Spring-Summer (north Fork) 36 

Figure 20. Ring-necked Pheasant Observations (north Fork) 37 

Figure 21. Raptor nest Locations (north Fork) 44 



INTRODUCTION 



BACKGROUND 

The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is a fed- 
eral land management agency charged with the 
responsibility of managing surface resource 
values on public lands and administering fed- 
eral mineral estates on lands overlain by private 
surface. Because of the present energy situa- 
tion, there has been an increased interest in 
coal. Vast amounts of coal exist within eastern 
Montana, but little information is available for 
other resource values on these areas. 

Because of a need for additional leasing of fed- 
eral coal, a Federal Coal Management Program 
was established. The purpose of this program is 
to provide for an orderly development of federal 
coal resources by private industry and to direct 
development in areas where environmental 
impacts can be minimzed. In 1980 the Fort 
Union Regional Coal Team, made up of federal, 
state and local officials, was established. In 
conjunction with BLM, this team identified and 
screened 24 tracts of coal reserves in the Fort 
Union Coal Region of eastern Montana and 
western north Dakota, plus one Preference 
Right Lease Application (FRLA) tract for evalua- 
tion of potential coal leasing scheduled by the 
Secretary of Interior for June 1983. Before these 
areas can be leased, other resource values 
which might be impacted or affected by coal 
leasing must be considered. Presently, BLM 
considers private surface landowner consent 
and all resource values/uses to identify areas 
as suitable or unsuitable for surface coal min- 
ing. 

In november 1980, BLM initiated an inventory 
on two of these potential coal lease tracts, 
Bloomfteld and north Fork. The Bloomfield tract 
was identified by the Fort Union Regional Coal 
Team; however, the north Fork tract was a PRLA 
that Fred C. Woodson Oil Properties filed in 
June 1977. The two potential coal lease tracts 
were considered as separate study areas for 
wildlife inventory purposes. These areas were 
studied to determine the wildlife resource 
values and to address the wildlife unsuitability 
criteria for coal leasing. The objectives of the 
study were as follows: 

1) Identify and document the occurrence and 
distribution of the wildlife on the study areas. 

2) Identify and document crucial wildlife habi- 
tat on the study area, i.e., big game wintering 
grounds, sharptailed/sage grouse arenas, et 
cetera. 

3) Identify and document the actual habitat 
utilization of these areas by wildlife species. 



e.g., seasonal use areas, migration routes, if 
known. 

4) Identify and document any habitat conflicts 
or problems with the present utilization of 
these areas for wildlife species. 

5) Identify suitable, but unoccupied, habitat for 
wildlife species. 

6) Identify and document any endangered spe- 
cies or endangered species critical habitat on 
the study area. 

The Bloomfield— north Fork inventory was set 
up for a one year study (four seasons). Data col- 
lection commenced in november 1980 and 
terminated in October 1981. It should be noted 
that field time on these areas was considerably 
reduced because of several federal budget cuts 
in travel expenditures and operational costs. 
With these constraints, every effort was made to 
collect the essential data needed to satisfy 
unsuitability criteria and state requirements; 
however, this effort was minimal. 



DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY 
AREAS 

Bloomfield 

The Bloomfield study area encompassed 26 
square miles (approximately 16,470 acres) and 
was located in Dawson County (Figure 1). 
Boundaries for the area were somewhat arbi- 
trarily determined to coincide with the boun- 
daries of the coal tract. The study area and its 
relationship to the state of Montana is shown in 
Appendix A. The surface ownership was divided 
as follows: private landowners (15,190 acres) 
and state land (1280 acres). The subsurface 
coal mineral estate of the proposed mine site is 
9 percent federal, with the remainder in state 
and private ownership. 

north Fork 

The north Fork study area encompassed 21 
square miles (approximately 13459 acres) and 
was located in Dawson and Richland counties 
(Figure 2). Boundaries for the area generally 
coincided with boundaries of the coal tract. The 
study area and its relationship to the State of 
Montana is shown in Appendix A. The surface 
ownership was divided as follows: private land- 
owners (12,959 acres) and state land (3,500 
acres). The subsurface coal mineral estate of 
the proposed mine site is 34 percent federal, 
with the remainder in state and private owner- 
ship. 




BLOOMFIELD STUDY AREA 



Bloomfield Study Area \~\ 



BLM LAND 
STATE LAND 



FIGURE 1 



R55E 



R56E 




Scale In Miles 



-N- 



NORTH FORK STUDY AREA 



North Fork Study Area 




BLM LAND 
STATE LAND 



FIGURE 2 



Climate 

Climate for the area is continental with cold 
winters, warm summers and marked variation 
in seasonal precipitation. The annual average 
precipitation is 13.82 inches, (U.S. Department 
of Commerce 1980). The majority of the precip- 
itation occurs in June. January is the coldest 
month with an average temperature of 14.9° F 
and July is the warmest month with an average 
temperature of74.CfF (U.S. Department of 
Commerce, 1980-81). Temperature and precipi- 
tation averages for the Glendive station for 
1980-1981 are presented in Appendix B. 



Topography and Soils 

Topography for the eastern two-thirds of the 
Bloomfield study area is best characterized as 
nearly flat with a few slightly rolling hills. The 
Sheep Mountain Divide extends along the west- 
ern one-third of the area. This area is character- 
ized by a badlands complex with broken ridges, 
high benchlands, and deep drainages that slope 
northerly. Principal drainages are Pasture Creek 
and Thirteen Mile Creek. Pasture Creek, east of 
the Sheep Mountain Divide, flows northwesterly 
and eventually empties into the Missouri River; 
whereas. Thirteen Mile Creek flows southeas- 
terly and drains into the Yellowstone River. 

Topography for the north Fork study area is 
best characterized as flat with rolling hills scat- 
tered throughout the valley floor. South of the 
north Fork of Burns Creek, the terrain forms 
strongly rolling, dissected sandstone uplands 
with some large scoria buttes and has the 
appearance of a badlands complex, north of the 
north Fork of Bums Creek, the terrain is similar 
but not quite as rough as the terrain to the 
south. 

Soils for the areas fall within six main associa- 
tions briefly described below (URA - .35 Soils). 
Only three soil associations were found on the 
Bloomfield study area (Lambert-Dimyaw; 
Shambo-Lambert; and Famuf-Tumer); whereas, 
five soil associations were found on the north 
Fork study area (Lambert-Dimyaw; Zahill- 
Lambert; Cherry; Trembles, Havrelon and 
Lohler; and Famuf-Tumer). 

These soil associations are described as fol- 
lows: 

1) Lambert-Dimyaw association - steep to very 
steep, deep silt loams and silty clay laoms 
underlain by silt loam, silty clay loam, or silty 
clay sedimentary beds; on uplands. 



2) Shambo-Lambert association - undulating to 
rolling and hilly, deep loams and silt loams 
underlain by stratified loam and silt loam allu- 
vium and silt loam sedimentary beds; on 
uplands. 

3) Famuf-Tumer association - nearly level to 
rolling, deep soils that have a loam surface 
layer and a clay loam subsoil, underlain by 
loam to silty clay loam alluvium; on uplands. 

4) Zahill-Lambert association - steep and very 
steep loams that are underlain by friable clay 
loam glacial till, and silt loams that are under- 
lain by silt loan sedimentary beds; on uplands. 

5) Cherry association - nearly level to sloping, 
deep soils that are dominantly silty clay loam 
throughout; on alluvial fans and terraces. 

6) Trembles, Havrelon, and Lohler association ■ 
level to gently sloping, deep fine sandy loams 
and silt loams underlain by sandy loam and silt 
loams; on low terraces and flood plains. 

Habitats 

The study areas lie within the Great Plains - 
Shortgrass Prairie Province Wheatgrass- 
needlegrass Section as outlined by Bailey 
(1978). Payne (1973) described the areas as 
Prairie County grassland and sandy grassland 
vegetation types. 

Six major habitats were delineated on the study 
areas. These habitats, plus "homesite" and 
"reservoir"', were used to describe observations 
and habitat utilization, "Homesite" was used to 
describe observations that occurred around 
houses, farm buildings, old homesteads, etc., 
and "reservoir" was used to describe observa- 
tions that were made at reservoirs and small 
potholes. Habitat types for the Bloomfield and 
north Fork study areas are shown in Figures 3 
and 4, respectively. Habitat types and their 
descriptions were taken from the Richland- 
Glendive Planning Unit Resource Analysis and 
are briefly described below (URA.34 Vegeta- 
tion). 

Grasslands are the prevalent natural vegetation 
types on the study areas. They comprised 
1,221 acres or 7 percent of the Bloomfield area 
and 6,124 acres or 45 percent of the north Fork 
area. Grasslands were found in almost all land- 
forms from flat areas to large buttes and 
occurred on practically all soil types. Dominant 
grasses were western wheatgrass (Agropyron 
smithii), needleand-thread (Stipa comata), blue 
grama (Bouteloua gracilis), buffalograss (Buch- 
loe dactyloides), junegrass (Koeleria cristata). 




Scgla In Milat 



BLOOMFIELD HABITAT TYPES 



LEGEND 



1 GRASSLANDS 

2 SA GEBR USH GRASSLANDS 
A Big Sagebrush 

B Silver Sagebrush 

3 HARDWOOD DRA W 
Z Tall Shrubs 

Y Short Shrubs 



BLMLAND 
STATE LAND 

FIGURE 3 



4 SALLNE SHRUB 

01 Conifers 

02 Creek 

03 Upland Hardwood Stands 

5 BADLANDS 

X AGRLCULTURE 

i CUis 

g Vegetated Butte Tops 

i Semi Permanent Streams 




NORTH FORK HABITAT TYPES 

LEGEND 



1 GRASSLANDS 

2 SA GEBR USH GRA SSLANDS 
A Big Sagebrush 

B Silver Sagebrush 

3 HA RD WOOD DRA W 

Z Tall Shrubs 
Y Short Shrubs 



BLM LAND 
| STATE LAND 
FIGURE 4 



X 



SALINE SHRUB 

01 Conifers 

02 Creek 

03 Upland Hardwood Stands 
BADLANDS 

AGRICULTURE 

f Cliffs 

g Vegetated Butte Tops 

i Semi Permanent Streams 



and the threadleaf sedge (Carex filifolia). Com- 
mon forbs, a minor part of this vegetation, 
include breadfoot scurfpea (Fsoralea escu- 
lents), yucca (Yucca glauca), fringed sagewort 
(Artemesia frigida). and numerous annuals. 

Sagebrush was found in very few locations on 
the study areas. Even where found, it was more 
or less small patches or clumps of sagebrush 
interspersed with grassland rather than large 
continuous expanses. It comprised 187 acres 
or I percent of the Bloomfield study area and 
842 acres or 6 percent of the north Fork study 
area. Although sagebrush was generally found 
on the uplands, it also occurred in portions of 
the major drainages. Common grasses were 
western wheatgrass, needle- and-thread, and 
blue grama. Common shrubs were big sage- 
brush (Artemesia tridentata), silver sagebrush 
(Artemesia cana), winterfat (Eurotia lanata), 
and fringed sagewort. 

Hardwood draws were found on the upper 
reaches of the drainages on the areas. The vege- 
tation varied considerably according to the size 
and hydrology of the drainage. In many cases, 
they intergraded with the creek vegetation type 
and the only criteria that distinguished hard- 
wood draws from creeks was the absence of 
water in hardwood draws. Hardwood draws 
comprised 716 acres (4 percent) and 1351 
acres (10 percent) of the Bloomfield and north 
Fork study areas, respectively. Characteristic 
overstory species included: green ash (Fraxi- 
num pennsylvanicus)and box elder (Acer 
negundo). Common brushland species that 
formed an understory in some cases were 
chokecherry (Frunus virginiana), buffaloberry 
(Shepherdia argentea), red osier dogwood 
(Cornus stolonifera), and Wood's rose (Rosa 
woodsii). Grasses, such as western wheatgrass 
and blue grama, formed the ground cover. 

Creek vegetation type was found along Thirteen 
Mile Creek on the Bloomfield study area and 
along Burns Creek on the north Fork study area. 
As stated previously, there was some intergra- 
dation of vegetation between hardwood draws 
and creeks. In many cases, the distinguishing 
criterion for the two was that creeks were clas- 
sified as such when there was water in a major 
drainage most of the time. Creek vegetation 
comprised 21 acres (0.1 percent) on the Bloom- 
field study area and 466 acres (4 percent) on 



the north Fork study area. Characteristic spe- 
cies included the same species found in hard- 
wood draws, plus plains cottonwoods (Fopulus 
deltoides) and willows (Salix spp.) in the over- 
story and smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and 
Kentucky bluegrass (Foa pratensis) in the 
ground cover. In many areas, the creek vegeta- 
tion changed from a broadleaf tree complex to a 
mesic grassland complex; however, it was all 
classified as creek vegetation type. 

Badlands comprised 92 acres (0.6 percent) of 
the Bloomfield tract and 1450 acres (11 per- 
cent) of the north Fork tract. This figure is prob- 
ably somewhat higher for the Bloomfield tract 
as the Sheep Mountain Divide and the area west 
of it are badlands. However, aerial photointer- 
pretation of this area resulted in a more 
detailed separation of the various habitat com- 
ponents that occurred on the area. As a result, 
only the sandstone outcroppings were classi- 
fied as a badlands complex when the entire 
divide is really a badlands complex. The bad- 
lands varied considerably in plant community 
composition. Generally, they are best described 
as a mosaic of vegetation and land form that 
includes portions of sagebrush-grasslands/ 
mesic shrub communities, confiers, and broad- 
leaf trees that occur on rough broken topo- 
graphy. For the most part, the vegetation type 
was a function of geological structure, i.e., sco- 
ria buttes versus sandstone pinnacles, no effort 
was made to distinguish types of badlands. 
Common species included: big sagebrush, 
rubber rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus nauseo- 
sus), bluebunch wheatgrass (Agropyron spica- 
turn). Rocky Mountain juniper (Juniperus sco- 
pulorum), ponderosa pine (Finus ponderosa), 
creeping juniper (Juniperus horizontalis), 
green ash, and American elm. 

Agricultural lands comprised 14231 acres (86 
percent) on the Bloomfield study area and 
3,225 acres (24 percent) on the north Fork 
study area. The majority of this land was found 
along creeks and level to slightly rolling plains. 
Wheat (Triticum spp.) and oats (Avena sativa) 
were common small grains on both study 
areas, but they were the predominant habitat 
on the Bloomfield tract. Hay meadows of alfalfa 
(Medicago sativa) and cultivated grasses were 
also grown, but were more common on the 
north Fork study area. 



MATERIALS AND METHODS 



Techniques used to inventory wildlife species 
on the study areas varied according to species 
and the amount of data that was needed. All 
procedures were standardized techniques 
needed to conduct a systematic habitat inven- 
tory. All vertebrate species that were encoun- 
tered, i.e., amphibians, reptiles, birds, and 
mammals were identified and recorded. 



NON-GAME SFECIES 

Amphibians and Reptiles 

Amphibians and reptiles were identified when 
they were encountered on the study areas. 
Occasionally, springs, creeks, and other areas 
were visited to obtain specific information on 
amphibians and reptiles. 



GAME SFECIES 

A windshield survey route was established and 
used to obtain data on game species (Appendi- 
ces C and D). The routes were selected based 
on their year-round accessibility, normally, the 
routes were run during early morning or late 
evening hours when game species' activities 
were greatest. Each route was run a minimum 
of twice each month. Information recorded 
were species, location, sex and age class, 
numbers, and habitat type. All vertebrate spe- 
cies were recorded by this technique, except 
during the summer period when the more 
abundant species of birds were not recorded by 
this technique. 

Incidental observations were often made while 
transversing the study areas by vehicle and 
foot. Most of this information was collected 
while looking for grouse leks, small mammal 
trapping, etc. 

Aerial surveys were made in early April using a 
helicopter for low-level flights over both study 
areas. The entire study areas were transversed 
by flying grid transects and likely areas during 
early morning hours. Specific information, 
such as locations of raptor nests and sharp- 
tailed grouse arenas were collected by this 
technique. A sharp-tailed grouse arena survey 
was conducted during late March-early May. 
Arenas were located by periodically stopping 
the vehicle (approx. every mile) and listening 
for lekking grouse. Most arenas, once located, 
were checked at least twice to insure that the 
location was the actual arena and not just a 
social interaction of lekking males during this 
period and to try to determine the maximum 
number of males attending the arena. Informa- 
tion was recorded on grouse arena forms and is 
on permanent file at BLM in Miles City. 

Waterfowl were censused by visiting reservoirs 
and creeks during early spring and summer. 
Broods were recorded when observed. 



Birds 

Two vehicle routes (one route for each study 
area) were established to census non-game 
birds (Appendices E and F). The route survey 
was a modification of the Breeding Bird Survey 
(Robbins and Van Velzen, 1967). Each route, 25 
stops in length with stops spaced one-half mile 
apart, was run once a month from May-August, 
except during June when routes were run 
twice. All wildlife species seen along the routes 
were recorded according to the predominant 
habitat in which they were observed. The ration- 
ale behind these modifications was to insure 
that sufficient data on migrant/breeding birds, 
as well as other wildlife species, were col- 
lected. Actually, the technique was used more 
as a systematic method of data collection rather 
than as an actual breeding bird survey. 

Raptor nests were located by searching likely 
areas by foot, vehicle, and helicopter. Creek 
bottoms, cliffs, bluffs, et cetera were searched 
during early spring-early summer. Information 
gathered was recorded on raptor nest inventory 
forms and is on permanent file at BLM in Miles 
City. 

Incidental observations of unusual or uncom- 
mon bird species observed while transversing 
the study areas were also recorded. 

Mammals 

Small mammals were trapped in each of the 
five habitats during the fall. (Appendices E and 
F). Traplines consisted of 25 stations approxi- 
mately ten yards apart with four traps per sta- 
tion. A Sherman live trap and three snap traps 
(rat trap every third station) were set at each 
station. A mixture of peanut butter and oatmeal 
was used as bait. Traplines were set and 
checked daily for three sucessive nights. All 
small mammals captured were exterminated 
and identified. Questionable or unusual speci- 
mens were sent to Montana State University 



9 



Zoological Museum for verification and storage. 
Traps which were sprung but empty were sub- 
tracted from the total trap nights as a correction 
factor in data tabulation. 

Incidental observations of furbearers. predators, 
and other non-game mammals observed on the 
study areas were also recorded. All data, except 
small mammal trap data, was computerized 
and summarized on the BLM's computer termi- 
nal in Billings, Montana. All original data and 
computer print-outs are permanently filed at 
BLM's District Office in Miles City, Montana. 



10 



RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 



All major wildlife species are discussed separ- 
ately in their respective sections and by separ- 
ate study areas. The relative abundance for 
each species was determined by their fre- 
quency of capture or number of observations, 
plus information from landowners/ residents 
and previous studies in this area. Habitat utili- 
zation, for the most part, is merely a listing of 
species, the number of observations, and the 
habitats in which they were observed. This is 
not meant to imply a habitat preference by a 
particular species, but rather, habitat utilization 
by a species as observed in this study. In most 
cases, the sample size of observations of a par- 
ticular species was too small to show any defi- 
nite habitat preference. 



BLOOMF1ELD 

Game Species 

Mule Deer 

Mule deer production and population character- 
istics are shown in Appendix G and harvest sta- 
tistics are shown in Appendix h. The sample 
size of mule deer observations was too small to 
determine population structure. Group size var- 
ied from 1-14 mule deer; however, most obser- 
vations were of small groups (2-6 mule deer) 
and generally consisted of does with fawns. 

Mule deer distribution is shown in Figure 5. 
Most observations were scattered along or near 
the Sheep Mountain Divide. Observations east 
of there were primarily mule deer moving into 
the small grain fields to feed. For the most part, 
mule deer were not concentrated and were 
widely distributed along the divide because of 
a very mild winter during 1980-81; however, 
Swenson (1980) mapped mule deer winter 
ranges in the area for the winters of 1977-78 
(Figure 6). tie showed 4.8 mule deer/square 
mile for the area along the divide and the area 
west of there. Most of the mule deer observa- 
tions were made in the badlands complex. 
Although there was some utilization of the 
small grain fields for feeding mostly during the 
fall-winter period, the badlands complex was 
the most important area for mule deer. The 
Sheep Mountain Divide and the area west of it 
should be considered crucial mule deer habitat. 

White-tailed Deer 

White-tailed production and population charac- 
teristics are shown in Appendix G and harvest 
statistics are shown in Appendix H. Population 
structure is shown in Appendix G. Although 



there was a low incidence of bucks (4.8%) in 
the population, other figures such as the 
fawns: 100 does were comparable to Swen- 
son's (1981) figures for Region 7. Group size 
ranged from 1-20 white-tailed deer. 

Fall-winter distribution is shown in Figure 7. 
Most of the observations cluster around two 
areas. The first area on the northern end of the 
study area is a woody draw on the uppermost 
reaches of Thirteen Mile Creek. This area is 
dense brush and small trees and provides excel- 
lent cover for white-tailed deer. The second 
area, just south of the study area, is a small 
farm with a few small grassy hills and grain 
fields where a herd of up to 20 white-tailed deer 
congregate, feeding in the grain fields and 
using the grassy hills and the area around the 
homesite for cover. Spring-summer distribution 
is shown in Figure 8. Even though white-tailed 
deer still remained in the woody draw along 
Thirteen Mile Creek, there was some dispersal 
from this area and the southern wintering area 
as white-tailed deer were often seen along the 
divide and another area south of the woody 
draw along the Thirteen Mile Creek drainage. 
There are few trees along this portion of the 
drainage, and it was more of a grassland coulee 
than a creek or woody draw and was not used 
very much by white-tailed deer. 




11 




Scale In Miles 



MULE DEER OBSERVATIONS 



-N- 



LEGEND 




A 


Spring 




B 


Summer 




C 


Fall 




D 


Win ter 




O 


(Circled Li 


-iter) 



BLM LAND 
STATE LAND 



Group of Ten or More 



FIGURE 5 



12 




-N 



DEER WINTERING AREAS 
LEGEND 

Area — Density of deer for that particular area 



SOURCE: 

Big Game Survey and 

Inventory (Deer) 

Region 7 1 980 

Montana Department of Fish, 

Wildlife and Parks 



BLM LAND 
STATE LAND 



FIGURE 6 



13 




Scale In Miles 



WHITE- TAILED DEER 

OBSERVATIONS 
FOR FALL - WINTER 



-N- 



LEGEND 



C Fall 

D Winter ' — 

O (Circled Letter) 

Group of Ten or More 



BLM LAND 
STATE LAND 



FIGURE 7 



14 




WHITE-TAILED DEER 

OBSER VA TIONS FOR 

SPRINGS UMMER 



LEGEND 



A Sprin g — 

B Summer 

O (Circled Letter) 

Group of Ten or More 



BLM LAND 
STATE LAND 



FIGURE 8 



15 



Sivenson (1980) mapped two wintering areas 
for white-tailed deer in this area (Figure 6). The 
wintering area just north of the study area 
averaged 10.1 deer per square mile. This area, 
plus the woody draw that extends through 
T2in R53E Sec. 28 and 33, is crucial habitat for 
white-tailed deer. Although the wintering area 
in the southwestern portion of the study area 
averaged 22.3 white-tailed deer per square 
mile, it may only be crucial habitat during 
severe winters. Swenson (pers. comm.) 
explained that in certain areas in southeastern 
Montana during the severe winters of 1977-78 
that as many as 50 deer were often seen in 
haystacks and wheat fields. This was what we 
suspected in this particular case as this area is 
predominately flat agricultural lands (primarily 
small-grain fields) with little or no cover. Dur- 
ing severe winters such as those of 1977-78 
and 1978-79, snow depth in woody draws and 
similar areas that deer normally utilize as win- 
tering areas is often so deep that deer cannot 
use these areas. Consequently, they move into 
small grain fields and other areas kept open by 
the wind or they move into haystacks to find 
food. These areas are important to deer during 
these extreme periods but are not used in a 
normal winter. If this area is mined, this may 
present a problem for the deer in this area. 

Antelope 

Only five antelope observations were made on 
the Bloomfteld study area and no winter obser- 
vations were recorded (Figure 9). All the obser- 
vations were of singles or small groups and 
were made during the spring-summer periods 
when antelope are at a maximum dispersal. 
Wentland (1977) showed no antelope in this 
area during summer distribution surveys. 
Therefore, it was determined that this area 
receives only minor utilization during spring- 
summer dispersal and is not crucial to ante- 
lope. 




Sharp-tailed Grouse 

Locations of two sharp-tailed grouse arenas are 
shown in Figure 10. Maximum counts of males 
attending these arenas are given in Appendix I. 
The larger arena (T20H R53E Sec. 18) was 
located on top of a large hill in native grassland; 
whereas, the smaller arena (T20H R53E Sec. 20) 
was located between two reservoirs in a small- 
grain field. All sharp-tailed grouse observations 
for this area were made in the southwest por- 
tion of the study area (Figure 11). 



x if|^ *J1 ^ 









&Lm, y mh>k:'Mt>MW:><m 



Ring-necked Pheasant 

Most of the ring-necked pheasant observations 
were in woody draws which were used for 
cover. Other observations were made in adja- 
cent small-grain fields or along roadsides when 
they were feeding or picking up grit. Ring- 
necked pheasant distribution is shown in Fig- 
ure 12. The majority of observations were 
made in spring when pheasants are establish- 
ing territories and are more readily observable. 
Most of the observations were made in woody 
draws along the Sheep Mountain Divide and in 
the woody draw in the northeastern portion of 
the study area. This woody draw is important 
cover for ring-necked pheasants. A brood of five 
young was observed during the summer. 

Waterfowl and other Wetland Birds 

Waterfowl, gulls, and shorebirds are listed in 
Table 2. The only wetland habitats of any 
importance were some small reservoirs on the 
upper reaches of Thirteen Mile Creek. Even so, 
there was only minimal utilization of this area 
by waterfowl. Although mallards were the only 
waterfowl species recorded, other dabbling 
duck species such as blue-winged teal, green- 
winged teal, and pintails probably use these 
reservoirs. However, these species were 
missed during the study period. The reservoirs 
were too small and shallow for diving ducks. 
Killdeer, the only shorebirds observed, nested 
on the area. Ring-billed gulls were observed fly- 
ing over the area. 



16 




Scale In Miles 



ANTELOPE OBSERVATIONS 



-N- 



LEGEND 

A Sprin g 
B Summer 



BLM LAND 
STATE LAND 



FIGURE 9 



17 




Scale In Miles 



SHARP-TAILED GROUSE 
STRUTTING GROUNDS 



BLM LAND 
STATE LAND 



FIGURE 10 



18 




Seal* In Miles 



SHARP-TAILED GROUSE 
OBSERVATIONS 



-N- 



LEGEND 




A 


Spring 




B 


Summer 




C 


Fall 




D 


Win ter 




O 


(Circled Letter) 



BLM LAND 
STATE LAND 



Group of Ten or More 



FIGURE 11 



19 




Scale In Miles 



RING-NECKED PHEASANT 
OBSERVATIONS 



-N- 



LEGEND 

A Spring 

B Summer 

C Fall 

D Winter 



BLM LAND 
STATE LAND 



FIGURE 12 



20 



Raptors 

Seven species of raptors were identified includ- 
ing one owl, one eagle, one harrier, two falcons 
and two hawks (Table 2). Raptor nest locations 
are presented in Figure 13. Raptor utilization of 
the study area was comparatively low. The 
Sheep Mountain Divide received the most utili- 
zation as a nesting/hunting area. One active 
prairie falcon aerie was observed west of the 
study area. Kestrels nested in cavities in the 
cliffs/bluffs along the divide and one inactive 
(probably abandoned) golden eagle nest was 
found. Eagles, falcons, and hawks often perched 
or flew along the divide and hunted the adja- 
cent small-grain fields and uplands. 

Furbearers and Predators 

Furbearers and predators normally harvested 
for their pelts are listed in Table 3. The only fur- 
bearer observed on the Bloomfield study area 
were muskrats in some of the reservoirs/drain- 
ages. Other furbearers present in the area but 
not observed probably should include mink 
and beaver in the aquatic habitats and bobcats 
along the divide. Predators normally harvested 
for their pelts and found on the area were 
coyotes, fox, long-tailed weasels and striped 
skunks. Other predators not observed but prob- 
ably found on the area are raccoons and 
badgers. 



Nongame Species 

Amphibians and Reptiles 

Although no amphibians were encountered on 
the Bloomfield study area, this area lies within 
the geographic range of several species, includ- 
ing the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigri- 
num), plains spadefoot (Scaphiopus bombi- 
frons), great plains toad (Bufo cognatus), 
woodhouse's toad, chorus frog, and leopard 
frog. It should be noted that amphibians and 
reptiles were recorded when they were 
observed but no special effort was made to 
determine their occurrence other than by cas- 
ual observations. 

Bull snakes, racers, and rattlesnakes were the 
only reptiles observed on the area (Table 1). 
Other reptiles such as short-horned toads 
(Phrynosoma douglassi), western hognose 
snakes (Meterodon nasicus) and plains garter 
snakes probably occur also, but were not 
encountered. 





^-rr^rj^'x 










4jF* \ 




) tea/**)-! 



TABLE 1 

AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES IDENTIFIED 

ON THE STUDY AREAS 



Species 



Sightings by Total 
Habitat Sightings 



AMPHIBIANS 

Rocky Mountain Toad l(l)Gr 
Bufo woodhousei 



KD 



Northern Chorus Frog 1(15) Creek 1(15) 
Pseudacris triseriata 



Leopard Frog 


1 (2) Creek 


1(2) 


Rana pipiens 






REPTILES 






Racer 


1 (l)NlWF 1 


KD 1 


Coluber constrictor 


7(8)Gr 
2(2)HD 

1 (l)NIWF 


10(11) 


Gopher (Bull) Snake 


KDGr 1 


Ml) 1 


Pituophis 


2(2)Gr 


3(3) 


melanoleucus 


1 (l)NIWF 




Plains Garter Snake 


KDGr 


KD 


Thamnophis radix 






Western Rattlesnake 


i (l)Niwr 1 


KD 1 


Crotalus viridis 


2(2)Gr 


2(2) 



•Bloomfield study area. (All other observations 
were made on North Fork study area.) 

Legend: HD — Hardwood Draw 
Gr — Grassland 
NIWF —Agriculture 



21 




RAPTOR NEST LOCATIONS 



-N- 



LEGEND 

PF Prairie Falcon 

GE? Possible Golden Eagle 



B1M LAND 
■H STATE LAND 



FIGURE 13 



22 



Birds 

This section discusses nongame birds such as 
the passerines. Game birds, waterfowl, and rap- 
tors were discussed previously. Fifty-two spe- 
cies of birds were identified on the Bloomfield 
study area. Specific data on their status, 
number of sightings, and habitat utilization is 
presented in Table 2. 

Thirty-four species of birds were identified on 
the bird route (Appendix J). Western meadow- 
larks, homed larks, and mourning doves were 
the more abundant species on the route, in 
decreasing order of abundance. This was 
expected as the eastern three-fourths of the 
study area is agricultural land with very few 
woody draws or shelterbelts to attract wood- 
land species. This lack of vegetation diversity 
directly affects the bird species diversity, 
resulting in fewer species and total numbers 
overall and a predominance of species such as 
meadowlarks and homed larks that prefer agri- 
cultural habitats. 



The Savage Breeding Bird Survey Route (U.S. 
Fish and Wildlife Service) is located nearby 
(approximately 35 miles east). The route was 
first established in 1962 and has been run eight 
times since then, including the past four years. 
Recently, it has been run for comparison pur- 
poses to various energy-related studies in this 
area. Fast results for the route are presented in 
Appendix K. For the most part, the Savage route 
extends through an area dominated by grass- 
lands, creeks and woody draws. Although there 
is some agricultural land along the route, it 
only comprises a very minor portion of the 
route, notable differences in bird species are 
the occurrence of shorebirds and waterfowl 
species and a well-developed woodland bird 
species composition along the Savage route 
versus an agricultural bird species composition 
on the Bloomfield route. 



TABLE 2 
BIRDS IDENTIFIED ON THE BLOOMFIELD STUDY AREA 



Species 



Status 1 



Sightings by Habitat 2 Total Sighting s 2 



Mallard 

Anas platyrhychos 

Red-tailed Hawk 
Buteo jamaicensis 

Ferruginous Hawk 
Buteo regalis 

Golden Eagle 

Aquila chrysaetos 

Marsh Hawk 
Circus cyaneus 



Prairie Falcon 
Falco mexicanus 



American Kestrel 
Talco sparverius 



w, B 



w, B 



B 



W, B 3 



-. b 



W, B 



-, B 



5 (16) Creek 


6(56) 


1 (40) Res 




1 (2) Gr 


2(3) 


1(1) HD 




1 (l)NIWF 


KD 


3 (3) NIWF 


5(5) 


2 (2) Badlands 




6 (6) NIWF 


10(10) 


2(2)Gr 




1 (1) Creek 




1 (1)HD 




2 (2) Gr 


5(5) 


1 (1) Badlands 




1 (1)HD 




1 (l)NIWF 




2(16) NIWF 


15(19) 


2(2)Gr 




1(1) Badlands 





23 



TABLE 2 (cont.) 
BIRDS IDENTIFIED ON THE BLOOMFIELD STUDY AREA 



Species 



Status' 



Sightings by Habitat 2 



Total Sighting s 2 



Sharp-tailed Grouse 



Ring-necked Pheasant 
Phasianus colchicus 



Killdeer 

Charadrius vociferus 



Ring-billed Gull 

Larus delawarensis 

Mourning Dove 
Zenaida macroura 



Great-horned Owl 
Bubo virginianus 

Common Nighthawk 
Chordeiles minor 

Common Flicker 
Colaptes auritus 

Eastern Kingbird 
Tyrannus tyrannus 



Western Kingbird 
Tyrannus verticalis 



Say's Phoebe 
Sayornis saya 



W, B 



W, B 



, B 

-. t 
-. B 



W, B 



-. B 



,B 



,B 



-. B 



-. b 



6 (55) Gr 
5 (19) NIWF 
1 (1) Creek 

10 (24) HD 
5 (5) Creek 
3 (5) NIWT 
1 (1) Badlands 
1(1) Or 
1 (1) Homesite 

3 (4) NIWF 
1(1) GR 
1(1) Creek 

1 (DMIWT 

8 (12) NIWT 
6(22) Homesite 
5(11)HD 

4 (28) Creek 

4 (5) NIWT -HD 

2 (3) Badlands 
1 (5)mWT-HD 

1 (1) Creek 



1(1) NIWT 



1(1) HD 



6 (8) Homesite 
5 (5) NIWT 
4(11)HD 
3 (5) Creek 
1 (4) Gr 

3 (4) Homesite 
2(2) NIWT 
1(1) HD 

3 (3) NIWT 

1 (1) Badlands 



12(75) 



21 (37) 



5(6) 

KD 
30 (86) 



KD 



KD 



KD 



19 (33) 



6(7) 



4(4) 



24 



TABLE 2 (cont.) 
BIRDS IDENTIFIED OH THE BLOOMFIELD STUDY AREA 



Species 



Status 1 



Sightings by Habitat 2 Total Sighting s 2 



Horned Lark 

Eremophila alpestris 

Barn Swallow 
Hirundo rustica 



Black-billed Magpie 
Pica pica 



Common Crow 

Corvus brachyrhynchos 

Black-capped Chickadee 
Parus atricapillus 

House Wren 

Troglodytes aedon 



Rock Wren 

Salpinctes obsoletus 

Gray Catbird 

Dumetella carolinensis 

Brown Thrasher 
Toxostoma ruftim 

American Robin 
Turdus migratorius 



Mountain Bluebird 
Sialia sialis 

Cedar Waxwing 

Bombycilla cedrorum 

northern Shrike 
Lanius excubitor 



W, B 



,B 



W, B 



B 



W,b 



. b 



-,b 



,b 



,B 



w, B 



-, b 



-,b 



W, t 



79(398) NIWT 
4 (8) Gr 



10 
6 
6 
3 
1 

7 
6 
3 
1 

2 
2 

1 
1 

7 
4 
1 



3 
3 

26 
2 

12 

10 

4 

2 

1 
1 



17) Homesite 
23) MIWT 
21) Creek 
4) HD 
2)Gr 

13) Badlands 
28) NIWF 
5)HD 
l)Gr 

4)HD 
3) MIWT 

2) Badlands 
2) HD 

9)HD 

6) Homesite 

1 ) Creek 

6) Badlands 



5)HD 

3) Badlands 

32) HD 
2) Creek 

26) Homesite 
52) HD 
5) Creek 

4) NIWT 
7)Gr 

1) Badlands 

1)HD 



1)HD 



1)HD 

1) Homesite 

l)Gr 



83 (406) 



26 (67) 



17(47) 



4(7) 
2(4) 

12(16) 

5(6) 

6(8) 

28 (34) 

30 (95) 



1(1) 



KD 



3(3) 



25 



TABLE 2 (cont.) 
BIRDS IDENTIFIED ON THE BLOOMTIELD STUDY AREA 



Species 



Status 1 



Sightings by Habitat 2 Total Sighting s 



Loggerhead Shrike 
Lanius ludovicianus 



Starling 

Stumus vulgaris 

Yellow Warbler 

Dendricua petechia 

House Sparrow 

Passer domeso'cus 

Bobolink 

Dolichonyx oryzivorus 

Western Meadowlark 
Sturnella neglecta 



Red-winged Blackbird 
Agelaius phoeniceus 



-, B 



w, b 



-, b 



W, b 



-, B 



w, B 



3 (3) Gr 


10(10) 


3 (3) PilWF 




2 (2) Homesite 




2(2)HD 




4 (37) Homesite 


5 (39) 


1 (2) NIWF 




15 (35) HD 


25 (58) 


5 (16) Homesite 




5 (7) Creek 




9 (48) Homesite 


9(48) 


2 (2) NIWF 


2(2) 


64 (380) NIWF 


84 (469) 


14 (59) Gr 




3 (18) WWT -Gr 




2 (10) Badlands -Gr 




1 (2) Badlands 




21 (47) NIWF 


40(132) 


15 (79) Creek 




3 (3) Homesite 




1 (3)Gr 





Northern Oriole 
Octerus galbula 



-, b 



2(2)HD 



2(2) 



Brewer's Blackbird 

Euphaga cyanocephalus 



-, B 



1(2) Creek 



1(2) 



Brown-headed Cowbird 
Molothrus ater 



-. B 



6 (12) Creek 
5(11)HD 

4 (7) Homesite 

5 (5) NIWF 
1(1) Or 



21 (36) 



American Goldfinch 
Carduelis tristis 



-,b 



7 (23) HD 
1 (1) Creek 
1 (1) Homesite 



9 (25) 



Rufous-sided Towhee 
Pipilo erythrophthalmus 



, B 



9(10) HD 

1 (2) Badlands 



10(12) 



26 



TABLE 2 (cont.) 
BIRDS IDENTIFIED ON THE BLOOMFIELD STUDY AREA 



Species 



Status 1 



Sightings by Habitat 2 Total Sighting s 2 



Lark Bunting 

Calamospiza melanocorys 



Grasshopper Sparrow 
Passerculus savannarum 



Vesper Sparrow 

Pooecetes gramineus 



Lark Sparrow 

Chondestes grammacus 



Dark-eyed Junco 
Junco hyemalis 

Tree Sparrow 
Spizella arborea 



Chipping Sparrow 
Spizella passerina 

Lapland Longspur 
Calcarius lapponicus 

Chestnut-collared Longspur 
Calcarius ornatus 



,b 



. b 



-, b 



, B 



-, t 



w, t 



-, B 



W, t 



-. B 



14 
1 

1 


(58) NIWF 
(2) Homesite 
(DGr 


3 
2 
1 


(3) Creek 
(2) NIWF 

(2)Gr 


13 

6 
5 


(21) NIWF 

(8)Gr 

(6) Badlands 


8 
1 
1 


(21) HD 
(1) Creek 
(DGr 



3) Creek 



2 

1 
1 


(5) Badlands 
(5) Homesite 
(2)HD 


1 
1 


(3) Creek 
(2)HD 


1 


(2) NIWF 


3 

1 


(3) NIWF 
(DGr 



16(61) 

6(7) 
24 (35) 

10(23) 

1(3) 
4(12) 

2(5) 
1(2) 
4(4) 



Legend: 

'Based on Skaar's Montana Bird Distribution. 

2 Numbers are total number of sightings (total number of individuals sighted). 

'Deviation from Skaar's classification made based on data in this report. 



w — suspected wintering 
W — known wintering 
b — suspected breeding 
B — known breeding 
t — transient 



HD — Hardwood Draw 
Gr — Grassland 
NIWF — Agriculture 



27 



Mammals 

Fifteen species of mammals were identified on 
the study area. These mammals, plus data on 
their relative abundance and habitat utilization, 
are listed in Table 3. Mule deer, white-tailed 
deer, antelope, and furbearers/ predators were 
discussed in previous sections. This section 
discusses the remainder, i.e., rabbits, porcu- 
pines, and small rodents. 

no attempts were made to capture bats in the 
study area. Matthews and Swenson (1982) pro- 
vide a good comprehensive discussion of the 
bats found within this area. Most of the bats that 
they found probably occur or migrate through 
this area also. 



TABLE 3 

MAMMALS IDENTIFIED 

ON THE BLOOMEIELD STUDY AREA 




White-tailed jackrabbits were relatively com- 
mon. Although found throughout the area, they 
were more common along or near the divide. 
Cottontails were seen near the divide. Although 
no specimens were collected, they were 
believed to be desert cottontails based on the 
habitat, a badlands complex. Thompson (1978) 
found desert cottontails in similar habitat in his 
Circle West Stduy. Although no mountain cot- 
tontails (Sylvilagus nuttalli) were observed on 
the Bloomfield study area, they may occur in 
the woody draws. 

Other non-game mammals were: porcupines in 
the woody draws and badlands complex, 
thirteen-lined ground squirrels throughout the 
area, and northern pocket gophers in the grass- 
lands and barrow ditches. For a more complete 
listing of mammals that may occur in this area, 
see Matthews and Swenson (1981). 

A total of 1,500 trap nights were completed dur- 
ing the study for small mammals sampling; 
however, this figure was corrected to 1,421 
trap nights after snapped traps were subtracted 
from the total. There were 136 captures overall 
for a 9.57 capture/100 trap night efficiency 
(Table 4). Only three species of small mammals 
were captured. As expected, deer mice were 
the most abundant species, followed by west- 
em harvest mice and prairie voles. Because of 
the small sample size of captures, no attempt 
was made to calculate any diversity indices. 





Sightings 


Total 


Species 


By Habitat 1 


Sightings' 


White-tailed Jackrabbit 


2 (2) mwr 


3(3) 


Lepus townsendi 


1 (1) Badlands 




Desert Cottontail 


1 (1) Badlands 


K 1) 


Sylvilagus auduboni 






Porcupine 


1 (1)HD 


1(1) 


Crethizon dorsatum 






Morthem Pocket Gopher 


(sign noted) 




Thomamys talpoides 







Thirteen-lined Ground Squirrel 2 (2) NIWF 3(3) 

Spermophilus tridecemlineatus 1 (l)Gr 

Western Harvest Mouse 2 (2) Gr 2 (2) 

Reithrodontomys megalotis 

Deer Mouse 47 (47) Gr 133(133) 

Peromyscus maniculatus 33 (33) HD 

33 (33) Creek 

13 (13) Badlands 

7 (7) mwr 



(sign noted) 

1 (1) Badlands 1 (1) 

1 (DHD 1 (1) 

1 (1) Badlands 1 (1) 

1 (l)NIWT 1 (1) 

i (l)mwr i (i) 

5 (17) mwr 5(17) 

26 (97) mWT 62 (238) 
16 (58) HD 
13 (55) Creek 
4 (14) Gr 

2 (12) Badlands 

2 (2) HomeSite 

13 (58) Badlands 21 (80) 

3 (8) mwr 

3 (7)Gr 

1 (4) Homesite 

1 (3)HD 

'Numbers are total number of sightings (numbers of 
individuals sighted). 

HD — Hardwood Draw 
Gr — Grassland 
NIWF —Agriculture 



Muskrat 
Ondatra zibethica 

Prairie Vole 
Microtus ochrogaster 

Red Pox 
Vulpes vulpes 

Coyote 
Canis latrans 

Skunk 
Mephitis mephitis 

Long-tailed Weasel 
Mustela frenta 

Pronghom 
Antilocapra americana 

White-tailed Deer 
Odocoileus virginianus 



Mule Deer 
Odocoileus hemionus 



28 



TABLE 4 
RESULTS OF SMALL MAMMAL TRAPPING (BLOOMFIELD) 







Hardwood 








Agriculture 


Draw 


Creek 


Grassland 


Badlands 


Trap nights 


293 


279 


280 


278 


291 


Total Captures 


7 


33 


33 


49 


14 


Captures/ 100 Trap Mights 


2.4 


11.8 


11.8 


17.6 


4.8 


Number of Species 


1 


1 


1 


2 


2 


Species: 












Peromyscus maniculatus 


7 


33 


33 


47 


13 


Reithrodontomys megalotis 








2 




Microtus ochrogaster 










1 



ISORTtl FORK 

Game Species 

Mule Deer 

Mule deer production and population character- 
istics are shown in Appendix G and harvest stat- 
istics are shown in Appendix tl. Population 
structure was not determined because of the 
small sample size of observations during the 
fall period. Group size varied from 1-8 mule 
deer. 

Mule deer distribution is shown in Figure 14. 
Observations were made in the upland breaks 
above the north Fork of Bums Creek and above 
the Middle Fork of Bums Creek. Most observa- 
tions cluster along the latter for all seasons. 
Because of the unusually mild winter of 1980 - 
81 in southeastern Montana, there were no win- 
ter concentrations of mule deer. Swenson 
(1980) mapped mule deer winter ranges for the 
severe winters of 1977-78 and 1978-79 (Figure 
15). his data showed 2.9 deer/square mile in 
the area north of the north Fork of Bums Creek 
and 4.0 deer/square mile in the area south of 
the north Fork of Burns Creek. These figures 
reflect the total deer, i.e., mule deer and white- 
tailed deer, in the area. During a normal winter, 
these figures are probably much higher as deer 
often move from the woody draws and creek 
bottoms to the open areas in severe winters. 
(See explanation under white-tailed deer on the 
Bloomfield tract). Most mule deer observations 
were made in the upland breaks and rolling 
hills above the creek. 



White-tailed Deer 

White-tailed deer production and population 
characteristics are shown in Appendix G and 
harvest statistics are shown in Appendix H. 
Because of the low number of observations, the 
production figures may not be indicative of the 
white-tailed deer population in this area. Group 
size ranged from 1-6 white-tailed deer. 

The white-tailed deer population in this area 
was not very high, although there are white- 
tailed deer along the complete length of north 
Fork of Burns Creek. White-tailed deer are much 
more abundant along the Middle Fork and 
South Fork of Bums Creek where there are 
more agricultural lands. 

White-tailed deer distribution is shown in Fig- 
ure 16. There were no winter concentrations 
because of the unusually mild winter. Except 
for a cluster in the northwest comer of the 
study area, most of the observations are scat- 
tered along the length of the north Fork of Burns 
Creek and in a woody draw to the south. Both 
areas have sufficient dense brush and cover to 
provide excellent white-tailed deer escape 
cover. The major item missing in this area 
necessary to provide excellent white-tailed deer 
habitat is agriculture. Although there is some 
agriculture land (mostly hay meadows and 
some small grains), the area lacks the extensive 
agricultural land, i.e., small-grains, com, alfalfa, 
et cetera, that white-tailed deer prefer. This area 
is really better mule deer habitat. 



29 



R55E 



R56E 




Scale In Miles 



MULE DEER OBSERVATIONS 
LEGEND 

A Sprin g 



B Summer 
C Fall 
D Winter 



BLM LAND 
STATE LAND 



FIGURE 14 



30 




Scale In Miles 



-N- 



DEER WINTERING AREAS 
LEGEND 

Area — Density o/ deer for that particular area 



SOURCE: 

Big Game Survey and 

Inventory (Deer) 

Region 7 1 980 

Montana Department of Fish, 

Wildlife and Parks 



BLM LAND 
STATE LAND 



FIGURE 15 



31 



R55E 



R56E 




Scale In Miles 



WHITE-TAILED DEER 
OBSERVATIONS 



LEGEND 

A Sprin g 

B Summer 

C Fall 
D Winter 



BLM LAND 
STATE LAND 



FIGURE 16 



32 



Swenson (1980) mapped the area north of the 
north Fork of Bums Creek as having 2.9 deer/ 
square mite and the area south of there as hav- 
ing 4.0 deer/square mile (Figure 15). These 
figures were obtained during the severe win- 
ters of 1977-78 and 1978-79 and were derived 
from combining mule deer and white-tailed 
deer observations in the area. 

Antelope 

Only three observations of antelope were made 
on the north Fork study area. All observations 
were made in spring and consisted of two 
observations of a single buck and one observa- 
tion of three does. The spring-summer period is 
a time when antelope are at a maximum dis- 
persal and it was concluded that this area is not 
antelope habitat. Wentland (1977) also showed 
no antelope in this area for summer distribu- 
tion; however, one herd of approximately 20 
antelope was noted on several occasions near 
T19n R56E Sec. 28 and 33, an area considera- 
bly south of the north Fork study area. 

Sharp-tailed Grouse 

Locations of seven known and one possible 
sharp-tailed grouse arenas are shown in Figure 
1 7. The majority of the arenas were along the 
creek. One "possible" arena was identified by a 
local rancher. Although sharp-tailed grouse 
were observed in this area on several occa- 
sions, the arena was not located. One spring 
observation was made of a group of males that 
probably had just left the arena and were dis- 
playing along the county road in this area. 
Other arenas probably exist in the study area 
but were not located. Therefore, population 
characteristic estimates are considered min- 
imal. 

Maximum counts of males attending these are- 
nas are shown in Appendix I. Total male popu- 
lation for seven arenas was 90 and averaged 
12.9 males/arena. This is well above the 10 
males/arena average for Region 7 in 1981 as 
reported by Knapp, et al., 1981; however, it is a 
drop from the 16 males/arena average in 1980 
for Region 7 (Knapp and Swenson 1980). 
Depending upon the technique used to esti- 
mate the sharp-tailed grouse population, the 
estimates range from 180 sharp-tailed grouse 
(Robel's et al. 1972 technique) to 360 sharp- 
tailed grouse (Rippin and Boag's 1974 tech- 
nique). This averages out to 8.6 to 17.2 sharp- 
tailed grouse/square mile. 

Four broods were observed (broods of five, 
eleven, twelve, and fourteen) which averaged 



10.5 young /brood. This is extremely high 
when compared to the Region 7 average of 1.7 
young/brood in 1980 (Knapp et al. 1981) and 
the 4.2 young/brood average in 1979 (Knapp 
and Swenson 1980). 

Distribution of sharp-tailed grouse is shown in 
Figures 18 and 19. Most observations occurred 
along the north Fork of Bums Creek and the 
woody draw south of there. Habitat utilization 
showed grasslands, creeks, woody draws, and 
small-grain fields to be the most important hab- 
itats. This is biased somewhat in that most are- 
nas are located in grasslands and most spring 
observations were made at or near the arena. 
Woody draws and creeks were used as cover 
with some movement to small grain fields for 
feeding. 

Ring-necked Pheasant 

Ring-necked pheasants were relatively com- 
mon on the study area and their distribution is 
shown in Figure 20. Like white-tailed deer, por- 
tions of the study area lacked the extensive 
agriculture lands that they prefer. Conse- 
quently, the observations cluster somewhat in 
the areas where there are some small grains 
nearby, e.g., the junction of the north Fork 
Bums Creek and the woody draw south of 
there, the northwestern portion of the study 
area, and similar areas with adjacent small- 
grain fields. There were many scattered obser- 
vation noted during the spring season when 
males are establishing territories. 

Only one brood of four was observed. This was 
well below the 9.0 young/brood reported for 
Region 7 (Knapp et al. 1981), but the observa- 
tion was made in August when the birds were 
several months old and compares favorably 
with a brood of five observed at the same time 
on the Bloomfield tract. 

Habitat utilization showed the creek, woody 
draws, and small-grain fields are the most 
important use areas. For the most part, the 
creek and woody draws were used for nesting 
and cover and the small-grain fields were used 
for feeding. 

Gray Partridge 

Trueblood and Weigand (1971) found the gray 
partridge most abundant in the northeastern 
and northcentral counties of Montana. They 
prefer those areas with a mixture of cultivated 
(small-grain fields) and non-cultivated lands. As 
mentioned previously, the north Fork study 
area lacks the extensive small-grain fields that 
gray partridge thrive in. One observation of a 



33 



R55E 



R56E 




Scale In Miles 



-N- 



SHARP-TAILED GROUSE 
STRUTTING GROUNDS 

LEGEND 



Known Ground 
Possible Ground 



BLM LAND 
STATE LAND 



FIGURE 1 7 



34 



R55E 



R56E 




Scale In Miles 



-N- 



SHARP-TAILED GROUSE 
OBSERVATIONS FOR 
FALL-WINTER 



LEGEND 

C Fall 

D Winter 

O (Circled Letter) 

Gro up of Ten or More 



BLM LAND 
STATE LAND 



FIGURE 18 



35 



R56E 




Scale In Miles 



-N- 



SHARP-TAILED GROUSE 
OBSERVATIONS FOR 
SPRINGS UMMER 



LEGEND [ 

A Spring . 

B Summer 

O (Circled Letter) 

Group of Ten or More 



BLM LAND 
STATE LAND 



FIGURE 19 



36 




Scale In Miles 



-N- 



RING-NECKED PHEASANT 
OBSERVATIONS 



LEGEND 

A Sprin g 

B Summer 

C Fall 

D Winter 

O (Circled Letter) 



BLM LAND 



STATE LAND 



Group of Ten or More 



FIGURE 20 



37 



single gray partridge was made and this obser- 
vation was several miles south of the study 
area. Gray partridge probably occur on the 
study area but utilization is minor. 

Merriam 's Turkey 

Only four observations of turkeys were made 
during the study. All observations were made 
along the Middle Fork of Bums Creek near the 
Blankenship homesite. Group size varied from 
4-26 individuals. According to Blankenship 
(pers. comm). these turkeys are part of a large 
flock of 50-100 that stay along the Middle Fork 
and South Fork of Burns Creek. These turkeys 
supposedly winter near the Allard homesite (off 
the study area). 

Waterfowl and Other Wetland Birds 

Waterfowl and other wetland birds found on the 



study area are listed in Table 5. There were no 
reservoirs on the area. The only wetlands habi- 
tat was the creek and large stretches of it dried 
up as summer progressed. Consequently, there 
was only minimal utilization of this area by 
waterfowl and shorebirds, however, there were 
more species and total numbers than was 
found on the Bloomfield tract. Only six species 
of dabbling ducks, (mallards, green-winged 
teal, blue-winged teal, widgeons, pintails, and 
gadwalls) were observed and no broods were 
seen during the study. Ten species of shore- 
birds and other wetland birds were observed. 
Killdeer nested on the area and coots and Wil- 
son's phalaropes were suspected of nesting. 
Upland sandpipers, a "special concern" species 
for Montana (Flath 1981), were observed once 
in upland grassland on the study area. 



TABLE 5 
BIRDS IDENTIFIED ON THE NORTH FORK STUDY AREA 



Species 



Status 



Sightings by Habitat 1 Total Sightings 



American Bittern 

Botarus lentiginosis 

Mallard 

Anas platyrhychos 

Gadwall 

Anas strepera 

Pintail 

Anas acuta 

Green-winged Teal 
Anas crecca 

Blue-winged Teal 
Anas discors 

American Wigeon 
Anas americana 

Turkey Vulture 
Cathartes aura 

Red-tailed Hawk 
Buteo jamaicensis 

Rough-legged Hawk 
Buteo lazopus 

rerruginous Hawk 
Buteo regalis 



-, b 
w, B 
-, b 
-, B 
-, t 
-. B 
-, b 
-, b 
w, B 
W 3 ,t 
,B 3 



1(1) Creek 

15 (61) Creek 

1 (2) HD 

4 (6) Creek 
1(1) Creek 

2 (11) Creek 

5 (7) Creek 

7 (10) Creek 

1(1) Creek 
4(7)Gr 

12(12)Gr 
1 (2) HD 

1 (1) Creek 

2 (2) HD 

KDGr 



KD 



16 (63) 


4(6) 


1(1) 


2(11) 


5(7) 


7(10) 


5(8) 


13 (14) 


3(3) 


KD 



38 



TABLE 5 (cont.) 
BIRDS IDENTIFIED ON THE NORTH FORK STUDY AREA 



Species 



Status 



Sightings by Habitat 1 Total Sightings 



Golden Eagle 

Aquila chrysaetos 



Marsh Hawk 
Circus cyaneus 



Prairie Falcon 
Falco mexicanus 



American Kestrel 
Falco sparverius 



Sharp-tailed Grouse 

Pediocetes phasianellus 



Ring-necked Pheasant 
Phasianus colchicus 



W, B 



W, b 



W, B 



, B 



W, B 



W, B 



Gray Partridge 
Perdix perdix 


W, b 


Turkey 

Meleagris gallopavo 


W,b 


Sora 


. b 


Porzana Carolina 




American Coot 


-, b 


Fulica americana 




Killdeer 


-,B 


Charadrius vociferus 




Upland Sandpiper 

Bartramia longicauda 


-. b 


Spotted Sandpiper 
Actitis macularia 


: b 


Solitary Sandpiper 


-, t 



10(10)Gr 
3 (3) NIWF 
2 (3) Creek 


15(16) 


18(19)Gr 
7 (7) Creek 
5 (6) NIWF 
2 (3) HD 


32 (35) 


6(6)Gr 
2 (2) NIWF 
1 (1) Creek 
1 (1) Badlands 


10(10) 


16(19)Gr 
13 (14) NIWF 
4(6)HD 
2 (3) Badlands 
1 (3) Homesite 
1 (1) Creek 


37 (46) 


72 (586) Gr 
18(117)HD 
10 (29) Creek 
9 (67) NIWF 


109(799) 


27 (42) Creek 
19(42)HD 
15 (50) Gr 

2 (4) NIWF 

2 (2) Homesite 


65 (140) 


1(1) Or 


KD 


4 (49) Gr 


4(49) 


1(1) Creek 


KD 


8 (9) Creek 


8(9) 


20 (29) Gr 


38 (56) 



Tringa solitaria 



13 (21) Creek 
4 (5) HD 
1 (1) NIWF 

1 (2) Gr 
1(1) Creek 
1 (4) Creek 



1(2) 
KD 
KD 



39 



TABLE 5 (cont.) 
BIRDS IDENTIFIED ON THE NORTH FORK STUDY AREA 



Species 



Status 



Sightings by Habitat 1 Total Sightings 



Willet 

Catoptrophorus semipalmatus 

Wilson's Phalarope 
Steganopus tricolor 

Rock Dove 
Columba livia 

Mourning Dove 
Zenaida macroura 



Common Nighthawk 
Chordeiles minor 



Belted Kingfisher 
Megaceryle alcyon 

Common Flicker 
Colaptes auritus 

Eastern Kingbird 
Tyrannus tyrannus 



Western Kingbird 
Tyrannus verticalis 

Say's Phoebe 
Sayomis saya 

Horned Lark 

Eremophila alpestris 

Bank Swallow 
Riparia riparia 

Rough-winged Swallow 
Stelgidopteryx ruficollis 

Barn Swallow 
Hirundo rustica 



Cliff Swallow 

Petrochelidon phrrhonota 



-, b 

-, b 

W, b 

, B 



B 



-,b 

, B 
,B 

, B 
-, b 
W, B 

-, B 
-, b 

-. B 



1 (1) Creek 


KD 


4 (12) Creek 


4(12) 


1 (4) Gr 
1(1) Creek 


2(5) 


19 (56) HD 
9 (25) Creek 
9 (25) Gr 
8 (37) NIWF 
2(10)HD-Gr 
1 (4) NIWF - Gr 


48 (157) 


4 (4) Gr 
3 (3) Creek 
1 (1)HD 
1 (1) NIWF 
1(1) Badlands 


10(10) 


1(1) Creek 


KD 


13 (21) HD 
3 (4) Gr 


16 (25) 


22 (29) HD 
16(18)Gr 
13 (18) Creek 
3 (4) Homesite 


54(69) 


8(12)Gr 
3 (4) MIWF 


11 (16) 


1 (2) Creek 
1 (2) HD 


2(4) 


20 (67) NIWF 
18 (78) Gr 


38(145) 


1 (2) Creek 


1(2) 


6 (8) Creek 
1 (1)HD 


7(9) 


37 (59) HD 
28 (59) Creek 

6 (17) Homesite 

4(21)Gr 

4 (7) NIWF 


79(163) 



-. B 



1 (4) HD 



1(4) 



40 



TABLE 5 (cont.) 
BIRDS IDENTIFIED ON THE NORTH FORK STUDY AREA 



Species 



Status 



Sightings by Habitat 1 Total Sightings 



Black-billed Magpie 
Pica pica 


W, B 


Common Crow 

Corvus brachyrhynchos 


, B 


Black-capped Chickadee 
Parus atricapillus 


W, b 


House Wren 

Troglodytes aedon 


-, b 


Rock Wren 

Salpinctes obsoletus 


, b 


Gray Catbird 

Dumetella carolinensis 


, b 


Brown Thrasher 


-. B 



Toxostoma rufum 



American Robin 

Turdus migratorius 



Mountain Bluebird 
Sialia sialis 



Northern Shrike 
Lanius excubitor 

Loggerhead Shrike 
Lanius ludovicianus 



Starling 

Stumus vulgaris 



Yellow Warbler 

Denroica petechia 

Common Yellowthroat 
Geothlypis trichas 



W, B 
, b 

W, t 

-. B 

w, b 

-, b 

-. b 



34 (55) HD 
10(12)Gr 
8 (10) Creek 
3 (3) NIWF 


55 (80) 


11 (86) NIWF 
14 (26) Gr 
8(25) HD 
1(2) Creek 


34 ( 139 


2 (6) HD 
1(1) HomeSite 


3(7) 


11 (12) HD 
2 (3)Gr 
1 (1) Creek 


14(16) 


2 (3) Badlands 


2(3) 


4(4)HD 


4(4) 


8(9)HD 
1 (1) Creek 
1(1) Badlands 


10(11) 


34(122)HD 
6 (27) Creek 
1(1) Homesite 
1 (1) NIWT 


41 (151 


10(13)HD 
8(19)Gr 
2 (2) NIWF 
1 (1) Badlands 


21 (35) 


3 (3) HD 
2(2)Gr 


5(5) 


28 (36) HD 
20 (31) Gr 
5 (5) Creek 
3 (4) NIWF 


56(76) 


5 (9) Gr 

3 (20) Homesite 
2 (4) NIWF 
2 (3) HD 


12 (36) 


23 (36) HD 
4 (7) Creek 


27 (43) 


1 (1)HD 


KD 



41 



TABLE 5 (cont.) 
BIRDS IDENTIFIED ON THE (NORTH FORK STUDY AREA 



Species 



Status 



Sightings by Habitat 1 Total Sightings 



House Sparrow W, b 

Passer domesticus 

Western Meadowlark -, B 

Sturnella neglecta 



Yellow -headed Blackbird -, b 

Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus 

Red-winged Blackbird w, B 

Agelaius phoeniceus 

Morthem Oriole -, b 

Icterus galbula 

Brewer's Blackbird -, B 

Euphaga cyanocephalus 

Brown-headed Cowbird -, B 

Molothrus ater 



Lazuli Bunting -, b 

Passerina amoena 

Common Redpoll W, t 

Carduelis flammea 

American Goldfinch -, b 

Carduelis tristis 



Rufous-sided Towhee -, B 

Pipis erythrophthalmus 

Lark Bunting -, b 

Calamospiza melanocorys 

Grasshopper Sparrow -, b 

Passerculus savannarum 

Vesper Sparrow -, b 

Pooecetes gramineus 

Lark Sparrow -, B 

Chondestes grammacus 



Dark-eyed Junco -, t 

Junco hyemalis 



4 (22) Homesite 
1 (1)HD 


5(23) 


58 (327) Gr 
14 (82) NIWF 

8 (67) NIWF-Gr 

1 (8) Creek 


81 (484) 


1 (3) Creek 
1 (1)HD 


2(4) 


25 (97) Creek 
11 (21) HD 
2 (3) niwf 


38 (121) 


5 (6) HD 
2 (3) Creek 


7(9) 


6 (8) Creek 
4 (8) HD 


10(16) 


10 (22) HD 
6(l4)Gr 
4 (18) Creek 
3 (17) NIWF 


23(71) 



10 
9 

24 
3 

2 

1 

25 
2 

5 
1 



20 
3 

43 
5 
3 
3 



1)HD 



147) Gr 
139) HD 

45) HD 

4)Gr 
5) NIWF 

1) Creek 

28) HD 

2) Creek 

22) NIWF 
2)Gr 

2)Gr 



70) Gr 

9) NIWF 

96) HD 
11) Gr 

10) NIWF 
4) Creek 



1(1) HD 



KD 

19 (286) 
30 (55) 

27 (30) 

6(24) 

2(2) 
23 (79) 
54(121) 

KD 



42 



TABLE 5 (cont.) 
BIRDS IDENTIFIED ON THE NORTH FORK STUDY AREA 



Species 



Status 



Sightings by Habitat 1 Total Sightings 



Tree Sparrow 
Spizella arborea 

Chipping Sparrow 
Spizella passerina 

Field Sparrow 
Spizella pusilla 

Lapland Longspur 
Calcarius lapponicus 

Chestnut-collared Longspur 
Calcarius omatus 

Snow Bunting 

Plectrophenax nivalis 



w, t 
,B 

,B 

W, t 
<B 

W, t 



22 (88) HD 
4 (10) Creek 
1 (3) Homesite 

18 (53) HD 
4 (20) Niwr 
3 (7) Creek 

4(12)Gr 

1 (2)Gr 

1(1) Or 

1 (4) Gr 
1 (3) NIWF 



27(101) 

25 (80) 

4(12) 
1(2) 
Kl) 
2(7) 



Legend: 

'Based on Skaar's Montana Bird Distribution 

2 Numbers are total number of sightings (total number of individuals sighted). 

deviation from Skaar's classification made based on data in this report. 



w — suspected wintering 
W — known wintering 
b — suspected breeding 
B — known breeding 
t — transient 



HD — Hardwood Draw 
Gr — Grassland 
N I Wr— Agriculture 



Raptors 

Eight species of raptors were identified which 
included one eagle, one harrier, two falcons, 
three hawks, and one vulture (Table 5). Raptor 
nest locations, except kestrels, are presented in 
Figure 21. One prairie falcon aerie was located; 
one active golden eagle nest was located; and 
one 'possible " golden eagle nest in a cave that 
was inactive this past year but is occasionally 
used by golden eagles (Cayer, pers. comm.) 
was located. Raptors utilized the badlands 
complex for nesting and perching and hunted 
the creek, grasslands, and grain fields. 



Furbearers and Predators 

Furbearers and predators normally harvested 
for their pelts are listed in Table 6. Muskrats 
were the only furbearer observed; however, 
beaver are found below the study area on 
Bums Creek and probably use the north Fork as 
well. Mink probably occur in the creek and 
bobcats probably occur in the hills and 
"breaks". The only predators seen on the area 
were coyotes, raccoons, and striped skunks, 
although weasels, fox, and badgers probably 
occur there. 



43 




RAPTOR NEST LOCATIONS 
LEGEND 

PF Prairie Falcon 
GE Golden Eagle 
GE? Possible Golden Eagle 



BLM LAND 
STATE LAND 



FIGURE 21 



44 



TABLE 6 

MAMMALS IDENTIFIED 

OPI THE NORTH FORK STUDY AREA 

Sightings Total 

Species By Habitat 1 Sightings' 



White-tailed Jackrabbit 
Lepus townsendi 

Desert Cottontail* 
Sylvilagus auduboni 

Mountain Cottontail* 
Sylvilagus nuttalli 

Porcupine 
Erethizon dorsatum 



10 (13) Gr 
2 (2) MIWT 
2 (2) Creek 

2 (2) Creek 
8 (9) HD 
8 (9)Gr 



2 (2) Creek 

2 (2) HD 

2 (2)Gr 

1 (l)MIWT 

(sign noted) 
(sign noted) 



14(17) 



18(20) 



7(7) 



Beaver 
Castor canadensis 

Northern Pocket Gopher 
Thomamys talpoides 

Thirteen-lined Ground Squirrel 3 (3) NIWF 
Spermophilus tridecemlineatus 

northern Grasshopper Mouse 3 (3) niWF 

Onychomys leucogaster 



3(3) 



3(3) 



Deer Mouse 
Peromyscus maniculatus 



Muskrat 
Ondatra zibethica 

Prairie Vole 
Microtus ochrogaster 

Meadow Vole 
Microtus ochrogaster 

Raccoon 
Procyon lotor 

Coyote 
Canis latrans 

Striped Skunk 
Mephitis mephitis 

Pronghom 
Antilocapra americana 

White-tailed Deer 
Odocoileus virginianus 



25 (25)MIWr 74(74) 

13 (13) HD 

13 (13) Creek 

13 (13) Badlands 

10 (10) Gr 



(sign noted) 



1 (l)NIWF 



4 (4) Creek 



1 (5) HD 



1 (1) Creek 

2 (3) Gr 

1 (1)HD 



3 (5)Gr 



1 (1) 



4(4) 



1 (5) 



3(4) 



1(1) 



3(5) 



10 (32) Creek 25(75) 
7 (28) NIWF 
7 (14) HD 
1 (DGr 



Mule Deer 
Odocoileus hemionus 



11 (45) Gr 23(77) 

7 (14) HD 

3 (7) Badlands 

1 (6) Creek 

1 (5) M1WF 

'Combined sightings for desert and mountain cottontail; 
cannot differentiate in the field. 

'Mumbers are total numbers of sightings (total numbers of 
individuals sighted). 

HD — Hardwood Draw Gr — Grassland niWF — Agriculture 



Nongame Species 

Amphibians and Reptiles 

Amphibians observed on the north Fork study 
area include: Woodhouse's toad, chorus frog, 
and leopard frog (Table 1). Others, undoubtedly 
found there but not observed, should include: 
tiger salamander, plains spadefoot, and great 
plains toad. 

Bull snakes, plains garter snakes, racers, and 
prairie rattlesnakes were reptiles observed on 
the study area (Table 1). Short-homed toads 
and western hognose snakes probably occur 
there but were not seen. 

Birds 

Since game birds, waterfowl, and raptors were 
discussed previously, this section concentrates 
mostly on non-game birds such as the passe- 
rines. Seventy-six species of birds were identi- 
fied on the area. Specific data on their status, 
number of sightings, and habitat utilization is 
presented in Table 5. 

Forty-six species of birds were observed on the 
bird route (Appendix L). Western meadowlarks, 
mourning doves, killdeer, bam swallows, east- 
em kingbirds, and yellow warblers were the 
more common species on the route in decreas- 
ing order of abundance. The north Fork tract is 
more of a native grassland area interspersed 
with woody draws, a badlands complex (Sheep 
Mountain Divide), and the north Fork of Bums 
Creek. Consequently, woodland species of 
birds such as brown thrashers, house wrens, 
and northern orioles are more predominant in 
this area than the Bloomfield study area. 
Because of the greater vegetation diversity, 
there is greater bird species diversity, particu- 
larly evident in woodland birds. When the route 
data is compared to the past results of the Sav- 
age Breeding Bird Route (Appendix K), bird 
species composition is quite comparable. This 
was expected as the routes are only 20-25 
miles apart and both routes have similar habi- 
tats in approximately the same proportions. 




45 



Mammals 

Seventeen species of mammals were identified 
on the study area. These mammals, plus data 
on their relative abundance and habitat utiliza- 
tion, is presented in Table 6. As mule deer, 
white-tailed deer, antelope, and fur- 
bearers/ predators were discussed in previous 
sections, this section discusses the remainder 
(rabbits, small rodents, et cetera). 

No bats were captured during the study. See 
Matthews and Swenson (1982) for a compre- 
hensive discussion of bats which occur in this 
area. 

White-tailed jackrabbits were relatively com- 
mon throughout the area. Cottontails were 
common to abundant in the woody draws, 
creek bottoms, and rocky outcrops. Two spe- 
cies of cottontails were identified. Three road- 
killed cottontails were found on the area. One 
found near a woody draw was a mountain cot- 
tontail and two found in upland grassland 
around rocky outcrops were desert cottontails. 



This agrees with the habitat preferences of the 
two species as discussed by Matthews and 
Swenson (1982). 

Other non-game mammals include: porcupine 
in the woody draws and creek bottoms, 
thirteen-lined ground squirrels in the upland 
areas, and northern pocket gophers in the 
uplands and barrow ditches. See Matthews and 
Swenson (1982) for a more complete listing of 
mammals that may occur in the area. 

Fifteen-hundred trap nights of small mammal 
sampling were completed during the study. 
After correcting for empty but sprung traps, 
there were 1,458 trap nights. There were 103 
captures overall for a 7.06 capture/ 100 trap 
night efficiency (Table 7). Four species of small 
mammals were captured with deer mice being 
the most abundant species followed by mea- 
dow voles, northern grasshopper mice, and 
prairie voles in decreasing order of abundance. 
Diversity indices were not calculated because 
of the small sample size. 



TABLE 7 
RESULTS OF SMALL MAMMAL TRAPPING (NORTH FORK) 







Hardwood 








Agriculture 


Draw 


Creek 


Grassland 


Badlands 


Trap Nights 


296 


287 


295 


291 


289 


Total Captures 


29 


13 


17 


11 


13 


Captures/100 Trap Nights 


9.8 


14.5 


15.8 


13.8 


4.5 


Number of Species 


3 


1 


2 


2 


1 


Species: 












Peromyscus maniculatus 


25 


13 


13 


10 


13 


Onychomys leucogaster 


3 










Microtus ochrogaster 


1 










Microtus pennsylvanicus 






4 






Birds 








1 





46 



LITERATURE CITED 

Bailey, R.G. 1978. Ecoregions of the United States. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Region, Odgen, 
Utah, 77pp. 

Blankenship, V. 1981. Personal Communication. 

Cayer, G. 1981. Personal Communication. 

Flath, D.L. 1981. Vertebrate species of special concern. Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife, and Parks. 
74 pp. 

Knapp, S.J. and J.E. Swenson, 1980. Upland game bird and fur surveys and inventory ■ Region 7. 
Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife, and Parks. Fed. Aid Pro}. W-130R11. 52 pp. 

Knapp, S.J., B. Hildebrand, and J.E. Swenson. 1981. Upland game bird and fur surveys and inventory 
Region 7. Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Fed. Aid Pro}. W-130-R12. 85 pp. 

Matthews, W.L. and J.E. Swenson. 1981. The mammals of east-central Montana. 41st Proc. Mont. Acad, of 
Science. In Press. 

Payne, G.F. 1973. Vegetative rangeland types in Montana. Montana Agricultural Experiment Station, 
Bulletin 671. Bozeman, Montana. 15 pp. 

Rippin, R.B. and D.A. Boag. 1974. Recruitment to populations of male sharp-tailed grouse. J. Will. 
Manage. 38(4): 616-621 

Robbins, C.S. and W.T. Van Velyen. 1967. The breeding bird survey, 1966. V.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 
Bur. Sport Fish and Wildlife, Spec. Sci. Rep. Wildl. no. 102. Washington, D.C. 43 pp. 

Robel, R.J., F.R. Henderson, and W. Jackson 1972. Some sharp-tailed grouse population statistics from 
South Dakota. J. Wildl. Manage. 36(1): 87-98 

Skaar, P.D. 1980. Montana Bird Distribution. Mapping by Latilong. 2nd Ed. P.D. Skaar, 501 S. Third, 
Bozeman, MT 72 pp. 

Swenson, J.E. 1980. Big game survey and inventory (deer) - Region 7. Montana Department of Fish, 
Wildlife, and Parks. Fed. Aid Pro}. W-130-R-11. 90 pp. 

Swenson, J.E. 1981. Big game survey and inventory (deer) ■ Region 7. Montana Department of Fish, 
Wildlife, and Parks. Fed. Aid Pro}. W-130-R-12. 90 pp. 

Thompson, L.S. 1978. Circle West Wildlife Baseline Study. Circle West Technical Report Ho. 2 305 pp. 

Trueblood, R. and J. Weigand. 1971. Hungarian Partridge, pp 161165. in Mussehl, T.W. andF.W. Howell, 
eds.. Game Management in Montana. Montana Fish and Game Department Game Manage Div., Fed. 
Aid Pro}. W-3-C. 238 pp. 

U.R.A. (Unit Resource Analysis - Richland-Glendive Planning Unit) Step 34 - Vegetation. Bureau of Land 
Management. Unpublished. 

Step 35 - Soils. Bureau of Land Management. Unpublished 

U.S. Dept. of Commerce. 1980-1981. Climatological Data - Montana (Monthly Reports). 

Wentland, H.J. 1 980. Big game survey and inventory (antelope) - Region 7. Montana Department of Fish, 
Wildlife, and Parks. Fed. Aid Pro}. W-130-R-8. 32 pp. 



47 




1 

a. 



49 



APPENDIX B 

AVERAGE TEMPERATURE AND PRECIPITATION AND 
DEPARTURES FROM NORMAL FOR GLENDIVE 1980-1981 



Month 



Temperature (°F) 



Departure 


Precipitation 
(inches) 


Departure 


-0.2 


.59 


.16 


4.1 


.21 


-.17 


2.4 


.07 


-.46 


7.3 


.16 


-1.10 


6.4 


.20 


-1.64 


— 


2.27 


-1.20 


2.8 


.76 


-1.12 


-3.5 


5.54 


3.91 


1.2 


.70 


-.35 


.5 


2.06 


1.46 


6.0 


.42 


-.01 


.7 


.46 


.14 




13.44 


-.38 


14.9 


.02 


-.41 


8.5 


.07 


-.31 


10.9 


.34 


-.19 


5.6 


.58 


-.68 


1.9 


.97 


-.87 


-.7 


2.18 


-1.29 


1.7 


1.79 


-.09 


3.7 


1.61 


-.02 


4.3 


.42 


-.63 


-.8 


1.09 


.49 



Jan 1980 


14.7 


Feb 


24.6 


Mar 


32.8 


Apr 


53.7 


May 


64.2 


Jun 


— 


Jul 


76.8 


Aug 


68.7 


Sep 


61.4 


Oct 


49.9 


Nov 


39.1 


Dec 


22.6 


Total 




Jan 1981 


29.8 


Feb 


29.0 


Mar 


41.3 


Apr 


52.0 


May 


59.7 


Jun 


65.2 


Jul 


75.7 


Aug 


75.9 


Sep 


64.5 


Oct 


48.6 



Source: U.S. Department of Commerce 1980-1981 



50 




Seal* In Miles 



WINDSHIELD SURVEY ROUTE 



N- 



BLM LAND 
STATE LAND 



APPENDIX C 



51 



R55E 



R56E 




Scale In Miles 



WINDSHIELD SURVEY ROUTE 



BLM LAND 
STATE LAND 



APPENDIX D 



52 




Scale In Miles 



BIRD ROUTE AND 
SMALL MAMMAL TRAP SITES 



-N- 



LEGEND 




Bird Route 


1 


Woody Draw 


2 


Badlands 


3 


Grassland 


4 


Creek 


5 


Agriculture 



BLM LAND 
STATE LAND 



APPENDIX E 



53 



R55E 



R56E 




Scale In Miles 



-N- 



BIRD ROUTE AND 
SMALL MAMMAL TRAP SITES 

LEGEND 



Bird Route 

1 Woody Draw 

2 Badlands 

3 Grasslands 

4 Creek 

5 Agriculture 



BLM LAND 
STATE LAND 



APPENDIX F 



54 



APPENDIX G 

MULE/WHITE-TAILED DEER PRODUCTION AND 
POPULATION CHARACTERISTICS ON THE STUDY AREA 



riloomfield Mule Deer 



North Pork Mule Deer 



Bloomfield White-tailed Deer 



north Pork White-tailed Deer 



DATE 


MALE 


FEMALE 


YOUNG 


TOTA 


Nov '80 




1 


2 


3 


Sept-Oct 81 


1 


8 


5 


14 


Nov '80 


— 


5 


5 


10 


Sept Oct 81 


— 


3 


1 


4 


Nov-Dec '80 


3 


33 


41 


76 


Sept Oct '81 


2 


11 


9 


22 


Nov-Dec 80 


1 


3 


5 


9 


Sept-Oct '81 


— 


1 


1 


2 



55 



APPENDIX H 

DEER HARVEST STATISTICS FOR HUNTING 
DISTRICT 732 



Species 



1980 



1979 



White-tailed Deer 
Mule Deer 
Combined* 



742 

513 

1259 



547 
267 
823 



'Discrepancy is either-species deer hunters that did not report which species they 
killed. 



56 



APPENDIX I 

SHARP-TAILED GROUSE ARENAS AND 
NUMBER OF MALES OBSERVED 







MAXIMUM COUNT 


GROUND 


LOCATION 


OF MALES 1 


Bloomfield 1 


T20N, R53E, Sec. 18 middle 


16 


2 


T20N, R53E, Sec. 20 El/2 


9 


north Fork 3 


T20N, R56E, Sec. 2 NW1/4 


9 


4 


T20N, R56E, Sec. 10 SW1/4 


13 


5 


T20N, R56E. Sec. 16 Ml/2 


5 


6 


T21N, R55E, Sec. 22 NE1/4 


20 


7 


T21N, R55E, Sec. 25 NW1/4 


13 


8 


T21N, R56E, Sec. 30 SW1/4 


17 


9 


T21N, R56E, Sec. 32 middle 


13 



'Maximum count as derived from two or more visits. 



57 



APPENDIX J 



BIRDS IDENTIFIED ON THE BLOOMFIELD BIRD ROUTE 



Red tailed Hawk 
Marsh Hawk 
American Kestrel 
Ring-necked Pheasant 
Rilldeer 
Mourning Dove 
Eastern Kingbird 
Western Kingbird 
Horned Lark 
Bam Swallow 
Black-billed Magpie 
Common Crow 
House Wren 
Rock Wren 
Gray Catbird 
Brown Thrasher 
American Robin 



Loggerhead Shrike 
Starling 
Yellow Warbler 
House Sparrow 
Bobolink 

Western Meadowlark 
Red-winged Blackbird 
Northern Oriole 
Brown-headed Cowbird 
American Goldfinch 
Rufous-sided Towhee 
Lark Bunting 
Grasshopper Sparrow 
Vesper Sparrow 
Lark Sparrow 
Chipping Sparrow 
Chestnut-collared Longspur 



58 



APPENDIX K 



SUMMARY OF BREEDING BIRD SURVEY RESULTS 
SAVAGE ROUTE, 1968-1981 



SPECIES 


7/5/68 


6/11/69 


7/7/70 


7/1/72 


6/28/77 


7/7/78 


6/22/79 


6/13/80 


6/24/81 


Eared Grebe 












1/1 




2/1 




Pied-billed Grebe 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2/1 


— 


Mallard 


— 


— 


— 


2/2 


6/1 


5/4 


6/3 


11/2 


15/3 


American Wigeon 


— 


— 


10/1 


— 


9/1 


— 


1/1 


2/1 


— 


Shoveler 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


3/1 


— 


, — 


Redhead 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1/1 


— 


Ruddy Duck 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2/1 


— 


Blue-winged Teal 


— 


1/1 


— 


2/2 


13/1 


2/2 


— 


— 


— 


Green-winged Teal 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


6/1 


— 


— 


— 


Golden Eagle 


— 


— 


2/1 


1/1 


1/1 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Red-tailed Hawk 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1/1 


— 


Swainson's hawk 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1/1 


1/1 


— 


Marsh Hawk 


— 


2/2 


1/1 


4/4 


1/1 


2/2 


1/1 


— 


1/1 


America k Kestrel 


2/2 


1/1 


2/2 


1/1 


4/4 


1/1 


7/5 


3/2 


2/2 


Prairie Falcon 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1/1 


Sharp-tailed Grouse 


24/2 


1/1 


10/1 


1/1 


8/5 


— 


— 


9/3 


4/2 


Ring-necked Pheasant 


— 


3/2 


— 


5/5 


16/12 


9/8 


11/11 


10/8 


13/9 


Gray Partridge 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2/1 


2/1 


— 


American Coot 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1/1 


— 


2/1 


Killdeer 


1/1 


3/3 


4/3 


8/7 


14/7 


8/4 


15/8 


24/13 


12/16 


Long-billed Curlew 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1/1 


— 


— 


— 





Upland Plover 


— 


— 


4/1 


— 


3/2 


— 


1/1 


— 


— 


Common Snipe 


— 


— 


— 


1/1 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Wilson's Phalarope 


— 


— 


— 


6/1 


— 


— 


— 


— 





Rock Dove 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2/1 


— 


Mourning Dove 


53/19 


4L/22 


22/8 


18/16 


75/30 


61/26 


111/32 


69/33 


54/23 


Great Homed Owl 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1/1 








Black-billed Cuckoo 


— 


— 


— 


— 





3/3 










Short-eared Owl 


— 


1/1 


2/2 


— 


— 


— 


1/1 


— 





Common Nighthawk 


12/8 


— 


— 


3/2 


1/1 


1/1 


1/1 


2/2 


3/2 


Common Flicker 


3/2 


1/1 


2/1 


1/1 


12/8 


4/4 


— 


2/2 


3/1 


Eastern Kingbird 


25/17 


4/4 


15/11 


14/10 


15/11 


13/10 


12/7 


19/12 


7/7 


Western Kingbird 


8/5 


1/1 


2/2 


4/2 


4/2 


3/3 


5/3 


— 


1/1 


Western Flycatcher 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1/1 





Say's Phoebe 


2/2 


— 


— 


1/1 


3/3 


— 


2/1 




1/1 


Western Wood Pewee 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1/1 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Horned Lark 


8/5 


48/16 


33/15 


36/21 


36/20 


38/14 


66/23 


46/20 


34/15 


Rough winged Swallow 


— 


— 


— 


— 


3/2 


9/5 


— 


2/1 


i/r 


Bank Swallow 


— 


— 


1/1 


— 


— 


— 


— 






Barn Swallow 


— 


4/2 


6/4 


3/3 


3/3 


11/7 


16/8 


17/9 


15/8 


Cliff Swallow 


— 


— 


6/1 


— 


11/2 


1/1 


2/1 


l/l 





Black-billed Magpie 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2/2 











Common Crow 


— 


— 


— 


2/1 


7/5 


2/2 


12/8 


1/1 


2/2 


House Wren 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


3/3 


— 


5/4 


4/4 


Rock Wren 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1/1 


— 











Catbird 


— 


1/1 


— 


3/3 


— 


— 


2/1 





1/1 


Brown Thrasher 


4/4 


4/4 


2/2 


3/2 


1/1 


3/3 


18/13 


13/11 


6/6 


Robin 


3/2 


4/3 


3/3 


2/1 


6/6 


4/4 


9/6 


11/7 


5/5 


Mountain Bluebird 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1/1 


2/1 


— 




— 



59 



APPENDIX K (cont.) 



SUMMARY OF BREEDING BIRD SURVEY RESULTS 
SAVAGE ROUTE, 19681981 



SPECIES 


7/5/68 


6/11/69 


7/7/70 


7/1/72 


6/28/77 


7/7/78 


6/22/79 


6/13/80 


6/24/81 


Loggerhead Shrike 


4/2 


4/4 


11/7 


2/2 


7/6 


4/4 


3/3 


2/2 


7/7 


Yellow Warbler 


— 


— 


— 


— 


l/l 


11/7 


17/8 


17/9 


13/7 


Yellowthroat 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1/1 


3/3 


— 


— 


— 


Yellow-breasted Chat 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2/2 


2/1 


— 


— 


— 


Starling 


— 


3/1 


— 


— 


— 


— 


10/3 


4/2 


5/1 


House Sparrow 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


W. Meadowlark 


153/41 


339/48 


127/39 


75/39 


173/49 


297/50 


363/50 


305/50 


348/50 


Yellow-headed Blackbird 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2/2 


Red-winged Blackbird 


5/2 


10/2 


21/9 


20/11 


27/13 


27/13 


54/24 


36/14 


27/15 


Orchard Oriole 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1/1 


— 


northern Oriole 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1/1 


— 


— 


— 


Brewer's Blackbird 


— 


10/5 


30/13 


— 


33/10 


1/1 


28/10 


32/13 


14/6 


Common Grackle 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2/1 


1/1 


— 


— 


— 


Brown-headed Cowbird 


13/3 


6/3 


9/4 


17/7 


10/8 


56/21 


37/11 


33/20 


42/17 


Western Tanager 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1/1 


— 


— 


— 


Black-headed Grosbeak 


— 


1/1 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


American Goldfinch 


l/l 


— 


— 


— 


11/8 


8/2 


5/2 


2/1 


12/5 


Rufous-sided Towhee 


— 


— 


— 


1/1 


7/4 


2/2 


4/2 


1/1 


5/5 


Lazuli Bunting 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2/2 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Savannah Sparrow 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1/1 


— 


— 


Grasshopper Sparrow 


— 


— 


2/1 


4/4 


12/10 


20/12 


8/7 


7/4 


2/2 


Lark Bunting 


30/16 


71/31 


16/6 


12/6 


l/l 


18/12 


18/9 


1/1 


30/10 


Vesper Sparrow 


17/13 


— 


51/22 


31/21 


38/31 


6/4 


3/3 


42/22 


46/27 


Lark Sparrow 


16/9 


21/12 


27/19 


— 


5/3 


l/l 


5/3 


1/1 


6/5 


Chipping Sparrow 


— 


— 


1/1 


— 


— 


2/1 


— 


— 


— 


Eield Sparrow 


— 


— 


— 


— 


17/12 


1/1 


— 


— 


— 


Brewer's Sparrow 


— 


— 


31/18 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Song Sparrow 


— 


— 


11/7 


— 


— 


— 


4/1 


— 


— 


Chestnut-collared Longspur 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2/2 


— 


— 


— 


Unidentified Hawk 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1/1 


— 


— 


— 


Total 




















Species/Individuals 


20/384 


25/585 


30/464 


30/283 


44/605 


45/659 


40/869 


41/745 


36/746 



Numbers are: Total number of birds observed/number of stops at which observed. 



60 



APPENDIX L 



BIRDS IDENTIFIED ON THE NORTH FORK BIRD ROUTE 



American Bittern 
Gadwall 

American Wigeon 
Blue-winged Teal 
Red-tailed Hawk 
Marsh Hawk 
Prairie Falcon 
American Kestrel 
Sharp-tailed Grouse 
Ring-necked Pheasant 
American Coot 
Killdeer 
Mourning Dove 
Common Nighthawk 
Common flicker 
Eastern Kingbird 
Western Kingbird 
Say's Phoebe 
Horned Lark 
Rough-winged Swallow 
Barn Swallow 
Black-billed Magpie 
Common Crow 



House Wren 
Rock Wren 
Brown Thrasher 
American Robin 
Mountain Bluebird 
Loggerhead Shrike 
Starling 
Yellow Warbler 
House Sparrow 
Western Meadowlark 
Yellow-headed Blackbird 
Red-winged Blackbird 
Northern Oriole 
Brewer's Blackbird 
Brown-headed Cowbird 
American Goldfinch 
Rufous-sided Towhee 
Lark Bunting 
Grasshopper Sparrow 
Vesper Sparrow 
Lark Sparrow 
Chipping Sparrow 
Field Sparrow 



61 



*>* 



& 



V 







QL 84.22 .M9 B566 1982 



Bloomfield-North Fork 
baseline inventories 



3LM LIBRARY 

RS 150A BLOG. 30 

DENVER FEDERAL CENTER 

P-O. BOX 25047 

DENVER CO 80225 



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