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JUL y 1939 

BV 741 .W58 1867 
Williams, Roger, 1604?-168 
The bloudy tenent of 



( Ft?- St Series.) 

Volume III. 





Entered according to an Aft of Congrels, in the year 1867, 
By George Taylor Paine, 


In the Clerk's Office of the Diflrift Court of the United States 
for the Diftria of Rhode Ifland. 

Providence Prefs Co., Printers. 

The members of the Narragansett Club delire it to 
be underftood, that they are not anfwerable for any opinions 
or obfervations that may appear in their pubHcations ; the 
Editors of the feveral works being alone refponlible for the 


NOV 13 Y^± 





Samuel L . C a l d w i: l i. 







HE work reprinted in the prelent volume 
was produced during the author's vifit to 
England in 1 643-1 644, and while he was 
engaged in obtaining the Charter. The 
fruit of previous ftudies and experiences, 
it was written at fome time during the 
year in which he publidied y4 Key into the 
Language of A?nerica^ Mr. Cotton's Letter Examined and 
Anjwered^ and ^leries of High eft Conftderation. Belides thefe 
labors, it is to be added, by his own teftimony, "that when 
thefe difcuffions were prepared for publike in London, his 
time was eaten up in attendance upon the fervice of the 
Parliament or City, for the fupply of the poor of the City 
with wood (during the ftop of -coale from Newcaflle, and 
the mutinie of the poor for firing.) God is a moll holy 
witnefs, that thefe meditations were fitted tor publike view 
in change of roomes and corners, yea fometimes (upon occa- 
fion of travel in the country concerning that bufinefs of 
fuell) in variety of ftrange houfes, fometimes in the fields, in 
the midfi: of travel ; where he hath been forced to gather 
and fcatter his loofe thoughts and papers."' It was printed 

• Bloody Tenent yet More Bloody, p. 38. 

IV Editor 'j Preface. 

without the name of the writer or publillier. It muft have 
paired through two impreffions in the fame year. For while 
one volume, which is literally followed in the prefent edition, 
has a table of errata, another printed in the fame year, and 
of courfe afterwards, has the errata corred:ed, with llight 
changes in the type and orthography of the title page.' 
Otherwife the two correfpond, page to page, and even line 
to line. 

It is independent of his previous controverfy with Cotton, 
though indiredily related to it, and following it by very nat- 
ural confequence. It had probably been growing in his 
mind for years. At all events the arguments of Mr. Cotton 
to which it is a reply have a much earlier date, according to 
his own account. He fays in 1647, "Mr. Williams fent me 
about a dozen years agoe (as I remember) a letter, penned 
(as he wrote) by a Prifoner in Newgate, touching perfecu- 
tion for Confcience fake: and intreated my judgement of it 
for the fatisfaction of his friend."^ This " letter " was a 
part, — the 6th, 7th, 8th, and 9th chapters, — of a work 
printed in 1620, entitled A moji Humble Supplication of the 
Kings Majejlys Loyal SubjeBs^ ready to tejlify all Civil Obe- 
dience^ by the Oath of Allegiance , or otherwife, a?id that of Con- 
fcience ; who are perfecuted (only for differing in Religion) con- 
trary to Divine and Human Tejiimonies : As followeth? It is 
figned by "your Majefly's loyal fubjedts unjuftly called 
Anabaptifts." According to Williams " the Authour of thefe 

' One of the principal differences in ufed by Sir Thomas Browne, and even 

orthography is in the lubilitution o^ tenet as late as 1726 by Wollallon in his Re- 

for tenent ; the fingular for the plural of ligion of Nature, p. iii. Lond. 1726. 

the Latin teneo. It was probably the ^ Bloudy Tenent Wajhed, p. i. 

choice of the printer, as Williams retains 3 It is reprinted by Crofby, Hijl. of 

his original ulage eight years later in TT'^ Baptifs, ii. Appendix, 10-51, and in 

Bloody Tenent yet More Bloody. Tenent, Trads on Liberty of Confcience, l^c. Han- 

for an opinion held by more than one, is ferd Knollys Society, pp. 189-231. 

Editor's Preface. 

Arguments being committed by Ibme then in power, dole 
prilbner to Newgate, for the witneffe ot fome truths of Jefus, 
and having not the ufe of Pen and Inke, wrote thefe Argu- 
ments in Milke, in flieets of Paper, brought to him by the 
Woman his Keeper, from a friend in London, as the Stopples 
of his Milk bottle.'" Dr. Underbill conjecftures that it mufl 
have been written by John Murton, or as Crofby calls him, 
Morton, who was alfociated with Helwilfe in Holland, and 
after his return, in England, and againft whom John Rob- 
infon directed one of his controverlial works/ 

Williams denies that this treatife was fent by him to Cot- 
ton, or that the reply was private, as Cotton alleged in com- 
plaint againlf its being printed in this work. Pie fays, " To 
my knowledge there was no fuch letter or intercourse palfed 
between Mafter Cotton and the difculfer ; but what I have 
heard is this : One Mafter Hall of Roxbury, prefented the 
prifoners Arguments againft perfecution to Mafter Cotton, 
who gave this prefent controverted Anfwer ; with the which 
Mafter Hall not being fatisfied, he fends them unto the dif- 
culfer, who never faw the faid Hall, nor thofe Arguments in 
writing ; (though he well remember that he faw them in 
print fome yeers ftnce. )"^ 

' Page 6 1 , infra. 

* TraBs on Liberty of Cons. 89, 187. 
Crofby, Hifory of Baptijls, i: 99, 276. 
Ivimey, do. i: 125. Taylor, do. i: 95. 
The title of Robinfon's work is " A 
Defence of the Doftrine propounded by 
the Synod at Dort, againll John Murton 
and his Affbciates, with the Refutation 
to their Aniwer to a writing touching 
baptifm. By John Robinfon. Printed 
in the year 1624." See Young, Chron, 
of Pilgrims, p. 454. 

3 Bloody Tenent yet More Bloody, p. 4. 

I find no evidence that " Mailer Hall " 
was "a congregational minilter," as is 
Hated by Dr. Underhill in his Biographi- 
cal Introduftion. Probably he is the 
John Hall of Roxbury, noticed in Sav- 
age, Gcneal. Did. ii: 334, "who in the 
church records has prefix of refpeft, and 
I prefume, was the freeman of 6 May 
1635, unlefs he may rather be reckoned 
of 13 May, 1640: but as no further 
mention of him occurs here, perhaps he 
removed with the great migration to 
Conneflicut, and was at Hartford 1644, 


Editor's Preface. 

Williams proceeds to examine not only Cotton's Anfwer 
to the prifoner's Arguments, but alfo in the laft fifty-fix chap- 
ters, the '* Treatife fent to fome of the Brethren late of 
Salem," to which Cotton refers at the clofe. (p. 53.) This 
is called A Model of Church and Civil Power, and as Cotton 
referred his correfpondent to it as complementing what he 
had already written, Williams felt juftitied in afcribing its 
compolition to him " and the Minifters of New England." 
Cotton however alferts very explicitly " that he was none of 
them that compofed it."' Dr. Underbill infers that '* the 
real author of it was probably Mr. Richard Mather,"" from 

and at Middletown 1654, where he died 
26 May 1673, aged 89." I think he is 
quite as likely to have been the freeman 
of May 14, 1634, at which date Cotton, 
Hooker and Stone, the three minifters 
who arrived in the fame fhip the previ- 
ous September, were admitted alfo. Maf- 
fachufetts Colonial Records, I : 369. If 
he is the fame who died at Middletown, 
he alfo arrived in Bofton the fame year 
(1633) with thefe divines. I am in- 
debted to Mr. Trumbull, of Hartford, 
for a note in regard to him, in which he 
is faid to have died May 26, 1673, 
" being the 89th year of his age, and 
the 40th of his being in New England." 
"By his will (executed May 14, 1673) 
he gave 10 fhillings 'towards encouraging 
of a reading and writing fchool in Mid- 
dletown.' So, if not himielf a minif- 
ter, he wifhed his children to have 'the 
benefit of clergy ' as far as ten fhillings 
would go." He is mentioned "with 
prefix of refpeft " in the Mafs. Colonial 
Records, i : 241, 271. 

Williams fays that he had not feen the 
prifoner's Arguments in writing, although 
he had feen them in print " fome yeers 
fince;" but he does not lay that Cotton's 

Anfwer was in print, though he favs it 
"was as publike as Mafter Cottons pro- 
feffion of the lame tenent was and is." 

The copy I have made ule of, from 
the library of a gentleman in this city, 
has the following title: — The Contro-" 
verfie concerning Liberty ot Confcience 
in Matters of Religion, Truly ftated. 
and diftinftly and plainly handled. By 
Mr. John Cotton of Bojion in New Eng- 
land. By way of anfwer to fome Argu- 
ments to the contrary fent unto him. 
Wherein you have, againft all cavills of 
turbulent fpirits, clearly manifefted, 
wherein liberty of confcience in matters 
of Religion ought to be permitted, and 
in what cafes it ought not, by the faid 
Mr. Cotton. London. Printed by Robert 
AujHn. for Thomas Banks, and are to be 
fold at Mrs. Breaches Shop in Weftmin- 
fter-Hall, 1649. 

Dr. Underhill fpeaks of " the only 
edition known " to him, as printed in 
1646. Both of thefe agree with Wil. 
liams's copy in the following work. 

1 Bloudy Tenent Wajhed, p. 192. 

2 Introdudlion to Hanferd Knollys 
Society edition of Bloudy Tenent, page 

Editor's Preface. vii 

the ftatement of Cotton Mather, that ** when the Platform 
of Church-DifcipUne was agreed by a Synod of thefe 
Churches, in the year 1647, Mr. Mather's Model was that 
out of which it was chiefly taken."' But the " Model " 
here referred to is in all probability the one which Mather 
was appointed to draw up by the Synod." Moreover, Cot- 
ton Mather would never have omitted this from the lift of 
his grandfather's publilhed works, it he could have found 
the leaft reafon for afcribing it to him. And as there is no 
dired: evidence of Mather's authorihip, while the internal 
evidence is againft it, the early date which muft be given to 
the Model here examined is quite conclufive. He landed 
in Bofton Auguft 17, 1635.^ But Cotton fays of Williams, 
that " when I wrote that Letter, he (for ought I can remem- 
ber) did then keepe communion with all his Brethren, and 
held loving acquaintance with my felfe."* Now Winthrop, 
under the fame date in which he records the arrival of the 
(liip in which Mather came, Aug. 16, 1635, informs us that 
Williams wrote to the church in Salem '* that he could not 
communicate with the Churches in the bay."^ So that the 
letter of Cotton muft have been written before Mather 
reached New England, and the " treatife " muft have been 
** fent to fome of the Brethren late of Salem " even earlier 
than that. Williams probably did not receive a copy of the 
Model until after his baniftiment, although it was written 
and fent to Salem before that. For he fays that he " wrote 

' Magnalia, i : 4C9. one educed, whicli the Synod might after 

^ " They direded three eminent per- the moil filing thoughts upon it, fend 

tons, namely, Mr. John Cotton, Mr. abroad." Magnalia, W: 182. 

Richard Mather, and Mr. Ralph Par- 3 R. Mather's Journal, in Young's 

tridge, each of them to draw up a fcrip- Chron. of Mafs. 479. 

tural model of church government ; unto 4 Bloutly Tencnt Wajhed, p. 15. 

the end that out of thofe there might be s J^ew England, i: 198. 

VIII Editor's Preface. 

on purpofe to his worthy friend Mr. Sharpe (Elder of the 
Church of Salem, (fo called) for the fight of it, who accord- 
mg\y J ent it to him.''' 

This tradt, which probably was never printed, except by 
extracts in The Bloudy Tenent, took its origin, fo far as it can 
now be traced, from the Adl of the General Court of March 
4, 1634, in which they " intreate of the elders and brethren 
of every church within this jurifdid:ion, that they will con- 
fult & advife of one uniforme order ot diffipline in the 
churches, agreeable to the Scriptures, and then to conlider 
howe farr the Magijirates are bound to ijiterpofe for the pref- 
ervation of that uniformity & peace of the churches.'" This 
is the precife queftion which the Model of Church and Civil 
Power undertakes to decide, — "what bounds and limits the 
Lord hath fet between both the adminiftrations,"^ — and it 
is the earlieft matured attempt to deal with the great prob- 
lem which vexed the mind of the early legillators of MalTa- 
chufetts. It is valuable and deferves more attention than it 
has received, as an illuftration of the firft efforts of the New 
England immigrants in defining and balancing the ecclefi- 
aftical and civil jurifdidions. But Williams had learned a 
much Ihiorter and furer way to folve the problem. He takes 
up this, and Cotton's letter, as reprefentative of the fpirit and 

' Bloody Tenent yet More Bloody, page fentenced, " Mr. Sam'. Sharpe is en- 

291. Samuel Sharpe, who had been an joyned to appeare att the nexte particu- 

Affiftant of the Maflachufetts Company lar Court, to anlvvere for the letter that 

in England, came over to Salem in 1629. came from the Church of Salem, as alfo 

He was Mailer-gunner of ordnance, and to bring the names of thofe that will jujli- 

was alfo chofen ruling elder of the fie the fame, or elfe to acknowledge his 

church. Young, Chron. of Mafs., 157. offence under his owne hand for his 

He died in 1658. He had occafion to owne particular." Mafs. Col. Records, \: 

feel the hand of power as well as his 161. 

friend Williams. At the fame meeting => Mafs. Col. Rec. i: 142. 

of the Court at which Williams was 3 Preface to Model, i^c, p. 222, infra. 

Editor's Preface. ix 

the principles then dominant, and ufes them to fet off in full 
contraft the principles of civil and fpiritual freedom to which 
he had advanced. He advocates a method which Cotton 
and the writers of the Models and the early legillators of 
Mallachufetts thought unfafe, if indeed they did not count 
it wrong and impracticable. He cut the knot they were try- 
ing to untie, by limply divorcing the two jurifdidlions, and 
remanding the civil power to its own feparate fphere. His 
courage and his prefcient wifdom time has vindicated. He 
dared to found his commonwealth on the principles which 
the prudent divines and legillators of the MalTachufetts Col- 
ony feared would be the peril of the State, and the doom of 
Religion. All that can be faid is, that with both parties 
equally confcientious, and faithful to their light, Williams 
faw farther, and had learned the true ideas of civil and eccle- 
lialHcal polity fooner than they. 

And yet he was not alone, nor the iirft in maintaining 
abfolute freedom in religion. Milton, at the very time that 
this work was ilfuing from the prefs, was printing another, 
in which the Englidi language reaches the fummit of elo- 
quent profe, taking fimilar high and generous grounds for 
liberty of thought, and recognizing his fellow laborers, 
whofe names and works were fo unequal in power and for- 
tune to his. '* Now once again," he fays, " by all concur- 
rence of figns, and by the general inftinft of holy and devout 
men, as they daily and folemnly exprefs their thoughts, God 
is decreeing to begin fome new and great period in his 
church, even to the reforming of reformation itlelf. Behold 
now this vaft city, a city of refuge, the manfion-houfe of 
liberty, encompalfed and furrounded with his protection ; the 
(liop of war hath not there more anvils and hammers work- 
ing, to fafhion out the plates and inltruments of armed juf- 

Editor 'j- Preface. 

tice in defence of beleagured truth, than there be pens and 
heads there, fitting by their ftudious lamps, mufing, fearch- 
ing, revolving new notions and ideas wherewith to prefent, 
as with their homage and their fealty, the approaching 

There is no evidence that Williams was then known to 
Milton : although the acquaintance may have then begun, 
of which he writes as exifting during his fecond vifit to 
England." Milton may have known his as one among many 
" pens and heads, revolving new notions and ideas," whofe 
writings looked towards " the approaching reformation." In 
this fame year, 1644, John Goodwin publifhed the work 
alluded to on the 165th and 185th pages of the prefent vol- 
ume.^ The Co?npaJ/ionate Samaritan, Unbindifig the Confcience, 
&c., was alfo ilfued in the fame year, and with Goodwin's 
work and The Bloudy Tenent were fharply criticifed in Whol- 
Jome Severity reconciled with Chrijiian Liberty^ publiilied in 
1645.^ But many years before the Baptifts had uttered their 
remonftrances againft the ufe of civil power in fpiritual 
affairs.^ As early as 161 1 they ilfued a Confeflion of Faith, 
which fays, " that the Magiftrate is not to meddle with relig- 

' Areopagitica, Bohn's ed. ii : 91. 

2 ** The Secretary of the Council (Mr. 
Miltonj for my Dutch I read him, read 
me many more languages." Letter to John 
Winthrop, July 12, 1654. Knowles, 
Memoir, p. 264. 

3 M. S. to A. S. tuith a Plea for Lib- 
erty of Confcience in a Church Way, l^c. 
London. 1644. 

4 Another contemporary traft was A 
Paraenetick or Humble Addrejfe to the 
Parliament and AJfembly for {not loofe) but 
Chifian Libertie. London. Printed by 
Mathew Simmons for Henry Overton. 

1644. 4to 14 pp. 

Another was Liberty of Confcience : or 
the Sole meanes to obtain Peace and Truth. 
Printed in the Yeare 1643. 

5 As late as 1688 Bolluet charged that 
with the exception of Baptiils and So- 
cinians Protellants held the doftrine of 
the Roman Church on this fubjeft. "Puis 
qu'en cc point les protellants Ibnt d'ac- 
cord avec nous. Et je ne connois parmi 
les Chretiens que les fociniens et les 
anabaptiils qui s'oppofent a cette doc- 
trine." Hifoire des Variations, Liv. x. 
56. (Euvres, xxviii : 62, 63. 

Editor's Preface. xi 

ion or matters of confcience, nor to compel men to this or that 
form of reHgion ; becaufe Chrift is the King and Lawgiver 
of the church and confcience.'" 

The Hanferd Knollys Society has printed a collection of 
Trad:s on Liberty of Confcience and Perfecution which 
were publiilied in England between 1614 and 1661. Three 
of them preceded the prefent work/ All of them pro- 
ceeded from thofe who felt the prelTure of civil power, and 
they contributed to the general agitation of the queftion 
which naturally arofe during the littings of the Wellminfter 
Alfembly, and the ftruggles of civil and religious fad:ions 
which then divided the kingdom. They were the earlieft 
articulate cries of the voice whofe line has gone out through 
all the earth, and its words to the end of the world. Other 
and mightier were foon heard, with which Williams had no 
immediate relation, but echoing the fime notes, though not 
fo clear and pronounced as his. He preceded only by three 
years Jeremy Taylor, who fpoke from the other extreme of 
eccleliaftical opinion. From the learned quiet or exile of 
Golden Grove in 1647 he fent forth what Williams called 
" an EverlalHng Monumentall Teftimony to this Truth, in 

■ Crofby, Hijl. Eng. Bap. I. App., 71. far in the rear this early and noble pallor 

The parts or this Contcffion given bv of the Pilgrims was, is quoted in Trct£is 

Crofby were colledled from a work of for Liber f^ of Confcience, p. 91. 

John Robinfon, of Levden, written in ^ Religions Peace : or A Plea for Liber- 

reply to it. It was written by Helwiife, /y of Confcience by Leonard Bulher Citi- 

John Smith's fucceffor at Amilerdam. zcn of London, and Printed in the Yeare 

Crofby, i : 271. In the Appendix to his 1614. 

fecond volume Crofby gives the Confef- Perfecution for Religion Judged and 

fion entire; but it does not contain the Condemned, &c. 1615. 

fentence quoted in the text. It however A Moft Humble Supplication l^c. 1620. 

omits Article XXV., which may have This is the work from which the Prif- 

contained this fentence. Robinfon of oner's Arguments, pp. 1—39, infra, were 

courfe, could not have invented it. His taken, 
reply to this fentence, which fhows how 


Editor's Preface. 

that his excellent Difcourfe, of the Libertie of Prophefying."' 
With him Mr. Lecky alfociates Harrington and Milton as 
*' the three principal writers who at this time reprefented 
the movement of toleration."^ But while they gave it intel- 
lediual weight, they ought not to overfliadow the earlier and 

^Bloody Tenent yet More Bloody, Ap- tament declares. I alfo humbly wifh that 
pendix, p. 317. This fentence is from you may pleaie to read over impartially 

a letter of feven pages "to the Cleargie 
of the foure great Parties," in which 
Williams expreffes the fame fears as on 
pp. 350, 351, of the prefent volume — 
and gives more fully their grounds — 
that the Independents if they had the 
power would ui'e it for perfecution 

Mr. Milton's anfwer to the King's hook." 
Elton's Life, p. 97. 

The event proved the jullice of Wil- 
liams's judgment in regard to Taylor, 
as he retreated from his principles 
when he received promotion and his 
church was again afcendant. Coleridge 

"Doe not all perfecutours themfelves comments on his change of opinion with 

zealoufly plead for Freedome, for Lib- confiderable fharpnefs. " If Jeremy Tay- 

ertie, for Mercie to Men's Confciences, lor had not in effedl retreated after the 

when themfelves are in the Grates, and Reftoration, if he had not, as foon as the 

Pits, and under Hatches ? Thus bloudie church gained power, moil bafely dil- 

Gardiner and Bonner, yea and that blou- claimed and difavowed the principle of 

die Queene Mary her felfe, all plead the toleration, and apologifed for the publi- 

Freedome of their Confciences. '■' * Yea cation by declaring it to have been a r///J?^if 

what excellent fubfcriptions to this Soule ^i'^rr^, currying pardon for his pail libcral- 

Freedome, are interwoven in many ii'm by chargingand moil probably flander- 

pailages of the late Kings Booke (if his)? ing himielf with the guilt of falfehood. 

Yea and one of his Chaplaines (lb cald ) treachery and hypocriiy, his charafter 

Doftor jer. Taylour, what an Everlail- as a man would have been almoil ilain- 

ing Monumentall Teilimony did he pub- leis." His judgment of Milton's work 

lifh to this Truth in that his excellent in compariibn with Taylor's may be 

Difcourfe, of the Libertie of Propheiy- added. " The Liberty of Prophefying is 

ing?" He writes to Mrs. Sadleir in 1652 an admirable work, in many relpefts, 

-3, as follows : "My honoured Friend, and calculated to produce a much greater 

fince you pleaie not to read mine, let me eifedl on manv than Milton's treatife on 

pray leave to requeil your reading of one 
book of your own authors. I mean the 
Liberty of Propheiying, penned by (fo 
called) Dr. Jer. Taylor. In the which 
is excellentlv aiTcrted the toleration of 

the fame i'ubjedl: on the other hand 
Milton's is throughout unmixed truth; 
and the man who in reading the two 
does not feel the contrail between the 
fimplemindcdnefs of the one and the 

differing religions, yea, in a refped, that Jlrabifmus in the other, is — in the road to 

of the papiils theml'elves, which is a new preferment." Literary Remains, iii : 204, 

way of ioul freedom, and yet is the old 250. 

way of Chrill Jefus, as all his holy Tef- ^ //;y/. of Ratiorialifm, ii: 79, 80 

Editor's Preface. xiii 

humbler pioneers, who like Williams, not only wrought out 
their convictions in fuffering, but planted it on the everlaft- 
ing grounds of reafon and juftice, contending not limply for 
toleration but for abfolute liberty. 

But notwithrtanding all the names and the influences 
which were carrying forward the dod:rine of fpiritual lib- 
erty, this work met a harfh reception. The writer fays in 
1 67 1, " 'Tis true my firft book ** The Bloody Tenent " was 
burned by the Prelbyterian party (then prevailing.)"' The 
69th queftion in NeceJJity of 'Toleration in Matters of Religiony 
by Samuel Richardfon, " Printed in the Yeare of Jubilee 
1647," is "Whether the priefts were not the caufe of the 
burning of the book, entitled " The Bloudy Tenent," becaufe 
it was againft perfecution .?"^ This may account for the 
immediate appearance of a fecond imprelhon. It indicates 
the fpirit of the dominant party. ^ And yet it was not with- 
out influence. He writes eight years later ;■* ** Some perfons 
ot no contemptible note nor intelligence, have by letters from 
England, informed the difcufl^er, that thefe Images of clouts 
it hath pleafed God to make ufe of to fl:op no fmall leakes 

' Letter to John Cotton jr., dated Provi- countenance to his judgment. He writes, 

dence, 26 March, 1671. Mafs. Hijl. Soc. "Liberty of confcience, and toleration 

Proceedings, March, 1858. of all or any religion, is fo prodigious 

2 Traeis on Liberty of Confcience, 270. an impiety, that this religious parliament 

3 The attitude of the Prelbyterian party cannot but abhor the very meaning of it. 
towards toleration is Ihown by Ncal, Whatever may be the opinions of John 
Hif. of Puritans, ii: 17-19. Alfo by Goodwin, Mr. Williams, and fome of 
Marfden, Later Puritans, 155. See pp. that ftamp, yet Mr. Burroughes, in his 
350, 351, infra. Williams evidently dif- late Irenicum, upon many unanfwerable 
trufled the Independents as well as the arguments, explodes that abomination." 
Prefbyterians, and inferred, perhaps from Burroughes was one of the Five Inde- 
their affiliation with his opponents on pendent Brethren in the Weflminfter 
this fide of the water, that their dipofi- Aflembly. The quotation from Baylie 
tion was little better. Robert Baylie, I take from a note in Trads on Liberty of 
the keen and hard-headed Scotch mem- Confcience, p. 270. 

ber of the Wcllminller Aflembly, gives 4 Bloody Tenent yet More Bloody, p. 38. 

XIV Editor's Preface. 

of perfecution, that lately begun to flow in upon dilTenting 
confciences, and (amongft others) to Mafter Cotton's own,^ 
and to the peace and quietnefs of the Independents, which 
they have fo long, an4 fo wonderfully enjoyed." 

The Narragansett Club now gives this work its fecond 
reprint. It was printed by the Hanferd Knollys Society in 
England in 1848, under the care of its accomplifhed Secre- 
tary, Dr. Underbill. There is a copy of each of the origi- 
nal impreffions in the Library of Brown Univerlity. The 
Club is indebted to Mr. John Carter Brown for the ufe of 
a copy of the firft of thefe impreffions. Copies are alfo in 
the Library of Harvard Univerfity, of the Malfachufetts 
Hiftorical Society, and in the Public Library of the City of 
Bofton. Amendments in the text of the prefent edition 
fuggefted by the Editor are placed in brackets. 

S. L. C. 

38 Angell Street, Providence, Nov. 13, 1867. 



of Persecution, for caufe of 
Conscience, difcufled, in 

A Conference betweene 



In all tender Affediion, prefent to the High 
Court of Parliament^ (as the Refult of their 
Difcourfe) thefe, (amongft other Pajfages) 
of higheji conjj deration. 

Printed in the Year 1644. 

FIrft, That the blood of fo many hundred thoufand Ibules 
of Protejiants and Papijis^ fpilt in the Wars oi prejent and 
former Ages^ for their refpedtive Conjcicnces, is not required 
nor accepted by yejus Chriji the Prince of Peace. 

Secondly, Pregnant Scripturs and Arguments are through- 
out the Worke propofed againft the DoBrine of perfeciition 
for for caufe of Confcience. 

Thirdly, Satisfadlorie Anfwers are given to Scriptures^ and 
obje(5tions produced by Mr. Calvin^ Beza, Mr. Cotton^ and 
the Minifters of the New EngliQi Churches and others 
former and later, tending to prove the DoBrine of perfecii- 
tion for caufe of Cotfcience. 

Fourthly, The DoBrine of peif edition for caufe of Con- 
fcience, is proved guilty of all the blood of the Soules crying 
for vengeance under the Altar. 

Fifthly, All Civil I States with their Officers of juftice in 
their refpediive conjlitutions and adniinijtrations are proved 
ejjentially Civill, and therefore not Judges, Governours or 
P)efe7idours of the Spirituall o.v Chrijiian fiate and Worjhip. 

Sixtly, It is the will and command ot God, that (fmce the 
comming of his Sonne the Lord Jefus) a perinifsion of the 
moft Paganijh, Jewijh, Turkijlj, or Antichrijiian conjciences 
and worfhips, bee granted to all men in all Nations and 
Countries : and they are onely to h^t fought againft with that 
Sword which is only (in Souk matters) able to conquer, to wit, 
the Sword of Gods Spirit, the Word of God. 

Seventhly, Th^Jlate of the Land oi Jfrael, the Kings and 
people thereof in Peace & War, is proved fgurative and cere- 
moniall, and no patterne nov pref dent for any Kingdome or civill 
fate in the world to follow. 

Eightly, God requireth not an uniformity of Religion to be 
inaBed and inforced in any c/i;/// y/^/^ ; which inforced uni- 

4 ' Preface. 

formity (fooner or later) is the greateft occafion of civill 
Warre, ra'vifiing of confcience, perfecution of Chrijl Jefus in 
his fervants, and of the hypocrijie and deJiruBion of millions of 

Ninthly, In holding an inforced uniformity of Religion in 
a civill Jiate^ wee muft necelTarily difclaime our delires and 
hopes of the lewes converfion to Chrifl. 

Tenthly, An inforced uniformity of Religion throughout a 
Nation or r/i;/// Jlate^ confounds the Civill and Religious, 
denies the principles of Chriftianity and civility, and that 
fefus Chrijl is come in the Flefh. 

Eleventhly, The permifsion of other confciences and wor- 
Jhips then a ftate profefTeth, only can (according to God) 
procure a firme and lafting peace, (good ajjurance being taken 
according to the wifedome of the civill ftate for unifor?nity of 
civill obedience from all forts.) 

Twelfth ly, laftly, true civility and Chriftianity may both 
flourifli in a ftate or Kingdome, notwithftanding the permif- 
sion of divers and contrary confciences, either of lew or 

To THE Right Honorable, 

both Houfes of the High Court of 

Right Honourable and Renowned Patriots : 

NExt to the faving of your own Joules (in the 
lamentable Jhipwrack of Mankind) your taske 
(as Chrijiians) is to fave the Soules, but as Magijirates^ 
the Bodies and Goods of others. 

Many excellent Dijcourfes have been prefented to 
your Fathers hands and Yours in former and prefent 
Parliaments : I fhall be humbly bold to fay, that (in 
what concernes your duties as Magijlrates^ towards 
others) a more necelTary and feafonable debate was 
never yet prefented. 

Two things your Honours here may pleafe to view 
(in this Controverlie of Perfecution for caufe of Con- 
fcience) beyond what's extant. 

Firfl: the whole Body of this Controverjie form'd & 
pitch'd in true Battalia. 

Secondly (although in refped: of my felfe it be 
impar congrej/us, yet in the power of that God who 
is Maxitnus in Minimis^ Your Honours fhall fee the 
Controverlie is difcuifed with men as able as moft, 
eminent for abilitie and pietie^ Mr. Cottony and the 
New Englijh Minijiers. 

When the Prophets in Scripture have given their 
Coats of Amies and Efcutchions to Great Men^ Your 
Honours know the Babylonian Monarch hath the Lyon, 

To the High Court of Parliament. 

the Perjian the Beare, the Grecian the Leopard, the 
Romane a compound oi xho, former 3. moft ftrange and 
dreadfull, Dan. 7. 

Their oppreffing, plundring, ravifhing, murther- 
ing, not only of the bodies, but ih^ Joules of Men are 
large explaining co7nmentaries of fuch fimilitudes. 

Your Honours have been famous to the end of the 
World, for your unparallel'd wijdome, courage, jujiice, 
fnercie, in the vindicating your Civill Lawes, Liberties, 
&c. Yet let it not be grievous to your Honours 
thoughts to ponder a little, why all the Prayers and 
Teares and Fajiings in this Nation have not pierc'd 
the Heavens, and quench'd thefe Flames, which yet 
who knowes how far they'll fpread, and when they'll 

Your Honours have broke the jawes of the 
Opprejfour, and taken the prey out of their Teeth 
[lob. 29.) For which A61 I believe it hath pleafed 
the moft High God to fet a Guard (not only of 
Trained Men, but) of mighty Angels, to fecure your 
fitting and the Citie. 

I feare we are not pardoned, though reprieved : O 
that there may be a lengthning of Londons tranquil- 
itie, of the Parliaments fafetie, by mercy to the poore ! 
Dan. 4. 

Right Honorable, Soule yokes, Soule opprefsioTi, plun- 
drings, ravijhings, &c. are of a critnjon and deepeji 
dye, and I believe the chiefe of Englands lins, unftop- 
ping the Viols of Englands prefent forrowes. 

This glaffe prefents your Honours with Arguments 
from Religion, Reafon, Experience, all proving that 
the greateft yoakes yet lying upon Engltjh necks, (the 

To the High Court of Parlia?nent. j 

peoples and Your own) are of a fpirituall and Joule 

All former Parliaments have changed thefe yoakes 
according to their coTifciences, (Popijh or Protejiant) 
'Tis now your Honours turne at hehne, and (as your 
task, fo I hope your refolution, not to change (for 
that is but to turne the wheele, which another Par- 
liament, and the very next may turne againe :) but to 
eafe the Subjects and Your felves from 2. yoake (as was 
once fpoke in a cafe not unlike AB. 15.) which 
neither You nor your Fathers were ever able to 

Moft Noble Senatours, Your Fathers (whofe feats 
You fill) are mouldred, and mouldring their braines, 
their tongues, &c. to afies in the pit of rottenejje : 
They and You muft fliortly (together with two worlds 
of men) appeare at the great Barre : It (liall then be 
no griefe of heart that you have now attended to the 
cries of Soules, thoufands opprejfed, millions ravijljed by 
the ABs and Statutes concerning Soules, not yet 

Of Bodies impoverified, imprifoned, &c. for their 
foules beliefe, yea flaughtered on heapes for Religions 
controverfies in the fVarres of prefent and former 

" Notwithftanding the fuccelTe of later times, The fa- 
" (wherein fundry opinions have been hatched about !"°"%^^y' 

-■ -» ■ 1 n p' Or 3 

" the fubjed: of Religion) a man may clearly difcerneiate King 
"with his eye, and as it were touch with his finger of Bohe- 
" that according to the verity of holy Scriptures, &c. "^'^' 
" mens confciences ought in no fort to be violated, 

■ The ientence continues, with a Temicolon inllead of the period. 

8 To the High Court of Parliament. 

" urged or conftrained. And whenfoever men have 
" attempted any thing by this violent courfe, whether 
" openly or by fecret meanes, the ilTue hath beene 
" pernicious, and the caufe of great and wonderfull inno- 
" vations in the principalleft and mightieft Kingdomes 
" and Countries^ &c/ 

It cannot be denied to be a pious and prudentiall 
aB for Your Honours (according to your confcience) 
to call for the advice of faithfull Councellours in the 
high debates concerning Your owne, and the foules 
of others. 

Yet let it not be imputed as a crime for iiny Juppli- 
ant to the God of Heaven for You, if in the humble 
fenfe of what their foules beleeve, they powre forth 
(amongft others) thefe three requejls at the Throne 
of Grace. 

Firft, That neither Your Honours, nor thofe excel- 
lent and worthy perfons, whofe advice you feek, 
limit the holy One of Ifrael to their apprehenjions, 
debates, conclufions, rejecting or negled:ing the humble 
and faithfull fuggeftions of any, though as bafe as 
fpittle and clay, with which fometimes Chriji lefus 
opens the eyes of them that are borne blinde. 

Secondly, That the prefent and future generations 
of the Sons of Men may never have caufe to fay that 
fuch a Parliament (as England never enjoyed the like) 
Effay of fhould modell the worjhip of the living, eternall and 
^ '^'°"' invijible God after the Bias of any earthly intereji, 
though of the higheft concernment under the Sunne : 
And yet, faith that learned Sir Francis Bacon (how 
ever otherwife perfwaded, yet thus he confefTeth :) 

' Quoted alfo in Scriptures and Reafons, fee note, infra. 

To the High Court of Parliatnent. g 

" Such as hold prej/ure of Con/ciencey are guided therein 
** by Tome private interejis of their owne." 

Thirdly, What ever way of worjhipping God Your ^}- i^ rarely 
owne Confciences are perfwaded to walke in, yet (from ^^^^ 
any bloody ^^ of violence to the confciences of others) fons were 
it may bee never told at Rome nor Oxford^ that the P^''^^,'^".'^^ 
Parliament of Rngland hath committed a greater confcience 
rape, then if they had forced or ravilhed the bodies but byfuch 
of all the women in the World. don They 

And that Englands Parlia?nent (fo famous through- were con- 
out all Europe and the World) fhould at laft turne ^^^l^^^^ 
Papijis, Prelatijis, Presbyterians, Independents, Socin- their con- 
ians, Familijis, Antinomians, &c. by confirming alli'cience. 
thefe forts of Confciences, by Civill force and violence 
to their Confciences. 

" " It was a notable obfervation of a ejjed therein them/elves for their own 

wife father, and no lefs ingcnuoully con- cnds.^'' Eflay 3, Unity in Religion, ed. of 

fefled ; that thofe who held and perfuaded 1625 ; Spedding's Bacon, xii : 91. 
prejfure of confcience, were commonly inter- 

T^o every Courteous Reader, 

T 7T 7Hile I plead the Caufe of Truth and Irmocencie 
V V againft the bloody DoBrine of Perfecution for caufe 
of coTiJcience^ I judge it not unfit to give alar me to my felfe, 
and all men to prepare to be perfecuted or hunted for caufe 
of conjcience. 

Whether thou ftandeft charged with lo or but 2 Talents, 
if thou hunteft any for caufe of confcience, how canft thou 
fay thou followeft the La?fil?e of God who fo abhorr'd that 
practice ? 

If Paul, if yejus Chrijl were prefent here at London, and 
the quejlion were propofed what Religion would they approve 
of: The Papijls, Prelatijis, Presbyterians, Indepetidents, &c. 
would each fay, Of mine, of mine. 

But put the fecond queftion, if one of the feverall forts 
(hould by major vote attaine the Sword of fteele : what 
weapons doth Chrift Jefus authorize them to fight with in 
His caufe ? Doe not all men hate the perfecutor, and every 
conjcience true or falfe complaine of cruelty, tyranny ? &c. 

Two mountaines of crying guilt lye heavie upon the backes 
of All that name the name of Chriji in the eyes of "J ewes, 
Turkes and Pagans. 

Firft, The blafphemies of their Idolatrous inventions, J uper- 
Jlitions, and mofl unchrijiian converjdtions. 

Secondly, The bloody irreligious and inhumane opprejjions 
and deJlruBions under the maske or vaile of the Name of 
Chriji, &c. 

O how like is the jealous "Jehovah, the confuming fire to 
end thefe ^VQ^cwt Jlaughters in a greater llaughter ot the holy 
WitnelTes ? Rev. 1 1 . 

12 To every Courteous Reader. 

Six yeares preaching of fo much Truth of Chriji (as that 
time afforded in K. Edwards dayes) kindles the flames of Q^ 
Maries bloody perfecutions. 

Who can now but exped: that after fo many fcores of yeares 
preaching and profejjing of more Truths and amongft fo many 
great contentions amongft the very beft of Protejiants^ a iierie 
furnace fhould be heat, and who fees not now xhejires kind- 
Ung ? 

I confelTe I have little hopes till thofe flames are over, that 
this Difcourfe again ft the doBrine of perfecution for caufe of 
confcience ftiould pafle currant (I fay not amongft the Wolves 
and Lions^ but even amongft the Sheep of Chriji themfelves) 
yet liberavi anijuam inea?n^ I have not hid within my breajt 
my fouls belief: And although fleeping on the bed either of 
the pleafures or profits of ftnne thou thinkeft thy confcience 
bound to fmite at him that dares to waken thee ? Yet in the 
middeft of all thefe civill and fpirituall Wars (I hope we 
fliall agree in thefe particulars.) 

Firft, how ever the proud (upon the advantage of an higher 
earth or ground) or'elooke the poore and cry out Schifmat- 
ickes, Hereticks, Sec. fliall blafphemers and feducers fcape 
unpuniftied ? &c. Yet there is a forer puniftiment in the 
Go/pel for defpifing of Chriji then Mojes, even when the 
defpifer of Mojes was put to death without mercie, Heb. i o. 
28, 29. He that beleeveth not ftiall bee damned, Marke 
16. 16. 

Secondly, what ever Worftiip, Miniftry, Miniftration, the 
beft and pureft are prad:ifed without faith and true perfwa- 
fion that they are the true inftitutions of God, they are fin, 
finfull worfliips, Miniftries, &c. And however in Civill 
things we may be fervants unto men, yet in Divine and 
Spirituall things the pooreft pejdnt muft difdaine the fervice 

To every Courteous Reader. 13 

of the higheft Prince : Be ye not the fervants of men, i Cor. 
14. fvii: 23.]^ 

Thirdly, without fearch and triall no man attaines this 
faith and right perfwafion, i Thef. 5. Try all things. 

In vaine have Englijh Parlia?nents permitted Englijh Bibles 
in the pooreft Englijh houfes, and the fimpleft man or woman 
to fearch the Scriptures, if yet againft their foules perfwafion 
from the Scripture, they (hould be forced (as if they lived in 
Spaine or Rome it felfe without the fight of a Bible) to beleeve 
as the Church beleeves. 

Fourthly, having tried, we muft hold {?i{)i, i Thejfal. 5. 
upon the lolfe of a Crowne, Revel. 13. [iii : 11.] we muft 
not let goe for all the flea bitings of the prefent afflidlions, 
&c. having bought Truth deare, we mufi: not fell it cheape, 
not the leaft graine of it for the whole World, no not for 
the faving of Soules, though our owne moft precious ; leaft 
of all for the bitter fweetning of a little vanilhing pleafure. 

For a little puffe of credit and reputation from the change- 
able breath of uncertaine fons of men.[:] 

For the broken bagges of Riches on Eagles wings : For a 
dreame of thefe, any or all of thefe which on our death-bed 
vanifli and leave tormenting ftings behinde them : Oh how 
much better is it from the love of Truth, from the love of 
the Father of lights, from whence it comes, from the love 
of the Sonne of God, who is the way and the Truth, to fay 
as he, yoh?i 18. 37. For this end was I borne, and for this 
end came I into the World that I might beare witnelfe to 
the Truth. 

A Table of the principall Contents 
of the Bookec 

TKuth and Peace -their rare and feldome ??teeting. Page 15 
2 Great coiuplaints of Peace. 1 6 

P erf ecutors feldome p/ead Chrid but Mofesy^r their Authour. 1 7 
Strife Chrijlian and unchrijiian. ibid 

A threefold dolefull cry. ibid. 

'The wonderfull providence of God in the ^writing of the argu- 
ments againji perfecution. 1 8 
A definition of perfecution dif cuffed. 19 
Confidence will not be refrained fir 07n its owne worfjip^ nor con- 

jirained to another. 20 

A chafe fioule in Gods worfijip, compared to a chafe wifie. ibid. 
Gods people have erred fir om the very funda?nentalls of vifble 

worfip. ibid 

4 Sorts of fipirituall foundations in the New Tef anient. 21 

The 6 fiundaf?ientalls ofi the Chrifian Religion. ibid. 

The comming out of Babel not locally but myficall. ibid. 

The great ignorance of Gods people concerning the nature ofi a 

true Church. ibid. 

Common-Prayer written againf by the New Englijh Min- 

ifers. 23 

Gods people have worfloipped God with fialfie worjlnps. ibid. 
God is pleafied fiometijnes to convey good unto his people beyond a 

promifie. ibid. 

A notable fipeech ofi King James to a great Nonconformifi turned 

perfiecutor. 24 

Civill peace dificufifed. ibid. 

1 6 The Table. 

'The difference between Spirituall and civilljiate. Page 25 

Six cafes wherein Gods people have been ufually accounted arro- 
gant, and peace breakers, but ?noJi unjujily 26 
The true caujes of breach and dijiurbance of civill peace. 29 
A prepoflerous way of fuppr effing err ours. 30 
Perfecutors mufi needs oppreffe both erroneous and true con- 
fciences. ibid. 
All perfecutors of Chrifl profeffe not to perfecute hitn. ibid. 
What is meant by the Heretic ke. Tit. 3. 33 
The word Heretick generally tnijlaken. 34 
Corporall killing in the haw, typing out Spirituall killing in the 
Gofpell. 36 
The cariage of a Soule fenfble of mercy, towards others in their 
blindneffe, &c. 38 
The difference between the Church, and the World wherein it is, 
in all places. 38 
The Church and civill State confufedly made all one. 39 
The mojl peaceable accufed for peace-breaking. 40 
A large Exa??iination of what is meant by the Tares, and let- 
ting of them alone. ibid. 
Sathans fubtletie about the opening of Scripture. 41 
Two forts of Hypocrites, 44 
The Lord Jefus the great Teacher by Parables, and the only 
Expounder of them. 44 
Preaching for converfon is properly out of the Church. 45 
The tares proved properly to fgnifie Antichrifians. ibid. 
Gods Kingdome on Earth the vifble Church. 46 
The difference between the Wheat and the Tares, as alfo 
betweene thefe Tares and all others. 46 
A civill Magijiracie frofn the beginning of the world. 47 
The Tares are to be tolerated the longeji ofallfnners. 48 
- The danger of infeBion by permitting of the Tares, affoyled. ibid. 

The Table. 


The civill Magijirate not Jo particularly fpoken to in the New 
Teji anient as Fathers, Majters, &c. and why. Page 50 

A two-fold Ji ate of Chrijlianitie ; Perfecuted under the Rotnane 
E?nperours, and Apojiated under the Ro?nane Popes. ibid. 
3 Particulars contained in that prohibition of Chrijt fefus con- 
cerning the Tares, Let the?n alone. Mat. 13. 51 
Accofnpanying with Idolaters, i Cor. 5. difcufed. 52 
Civill Magif rates never invejied by Chriji fefus with the power 
and title of Defenders of the Faith. 54 
Gods people ever earnef with God for an Arme of Flefi. ^^ 
The dreadfull pimifitnent of the blind Phar if es in 4 refpeBs. ibid. 
The point of feducing, infiBing, or Soule killing, examined, ^j 
Strange cojifufons in punijh?nents. 59 
The blood of Soules, A6ls 20. lies upon fuch as profejfe the Min- 
ifrie : the blood of Bodies only upon the State. ibid. 
UJurpers and Heires of Chrif fejus. 60 
The Civill Magif rate bound to preferve the bodies of their fub - 
jeBs, and not to defroy the?nfor confcience fake. 61 
The fire from heaven. Rev. 13. 13. 2 Tim. 2. 25, 26. exam- 
ined. 62 
The original I of the Chrif i an name, Ad:s 1 1. 63 
A Civill fword in Religion makes a Nation of hypocrites, 
Ifa. 10 64 
A difference of the true and falfe Chrif and Chrif ians. 65 
The nature of the worfjip of unbeleeving and naturall per- 
fons. ibid. 
Antoninus Pius his fainous a5i concerning Religion. 66 
Ifa. 24. Mic. 4. 3. concerning Chrif s vifble Kingdotne dif- 
cuffed. ibid. 
A6ls 20. 29. The fuppr effing of Spirituall wolves dif cuffed. 67 
// IS in vaine to decline the name of the head of the Church, and 
yet to pra£iife the headjhip. 68 

1 8 The Table. 

Titus 1.9. 10. difcujfed. Page 69 

Unmercifull and bloody doBrine. 70 

The Spirituall weapons, 2 Cor. i o. 4. difcujfed. ibid. 

Civill weapons moji hnproper in Spirituall caufes. j i 

The Spirituall ar tiller ie, Eph. 6. applied. 72 

Rom. 13. concerning Civill Rulers power in Spirituall caufes, 

largely examined. 73 

Pauls appeale to Csfar examined. jj 

And cleared by 5 arguments. ibid. 

4 Sorts of fwords. 79 

What is to be underfood by evil I, Rom. 13. 4. 81 

Though evill be alwayes evill, yet the pertnifjion of it may fome- 

times be good. 8 3 

2 Sorts of commands both from Mofes and Chrift. 84 

The permijjion of divorce in Ifrael, Mat. 19. 17, 18. ibid. 

JJfury in the Civill fate lawfully permitted. 85 

Seducing teachers, either Pagan, fewijh, Turkijlj or Antichrif- 

tian, may yet be obedient fubjeBs to the Civill Laws. 86 

Scandalous livers againjl the Civill fate. 87 

Toleration o/' Jefabel and Balaam, Kev. 2. 14, 20. examined. 88 
The Chriflian world hath fw allowed up Chrifiatiity. 89 

Chrif Jefus the deepef polititian that ever was, yet coimnands 

he a toleration of Antichrifians. 91 

The Princes of the world feldome take part with Chrif Jefus. 9 3 
Buchanans item to King James. ibid. 

Kitig James his fayings againf perfecution. ibid. 

King Steven ^Poland his fayings againf perfecution. 93 

Forcing of confcience a foule rape. 94 

Perfecution for confcience hath been the launcet which hath let 

blood the Nations. All Spirituall whores are bloody. ibid. 
Poligamie or the jnany-wives of the Fathers. ibid. 

David advancing of Gods worfiip againf order. 95 

The Table. 19 

Conftantine and the good E?}iperours confejl to have done more 

hurt to the Name and Crowne of Chriji then the bloody 

Neroes did. Page 95 

The language of perfe outers. 96 

Chrijis Lillies may four ijh in the Churchy notwithflanding the 

weeds in the world permitted. 97 

^lueeyi Elizabeth and King James their perfecuting for caufe 

of ReligioTi exa?nined. ibid. 

^een Elizabeth confefed by Mr. Cotton to have ahnof fired 

the world in civill co?nbufiions . 98 

The Wars between the Papifis and the Protefiants. ibid. 

The Wars atid fuccejje of the Waldenfians agaiiifi three Popes.c^g 
Gods people vidlorious overco?n??iers, and with what weapons, ibid. 
The Chrifiian Church doth not perfe cute, but is perfecuted. ibid. 
The nature of excofnmunication. 100 

The opinio?i of aiicient Writers exatnified concernifig the doBrine 

of perfecution. i o i 

Conftraint upon confidence in Old and New England. ibid. 

The Indians ofi New England permitted in their worfihipping ofi 

devils, 102 

In 2 cafies a fialfie Religion will not hurt. 103 

The abfiolute fiuj/iciencie of the Sword of the Spirit. 104 

A Nationall Church not infiituted by Chrifi. ' ibid. 

Man hath no power to make LaweSy to binde confidence. 105 
Hearing ofi the word in a Church efiate a part ofi Gods wor- 

P{P- _ _ 107 

Papt/is plea for toleration ofi^ confidence. ibid. 

Protefiant partiality in the caufie of perfiecution. 108 

Pills to purge out the bitter hutnour ofi perfiecution. ibid. 
Superfiition and perfiecution have had many votes and fiuffrages 

firofn Gods owne people. 1 09 

Soul-killi?ig dificujfed. ibid. 

20 The Table. 

Phineas his aB dif cuffed. Pag€ 1 1 1 

Eliah his Jlaughters examined. ibid. 

Dangerous confequences Jiowing from the civill Magijirates 

power in Spirituall cafes. 114 

The world turned upfde downe. 114 

The wonderfull anfwer of the Minijiers of New England to the 

Minijiers of Old. ibid. 

Lamentable differences even amongst them that feare God. 115 
The doBrine of perfecution ever drives the mofl godly out of the 

world. 116 

A Modell of Church and Civill power cotnpofed by Mr. Cotton, 

and the Minifers of New England, and fent to Salem, [as a 

further confirmation of the bloody doBrine of perfecution for 

caufe of confidence^ examined and anfiwered. 1 1 8 

Chrifis power in the Church confiefi to be above all Magifirates 

in Spirituall things. 1 1 9 

Ifa. 49. 23. lamentably wrefied. ibid. 

The civill Co?nmonweale, and the Spirituall Commonweale the 

Church not inconfifient, though independent the one on the 

other. 1 20 

Chrifi ordinances put upon a whole city or Nation may civilize 

thefn, and moralize, but not Chrifitia?iize befiore repentance 

firfi wrought. 121 

Mr. Cottons and the New EngliJJj Minifiers confiefiion that the 

Magifirate hath neither Civill nor Spirituall power in Soul 

matters. 122 

The Magifirates and the Church [by Mr. Cottons grounds) in 

one and the fia?ne caufie ?nade the fudges on the Bench, and 

delinquents at the Bar. 123 

A de?nonfirative illufiration that the Magifirate cannot have 

power over the Church in Spirituall or Church caufies. 1 24 
The true way ofi the God ofi Peace in differences between the 

Church and the Magifirate. 1 25 

The Table. 21 

The tearms Godlinejfe and Honejiy explained^ i Tim. 2. i. and 
honejiy proved not to Jignijie in that place the righteoiifnes of 
the fecond Table. Page 127 

The forcing of 7nen to Gods worflnp, the greateji breach of civ ill 
peace. 1 29 

The Rofnan Caefars of Chrifts tif?ie defcribed. ibid. 

It pleafed not the Lord fefus in the injiitution of the Chrijlian 
Church to appoint and raife up any Civill Governours to take 
care of his worjhip. 130 

The true cuftodes utriufque Tabulae, and keepers of the Ordi- 
nances and worjljip of Jefus Chriji. ibid. 

The Kings of /Egypt ^ Moab, Philifia, AJJyria, Nineveh, were 
not charged with the worjhip of God, as the Kings of fudah 
were. 1 3 1 

Mafers offa??iilies not charged under the Gofpel to force all the 
confciences of their fatnilies to worjhip. 132 

Gods people have then Jhined brighteji in Godlines, when they 
have enjoyed leaji quietneffe. 1 34 

Few MagiJirates, few Men, fpiritually good; yet divers forts 
of conwiendable Goodnes bejide jpirituall. ibid. 

Civill power originally and fundamentally in the People. Mr. 
Cotton and the New Englifh give the power of ChriJl into 
the hands of the Co?nnionweale. lyj 

Lawes cojicerning Religion, of two forts. 138 

The very Indians abhor to dijiurbe any Confcience at Wor- 

J^'^P- . . . . . ^3? 

Canons and conjlttutions pretended Civill, but indeed EcclefaJ- 

ticall. ibid. 

A threefold guilt lying upon Civill powers, coimnanding the Sub- 
jects Soule in Worjhip. 143 

Perfons may with lejje Jinne be forced to marry whom they can- 
not love, then to worjhip where they cannot beleeve. ibid. 

22 The Table. 

As the caufe, fo the weapons of the Beaji and the Lambe are 
infinitely different. Page 1 46 

Artaxerxes his Decree exa??iined. 147 

The Junwie of the Rxamples of the Gentile Kings decrees con- 
cerning Gods worjldip in Scripture. 149 
The DoBrine of putting to death Blafphemers of Chrijiy cuts off 
the hopes of the fewes partaking in his blood. 181 
The direfull effeBs of fgh ting for Confcience. 151 
Err our is confident as well as Truth. 1 5 2 
Spirituall prifons. 1 5 3 
Some Confidences not fo eafly healed and cured as ?nen imagine. 1 54 
Perfecuters difpute with Hereticks^ as a tyrannicall Cat with 
the poore Moufe : And with a true JVitnes, as a roaring 
Lyon with an innocent La?nbe in his paw. 155 
Perfecuters endure not the name of Perfecuters. 156 
Pfal. 1 01 concerning cutting off the wicked^ examined. 158 
No difference of Lands and Countries, fnce Qhrif Jefus his 
comming. ib. 
The New Englifij feparate in America, but not in Europe. 159 
Chrijl yefus forbidding his followers to permit Leaven in the 
Church, doth not forbid to permit Leaven in the World. 160 
The Wall (Cant. 8. 9.) difcuffed 161 
Every Religion commands its profeffors to he are only its own 
Priejis or Minijiers. 162 
fonah his preaching to the Ninevites difcuffed. 162 
Hearing ofi the Word difcuffed. ibid. 
Eglon his rijing up to Ehuds ineffage, difcuffed. ibid. 
A twofold Miniftrie oj^ Chriji: Firf, Apojlolicall, properly 
converting. Secondly, Feeding or Pajiorall. 162 
The New Englifh forcing the people to Church, and yet not to 
Religion [as they Jay) for ci?ig them to be of no Religion all 
their dayes 163 

The Table. 23 

T^e Civiil State can no ??iore lawfully compcll the Confciences 
of 7nen to Church to heare the Word, then to receive the Sac- 
raments. Page 164 

No prejident in the Word, of any people converting and baptiz- 
ing thef?if elves. 166 

True converfon to vifble Chrijiianitie, is not only from fns 
againji the fecond Table, but from falfe WorflAps alfo. ibid. 

The Commifjion, Mat. 28 difcujfed. 167 

The Civiil Magijirates not betrujled with that Commijion. ibid. 
Jehofaphat, 2 Chron. 17. a figure of Chriji Jefus in his 
Church, not of the Civiil Magijtrate in the State. 168 

The ?naintenance of the Minijirie, Gal. 6. 6. examined. ibid. 

Chriji Jefus never appointed a maintenance of the Minijirie 
frotn the impenitent and unbelieving. 1 69 

They that compell men to heare, compell them alfo to pay for 
their hearing and converfon. ibid. 

Luc. 14. Compell them to come in, examined. ibid. 

Natural I men can neither truly worflnp nor mainteine it. 1 70 

T^he Nationall Church of the "J ewes ?night well be forced to a 
fet led maintenance : but not fo the Chrijlian Church. 171 

The fnaintenance which Chriji hath appointed his Minijirie in 
the Church. 172 

The JJniverfties of Europe cauj^es of univerfall fins and plagues : 
yet Sc hooks are honourable for tongues and Arts. iji 

The true Church is Chrijis Schoole, and Believers his Schol- 
ars, ibid. 

Mr. Ainfworth excellent in the Tongues, yet no Univerftie 
man. 1 74 

K. Henry the 8. fet down in the Popes chaire in England. 175 

Apocrypha, Homilies, and Common Prayer precious to our Jore- 
fathers. ib. 

Ke formation proved fallible. 176 

24 The Table. 

T/6^ prejident of the Kings of Ifrael & fudah largely exam- 
ined. Page 178 

'Yhe Perfan Kings example make Jlrongly againjl the doBrine 
of Perfecution . 179 

1 . The difference of the Land of Canaan from all lands and 
countries^ in 7 [8] particulars. ibid. 

2. The difference of the people of Ifrael from all other peoples, in 
7 particulars. i 8 3 

Wonderfull turnings of Religion in England in twelve yeares 
revolution. 185 

T^he Pope not unlike to recover his Monarchy over Europe, before 
his downfall. ibid. 

Ifrael Gods only Church might well renew that Nationall Covenant 
and ceretnoniall worflnp, which other Nations cannot doe. 187 

The difference of the Kings and Governours of Ifrael from all 
Kings and Governours of the world, in 4 particulars. 1 8 8 

5 Def?ionJirative arguments proving the ufifoundneffe of the 
maxi??ie, viz. The Church and Co?nmonweale are like Hypo- 
crates twins. 1 8 9 

A facrilegious proftitution of the natne Chrijlian. 192 

David immediately infpired by God in his ordering of Church 
affairs. 193 

Solomons ^<?/>^;z^(?/'Abiathar, i Kings 2. 26, 27. dif cuffed. 194 

The liberties of Chrifs Churches in the choice of her offcers. 195 

A civill influence dangerous to the State liberties. ibid. 

Jehofaphatsy^z// examined. ibid. 

God will not wrong Ciefar, and Q'£.{2i^ Jhould not wrong God. \c)(:i 

The famous aBs o/'Joliah exaf?iined. ibid. 

Magiflracie in generall from God, the particular formes frotn 
the people. ibid. 

Ifrael confirmed in a Nationall Covenant by revelations, fgnes 
and miracles, but not fo any other Land. ibid. 

The Table. 25 

Kings and Natiofis often plant and often plucke up Relig- 
ions. Page 197 

A Nationall Church ever fubje£i to turne and returne. ibid. 

A wotnan^ PapilTa, or head of the Church. ibid. 

The Papijis neerer to the truth y concerning the governour of the 
Churchy then mojl Protejiants. 198 

The Kingly power of the Lord fefus troubles all the Kings and 
Rulers of the World. ibid. 

A twofold exaltation of Chriji. ibid. 

A monarchic all and Minijteriall power of Chriji. 199 

3 Great conipetitours for the Minijleriall power of Chriji. ibid. 

The Pope pretendeth to the Minijleriall power of Chriji ^ yet upon 
the point chalengeth the Monarchicall aljo. ibid. 

3 Great faSlions in ^T\<^\-iindi Jiriving Jor the Arme of Flejh. 200 

The Churches oj^ the Jeparatioii ought in humanity ^ and JubjeBs 
liberty y not to be opprejfed, but at leajl per knitted. 20 1 

7 Reajons proving that the Kings oJIJ'rael and fudah can have 
no other but a Spiritual I Antitype. 202 

Chrijlianitie addes not to the nature of a Civill Commonweale ; 
nor doth want oj^ Chrijlianitie diminijh it. 203 

Mojl JlrajigCy yet moji true conjequences from the Civill Mag- 
ijlrates being the Antitype of the Kings of Ifrael and 
fudah. ibid. 

If no Religion but what the Commonweale approve ; then no 
Chriji y no Gody but at the pleafure of the World. 204 

The true Antitype of the Kings of Ifrael and fudah. ibid. 

4. I^he difference oJAfraels Statutes and Lawes from all others 
in 3 particulars. ibid. 

5. The difference of Ifraels Punijldments G? Rewards Jrom all 
others. 205 

Temporall projperitie f?wjl proper to the Nationall Jlate of the 
fewe. ibid. 

26 The Table. 

"The FjX communication in Ifrael. Page 206 

The corpora!! Jioning in the Law typed out fpirituall Jioning in 
the Go/pel. ibid. 

The wars of Ifrael typical! and unparalleld, but by the Spirit- 
ual! wars of Spirituall Ifrael. ibid. 
The famous typicall captivitie of the fewes. 207 
Their wonder full viBories. 208 
The myficall Army of white troopers. 209 
Whether the Civill Jlate of Ifrael was pre/identiall. ibid. 
Great unf ait h f nine fc in Magijtrates to caji the burthen of judg- 
ing and efablijhing Chrijlianitie upon the Comjuonweale. 2 1 o 
Thoufands of lawfull Civill Magif rates, who never heare of 
fefus Chrifl. 2 1 1 
Nero and the perfecuting Km per ours not fo injurious to Chrif- 
tianity, as Con ftan tine and others, who affumed a power in 
Spirituall things. ibid. 
They who force the confcience of others, cry out of perfecution, 
when their owne are forced. 212 
Conftantine and others wanted not fo much affeBion, as inforju- 
ation of judgement. ibid. 
Civill Authoritie giving and lending their Homes to Bijljops 
dangerous to Chrijls truth. ibid. 
The Spirituall power of Chriji lefus, compared in Scripture to 
the incomparable home of the Rhinocerot. 213 
The nurjing Fathers and Mothers, Ifa. 49. ibid. 
The civill Magijirate owes 3 things to the true Church of 
Chrift. 2 1 4 
The civill Magifrate owes 2 things to falfe Worjloippers. 214 
The rife of High Commifjions. 2 1 5 
Pious Magijlrates & Minijiers confcience s are perfwaded for 
that, which other as pious Magijlrates & Minijiers coft- 
Jciences condefnn. 2 1 5 

The Table. 27 

A?i apt Jimilitude difcujfed concerning the Civill Magif- 

trate. P^gc 216 

A grievous charge againji the Chrijiian Church and the King 

of it. 222 

A Jlrange Law in New England formerly againji excommuni- 
cate perfons. ibid. 
A dangerous doBrine againji all Civill Magijirates. 223 
Originall Jin charged to hurt the Civill Jiate. ibid. 
They who give the Magijtrate more then his due, are apt to 

dijroabe him of what is his. 224 

A Jt range double piBure. 12.6 

The great priviledges of the true Church of Chriji. 227 

2 ^similitudes illujirating the true power of the Magijtrate. ibid. 
A marvelous chalenge f more power under the Chrijiian, then 

under the Heathen Magijirate. 229 

Civill Magijirates, derivatives from the fountains or bodies of 

people. 230 

A beleeving Magifrate no more a Magijirate then an unbe- 

leeving. ibid. 

The excellencie of Chrijiianity in all callijtgs. ibid. 

The Magijirate like a Pilot in the Ship of the Commonweale. 2 3 1 
The teartnes Heathen and Chrijiian Magijirates. ibid. 

The unjuji and partiall liberty to Jo?ne conjcieiices and bondage 

unto all others. 232 

The co7nmiJjion Matth. 28. 19, 20. 7iot proper to Pajlors and 

teachers, leajl of all to the Civill Magijirate. 233 

Unto whom now belongs the care of all the Churches, &c. ibid. 
Ad:s 15. commonly mij applied. 234 

The promife of Chriji s prefence Mat. 18. diJlinB from that 

Mat. 28. 235 

Church adtninijlrations firjlly charged upon the Minijiers 

thereof. 236 

28 The Table. 

^een Elizabeths Bifiops truer to their principles then many of 
a better fpirit and prof ejjion. Page 237 

Mr. Barrowes profejjion concerning ^een Elizabeth. ibid. 

The inventions of ?nen fwarving frofn the true efjentialls of civil I 
and Spiritual I Commonweales. 239 

A great quejiion viz. whether only Church members, that is 
godly perfons in a particular Church ejiate, be only eligible 
into the Magijlracie. ib. 

The world being divided into 30 parts, 25 never heard of 
Chrijh 240 

Law full civill Jiates where Churches of Chrijl are not. ibid. 

Few Chrijl ians Wife and noble and qualified for affaires of 
State. ibid. 

Scriptures And Reasons 

written long llnce by a Witneffe of lefus 

Chrift, clofe Prifoner in Newgate, againft Per- 

fecution in caufe of Conjcience ; and fent fome 

while fince to Mr. Cotton^ by a Friend 

who thus wrote : 

In the multitude (j/' Councellours there is fafety : 

It is therefore humbly dejired to be injiru- 

Bed ill this point : 'viz. 

Whether Perfecution_/^r catc/e of Qonki^nc^ 

be not againji the DoBrine o/^ lefus Chrift the King of 
Kings. The Scriptures and Reafons are thefe. 

BEcaufe Chriji commandeth that the Tares and 
Wheat (which fome underftand are thofe that 
walke in the Truth, and thofe that walke in Lies) 
(hould be let alone in the World, and not plucked up 
untill the Harvejl, which is the end of the Worlds 
Matth. I 3. 30. 38. &c. 

The fame commandeth Matth. 15. 14. that they that 
are Blinde (as fome interpret, led on in falfe Religion^ 
and are offended with him for teaching true Religion) 
fhould be let alone, referring their punifliment unto their 
falling into the Ditch. 

Againe, Luke 9. 54, 55. hee reproved his Difciples 

who would have had Fire come downe from Heaven 

and devoure thofe Samaritanes who would not receive 

Him, in thefe words : Ye know not of what Spirit ye 


30 The Bloudy Tenent. 

are, the fon of Man is not come to deftroy Mens lives, 
but to fave them. 

4 Paul the Apoftle of our Lord te^cheth, 2 Tim. 24. 
2. That the fervant of the Lord muft not Jlrive^ but 
mufi: be gentle toward all Men, fuffering the Evill Men, 
inftrud:ing them with meeknejfe that are contrary minded, 
proving if God at any time will give them repentance, 
that they may acknowledge the Truth, and come to 
amendtiient out of that fnare of the devill, &c. 

5 According to thefe blelfed Commandements , the holy 
Prophets foretold, [2] that when the Law oi Mofes (con- 
cerning Worjhip) fliould ceafe, and Chrijh Kingdome be 
eftabliflied, EJa. 2. 4. Mic. 4. 3, 4. They fliall breake 
their Swords into Mathookes, and their Speares into 
Sithes. And Efa. 1 1. 9. Then fhall none hurt or deftroy 
in all the Mountaine of my HolinelTe, &c. And when 
he came, the fame he taught and praBiJed, as before: 
fo did his T>ifciples after him, for the Weapons of his 
Warfare are not carnall (faith the Apoftle) 2 Cor. 10. 4. 

But he chargeth ftraitly that his Difciples (hould be 
fo far from perfecuting thofe that would not bee of their 
Religion, that when they were perfecuted they fhould 
pray [Matth. 5.) when they were curfed they Ihould 
blejfe. Sec. 

And the Reafon feemes to bee, becaufe they who now 
are Tares, may hereafter become Wheat ; they who are 
now blinde, may hereaftery^^ ; they that now rejiji him, 
may hereafter receive him ; they that are now in the 
devils fnare, in adverfenejfe to the Truth, may hereafter 
come to repentance ; they that are now blafphemers and 
perfecutors (as Paul was) may in tir^e h^covwc fait hfull 
as he ; they that are now idolators as the Corinths once 

The Bloudy Tenent. 31 

were (i Cor. 6. 9.) may hereafter become true worjlnp- 
pers as they ; they that are now no people of God, nor 
under fnercy (as the Saints fometimes were, i Pet. 2. 20.) 
may hereafter become the people of God, and obtaine 
7nercy, as they. 

Some come nor till the 1 1 . houre, Matth. 20. 6. if 
thofe that come not till the lajl houre fliould be dejiroyed, 
becaufe they come not at the Jirji, then fhould they 
never come but be prevented. 

All which premtfes are in all humility referred to 
your godly wife conjideration. 

Becaufe this perfecution for caufe oi confcience is againft n. 
the profejjion and praBice oi famous Princes. 

Firft, you may pleafe to coniider the fpeech of King 
ya?nes, in his Majejiies Speech at Parliament, 1609.' 
He faith, it is a fure Rule in divinity, that God never 
loves to plant his Church by violence and hloodjhed. 

And in his HighneJJe Apologie, pag. 4. [2] fpeaking of 
fuch Papijls that tooke the Oath, thus :' 

" I gave good proofe that I intended no perfecution 
"againft them for confcience caufe, but onely defired to 
" bee fecured tor civill obedience, which for confcience 
** caufe they are bound to performe. 

And pag. 60. [22] fpeaking oi Blackwell^ (the Arch- 

• The Workes of the Mojl High and by a bull from Pope Clement VIII, 

Mightie Prince James. Publifhed by April 6, 1599. He took the oath of 

James, Bifhop ot Winton, &c. London, allegiance enafted in confequence of the 

1616, p. 544. do. p. 248. Gunpowder Plot, and openly exprefled 

2 George Black\vell,a Roman Catholic his approbation of it, though Paul V. 

divine, was commiflioned to aft as arch- had condemned it. His fuperiors at 

prieft over the fecular clergy in England Rome could not endure his attempts to 

by Cardinal Cajctan, March 7, 1598, induce Roman Catholics to take the 

in order to meet lome of the difficulties oath, and he was fuperfeded in 1508. 

arifing from the lack of a Romifh epifco- Rofe, Biog. Dift., IV; Wood's Athenae 

pate, and was confirmed and approved Oxonienfes, ii: 122. 

32 The Bloudy Tenent. 

prieji) his Majejiy faith,' " It was never my intention to 
" lay any thing to the faid Arch-Priejis charge (as I 
"have never done to any) for caufe of confcience. And 
in his Highnejfe Expojition on Revel. 20. printed 1588. 
and after [in] 1603. his MajeJly writeth thus :^ "Sixthly, 
" the compaffing of the Saints [3] and the befieging of 
" the beloved City^ declareth unto us a certaine note of a 
'■^falfe Churchy to be Perfecution^ for they come to feeke 
" the faithfully the faithfull are them that are fought : 
" the wicked are the befegers, the faithfull are the 
" befeged. 

Secondly, the ('Siymgoi Stephen King oi Poland:^ "I 
" am King of Men^ not of Confciences^ a Commander of 
" Bodies^ not of Soules. 

Thirdly, the Kifig of Bohemia hath thus written : 
" And notwithstanding the fuccelfe of the later times 
" (wherein fundry opinions have beene hatched about the 
"fubje6t oi Religion) may make one clearly difcerne 
" with his eye, and as it were to touch with his Finger, 
" that according to the veritie of Holy Scriptures, and a 
" Maxime heretofore told and maintained, by the ancient 
" Dod:ors of the Church ; That mens confciences ought 
"in no fort to bee violated, urged, or cofijirained; and 
" whenfoever men have attempted any thing by this 
" violent courfe, whether openly or by fecret meanes, the 
" ilTue hath beene pernicious, and the caufe of great 

' The Workes of the Mojl High and "I reign over perfons ; but it is God 

Mightie Prince James, p. 268. who rules the confcience. Know that 

2 The Workes of the MoJI High and God has referved three things to him- 
Mightie Prince James, p. 79. felf ; the creation of fomething out of 

3 Stephen Bathori was King of Poland nothing, the knowledge of futurity, and 
1575-1586. Though a convert to the the government of the confcience." 
Roman Church he ufed no intolerance Lardncr^s Cabinet Cyclopedia, Poland, p. 
towards his Proteilant fubjedls. He faid, 167. 

The Bloudy Tenent. 33 

" and wonderfull Innovations in the principalleft and 
" mightiell: Kingdotnes and Countries of all Chrijften- 
** dome. 

And further his Af^V//y faith : "So that once more 
" we doe profelTe before God and the whole Worlds that 
" from this time forward wee are firmly refolved not to 
^^ per fe cute or moleji^ or fuffer to be perjecuted or molejied^ 
"any perfon whofoever for matter of Religion, no not 
" they that profelfe themf elves to be of the Romijh Church, 
"neither to trouble or difturbe them in the exercife of 
"their Religion, fo they live conformable to the Lawes 
"of the States, &c.' 

And for the practice of this, where is perfecution for 
caufe of confcience except in England and where Popery 
reignes, [?] and there neither in all places, as appeareth 
by France, Poland, and other places. 

Nay, it is not pradifed amongft the Heathen that 
acknowledge not the true God, as the Turke, Perjian, 
and others. 

Thirdly, becaufe perfecution for caufe of confcience 3 ^^'^• 
is condemned by the ancient and later Writers, yea and 
Papijls themfelves. 

' This paragraph, quoted alio in the in the fame year (1620) in which he 

Addrefs to Parliament, p. 7, is from the was defeated that this " Humble Suppli- 

manifeilo iffued by the Eledlor Palatine, cation" from which thefe "Scriptures 

Frederick the Fifth, who had been and Reafons" are taken was printed, 

elefted King of Bohemia againil Ferdi- The Commons had boldly declared their 

nand the Second, Archduke of Auftria fympathy with his misfortunes, and fo 

and Emperor of Germany, at the begin- circumilances gave fignificance to opin- 

ning of the Thirty Years War, Schiller, ions uttered by one who was confidered 

Thirty Tears War, Book I. James the a reprefentative of the Protcllant caufe, 

Firft, whofe daughter he married, was and which were fo much in advance of 

entirely oppofed to his taking the crown, thofe of James. Brandt, The Hi/lory of 

and rcfufed to recognife him. Hume, the Reformation in and ahout the Low 

Hijiory of England, Chap. 48. It was Countries, iv : lib. 52, p. 200. 

34 The Bloudy Tenent. 

Hilarie againft Auxentius"^ faith thus : The Chrijiian 
Church doth not perfecute^ but is perfecuted. And lament- 
able it is to fee the great folly of thefe times, and to figh 
at the foolilh opinion of this world, in that men thinke 
by humane aide to helpe God, and with worldly pompe 
and power to undertake to defend the Chrijiian Church. 
I aske you BiJJjops, what helpe ufed the Apojlles in the 
publifhing of the Gojpel? with the aid of what power 
did they preach Chrijl, and converted the Heathen from 
their idolatry to God^ When they were in prifons, and 
lay in chaines, did they praife and give thankes to God 
for any dignities, graces, [4 1 and favours received from 
the Court ? Or do you thinke that Paul went about 
with Regall Mandates, or Ki?igly authority, to gather 
and eftablifh the Church of Chrijl ? fought he protection 
from Nero, Vefpa/ian ? 

The Apojlles wrought with their hands for their owne 
maintenance, travailing by land and water from Towne 
to Citie, to preach Chrijl : yea the more they were Jor- 
bidden, the more they taught and preached Chrijl. But 
now alas, humane helpe mull; ajfijl and proteSi the Faith, 
and give the fame countenance to and by vaine and 
worldly hofiours.- Doe men feek to defend the Church 
^ Chrijl "^ as if hee by his power were unable to per- 
forme it. 

The fame againft the Arrians.' 

The Church now, which formerly by induring mifery 
and imprijonment was knowne to be a true Church, doth 

' S. Hilarii Opera, Lib. I, Contra ing words being connefted with the fol- 

Arianos vel Auxentium, Cap. 3, 4, pp. lowing interrogation : or by changing 

465, 466; Venetiis, 1749. "^^e order of the words, thus, "and give 

2 This fentence may be read with a countenance to the fame by vaine and 

period after " countenance," the remain- worldly honours." 

The Bloudy Tenent. 35 

now terrific others by imprifonfuenty banijhment^ and 
7nifery, and boalteth that flie is highly efteemed of the 
worlds when as the true Church [fl^e] cannot but be 
hated of the fame. 

Tcrtull. ad Scapulam :' It agreeth both with humane 
rcajhi, and naturall equity ^ that every man worjhip God 
uncompelled, and beleeve what he will ; for it neither 
hurteth nor profiteth any one another mans Religion and 
Beleefe : Neither befeemeth it any Religion to compel] 
another to be of their Religion, which willingly and freely 
ihould be imbraced, and not by conftraint : for as much 
as the offerings were required of thofe that freely and 
with good will offered, and not from the contrary. 

'Jerom. in pr ace 772. lib. 4. in 'Jere77iia7n.' Herejie muft 
be cut off with the Sword o^ the Spirit: let us ftrike 
through with the Arrowes of the Spirit all Sonnes and 
Difciples of mif-led Heretic kes, that is, with Tejli77wnies 
of holy Scriptures. The ilaughter oi Heretickes is by 
the word of God. 

Brent ius^ upon i Cor. 3. No man hath power to make 
or give Lawes to Chrijiians, whereby to binde their 
confciences ; for willingly, freely, and uncompelled, with 
a ready defire and cheerfuU minde, muft thofe that come, 
run unto Chriji. 

Luther in his Booke of the Civill Magijlrate'' faith ; 

• Tertulliani Opera, Tom. i. Cap. 2, p. ha;refim fpirituali mucrone truncemus." 
I 52, Antvcrpis, i 583; Lib'ry of Fathers, 3 The works of Brentius, 8 vols, folio, 

Tertullian, i: 143, Oxford, 1842. Tubingen, 1575-1590, are not within 

2 S, Hicronymi Opera, in prcemium lib. the Editor's reach, nor on the catalogues 

4, in Jercmiam, pp. 615-616, Parifiis, of any of the public libraries of the coun- 

1704. Only the firll member of this fen- try, fo far as examined. 
tence is found in the place cited, "^od 4 Luther's Siimtliche Schriften, heraus- 

fi cavendum nobis ejl, ne veterem ladcre gegeben J. G. Walch, lo'' Theil, 452. 

videamur neceffttudinem, Ji fupcrbijftmam Halle. 1744. 

36 The Bloudy Tenent. 

The Lawes of the Civil! Magijlrates government extends 
no further then over the body or goods, and to that 
which is ext email : for over xhe^foule God will not fufFer 
any man to rule : onely he Imnfelfe will rule there. 
Wherefore whofoever doth undertake to give Lawes 
unto the Soules and Conjciences of Men, he ufurpeth that 
government himfelfe which appertain eth unto God, &c. 

Therefore upon i Kings ^.' In the building of ih^Tem- 
ple there was no found oi Iron heard, to fignifie that Chriji 
will have in his Church 2. free and a willing People, not 
compelled and conftrained by Lawes and Statutes. 
5] Againe he faith upon Luk. 22/ It is not the true 
Catholike Church, which is defended by the Secular Arme 
or humane Power, but the falfe and feigned Church, 
which although it carries the Name of a Church yet it 
denies the power thereof. 

And upon Pfal. 17.^ he faith: For the true Church 
of Chriji knoweth not Brachium fceculare, which the 
Bijhops now adayes, chiefly ufe. 

Againe, in Pofil. Dom. i. poji Epiphan.^ he faith: 
Let not Chrifians be co?n?nanded, but exhorted : for. He 
that willingly will not doe that, whereunto he is friendly 
exhorted, he is no Chriftian : wherefore they that doe 
compell thofe that are not willing, ihew thereby that 
they are not Chrifiian Preachers, but Worldly Beadles. 

Againe, upon i Pet. 3.^ [ii : 17] he faith: If the 

' Schriften, x: 438. planation of the 117th Pfalm, Theil 4'', 

2 Schriften, xiii : 2818. Auflegung des 1261. 

Evangelii am Bartholomews Tag, Luke 4 Schriften, xii : 429. Auflegung der 

xxii : 24-30. " God will keep and gov- Epiftel am erften Sonntage nach Epiph- 

ern his Church only by his Word, and ania. 

not by human power." It may be that 5 Schriften, ix : 740. Auflegung der 

the reference is to fome other paffage. erllen Ep. Petri, cap. 2, v. 17. 

3 This paffage is not found in his ex- 

The Bloudy Tenent. 37 

Civil! Magiftrate (hall command me to believe thus and 
thus : I fliould anlwer him after this manner : Lord, or 
Sir, Looke you to your Civill or Worldly Government, 
Your Power extends not fo farre as to command any 
thing in Gods Kingdo?ne : Therefore herein I may not 
heare you. For if you cannot beare it, that any fliould 
ufurpe Authoritie where you have to Command, how 
doe you thinke that God fhould fuffer you to thruft him 
from his Seat, and to feat your felfe therein ? 

Laftly, the Papifts, the Inventors of Perfecution, in a 
wicked Booke of theirs fet forth in K. fames his 
Reigne, thus : 

Moreover, the Meanes which Almighty Go^ appointed 
his Officers to ufe in the Converfion of Kingdomes and 
Nations, and People, was Hiimilitie, Patience, Char it te ; 
faying. Behold I fend you as Sheepe in the midll: of 
Wolves, Mat. 10. 16. He did not fay. Behold I fend 
you as Wolves among Sheepe, to kill, imprifon, fpoile 
and devoure thofe unto whom they were fent. 

Againe verf. 7. he faith : They to whom I fend you, 
will deliver you up into Councells, and in their Syna- 
gogues they will fcourge you ; and to Prejidents and to 
Kings fhall you be led for my fake. He doth not fay: 
You whom I fend, Ihall deliver the people (whom you 
ought to convert) unto Councells, and put them in Prif- 
ons, and lead them to Prejidents, and Tribunall Seates, 
and make their Religion Felony and Treafon. 

Againe he faith, ve?'f. 32. When ye enter into an 
Houfe, falute it, faying. Peace be unto this Houfe : he 
doth not fay. You fhall fend Purfevants to ranfack or 
fpoile his Houfe. 

Againe he faid, John 10. The good Pajlour giveth 

38 The Bloudy Tenent. 

his life for his Sheep, the Thiefe commeth not but to 
fteale, kill and deftroy. He doth not fay, The Theefe 
giveth his life for his Sheep, and the Good Pajiour 
6] commeth not but to fteale, kill and deftroy. 

So that we holding our peace, our Adverfaries them- 
felves fpeake for us, or rather for the Truth. 

To anfwer fome maine ObjeBions. 

And firft, that it is no prejudice to the Co?fimon wealth, 
if Libert je of Conjcience were fuffred to fuch as doe feare 
God indeed, as is or will be manifeft in fuch mens lives 
and converfations. 

Abraham abode among the Canaanites a long time, 
yet contrary to them in Religion, Gen. 13. 7. & 16. 13. 
Againe he fojourned in Gerar, and K. Abinielech gave 
him leave to abide in his Land, Gen. 20. 21. 23. 24. 
[xx, xxi: 33. 34.] 

IJaack alfo dwelt in the fame Land, yet contrary in 
Keligion, Gen. 26. 

Jacob lived 20 yeares in one Houfe with his Unkle 
Laban, yet differed in Religion, Gen. 31. 

The people oi IJrael were about 430 yeares in that 
infamous land of Egypt, and afterwards 70 yeares in 
Babylon, all which time they differed in Religion from 
the States, Exod. 12. & 2 Chron. 36. 

Come to the time of Chriji, where IJrael was under 
the Rojnanes, where lived divers Se6ts of Religion, as 
Herodians, Scribes and Pharijes, Saduces and Libertines, 
Thud<^ans ^nd Samaritanes,heCide the Common Religion 
of the jfewes, Chri/l and his Apojiles. All which dif- 
fered from the Common Religion of the State, which 

The Bloudy Tenent. 39 

was like the Worfliip oi Diana ^ which almoft the whole 
world then worihipped, ABs 19. 20. [27.] 

All thefe lived under the Government oi Ccefar^ being 
nothing hurtfull unto the Common-wealth, giving unto 
Qcejar that which was his. And for their Religion and 
Confciences towards God, he left them to themfelves, 
as having no Dominion over their Soules and Qonjciences. 
And when the Enemies of the Truth raifed up any 
'Tumults, the wifedome ot the Magijirate moft wifelv 
appeafed them, Adis 18 14. & 19. 35. 


The answer Of Mr. Iohn 

Cotton of Bojlon in New-England^ 

-To the aforefaid Arguments againft 

Perfecutmi for Caufe of Conjcience. 

Profeffedly mainteining Perfecution for 
Cattfe of Confcience* 

THe ^lejiion which you put, is, Whether Perfe- 
cution for caufe of Confcience^ be not againft the 
DoBrine of J ejus Chriji the King of Ki??gs. 
Now bv Perfecution for Caufe of Coffcience, I con- 
ceive you meane, either for profeiTing fome point of 
Dottrine which you beHeve in Confcience to be the 
Truth, or for pradliling fome Worke which in Confcience 
you beheve to be a Religious Duty. 

Now in Points of X^oBrine fome are fundamentally 
without right behefe whereof a Man cannot h(t faved : 
Others are circumfantiall or lelfe principal!, wherein 
Men may differ in judgement, without prejudice of 
falvation on either part. 

In hke fort, in Points of PraBice^ fome concerne the 
waightier Duties of the Law^ as, What God we worfhip, 
and with what kinde of PTorfjip ; whether fuch, as if 
it be Rights fellowlliip with God is held ; it Corrupt^ 
fellowship with Him is loft. 

Againe, in Points of DoBrine and Worjhip lefte Prin- 
cipal! : either they are held forth in a meeke and peace- 
able way, though the Things be Erroneous or unlawful! : 

42 The Bloudy Tenent. 

Or they are held forth with fuch Arrogance and Impet- 
uoujhejfe, as tendeth and reacheth (even of it felfe) to 
the difturbance of Civill Peace. 

Finally, let me adde this one.diftindtion more: When 
we are perfecuted for Confcience fake, It is either for 
Conjcience rightly informed, or for erronious and blind 

Thefe things premifed, I would lay down mine 
Anfwer to the Queftion in certaine Conclujions. 

1. Firft, it is not not lawfull to perfecute any for Con- 
fcience fake Rightly informed \ for in perfecuting fuch, 
Chrijl himfelfe is perfecuted in them, ABs 9. 4. 

2. Secondly, for an Erronious and blind Confcience, (even 
in fundamentall [8] and weighty Points) It is not law- 
full to perfecute any, till after Admoiiition once or twice : 
and fo the Apolfle diredieth, Tit. 3. 10. and giveth the 
Reafon, that in fundamentall and principall points of 
Docflrine or Worfliip, the Word of God in fuch things 
is fo cleare, that hee cannot but bee convinced in Con- 
fcience of the dangerous Errour of his way, after once 
or twice Admonition, wifely and faithfully difpenfed. 
And then if any one perliil, it is not out of Confcience, 
but againft his Confcience, at the Apoltle faith, verf 1 1. 
He is fubverted and linneth, being condemned of Him- 
felfe, that is, of his owne Confcience. So that if fuch a 
Man after fuch Admonition Ihall ftill peri\{)i in the 
Errour of his way, and be therefore puniflied ; He is 
not perfecuted for Caufe of Confcience, but for linning 
againf his Owne Confcience. 

3. Thirdly, In things of lelfer 7no77ient, whether Points 
of DoBrine or Worjhip, If a man hold them forth in a 
Spirit of Chriftian MeekneJJe and Love (though with 

The Bloudy Tenent. 43 

Zeale and Confiancie) he is not to be perfecuted^ but tol- 
erated, till God may be pleafed to manifefl; his Truth to 
him, Phil. 3. 17. Row. 14. i, 2, 3, 4. 

But if a Man hold forth or profelfe any Err our or 4- 
falfe way, with a boyjierous and arrogant fpirit, to the 
difturbance of C/i;/// /'^<^<:£', he mayjuftlybe puniflied 
according to the qualitie and meafure of the dijlurbance 
caufed by him. 

Now let us confider of your Reafons or ObjeBions to 
the contrary. 

Your firll: head of ObjeBions is taken from the Scrip- 

ObjeB. I. Becaufe Chrift commandeth to let alone 
the 'Tares and Wheat to grow together unto the Har- 
veji. Mat. 13. 30. 38. 

Anfw. Tares are not Briars and T homes, but partly 
Hypocrites, like unto the Godly, but indeed Carnall, as 
the Tares are like to Wheat, but are not Wheat. Or 
partly fuch Corrupt X^oBrines or PraBices as are indeed 
unfound, but yet fuch as come very neere the Truth, 
(as Tares doe to the Wheat) and fo neere, that Good 
men may be taken with them, and fo the Perfons in 
whom they grow, cannot be rooted out, but good will 
be rooted up with them. And in fuch a cafe Chrift 
calleth for Toleration, not iox penall projecution, accord- 
ing to the 3. Conclufion. 

ObjeB. 2. In Math. 15. 14. Chrift commandeth his 
Difciples to let the Blind alone till they fall into the 
ditch ; therefore he would have their puniihment defer- 
red till their finall deJiruBion. 

Anjhv. He there fpeaketh not to publique officers, 
whether in Church or Comnion-weale, but to his private 

44 The Bloudy Tenent. 

Difciples^ concerning the Pharifes^ over whom they 
had had no power. And the Command he giveth to 
let [9] them alone, is fpoken in regard of troubling 
themfelves or regarding the offence, which they tooke 
at the wholefome DoBrine of the Gofpell : As who 
fhould fay, Though they be offended at this Saying of 
mine, yet doe not you feare their Feare, nor bee troubled 
at their offence, which they take at my T)oBri?ie, not 
out of found Judgement, but out of their Blindnejfe. 
But this maketh nothing to the Caufe in hand. 

Ob. In Luk. 9. 54 ^^. Chriji reproveth hh Difciples, 
who would have had hre come downe from Heaven to 
confume the Sa?naritanes, who refufed to receive Him. 

Obj. And Paul teacheth "Tiinothy, not to ftrive, but 
to be gentle towards All men, fuffering evill patiently. 

Anjw. Both thefe are DireBions to Minijiers of the 
Gofpell how to deale (not with objlinate offenders in the 
Churchy that finne againft Confcience, but) either with 
Men without, as the Samaritanes were, and many uncon- 
verted Chrijlians in Crete^ whom Titus (as an Evange- 
liji) was to feeke to convert : Or at beft with fome 
"Jewes or Gentiles in the Church, who though carnall, 
yet were not convinced of the errour of their Way : 
And 'tis true, it became not the Spirit of the Gofpell to 
convert Aliens to the Faith of Chrift (fuch as the Sama- 
ritanes were) by Fire and Brif}ifone ; nor to deale harfhly 
in publique Miniifrie or private Conference with all 
fuch contrary minded men, as either had not yet entred 
into Church-Fellowfjip^ or if they had, yet did hitherto 
linne of Ignorance^ not againft Confcience. 

But neither of both thefe Texts doe hinder the Min- 
iflers of the Gofpell to proceed in a Church-way againft 

The Bloudy Tenent. 45 

Church-members, when they become Scandalous offend- 
ers^ either in Life or T)o£trine : much lelTe doe they 
fpeake at all to Civill Magijirates. 

Ob. 5. From the prediBion of the Prophets, who fore- 
told that Carnall Weapons fliould ceafe in the dayes of 
the Gofpelly Ifa. 2. 4. & 1 1. 9. Mir. 4. 3, 4. And the 
ApoJUe profelTeth, The weapons of our Warfare are not 
carnall, 2 C'or. 10. 4. And Chrijl is fo farre from per- 
fecuting thofe that would not be of his Religion, that he 
chargeth them, when they are perfecuted themfelves, 
they ihould pray, and when they are curfed they (hould 
bleffe. The reafon whereof feemeth to be, that they 
who are now Perfectiters and wicked perfons, may 
become true T)ifciples and Converts. 

Anfw. Thofe prediBions in the Prophets doe onely 
fhew, Firft, with what kind of Weapons he will fubdue 
the Nations to the Obedience of the Faith of the Gof- 
pell, not by Fire and Sword, and Weapons of Warre, 
10] but by the Power of his Word and Spirit, which no 
man doubteth of. 

Secondly, thofe prediBions of the Prophets {he^y what 
the meeke and peaceable tetnper will be of all the true 
Converts to Chrijlianity, not Lions or Leopards, &c. not 
cruell oppreffors, nor malignant oppofers, or biters of one 
another. But doth not forbid them to drive ravenous 
Wolves from the Jheepfold, and to reftraine them from 
devouring the Sheepe of Chriji. 

And when Paul faith, The weapons of our warfare 
are not carnall but fpirituall, he denyeth not civill 
weapons of fujiice to the Civill Magijirate, Rom. 13. but 
onely to Church officers. And yet the weapons of fuch 
officers he acknowledgeth to be fuch, as though they 

46 The Bloudy Tenent. 

he fpiritually yet are ready to take vengeance of all difo- 
bedience^ 2 Cor. 10. 6. which hath reference (amongft 
other Ordinances) to the cenfure of the Church againft 
fcandalous offenders. 

3- When Chriji commandeth his Y)ifciples to bleife them 
that curfe them and perfecute them, he giveth not 
therein a rule to publick offcers, whether in Church or 
Commonweale, to fuffer notorious linners, either in life 
or doBrine, to paffe away with a bleffing : But to private 
Chrijtians to fuffer perfecution patiently, yea and to pray 
for their perfecutors. 

Againe, it is true, Chrift would have his Y){fciples to 
bee farre from perfecuting (for that is 2i Jinfull oppreffon 
of Men for righteoufnejje fake) but that hindreth not but 
that he would have them execute upon all difobedience 
the judgefnent and vengeance required in the Word, 2 
Cor. 10. 6. Kom. 13. 4. 

4- Though it be true that wicked perfons now may by 
the grace of God become true Difciples and Converts^ 
yet we may not doe evill that good may come thereof: 
And evill it would bee to tolerate notorious evill doers, 
whether /educing teachers or fcandalous livers. Chrifl 
had fomething againft the Angel of the Church oi Per- 
gamus for tolerating them that held the doBrine of 
Balaam^ and againft the Church of Thiatira for tolera- 
ting JeJ'abel to teach and feduce. Rev. 2. 14. 20. 

Your fecond Head of Reafons is taken from the pro- 
feffion and praBice of famous Princes^ ^ii^g Jafnes, 
Stephen of Poland, King of Bohemia. 

Whereunto a treble anfwer may briefly be returned. 

Firft, we willingly acknowledge, that none is to be 
perfecuted at all, no more then they may be opprelfed 
for righteoufnelfe fake. 

The Bloudy Tenent. 47 

Againe, we acknowledge that none is to be punidied 
for his coiifcience^ though mif-informed, as hath been 
faid, unlelYe his errour be fundamentally [ 1 1 1 or ledi- 
tioully and turbulently promoted, and that after due 
conviction of his conjcience^ that it may appeare he is 
not puni(hed for his confcience, but for finning againjl 
his confcience. 

Furthermore, we acknowledge none is to be con- 
jirained to beleeve or profelfe the true Religion till he 
be convinced in judgement of the truth of it : but yet 
reftrained he may [be] from blafpheming the truth, and 
from feducing any unto pernicious errours. 

2. Wee anfwer, what Princes profelfe or pradtife, is 
not a rule oi confcience : they many times tolerate that 
in point of State policy, which cannot juftly be tolera- 
ted in point of true Chrijtianity. 

Againe, Princes many times tolerate offendours out 
of very necefity, when the offenders are either too many, 
or too mighty for them to punifli, in which refpedt 
David tolerated Joab and his niurthers, but againjl his will. 

3. We anfwer further, that for thofe three Princes 
named by you, who tolerated Religion, we can name 
you more and greater who have not tolerated Heretickes 
and Schifnatickes, notwithftanding their pretence of 
confcience, and arrogating the Crowne of Martyrdome to 
their fufferings. 

Conftantine the Great at the requeft of the Generall 
Councell of Nice, baniflied Arrius with fome of his fel- 
lowes. Sozo?n. lib. i. Ecclef Hijl. cap. 19. 20.' The 

» Bibliotheca Patrum, torn, vii, p. 387, Gibbon, Decline and Fall, chap, xxi, p. 
London, 1677; Soxomen, Eccl. HiJJory, 317, London, 1835; Stanley, Eaftern 
Bagrter, London, 1846, pp. 37, 38; CZ'/z/y^, Ledlure iv, p. 240, Am. Ed. 

48 The Bloudy Tenent. 

fame Conjianfine made a fevere Law againft the T>ona- 
tijis.' And the like proceedings againft them were 
ufed by Valentinian, Gratian, and Theodojius, as Auguf- 
tine reporteth in £/>//?. 166/ Only Julian the Apojlate 
granted liberty to Heretickes as well as to Pagans, that 
he might by tolerating all weeds to grow, choake the 
vitals of Chrijlianity,^ which was alfo the practice and 
fin of Valens the Arrian. 

Queene Elizabeth , as famous for her government as 
any of the former, it is well knowne what Lawes {he 
made and executed againft Papijis. Yea and King 
James (one of your own witnelfes) though he was flow 
in proceeding againft PapiJls (as you fay) for confcience 
fake, yet you are not ignorant how (liarply and feverely 
he puniftied thofe whom the malignant world calleth 
Puritanes, men of more confcience and better faith then 
he tolerated. 

I come now to your third and laft argument, taken 
from the judgement of ancient and later Writers, yea 
even of Papijis themfelves, who have condemned perfe- 
cution for confcience fake. 

You begin with Hilary, whofe teftimony we might 
admit without any prejudice to the truth : for it is true, 
the Chriftian Church doth not [ 1 2] perfecute, but is 
perfecuted. But to excommunicate an Hereticke, is not 

' Eufcbii Pamphili, Eccl. Hi/l., De rey's Tranflation, ii, 193, 

Vita Conilantini, lib. ii, cap. 66. This ^ s. Aug, Opera, torn, ii, (105) Ad 

however he repealed. "In a refcript Donatillas, pp. 299, 300, Parifiis, 1679. 

addrefled to the Vicar Verinus, in North 3 Neander, The Emperor Julian and his 

Africa, he granted to the Donatifts full Generation, tr. by Cox, Seft. IV, p. 122. 

liberty to aft according to their own con- "Julian gave all parties among the Chrif- 

viftions, declaring that this was a matter tians equal liberty, with the hope that 

which belonged to the judgment of by their mutual contentions they would 

God." Neander, Church Hijiory, Tor- deftroy one another." 

The Bloudy Tenent. 49 

to perfecute ; that is, it is not to punifli an innocent, 
but a culpable and damnable perfon, and that not for 
confciencey but for perlilHng in erroiir againll light of 
coTifcience, whereof it hath beene convinced. 

It is true alfo what he faith, that neither the Apojiles 
did, nor may we propagate | the] Chrijiian Religion by the 
Sword : but if Pagans cannot be won by the Word, they 
are not to be compelled by the Sword. Neverthelelfe 
this hindreth not, but if they or any others fhould blaf- 
pheme the true God, and his true Religion, they ought to 
be feverely punifhed ; and no lelfe doe they deferve, if 
i\\&y Jeduce from the truth to damnable Here/ie or Idol- 

Your next Writer (which is TertulUan) fpeaketh to 
the fame purpofe in the place alledged by you. His 
intent is onely to reftraine Scapula the Roniane Govern- 
our of Africa from the perfecution of Chrijiians, for not 
offering facrilice to their gods : And for that end fetch- 
eth an argument from the Law of Naturall Equity, not 
to compell any to any Religion, but to permit them 
either to beleeve willingly, or not to beleeve at all. 
Which wee acknowledge, and accordingly permit the 
Indians to continue in their unbeleefe. Neverthelelfe it 
will not therefore be lawfull openly to tolerate the wor- 
jhip of devils or Idols, or the feduBion of any from the 

When Tertullian faith. Another mans Religion neither 
hurteth nor proliteth any; it muif be underflood of 
private worjhip and Religion profelfed in private : other- 
wife a falfe Religion profelfed by the Members of a 
Church, or by luch as have given their Names to Chriji, 
will be the mine and deflation of the Church, as 

50 The Bloudy Tenent. 

appeareth by the threats of Chrift to the Churches of 
AJia^ Revel. 2. 

Your next Authour Hiero??i crolleth not the truths nor 
advantageth not your caufe : for we grant what he faith, 
that Here/ie muft bee cut off with the Sword of the 
Spirit. But this hindreth not, but that being fo cut 
downe, if the Hereticke ftill perfift in his Herefie^ to the 
feduBion of others, he may be cut off by the civillfword, 
to prevent the perdition of others. And that to bee 
Hieromes meaning appeareth by his note upon that of 
the Apoftle, [A little Leave?: leaveneth the whole liimpe^^ 
therefore (faith he)' 2ifparke as foone as it appeareth, is 
to be extinguiilied, and the Leaven to be removed from 
the reft of the dough., rotten peeces of fiefli are to be cut 
off, and a /cabbed beajl is to be driven from the flieep- 
fold : left the whole houfcy fuaj/e of dough, body 2^n^flocke, 
be fet on fire with the fparke, bee fowred with the 
Leaven, be putrified with the [i 3] rotten Jlefl:), perifh by 
the f cabbed beajl. 

Brentius (whom you next quote) fpeaketh not to 
your Caufe. We willingly grant him and you, that Man 
hath no power to make Lawes, to bind Confcience. But 
this hindreth not, but that Men may fee the Lawes of 
God obferved, which doe bind Confcience. 

The like Anfwer may be returned to Luther, whom 
you next alleadge. Firft, that the Government of the 
Civill Magijirate extendeth no further then over the 
Bodies and Goods of their Subjects, not over their Soules: 
And therefore they may not undertake to give Lawes 
to the Soules and Confciences of Men. 

Secondly, that the Church of Chrif doth not ufe the 

' S. Hieronymi Opera, torn, iv, 291, Parifiis, 1706. 

The Bloudy Tenent. 51 

Arme of Secular Power to compell men to the Faith^ 
or profeffion of the Truth ; for this is to be done by 
Spirituall weapons^ whereby Chrijiians are to be exhorted, 
not compelled. 

But this hindreth not that Chrijiians linning againft 
light of Faith and Conjcience, may juftly be cenfured by 
the Church with Excom?nunication, and by the Civill 
Sword alfo, in cafe they fliall corrupt others to the per- 
dition of their Soules. 

As for the Tejiitjwny of the Popijh Book, we weigh it 
not, as knowing (whatfoever they fpeake for Toleration 
of Religion, where themfelves are under Hatches) when 
they come to fit at Sterne, they judge and pradlife quite 
contrary, as both their Writings and Judiciall proceed- 
ings have teftified to the World thefe many yeares. 

To fliut up this Argument from Tejli^uonie qI Writers. 
It is well known, Augujline retracted this Opinion of 
yours, which in his younger times he had held, but in 
after riper age reverfed and refuted, as appeareth in the 
fecond Book of his RetraBations, chap. 5. and in his 
Epiftles 48. 50. And in his i. Book againft Parmeni- 
anus, cap. 7. he fheweth, that if the Donatijls were pun- 
ifhed with death, they were juftly puniflied. And in 
his 1 1 Traftate upon John, They murther, faith he, 
Soules, and themfelves are afflicted in Body : They put 
men to everlajting death, and yet they complaine when 
themfelves are put to fuffer temporall death. ^ 

' S. Aug. Opera, Retradlationum lib. Tr. xi, 15, torn, iii, pars. 2, 383. This 

ii, cap. V, tom. i, p. 43, Eps. 93, 185. change of" opinion in St. Augulline in 

Ad Vincentium and De Corredlione Do- regard to the employment of force in 

natiftarum, tom. ii, 230, 643. Contra religion is well prcfcntcd by Neander, 

Epiftolam Parmeniani, lib. i, cap. 8, Church HiJ}ory,\\, 214-217. " It was 

tom. ix, 19. In Johannis Evang. cap. 2, by Augulline, then, that a theory was 


The Bloudy Tenent. 

Optatus in his 3. book,' juftifieth Macharius, who 
had put fome Hereticks to death ; that he had done no 
more herein then what Mofes, Phifieas, and Elias had 
done before him. 

Bernard in his 66 Sermon in Qantica ;' Out of doubt 
(faith he) it is better that they (hould be retrained by 
the Sword of Him, who beareth not the Sword in vaine, 
then that they fliould befuffred to draw many [14] others 
into their Err our. For he is the Minijier of God for 
Wrath to every evill doer. 

Cahins judgement is well knowne, who procured the 
death of Michael Servetus for pertinacie in Herejie^ and 
defended his fa6t by a Book written of that Argument.^ 

Beza alfo wrote a Booke de Mcereticis Morte pleBendis^ 
that Hereticks are to be puniilied with Deaths Aretius 
likewife tooke the like courfe about the Death of Valen- 
tinus GentiliSy and juftified the Magiftrates proceeding 
againft him, in an Hiftory written of that Argument.^ 

propoi'ed and founded, which tempered 
though it was, in its pradlical applica- 
tion, by his own pious, philanthropic 
fpirit, neverthelefs contained the germ 
of that whole fyftem of fpiritual defpot- 
ifm, of intolerance and perfecution, 
which ended in the tribunals of the in- 
' S. Optati Opera, p. 75, Parifiis, 1679. 

2 S. Bernardi Opera, i, torn. 4, p. 1499, 
Parifiis, 1680. 

3 Calvini Opera, torn, viii, p. 510, Am- 
flerdam, 1667. 

4 Beza Tradl. Theol. torn, i, p. 85, 
edit. 1582. (Underbill.) De Hareticis a 
Civ Hi Magijiratu Puniendis, Opuscula, p. 
85, Geneva, 1658. 

5 Valentini gentilis jufto capitis (an. 

1566) fupplicio Bernae affefti brevis hif- 
toria, etc. Geneve, 1567. 

A Short Hiftory of '/alentinus Gentilis 
the Tritheift. Tryed, condemned and put 
to Death by the Proteftant Reformed City 
and Church of Bern in Switzerland, for 
ajferting the Three Divine Perfons of the 
Trinity to be Three Diftind, Eternal 
Spirits, l^c. Wrote in Latin by Bene- 
diftus Aretius, a Divine of that Church : 
and now tranilated into Englifh for the 
ule of Dr. Sherlock. London, 1696. 

For an account of Gentilis fee BayWs 
Diiiionary, iii, p. 153, art. Gentilis. R. 
Wallace, Antitrinitarian Biography, I, 
352. C. C. Sand, Bibliotheca Anti-trini- 
tariorum, p. 26. Jac. Spon, Hiftoire de 
Geneve, Liv. iii. 

The Bloudy Tenent. 53 

Finally, you come to anfwer fome maine Objections, 
as you call them, which yet are but one, and that one 
objedteth nothing againft what we hold. It is (fay you) 
no prejudice to the Common-wealth, if Libertie of Con- 
fcience were fuffred to fuch as feare God indeed, which 
you prove by the examples of the Patriarchs and others. 

But we readily grant you, Libertie of Confcience is 
to be granted to men that feare God indeed, as knowing 
they will not perlift in Herelie, or turbulent Schifme, 
when they are convinced in Confcience of the fmfulnelfe 

But the Queftion is, Whether an Heretick after once 
or twice Admonition (and fo after convicftion) or any 
other fcandalous and heynous offender, may be tolerated, 
either in the Church without Excommunication, or in 
the Common-wealth without fuch punilhment as may 
preferve others from dangerous and damnable infection. 

Thus much I thought needfull to be fpoken, for 
avoyding the Grounds of your Errour. 

I forbeare adding Reafons to juffilie the Truth, 
becaufe you may iinde that done to your hand, in a 
Treatife fent to fome of the Brethren late of Salem, 
who doubted as you' doe. 

The Lord Jefus lead you by a Spirit of Truth 
into all Truth, through Jefus Chrift. 

' "Writing to one Mr. Hall," fays "lent to fome of the Brethren late of 

Williams in a note to this fentence in Salem," is a point difputed between Cot- 

The Bloody Tenent yet more bloody, y^. 290. ton and Williams. Williams had added to 

The " treatife " is "A Model of Church the title, following the above hint of Cot- 

and Civil Power " which is " examined ton's, "Compoied by Mr. Cotton and the 

and anfwered " in the fecond part of this Miniflers of New England, and lent to 

work. Chap. Ixxxii. By whom it was the Church at Salem." Bloudy Tenent,-^. 


The Bloudy Tenent. 

I I 8. Cotton replied that this was " a 
double falfhood." "For Mr. Cotton, 
I know, that he was none of them that 
compofed it." " Howfoever this Modell 
came to Salem, the Miniilers fay, it was 
not fent by them." Bloudy Tenent WaJ]:ed, 
p. 192. " Againll this bluflering charge 
of double falfhood," Williams, after quo- 
ting this clofing paragraph of Cotton's 
aniwer to the priibner's arguments, fays, 
" To mv knowledge it was reported 

(according to this hint of Mr. Cotton's) 
that from the Miniilers of the Churches 
(pretended) fuch a Modell compofed by 
them was fent to Salem : Hereupon it 
was that the Difcufl'er wrote on purpofe 
to his worthy friend Mr. Sharpe (elder 
of the Church of Salem (fo called) for 
the fight of it, who accordingly fent it 
to him." The Bloody Tenent yet more 
bloody, p. 291. 

A Reply to the aforefaid Answer 

of Mr. Cotton. 

In a Conference betweene 

77? VTH and PEACE. 


Truth. X N what darke corner ot the World ( fweet 
I Peace) are we two met ? How hath this pre- 
^ lent evill World banilhed Me from all the 
Coafts & Quarters of it ? and how hath the Right- 
eous God '\w judgement taken Thee from the Earthy 
Rev. 6. 4. 

Peace. 'Tis lam.entably true (blejfed Truth) the foun- Truth and 
dations of the World have long been out of courfe : j^ ^^^ 
the Gates of Earth and Hell have confpired together feldom 
to intercept our joyfull jjieeting and our holy ki[]es :^^'"'''' 
With what a wearied, tyred Wing have I flowne over 
Nations, Kingdomes, Cities, Tow fie s, to finde out pre- 
cious Truth ^ 

Truth. The like enquiries in my flights and trav- 
ells have I made for Peace, and ftill am told, (he hath 
left the Earth, and fled to Heaven. 

Peace. Deare Truth, What is the Earth but a dun- 
geon of darknejfe, where Truth is not ? 

Truth. And what's the Peace thereof but a fleet- 
ing dreame, thine Ape and Counterfeit .^ 


5 6 The Bloudy Tenent. 

Peace. O where's the Promife of the God of 
Heaven, that Righteoufnes and Peace (liall kijfe each 
other ? 

Truth. Patience (fweet Peace) thefe Heavens and 
Earth are growing 0/<^, and fhall be changed Hke a 
Garment, Pfal. 102. They fliall melt away, and be 
burnt up with all the Works that are therein ; and 
the moft high Eternall Creatour, lliall glorioufly 
create New Heavens and New Earth, wherein dwells 
Righteoufnejfe, 2 Pet. 3. Our kijfes then fhall have 
their endlej/e date of pure and fweeteft ioyes ? till then 
both Thou and / muft hope, and wait, and beare the 
furie of the Dragons wrath, whofe monjirous hies and 
Furies lliall with himfelfe be caft into the lake of 
Fire, t.h.Qjeco?id death. Revel. 20. 

Peace. Moft precious Truth, thou knoweft we are 
both purfued and [16] laid \\n. wait] for : Mine heart 
is full of lighes, mine eyes with teares : Where can 
I better vent my full opprelled bojome, then into thine, 
whofe faithfull lips may for thefe few houres revive 
my drooping wandring fpirits, and here begin to 
wipe Teares from mine eyes, and the eyes of my deareft 
Children .^ 

Truth. Sweet daughter of the God oi Peace, begin; 
powre out thy forrowes, vent thy complaints : how 
joyfuU am I to improve thefe precious Minutes to 
revive our Hearts, both thine and mine, and the 
hearts of all that love the Truth and Peace, Zach. 8. 

Peace. Deare Truth, I know thy birth, thy nature, 
thy delight. They that know thee, will prize thee 
farre above themfelves and lives, and fell themfelves 
to buy thee. Well fpake that famous Elizabeth to 

The Bloudy Tenent. ^j 

her famous Attorney Sir Edward Coke :" Mr. Attour- 
ney, goe on as thou haft begun, and ftill plead, not 
pro Y>omina Reginciy but pro Y>omina Veritate. 

Truth. 'Tis true, my Crowne is high, my Scepter ?, 
ftrong to breake Aov^njirotigeji holds, to throw down 
higheft Crownes of all that plead (though but in 
thought) againft me. Some few there are, but oh 
how few are valiant for the Truth, and dare to plead 
my Caufe, as my lVit?ieJ]es in fack-cloth, Revel. 1 1 . 
While all mens Tongues are bent like Bowes to (hoot 
out lying w^ords againft Me ! 

Peace. O how could I fpend eternall dayes and end- 
lejfe dates at thy holy feet, in liftning to the precious 
Oracles of thy mouth ! All the Words of thy mouth 
are Truth, and there is no iniquity in them ; Thy lips 
drop as the hony-combe. But oh ! fmce we muft 
part anon, let us (as thou faidft) improve our Minutes, 
and (according as thou promifedft) revive me with 

' Sir Edward Coke was a patron of youth, would in fhort hand, take fer- 

• Williams in his youth. During Wil- mons and fpceches in the Star Chamber, 

liams's fecond vifit to England, 1652-4, and prefent them to my dear father. He, 

he begun a correfpondence with Mrs. feeing fo hopeful a youth, took fuch a 

Sadleir, Coke's daughter, and in his firll liking to him that he fent him in to Sut- 

letter faysof him, " How many thoufand ton's Hofpital [now the Charter Houfe] 

times have I had honourable and pre- and he was the iecond that was placed 

cious remembrance of his perfon, and there : full little did he think that he 

the life, the writings, the fpeeches, and would have proved fuch a rebel to God, 

the examples of that glorious light. And the king and his country. I leave his 

I may truly fay, that befide my natural letters, that if ever he has the face to 

inclination to lludy and activity, his ex- return into his native country, Tyburn 

ample, inftrudion and encouragement, . may give him welcome." Elton, Life 

have fpurred me on to a more than ordi- of Roger Williams, pages 90, 100. He 

nary, indullrious, and patient courfe in had fent a copy of the Bloudy Tenent 

my whole courfe hitherto." To this let- to Mrs. Sadleir, which fhe refufed to 

ter Mrs. Sadleir put the following note : read. 
"This Roger Williams, when he was a 

58 The Bloudy Tenent. 

thy words, which are fweeter then the honey and 
the honey-combe. 


2 TAEare Truth, I have two fad Qomplaints : 

plahits°of' ^^^ Firft, the moft fober of thy Witnejfes, that 
Peace. dare to plead thy Qaufe, how are they charged to be 
mine Enetnies, contentious, turbulent, feditious ? 

Secondly, Thine Enemies, though they fpeake and 
raile againft thee, though they outragioully purfue, 
imprifon, baniJJj, kill thy faithfull Witnejjes, yet how 
is all vermillion'd o're for "Jujiice 'gainft the Here- 
ticks f Yea, if they kindle coales, and blow the flames 
of devouring Warres, that leave neither Spirituall nor 
Civill State, but burns up Branch \ 17] and Root, yet 
how doe all pretend an holy War ^ He that kills, and 
hee that's killed, they both cry out. It is for God, and 
for their confcience. 
Perfecu- Tis true, nor one nor other feldome dare to plead 
tors iel- i-j^g mighty Prince Chrift 'Jefus for their Authour, 

dom plead o j j u j ^ ' 

Chriit,butyet both (both Protejlant and Papiji) pretend they 

Mofes for have fpoke with Mofes and the Prophets, who all, 

thor"^ "' ^^y ^^^y (before Chriji came) allowed fuch holy per- 

J'ecutions, holy Warres againft the enemies of holy 


Truth. Deare Peace (to eafe thy firfl: complaint) tis 
true, thy deareft Sons, moft like their mother, Peace- 
keeping, Peace-?naking Sons of God, have borne and 
• ftill muft beare the blurs of troublers of Ifrael, and 
turners of the World uplide downe. And tis true 
againe, what Salomon once fpake : The beginning of 

The Bloudy Tenent. 59 

Jirtfe is as when one letteth out Water, therefore 
(faith he) leave off contentioti before it be medled with. 
This Caveat fhould keepe the bankes 2indjluces lirme 
and ftrong, ih-^ijirife, like a breach of waters, breake 
not in upon the fons of men. 

Yet Jirife muft be diftinguifhed : It is necejjary or^^^^e dif- 
unnecejjary, godly or ungodly, Chrijiian or unchrijiian, '"^"^ 

It is unnecejfary, unlawfully dijhonourable, ungodly, '• Ungod- 
unchri/tian, in moft cafes in the world, for there is a ^ 
pofsibility of keeping fweet Peace in moft cafes, and 
if it be pojsible, it is the expreffe command of God 
that Peace be kept, Ro?n. i 3. 

Againe, it is necejjary, honourable, godly, &c. with 2- Godly 
civil I and earthly weapons to defend the innocent, and 
to refcue the oppreffed from the violent /'^i^^d'j'andy^wj' 
of opprefiing perfecuting Nimrods, Pfal. 73. fob 29. 

It is as necefary, yea more honourable, godly, and 
Chrijiian, iofght the fght o£ faith, with religious and 
fpirituall Artillery, and to contend earnejily for the 
J'aith of Jejus, once delivered to the Saints againft all 
oppojers, and the gates of earth and hell, tnen or devils, 
yea againft Paul himfelfe, or an Angell from heaven, 
if he bring any other faith or doBrine, fude verj\ 4. 
Gal I. 8. 

Peace. With the clafhing of fuch Amies am I never A three- 

fold dole- 


wakened. Speake once againe (deare Truth) to rny^^if 
fecond cotfiplaint of bloody perjecution, and devouring chrirts 
wars, marching under the colours of upright y^f/^^^^, r^°'"JJ^'P '^ 
and holy Zeale, &c. Cant. 1.16 

Truth. Mine eares have long beene filled with a 
threefold dolefuU Outcry. 

6o The Bloudy Tenent. 

Falfe wor- Firft, of One hundred forty foure thoufand Virgins 

fore is a {R^'^- H') forc'd and ravifht by Emperours^ Kings, 

falfe bed. and Govemours to their beds of worjloip and Religion, 

fet up (Hke Abfaloms) on high in their feverall States 

and Countries. 

The cry 1 8] Secondly, the cry of thofe precious foules under 

of the ^j^g Altar (Rev. 6.) the /^^//t'j- of fuch as have beene 

der the pcrfecuted and flaine for the teftimony and witnejfe of 

Altar. y^Jus, whofe bloud hath beene fpilt like water upon 

the earth, and that becaufe they have held faft the 

truth and witnejfe of yefus, again ft the worflnp of the 

States and Times, compelling to an uniformity of State 


Thefe cries of murthered Virgins who can fit ftill 
and heare ? Who can but run with zeale inflamed to 
prevent the dejlowring of chajie foules, and fpilling of 
the bloud of the innocent ? Humanity ftirs up and 
prompts the Sonnes of men to draw materiall fwords 
for a Virgins chafity and life, againft a ravifloing 
murtherer? And Piety 2ind Chriftianity mui^: needs 
awaken the Sons of God to draw the fpirituall fword 
(the Word of God) to preferve the chajiity and life of 
fpirituall Virgins, who abhorre the fpirituall defile- 
ments oi falfe worfhip. Rev. 14. 
A cry of Thirdly, the cry of the whole earth, made drunke 
with the bloud of its inhabitants, flaughtering each 
other in their blinded zeale, for Coffcience, for Religion, 
againft the Catholicizes, againft the Lutherans, &c. 

What fearfuU cries within thefe twenty years of 
hundred thoufands men, women, children, fathers, 
mothers, husbands, wives, brethren, lifters, old and 
young, high and low, plundred, ravifhed, fiaughtered. 

the whole 

The Bloudy Tenent. 6i 

niurthered.famifloed? And hence thefe cries, that men 
fling away \\\q J pirituall fword and fpirituall artillery 
{in fpirituall and religious caufes) and rather truft for 
the fuppreffing of each others God, Confcience, and 
Religion (as they fuppofe) to an arine oi Jiejh, and 
J word oi Jleele ? 

Truth. Sweet Peace, what haft thou there? 

Peace. Arguments againft perfecution for caufe of 

Truth. And what there ? 

Peace. An Anfwer to fuch Arguments, contrarily 
maintaining fuch perfecution for caufe of Confcience. 

Truth. Thefe Arguments againft fuch pej'Jecution,^'^^'^,':^''^^'^- 
and the Anfwer pleading for it, written (as ^^'Z^^ provldece 
hopes) from godly intentions, hearts, and hands, yet in of God in 
a marvellous different liile and manner. The Arg-u- ?^^ ^^'\}^' 
ments againft perfecution in fmlke, the Anjwer tor it the Argu- 
(as I may fay) in bloud. ments 

The Authour of thefe Arguments (againft />^r/t'<:«-p|^)-"^y_ 
tion) (as I have beene informed) being committed by tion in 
fotne then in power, clofe prifoner to Newgate, for the M^^'^<^- 
witnefl^e of fome truths o^ Jefus, and having not the 
ufe of Pen and Inke, wrote thefe Arguments in Milke, 
in ftieets of Paper, brought to him by the Woman his 
Keeper, from a friend in London, as th^fopples of his 
Milk bottle. 

19] In fuch Paper written with Milk nothing will 
appeare, but the way of reading it by fre being 
knowne to this friend who received the Papers, he 
tranfcribed and kept together the Papers, although 
the Author himfelfe could not corred:, nor view what 
himfelfe had written. 

62 The Bloudy Tenent. 

It was in milke, tending to foule nourijhment, even 
for Babes and Sucklings in Chrijl. 

It was in f?iilkey fpiritually white, pure and inno- 
cent, like thofe white horfes of the Word of truth and 
meeknejje, and the white Linnen or Armour of right- 
eoufnejje, in the Army oi yejus. Rev. 6. & 19. 

It was in milke, foft, meeke, peaceable and gentle, 
tending both to the peace oi Joules, and the peace of 
States and Kingdomes. 
The An- Peace. The Anfwer (though I hope out of milkie 
in^Bloud^ pure intentions) is returned in bloud: bloudy & llaugh- 
terous conclufions ; bloudy to the Jouls of all men, forc'd 
to the Religion and Worjhip which every civil State 
or Common-weale agrees on, and compells all fub- 
jedis to in a dilTembled uniforriiitie. 

Bloudy to the bodies, firft of the holy witneJJ'es of 
Chrijl yefus, who teftifie againft fuch invented wor- 

Secondly, of the Nations and Peoples ilaughtering 
each other for their feverall refpe^tive Religions and 


TrwM.TN the Anfwer Mr. Cotton firft layes downe 
X feverall diJlinBions and conclujions of his 
owne, tending to prove perfecution. 

Secondly, Anfwers to the Scriptures, and Argu- 
ments propofed againft perjecution. 
The firil Pcacc. The firfl diftindition is this : By perfecu- 
^!{^'"^'°" tion for caufe of Conjcience, " I conceive you meane 
" either for profeffing fome point of doBrine which 

The Bloudy Tenent. 63 

"you beleeve in confcience to be the truths or for 
'■^ praBiJing Ibme worke which you beleeve in con- 
^^fcience to be a religious dutie. 

Truth. I acknowledge that to molefl: any perfon, Definition 
yew or Gentile, for either profeffing doBrine, or prac- °^ ?qj^ ^■j-_ 
tiling worjljip meerly religious or fpirituall, it is tocufled. 
perfecute him, and fuch a perfon (what ever his doc- 
trine or praBice be true oy falfe) fuffereth perfecution 
for confcience. 

But withall I delire it may bee well obferved, that 
this diJlinBion is not full and complete : For belide 
this that a man may be perfecuted | 20] becaufe he 
holdeth or pra6lifeth what he beleeves in confcience 
to be a Truth, (as Daniel did, for which he was call: 
into the Lyons den, Dan. 6.) and many thoufands of 
Chrifians, becaufe they durft not ceafe to preach and Confci- 
praiiife what they beleeved was by God commanded, '^"'^^/^'^^ 
as the Apofles anfwered (ABs 4. ^ 5.) I fay belides j^^ained 
this a man may alio be perfecuted, becaufe hee dares from its 
not be condrained to yeeld obedience to fuch doBrines^^^ ^°''' 

• 1 • -1 'hip, nor 

and worfhips as are by men invented and appointed, conilrain- 
So the three famous Jewes were caft into the fiery ^d to an- 
furnace for refufing to fall downe (in a non-confor?nity° 
to the whole conforming world) before the golden 
Image, Dan. 3. 21. So thoufands oi Chrifs witneffes 
(and of late in thofe bloudy Marian dayes) have 
rather chofe to yeeld their bodies to all forts of tor- 
ments, then to fubfcribe to doBrines, or pradiife wor- 
Jhips, unto which the States and Times (as Nabu- 
chadnezzar to his golden Image) have compelled and 
urged them. 

A chafte wifewlW not onely abhorre to be rellrained 

64 The Bloudy Tenent. 

A chafte from her hujhands bed^ as adulterous and polluted, but 
Godswor-^^^o abhor (if not much more) to bee conftrained to 
fhip like a the bed oi 2l Jlr anger. And what is abominable in 
chart wife, corporally is much more loathlbme in fplrituall whore- 
dome and defilement. 

The Spoufe of Chrijl 'Jefus who could not iinde 
her foules beloved in the wayes of his worjhip and 
Minijlery^ [Cant. i. 3. and 5. Chapters) abhorred to 
turne aiide to other Flockes^ JVorJloips, &c. and to 
imbrace the bofome of a falfe Chrijl^ Cant. i. 8. 


The fee- Peace. ^ | ^He fecond dirtindlion is this. 
ond dif- J^ jj^ points of Dodirinc fome are funda- 

difcufled. mentall, without right beleefe whereof a man can- 
not be faved : others are circumftantiall and lelTe 
principall, wherein a man may differ in judgement 
without prejudice of falvation on either part. 
Godspeo- Truth. To this diJiinBion I dare not fubfcribe, for 
pie may then I fliould everlaftingly condemne thoufands, and 
the very ^^^ thoufands, yea the whole generation of the right- 
fundamen-6'i?2^j-, who fince the falling away (from the lirif prim- 
tals of vif- itiyg Chriftian ftate or worlhip) have and doe erre 

ible wor- ^ . ^ ' 

fhip. fundamentally concerning the true matter^ conjiitutiony 
gathering and governing of the Church : and yet farre 
be it from any pious breaji to imagine that they are 
not faved, and that their foules are not bound up in 
the bundle of eternall life. 

We reade of foure forts of fpirituall or Chriftian 
foundations in the New Tejiament. 

4 forts of 21 J Firft, the Foundation oi 2\\ foundations, the Cor- 

The Bloudy Tenent. 65 

ner-ftone itfelfe, the Lord 'J ejus ^ on whom all depend, ^P'rituall 
Perfons, DoBrine, PraBices, i Cor. 3. ji^JJ"^ ^' 

2. Minijieriall foundations. The Church is built 
upon the foundation of the Apojiles and Prophets^ 
Ephef. 2. 20. 

3. T\\^ foundation of future rejoycing in the fruits 
of Obedience, i T/w. 6. 

4. The foundation o'i DoBrines, without the kfiow- QzoiiCta 
ledge of which, there can be no true profelfion of^^/^-^-'"'- 
Chriji, according to the firft injiitution, Heb. 6. Thep^^^jg, 
foundation or principles of Repentance from dead tions of 
works. Faith towards God, the Dodirine o{ Baptifme,^^^ n^v*" 

, , . I J ^ tian Relig- 

Laying on of Hands, the RefurreBion, and Eter7iall \on or 
fudgefnent. In fome of thefe, to wit, thofe concern- Worfhip. 
ing Bapti fines, & Laying on of Hands, Gods people will 
be found to be ignorant for many hundred yeares : 
and I yet cannot fee it proved that light is rifen, I 
mean the light of the lirft injiitution, in prad:ice.' 

Gods people in their perfons. Heart-waking, [Cant. 
5. 2.) in the life oi per fonall grace, will yet be found 
faft alleep in refpedt oi publike Qhrijlian Worjhip. 

Gods people (in their perfons) are His, moft deare 
and precious : yet in refpedt of the Chrifian Worfiip ^^^ of gg. 
they are mingled amonglt the Babylonians, from bell, not 

' The doftriiie of laying on of hands 410; Backus, Church Hijlory of New 

was early adopted in iome of the Bap- England, iii, 217. The adherents of 

tift churches of Rhode Ifland. "About this praftice formed an AfTociation of 

the year 1653 or '54, there was a divi- Churches about 1670, which ilill con- 

fion in the Baptift Church at Providence, tinues, though now quite fmall. "They 

about the right of laying on of hands, have eighteen or twenty churches, fix- 

* * * * but laving on of hands at teen ordained minirters, and about three 

length generally obtained," Callender, thoufand members." Appleton's Amer. 

Hijlorical Dtfcourfe, 114; Comer's Ms. Cyclopedia, xiv. 
Diary, Staples, Annals of Providence, 


66 T^he Bloudy Tenent. 

locall but whence they are called to come out, not locally (as 
n^y ^^^ • fonie have faid) for that belonged to a materiall and 
locall Babelly (and, literall Babell and 'Jerufalem have 
now no difference, 'John 4. 21.) hut fpirituall/ and 
myffically to come out from her fins and Abomina- 

If Mr. Cotton maintaine the true Church of Chrijl 
to confift of the true ?natter of holy perfons call'd out 
from the World ; and the true for?ne of Union in a 
Church-Covenant ; And that alfo, neither Nationally 
Provinciall^ nor Diocefan Churches are of Chrijls 
injlitution : how many Thoufands of Gods people of 
all forts, [Clergie and Laitie^ as they call them) will 
they finde both in former and later times, captivated 
in fuch Nationally Provinciall, and Diocefan Churches ? 
yea and fo far from living in, yea or knowing of any 
The great fuch Churchcs (for matter and forme) as they con- 
^^"°''^"*^^ ceive now only to be true, that untill of late yeares, 
people how few of Gods people knew any other Church then 
concern- the Parijh Church of dead ftones or timber ? It being 
Nature of ^ ^^^^ marvailous light revealed by Chriji J ejus the 
the true Sun of RightcoufneJ/e, that his people are a Co?npany 
Church. Qj. Qfjiifch of living ftones, i Pet. 1. 9. 
Mr. Cotton And howevcr his own Soule^ and the foules of 
f^^lJ- g^^ many others (precious to God) are perfwaded to 
crates, halt feparate from Nationally Provinciall, and Diocefan 
ing be- Churches, and to affemble into particular Churches : 
sTSr^^^^y^^ lince [22] there are no Parijlj Churches in Eng- 
ChuTches, landy but what are made up of the Parijlj bounds 
and conie- within fuch and fuch a compaffe of houfes ; and that 
not yet' fuch Churchcs have beene and are in conftant depend- 
clear in ance on, and fubordination to the Nationall Church : 

'T^he Bloudy Tenent. 67 

how can the New- Englijh particular Churches ]oynQ^^^ tunda- 
with the Old Englijh Parijlj Churches in fo ^^"^^y^nvmlvoU 
Ordinances of Word^ Prayer, Singing, Contribution, OwMWi 
&c. but they muft needs confelTe, that as yet their ^^^'■'^^• 
Soules are farre from the knowledge ot the foundation 
of a true Chrijlian Church, whofe matter muft not 
only be hving ftones, but alfo feparated from the 
rubbijh of Ant i chrijlian confujions and dejolations. 


Peace.\ T\ T\x.h. lamentation I may adde : How 
V V can their Soules be cleare in this foun- 
dation of the true Chrijlian matter, who perfecute and 
opprelfe their own (acknowledged) Brethren prefent- 
ing Light unto them about this Point ? But I fliall 
now prefent you with Mr. Cottons third diJlin5tion, 
" In point of Practice (faith he) fome concerne the 
" weightier duties of the Law, as. What God we 
" worfhip, and with what kind of Worfhip : whether 
" fuch, as if it be Right, fellowfliip with God is held, 
** if falfe, fellowfliip with God is loft. 

Truth, It is worth the inquirie, what kind of The true 
Worjlnp he intendeth ; for Worjhip is of various fig-^pu'rlda- 
niiication : whether in generall acceptation he meanementall. 
the rightnejje or corruptnejfe of the Church, or the 
Minijtry of the Church, or the Miniftrations of the 
Word, Prayer, Scales, &c. 

And becaufe it pleafeth the Spirit of God to make 
the Minijlry one of the foundations of the Qhrijlian 
Religion, [Heb. 6. 12.) and alfo to make the MiniJ- 
trie of the Word and Prayer in the Church, to be 

68 T^he Bloudy Tenent. 

two fpeciall works (even of the Apoftles themfelves) 
ABs 6. 2. I fhall defire it may be well confidered in 
the feare of God. 
The New Firft, Concerning the Minijiery of the Word; The 
ivnnifters New-EngHJlD Minijlcrs^ when they were new eled:ed 
examined. & Ordained Minijiers in New-Engldd, muft undenia- 
bly grant, that at that time they were no Minijiers^ 
notwithftanding their profeffion of ftanding fo long 
in a true Minijiry in Old England^ whether received 
from the Bifliops (which fome have maintained true) 
or from the People, which Mr. Cotton & others bet- 
ter liked,' and which Minijirie was alwayes accounted 
perpetuall and indelible : I apply, and aske. Will it 
not follow, that if their new Minijiry and Ordination 
be true, the former was falfe } and if falfe, that in 
the [23] exercifeof it (notwithfl:anding^^///V/Vj',^r<2'<rfj-, 
intentions, labours, and (by Gods gracious, unpromifed, 
& extraordinary bleffing) fome fucceffe) I fay, will it 
not according to this diftindlion follow, that accord- 
ing to vilible rule, Fellowjhip with God was loft } 
Common Secondly, concerning Prayer ; The New-Englijh 
Prayer call ^/^^/^^ J. ^^ve difclaimed and written againft that 
ten againft 'worjhipping of God by tht' Qom??ion or fet formes of 
by the Prayer, which yet themfelves pradiifed in England, 
lifli^ "^"notwithftanding they knew that many fervants of 
God in great fufferings witnelfed againft fuch a Min- 
ijirie of the Word, and fuch a Minijirie of Prayer.^ 
Peace. I could name the perjons, time and place, 

" " The Church of Brethren hath the ^ Cotton's views on this fubjeft have 

power, priviledges and liberty to choofe already been confidered by Profeffbr 

their officers." The Keyes of the King- Diman in a note to Cotton's Jnfwer,Sic., 

dom of Heaven, p. 12. Cf. The Way of Publications of Narr. Club, ii, 162. 
the Churches, Chap. 2, Seft. 6-9. 

The Bloudy Tenent. 


when fome of them were faithfully admoniflied for 
ufing of the Common prayer, and the Arguments 
prefented to them, then feeming weake, bur now 
acknowledged found : yet at that time they fatisfied 
their hearts with the pradtice of the Author oi the 
Councell of Trent, who ufed to read only fome of the 
choiceft fele6ted Prayers in the Majfe-booke, (which 
I confelfe was alfo their own practice in their uling 
of the Comf?ion-Prayer.Y But now according to this 
diJlinBion, I ask whether or no fellowfliip with God 
in fuch prayers was loft. 

• " I know no fuch faithfull admonifh- 
ers, as prefented to us in England, argu- 
ments againll the Common Prayer, '■■ * * 
though fuch a thing poffibly may be true, 
howfoever forgotten. But this I am 
perfwaded to be utterly falfe, that any of 
us fatisfied our hearts with the praftii'e 
of the Author of the Councell of Trent, 
&c." Cotton, The Bloudy Tenent Wajhed, 
page 8. 

" Poffibly Mailer Cotton may call to 
minde, that the difcufler (riding with 
himfelf and one other of precious mem- 
orie (Mailer Hooker) to and from Sem- 

pringham I prefented his argument from 
Scripture, why he durll not joyn with 
them in their ufe of Common Prayer; 
and all the anfwer that yet can be re- 
membred the difcuifer received from 
Mailer Cotton, was, that he feledled the 
good and bell prayers in his ule of that 
book, as the Author of the Councel of 
Trent was ufed to do, in his ufing of the 
Mafle-book." The Bloody Tenent yet more 
bloody, p. 12. 

Sempringham, a feat of the Clintons, 
Earls of Lincoln, and of a Priory of 
Cillercians, is a fmall parifh near Folk- 
ingham, in Lincolnlhire, about eighteen 

miles from Bofton, where Cotton was 
reftor. Rapin, Hijhry of England, i, 254; 
Camden, Britannia, 464 ; Allen, Hijhry 
of County of Lincoln, ii, 285. 

Thomas Hooker, who is probably re- 
ferred to, was miniller at Chelmsford in 
Eflex, 1626-1630, and came to this 
country in the fame fhip with Cotton in 
1633. Mather's Magnalia, i, 304. There 
is poffibly a clue here to Williams's life 
previous to his coming to America, which 
might be followed with advantage. 

Father Paul Sarpi, the hillorian of the 
Council of Trent, in many things Ihovved 
his independence of the Holy See and 
provoked its enmity. Father Courayer, 
who tranflated his Hiftory into French, 
fays that "Sarpi was a Catholic in gen- 
eral, and fometimes a Protellant in par- 
ticulars. He obferved every thing in the 
Romifh religion which could be prac- 
ticed without fuperllition." An account 
of his life is prefixed to Brent's tranfla- 
tion of his Hillory, London, 1676. There 
is a difcriminating notice of Sarpi, and 
of his biographies, by Rev. James Mar- 
tineau, in the Wejhninjler Review, April, 

70 T^he Bloudy Tenent. 

Truth. ■ I could particularize other exercifes of Wor- 
fiip, which cannot be denied (according to this dif- 
tijiBmri) to be of the waightier points of the Law^ to 
wit, [What God we worjhip^ and with what kind of 
worjhip ;] wherein fellowfliip with God (in many of 
our unclean and abominable WorfJjips) hath been 
Go^j peo- lojft. Only upon thefe premifes I fhall obferve. Firft, 
worfhip- t^^t Gods people, even \\\q, Jiandard- bearers and leaders 
ped God of them (according to this diftinftion) have worfhip- 
^' „ . ped God (in their Ileepy ignorance) by fuch a kind of 
WorJInp^ as wherein f el lowJJjip with God is loft; yea 
alfo this it is poffible for them to do, after much light 
is rifen againft fuch Worfloip, and in particular, brought 
to the eyes of fuch holy and worthy perfons. 
Itpleafeth Secondly, there may be inward and {^Qx^t fellow- 
God {omc- jjjjp with God in falfe Minijleries of Word2iV\A Prayer^ 
Yond\\T {^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ eternall prayfe of Infinite Mercy 
promife,to beyond a word or promife oi God I acknowledge) 
w"(r^^ when yet (as the diftindtion faith) in fuch worjlnp 
comfort to (not being right) fellowfloip with God is loft, and fuch a 
His, in fiervice or fninifiration muft be lamented and forfaken. 
fhips^^^^' Thirdly, I obferve that Gods people may live and 
die in fuch kindes of worjljip, notwithftanding that 
light from God publikely and privately, hath beene 
prefented to them, able to convince : yet not reach- 
ing to [24 1 their conviBion and forfaking of fuch 
wayes, contrary to a conclufion afterward expreft, to 
P , wit, [That fundamentals are fo cleere, that a man 
mentals ofcauuot but be couvinced in Confidence^ and therefore 
Chrirtian f^at fuch a pcrfou not being convinced, he is con- 
^ll^^^^^^^de7?ined ofi hiinfielfie^ and may be perfiecuted iov fmning 
and fure. againft his conficience?\^ 

The Bloudy Tenent. ji 

Fourthly, I obferve that in fuch a maintaining a 
clearneire oi fundamentals or waightier points^ and 
upon that ground a perfecuting of men, becaufe they 
finne againft their conjciences, Mr. Cotton meafures 
that to others^ which himfelfe when he Uved in fuch 
praBices^ would not have had meafured to himfelfe. 
As firft, that it might have beene affirmed of him, 
that in fuch praBices he did linne againft his co?i- 
fciencey having fufficient light (hining about him. 

Secondly, that hee fhould or might lawfully have 
beene cut off by death or banijhmenty as an Hereticke, 
finning againft his owne confcience. 

And in this refped: the Speech of King lames was ^ notable 
notable to a great Non-conformitant converted (as is ^^^^j^mes 
faid by King fames') to conformity^ and counfellingto a great 
the King afterward to perfecute the Non-conformiJisY^'^°n^' 
even unto death: Thou Beaji (quoth the King) if I turned' 
had dealt fo with thee in thy non- conformity^ where per^ecu- 
hadft thou beene .? 


Peace/ | ^He next diJlinBion concerning the manner The 4. 

1 of perfons holding forth the aforefaid ^^^l^H 
practices (not onely the waightier duties of the Law^ 
but points oi do Brine and worjhip lefle principall.) 

" Some (faith he) hold them forth in a meeke and 
^^ peaceable way : fome with fuch arrogance and impet- 
" uoufneffe, as of it felfe tendeth to the difturbance of 
" civill peace. 

Truth. In the examination of this diftinBion we 
(hall difculfe, 

72 T^he Bloudy Tenent. 

What Firft, what is civill Peace, (wherein we fhall vin- 

pe^ace is. dicate thy name the better.) 

Secondly, what it is to hold forth a Dodtrine or 
Practice in this i??jpetuouJneJfe or arrogancy. 

Firft, for civill peace, what is it but pax civitatis, 
the peace of the Citie, whether an EngliJJj City, 
Scotch, or Irijh Citie, or further abroad, French, 
Spanijlj, Turkljh City, &c. 

Thus it pleafed the Father of Lights to define it, 
lerem. 29. 7. Pray for the peace of the City ; which 
peace of the City, or Citizens, fo compacted in a civill 
way oi union, may be intire, unbroken, faie, &c. not- 
25] withftanding fo many thoufands of Gods people 
the yewes, were there in bondage, and would neither 
be conjlrained to the ivorjhip of the Citie Babell, nor 
retrained from fo much of the worjljip of the true 
God, as they then could pra6tice, as is plaine in the 
pra(5lice of the 3 Worthies, Shadrach, Mijach, and 
Abednego, as alfo oi Daniel, Dan. 3. & Dan. 6. (the 
peace of the Qity or Kingdo?ne, being a far different 
Peace from the Peace of the Religion or Spirituall 
Worfinp, maintained & profelfed of the Citizens. 
This Peace of their Worjhip (which worjhip alfo in 
Godspeo-fonie Cities being various) being a falfe Peace, Gods 
pie muft people were and ought to be N one onforjnit ants, not 
be Non- ^^^j-jj^pp either to be re drained from the true, or con- 

conrormi- o ^ J i i r 

tants to Jlrained to Jalfe Worjhip, and yet without breach or 
Evill. j-]-^e Civill or Citie-peace, properly fo called. 

Peace. Hence it is that fo many glorious and flour- 
The dif- idling Cities of the World maintaine their Civill 
baween P^^ce, yea the very Americans & wildeft Pagans keep 
Spiritual! the peace of their Towns or Cities ; though neither 

l^he Bloudy Tenent. 73 

in one nor the other can any man prove a true Church^^^ QW\\\ 
of God in thofe places, and confequently no fpirituall 
and heavenly peace: The Vq-slcq fpirituall (whether 
true or falfe) being of a higher and farre different 
nature from the Peace of the place or people, being 
meerly and effentially civill and hujnane. 

Truth. O how loft are the fonnes of men in this 
point ? To illuftrate this : The Church or compaiiy of 
worjhippers (whether true or falfe) is like unto a Body 
or Colledge of Phyjitians in a Citie ; like unto a Cor- 
poration, Society, or Company of Eajt-Indie or Turkie- 
Merchafits, or any other Societie or Company in Lon- 
don : which Companies may hold their Courts, keep 
their Records, hold difputations ; and in matters con- 
cerning their Societie, may diffent, divide, breake into 
Schifnies and FaBions, fue and implead each other at 
the Law, yea wholly breake up and dilfolve into 
pieces and nothing, and yet the peace of the Citie not * 

be in the leafl: meafure impaired or difturbed ; becaufe 
the ejjence or being of the Citie, and lb the well-being 
and peace thereof is effentially diftindt from thofe The dif- 
particular Societies- the Citie-Courts, Citie- Lawes,^^^^^'^^^' 

\^ . . .„ 1-Vi- o r 1 • 'T-'i /--< ' ' tween the 

Cttie-punijljments diliinct from theirs. The Citte wasspirituall 
before them, and ftands abfolute and intire, when^nd Civill 
fuch a Corporation or Societie is taken down. For 
inftance further, The City or Civill Ji ate oi Ephefus 
was effentially diftind: from the worjljip of Diana in 
the Citie, or of the whole city. Againe, the Church 
of Chriji in Ephefus (which were Gods people, con- 
verted and call'd out from the worjljip of that City 
unto Qhrijiianitie or worjhip of God in Qhrijl) was 
difhindl from both. 

74 T^he Bloudy Tenent. 

The Civil 26] Now fuDpofe that God remove the Qand/e/iick 

State the -' , . 

Spirituall from Ephefus^ yea though the whole JVorJhip of the 
eftate, Citie of Ephejus fhould be altered: yet (if men be 
^.^ ^^f rtrue and honeftly inP:enuous to Citie-covenants, Cofn- 

Lhurch of . . , i t-» • • / \ 11 1 • • 1 1 • 1 

C\\r\[\ 6.\^-oinatto?is and Prmctples) all this might be without 
tina in the leaft impeachment or infringement of the Peace 
^ ^ "^' of the City of Ephefus. 

Thus in the Citie of Smirna was the Citie it felfe 
or Civill eftate one thing, The Spirituall or Religious 
ftate of Smir?ia, another ; The Church of Qhrlji in 
S?)iirna, diftind: from them both ; and the Synagogue 
of the yewes, whether literally jfewes (as fome thinke) 
or myftically, falfe Qhrijlians, (as others) called the 
Synagogue of Sathan^ Revel. 2. diftind: from all thefe. 
And notwithftanding thefe fpirituall oppofitions in 
point of JVorJhip and Religion, yet heare we not the 
leaft noyfe (nor need we, if Men keep but the Bond 
of Qi'vility) of any Civil breach, or breach of Civill 
peace amongft them : and to perfecute Gods people 
there for Religion, that only was a breach of Civil- 
itie it felfe. 


Pf^r^.lVTOw to the fecond Qusrie, What it is to 
1.^ hold forth Dod:rine or Pradtice in an 

arrogant or impetuous way ? 
The An- Truth. Although it hath not pleafed Mr. Cotton 
werer too ^^ declare what is this arrogant or impetuous holding: 

obicure "^ /- , /- 7^ . ." . ^ ^ 

gencralls. forth of DoBrinc or PraBice tending to difturbance 
of Civill peace, I cannot but exprefte my fad and for- 
rowfull obfervation, how it pleafeth God to leave him. 

The Bloudy Tenent. 75 

as to take up the common reproachfull acciifation ofGodsmee- 
the Accufcr of Gods children ; to wit, that they arey^j^tg^j-g^Q 
arrogant and impetuous: which charge (together be counted 
with that of ob/iinacie, pertinacie^ pride^ Troublers of ^'■'"°?^"^ 
the Citie, &c.) Satha?i commonly loads the meekeituous. 
of the Saints and Witiiejj'es o^ J ejus with. 

To wipe off therefore thefe fowle blurs and ajper- 
fions from the faire and beautiful face of the Spoufe 
of J ejus, I fliall feled: and propofe 5 or 6 cafes, for 6 cafes 
which Gods ivitneffes in all Ages and Generations of therein 
Men, have been charged with arroga?ice, i?npetuouJhes, j° l^^^^' 
&c. and yet the God o^ Heaven, and ludge of all men, been bold 
hath p-racioullv difcharp:ed them from fuch crimes, ^' ^^''^°"^' 
and mamtamed and avowed them lor his /ait/jju/i 'rog^nt. 
and peaceable fervants. 

F'irfl:, Gods people have proclai?ned, taught, dij pitted Chn^ Je- 
for divers months together, a Tiew Religion and ^^'^or- ^\^^^ .^^^ 
Jhip, contrary to the Worjhip projected [271 in the teach pub- 
Towne, City, or State, where they have lived, or^^'^'^^y^ ^ 
where they have travelled, as did the Lord Jejus ^^^^^^ f^n. 
Hinjelfe over all Galile, and the Apojiles after Himdamental- 
in all places, both in \\\& Synagogues 2i\'\di Market- l^^^^^J^ 
places, as appeares ABs 17. 2. ij. ABs 18. 48. [4. 8.] the Reiig- 
Yet this no Arrogance nor ImpetuoiJneJJe. f°{i-^/°' 

Secondly, Go<\sJ'ervants have been zealous for their 
Z/Or^and MaJter,Qwtn to the very faces of the Higheft, q^^^ j-^,. 
and concerning the perfons of the Higheft, fo tar asvantszeal- 
they have oppofed the Truth of God: So Eliah to°";/"^, 

J rr 1 1 7-^ / bold to the 

the face ot Ahab, It is not /, but thou, and thy i^^/Z-^t'^J" facesof the 
houfe that troublefl: IJrael : So the Lord J Jus con- Higheft. 
cerning Herod, Goe tell that Fox : So Paul, God p,° ^'^P^°' 
delivered me from the mouth ot the Lion; and toftantlyim- 

76 T^he Bloudy Tenent. 

moveable Ananias, Thou whited wall, and yet in all this no 
Arrogance, nor Impetuoufnejfe . 

Thirdly, Gods people \\2.vq been iinmoveable, conjlant 

and refohed to the death, in refufing to fubmit to falfe 

Worjhips, and in preachiJig and profejjing the true 

worjhip, contrary to exprelTe command of publicke 

Authority : So the x\\xq^ fajnous Worthies againft the 

command of Nebuchadnezzar, and the uniforme con- 

formity of all Nations agreeing upon a falfe worjloip, 

Dan. 3. So the Apoftles [ABs 4 and 5 chap.) and 

fo the witnelfes of "Jefus in all ages, who loved not 

their lives to the death [Rev. 12.) not regarding fweet 

hfi nor bitter death, and yet not Arrogant, nor 


Gods peo- Fourthly, Gods people lince the comming of the 

pie ever j^lfig- of IfracL the Lord yefus, have openly and con- 

ed chriil ftantly profeft, that no Civill Magi/irate, no Ki/ig 

Jefus the^ nor Cdfar have any powder over the Soules or Con- 

anVKin'^'^ y^/V^fTfj of their Subje6ts, in the matters of God and 

to the con- the Crownc of Jefus, but the Civill Magijlr ate s them- 

icience. felves ; yea Kings and Keifars are bound to fubjed: 

their owne foules to the Minijiery and Church, the 

Power and Government of this LdJr^ lefus, the i^/;^^ 

of Kings. Hence was the charge againft the Apof- 

tles (falfe in Civill, but true in fpiritualls) that they 

affirmed that there was another King, one lefus, Atls 

ij. J. And indeed, this was the great charge againft 

the Lord lefus Yiimfelf, which the lews laid againft 

Him, and for which he fuffered Death, as appears 

by the Accufation written over His Head upon the 

Gallows, lohn 9. 19. lefus of Nazareth King of the 


^he Bloudy Tenent. jj 

This was and Is the fumme of all true preaching '^'hat 

Chrifl: is 


of the Gofpell or glad newes, viz. That God anointed y^-J^ 
Jefus to be the fole King and Governour of all the over' con- 
Ifrael of God in fpirituall and foule caufes, Pfal. 2. 6. '^^"^"^^ '^ 
ABs 2. 36. Yet this Kingly power of His he refolvedaii true 
not to manage [28] in His owne Perfon, but Minif- preaching 
terially in the hands of fuch MelTengers which he 
fent forth to preach and baptife, and to fuch as 
beleeved that word they preached, Io/j?i 17. And yet 
here no Arrogance nor Impetuoufne[]e. 

5. Gods people in delivering the Minde and Will Gods peo- 
of God concerning the Kingdomes and Civill States j^J^^^j^f 
where they have lived, have feemed in all (liew ofdiilurbers 
common fenfe and rationall policie (if men looke not°^ Q\s\\\ 
higher with the eye of faith) to endanger and over- 
throw the very Civill State, as appeareth by all Jere- 

7nies preaching and counfell to King Zedechia^ his 
Princes and people, infomuch that the charge of the 
Princes againft Jeremiah was, that he difcouraged the 
Army from lighting againft the Babylonians, and 
weakned the Land from its own defence, and this 
charge in the eye of reafon, feemed not to be unrea- 
fonable or unrighteous, 'Jer. 37. 38. chapters, and yet 
in 'Jeremy no Arrogance nor Impetuoujnejje . 

6. Laftly, Gods people by their preaching, difputing, Gods 
&c. have beene (though not the caufe) yet accident- pe"Jpie^"he 
ally the occaiion of great contentions and divilions, occafionof 
yea tumults and uproares in Townes and Cities where ^"'""'^^• 
they have lived and come, and yet neither their Doc- 
trine nor themfelves Arrogant nor Impetuous, how- 
ever fo charged : For thus the Lord Jefus difcovereth 

mens falfe and fecure fuppofitions, Luke 11. 51. Sup- 

yS The Bloudy Tenent. 

pofe ye that I afu co?ne to give peace on the earth ? I 
tell you nayy but rather divijion, for from hence forth 
Jhall there be five in one houfe divided, three againfi 
two, and two againfi three, the father fimll be divided 
againfi the fonne, and the fo?ine againfi the father, &c. 
And thus upon the occafion of the Apoftles preach- 
ing, the Kingdome and WorOiip of God in Chrift, 
were moft commonly uproares and tumuhs, where 
ever they came : For inftance, thofe ftrange and 
monftrous uproares at Iconimn, at Ephefus, at feru- 
falem, ABs 14. 4. ABs 19. 29. 40. ABs 21. verf 


Peace.TT will be faid (deare Truth) what the Lord 
-Ljefus and his Melfengers taught was Truth, 

but the queftion is about Errour. 

Truth. I anfwer, this diftindiion now in difcuffion, 

concernes not Truth, or Errour, but the manner of 

holding forth or divulging. 
The in- 29] I acknowledge that fuch may bee the way and 
ftances^ manner of holding forth, (either with railing or revil- 
carry a ing, daring or chalenging fpeeches, or with force of 
great {hew Armes, Swords, Guns, Prifons, &c.) that it may not 
oufnefle," ^"^7 ^^^^^ ^^ breakc, but may actually breake the civill 
yet all are peace, or peace of the Citie. 
pure and Yet thcfc inftanccs propounded are cafes of great 

peaceable. j r • • 11 1 n-i- 1 r r 

oppolition and Ipirituall holtility, and occanons or 
breach of civill peace : and yet as the borders (or 
matter) were of gold : fo the fpeckes (or manner 

The Bloudy Tenent. 79 

Cantic. i.) were of filver : both matter and manner, 
pure, holy, peaceable, and inoffenfive. 

Moreover, I anfwer, that it is poffible and common 
for perfons of foft and gentle nature and fpirits to 
hold out falrtiood with more feeming meeknelTe and 
peaceablenelTe, then the Lord Jefus or his fervants 
did or doe hold forth the true and everlafting Gofpell. 
So that the anfwerer would be requefted to explain 
what he means by this arrogant and impetuous hold- 
ing forth of any dod:rine, which very manner of hold- 
ing forth tends to breake civill peace, and comes 
under the cognifance and correction of the Civill 
Magiftrate : Lell hee build the Sepulchre of the 
Prophets, and fay, If we had been in the Pharifes 
dales, the Romane Emperours dayes, or the bloody 
Marimi dayes, we would not have been partakers 
with them in the blood of the Prophets, Mat. 23. 
30. who were charged with arrogance and impetu- 


2. Ob. TT will here be faid. Whence then arifeth 
Peace. X civill dilfentions and uproares about matters 
of Religion ? 

Truth.. I anfwer : When a Kingdome or State, '^^^ ^^^^ 
Towne or Family, lyes and Iwes in the guilt of a tumults at 
falfe God, falfe Chrift, falfe worfliip : no wonder ifthe prca- 
fore eyes be troubled at the appearance of the hght, J^j^^"^ °j.j 
be it never fo fweet : No wonder if a body full of 
corrupt humours be troubled at ftrong (though whol- 
fome) Phylick ?[:] If perfons ileepy and loving to lleepe 

8o The Blotidy Tenent. 

be troubled at the noife of flirill (though filver) 
alarums : No wonder if Adonijah and all his com- 
pany be amazed and troubled at the found of the right 
Heyre [heir] King Salomo?i, i King. i.[:] If the Huf- 
bandmen were troubled when the Lord of the Vine- 
yard fent fervant after fervant, and at laft his onely 
Sonne, and they beat, and wounded, and kill'd even 
the Sonne himfelfe, becaufe they meant themfelves 
to feize upon the inheritance, unto which they had 
no right, Matth. 21. 38. [30] Hence all thofe tumults 
about the Apoftles in the ABs^ &c. whereas good 
eyes are not fo troubled at light ; vigilant and watch- 
full perfons loyall and faithfull, are not fo troubled 
at the true, no nor at a falfe Religion of Jew or Gen- 
A prepof- Secondly, breach of civil peace may arife, when 
oTfupp^ei^ falfe and idolatrous prad:ices are held forth, & yet no 
fing er- breach of civil peace from the do6trine or pradiice, 
rours- Qj. ^^ manner of holding forth, but from that wrong 
and prepofterous way of fuppreffing, preventing, and 
extinguifliing fuch doctrines or practices by weapons 
of wrath and blood, whips, ftockes, imprifonment, 
banifliment, death, &c. by which men commonly are 
perfwaded to convert Heretickes, and to caft out 
uncleane fpirits, which onely the finger of God can 
doe, that is the mighty power of the Spirit in the 
Light only Hence the Towne is in an uproare, and the Coun- 
can expell ^ takes the Alarum to expell that foe or mift of 

togs and •' ^ . , ^ > . 

darknefle. Errour, Herefie, Blafphemy, (as is fuppofed) with 
Swords and Guns ; whereas tis Light alone, even 
Light from the bright fliining Sunne of Righteouf- 

The Bloudy Tenent. 8 1 

nelTe, which is able, in the foules and confciences of 
men to difpell and Icatter fuch fogges and darknelTe. 
Hence the Sons of men, (as David fpeakes in 
another cafe, PJal. 39.) difquiet themfelves in vaine, 
and unmercifully difquiet others, as (by the helpe of 
the Lord) in the fequell of this difcourfe fliall more 


Pf^rt'. TV TOw the laft diftindtion is this : " Perfecu- 
JL ^ " tion for Confcience, is either for a rightly 
** informed confcience, or a blinde and erroneous 

Anfw. Truth. Indeed both thefe confciences arePerfecu- 
perfecuted : but lamentably blinde and erronious wiir°''V°P" , 

1 - ' • T 1 1-1 preiieboth 

thele conlciences ihortly appear to be, which out of true and 
zeale for God (as is pretended) have perfecuted either. ^^'"0"^°"^ 
And heavie is the doome of thofe blinde Guides and^,°"^ 
Idoll Shepherds (whofe right eye Gods finger of jeal- 
oufie hath put out) who flattering the ten Homes or 
worldly Powers, perfwade them what excellent and 
faithfull fervice they performe to God, in perfecuting 
both thefe confciences : either hanging up a rightly 
informed confcience, and therein the Lord Jefus him- 
felfe, betweene two malefactors, or elfe killing the 
erroneous and the blinde, like Saul (out of zeale to 
the Ifrael [31 | of God) the poore Gibeonites, whom 
it pleafed God to permk to live : and yet that hof- 
tility and cruelty ufed againft them (as the repeated 
judgement yeare after yeare upon the whole Land 
after told them) could not be pardoned, untill the 

82 T^he Bloudy Tenent. 

death of the perfecutor Saul [and] his fons had 
appeafed the Lords difpleafure, 2 Sam. 21. 


Peace. \ Fter expHcation in thefe Diftindiions, it 
-Z~^pleafeth the Anfwerer to give his refolu- 
tion to the queftion in foure particulars. 

Firft, that he holds it not lawfull to perfecute any 
for confcience fake rightly informed, for in perfecu- 
ting fuch (faith he) Chrifl: himfelf is perfecuted : for 
which reafon, truly rendred, he quotes AB. 9. 4. Saul^ 
Saul, why perfecuteji thou me F 

Truth. He that iliall reade this Conclufion over a 
thoufand times, fliall as foone iinde darkneffe in the 
bright beames of the Sunne, as in this fo cleare and 
fhining a beame of Truth, viz. That Chrift Jefus in 
his Truth muft not be perfecuted. 

Yet this I muft aske (for it will be admired by all 
fober men) what fliould be the caufe or inducement 
to the Anfwerers mind to lay down fuch a Polition 
or Thelis as this is. It is not lawfull to perfecute the 
Lord fefus. 

Search all Scriptures, Hiftories, Records, Monu- 
ments, confult with all experiences, did ever Pharaoh, 
Saul, Ahab, fezabel, Scribes and Pharifes, the Jewes, 
Herod, the bloudy Neroes, Gar diners. Boners, Pope or 
Devill himfelfe, profelfe to perfecute the Son of God, 
Jefus as Jefus, Chrifl: as Chrift, without a mask or 
covering ? 

No, faith Pharaoh, the Ifraelites are idle, and there- 
fore fpeake they of facriiicing : David is rifen up in 

T^he Bloudy Tenent. 83 

a confpiracy againft Saul, therefore perfecute him : ^'^ perfe- 
Naboth hath blafphemed God and the King, there- chrm°Q. 
fore ftone him : Chrijl is a feducer of the people, afeflenotto 
blafphemer againft God, and traytor againft C<^/^r, P^^'^'^"^^ 
therefore hang him : Chriflians are fchifmaticall, 
factious, heretical!, therefore perfecute them : The 
Devill hath deluded 'John Hus, therefore crown him 
with a paper of Devils, and burne him, &c. 

Peace. One thing I fee apparently in the Lords All perfe- 
over-ruling the pen of this worthy Anfwerer, viz. a^jJ^J^J" 
fecret whifpering from heaven to him, that (although profefTe 
his foules ayme at Chrift, and hath wrought much"°^^°P"- 
for [32] Chrill: in many iincere intentions, and Gods^jj,^ 
mercifull and patient acceptance) yet he hath never 
left the Tents of fuch who think they doe God good 
fervice in killing the Lord Jefus in his fervants, and 
yet they fay, if we had beene in the dayes of our 
Fathers in (^eene Maries dayes, &c. we would never 
have confented to fuch perfecution : And therefore 
when they perfecute Chrill Jefus in his truths or fer- 
vants, they fay. Doe not fay you are perfecuted tor 
the Word for Chrift his fake, for we hold it not law- 
full to perfecute lefus Chrift. 

Let me alfo adde a fecond ; So farre as he hath 
beene a Guide (by preaching for perfecution) I fay, 
wherein he hath beene a Guide and Leader, by mif- 
interpreting and applying the Writings of Truth, fo 
far I fay his owne mouthes and hands fliall judge (I 
hope not his perfons, but) his ad:ions, for the Lord 
Jefus hath fuffered by him, A£l. 9. 3. and if the Lord 
Jefus himfeife were prefent, himfelfe ftiould fuffer 
that in his owne perfon, which his fervants witnelf- 
ing his Truth doe fuffer for his fake. 

84 T^ke Bloudy Tenent. 


Peace/ I ^Heir fecond Conclulion is this : " It is not 
A " lawful! to perfecute an erroneous and 
"blinde confcience, even in fundamentall and weighty 
"points, till after admonition once or twice, Tit. 3. 
"11. and then fuch confciences may be perfecuted, 
" becaufe the Word of God is fo cleare in fundamen- 
"tall and weighty points, that fuch a perfon cannot 
"but fin againft his confcience, and fo being con- 
"demned of himfelfe, that is, of his confcience, hee 
"may be perfecuted for linning againft his owne 

Truth. I anfwer, in that great battell betweene the 
Lord Jefus and the Devill, it is obfervable that Sathan 
takes up the weapons of Scripture, and fuch Scripture 
which in fliew and colour was excellent for his pur- 
pofe : but in this 3. of Titus, as Salomon fpeakes of 
the Birds of heaven, Prov. i. a man may evidently 
fee the fnare ; and I know the time is comming 
wherein it fhall bee faid. Surely in vaine the Net is 
laid in the light of the Saints (heavenly Birds.) 

So palpably grolle and thicke is the mift and fog 
which Sathan hath raifed about this Scripture, that 
he that can but fee men as trees in matters of Gods 
worlhip, may eafily difcerne what a wonderfull deepe 
lleepe Gods people are fallen into concerning the 
vifible Kingdome of Chrift, in fo much that this third 
oi Titus which through fearfull pro- [33] phanations, 
hath fo many hundred years been the pretended Bul- 
wark and defence of all the bloudy Wolves, dens ot 
Lions, and mountains of Leopards, hunting and 

The Bloudy Tenent. 85 

devouring the Witnelfes of Jefus, fhould now be the 
refuge and defence of (as I hope) the Lambes and 
little ones of Jefus, yet (in this point) fo preaching 
and pracfliling fo unlike to themfelves, to the Lord 
Jefus, and lamentably too like to His and their Per- 


P^tfff.TJ Right Truth, lince this place of Titus is 
JJfuch a pretended Bulwark for perfecuting 
of Hereticks, & under that pretence of perfecuting all 
thy followers, I befeech you by the bright beames of 
the Sun of Righteoufnelfe, fcatter thefe mifts, and 
unfold thefe particulars out of the Text : 

Firft, What this Man is that is an Hereticke. 

Secondly, How this Hereticke is condemned of 

Thirdly, What is this firft and fecond Admonition, 
and by whom it is fuppofed to be given. 

Fourthly, What is this reje6ting of Him, and by 
whom it is fuppofed this Rejection was to be made. 

Truth. Firll, What is this Heretick ? I find him^haH^s 
commonly defined to be fuch an one as is obftinate Hereticke 
in Fundamentalls, and fo alfo I conceive the Anfwererin Titus. 
feems to recent' him, faying. That the Apoftle renders 
this reafon, why after once and twice Admonition, 
he ought to be perfecuted, becaufe in fundamentall 
and principall points of Doctrine and Worfliip, the 

■ Refent, which in its earlier meaning inllances, fee Richardfon, Di^ionary, 
carried the idea of its Latin root, — Trench, GloJ'ary of Englijh Words, Sec, 
to perceive, to feel, to regard. For p. 170. 

86 'The Bloudy Tenent. 

Word of God is fo cleare, that the Hereticke cannot 
but be convinced in his owne Confcience. 

But of this reafon, I finde not one tittle mentioned 
in this Scripture ; for although he faith fuch an one 
is condemned of himfelfe, yet he faith not, nor will 
it follow that fundamentals are fo cleare, that after 
firft and fecond Admonition, a perfon that fubmits 
not to them is condemned of himfelf, any more then 
in lefTer points. This 1 1 verfe hath reference to the 
former verfes. Titus an Evangelift, a Preacher of 
glad Newes, abiding here with the Church of Chrift 
at Greet, is required by Paul to avoid, to rejed:, and 
to teach the Ghurch to rejed: Genealogies, difputes, 
and unprofitable queftions about the Law : Such a 
like charge it is as he gave to Timothy, left alfo an 
Evangelift at Ephefus, i Tim. i. 4. 
34] If it fliould be objected what is to be done to 
fuch contentious, vain ftrivers about Genealogies and 
queftions unprofitable ? The Apoftle feems plainly to 
anfwer. Let him be once and twice admoniilied. 

Ob. Yea, but what if once and twice admonition 
prevaile not ? 

The Apoftle feems to anfwer, at(>tzixbv ai^&fuoTtov^ 
and that is, the man that is willfully obftinate after 
fuch once and twice admonition, Rejedl him. 

With this Scripture agrees that of i Ti??i. 6. 4, 5. 
where Timothy is commanded to withdraw himfelfe 
from fuch who dote about queftions and ftrife of 

All which are points of a lower and inferiour 
nature, not properly falling within the tearms or 
notions of thofe (c^^/e^a) firft principles and (deiieXixi:) 

'The Bloudy Tenent. 87 

foundations of the Chriftian Profeflion, to wit. 
Repentance from dead workes, Faith towards God, 
the do6lrine of Baptifmes, and of laying on of hands, 
the Refurred:ion, and eternall Judgement, Heb. 6. 2. 

Concerning thefe Fundamentalls (ahhough noth- 
ing is fo Httle in the Chriftian Worfliip, but may be 
referred to one of thefe fix, yet) doth not Paul to Ti?n- 
othy or Titus fpeake in thofe places by me all edged, 
or of any of thefe, as may evidently appeare by the 
context and fcope ? 

The beloved Spoufe of Chrift is no receptacle for 
any filthy perfon, obftinate in any hlthynelfe againft 
the purity of the Lord Jefus, who hath commanded 
his people to purge out the old leaven, not only 
greater portions, but a little leaven which will leaven 
the whole lumpe ; and therefore this Hereticke or 
obftinate perfon in thefe vaine and unprofitable quef- 
tions, was to be rejected, as well as if his obftinacie 
had been in greater matters. 

Againe, if there were a doore or window left open 
to vaine and unprofitable queftions, and finnes of 
fmaller nature, how apt are perfons to cover with a 
lilken covering, and to fay. Why, I am no Hereticke 
in Fundamentalls, fpare me in this or that little one : 7]^^ ^^'"'^ 

,. , . . ^ _,. ,^ (~ . c Hereticke 

this or that opinion or practice^ thele are or an mre- generally 
riour circunijlantiall nature ? &c. miilaken. 

So that the coherence with the former verfes, and 
X.\\t fcope of the Spirit of God m this and other like 
Scriptures being carefully obferved, this Greek word 
Hereticke is no more in true Rfiglifi and in Truth, 
then an objiinate or wilfull perfon in the Church of 

88 The Bloudy Tenent. 

Greet, ftriving and contending about thofe unprofit- 
able ^ejiions and Genealogies, &c. and is not fuch a 
monjier intended in this place, as moft Interpreters run 
upon, to with, [wit] One objlinate in Fundmnentallsy 
and as the Anfwerer makes the [35] Apojlle to write 
in fuch Fundamentalls and principall points, wherein 
the Word of God is fo cleare that a man cannot but 
be convinced in confcience, and therefore is not per- 
fecuted for matter oi confrience, but for finning againft 
his confcience. 


Peace."^^ Ow in the fecond place, What is this Self- 
L ^ conde?nnation ? 

Truth. The Apojlle feemeth to make this a ground 
of the rejeBing of fuch a perfon, becaufe he is fub- 
verted and Jinneth, being condeinned of himfelfe : It 
will appeare upon due fearch that th'i^ felfe-condeftin- 
ing is not here intended to be in Hereticks (as men 
fay) in fundamentalls only, but as it is meant here, in 
men obfi:inate in the lefi^er Quefiiions, &c. 

Firfi:, he is Jubverted or turned crooked, ^^i^paTZTat^ 
a word oppofite to Jlreightnejfe or rightnejfe : So that 
the fcope is, as I conceive, upon true and faithfull 
admonition once or twice, the pride of heart, or heat 

' The beft recent commentators fuilain kind. Thus then, (v.iiEzaoc, (h&pioizoi; 

Williams in this view. "The term will here be one who gives rile to fuch 

a[[)i(Tecc^ occurs but twice in St. Paul's divifions by erroneous teaching, not 

Epillles. In neither cafe does the word necelTarily of a fundamentally heterodox 

feem to imply fpecially * the open nature, but of the kind juil defcribed, 

efpoufal of any fundamental error,' but verfe 9." Bifhop Ellicott, Commentary 

more generally, 'divifions in church on Pajloral EpijUes, in loco. 
matters,' poflibly, of a iomewhat matured 

The Bloudy Tenent. 89 

of wrath^ drawes a vaile over the eyes and hearty fo 
that the Joule is turned loofed and' from the checks 
of truth. 

Secondly, \i^ Jinneth^ (laajnavtc^ that Is, htingfubver- 
tedov turned afide ; h^Jinneth or wanders from the path 
of Truthy and is conde?uned by hhnjelfe a!jToxdTaxi)izu(:^ 
that is, by the fecret checkes and whifperings of his Checks 
owne confcience, which will take Gods part againfl: a^^^^o"- 
mans felte, in fmiting, acculing, &c. 

Which checks of conjcience we finde even in Gods 
owne dear people, as is moft admirably opened in 
the 5 of Cant, in thofe fad, drowfie and unkinde 
pajjdges of the Spou/e in her anjwer to the kfiocks and 
calls of the Lord Jefus ; which Gods people in all 
their awakening acknowledge how lleightly they 
have liftned to the checks of their owne confciences. 
This the Anjhverer pleafeth to call finning againft 
his confcience, for which he may lawfully be perfe- 
cuted, to wit, for finning againft his conjcience. 

Which conclujion (though painted over with the 
Vermillion of mijiaken Scripture^ and that old dreatjie 
of Jew and Gentile^ that the Crowne of "Jefus will 
conlift of outward materiall gold, and hi?, J word be 
made of iron or JieeU\ executing judgement in his 
Church and Kingdome by corporall punijht7ient) I hope 
(by the affiftance of the Lord Jefus) to manifeft it to 
be the overturning and rooting up the very founda- 
tion and [36] roots of all true Chrijlianity, and abfo- 
lutely denying the Lord J ejus the Great Anointed to 
be yet come in the Flefh. 

' " And " (hould precede " loofed." 

90 The Bioudy Tenent. 



His will appeare, if we examine the two laft 
^6eries of this place of Titus : to wit, 
Firft, What this Admonition is ? 
Secondly, What is the RejeBion here intended ? 
RejeB him. 

Firft then, Titus, unto whom this Epijiie & thefe 

direBions were written, (and in him to all that fucceed 

him in the like work of the Gofpell to the Worlds 

end) he was no Minijler of the Qivill State, armed 

What IS vvith the ??iajejiie and terrour of a niateriall fword, 

fecond ad-^^^ might for offences againft the civill Jiate, inflid: 

monition, punijlwients upon the bodies of men, by imprijonments, 

whippings, fines, banijhtnent, death. Titus was a Min- 

ifier of the Gofpel or Glad tidifigs, armed onely with 

the Spirituall /word of the Word of God, and fuch 

Spirituall weapons as (yet) through God were mighty 

to the cafting down oi firong holds, yea every high 

thought of the highefi head and heart in the world, 2 

Cor. ID. 4. 

What the Therefore thefe firft and fecond Admonitions were 

rejedting • •// n • n /■ 

of the not civiU or corporall punilnments on mens per Jons 
Heretick or purfes, which the Courts of Men may lawfully 
^^^' inflid: upon MalefaBors : but they were the repre- 
henjions, conviBions, exhortations, and perfwafiofis of 
the Word of the Eternall God, charged home to the 
Confidence, in the name and prefence of the Lord 
Jefius, in the middeft of the Church. Which being 
defpifed and not hearkned to, in the laft place fol- 
low es rejeBion ; which is not a cutting ojfhy heading, 
hanging, burning, &c. or an expelling of the Country 

The Bloudy Tenent. 9 1 

and Coajis : neither [of] which (no nor any lefFeraTvY/^oiiPO''?'! 
punijhment) Titus nor the Church at Crete had any^j^^Ltw^J 
power to exercife. But it was that dreadfull cutting typing out 
ofF from that vifible Head and Body, Chrijl Jefus and ^P;;||g"^jJ\ 
his Church ; that purging out of the old leaven from Excom- 
the lumpe oi the Saints; the putting away of themunica- 
evill and wicked perfon from the holy Land and Com- G°o"peil. ^ 
7nonwealth oi Gods Ifracl, i Cor. 5. where it is obferv- 
able, that the fame word ufed by Mofes for putting 
a malefador to death in typicall Ifrael, by fword, 
Jionifig, &c. Deut. 13. 5. is here ufed by Paul for 
the fpirituall killing or cuttifig off by Exco?nniunica- 
tion, I Cor. 5. 13. Put away that evill perfon, &c. 

Now I defire the Anfwerer, and any, in the holy 
awe and feare of God to confider, That 
37] From whom \.\\q Jirji and fecond Admonition was 
to proceed, from them alfo was the rejeBing or 
carting out to proceed, as before. 
But not from the Civill Magijirate (to whom Paul 
writes not this Epijile, and who alfo is not bound 
once and twice to admonifli, but may fpeedily 
punifh, as he fees caufe, the perfons or purfes of 
Delinquents again ft his Civill State :) but from Titus 
the Minijier or Angel of the Church, and from the 
Church with him, were thefejirjl ^.ndj'econd Admo- 
nitions to proceed ; And 
Therefore at laft alfo this RejeBing, which can be no 
other but a cajling out, or excommunicating ot him 
from their Church-focietie. 

Indeed, this rejeBing is no other then that avoyd- 
ing which Paul writes of to the Church of Chriji at 
Rome, Rom. 16. 17. which avoyding (however wotully 

92 T^he Bloudy Tenent. 

perverted by fome to prove perfecution) belonged to 
the Governours of Qhrijis Church & Kingdo??ie in 
Rof?ie, and not to the Ro?nane Kniperour for him to 
rid and avoyd the World of them, by bloody and 
cruell Perfecution. 


The third Peacc/ I ^He third Conclufion is ; In points of lelTer 

Concluno I i , , ^ _^ , . 

difcuffed. -^ moment, there ought to be a "ioleration. 

Which though I acknowledge to be the Truth of 

God^ yet 3 things are very obfervable in the manner 
Sathans of laying it down ; for Sathan ufeth excellent arrowes 
pohcie. |.Q i^^j f?iarkes, and fometimes beyond the intent, and 

hidden from the eye of the Archer. 
The An- Firft (faith he) fuch a perfon is to be tolerated, till 
werer q^^ ^^ |^^ pleafcd to reveale his Truth to him. 

granteth a ^^ -t . . , r • 

Tolera- Truth. This is well oblerved by you ; for indeed 

tion. i-his is the very ground why the Apojile calls for meeke- 

nelfe and gentlenelfe toward all men, and toward 

fuch as oppofe themfelves, 2 Tiin. 2. becaufe there 

is a peradventure or it may be ; It ?nay be God may 

give them Repentance. That God that hath Ihewen 

Patience juercy to One, may fhew mercy to another : It may be 

to be uied ^.j^^j. gyg^falnje that anointed one mans eve who was 

tO\V3.rQ . ^ 

the oppo- blinde and oppolite, may anoint another as blinde and 
fite. oppolite : He that hath given Repentance to the huf- 

ba?id, may give it to his wife, &c. 

Hence that Soule that is lively and fenlible of ??iercy 
received to it felfe in former blindneffe, oppofition and 
enmitie againft God, cannot but be patient and gentle 
toward the fewes, who yet deny the Lord Jefus 

The Bloudy Tenent. 93 

38] to be come, and juftifie their Fore-fathers in mur- T^^ ^^^' 
thering of him : Toward the Tiirkes, who acknowl-So^]^^"^^^- 
edge Chrijl2i great Prophet^ yet affirme [him] lelle than fible of 
Mahojnet. Yea to all the feverall forts of Antichrif- ™^'^Jj 
tians, who fet up many ^falje Chriji in ftead of him. other fm- 
And laftly to the Pagans and wildeji forts of the fons^^rs in 
of men, who have not yet heard of the Father, ^^^^ nefi'e and 
the Son. And to all thefe forts, Jewes, Turkes, Anti- o^^o{\- 
chrijiians. Pagans, when they oppofe the light pre-^'°"- 
fen ted to them ; In fenfe of its own former oppoli- 
tion, and that God peradventure may at laft give 
repentance : I adde, fuch a Soule will not onely be 
patient, but earneftly and conftantly pray for all forts 
of men, that out of them Gods eled: may be called to 
the fellowfliip of Chriji Jefus. And laftly, not only 
pray, but endeavour (to its utmoft abilitie) their par- 
ticipation of the fame grace and ?nercy. 

That great Rock upon which fo many gallant Ships 
mifcarrie, viz. That fuch perfons, falfe Prophets, 
Hereticks, Gfr. were to be put to death in Ifrael, I 
fliall (with Gods affiftancej remove : as alfo that fine 
filken covering of the Image, viz. that fuch perfons 
ought to be put to death or banijhed, to prevent the 
infeBing and /educing of others, I (hall (with Gods 
allillance) in the following difcourfe pluck off. 

Secondly, I obferve from the Scriptures he quoteth xhe An- 
for this Toleration, [Phil. 3. & Rom. 14.) how clofely, fwerer co- 
yet I hope unadvifedly, he makes the Churches ^^^q^^^I^^^ 
Chriji at Philippi and Rome, all one with the Cities in Philip- 
Philippiind Rome, in which the Churches were, and toF ^nd 
whom onely Paul wrote. As if what thefe ChurchSs ^^-^^^ ^^^ 
in Philippi diudi Ronie muff tolerate amongft them- Cities Phi- 

94 T^he Bloudy Tenent. 

lippi and felves, that the Cities Philippi and Kome muft toler- 

°"^^' ate in their citizens: and what thefe Churches muft 

not tolerate, that thefe Cities Philippi and Ko?ne muft 

not tolerate within the compafTe of the City, State 

and Jurifdidtion. 

'Truth. Upon that ground, by undeniable confe- 

quence, thefe Cities Philippi and Rome were bound 

not to tolerate themfelves, that is, the Cities and 

Citizens of Philippi and Ro?ne^ in their own Civill 

life and being, but muft kill or expell themfelves 

from their own Cities, as being Idolatrous worjhip- 

pers of other gods then the true God in Jejus Chriji. 

DifFer- But as the Lilie is amongft the Thames^ fo is Chriils 

ence be- j^Q^g among the Daughters : and as the Apple-tree 

Church among the Trees of the Forrejl, fo is her Beloved 

and the among the Sons : fo great a difference is there between 

W Irl ... 

^"^ ' the Church in a Citie or Country, and the Civill Jiate, 
City or Country in which it is. 

39] No leffe then (as David in another cafe, Pfal. 

103. as far as the Heavens are from the Earth) are 

they that are truly Chriji s (that is, anointed truly 

with the Spirit of Chriji) [different] from many thou- 

fands who love not the Lord lejus Chriji^ and yet are 

and muft be permitted in the World or Civill State, 

although they have no right to enter into the gates 

of yerujalem the Church of God. 

The And this is the more carefully to bee minded, 

^^"r-^ii becaufe when ever a toleration of others Religion and 

State con- Conjcience is pleaded for, fuch as are (I hope in truth) 

fufedly zealous for GW, readily produce plenty of Scriptures 

made all ^j-jj-fgn to the Church, both before and fmce thrills 

one. . . y 

comming, all commanding and prefling the putting 

The Bloudy Tenent. 95 

forth of the tincleane, the cutting off the objiinate, the 
purging out the Leaven^ rejecting of Heretickes. As 
if becaufe briars^ thornes^ and thijiles may not be in 
the Garden of the Churchy therefore they muft all bee 
pluckt up out of the Wilderrieffe : whereas he that is 
a Briar, that is, a "Jew, a Turke, a Pagan, an Anti- 
chrijlian to day, may be (when the Word of the Lord 
runs freely) a member of Jefus Chrijl to morrow cut 
out of the wilde Olive, and planted into the true. 

Peace. Thirdly, from this toleration of perfons but Perfecu- 
holding lejfer errours, I obferve the immercifulnejfe of fo^g^^tgn 
fuch doBrines and hearts, as if they had forgotten the the blef- 
Blejfcdneffe, Bleffed are the mercifull, for they ^lall ^^";J^"^|[^^ 
obtaine mercy. Math. 5. He that is lleightly andtothe 
but a little hurt, (liall h^ fuffered, and meanes vouch- "i^'''^'f""» 
fafed tor his cure : But the deepe wounded Jinners, and ^^ ' ^" 
leprous, ulcerous, and thofe of bloudy ijjiies twelve 
yeares together, and thofe which have been bowed 
down 38. years of their life, they muft not be fuf- 
fered untill peradventure God may give them repen- 
tance ; but either it is not lawfull for a godly Magif- 
trate to rule and governe fuch a people (as fome have 
faid) or elfe if they be under govermnent, and reforme 
not to the State Religion after the lirft and fecond 
admojiition, the Civill Magijirate is bound to perfe- 
cute, &c. 

Truth. Such perfons have need, as Paul to the 
Romanes, Chap. 12. i. to be befought by the mercy 
of God to put on bowels of mercy toward fuch as have 
neither wronged them in body or goods, and there- 
fore juftly fliould not be puniflied in their goods or 

g6 The Bloudy Tenent. 


Peace.T Shall now trouble you (deare Truth) but 
X with one concluiion more, which is this : 
viz. That if a man hold forth errour with [40] a 
boyjlerous and arrogant fpirit, to the difturbance of 
the civill Peace, he ought to be puniflied, &c. 

Truth. To this I have fpoken too, confeffing that 
if any man commit ought of thofe things which Paul 
was accufed of [AB. 25. 11.) he ought not to be 
fpared, yea he ought not, as Paul faith, in fuch cafes 
to refufe to dye. 
What per- gut if the flatter be of another nature, a fpirituall 
pu'iky'^of ^'^^ divine ?iature, I have written before in many 
breach of cafcs, and might in many more, that the Worfljip 
civil peace ^1^-^,]^ a State profelfeth may bee contradiBed and 
preached againft, and yet no breach of Civill Peace. 
And if a breach follow, it is not made by fuch doc- 
trines, but by the boyfterous and violent oppofers of 
The moft Such perfons onely breake the Cities or Kingdomes 
peacea ^le pg^^^^ who crv out for prifon and fwords againft fuch 

wrongful- r ' •{ . . / ^ r-/- • r^ /• • t^ 

ly accufed who crolle their judgement or praaice in Religion, r or 
of peace- ^s Jofcphs miftris accufed Jofeph of uncle a?inej]e, and 
rea ing. ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ civill violcucc againft him, when 'Jofeph 
was chafte, and her felfe guilty : So commonly the 
meeke and peaceable of the earth are traduced as 
rebells, faBious, peace-breakers, although they deale 
not with the State or State-matters, but niatters of 
divine 2.\\di fpirituall nature, when their traducers are 
the onely unpeaceable, and guilty of breach of Civill 

'The Bloudy Tenent. 97 

Peace. We are now come to the fecond part of 
the Anfwer, which is a particular examination of 
fuch grounds as are brought again ft fuch perfecution. 

The fir ft fort of grounds are from the Scriptures. 


FIrft, Matth. i 3. 30, 38. becaufe Chrijl commandeth ^^^ ^^^"} 
to let alone the Tares to grow up together with^hat°is° 
the Wheats untill the Harveji. meant by 

Unto which he anfwereth : That Tares are not^^j^""* 
Bryars and T homes ^ but partly Hypocrites, like unto command 
the godly, but indeed carnall (as the Tares are like to o^ ^^e L, 
Wheat, but are not Wheat,) or partly fuch corrupt jg^"^!^ em 
doBrines or praBices as are indeed unfound, but yet alone. 
fuch as come very near the truth (as Tares do to the 
Wheat) and fo neer that good men may be taken with 
them, and fo the perfons in whom they grow cannot 
bee rooted out, but good Wheat will be rooted out 
with them. In fuch a cafe (faith he) Chriji calleth 
for peaceable toleration, and not for penall projecution, 
according to the third Conclufion. 

41 1 Truth. T\\^ fuhjlance of this Anfwer I conceive The An- 
to be firft negative, that by Tares are not meant per- f^^aci'^ous 
fons of another Religion and Worjhip, that is (faith expofition 
he) they are not Briars and Thornes. that Tares 

Secondly, affir?native, by Tares are meant either Jfther 
perfons, or doBrine^, or practices ; perfons, as hypocrites, Perfons, 
like the godly : doBrines or praBices corrupt, yet like p""^^ 
the truth. tices. 

For anfwer hereunto I confelTe that not onely thofe 
worthy ivitnejjes ( whofe memories are fweet with all 

98 The Bloudy Tenent. 

that feare God) Calvin^'' Beza, &c. but of later times 
many conjoyne with this worthy Anjwerer, to fatisfie 
themfelves and others with fuch an hiterpretation. 
The An- But ^las, how darke is the foule left that delires to 
barely af- walke with God in holy feare and trembling, when 
firming in fuch a waighty and mighty point as this is, that 
a moil -j^ matters of confcience concerneth the fpilling; of the 
terpreta- bloud of thoufands, and the Civill Peace of the World 
tion. \y^ the taking up Amies to fupprelTe all falfe Religions ! 
when I fay no evidence or demonJiratio?t of the Spirit 
is brought to prove fuch an interpretatioji, nor Argu- 
ments from the place it felfe or the Scriptures of truth 
to confirme it ; but a bare Affirmation that thefe 
Tares muft lignifie perjhis, or doBrines and praBices. 
Sathans I will uot imagine any deceitfull purpofe in the 

fubtJetie Anfwerers thoughts in the propofall of thefe three, 
opening of /'^^^•*"> doBrincs, or praBices^ yet dare I confidently 
Scripture, avouch that the Old Serpefit hath deceived their pre- 
cious foules, and by Tongue and Pen would deceive 

' " Quare liic meo judicio fimplex eil get vits femen, per fynecdochen ad 

parabola icopus. Quamdiu in hoc mun- mundum tranftulit, quod parti tantum 

do peregrinatur Ecclefia, bonis et fin- magis quadrabat. Nunc videndum eft, 

ceris in ea permixtos fore malos et hypo- quid per triticum intelligat, et quid per 

critas, ut fe patientia arment filii Dei, et xizanta. Non potell hie de doftrina 

inter ofFendicula, quibus turbari poffent, exponi, quafi dixiflet, ubi feminatur 

retineant infradtam fidei conftantiam. Evangelium, ftatim corrumpi et adulter- 

Eft autem aptiflima comparatio, quum ari pravis figmentis : nunquam enim vet- 

Dominus Ecclefiam vocat agrum fuum, uifl'et Chriftus, in tali corruptela pur- 

quia ejus femen funt fideles. Quanquam ganda ilrenue fatagere. Neque enim ut 

autem Chriftus postea fubjicit, mundum in hominum moribus, qus corrigi neque- 

efle agrum dubium tamen non eft, quin unt vitia, tolerari oportet, ita liceret im- 

proprie hoc nomen ad Ecclefiam aptare pios errores ferre, qui fidei puritatem in- 

voluerit, de qua exorfus fuerat iermonem. ficiunt. Deinde nominatim Chriftus filios 

Sed quoniam paffim aratrum fuum duftu- maligni zizania efte dicens dubitationem 

rus erat per omnes mundi plagas, ut fibi tollit." fohannis Calvini Commentarii, 

agros excoleret in toto mundo ac fpar- ii, 14, ed. A. Tholuck. 

The Bloudy Tenent. 99 

the foules of others by fuch a method of dividing the 
word of truth. A threefold Cord, and fo a threefold 
Snare is ftrong, and too like it is that one of the 
three, either Perfons^ DoBrines, or Pratlices may 
catch fome feet. 


Peace/ | ^He place then being of fuch great impor- 
A tance as concerning the truth of God, the 
bloud of thoufands, yea the bloud of Saints, and of the 
Lord Jejus in them, I (liall requeft your more dili- 
gent fearch (by the Lords holy alliftance) into this 
Scripture.' [Truth^^ I ihall make it evident, that by 
thefe Tares in this Parable are meant perjons in 
refpedt of their Religion and way of Worjhip, open and 
vijible profejfours, as bad as briars and thor?ies ; not 
onely fufpe6ted Foxes, but as bad as thofe greedy 
Wolves which P^z//fpeakes of, ABs 20. who with per- 
verfe and evill doBrines labour fpiritually to devoure 
the jlocke, and to draw away Difciples after them, 
whofe mouthes muft be ftopped, and yet no carnall 

' This parable, to which fo much im- were not to be rooted out of the world, 
portance is here afcribed, ten chapters Trench, Notes on the Parables, p. 74 ; 
being devoted to it, has for ages been Neander, Church Hijiory, ii : 20c, 207. 
the battle-ground of a controverfy to Williams however turns it here not to 
which this between Williams and Cot- the decifion of jthe queflion of church- 
ton is allied. The Donatiils who were difcipline, but againil the ufe of civil 
the Separatifts of the fourth and fifth force with fuch. He was flrift and ex- 
centuries, held with Williams, and all clufive in regard to toleration even of 
who contend for the entirely fpiritual fuch as obferved " popifli Chrirtmas, 
and regenerate charadler of the churches, Eafter, Whitfuntide, and other fuperfti- 
that, as our Lord fays, " the field " is not tious popifh fellivals," (p. 42,) but lib- 
the Church but the world, and that eral for all outfide of the church and not 
it is no reafon for receiving or allowing voluntarily under its difcipline. 
ungodly men in the church becaufe they 

loo The Bloudy Tenent. 

/[2\ force or weapon to be ufed againft them, but their 
mifchiefe to bee refifted with thofe mighty weapons 
of the holy Armoury of the Lord fejus, wherein 
there hangs a thoufand flnelds^ Cant. 4. 

That the Lord lefus intendeth not doBrines or prac- 
tices by the tares in this Parable is cleare : for 

Firft, the Lord lefus exprefly interpreteth the good 

feed to be pe?fons, and thofe the children of the King- 

do7ne ; and the tares alfo to lignifie Men^ and thofe 

the children of the Wicked one ^ ver, 38. 

Tolera- Secondly, fuch corrupt doBrines or praBices are not 

non in |.Q i^gg tolorated now as thofe lewifi obfervations (the 

confid- Lords owne Ordinances) were for a while to be per- 

ered. mitted, Rom. 14. Nor fo long as till the Angels the 

Reapers come to reape the Harveft in the end of the 

world. For can we thinke that becaufe the tender 

Confciences of the lewes were to be tendred in their 

differences of meats^ that therefore perfons mufl: now 

bee tolerated in the Church (for I fpeake not of the 

Civill State) and that to the worlds end, in fuperfti- 

tious forbearing and forbidding oifejlj in Popiflo Lents^ 

2indi fuperfitious Fridayes, &c. and that becaufe they 

were to be tendred in their obfervation of lewijh 

Holidayes, that therefore untill the Harvef or Worlds 

end^ perfons muft now be tolerated (I meane in the 

onewifli Church) in the obfervation of Popilh Chrifmas^ Lafer, 

ceremo- Whitfoutidc, and other fuperftitious Popifh Fejiivals? 

nies for a J willingly acknowledge, that if the members of 

fome ^ Church of Chrif lliall upon fome dehfion of Sathan 

grounds kficelc at the Lords Supper^' keep ChriJimaSy or any 

' The objcftions of the Puritans to this Puritans, i, 246, 247, Am. Ed. They 
praftice are Hated in Ncal, Hijiory of the were, in brief, that the Sacrament was 

The Bloudy Tenent. . loi 

other Popifh obfervation, great tendernefle ought tof^^^ejew 
bee ufed in winning his foule from the errour of his proves not 
way : and yet I fee not that perfons fo praftiling toleration 
were fit to be received into the Churches of Chrift°^77'^ 

1 • 1 T^ • 1 1 • • 1 ^ Anti- 

now, as the lewes weake in the Faith, (that is, in thcchriftian 
Liberties oi Chriji) were to be received, Rotn. 14. i.Ceremo- 
^And leaft of all (as before) that the toleration or per- chriman*^ 
inijjion of fuch ought to continue till Doonies day^ or Church, 
the end of the world, as this Parable ur^^eth the Tol- although 
eration ; Let them alone untill the Harveji. State. 



AGaine, Hypocrites were not intended by the Lord^ 
lefus in this famous Parable. proved not 

Firit, the Originall word r^:r/W, fi^nifyinir all thofe'° ^^2"^^^ 

» o _ ; - ' D y hypocrites 

Weeds which fpring up with the Come, as Cockle, Wtnce 
Darnell, Tares, &c. feemes to imply fuch a kinde of ^^^^^ jl"^ 
people as commonly and generally are knowne tOo^ ^^^111 
bee [43] manifeftly different from, and oppofite to MlckUff 
the true worpippers of God, here called the children^^^^^^^^^ 
of the Kingdom ; as thefe weeds, tares, cockle, dame II, his reigne 
&c. are commonly and prefently knowne by every ^^^'^^^ Lol- 
bujhandman to differ from the wheat, and to be oppo- ^^^^ ^^y) 
fite, and contrary, and hurtfull unto it. fromZ^/M, 

not fo received originally, the Apoftles informed againfl in the High Commiflion. 

not kneeling when in the corporeal pre- Neal, Puritans, i, 317. He fays "When 

fence of Chrill ; that the pradlice arofe the Bifhop of Lincoln Diocefle (Dr. 

from the notion of tranfubflantiation ; M(?a/?/,7/|g-«,?) offered me liberty upon once 

that it is of " very late antiquity," and kneeling at the Sacrament with him the 

that it is contrary to the nature of the next Lord-day after, I durll not accept 

Lord's Supper. his offer of liberty upon once kneeling." 

It was Cotton's refufal to conform to Way of Congregational Churches Cleared, 

this ceremony which led to his being p. 19. 


"The Bloudy Tenent. 

taken for 
figne of 
LoHum y 
Jleriles dom 
avena : ' 
others con 
ceive they 
were fo 
from one 
&c. but all 
Papifts ac- 

Now whereas it is pleaded that thefe tares are Uke 
the wheats and fo Hke that this conjhnilitude or Uke- 
nelTe is made the ground of this interpretation^ \'\z. 
That tares muft needs lignifie hypocrites^ or doBrines, 
or praBices, who are Hke Gods children. Truth, &c. 

I anfwer, firft, The Parable holds forth no fuch 
thing, that the likenelTe of the tares fhould deceive 
the fervants to caufe them to fuppofe for a time that 
they were good wheat, but that as foone as ever the 
tares appeared, ver. 26. the fervants came to the 
hoiijljoider about them, ver. 27. the Scripture holds 
forth no fuch time wherein they doubted or fufpedted 
what they were. 

Peace. It may be faid they did not appeare to be 
tares untill the come was in the blade, and put forth 
its fruit. 

' Virgil, Georgics, i, 154. 

2 " The derivation of the name from 
the pretended founder of a feft, Walter 
Lollhard, who is faid to have been a 
German, is fabulous ; that from lolium, 
darnel or cockle-weed, which fligmatizes 
the people themfelves or their doftrine 
as tares among wheat, is alfo erroneous 
and unfounded. The only corredl deri- 
vation, and the one of late univerfally 
accepted, is from the old German lollen 
or lullen — to fing foftly, which lall word 
is rtill common in Englilh, mainly in 
"lullabies," while the German lallen is 
allied to it. The rfame, probably fug- 
gefted by the low, fuppreffed finging and 
devotional exercifes in conventicles, was 
coined to defignate a dole, religious 
communion of unchurchly and heretical 
tendencies; in this fenfe it came into 
ufe in popular as well as in church par- 

lance. Then in WiclifFe's time, a Cif- 
tercian monk, Heinrich Grumpe, Maf- 
ter of Theology, applied it to WicklifFe's 
followers in fome polemical leftures 
which he gave at Oxford, about the year 
1382. And in the years 1387-1389, 
the name was already ufed in official 
epilcopal documents, in fuch a way, 
however, that it is plain that it was firil 
current as a popular expreflion, and was 
only afterward adopted into official 
fpeech ; and here it received an imprefs 
in which the primary, undefined, broad 
meaning of Low-German origin was 
entirely loft, and the exclufive and fpe- 
cific Englifli rffcrence to WiclifFe's fol- 
lowers and to his doftrine, took its 
place." Herzog, Rc/:l-encyclopadie fur 
proteflnntifchc theologie und kirche ,• Art. 
Lollarden, viii, 458. 

The Bloudy Tenetit. 103 

Truth. I anfwer, *The one appeared as foone as^^^"^ ^^ 
the other, for (o the word clearly carries it, that ^^^cZ^^o^' 
feed of both having been fowne, when the w-^^^/ their pro- 
appeared and put forth its blade and fruit, the tares'^^^°'^-., 
alfo were as early, and put forth themfelves asandcoun- 
appeared alfo. terfeit 

Secondly, there is fuch a dljjijnilitude or imlikeiiejle, I app'e'are "s 
fay fuch a dijjhnilitude ^ that as foone as tares and wheat ^oon-a^xW^ 
are fprung up to blade and fruit, every hiijhand?nan can ^™'j^^",'? 
tell which is wheats and which are tares and cockle^ &c. 

Peace. It may be faid true : So when the hypocrite 
is manifefted, then all may know him, &c. but before 
hypocrites be manifefted hy fruits they are unknowne. 

[Triith.]^ I anfwer, fearch into the Parable, and aske 
when was it that th^fervafits firil: complained of the 
tares to the hoiijholder, but when they appeared or 
came in fight, there being no interim, wherein the 
fervants could not tell what to make of them, but 
doubted whether they were wheat or tares, as the 
Anfwerer implies. 

Secondly, when was it that the houjholder gave 
charge to let them alone, but after that they appeared, Hypocrit- 
and were known to be tares, which (hould imply by^*^^ " 
this interpretation of the Anfwerer, that when men 
are difcovered and knowne to be Hypocrites, yet ftill 
fuch a generation of Hypocrites in the Church muft be 
let alone and tolerated untill the harvef or end of 
the world, which is contrary to all order, piety and 
fafety in the Church of the Lord J ejus, as doubtlelfe 
the Anfwerers will grant ; [44] fo that thefe Tares 
being notorioully knowne to be different from the^^e-pares 
Corne, I conclude that they cannot here be intended cannot fig- 


I04 'T^he Bloudy Tenent. 

nifie Hyp- by the Lord Jefus to lignifie fecret Hypocrites, but 
ocntes. more open and apparent Sinners. 


Two forts rx^He fecond reafon why thefe tares cannot fignifie 
of Hypo- J_ Jjypocrites in the Church. I take from the Lord 
I. In the y^fus His own Interpretation of t.\\Q field (in which 
Church as both wheat and tares are fowne, which faith he is 
monM^s-'us^^^ W'orld, out of which God choofeth and calleth 

and thefe His Church. 

muft be tol "XYiQ, World Ivcs in wickednefTe, is Hke a WildernefTe 

erated un- . "^ *-^ . " 

till difcov- or a '5'd'^ of wUdc Beajis innumerable,yor7//<r^/orj-, ^o'u- 

ered, and ^/,9z<;j-^ Idolaters, &c. with whom GiJ^^'j- people may law- 

2° Hypo-' f'^lly converfe and cohabit in Cities, Townes, &c. elfe 

crites in muft they not hve in the World, but goe out of it, 

^^^.'^^'■''^ In which world as foone as ever the Lord 'J ejus had 

falfe Chrif ^owne the good feed, the children of the Kingdome, true 

tians, iWk Chrijiianity, or the true Church; the Efie?fiy Sathan 

& thefe tSP^^^^^^^y in the ;z/^/6/ oi fecurity, Ignorance and Errour 

Lord lefus (whileft men flept) fowed alfo thefe tares which are 

wil have AntichrijUans OX falfe ChriJUans. T\\di^ f range Pro- 

unto Ha^r-fijf^^^^ ^^ ^^^ Name of Jefus, the Minijters and 

veft. Prophets of Go^,' beholding they are ready to runne 

to Heaven to fetch fiery judgements from thence to 

confume thefe flrange Chrifiians, and to pluck them 

by the roots out of the world : But the Son of Man, 

the 7neek Lamb of God (for the LleB fake which muft 

be gathered out of few and Gentile, Pagan, A?2ti- 

chifian) commands a permiffion of them in the 

World, untill the time of the end of the World, when 

■ Let the comma follow " beholding," and dele the comma after "Jefus." 

The Bloudy Tenent. 105 

the Goats and Sheep, the Tares and Wheat fliall be The Field 
eternally leparated each from other. generally. 

Peace. You know fome excellent Worthies (dead but ialiely 
and living) have laboured to turne this Field oi the '"''^''P''^' 
World into the Garden of the Church. Church. 

Truth. But who can imagine that the WiJdo??ie of 
the Father, the Lord 'J ejus Chriji, would fo open this 
Parable (as He profelTedly doth) as that it fliould be The Lord 
clofe Ihut up, and that one dijjiculty or locke fliould^efus the 
be opened by a greater and harder, in calling the^[^JJ.^J^^" 
World the Church ? contrary alfo to the way of the Parables, 
Light and Love that is in Jefus, when he would pur-^"^ ^^^ 
pofely teach and inltrud: His fcholars [; alfo ] contrary pgynjer 
to the nature ot Parables 2.ndjimilitudes. of them. 

And laftly, to the nature of the Church or Garden 
of Chrijt. 


IN the former Parable the Lord Jefus compared ^]^^ ^^^P^ 
the Kingdome of Heaven to the fowing of Seed.\^^^\^^ 
The true Mejjengers of Chriji are the [45] iSow^rj-, Foureforts 
who caft the Seed of the Word of the Kino- dome upon °^ gjo^^^ 

o^ 1 or iiearers 

^ouro: forts ot ground, which ionxt forts oi ground ox oi the 
hearts of men, cannot be fuppofed to be of the Church, word in 
nor will it ever be proved that the Church confifteth^j^^^^^^'^ 
of any more forts or natures of ground properly, but one prop- 
07ie, to wit, the hofief and ^0(?^ ground, and the proper ^'l'^ '"^^^ 
worke of the Church concernes the flourifhing and the reft' 
profperity of this fort of ground, and not the other ieldome 
unconverted three forts, who it may be feldome or'^"'^^ °l 

' y , accident- 

never come neare the Church unlelfe they be forced allyto hear 

io6 T^he Bloudy Tenent. 

the word by t^g Civtll fword^ which the patterne or '^x^ fowers 
Church never ufed, and being forced they are put into a way 
which of Religion by fuch a courfe, if not fo, they are forced 
^°^.^ to Uve without a Religion, for one of the two muft 

ought to /T- -1 r 11 T /I 11 r i 

be fitted neceilarily loUow, as 1 Ihall prove afterward. 
for the In \\\Q field of the World then are all \\\o{& forts of 

o7the^ S^(^^^dy k^Z^ '^^y hearers^ fiony and thorny ground 
Church or hearers, as well as the honefi and good ground; and 
flocke : J fuppofe it will uot uow be faid by the Anfwerer, 
for con- that thofe three forts of bad grounds were hypocrites 
verfion is or tares in the Church. 

oit^oHhe Now after the Lord Jefus had propounded that 

Church, great leading Parable of the Sower and the Seed, He 

is pleafed to propound this Parable of the Tares, with 

admirable coherence and fweet confolation to the honeft 

and good ground, who with glad and honeft hearts 

having received the word of the Kingdome, may yet 

feem to be difcouraged and troubled with fo many 

i:\it {co^^Antichrifiians and falfe Profiejfours ot the Name of 

p^^^j^. Chri/l. The Lord J ejus therefore gives direBion 

of the concerning thefe tares, that unto the end of the 

Tares. World fucceffively in all the forts and generations of 

them they mull be (not approved or countenanced, 

but) let alone or permitted in the World. 

The Lord Secondly, he gives to His owne good feed this con- 

lefus in folation, that thofe heavenly Reapers the Angells in 

bfrofYhe ^^^ harvefi or end of the World, will take an order 

Tares and courfe with them, to wit, they fliall binde them 

gives di- jj^fQ l)undles, and caft them into the everlafiing burn- 

and confo-^^^<g'-^> ^"ti to make the cup of their cofij'olation run 

lation to over : He addes verf 4. Then, then at that time £hall 

His fer- ^j^g Rivhteous Ihine as the Sun in the King-doftie of 

vants. 1 • ^ / 

their Father. 

The Bloudy Tenent. 107 

Thefe tares then neither being erronious doBrines^^^^^^^^^ 
nor corrupt pra^i/es, nor hypocrites in the true Church'^^^^^^^x 
intended by the Lord Jefus in this Parable ; I fliall to fignifie 
in the third place (by the helpe of the fame Lord ^""''^"^" 
Jefus) evidently prove that thefe tares can be no other 
fort of finners, but falfe worjlnppers^ Idolaters^ and in 
particular properly, Antic hr ijli an s. 


FIrft then, thefe Tares are fuch finners as are oppo- Math. 8. 
fite and contrary to the children of the Kingdo?ne^^- 
vifibly fo declared and manifeft, ver. 38. Now the .^^ ' ^''. 
Kingdome of Gd?^below, is the vifible Church of Chrifl: Gods king 
Jefus, according to Matth. 8. 12. The children of gg'^jh dTe 
the Kingdome which are threatned to be cafi: out, vifible 
feeme to be the Jewes^ which were then the onely Church. 
vijible Church in Covenant with the Lord, when all 
other Nations followed other gods and worfiips. And 
more plaine is that fearefull threatnifig, Matth. 21. 
43. The Kingdo?ne of God (liall be taken from you, 
and given to a Nation that will bring forth the fruits 

Such then are the good feed, good wheat, children of 
the Kingdome, as are the difciples, members and fub- 
jeSls of the Lord Jefus Chriji his Church & King- 
dom : and therefore confequently fuch are the tares, 
as are oppofite to thefe, Idolaters, Will-worfiippers, 
not truly but fafly fubmitting to Jefus : and in efpe- 
ciall, the children of the wicked ont, vifibly fo appear- 
ing. Which wicked one I take not to be the Devill; ferencebe- 
for the Lord Jefus feemes to make them difi:ind: : tween the 

io8 The Bloudy Tenent. 

Wheat & He that fowes the good feed (faith he) is the Son of 
as alfo^^b^g' ;;;^«, th^ field is the Worlds the good feed are the 
tween Children of the Kingdome, but the Tares are the child- 
^J^^^'^ ,ren of the wicked, or wickednelfe, the enemy that 

Tares and . - i t-. •// 

all other, lowed them, IS the DevilL 

The Original! here, ti7 Tzovrjpu ^ agrees with that, 
Luk. II. 4. Dehver us, o.-kq i 'Kovr^i>u ^ from evill or 
wickednejje ; oppolite to the children of the Kingdotne 
and the righteoujnejfe thereof. 


Peace.'TT is true, that all drunkards, thieves, uncleane 
X perfons, &c. are oppolite to Gods children. 
Truth. Anfw. Their oppolition here againft the 
children of the Kingdome, is fuch an oppolition as pro- 
perly fights againft the Religious jlate or Worlliip of 
the Lord 'J ejus Chriji. 

Secondly, it is manifeft, that the Lord Jefus in this 

parable intends no other fort of finners, unto whom 

he faith. Let them alone, in Church or State ; for 

then he fliould contradict other holy and blelfed 

ordinances for the punifliment of offenders both in 

Chrijiian and Civill State. 

Civill Firft, in Civill Jlate, from the beginning of the 

deTom' World> God hath [47] armed Fathers, Majlers, Mag- 

the hz-gwi-ijirates, to punifh evill doers, that is, fuch of whofe 

ningof the actions Fathers, Majlers, Magijlrates are to judge, 

and accordingly to punifli fuch linners as tranfgrelfe 

Offenders againft the good and peace of their Civill ftate, Faf?i- 

CivHl ^ Hies, Townes, Cities, Kingdemes : their States, Govern- 

lawes not ments, Governours, Lawes, Punijhments and Weapons 

'The Bloudy Tenent. 109 

being all of a Civill nature \ and therefore neither ^°b^ P^^- 
difobedience to parents or fnagijirates^ nor murther nor fo^ie^rated. 
quarrelling, uncleannejje nor lacivioufnejfe, Jiealing nor 
extortion, neither ought of that kinde ought to be let 
alone, either in lelfer or gvQ2.t&v families, townes, cities, 
kingdomes, Rom. 13. but feafonably to be fuppreft, as 
may beft conduce to the publike J afetie. 

Againe fecondly, in the Kingdoine of Chrijl lejiis, 'Nor of- 
whofe kingdome, ojficers, lawes, punijhmeyits, weapons,, ^f^^ 
are fpirituall and of a Soule-nature, he will not have church of 
Antichrijlian idolaters, extortioners, covetous, &c. to be Chrift 
let alone, but the uncleane and lepers to be thruft forth, Juffrej^ 
the old leaven purged out, the objlinate in linne fpirit- 
ually y/o«^^ to death, and put away from Ifrael ; and 
this by many degrees of gentle admonition in private 
and publique, as the cale requires. 

Therefore if neither offenders againft the civill 
Lawes, State and peace ought to be let alone ; nor 
the Spirituall ejlate, the Church of lejus Chriji ought 
to beare with them that are evill. Revel. 2. I con- 
clude, that thefe are finners of another nature. Idola- 
ters, Falje-worfhippers, Antichrijiians, who without 
difcouragement to true Chriftians muft be let alone 
and permitted in the world to grow and fill up the 
meafure of their finnes, after the linage of him that 
hath fowen them, untill the great Harveft fhall make 
the difference. 


THirdly, in that the officers unto whom thefe Tares 
are referred, are the Angels the heavenly Reapers 
at the laft day, it is cleare as the light, that (as before) 

no T^he Bloudy Tenent. 

The great |-}^efe 'J'ares cannot fignlfie Hypocrites in the Churchy 
are 111" who whcn they are difcovered and feen to be Tares 
Angels, oppolite to the good fruit of the good feed, are not 
to be let alone to the Angels at Harveft or end of the 
world, but purged out by the Governors of the Churchy 
and the whole Church of Chriji. Againe, they can- 
not be offenders againfl the civill Jiate and Common 
welfare, whofe dealing with is not fufpended unto 
the comming of the Angels, but [is committed] unto 
Men, [48] who (although they know not the Lord 
yefus Chriji, yet) are lawfull Governours and Rulers 
in Civill things. 

Accordingly in the 4. and laft place, in that the 

plucking up of thefe tares out of this Jield muft bee 

let alone unto the very harveji or end of the world, 

it is apparent from thence, that (as before) they could 

not lignifie hypocrites in the Church, who when they 

are difcovered to be fo, (as thefe tares were difcovered 

to be tares) are not to be fuffered (after the firft and 

fecond Admonition) but to be rejected, and every 

Brother that walketh diforderly to be withdrawen or 

feparated from : So likewife no offendour againft the 

Civill Jiate, by robbery, murther, adultery, oppreJJion,J^edi- 

tion, mutinie, is for ever to be connived at, and to 

enjoy a perpetuall toleration unto the Worlds end, as 

thefe tares mujft. 

TheTares Mofcs for a while held his peace againft the fedi- 

rated the^' ^^^^ of Korah, Dathan, and Abiram. David for a 

longeil of feafon tolerated Shimei, jfoab, Adonijah ; but till the 

any fin- JJarvcJi OY end of the World, the Lord never intended 

that any but thefe y/'/W/w^// and myjiicall Tares fhould 

be fo permitted. 

The Bloudy Tenent. 1 1 1 


NOw if any imagine that the time or date is long, ^^^ ^^"- 
that in the meane lealbn they may doe a 'Z£^o^/^/feaion'by 
of inijchiefe before the Worlds end, as by infed:ion, thefe tares 
&c. '^'^y''^- 

Truth. rirlr, 1 anlwer, that as the ctvill State h\e expe- 
keepes it felfe with a civi// Guard, in cafe thefe Tares ^'^^^^^ 
fball attempt ought againft the peace and welfare of ^j this'^°^' 
it, let fuch civill offences be punifhed, and yet as Tares tm^ of 
oppofite to Chrijis Ki?igdo??ie, let their JVorJljip andp^^'" 
Confciences be tolerated. andlamen- 

Secondly, the Church or fpirituall State, C/Zy, orfably true 
Kingdofne\\2Lih. lawes, and orders, and armories, (where- [["J ^^^^ 
on there hang a thoufand Bucklers, Cant. 4.) Weapons oUom^ 
and Ammunition, able to break down the ftrongeft ^""'^^'^'^ 
Holds, I Cor. 10. and fo to defend it felfe againft the of the 
very Gates of Earth or Hell. Englifli. 

Thirdly, the Lord himfelf knows who are his, & 
his foundation remaineth fure, his EleB or chofen 
cannot peri(h nor be finally deceived. 

Laftly, the Lord lejus here in this Parable layes 
downe two Reafons, able to content and fatislie our 
hearts, to beare patiently this their contradiBion and 
Antichrijiianity, and to permit or let them alone. 

Firft, let the good Wheat bee pluckt up and rooted 
up alfo out of this Field oi the IF or Id, [:] if fuch co?n- 
bujiions 2.ndpgh tings were, as to pluck up all the falfe 
profelfours of the name of Chriji, the good wheat alfo 
49] would enjoy little peace, but be in danger to bee 
pluckt up and torne out of this world by fuch bloody 
Jiormes and tempejis. 

112 T^he Bloudy Tenent. 

And therefore as Gods people are commanded, ler. 
29. to pray for the peace c^i materiall Babell^ wherein 
they were captivated, and i Tim. 2. to pray for all 
men, and fpecially Kings and Governors, that in the 
peace of the civill State they may have peace.[:] So 
contrary to the opinion and practice of moft (drunke 
with the Cup of the Whores fornication) yea, and of 
Gods owne people f aft alleepe in Antic hrijiiaji Dalilahs 
laps, obedience to the command of Chriji to let the 
tares alone, will prove the onely meanes to preferve 
their Civill Peace, and that without obedience to this 
command of Chrift, it is impofTible (without great 
tranfgreffion againft the Lord in. carnall policy, which 
will not long hold out) to preferve the civill peace. 
Befide, Gods people the good Wheat are generally 
pluckt up and perfecuted, as well as the vileft idola- 
ters, whether Jewes or Antichriftians, which the 
Lord Jefus feemes in this Parable to foretell. 
The great ^fhe fecond Rcafon noted in the Parable which 
full^Har'- ^^y ^^tisfie any man from wondring at the patience 
veil. of God, is this : when the world is ripe in linne, in 
the iinnes of Antichrijtianifme (as the Lord fpake of 
the Iinnes of the Amorites, Gen. 12.) then thofe holy 
and mighty Officers and Executioners, the Angels, 
with their fliarpe and cutting Jickles of eternall ven- 
geance, lliall downe with them, and bundle them up 
for the everlajiing burnings. 

Then fhall that Man of Sin, 2. Thejf. 2. be con- 
fumed by the breath of the mouth of the Lord lefus, 
and all that worjljip the Beaji and his picture, and 
receive his mark into their forehead or their hands, 
fhall drink of the Wine of the wrath of God which 

'The Bloudy Tenent. 113 

is poured out without mixture into the Cup of his 
indignation^ and he lliall be tormented with jire and 
brimjione in the prefence of the holy Angels^ and in 
the prefence of the Latnbe, and the fmoake of their 
torment (liall afcend up for ever and ever, Kev. 14. 
10. 1 1. 


Peace^^^^Ow have beene larger in vindicating this 
X Scripture from the violence offered unto 
it, becaufe as I faid before, it is of fuch great confe- 
quence, as alfo becaufe fo many excellent hands have 
not rightly divided it, to the great mifguiding of many 
precious feet ^ which [50] otherwife might have beene 
turned into the paths of more peaceable?iej]e in the}n- 
fehes and towards others. 

Truth. I {hall be briefer in the Scriptures follow- ^j^ J ^ ^^ 
ing. Peace. Yet before you depart from this, I muft Chriil 
crave your patience to fatishe one ObjeBion^ and thatJ^^"^' ^^ 
is ; Thefe fervants to whom the Houfholder anfwer- Tares, 
eth, feem to be the Minijiers or Meffengers of the was not 
Go/pel, not the Magijirates of the civiii State, and ^°'';" 
therfore this charge of the Lord Jefus is not given totrates, 
Magijirates to let ^Xon^falfe worjhippers and idolaters. Minivers 

Againe, being fpoken by the Lord lejus to hiSyju l^^l] 
Mejle?igers, it feemes to concern Hypocrites in the but to 
Church, as before was fpoken, and not falfe worjhip- ^'"'^^'^'■^ 
pers in the State or World. Gofpel. 

Truth. I anfwer, firft, I beleeve I have fufficiently The civill 
and abundantly proved, that thefe tares are not offend- ^^^^^-^ ^^^^_ 
ers in the civill State. Nor fecondly, Hypocrites in ticulariy 


114 ^^^ Bloudy Tenent. 

fpoken to the Chuvch, when once difcovered fo to bee, and 
and Maf-^ ^^^^ therefore the Lord lefus intends a grolTer kinde 
ters in the of Hypocrttes, profcffing the name of Churches and 
New Tef- chrijUdfis in the field of the World or Commonwealth. 
and why. Secondly, I acknowledge this command [Let them 
Eph. 5. 6. alone] was exprelly fpoken to the Mejfengers or Min- 
&c * ^' ^' ''■ft^i^^ of the Gofpely who have no civill power or 
authority in their hand, and therefore not to the civill 
Magijlrate^ King, or Governour, to whom it pleafed 
not the Lord lefus by himfelfe or by his Apojlles to 
give particular Rules or direBions concerning their 
behaviour and carriage in Civill Magijlracy, as they 
have done exprelly concerning the duty oi fathers, 
mothers, children, mafers, fervants, yea and of SubjeBs 
towards Magif rates, Ephef 5. <£f 6. Colof 3. (if 4. G?^. 
A twofold I conceive not the reafon of this to be (as fome 
^}^l^-y . weakly have done) becaufe the Lord Jefus would not 
ty the have -uny followers of his to hold the place of civill 
perfecuted Magijlracy, but rather that he forefaw, and the Holy 
R^oman^'' *S/)/WV in the Apojlles forefaw how few Magijlrate^, 
Emperors, either in the firft perfecuted, or apoftated Ifate of 
and the Chriftianity would imbrace his yoake : in the perfe- 
ever fince cutcd ftate, Magiftrates hated the very name of Chrift 
or Christianity : In the ftate apoftate fome few Mag- 
iftrates (in their perfons holy and precious, yet) as 
concerning their places, as they have profelfed to have 
beene Governours or Heads of the Church, have 
beene fo many falfe Heads, and have conftituted fo 
many falfe vifible Chrifts. 

Thirdly, I conceive this charge of the Lord Jefus 
to his MeJ/engers the Preachers and Proclaimers of his 
minde, is a fufficient declaration [51] of the minde 

The Bloudy Tenent. 1 1 5 

of the Lord lefus, if any civill Magijirate fhould make 
queftion what were his duty concerning fpirituall 

The Apoftlcs, and in them all that fucceed them thrills 

1 • ^11 11 ^ cT- 1 Meffcn- 

being commanded not to pluck up the lares, but gj.s re- 
let them alone, received from the Lord I ef us a three- ceive a 
fold charge. '^J''^''^^ 

n 1 1 111 charge in 

Firft, to let them alone, and not to plucke them that pro- 
up by prayer to God for their prefent temporallhibition 
dejiruaion. ^ ^ Let them 

Jeremie had a Commiffion to plant and build, to alone. 
pjuck up and deftroy Kingdomes, ler. i. 10. there- 
fore hee is commanded not to pray for that people 
whom God had a purpofe to pluck up, Jer. 14. 11. 
and he plucks up the whole Nation by prayer. La- 
ment. 3. 66. Thus Elijah brought fire from heaven 
to confume the Captaines and the JiJ ties, 2 King i. 
and the Apojlles deiired alfo fo to praitife againft the 
Samaritanes, Luc. 9. 54. but were reproved by the 
Lord "J ejus. For contrarily, the Saints and Servants Gods peo- 
and Churches of Chriji are to pray for all juen, efpe- P'^ "°^ ^° 
cially for all Magijlrates (of what fort or Religions i\^q ^^q. 
foever) and to feeke the peace of the City (what ever lent ruine 
City it be) becaufe in the peace of the place of Gods j^^^^i^J^^ 
people have peace alfo, yer. 29. 7. 2. Tim. 2. &c. ofidola- 

Secondly, Gods MeJJhigers are herein commanded ^J^''^^' ^^- 
not to prophefie or denounce a prefent deJiruBion or^j^eirper. 
extirpation of all falfe profejjours of the name oi Chriji, lecutors, 
which are whole Townes, Cities, and Kin^dotJies full.l"^. "'^ 

I -7 • y r c theirpeace 

Jeremy did thus pluck up Kingdomes m thofe fear- and falva- 
full Prophecies hee poured forth againft all the 
Nations of the World, throughout his Chap. 24. 25 


1 1 6 T^he Bloudy Tenent. 

26. &c. as did alfo the other Prophets in a meafure, 
though none comparably to leremy and Ezekiel. 
The word Such denunciations of prefent temporall judgements 
rightly de-^^^ not the Mejfengers of the Lord lefus to poure 
nounced forth. Tis true, many fore and fearfull plagues are 
plucks up poured forth upon the Ro?nane Emperours 2.nd Rotnane 

kingdoms. \^ • 1 rf 7 • 1 • 

ropes in the Revelation, yet not to their utter extir- 
pation or plucking up untill the Harvejl. 
Gods Min Thirdly, I conceive Gods Mejfengers are charged 
iilers are to let them alone and not pluck them up, by exciting 
provoke ^^^ ftirring up Civill Magiftrates, Kings, Emperours, 
Magif- Governours, Parliaments, or Generall Courts or 
trates to Affemblies, to punifli and perfecute all fuch perfons 

ocrlccutc ^-^^ 

Antichrif-out of their Dominions and Territories, as worship 

tians. not the true God according to the revealed will of 
God in Chrijl lefus. Tis true, Elijah thus ftirred up 
Ahab to kill all the Priefts and Prophets of Baal, but 
that was in \\\2X figurative ftate of the Land of Canaan 
(as I have already and lliall further [52] manifeft) 
not to be matcht or paralleld by any other State, but 
the fpirituall State or Church of Chrifi: in all the 
world, putting the falfe Prophets and Idolaters fpirit- 
ually to death by the two-edged fword and power 

I C^or^c^^^ ^^ Lord lefus, as that Church of Ifrael did cor- 

Company- And therefore faith Paul exprefly, i. Cor. 5. 10. 

ing with ^g muft eoe out of the world, in cafe we may not 

idoiHtcrs - • . . 

I Cor. 5'. company in civill converfe with Idolaters, &c. 

difcufled. Peacc. It may be faid, fome forts of linners are 
there mentioned, as Drunkards, Raylers, Extortioners, 
who are to bee puniflied by the Civill Sword, why 
not Idolaters alfo } for although the Subjed: may law- 

The Bloudy Tenent. 1 1 7 

fully converfe, buy and fell, and live with fuch, yet 
the Civill Magijirate fliall nevertheleffe be juftly 
blamed in fuffering of them. 

Truth. I anfwer, the Apoftle in this Scripture Lawfull 

• T r • 1 1 n converie 

fpeakes not of permillion ot either, but expreily ^j^h idol- 
{howes the difference betweene the Church and theaters in 
World, and the lawfulnelfe of converfation with fuch ^'J^^'^ ^""^ 
perfons in civill things, with whom it is not lawfull fpirituall 
to have converfe in Jpirituals : fecretly withall tore- things. 
telling, that Magiftrates and People, whole States and 
Kingdomes (hould bee Idolatrous and Antichriftian, 
yet with whom notwithftanding the Saints and 
Churches of God might lawfully cohabit, and hold 
civill converfe and converfation. 

Concerning their permiifion of what they judge 
Idolatrous, I have and fliall fpeake at large. 

Peace. Oh how contrary unto this command of Danger- 
the Lord yefus have fuch as have conceived them- °"^ "^"^ , 

1 -x X rr ri r 1 t r • 11 unground- 

felves the true Meilengers ot the Lord lejus, m alledzeale. 
ages, not let fuch Profeifours and Prophets alone, 
whom they have judged Tares, but have provoked 
Kings and Kingdomes (and fome out of good inten- 
tions and zeale to God) to profecute and perfecute 
fuch even unto death ? Amongft whom Gods people 
(the good wheat) hath alfo beene pluckt up, as all 
Ages and Hiftories teftifie, and too too oft the World 
laid upon bloody heapes in civill and intefline defla- 
tions on this occafion. All which would bee pre- 
vented, and the greateft breaches made up in the 
peace of our owne or other Countries, were this com- 
mand of the Lord Jefus obeyed, to wit, to let them 
alone untill the Harveft. 

1 1 8 The Bloudy Tenent. 


\Truth.^ T Shall conclude this controverlie about this 
X Parable in this briefe fii?n and recapitu- 
lation of what hath beene faid. I hope by the evident 
53] demonfliration of Gods Spirit to the confcience 
I have proved, Negatively, 

Firft, that the 'Tares in this Parable cannot fignifie 
DoBrines or Practices (as was affirmed) but Perfons. 

Secondly, the Tares cannot fignifie Hypocrites in 
the Church either undifcovered or difcovered. 

Thirdly, the Tares here cannot fignifie Scandalous 
Offenders in the Church. 

Fourthly, nor fcandalous offenders in life and con- 
verfation againft the Civill Jiate. 

Fifthly, The field in which thefe Tares are fowne, 
is not the Church. 

Againe affirmatively : Firft, the Field is properly 
the World, the Civill State or Co?n?Ho?t-wealth. 

Secondly, The Tares here intended by the Lord 
lefus, are Antichrijlian idolaters, oppofite to the good 
feed of the Kingdof?ie, true Chrijlians. 

Thirdly, the minijlers or ?neffengers of the Lord 
lefus ought to let them alone to live in the world, 
and neither feeke by prayer or prophejie to pluck 
them up before the Harvejl. 

Fourthly, this permiffion or fuffering of them in 
the field of the World, is not for hurt, but for com- 
mon good, even for the good of the good Wheat, 
the people of God. 

Laftly, the patience of God is, and the patience of 
Men ought to be exercifed toward them, and yet 

T^he Bloudy Tenent. 1 1 9 

notwithftanding their doo??ie is fearful! at the harveji^ 
even gathering, bimdlingy and everlajiing burnifigs by 
the mighty hand of the Angels in the end of the 


Peace/ | ^He fecond Scripture brought againfi: fuch Matth.15. 

J. perfecution for caufe of Confcience, is^'^'^^^ 
Matth. 15. 14. where the Difciples being troubled Scripture 
at the Pharifes cariage toward the Lord 'J ejus and '^°"'^.''°^'^';- 
his doBrines, and relating how they were offended at^aufe" 
him, the Lord "Jejus commandeth his Difciples to 
let them alone, and gives this reafon, that the hlinde 
lead the blinde, and both ihould fall into the ditch. 

Unto which, Anfwer is made, " That it makes 
"nothing to the Caufe, becaufe it was fpoken to his 
"private Difciples, and not to publique Officers in 
*^ Church or State: and alfo, becaufe [54] it becaufe 
"it was fpoken in regard of not troubling themfelves, 
"or regarding the offence which the Pharifes tooke. 

Truth. I anfwer, (to paffe by his affertion of the 
privacie of the Apofles) in that the Lord fefus com- 
manding to let them alone, that is, not onely not be 
offended themfelves, but not to meddle with them ; 
it appeares it was no ordinance of God nor Chrijl for 
the Difciples to have gone further, and have com- Fr"^ 
plained to, and excited the Civill Magijlrate to hisdirefted 
duty : which if it had been an Ordinance of God^'^^ T>\^c\- 
and Chrijl, either for the vindicating of Chrifts doc-'^^-^Hil^yi^^ 
trine f or the recoveritig of the Pharifes, or the pre- iftrate for 

1 20 The Bloudy Tenent. 

help in \^\^ Jerving of others from infeBion, the Lord lefus would 
never have commanded them to omit that which 
ihould have tended to thefe holy ends. 


Peace.TT may be faid, that neither the Romane Ccefar 

X nor Herody nor Pilate knew ought of the 

true God, or of Qhriji ; and it had been in vaine to 

have made complaint to them who were not lit and 

competent, but ignorant and oppojite Judges. 

Pauls ap- Truth. I anfwer iirft, this removes (by the way) 

pealing to j-j^^i-y/^^^^^^//^^ i?lock which many fall at, to wit, Pauls 

appealing to Ccefar ; which lince he could not in 

common fenfe doe unto Ccefar as a competent ludge 

in fuch cafes, and wherein he fliould have alfo denied 

his own Apoftlefliip or office, in which regard (to 

wit in matters of Chrill:) he was higher then C(^far 

himfelfe : it muft needs follow, that his appeale was 

„. ... meerly in refpedt of his Civill wrongs, and falfe accu- 

Magif- fations o^ fedition, &€. 

trates nev- Secondly, if it had been an Ordinance of God, that 
te/b^°'"'^^^ Civill Magif rates were bound to judge in caufes 
God, De- fpirituall or Chriftian, as to fupprelfe herefes, defend 
^r^^p" h^ they}z/>/6 oi lefus ; although that Ccefar, Herod, Pilate 
of Jefus. were wicked, ignorant and oppolite, yet the Difciples 
Every one and the Lord Chrif himfelfe had been bound to have 
io pT"^ performed the duty of faithfull Subjeds, for the pre- 

forth him Venting of further evill, and the clearing of them- 
felfetohisfgives^ and fo to have left the matter upon the Mag- 
povver in iJlT^<^tes care and confcience, by complaining unto the 
Gods bufi- Magiftrate againft fuch evils ; for every perfon is 

'The Bloudy Tenent. 1 2 1 

bound to goe fo far as lies in his power for the pre-^^^"^; ^ 
venting and the redreffing of evill ; and where it flops J^^J^ ^he 
in any, and runs not cleere, there the guilt, like filth guilt will 
or mud, will lie. '^* 

Thirdly, had it been the holy purpofe of God to Chrij} 
have eftabliflied the \^^^ doBrine 2ind kingdotne oih\s'^°^^J^.^J^^^ 
Son this way, fince his comming, he would have fur- furnilhed 
niflied Cof?i?fwn-weciles, Kingdomes^ Cities, &c. then ^'^^g°'^'y 
and fince, with fuch temporall Powers and Magif- ^^^^^^^-^^ 
trates as fliould have been excellently fit and com- he had fo 
petent : for he that could have had legions of Angels, ^PPo^"^^^ 
if he fo pleafed, could as eafily have been, and ftill 
be furnithed with legions of good and gracious Mag- 
iftrates to this end and purpofe. 


IT is generally faid, that God hath in former rimes, 
and doth ftill, and will hereafter ftirre up Kings 
and Queenes, &c. 

I anfwer, that place oi Ifa. 49. 23. will appeare to 
be far from proving fuch Kings and Queenes ludges 
of Ecclefiafticall caufes : and if not ludges, they may 
not punifh. 

In Spirituall things, themfelves are fubjedt to the 
Church, and cenfures of it, although in Civill refped:s 
fuperior. How fliall thofe Kings and Queenes be 
fupreme Governours of the Church, and yet lick the 
duft of the Churches feet ? as it is there expreft. 

Thirdly, Gods Ifrael of old were earneft with God^°^' ^^- 

r 17- • r A r r^^ r\ r jr ■ ''^^' carn- 

lor a Kmg, tor an Arme or r lelh, tor a Kmg to pro- eii with 

1 2 2 'The Bloudy Tenent. 

God for |-e(C^ them, as other Nations had. Gods Ifrael ftill 
ofFlelh, have ever been reftlelTe with God for an Arme of 

which flefh. 

God gives God gave them Saul in his anger, and took him 

in his . ^ , '-' . 

anger, and away in his wrath: And God hath given many a 

takes away ^^2^/ in his Anger, that is, an Arm of Flelh in the 

wrath. ^^y °^ his Providcncc, (though I judge not all per- 

fons whom Saul in his Calling typed out, to be of 

Sauls fpirit) for I fpeake of a State and outward vifi- 

ble Power only. 

I adde, God will take awav fuch flayes on whom 

Gods people reft, in his wrath, that King David, that 

is, Chriji lefus the Antitype, in his own Spiritual I 

power in the hands of the Saints, may fpiritually and 

for ever be advanced. 

The pun- And therefore I conclude, it was in one refped; 

'^llr^d ^^^^ ^^^ Lord lefus faid. Let them alone, becaufe it 

Pharifes, was no Ordinance f3r any Difciple of lefus to profe- 

though let cute the Pharifes at Ccefars Bar. 

LTre'at^er^ Befide, let it be ferioully conlidered by fuch as 

then any plead for prefcnt corporall puniflnnent , as conceiving 

corporall j-j^^j- {xxq\\ linners (though they breake not Civill 

ment in peace) fliould not efcape unpuniflied, I fay, let it be 

the world, confidered, though for the prefent their punifhment 

Tear' ^^ deferred, yet the punijhment inflid:ed on them will 

be found to amount to an higher pitch [56] then 

any corporall pwiifiiiient in the World befide, and that 

in thefe foure refpe6ls. 

T^he Bloudy Tenent. i 2 3 


FIrft by JLift judgement from God, falje teacbers^^^^y^ 
are flarke hlinde^ Gods /word hath ftrucke out ^^^^^ out 
the right eye of their minde and fpirituall underjland- is worie 
ingy ten thoufand times a greater punifhment then itf^^^^JJ '^x\ \\\. 
the Magijiratc (liould command both the right and and left 
left eye of their bodies to bee bored or pluckt out, and^y^ °^ t^^" 
that in fo many fearfull refpedls if the bHndnefl'e ofj^°^^]^g°Q^^j 
the Joule and of the body were a httle compared tenne thou 
together, whether we looke at that want ol guidance ^"^^^^ ""^^^ 
or the want oi joy and pleajure, which the hght of 
the eye affordeth ; or whether we looke at the da?n- 
age, fiatne, deformity and danger^ which blindnejje 
brings to the outward man, and much more true in 
the ivant of the former, and ??iijerie of the latter in 
fpirituall and foule blindnelfe to all eternity. 

Secondly, how fearfull is that wound that no Balnie^omt 
in Gilead can cure ? How dreadfull is that blindnelfe °" ?,'"' 

, curable, 

which tor ever to all eye-falve is incurable? For it whom not 
perfons be wilfully and defperately obftinate (after °"b'cor- 
light fliining forth) let them alone faith the -^o^'^. FpTrkuaH 
So fpake the Lord once of Ephraini^ Epbraitn isphyficke 
joyned to Idolls, let him alone, Hof. 7. what more^^"^"°' 
lamentable condition then when the Lord hath given availe. 
a poor linner over as a hopeleffe patient^ incurable, 
which we are wont to account a forer affliction, then 
if a man were torne and rack'd, &c. 

And this I fpeake not that I conceive that all 
whom the Lord yejus command's His fervants to 
palfe from, and let alone, to permit and tolerate 
(when it is in their power corporally to moleft them) 

124 '^^^ Bloudy Tenent. 

I fay that all are thus incurable, yet that fometimes 
that word is fpoken by Chrift Jefus to His fervants 
to be patient, for neither can corporall or fpirituall 
Balme or Phylicke ever heale or cure them. 
The bot- Thirdly, their end is the Ditch, that bottomleffe 
°^Q^ ^ pit of everlaftingy^/>^r<^//o« from the holy and fweet 
ditch into Prefence of the Father of Lights, GoodneJJe and Mercy 
which the -j. fgjfg^ endkjfe, eafelejfe, in extre?7iity, ufiiverjality, and 
blind fall, eternity o^ torments, which moft direfuU and lament- 
able downefall, fliould ftrike an holy fear & tremb- 
ling into all that fee the Pit, whither thefe blinde 
Pharifes are tumbling, and caufe us to ftrive (fo far 
as hope may be) by the fpirituall eye-falve of the 
Word of God to heale and cure them of this their 
foule-deftroying blindneffe. 

Fourthly, of thofe that fall into this dreadfull Ditch, 
both leader and followers, how deplorable in more 
efpeciall manner is the leaders cafe, \S7^^ upon whofe 
necke i\\& followers tumble, the ruine not only of his 
owne foule, being horrible, but alfo the ruine of the 
followers foules eternally galling and tormenting. 

Peace. Some will fay thefe things are indeed full 
of horrour, yet fuch is the ftate of all fmners and of 
many Malefadtours, whom yet the State is bound to 
punifh, and fometimes by death it felte. 

Truth. I anfwer. The Civill Magiftrate beareth 
not the fword in vaine, but to cut off Civill offences, 
yea and the offendours too in cafe : But what is this 
to a blinde Pharifee, refifting the DoBrine of Chriji, 
who happily may be as good a fubjed;, and as peace- 
able and profitable to the Civill State as any, and for 
his fpirituall offence againft the Lord y ejus, in deny- 

The Bloudy Tenent. 125 

ing Him to be the true Chriji, he fuffereth the ven- 
geance of a dreadfull judgement both prefent and 
eternall, as before. 


Peace 7^^-^ but It is faid that the blinde P/6^r//t'j- Soul kill- 

X mifguiding the fubjed:s of a Civill State,^^^-^^,^-^^ 
greatly finne againft a Civill State, and therefore juftly murder. ' 
fuffer 671;/// punifljment ; for fhall the Civill Mag-iltrate ^° ^^g'^' 

1 r /' 7 1 • rill- r^"^"^ ^^" 

take care or outjides only, to wit, or the bodies or execute 
men, and not of foules, in labouring to procure their ^fuejuftice 

1 A- ir 2 01 jj^ killing 

everlalting welfare ? _ _ _ ^^^^^ ^J 

Truth. I anfwer, It is a truth, the mifchiefe of afoule, but 
blinde Pharifes blinde guidance is greater then if hej^^."^ 
a(5led Treafons, Murders, &c. and the lolle ot oncby typicall 
foule by his feduftion is a greater mifchiefe then ifdeath in 
he blew up Parliaments, and cuts the throats of K-ingSfype/^'^ 
or Emperours, fo pretious is that invaluable Jewell ipirituall 
of a Soul, above all the prefent lives and bodies of all'" ^!^^ 
the men in the world ! and therefore a firme Juftice 
calling for eye for eye, tooth for tooth, life for life ; calls 
-SiXio Joule for foule, which the blind-guiding feducing 
Pharifee fliall furely pay in that dreadfull Ditch, A great 
which the Lord Jefus fpeakes of, but this fentence"^'^J^''^ '" 
againit him the Lord Jefus only pronounceth in His conceive 
Church, W\^ fpirituall judicature, and executes this that dead 
fentence in part at prefent and hereafter to all eter- ™^!1' "; ^^ 

• 1 • • 7 yT- r 1- '^' ioules 

nity : Such 2i fentence no Civill fudge can pane, fuchdead infm 
a Death no Civill fword C2in inflid:. ""a dV"" 

I anfwer fecondly, Dead tnen cannot be infected, faif^ Jq,,. 
the civill Jiate, the world, being in a naturall ftate trine. 

1 26 The Bioudy Tenent. 

dead in fin (what ever be the ^tate Religion unto 
which perfons are forced) it is impoffible it fhould be 
infed:ed : Indeed the livings the beleeving, the Church 
and fpirituall Jlate^ that and that onely is capable of 
infeBion\ for whofe helpe we fhall prefently [58] fee 
'w\\2i\. prefervativeSy and re?iiedies the Lord yefus hath 
All natu- Moreover as we fee in a common plague or infeSiion 

rail men i ,1 i " 1 

beingdead^he namcs are taken how many are to dye, and not 
in fin, yet one more {liall be flrucke, then the deftroying Angel 
none die j^^j-j-^ ^^ names of. So here, what ever be the foule 

everJait- , 

ingly but infcBion breathed out from they lying lips oi 2i plague- 
fuch zszTQ jicke Pharifee^ yet the names are taken, not one eleB 
ordalned° ^^ chofcu of God fliall pcrifh, Gods Jljeep are fafe in 
His eternall hand and counjell, and he that knowes 
his materially knows alfo his myjlicall Jlars, their num- 
bers, and calls them every one by name, none fall into 
the Ditch on the blinde Pharifes backe, but fuch as 
were ordained to that condemnation, \^o\\\ giiid 2indi fol- 
lowers, I Pet. 2. 8. "Jude 4. The vej/ells of wrath 
fhall breake and fplit, and only they to the praife of 
Gods etevn^W J ujl ice, Rom. 9. 


Peace.Y^Ut it is faid, be it granted that in ^. common 
JJ plague or infeSlion none are fmitten and 
dye but fuch as are appointed, yet it is not only every 
mans duty, but the common duty of the Magiftrate 
to prevent infoBion, and to preferve the common health 
of the place ; likewife though the number of the 
RleB be fure, and God knowes who are His, yet hath 

The Bloudy Tenent. 1 27 

He appointed meanes for their prefervation from 
perdition, and from infeBio7i, and therefore the Angel 
is blamed for fuffering Balaams dodlrine, and "Jefabel 
to feduce Chrift Jefus His fervants, Rev. 2. Tit. 3. 
10. Rom. 16. 17. 

Truth. I anfwer. Let that Scripture and that oiJY ^°'l'^ 

^T" • r-, TT • / 1 7-> z •jjeiushatn 

7//Z/J- rejedt an tiereticke, and Kow. 10. 17. avoid ^otiefthis 
them that are contentious, &c. let them, and all ot Church 
like nature be examined, and it will appeare that the J^l^^.^'^jj 
great and good Phyjitian Chriji yefus, the Head ofantidotes 
the Body, and Kino- of the Church hath not been^"^ '■^"^^- 

,,.-.;,,. .9. r • • 11 • 1 J i diesagainlt 

unraithiull in providing ipirituall antidotes and Z*^^- infeftion. 
fervatives againft the fpiritualiy/V/'z/t^^j-, y^rt^j, weak- 
nejfes, dangers of his Church and people ; but he never 
appointed the civill /word for either antidote or retn- 
edy, as an addition to thokfpiritualls, which he hath 
left with his wife, his Church or People. 

Hence how great is the bondage, the captivity of The Mif- 
Gods owne People to Babylonijh or confufed mixtures^^^ ^^^^^^ 
in Worfliip, and unto worldly and earthly policies to people 
uphold State Religions or Worjhips, lince that which ^^^^ '"• 
is written to the Angel and Church at Pergamus, (hall 
be interpreted as lent to the Governour and City ot 
Pergamus, and that which is fent to Titus, and the 
Church of Chrift at Greet mull: be delivered to the 
civill officers and City thereof. 

59] But as the Civill Magijlrate hath his charge of 
the bodies and goods of \.h.Q J'ubjeB : So have \.h.&fpirit- 
uall Officers, Governour s and overfeers of Chrijis City 
or Kingdome, the charge of their fouls, and foule 
fafety ; Hence that charge of Paul to Tif?i. i Tifn. 
5. 20. Them that linne rebuke before all, that others 

128 The Bloudy Tenent. 

may learne to fear. This is in the Church of Chrift 
a fpirituall meanes for the healing of 2. Joule that hath 
finned, or taken infedion, and for the preventing of 
the infecting of others, that others may learne to 
feare, &c. 


Peace. ^T is faid true that Titus and Timothy, and 

X fo the Officers of the Church of Chriji are 

bound to prevent yiz//? infeBion : But what hinders 

that the Magiftrate (hould not be charged alfo with 

this duty ? 

The Truth. I anfwer, many things I have anfwered, 

Qi"eens'"o1-^"^ more fhall ; at prefent I fliall only fay this : If 

England it be the Magijirates duty or office, then is he both 

Govern- ^ Te?nporall and Ecclejiajlicall officer ; contrary to 

Church, which moft men will affirme : and yet we know the 

policie of our owne Land and Country hath eftab- 

lifhed to the Kings and Queens thereof, the fupreme 

heads or governours of the Church of England. 

Strange That doBrine and diJli?iBion that a Magijlrate may 

confufi^ punifli an Heretick civilly will not here availe ; for 

ments. what is Babel if this be not confufedly to puniih 

corporall or civill ojfhices with fpirituall or Church 

•^QQ^Q^^cenfures (the offendour not being a member of it) or 

it with the to ^uwiih fouk ov Jpirituall o^QVic^s with corporall ov 

^^^^^^^.^^^tejnpor all weapons proper to Delinquents againft the 

the bloud temporall or civill Jiate. 

^(VTa\ Laftly, woe were it with the civill Magijlrate (and 
ordinary iTioft intolerable burthens do they lay upon their backs 
care of the that teach this doBrine) if together with the common 

The Bloudy Tenent. 1 29 

care and charge of the Coinmonwealth (the peace and '^"^'^^^"'^ 
fafety of the TownCy City, State or Kingdome) thefh°f^b. 
bloud of every foule that periflieth (hould cry againftjeajfhould 
him, unlelfe he could fay with Paul, ABs 20. (in ^7 ^8^'"^ 
fpirituall regards) I am clear from the bloud of all 
men, that is the bloud oi foules, which was his charge 
to looke after, fo far as his preaching went, not the 
bloud oi bodies which belongeth to the civill Magif- 

I acknowledge he ou"-ht to cherifh (as a fofter- The Mag- 

o _ o _ . . . iftrates 

father) the Lord 'J ejus in his truth, in his Saints, to^^^igsto. 
cleave unto them hinijelfe, 2.x\A [60] to countenance vi2.x^ tVt 
them even to the death, yea alfo to breake the teeth ^^^/^^ ^ 

r ^ • n- ^- -n • 1 i • • the bpoule 

of the Z/WWJ-, who ofter Civill violence and mjury of Chriil. 
unto them. 

But, to fee all his Subjeds Chrijlians, to keepe fuch Ufurpers 
Church or Chrijlians in the purity of worfliip, andj^^j^^g ^f 
fee them doe their duty, this belongs to the Head of the fpir- 
the Body Chrijl J ejus, and fuch fpirituall Officers as'^'J^'^^^ 
he hath to this purpofe deputed, whofe right it isotjefus. 
according to the true pater ne : Abimelech, Saul, Adon- 
ijah, Athalia were but ufurpers : David, Salo?non, 
yoajh, &c. they were the true heires and types of 
Chriji Jejus in His true Power and Authority in His 


Peace/ I ^He next Scripture brought againft fuch Luke 9. 

A perfecution is Luke 9. 54, ^k^. where the^j^-^Jj^^j^ 
Lord Jefus reproved His Difciples, who would have 
had lire come downe from Heaven, and devoure thofe 


130 The Bloudy Tenent. 

Samaritanes that would not receive Him in thefe 
words : You know not of what fpirit you are, the 
Son of Man is not come to dejlroy mens Uves, but to 
fave them. 

With this Scripture Mr. Cotton joynes the fourth, 
and anfwers both in one, which is this, 2 Ti?)!. 2. 24. 
The fervant of the Lordmuii not ftrive, but muft be 
gentle toward all men, fuffering the evill ?fie?i, inftru6l- 
ing them with ?neekneffe that are contrary minded 
and oppofe themfelves, proving if God peradventure 
will give them repentance that they may acknowledge 
the truth, and that they may recover themfelves out 
of the fnare of the Divell who are taken captive by 
him at his will. 

Unto both thefe Scriptures it pleafeth him thus to 
anfwer : *' Both thefe are direBions to Minijiers of the 
" Gofpel how to deale (not with obftinate offendors 
" in the Church who fin againft co?ifcience, but) either 
" with t?ien without as the Samaritanes were, and 
" many unconverted Chrijiians in Creet, whom Titus 
" (as an Evangelift) was to feek to convert : 
An excel- " Or at beft with fome Jewes or Gentiles in the 
''^i^^^^y'"?*' Church, who though carnall, vet were not con- 

Or Dcriccu- « 

tors them- " viuced of the errour of their way : And it is true it 
felves. " became not the Spirit of the Gofpel to convert Aliens 
" to the Faith (fuch as the Samaritanes were) by fire 
" and brimflone, nor to deale harfhly in publicke Min- 
" ijiery or private conference with all fuch feverall 
"minded men as either had [61] not yet entred into 
" Church fellowjhip, or if they had did hitherto fin 
^^ oi ignorance y not againft Conjcience : But neither of 
" both thefe Texts doe hinder the Minijler of the 

The Bloudy Tenent. i 3 1 

" Go/pel to proceed in a Church way againft Church 
" mcvibers, when they become fcandalous offenders 
" either in life or doBrhie, riiuch leffe doe they fpeake 
" at all to the Chill Magijtrate.' 


Truth.^ I ^His perplexed and ravelled Anfwer^ where 

J- in fo many things and fo doubtfull are 

wrapt up and intangled together, I fliall take in pieces. 

Firff, concerning that of the Lord yefus rebuking 'F^^ ^"" 
his Dijciples for their rafli and ignorant bloudy zeale ^^\^^^ he 
[Luc. 9.) defiring corporall deJiruBion upon the Sa??ia- ftould 
ritanes for refufmg the Lord J ejus, &c. the ^^"^^^^^ [o^er'ldo^ 
affirmeth, that hindreth not the Miiiijlers of the Gof-\n the 
pell to proceed in a Church way againft fcandalous State, 
offenders, which is not here queftioned, but main- |f|^^ 
tained to bee the holy will of the Lord, and a fuffi- ments 
cient cenfure and punilliment, if no civill offence l^,^^\ 

-i . L-nurcn, 

againft the Civili State be committed. which 

Secondly (faith hee) " Much leffe doth this fpeake none can 
" at all to the Civill Magijlrate. '^^"^- 

' This paragraph is quoted literally 38.) fome hafte, and light, and fleepy 

from Cotton's Letter, fee p. 9. But Cot- attention. But if the Difcujp:r can fhew 

ton, for fome reafon, denies its literal the fame under mine owne hand (as it is 

accuracy, which Williams affirms. "The not impoffible) I fhall be willing (by 

matter of this Anfwer, it is likely enough God's help) both to acknowledge it, and 

was given by me : for it fuiteth with my hafte in it." The Bloody Tenent 

mine own apprehenfions, both then and U"aj}:ed, pp. 74, 75. "It is at hand for 

now. But fome expreffions in laying it Mailer Cotton or any to fee that copy 

downe, I doe not owne, nor can I finde which he gave forth and correfted in 

any Copie under my owne hand-writing, fome places with his own hand, and 

that might tellifie, how I did exprefle every word verbatim here publifhed." 

myfclfe, efpecially in a word or two. The Bloody Tenent yet More Bloody, p. 

wherein the DifcuJJer obferveth (in chap. 1 14. 


runnes to 

132 The Bloudy Tenent. 

^n^M^T* Where I obferve that he imply es that befide the 
trate bl a' ^^^^^^ of the Lord Jefus, in the hands oi h.h fpirit- 
Chriftian, udll govemours, for any fpirituall evill in life or doc- 
v^ ^^, trine^ the Civill Magijlrate is alfo to inflid: corporall 
be like pu?iijh?/ie?it upon the contrary minded : whereas 
Chrift in Firft, if the Civill Magijhate be a Chrifiian, a Dif- 
ddlroying ^'^P^^ ^^' follower of the meeke L,ambe of God, he is 
mens bound to be far from deftroying the bodies of men, for 
bodies, refufing to receive the Lord Jefus Chrifi, for other- 
TheCivill ^ jfg hee fhould not know (accordine to this fpeech 

Magirtrate , , .^ . ^ ^ 

bound not of the Lord lefus) w\\2it fpir it he was of, yea and to 

to inflia be ignorant of the fweet end of the comming of the 

fe^/an* " ' ^^^ of Man, which was not to deftroy the bodies of 

other to Men, but to fave both bodies and foules, verf c^^. 56. 

jnAiftvio- Secondly, if the Civill Magif rate, being a Chrif- 

ftripes, or ti-^^, gifted, prophefe in the Church, i Corijith. i. 14. 

any corpo- although the Lord lefus Chrif, whom they in their 

rail pun- Q^j^g perfons hold forth, fliall be refufed, yet they 

for evill are here forbidden to call for lire from heaven, that 

againil is, to procure or inflid: any corporall judgement upon 

fuch offenders, remembring the end of the Lord lefus 

his comming, not to defray mens _ lives, but to fave 


62] Laftly, this alfo concernes the confcience of the 
Civill Magif rate, as he is bound to preferve the civill 
peace and quiet of the place and people under him, 
he is bound to fuifer no man to breake the Civill 
Peace, by laying hands of violence upon any, though 
as vile as the Sa?naritanes for not receiving of the 
Lord lefus Chrif. 
Revel. 13. -^t i^ indeed the ignorance and blind zeale of the 
13. fecond Beaf, the falje Prophet, Rev. 13. 13. to per- 

The Bloudy Tenent. 1 3 3 

fwade the civill Powers of the earth to perfecute the F'^e from 
Saints, that is, to bring '^^xy judgements upon men in whYt"the 
2ijudiciall icay, and to pronounce that (wch judgef?ients^rQ from 
of impj'ifonment^ banifljvieiit^ deaths proceed from Gods ^^^^? \ 
righteous vengeance upon fuch Hereticks. So dealt fair Proph 
divers Bijhops in France^ and England too in Queene^t bring- 
Maries dayes with the Saints of God at their putting ^^^ ^^"^'^^ 
to death, declaiming again ft them in their Sermons 
to the people, and proclaiming that thefe perfecu- 
tions even unto death vv^ere GoA?, juji judgetnents frofu 
heaven upon thefe Heretickes. 


P^<^r^.T^Oubtleffe fuch fiery fpirits (as the Lord 2 Tim. 3. 
jLJ lefus faid) are not of God : I pray fpeake^^* ^.^' , 

1 r 11 r n-- / -r^ • 1 ^ /■ examined. 

to the lecond place out 01 Timothy, 2. Epiji. 25. 26. 

Truth. I acknowledge this inftrudiion to be meeke 
and patient, &c. is properly an inftruftion to the Min- 
ijlers of the Gofpel. Yet divers Arguments from 
hence will truly and fairly be colledied, to manifeft 
and evince how farre the civill Magijirate ought to 
bee from dealing with the civill /word in fpirituall 

And firft (by the way) I defire to aske. What were 
thefe unconverted Chrijiians in Crete, which the 
Anfwerer compareth with the Satnaritanes, whom 
Titus (faith he) as an Evangelijl was to feek to con- 
vert ; and whether the Lord lefus have any fuch 
Difciples and Followers, who yet are vifibly in an 
unconverted efiate. O that it may pleafe the Father 

134 '^ke Bloudy Tenent. 

of mercies, the Father of lights, to awaken and open 

the eyes of all that feare before him, that they may 

fee whether this be the Language of Canaan, or the 

Language of Aflidod. 

^/l"^^^ What is an unconverted Chrijiian but in truth an 

Anfwerer unconverted Convert ? that is in Englifh one unturned 

meAneshy turned : unholy holy : Difciples or Followers oi lefus 

vened^°" "°^ following of him : In a word, that is Chrijlians 

Chriftian or anointed by Chrijl, Antichrijliatis not anointed 

in Crete, vv^ith the Spirit of lefus Chriji. 

The orig-63] Certaine it is, fuch they were not unto whom 

^Ch^-f ^^^ Spirit of GW gives that name, AB. 11. And 

^ians. indeed whither can this tend but to uphold the blaf- 

phef?iy of fo many as fay they are lewes, that is, Chrif- 

tians, but are not ? Rev. 2. But as they are not Chrif- 

tians from Chriji, but from the Beaji and his PiBure, 

fo their proper name from Antichrijl, is Antichrif- 


The An- How fad yet and how true an evidence is this, that 

werer yet ^j^^ foule of the Anfwerer (I fpeake not of his inward 

in the un- ^ . _ ri-n-\ii 

converted foule and pcrfou, but of his wormip) hath never yet 

Churches heard the call of the Lord lefus, to come out from 

fj^j ' thofe unconverted Churches, from that unconverted 

Antichrifian Chrifian world, and fo from Antichrift 

Belial, to feeke fellowfliip with Chriji lejus, and his 

converted Chrijlians, Dijciples after the iirft patterne. 

Godspeo- Againe, I obferve the hajle and light attention of 

pie fleepy ^j^^ Anfwerer to thefe Scriptures (as commonly the 

tcrs of fpirits of Gods children in matters of Chrijis Kingdome 

Chrifts are vtvy Jleepy) for thefe perfons here fpoken of were 

Cam ^^2.^^^ (^^ ^^ fpeakes) unconverted Chrijlians in Crete, 

whom Titus as an Rvangeliji was to convert, but they 

'The Bloudy Tenent. 135 

were fuch oppofites as Timothy (to whom Paul writes 
this Letter at Ephejus) Ihould meet withall.' 


.t is there in this ^ 
othy alledged concerning the civill Magif- 

Peace.\y\^t what is there in this Scripture of Tim- 

tracy .^ 

Truth. I arp-ue from this place of Timothy in par- ' ^°'"- H- 

, ° ^ -^ ^ Patience 

tlCUlar, thus. ^ _ and meek- 

Firft, if the civill Magijlrates bee Chrijiians^ or neiFe re- 
members of the Churchy able to prophejie in the ^'^^^'^'^ail'that"^ 
of Chrijly then I fay as before, they are bound by this open 
command of Chriji to fuffer oppolition to their doc- Chrifts 
trine^ with meekenejje and gentlene[jl\ and to be fo farrCj-ies, 
from ftriving to fubdue their oppofites with the civill 
fwordy that they are bound with patience and tneek- 
nejje to wait if God peradventure will pleafe to grant 
repentance unto their oppofites. 

So alfo it pleafeth the Anfwerer to acknowledge 
in thefe words : 

" It becomes not the Spirit of the Gofpel to con- 

' Cotton fays in regard to the points Bloody Tenent Waped, pp. jj. 78. He 

made by Williams in this Chapter, " It however, defends the phrafe " uncon- 

muft lye upon the Difcuflers credit, verted Chrillians," alleging in its behalf 

whether I uled at all fuch a phrafe or the dodlrine that unconverted children 

no: Sure I am, I cannot hitherto (after of Church-members are alfo members of 

much feeking) find mine owne hand- the Church. " I have not yet learned, 

written copy, which might cleare the (nor doe I thinke, I ever fhall) that the 

miftake, both of Greet for Ephefus, and children of believing Parents borne in 

unconverted Chrillians for unconverted the Church, are all of them Pagans, and 

Perfons." " The Tranfcript, which with no Members of the Church: or that 

much feeking, I found, hath it, inltead being Members of the Church (and fo 

of unconverted Chrillians in Creete, un- holy) that they are all of them truly 

converted Perfons in Ephefus.'''' The converted." p. 78. 

1 36 'The Bloiidy Tenent. 

" vert Aliens to the Faith (fuch as the Samaritanes, 
" and the unconverted Chrijlians in Crete) with Fire 
*' and Brimjione. 

Secondly, be they oppojitions within^ and Church 
7nembers (as the Anfw^erer fpeakes) hQ.corc\Q fcandalous 
in doBrine, (I fpeake not of [64] y^^W^^/j- againft the 
civill State, which the civill Magijlrate ought to 
punifli) it is the Lord onely (as this Scripture to Tim- 
othy implyes) who is able to give them repentance, 
and recover them out of Sathans fnare : to which 
end alfo he hath appointed thofe holy and dreadfull 
cenjures in his Church or Kingdome. True it is, the 
The civill Sword may make (as once the Z^or^ complained, IJa. 
may'^make ^'^') ^ whole Nation of Hypocrites : But to recover a 
a Nation Soulc from Sathan by repentance, and to bring them 
of Hypo- fj-om Antichriflian doBrine or worOnp, to the doBrine 

cntes & . ^ . . . ■' . 

Antichrif- or worjljip ChrijUan, in the leaft true internal! or 
tians, but extemall fubmiffion, that only works the All-power- 
ChriftJan f^^^ God, by the Jword of the Spirit in the hand of 

his Spiritual! officers. 
Won- What a moft wofull proofe hereof have the Nations 

derfull Qf |.}^g Earth given in all Asres ? And to feeke no 

changes of .- , , ° .„,".,. r r r 

Religion lurther then our native boyle, withm a tew Icores 01 
in Eng- yecres, how many wonderfuU changes in Reiigion hath 
^" ■ the who!e Kingdome made, according to the change of 

the Governours thereof, in thefeverall Re Hgious -sshich. 

they themfelves imbraced ! Henry the 7. linds and 

leaves the kingdome abfolutely Popijlj. Henry the 8. 

cafts it into a ?nou!d half Popijh halfe Protejiant. 

Rdward the 6. brings forth an Edition all Protejiant. 

(^leene Mary within few yeares defaceth Edwards 

worke, and renders the Kingdome (after her Grand- 

The Bloudy Tenent. i 37 

father Hen. 7. his pattern) all Popip. Maries fhort Englands 
life and Religion ends together : and Elizabeth revi- L^nf oV" 
veth her Brother Edwards Modell, all Proteftant : Religion. 
And fome eminent Witnejjes of Gods Truth againfl 
Antichriji, have enclined to believe, that before the 
downfall of that Beajl, England muft once againe 
bow down her faire Neck to his proud ufurping 
yoake and foot. 

Peace. It hath been Englands linfull (liame, to 
fafhion & change their Garjnents and Religions with 
wondrous eafe and lightnej/e, as a higher Power, a 
jironger Sword hath prevailed ; after the ancient pat- 
terne of Nebuchadnezzar s bowing the whole world 
in one moft folemne uniformitie of worjhip to his 
Golden Image, Dan. 3. 


BUt it hath been thought, or faid, Shall oppojitions 
again 11: the Truth efcape unpunished ? will they 
not prove mifchievous, &c. 

Truth. I anfwer (as before) concerning the blindeThe mif- 
Guides (in [65] cafe there be no Civill offence com- ^"^ °^ °P' 
mitted) the Magijirates, & all men that by the mercy againft the 
of God to themfelves difcerne the miferie of fuch Truth. 
Oppofites, have caufe to lament and bewaile that tear- 
full condition wherein fuch are entangled, to wit, in 
the fnares & chains of Satan, with which they are 
fo invincibly caught and held, that no power in 
Heaven or Earth, but the Right hand of the Lord in 
the meeke and gentle dilpenfmg of the Word of 
Truth, can releafe and quit them. 

138 The Bioudy Tenent. 

A differ- Thofc many falfe Chrifts (of whom the Lord Jefus 

ence be- - - _ . . 

'j"}^g forewarnes, Mat. 24.) have futably their falfe /todies, 
true and faith^ fpirtt, Baptijffie, as the Lord Jefus, hath his 
^^ d^Ch"? ^^'^^ ^ody, faith, Jpirit, 6cc. Ephef. 4. correfpondent 
tians. alfo are their weapons, and the fuccejfe, ilTue, or ope- 
ration of them. A carnal! weapon or /word ol Jleele 
may produce a carnall repentance, a (hew, an outfide, 
an uniformitie through a State or Kingdome : But it 
hath pleafed the Father to exalt the Lord Jefus only, 
to be a Prince (armed with power and meanes fuffi- 
cient) to give repentance to Ifrael, A6ts 5. 31. 
The wor- Accordingly an unbelieving Soule being dead in 
beHevine""^""^ (although he be changed from one worpip to 
unregen- another, like a dead man (liifted into feverall changes 
erate per- q^ apparell) cannot pleafe God, Heb. 11. and confe- 
quently, whatever fuch an unbelieving & unregenerate 
perfon ad:s in JVorfiip or Religion, it is but linne, 
Rofn. 14. Preaching finne, praying (though without 
beads or booke) finne ; breaking of bread, or Lords 
fupper finne, yea as odious as the oblation of Swines 
blood, a Dogs neck, or killing of a Man, Ifa. 66. 

But Faith it is that gift which proceeds alone from 
^^\^^% the Father of Lights, Phil. i. 29. and till he pleafe 

Per & mil- . '-' . - . 

chiefe of to make his light arife and open the eyes ot blind 

a civill finners, their foules fhall lie faft alleep (and the fafter. 

Souk ^" ii^ t^^t ^ fword of fi:eele compells them to a worJJjip 

matters, in hypocrifc) in the dungeons oi fpirituall darkneffe 

^^''^ , and Sathans jlavery. 

makes the t i i i • 'ir r i i r ii 

civill Mag Pcace. 1 adde, that a civtll Jword (as worull expe- 
iftrate rience in all ages hath proved) is fo far from bring- 
puU^y^of i"g ^^ helping forward an oppofite in Religion to 
all thofe repentance, that Magijirates finne grievoufly againft 

T^he Bloudy Tenent. i 39 

the ivorke of God and blood of Soules, by fuch pro- ^^/^l^ 
ceedings. Becaufe as (commonly) the fuffrings of^^j^'g^^^g 
falje and Antichrijiian Teachers harden their /^//oi^;- fupprefle. 
ers, who being bhnd, by this meanes are occafioned jj^'^^^^'^^"' 
to tumble into the ditch of Hell after their blind lead- [xwq Re- 
ers^ with more inflamed zeale of lying confidence, ^'gio"' 
So fecondly, violence and 2.fword oi Jleele begets fuch ^^J^^ ^^^_ 
an imprejjion in the fufferers, [66J that certainly they nail weap- 
conclude (as indeed that Relig-ion cannot be true°"^/° "P' 
which needs luch injiriunents or violence to uphold it perfecu- 
fo) that Perfecutors are far from foft and gentle com- tors beget 
miferation of the blindneJJ'e of others. To this pur-^^^^j^^'^J^^' 
pofe it pleafed the Father of Spirits^ of old, to con- their cruel 
ftraine the Efnperour of Ro?ne, Antoninus Pius, to |'^ '" ^^^ 

11 1 ^> r 1 • r> • r hearts of 

write to all the uovernours or his Provinces to lor- ^he perfe- 
beare to perfecute the Chrijiians, becaufe fuch dealing cuted. 
muft needs be fo far from converting the Chri/lians p^^°^^^^^^ 
from their way, that it rather begat in their mindes golden 
an opinion of their crueltie, &c.' . ^'^• 


Peace/ I ^He next Scripture againft fuch perfecution, ifa. 2. 4. 
A is that of the Prophet, Ifa. 2. 4. together j^^'^- 4-3- 
with Af/c. 4. 3. they (hall break their y^or^j- into co^ncern- 
plough-jhares, and their y/>d'^r^j- into pruning- hookes,\r\gC\vr\i\s 

• Eufebii Pamphili Ecc. Hi/}. Lib. iv. i : i8i. It is "now generally given up 

cap. 13, Cantabrigia?, 1720; Juftini as fpurious." Milman, Hi/lory of Chrif- 

Martyris Opc-ra, \, p. 100, Parifiis, tianity, ii : 158. "Any man moderately 

1636. In The Bloody Tenent yet more acquainted with Roman hillory will fee 

Bloody, p. 126, Williams quotes this at once from the llyle and tenor that it 

edift " related by that praife-worthy is a clumfy forgery." George Long, 

Mailer John Speade out of Eufebius." Thoughts of M. Aurelius Antoninus, page 

It is alfo quoted in Milner, Church Hijl. 24. 

140 The Bloudy Tenent. 

peaceable jj^. 1 1 . 9. There fhall none hurt or deftroy in all 

difcuffed. ^^^ mouTitaine of my Holinejfe. 

Unto which it pleafed Mr. Cotton to fay, "That 
" thefe predictions doe onely (liew, firft, with what 
" kinde of weapons he iliould fubdue the Nations to 
" the obedience of ih^ faith of the Gofpell, not hy fire 
^^ 2inAfword, and weapons of /^<^r, but by the power 
" of the Word and Spirit of God^ which, faith he, no 
" man doubts of. 

Mr. Cot- " Secondly, thofe prediBions of the Prophets (hew, 

tons excel- « ^j^^^ the lueeke and peaceable temper will be of all 

lent inter- ,.-',.. ^ _. 

pretation " true convcrts to Chrijtianity ; not Lyons or Leopards, 
of thofe "not cruell opprejfors nor malignant oppofers or biters 
J^F ^' " one of another : but doth not forbid them to drive 


" ravenous wolves from th.Q Jheep-fold, and to reftraine 

" them from devouring the Jljeep of Chrijl. 

His doc- Truth. In this firft excellent and truly Chriftian 

trine and jififwer, me thinks the Ajifwerer may heare a voyce 

condemn- from Heavcn, Out of thine owne mouth will I judge 

ed by that thee : For what can be faid more heavenly by the 

tatkin'^^" to^^Z^^^ °^ Men and Angels, to (hew the heavenly tneek 

temper of all the Souldiers of the Lambe of God, as 

alfo to fet forth what are the Spiritiiall weapons and 

ajnmunition of the holy war and battle of the Gofpell 

and Kifigdome of ^Jefus Chriji, for the fubduing of the 

Nations of the World unto him. 

Peace. And yet out of the fame mouth (which 
fhould not be, faith 'James) proceeds good and evill, 
fweet and fowre ; for he addes : But this doth not 
forbid them to drive ravenous wolves from the 
67] llieepfold, and to reftraine them from devouring 
the fheepe of Chrijl. 

T^he Bloudy Tenent. 141 

Truth. In thefe words (according to the judgement 
here maintained by him) he fights againft the former 
truth (to wit, that hy fpirituall weapo?is Chrijl 'J ejus 
will fubdue the Natiojis of the Earth to the obedicjice 
of the Go/pel) for by driving away thefe Wolves hee 
intends not onely the rejijiance and violence which the 
Shepherds of Chrijl ought fpiritually to make, but the 
civill rejijiance of the inateriall Swords, Staves Guns, 
&c. Whence I argue, that fame power that forceth Spiritual! 
the eviil (or Wolves) out, forceth the good (the^;^^]!^' 
Sheepe) in ; for of the Jame or like things is the y^/z/t^ Wolves. 
or like reafon ; as the fame arme oj^ fejh that with a 
JlaJJe beats off a Wolfe, with a Kod and Hooke brings 
in the Sheepe : the fame dog that affaulteth and tear- 
eth the Wolfe, frighteth and forceth in ihejlraggling 


Peace.\\yx. for the clearer opening of this myjlery, 
\Jj I pray explicate that Scripture where the 
Spirit oj^ God is pleafed to ufe this fimilitude of Wolves, 
ABs 20. 29. out of which (keeping to the Allegory) ^'^•^o- 29 
I fliall propofe thefe Quasries. °^^" 

Firft, what Wolves were thefe Paul warnes of? 

Truth. Anfw. Wolves literally he will not fay : 
Nor fecondly, perfecutors of the Flock, fuch as the 
Romafie Rmperours were, [or] Magiftrates under him. 

Therefore (thirdly) fuch as brought other Religions Wh^i 
and Worjhips, as the Spirit oj^ God opens it, verj] 30.^^^^°^^ 
Such as amongft themfelves fliould fpeake perverje ^^^^^^ 
things, as many Antichrijis did, and efpecially 7^/6^ Aa. 20. 29 

142 The Bloudy Tenent. 

Antichrijl. And I aske whether or no fuch as may 
hold forth other Worjhips or Religions^ (lewes^Turkes, 
or Antic-hrijlians) may not be peaceable and quiet 
SubjeB^s, loving and helpfull neighbours, faire and juft 
dealers, true and loyall to iht civill govern?}ient ? It is 
' cleare they may from all Keafon and Experience in 
many flourifliing Cities and Kingdomes of the World, 
and fo offend not againfl: the civill State and Peace ; 
nor incurre the punifhment of the civil!' /word, not- 
withflanding that in fpirituall and myjlicall account 
they are ravenous and greedy Wolves. 

Peace. 2. I quaere to whom Paul gave this charge 
to watch againft them, verf. 31, 

68] Truth. They were not the Magijlrates of the 

City of Ephefus, but the Elders or Minijlers of the 

Church of Chrijl (his myfticall flock of (heepe) at 

Ephefus : Vnto them was this charge of watching 

given, and fo confequently of driving away thefe 


Charges And however that many of thefe charges and 

l^\^\l^Q^^ ^^hortations given by that One Shepherd Chriji lejus 

of the to the Shepherds or Minijlers of Churches, be com- 

fpirituall nionly attributed and directed (by the Anfwerer in 

fafly ap- ' this difcourfc) to the civill Magijlrate ; yet I defire 

plyed to in the feare and holy prefence of God it may bee 

theMagif--j^ -^^^ into, whether in all the Will or Tedament 

trates oi p. • ; i i r i ' ^ 

the civill. of Chrijl there bee any fuch word of Chrijl by way 
No word Qf comjnand, proinije, or example, countenancing the 
to the Governors of the civill State to meddle with thefe 
civill Mag Wolvcs, if in civill things peaceable and obedient. 
f d V° Pence. Truly if this charge were given to the Mag- 
flock, but iftrates at Ephejus, or any Magiflrates in the World, 

The Bloudy Tenent. 143 

doubtlefle they muft bee able to difcerne and deter- ^o his Min 
mine (out of their owne official abilities in thefe fpirit- (if t/ue) 
uall Law queftions) who are fpirituall Sheep^ what is have fpirit 

their /oo^, what their poifon, what their /'^^/'^-^^^"^'•^^ fij^ffiaen^ 
who their Keepers, &c. So on the contrary who areagainil 
Wolves, what their properties, their haunts, their ^P'^'tuall 
ajfaidts, the manner of taking, &c. fpiritually : (and 
this befide the care and rtudy of the Civill Lawes, 
^and the difcerning of his owne proper Civill Sheep, 
obedient Sheepe, &c. as alfo wolvifh opprelfors, &c. 
whom he is bound to punifli and fupprelfe) 

Truth. I know that Civill Magiftrates (in fomeMagif- 
places) have declined the name of Head of the^*^^^^^ *?^' 

11 7 - /7- 7; T 1 1 cline the 

Church, and Ecclejiajiicall Judge, yet can they not name of 
with good confcience decline the name, if they doe^^^*^ 
the ivorke, and performe the ojfice of determining and qj^^^^^j^^ 
punidiing a meerly fpirituall Wolfe. and yet 

They muft be fufficiently alfo able to judge in all PJ"^*^''^ , 
fpirituall c2i\x(Q?,, and that with their owne, and not {hip or 
with other mens eyes, (no more then they doe ingovem- 
civill caufes) contv3.vy to the common pradiice of the '^^" * 
Governours and Rulers of Civill States, who often 
fet up that for a Religion or Worfip to God, which 
the Clergie or Churchmen (as men fpeake) fhall in 
their Confciences agree upon. 

And if this be not fo, to wit, that Magijlrates muft 
not be Spirituall Judges (as fome decline it in the 
title. Supreme Head and Governour) why is Gallio 
wont to be exclaimed againft for refufing to be a 
ludge in fuch matters as concerned the lewijh worjhip 
and Religion .^ How is he cenlured for a Prophane 
perjon, without confcience, [69J &c. in that he would 

144 ^^^ Bloudy Tenent. 

bee no Iiidge or Head? (for that is all one in point of 


The Eleft Peace. In the third place I qu^erie whether the 

be* de-° Father who gave, and the Sonne who keepes the 

voured. Sheepe, bee not greater then all ? Who can pluck 

thefe Sheepe the FleB out of his hand, which anfwers 

that common objed:ion of that danger of devouring, 

although there were no other weapons in the world 

appointed by the Lord Jefus. But 


Chrifl TT^Ourthly, I ask. Were not thefe Elders or Minijlers 
J^ii^^ ["f". 1? of the Church of Ephefus fufficiently furnifhed 

nilhetn nis , . . 

Shepherds from the Lord Icfus to drive away thefe myflicall and 
with pow-fpirituall Wolves ? 

dent to Truth. True it is, againft the inhumane and uncivill 

drive away violence of Pcrfecutors, they were not, nor are Gods 

Wolves, children able and provided : but to relift, drive away, 

expell, and kill fpirituall & myfticall Wolves by the 

word oi the Lord, none are fit to be Chrifts Shepherds 

Tit. I. 9. who are not able, Tit. i. 9. 10. 11. The Bijhop or 

10, open- Qci^gyj^gf niufl: be able by found doBrine both to exhort 

and to convince the Gainfayers : which Gainfayers 

to be by him convinced, that is, overcome or fubdued 

(though it may be in themfelves ever obftinate) they 

were I fay as greedy Wolves in Crete, as any could be 

at Ephejus : for fo faith Paul verf. 10. they were 

unruly and vaine talkers, deceivers, whofe mouthes 

muft bee flopped, who fubverted whole houfes ; and 

yet Titus (and every ordinary Shepherd of a ilocke 

of Chriji) had ability futficient to defend the flock 

The Bloudy Tenent. 145 

from fpirituall and myfticall wolves without the helpe 
of the Civill Magiftrate. 

Peace. In this refpedl therefore me thinks we may 
fitly alkide to that excellent anfvver of lob to Bildad 
the Shuhite, lob 26. How half thou helped him thatJob-26. 1, 
is without power ? How laveft thou the artfie that 
hath no ftrengh ? How haft thou counfelled him 
that hath no wifedofiie? how haft thou plentifully 
declared the thing as it is ? 

5. Laftly, I ask, whether (as men deale with Wolves) 
thefe icolves at Ephefus were intended hy Paul to be 
killed, their braines da(ht out with ftones, ftaves, hal- 
berts, guns, &c. in the hands of the Elders of Ephe- 
fus, &c ? 

T?'utlj. Doubtlelfe (comparing fpirituall things 
with fpirituall) [70] all fuch myfticall wolves muft 
fpiritually and myftically fo be flain. And the JVit- 
nejjes of Truth, Revel. 1 1. fpeake fire, and kill all that 
hurt them, by that y^"fr/> Word of God, and that two- 
edged yic'^r^ in their hand, Pfal. 149. 

But oh what ftreames of the blood oi Saints have Unmerci- 
been and muft be flied (untill the Lambe have obtained full and 
the Vidorie, Revel. 17.) by this unmercifull (and injQ^j.jJ^g 
the ftate of the New Tejlament, when the Church is 
fpread all the World over) moft bloody doBrine, \'yl. 
The wolves (Hereticks) are to be driven away, their 
braines knockt out and kilTd, the poore ftieepe to be 
preferved for whom Chrift died, &c. 

Is not this to take Chriji Jefus, and make him a 

temporall Khig by force? yoh?i 6. 15. Is not this 

to make his Kingdome of this world, to fet up a civill 

and temporall IJ'rael, to bound out new Earthly holy 


146 T^he Bloudy Tenent. 

Lands of Canaan^ yea and to fet up a SpaniJJj Inqui- 
Jition in all parts of the World, to the fpeedy deftruc- 
tion of thoufands, yea of millions of Soules, and the 
fruftrating of the fweet end of the comming of the 
Lord lefus, to wit, to fave tnens Joules (and to that 
end not to deftroy their bodies) by his own blood ? 


John 6. 15 Peace/ I ^He next Scripture produced againft fuch 
^ j°[.' °' X Perfecution, is 2 Cor. i o. 4, The weapofis 

cuffed. of our warfare are not car nail, but mighty through 
God to the pulling down of ftrong holds, cafting 
down imaginations, and every high thing that exalteth 
it felfe againft the knowledge of God, and bringing into 
captivity every thought to the obedience oi Chrijl, and 
having in a readinelfe to avenge all difobedience, &c. 
Unto which it is anfwered, "When Paul faith, 
" The weapons of our warfare are not carnall, but 
^^ fpirituall : he denieth not a^'/// weapons of Jujlice 
"to the civill Magijlrate, Rom. 13. but only to 
" Church-officers : and yet the weapons of Church 
" officers he acknowledgeth to be fuch, as though they 
^^hefpirituall, yet are ready to take vengeance on all 
^^difobedience, 2 Cor. 10. 6. which hath reference, 
" amongfl: other Ordinances, to the cenfures of the 
" Church "SLg-Siini^ fcandalous offenders. 

'Truth. I acknowledge that herein the Spirit of 
G(9^ denieth not [71] civill weapons oi jufice to the 
Civill Magijlrate, which the Scripture he quotes, Rom. 
13. abundantly teftihe. 

Yet withall I muft aske, why he here affirmeth 

T'he Bloiidy Tenent. 147 

the Apoftle denies not civill weapons of Juftice to the 
civill Magijirate? of which there is no queftion, 
unleiTe that (according to his fcope of proving ^cr/t^- 
cution for confcience) he intends withall, that the 
Apojile denies not civill weapons oi juJUce to the Civill 
Magijirate in Spirituall and Religious caufes : The 
contrary whereunto (the Lord affifting) I fliall evince, 
both from this very Scripture, and his owne obferva- 
tion, and laftly by that 13 of the Romanes, by him- 
felfe quoted. 

Firlt then from this Scripture and his owne Obfer- 
lation : The weapons of Church officers (faith he) are 
fuch, which though they be fpirituall, are ready to 
take vengeance on all dijobedience ; which hath refer- 
ence (faith he) amongft other Ordinances, to the 
Cenfures of the Church againif fcandalous offenders. 

I hence obferve, that there being in this Scripture '^^^ '^^^- 
held forth a two-fold ftate, a Civill Jlate and a Spirit- ^^^ ^^^-^^ 
uall, Civill ojficers ^iuA Jpirituall^ civill weapons and&fpiritu- 
Jpirituall weapons^ civill vengeance 2.wA punijl:)ment , and^ citate. 
a fpirituall vengeance and pufiiflj?nent : although the^^^'^^ 

■• ^ wc3Dons 

spirit fpeakes not here exprefly of Civill Magijlrates mo[\ im. 
and their civill weapons^ yet thefe States being of dif- proper in 
ferent Natures and Confiderations, as far differins: as P"'"'^'^ 

. . , , . . o caules : 

Spirit from Flejh^ I firft obferve, that Civill weapons My extm. 
are moft improper and unfitting in matters of thePj'^^^^y 
Spirituall Jlate and kingdojue^ though in the Civill \[^^^ 2 
Jlate molf proper and futable. Cor. 10.4. 

148 The Bloudy Tenent. 


FOr (to keepe to the Jimilitude which the Spirit 
ufeth, for instance) To batter downe '^Jlrong hold, 
high "wall, fi'^t-, tower or cajtle, men bring not a firft 
and fecond Admonition, and after obftinacie, Excom- 
munication, which are fpirituall weapons concerning 
them that be in the Church : nor exhortation to Repent 
and be bapti'zed, to beleeve in the Lord Jefus, &c. 
which are proper weapons to them that be without, 
&c. But to take a jirong hold, men bring Canons, 
Culver ins, Saker,' Bullets, Powder, Mujquets, Swords, 
Pikes, &c. and thefe to this end are weapons effed:- 
uall and proportionable. 
Spiritual! 72] On the Other fide, to batter downe Idolatry, falfe 
^?^°fffA 'VDorJljip, herejie, fchifnie, hlindjiejje, hardnejj}, out of 
uall in the Joule and Jpirit, it is vaine, improper, and unfu- 
fpirituall table to bring thofe weapons which are ufed by per- 
Q2i^{l'i fecutors,Jlocks, whips, prijons, f words, gibbets, Jlakes, 
&c. (where thefe feem to prevaile with fome Cities 
or Kingdomes, a ftronger force fets up againe, what 
a weaker pull'd downe) but againfl thefe fpirituall 
Jirong holds in the foules of men, Spirituall Artillery 
and weapons are proper, which are mighty through 
God to fubdue and bring under the very thought to 
obedience, or elfe to binde faft the foule with chaines 
of darknejj'e, and locke it up in the prijon of unbeleefe 
and hardnefie to eternity. 

' "(i) The peregrine hawk. Harrifon tlic wciglit of the Sakcr was 

(2) A piece of ordnance of three 1500 lbs." J. O. Halliwell, DiSlionary 

inches and a half bore, weight of fhot of Archaic and Provincial Words. 2: 702. 
five pounds and a half. According to 

The Bloudy Tenent. 149 

2. I obferve that as chnll weapons are improper in C'^'" 
this bufinelle, and never able to effecH: ought in theJ,^oj'^o°"y 
Joule: So (although they were proper, yet) they are improper, 
unnecclTary, for it'^ as the Spirit here laith (and the^''//'""''' 

dl J^ , . . f . ^ ceilarv in 

Anjwcrer gv^.nis) Jpirituall weapons in the hand oripirhiiall 
Church officers are able and ready to take vefigeance ^'^^^^'^s- 
on all diiobedience, that is a/?/e and mighty, futhcient 
and ready for the Lords worke either to Jave the 
foule, or to /'/// the foule of whomfoever, be the party 
or parties oppolite, in which refpe(5t I may againe 
remember that fpeech of Jo/^, How haft thou helped 
him that hath no power ? Jo/} 26. 

Peace. Offer this (as Malachic once fpake) to the No carth- 
Governours the Kings of the Earth, when they befiege, l^ ^^^^f_ 
beleagure, and ailault great Cities, Caftles, Forts, &c.crnours 
fliouki any fubjed: pretending his fervice bring ftorej^'" Jj^ '° 
oi pins, Jiicks, Jirawes, bulriijhes, to beat and batter ^^ pre. 
dovjwQ Jiofie walls, mighty Bulwarkes, what might tend to 
his expe(^ation and reward be, but at lealf the cen- ^^^^ ^J 
fure of a man diftradl, befide himfelfe ? &c. Kings. 

Truth. What fliall we then conceive of His dif- 
pleafure, (who is the chiefe or Prince of the Kings ot 
the earth, and rides upon the Word of Truth and 
meekneffe, which is that white Horfe, Rev. 6. and Rev. 
19. with His holy witnejfes the white Troopers upon Pfal. 45. 
white horfes) when to His helpe and aid men bring -procTpcrl! 
and adde fuch unneceffary, improper and weake muni- 
tion ? 

Will the Z/Or^ ytyz/j- (did He ever in His ownespirituall 
Perfon practice, or did he appoint to) joyne to His^"^"^""'- 
Breajl plate of Right eoiifnejfe, the breajl plate oi iron^^{^ (^ 
2indjieele? to the Helmet oi right eoujhej/e and y^/i;^- applied 

150 T^he Bloudy Tenent. 

Material! ({qjj in Chrijl^ an helmet and creft of iron, brajfe, or 

uall ArtU-V^^^^j ^ target of wood to His fliield of Faith ? [to] 

lery unfit- His two edged fword comming forth of the mouth of 

ly joyned y^/^^j- [\^q materiall fword. the worke of Smiths 

73] and Cutlers ? or a girdle of fhooes leather to the 

girdle of truth, &c. Excellently fit and proper is 

An alarmethat alarme and item, Pfal. 2. Be wife therefore O ye 

to civill Ki?igs (efpecially thofe ten Horns, Rev. 17.) who 

Rulers '^ under pretence of fighting for Chrijt J ejus give their 

power to the Beajl againft Him, and he warned ye 

Judges of the Earth : Kijfe the Son, that is wiihjub- 

jeBion and affeBion, acknowledge Him only the King 

and "Judge o^ Joules (in that power bequeathed to His 

MiniJIers and Churches) left if His wrath be kindled, 

yea but a little, then blejjed 2iVQ they that truji in Him. 


Concern- Peace."^^ Ow in the fecond place concerning that 
^"8 J^?^^ 1^ Scripture, Ro?n. 13. which it pleafeth the 

X^^^^Q^Q^ Anfwerer to quote, and himfelfe, and fo many excel- 
in fpirit- lent fervants of God have infifted upon to prove fuch 
^^^^^^^^^ perjecution for Confcience \ how have both he and 
they wrejied this Scripture (not as Peter writes of the 
wicked, to their eternall, yet) to their owne and others 
tejnpora/l deJiruBion by Civill wars and combujiions in 
the world ? 

My humble requeft therefore is to the Father of 
Lights, to fend out the bright beames of the Sun of 
RighteouJheJJe, and to fcatter the mift which that old 
Jerpent, the great jugler Sathan, hath raifed about 
this holy Scripture, and my requeft to you (divine 

The Bloudy Tenejit. 


Truth) is for your care and paines to inlighten and 
cleare this Scripture. 

Truth. Firft then upon the ferious exaftiination of^o"^- '3- 
this whole Scripture it will appeare that from the^Q^^^^^'al] 
ninth verfe of 12 Chap, to the end of this whole i3ofrpirit- 
Chap. the Spirit handles the duties of the Saints in".^'!,?'"^ 
the carefull obfervation of the fecond Table in their faires. 
civil converfation, or walking towards men, and fpeaks 
not at all of any point or matter of the iirfl Table 
concerning the Kingdome of the Lord Jefus. 

For, having in the whole Epiftle handled that 
great point of free yiiJiiJicatio?i by the free Grace of 
God in Chriji, in the beginning of the 12 Chap, he 
exhorts the Beleevers to give and dedicate themfelves 
unto the Lord both \n Joule and body, and unto the 9 
verfe of the i 2 Chap, he exprelfely mentioneth their 
converfation in the Kingdotne or Body of Chrijl 'Jefus, 
together with the feverall Officers thereof. 

And from the 9 ver. to the end of the i 3 he plainly 
difcourfeth of [74] their civill converfation, and walk- 
ing, one toward another, and with all men, from 
whence he hath faire occafion to fpeake largely con-Thefcope 
cerning their fubjecflion to Magijtrates in the 13°^ °™* 

Hence it is that verfe 7 of this 1 3 Chap. PaulLoy^ to 
exhorts to performance of love to all men {MaQ-i/-^^^'^}^^, 

K * -^ dutvortnc 

trates and fuhjeBs) verfe 7. 8. Render therefore to all whole 
their due, tribute to whom tribute is due, cuJio?ne to Second 
whom cujiome,feare to ^\\ovc\ feare, honour to whom ^ ^' 
honour. Owe nothing to any man, but to love one 
another, for he that loveth another hath fulfilled the 

152 The Bloudy Tenent. 

How love If any man doubt (as the Papifts fpeak) whether a 
the Law ^^" "^^y perfedily fulfill the Law ; every man of 
found judgement is ready to anfwer him that thefe 
words [He that loveth hath fulfilled the Law\ con- 
cerneth not the whole Law in the firfi: Table, that 
is the worfljip and Kiiigdome of God in Chrifi. 

Secondly, That the Apoftle fpeaks not here of per- 
fed: obfervation of the fecond Table without failing 
in word or ad: toward men, but layes open the fumme 
and fubftance of the Law^ which is love^ and that 
he that walkes by the rule of love toward all men 
(^Magijlrates and fiubjeBs) he hath rightly attained 
unto what the Law aimes at, and fo in Evangelicall 
obedience fulfills and keeps the Law. 

Hence therefore againe in the 9 verfe having dif- 
courfed of the 5 Command in this point of ^uperi- 
ours^ he makes all the reft of the Commandements 
of the fecond Table, which concerne our walking 
with man (viz. Thou Jh alt not kill ^ Thou Jl:) alt not com- 
mit adultery^ Thou Jh alt not fie ale. Thou JIj alt not be are 
falfie witnefie. Thou Jhalt not covet : and if there be 
any other Commandement, to be briefly comprehen- 
ded in this faying, namely. Thou Jljalt love thy neigh- 
bour as thy fie If e. 

And verfe 10 Love worketh no ill to his neighbour, 
therefore love is the fulfilling of the Law, that is (as 
before) the Law concerning our civill converfiation 
toward All men, Magifirates or Governours, and 
fellow-fubje(5ts of all conditions. 

' The brackets are in the original text. 

The Bloudy Tenent. _ 153 


Peace. \ Lthough the Scripture is fufficient to make^o.'"- '3 
±\. the ??iafi of God perfeBy and the foole 'wife^^l^^^' 
\.o falvation^ and our faith in GodwiW^ be only founded even by 
upon the Rocke Chriji, and not upon \ys\ they^//<'/ofj^^"^ ^^^^ 
m^ns judgef?ients and opinions: Yet as P^z^/ alledgeth fecution 
ih.Q judgement and fayings oi unbeleevers for their con-^°^ con- 
viBion out of their owne tenets and grants : So I pray '^'^"'^^• 
you to fet downe the words of one or two (not unbe- 
leevers in their perfons^ but excellent and pretious 
fervants and witnejfes of God in their times, whofe 
names are fweet and pretious to all that feare God) 
who although their judgement ran in the com?non 
Jireanie^ viz. That Magijirates were keepers of the 2 
Tables, dejendors of the Faith again ft Heretic ks, and 
notwithftanding what ever they have written for 
defence of their judgements, yet the light of truth fo 
evidently (hined upon their Joules in this Scripture, 
that they abfolutely denied the 1 3 of the Rofnanes to 
concerne any matter of the hrft Table. 

Truth. Firft, I (hall produce that excellent fervant Calvins 
of God, Calvin, who upon this i -3 to the Rofnanes^c^^"^^^"^^ 

n- t IT • n 1 • -i-i °^ Rom. 

writes ;' Tota autem hcec aijputatio ejt de ctvilwus pra- 13. 
feBuris : It agfrujira inde Jdcrilegatn Juatn tyranni- 
dem Jlabilire ?noliuntur qui Domifiatwn in conjcietitias 
exerceant : But (faith he) this whole difcourfe con- 
cerneth civill Magijirates, and therefore in vaine doe 
they who exercife power over conjciences, goe about 
from this place to eftablifti xh.Qiv jdcrilegious tyranny. 

' Johannis Calvini Commentarii, edit. A. Tholuck, v: 200. 

154 ^ke Bloudy Tenent. 

Peace. I know how far mofl: men (and efpecially 

the fheep of lefus will flie from the thought of exer- 

cifing tyranny over confcience) that happily they will 

difclaime the dealing of all with 7nens confciences : 

Yet if the Adis and Statutes which are made by them 

concerning the worfhip of God be attended to ; their 

profeffion {and that out of zeale according to the 

patterne of that ceremoniall and figurative ftate of 

Godspeo-//>-^^/^ to fuffer no other Religion nor worfhip in 

to^be°^^ their Territories, but one ; their profejjioii and praSiice 

found, yet to defend their Faith from reproach and blafphemy 

proved q£ Jj^reticks by Civill weapons, and all that from this 

tors.^"^" very i 3 of the Romanes ; I fay if thefe particulars and 

others be with feare and trembling in the prefence 

of the moil High examined ; the wonderfull deceit 

of their owne hearts fliall appeare unto them, and 

how guilty they will appeare to be of wrefting this 

Scripture before the Tribunall of the mofl High. 

Truth, Again Calvin fpeaking concerning fulfilling 
of the Law by love, writes thus on the fame place :' 
Sed Paulus in totatn Legetn non refpicit, tantum de offi- 
ciis loquitur, quce nobis erga proximu defudndajitur alege : 
That is, Paul hath not refped: unto the whole Law, 
he fpeaks [76] only of thofe duties which the Law 
commands towards our neighbours, and it is manifeft, 
that in this place by our neighbours hee meanes high 
and low, Magijlrates and JiibjeBs, unto whom we 
ought to walke by the rule oi love, paying unto every 
one their due. 

Again e, Cater urn Paulus hie tantum meminit Jecunde 
'Tabula quid de ea tantwn erat quajlio r But Paul here 

■ Commentarii, v : 20 1 . ^ Commentarii, v : 201. 

The Bloudy Tenent. 155 

only mentioneth the fecond Table, becaufe the quef- 
tion was only concerning that. 

And againe, ^lod aute??j repetit co^nplementiim legis Cahjn^ 
eJJ'e dileclmiem, intcllige (ut prius) de ea legis parte ^z<^<5^that^the ' 
hominum focietatem JpeBat : Prior enim legis tabula firil Table 
qua ejl de cultu Dei minifue hie attingitur :^ But in ^""^5,''": 
that he repeateth that lo'^ce is the fulfilling of the Law, worniip,is 
underhand as before, that he fpeakes of that part ofn"t J^^rein 
the Law which refped:s huma?te fociety ; for the fi^'ft touched^ 
Table of the Law which concerneth the Worfliip of 
God is not in the leaft manner here touched. 

After Cahifi, his fuccelfour in Geneva that holy and Bez^mpon 
learned Beza upon the word \li^axe</'o.Aai>iTac, if there be^""^- '3- 
any other Commandement it is fummed up in this, 
Thou Oialt love thy neighbour as xhy J'elfe, writes thus: 
Tata lex nihil aliud qucim amor em Dei & proximi prce- 
cipit, Jed tamen cum Apojlolus hoc loco de mut nis hom- 
inum ojpciis dijferat, legis vocabulu?n ad Jecu?ida?n Tab- 
ulam rejiringendane puto.^ 

The whole Law (faith he) commands nothing elfe 
but the love of God, and yet neverthelelfe fince the 
Apojlle in this place difcourfeth of the duties of men 
one toivard another, I thinke this terme law ought 
to be reftrained to the fecond Table. 


Peace.T Pray now proceed to the fecond Argument 

X from this Scripture againft the ufe of civill 

weapons in matters of Religion and fpirituall worfliip. 

' Commentarii, v: 202. 2 Bczse, Nov. Tell, in loco, edit. Lon- 

dini, 1585. (Underhill.) 

156 T^he Bloudy Tenent. 

Truth. The Spirit of God here commands fubjec- 
tion and obedience to higher Powers, even to the 
Komane Emperours and all fubordinate Magijirates ; 
and yet the Emperours and Governours under them 
were ftrangers from the life of God in Chrift, yea 
moft averfe and oppojite, yea cruell and bloody Perfe- 
cutors of the name and Followers of yif/z/j- ; and yet 
unto thefe is this JubjeBion and obedience [77] com- 
manded. Now true it is, that as the civill Magijitrate 
is apt not to content himfelfe with the ?najejiy of an 
earthly Throne, Crowne, Sword, Scepter, but to feat him- 
felfe in the Throne of David in the Church : So Gods 
people (and it may be in Pauls time) conlidering their 
high and glorious prefer?nent and priviledges by Jejus 
Chriji, were apt to be much tempted to defpife Civill 
Governours, efpecially fuch as were ignorant of the 
Son of God, and perfecuted him in his fervants. 
Paul Now then I argue, if the Apojlle fhould have com- 

to the Ro- iTianded i\nsJubjeBiofi unto the Roniane Emperours and 
mane Gov Ro?nane MagiJlratcs in fpirituall caufes, as to defend 
^•"""^ ^° the truth which they were no way able to difcerne, but 
truth, ixndp^^fecuted, (and upon truft from others no Magiftrate 
to punifh (not perfwaded in his owne co?iJcie?ice) is to take it.) 
eretic s. q^ ^j^^ ^^ punifh Hereticks, whom then alfo they 
muft difcerne ^nd judge, or elfe condemne them as the 
yewes would have Pilate condemne the Lord fefus 
upon the Jente?ice of others, I fay if Paul lliould have 
(in this Scripture) put this worke upon thefe Romane 
Governours, and commanded the Churches of Chriji 
to have yeelded fubjeBion in any fuch matters, he 
muft (in the judgement of all men) have put out the 
eye of Faith and Reafon and Senfe at once. 

The Bloudy Tenent. i ^j 


Peace.^T is faid by fome, Why then did P^u/ him- 
A felfe, yf^. 25. appeale to Cajar, unlelfe that 
Ccefar (though he was not, yet) he ought to have 
beene a fit "Judge in fuch matters ? 

Truth. I anfwer, if Paul in this Appeale to Ccefar, P'^"^^ 
had referred and fubmitted fnnply and properly the c^/J;- an: 
caufe oi Chriji, his Minijlry and Mhiijlration to the cuffed. 
Rofnafie Kmperours Tribunal], knowing him to be an 
Idolatrous Jlr anger from the /rz/<^ Gc><'/, and a Zy/^«-like If P^/^/ 
bloody perfecutor of the Lord lejus, the Lambe of GW, ^^ ^P' 
I fay let it be confidered whether or no he had com- Cafar in 
mitted thefe 5. Evils. fpirituall 

The iirft againft the dimmeft light of Peafon in had com-^ 
appealing to darhiejfe to judge light, to u7irigljteouJ- min^d 5. 
nejfe to judge righteou/hejje, the Jpiritually bliiide, to^^'^^- 
judge and end the controverlie concerning heavenly 

Secondly, again ft the caufe of Religion, which if 
condemned by every inferiour Idolater, muft needs bee 
condemned by the Ccvjars themfelves, who (Nabu- 
chadfie-zzar-\\\^Q) fet up their State-i?nages or [78J Re- 
ligions, commanding the Worlds uniformity of worjhip 
to them. 

Thirdly, againft the holy State and Calling of the 
Chrijtians themfelves, who (by virtue of their fubjec- 
tion to Chrif) even the leaft of them are in fpirituall 
things above the higheft Potentates or Efnperours in 
the world, who continue in enmity againft, or in an 
ignorant naturall ftate without Chriji fefus. This 
honour or high exaltation above all his Holy o?ies, to 

158 The Bloudy Tenent. 

binde (not literally but fpiritually) their Kings in 
Chaines, and their Nobles in Linkes of Iron, Pfal. 49. 
Fourthly, againft his owne Callings ApoJileJJjip, or 
office of Miiiijlery^ unto which Cct'Jar himfelfe and 
all Potentates (in fpirituall and foule matters) ought to 
have fubmitted : and unto which in controverlies of 
Chrijis Church and Kingdome^ Ca^Jar himfelf ought 
to have appealed, the Church of God being built upon 
the foundation of the Apojlles and Prophets, Ephef. 
2. 20. 
Empe- ^nj therefore in cafe that any of the Pomane Gov- 

them- ernoursy or the Efjiperour himfelfe had beene hum- 
felves, if bled and converted to Chrijlianity, by the preaching 
f'b"ft ^"^ of Chriji, were not they themfelves bound to fubjed: 
the Apof- themfelves unto the power of the Lord lefus in the 
ties and hands of the Apoftles and Churches, and might not 
in fbiritr. ^^^ Apoftlcs and Churches have refufed to have bap- 
all things, tized or waflied them into the profeffion of Chriji 
lefus, upon the apprehenfion of their unworthineffe? 
Or if received into Chrijiian Fellowjlnp, were they 
not to ftand at the Bar of the Lord lefus in the Church, 
concerning either their opinions or praBices, were they 
not to be cafl: out and delivered unto Sathan by the 
power of the Lord lefus, if after once and twice adtno- 
nition they perlift obflinate, as faithfully and impar- 
tially, as if they were the meanefh in the Empire : 
Yea, although the Apoftles, the Churches, the Elders 
or Governours thereof were poore and meane defpifed 
perfons in civill refpefts, and were themfelves bound 
to yeeld all faithfull and loyall obedience to fuch Emp- 
erours and Governours in Civill things. 

Were they not (if Chrijiians) bound themfelves to 

The Bloudy Tenent. 1 5 9 

have fubmitted to thofe fpirituall decrees of the Apof- 
tles and Elders, as well as the loweft and meaneft 
members o'i Cbrijl^ AB. \6? And if lb, how (hould 
Paul appeale in fpiritiuill things to Cajar, or write 
to the Churches of I ejus to fubmit in Chrijiiau or 
Spirituall matters ? 

Fifthly, if Paul had appealed to Cwjar in fpirituall 
refped:s, hee [79] had greatly prophaned the holy 
name of God in holy things, in fo improper and vaine 
2. projlitutioji oi fpirituall things \.o carnall and nat- 
ural] judgements, which are not able to comprehend 
fpirituall matters, which are alone fpiritually dif- 
cerned, i Cor. 2. 

And yet Ccifar (as a civill fupreme Magijirate) Lawfull 
ought to defend Paul from Civill violence, and fa?i- fn ^^viH 
derous accifatio?is about [edition, mutiny, civill difobe- things to 
dience, &c. And in that (tn^Q who doubts but GWj-f'^'ll- 

, JVIagil- 

people may appeale to the Romane Ccfar, an Egyp- trates. 
tian Pharaoh, a Philiftian Abimelecke, an Affyrian 
Nahuchadnezzar, the great Mogol, Prefer lohn, the 
great Turke, or an Indian Sac him ? 


Peace.\T^TY{\ch. is the third Argument againft 
V V the civill Magif rates power \v\ fpirit- 
uall and foule matters out of this Scripture, Pom. i 3 ? 
Truth. I difpute from the nature of the Magif- 
trates weapons, verf 4. He hath ay^or^ (which hee 
beares not in vaine) delivered to him, as I acknowl- 
edge from Gods appoifitmefit in the free confent and 
choice oi xh^fubjeds for common good. 

i6o The Bloudy Tenent. 

We muft diftinguifli oi fwords. 
Foure We jfinde foure forts oi f words mentioned in the 

fwordf ^^'^ Tejiament. 

mentioned Firft, tht/wordoi perfecuttou, which Herod {)iVQtch.QA 

j^ ^^^ forth againft Ia?}ies, AB. i 2. 

tament. Secondly, th^fword of Gods Spirit, expreily faid to 

be the Word of God, Ephef. 6. \ J word of two edges 
caried in the mouth of ChriJI, Rev. i. which is of 
ftrong and mighty operation, piercing betweene the 
bones and the marrow, betweene the Joule and the 
fpirit, Heb. 4. 

Thirdly, the great [word of War and Deftru(5lion, 
given to him that rides that terrible Ked Horfe of 
War, fo that he takes Peace from the Earth, and 
men kill one another, as is moft lamentably true in the 
Jlaughter of fo many hundred thoufand foules within 
thefe few yeares in feverall parts of Europe, our owne 
and others. 

None of thefe 3 fwords are intended in this Scrip- 
ture : 

TheCivill Therefore, fourthly, there is a Civill /word, called 
^^^ ' the Sword of Civill jujlice ; which being of a mate- 
riall civill nature, for the defence of Perfons, Eftates, 
Fa?nilies, Liberties of a City or Civill State, and the 
fupprejpng of uncivill or injurious perfons or ad:ions 
by fuch civill punijhment. It cannot according to its 
utmoft reach and capacitie [80] (now under Chriji, 
when all Nations are meerly civill, without any fuch 
typicall holy refped; upon them, as was upon Ifrael 
a Nationall Church) I fay, cannot extend io fpirituall 
and Soul-caufes, Spirituall and %ow\^ punijhment, which 
belongs to that fpirituall fword with two edges, the 

The Bloudy Tenent. i6i 

Joule -piercing (in fouk-faving or foule -killing) the 
Word of God. 


Truth. \ Fourth Argument from this Scripture I Tribute, 

±\. take in the 6. verfe, from Tribute^ '^^{/^<'^^^^»&c,meerly 
Gfr. which is a meerly civill Reward or RecojjipenceciwWX re- 
for the Magijlrates worke. Now as the wages are, '^Q"^?^"- 
fuch is the worke: But the wages are meerely civilly c\\\\\ 
Cujlome^ Tribute^ &c. not the contributions of the Saints work, 
or Churches of Chriji (proper to the Spirituall and 
Chrijtian Jlate) and fuch work only muft the Magif- 
trate attend upon, as may properly deferve fuch civill 
wages^ reward or recompence. 

Laftly, that the Spirit of God never intended toMagif- 
dire61: or warrant the Magijirate to ufe his Power in ^"^^^ ^^^'- 
fpirituall affaires and Religions worfliip : I argue, Q^jg ^-^^ 
from the teriue or title it plealeth the wifedome ofifters. 
God to give fuch Civill officer s^ to wit, (verf. 6.) Gods 

Now at the very firft blufli, no man denies a double 

The one appointed by Chriji "Jefus in his Churchy The fpir- 
to gather y to governe^ receive in^ cajl out^ and order all!J|^^"^'"' 
the affaires of the Church, the Houfe, Citie or King- 
dome of God, Ephef 4. i Cor. 1 2. 

Secondly, a Civill Minijlery or office, meevGly humane t\^q civill 
and civill, which Men agree to conftitute ( called Minirtery 
therefore an humane creation, (i Pet. 2.) and is as"'^ 
true and lawfull in thole Nations, Cities, Kingdomes, 
&c. which never heard of the true God, nor his holy 

1 62 The Bloudy Tenent. 

Sonne lefus^ as in any part of the World belide, where 
the Name of lefiis is moft taken up. 

From all which prejnifes^ viz. that the fcope of the 
Spirit of God in this Chapter is to handle the matters 
of the fecond Table (having handled the matters of 
t\\tjirji, in the i 2.) fince the Magiftrates of whom 
Paul wrote, were naturall, ungodly, perfecuting, and 
yet lawfull Magiftrates, and to be obeyed in all law- 
full Civill things. 

Since all Magijlrates are Gods Minijters, effentially 
civilly bounded [81] to a civill work, with civill 
weapons or inftruments, and paid or rewarded with 
civill rewards. From all which, I fay, I undeniably 
colledt, that this Scripture is generally miftaken, and 
wrefted from the fcope of Gods Spirit, and the nature 
of the place, and cannot truly be alleadged by any for 
the Power of the Civill Magijirate to be exercifed in 
fpirituall and Soule-matters. 

Rom. 13 


What IS Peace. \ Gainft this I know many object out of the 
derftood' ^^^ 4- verfe of this Chapter, that the Magif- 

by Evil], trate is to avenge or punifti Evill : from whence is 
gathered, that Herejie, falfe Chrijis^ falfe Qhurches^ 
falfe MiniJierieSy falfe Scales, being evill, ought to be 
puniflied Civilly, &c. 

Truth. I anfwer, that the word xaxov is generally 
oppofed to Civill Goodnejfe or Virtue in a Cot?wion- 
wealth, and not to Spirituall Good or Religion in the 

Secondly, I have proved from the fcope of the 

l^he Bloudy Tenent. 163 

place, that here is not intended Evill againft the 
Spirituall or Cbrijiiaji EJiate, handled in the 1 2 Chap, 
but Evtll againft the Civil! State, in this 13. properly 
tailing under the cognizance of the Civill Minijier 
of God, the Magijirate, and punifhable by that civill 
fword of his, as an incivilitie, diforder, or breach of 
that civill order, peace and civility, unto which all the 
Inhabitants of a City, Town, or Kingdome oblige them- 

Peace. I have heard that the Elders of the New- 
Englijh Churches, (who yet out of this i 3 Ro?n. main- 
taine Perfecution) grant that the Magijirate is to 
preferve the peace and welfare of the State, and there- 
fore that he ought not to punilh fuch linnes as hurt 
not his peace. In particular, they fay, the Magijirate 
may not punilh fecret Jifines in the Soule : Nor fuch 
finnes as are yet handling in the Church in a private 
way : Nor fuch finnes which are private in Eamilies; 
and therefore they fay, the Magijirate tranfgrelfeth 
to profecute complaints of children againft their 
parents, Jervants againft inajiers, wives againft huj- 
bands, (and yet this proper to the Civill State) Nor 
fuch fmnes as are between the Members and Churches 

And they confefle, that if the Magijirate punifli, 
and the Church punifh, there will be a greater Rent 
in their Peace. 
82] Truth. From thence (fweet Peace) may we well^o"^^ gi^'^ 

Obferve, _ ^ _ Sagiilate 

Firft, the Magijirate is not to punifti all Evtll,v^\\ir.\s 
according: to this their confeljion. "°^, ^'f' 

*■ 3 n d, 1 3 k c 

The diftind:ion of private and publike Evill will tVom him 

164 T^he Bloudy Tenent. 

thatwhichnot here availe, becaufe fuch as urge that terme Evill, 

So Wm.^' viz. that the Magiftrate is to punifli Evill, urge it 

ilriftly, eo nomine, becaufe Hcrejie, Blafphemie, falfe 

Church, falfe Minijlerie is evill, as well as Diforder in 

a Civill State. 

Secondly, I obferve, how they take away from the 
Magijlrate that which is proper to his cognifance, as 
the complaints oi Jervants, children, wives, again ft their 
parents, majiers, husbands, &c. [Families as families, 
being as ftones which make up the common build- 
ing, and are properly the objed: of the Magijirates 
care, in refpedt of Civill Government, Civill order 
and obedience.) 


Peace. "^ Pray now (laftly) proceed to the Authours 
X Reafon why Chrijts Difciples fliould be fo 
far from perfecuting, that they ought to blelfe them 
that curfe them, and pray for them that perfecute 
them, becaufe of the freenejfe of Gods grace, and the 
deepenejfe of his Councels, calling them that are Rne- 
mies, Perjecutors, No people, to become ?neeke Lambes, 
ih^Jloeep and people of God, according to i Pet. 2. 20. 
You which were not a people, are now a people, &c. 
and Matth. 20. 6. Some come at the laji houre, which 
if they were cut off" becaufe they came not fooner, 
would be prevented, and fo fhould never come. 

Unto this Peajon the Anfwerer is pleafed thus to 
reply : 

Firft in generall ; We muft not doe Evill, that 
Good may come thereof. 

The Bloudy Tenent. 165 

Secondly, in particular, he affirmeth, "that it isToiera- 
" evill to \.o\QV2iiQjeditious evill doers ^/educing Teachers, cufled. ' 
** J candalous livers : and for proof of this he quotes Upon this 
" Chrijis reproofe to the Angel oi the Church at Per-'^^^'^^^l 
''^ ganms, for tolerating them that hold the doBrine of GooAw'm 
'-'■Balaam; and againfl: the Church oi T/^/^/yrtf, for ^xcdlcnt- 
" tolerating "Jefabel to teach and feduce. Revel. 2. 1 4- difcourfed 

Truth. I anfwer, iirft, by affenting to the generall 
Propofition, that it is moft true, like unto Chrift Jefus 
himfelfe, a fure foundation, i Cor. 3. Yet what is built 
upon it, I hope (by Gods affiftance) to [83 | make it 
appeare is but hay 2LnA Jlubble, dead 2.nd withered, not 
fuiting that golden foundation, nor plealing to the Father 
of ?nercies, nor comfortable to the Soules of men. 

It is t'T77/( faith he) to tolerate notorious evill doers, 
feducing Teachers, fcandalous livers. 

In which fpeech I obferve 2 evills : 

Firft that this Propojition is too large and generall, 
becaufe the Rule admits of exception, and that accord- 
ing to the will of God. 

1. It is true, that Evill cannot alter its nature, but 
it is alway Evill, as darknejfe is alway darknefe, yet 

2. It muft be remembred, that it is one thing to Evill is 
command, to cone e ale, to councell, to approve Evill, and 1 f/^ 
another thing io permit and /z/^r Evill with, protejla- pcrmimon 
tion againlt it, or diflike of it, at leaft without appro-^'^'^^ '"^y 

I .• c • ^ in cale be 

batton of It. _ ^^^^ 

Laflly, this fujferance or permijjion of Evill is not 

for its own fake, but for the fake of Good, which puts 

a refpedl of Goodnejfe upon fuch permijjion. 

Hence it is, that for Gods owne Glorie fake (which 

1 66 The Bloudy Tenent. 

Gods won- is the higheft Good) he endures, that is, permits or 
era'tk!!i!°'"/^/^^-^ the Veffels of Wrath, Rom. 9. And therefore 
although he be of pure eyes, and can behold no 
iniquitie, yet his pure eyes patiently and quietly 
beholds and permits all the idolatries and prophana- 
tions, all the thefts and rapines, all the whoredomes and 
abo7iiinations, all the 7mirthers and poyfonings ; and yet 
I fay, for his glory fake he is patient, and long permits. 

Hence for his peoples fake (which is the next Good 
in his Son) he is oftentimes pleafed to permit and 
fufFer the wicked to enjoy a longer reprive. There- 
fore he gave Paul all the lives that were in the (liip, 
Adis 27. 

Therefore he would not fo foone have deftroyed 
Sodome, but granted a longer permijjion, had there been 
but 10 righteous. Gen. 19. Therefore, Jere?n. 5. had 
he found fome to have ftood in the gap, he would 
have fpared others. Therefore gave he Jefabel a time 
or fpace. Revel. 2. 

Therefore for his Glory fake hath he permitted 
longer great Jinners, who afterward have periflied in 
their feafon, as we fee in the cafe of Ahab, the Nine- 
vites and Amorites, &c. 
Deut. 24. Hence it pleafed the Lord not onely to permit the 
many evills againfl: his owne honourable ordinance 
of Mariage in the world, but was pleafed after a won- 
derfull manner to fufFer that lin of many [84] wives 
in Abraham, "Jacob, David, Salomon, yea with fome 
expreffion which feeme to give approbation, as 2 Sam. 

Peace. It may be laid, this is no patterne tor us, 
becaufe God is above Law, and an abfolute Soveraigne. 

The Bloudy Tenent. 167 

Truth. I anfwer, although wee finde him fome- 
time difpenfing with his Law, yet we never finde him 
deny himfelfe, or utter a faljljood : And therefore 
when it crolleth not an ablblute Rule to permit and 
tolerate (as in the cafe of the permiffion of the Joules 
and confcicnces of all men in the world, I have (hewne 
and fliall fliew further it doth not) it will not hinder 
our being holy as hee is holy in all manner of con- 


Peace.TT will yet bee faid, it pleafeth God to permit 

-L Adulteries, Murthers, Poifons : God fuffers ^ 
men like /ifhes to devoure each other, Habac. i. the 
wicked to liouriQi, ler. 1 2. yea fends the Tyrants of 
the world to deftroy the Nations, and plunder them 
of their riches. If a. i o. Should men doe fo, the world 
would be a Wildernejje, and befide we have command 
for zealous execution of Juftice impartially, fpeedily. 

Truth. I anfwer, we finde two forts of cojiimands^^^ ^oJ'fs 
both from Mofes and from Chriji, the two great JJ^a^dT" 
Prophets and Mefi^engers from the living God, the both by 
one the type or figure of the later : Mofes gave pofi- ^^f/"'^ 
tive Rules hoth fpirituall and civill, yet alfo hee gave 
fome not pofitive but permif/ive for the common good : 
So the Lord lefus expoundeth it. 

For, whereas the Pharifes urged it, that Mofes 
commanded to give a Bill of Divorcement and to put 
away : the Lord lefus expoundeth it, Mofes for the 
hardnefie of your heart fujfered or permitted, Math.Mzth. 16. 
19. 17, 18. 17. i8- 

1 68 The Bloudy Tenent. 

The per- This was 2i penjiij/ive comijiand univerfall to all Ifrael, 
divorce °inf*^^ ^ g^nerall good, in preventing the continuall fires 
Ifrael. of DilTentions & Combuftions in families (yea it may 
be Murthers, Poyfons, Adulteries) which that people 
(as the wifedome of God forefaw) was apt out of the 
hardnejfe of their heart to break out into, were it not 
for this preventing perinifjion. 

Hence it was that for a further publike good fake, 
and the publike fafety, David permitted loab, a noto- 
rious malefactor, and Shimei [85 | and Adonijah, &c. 
And civi// States and Governoiirs in like cales have 
and doe permit and fuffer what neither David nor 
any civill Governour ought to doe or have done, were 
it not to prevent the hazard of the whoie^ in the (lied- 
ding of much innocent blood (together with the nocent) 
in civill combujiions. 

Peace. It may be faid, loab^ Shimei, Adonijah, &c. 
were only (as it were) reprived for a time, and proves 
only that a feafon ought to be attended for their pun- 

Truth. Anfw. I anfwer, I produce not thefe inftan- 
ces to prove a permiflion of Tares (Antichriftians, 
Heretikes) which other Scriptures abundantly prove, 
but to make it cleare (againll; the Anfwerers allega- 
tion, that even in the civill State permilfion of noto- 
rious evill doers, even againfl: the civill State, is not 
difapproved by God himfelfe, and the wifeft of his 
fervants in its feafon. 

The Bloudy Tenent. 169 


Truth.T Proceed. Hence it is that fome Generals of ^furie in a 
X. Armies, and Governours of Cities, Townes, ^e^^°"" 
&c. doe, and (as thofe former instances prove) law- Civill 
fully permit fome evill perfons and practices : As for^^^|^ ^^" 
inftance, in the civi// State, UJiiry, for the preventing mitted. 
of a greater evill in the civill Body, 2i?, Jieali?ig, robbing, 
inurthering, periJJjing of the poore, and the hindrance 
or flop of commerce and dealing in the Commonwealth. 
Juft like Phyficians, w^ifely permitting noyfome 
hwnoiirs, and fometimes dijeafes, when the cure or 
purging would prove more dangerous to the dejiruc- 
tion of the whole, a weake or crazy body, and fpecially 
at fuch a time. 

Thus in many other inftances it pleafed the Father 
of lights, the God of Ifrael, to permit that people, 
efpecially in the matter of their demand of a King, 
(wherein he pleaded that himfelfe as well as Samuel 
was rejed:ed.) 

This ground, to wit, for a common good oi the whole, Permiffion 
is the fame with that of the Lord I ef us commanding rp^^.^^ -^^ 
the Tares to be permitted in the World, becaufe other- the field of 
wife the Q-ood wheat fliould be indan^ered to be rooted ^^^ world 

o o tor 3. two- 

up out of the Field ox World 2X^0, as well as the Tares.' fold good. 
and therefore for the good fake the Tares, which are i- Of 
indeed evill, were to be permitted : Yea and for the wheat° 
generall good of the whole world, the field it felfe, 2. Of the 
which for want of this obedience to that command ^^°|f 
of Chriji, hath beene and is laid wafte and defolate, field it 
with the fury [86J and rage oi civill War, profelfedly '"elfe. 
raifed and maintained (as all States profelfe for the 


\jo The Bloudy Tenent. 

maintenance of one true Religion (after the patterne 
of that typicall land of Canaan) and to fuppreffe and 
pluck up thefe Tares oifalfe Prophets and falfe Pro- 
felTors, Antichrijiians, Heretickes, &c. out of the 

Hence ill^e lachrymce : hence Ger?nanies, Irelands, 
and now Englands teares and dreadfull defolations, 
which ought to have beene, and may bee for the 
future (by obedience to the command of the Lord 
lefus^ concerning the permiffion of Tares to live in 
the world, though not in the Church) I fay ought to 
have beene, and may bee mercifully prevented. 


Peace. ^ Pray defcend now to the fecond evill which 
A you obferve in the Anfwerers pojition, viz. 
that it would bee evill to tolerate notorious evill doers, 
feducing teachers, &c. 

Truth. I fay, the evill is, that he moft improperly 
and confufedly joynes and couples feducing teachers 
vjiih. /can da lous livers. 

Peace. But is it not true that the world is full of 
feducing teachers, and is it not true that feducing 
teachers are notorious evill doers .^ 

Truth. I anfwer : far be it from me to deny either : 
and yet in two things I fliall difcover the great evill 
of this joyning and coupling feducing teachers, and 
fcandalous livers as one adequate or proper obje6l of 
the Magiftrates care and worke to fupreiTe and punifh. 

Firfl:, it is not an Homogeneall (as we fpeake) but 
an Heterogeneall commixture or joyning together of 

The Bloudy Tenent. 171 

things moll different in kindes and natures, as if they 
were both of one conlideration. 

For who knowes not but that many feduciti^ teach- Seducing 
ers, either of the Paganijh^ leivifi^ Turkijh^ or Anti- ^^^^^^^ 
chrijiiati ReUgion, may be clear and free from fcan- Pagan, 
dalous offences in their hfe, as alfo from dif obedience to]^^^l[!j^°J. 
the Civill Lawes of a State ? Yea the Anfwerer him- tian, may 
felfe hath eUewhere granted, that if the Lawes of ay^tbeobe- 
Civill State be not broken, the Peace is not broken. j^^^g^Q^j^g 

Againe, who knowes not that a f educing teacher Civill 
properly fmnes againil: a Church or Spirituall eftate^^"^"- 
and Lawes of it, and therefore ought moll properly 
and onely to bee dealt withall in fuch a way, and by 
fuch weapons as the Lordlefus himfelfe hath appointed 
87] gainjayers, oppojites and dijobedients (either within 
his Church or without) to be convinced, repelled^ 
rejijied, TinAJlaine withall. 

Whereas fcandalous offendours againft Parents^^c^nM- 
againft Magijlrates in the 5 Command, and io) againft ""^jJ^^Yh^ 
the life, chajiity, goods or good name in the reft, is pro- Civill ilate 
perly tranfgreffion againft the Civill State and Com-^^^^^^y 
monweale, or the worldly ftate of Men : And there- 
fore confequently if the World or Civill State ought 
to be preferved by Civill Government or Governours ; 
fuch fcandalous offendours ought not to be tolerated, 
but fuppreft according to the wifdome and prudence 
of the laid Govern?ne?it. 

Secondly, as there is a fallacious conjovnino: and ^' 

r 1- 1 r cr ii i • j /o/w tenent 

conioundmg together perlons or leverall kmdes andjuiiifies 
natures, differing as much as Spirit and Flelli, Heaven ^'^ ^^^ 
and Earth each from other. So is there a lilent and ceedings° 
impYicite jujiification to all the unrighteous and <:r«^//againii 

172 The Bloudy Tenent. 

Chrft and proceedhigs oijews and Genti/es 2ig^in{\i2i\\ the Prophets 

lans ^£- Q^^^ ^YiQ Lord yefus Himfelfe, and all His Mef- 

fengers and WitnelTes, whom their AcculTers have 

ever fo coupled and mixed with notorious evill doers 

2indi fcandalous livers. 

Elijah was a troubler of the State ; 'Jeremy weakned 
the hand of the people : yea Mofes made the people 
negled: their worke : the Jewes built the Rebellious 
and bad City : the three Worthies regarded not the 
command of the King : Chriji Jefus deceived the 
people, was a conjurer and a trayter againft Ccefar in 
being King of the Jewes (indeed He was fo fpirit- 
ually over the true Jew the Christian) therefore He 
was numbred with notorious evill doers^ and nailed to 
the Gallowes between two Malefacftours. 

Hence P^2<t/and all true Melfengers of J ejus Chriji 
are efteemed feducing and feditious teachers and 
turners of the World upfide downe : Yea and to my 
knowledge (I fpeake with honourable refped: to the 
Anjwerer, fo far as he hath laboured for many Truths 
of Chriji) the Anfwerer himfelfe hath drunke of this 
cup to be efteemed 2i feducing Teacher. 


Peace7^'^2^ but he produceth Scriptures againft fuch 
J- toleration^ and for perfecuting men for the 
caufe of confcience : " Chriji (faith he) had fomething 
" againft the Angel of the Church of Perganms for 
" tolerating them that held the doctrine of Balaam, 
88] "and againft the Church of Thiatira for tolera- 
" ting lefabel to teach and feduce. Rev. 2. 14. 20. 

The Bioudy Tenent. 173 

Truth. I may anfwer with fome admiration and 
aftonifliment how it pleafed the Father oi lights^ and 
moft jealous God to darken and vaile the eye of lb 
pretious a man, as not to feek out and propofe fome 
Scriptures (in the proofe of fo weighty an alfertion) 
as at leaft might have fome colour for an influence 
of the Civill Magiftrate in fuch cafes : for 

Firft, he faith not that Chrifl: had ought againft Tolera- 
the City Per gamus^ (where Sathan had his throne r^" 2. 14, 
Rev. 2.) but againft the Church at Pergat?ius, in which 20. exam- 
was fet up the Throne of Chrift. '"^^' 

Secondly, Chrifts Charge is not againft the Civill 
Magiftrate of Pergajnus, but the Melfenger or Min- 
iftry of the Church in Perga?mis. 

Thirdly, I confelle fo far as Balaams or lejabels 
dodtrine maintained a liberty oi corporall fornication^ 
it concerned the City of Perga??ius and Thiatira, and 
the Angel or Officers of thofe Cities to fupprelfe not 
only fuch praBices, but fuch DoBrines alio, as the 
Koman Ejuperour ]uiWy punifhed Ovid the Poet, for 
teaching the wanton Art of Love, leading to and 
uHiering on lacivioujhejfe and uncle annejje. 

4. Yet fo far as Balaams teachers or lefabel did 
feduce the members of the Church in Pergamus or 
Thiatira, to the worftiip of the Idolaters in Perga- 
mus or Thiatira (which will appeare to be the cafe) 
I fay fo far I may well and properly anfwer, as him- 
felfe anfwered before thofe Scriptures, brought from 
Luc. 9. & 2 Tim. 2. to prove patience and pertniffion 
to men oppofite, viz. " Thefe Scriptures (faith he) are 
** direBions to Minijlers of the Gofpel, and in the end 
" of that palfage he addes. Much lelfe doe they fpeake 
** at all to Civill Magijirates. ». 

174 T^ke Bloudy Tenent. 

Chrift Fifthly, Either thefe Churches and the Angels 

& Church- thereof had power to fupprelTe thefe doctrines of 
es have Balaam., and to fuppreffe lefabel from teaching, or 

from That they had not cannot be affirmed, for Chrijis 

Chrift to Authority is in the hands of his Minijlers and Churches^ 
%llaaT Matth, i6. & i8. & I Cor. 5. 

and lefabel If they had power, as muft be granted, then I con- 
feducing clude fiifficient power to fupprelTe fuch perfons, who 
worfhip. ever they were that maintained Balaams doctrine in 
the Church at Pt-rg-^w^j, although the very [89] Mag- 
ijlrates themfelves of the City of P^'r^^^/y'zz/j-, (if Chrif- 
tians) and to have fupprelTed lefabel from teaching 
and feducing in the Church had (lie been Lady, ^een, 
or E?npreffe, if there were no more but teaching with- 
out hoftility : And if fo, all power and authority of 
Magijlrates and Governours oi Pergamus and Thtattra, 
and all fubmitting or appealing to them, in luch cafes, 
muft needs fall as none of Chrijis appointm.ent. 

Laftly, From this perverfe wrefting of what is writ 

to the Church and the Officers thereof, as if it were 

written to the Civill State and the Officers thereof; 

all may fee how lince the Apojlacie of Antichriji, the 

The Chrijlian World (fo called) hath fwallowed up Chrif- 

Chriftian fianity, how the Church and civill State, that is the 

hath fwal- Church and the World are now become one jlocke of 

lowed up yeJusChriJi ; Chrijis Jljeepc, and the Pajlors or Shep- 

Chriftian- ^^^^j. ^f them, all one with the feverall unconverted, 

wilde or tame Beafts and Cattell of the World and the 

civill and earthly governours of them : The Chrijlian 

Church or Kingdome of the Saints, that Jione cut out 

of the mountaine without hands, Daniel 2. now made 

The Bloudy Tenent. 175 

all one with the mountaine or Civill State, the Roman 
E?fipire, from whence it is cut or taken : Chrijis lilies, 
garden and love, allonewiththe t homes, the daughers 
and wildertiej/e of the World, out of which the Spoufe 
or Church of Chrijl is called, and amongfl: whom in 
civill things for a while here below, fhe muft necelfa- 
rily be mingled and have converfe, unleiTe flie will 
goe out of the World (before Qhriji "Jejus her Lord 
and Hujband fend for her home into the Heavens, i 
Cor. 5. 10.) 


Peace. \ T Aving thus by the help oi Chnl) exam- The lec- 

H • A .U f e -^^ V C* W ondhead 

X J. ined thole Scriptures or writmgs or truth, ^.^-^^.^^-^^^ 
brought by the Author againft Perfecution, and cleared againil 
them from fuch vailes & mifts wherewith Mr. Cotton'^^'"^^ y^"^' 
hath endeavored to obfcure & darken their light : I viz. the' 
pray you now (by the fame gracious affiftance) pro- profedion 
ceed to his anfwer to the fecond head of Reafons from p • ^^l"^^ 


the profeffion oi famous Princes againft perfecution for K. James, 
conj'cience, K. "James, Steven of Poland, K. of Bohemia, p^*^,^^" "^ 
unto whom the Anfwerer returneth a treble anfwer. and K.'of 
" Firft, faith he. We willingly acknowledge that Bohemia. 
" none is to be perfecuted at all no more then they 
"may be opprejjed for right eoufnejfe fake. 
90] " Againe, we acknowledge that none is to be 
"puniftied for his confcience though mifmformed (as 
"hath been faid) unlelfe his ^xxo^h^ fundament all ox 
^^feditioujly and turbulently promoted, and that after 
" due convitlion of his confcience, that it may appeare 

2 Pet. 2. 

176 The Bloudy Tenent. 

" he is not punifhed for his confcience, but for finning 
" againft his confcience. 

" Furthermore, we acknowledge none is to be con- 
^^Jirained to beleeve or profelTe the true Religion^ till 
" he be convinced in judgement of the truth of it, 
" but yet rejirained he may be from blafpheming the 
" truths and from feducing any unto pernicious error. 
Ifa. 40 6. "Truth. This firft anfwer coniifts of a repetition and 
enu?7ieration of fuch grounds or conclujions, as Mr. Mot- 
ion in the entrance of this Difcourfe laid downe, and 
I beleeve that (through the helpe of God) in fuch 
replies as I have made unto them, I have made it 
evident what w&2i^ foundations they have in the Scrip- 
tures of truth ; as alfo that, when fuch conclujions 
(excepting the firft) as grajfe, and the Jiower of the 
grajfe fhall fade, that holy Word of the Lord^ which 
the Author againft fuch perfecution produced, and I 
have cleared, ftiall ftand for ever, even when thefe 
Heavens and Earth are burnt. 

Peace. His fecond anfwer is this : ** What Princes 
" profefiTe and pradiice is not a rule oi confcience : They 
" many times tolerate that in point of State-policie^ 
" which cannot juftly be tolerated in point of true 
" Chriftianity. 

" Againe, Princes many times tolerate offendours 
" out of very necefiity, when the offendors are either 
" too many or too mighty for them to punifli, in 
** which refpedt David tolerated Joab and his mur- 
" ders, but againft his will. 

T^he Bloudy Tenent. \jj 


VNto thofe excellent and famous fpeeches of thofe 
Princes worthy to be written in golden letters or 
rows of Diamonds upon all the gates of all the Cities 
and Palaces in the World, the Anfwerer (without any 
particular reply) returnes two things. 

Truth. Firfl, that Princes profeffion and prad:ice ^'■' ^°'^- 
is no rule of confcience : unto this as all men will fub- ^^^\\ ^^^\_ 
fcribe, fo may they alfo obferve how the Anfwerer ing with 
deales with Princes. P"'^^"' 

One while they are the nurling Fathers of the 
Church, not only to feed, but alfo to correct, and 
therefore confequently bound to [91] judge what is 
\x\xt, feeding and correBing : and confequently all men 
are bound to fubmit to their feeding and correBi?ig. 

Another while, when Princes crolfe Mr. Cottons 
judgement and pradiice, then it matters not what the 
profej/ion and praBice of Princes is ; for (faith he) their 
profej/ion and praBice is no Rule to Confcience. 

I aske then, unto what Magif rates or Princes will 
themfelves or any fo perfwaded fubmit, as unto keepers 
of both Tables^ as unto the Antitypes of the Kings of 
Ifrael and fudah^ and nurfmg Fathers and Mothers 
of the Church ? 

Firfl, will it not evidently follow, that by thefe 
Tenents they ought not to fubmit to any Magiftrates 
in the world in thefe cafes, but to Magiftrates juft of 
their owne co?fcience : and 

Secondly, that all other Confciejices in the world 
(except their owne) muft be perfecuted by fuch their 
Magirtrates ? 

178 T^he Bloudy Tenent. 

And laftly, is not this to make Magiftrates hutjieps 
2ind Jiirrops to afcend and mount up into their rich 
and honourable Seats and Saddles ; I meane great and 
fetled maintenances, which neither the Lord 'Jefus^ 
nor any of his firft Mejjmgers, the true patternes, did 
ever know ? 


T;7^/Z'.TN the fecond place hee faith that Princes 

X out of State policy tolerate what fuits not 

with Chrijiianity, and out of State necej/ity tolerate (as 

David did "Joah) againjft their wils. 

To which I anfwer, 

The An- Firft, that although with him in the firft I confelfe 

acknow- that Princes may tolerate that out of State policy 

ledgeth a which will not ftand with Chrijiiatiity, yet in the 

nece uy f^(^Qj-j(j }^g muft acknowledg:e with me, that there is 

or lome m r • - n-^ ; • • i 

toleration, a necejjity fometime of State 'Toleration, as m the cafe 

of loab, and fo his former ajfirmation generally laid 

downe | vi-z. that it is evill to X.o\qx2Xq, [educing Teachers, 

or fcandalous livers] was not duly waighed in the 

Balance of the Sandluary, and is too light. 

. Secondly, I affirme that that State policy and State 

Jefus the ncceffity, which (for the peace of the State and pre- 

deepeil venting of Rivers of civill Blood) permits the Con- 

|h° '^"^'j*" fciences of men, will bee found to agree moft pund:- 

was, and ually with the Rules of the beft Politician that ever 

yet he (-^g World law, the Kifig of Kings, and Lord of Lords, 

a tolera- i" comparifon of whom [92] Salomon himfelfe had 

tion of but a drop of wijedome, compared to Chrijis Ocean, 

The Bloudy Tenent. iy() 

and was but a Farth'mg Candle compared with the ^"^i^^^"^- 
A II 2ind Ever glo?'ious Son of RighteoufneJJe. 

That abfolute Rule of this great Politician for the 
peace of the Field, which is the World, and for the 
good and peace of the Saints, who muil have a civill 
being in the World, I have difcourfed of in his com- 
mand of permitting the Tares, that is, Antichrijiians 
or fah'e Chrijlians to be in the Field of the World, 
growing up together with the true Wheat, true ChriJ- 


Peace. T T Is third Anfwer is this : 

JL X " For thofe three Princes named by you 
** wjio tolerated Religion, we can name you more and 
" greater who have not tolerated Heretickes and Schif- 
*'^ matickes, notwithftanding their pretence of Con- 
" fcience, and their arrogating the Crowne oi Marty r- 
" dotne to their fufferings. 

" Conjiantine the Great at the requell: of the Gen- 
^^ erall Coiincell at ISIice, baniflied Arrius, with fome 
** of his Fellowes, Sozom, lib. i. Ecclef. hijl. cap. 19. 20. 

" The fame Conjiantine made a fevere Law againft 
" the T)onatiJis : and the like proceedings againfl: 
" them were ufed by Valentinian, Gratian, and Theo- 
" dojius, as Aiigujiine reports in Fp. 1 66. Onely yuliafi 
" the Apojiate granted liberty to Heretickes, as well 
" as to Pagans, that he might by tolerating all weeds 
"to grow, choake the vitals oi Chrijlianity : which 
** was alfo the practice and fmne of Valens the Arrian. 

" ^eene Elizabeth, as famous tor her Government 

i8o T^he Bloudy Tenent. 

" as moft of the former, it is well knowne what 

" Lawes fhe made and executed againfl Papijis : yea. 

" and K. "Jatnes (one of your owne JVitneJJes) though 

" he was flow in proceeding againfl: Papijis (as you 

" fay) for Confcience fake, yet you are not ignorant 

" how {liarply and feverely he punifhed thofe whom 

" the malignant World calls Puritans, men of more 

" Confcience and better Faith then the Papijis whom 

" he tolerated. 

The Truth. Unto this I anfwer; Firft, that for mine 

the world owne part I would not ufe an argutnent from the 

ieldome number of Princes, witneffing in profeffion of practice 

take part againfl Perfccution for caufe of Confcience, [93] for 

Chrift. the truth and faith of the Lord fefus muft not bee 

received with refpedl oi faces, be they never fo high, 

princely and glorious. 

Precious Pearles and Jewels, and farre more pre- 
cious Truth are found in muddy fhells and places. 
The rich Mines ol golden Truth lye hid under barren 
hills, and in objcure holes and corners. 
Princes The mofl High and Glorious God hath chofen the 

cmine'^are /"'^'^^ of the World 2 and the Witneffes of Truth (Rev. 
very rare. 1 1.) are cloathed in Jackcloth, not in Silke or Sattin, 
Cloth of Gold, or Tijjue : and therefore I acknowledge, 
if the number of Princes profeffing perfecution bee 
confidered, it is rare to finde a King, Prince, or Gov- 
ernour like Chriji lejus the King of Kings, and Prince 
of the Princes of the Earth, and who tread not in 
the fteps of Herod the Fox, or Nero the Lyon, openly 
or fecretly perfecuting the name of the Lord lejus \ 
fuch were Saul, leroboam, Ahab, though under a 
maske or pretence of the name of the God of IfraeL 

The Bloudy Tenent. i8i 

To that purpofe was it a noble fpeech of Buchanan, Buchanans 
who lying on his death-bed fent this Itetn to Ki?igY^^ 
lanies : Remember my humble fervice to his Majeftie, lames. 
and tell him that Buchanan is going to a place where 
few Kings come. 


'TrwM.O Econdly, I obferve how inconliderately (I 
O hope not willingly) he paiTeth by the Rea- 
fons and Grounds urged by thofe three Pr'mces for 
their practices ; for as for the bare examples of Kings 
or Princes, they are but \\k& fiining Sands, or guilded 
Rockes, giving no folace to fuch as make wofull7Zj//>- 
wrack on them. 

In K. lames his Speech he palfeth by that Golden^^^^ , . 
Maxime m uivinity, that God never loves to plant nisfayings 
Church by Blood. againft 

Secondly, that Civil! Obedience may be performed Pj^^^^^^"" 
from the Papijts. 

Thirdly, in his obfervation on Revel. 20. that true 
and certaine note of 2,falfe Church, to w'm, perfecution : 
The wicked are bejiegers, ih^ faithjull are bejieged. 

In K. Steven oi Poland \\\% Speech, hee pafTeth by King 
the true difference betweene a Civill 2inA a Spirituall^^'":^"^^^. 
Government : I am (faid Steven) a Civill Magijlrate fpeech 
over the bodies of men, not a fpirituall over their agaimi 
foules. P^^^'^""- 

94. Now to confound thefe, is Babel \ and Jewifh it 
is to feek for MoJ'es, and bring him from his grave 
(which no man fliall finde, for God buried him) in 
fetting up a Nationall jiate or Church in a land of 


i8 2 The Bloudy Tenent. 

Canaan^ which the great Mejjiah aboHfhed at his 


Forcing Thirdly, he paiTeth by in the fpeech of the King 

fcience is ^^^ Bohemia^ that foundation in Grace and Nature, to 

a Soule wit, that Qonfcietice ought not to be violated or forced : 

"P^- and indeed it it is moft true, that a Souleov fpirituall 

Rape is more abominable in Gods eye, then to force 

and raviih the Bodies of all the Women in the World. 

Perfecu- Secondly, that moft lamentably true experience of 

fdence"' ^^^ ^g^^* which that King obferveth, viz. that perfe- 

the Laun- cution for caufe of Confcience hath ever proved per- 

cet that nicious, being the caufes of all thofe wonderfull 

blood innovations of, or changes in the Principalities and 

Kings & mightiefl: Kingdomes of Qhrijiendome. He that reads 

?-'"S' the Records of Truth and Time with an impartiall 

eye, (hall finde this to be the Launcet that hath 

pierc'd the veines of Kings and Kingdomes, of Saints 

and Sinners, and fill'd the Jireames and Rivers with 

their blood. 

All Laftly, that Kings obfervation of his own time, 

ipintuall ^^2. that Perfecution for caufe of Confcience, was prac- 

are bloody tifed moft in England, and fuch places where Popery 

raigned, implying (as I conceive) that fuch pradiifes 

commonly proceed from that great whore the Church 

of Rome, whofe Daughters are like their Mother, and 

all of a bloody nature, as moft commonly all Whores be. 


NOw thirdly, in that the Anfwerer obferveth, that 
amongft the Romane E?nperours, they that did 
not perfecute, were Julian the Apojlate, and Valens 


The Bloudy Tenent. 183 

the Arrian ; whereas the good Emperours, Conjlan- 
tiney Gratian^ Valentinian^ and TheodoJiuSy they did 
perfecute the Arrians^ Donatijis^ &c. 

Anfw. It is no new thing for ^^^/^ and eminently ^^^ 
godly men, to performe ungodly ciBioiis : nor for ungodly fometimes 
perfons, for wicked ends to ad: what in it felfe is^oo^evillaftors 
and righteous. ^f ^Jj? 

o _ Ungodly 

Abraham y lacoh^ David^ Salomon^ &c. (as well as good ac- 
hamechy Saul, &c.) lived in conftant tranfgreirion^o''S; 
againft the hijiitution of fo holy and fo ratified a Law ^'^ l^^^^ 
oi' Man'age, &c. and this not againft the light and many 
checks of co?iJcience, (as other finnes are wont to be^^'^^j^ 
recorded [95] of them) but according to the dictate Father 
and perfwafion of a Kejolved Soule and Confctence. 

David out of zeale to God, with 30 thoufand of^avids 
IJracl, and Majefticaliyi/tv;/////)/, carries up the ^^'^^j o/cods^ 
contrary to the Order God was pleafed to appoint : Worfhip 
the iffue was both Gods and Davids great offence, 2!!^'."'^ 

, o ' Gods 

Sam. 6. Order. 

David in his zeale would build an houfe to enter- 
taine his God I what more pious ? and what more (in 
(hew) ferioufly confulted, when the Prophet Nathan 
is admitted Councellour .? 2 Sam. 7. 

And probable it is, that his flaughter of Uriiah was 
not without a good end, to wit, to prevent the dif- 
honour of Gods name, in the difcoverie of his Adul- 
terie with Bathjheba : yet David was holy and pre- 
cious to God ftill, (though like a Jewell fallen into 
the dirt) whereas K. A hah, though ading his faffing 
& hiwiiliation, was but Ahab ftill, though his Ad: (in 
it felfe) was a duty, and found fucceffe with God. 

184 T^he Bloudy Tenent. 


Peace.T Have often heard that Hijiorie reports, and 
X I have heard that Mr. Cotton himfelfe hath 

affirmed it, that Chrijlianitie fell afleep in Conjiafitines 

bofome, and the laps and bofomes of thofe Emperours 

profeffing the name of Chrijl. 
Conftan- 'Truth. The unknowing zeale of Conjlantine and 
thTgTod other Emperours, did more hurt to Chrijl lefus his 
Empe- Crowne and Kingdome, then the raging fury of the 
rours are j^q^ bloody Neroes. In the perfecutions of the later, 
have done Chrijlians were fweet and fragrant, like fpice pounded 
more hurt and beaten in morters : But thofe good Emperours, 
name\nd perfecuting fome erroneous perfons, Arriiis^ &c. and 
crown of advancing the profelTours of fome Truths ot Chrift 
the Lord ^^^^ there was no fmall number of Truths loft in 
the per- thofe times) and maintaining their Religion by the 
fecuting materiall Sword, I fay by this meanes Chrijlianity 
^^eroes ^^^ eccHpfed^ and the ProfelTors of it fell afleep. Cant. 

5. Babel or confujion was uflier'd in, and by degrees 
The Gar- the Gardens of the Churches of faints were turned 
Church ^i'^^to the WilderneJJe of whole Nations, untill the whole 
and Field World became Chrijlian or Chrijlendome, Revel. 1 2. 

of the >V T o 
World ^ i' 

made all Doubtlclle thofe holy men, E?nperours and Bijljops, 
one by intended and aimed right, to exalt Chrijl: but not 
da"nifme' ' attending to the Command of Chrijl lejus, to permit 
the Tares to grow in \\i^ field of the World, [96] they 
made the Garden of the Church, and Field of the 
World to be all one ; and might not onely fometimes 
in their zealous miftakes perfecute good wheat in ftead 
of Tares, but alio pluck up thoufands of thofe pre- 

The Bloudy Tenent. 


cious Jialkes by co??imotions and combufiions about 
Religion^ as hath been lince prac^lifed in the great and 
wonderfull changes wrought by fuch Wars in many 
great and mighty States and Kingdomes, as we heard 
even now in the Obfervation of the King of Bohe?nia^ 


Pf tf r^. T^ Eare Truth, before you leave this paflage 
X^ concerning the Efuperoiirs, I fliall delire 

" By a mifarrangement a tew chapters 
immediately preceding this palled through 
the prefs in the Editor's abfence, and 
without his fupervifion. Some omitted 
notes may be inferted here. 

The confufion in numbering Chaps. 
LI.-LIV. is in the original edition. On p. 
165 there is reference to a work of Rev. 
John Goodwin. It was publiflied in 
London in 1644, the fame year with 
The BlouJf Tenent, and was entitled 
" M, S. to'A. S. with a Plea for Liber- 
tie of Conl'cience in a Church Way, 
&c." He was "a Republican, an Inde- 
pendent and a thorough Arminian ; he 

as a mere pretext, and many conjeflures 
have been offered in regard to the real 
caufe. By fome writers it is afcribed to 
an intrigue with Julia, daughter of Au- 
guilus ; bv others to the difcovery by 
Ovid of incelluous conneftion of Auguf- 
tus with his daughter or grand-daughter; 
by fome to his having feen Livia"in the 
bath ; by M. Villenave, in a theory 
which has been received with much 
favor, it has been fuppofed that Ovid 
was the viftim of a coup iP etat ; and by 
a late Englifh writer that he was the 
accidental witnefs of fome crime of Julia, 
grand-daughter of Auguftus. Thefe fo- 

hadbeenVicarofColeman-Street, whence lutions of the quellion are fully confid- 

he was ejefted, in the year 1645, by the ered by Mr. Dyer in The ClaJJical Mu- 

Committee for plundered Miniflers, be- feum, iv: xix.; alfo in Smith's D'tSl. of 

caufe he refufed to baptize the children Rom. Biog. iii. art. Ovidius. 

of his parifhioners promifcuoufly and to 
adminifter the Sacrament to his whole 
parifh." Neal's Puritans, ii: 45. 

On page 173, the Author fays "the 
Roman Emperour juflly punifhed Ovid 
the Poet, for teaching the wanton Art 

The anecdote of George Buchanan, 
the great Scotch Latinift, which is rela- 
ted on p. 181, is alio found in Bayle's 
Di5iionar-^, ii: 183, note. "I have heard 
a Scotch Lord fay that when Buchanan 
was afked on his deathbed, whether he 

of Love." When Ovid ^vas fifty years did not repent of what he had written 

old he was ordered into exile by an im- againil the authority of Kings, and in par- 

perial edidl: in which his having pub- ticular againfl the honor of Mary, Queen 

lifhed the Art of Love was the only rea- of Scots, he anfwered, I am going to a 

fon given. This is regarded by fcholars place where there are not many Kings.'' 

1 86 11^ he Bloudy Tenent. 

you to glance your eye on this not unworthy obfer- 
vation, to wit, how fully this worthy Anfwerer hath 
learned to fpeake the roaring language of Lyon-like 
Perfecution, far from the purity and peaceablenejje of 
the Lafjibe^ which he was wont to exprelfe in Eng- 
land. For thus he writes : 

*' More and greater Princes then thefe you mention 
" (faith he) have not tolerated Hereticks and Schif- 
" maticks, notwithftanding their pretence of Con- 
" fcience, and their arrogating the Crown of Martyr- 
" dome to their fuffrings. 

Truth. Thy tender eare and heart (fweet Peace) 

endures not fuch language : 'Tis true, that thefe termes, 

Hereticks (or wilfully obilinate) and Schifmaticks (or 

Renders) are ufed in Holy Writ : 'tis true alfo, that 

The Ian- fy^h pretend confcience^ and challenge the crowne of 

Per&u- Martyrdome to \k\€\x Jiijfrijigs : Yet fince (as King 

ters, the lafues fpake in his [Marke of a falfe Church]' on 

wolves p^evel. 20.) the Wicked perfecute and beliege, and 

ersofthe the Godly are perfecuted and befieged ; this is the 

World, common clamour of Perfecuters againlf the MeJJen- 

gers and Witneffes of lejus in all Ages, viz. You are 

Hereticks, Schifmaticks, faBious, f editions, rebellious. 

Have not all Truths witnejfes heard fuch reproaches ? 

You pretend confcience ; You fay you are perfecuted 

for Religion ; You will fay you are Martyrs ? 

Oh it is hard for Gods children to fall to opinion and 
pra&ice of Perfecution, without the ready learning 
the language thereof: And doubtlelfe, that Soule that 
can fo readily fpeake Babels language, hath caufe to 

• The Workes of the MoJ} High and Mightie Prince James, p. 79 ante p. 32. 

"The Bloiidy Tenent. 1 87 

fear that he hath not yet in point of Worfhip left 
the Gates or Suburbs of it. 

Peace. Againe, in blaming lulian and Valens the 
Arrian, for [97] " tolerating all weeds to grow, he 
" notes their finfuU end, that thereby they might 
" choake the vitals of Chrijiiatiity ; and feemes to 
" confent (in this and other palfages foregoing and 
"following on a fpeech of Jerome) that the weeds of Chriits 
"Ja/Je Religio?is tolerated in the world, have a power ^'''^.^/"^^ 
" to choake and kill true Chriftianity in the Church, in his 

Truth. I Ihall more fully anfwer to this on ytrowt'j- Church, 
fpeech, and fhew that if the weeds be kept out ot theJJ^j^^j' ' 
Garden of the Church, the Rofes and Lilies therein the abun- 
will flourifli, notwithftandino; that weeds abound in^'''"^f °^ 

, ... weeds 

the Fie/d of the Civ/'// State. When Chri//ianityhegd.n^\n the 
to be choaked, it was not when Cljrijiians lodged in world) 
cold Prifons, but Downe beds of eafe, and perfecuted ['gj™'^' 
others, &c. 


Peace. T T E ends this paffage with approbation of 
1 J. ^ Rlvzabeth for perfecuting the Papijls, 
and a reproofe to King James for his perfecuting the 
Puritans, &c. 

Truth. I anfwer, if ^eene E/izabeth according to The per- 
the Anjwerers Te?ient and Confcience, did well toJ^^"^'°"°^ 
perfecute according to her confcience, King ya??ies£ji^^/,^ifj 
did not ill in perfecuting according to his : For Mr. and King 
Cotton muft Rrant, that either Ki?iQ- "Jafnes was not '^"''"'f''^'"' 

r- , .'^ ^ ... , pared to- 

fit to be a King, had not the elfentiall qualifications oigcx.\\&r. 

a Kitig, in not being able rightly to judge who ought 

1 88 T^he Bloudy Tenent. 

to be perfecuted, and who not, or elfe he muft con- 
felTe that King James and all Magijirates muft per- 
fecute fuch whom in their Confcience they judge 
worthy to be perfecuted. 

I fay it againe (though I neither approve Queen 
Elizabeth or K. Jatnes in fuch their perfecutions, yet) 
fuch as hold this Tenent of perfecuting for Confcience, 
muft alfo hold that Civill Magijirates are not elfen- 
tially fitted and qualified for their function and office, 
except they can difcerne clearly the diflTerence 
betweene fuch as are to be puniflied and perfecuted, 
and fuch as are not. 

Or elfe if they be elfentially qualified, without fuch 
a religious fpirit of difcerning, and yet muft perfecute 
the Heretic ke, the Schiffuaticke, &c. muft they not 
perfecute according to their confcience and perfwa- 
fion. And then doubtlefle (though he bee excellent 
for Civill Government) may he eafily, as Paul did 
ignorantly, perfecute the Son of God, in ftead of the 
Son ot perditio?i. 

98] Therefore (laftly) according to Chrijl Jefus his 
command, Magijirates are bound not to perfecute, 
and to fee that none of their fubjed:s be perfecuted 
and opprelfed for their conJcie?ice and worjhip, being 
otherwife fubjedl and peaceable in Civill Obedience. 


IN the fecond place I anfwer and aske, what glory 
to God, what good to the Joules or bodies of their 
J'ubjeBs fliall Princes, did thefe Princes bring in per- 
fecuting f &c. 

The Bloudy Tenent. 189 

Peace. Mr. Cotton tells us in his difcourfe upon the^" ^'^ 
third Vtolly that ^eene Elizabeth had ^Xvnoii fired ih.Q°^^^^^ 
world in civill cotubiijiions by fuch her perfecuting : Viols, in 
"For, though hee bring it in to another end, yet he Py'""^' '^''• 
*' contelfeth that it railed all Chrijlejidome in rf^w-^^fZ-fefTeththat 
*^ tion^ railed the Warres of 88. and the ^paniflo Inva-Q^^^^ 
^yio?i : and he addes (both concerning the £;?^///7j j^^'^.^p^^i'^g 
** Nation and the X^iitch) that if God had not born cuting the 
" witnelfe to his people, and their Laws, in defeating f'^'P'^^^' 
"the intend?nents of their enemies againft both the ruined the 
^^ Nations y it might have beene the rz//«^ of them Englifh 
" both.' ^'"°"- 

Truth. That thofe Lawes and PraBices of Queene 
Elizabeth raifed thofe combujiions in Chrijlendome I 
deny not : That they might likely have coif the mine 
of Englijh and T^utch I grant. 

That it was Gods gracious worke in defeating the The Wars 
hitendments of their ^//fw/fj- 1 thankfully acknowledge, betweene 
But that God bore witnelfe to fuch perfecutions and^^id the' 
lawes for fuch perfecutions I deny, tor Proteil- 

Firft, event and fuccejfe come alike to all, and are^"^^* 
no Argumeiits of love or hatred, &c. 

Secondly, the Papijls in their warres have ever yet 
had both in Peace and JVar viBory and domi?iion ; and 
therefore (if fuccelfe be the meafure) God hath borne 
witnelfe unto them. 

It is moft true what Y)aniel in his 8. and 1 1. and 
12. Chapters, and lohn in his Revel. 11. 12. and 13. 
Chapters write of the great fuccelfe of Antichrijl 
againft Chriji lejus for a time appointed. 

' The Powring out of the Seven Vials ; Revelation, with an application of it to our 
or an Expofttion of the i6. Chapter of the Times. The third Vial, p. 7. Lond. 1642. 

190 The Bloudy Tenent. 

Eventus Succcfle was varioLis betweene Charles the fift and 
°huertus ^ ^0"^^ German Princes : Philip of Spaine and the Low 
Countries : The French King and his Proteftant Sub- 
jects, fometimes loling, fometimes winning, inter- 
The wars But moft memorable is the famous hiftory of the 
^"Jj/"S" Waldenfes and Albingenfes^ thofe famous Witiiejfes of 
Walden- J^fus Chrijl, who rifing from [99] Waldo at Lyons 
fian wit- in France (i 160.) fpread over France^ Italy, Gertnany, 
"^ ^^a and almofi: all Countries, into thoufands and ten thou- 

againlt ^ _^ • r ^ r-i i i 

three fands, making feparation from the Pope and Church 

Popes and ^i^ ^Qffjg^ Thefe fought many Battels with various 

pifli'^Ar- fuccelfe, and had the alliftance and proted:ion of 

mies. divers great Princes againfl: three fucceeding Popes 

and their Artnies, but after mutuall Jlaughters and 

miferies to both lides, the 'tvx\2i({ JucceJJe oi viBory tell 

to the Popedome and Romijh Church in the utter 

extirpation of thofe famous Waldenjian witnejfes. 

Gods peo- Gods fervants are all overcommers when they war 

P e vifto- -^^ QqJ^ weapons in Gods caufe and Wordnp : and 

nous over- r J ^ ..-'-'., 

commers, Rcvel. 2. and 3. Chapters, feven tmies is it recorded, 
and with 'pQ }^jj^ ^}^a(- ovcrcoffimeth in Ephefus, To him that 
pons. ~ overcommeth in '^^ardis, &c. and Revel. 12. Gods fer- 
vants overcame the Dragon or Devill in the Romane 
Fmperours by three weapons. The blood of the Lambe, 
The word of their Tejiiniotiy, and The not loving of 
their lives unto the death. 


T^^ 1 J Peace.^ I ^He Anfwerer in the next place defcends 

third head I ii-i iinrxfr^ 

ofArgu- J- to the third and lalt Head 01 Arguments 

The Bloudy Tenent. 191 

produced by the Authour^ taken from the judgement ^'^"'^s 
of ancient and later Writers^ yea even of the Papijis ^°^^ ^"'^ 
themfelves, who have condemned perfecution for con- later wri- 
fcience fake : fome of which the Anjwerer pleafeth ^^^^• 
to anfwer, and thus writeth. 

" You begin with Hilarie^ whofe tejlimony without The 
^'prejudice to \\\^ l^ruth we may admit : For it is ^J^^'^'j^" 
" true, the Chrijlian Church doth not perfecute^ but doth not 

" is perfeCUted. perfecute, 

*' But to excommunicate an Heretic ke is not to per- fecateZ^'^" 
^^ Jecutc, that is, it is not to puni(h an innocent, but a 
" culpable and damnable perfon, and that not for con- 
*''' Jcience, but tor perlifting in errour againlt Hght ot 
" conjcience, whereof he hath beene convinced. 

Truth. In this Anfwer here are two things. 

Firlt, his confejjion of the fame Truth affirmed by 
Hilarius, to wit, that the Chrijlian Church doth not 
perfecute, but \s perj'ecuted : futing with that foregoing 
obfervation of King lames from Rev. 20. 

Peace. Yet to this he addes a colour thus .• which, 
faith he, wee may admit without prejudice to the 

Truth. I anfwer. If it bee a marke of the Chrijlian Perfecu- 
Church to bee perjecuted, and of the Antichrijlian or ""^ ' 
falfe Church to perfecute, then thofe Churches cannot not b 
be truly Chrijlian (according to the firft [100] /«fl:i- Chrift 
tution) which either atlually themfelves, or by the 
Civill power of Kings and Princes given to them (or 
procured by them to fight for them) doe perfecute 
fuch as dilfent from them or be oppofite againft 

Peace. Yea, but in the fecond place he addeth. 



192 The Bloudy Tenent. 

that to excommunicate an Heretic k, is not to perfecute, 
but to puni(h him for linning againft the Hght of his 
own confcience^ &c. 

Truth. I anfwer, if this worthy Anfwerer were 
throughly awaked from the Spoufes {pintu2.\\ JIum/?er, 
(Cant. 5.) and had recovered from the drunkennejfe 
of the great whore, who intoxicateth the Nations, 
Revel. 17. It is impoffible that he (hould fo anfwer: 
The na- Firft, who queftioneth, whether to excommunicate 
communf-'^" Hcretick, (that is, an objiinate Gainfayer) as we 
cation. have opened the word upon Tit. 3.) I fay, who quef- 
tioneth whether that be to perfecute ? Excommunica- 
tion being of 2. Jpirituall nature, a Sentence denounced 
by the Word of Chriji Jefus the Spirituall King of 
his Church ; and a Spirituall killing by the moft fliarpe 
two-edged Sword of the Spirit, in delivering up the 
perfon excommunicate to Sathan. Therefore who 
fees not that his Anfwer comes not neere our ^ef- 
tion .^ 

Peace. In the Anfwerer s fecond conclufon (in the 
entrance of this Difcourfe) he proves perfecution 
againft an Heretick for linning againft his confcience, 
and quotes Tit. 3. 10. which only proves (as I have 
there made it evident) a Spirituall rejeBing or excom- 
municating from the Church ot God, and fo comes 
not neer the queftion. 

Here again he would prove Churches charged to 
be falfe, becaufe they perfecute : I fay he would prove 
them not to be falfe, becaufe they perfecute not: for, 
faith he, Excommunication is not Perfecution. Whereas 
the ^eftion is (as the whole difcourfe, and Hilaries 

The Bloudy Tenent. 193 

own amplification of the matter in this fpeech, and ^^^^.^ P^''- 
t\ic praBice of all Ages teftifies) whether it be not aj^"^jj'^"°/ 
falfe Church that doth perfecute other Churches or 
Members (oppofing her in Spirituall and Church 
matters, not by Excommunications, but by imprijon- 
mentSy Jiocking, whippings fining^ banijhhig^ hangings 
burnings &c. notwithftanding that fuch perfons in 
Qivill obedience and fubjed;ion are unreproveable. 

Truth. I conclude this palTage with Hilarius andChrifts 
the Anfwerer, That the ChrilUan Church doth not^P"""'^ "° 
perfecute \ no more then a Lilie doth fcratch the or fighter. 
Thorfies, or a Lambe purfue and teare the Wolves^ or 
a Turtle dove hunt the Hawkes and Eagles^ or a chajie 
and inodeji [loi] Virgin fight and fcratch Hke whores 
and harlots. 

And for punifhing the Heretick for finning againfi: 
his confcience after conviBion^ which in the fecond 
conclujion he afhrmeth to be by a civill /word I have 
at large there anfwered. 


Peace.^^ the next place he feledieth one pafi^age 
A out of Hilariey (although there are many 
golden pafi^ages there exprefi: againfi: the ufe oi Civill 
Earthly Powers in the Affaires of Chriji.) The palT- 
age is this : 

"It is true alfo what he faith, that neither the^hocan- 
^^ Apojlles nor We may propogate Chrijlian Religion^^ ^^^^"^ 
" by the Sword : but if Pagans cannot be won by the Word, 
** Wordy they are not to be compelled by the Sword: J""^ "°^ 
" Neverthelelfe this hindreth not (faith he) but if peiied 

194 '^k^ Bloudy Tenent. 

by the « tJ^gy qj- ^^y Other (hould blafpheme the true God 
" and his true Religion, they ought to be feverely pun- 
**i{hed: and no lelTe doe they deferve, ii \.h.&y f educe 
*' from the Truth to damnable Herejie or Idolatrie. 

Truth. In which Anfwer I obferve, firfl: his Agree- 
ment with Hilarie, that the Chrijlian Religion may 
not be propagated by the Civill Sword. 

Unto which I reply, and aske then what meanes 
this palTage in his iirft anfwer to the former fpeeches 
of the Kings, viz. " We acknowledge that none is to 
" be conjirained to beleeve or protelTe the true Religion, 
" till he be convinced in judgement of the Truth ot 
** it : implying 2 things. 

Firft, that the Civill Magijlrate, who is to con- 
ftraine with the Civill Sword, muft judge all the Con- 
fciences of their Subje6ts, whether they be convinced 
or no. 

Secondly, when the Civill Magijlrate difcerns that 
his Subjects confciences are convinced, then he may 
. conftraine them vi & armis, hoftily. 
upon Con- And accordingly, the Civill State and Magijiracie 
^c\QncGs \n judging m J pirituall things, who knowes not what 
Ne ^En conjiraint lies upon all confciences in Old and New 
land. England, to come to Church, and pay Church duties,^ 

' "By I Eliz. c. 2 (^), it was provided, Church Wardens to the ufe of the poor." 

that every inhabitant of the realm or do- This and other penal laws in regard to 

minion fhall diligently and faithfully, religious opinions was abolifhed by the 

having no lawful or reafonable excufe to ilatute 9 and 10 Vift. c. 59. Stephen, 

be abfent, endeavour themfelves to relort Commentaries on the Laws of England, 

to their parifh church or chapel accuf- iii; 51. 

tomed, or, upon feafonable let, to fome " Whereas complainte hath bene 

ufual place where common prayer (hall made to this Court that dyvers perfons 

be ufed, on Sundays or holidays, upon within this jurifdiftion doe vfually abfent 

penalty of forfeiting for every non-attend- themfelves from church meetings vpon 

ance twelve pence, to be levied by the the Lords day, power is therefore giuen 

T^he Bloiidy Tenent. 


which is upon the point (though with a /word of a 
finer gilt and trim in New Efigland) nothing eH'e but 
that which he confeiTeth Hilarie faith true, fliould not 
be done, to wit, ^propagation oi Religion by the Sivord. 
102] Againe, although he confeiTeth that propaga- 
tion of Religion ought not to be by the Jword: yet he 
maintaineth the ufe of the Jword, when perfons (in 
the jiidgen/ent of the drill State, for that is implied) 

to any two Afliilants to heare and fen- 
fure, either by ftvne or impriionm', (att 
their difcrecon) all miidemean'^^ of that 
kinde committed by any inhabitant within 
this jurifdiftion." Ma/s. Colonial Records, 
i: 140. March, 1634-5. ^'^- Records i: 
240, Sept. 1638. 

To the afiertion in the text Cotton 
replies : " I know no conllraint at all, 
that lieth upon the confciences of any 
in Nezv- England, to come to Church : 
Lead of all do I know, that any are con- 
ftrayned to pay Church-duties in New 
Englad. Sure I am, none in our Town, 
neither Church-members, nor other, are 
conilrai^ied to pay any Church duties at 
all. What they pay they give volunta- 
rily, each one with his owne hand, with- 
out any conftraint at all." Bloudy Tenent 
tVaJhed, p. 146. Cotton's aflertion in 
regard to Bollon is fuftained by Win- 
throp, Kezv England, i: 355. "Mr. Cot- 
ton preaching out of the 8 of Kings, 8, 
taught, that their Magiftrates are forced 
to provide for the maintenance of min- 
iflers, etc. when the Churches are in a 
declining condition. There he fhowed, 
that the minillers' maintenance fhould 
be by voluntary contribution, etc." 

But Williams rejoins, "If Mr. Cotton 
hcforgettful, fure he can"hardlybe igno- 
rant of the halves and Penalties extant in 

New England that are (or if repealed have 
been) againll fuch as abfent themfelves 
from Church Morning and Evening, and 
tor Non-payment of Church-duties, al- 
though no Members. 

"For a Freedome of Not paying in his 
Towne, it is to their commendation and 
Gods praife, who hath fnowed him and 
others more of his holy Truth: Yet 
who can be ignorant of the SefTments 
upon all in other Townes, of the many 
Suits and Sentences in Courts (for Non- 
payment of Church-Duties') even againft 
fuch as are no Church Members ?" The 
Bloody Tenent yet more Bloody, p. 216. 

Lechford's telVimony alfo goes fome- 
what againll Cotton's general denial : 
"At fome places they make a rate upon 
every man, as well within, as not of the 
Church, refiding with them, towards the 
Churches occafions j and others are be- 
holding, now and then, to the generall 
Court, to iludy wayes to enforce the 
maintenance of the Minillcrie." Plain 
Dealing, p. 19. To this may be added 
two fentences from Winthrop's journal 
in 1642: "The churches held a differ- 
ent courfe in raifing the Minifler's main- 
tenance. Some did it by way of taxa- 
tion, which was very ofFenfive to fome." 
New England, i i : 112. 

196 The Bloudy Tenent. 

blajpheme the true God, and the true Religion, and 
alfo feduce others to damnable Here/ie and Idolatrie. 
Which becaufe he barely affirmeth in this place, I 
fliall defer my Anfwer unto the after Reafons of Mr. 
Cotton and the Elders of New Englifli Churches ; 
where Scriptures are alleadged, and in that place (by 
Gods afliftance) they fliall be examined and anfwered. 


TertulUan Peace. ^ I "^He Anfwerer thus proceeds : " Your next 
diibuffed! ^ " Writer is Tertul/ian, who fpeaketh to 

" the fame purpofe in the place alleadged by you. 
" His intent is only to reftraine Scapula the Roman 
" Governour of Africa, from perfecuting the Chrif- 
^^ tians, for not offering Jacri/ice to their Gods: and. 
" for that end, fetcheth an Argument from the Law 
** oiNatur all equity, not to compell any to any Religion, 
** but permit them to believe or not to believe at all. 
" Which we acknowledge ; and accordingly we 
"judge, the Englilh va?.-^ permit the Indians to con- 
" tinue in their unbeliefe : neverthelelfe it will not 
*' therefore be lawfull to tolerate the worfloip of Devils 
" or Idols, to the feduclion of any from the Truth. 

Truth. Anfw. In this palTage he agrees with Ter- 
tullian, and gives inftance in America of the Englifh 
permitting the Indians to continue in their imbeleefe : 
The In- yet; withall he affirmeth it not lawfull to tolerate 
^^^ Y.r^a.'worjhipping oi Devils, ov J eduB ion ivoi'n the Truth. 
land per- I aufwcr, that in New Rngland it is well known 
muted by ^j^^^ ^.j^^^ ^^^ oucly permit the Indians to continue in 
lifh not their unbeliefe, (which neither they, nor all the 

'The Bloudy Tenent. 1 97 

Mifiijiers oi Qhriji on Earthy nor Angels in Heaven^^^Y,^^ 
can helpe, not being able to worke beleefe) but they |^^"jj""j.^ 
alio permit or tolerate them in their Paganifl:) wo?-Jhipy unbclccf 
which cannot be denied to be a worlhippinz oi Devils, (^hich 

J 1 1 o ' they can- 

as all falfe Worfliip is." not cure) 

And therefore confequently according to thefamebut alfo in 
pradlice, did they walke by Rule and hnpartially^ "^^worfhip ^ 
onely the Indians, but their Qountry?nen, French^ which 
Dutch, Spanijh, Perjians, Tiirkes, lewes, &c. {]iould[^^y/"'S^^ 
alfo be permitted in their Worjljips, if correfpondentdvilfword 
in civill obedience. reilraine. 

103] Peace. He addes further, when Tertulliatt faith. 
That another mans Religion neither hurteth nor 
profiteth any ; It muft be underftood oi private wor- 
Jhip and Religion protelfed in private : otherwife a 
falfe Religion profelfed by the members of the Church, 
or by fuch as have given their names to Chriji, will 
be the ruifie and dejolation of the Church, as appeareth 
by the threats of Chrijl to the Churches, Revel. 2. 

Truth. I anfwer (paffing by that unfound dijiinc- 
tion of members of the Church, or thofe that have 
given their Na?nes to Chrijl, which in point of vilible 
profejjion and Worjhip will appeare to be all one) it 
is plaine, 

P^irfl:, that Tertullian doth not there fpeake of pri- 
vate, but of publike Worfliip and Religion. 

Secondly, Although it be true in a Church oi Chrijl, 
that a falfe Religion or Worjhip permitted, will hurt, 

' This Cotton denies, (Bloudy Tenent mit to the Englifii) continue in their 

^/?/?'frf', p. 147,) and Williams reaffirms, publike Paganifh Worfhip of Devills, I 

"It is moft true, that the Monahiggan- lay openly and conjlantly." Bloody Tenent 

eucks, Mifhauomeucks, Pautuckfeucks yet more Bloody, Tp. 218. 
and Cawfumleucks (who proteffe to lub- 

198 The Bloudy Tenent. 

according to thofe threats of Chriji, Revel. 2. Yet 
in 2 cafes I believe a falfe Religion will not hurt 
(which is moft like to have been Tertullians mean- 
In 2 cafes Firft, a falfe Religion out of the Church wdll not 

HgLn wni^"^^ the Churchy no more then weedes in the Wilder- 
not hurt nejfe hurt the inclofed Garden, or poyfon hurt the body 
the true ^j^g^ j|- \^ ^Qt touched or taken, yea and antidotes 

Church, . • a •«. 

or the are received agamlt it. 

State. Secondly, a falfe Religion and Worjlnp will not hurt 

the Civill State, in cafe the worjhippers breake no 
civill Law : and the Anjwerer (elfwhere) acknow- 
ledgeth, that the civill Law es not being broken, civill 
Peace is not broken : and this only is the Point in 


PeaceT^TOxxx next Authour (faith he) 'Jerome, crolf- 

J- eth not the " Truth, nor advantagerh your 

" Caufe ; for we grant what he faith, that Herefie 

" muft be cut off with the fword of the Spirit : but 

" this hinders not, but being fo cut down, if the 

" Heretick will perfift in his Herefie, to the feduc- 

" tion of others, he may be cut ofFalfo by the Civill 

The fedu- *< Sword, to prevent the perdition of others. And 

bfeftin " ^^^^ ^° ^^ yero??ies meaning, appeareth by his note 

of others " upon that of the Apoftle, [A little Leaven leaveneth 

difcuffed. « tPje whole lumpe] Therefore (faith he) a fparke as 

" foon as it appeareth, is to be extinguiflied, and 

" the leaven to be removed from the refl of the 

1 04] " dough ; Rotten pieces of flefh are to be cut 

The Bloudy Tenent. 199 

" off, and a fcabbed beaft is to be driven from the 
" fheepfold ; left the whole Houfe, Body, maffe of 
" Dough, and Flock, be fet on fire with the fparke, 
" be putrified with the rotten fiefti, fowred with the 
" leaven, perifh by the fcabbed beaft. 

Truth. I anfwer, firft, he granteth to Tertullian^'^ Jhe 
that Here/ie muft be cut off with the fword of thet,.uj^e(h 
Spirit : yet withall he maintaineth a cutting off by a not to the 
fecond Sword, the y^^'c^r^ of the Magijirate ; and con- \^^^ °^ 
ceiveth that Tertiilliarf fo meanes, becaufe he quotethonly in 
that of the Apoftle, A little leaven leaveneth the wZ'o/^ Spiritual! 

/ ^ caufes. 


Anjw. It is no Argument to prove that Tertullian' 
meant a civill /word, by alleadging i Cor. 5. or Gal. 
5. which properly and only approve a cutting off by 
the fword of the Spirit in the Church, and the purg- 
ing out of the leaven in the Qhurch in the Cities of 
Corinth and Galatia. 

And if TertulUan' (liould fo meane as himfelfe doth, 

Firft, that grant of his, that Herejie muft be cutTheabfo- 
offwith the fword of the Spirit, implies an abfolute^?'^ ^"^% 

-• cicncic or 

fufficiencie in theyu'o/v/of the Spirit to cut it down, the fword 
according to that mighty operation of Spirituallof the 
weapons, (2 Cor. 10. 4.) powerfully fufticient either P"^'^' 
to convert the Heretick to God, and fubdue his very 
thoughts into fubjed:ion to Chriji, or elfe fpiritually 
to Hay and execute him. 

Secondly, it is cleare to be the meaning of the 
Apojile, and of the Spirit of God, not there to fpeake 
to the Church in Corinth or Galatia, or any other 

' Thus in the original text, but an evident mifprint for Jerome. 

200 ^ The Bloudy Tenent. 

^he Church, concerning any other dough, or houfe, or body, 
of Chrift °^ fl'^^^i but the dough, the body, the houfe, the ^o<:/^ 
to be kept of Qhriji his Church : Out of which fuchy/>^r/'j-, fuch 
P"*"^* leave?!, fuch rotten fleJJj and /cabbed Jheep are to be 

A Nation- Nor could the eve of this worthy Anfwerer ever 
not 'ml\ ^^ ^*^ obfcured, as to run to a Sfniths fliop for a Sword 
tutcd by oi iron ^ndijteale to helpe the Sword of the Spirit, if 
Chnil t}^e ^^^;^ Qf Rig/jteoufneffe had once been pleafed to 
fhew him, that a National! Church (which elfewhere 
he profeiTeth againft) -^Jlate Church (whether explicite, 
as in Old England, or implicite, as in New) is not the 
Injiitution of the Lord J ejus Chriji. 
The The Nationall ty pic all State-Church of the J ewes 

Ch'iu-ch necelTarily called for fuch weapons : but the particu- 
of the lar Churches of Chriji in all parts of the World, con- 
Jewes. fifting of 'J ewes or Gentiles, is powerfully able by the 
/word of the Spirit to defend it felfe, and offend Men 
or Devils, although the State or Kingdome (wherein 
fuch a Church or Churches [105] oi Chriji are gath- 
ered) have neither carnall Jpeare nor Jword, &c. as 
once it was in the Nationall Church of the Land of 

I Sam. I X, ^ 



Man hath Peace.\yKentius (whom you next quote, faith he) 
no power J) fpeaketh not to your caufe. Wee willingly 

to make ^ ^ o y 

lawes to grant you, that man hath no power to make Lawes 
bindecon-to binde cojijciencc, but this hinders not, but men may 
cience. ^^^ ^.j^^ Lawcs of God obferved which doe binde cofi- 

The Bloudy Tenent. 201 

Truth. I anfwer, In granting with Brentius that 
man hath not power to make Lawes to hinde con- 
fcience, hee overthrowes fuch his tenent and practice 
as rejiraine men from their JVorJhip, according to 
their Confcience and beleefe, and conftraine them to 
fuch worjhips (though it bee out of a pretence that 
they are convinced) which their owney^^w/cj' telJ them 
they have no fat isj a B mi nov faith in. 

Secondly, whereas he affirmeth that men may make 
Lawes to fee the Lawes of God obferved. 

I anfwer, as God needeth not the helpe of a mate- 
rial! yu'(?7Y/ oi feele to alTift the [word of the spirit in 
the aftaires of coifcience^ fo thofe men, thofe Magif- 
trates, yea that Commonwealth which makes fuch 
Magijirates, muft needs have power and authority 
from Chriji fefiis to fit fudge and to determine in 
all the great controverfies concerning doBrine^ difci- 
pline^ govcrn?nent, Cs'c. 

And then I aske, whether upon this ground it muft ^^'P^'"^^^ 
not evidently follow, that quent'es 

Either there is no lawiull Commonwealth nor civilUm\o\d- 
State of men in the world, which is not qualified ^^^^" 
with this fpirituall difcerning : (and then alfo that the 
very Commonweale hath more light concerning the 
Church of Chri/i, then the Church it felfe.) 

Or, that the Commonweale and Magijlrates thereof 
muft judge and punidi as they are perfwaded in their 
owne beleefe and confcience^ (be their confcience Pagan- 
iJJj, Turktjh, or Antichrifian) what is this but to con- 
found Heaven and Earth together, and not onely to 
take away the being of Chrifianity out of the World, 
but to take away all civility^ and the world out of the 

worlds and to lay all upon heapes of confufion ? 

202 T^he Bloudy Tenent. 


Luthers Peace/ I ^He like anfwer (faith he) may bee returned 

in this°"^ -^ ^^ Luther, whom you next alledge. 

cafe dif- Firft, that the govermnent of the civill Magijirate 

cuffed. extendeth no further then over the bodies and goods 

of their JubjeBs, not over their Joules, and therefore 

they may not undertake to give Lawes unto ih^foules 

and confciences of men. 

Secondly, that the Church of Chrijl doth not ufe 
the Arme oi fecular power to compell men to the 
true profeffion of the truth, for this is to be done 
w'lih. J pirituall weapons, whereby Chrijlians are to be 
exhorted, not compelled. " But this (faith hee) hin- 
" dreth not that Chrijlians finning again ft light of 
^^ faith and conjcience, may juftly be cenfured by the 
" Church with excommunication, and by the civilljword 
** alfo, in cafe they iliall corrupt others to the perdi- 
" tion of their foules. 

Truth. I anfwer, in this joynt confejjimi of the 
Anjwerer with Luther, to wit, that the government 
of the civill Magijirate extendeth no further then 
over the bodies and goods of their JubjeBs, not over 
\\\^\x Joules : who fees not what a cleare tejlimony from 
his own mouth and pen is given, to wit, that either 
the Spirituall and Church eftate, the preaching of the 
Word, and the gathering of the Church, the BaptiJ?ne 
of it, the Minijlry, Government and Adminijlrations 
thereof belong to the civill body of the Com?nonweale? 
that is, to the bodies and goods of men, which feemes 
monftrous to imagine : Or elfe that the civill Mag- 
ijirate cannot (without exceeding the bounds of his 
office) meddle with thofe fpirituall affaires. 



The Bloudy Tenent. 203 

Againe, neceiTarily mufl: it follow, that thefe two^*"- ^ot- 
are contradictory to themlelves : to wit, tions^evl" 

The Magijirates power extends no further thendently 
the bodies and ^oods of the fubied:, and yet proved 

<~> J ' ^ ^ J contrauic- 

The Magijh'cite muft puni(h Chrijlians for finning tory to 
again it the light oi faith and confcicnce^ and for r^r- tht 
ruptiiig i\\^ Joules of men. 

The Father of Lights make this worthy Anfwerer 
and all that feare him to fee their wandring in this 
cafe, not only from \\\% feare ^ but alfo from the light 
of Reafon it felfe, their owne conviBions and con- 

Secondly, in his joint confeffion with Luther, that 
the Church [107] doth not ufe the fecular power to 
compell men to the Faith and Profeffion of the truth, 
he condemneth (as before I have obferved) 

Firfi:, his former Implicatiofi, viz. that they may 
bee compelled when they are convinced of the truth 
of it. 

Secondly, their owne pradlice, who fuffer no man 
of any different confcience and worfiip to live in their 
jurifdi6lion, except that he depart from his owne 
exercife of Religion and Worjlnp differing from the 
worflnp allowed of in the civill State, yea and alfo 
adiually fubmit to come to their Church. 

Which howfoever it is coloured over with thisH<:3""g 
varnifli, viz. that men are coinpelled no further then^Qj.jQf 
unto the hearing of the Word, unto which all men God in a 
are bound : yet it will appeare that teaching and being ^.^'-'''ch 
taught in a Qhurch eftate is a Church worfliip, as part of 
true and proper a Church worjhip as the Supper of^^^odswor- 
the Lord, Aa. 2. 46. '^'P- 


204 The Bloudy Tenent. 

Secondly, all perfons [Papijl and Protejiant) that 
are confcientious, have alwayes fuffered upon this 
ground efpecially, that they have refufed to come to 
each others Church or Meeting. 


Papiils Peace/ I ^He next paflage in the Author which the 
tokradon ^ Atifwcrer defcends unto, is the tejiimony of 

of con- the Papijis themfelves, a lively and fhining teftimony 
from Scriptures alledged both againfl: themfelves and 
all that alfociate with them [siS power is in their hand) 
in fuch unchrijiian and bloody both tenents and prac- 

" As for the tejiimony of the PopiJJj booke (faith he) 
" we weigh it not, as knowing what ever they fpeake 
" for toleration oi Religion, where themfelves are under 
" Hatches, when they come to fit at Stern they judge 
" and praBife quite contrary, as both their writings 
" and judiciall proceedi?igs have teftified to the world 
" thefe many yeares. 

Truth. I anfwer, although both writings and prac- 
tices have been fuch, yet the Scriptures and exprejjions 
of truth alledged and uttered by them, fpeake loud 
and fully for them when they are under the Hatches, 
that for their confciejice and religion they (liould not 
there be choaked and fmothered, but fuffered to 
breathe and walke upon the Deckes in the ayre of 
civill liberty and converfation in the Ship of the co7n- 
monwealth, upon good alfurance given of civill obedi- 
ence to the civill State. 

The Bloudy Tenent. 205 

108] Againe, if this practice bee fo abominable in The Pro- 
his eyes from the Papijh^ viz. that they are fo partiall JartfaH in 
as to perfecLite when they fit at Hebne^ and yet cry the cafe of 
out againfi: perfeciitiofi when they are under the P.^''^^*-"" 
Hatches, I fliall befeech the Righteous Judge of the 
whole world io prefent as in a Water or Glafi^e (where 
face anfwereth to face) the faces of the Papijl to the 
ProteJia?it, anfwering to each other in the fmneiiejfe 
oi par-tiality, both of this doctrine and pra6tice. 

When Mr. Cotton and others have formerly been 
under hatches, what fad and true complaints have 
they abundantly powred forth againft perfeciition? 
How have they opened that heavenly Scripture, Cant. 
4. 8. Where Chriji J ejus calls his tender JVife and 
Spoufe from the fellowfiiip with perfeciitors in their 
dens of Lions, and mountaines of Leopards ? 

But comming to the Helme (as he fpeaks of the 
Papijis) how, both by preaching, writing. Printing, 
pradice, doe they themfelves (I hope in their perfons 
Lanibes) unnaturally and partially exprelfe toward 
others, the cruell nature of fuch Lions and Leopards ? 

O that the God of Heaven might pleafe to tell Afalfebal- 
them how abominable in his eyes are a waight and lance in 
a waight, a Jio?ie and a Jhne in the bag of '^'^ig^-^^-^ • iQ°sahom- 
one waight for themfelves when they are under inable to 
Hatches, and another for others when they come to^"'^- 

Nor (hall their confidence of their being in the 
truth (which they judge the PapiJls and others are 
not in) no nor the Truth it felfe priviledge them to 
perfecute others, and to exempt themfelves from per- 
fe cut ion, becaufe (as formerly.) 

2o6 T^he Bloudy Tenent. 

Sheep can- Firft, it is againft the nature of true Sheep to per- 
"° j^o'J" j^e fecute or hunt the Beajis of the Forreji, no not the 
wolves, fame Wolves who formerly have perfecuted them- 

Secondly, if it be a duty and charge upon all Mag- 

ijirates in all parts of the World to judge and perfe- 

cute in and for fpirituall caufes, then either they are 

no Magijirates who are not able to judge in fuch 

cafes, or elfe they muft judge according to their 

Confciences, whether Pagan, Turkijlj or Antichrijlian. 

Pills to Laftly, notwithftanding their confidence of the 

purge out ffiiffj of their owne way, yet the experience of our 

of perfe- Fathers errours, our owne ?nijlakes and ignorance, the 

cution. fenfe of our own weakfiejfes and blijidtiejfe in the depths 

of iht prophejies & myjieries of the Kingdom q>{ Chrijl, 

and the great profelfed expeBation of light to come 

which we are not now able to comprehend, may 

abate the edge, yea {heath up the [ 1 09] y7£;(?r^ of per- 

fecution toward any, efpecially fuch as differ not frorn 

them in doBrines of repentance, ox faith, or holijiejje of 

heart and life, and hope of glorious -Sindi et email union 

to come, but only in the way and manner of the 

adminiji rat ions of J ejus Chriji. 


Peace/ I "^O clofe this head of the teftimony of 
X Writers, it pleafeth the Aifwerer to pro- 
duce a contrary teftimony of Aujiin, Optatus, &c. 
Superfti- Truth. I readily acknowledge (as formerly I did 
J.'°"^P^''"concerninp: the teflimonv oi Princes) that Antichrift 

lecution . ^ \ r /^ r • n 1/ 1 

have had IS too hard lor Chrijt at votes and numbers ; yea and 

The Bloudy Tenent. 207 

beleeve that in many points (wherein the fervants of"^=i"yvotes 
Go^-Zthefe many hundred yeares have beene faft alleep) ^^^^ °q^_ 
fiipet'Jiit ion 2inA perfecution have had more fuffragesple. 
and votes from Gods owne people then hath either 
been honourable to the Lord^ or peaceable to their 
owne or the foules of others : Therefore (not to dero- 
gate from the pretious 77iet7iory of any of them) let us 
briefly confider what they have in this point affirmed. 

To begin with Aujlin : "They murther (faith he) 
" foules, and themfelves are afflidled in body, and 
*' they put men to everlafting death, and yet they 
*' complaine when themfelves are put to temporall 
" death. 

I anfwer. This Rhetoricall perfwajion of humane Aufiins 
wifdome feems very reafonable in the eve of liefl:} and^^-^'"^ '^'^^ 

*^ , J *j J pcriccu- 

blood, but one Scripture more prevailes with faithfull tion ex- 
and obedient foules then thoufands of plaulible and^™'"^'^- 
eloquent fpeeches : in particular, 

Firll, the Scripture ufeth foule-killing in a large Soul-kill- 
fenfe, not only for the teaching oi falje prophets and^"^' 
Jeducers, but even for the offenjive walking of Chrif- 
tians, in which refped (i Cor. 8.) a true Chrijlian 
may be guilty of dellroying a foule for whom Qhriji 
died, and therefore by this rule ought to be hanged, 
burned, &c. 

Secondly, That plaulible fimilitude will not prove 
that every falfe teaching or falfe practice actually kills 
th^Jouky as the body is llaine, and llaine but once, for 
Joules infedled or bewitched may againe recover, i 
Cor. 5. Gal. 5. 2 Tim. 2. &c. 

Thirdly, ^ov foule- killings, yea alfo iov Joule-wound- 
ings and grievings, Qhrijt "J ejus hath appointed re??ie- 

2o8 The Bloudy Tenent. 

Punifh- ^/^j. fufficlent in his Church. There comes forth a two 
'^■^^^l'^^^' edged J word out of his ffwuth (Rev. i. and 1 1 lo] Rev. 
Chrift 2.) able to cut downe Herejie (as is confeft) yea and 
^^^^^ to kill the Hereticke^ yea and to punifli \\\% Joule ever- 
Soule-kill-laftingly, which no fword oi Jleele can reach unto in 
ers and any punifhiTient comparable or imaginable ; and 
vvound- therefore in this cafe we may fay of ihi^fpirituallfoule- 
ers, killing by the /word of Chrijis mouth, as Paul con- 

cerning the inceftuous perfon, 2 Cor. 2. Sufficient is 
this punijhtnent, &c. 

Fourthly, Although no Soule-killers, nor Soule- 
grievers may be fuffred in the Spirituall State or King- 
dome of Chriji, the Church ; yet he hath commanded 
that fuch fliould be fuffered and permitted to be and 
live in the Worlds as I have proved on Matth. 13. 
otherwife thoufands and millions of Joules and bodies 
both, muft be murthered and cut off by civill combiif- 
tions and bloody warres about Religion. 
Men dead Fifthly, I argue thus : The Soules of all men in 
inSin,can-j.|-jg World are either naturally dead in Sin, or alive 
Soule in Chriji. If dead in fmne, no man can kill them, 
kill'd. no more then he can kill a dead man : Nor is it a 
f," falfe Teacher or falfe Relip-ion that can fo much 

tionall en- . . o _ ^ r i 

forced Ke- prevent the means of Spirituall life, as one of thefe 
^'8'°" °r two ; Either the force of a materiall /word, imprifon- 
War for i^ig the Soules of men in a State or Nationall Religion, 
Religion Minijlcry OX Worjhip \ Or fecondly, Cw/Z/i^^^rrt'j' and 
^ ^ ^^° coinbudions for Religion fake, whereby men are imme- 

great pre- , ^ . <-> ' J 

venters of diatcly cut off without any longer meanes of Repent- 
foulc con- ance. 

and life. Now againe, for the Soules that are alive in Chrijt, 
he hath gracioully appointed Ordinances powerfully 

The Bloudy Tenent. 209 

fufficient to maintaine and cheridi that life^ Armour 
of proof e able to defend them again ft men and devils. 

Secondly, the Soule once alive in Chrift, is like 
Chrift himfelfe, [Revel, i.) alive for ever, (Rom. 6.) 
and cannot die 2^ fpirituall death. 

Laftly, Grant a man to be 2.falfe Teacher, an Here- 
tick, a BalaaiJi, a Spirituall Witch, a IVolfe, a Perfe- So^^e kill- 
cuter, breathing out blafphefnies againft Chrijl, and^by^tTI^ 
/laughters againft his followers, as Paul did, AB. 9. I grace of 
fay, thefe who appeare Souk-killers to day, by the^ [^^ 
grace of Chrijl may prove (as Paul) Soule f avers tofavers. 
morrow : and faith Paul to Timothy (i Tim. 4.) thou 
llialt fave thy felfe and them that heare thee : which 
all muft necelTarily be prevented, if all that comes 
within the fenfe of thefe Soule-killers, muft (as guilty 
of blood) be corporally kill'd and put to death. 


Pfi^r^.T^Eare Truth, your Anfwers are fo fatisfac- 
-L/ torie to Aujli?is fpeech, that \i Aujlin him- 
felfe were now living, me thinkes he (hould be of 
your mind. I pray defcend to Optatus, who **(faith ^pc^t^^ 
"the Anfwerer) juftiftes Macharius for putting fome 
" Hereticks to death, affirming that he had done no 
" more herein then what Mofes, Phineas and Elias 
" had done before him. 

Truth. Thefe are Jhafts ufually drawne from the Perfecu- 
^iver ot the Ceremoniall and typicall ftate of thecJ^^^j^^^^ 
Nationall Church of the Jewes, whofe Jhadowijh andflietoMo- 
figurative ftate vanifhed at the appearing of the Body^f^^^'^ 
and fubjlance, the Sun of Right eoufnefe, who fet up tice. 

210 'The Bloudy Tenent. 

another Kingdorne or Qhurch (Heb. 12.) Minijirie and 
Worjhip : in which we finde no fuch Ordinance^ pre- 
cept or prefident of kilUng men by Materiall Swords 
for Religions fake. 

More particularly concerning Mofes^ I quaerie what 
conunandement or praBice of Mofes either Optatus or 
the Anfwerer here intend ? Probably that palfage of 
Dent. I 3. wherein Mofes appointed a llaughter either 
of a perfon or a city that (hould depart from the God 
Q>i Ifrael^ with whom that Nationall Qhurch was in 
Covenant. And if fo, I (hall particularly reply to 
that place in my Anfwer to the Reafons hereunder 

Concerning Phineas his zealous A6t : 
Phineas Firft, his flaying of the Ifraelitijh man, and woman 
cuffed. ' ' oi Midian, was not ioxfpirituall, but r(?r/)or^//filthines. 

Secondly, no man will produce his fa£i as preli- 
dentiall to any Minijier of the Go/pel fo to adl in any 
Civill Jiate or Commonweale ; although I believe in 
the Church of God it is prejidentiail for either Minif- 
ter or people to kill and flay with the two-edged /word 
of the Spirit of God any fuch bold and open pre- 
fumptuous flnners as thefe were. 

Laftly, concerning Eliah : There were two famous 
aBs of Eliah of a killing nature : 

Firfl, that of flaying 850 [450] oi Baals Prophets, 
I Kings 18. 

Secondly of the two Qaptaines and their Fifties, 
by fire, &c. 
Eliahs For the firfl of thefe, it cannot figure or type out 

flaughters ^ ?nateriall daughter of the many thoufands ol falfe 

examined. ■' jo j .' j 

Prophets in the World by any jnateriall Jword oi Iron 

The Bloudy Tenent. 211 

or Steele : tor as that palfage was [112] jniraculous, 
fo finde we not any fuch commijjion given by the Lord 
'J ejus to the Minifters of the Go/ pel. And laftly, 
fuch a llaughter mufl: not only extend to all the falfe 
prophets in the World, but (according to the Anfwerers 
grounds) to the many thoufands of thoufands of Idol- 
aters and falfe worjhippers in the Kingdofnes and 
Nations of the World. 

For the fecond Ad: of Eliah, as it was alfo of a ^^'''^^ . 
miraculous n2.tuTe : So fecondly, when the follower s^^^^^^^p. 
of the Lord 'J ejus (Luc. 9.) propofed fuch a praftice taines and 
to the Lord yefus, for injury offered to his owne per- ^^^'.'" '^°"^" 

..... .. . panics by 

fon, he difclaimed it with a ?}iilde checke to their angry ^^^^ dif- 
fpirits^ telling them plainly they knew not whatcufled. 
Jpirits they were of; and addeth that gentle and 
mercifull conclujion. That he came not to deftroy the 
bodies of men, as contrarily Antichrijl doth, alledging 
thefe inftances from the Old Tejlament, as alfo Peters 
killing Ananias^ Ad:s 5. and Peters vilion and voice, 
Arife Peter ^ kill and eat, Ad:s. 10. 


Peace^^^Ow have fo fatisfied thefe inftances brought 
X by OptatuSy that me thinks Optatus and 
the Anfwerer himfelf might reft fatisfied. 

I will not trouble you with Bernards argument 
from Rom. 13. which you have already on that 
Scripture fo largely anfwered. 

But what thinke you (laftly) of Calvin^ Beza^ and 
Aretius ? 

212 The Bloudy Tenent. 

Truth. Anf. Since matters of fad: and opinion are 
barely related by the Anfwerer without their grounds, 
whofe grounds notwithftanding in this Difcourfe are 
anfwered. I anfwer, if Paul himfelf were joyned with 
them, yea or an Angel from Heaven bringing any 
other rule then what the Lord Jefus hath once deliv- 
ered, we have Pauls conclufion and refolution, per- 
emptory and dreadfull, Gal. i. 8. 

Peace. This paffage finiflied, let me finilli the whole 
by propofmg one conclulion of the Author of the 
arguments, viz. "It is no prejudice to the Common- 
" wealth if Liberty of Confcience were fuffered to 
" fuch as feare God indeed : Abraham abode a long 
" time amongft the Cananites, yet contrary to them 
"in Religion, Gen. 13. 7. & 16. 13. Againe, he 
" fojourned in Gerar, and King Abimelech gave him 
"leave to abide in his Land, Gen. 20. 21. 23. 24. 
113] " Ifaack alfo dwelt in the fame Land, yet con- 
" trary in Religion, Gen. 26. 

" "Jacob lived 20 yeares in one houfe with his Unkle 
" Laban^ yet differed in Religion, Gen. 3 1 . 

" The people of Ifrael were about 430 yeares in 
" that infamous land of Egypt, and afterwards 70 
" yeares in Babylon : all which times they differed 
" in Religion from the States, Exod. 1 2. & 2. Chron. 
" 36. 

" Come to the time of Chrift, where Ifrael was 
" under the Romanes, where lived divers Sed:s of 
" Religion, as Herodians, Scribes and Pharifes, Sad- 
" uces and Libertines, Theuda^ans and Samaritanes, 
" befide the Common Religion of the Jews, & Chrift 
" and his Apoftles. All which differed from the 

The Bloudy Tenent. 2 1 3 

" Common Religion of the State, which was Uke the 
" Worfhip of Dia?ia, which almoft the whole World 
"then worfhipped, ABs 19. 20. 

" All thefe lived under the Government of Ccejar^ 
" being nothing hurtfull unto the Commonwealth, 
*' giving unto Ccejar that which was his. And for 
" their Religion and Confciences towards God, he 
" left them to themfelves, as having no dominion 
** over their Soules and Confciences : And when the 
" Enemies of the Truth raifed up any tumults, the 
" wifedome of the Magiftrate moft wifely appeafed 
"them, ABs 18 14. & 19. 35. 

" Unto this the Anfwerer returnes thus much : 
** It is true, that without prejudice to the Com- 
" mon-wealth, Libertie of Confcience may be fut- 
" fered to fuch as feare God indeed, as knowing they 
"will not perfift in Herefie or turbulent Schifme, 
" when they are convinced in Confcience of the lin- 
" fulnes thereof. But the queftion is, whether an 
" Heretick after once or twice Admonition, (and fo 
" after Convidlion) and any other fcandalous and 
" heynous offender, may be tolerated either in the 
" Church without Excommunication, or in the Com- 
" mon-weale without fuch punilhment as may pre- 
" ferve others from dangerous and damnable infection. 


Truth. ^ Here obferve the Anfwerers partiality, that 

X none but fuch as truly feare God fhould 

enjoy Libertie of Confcience, whence the Inhabitants 

of the IVorld m.\i{\. either come into [114] the eftate 

214 ^^^ Bloudy Tenent. 

of men fearing God, or elfe dijfemble a Religion in 
hypocrifie, or elfe be driven out of the World: One 
muft follow. The firft is only the gift of God, the 
fecond and third are too commonly pradlifed upon 
this ground. 

Againe, iince there is fo much controverfie in the 
World, where the name of Chriji is taken up, con- 
cerning the true Church, the Minijirie and Worjhip, 
and who are thofe that truly feare God\ I aske who 
fliall judge in this cafe, who be they that feare God ? 
It muft needs be granted, that fuch as have the 
Dangerous power of Juffritig or not fuffring,^ fuch Confciences^ 
ces flow- ^"'"''uft judge : and then mull: it follow (as before I 
ing from intimated) that \\\^' Civill State mulf judge of the 
Ma \7 truth of the Spirituall; and then Magijirates fearing 
trates judgor uot fearing God, muft judge of the feare of God: 
^"g 1" alfo that i\\Q\v judge??ient or fentence muft be accord- 
caufes!^ ing to their conjcience, of what Religion foever : Or 
that there is no lawfull Magijlrate, who is not able 
to judge in fuch cafes. And laftly, that Iince the 
Soveraigne power of all Civill Authority is founded in 
the conjent of the People, that every Common-weale 
hath radically and fundamentally in it a power of 
The true difcerning the true feare of God, which they 
World transfer to their Mag-idrates and Officers : Or elfe 

turned ^ 

upfide that there are no lawfull Kingdonies, Cities, or Townes 
down. in the World, in which a man may live, and unto 
whofe Civill Government he may fubmit : and then 
(as I faid before) there muft be no World, nor is it 
lawfull to live in it, becaufe it hath not a true difcern- 
ing Spirit to judge them that feare or not feare God. 

■ Dele the comma. 

The Bloudy Tenent. 


Laftly, although this worthy Anfwerer lb readily '^he won- 
grants, that Lihertie of Conjcience fliould be fuffred ^o^J^'^^^^^l 
them that feare God indeed : yet we know what theMinifters 
Minijiers of the Churches oi New-Efiglcuid wrote in ^^^^ 
anfwer to the 3 [32] Quefl:ion[sJ fent to them byNewEng- 
fome Minijiers of Old England^'- myl. that although land to the 

' Church-Government and Church- 
Covenant difcuffed, In an Anfwer of the 
Elders of the feverall Churches in New- 
England To two and thirty Queilions, 
fent over to them by divers Minillers in 
England, to declare their judgements 
therein. London. 1643. 

The Preface to this book is by Hugh 
Peter, Williams's fucceflbr in the Church 
at Salem, who had returned to England 
in 1 641, but the work was prepared by 
the Rev. Richard iMather, of Dorcbefler. 
Cotton's Ajifzucr, Pub. Narr. Club, ii : 
103. Mather's Magnalia, \ : 409. 

The thirty-firll queftion is, "Whether 
would you permit any Companie of 
Miniilers and People (being otherwife 
in fome meafure approvable) to fit downe 
by you, and fet up and praftife another 
forme of Difcipline, enjoying like liber- 
tie with yourfelves in the Common- 
wealth, and accepted as a filler Church 
by the rell of your Churches ?" p. 6. 

The anfwer is in part, " Who mull 
have libertie to fit downe in this Com- 
monwealth and enjoy the liberties here- 
of is not our place to determine, but the 
Magillrates who are the rulers and gov- 
ernours of the Commonwealth, and of 
all perfons within the fame. And as 
for acknowledging a companv to be a 
filler Church, that Ihall fet up and prac- 
tife another forme of Church Dil'cipline, 
being otherwife in fome meafure, as you 
fay, approveable, we conceive the com- 

panie that Ihall fo doe, Ihall not be ap- 
proveable therein. * * '■' And if that 
Difcipline which we here praftife, be 
(as we are perfvvaded of it) the fame 
which Chrill hath appointed, and there- 
fore unalterable, we fee not how another 
can be lawful ; and therefore if a com- 
pany of people Ihall come hither, and 
here fet up and praftife another, we 
pray you thinke not much, if we cannot 
promife to approve of them in fo doing, 
efpecialjy untill we fee how approvable 
the men may be, and what Difcipline it 
is they would fet up." pp. 82, 83. 

This language, and that of the remain- 
der of the Anfwer, certainly feems to 
carry all that Williams has put upon it 
in the text, " that they could not ap- 
prove their civil cohabitation with 
them." It is a decided negative to the 
quellion. It was not llrange that with 
his experiences Williams Ihould inter- 
pretet it fo, even if the language had 
been lefs explicit. The quellioners were 
Prelbyterians, and however it might be 
with individual dilfidents, it is clear the 
New England Minillers did not mean to 
allow churches of different conllitution 
from theirs to have any place here. From 
a letter of Hooker's it appears that the 
publication of the Anfwer to the Thirty- 
Two Queilions in England was unex- 
pefled, if not unwelcome, to the writers, 
as liable to " leave a taint of difparage- 
ment upon the caufe." Palfrey's Hi/lory 

21 6 The Bloudy Tenent. 

Miniilers i-^^y confcft them to be fuch perfons whom they 

Church of ^pprov^d of far above themfelves, yea who were in 

Old Eng- their hearts to Uve and die together ; yet if they and 

land. other godly people with them, comming over to them, 

Ihould differ in Church conjlitution, they then could 

not approve their Civil! cohabitation with them, and 

confequently could not advife the Magijirates to fuffer 

them to enjoy a Civill being within their yurifdiBion. 

Heare O Heavens, and give eare O Earth, yea let 

the Heavens be aftoniflied, and the Earth tremble at 

fuch an Anfwer as this from [115] fuch excellent 

men to fuch whom they efteeme for godlinejfe above 



Peace^^^^2i, but they fay, they doubt not if they 
X were there but they Ihould agree ; for, fay 
they, either you will come to us, or you may {hew 
us light to come to you, for we are but weak men, 
and dreame not oi perfeBion in this life. 

of New England, ii: 173. ment of God, who having left the Dif- 
Cotton denies with confiderable afper- (ujfer (in this Booke, and fome other) to 
ity the inference which Williams has write againft the Truth in point of Doc- 
drawn from this Anfwer. " Now fure, trine, hath herein left him to breake 
if there were any fuch Anfwer to be forth in his own hand-writing, into no- 
found in the Booke founding to fuch a torious impudent falfhood in matter of 
purpofe, I myfelfe fhould joyne with fad." Bloody Teneni Wupcd, pp. 184, 
him in the like exclamation, and won- 185. Williams makes fimilar ufe of this 
derment. But when I came to fearch paflage in Mi'. Cotton^s Letter examined, 
for that fpeech, and neither finde in the &c., p. 19. Publications of the Narragan- 
Anfwer which he quoteth to the third fett Club, i: 65. Cotton makes a fimilar 
QueRion, nor in that, which I rather rejoinder, Anfwer, pp. 63, 64. Publica- 
think he meant, the 31. I cannot but tions of the Narraganfett Club, ii : 104. 
admire and adore the righteous Judge- 

The Bloudy Tenent. 217 

Truth. Alas, who knowes not what lamentable Lamenta- 
differences have beene betweene the fame Minijiers of ^,^^^3 ^^^'^^ 
the Church of England, fome conforming, others leav- amongil 
ing their livings, friends, country, life, rather then |.h^"i^hat 
conforme ; when others againe (of whofe perfonall 
godlinejfe it is not queftioned) have fucceeded by co?i- Betweene 
formity into fuch forlaken (fo called) Livings^ How ^hePrefty- 
great the prefent differences even amongft them that indcpen- 
feare God, concerning Faith, 'Jujlijication, and thedants. Gov 
evidence of it ? concerning Repentance and godly for- ^"anters 
row, as alfo and mainly concerning the Church, thecovenant- 
Matter, Forme, Adniinijirations and Governmetit of it ? ers,ofboth 
Let none now thinke that the palTage to New Eno;- "" '^ 

- , many are 

land by Sea, or the nature of the Countrey can doe trulygodly 
what onely the Key of David can doe, to wit, open •" ^^^i'" 
and Ihut the Confciences of men. per ons. 

Befide, how can this bee a faithfull and upright 
acknowledgement of their weaknejje and imperfection, 
when they preach, prifit, and praBiJe fuch violence 
to i\\Q Joules and bodies of others, and by their Rules 
and Grounds ought to proceed even to the killing of 
thofe whom they judge fo deare unto them, and in 
refpecfl oi godlinejfe far above themfelves ? 


Peace.^\7'¥.i but (fay they) i\\Q godly will not perfifl: The doc- 
X in Herejie or turbulent Schijme, when they^""^ 


are convinced in Confcience, &c. tion necef- 

Truth. Sweet Truth, if the Civill Court and Mag- ^^'''b' ^nd 
ijiracy muft judge (as before I have written) and thofe IJJo,^]^"^]]^ 
Civill Courts are as lawfull, conliiling of naturall men heavieil 

21 8 The Bloudy Tenent. 

upon the ^s Q)i godlj pcrfons, then what confequences necefTarily 
p'e°rfon°s^^^will follow, I havc before mentioned. And I adde, 
according to this conclujion it muft follow, that, if the 
moft [i 16] godly perfons yeeld not to once or twice 
Admonition (as is maintained by the Anfwerer) they 
muft neceflarily be efteemed objlinate perfons, for if 
they were godly (faith he) they would yeeld. Muft it 
not then be faid (as it was by one, pafting fentence of 
Banijhfnent upon fome, whofe godlinelfe was acknow- 
ledged) that he that commanded the Judge not to 
refped: the poore in the caufe oi judgement, commands 
him not to refpedl the holy or the godly perfon ? 
The doc- Hence I could name the place and time when a 
trine of gQ^ly man, a moft delirable perfon for his trade, &c. 
tion drives (yet fomething different in confcience) propounded his 
the moil willingnelfe and delire to come to dwell in a certaine 
^I^JqI^"^' Tow?ie in New England-, it was anfwered by the 
of the Chiefe of the place. This man differs from us, and 
world. ^gg defire not to be troubled. So that in conclufion 
(for no other reafon in the world) the poore man, 
though godly, ufefull and peaceable, could not be 
admitted to a Civill Being and Habitation on the 
Common Earth in that Wildernelle amongft them. 
The latter part of the Anfwer concerning the Here- 
ticke or obftinate perfon to be excommunicated, and 
th.^ fcandalous offender to be puniftied in the Common- 
weale, which neither of both come neere our ^lef- 
tion : I have fpoken [of] I feare too largely already. 
Peace. Mr. Cotton concludes with a confident per- 
fwafion of having removed the grounds ot that great 
errour, viz. that perfons are not to be perfecuted tor 
caufe of confcience. 

The Bloudy Tenent. 219 

Truth. And I beleeve (deare Peace) it fliall appear 
to them that (with feare and trembhng at the word 
of the Lord) examine thefe palTages, that the charge 
oi errow reboundeth backe[,] even fuch an erroiir, as 
may well bee called the bloody tenent^ fo diredlly con- The 
tradid:ing the Jpirit and minde and praBice of the-penem. 
Prince of Peace ; fo deeply guilty of the blood of foules 
compelled and forced to Hypocrijiein 2. Jpirituall -A-xxA 
Joule rape ; fo deeply guilty of the blood of the Soules 
under the Altar, perfecuted in all ages for the cauje 
of Confcience, and fo deftrudiive to the civill peace and 
welfare of all Kingdomes, Countries, and Comjuon- 


Peace. ^ I "^O this Conclufion {deare Truth) I heartily 
J- fubfcribe, and know the' God, the Spirit, 
the Prince, the Angels, and all the true awaked Sons 
of Peace will call thee blelfed. 

1 17J Truth. How fweet and precious are thefe con- 
tetnplations, but oh how fweet the anions and frui- 
tions '^ 

Peace. Thy lips drop as the Honey-cotnbe, Ho?iey 
and Milke are under thy Tongue ; oh that thefe drops, 
thefe Jtreames might flow without "^Jiop or interrup- 
tion ! 

Truth. The glorious white Troopers [Rev. 19.) (liall 
in time be mounted, and he that is the moft High 
Prince of Princes, and Lord Generall of Generalls 
mounted upon the Word of Truth and Meeknelfe 

■ Subllitutc "that." 

2 20 The Bloudy Tenent. 

(Pfal. 45.) {hall triumph glorioully, and renew our 
meetings. But harke, what noife is this? 
Warres Peace. Thefe are the dolefull drums, and fhrill 

fcience"" founding trufupets, the roaring murthering Canons, 
xho. Jhouts oi Conquer ours, ^h.^ grones of wounded, dying, 
Jlaughtered, righteous with the wicked. Deare Truth 
how long ? how long thefe dreadfully^^^^Wj- and dire- 
full Jights ? how long before my glad returne and 
rejiitution F 

Truth. Sweet Peace, who will beleeve my true 
report F yet true it is, if I were once beleev'd, bleft 
Truth and Peace fliould not fo foone be parted. 

Peace. Deare Truth, what welcome haft thou found 
of late beyond thy former times or prefent expectations? 

Truth. Alas, my welcome changes as the times, and 
ftrongefty^£;(?r^j' and amies prevaile." were I beleeved 
in this, that Chriji is not delighted with the blood of 
men (but Ihed his owne for his bloodieft enemies) 
that by the word of Chriji no man for gainiaying 
Chriji, or joyning with his enemy Antichriji, ihould 
bee molefted with the civill Jword: Were \\i\% foun- 
dation laid as the Magna Charta of higheft liberties, 
Thebleff-and gooAj'ecurity given on all hands for the prefer- 
ed Magna ^^j.-^^ of it, how foouc fliould everv brow and houfe 

Lharta. • ^ /^i' r, / j 

be ftucke with Olive Branches ? 

Peace. This heavenly invitation makes mee bold 
once more to crave thy patient eare and holy tongue. 
Errours impatient and foon tyred, but thou art Light, 
and like the Father of Lights, unwearied in thy 
(hinings. Loe here what once againe I prefent to 
thy impartiall cenfure. 


A Model of Church and 
Civil Power. 

Compo/ed by Mr. C O T T O N a7id 

the Ministers ^/New- 

And lent to the Church at Salem, 

as a further Confirmation of the bloody 

Dodtrine of Persecution for caufe 

of Conscience. 

Examined and Afifwered. 


Trw/z^.X TXT Hat haft thou there? 

Y' V Peace. Here is a combination of thine A ilrange 
owne Children againft thy very /^ '^"^^'^ °^ 
and mine: Here is a Model! (framed by many able and Com- 
learned and godly hands) of fuch a Church and Cow-monweaJe 
monweale as wakens Afo/fj- from his unknown Grave, at^T,i 

1 1 • cvx ' ^ r Molaicall 

and denies jejus yet to have k&nQ the Earth. andjewifh 

Truth. Begin (fweet Peace) read and propound. P^"""- 
My hand (hall not be tyred with holding the hal- 
lances of the San£luarie : doe thou put in, and I (liall 
weigh as in the prefence of Him whofe pure eyes 
cannot behold iniquitie. 

2 22 'The Bloudy Tenent. 

Mat. 1 6. Peace. " Thus then fpeakes the Preface or Entrance. 
J^hiTzo. " Seeing God hath given a diftin6l power to Church 
23. Rom. ** and Cotnmon-weale^ the one Spiritual! (called the 
J3-J-gMat«pQ^gj. q£- ^i^g i^^_y^j-) the other Civill (called the 

Tit. 3. I. " Power of the Sword) and hath made the members 

Afts 15. « of both Societies fubjed: to both Authorities, lb that 

40 2^' "every [119] foule in the Church is fubjed: to the 

Gal. 3.28. " higher powers in the Commonweale, and every 

" member of the Commonweale (being a member of 

" the Church) is fubjed: to the Lawes of Chrifts 

*' Kingdome, and in him to the cenfures of the 

" Church ; the Queftion is, how the Civill State and 

" the Church may difpence their feverall Govern- 

" ments without infringement and impeachment of 

*' the power and honour of the One or of the Other, 

" and what bounds and limits the Lord hath fet 

" betweene both the Adminiftrations. 

Chrifts Truth. "From that conclufion (deare Peace) that 

power in a gyery mem- of the Commonweale, being a mem- 

confeft to " ber of the Church, is fubjed: to the Lawes of 

be above " Chrifts Kiugdome, and in Him to the cenfure of 

all Magif-,<^j^^ Church ; I obferve that they g^rant the Church 

trates in , , . , . . . , , •'^'^ . 

fpirituall ot Chriji in Spirituall caujes to be fuperiour and over 
things. the higheft Magijirates in the World, if members of 
the Church. 

Hence therefore I infer, may (lie refufe to receive, 
and may alfo caft forth any, yea even the higheft (if 
obftinate in Sin) out of her Spirituall fociety. 

Hence in this Spirituall fociety ^ that foule who hath 
moft of Chrif, moft of His Spirit^ is moft (fpiritually) 
honourable, according to the Scriptures, quoted ABs 
15. 20. Ifa. 49. 23. Gal. 3. 28. 

The Bloudy Tenent. 223 

And if To, how can this ftand with their common 
tenent, that the Civill Magi/irate muft keep the iirfl: 
Table[,] fet up, reforme the Church, and be Judge and 
Governour in all Rcclejiajiicall as well as Civil caufesf 

Secondly, I obferve the lamentable wrefting of this ^'^•49- 23- 
one Scripture, Ifa. 49. 23. Sometimes this Scripture j,^"^^"^^^j\_ 
muft prove the Power of the Civill Magijirates, Kings ed. 
and Governours, over the Church in Spirituall caujes, 
&c. Yet here this Scripture is produced to prove 
Kings and Magijlrates (in Spirituall caufes) to be 
cenfured and corre6ted by the fame Church. 'Tis 
true in fever all refpeBs, he that is a Governour may 
be "Sl lubjetl\^;\ but in one and the fame fpirituallrefpeB 
to judge and to be judged : to fit on the Bench, and 
ftand at the Bar of Chriji "Jefus, is as impolhble as 
to reconcile the Eafl: and Weft together. 


The Jirji head. That both luriJdiBions may Jland 


Peace. '' \T\T Here2.s divers affecting tranfcendingThe firfl 
V V "power to themfelves over the^^^'^^j^" 
" Church have perfwaded the Princes of the World, 
'* that the Kingdome of Chrift in His Church can- 
" not rife or ftand, without the falls of thofe Com- 
" monweales wherein it is fet up, we do beleeve andjohn 18. 
" profelfe the contrary to this fuggeftion ; the gov- 36. 
" ernment of the one being of this World, the other 
" not ; the Church helping forward the profperity of 
"the Commonweale by meanes only Eccle/iajlicall J^r. zg. 7. 


The Bloudy Tenent. 

Ezra 7.23. <' and spiritually The Commonweale helping for- 

2 , * ' " ward her owne and the Churches tehcity by meanes 

I Tim. 2. '* pohticall or temporal! ; the falls of Commonweales 

^' ** beino^ knowne to arife from their fcattering: and 

" diminiiLing the power of the Church, and the 

" flourilhing o*f Commonweales with the well order- 

** ing of the people (even in morall and civill virtues) 

** being obferved to arife from the vigilant adminif- 

" tration of the holy Difcipline of the Church, as 

" Bodin,^ (a man not partiall to Church Difcipline) 

" plainely teftifieth. The vices in the free eftate of 

" Geneva, qiics legibus riujquam vi?idicantur^ by meanes 

"of Church Difcipline, y^A/t" vi ^ tiimultu coercentur ; 

" the Chrifi: ian liberty not freeing us from fubjeftion 

" to Authority, but from inthrallment and bondage 

" unto finne. 

TheCivill Truth. A?if. From this confejjion, that the Church 

Common- or Kittgdome of Chriji may be fet up without preju- 

thrs^irit ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ Commonweale, according to Jolm 18. 36. 

uall Com- My Kingdome is not of this World, &c. I obferve that 

"^°" although the Kingdome of Chrifi, the Church and the 

Church Civill Kingdome or Government be not inconfifient, but 

not incon-that both may ftand together ; yet that they are inde- 

' Jean Bodin ( i 530-1 596) was inclined 
to Judaifm. Bayle, ii : 43-53. An abftraft 
of his great work, De la Republique, Paris, 
1577, is given by Hallam, Introduction 
to Lit. of Europe, ii: 205-230. 

The feverity of the civil code in Ge- 
neva was clolely blended with the eccle- 
fialiical fyflem, and under the predomi- 
nant influence of Calvin the government 
became a ilern theocracy. " The feverity 
of the legiflation thus eilabliflied is 
evinced in Ibme of the minute points of 

difcipline. Brides, for example, were 
not permitted to wear wreaths in their 
bonnets, unlefs of unblemiflied charafter. 
Gamblers were fet in the pillory with 
their cards about their neck ; even in 
1506 the council had forbidden playing 
with dice, ninepins, or cards in the pub- 
lic ilreets. In the years 1546 and 1556 
laws were palled prohibiting the manu- 
facture of cards." Henry, Life of Calvin, 
i: 362, alio Part 2, Chaps, iii., iv., v. 

The Bloudy Tenent. 225 

pendent according to that Scripture^ and that there- fi^ent, 
fore there may be (as formerly I have proved) flour- ^°g^jg"j" 
ifhing Comtnonweales and Societies of men where no the one on 
Church of Chriji abideth ; and fecondly, the Comjuon- ^^^ other. 
weak may be in perfedl; peace and quiet, notwith- 
ftanding the Churchy the Commonweale of Chriji be 
in diJiraBions, and fpirituall oppojitions both againft 
their Religions, and fometimes amongft themfelves, 
as the Church of [ 1 2 1 ] Chriji in Corinth troubled with 
divijions, contentions, &c. 

Secondly, I obferve it is true the Church helpeth 
forward the profperity of the Commonweale by fpirit- 
uall meanes, 'Jer. 29. 7. The prayers of Gods peo- 
ple procure the peace of the City, where they abide, 
yet that Chrijls Ordinances and adminijirations of 
Worjhip are appointed and given by Chriji to any 
Civill State, Towne or City as is implied by the inftance 
of Geneva, that I confidently deny. 

The Ordinances and Dijcipli?ie of Chriji yejus, Chrifls 
though wrongfully and prophanely applied to nat- Ordman- 
urall and unregenerate men may caft a blufh oi civility ^^on a 
and ?)iorality upon them as in Geneva and other places whole 

... ■ Citv or 

(for the lliining brightneife of the wt\:y Jhadow oi^^l-^^^ 
Chrijls Ordina?ices cafts a fliame upon barbarijme and may more 
incivility^ vet withall I affirme that the mifapplica- civilize 

r J~^ 7. 1 and mor- 

tion or Ordinances to unregenerate and unrepentant aiize, but 
perfons hardens up their foules in a dreadfull tleepnever 
and dreame of their owne blefled eftate, and fends ■ ". ™ 

. f. 'z^ them. 

millions oi Joules to hell in a fecure exped:ation of a 
i^iM^ falvation. 


2 26 ^he Bloudy Tenent. 


The fecond heady concerning Superiority of each 

The lec- p^^<:^. " T) Ecaufe contention may arife in future 
concern- ^^ " tiiTies which of thcfc Powcrs under 

ing fupe- " Chrift is the greateft as it hath been under Anti- 
nority of « chrift, we conceive iirft. That the power of the 

each pow- ^- -,, -.jr • ,i • r • i r^i i ;• • • 

er. " Livtll Magtjtrate is luperiour to the Lburch policte in 

Rom. \i-^*' place, honours, dignity, earthly power in the World \ 
Ifa^lo zx "and the Church fuperiour to him (being a member 
Ha.49.23."of the Church) Ecclejiajiically, that is, in a Church 
" way ruHng and ordering him by Spirituall Ordi- 
huQ.\2.\^<^ nances according to God for his Joules health, as any 
And that' " °^^^^ member, fo that all th.Q power the Magifirate 
judicium " hath over the Church is temporall not fpirituall, and 
rV^^}i • " ^^^ \.\\Q power the Church hath over the Magijirate 
law fuits, ^^ '\s Jpirituall not te?nporall : And as the Church hath 
I Cor, 6. " no te?nporall power over the Magijirate, in or dine ad 
^a'rbitrarJ ^^ ^onu?n Jpirituak : So the Magijirate hath no Spirit- 
urn not " uall power over the Church in or dine ad bonum tem- 

coaaivum. <-^ porak. 

** Secondly, the delinquencie of either party calleth 
" for the exercife of the power of terrour from the 
" other part ; for no Rulers ordained of God are a 
"terrour to good works, but to evill, Kom. [122] 13. 
" 3. So that if the Church offend, the offence of 
" the Church calleth upon the Civill Magiftrate, 
" either to feeke the healing thereof as a nurling 
** father by his owne grave advice, and the advice of 
" other Churches ; or elfe if he cannot fo prevaile[,] 

The Bloudy Tenent. 227 

" to put forth and exercife the fuperiority of his power 
" in redrefling what is amilfe according to the quaUty 
" of the offence by the courfe of civill Juftice. 

" On the other fide, if the Magiftrate being a mem- 
" ber of the Chu?'ch fhall offend, the offence calleth 
*' upon the ilhurcb either to feek the heaHng thereof 
** in a brotherly way by conviBion of his linne ; or elfe 
** if they cannot prevaile, then to exercife the Jupe- 
" riority of their power in removing of the offence 
" and recovering of the offendour by Church cenfures. 

If the end of Spiritua/l or Church power is bontun Anf. 
fpirituale^ a fpirituall good ; and the end of Civill or Truth. 
State power is bonum temporale^ a temporall good : 
And fecondly, if the Magiftrate have no fpirituall 
power to attaine to his temporall end, no more then 
a Church hath any temporall power to attaine to her^. contra- 
Spirituall end, as is confeft : I demand if this be not j^'^i-'^"" j^^ 
a contradiBion againff their owne difputes, tenents^ and MagiiUate 
praBices touching; that queftion of perfecution for!"?""^"?^ 
caufe of confcience : For if the Magiftrate be fupreme "fpirituall 
'Judge (and fo confequently give fupreme j^W^^w^«/,caures, and 
fe?itence and determination) in matters of the firftJI^^Ipjj.^^^^^ 
Table, and of the Churchy and be ciftos utriufq.^ Tabula^ all power. 
keepers of both Tables (as they fpeake) and yet have 
no Spirituall power as is affirmed, how can he deter- 
mine what the true Church and Ordinances are, and 
then fet them up with the power of the Sword ? How 
can he giwo, judgement of a falfe Church, a falfe Mi?j- 
iftery, a falfe DoBrine, falfe Ordinances, and with a 
Civil Sword pull them down, if he have no Spiritual 
power, authority or co7nmiftion from Chrift "J ejus for 
thefe ends and purpofes ? 


'The Bloudy Tenent. 

Further I argue thus : If the civill officers of State 
muft determine, judge and punifli in Spirituall caufes, 
his power, authority and comviijjion muft be either 
Spirituall or Civill, or elfe he hath none at all, and 
fo ad:s without a commijjion and warrant from the 
Lord "Jefus, and fo confequently ftands guilty at the 
Bar of Chriji J ejus to anfwer for fuch his prad:ice as 

TheCivilla tranfccndcnt Delinquent. 

confeiur Now for civHl power, thefe worthy Authors con- 
felfe that the Governmetit of the civill Magijlrate 
extendeth no further then over the bodies and goods 
of the SubjeB, and therefore hath no civill [ i 23] power 
over the Soule, and therefore (fay I) not in Soule- 

Secondly, It is here confeft in this paftage, that to 

fpirituall. attaiue his Civill end or Bonum tejuporale, he hath no 
Spirituall power, and therefore of neceffitie out of 
their own mouths muft they be judged for provoking 
the Magijlrate, without either Civill or Spirituall 
power, to judge, punifti and perfecute in Spirituall 
caujes ; and to feare and tremble, left they come 
neere \hoiQ frogs which proceed out of the mouth of 
the Dragon and Beaji 2.r\AJdlJ} Prophet, who by the 
fame Arguments which the Authours here ufe ftirre 
up the Kings of the Earth to make warre again ft the 
Lambe Chriji J ejus, and his Followers, Revel.- 17. 

have no 
over the 
foules of 



IN the next place I obferve upon the point oi Delin- 
quencie, fuch a cofij'ujion, as Heaven and Earth may 
ftand amazed at : If the Church oftend (fay they) after 

The Bloudy Tenent. 229 

advice refufed, in conclufion the Magijirate muft 
redrelTe, that is, punilh the Church (that is, in Church 
offences and cafes) by a courfe of Civill jujiice. 

On the other lide, if the Civill Magijirate offend 
after Admojiition ufed, and not prevaihng, in conclu- 
fion the Church proceeds to cenfure, that is, to Excom- 
munication, as is afterward more largely proved by 

Now I demand, if the Church be a Delinquent , who 
iliall judge? It is anfwered, the Magijirate. Againe, 
if the Magijirate be a Delinquent, I aske who fliall The 
judge ? It is anfwered, the Church. Whence I obferve, •ma^the'* ^ 
(which is monftrous in all cafes in the World) that Church, 
one perfon, to wit, the Church or Magijirate, lliall be^^ ^^^ 
at one time the Delinquent at the Bar, and the y^/^^^ grounds, at 
upon the Bench. This is cleere thus: The Church '^'^'^ ^^^ 
muft judge when i\\Q Magijirate offends; and yetjj^j^g''^^ 
the Magijirate muft judge when the Church offends; one and 
and fo confequentlv in this cafe mufl judge whether ^'^^ .^^'"^ 

. . . . .' o cauie 

file contemne Civill Authority in the Second T^'^/f, made' the 
for thus dealing with him : Or whether fhe havejudges 
broken the rules of the firft Table, of which (fay°" '^^^ 

• Bench, 

they) God hath made him Keeper and C^jw/fr'ufr. and Delin- 
And therefore, though the Church make him a Delin- quents at 
quent at the Bar, yet by their confeflion God hath 
made him a ludge on the Bench, What blood, what 
tumults hath been, and muft be fpilt upon thefe 
grounds ? 

I 24] Peace. Deare Truth, No queftion but the Qhurch 
may punifli the Magijirate fpiritually in Jpirituall 
cafes ; and the Magijirate may punifh the Church, 
civilly, in civill cafes : But that for one and the fame 

230 The Bloudy Tenent. 

caufe the Church mufi: punifli the Magijlrate, and 
the Magijlrate the Church, this feemes monftrous, 
and needs expHcation. 

Truth. Sweet Peace, I illuftrate with \.\\\% Injiance: 
A true Church of ChriJI (of which, according to the 
An illuf- Authors fuppofition, the Magijlrate is a member) 
^!.'^,!)ira ^ choofeth and calls one of her meinbers to office : The 
ting that Magijlrate oppofeth : The Church perfwaded that 
M^ ^,'/^^^ the Magijlrates exceptions are infufficient (according 
cannot to her privikdge, which thefe Authours maintaine 
have pow- again ft the Magijlrates prohibition) proceeds to 
ChuTch^n ^^<^^i"^ her officer: The Magijlrate chargeth the 
fpirituall Church to have made an unfit and unworthy choice, 
or Church ^^^ therefore according to his place and power, and 
according to his cofijcience Tindi judgement he fupprefleth 
fuch an ojficer, and makes void the Churches choice: 
Upon this the Church complaines againft the Mag- 
ijlrates violation of htv prinji ledges given her by Chrijl 
lejus, aud cries out that the Magijlrate is turned 
Perfecuter ; and not prevailing with admoniti07i, flie 
proceeds to Excommunication againft him : The Mag- 
ijlrate according to his conjcience, endures not fuch 
profanation of Ordinances as he conceives ; and there- 
fore if no advice and admonition prevaile, he proceeds 
againft fuch obftinate abujers of Chrijl s holy Ordi- 
nances, (as the Authors grant he may) in Civill Court 
oi jujlice, yea and (I adde according to the patterne 
of IJrael) cuts them off" by the /word, as obftinate 
ujurpers and prophaners of the holy things of Chrijl. 
The pun- I demand what helpe hath any poore Church of 
C-"-n"^^ ^^^^iJ^ i^^ ^^^^ ^^^^» ^^y iiT^aintaining this power of the 
which the Magijlrate to punifti the Church of Chrijl, I meane 

'The Bloudy Tenent. 231 

m fpiritiiall ind Souk-cafes, for otherwile I queftion l^^g'^^^'^te 
not but he may put all the member's of the Church to " ^'j^ \'^^ 
death juftly, if they commit crimes worthy thereof, Church 
as Paul fpake, ABs 27. [xxv : ii.l ^^l" ^'^''^^ 

1 ' -^ L J crimes 

Shall the Church here the to the Popes Sandiuarie lawfull' 
againft E??iperours and Princes excommunicate, toa"^ n^cef- 
wit, give away their crowns, kingdomes or dominions, ^^^' 
and invite forraigne Princes to make War upon them 
and their Territories .^ The Authors furely will dif- 
claime this ; and yet I fliall prove their Tenents tend 
dire(5lly unto fuch a pradtife. 

125] Or fecondly, Ihall (lie fay the Magijlrate is not 
a true Magijlrate, becaufe not able to judge and deter- 
mine in fuch cafes ? This, their confejjion will not give 
them leave to fay, becaufe they cannot deny unbe- 
lievers to be law full Magijirates : and yet it iliall 
appeare (notwithftanding their confejjion to the con- 
trary) their Tenents imply, that none but a Magif- 
trate after their own confcietice, is a lawfull Magijlrate. 

Therefore, thirdly, they muft ingenuoully and hon- 
eftly confelfe, that if it be the duty of the Magijlrate 
to punifli the Church m Jpirituall caj}s, he muft then 
judge according to his conjcience 2in6. perfw a/ion, what- 
ever his cofijcience be : and then let all men judge 
into what a wofuU ftate they bring both the civill 
Magijlrate and Church of Chrijl, by fuch a Church- 
deftroying and -S'/^/t'-deftroying Dodrrine. 

Peace. Some will here fay, in fuch a cafe either 
the Magijlrate or the Church muft judge ; either the 
the Spirituall or Civill State muft be fupreme, 

[Truth.] I anfwer, if the Magijlrate be of another 

232 The Bloudy Tenent. 

The true Firft, What hath the Church to judge him being 

way of the .1 ^ 5 r-. " 

God of Without ? I Cor. 5. 

Peace in Secondly, If he be a ineinber of the Churchy doubt- 
difFeren- j^g ^^ Church hath power to judge (in fpirituall and 
tween the Soule-cafes) with fpirituall and Qhurch cenfures all 
Church &that are within, i Cor. 5. 

iftrate^^" Thirdly, If the Church offend againft the civill 
peace of the State, by wronging the bodies or goods of 
any, the Magijirate bears not the fword in vaine, 
Rom. 13. to corred: any or all the members of the 
Church. And this I conceive to be the onely way 
of the God of Peace. 


The third head concerns the End of both thefe Powers. 

[Peace.^ ** IT^Irft the common and laft end of both is 
" JL Gods glory, and Mans eternall felicitie. 

" Secondly, the proper ends : 

" Firft of Commonwealth, is the procuring, pre- 
" ferving, increafing of externall and temporall peace 
" and felicitie of the State in all Godlines and Hon- 
" eftie, I Ti»i. 2. i, 2. 

1 26] " Secondly, of the Church, a begetting, preferv- 
" ing, increafing of internall and fpirituall peace and 
" felicity of the Church, in all godlinelfe and honefty, 
" Efay 2. 3, 4. and 9. 7. So that Magiftrates have 
" power given them from Chrift in matters of Relig- 
" ion, becaufe they are bound to fee that outward 
" peace be preferved, not in all ungodlineffe and dif- 
" honefly (for fuch peace is Satanicall) but in all god- 

The Bloudy Tenent. 233 

*' lineiTe and honefty, for fuch peace God aymes at. 
" And hence the Magiftrate is cujios of both the 
** Tables of godUnelfe, in the iirft of Honefty, in the 
"fecond for Peace fake. Hee muft fee that honefty 
" be preferved within his jurifdid:ion, or elfe the fub- 
"jed: will not be bonus Gives. Hee muft fee that C^^"^'^''- 
" godlinelfe as well as honefty be preferved, elfe the 5 
"fubje6l will not be bonus vir, who is the beft bonus Virk.^a.Tt. 
*^ cives. Hee muft fee that godlinelfe and honefty P°^'^' ^'''" 

o ^ ■' I . cap. I . 

" be preferved, or elfe himfelfe will not bee bonus 
" Magijiratus. 

Truth. In this pallage here are divers particulars 
affirmed marvellous deftruftive both to godlincjfe and 
honejiy^ though under a faire maske and colour of 

Firft, it will appeare that in fpirituall things they The Gar- 
make the Garden and the W ildernejfe (as often I havc^^i^ of the 
intimated) I fay the Garden and the W ildernejfe^ ^he^j^^^'J^g 
Church and the World are all one : for thus, Wiider- 

If the Powers of the World or Civill State, are '^^'^^°^^"'^^ 
bound to propofe externall Peace in all godlinejfe for made all 
their end, and the end of the Church be to preferveone. 
internall Peace in all godlinejfe, I demand if their end 
[godlinejfe) bee the fame, is not their power and Jlate 
the fame alfo, unlefte they make the Church Jubordi- 
nate to the Coimnonwealths end, or the Commofiweale 
Jubordinate to the Churches end, which (being the 
governour and fetter up of it, and fo confequently the 
'Judges of it) it cannot be ? 

Now if godlineffe bee the worjljipping and walking "The Com- 
with God in Chrijl, is not the Magiftrate and Com- UJore^^ 


234 '^he Bloudy Tenent. 

charged monwcale charged more by this tenent with the wor- 

Amhors J^^^P ^'"'^ Ordinances of God^ then the Chiirch,\}^ for the 

with the Magijirate they charge with the externall peace in 

^?'^5!''?- zodlinelTe^ and the Church but with the inter nail. 

and Ordi-6 t i r i i • l • • n • 11 

nances, 1 aske further, what is this internall peace in all 

then the godlinej]} ? whether intend they internall within the 

"'^^ ■ Souk\ which onely the eye of God can fee, oppofed 

to externall or vifible^ which man alfo can difcerne ? 

or elfe whether they meane internall, that is fpirit- 

uall Joule matters, matters of Gods Worjhip, and 

then I fay that peace (to [127] wit, oi godlinejfe or 

Gods worjhip) they had before granted to the civill 

State ? 

The au- Peace. The Truth is, (as I now perceive) the beft 

thefe Pofi-^"^ moft godfy of that judge?nent declare themfelves 

tionsnever never to have feene a true difference betweene the 

y" '^^y'J' Church and the World, and the Spirituall and Civill 

true differ- ^ ^ r % r (at r 

ence be- otatc ; and howloever thele worthy Authours leeme 

tweenetheto make a kinde q>{ feparation from the World, and 

Q}^^[j[ 3j^°^ profelfe that the Church muft confift of fpirituall and 

the world, /m«^ Stoncs, Saints, Regenerate perfons, and fo make 

in pointofi^Qj^^g peculiar inclofed Ordina?ices, as the Supper of 

the Lord, (which none, fay they, but godly perfons 

muft tafte of) yet by compelling all within their 

JurifdiBion to an outward conformity of the Church 

worjhip, of the Word and Prayer, and maintenance of 

the Minijiry thereof, they evidently declare that they 

ftill lodge and dwell in the confufed mixtures of the 

uncleane and cleane, of the Jlock of Chriji, and Herds 

of the World together, I meane in fpirituall and 

religious worihip. 

The Bloudy Tenent. 235 

Truth. For a more ful and clear difcuffion of this 
Scripture, i T/w. 2. i. 2. (on which is weakly built 
fuch a mighty building) I (hall propofe and refolve 
thefe foure ^ceries. 


FIrft, what is meant hy god linejfc and honcjiy in this ' '^.''"- '^• 
place. ^ _ ed."^'^'"^' 

Secondly, what may th.^ f cope of the holy Spirit of 
Gc^rf' be in this place. 

Thirdly, whether the civill Magijlrate was then 
cujios utriufque Tabula, keeper of both Tables, &c. 

Fourthly, whether a Church or Congregation of 
Chrijiians may not live in godlinejje and honejiy, 
although the civill Magijlrate be of another con- 
Jcience and worjljip, and the whole State and Country 
with him. 

To the firft. What is here meant by godlinejfe and The word 
honefty ? ^/^"'^^V ^" 

/I -Tri n ■ ' - place 

Anjw. I nnde not that the Spirit ot Go^ hereofTimo- 
intendeth the firft and fecond Table. ^^y can- 

For, how ever the word Eoai^-izca lignifie godlinejfe, j|° j^^^j." 
or the worjhip of God, yet the fecond word i^^ori^cthe hon- 
I finde not that it fignifies fuch an honelly as com-^^^°'" ^ 

^ o J mf ngntcoul- 

prifeth the duties of the fecond Table, but fuch anneffeof 
honejly as {\gn\^t?> J olemnity, gravity , and fo it is turned ^^^ fecond 

by the TranJlatOUrs, Tit. 2. 7. ^v -;^ oioaa/.aUa (hnaifih)j>tav^ 

atuvo'Yf/.^ that is, in | 1 28] doBrine, incorruptnejfe, 
gravity : which doBrine cannot there bee taken for 
the doBrine of the civill Jl ate, or fecond Table, but 
the gravity, majejiy, and Jolemnity of the fpirituall 

236 The Bloudy Tenent. 

doElrine of Chrijtianity. So that according to the 
Tranflatours owne rendring of that word in Titus, 
this place of Timothy fhould be thus rendred [In all 
godlinejje (or worJJjipping of God) 2ind gravity^ that is, 
a folemne or grave profeffion of the worJJjip of God ; 
and yet this miftaken and mifinterpreted Scripture is 
that great Cajile and ftrong Hold which fo many flye 
unto concerning the Magijlrates charge over the two 

Secondly, what is th-Qfcope of the Spirit of God in 
this place ? 
The fcope \ anfwcr firft negatively, the fcope is not to fpeake 
Spirit in ^^ ^^^ duties of the firji and fecond Table : 
this place Nor fecondly is the fcope to charge the Magijlrate 
ofTimo- ^iti^ forcing the people (who have chofe him) to 
godlineffe or Gods worjhip, according to his confcience, 
(the Magijlrate keeping the peace of externall god- 
linejje, and the Church of internall, as is affirmed :) 

Secondly, pofitively, I fay the Spirit of God by Paul 

in this place provokes Timothy and the Church at 

Ephejus, and fo confequently all the Minijlers of 

Chrijls Churches and Chrijtians, to pray for two things, 

Godspeo- Firft, for the peaceable and quiet ftate of the 

pie muft Countries and places of their abode, [;] that is implyed 

an7en°'^ in their praying (as Paul directs them) for a quiet 

deavour and peaceable condition, and fuits fweetly with the 

of^thr^^ command of the Lord to his people, even in Babel, 

State ihtyjer. 29. J. Pray for the peace of the City, and feeke 

live in. t^g gQQ({ gf it, for in the Peace thereof it (liall goe 

PaLrfr well with you. Which Rule will hold in any Pagan 

Popifh. or Popijh city, and therefore confequently are Gods 

l^he Bloudy Tenent. 237 

people to pray againft JVarres^ Fa7nines^ Vejlilences, 
and efpecially to bee far from kindling coaks of War, 
and endeavour the brihging in and advancing their 
cojijcience by t\\Q fword. 

Secondly, they are here commanded to pray for 
the fahatmi of all men, that all men, and efpecially 
Kings and Magijlrates might be faved, and come to 
the knowledge of the truth, implying that the grave 
or folemne and fliining profejjiofi of godlineffe or Gods 
worjhip according to Chriji 'Jefus, is a blelfed meanes 
to caufe all forts of men to be affe6led with the Chrif- 
tian profejion, and to come to the fame knowledge of 
that one God and one Mediatour Chrijt Je/us. All 
which tends diredlly againft what it is brought for, 
to wit, the [i 29] Magijlrates forcing all men to god- Forcing of 
linejfe or the worjhipping of God, which in truth ^JJj]ij^°^g 
caufeth the greateft breach o{ peace, and the greateftor Gods 
didraBions in the World, and the fettino; up that for^°'''^'P' 

^ _ , ... or the ereat- 

godlifieffe or worjljip which is no more then Nebiichad- ^ss. caufe 
nezzars golden Image, a i^tate worjhip, and in fome °^^r.^^.^^^ 
places the worjhip of the Beaji, and his Image, Dan.°^,^J^^ 
3. Rev. 13. 


THirdly, I qusrie whether the Civill Magi/Irate 
(which was then the Roman Emperotir) was 
keeper or guardian of both Tables (as is affirmed.) 

Scripture and all Hijiory tell us, that thofe Ccefars The 
were not only ignorant, without God, without Chriji, ^°"?^" 
&c. but protelfed worjhippers or maintainers of thedefcribed. 
Roman gods or divells ; as alfo notorious for all forts 

238 T^he Bloudy Tenent. 

of wickedneffe, and laftly, criiell and bloudy Ltons^ and 
Tygers toward the Chrijiians for many hundred yeares. 
Not ap- Hence I argue from the wtfdome, love and faith- 
Chdft ^ fulnejfe of the Lord J ejus in his houfe, it was impofli- 
Jefuskeep-ble that he fliould appoint fuch ignorant^ fuch Idola- 
ers and froiis, fuch wtcked and fuch cruell perfons to be his 

guardians , • /• .^ /»- i t-a t • 1 1 • r ir 

of his <r/6/6y^ Officers and Deputy Lieutenants under nimlelre 

Church, to keep the worjhip of GW, to guard his Churchy his 

Wife : No wife and loving father was ever knowne 

to put his childe^ no not his hearts, dogs ox J wine ^ but 

unto fitting keepers. 

Men judge it mattei of high complaint, that the 
Records of Parliaf?ie?it, the Kings children, the Tower 
oi London y the Great Scale fliould be committed to 
unworthy keepers ! And can it be without high blaf- 
phemie conceived that the Lord Jefus fliould commit 
his Sheepy his Children^ yea his Spoufe, his thoufand 
iliields and bucklers in the Tower of his Church ! and 
laftly, his Great and Glorious Broad Scales of Bap- 
tijme and his Supper, to be preferved pure in their 
adminijlrations, I fay that the Lord Jefus who is wif- 
dome, and faithfulnejfe it felfe, fliould deliver thefe to 
fuch keepers. 

Peace. Some will fay, it is one thing what perfons 
are \\\fa£l and praBice : another what they ought to 
be by right and o^ce. 

Truth. In fuch cafes as I have mentioned, no man 
doth in the common eye ol reafon deliver fuch mat- 
ters of charge and truft to fuch as declare themfehes 
2.nAf fines (like Sodome) at the very time of this great 
charge and truft to be committed to them. 
1 30] Peace. It will further be faid, that many of the 

The Bloudy Tenent. 239 

Kings of yiidah who had the charge of ejiabliflding^ 
refonning (and fo confequently of keeping the firft 
Tahle) the Churchy Gods worjhip^ &c. were notorioufly 
wicked. Idolatrous, &c. 

Truth. I muft then fay, the cafe is not ahke, for 
when the Lord appointed the government of IJrael 
after the rejed:ion of Saul to eftabUfh a Covenant of 
fuccejjion in the type unto Chrijl, let it bee minded 
what pattcrne and prejident it pleafed the Lord to fet 
for the after Kings of Ifrael and Judah, in David the 
man after His owne Heart. 

But now the Lord y ejus being come Himfelfe, and 
having fulfilled the former types, and diifolved the 
Nationall Jtate of the Church, and eftabliOied a more 
Spirituall way of worjhip all the World over, and ^^ P^^^^^*^ 
appointed a Spirituall government and governours, it isLord Jefus 
well knowne what the Roman Ccejars were, under in the firft 
whom both Chrijl Jefus Himfelfe and his Servant s'l^''^^'''' 
after him lived and fuffered ; fo that if the Lor^/church to 
yej'us had appointed any fuch Deputies (as we finde^"''"'.^ 
not a tittle to that purpofe, nor have a fhadow of true vvhh^any 
reafon fo to thinke) he muft I fay in the very firft fuch Civill 
intlitution, have pitched upon fuch perfons for thefe ^°^'^''"" 

■* ours 3S 

Cufodes utriufq.^ Tabulcs, keepers of both Tables, as unto' 
no man wife, or faithfull or loving, would have whom hee 
chofen in any of the former In/lances or cafes of a"!'£j;, 

J J commit 

more inferiour nature. the care 

Befide to that great pretence oi Ifrael , I have largely °^ ^}^. 

fpoken to. ^ 

Secondly, I aske how could the Roman Ccefars or 

any Civill Magif rates be cufodes, keepers of the 

Church and worfhip of God, when as the Authours of 

240 The Bloudy Tenent. 

thefe pofttions acknowledge, that their Civill power 
extends but to bodies and goods. 

And for Spirituall power they fay they have none, 

ad boniun temporale (to a temporall good) which is 

their proper end, and then having neither Civill nor 

Spirituall power from the Lord J ejus to this purpofe, 

how come they to be fuch Keepers as is pretended ? 

The true Thirdly, If the Roman Ef?iperours were Keepers, 

whlch^^ what Keepers were the Apojlles, unto whom the Lord 

Chrift y^Jus gave the care and charge of the Churches^ and 

Jefus ap- ^y ^l^om the Lord lefus charged Timothy, i Ti?)!. 6. 

his Ord'i- to keep thofe co?n?7ja?tds of the Lord lefus without 

nancesand fpot UUtill his CO??iming. 

or ip. Xhefe Keepers were called the foundation of the 
Church, Ephef. 2. 20. and made up the Crowne of 1 2 
Stars about the head of the [131] Woman, Rev. 12. 
whofe names were alfo written in the 1 2 foundations 
of New lerufiletn. Rev. 2 1 . 

Yea what Keepers then are the ordinary Officers 
of the Church appointed to be the Shepherds or Keep- 
ers of the Flocke of Chrifl, appointed to be the Por- 
ters or Dore-keepers and to watch in the abfence of 
Chrif, Mark 13. 34. ABs 20. 

Yea what charge hath the whole Church it felfe, 
which is the pillar and ground of Truth, 2 Ti^n. 2. 
in the midft of which Chrifl is prefent with his 
Power, I Cor. 5. to keep out or caft out the impeni- 
tent and obftinate, even Kings and Efnperours them- 
felves from their Spirituall fociety, i Cor. 5. ya?n. 3. 
I. Gal. 3. 28. 
TheKings 4- I ^^^^ whether in the time of the Kifigs of 
of the Af- Ifrael and ludah (whom I confelTe in the typicall and 

T^he Bloudy Tenent. 241 

Natlonall rtate to be charged with both Tables) ^[j^'^'^Jj^'f^'^- 
aske whether the Kings of the AJJyriaiis, the Kings^^l ^j^h^' 
of the Ammonites^ Moabites, Pbilijiims^ were alfo con- Gods wor- 
ftituted and ordained Keepers of the worpip of God^'l ^'^j?^ 

r ir 1 Ivings or 

as the Kifigs oi ludah were (for they were alio law-judah in 
full Mazilirates in their Do?}miio7is ?) or whether the that Na- 

■r^ ?- a J \ ^U tionall 

Roman htnperours were cujtodes, or keepers more then ^^^ ^ypj, 
they ? or more then the King oi Babylon Nebuchad- ca.\\ 
nezzar, under whofe Civill government Gods people ^^"'■'^^• 
lived, and in his owne Land and City, ler. 29. 


Peace. '^J' On remember (deare Truth) that Confian- Conftan- 

X tine, Tbeodojius, and others were made ^o^j^c'^^ ^^1 
beleeve that they were the Antitypes of the i^/;z^J-mirin- 
oi Iiiddh, the Church of GW; and Henry the 8 was^°™^^- 
told that that Title Defenjor Fidei, Defendour of the 
Faith (though fent him by the Pope for writing 
againft Luther) was his owne Diadem due unto him 
from Heaven. So likewife fince, the Kings and ^eens 
of England have been inftru6led. 

Truth. But it was not fo from the beginning, as 
that very difference between that Nationall ftate of 
the Church of God then, and other Kings and Mag- 
ijlrates of the World (not fo charged) doth clearly 
evince and leadeth us to the Spirituall King of the 
Church, Chriji lefus the Ki?ig of Ifrael, and his Spirit- 
uall Government and Governours therein. 

Fifthly, I aske whether had the Roman Cafars Mafters of 
more charge to fee all their Subjed:s obferve and lub- ^j^^j^^The 
mit to the worjbip oi God in [132J their dominion Gofpelnot 

242 The Bloudy Tenent. 

charged to of the World, then a majier, father or hujhand now 
under^im Under the Gofpel in his Familie ? 
from their Families are xhe foundations oi government, for what 
owne con- -g ^ Qom?nonweale, but a Qo7n?nonweale of Fafnilies 

Icicnccs to 

his. agreeing to live together for common good? 

Now \x\fa77iilies, fuppofe a beleeving Chrijiian Huf- 
band hath an unbeleeving Antichrijtian wife, what 
other charge in this refped: is given to an hujhand, 
I Cor. 7. but to dwell with her as an husband if flie 
be pleafed to dwell with him ; but, to bee fo farre 
from forcing her from her confcience unto his, as 
that if for his confcience fake ihe would depart, he 
was not to force her to tarry with him, i Cor. 7. 
Confequently the Father or Hujhand of the Sta^e 
differing from the Commonweale in Keligion, ought 
not to force the Co?nmonweale, nor to be forced by it : 
yet is he to continue a civill hujhands care, if the 
Com?nonweale will live with him, and abide in civill 

Now as a hujhand by his love to the truth and holy 

converjation in it, and feafonable exhortations, ought 

to indeavour to fave his wife, yet abhorring to ufe 

corporall cofnpulfon (yea, in this cafe to childe or Jerv- 

ant) fo ought the Father, Hujhand, Governor of the 

Com7nonweale endeavour to win and fave whom poffi- 

bly he may, yet farre from the appearance of civill 


jP^j^^ Sixthly, if the Romane Emperours were charged by 

charge of Chrijl with his Worjlnp in their dominion, and their 

G06.S wor- ^QfjjjfjJQf2 was over the world (as was the do?ni?iion of 

left^with ^^^ Grecian, P erf an, and Babylonian Monarchy before 

the Ro- them) who fees not if the whole world bee forced 

The Bloudy Tenent. 243 

to turne Cbr'ijUcm (as afterward and fince it hath pre- '"^"^ E"^- 
tended to doe) who fees not then that the world (forj'jj^j^^^ygg 
whom Chrift Jefus would not pray) and the God of he bound 
it, are reconciled to "Jcjus Chriji^ and the whole y^V/^^° ^""""^ 
of the 'world become his inclofed garden ? world into 

Seventhly, if the Ro??iane Emperors ought to have the Gar- 
been by Chrijls appointment Keepers of both Tables^ and'spou'ie 
Antitypes of Ifrael and yudahs Kings, how manyofChrift. 
millions of Idolaters and Blafphemers againft Cbri/l'^^^^^^^^ 

put to 

'J ejus and his worfliip ought they to have put to death. 
death according to Ifraels patterne ? 

Laflly, I aske (if the Lord J ejus had delivered his 
Sheepe and Children to thefe Wolves^ his Wije and 
Spouje to fuch Adulterers, his precious Jewels to fuch 
great Theeves and Robbers of the world as the Rofuane 
Emperours were, what is the reajon that he was never 
pleafed [ i 33] to fend any oihi'i J er'u ants to their ^^/t'j-Chrift 
to crave their helpe & aj/ijtance in this his worke, to"^^^^^-^"^ 
put them in minde of their office, to chalenge and Miniilers 
cjaime fuch a fervice from them according to their"'' ^^'■^' 
office, as it pleafed God alwayes to fend to the Kings (^jvill Ma- 
of Ifrael and Judah in the like cafe ? giitrate for 

Peace. Some will here object Pauls appealing to^-^.P^'^jj 

LiCeJar. matters. 

Truth. And I muft refer them to what I formerly 
anfwered to that Objection. Paul never appealed to 
Ccejar as a Judge appointed by Chrift Jefus to give 
definitive fentence in any fpirituall or Church con- 
troverfie, but again ft that civill violence and murther 
which the Jewes intended againft him, Paul juftly 
appealed : For otherwife if in a Jpirituall cauje he 
Ihould have appealed, he Ihould have overthrowne 

244 ^^^ Bloudy Tenent. 

his owne ApoJileJJjip and Power given him by Chriji 
'J ejus mjpirituall things, above the higheft Kings or 
Emperors of the world belide. 


P^^f^.TDLelTed Truth, I fhall now remember you 

\y of the fourth Quasrie upon this place of 

'Timothy, to wit, whether a Church of ChriJI lefus 

may not live in Gods worjloip and comelinelTe, not- 

withftanding that the civill Magijlrate profelTe not 

the fame but a contrary Religion and Wo?'Jljip in his 

owne perfon and the Country with him. 

fr^^ K Truth. I anfwer the Churches of Chriji under the 

lef^power ^oman E?nperours did live in all godlinejfe and chrijiian 

in his gravity, as appeares by all their holy and glorious 

Church to .^^-^ which the Scripture abundantly teftifies. 

prelerve ^ . ,^ . . . ^ 

her felfe Secondly, this flowes from an injiitution or appoint- 
P^re, merit of fuch a power and authority, left by the Lord 
an°kfola-" ^^J''^^ ^o his ApoJUes and Churches, that no ungodli- 
trous neffe or difhonefty in the firft appearance of it was 
Coun- |.Q i^g fuffered, but fuppreft and call out from the 
Churches of Chriji, even the little Leaven of doctrine 
or practice, i Corinth. 5. Gai. 5. 

Laftly, I adde, that although fometimes it pleafeth 
the Lord to vouchfafe his Jervants peace and quietnejfe, 
and to command them here in Timothy to pray for 
it, for thofe good ends and purpofes for which God 
hath appointed civili Magijiracy in the world, to 
keepe the world in peace and quietne[fe.\j\ Yet Gods 
Gods peo-P^^P^^ have ufed moft to [134J abound with godli- 
ple have nejjc and honejly, when they have enjoyed leaft peace 

The Bloudy Tenent. 245 

and quiet?iejje. Then like ihoi^f pices. Cant. 4. Myrrhe, "^^"^ ^^ 
Frankmce?ije, SaJfro7i, Qalainus, &c. they have yeelded briehteil 
the fweeteft favour to God and man, when they were godlinefle 
pounded and burnt in cruell perfeciition of the Romane'f^^^^^^^ 

i ^ ■' "^ , , nave en- 

Cenjors : then are they (as Gods Venijhi) moft fweet joyed leail 
when moft hunted: Gods Stars fhining brighteft inquietnes. 
the darkeft night : more heavenly in cofiverfation, 
more mortified-, more abounding in love each to 
other, more longing to be with God: when the 
itihof pit able and Jalvage World have ufed them like 
Jirangers, and forced them to haften home to another 
Country which they profelfe to feeke. 


Pf^7r^. T^ Eare 'Truth, it feemes not to be unfeafon- 
\^ able to clofe up this paff^ige with a fliort 
defcant upon that AJJertion, viz. "A J'ubjeB without 
^* godlifiejfe will not be bonus vir, a good man, nor a 
*' Magijlrate except he fee godlinejje preferved, will 
" not be bonus Magijlratus. 

Truth. I confelfe that without godlinejfe or a true Few Mag- 
worjhipping oi God with an upright heart according Ji"^^^^^^ 
to Gods Ordina?ices, neither SubjeBs nor Magi/irates iynhuaUy 
can pleafe God in Qhriji lejus, and fo be fpiritually or^""^ ^h"'- 
chrijiianly good, which few Magijlrates and few men q"/ 
either come to, or are ordained unto : God having 
chofen a \\\.\X&Jlock out of the world, and thofe gen- 
erally poore and meane, i Cor. 1 . lam. 2. Yet this 
I muft remember you of, that when the moft High 
G(?<'/ created all things of nothing, he faw and acknow- 
ledged divers forts of goodnejje, which muft ftill be 

246 T^he Bloudy Tenent. 

Yet divers acknowledged in their diftind; kindes : a good Ayre, 
goodneffe ^ gooA Groutid, 2. good Tree, a good Sbeepe, &c. 
natural), I fay the fame in Artificialls, a good Garment, a 
^•^^Mrt''' good Houje, a good Sword, a good Ship. 

I alfo adde a good City, a good Company or Cor- 
poration, a good Hujhand, Father, Majler. 

Hence alfo we fay, a good Phy/itian, a good Law- 
yer, a good Sea-man, a good Merchant, a good Pilot, 
for fuch or fuch 2. jhoare or Harbour, that is. Morally, 
Civilly good in their feverall Civil! refpeBs and 

Hence (/y^/. 133. [122]) the C/62/r<:/6 or Citieof Go^ 
is compared to [135] a C/V/V compact within it felfe ; 
which compazines may be found in many Toivnes 
and Cities of the World, where yet hath not fliined 
any fpirituall or fupernaturall goodnejfe. Hence the 
Lord Jefus [Matth. i 2.) defcribes an ill ftate of an 
houfe or kingdome, v'vl. to be divided againft it felfe, 
TheCivill which cannot ftand. 

Goodnes Thefc I obferve to prove, that a SubjeB, a Magif- 
KiS-"^^' f^^f^y "^ay be a good SubjeB, a good Magijlrate, in 
domes, refpe6t of civill or jjiorall good7ies, which thoufands 
Subjefts, -^ant, and where it is, it is commendable and beau- 
rate!! mull tifull, though GodHnes which is infinitely more beau- 
be owned, tifull, be Wanting, and which is onely proper to the 
S^^frk^faH Chrijlian Jiate, the Co?mnonweale of Ifrael, the true 
goodnes Church, the holy Nation, Ephef 2. i Pet. 2. 
(proper Laftly, howcvcr the Authors deny that there can 

Chriftian t)e Bonus Magijlratus, a good Magiftrate, except he 
State or fee all Godlifies preferved ; yet themfelves confelTe 
Church; j.j^^^. ^/<^,/// Jjonejiy is futficient to make a good SubjeB, 
ing. in thefe words, viz. He mufl: fee that Honejlie be pre- 

The Bloudy Tenent. 247 

ferved within \\h jurifdiBion^ elfe the SubjeB will not 
be Bonus cives^ a good citizen : and doubtlelfe (if the 
Law of Relations hold true) that civi// honeftie which 
makes a good citizen, mufl: alfo (together with quali- 
fications fit for a Commander) make alfo a good 


Peace/ | ^He 4. head is, The proper meanes of both 
X thefe Powers to attaine their ends. 
" Firll, the proper meanes whereby the Civill 

* Power may and fhould attaine its end, are onely 

* Politicall, and principally thefe Five. 

** Firft the erecting and eftablifliing what forme of 

* Civill Government may feeme in wifedome moft 
' meet, according to generall rules of the Word, and 

* ftate of the people. 

'* Secondly, the making, publifliing, and eftablifh- 

* ing of wholefome Civill Lawes, not onely fuch as 

* concerne Civill Juftice, but alfo the free paflage of 

* true Religion : for, outward Civill Peace arifeth 

* and is maintained from them both, from the latter 

* as well as from the former : 

" Civill peace cannot ftand intire, where Religion 

* is corrupted, 2 Chron. 15. 3. 5. 6. Judg. 8. And yet 

* fuch Lawes, though converfant [136] about Relig- 

* ion, may ll:ill be counted Civill Lawes, as on the 

* contrary, an Oath doth ftill remaine Religious, 

* though converfant about Civill matters. 

" Thirdly, Eledlion and appointment of Civill ofii- 
" cers, to fee execution of thofe Lawes. 

248 "The Bloudy Tenent. 

" Fourthly, Civill Punifliments and Rewards, of 
" Tranfgreirors and Obfervers of thefe Lawes. 

" Fifthly, taking up Armes againft the Enemies of 
" Civill Peace. 

" Secondly, the meanes whereby the Church may 
" and {hould attaine her ends, are only ecclefiafticall, 
" which are chiefly five. 

" Firft, fetting up that forme of Church Govern- 
" ment only, of which Chrift hath given them a pat- 
" tern in his Word. 

" Secondly, acknowledging and admitting of no 
" Lawgiver in the Church, but Chrift, and the pub- 
" lifhing of his Lawes. 

** Thirdly, Eled:ing and ordaining of fuch officers 
*' onely, as Chrift hath appointed in his Word. 

*' Fourthly, to receive into their fellowlhip them 
" that are approved, and inflicting Spirituall cenfures 
" againft them that offend. 

" Fifthly, Prayer and patience in fuffering any evill 
" from them that be without, who difturbe their 
" peace. 

** So that Magiftrates, as Magiftrates, have no power 
"of fetting up the Forme of Church Government, 
"electing Church officers, punifliing with Church 
" cenfures, but to fee that the Church doth her duty 
" herein. And on the other fide, the Churches as 
" Churches, have no power (though as members of 
" the Commonweale they may have power) of ered:- 
" ing or altering formes of Civill Government, elecfl- 
" ing of Civill officers, inflicting Civill punilhments 
" (no not on perfons excommunicate) as by depofing 

The Bloudy Tenent. 249 

" Magiftrates from their Civill Authoritie, or with- 
" drawing the hearts of the people againft them, to 
" their Lawes, no more then to difcharge wives, or 
" children, or fervants, from due obedience to their 
" husbands, parents, or mafters : or by taking up 
" armes againft their Magiftrates, though he perfe- 
" cute them for Confcience : for though members of 
" Churches who are publique officers alfo of the Civill 
" State, may fupprefte by force the violence of Ufur- 
" pers, as lehoiada did Athaliah, yet this they doe not 
" as members of the Church, but as officers of the 
" Civill State. 

I 37] Truth. Here are divers conliderable pajfages 
which I fhall briefly examine, fo far as concernes our 

Firft, whereas they fay, that the Civill Power may 
ereft and eftablifti what forine of civill Government 
may feeme m ,%viJedome moft meet, I acknowledge the 
propojition to be moft true, both in it felf, and alfo 
conlidered with the end of it, that a civill Govern- 
nient is an Ordinance of God^ to conferve the civill 
peace of people, fo farre as concernes their Bodies and 
Goods, as formerly hath beene faid. 

But from this Grant I infer, (as before hath been 
touched) that the Soveraigne, originally 2ind foundation 
of civill power lies in the people, (whom they muft 
needs meane by the civill power diftin6l from the 
Government fet up.) And if fo, that a People may^'^''^ 
ere6t and eftablifti what forme of Government feemes originally 
to them moft meete for their civill condition: It isandfunda- 
evident that fuch Governments as are by them erected "^^"/^ ^^ 

J in the peo- 

and eftabliftied, have no more power, nor for no longer pk. 

250 The Bloudy Tenent. 

time, then the civill power or people confenting and 

agreeing fliall betruft them with. This is cleere not 

only in Reafon, but in the experience of all comtnon- 

weales, where the people are not deprived of their 

naturall freedome by the power of Tyrants. 

Mr. Cot- And if fo, that the Magiftrates receive their power 

the New- ^^ governing the Church, from the People ; unde- 

Englifh niably it followes, that a people^ as a people, naturally 

Minifters ^onlidered (of what Nature or Nation foever in 

give tJie ^ . . ■ - 

Govern- Europe, AJia, Africa or America) have fundamen- 
ment of tally and originally, as men, a power to governe the 
Church or ^'^^''''^'^» to fee her doe her duty, to corred: her, to 
Spoufe redrefie, reforme, eftablifh, &c. And if this be not to 
'"^° ^^^ pull God and Chriji, and Spirit out of Heaven, and 
the peo- fubjedt them unto naturall, iinfull, inconftant men, 
pie or and fo confequently to Sathan himfelfe, by whom all 
yf°^^°^' peoples naturally are guided, let Heaven and Earth 

The very Pcacc. It cauuot by their owne Grant be denied, 
Indian |3^(- ^Y^^ii the wHdeft Indians in America oueht (and in 

Americans 1 - 1 • i ^ r 11 i 1 \ o \ 

made Gov- ^heir kmd and leverall degrees doe) to agree upon 
ernours iovno. fbr?nes of Goverrwient , fome more civill, compact 
^, , in Townes, &c. fome lelfe. As alfo that their civill 

Church ' 

by the and earthly Governments be as lawfuil and true as any 
Authors Govern?nents\n the World, and therefore confequently 
Pofitions. their Governors are Keepers of the Church or both 
Tables, (if any Church of Chrifl: fhould arife or be 
amongft them :) and therefore laftly, [\i Chriji have 
betrul1:ed and charged the civill Power with his 
Church) they muft [138] judge according to their 
Indian or American cotijciences, for other conj'ciences it 
cannot be fuppofed they (hould have. 

^he Bloudy Tenenf. 251 


Truth. \ Gaine, whereas they fay that outward Civill 
±\. peace cannot ftand where Religion is cor- 
rupted ; and quote for it, 2 Chron. 15, 3. 5. 6. & 
'Judges 8. 

I anfwer with admiration how fuch excellent y/>/r/>j- 
(as thefe Authors are furniflied with, not only in 
heavenly but earthly affaires) Ihould fo forget, and 
be fo fafl afleep in things fo palpably evident, as to 
fay that outward ci'vill peace cannot ftand, where 
Religion is corrupt. When fo many ftately A7//^- '^^"y ^'.v- 
dojues and Govern?nents in the World have long andflo^^iihing 
long enjoyed a'l;/// peace and quiet, notwithftanding peace and 
their Religion is fo corrupt, as that there is not the'l^''^'^' , 

o r ' where tne 

very Name of jfejus Chriji amongft them : And this Lord Jefus 
every Hi/lorian, Merchant, Traveller, in Europe, AJia, 's not 
Africa, Atnerica, can teftifie : for fo fpake the Lord °"" 
"Jefus himfelfe, Joh. 16. The ivorld (hall fing and 

Secondly, for that Scripture 2 Chron. 15. 3. &c. 
relating the miferies of IJrael and Judah, and Gods 
plagues upon that people for corruption of their 
Religion, it muft ftill have reference to that peculiar 
ftate unto which God called the feed of one man, 
Abraham, in T^fgure, dealing fo with them as he dealt 
not with any Nation in the World, Pfal. 146. Rom. 9. 

The Antitype to this State I have proved to be the 
Chrijlian Church, which confequently hath been and 
is afflid:ed with fpirituall plagues, deflations and cap- 
tivities, for corrupting of that Religion which hath 
been revealed unto them. This appeares by the 7 

252 T^he Bloudy Tenent. 

Churches, and the people of God, now fo many hun- 
dred yeares in wofull bondage and flaverie to the myfti- 
call Babel, untill th-e time of their joy full deliverance. 
Peace. Yea but they fay that fuch Lawes as are 
converfant about Religion, may ftill be accounted 
Civill halves, as on the contrary an Oath doth ftill 
remaine Religious, though converfant about Civill 
Lawes Truth. Lawes refped:ing Religion are two-fold : 

be Rdi'e- Firft, fuch as concerne the a£ls of JVorJljip and the 
\oxi,€\\.\\zxWorjhip it felf, the Minijlers of it, ih&iv Jitnes ov 
Religious, ^^y^^^^j.^ to be fupprelfed or [139] eftablifhed : and 
for fuch Lawes we find no footing in the New Tejia- 
ment of Jefus Chrift. 
or Civill. Secondly, Lawes refpe6ting Religion may be fuch 
as meerly concerne the Civill State, Bodies and Goods 
of fuch and fuch perfons, profeffing thefe and thefe 
Religions, viz. that fuch and fuch perfons, notorious 
for Mutinies, Treafons, Rebellions, Majjacres, be dif- 
The very armed : Againe, that no perfons Papijls, Jewes, 
abhor to 'Turkcs, ov Indians be difturbed at their worjhip, (a 
difturbe thing which the very Indians abhor to practice toward 
any Con- anv.) Alfo that i?nanitie and freedome from Tax and 
at Wor- T'oll may be granted unto the people of fuch or fuch 
^ip- a Religion, as the Magijlrate pleafeth, Ezra 7. 

Thefe and fuch as are of this nature, concerning 
only the bodies and goods of fuch and fuch Religious 
perfons, I confelfe are meerely Civill. 

But now on the other hand, that Lawes reftrain- 
ing perfons from fuch and fuch a Worjhip, becaufe 
the CVi^/Z/y/^/^ judgeth it to be falfe : 

That Laws conftraining to fuch & fuch a worjhip. 

The Bloudy Tenent. 253 

becaufe the Chill State judgeth this to be the only 
true way of worfhipping God: 

That fuch and fuch a Refor?)?ation of Worfiip be^^""!;'^ 
fubmitted unto by all Subjects in fuch a lurifdiBion : ^^^^^-^^^^ 

That luch and luch Churches^ Minijlers, Minijiries \>rtiQnde.A 
be pull'd downe, and fuch and fuch Churches, Minif- ^'y''^ ^"^ 

• 1 71^- vj • r indeed Ec- 

tries, and Mtnijtrations let up : cleilafli- 

That fuch Lawes properly concerning Rcligion,^^'^'^- 
God, the Soules of men, Ihould be Civill Lawes and 
Conjlitutiotis ; is as far from Reafon, as that the Com- 
7natidements oi Paul, which he gave the Churches con- 
cerning Chrijis ivorjlnp (i Cor. i 1 & i Cor. 14.) were 
Civill and Earthly conjlitutions : Or that the Canons 
and Conjlitutions of either cecumenicall or Nationall 
Synods concerning Religion, (hould be Civill and 
State-cojiclu/ions and agreements. 

To that inftance ot an O^M remaining religious 
though converfant about civill things ; I anfwer and 
acknowledge, an Oath may be fpirituall, though Laws 
taken about earthly hu/itielfe, and accordingly it will "^'^^'"^^y 

J , '11- T I / • 1 1 concern- 

prove, and onely prove what betore 1 have laid, thatjng fpirit- 

a Law may be civill though it concerne perfons of uall things 

this and of that religion, xhzt is as i\\& perfofis ^roi^^i^-^^^^^^.^^^^ 

ing it are concerned in civill refpetts ol bodies ov goods, ^^^\\. 

as I have opened ; whereas if it concerne the foules 

and religions of men limply fo confidered in reference 

to God, it [140] mull of neceffity put on the nature 

of a religious ox fpirituall ordinance or conjiitution. 

Belide, it is a moft improper and fallacious in- 

ftance[;] tor an oath, being an invocation of a true or falfe 

God to judge in a cafe, is an action of 2i fpirituall and 

religious nature ^ what ever \\v^ fubjeB matter be about 

254 '^^^ Bloudy Tenent. 

which it is taken, whether civill or religious : but a 
/aw or conjiitution may be civill or religious^ as the 
JubjeB about which it is converjant is, either civill 
(meerly concerning bodies or goods) or religious con- 
cerning yow/«? and worJJjip. 


Peace/ I ^Heir fifth Head is concerning the Magif- 
X trates power in making of Lawes. 

" Firft, they have power to pubHfh and apply fuch 
" Civill Lawes in a State as either are expreft in the 
" Word of God in Mofes Judicialls (to wit, fo far as 
" they are of generall and morall equity, and fo bind- 
** ing all Nations in all Ages) to bee deducted by way 
" of generall confequence and proportion from the 
" word of God. 

** For in a free State no Magiftrate hath power 
" over the bodies, goods, lands, liberties of a free peo- 
" pie, but by their free confents. And becaufe free 
" men are not free Lords of their owne eftates, but 
** are onely flewards under God, therefore they may 
" not give their free confents to any Magiftrate to 
" difpofe of their bodies, goods, lands, liberties at 
"large as themfelves pleafe, but as God (the fove- 
" raigne Lord of all) alone. And becaufe the Word 
" is a perfedl rule as wel of righteoufnes as of holines, 
" it will be thertore necelTary that neither the people 
" give confent, nor that the Magiftrate take power to 
" difpofe of the bodies, goods, lands, liberties of the 
" people, but according to the Lawes and Rules of 
" the Word of God. 

The Bloudy Tenent. 255 

" Secondly, in making Lawes about civill and indif- 
" ferent things about the Commonweale. 

" Firft, he hath no power given him of God to 
" make what laws he pleafe, either in reftraining 
** from, or conftraining to the ufe of indifferent things, 
" becaufe that which is indifferent in its nature, may 
" may fometimes bee inexpedient in its ufe, and con- 
"fequently unlawfull, i Cor. 2. 5. it having been long 
** fince defended upon good ground, ^icquid non 
" expedite quatenus non expedite non licet. 
141 ] ** Secondly, he hath no power to make any fuch 
" Lawes about indifferent things, wherein nothing 
" good or evill is iliewne to the people, but onely or 
" principally the meere authority or wil of the impo- 
" fer for the obfervance of them, Colof. 2. 21, 22. i 
" Cor. J. 23, compared with Ephef. 6. 6. 

" It is a prerogative proper to God to require obe- 
" dience of the fonnes of men, becaufe of his author- 
" ity and will. 

" The will of no man is Regu/a reBi, unleffe firft 
" it bee Regula reBa. 

" It is an evill fpeech of fome, that in fome things 
" the will of the Law, not the ratio of it, muft be the 
*' Rule of Confcience to walke by ; and that Princes 
" may forbid men to feeke any other reafon but their 
** authority, yea when they commandyr/i;)?/^/ <i? dura. 
" And therefore it is the duty of the Magiftrate in 
"all lawes about indifferent things, to (hew the Rea- 
" fons, not onely the Will, to fhew the expediency, 
"as well as the indifferency of things of that nature. 

" For we conceive in Lawes of this nature, it is 
" not the will of the Lawgiver onely, but the Reafon 

256 The Bloudy Tenent. 

** of the Law which bindes. Ratio eji Rex Legis, & 
" Lex eJi Rex Regis. 

" Thirdly, becaufe the judgement of expedient and 
" inexpedient things is often difficult and diverfe, it 
" is meet that fuch Lawes ihould not proceed with- 
" out due confideration of the Rules of Expediency 
" fet downe in the Word, which are thefe three : 

" Firft, the rule of Piety, that they may make for 
"the glory of God, i Cor. 10. 31. 

" Secondly, the rule of Charity, that no fcandall 
"come hereby to any weake brother, i Cor. 8. 13. 

" Thirdly, the Rule of Charity, that no man be 
"forced to fubmit againft his conjcience^ Rom. 14. 14. 
" 23. nor be judged of contempt of lawfull Authority, 
" becaufe he is not fuddenly perfwaded of the expedi- 
" ency of indifferent things ; for it the people be bound 
" by God to receive fuch Lawes about fuch things, 
" without any triall or fatisfad:ion to the confcience, 
" but muft judge them expedient, becaufe the Magif- 
" trate thinkes them fo, then the one cannot be pun- 
" iihed in following the other, in cafe he (hall linne 
" in calling Inexpedient Expedient ; but Chrijl faith 
" the contrary. If the blinde lead the blinde, they (hall 
" both fall. 

142] Truth. In this palTage thefe worthy Men lay 

downe fuch a ground, as the gates oi Hell are not able 

The Au- to {hake concerning the Magijlrates walking in 

t ors arge •j^j-^p^j.gj^j. |-|-^inQrs . ^^-^^ uDon which ^rowid that 

conreliion r t i -r \ ^ i 

of the lib- Towre of Lebanon may be raifed whereon there hang 
ertyofcona thoufaud Jhields and bucklars. Cant. 4. to wit, that 
from the invincible Truth, That no man is to h^ perfecuted iov 
Laws of caufe of conjcience : The ground is this : The Mag- 

trates con- 

The Bloudy Tenent. 257 

ijirate hath not power to make what Lawes he pleafe, ^'^'j^ ^^- 
either in retraining or conjlraining to the ufe of indif-^ °"^^3l'" 
ferent things: And further he contelfeth that the cafes. 
reafon of the haw, not the will of it muft be the 
rule of confcience. And they adde this impregnable 
reafon : viz. ** If the people be bound to receive fuch 
" Lawes without fatistadlion to confcience, then one 
" cannot be punilhed for following the other, in cafe 
" he fliall fmne contrary to Chrift Jefus, who faith, 
" If the blinde lead the blinde, they fliall both fall. 

Hence I argue. If the Civill Magijlrate have noCivill 
power to rejiraine or con/lraine their fuh'ie£is in thing-s^^s''- 

f,. ^ -Y-rr .^ ^ . f. ° trates c 

in their owne nature indirrerent, as in eating 01 ?neats, feffed 
wearing this or that garment, ufing this or that gef-^^ have 
ture, but that they are bound to try and examine his^^^^^^" 

, , t , . •' , , . Lirge the 

commands, and latistie their owne reafon, confcience 'Sindconk^encQ 
judge77ient before the Lord, and that they fliall linne, '" '"^.'^^'■" 
if they follow the Magijlrates command, not being 
perfwaded in their owne Ibule and confcience that 
his commands are according to Go(^/[:] It will be much 
more unlawfull and heynous in the Magijlrate to 
compell the fubjedis unto that which (according to 
their confciences perfwafion) is limply unlawfull as 
unto a falfely conftituted Church, Mi?iijlry, JVorJljip, 
Adminijiration, and they ihall not efcape the Ditch, 
by being led blindefold by the Magiftrate, but though 
hee fall in iirfl:, yet they fliall [fall | in after him, and 
upon him, to his greater and more dreadfull judgement. 
In particular thus. If the Magifl:rate may reftraine 
me from that gefl:ure in the Supper of the Lord, 
which I am perfwaded I ought to practice, he may 
alfo reftraine me by his commands from that Supper 

258 The Bloudy Tenent. 

of the Lord it felfe in fuch or fuch a Church accord- 
ing to my confcience. 

If he cannot (as they grant) conftraine me to fuch 
or fuch a garment in the worfhip of God, can he 
conftraine me to worfliip God by fuch a Miniftry, 
and with fuch worfhip, which my foule and con- 
fcience cannot be perfwaded is ot God ? 
143I If he cannot command me in that circumftance 
of time to woriliip God this or that day, can he com- 
mand mee to the worfhip it felfe ? 
A three- Peace. Me thinkes I difcerne a threefold guilt to 
Hn^u^^onty^ upon fuch Civill powers as impofe upon and 
Civill inforce the confcience, though not unto the miniftra- 
powers ^.-Qj^ ^j^jj participation of the Seales,' yet either to 

command- , ^-"^ . ^ ^ . i-u-^-rjJi 

ing the depart from that woriliip which it is perlwaded ot, 
rubjefts or to any exercife or worfhip which it hath not faith in. 
foule in pirft, of an appearance of that Arminian Popifh 

worlhip. ' rr . ^ . . . . -^ 

dodrine of Freewill, as it it lay in their owne power 
and ability to beleeve upon the Magiftrates command 
fince it is confelfed that what is fubmitted to by any 
without faith it is finne, be it never fo true and holy, 
Rom. 14. 

Secondly, fince God only openeth the heart and 
worketh the will, Phil. 2. it feemes to be an high 
prefumption to fuppofe that together with a com- 
mand reftraining from, or conftraining to worfliip, 
that God is alfo to be forced or commanded to give 
faith to open the heart to incline the will, &c. 

Thirdly, A guilt of the hypocrifie of their fubjed:s 
and people in forcing them to a6t and pradice in 
matters of Religion and Worfhip againfl the doubts 
and checks of their confciences, caufing their bodies 

' Sacraments. 

The Bloudy Tenent. 259 

to worfllip, when their foules are far off, to draw Perfons 
near with their Hps, their hearts being far off, &c. \^^^ J-^,| ^^ 
With lelfe linne ten thoufand fold may a naturall forced to 
Father force his dauQ-hter, or the Father of the Com- '^^""^y 


monweale force all the maydens in a Country to the they 
marriage beds of fuch and fuch men whom they can- "o^ love, 
not love, then the foules of thefe and other fLibJedts^^^Q^^jp 
to fuch worlhip or Miniftry, which is either a true where 
or talfe, becaufe Cant. i. 16. no7br"' 

Truth. Sweet Peace^ your conclufions are undenia- leeve. 
ble, and O that they might fmke deep into thofe 
Noble and Honourable Bofomes it fo deeply con- 
cernes ! but proceed. 


Peace^^^ that fifth head they further fay thus: 

A " Thirdly, in matters Eccleliafticall we 

* beleeve, firft, That Civill Magiftrates have no power 

* to make or conlHtute Lawes about Church atfaires 

* which the Lord Jefus hath not [144] ordained in 

* his Word for the well ordering of the Church; for 

* the Apoftle folemnely chargeth Timothy^ and in 

* him all Goverours of the Church, before God and 

* and the Lord Jefus Chrift (who is the only Poten- 

* tate, the King of Kings, and Lord of Lords) that 

* the Commandement given by him for the ordering 

* of the Church be kept without fpot unrebukeable 

* to the appearing of the Lord Jefus Chrift, i Titji. 
'6. 14. 15. And this Commandement given in the 
' Word, the Apoil:le faith is able to make the man 

* of God perfect in all Righteoufnelfe, 2 Titn. 3. 17. 


The Bloudy Tenent. 

And indeed the adminiftration of all Chrifts affaires 
doth immediately aime at fpirituall and divine ends 
(as the worfhip of God and the falvation of mens 
foules:) and therefore no Law nor meanes can be 
devifed by the wifdome or wit of man that can be 
fit or able to reach fuch ends, but ufe mufl be made 
of fuch onely as the divine Wifdome and holy Will 
of God hath ordained. 

" Secondly, We beleeve the Magiftrates power in 
making Lawes about Church affaires, is not only 
thus limited and reftrained by Chrift to matters 
which concerne the fubftance of Gods worfhip and 
of Church government, but alfo fuch as concerne 
outward order, as in Rites and Ceremonies for uni- 
formities fake : For we finde not in the Gofpell 
that Chrift hath any where provided for the uni- 
formity of Churches, but onely for their unity. 

*' Paul in matters of Chriftian libertie commendeth 
the unity of their Faith in the holy Spirit, giving 
order that wee fhould not judge nor condemne one 
another in difference of judgement and practice of 
fuch things where men live to God on both fides, 
even though there were fome errour on one fide, 
Rom. 14. to the 6. How much lelfe in things indif- 
ferent, where there may be no errour on either fide. 

" When the Apoftle dired:eth the Church of 
Corinth that all things be done decently and in 
order, he meant not to give power to Church Offi- 
cers, or to Civill Magiftrates to order what ever 
they fhould thinke meet for decencie and order ; 
but only to provide that all the Ordinances of God 
be adminiflred in the Church decently without 

T^he Bloudy Tenent. 26 1 

" unnaturall or uncivill uncomelinelfe (as that of long 
" haire, or womens prophefying, or the Hke) and 
" orderly without confulion or difturbance of edifi- 
*' cation, as the fpeaking of many at once in the 
*' Church. 

145] *' Thirdly, we doe neverthelelTe willingly grant 
" that Magiftrates upon due and diligent fearch what 
" is the counfell and will of God in his Word con- 
" cerning the right ordering of the Church, may and 
*' ought to publiih and declare, eftablifli and ratifie 
** fuch Lawes and Ordinances as Chrift hath appointed 
" in his Word for the well ordering ot Church 
*' affaires, both for the gathering of the Church, and 
" the right admiftration of all the Ordinances of God 
** amongft them in fuch a manner as the Lord hath 
" appointed to edification. The Law of Artaxerxes^ 
^^ Ezra 7. 23. was not ufurpation over the Churches 
" liberty, but a Royall and juft confirmation of them : 
" Whatfoever is commanded by the God ot Heaven : 
** For why fliould there be wrath againff the King 
" and his Sonnes ? 

Truth. Deare Peace, me thinkes I fee before mine 
eyes a wall daubed up (of which Ezekiel fpeakes) 
with untempered snorter : Here they reftraine the 
Magijirate from making Lawes either concerning 
the fubflance or cere??io)iy of Religio?i, but fuch only 
as Chriji hath commanded, and thofe, fay they, they 
muft publidi and declare after the example of Arta- 

I flvall herein performe two things: Firft, examine 
this Magijirates duty to publiih, declare, &c. fuch 
Laws and Ordinances as Chriji hath appointed. 

262 The Bloudy Tenent. 

Secondly, I fliall examine that proofe from Arta- 

xerxes, Ezra 7. 23. 

Gods In the firft, me thinks I heare the voice of the 

firous of' people oi Ifrael, i Sa?n. 8. 5. Make us a King that 

6'^a'Aarmemay rule over us after the manner of the Nations^ 

offlefh. rejedting the Lord ruling over them by his holy 

Word in the mouth of his Prophets^ and flieltring 

themfelves under an Arme of Flejh ; which Anne of 

Fiejh God gave them in His Anger, and cut off againe 

in His Wrath, after he had perfecuted David the 

figure of Chrift Jefus who hath given his people the 

Scepter and Sword oi hi?, Word 2.nd Spirit, and refufed 

a temporall Crowne or Weapons in the difpenfation 

of his Kingdome. 

Where did the Lord Jefus or his MefTengers charge 
the Civill Magiftrate, or dired; Chriftians to petition 
him, to publifh, declare or eftabliOi by his Arme of 
Flefh and Earthly weapons the Religion and worfhip 
of Chrift Jefus ? 

I finde the Beaft and falfe Prophet (whofe rife and 

doctrine is not from Heaven, but from the Sea and 

Earth) dreadfuU and terrible [146] by a Civill Sword 

and dignitie. Rev. 1 3. 2. 

The 7 I find the Beaft hath gotten the power and might 

^'^i^^ , of the KinP-s of the Earth, Revel. 17. 13. 

Beait, and o > n • • 11 • 1 

theLambe But the Lambes weapons are Spiritually mighty, 
differ in 2 Cor. ID. &c. his Sword is two-edged comming out 
pons. ' oi hi?, fn out h. Revel, i. His preparations for War 
white Horfes and ivhite Harneffe, which are confeft 
by all to be of a fpirituall nature. Revel. 1 9. 
Naboths ^j^^j^ ^j^,^^ ^^l^^.^ Jcfabel ftabbed Naboth with her 

cale typi- ... u .j 

call. Pen, in ftirring up the people to ftone him as a Blaf- 

The Bloudy Tenent. 263 

phemer of God and the King, what a glorious maske 
or vaile of Holines put fhe on ? Proclaim e a Faji^ fet 
a day apart for humiliation ; and for confirniation^ let 
all be ratified with the Kings Authoritie, Name, and 
Scale, I Kings, 21. 8. 

Was not this recorded for all Gods Naboths, {land- 
ing for their Spirituall interefts in heavenly things 
(typed out by the typicall earth and ground of Caym- 
ans land) that they through patience and Comfort of 
the Scriptures might have hope, Rom. 15. 4.? 

Againe, I demand who (hall here lit Judge, whether 
the Magiftrate command any other Subftance or 
Ceremonie but what is Chrifts ? 

By their former Conclufions, every Soule muft judge 
what the Magiftrate commandeth, and is not bound, 
even in indifferent things, to the Magiftrates Law, 
further then his own Soule, Confcience and judge- 
ment afcends to the Reafon of it: Here the Mairif- 
trate muff make Lawes for that Subffance and Cere- 
mony which Chrifl: appointed : But yet he muft not 
doe this with his eyes open, but blindfold and hood- 
winkt ; for if he judge that to be the Religion of 
Chriji, and fuch to be the order there in which their 
C<?«/t7V«cYJ- judge otherwife, and affent not to, they 
profeffe they muft fubmit only to Chrijis lawes, and 
therefore they are not bound to obey him. 

Oh what is this but to make ufe of the Civill 
Powers and Governours of the World, as a GuardS^''^^^ 
about the Spirituall Bed of Soule-whoredomes, in abufed as 
which the Kings of the Earth commit Spirituall ^ ^"^'■d 
forjiication with the great Whore, Rev. 17. 2.? as aggj"^^-^*^ 
Guard while the Inhabitants of the Earth are drink- Spirituall 

264 T^he Bloudy Tenent. 

whore- i^p; thcmfelves drunke with the wine of her forni- 

domes. • 


But oh what terrifyings, what allurings are in 
yeremies Curfe and Bleffing ! yer. ly. Curfed is the 
man that trufteth in man, that maketh [147] Flefh 
his Arme (too too common in fpirituall matters) and 
whofe heart departeth from Jehovah : He fhall be 
as an Heath in the Wildernes (even in the fpirituall 
and myfliicall wildernes) and fliall not fee when com- 
fort comes) but lliall abide in drouth in the wilder- 
neffe in a barren land, &c. 


Peace, f^^ What myfteries are thefe to Flefli and 
V^ Blood ! how hard for flefli to forfake the 
Arme thereof! But paffe on (deare Truth) to their 
proofe propounded, Ezra 7. 23. wherein Artaxerxes 
confirmed by Law what ever was commanded by the 
God of Heaven. 
^.^" 7-Z3- Truth. In this Scripture I mind firft the people of 
God captivated under the dominion and government 
of the Kings of Babel and Perjia. 

Secondly, Artaxerxes his favour to thefe Captives, 

1. Oi free dome to their Conjciences. 

2. Of bountie towards them. 

3. Of exempting of fome of them from common 

Thirdly, Punijh?nents on offenders. 
Fourthly, the ground that caries him on to all this. 
Fifthly, Exra praifing of God for putting this into 
the heart of the King. 

The Bloudy Tenent. 265 

Concerning the people of God the "Jewes, they ^^ds peo- 
were as Lamhes and Sheep in the jawes of the Lyotiy fubieft\o 
the dearely beloved of his Soule under the devouring the Kings 
Tyrants of the World, both the Babylonia?! and the°[^S^''^" 

tS ^ - r 1 • AT • ^ ^ /- °^ rerfia 

Perjia?i, rarre from their owne Nation, and the Gov-\n Spirit- 
ernment of their own anointed Kings, the figures of^^^^. 
the true King of the Jewes the Lord Jefus Chriji. 

In this refped: it is cleere, that the lewes were no 
more fubjed: to the Kings oi Babylon and Perjia in 
Spirituall things, then the VeJ/els of the SanBuary 
were fubje^t to the King of Babels ufe, Z)<2;2. 5. 

Concerning this Kifig I confider, firll: his perfon, a 
Gentile Idolater, an opprelling Tyrant, one of thofe 
devouring Beajis, Dan. 7. & 8. An hand of bloody 
Conqueji fet the Crown upon the head of thefe Man- 
archs ; and although in Civill things they might 
challenge fubjediion, yet why ihould they now fit 
down in the throne [148 J oi Ifrael, and governe the 
people and Church of God in Spirituall things ? 

Secondly, confider his ads of Favour, and they will Tyrants 
not amount to a pofitive Command, that any of thej-^^j^^J^^jj^g 
lewes fiiould goe up to build the Temple, nor that any wonder- 
of them fliould pradice his own worjljip, which he[^''>^ ™°^" 
kept and judged the beft for his owne Soule and People, ^ards 

'Tis true, he freely permits them, and exercifeth a Gods peo- 
bounteous ajjijiance to them : All which argues no ^ ^' 
more, but that fometimes it pleafeth God to open the 
hearts of Tyrants greatly to favour and further his 
people. Such favour found Nehemiah, and Daniel, 
and others of Gods people have and (hall finde, fo 
often as it pleafeth Him to honour them that honour 
Him, before the Sonnes of Men. 

266 'The Bloudy Tenent. 

Peace. Who fees not how little this Scripture con- 
tributes to their Tenent ? but why (fay fome) Ihould 
this King confirme all with fuch fevere punifhments ? 
and why for all this fhould Ezra give thankes to God, 
if it were not imitable for aftertimes ? 

Truth. The Law of God which he confirmed, he 
knew not, and therefore neither was, nor could he 
be a Judge in the Cafe. 

And for his Ground, what was it but the common 
terrours and conviBions of an affrighted Confcience ? 
Nabuchad jj^ fuch fits and pangs^ what have not Pharaohs, 
Darius' Sauls, Ahabs, Herods, Agrippd' s fpoken ? and what 
and Arta- wonderfull dccrccs have Nabuchadnezzar, Cyrus, 
xerxes P)arius, Artaxerxes put forth concerning: the God of 

their de- -^ ^ 

crees ex- Ifrael, Dan. 3. & 6. & Ezra i. & 7. &c. and yet as 
amined. farrc from being charged with (as they were from 
being affected to) the Spirituall Crown of Governing 
the Worfhip of God, and the Confcience of his peo- 

Tis true, Ezra moft pioufly and juftly gave thankes 

to God for putting fuch a thing into the heart of the 

Ezra's King : But what makes this pattern for the Laws of 

thankfgiv- CiviU Govcmours now under the Gofpell ? It fuited 

KmgYde-^^^ll with that Nationall ftate of Gods Church, that 

cree ex- the Gentile King fliould releafe them, permit them 

amined. ^.^ j-etume to their own Land, aflift them with other 

favours, and enable them to execute punifhments 

upon offenders according to their Nationall State. 

149J But did God put fuch a thing as this into the 

heart of the King, viz. to reftraine upon paine of 

Death all the millions of men under his Dominion 

from the Idolatries of their feverall and refpecftive 

The Bloudy Tenent. 267 

Countries ? to conllraine them all upon the like pen- 
altie to conforme to the Worfliip of the God of Ifrael, 
to build him a Temple, ere6t an Altar, ordaine Priefts, 
offer facrifice, obferve the Fafts and Feafts of Ifrael ? 
yea did God put it into the Kings heart to fend 
Levites into all the parts of his Dominion, compel- 
ling them to heare ; which is but a naturall thing 
(as fome unfoundly fpeake) unto which all are bound 
to fubmit ? 

Well however, Ezra gives thankes to God for the 
Kmg ; and fo fhould all that feare God in all Coun- The duty 

■ r \ 1 J 1 r • • 11 rotallCivill 

tries, it he would pleale to put it into the hearts or states to- 
the Kings, States and Parliaments, to take off the ward the 
yoakes of Violence, and permit (at leaft) the Con- ^°"'^'j^": 
fciences ot their Subjedis, and elpecially fuch as insubjefts. 
truth make Confcience of their Worlhips to the God 
ot Ifrael : and yet no caufe for Ezra then, or Gods 
Ezra's and Ifraelites now, to acknowledge the care 
and charge of Gods worfliip, Church and Ordinances, 
to lie upon the fhoulders of Artaxerxes^ or any other 
Civill Prince or Ruler. 

Laflly for the Confirmation or Ratification which 
they fuppofe Magiftrates are bound to give to theChriil 
Lawes ot Chriff, I ani'wer, Gods caufe, Chrifls Truth, u!L!„'i° 
and the two-edged fword of his Word, never ft ood conhrma- 
in need ot a temporall Sword, or an humane Witnes"°"^- 
to confirme and ratilie them. If we receive the wit- 
neffe ot an honelt man, the witnelfe of the mofl holy 
God is greater, i lohn 5. 

The refult andfummeof the whole matter is this: i. '^^^ '""^ 
It may pleafe God fbmetimes to flir up the Rulers of anipj^s ^^ 
the Earth to permit and tolerate, to favour and coun- Gentile 


268 T^he Bloudy Tenent. 

Kings de- tenancc Gods people in their worJJjips, though only 
for Gods ^^^ ^^ lome ftrong conviction of conjcience ox fear e of 
worfliip wrath, &c. and yet themfelves neither underftand 
in Scrip- Qq^^ worfliip, nor leave their owne ftate, Idolatry or 
Country worfliip. 

For this Gods people ought to give thankes unto 
God\ yea and all men from this example may learne 
not to charge upon the Magijtrates confcience (befides 
the care of the Civill peace, the bodies and goods of 
men) the Spirituall peace in the worfliip of God and 
Joules of men : but hence are Magijirates infl:rud:ed 
favourably to permit their fubjefts in their worjhips, 
although themfelves bee [150] not perfwaded to fub- 
mit to them, as Nebuchadnezzar, Cyrus, Darius and 
Artaxerxes did. 


Peace.^ | ^He lixt queftion is this : How far the 
JL Church is fubjed: to their Lawes ? 
" All thofe (fay they) who are members of the 
" Commonweale are bound to be fubjedl to all the 
"jufl: and righteous Laws thereof, and therefore 
" (memberfliip in Churches not cutting men off from 
** memberfliip in commonweales) they are bound to 
"be fubjedl, even every foule, Rom. 13. i . as Chrifl: 
" himfelfe and the Apofl:]es were in their places 
" wherein they lived, and therefore to exempt the 
" Clergy (as the Papifl:s do) from Civill fubjedtion, 
"and to fay xh^iX. generatio Clerici, is corruptio Jubditi, 
" is both finfull and fcandalous to the Gofpel of God; 
" and though ail are equally fubjedt, yet Church 

"The Bloudy Tenent. 269 

" members are more efpecially bound to yeeld fubjec- 
" tion, and the moft eminent moft efpecially bound, 
** not only becaufe confcience doth more ftrongly 
" binde, but alfo becaufe their ill examples are more 
" infectious to others, pernicious to the State, and pro- 
" voke Gods wrath to bring vengeance on the State. 

" Hence if the whole Church or officers of the 
** Church (liall lin againft the State or any perfon by 
** fedition, contempt of Authority, herefie, blafphemy, 
" oppreffion, llander, or fliall withdraw any of their 
" members from the fervice of the State without the 
'* confent thereof, their perfons and elfates are liable 
" to Civill punilhments of Magiftrates according to 
" their righteous and wholfome Lawes, Exod. 22. 20. 
^^ Levit. 24. 16. Deut. 13. 5. & 18. 10. 

Truth. What concernes this head in civill things, 
I gladly fubfcribe unto : what concernes herelie, blaf- 
phemy, &c. I have plentifully before fpoken to, and 
Ihall here only fay 2 things : 

Firrt, thole Scriptures produced concerne only the 
people of God in a Church eftate, and muft have 
reference onely to the Church of Chrift Jefus, which 
(as Mr. Cotton confelfeth)' is not Nationall but Con- 

' "The Church which Chrill in his called a particular vifible Church. * "^ * 
Gofpell hath inftituted, and to which he The Church of Corinth, even the 

hath committed the keyes of his king- whole Church, did meet together every 

dom, the power of binding and loofing. Lords day, in one place, for the Admin- 

the tables and feals of the Covenant, the illration of the holy Ordinances of God, 

Officers and ceniures of his Church, the to publick Edification, i Cor. 14. 23. & 

adminiilration of all his public Worfhip 16. I, 2. Which frequent meeting every 

and Ordinances, is, Ccetus fidclium, a Lords day in one place, to fuch ends. 

Communion of Saints, a Combination of cannot polfibly be compatible to any 

faithfull godly men, meeting for that Diocelan, Provinciall, or Nationall Af- 

end, by common and joynt confent, into fembly." The Way of the Churches, 

one Congregation; which is commonly Chap. L Prop. i. 

270 The Bloudy Tenent. 

gregationall of fo many as may meet in one place, i 
Cor. 14. & therefore no Civill State can be the anti- 
type and parallel! ; to which purpofe upon the 1 1 
Queftion I fliall at large [151] fhew the difference 
betweene that National! Church and State of Ifrael, 
and all other States and Nations in the World. 
The Law Secondly, If the Rulers of the Earth are bound to 
to death"^ V^^ ^^ death all that worfliip other gods then the 
blafphe- true God, or that blafpheme (that is fpeake evill of 
Ch'^V"^ in a lelfer or higher degree) that one true God ; it 
cuts ofFal muft unavoidably follow that (the beloved for the 
hopesfrompathers fake) the Jewes whofe very Religion blaf- 
of part^k- phemeth Chrift in the higheft degree, I fay they are 
ing in his adlually fouues of death, and all to be immediately 
bloud. executed according to thofe quoted Scriptures : And 
Secondly, the Townes, Cities, Nations and King- 
domes of the World muft generally be put to the 
fword, if they fpeedily renounce not their Gods and 
Worfliips, and fo ceafe to blafpheme the true God by 
their Idolatries : This bloody confequence cannot be 
avoided by any Scripture rule, for if that rule be of 
force Deut. 13. & 18. not to fpare, or (hew mercy 
^, ,. upon perfon or City falling to Idolatry, that bars out 
full efFeftsall favour or partiality; and then what heapes upon 
of fighting heapes in the llaugher houfes and (hambles of Civill 
fdencT' Warres muft the world come to, as I have formerly 
noted, and that unnecelfarily, it being not required 
by the Lord Jefus for his fake, and the Magiftrates 
power and weapons being ellentially Civill, and fo 
not reaching to the impiety or ungodlinelTe, but the 
incivility and unrighteoufnefte of tongue or hand ? 

The Bloudy Tenent. 271 


P^^r^.T^Eare Truths thefe are the poyfoned daggers 
J_-/ Itabbing at my tender heart ! Oh when 
(hall the Prince of peace appeare and reconcile the 
bloudy fons of men ? but let me now propofe their 7 
head : viz. 

" In what order may the Magiftrate execute pun- 

* iihment on a Church or Church-member that 

* offendeth his Lawes. 

" Firft, grolfe and publicke notorious finnes which 
'are againll the light of confcience as Herelie, &c. 
' there the Magiftrate keeping him under lafe ward 

* fliould fend the offendour firft to the Church to 

* heale his confcience, ftill provided that the Church 

* be both able and willing thereunto: By which 
'meanes the Magilfrate ihall convince fuch an ones . 

* confcience that he feeketh his healing, rather then 

* his hurt. 

152] "The cenfure alfo againft him fliall proceed 

* with more power and bleffing, and none fliall have 

* caufe to fay that the Magiftrate perfecutes men for 

* their confciences, but that he juftly punifheth fuch 
'an one for linning rather againft his confcience, 
' Tit. 3. 10. 

" Secondly, in private offences how the Magiftrate 
' may proceed, fee Chap. 1 2. It is not materiall 
' whether the Church or Magiftrate take it firft in 

* hand. Only with this caution, that if the State take 

* it firft in hand, they are not to proceed to death or 
'banilhment, untill the Church hath taken their 
' courfe with him, to bring him to Repentance, pro- 

272 The Bloudy Tenent. 

'* vided that the Church be wiUing and ready there- 
" unto. 

Secondly, in fuch linnes wherein men plead Con- 
fcience, as Herelie, &c. 

Truth. Here I have many juft exceptions and con- 
siderations to prefent. 

Firft, they propofe a diftinftion of fome finnes : 
fome are againft the light of confcience, &c. and 
they inftance in Herelie. 

Anf. I have before difcuft this point of an Here- 
tick finning againft light of confcience : And I fhall 
adde that howfoever they lay this down as an infal- 
Errour is \{\>\q. conclufion that all Herefie is againft light of 

confident • 00 

as well as Confcience ; yet (to palfe by the difcuffion of the 
Truth, nature of Herefie, in which refpe(5t it may (o be that 
even themfelves may be found hereticall, yea and 
that in fundamentals) how doe all Idolaters after 
light prefented, and exhortations powerfully prefted, 
either Turkes or Pagans, Jewes or Antichriftians, 
ftrongly even to the death hold faft (or rather are 
held faft by) their delulions. 
God peo- Yg^ Gods people themfelves, being; deluded and 

dIc 3,s well . 11 ' o ^ 

as others Captivated are ftrongly confident even againft fome 
will be fundamentalls, efpecially of worftiip, and yet not 
flinate°in ^g^^^^ ^hc light, but according to the light or eye 
fundamen-of a dcccived confcicncc. 

f^^^ ^r^°l^ Now all thefe confciences walke on confidently 
fufFerings ^^^ couftautly evcu to the fuffering of death and tor- 
and perfe-ments, and are more ftrongly confirmed in their 
j"''°" beleefe and confcience, becaufe fuch bloudy and 

doth har- , , , ' , -' 

den. cruell courles ot perlecution are ufed toward them. 

Secondly, fpeakes not the Scripture exprelly of the 

The Bloudy Tenent. 273 

Jew, Ifa. 6. Mat. 13. ABs 28. that God hath given 
them the fpirit of ilumber, eyes that they (hould not 
fee, &c. all which muft be fpoken of the very con- 
fcience, which he that hath the golden key of David 
can [153] only (liut and open, and all the Picklocks 
or Swords in all the Smiths {hops in the World can 
neither hy force or Jraiid prevent his time. 

Is it not faid oi Antic hrijiians, 2 ThelTal. 2. that Stj;o"g de- 
Go^ hath lent them ftrong delujions^ fo ftrong and 
efficacious, that they beleeve a Lie and that fo Con- 
fidently, and fome fo Confcientioufly, that Death it 
felfe cannot part betweene the Delujion and their 

"Againe, the Magijirate (fay they) keeping him 
" in fafe ward : that is, the Heretick, the Blafphemer, 
" Idolater, &c. 

Peace. I here aske all men that love even the Civill 
Peace, where the Lord Jefus hath fpoken a tittle of 
a Prifon or fafe ward to this purpofe. 

Truth. We find indeed a prifon threatned by God 
to his irreconciled enemies, neglecting to account 
with him, Matth. 5. 

We finde a prifon into which perfecuters caft theSpirituall 
Saints: So John, fo Paul, and the Apoftles, Matth.'^''^^'''- 
14. 10. &c. were caft, and the great Commander of, 
and carter into prifon, is the Devill, Revel. 2. 

Wee finde a Spirituall prifon indeed, a prifon for 
Spirits, I Pet. 3. 19. the Spirits formerly rebellious 
againft Chrift Jefus fpeaking by Noah unto them, 
now kept in fafe ward againft the judgement of the 
great day. 

In Excommunication, a Soule obftinate in finne is 

274 T^he Bloudy Tenent. 

delivered to Sathan his Jaylour, aud he keeps him in 
fafe ward, untill it pleafeth God to releafe him. 

There is a prifon for the Devill himfelfe a thou- 

fand yeares, Rev. 20. And a Lake of eternall fire and 

brimftone, into which the Beaft and FaHe Prophet, 

Chrift ai^(j ^ji Y\ox. written in the Lambes booke, and the 

poimedno Devill that deceived them, (hall eternally be there 

materiall fecurcd and tormented. 

Blaf^'h ^^^ ^^^ neither amongfl: thefe, nor in any other pafTage 

mers of of the New Teftament, doe we finde a prifon 

him,&c. appointed by Chrift Jefus for the Heretick, Blaf- 

phemer, Idolater, &c. being not otherwife guilty 

againft the Civill State. 

'Tis true, Antichrift (by the helpe of Civill Powers) 
hath his prifons, to keep Chrift lefus and his mem- 
bers faft : fuch prifons may well be called the Bifti- 
The Bifh- ops prifons, the Popes, the Devils prifons : Thefe 
ops pni- inquifition houfes have ever been more terrible then 
the Magiftrates. 

154] At firft, perfecuting Biftiops borrowed prifons 
of the Civill Magiftrate (as now their fuccelfors doe 
ftill in the world) but afterward they wrung the 
keyes out of the Magiftrates hands, and hung them 
at their own Girdles, and would have prifons of their 
owne, as doubtlelfe will that Generation ftill doe, if 
God prevent them not. 


Peace. \ Gaine (fay they) the Magijirate fliould fend 
±\. him firft to the Church to heale his Con- 


The Bloudy Tenenf. 275 

Truth. Is not this as the Prophet fpeakes, Like Like 
mother^ \\^q daughte?- ? So the ?}Jother o{ whoredo??ies^^^^ ^^^ 
the Church of Ro/Jie teacheth and pradtifeth with all ter. 
her Hereticks : Firft let the holy Church convince 
them, and then deliver them to the Secular power to 
receive the puniiliment of Hereticks. 

Peace. Me thinks alfo they approach neere that 
Popifh Tenent, Ex opere operato : for their Exhorta- 
tions and Admonitions muft necelfarily be fo opera- 
tive and prevalent, that if the Heretick repent not, he Con- 
now fins againft his Conjcience : not remembring that^'^'^"^^"°^ 
Per adventure, 2 Tim. 2. \i per adventure, God will healed and 
give them repentance : and how ftrong dehifions are, cured. 
and believing of lies, and how hard it is to be unde- 
ceived, efpecially in Spirituals ^ 

Truth. And as it may fo prove, when an Heretick 
indeed is brought to this Colledge of Phyjitians to have 
his confcience healed, and one Heretick is to cure 
another : So alfo when any of Chrijls Witne[[es (fup- 
pofed Hereticks) are brought before them, how doth 
the Lord "Jejus fuffer whippings and liabs, when his 
Name, and Truths, and WitneJJes, and Ordinances are 
all prophaned and blafphemed t 

Befides, fuppofe a Man to be an Heretick, and yet 
fuppofe him brought as the Magijirates Prifoner, 
though to a true Church, to heale his Conjcience : Woimd- 
What promife of Prefence and BMiuir hath the L^r^'"\^"'^''^ 

r - 1 1 • ^/ / •^'^ P. , , or healing 

leju^ made to his Church and Spouje m luch a way .?of Con- 
and how common is it for Hereticks either to be^'^'^""^- 
defperately hardned by fuch cruell courfes (yet pre- 
tending Soule-healing) or elfe through feare and ter- 
rour to prad:ice grofle hypocrifie even againfi: their 

2/6 The Bloudy Tenent. 

confciences ? So that thefe Chirurgions and Phyjitians 
pretending to heale Confciences^ by fuch a courfe 
wound them deeper, and declare [155] themfelves 
Chirurgions and Phyjitians of no value. 

Peace. But what thinke you of the Provifo added 
to their Propofition, viz. Provided, the Church bee 
able and willing ? 

Truth. Doubtles this provifo derogates not a little 
Chrifls from the nature of the Spoufe of Chrift. For fhe, 
able" and ^^^^ ^^^^ gracious woman, Prov. 3 1 . 26. openeth her 
willing to mouth with wifedome, and in her tongue is the Law 
^^^^^ of Grace: fhe is the pillar and ground of Truth, 2 

wounded ^. , n n- i r 

confcien- itni. 2. The golden candleihck from whence true 
ces. light {hineth : the Angels or Minifters thereof able 

to try falfe Apoftles [Rev. 2.) and convince the Gain- 
fayers. Tit. i. 

Againe (according to their principles of fuppreffing 
perfons and Churches falfely worfhipping) how can 
they permit fuch a blind and dead Church not able 
and willing to heale a wounded Confcience ? 

Peace. What fhould be the reafon of this their 
expreflion ? 

Truth. Doubtles their Co7ifciences tell them how 
few of thofe Churches (which they yet acknowledge 
Churches) are able and willing to hold forth Chrijl 
lefus the Sun of Righteoufnes, healing with his wings 
the doubting and afflid:ed confcience. 

Laftly, their confcience tells them, that a Servant of 
Chrifi lefus may pofTibly be fent as an Heretick to be 
healed by a falfe Church, which Church will never 
be willing to deale with him, or never be able to 
convince him. 

The Bloudy Tenent. 277 

Peace. " Yea, but they fay, by fuch a courfe the 
** Magijlrate (liall convince fuch an ones confcience ; 
** that hee feekes his good, &c. 

T?'uth. If a man thus bound be fent to a Church 
to be healed in his confcience^ either he is an Here- 
tick^ or he is not. 

Admit he be : yet he difputes mfeare, as the poor ^ P^.''- 
theefe:' the Moufe difputes with a terrible perfecuting(-5iur"h 
Cat: who while flie feemes to play and gently tolfe, difputes 
yet the conclufion is a proud infulting and devouring ^C'^^ ^" 
crueltie. as a Cat 

If no Heretick but an innocent and faithfull witnes^ith the 
of any Truthof Jefus; difputes he not 2.%'^La7nbe\\'\\\\t. ^^^^-^^^^ 
Lyons paw, being fure in the end to be torne in pieces ? a true 

Peace. They adde : The cenjure this way proceeds ^""^^ ^^ 
with more power and bleffing. with a 

Truth. All power and blelfmg is from that blelfed Lambe in 
Son of God, [156] unto whom all power is given ^^ P^^' 
from the Father, in Heaven and Earth. He hath 
promifed his prefence with his Mefflmgers, preaching 
and baptizing to the worlds end, ratifying in Heaven 
what they binde or loofe on Earth. 

But let any man (hew me fuch a comviijjion., injlruc- 
tion and promife given by the Son of God to Civili 
powers in thefe fpirituall affaires of his Chrijlian King- 
dome and Worjhip ? 

Peace. Laftly they conclude, ** This courfe of firft 
** fending the Heretick to be healed by the Church, 
" takes away all excufe ; for none can fay that he is 
** perfecuted for his Confcience, but for finning againft 
" his Confcience. 

' Infert comma for colon. 

278 T^he Bloudy Tenent. 

Truth. Jefabel placing poore Naboth before the 

Elders as a blafphemer of God and the King, and 

Perfecu- fandlifying the plotted and intended murther with a 

du"r7no"t' <^^y o^ humiliatioji, may feeme to take away all excufe, 

fo to be and to conclude the Blafphemer worthy to be ftoned: 

called. gy^ Jehovah the God oi Recompences (ler. 51.) when 

he makes Inquijitmi for bloody will find both lefabel 

and A'hab guilty, and make the Dogs a feaft with the 

flefli of lefabel, and leave not to Ahab a man to pille 

againft the wall ; for (as Paul in his owne plea) there 

was nothing committed worthy of death : and againft 

thee, O Kmg, faith Da?n'el, I have not finned [Dan. 

6.) in any Civill fad; againft the State. 

THeir eighth queftion is this; viz. What 
power Magiftrates have about the gath- 


Peace. > 

. A P' - 

ering ot Churches ? 

" Firft, the Magiftrate hath power, and it is his 
" duty to incourage and countenance fuch perfons, as 
" voluntarily joyn themfelves in holy Covenant, both 
" by his prefence (if it may be) and promife of pro- 
" tedlion, they accepting the right hand of fellow- 
" fliip from other neighbour Churches. 

" Secondly, he hath power to forbid all Idolatrous 
" and corrupt Afi"emblies, who offer to put them- 
" felves under their patronage, and Ihall attempt to 
"joyne themfelves into a Church-eftate, and if they 
" fiiall not hearken, to force them therefrom by the 
"power of the Sword, Pfal. loi. 8." For our toler- 

'•* Idolatry, Blafphemy, Herefy, vent- that deftroy the foundation, open con- 
ing corrupt & pernicious opinions, tempt of the word preached, prophana- 

The Bloudy Tenent. 279 

" ating many Religions in a State in Teverall Churches, 
** befide the provoking of God, may in time not only 
" corrupt, leaven, divide, and fo deftroy the peace 
157] "of the Churches, but alfo dilfolve the contin- 
" uity of the State, efpecially ours whofe wals are 
" made of the ftones of the Churches ; it being alfo 
" contrary to the end of our planting in this part of 
" the World, which was not only to enjoy the pure 
" Ordinances, but to enjoy them all in purity.' 

" Thirdly, He hath power to compell all men 
"within his grant, to heare the Word,' for hearing 
" the Word of God is a duty which the light of 
*' Nature leadeth even Heathens to : The Ninivites 
" heard Jofiah, though a ftranger, and unknowne 
** unto them, to be an extraordinary Prophet, Jonah 
" 3. And Eglon the King of Moab hearing that Ehud 
" had a melfage from God, he rofe out of his feat for 
"more reverent attention, Judg. 3. 20. 

" Yet he hath no power to compell all men to 
" become members of Churches, becaufe he hath not 
" power to make them fit members for the Church, 
" which is not wrought by the power of the Sword, 
" but by the power ot the Word : Nor may he force 
" the Churches to accept of any for members, but 
" thofe whom the Churches themfelves can freely 
" approve of.^ • 

tion of the Lords day, difturbing the ajfembled in the Synod at Cambridge, &c. 

peaceable adminiftration & exercile of Chap. xvii. 8. p. 29. Printed at Cam- 

the vvorfhip & holy things of God, & bridge, by S G in New England, 1649. 

the like, are to be reftrayned, & pun- ' See note, p. zit^fupra. 

iflied by civil authority." A Platforme ^ See note, p. \()\ fupra. 

of Church DifcipUne gathered out of the 3 " It is not in the power of Magif- 

Word of God: and agreed upon by the trates to compell their fubjefts to become 

Elders: and Meffengers of the Churches church-members, & to partake at the 

280 The Bloudy Tenent. 

Truth. To the firfl branch of this head, I anfwer. 
That the Magijlrate fhould encourage and counte- ' 
nance the Church, yea and protect the perfonsof the 
Church from violence, difturbance, &c. it being truly 
noble and glorious, by how much the Spoufe and 
^eene of the Lord'Jefus tranfcends the Ladies, ^eens, 
and Emprejfes of the World, in glory, beauty, chajiity 
and innocency. 

'Tis true, all Magijirates in the world do this : viz. 
Incourage and prote6t that Church or AJjetnbly of 
worjljippers, which they judge to be true and approve 
of; but not permitting other confciences then their 
owne :' It hath come to pafTe in all ages, and yet 
doubtlefle will, that the Lord Jefus and His ^eene 
are driven and perfecuted out of the World. 

To the fecond. That the Magiftrate ought to fup- 
prelTe all Churches which he judgeth falfe, he quo- 
teth Pfal. 1 01. 8. " Betimes I will cut off the wicked 
" of the Land, that I may cut off all evill doers from 
** the City of Jehovah : unto which, he addeth foure 

Peace. Deare Truth, firft, a word to that Scripture, 
fo often quoted, and fo much boafted of. 

Truth. Concerning that holy Land of Canaan, 
Pfal. loi. concerning the City of Jehovah, Jerufalefn, out of 
8. concern ^j^-^.|^ King David hcrc refolves [1 c8l to cut off all 

ing the cut , . '-' . L -' J 

tingofFthethe wicked and evill doers.' I {hall fpeake more 
wicked, largely on the 1 1 Head or ^ejiion in the differences 

examine . |3£j-^ggj-j ^^^ ^^^ ^ Other Lauds. 

Lords table. * * * Thofe whom the Cambridge Platform, xvii: 4. p. 28. 

church is to caft out if they were in, the ' Comma for colon. 

Magillrate ought not thruft into the ^ D^lg period, 
church, nor to hold them therein." 

^he Bloudy Tenent. 281 

At prefent I anfwer, There is no holy Land or City 
of the Lordy or King of Sion^ &c. but the Church of 
ye/us Chriji^ and the King thereof, according to i 
Pet. 2. 9. Ye are a holy Nation, and "Jerufalem is the 
holy people of God in the true profeffion of Chrif- 
tianity, He!?. 12. Gal. 4. & Rev. 21. Out of which No Land 
the Lord J ejus by his holy Ordinances, in fuch a gov-\^^ hdy"' 
ernment, and by fuch governours as he hath appointed. City now. 
he cuts off every wicked perfon and evill doer. 

\i Chriji J ejus had intended any difference oi place , 
Cities or Countries, doubtleffe yerujalem and Safnaria 
had been thought of, or the Cities of A/ia, wherein 
the Chrijtian Religion was fo glorioufly planted. 

But the Lord y ejus difclaimes yerujdlem and Safna- 
ria from having any refpedl of holinejfe more then 
other Cities, yohn 4. 

And the Spirit of God evidently teftifieth that the No differ- 
Churches were in the Cities and Countries, not that^"'^^ °^ 
the whole Cities or Countries were Gods holy Land, cities 
and Cities out of which all fd[fe worjhippers and <ince the 
wicked per Tons were to be cut. Rev. 2. & 7. comming 

,■'.,;, . , . p as was be- 

The Divells throne was in the City of Pergaf?jus, fore the 
in refpe(5l of the Itate and perfecution of it, and yet '^°'^J^'"g 
there was alfo the Throne of the Lord yejus fet up Lo^d 
in His Church of worjhippers in Pergamus, out ofjefus. 
which the Balaamites, and Nicholaitans and every 
falfe worjhipper was to be caft, though not out of the 
City of Perga?nus, for then Pergamus muft have 
beene throwne out of Pergamus, and the World out 
of the World. 


282 The Bloudy Tenent. 

CHAP. CI. ' 

Peace. f^^Vi that my head were 2ifountaine, and mine 
v^ eyes Rivers of teares to lament my child- 
ren, the children oi peace and light, thus darkniug that, 
and other hghtfome Scriptures with fuch darke and 
direfull clouds of bloud. 

Truth. Sweet Peace, thy teares are feafonable and 

precious, and botled up in the Heavens: but let me 

adde a fecond confideration from that Scripture : If 

that Scripture may now literally be applied to Nations 

and Cities in a parallel to Canaan and Icrufalem fmce 

The iS9\ ^^^ Go/pel, and this Pfal. loi. be literally to be 

terpreta-"" applied to Cities, Townes, and Countries in Europe and 

tion of A?nerica, not only fuch as alfay to joyne themfelves 

Pial. loi. ^^g they here fpeake) in a corrupt Church eftate, but 

fuch as know no Church eftate, nor God, nor Chrijl, 

yea every wicked perfon and evill doer, mull: be 

hanged or ftoned, &c. as it was in Ifrael, and if fo, 

how many thoufands and millions of men and women 

in the feverall Kingdomes 2iudi gover?iments of the World 

muft be cut off from their hands, and deftroyed from 

their Cities, as this Scripture fpeakes ? 

Thirdly, fmce thofe perfons in the New Englijh 
plantations accounted unfit for Church eftate, yet 
remaine all members of the Church of England, from 
which New England dares not feparate, no not in 
their Sacraments (as Ibme of the Independents have 
publiflied") what riddle or myjlerie, or r?iX.h.QY fallacie of 
Sathan is this ? 

' The views of the Independents were Houfes of Parliament, &c.," publifhed 
given in "An Apologetical Narration, in 1643, concerning which Williams 
humbly fubmitted to the Honourable publifhed his " Queries of Higheil Con- 

The Bloudy Tenent. 283 

Peace. It will not be offence to r/6<^r/Vy to makeT^^.^^^ 
conjecture : Firft, herein New England Churches {^^^^^^^-^^ 
fecretly call their Mother Whore, not daring in America, 
Affierica to jovne with their owne Mothers children, ^""^ "°^ '" 

. , ' •' . . . Jturope. 

though unexcommunicate, no nor permit them to 
worlhip God after their confciences, and as their 
Mother hath taught them this fecretly and filently, 
they have a minde to doe, which publickly they 
would feem to dijclaime, and profeffe againff. 

Secondly, If fuch members of Old England fhould -phe New 
be fuffered to enjoy their confciences in New, (how- Englifli 
ever it is pretended thev would profane Ordinances'^^'^^^}^^^ 
for which they are untit (as true it is in that naturall^]^^^^ of 
perjons are not fit tor Spirituall worfhip) yet this Old Eng- 
appears not to be the bottome, for in Old England^^ thefr"' 
the New Englifi joyne with Old in the ?ninijirations'con'[c\cn- 
of the Word, Prayer, finging, contribution, maintenance'^'^ ^'^'^ 
of the Minijirie, &c.) if I fay, they (hould fet up numbers 
Churches after their confcience, the greatnejje and 7nul-rr\\ght ex- 
titudes of their owne Affemblies would decay, and^^*^ ^ ^"' 

• 1 11 1 -1 • 1 • - y • owne, or 

with all the contributions and ?naintenance oi their at leail the 
Minijters, unto which all or moff have beene forced. g'"^^^"^^^^ 
Truth. Deare Peace, Thefe are more then con-^^^jj^ ^i-_ 
jedtures, thoufands now efpie, and all that love theremblies& 

fideration," in 1644, and at about the late times, when we had no hopes of 

fame time with the "Bloudy Tenent." returning to. our own country, we held 

They fav, "As to the Church of Eng- communion with them, and offered to 

land, we profeffe before God and the receive to the Lords Supper fome that 

world, that we do apprehend a great came to vifit us in our exile, whom we 

deal of defilement in their way of wor- knew to be godly, upon that relation and 

fliip, and a great deal of unwarranted memberfhip they held in their parifh 

power exerciicd by their church gov- churches in England, they profeffmg 

ernors, vet we allow multitudes of their thcmfelves to be members thereof, and 

parochial churches to be true churches, belonging thereto." p. 78. Neal's Puri- 

and their miniflers true minifters. In the tans, i : 491. 

284 T^he Bloudy Tenent. 

mainten- purity of the woffhip of the living God fhould lament 
creafe. ' ^uch halting : I Ihall adde this, not only doe they 
partially neglect to cut off the wicked of the Land, 
but fuch as themfelves efteemed beloved and godly 
have they driven forth, and keep out others which 
would come unto them, eminently godly by their 
owne confeffion, becaufe differing in confcience 
160] and worfhip from them, and confequently not 
to be fuffered in their holy Land of Canaan.'' 

But having examined that Scripture alledged, let 
us now weigh their Reafons. 

Firft (fay they) the not cutting off by the fword, 
but tolerating many Religions in a State would pro- 
voke God : unto which 
Chrift I anfwer, firft (and here being no Scripture pro- 

;!v^!wf^^!i'^ duced to thefe Reafons, {hall the fooner anfwer) that 

appointed J * _ _ / 

all Relig- no proofe can be made from the Injiitutions of the 
ions but l^ord lefus that all Religions but one are to be cut 
to be cut off by the Civill Sword; that Nationall Church in 
ofFby the that typicall 1^2LV\A oi Canaan being abolidied, and 
c '^' , the Chri/iian Commonweale or Church inftituted. 
A bloudy Secondly, I affirme that the cutting off by the 
mother. Sword Other Conjciences and Religions is (contrarily) 

' The reference to his own banifhment had been fent home to England from 

and to their refufal to allow the Prefby- Salem in 1629 for fetting up feparate 

terians to come to New England and let worfhip according to the Book of Com- 

up another form of Church-government mon Prayer. Morton's Memorial, p. 148. 

(p. 21 5) is obvious. In the previous fen- Williams arriving in Salem but little 

tences where allufion is made to mem- over a year afterward mull have heard of 

bers of the Church of England being it, and his mind, with the opinions about 

" fuffered to enjoy their own confciences religious liberty then growing in it, mull 

in New England " and " to let up have been prepared to be imprefl'ed by 

churches after their confcience," Wil- fuch a tranfaftion, in which men of 

Hams may poffibly have had in mind the Handing received treatment lo fimilar to 

cafe of John and Samuel Browne, who his own. 

The Bloudy Tenent. 285 

moft provoking unto God, expreflely againft his will 
concerning the Tares ikT^///'. 13. as I have before 
proved ;' as allb the bloudy another of all thofe mon- 
ftrous mifchiefes (where fuch cutting off is ufed) both 
to the joules and bodies of men. 

Thirdly, let conjcience and experience fpeake how 
in the not cutting off their many Religions, it hath 
pleafed God not only not to be provoked, but to 
profper the lliate of the united Provinces our next 
neighbours, and that to admiration." 

Peace. The fecond realbn is, fuch tolerating would 
leaven, divide and deftroy the peace of the Churches. 

Truth. This muft alfo be denied upon fo many Chrifts 
former Scriptures & Reafons produced, proving the^P""'^"^^' 
power ot the Lord lefus, and the fufficiencie ot hismort pow- 
Spirituall power in his Church, for the purging forth ertull. 
and conquering of the leaft evill, yea and for the 
bringing every thought in fubjediion unto Chriji lefu, 
2 Cor. 10. 

I adde, they have not produced one Scripture, nor chrift for- 
can, to prove that the permitting of leaven of falfe '^|'^d'"g 
doBrine in the IV or Id ov Civill State, will leaven the^^g^Q °^ 
Churches : only we finde that the permiffion of leaven mit leaven 
in perfons, doBrines or pra£lices in the Church, that'" ^^^ 
indeed will corrupt and fpread, i Cor. 5. & Gal. 5. doth not 
but this Reafon {hould never have been alledged, forbid to 
were not the particular Churches in New Engla?id,^^^^^^^^ 
but as fo many implicite Parijh Churches in one in the 
implicite Nationall Church. '^ov\d. 

' See Chapter 27. that related to trade, her ftatefmen were 

2 " In that age ( l 7th century) the im- confidered as oracles, and her inftitutions 

menfe proipcrity of Holland was every- as models." Macaulay, Hi/l. 0/ England, 

where regarded with admiration. In all iv. p. ill. 

286 The Bloudy Tenent. 

Peace. Their third Reafon is, it will dilTolve the 
continuity of the State, elpecially theirs, where the 
walls are made of the flones of the Churches. 
i6i] T7'uth. I anfwer briefly to this bare ajfirfnation 
thus, that the true Church is a wall fpirituall and 
myfticall, Ca?it. 8. 9. 

Then confequently a falfe Church or Company is 
a falfe or pretended wall, and none of Chrijis. 

The civill State, Power and Government is a civill 
wall, &c. and 

Laftly, the walls of Earth or flone about a City 

are the naturall or artificiall wall or defence of it. 

TheWall, Now in conlidcration of thefe foure wals I defire 

dif"cufl"ed^ it may be proved from the Scriptures of Truth, how 

the i2\{^ fpirituall wall ox company of falfe worjhip- 

pers fuffred in a City can be able to deftroy the true 

Chrijiian wall or company of beleevers. 

A fpirit- Againe, how this i2i\(Q J'pirituall wall ov falfe Church 

uall wall permitted, can deftrov the civill wall, the State and 

cannot ^^ r i ^- i ^- • i 

properly ^ovcrtuncnt ot the Lity and Ltttzens, any more then 
impaire it can deftroy the naturall or artificiall wall of earth 

the civil. n 

or Itone. 

Spirituallvn^y A^^xoy fpirituall, if a ftronger and vic- 
torious, hui J'pirituall cannot reach to artificiall or civill. 

Peace. Yea but they feare the falfe fpirituall wall 
may deftroy their civill, becaufe it is made of the 
ftones of Churches. 

Truth. If this have reference to that practice 
amongft them, viz. that none but members of 
Churches enjoy civill freedome amongft them (ordi- 
narily) in imitation of that Nationall Church and 
State of the Jewes, then I anfwer, they that follow 

The Bloudy Tenent. 287 

Mofes Church conjiitiitioji) which the New Engiijh 
by luch a pradlice impUcitely doe) muft ceal'e to pre- 
tend to the Lord Jejus Chriji and his injlitiitions. 

Secondly, we (haJl finde lawfull civill States both ^^"y . 
before and lince Chrijt lefus^ in which we finde not(Jiy[]'i '"^ 
any tidings of the true God our [or] Chriji. States 

Laftly, their civiii New Engiijh State framed out J^.h^'/^J^'^ 
of their Churches may yet ftand, fubfift and flouri{li,are not 
ahhough they did (as by the word of the Lord they '^°^^'^- 
ought) permit either Jewes or Turtles or AntichriJ- 
tians to Hve amongil them fubjed: unto their Civiii 


Peace. f^^Q branch more, vi-z. the tliird remaines 
V_>/ of this Head, and it concerns the hear- 
ing of the Word, " unto which (fay they) all men are 
*' to be compelled, becaufe hearing of the | 1 62 | word 
" is a duty which even Nature leadeth Heathens to : 
" for this they quote the practice of the Ninevites 
" hearing lonah^ and Egion (King of Moab) his rifing 
" up to Ehuds pretended melfage from God, "Judg. 3. 

Truth. I muil deny that pofition : for light of Hearing 
Nature leadeth men to heare that onely which Nature '^'''^"^^'^• 
conceiveth to be good for it, and therefore not to 
heare a Melfenger, Minifter or Preacher, whom con- Rdig^ion 
Jcience perfwades is a falfe tnejfenger or deceiver^ and prefers its 
comes to deceive my foule, as Millions of men and p'l.^"^^^^^^ 
women in their feverall refpedlive religions and con- Miniilers 
Iciences are fo perfwaded, conceiving their owne to before all 

r r ' t. other. 

be true. 

288 The Bloudy Tenent. 

Jonahs Secondly, as concerning the injiances^ lonah did not 

to^he Nm*^*^"^?^^! ^^ Ninevites to heare that mejfage which he 
evites, and brought unto them. 

their hear- Belides the matter oi compul/ion to a conftant wor- 
meffage fiip of the word in Church ejiate (which is the ^ef- 
examined. tiou) comes not ncare lonahs cafe. 

Nor did Chriji J ejus or any of his EtJthaJfadours fo 
practice : but if perfons refufed to heare the com- 
mand of the Lord lefus to his Melfengers was onely 
to depart from them, (baking off the duft of their 
fiet with a denunciation of Gods wrath againft them. 
Math. ID. AB. 14. 
Eglon his Concerning Eglon his riling up : Firft, Ehud com- 
to Ehuds P^^^^d not that King either to heare or reverence, 
meflage, and all that can bee imitable in Eglon^ is a voluntary 
examined, ^j^^ willing revereuce which perfons ought to expreffe 
to what they are perfwaded comes from God. 

But how doe both thefe inftances mightily con- 
vince and condemne themfelves, who not onely pro- 
feffe to turne away from, but alfo perfecute or hunt 
all fuch as iliall dare to profeffe a Minijlry or Church 
eftate differing from their owne, though for perfonall 
godlmejje and excellency of gifts reverenced by them- 

Thirdly, to the point of compuljioii : It hath pleafed 
the Lord lefus to appoint a twofold Miniftry of his 
A twofold Firft, for unbeleevers and their converfion, accord- 
^'ChHii ^"S ^o Math. 28. 19. Marc. 16. 15, 16. and the con- 
convert- ' ftant practice of the Apoffles in the firll preaching 

ing and of the Gojpel. 

•ng. Secondly, a Miniftry oi feeding and nourifiing up 

The Bloudy Tenent. 289 

luch as are converted and brought into Church ejiate, 
according to Ephef. 4. &c. Now to neither of thefe 
doe we iinde any compulfion appointed by the Lord 
lefus^ or prad:ifcd hy any ot his. 

163] The compuhion preached and pra(5tired in New 
England, is not to the hearing of that Minijlry fent forth 
to convert unbeleevers, and to conftitute Churches : 
for fuch a Minijiry they pradife not but to the hear- 
ing ot the word ot edification, exhortation, confolation, 
difpencedonely intheC/6wrf/6^j-of 'Z£;or/Z)/^^^rj-; I apply, 

When Paul came firrt to Corinth to preach Chrijl 
lefus, by tlieir Rule the Magiftrates of Corinth ought 
by the Sword to have compelled all the people of 
Corinth to heare Paul. 

Secondly, after a Church of C/^r^/ was gathered ^^"^"^ver 
(by their rule) the Magijirates oi Corinth ought to "i^^^j^^"^ 
have compelled the people Ifill (even thofe who had pulfion. 
refufed his Doctrine, for the few onely of the Church 
embraced it) to have heard the Word ftill, and to 
have kept one day in {<tv^xi to the Chrijiians God, and 
to have come to the Chrijiians Church all their dayes. 
And what is this but a fetled formality of Religion 
and Worjhip, unto which a people are brought by the 
power ot the fword ? 

And however they affirme that perfons are not to X^^,?^^ 
be compelled to be members of Churches, nor the forcing 
Church compelled to receive any: Yet if perfons be their fub- 
compelled to torfake their Religion which their-'*i ^ u° ,, 

r / / 1 church all 

hearts cleave to, and to come to Church, to the i£^or- their daies 
Jhip of the Word, Prayers, Pfalmes, and Contribu-^.^'^ Y^^ 
tions, and this all their dayes: I aske whether this ^^£^1" not 
be not this peoples Religion, unto which fubmitting, to any Re- 


290 T^he Bloudy Tenent. 

ligion (as they fliall be quiet all their dayes, without the inforc- 

they fo^rcei'^to them to the pradiice of any other Religion ? And 

the people if this bee not fo, then I aske, Will it not inevita- 

then to be|^jy foUow, that they (not onely permit, but) enforce 

ligion all people to bee of no Religion at all, all their dayes ? 

theirdayes This toleration of Religion, or rather irreligious 

compuljmi, is above all tolerations monilrous, to wit, 

to compell men to bee ot no Religiofi all their dayes. 

I defire all men and thefe worthy Authors of this 

Modell, to lay their hands upon their heart, and to 

confider whether this couipuljion of men to heare the 

Word^ (as they fay) whether it carries men, to wit, 

to be of no Religion all their dayes, worfe then the 

very Indians, who dare not live without Religion 

according as they are perfwaded. 

Laftly, I adde, from the Ordinance of the Lord 

Jefus, and practice of the Apoftles (Ad:s 2. 42.) 

where the Word and Prayer is joyned with the exer- 

cife of their fellowjhip, and breaking of Bread ; in 

which Exercifes the Church continued conftantly : 

TheCivill that it is apparent [164] that a Civill State may as 

State can lawfully compell men by the civill fword to the 

lawfullv breaking of bread, or Lords Supper, as to the Word 

compell or Prayer, or Fellowjhip. 

I- ^ °"' For lirft, they are all of the fame nature, Ordi- 

iciences or . ' J , , ,,..., 

men to fianccs in the Church (I fpeake of the feeding Minif- 
Church to^^/^ in the Church, unto which perfons are compell'd) 
Word ^"d Qhurch Worjhip. Secondly, every conjcience in 
then to the World is fearfull, at leall: (liie of the Priejis and 
receive Minijlers of other Gods and Worjhips, and of holding 
ments. Spirituall fellowHiip in any of their Services. Which 
is the cafe of many a Soule, viz. to quelHon the Min~ 
iilers themfelves, as well as the Supper it felfe. 

The Bloudy Tenent. 29 1 

CHAP. cm. 


DEare Triithy This preffing of men to the 
Spirituall Battels of Chrift Jefus, is the 
caufe why (as it is commonly with preft Souldiers) 
that fo many thoufands flie in the day of Battell. 
But I prefent you with the 9. Queftion, viz. 

What power the Magiftrate hath in providing of 
Church-Officers ? 

** Firif (lay they) the Election of Church officers 
"being the proper A(ft of the Church, therefore the 
"Magiftrate hath no power (either as Prince or 
" Patron) to alTume fuch power unto himfelfe. When 
" Chrift fends to preach by his fupreme power, the 
*' Magiftrate may fend forth by his power fubordinate, 
" to gather Churches, and may force people to heare 
" them, but not inveft them with office amongft them. 

" Secondly, the Maintenance of Church-officers 
" being to arife from all thofe who are ordinarily 
" taught thereby ( Gal. 6. 6.) hence it is the dutie of 
** the Civill Magiftrate to contend with the people, 
"as Nchemiah did," chap. 13. ver. 10. 11. who doe 
" negled: and forfake the due maintenance of the 

' " Not only Members of Churches, powr through the corruption of men, 

but nil that are taught in the Word, are doth not, or canot attaine the end, the 

to contribute unto him that teacheth in Magilirate is to fee minillry be duely 

all good things. In cafe that Congrega- provided for, as appeares from the com- 

tions are defeftive in their contributions, mended example of Nehemiah. The 

the Deacons arc to call upon them to do Magiltrates are nurfing fathers k nurfing 

their dutv : if their call fufficeth not, mothers, & ftand charged with the cui- 

the church by her powr is to require it tody of both Tables &c." Cambridge 

of their Members, & where church- Platform, xi: 4. p. 16. 


The Bloudy Tenent. 

" Church of God, and to command them to give fuch 
" portions for the maintenance of Church officers, as 
" the Gofpell commandeth to be offered to them 
" freely and bountifully, 2 Co7\ 9. 5, 6, 7. According 
" as Hezektah commanded the people to give to the 
" Prielts and Levites the portions appointed by the 
" Law, that they might be incouraged in the Law of 
" the Lord, 2 Chron. 31.4. 

** Thirdly, the furnifhing the Church with fet offi- 
" cers, depending much upon ered:ing and main- 
" tenance of Schooles, and [165] good education of 
"youth: and it lying chiefly in the hand of the 
" Magiftrate to provide for the furthering thereof, 
" they may therefore and fhould fo farre provide for 
" the Churches, as to ere6l Schooles, take care for 
"fit Governours and Tutours, and commend it to all 
" the Churches, if they fee it meet, that in all the 
" Churches within the Jurifdi6tion once in a yeare, 
" and if it may be, the Sabbath before the Generall 
" Court of Elediion, there be a Free-will offering of 
" all people for the maintenance of fuch Schooles : 
" And the monies ot every Towne fo given, to be 
" brought on the day of Eledtion to the Treafurie of 
" the Colledge, and the monies to be difpofed by fuch 
" who are fo chofen for the difpofing thereof. 

Truth. In the choice of officers, it is very obfcure 
what they mean by this fupreme power of Chrift 
Jefus fending to preach. 

We know the Commiffion of the Lord Jefus to 
his firft Melfengers to goe into all Nations to preach 
and gather Churches, and they were immediately 
fent forth by him : but Mr. Cotton elfwhere holdeth, 

The Bloudy Tenent. 293 

that there is now extant no immediate Minijh-y from 
Chrijl^ but mediate^ that is, from the Church' 

Let us tirft fee how they agree with themfelves, 
and fecondlv how they agree with the Magijirate in 
this bu fines. 

Firft, if they hold a fending- forth to preach by^^^hefirft 
Chrifts fupreme power, according to Math. 28. Mark\^^^^ i3 ^ 
16. Rom. 10. they mull necelfarily grant a time, when converting 
the Church is not, but is to be conftituted out of the '^'"'^^"'^' 

AT • ^ r, 1 111- , . to gather 

Nations and Peoples now converted by this preaching : x.\^QC\x\xrch. 
whence according to the courfe of Scripture, theoi;Fiock 
nature of the IVorke, and their own Grant in this° 
place, it is apparent that there is a Minijiery before 
the Churchy gathering and efpouling the Church to 
Chriji : and therefore their other Tene?it mull: needs 
be too light, viz. that there is no Minijiry but that 
which is mediate from the Church. 

Peace. BlelTed Truth, this dod:rine of a Minijiry 
before the Church, is harjh and deep, yet moft true, 
xnoii Jweet: Yet you know their Ground, that two 
or three GodAy perjhns may joyne themfelves together, 
become a Church, make officers, fend them forth to 
preach, to convert, baptize, and gather New Churches. 

Truth. I anfwer, iirft we find not in the firft injii- 
tution and patterne, that ever any fuch two, or three, 

' We have failed to difcover any pre- who oblcrving fuch whom the Lord hath 

cife expreffion of this fentiment in any gifted, doe eleft and call them forth to 

of Cotton's works publifhed before this, come and helpe them." In The Way of 

In his Anfwer, p. %z. Pub. Narr. Club, the Churches, p. 39, he fays, "The 

ii: 135, he fays, ** The Power of the Church hath not /^^/^''^'^'^power to choofe 

Minirtcriall Calling is derived chiefly whom they lift, but minijlcriall power 

from Chrift, furnilliing his fervants with oncly, to choofe whom Chrift hath 

Gifts fit for the Calling; and nextly, chofen, hath gifted and fitted for them." 
from the Church, (or Congregation) 

294 'T^f^^ Bloudy Tenent. 

or more, did gather and conftitute themfelves a 

Church of Chriji^ without a Miniji7'ie fent [i66] from 

God to invite and call them by the Word, and to 

receive them unto fellowJJnp with God upon the 

No prefi- receiving of that Word and Mejfage : And therefore 

anypeoplei^ may very well be quaeried how without fuch a 

intheGoi- Miniliry two or three become a Church? and how 

pell con- |.]-jg power of Chrill is conveyed unto them : Who 

gathering cfpoufed this people unto yejiis Chrijt, as the Church 

themfelves at Corinth was efpoufed by Paul, 2 Cor. 1 1 . ? If it 

fbine°Mef-^^ faid themfelves, or if it be faid the Scriptures, let 

fenger fent one iuftance be produced in the firfl: patternes and 

froni the praBiccs of fuch a Praa:ice. 

fedl thofe ^^ hath been generally confeft, that there is no 
ends. comming to the Mariage feajl without a Mejfenger 
inviting, fent from God to the Soules of men, Matth. 
12.. Luc. 14. Rom. 10. 

We finde when the Theffdlonians turned to God 

from their Idolls to ferve the living and true God, i 

TheJJal. i. 9. it pleafed God to bring a Word oi Power 

unto them by the mouth of Paul in the fame place. 

Peace. You know (deare Truth) it is a common 

plea, that Gods people now are converted already, 

and therefore may congregate themfelves, &c. 

Truth. Two things muft here be cleered : 

Profen'ed Firft, doth their converjion amount to externall 

publique turning from Idolls, i Thelf. i. 9. befide their inter- 

iTnorone" ^^^^ ^^P^'^^i'^^cc, Faith, Lovc, &c. Secondly, who 

ly from wrought this converJjoH, who begot thefe Children ? 

finnes /fgj- though the Corinthiatis might have ten thoufand 

againft \ o . o 

the fecond ^^'^'^•^^^■*"> 7^^ P^z// had begotten them by the Word. 
Table in 'Tis true (as Mr, Cotton himfelfe elfewhere acknow- 

The Bloudy Tenent. 295 

ledgeth) G(?^ fendeth many Preachers in the way ofp^''^°"3ll 
his providence (even in Babel myfticall) though not^j^^^'^'^l^^j 
according to his Ordinance and Injiitution : So even from falfe 
in the wilderjiejfe [Rev. 12.) God provideth for the^'^"'^'? 
fuftentation of the woman, Rev. i 2. hy which pro- 
vijion even in the moft Popif/j ti/nes and places, yea 
and by moll: falfe and Popijh callings (now in this 
lightfome Age confeft fo to be) God hath done great 
things to the perfonall converjion, conjolation, 2.nAjal- 
vatioji of his people. 

But as there feems yet to be delired fuch conjiitu- ^ ^"^^^ 
tion of the Chrijiian Church, as the fir ft injiitution and j^g|,"Ii3^^^ 
patterne calls for : So alfo fuch a calling and convert- hQi'ort con 
ins: of Gods people from Antichridiati Idols to the ^'^""f^^"' 

- -• 3nQ tiicrc- 

Chrijiian IVorjhip: And therefore fuch a Mini/iry [-q^q \^q. 
(according to the firft patterne) fent from Chnjl ^oje the 
"JeJ lis to renew and reftore [167] the Worjhip ^^'^\ni^Q^^^ 
Ordinances of God in Chriji. patterne. 

Laftly, if it ftiould be granted that without a Mi?i- 
ijiry fent from Qhriji to gather Qhftrches, that Gods 
people in this Country may be called, converted from 
Antichrijlian Idolls, to the true worjhip of God in the 
true Qhiirch eftate and Ordinances, will it not follow 
that in all other Countries of the World Gods EledlThe true 
muft or may be fo converted from their feverall ^^7"^^^^ 
refpedtive falfe worjljips and Idolatries, and brought fgnTwuh 
into the true Qhrijiian ilhurch eftate without fuch a that com- 
iVf/«///r_}/ fent unto them? Or are there two wayes"^ J^ 
appointed by the Lord Jefus, one for this Country, diibuired. 
and another for the reft of the World? Or laftly, if 
two or three more (without a Minijlry) fliall arife 
up, become a Church, make Minijters, &c. I ask 

296 The Bloudy Tenent. 

whether thofe two or three, or more[,] mufl: not be 
accounted immediately and extraordinarily ftirred up 
by God, and whether this be that fupreme power of 
Qhriji Jejus (which they fpeake of) fending forth 
two or three private perfons to make a Qhurch and 
Minijiers, without a true Minijlry of Chriji lefus firft 
fent unto themfelves ? Is this that conunijjion (which 
all Minifters pretend unto) Mat. 28. 19. &c. firft, in 
the hands of two or three private perfons becomming 
a Qhurch, without a mediat call from which Church 
(fay they) there can be no true Minijlry, and yet alfo 
confeffe that Chrijt fendeth forth to preach by his 
fupreme power; and the Magijirate by his power 
fubordinate to gather Churches ? 


Peace^^^Ow have taken great paines to fliew the 

JL irreconciliableneffe of thofe their two after- 

tions, vi'z,. Firft,* there is now no Miniftry (as they 

fay) but what is mediat from the Church, and yet 

fecondly, Chrift Jefus fends Preachers forth by his 

fupreme power to gather the Church ; I now wait 

to heare, how, as they "fay, the Magiftrate may fend 

" forth by his power fubordinate to gather Churches, 

** enforcing the people to heare, &c. 

TheCivill Truth. If there be a Miniftry fent forth by thrifts 

not^ie-'^^ fupreme />(5i£;t'r; and a Minijlry fent forth by the Mag- 

trufted ijtrates fubordinate power to gather Churches, I aske 

with gath-^}^^^. -g ^^ difference between thefe two.? Is there 

ering or . r /^i i i i i • tr 

Churches, any gathering or Churches but by that commijlion. 
Mat. 28. Teach and baptize"^ And is the civil! Mag- 

T^he Bloudy Tenent. 297 

ijirate [168] intrufted with a power from Chri/l as 
his Deputy to give this conimiffiofi, and fo to lend out 
Minijiers to preach and baptize ? 

As there is nothing in the Tejiament of Qhrijl con- ^^^^^.^ 
cerning fuch a delegation or ajjignment of fuch power ^j^^f ^"l^ 
of Chrift to the civill Magijirate : So I alfo ask, fincemore the 
in every free ^i-aX^ civill Magijirate s have no moreP^°P'^°J 
power but what the peoples of thofe States, Lands {'rom 
and Countries betrulf them with, whether or no (by whom the 
this meanes) it muft not follow that Chrijl lefus hath ^^^^^^ \^_ 
left with the Peoples and Nations of the World, his ceive their 
Spirituall Kingly power to grant commiffions andP^^^^""- 
fend out Minillers to themfelves, to preach, convert 
and baptize themfelves ? How inevitably this followes 
upon their conclufion of power in Magiftrates to fend, 
&c. and what unchriftian and unreafonable confe- 
quences muft flow from hence, let all conlider in the , , ^ , 
teare of ijod. (2 chron. 

lehojaphat s fending forth the Levites to teach in 17-) a fig- 
ludah, &c. as they alledge it not; fo elfewhere it^^^^f^ 
fhall more fully appeare to be a type and figure ofjefusinhis 
Qhriji lefus the only King of his Church providing ^'^"■'^^ 
for the feeding of his Church and People by his trueciviii 
Qhrijiian Priejis and Levites, viz. The Minijlry which Magiftrate 
in the Go/pel he hath appointed. g"^^^^^ 


Peace.\T\T^ have examined the Miniftry, be 

V V pleafed (deare Truth) to fpeake to 

the fecond branch of this head, viz. the maintenance 

of it : They affirme that the Magiftrate may force 

298 'The Bloudy Tenent. 

out the Minifters maintenance from all that are 
taught by them, and that after the patterne of Ifrael, 
and the argument from i Cor. 9. Gal. 6. 6. 

Truth. This theame, viz. concerning the main- 
tenance of the Priefts and Minifters of worfhip, is 
indeed the Apple of the Eye, the Dianah of the 
Dianah\ &c. yet all that love Chrift Jefus in fincerity, 
and foules in and from him will readily profefTe to 
abhorre filthy lucre [Tit. i .) and the wages of Balaam 
(both more common and frequent then eafily is dif- 
Gal. 6. 6. Xo that Scripture Gal. 6. 6. Let him that is taught 
ing the" ^'^ ^^^ Word make him that teacheth partaker of all 
mainte- his goods I I aufwcr. That teaching was of perfons 
"u"^Tf/r°^ converted, beleevers entred into the Schoole and 

the Min- . , 

irtry ex- Family of Chrift the Church, which Church being 
amined. j 5(^ | rightly gathered, is alfo rightly inverted with the 
power of the Lord "Jejus^ to force every foule therein 
by fpirituall weapons and penalties to doe its duty. 

But this forcing of the Magijirate is intended and 
pradlifed to all forts of perfons without as well as 
within the Churchy unconverted^ natural I and dead in 
finne, as well as thofe that live, and feeding enjoy the 
benefit of fpirituall food. 
Chrift Now for thofe forts of perfons to whom Chriji 

J e us never j^/^^ feuds his Word out oi Church eftate, lewes or 

appointed -/ _ _ ' ^ 

a mainte- Gentiks^ (according to the Parable oi Math, i 3. high- 
i!^"m °^r '^^y ^^^^^^-^i Jiony ground^ and thorny ground hearers) 
ters from wee uever finde title of any maintenance to bee 
the uncon-exped:ed, leaft of all to bee forced and exad:ed from 
verte an (-i^gf^-j^ ]3y civHl power thcv cauuot be forced, for it 

unbeleev- . • •// t r t ~ l-^ r 

ing. is no civill payment or bufinelle, no matter ot Cafar, 

' Of the Ephefians. Afts xix: 28. 

The Bloudy Tenent. 299 

but concerning God : nor hy fpirituall power, which 
hath nothing to doe with thole which are without, 
I Cor. 5. 

It is realbnable to expe(ft and demand of fuch as 
live within xh^Jiate a civil! maintenance oi their <:/^77/ 
officers, and to force it where it is denyed. It is rea- 
fonable for a Schoole-majier to demand his recom- 
pence for his labour in his Schoole : but it is not 
reafonable to expe(5l or force it from Jira?2ges, enemies, 
rebels to that City, from fuch as come not within, or 
elfe would not bee received into the Schoole. What 
is the Church oi Chrijl J ejus, but the City, the Schoole, 
and Fafnily oiChriJi '^ the Ojficers of this City, Schoole, 
Family, may reasonably expert maintenance from 
fuch [as] they minifter unto, but not from Grangers, 
enemies, &c. 

Peace. It is moft true that iinne goes in a linke. They that 
for that tenent that all the men of the world may bee^°"^P'^^' 
compelled to heare Chriji preach (and enjoy theheare, 
labours of the Teacher as well as the Church it felfe) compel! 
forceth on another alio as evill, viz. that they lliould [^^" ^^, °or 
alfo be compelled to pay, as being moft equall and their hear- 
reafonable to pay for their converlion. '"S ^"^. 

r-r- I r^ r irr-i c T converlion 

Truth. Some ule to urge that 1 ext or Luc. 14. Luc 14. 
Compell them to come in.' Compell them to MaJ/e Compdl 

■ Auguftine fell into this falfe interpre- in viis & in fepibus, id efl in hasrefibus 

tation in advocating the coercion of & in fchifmatibus coguntur intrare." Ep. 

heretics. "In illis ergo, qui leniter pri- ad Bonifacium, 185. O/i^r/7, torn, ii : 653. 

mo addufti funt, completa eft prior obe- " Putas neminem debere cogi ad jul- 

dientia : in irtis autem, qui coguntur, titiain, cum legas patremfamilias dixifle 

inobedientia cocrcetur. Quapropter fi fervis, l^iocumque inveneritis cogite in- 

poteftate quam per religionem ac fidem trare?" Ep. ad Vincentium, 93. Opera, 

regum, tempore quo debuit, divino mu- torn, ii: 232. Cf. Ep. ad Donatum, 174. 

nere accepit Ecclefia, hi qui inveniuntur Opera, torn, ii : 616. 


300 The Bloudy Tenent. 

them, ex- (f^y the Papijis:) compell them to Church and Com- 
mon prayer, fay the Protejlants : Compell them to 
the Meeting, fay the New Englip. In all thefe com- 
puljions they difagree amongft themfelves : but in 
this, viz. Compell them to pay[;] in this they all 

Q^com- ^ There is a double violence which both Errour and 

pulfion. Falfliood ufe to the foules of men. 

Morall 170] Firft, morall and perfwafive, fuch was the per- 
fwafion firft ufed to lofeph by his Mijtris : fuch was 
the perfwajions of Tamar from Ammon : fuch was 
the compelling of the young fnan by the Harlot, Prov. 
7. (liee caught him by her much faire Jpeech and 
kijfes. And thus is the whole world compelled to 
the worfliip of the Golden Image, Dan. 3. 

Civill The fecond Compuliion is civill, fuch as lofephs 

Compul- Miftris began to pradife upon lofeph to attaine her 
whorifh delires. 

Such as Ammon pradlifed on Tamar to fatisfie his 
brutifh luft. 

And fuch was Nabuchadnezzars fecond compuliion, 
his fiery Furnace, Dan. 3. and myfticall Nabuchad- 
nezzars killing all that receive not his marke. Rev. 1 3. 

Calvin alfo follows Auguftine and fuf- Bayle ufed this text for the title of his 
tains the argument for perfecution drawn book Contrains-les d^entrer, in which 
fron MspafTage; "Intereanon improbo, more direftly than in his Diftionary he 
quod Augullinus hoc teftimonio fspius advocates religious toleration. " At the 
contra Donatiftas ufus eft, ut probaret, beginning of this work Bayle difclaims 
priorum principum edidlis ad veri Dei any intention of entering into a critical 
cultum et fidei unitatum licite cogi prs- examination of the pafTage that he had 
fraflos et rebelles : quia, etfi voluntaria taken as his motto. His refutation of 
eft fides, videmus tamen, iis mediis utili- the perfecutor's interpretation refts not 
ter domari eorum pervivaciam, qui non on any detailed criticilm, but on a broad 
nifi coafti parent." Commentarii, in loco, and general principle." Lecky, Ration- 
torn, ii : 43. alijm in Europe, ii : 66. 

The Bloudy Tenent. 301 

The firft fort of thefe violences, to wit, by power- ^^^ ^in- 
full argument and perfwafion, the Minijlers of the^j^^jj^^ 
Gojpel 2M0 \i{^. Hence all thofe powerfull perfwa-Jefus com- 
fions of Wifedomes Maidens, Pro. o. Hence (faith P^'^ V'^^ 

r, ; 1 ■ 1 r 1 r / r ^ ^° Other 

raul) knowing the terrotir or the Lord, we perlwadefword 
men, 2 Cor. c. and pull fome out of the fire, faith then that 
lude : fuch muft that cotnpuljion be, Luc. 14. viz. ^^^ ^q^[\^\\^^ 
powerfull perfwafions of the Word, being that two- fword of 
edped fword comminp; out of the mouth oi Chri/i^'^^^'P^'^^'^ 

;r 7? . 1 . n n ' -n r r 1 • • With two 

lejus m nis true Minijters lent forth to invite pooreg^ges^ 
finners to partake of the Feaji of the Lambe of God. 
The civill Minijiers of the Commonweale cannot be 
fent upon this biijincjfe with their civill weapons and 
compulfiojis , but the fpirituall Minijier of the Go/pel 
with his fpirituall fword of Chrijls mouth, a fword 
with two edges. 

But more particularly the contributions of ChriJisT\\tmdi\n- 
Kingdome are all holy and fpirituall, though confift- J^" M?ni°/ 
ing of materiall t.2iTih\y Jubjtance, (as is Water intryfpirit- 
Baptijme, Bread ^ind Wine in the Supper) and joyned"^^^- 
with prayer and the Lords Supper, AB. 2. 42. 

Hence as Prayer is called Gods facrijice, fo are the Natural! 
contributions and mutuall fupplyes of the Saints, fac- "^^" "^^^ 

.,, r,/ ■! 1 i. J ^ neither 

npces, Phil. 4. ^ ^ _ ^ t,,ly ^or- 

Hence alfo as it is impoffible for naturall men toftip nor 
bee capable of Go^j- worjhip, and to feed, be nour- "^^'"^^'" 
ifhed and edified by any fpirituall ordinance, no more 
then a dead childe C2injucke the breaft, or a dead man 

So alfo is it as impoffible for a dead man yet lodged 
in the grave of Nature to contribute fpiritually (I 
meane according to Scriptures rule) as for a dead man 
to pay a reckoning. 

302 'The Bloudy Tenent. 

I queftion not but natural! men may for the out- 
ward ad: preachy pray, contribute, &c. but neither are 
they worfliippers fuitable to him [171] who is a 
Spirit [lohn 4.) nor can they (leaft of all) bee forced 
to worfhip or the maintenance of it, without a guilt 
of their hypocrifie. 

Peace. They will fay, what is to be done for their 
foules ? 

Truth. The Apojiles (whom wee profefTe to imi- 
tate) preached the Word of the Lord to unbeleevers, 
without mingling in worflnp with them, and fuch 
Preachers and preaching, fuch as pretend to be the 
true Mijiijlry of Chriji, ought to be and pradtife : 
Not forcing them all their dayes to come to Church 
and pay their duties, either fo confeffing that this is 
their Religion unto which they are forced : or elfe 
that (as before) they are forced to be of no Religion 
all their dayes. 
Rebels not The wav to fubdue Rebels is not by correfpondence 
bycompli-^rid couunumou with them, by rorcmg them to keepe 
ance, but the City Watches, and ^2iy Jejfements, &c. which all 
reiftance. ^^^^ ^^ pradifed (upon compulfion) treacheroufly, 
the firft work with fuch is powerfully to fubdue their 
judgments and wills, to lay downe their weapons, and 
yeeld willing fubjedion : then come they orderly into 
the City, and fo to Citie priviledges. 


Peace. T^hea-fe you now (deare Truth) to difculTe the 
XT Scriptures from the Old Tejiament, Nehem. 
13. and 2 Chron. 31. 

The Bloudy Tenent. 303 

Truth. God gave unto that Nationall Church of^he na- 
the Jevves that excellent Land of Canaan, and therein ch'Jfrch 
Houjes furnilhed, Orchards, Gardens, Vineyards, Oliveoi the 
yards. Fields, Wells, &c. they might well in this fet--^^.^" 
tied abundance, and the promiled continuation and be forced 
increafe of it afford a large temporall fupply to their to a^e"led 
Priejis and Levites, even to the Tenth of all they ^^^^^^^'qI^ 

poiTeiTe. their 

Gods people are now in the Gof pel hro\x^\. into a P*"'^!^^ '^/^"^ 
fpirituall land oi Canaan, flowing with fpirituall milk the Chrif- 
and honey, and they abound with fpirituall and tian 
heavenly comforts, though in a poore and perfecuted ^^^ ' 
condition, therefore an inforced fetled maintenance is 
not futable to the Gofpel, as it was to the Minifry of 
Priejis and Levites in the Law. 

Secondly, in the change of the Church eftate, there 
was alfo a change of the Priefthood and of the Law, 
Heb. 7. Nor did the Lord lefts appoint that in his 
Church, and for the maintenance of his [172] Min- 
ijirie, the Civill /word of the Magijirate, but that the 
Spirituall Sword of the Miniftrie fhould alone com- 

3. Therefore the compulfon ufed under i/d'z^'/^/^Z'rpj^^Qj^jjj 
and Nehemiah, was by the civill and corporall Sword, Sword of 
a type (in that typicall State) not of another materiall^^^ ^^' 
and corporall, but of an heavenly and fpirituall, even church of 
they'Z£;or^ of the Spirit, with which Chrifl fighteth, the Jewes 
Revel. -2. which is exceeding: iharpe, entring in^°" ^T 

•J ^ ^ , o r ' o type out 

between \.\\q foule tlwA fpirit, Heb. 4. and- bringing a Civill, 
every thought into captivitie to the obedience of Chrif^^^^_ ^ 
Jefus : He that fubmits not at the fliaking of thissword"^ 
fword, is cut off by it ; and he that defpifeth this of the 

No man 
fhould be 

304 The Bloudy Tenent. 

Chnflian fword, all the power in the World cannot make him 

Church. n • 11- r • ■ r 

a true worj/jipper, or by his purle a mamteiner or 
Gods worjhip. 

Laftly, If any man profeffing to be a Minijler of 
bound to Cbriji "J ejus, {hall bring men before the Magijirate 
worfhip, (as the practice hath been, both in Old and New 
nor main- ^yiglatid] for not paying him his wages or his due : 
Worfhip I aske (if the voluntarie confent of the party hath 
againil j^qj- obliged him) how can either the officers of the 
confent. Pcirijld, Church, or of the Civill State compell this or 
that man to pay fo much (more or lelfe) to main- 
taine fuch a Worjlnp or Minijlrie ? I ask further, if 
the determining what is each mans due to pay, why 
may they not determine the tenth and more, as fome 
defired {others oppoling) in New Englarid, and force 
men not only to maintenance, but to a 'Jewifld main- 

Peace. Yea but (fay they) is not the Labourer 

worthy of his hire? 

Chnfts Truth. Yes, from them that hire him, from the 

worthy o^Church, to whom he laboureth or miniftreth, not 

their hire, from the CivUl State 2 no more then the Minifter of 

then^'X ^^^ Civill State is worthy of his hire from the Church, 

hire them but from the Civill State, (in which I grant the per- 

fons in the Church ought to be affiftant in their 

Civill refpedls.) 

Peace. What maintenance (fay they) fhall the Min- 
iftrie of the Gofpell have ? 
What Truth. We finde two wayes of maintenance for 

mainten- the Miniftrie of the Gofpell, propofed for our direc- 
anceChrifl^-^j^ in the New Teftament. 

hath ap- r>- n 1 r • • • ~ \ 

pointed Firft, the free and willing contribution of the 

The Bloudy Tenent. 305 

Saints, according to i Cor. 16. Luc. 8. 3. &c. upon his Min- 
which both the Lord Jelus, and his Minifters hved. JhrCof- 

Secondly, the dihgent worke and labour of their pell, 
owne hands, [173] as Paul tells the ThelTalonians, 
and that in two cafes : 

1, Either in the inabilities and neceffities of the 

2. Or for the greater advantage of Chrirts truth ; 
as when Paul faw it would more advantage the name 
of Chrift, he denies himfelfe, and falls to worke 
amongft the Corinthians and ThelTalonians. 

Let none call thefe cafes extraordinary : for if per- 
fecution be the portion of Chrifts ilieep, and the 
bujines or worke of Chriji muft be dearer to us then 
our right eyes or lives, fuch as will follow Paid., and 
follow the Lord "Jefus, muft not thinke much at, but 
rejoyce in poverties, necej/ities, hunger, cold, nakednejfe, 
&c. The Stewards of Chrift J ejus muft be like their 
Lord, and abhorre to fteale as the evill Steward, pre- 
tending that he ftiamed to beg, but peremptorily, dig 
he could not. 


Peace. f^^'^Q and the laft branch (deare Truth) 
V^ remaines concerning Schooles. 

** The Churches (fay they) much depend upon the 
** Schooles, and the Schooles upon the Magijirates. 

Truth. I honour Schooles for Tongues and Arts i"^ 

' In The Hireling Minijiry none of Englifh Univerfuies at greater length. 
Chrijls, (London, Printed in the fecond He expreffly difclaims any prejudice 
Moneth, 1652.) pages 14, 15, 16, 17, againil learning and education. "I heart- 
Williams repeats thefe views on the ilv acknowledge that among all the out- 



The Bloudy Tenent. 

fities of 
Europe a 
caufe of 
fins & 

ble for 
and Arts. 

church hi; 

but the injlitution of Europes Univerjities, devoting 
perfons (as is faid) for Scholars, in a Monajiicall wsiy^ 
forbidding Mariage and Labour to, I hold as far from 
the mind of lefus Chrift, as it is from propagating 
his Name and Worfhip. 

We count the Univerfities the Fountaines, the 
Seminaries or Seed-plots of all Pietie : but have not 
thofe Fountaines ever fent what ftreames the Times 
have liked ? and ever changed their tafte and colour 
to the Princes eye and Palate ? 

For any depending of the Church of Chrift upon 
fuch Schooles, I finde not a tittle in the Teftament 
of Chrift lefus. 

I finde the Church of Chrift frequently compared 

zvaril Gifts of God, humane learning and 
the knowledge of Languages and good 
Arts, are excellent and excel! other out- 
ward gifts y as far as light excels darkneffe, 
and therefore that Schools of humane 
Learning, ought to be maintained, in a 
due way and cherifhed." p. 14, " Far 
be it from me to derogate from that 
honourable civility of training up of Youth 
in Languages and other humane Learning. 
All that I bear witnefle againil, is the 
counterfeiting and facrilegious arrogating 
of the titles and rights of Gods Saints, 
and Churches which are the only Schools 
of the Prophets^ p. 17, *' Upon a due 
furvey of their Injiitutions and continuall 
praftices compared with the lall; Will 
and Tefament of Chrill Jefus, they will 
be found to be none of Chriils, and that 
in many refpefts. Firft, as to the name 
Schollar, although as to humane learning, 
many wayes lawtull, yet as it is appro- 
priated to fuch as praftife the Minillry, 
have been at the Univerfities (as they 

fay) It is a facrilegious and theevifh title, 
robbing all beleevcrs and Saints, who are 
frequently in the Tejlament of Chrift, 
ftiled Dilciples or Schollars of Chrift 
Jelus, and only they as Bcleevers. Sec- 
ondly, As to their Monkifh and idle 
courfe of life. '■' * * Thirdly, As to 
their Popify and vaunting Titles fo ftrange 
trom the New Teftament and language of 
Chrift Jefus. * * * Fourthly, As to 
their (pretended) Spirituall and holy 
exercifes proper onely to the Churches 
and Aff'emblies of the Saints (the onely 
Schools of the Prophets appointed by 
Chrift Jefus: Fifthly, As to their being 
prepared and fitted by thefe means, as in 
a way of Prentiftpip, to fet up the Trade 
and way of Preaching, the fcience or 
faculty of Spirituall merchandife ( Revel. 
18. in a deep Mifterf) of all forts of 
Spices and precious things, the precious 
and fweet Truths and Promifes of holy 
Scripture, Sic." TpY'- H- '5- l^. 

The Bloudy Tenent. 307 

to a Schoole : All Beleevers are his Difctples or Schol- ^"^{j°°!^' 
ars^ yea wotnen alio, ^^j- 9. 36. There was a certainegeijeyers 
Dijciple or Scholar called Dorcas. Scholars. 

Have not the Univerjities facrilegiouily ftole this 
blelfed name ot Chrijh Scholars from his people ? Is 
not the very Scripture language it felfe become abfurd, 
to wit, to call Gods people, elpecially Women (as 
Dorcas) Scholars? 

174] Peace. Some will object, how fhall the Scrip- 
tures be brought to light from out of Popijh darknejfe, 
except thefe Schooles of Prophets convey them to us ? 

Truth. I know no Schooles of Prophets in the New 
Tejiaffient^ but the particular Congregation of Chriji 
yej'us, I Cor. 14. And I queftion whether any thing 
but Sinne ftopt and dried up the current of the Spirit 
in thofe rare gifts of tongues to Gods jons & daugh- 
ters^ lerving fo admirably both for the understanding 
of the Originall Scriptures, and alfo for the propa- 
gating ot the name of ChriJl. 

Who knowes but that it may pleafe the Lord, ° 
agame to cioath his people with a fpirit ot zeale and but God 
courage for the name of ChriJl, yea and powre forth mayagaine 
thofe fiery ftreames againe of Tongues and Prophecie^^^^^}^ the 
in the rejiauration of Zion f gifts of 

If it be not his holy pleafure lb to doe, but that^°"^""- 
his people with daily ftudy and labour muft dis: to Tongues 

_ y y o attainable 

come at the Originall Fountaines, Gods people have out of 
many wayes (befides the Univerfitie, lazie and Mo«/^- <^xtord 
ifi) to attaine to an excellent meafure of the know- ^|^i 1 ^J"" 
ledge of thofe tongues. 

That moft defpifed (while living) and now much 

308 The Bloudy Tenent. 

Mr. Ainf- honoured Mr. Ainfworth^' had fcarce his Peere 

^^"^ ' amongft a thoufand Acade77iians for the Scripture Orig- 

inalls^ and yet he fcarce fet foot within a Colledge walls. 


Peace. ^ Shall now prefent you with their 10. Head, 
X viz. concerning the Magiftrates power in 
matters of Dod:rine. 

'* That which is unjuftly afcribed to the Pope, is 
" as unjuftly afcribed to the Magiftrates, viz. to have 
** power of making new Articles ot Faith, or Rules 
** of Life, or of prefling upon the Churches to give 
" fuch publike honour to the Apocrypha writings, or 
" HomiHes of men, as to read them to the people in 
"the roome of the Oracles of God. 

Truth. This Pojition ftmply confidered I acknow- 
ledge a moft holy truth of God, both againft the 
Pope, and the Civill Magijlrates challenge, both pre- 
tending to be the Vicars of Chrijt J ejus upon the 
Earth. Yet two things here I fliall propofe to con- 

• Henry Ainfworth was a Separatill, out all exception) in that way, who 

and teacher of the church in Amlterdam. refilled Communion with hearing in 

He wrote Annotations of the Five Books England.^' Cotton's Jnfwer, -p. 122. "Mr. 

of Mofes, the Pfalms, nnd the Song of Sol- Airfworth, a man of a more modeft and 

omon. A lift of his works is given in humble fpirit, and diligently ftudious of 

Brook's Puritans, ii : 303. the Hebrew Text, hath not been unufe- 

Bifhop Hall {^Apology againft Brown- ful to the Church in his Expofition of 

ifts. Works, x: 5-1 13. j treats Ainfworth the Pentateuch, efpecially of Mofes his 

with as much refpeft as he could feel for Rituals, notwithilanding ibme uncircum- 

one of his feft, and evidently regards cifed, and ungrounded Rabbinical obfer- 

him as its moll learned man. vations recited, but not refuted." Way 

Even Cotton gave him praife. "Mr. of Cong. Churches Cleared, p. 6. 
Aynfworths name is of beft efteeme ( with- 

The Bloudy Tenent. 309 

Firft, lince the Pat'lianiejit of England thrufl the ^'"g 
Pope out of his chaire in Kngland^ and fet downeg '|^^-jo^^jj 
King Henry the 8. and his Succejfours [175] in the in the 
Popes roome, eftabhfliinp- them fupreme Governours °^.^^ . 

I ^ o_ I cn3ircin 

of the Church of Rngland\\\ fince fuch an abfolute^ci;- England. 
eminent is given by all men to them to be Guardians 
of the firft Table and worjlnp of GW; to fet up the 
true worjhip, to fupprefte all falfe, and that by the 
power of the Sword \ and therefore confequently they 
muft judge and determine what the true is, and what 

And lince the Magijlrate is bound (by thefe^^ the 
Authours principles) to fee the Church, the Church ^^^^^^^_ 
officers and members doe their duty, he muft there- ifh in Spir- 
fore judge what is the Churches duty, and when fhe ""^'^ '^^J^^^ 
pertormes or not performes it, or when (lie exceeds, of ne'cefli- 
ib likewife when the Minijiers performe their duty, ty he judge 
or when they exceed it. in Spirit- 

Ai-'i •? n-1 • caules 

And it the Magtjirate muft judge, then certainly alio, 
by his owne eye, and not by the eyes of others, though 
alfembled in a Nationall or Generall Councell. 

Then alfo upon his judgement muft the people 
reft, as upon the minde and judgement of Chrift, or 
elfe it muft be confeft that he hath no fuch power 
left him by Chrift to compell the foules of men in 
matters of Gods worfliip. 

Secondly, concerning the Apocrypha writings andApocn- 
Hotnilies io be urged by the Magiftrate to be read ^'^^' ^°"^' 

o J o mon 1 rav- 

unto the people as the Oracles of God: I aske if thcer and 
Hojnilies ot England coni2.\n not in them much pre- ^^""1"'"^^' 
tious and heavenly matter! Secondly, if they werej'oo^^j'^fore- 
not penn'd (at leaft many of them) by excellent men fathers. 


The Bloudy Tenent. 

A cafe. 

for learnings holinejfc, and witneffe of Chrijls Truth 
incomparable. Thirdly, were they not authorifed by 
that moft rare and pious Prince Ed. 6. then head of 
the Church of Englajid'^ With what great folemnity 
and rejoycing were they received ot thoufands r' 

Yet now behold their children after them iharply 
cenfure them for Apocrypha writings and Homilies 
thruft into the roome of the Word of God^ and fo 
falling into the conjidcration of a falle and counterfeit 

I demand of thefe worthy men whether a fervant 
of God might then lawfully have refufed to read or 
heare fuch a falfe Scripture } 

Secondly, if fo, whether King Edward might have 
lawfully compelled fuch a man to yeeld and fubmit. 

• Bifhop Short fays ( Hijiory of Church 
of England, chap. viii. ^41 2, note,) "The 
hiflory of the compofition of the Homi- 
lies is buried in fo much obicurity that 
a fhort note will convey to the reader all 
that is known concerning them. The 
firft volume is generally attributed to 
Cranmer, Ridley, Latimer, Hopkins and 
Becon. Burnet (^Pref. to the Thirty 
Nine Articles, p. iii.) fays that Jewel 
was particularlv engaged in compiling 
the fecond. Archbifhop Parker, how- 
ever, in 1563, fpeaks of them as being 
" revifed and finifhcd, with a fecond part 
by him and the other bilhops." (Strype's 
Parker, i: 253.) The homilies on Sal- 
vation, Faith, and Good Works, are 
with reafon attributed to Cranmer." The 
firfl edition of the firft book was publifli- 
ed July, 1547, I Edward VI. 

The Puritans always felt a diflike for 
the public ufe of the Apocrypha. It 
was one of the accufations of Martin 

Mar-prelate againft Archbilhop Whit- 
gift, " that he commanded the Apocry- 
pha to be bound up with the Bibles." 
Strype's Lfe of Whitgift, i : 590. It was 
one of the objedlions to the Book of 
Common Prayer in the Apology of the 
Lincolnfhire minillers prefented to James 
I. in 1604, that it made a dilproportion- 
ate ufe of leflbns from the Apocrypha. 
Neal's Puritans, i : 246. In the Hampton 
Court Conference (Jan. 16, 1603,) the 
Puritan minifters took exceptions eipe- 
cially to the Service book, and among 
other points to the reading of the Apoc- 
rypha. Strype's Whitgift, iii: 404. In 
the Savov Conference (166O the fame 
exceptions were taken by Baxter in be- 
half of the Nonconformifts, but only to 
lead to the infertion of new Apocryphal 
leflbns, with the conceflion that they 
fliould not be read on Sundays. Short, 
Hif. Church of England, chap. xv. §67 1 . 
Neal's Puritans, ii : 233. 

The Bloudy Tenent. 3 1 1 

or elfe have perfecuted him, yea (according to the 
Authors principles) whether he ought to have fpared 
him, becaufe after the admonitions of fuch pious and 
learned men, this man Ihall now prove an Hereticke^ 
and as an obftinate perfon fmning againft the light of 
his owne confcience "l 

176] In this cafe what fliall the confcience of the fub- 
je6t doe, awed by the dread oi the moft High f What 
(hall the confcience of the Magijirate do, zealous for 
his glorious Reformation^ being conftantly perfwaded 
by his Clergy of his Lieut enantflnp received from 
Chrift ^ 

Again, what priviledge have thofe worthy fervants Reforma- 
of Go^ either in Old or New England^ to be exempted fambi"^ 
from the miftakes, into which thofe glorious fVor- 
thies in A'. Edwards time did fall? and if fo, what Bloudy 
bloudy conclufons are prefented to the World, per-^°"^'"' 
fwading men to plucke up by the Roots from the 
Land of the living, all fuch as feem in their eyes 
hereticall or obftinate ? 


Peace. T'A Eare Truth , What darke and difmall bloudy 
J_-/ paths doe we walke in ? How is thy name 
and mine in all ages cried up, yet as an Englifti Flag 
in a Spanilh bottome, not in truth but dangerous 
treachery and abufe both of Truth and Peace ? 

We are now come to the 11 Head which con-n Head. 

cernes the Magiftrates power in worfhip. 
" Firft, they have power (fay they) to reforme 
" things in the worfhip of God in a Church cor- 

312 T^he Bloudy Tenent. 

" rupted, and to eftablifh the pure worfhip of God, 
** defending the fame by the power of the fword 
" againft all thofe who fliall attempt to corrupt it/ 

" For firft, the reigning of Idolatry and corruption 
" in Religion is imputed to the want of a King, 
" ludges 17. 5, 6. 

" Secondly, Remiffenes in Reforming Religion, is 
** a fault imputed to them who fuffered the High 
" Places in IJrael\^,\ and in Gallio, who cared not for 
*'fuch things, ABs 18. 

" Thirdly, Forwardnelfe this way is a duty not only 
" for Kings in the Old Teftament, but for Princes 
"under the New, i Ti?7i. 2. 2. Rom. 13. 4. Efay 49. 
" 23. Neither did the Kings oi Ifrael reforme things 
" amilfe as types of Chrift, but as Civill Magiftrates, 
" and fo exemplary to all Chriftians. And here Ref- 
" ormation in Religion is commendable in a Perlian 
"King, Ezra J. 23. And it is well knowne that 
" remilTenes in Princes of Chriftendome in matters 
" of Religion and Worfliip (divolving the care thereof 
" only to the Clergy, and fo fetting the Homes thereof 
"upon the Churches head) hath been the caufe of 
" Antichriftian inventions, ufurpations and corruptions 
" in the Worfhip and Temple of God. 
177] " Secondly, they have not power to preife upon 
" the Churches, fliinted Prayers, or fet Liturgies, 
" whether New or Old, Popifli, or others under col- 
" our of uniformity of Worfliip, or morall goodneffe 

» " If any church one or more fhall the rule of the word ; in fuch cafe the 

grow fchifmaticall, rending itfelf from the Magillrate is to put forth his coercive 

communion of other churches, or fhall power as the matter fhall require." 

walke incorrigibly or obilinately in any Cambridge Platform, xvii : 9. p. 29. 
corrupt way of their own, contrary to 

T^he Bloudy Tenent. 3 1 3 

" of them both for matter and forme, conceiving our 
" arguments fent to our Brethren in Ejigland concQvn- 
" mz, this QiielHon to evince this Truth.' 

** Thirdly, they have no power to preiTe upon the 
" Churches, neither by Law (as hath been faid before) 
" nor by Proclamation and command, any facred 
" fignilicant ceremonies, whether more or lelTe, Popifli 
" or Jewifli rite, or any other device of man, be it 
** never fo little in the worlhip of God, under what 
" colour foever of indifferencie, civility, uling them 
** without opinion of fan6lity, publicke peace or obe- 
" dience to righteous Authority, as Surplice, Crofle, 
" kneeling at Sacrament ; Salt and Spitle in Baptifme, 
" Holy dayes : They having beene fo accurfed of God, 
" fo abufed by man, the impofing of fome ever mak- 
** ing way for the urging of more, the receiving of 
" fome making the confcience bow to the burthen 
"of all. 

*' Fourthly, they have not power to governe and 
" rule the ad:s of worlliip in the Church of God. 

' An Anfwer of the Elders of the That this, as well as the other work was 

Severall Chvrches in New England unto written by Richard Mather we have not 

Nine Pofitions, fent over to them (By only the evidence cited on page 215, but 

divers Reverend and godly Minillers in alfo the teftimony of his fon-in-law, 

England) to declare their Judgements Increafe Mather. "There is a book 

therein. Written in the Yeer, 16^9. which bears the title of 'Anfwer of the 

London, 1643. Elders' &c. printed in the year 1643, of 

This Book is printed and bound, hav- which book my father Mather was the 

ing a confecutive paging, with "An fole author, & he wrote it in the prim- 

Apologie for Church-Covenant, &c. itive times of thofe churches (viz. in the 

Sent over in Anfwer to Mafter Bernard, year 1639) as himfelf aflured rn^-" Order 

in the Yeare 1639." ^^ '^ ^'^° bound of the Go/pel, p. 73. 

together with The Anfwer to Two and The firft Pofition is " That a Hinted 

Thirty Queflions, (fee p. z\^, fupra) Forme of Prayer, or fet Liturgie, is un- 

and is connefted with it on the title- lawfull." pp. 55-60. 
page, although with feparate pagination. 

314 'T^ke Bloudy Tenent. 

** It is with a Magiftrate in a State, in refpeft of 
"the ad:s of thofe who worfliip in a Church, as it is 
"with a Prince in a Ship, wherein, though he be 
"governour of their perfons (elfe he (liould not be 
" their Prince) yet is not governour of the actions of 
"the Mariners (then he fliould be Pilot:) Indeed if 
"the Pilot fliall manifeftly erre in his ad:ion, he may 
"reprove him, and fo any other palTenger may : Or 
" if he offend againft the life and goods of any, he 
" may in due time and place civilly punifh him, 
" which no other palTenger can doe : For, it is proper 
"to Chrift, the Head of the Church, as to prefcribe, 
"fo to rule the a6lions of his own worfhip in the 
"wayes of his fervants, Efay 9. 6, 7. The govern- 
" ment of the Church is upon his fhoulder, which 
" no Civill officer ought to attempt : And therefore 
" Magiftrates have no power to limit a Minifter either 
" to what he {hall preach or pray, or in what manner 
" they fhall worfliip God, left hereby they fhall 
" advance themfelves above Chrift, and limit his 
" Spirit. 

Truth. In this generall Head are propofed two 

Firft, what the Magiftrate ought to doe pofitively 
concerning the worftiip of God. 

178] Secondly, what he may doe in the worftiip of 

What he ought to doe is comprifed in thefe par- 

Firft, he ought to reforme the worftiip of God 
when it is corrupted. 
Secondly, he ought to eftablifh a pure worihip of God. 

The Bloudy Tenent. ■ 315 

Thirdly, he ought to defend it by the fword : he 
ought to rellrain Idolatry by the fword, and to cut 
o^ ojfetidours, as former palfages have opened. 

For the proofe of this politive part of his duty are 
propounded three forts of Scriptures. 

Firft, from the practice of the Kings of Ifrael and 

Secondly, fome from the New Tejlament. 

Thirdly, from the pracflice of Ki?igs of other 

Unto which I anfwer. 

Firft, concerning this latter, the Babylonian and '^^^ "g"- 
Perjian Kings, Nebuchadnezzar , Cyrus, Darius, Arta- ^^^ g^^, 
xerxes : I conceive I have fufficiently before proved,' Ionian and 
that thefe Idolatrous Princes making; fuch A^s con- f'.^'^^^" 

o kings rc- 

cerning the God of Ifrael, whom they did not wor- minded. 
Jhip nor know, nor meant fo to doe, did onely permit 
and tolerate, and countenance the Jewijlj worjhip, and 
out of ftrong conviBions that this God of Ifrael was 
able to doe them good (as well as their owne gods) 
to bring wrath upon them and their Kingdofnes, as 
they beleeved their owne alfo did, in which refpedt 
all the Kifigs of the world may be eafily brought to 
the like; but are no prefident or patternes for all 
Princes and Civill Magijlrates in the World, to chal- 
enge or ailume the power of ruling or governing the 
Church of Chriji, and of wearing the fpirituall Crowne 
of the Lord, which he alone weareth in a fpirituall 
way by his Oncers and Governours after his owne 
holy appointment. 

Secondly, for thofe of the New Tejiament I have 
(as I beleeve) fully and fufficiently anfwered. 

• Chap. xcvi. 

316 The Bloudy Tenent. 

So alfo that prophefie of Ifa. 49.' 
Theprefi- Laftly, howevcr I have often touched thofe Scrip- 
j^^i" ° „j tures produced from the prad:ice of the Kings oi 
Govern- IJrael and 'Judah : yet becaufe fo great a waight of 
If ^^ 1°^ d ^"^^^ controverfie lyes upon this prefident of the Old 
Judah ex- Tejiametit, from the duties of this nature enjoyned to 
amined. thofe Kings and Governours, and their practices, obey- 
ing or dij obeying^ accordingly commended or reproved. 
I (hall (with the helpe of Chriji lefus^ the true King 
of Ifrael) declare and demonftrate how weake 
179] and brittle this fuppofed Pillar oi Marble is, to 
beare up and fuftain fuch a mighty burthen and 
waight of fo many high concernments as are laid 
upon it. In which I Ihall evidently prove that the 
The ftate Jlate of Ifrael as a Nationall State made up of Spirit- 
of Ifrael n^U and Civill power ^ fo farre as it attended upon the 
rpirkuall °y/'^^^'^^^'^^' ^^^ mccrly figurative and typing out the 
matters ChrijUan Churches confilf ing of both 'Jewes and Gen- 
V.!^Zlt\\ ^^^^^y enjoying the true power of the Lord lefus, 
eftablifhing, reforming, correcting, defending in all 
cafes concerning his Kingdo?ne and Govern?nent. 


CHAP. ex. 

Pf^<:f.T3Leired be the God of Truths the God of 

U Peace, who hath fo long preferved us in 

this our retired conference without inter?'uptions : His 

mercy ftill (hields us while you expreffe and I liften 

to that fo much imitated, yet mofl: unimitable State of 


The Per- ^^^ before you defcend to particulars (deare Truth) 

fian Kings let me caft one Mite into your great Treafury con- 

' Chap. Ixxxii. 

The Bloudy Tenent. 317 

cernine that Inftance ( iiift now mentioned) of the"^^i^^ , 

„ o . - evidently 

Perjiaji Kmgs. ^ _ againii 

Me thinkes thole prejidents oi Cyrus ^ Darius andfuch as 
Artaxerxes are ftrong againft New Englands ^^^^^^'^^^ fhe^^for 
and practice. Thofe Princes profelledly gave freemainten- 
peniiijjion and bountifull incouragement to the C<?«-^"c^°f 
fciences of the lewes^ to ufe and pradiife their Relig- ^^-^^^ ^^ 
ion, which Religion was moft eminently contrary toperfecu- 
their owne Religion and their Countries worlliip. "°"' 

Truth. I fhall (fweet Peace) with more delight 
palTe on thefe rough wayes, from your kinde accept- 
ance and unwearied patience in attention. 

In this difcovery of that vaft and mighty difference 
betweene that State of Ifrael and all other States 
(onely to bee matched and parallel'd by the Chrif- 
tian Church or Ifrael) I fhall feled: fome maine and 
principall confiderations concerning that State wherein 
the irreconciliable dijferences and difproportion may 

Firft, I iliall confider the very Land and Country The Land 
of Canaan it felfe, and prefent fome con/iderations'^\^^^^^^'^ 

\ \t r I choien by 

proving It to be a None-Juch. God to be 

Firft, this Land wzs efpyed out and chofen by the the feat 
Lord out of all the Countries of the World to be the church 
feat of his Church and people, Ezek. 20. 6. but under 

But now there is no refped; of Earth, of Places or ^J^'-' ^^^ 
Countries with the Lord: So teftified the Lord lej'us ^\\i^^^\q^^ 
Chriji himfelfe to the [180] woman of Sa?naria [lohn^y^^^^- 
4.) profelTmg that neither at that Mountaine nor at 
lerujaletn fhould men worjhip the Father. 

While that Nationall State of the Church of the 
lewes remained, the Tribes were bound to goe up to 

318 The Bloudy Tenent. 

lerufalein to worJlDip, Pfal. 122. But now, in every 
Nation (not the whole Land or Country as it was 
with Canaan) he that feareth God and worketh right- 
eoulnelle is accepted with him, AB. 10. 35. This 
then appeared in that large Commiffion of the Lord 
Jefus to his lirft Minifters ; Goe into all Nations, and 
not onely into Canaan, to carry tidings of Mercy, &c. 
Secondly, the former Inhabitants thereof, feven 
great and mightie Nations [Deuter. 7.) were all devo- 
ted to deftrudtion by the Lords owne mouth, which 
was to bee performed by the impartiall hand ot the 
Children of Ifrael, without any fparing or lliewing 
The in- But fo now it hath not pleafed the Lord to devote 
of Cana- ^^Y People to prefent Deftrudiion, commanding his 
ans Land people to kill and flay without Covenant or Co?npaJ- 
c\ try (o\x\e jIqj2, Deuteronomy 7. 2. 

to death Where have Emperours, Kings, or Generals an 
that the immediate call from God to deflroy whole Cities, City 
might'en- ^^^^^ ^'^^Y' ^^"' ^^^DHien, Children, Old and Young, 
joy their as lojljua pradiifed ? lojhua 6. and i o. Chapters, &c. 
poffef- This did Ifrael to thefe feven Nations, that they 

fo°now.° themfelves might fucceed them in their Cities, Hab- 
itations, and PolTeflions. 

This onely is true in a fpirituall Antitype, when 
Gods people by the Sword (the two-edged Sword of 
Gods Spirit) flay the ungodly and become Heires, yea 
fellow Heires with Cbriji lejus, Romanes 8. Gods 
meeke people inherit the earth, [Matthew 5.) They 
myftically like Noah [Hebrewes 11.) condemne the 
whole unbeleeving World, both by prefent and future 
fentence, 2 Corinth. 6. 2. 

The Bloudy Tenent. 3 1 9 


THirdly, the very ??jateriaL\ the Gold and Silver 
of the Idols of this Land were odious and abom- 
inable, and dangerous to the people of Ifrael, that 
they might not delire it, nor take it to themfelves, 
181] Deut. 7. 25. 26. left themfelves alfo become a'^^^'^^^'"/ 
cuT'/e, and like unto thofe curfed abominable things. 1^ ^ 
Whereas we finde not any fuch accurfed nature in filver of 
the tnaterials of Idols or Imaq-es now, but that (the p"^^"^ 

Til r 1 • 1 i\ 1 /-/ .Images 

Idolatrous for??ies bemg changed) u\q Jtlver and ^(^A/ typically 
may be call: and coyned, and other materialls lawfully ^^ be ab- 

1 J J r J horred. 

employed and uled. 

Yet this we finde in the Antitype^ that gold, Jilver, 
yea boufe, land, yea wives, children, yea life it felfe, as 
they allure and draw us from God in Chrijl, are to be 
abominated and hated by us, without which hatred 
and indignation againft the moft plauiible and plealing 
enticings from CHRIST JESUS, it is impoffi- 
ble for any man to bee a true Chrijiian, Luke 14. 16. 

Fourthly, this Land, this Earth was an Holy land, ^j^^ l^j^j 
Zach. 2. 12. Ceremonially and typically holy, F/V/^j", of Canaan 
Gardens, Orchards, Houfes, &c. which Holines the ^^7,"^"°" 
World knowes not now in one Land, or Country, holy. 
Houfe, Field, Garden, &c. one above another. 

Yet in the Spirituall Land of Canaan the Chrijiian ^o? nelTe 
Church, all things are made holy and pure (in all in the An- 
Lands) to the pure, Tit. i. meats and drinkes are^'^>P^ ^"- 
fand:ified, that is, dedicated to the holy ufe of thecofpel, 
thanklull Believers, i Tim. 4. yea and the unhelieving^^^'^ in 
Hulhajid, Wife, and their Children are fan6tified and'^V^'P" 

1 1 1 Ti /• • - under the 

made holy to Believers, inlomuch that that golden Law. 

320 'The Bloudy Tenent. 

infcription (peculiar to the forehead of the High 

Prieji) Holines to 'Jehovah, {hall be written upon the 

very Bridles of the Horfes, as all are dedicated to the 

fervice of Chriji Jefiis in the Gofpels peace and 


The Land Fifthly, the Lord expreily calls it his own Land, 

Tgj^Q^^^g" Z/f^'/V. 25. 23. Hof. 9. 3. ^Jehovah his Land, a terme 

Land. proper unto Spirituall Canaan, the Church of God, 

which muft needs be in refped: of his choice of that 

hand to be the Seate and Refidence of his Church 

and Ordinances. 

But now the partition wall is broken down, and 

in refped: of the Lords fpeciall proprietie to one 

Country more then another, what difference between 

, AJia and Africa, between Europe and America, 

between England and Turkic, London and Conjianti- 

nople ? 

Emanuels This Land (among many other glorious Titles 

Land: fo given to it) was called Emanuels land, that is, God 

or country wi^h US, ChriJl his land, or Chrijiian land, Ifa. 8. 8. 

more then But now : 'Jcrufakm from above is not materiall 

another. ^^^ Earthly, [182] but Spirituall, Gal \. Heb. 12. 

Materiall "jerufalem is no more the Lords citie then 

'Jericho, Ninivie, or Babell (in refped: of place or 

Countrey) for even at Babell literall was a Church of 

'^enfout 'J^^^^ thrift, I Pet. 5. 

titles^of^ It is true that Antichrijl hath chrijined all thofe 

the Chrif- Countries whereon the Whore litteth, Revel. 1 7. with 

ctmL ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ Chrijls land, or Chrijiian land. 

World. And Hundius,' in his Map of the Chrijiian World, 

■ Jofle Hondius (1546-1611) was an in the i6th century begun to give more 
engraver and one of the geographers who accuracy to cofmography, although re- 

The Bloudy Tenent. -1^2.1 

makes this land to extend to all AJia^ a great part of 
Africa, all Europe, and a vaft part of America, even 
fo farre as his unchrijiian Chrijienings hath gone. But 
as every falfe Chriji \\2ii\\falje Teachers, falfe Chrif- 
tians, falje Faith, Hope, Love, &c. and in the end falfe 
Salvation, fo doth he alfo counterfeit the falfe Name 
of Qhriji, Chrijlians, Qhrifiaii land or Countrey. 

Sixthly, this Land was to keepe her Sabbaths unto^^^^"^^^^- 
God : Sixe yeares they were to low their Fields, and^f c^naa^ 
prune their Vines, but in the 7. yeare they were not was to 
to low their Fields, nor prune their Vineyards, but to^'^ff ^V^ 

, ' -r , , -^ ! Sabboths, 

eat that which grew or it lelre or own accord. ib no ma- 

But fuch Obfervations doth not God now lay upon teriall land 

any Fields, Vineyards, &;c. under the Gofpell. °l ^^^' 

Yet in the Spirituall land of Qanaan, the true God feed- 

Church, there is a Spirituall Soule-reli or Sabbath, af.^^^'.^ 

■ _ 1 o m c 1 1 m c s 

quiet depending upon God, a living by Faith in him, immedi- 
a making him our portion, and carting all care uponately. 
him who careth for us : yea fometimes he feedeth 
his by immediate gracious workes of Providence, 
when comforts arife out of the Earth, without (&c- 
ondary meanes or caufes, as here, or as elfewhere 
Manna defcended from Heaven. 

Seventhly, fuch portions and poifeffions of Lands, 
Fields, Houfes, Vineyards, were fold with caution or 
provifo of returning againe in the yeare of fubilee to 
the right owners, Levit. 25. 23. 

taining many of the errors of their pre- which marked the maps of that period, 

deceffors. He publiflied his maps at " The World divided (fay our ableft 

Amfterdam. He enlarged and improved Cofmographers) into thirty parts, as yet 

the Grand Atlas of Mercator. Biographie \i\i\. five of thirty have heard of the fweet 

Uniz'erj'elk,x\x: ^\\. The text gives only of ye/us z. Saviour.''^ Hireling Mm- 

an inilance of the general inaccuracy {/?'7. p. 3. 


322 The Bloudy Tenent. 

Such cautions^ fuch provifos are not now injoyned 
by God in the fale ot lands, fields, inheritances, nor no 
fuch Jubilee or Redemption to be expe6led. 
The Jubi- Yet this alfo finds a fulfillinp- in the fpirituall 

lee of Ca- • 

" Qanaan, or Qhurch of G(?<^, unto which the filver 


type of Trumpet of Jubilee, the Gofpel, hath founded a fpirit- 
reibtucion j^^]] reftitution of all their fpirituall rig-hts and inheri- 

and. rc- -^ ^ , , 

demption tances, which either they have loft in the fall of the 

in the firft man Adam, or in their particular falls, when 

° P^ ■ they are captive and fold unto fin, Rom. 7. Or laftly 

in the fpirituall captivitie of Babels bondage: how 

183] fweet then is the name of a Saviour, in whom 

is the joyfull found of Deliverance and Rede?nption I 

Canaans Eightly, tliis Land or Country was a figure or type 

landatype q^ |-j^g kingdome of Hcavcn above, begun here below 

Kingdomein the Church and Kingdotne of God, Heb. 4. 8. Heb. 

ofGodonii. 9. 10. Hence was a Birthright fo pretious in 

anTi Canaans Land; Hence Naboth fo inexorable and 

Heaven refolute in refufing to part with his Inheritance to 

King Ahab, counting all Ahabs feeming reafonable 

offers moft unreajonable, as foliciting him to part with 

a Garden plot of Canaans land, though his refufall 

coft him his very life. 

Why What hand, what Country now is Ifraels Parallel 

Naboth and Antitype, but that holy tnyjlica.ll Nation the 

pan with Church of God, p"eculiar and called out to him out 

a Garden of every Nation and Country, i Pet. 2. 9. In which 

plot to his every true fpirituall Naboth hath his fpirituall inheri- 

hazard of tancc, which he dares not part with, though it be to 

his life, his King or Soveraigne, and though fuch his refufall 

coft him this prefent life. 

The Bloudy Tenent. 323 


Pt'^r^."rAOubtleire that Canaan Land was not a pat- 
J-^ terne for all Lands-. It was a none-J'uch, 
unparalleled and anmatchable. 

Tj'iith. Many other conji derations of the fame nature "^^e dif- 
I might annex, but I picke here and there a flowre, ^^^^ ]g 
and palTe on to a fecond Head concerning the people of HVael 
themfelves, wherein the ftate of the people flialP"^^^^^ 
appeare unmatchable, but only by the true Church Peoples. 
and Ifrael of God. 

Firft, the people of Ifrael were all the Seed or Off- The peo- 
fpring of one man Abraham^ Pf^^- ^05. 6. and fOrae]°he' 
downward the Seed of Ifaac and 'Jacobs hence called feed of 
the Ifrael oi God, that is, wrajtlers and prevailers^'^'^'^'^^' 
with Gody diftinguiihed into twelve Tribes all fprung 
out of IJraels loynes. 

But now, few Nations of the World but are a mixed 
Seed, the people of E/z^^-Z^Wefpeciallyl : | the Britaines, 
Picls, Ro?na?ies, Saxons, Da?ies and Nor /nans, by a 
wonderfull providence of God being become one 
Englijh people. 

Only the Spirituall Ifrael and Seed of God theOnlymade 
New-borne are but one: Chrilt is the Seed, Gal. ^.\°°V"- 

^i • 1 A J; / ^'^^ Spint- 

and they only that are Cbrijts are only ^/^r/X^^wj-uall feed. 
Seed and Heires according to the promife. the 

This Spirituall Seed is the only ^;2///y/>^ of the^g^^^"' 
former figurative [ 1 84] and typicall : A Seed which borne. 
all Chrijtians ought to propagate, yea even the unmar- 
ried men and women (who are not capable of nat- 
urall offspriiig) for thus is this called the Seed ot Chriji 
(who lived and died unmarried) IJa. 59. 21. 


324 '7 he Bloudy Tenent. 

Secondly, this people was felefted and feparated to 

the Lord, his Covenant and Worfiip^^ from all the 

people and Nations of the World belide to be his 

peculiar and onely people, Levit. 20. 26. &c. 

The peo- Therefore fuch as returned from Babylon to 'Jeru- 

rael°fepa'- jdktn^ they feparated themfelves to eat the Fajfeover, 

rate from Ezra 6. And in that folemne humiliation and con- 

allNations fg/jjgjj before the Lord. Nehe?n. q. the children of 

uall and IJrael feparated themfelves from all ftrangers. 

in fome This feoaration of theirs was fo famous, that it 

thWs extended not only to Circu?nci/iony the Pajfeover^ and 

matters of Gods worfiip^ but even to te?nporall and 

civill things : Thus {Ezra 9.) they feparated or put 

away their very wives, which they had taken of the 

ftrange Nations contrary to the Commandement of 

the Lord. 

No Na- But where hath the God of Heaven in the Go/pel 

tionfofep- feparated whole Nations or Kingdomes [Englijh, Scotch^ 

God in Irijh, Fretich, Dutch, &c.) as a peculiar people and 

the Gof- Antitype of the people of IJrael f Yea where the 

pel, but \Q2,{\i footing: in all the Scripture for a Nationall 

only the o . , ^ 

new-home Church after Chrijis comming? 

Ifrael that (^^n any people in the le'or/^ patterne \\\\%Jamplar 
in^every ^^^ ^^ New-bome IJrael, fuch as feare God in every 
Nation. Nation [ABs 10. 35.) commanded to come forth and 
feparate from all uncleane things or perfons, (2 Cor. 
6.) and though not bound to put away ftrange wives 
as Ifrael did, becaufe of that peculiar refped: upon 
them in Civill things, yet to be holy or fet apart to 
the Lord in all manner of civill converfation, i Pet. i. 
Only to marry in the Lord, yea and to marry as if 
they married not i Cor. 7. yea to hate wij'e and 

T^he Bloudy Tenent. 325 

children^ father, mother, houfe and land, yea and life 
it felfe for the Lord ye/us, Luc. 14. 

Thirdly, this Seed of Abraham thus feparate from 
all people unto the Lord was wonderfully redeemed 
and brought from /Rgypts bo?idage through the Red^^^ 
Sea, and the IV ilderfieJJ} unio the Land of C^«^z^7«, people of 
by many ftrange lignes and wonderfull ?n{racles,l(riie\m\- 
wrouo;ht by the outftretched hand of the Lord, famous !'''*^"^°^^>' 

~ < . , . brought 

and dreadfull, and to be admired by all lucceeding forth of 
peoples and generations, Deut. 4. 32, 33, 34. Aske now^gyp^- 
from one fide of the Heaven unto the other, whether 
there hath been fuch a thing as this, &c ? 
185] And we may aske againe from one fide of the 
Heaven unto the other whether the Lord hath now^j^ole^"^ 
fo miraculoufiy redeemed and brought unto HimJelfeNduon 
any Nation or people as he did this people of Ifrael."°^^" 

Peace. The Lnglijh, Scotch, Dutch, &c. are apt to 
make themfelves the parallels, as wonderfully come 
forth of Popery, &c. 

Truth. I. But firfi:, whole Nations are no Churches 
under the Gofpel. 

Secondly, bring ih^ Nations oi Europe profefling Popery not 
Protejianiftne to the ballance of the SanBuary, and|°j.^^j^^-^' 
ponder well whether the body, bulke, the generall or from as is 
one hundreth part of fuch peoples be truly turned to '^"'^^^^^^^ 
God from Popery. 

Who knowes not how eafie it is to turne, and 
turne, and turn againe whole Nations from one 
Religion to another ? 

Who knowes not that within the compalfe of one w°"'^^''- 
poorejpan of 12 yeares revolution, all Efigland hathj" ^ ^^'^' 
become from halfe Papiji, halfe Protejiant, to be Religion 

326 The Bloudy Tenent. 

in 12 abfolate Protejlants \ from abfolute Protejiants^ to 
compaffe abfolutc Paptjts ; from abfolute Papijis (changing as 
in Eng- fadiions) to abfolute Protejlants ? 
land. J ^-ji j^Qj. ^^y i^^g fome worthy witnelTes of Chriji 

The Pope]-j^^g Uttered) that all Rn^land 2.x\A Europe muft againe 

not unlike - , . , . ^ • 11 t-> 1 n i • 

to recover lubmit their raire necks to the Popes yoake :' but this, 
his Mon- I fay, many Scriptures concerning the deftrudtion of 

over^ Eu- ^"^^ ^^^fi ^""^ ^^^ Whore looke that way : And I 
rope be- addc, they that feele the pulfe of the people ferioully 
fore his^ rnuft confelfe that a viBorious Sword, and a Spanijh 

Inquijition will foone make millions face about as 

they were in the Fore-Fathers times. 



Peace. f~^ That the Steerjmen of the Nations might 
V^ remember this. Bee wife and kiffe the 
Sonne, left he goe on in this His dreadfull anger, and 
dafli them in peeces here and eternally. 

' See Chap. xxix. pp. 136, x^l ,fupra, great & weighty confiderationy 
where the fame thought is exprefl'ed. Henry Archer was a non-conformill 

To this Cotton replied {Bloudy Tenent preacher in London, who fled to Hol- 

Wajhed, p. 82,) "The Prophecie of land and was partor of the Englifh church 

England^s Revolt againe to Popery, in Arnheim in connexion with Dr. 

wanteth Scripture Light." To this Wil- Thomas Goodwin, the firll of the Five 

Hams rejoins (Bloody Tenent yet more Diifenting Brethren to whom Williams's 

Bloody, p. 119,) "He that loves ChriJl "Queries" was addrefled. He was a 

Jefus in fincerity, cannot but long that Millenarian, and wrote a work entitled 

ChriJl Jefus would fpeedily be pleafed " The Perfonal Reign of Chrift upon 

with the breath of his mouth to confume Earth. In a Treatife wherein is fully & 

that man of fin : But yet that worthy largelv laid open & proved, that Jefus 

fervant of God (according to his con- Chrilt, together with his Saints, fhall 

fcience) Mafter Archer, doth not barely vifibly poflels a monarchical! State and 

propofe his (?/)//?/ff;7, but alfo his iS^rz/i/z/rc- Kingdom in the World, 1642." Brook, 

grounds,\N\\\c)\ I believe, compared with Lives of the Puritans, ii: 455. 
all former experiences, will feem to be of 

The Bloudy 'Tene?it. 327 

Truth. I therefore thirdly adde, That only fuch ^ho are 
as are Abrahams Seed, circumcifcd in Heart, A^*?'^^- "r°u^ Seed 
borne ^ Ifrael (or wrajilers with God) are the Antitype of Ahra- 
of the former Ifrael, thefe are only the holy Nation^^^' 
( I Pet. 2. ) wonderfully redeemed from the /Egypt of 
this World (Titus 2. 14.) brought through the Red 
Sea oi Baptijnie (i Cor. 10.) through the Wildernelfe 
oi afflictions, and oi \\\t peoples [Deut. 8. [186] Ezek. 
20.) into the Kingdome ot Heaven begun below, even 
that Chrijiian Land of Promife, where flow the ever- 
flowing Itreames and Rivers of Spirituall milke and 

Fourthly, All this people univerfally (in typicall ^f^ V^f- 
and ceremoniall refped:) were holy and cleane in this^^g] ^\\ 
their J eparation 2.nd fer^ne/lration unto God, Exod. 19, holy in a 
c. Hence, even in refpedt of their naturall birth in !^^'P! i 

1 Til / / o / IT-' I holineiie. 

that Land they were an holy Seed, and Ezra makes 
it the matter of his great complaint, Ezra 9. 1,2. 
The holy Seed have mingled themfelves. 

But where is now that Nation or Country upon the 
face of the Earth, thus cleane and holy unto God, 
and bound to fo many ceremoniall cleanlings and 
purgings r 

Are not all the Nations of the Earth alike cleane 
unto God, or rather alike uncleane, untill it pleafeth 
the Father of ??tercies to call fome out to the Know- ^^' ^^" 
ledge and Grace of his Sonne, making them to fee alike fmce 
x.\\Q\v filthinejfe and ftrangenelfe from the Com?}io?iweale^'^^ com- 
o^ Ifrael, and to wafli in the bloud of the Lambe of God. ";'"f °^ , 

1 • 1 • - ^'rr at • Lord 

This taking away the dirrerence between Nation jdus. 
and Nation, Country and Country, is moft fully and 
admirably declared in that great vifion of all forts of 

328 'The Bloudy Tenent. 

living creatures prefented unto Peter, ABs i o. where- 
by it pleafed the Lord to informe Peter of the abol- 
ifliing of the difference between Jew and Gentile in 
any holy or unholy, cleane or uncleane refpeft. 

Fifthly, (not only to fpeake of all, but to feled: 
one or two more) This people of Ifrael in that 
The chil- ;^ationall State were a type of all the Children of 
rael a fig- ^^^ ^^^ "^^ ^g^^ Under the profeffion of the Gofpell, 
of the If- who are therefore called the Children oi Abraha??i, 
TJofGod^"^ the Ifrael oi God, Gal. 3. & Gal. 6. A Kingly 
on\y under Prlejlljood 2.nd Ijofy Nation ( I Pet. 2. 9.) in a cleare and 
the Gof- manifeft Antitype to the former Ifrael, Exod. 19. 6. 
^^ ■ Hence Chrijlians now are figuratively in this refped: 

called yewes, Rev. 3. where lies a cleare diftindlion 
of the true and fdlfe Chriftian under the confedera- 
tion of the true 2.nd fa If e Jew: Behold I will make 
them of the Synagogue of Sat/jan that fay they are 
Jewes and are not, but doe lie, Rev. 3. But fuch a 
typicall refped: we finde not now upon any People, 
Nation or Country of the whole World : But out of 
all Nations, Tongues and Languages is God pleafed to 
call fome and redeem them to Himfelfe [Rev. 5. 9.) 
And hath made no difference betweene the lewes 
and Gentiles, [187] Greekes and Scithians, Gal. 3. who 
by Regeneration or fecond birth, become the Ifrael of 
God, Gal. 6. the Temple of God, i Cor. 3. and the 
true ferufaleni, Heb. i 2. 
The peo- Laftly, all this whole Nation or people, as they 
rael differ- were of onc typicall feed ol Abraham, & fealed with 
ent from a fliamclull & painfull Ordinance of cutting off the 
^ ^/- fore-skin, w''' differenced them from all the World 

world 'n 1 ^ , o ir - i 

their figu-befide: So alfo were they bound to fuch and fuch 

The Bloudy Tenent. 329 

fole?}imties o^ figurative worjhips. Amongft many ''^"^^ ^".'i 
others I iliall end this palFage concerning the people ^]Y^°"'" 
with a famous obfervation out of Numb. 9. 13. viz. fliips. 
All that whole Nation was bound to celebrate and 
keepe the Feaji of the Pajfeover in his feafon, or elfe 
they were to be put to death. But doth God require 
a whole Nation^ Country or Kingdome now thus to 
celebrate i\\Q Jpirituall Paffeover, the Supper and Feaji 
of the Lambe Chriji yejiis, at fuch a time once a 
yeare, and that whofoever (liall not fo doe lliall bee 
put to death ? What ho\-r\h\Q prophanatio?ts^ what grolTe 
hypocrijies, yQ2i what wonderfull defolations (fooner or 
later) muft needs follow upon fuch a courfe ? 

Tis true, the people of Ifrael, brought into cove- Israel 
nant with God in Abraham^ and fo fucceffively borne qJ^J^^j^" ^ 
in Covenant with GW, might (in that ftate of amightwell 
Nationall Church) folemnly covenant and fweare that!^"^.^^^^^"^ 
whofoever would not feeke "Jehovah the God of Ifrael ^ Covenant 
fliould be put to death, 2 Chron. 15. whether fmall and cere- 
or great, whether man or woman. monia 

■oil • • / worihip 

But may whole Nations or Kingdomes now (accord- which 
ing to any one title expreft by Chrifi lefus to that °^^" ^^' 

r \ 1-11 1 r r-r 1 1 tions can- 

purpole) follow that patterne or IJrael and put tOnotimi- 
death all, both men and women, great and fmall, thattate. 
according to the rules of the Gofpel are not borne 
againe, penitent, humble, heavenly, patient ? &c. 
What a world of hypocrifie from hence is prad:ifed 
by thoufands, that for feare will rtoope to give that 
God their bodies in a forme, whom yet in truth their 
hearts affedl not ? 

Yea alfo what a world of prophanation of the holy rp^e hy- 
Name and holy Ordinances of the Lord in proftitu- pocrifies, 

3 30 'T^he Bloudy Tenent. 

prophana- ^ing the holy things of God (like the Vellels of the 
flaughters Sandiuary, Da?i. 5.) to prophane, impenitent and unre- 
which generate perfons ? 

fuch imi- Laftly, what flaughters both of men and women 

in the muft this necelTarily bring into the world, by the 

Gofpell Infurredtions and Civill Warres about Religion and 

pro uce. QQY\(c'iQn.CQ ? Yea what llaughters of the innocent and 

faithful! witnelfes of Chrift Jefus, who choofe to bee 

188] llaine all the day long for Chrift his fake, and 

to fight for their Lord and Mafter Chrift, onely with. 

fpirituall and Chriftian weapons ? 


Peace. TT feemes (deare Truth) a mighty Gulfe 
X betweene that people and Nation, and the 
Nations of the world then extant and ever fince. 

Truth. As fure as the blefted fubftance to all thofe 
fhadowes, Chriji lejus is come, fo unmatchable and 
never to bee paralleld by any Nationall State was that 
Ifrael in the Figure or Shadow. 

And yet the Ifrael of God now, the Regenerate or 
Newborne^ the circumcifed in Heart by Repentance 
and Mortification^ who willingly fubmit unto the 
Lord lejus as their onely King and Head, may fitly 
parallel! and anfwer that Ifrael in the type, without 
fuch danger of hypocrijie, of fuch horrible prophana- 
tionSy and of firing the Civill State in fuch bloody 
cotnbujiions, as all Ages have brought forth upon this 
compelling a whole Nation or Ki?igdo?)ie to be the 
antitype of Ifrael. 

The Bloudy Tenent. 331 

Peace. Were this Light entertained, fome hopes T^^ ^'^" 
would fhine forth for my returne and rejiaiiration. ^^^ Kings 

Truth. I have yet to adde a third conJideration^r\^ Gov- 
concerninir the Kmg;s and Governours of that Land Tr"°Vr^°^ 

o <i Ilraelfrom 

and people. al Kings & 

They were to be (unlelTe in their captivities) ofGovernors 
their Brethren^ members of the true Church of God^ worlcf 
as appeares in the Hiftory of Mofes, the Elders of Firfl, they 
Ifrael, and the lud^es and King's of Ifrael afterward. '^'^'"^,^^^ 


But firft, who can deny but that there may be now of the 
many lawfull Governours, Magijlrates and Kings in Church. 
the Natio?is of the World, where is no true Church^\^^'^f^^ 

1 alents 
Ot IiJ'us Chriji? vouch fafed 

Secondly, we know the many excellent ^///j- where- ^y ^^^ ^° 
with it hath pleafed God to furnifli many, inablingej-ate^per- 
them for publike fervice to their Countries both in Tons. 
Peace and War (as all Ages and Experience telHlies) 
on whofe foules hee hath not yet pleafed to (liine in 
the face of lefus Chrijl : which Gifts and Talents 
mufl: all lye buried in the Earth, unletTe fuch perfons 
may lawfully be called and chofen to, and improved 
in publike fervice, notwithftandinp; their different qj-^ Joanne 

■« ^ , . , . ^ contrary 

contrary Conjcience and Worfhip. to all true 

Thirdly, if none but true Chrijlians, members of P'^^X =*"d 
Chriji lefus might be Civill Magijlrates, and pub- j^ J^Jj^f-^"'^^ 
likely intrufted with civill affaires, [189] then none 
but ?ne?nbers of Churches, Chrijlians (hould be HuJ- 
bands of Wives, Fathers of Children, Majiers of Ser- 
vants : But again ft this doBrine the whole creatio?i, 
the whole World may juftly rife up in armes, as not 
onely contrary to true Piety, but common Humanity 
it felte. For if a Coinmonweale bee lawfull amongft 

332 The Bloudy Tenent. 

men that have not heard of God nor Chriji^ certainly 
their OJ/icers^ Minijiers, and Governours muft be law- 
full alfo. 
The Pa- Fourthly, it is notorioufly knowne to be the dan- 
trine ot gerous doSirine profeft by fome Papijis^ that Princes 
depofing degenerating from their Religion, and turning Here- 
^^8'^" tickes, are to be depofed, and their SuhieBs adlually 

trates con- ,.^ , , ,- , . , ,. \\t\ • i i c-i • 

fefled in diicharged rrom their obedience.' Which doctrine 

effeft to all fuch muft necelfarily hold (however moft loath 

by thT ^^ owne it) that hold the Magijirate Guardian of both 

Proteft- Tables, and confequently fuch an one as is inabled to 

ants. judge, yea and to demonftrate to all men the worjloip 

of God: yea and being thus Governor and Head of 

the Church he muft necelfarily be a part of it him- 

felfe : which when by Herejie he falls from (though 

it may be by Truth, mifcalled Herejie) he falls from 

his calling of Magijiracy, and is utterly difabled from 

his (pretended) guardianjhip and government of the 


No civill Laftly, we may remember the practice of the Lord 

^^S'jtrate j^j. ^j^j^ \{yi, J'ollowers, Commanding and pradtiling 

in Chriils obcdiencc to the Higher Powers, though we linde not 

time. one Civill Magijirate a Chrijlian in all the jirji 

' The Oath of Allegiance required by fubjefls of their allegiance and obedience 

James I. after the Gunpowder Plot of to his majelly, &c." Againil this Paul 

courfe produced confiderable controverfy V. illued two Briefs. Cardinal Bellar- 

refpedling its lawfulnefs. The oath de- min alfo wrote againil it on the Papal 

clared " that the pope, neither of him- fide. For the Oath and the Briefs, with 

felf, nor by any authority of the church an account of the controverfy, and the 

or iee oi Ro?nc, or by any other means Declaration of the Galilean church in 

with any other, hath any power or au- 1682 againil the Pope's Depofing Power, 

thority to dcpole the King, or to dil'pofc iee Butler's Memoirs of Englijh Catholics, 

of any of his majelly's kingdoms or xlvii-1. vol. 2, 184-223. 
dominions ; or to difchargc any of his 

The Bloudy Tenent. 333 

Churches. But contrarily the civill Magijirate at that 
time was the bloody Becijl, made up (as Danie/ {etmes 
to imply concerning the Romane State^ Dan. 7. 7.) 
of the Lion, the Beare, and the Leopard^ Rev. 13. 2. 


Peace.'Vyy thefe waights wee may try the waight ^^"^^ '^^- 
jJ of that commonly received and not quef- ^\^q ^j-g^. 
tioned opinion, viz. That the civill Ji ate and \\\q Jpirit- ments 
w^//, the Church and Coinmonweale, they are likePJ^°^^jJf 
Hippocrates twinnes, they are borne together, grow foundnefle 
up together, laugh together, weepe together, licken Qj^ "^^.^^ 
and die together. The 

Truth. A witty, yet a moft dangerous FiBion of Church 
the Father of Lies, who hardned in Rebellion ag^ainlP"'^ ^°"^' 

/ 1-11 'U ni""" 

God, perlwades Gods people to drmke downe luch wealth are 
deadly poifon, though he knowes the truth of thefe ^J^e Hypo 
five particulars, which I rtiall reminde you oi. twins. 

Firft, many flourifliing States in the World have Many 
beene and are at this day, which heare not of /t'/i/j- 5°"'''^'"2 
Chri/i, 2.nd therefore have not [190] the ^r^^wr^" and without 
concurrence of a Church ot Chrijl with them. a true 

Secondly, there have beene many thoufands ot j^^'J^'y'^ q*^- 
Gods people, who in their perfonall eftate and life of Gods peo- 
grace were awake to God, but in refped: of Church^^^j,^"^ 
eftate they knew no other then a Church of dead a true 
ftones, the Parifli Church; or though f'ome light be Church 
of late come in through fome cranny, yet they feeke ^^^" 
not after, or leaft of all are joyned to any true Church 
of God, confifting of living and beleeving ftones. 

So that by thefe New Englijh Minijiers principles. 

334 '^^^ Bloudy Tenent. 

Yet fit forj^ot onelv is the doore of calling: to Mag-i/iracy fhut 

civill fer- • o ci J y 

vices. ' againft naturall and unregenerate men (though excel- 
lently fitted for civill offices) but alfo againft the beft 
and ableft fervants of God, except they be entred into 
Church eftate ; fo that thoufands of Gods owne peo- 
ple (excellently qualified) not knowing, or not entring 
into fuch a Church eftate, fhall not be accounted fit 
for civill fervices. 

Thirdly, admit that a civill Magijirate be neither 
a member of a true Church ot Chrijl (if any bee in 
his doniinions) nor in his perfon feare God, yet may 
he (pofftbly) give free perjnijjion without molejiatioriy 
yea and fometimes incouragement and affiftance to 
Gods peo- the fervice and Church of God. Thus wee finde 
Z^tF^Alr^A ^^f'^ham permitted to build and fet up an Altar to 

mitted and i r _ 

favoured his God wherefoevcr hee came amongft the idola- 
by Idola- trous Nations in the Land of Canaan. Thus Cyrus 
proclaims liberty to all the people of God in his 
Dominions, freely to goe up and build the Temple of 
God at yerujalem, and Artaxerxes after him con- 
firmed it. 

Thus the Romane Kmperours and Governours under 
him permitted the Church of Gocl[, \ the 'J ewes in the 
Lord Chrijis time, their Temple and Worjhip, although 
in Civill things they were fubjed: to the Romanes. 
Chriils Fourthly, the Scriptures of Truth and the Records 

churcl. of Time concurre in this, that the firft Churches of 
gat^ ere Qfj^lj} "Jefus, the lights, patternes and prejidents to all 
ernedwithfucceeding Ages, were gathered and governed with- 
out the Qjjt ti-|e aid, alhftance, or countenance of any Civill 
an arme Authoritie, from which they fuffered great perfecutions 
of flefli. for the name of the Lordjejus profelfed amongft them. 

The Bloudy Tenent. 335 

The Nations, Rulers, and K'mgs of the Earth tumul- 
tuoully rage again ft the Lord and his Anointed, PJal. 
1. 1.2. Yet verf. 6. it hath pleafed the Father to fet 
the Lord "Jefus King upon his holy Hill of Zion. 
191] Chriji "Jefus would not be pleafed to make ufe 
of the Civill Magijirate to affilt him in his Spirituall 
Kingdome : nor would he yet be daunted or difcour- 
aged in his Servants by all their threats and terrours: 
for Love is ftrong as death, and the coales thereof^^"^^^ 
give a moft vehement /^wd", and are not quenched Spoufe 
by all the waters and fiouds of mightieft oppofition, chaile and 
Qajit. 8. " ToQ^x^ 

Chrifts Church is like a chafte and loving wife, in jefus in 
whofe heart is fixed \\qv Husbands love, who hath'hemidft 
found the tendernelfe of his love towards her, and°j. ^-^^^^^^3 
hath been made fruitfull by him, and therefore feekesfrom the 
Ihe not \.\\Q f miles, nor feares i\\Q frownes of all the^"''^^' 
Lmperoiirs in the World to bring her Qhriji unto her, 
or keep him from her. 

Laftly, we linde in the tyrannicall ufurpations of The 10 
the Romijh Antichriji, the 10 homes (which fome oft°''"V 
good note conceive to be the 10 Kingdomes, into& 17, 
which the Romane Empire was quartred and divi- 
ded) are exprelly faid Revel. 17. 13. to have one 
minde to give their power and ftrength unto the 
Beaji, yea [ver. 17.) their Kingdome unto the Beaji, 
untill the Words of God (hall be fulfilled : whence it 
followes, that all thofe Nations that are guilded over 
with the name of Chriji, have under that fuask or 
vizard (as fome Executioners and Tortnentors in the 
Inquiftion ufe to torment) perfecuted the Lord Jefus 
Chriji, either with a more open, grolfe and bloody, 
or with a more fubtle, fecret and gentle violence. 

33^ T^he Bloudy Tenent. 

The great Lgj- yg ^aft ouF cycs about, tumc over the Records, 
of Perie- "^^^ examine the experience of paft and prefent Gen- 
cution \xn-erations, and fee if all particular obfervations amount 
° not to this fumme, viz. that the great whore hath 

committed fornication with the Kings of the Earth, 
and made drunke thereof Nations with the cup of 
the wine of her fornications : In which drunkennes 
and whoredofue (as whores ufe to praftice) flie hath 
robbed the Kings and Nations of their power and 
ftrength, and [lefabel like) having procured the Kings 
names 2j\^ feales, (lie drinks drunk. Revel, ij. with 
N^h^h"^ the blood of Naboth, who (becaufe he dares not part 
flaugh- with his rightfull inheritance in the land of Canaan, 
tered. the blclfed land of promife and falvation in Chrijl) 
as a Traitour to the civill State, and Blafphemer 
againft God, (he (under the colour of a day oi humil- 
iation in Prayer and Fajling) ftones to death. 

192] CHAP. CXVI. 

P^^f^.T^Eare Truth, how art thou hidden from the 
M^ eyes of men, in thefe ?nyjleries ? how 
(hould men weep abundantly with lohn, that the 
Lambe may pleafe to open thefe blelfed feales unto 
them ? 

Truth. O that Men more prized their makers 
feare ! then fliould they be more acquainted with 
their Makers councells, for his Secret is with them 
that feare him, PJal. 25. 

I palTe on to a fecond Difference. 
The mvf- The Ki?tgs of Ifrael and ludah were all folemnly 
terie of annointed with oyle, PJdl. 39. 20. I have found David 

2. Differ- 

The Bloudy Tenent. 337 

my Jervanty with my holy Oile have I annointed />/;;;. the anomt- 
Whence the K'mgs oi IJrael and ludah were hon-Kf^g/of 
oured with that myfticall and glorious Title of theHVaeiand 
Anointed, or Chriji of the Lord, Lam. 4. 20. theJ""^^^- 
Breath of our Nojirils, the Anointed of lehovah was 
taken in their pits, &c. 

Which anoynting and title, however[,] the Man of 
Sinne, together with the Crowne and Diademe of 
Spirituall Ifrael, the Church of God, he hath given 
to fome of the Kings of the Earth, that fo he may 
in lieu thereof difpofe of their Civill Crownes the 
ealier : yet (liall we linde it an incommunicable 
priviledge and prerogative of of the Saints and peo- 
ple of God. 

For as the Lordjefus himfelfe in x\\q Antitype w2iS 
not annointed with materiall hui fpirituall qjIq, Pfal. 
45. with the oyle of Gladnes, and Luke 4. 14. from 
If a. 61. I . with the fpirit of God. The fpirit of the r^^ 
Lord is upon me, the Lord hath annointed me to Name 
preach good tidings, &c. So alfo all his members Chriilian 
are annointed with the hoXy fpirit of God, 2 Cor. 1.°^ 
21. & I John 2. 

Hence is it that Chrijiians rejoyce in that name, 
as carrying the very exprelfe title of the Anointed ot 
the Lord; which moft fuperftitioully and facrileg- 
ioully hath been applied only unto Kings. 

Peace. O deare Truth, how doth the great Searcher A Sacri- 
of all Hearts finde out the thefts of the Antichrijiian^^^^"^^ ^ 
World ? how are men caried in the darke they know He of the 
not whither? How is that heavenly charge. Touch Name 
not mine Anointed, &c. (Pfal. 105.) common to all 
Chrifians (or anointed with) Chrif their Head, by 


338 'The Bloudy Tenent. 

way of Monopoly or priviledge appropriated to Kings 
and Princes ? 

Truth. It will not be here unfeafonable to call to 
minde that [193] admirable Prophecie^ Ezek. 21. 26, 
27. Thus faith Jehovah God, Remove the T)iade?n, 
take away the Crowne, this fhall not be the fame, 
'The exalt him that is low, and abafe him that is high ; I 
Chrhis ° wi^^ overturne, overturne, overturne, untill he come 
Kingly whofe right it is, and I will give it him. The mat- 
power. |.gj. -g ^ Crown and Y)iade?n to be taken from an 
UJurpers head, and fet upon the head of the right 

Peace. Doubtlelle this myftically intends the fpirit- 
uall Crowne of the Lord Jefus, for thefe many hun- 
dreth yeares fet upon the heads ot the Co?npetitours 
and Corrivals of the Lord "Jefus, upon whofe glori- 
ous head in his Mejfengers and Churches, the Crown 
fhall be eftabliflied ; The anointing, the title, and the 
crown and power muft returne to the Lord Jejus in 
his Saints, unto whom alone belongs his power and 
author it ie in Ecclejiajiicall or Spiritual I cafes. 


3. The Truth. ^ Therefore proceed to a third difference 
Tr'"^f ° J A between thofe King's and Governours of 

lirael and *-* , 

Judah in- Ifracl and Judah, and all other Kings and Rulers of 
vefted |;j-jg Earth. Looke upon the Adminiftrations of the 
Spiritual! Kings of i/r^dV and Judah, and well weigh the Power 
power, and Authoritie which thofe Kings o{ Ifrael and Judah 
exercifed in Ecclejiajiicall and jpirituall caufes, and 
upon a due fearch we fliall not hnd the fame Scepter 

The Bloudy Tenent. 339 

of Spirituall poivcr in the hand of Civill Authorities 
which was fetled in the hands of the Kings of Ifrael 
and Judah. 

David appointed the Orders of the Prie/is & Sijig- 
ers, he brought the Arke to yerufaleni, he prepared 
for the building of the Temple, the patterjie whereof 
he delivered to Sa/o?non: yet David herein could not 
be a type of the Ki?igs and Rulers of the Earth, but 
of the Kifig of Heaven, Chriji lejus : for, 

Firft, David, as he was a King, fo was he alfo a 
Prophet, ABs 2. 30, and therefore a type (as Mofes 
alfo was, of that great Prophet the Son of God. And 
they that plead for Davids Kingly power, muft alfo 
by the fame rule plead for his Propheticall, by which 
he fwayed the Scepter of Ifrael in Church affaires. 

Secondly, it is exprelly faid, i Cron. 28. 11. 12. 13. David im- 
verfes, that the patterne which David gave to *S'^/o- infpired ' 
fnon (concerning the matter of the Te?nple and JVor-hy the 
pip of God, he had it by the Spirit, which was no^P^^'^°^ 
other but a figure of the immediate infpiration of the his o'rder- 
fpirit of God, unto the Lord lefus the true Spirituall Ji^g "^ 
King oi Ifrael, John. i. | 194] 49, Rabbi, thou art thCj^^^^g^g 
Son of God; Rabbi, thou art the King oi Ifrael. 

Againe, What Civill Magijirate may now a6l as Salomons 
Salomon (a type of ChriJl) doth ad:, i King. 2. 26. ^1 ''^- Xl\^^lr 
Salomon thruft out Abiathar from being Prieji unto j^i Kings 2. 
lehovah. 26. 27.) 

Peace. Some object that Abiathar was a man of ' '^^ ^ ' 
death, ver, 26. worthy to die, as having followed 
Adonijah ; and therefore Salojnon executed no more 
then Civill ju/iice upon him. c 1 

'^ J r _ , , _ balomon 

Truth. Salomon remits the Civill punifliment, andhisputting 

34° The Bloudy Tenent. 

Abiathar inflicts upon him a fpirituall, but by what rights but 
Priert- ^s ^^ was 7^/;?^ of the Church, a figure of Chriji ? 
hood, ex- Abiathar his Life is fpared with refped: to his 
amined. former good fervice in following after David \ but 
yet he is turned out from the Priefthood. 

But now put the cafe : fuppofe that any of the 

A caie put Officers of the New-England Churches fhould prove 

cafion°of ^alfe to the State, and be difcovered joyning with a 

Abiathars French Monjieur, or Spa?iijh Don, (thirfting after con- 

^^'^^' queji and doininion) to further their invajions of that 

Countrey ; yet for fome former faithfull fervice to 

the State, he fhould not be adjudged to Civill pun- 

ilhment : I aske now, might their Governours or 

their Generall Court (their Parliament) depofe fuch 

a man, a Pajiour, Teacher, or Elder, from his holy 

Calling or office in Gods Houfe ? 

Another Or fuppofe in a partiall and corrupt State, a Mem- 

^^ ^' ber or O^cer of a Church fhould efcape with his life 

upon the commiffion of murther, ought not a Church 

of Chriji upon repentance to receive him ? I fuppofe 

it will not be faid that he ought to execute himfelfe; 

or that the Church may ufe a Civill 'J word againft 

him. In thefe cafes may fuch perfons (fpar'd in civill 

punifliments for fome reafon of, or by partialitie of 

State) be puniffied fpiritually by the Civill Magijlrate, 

as Abiathar was ? Let the very Enemies of Zion be 


Secondly, If Salomon in thrufting out of Abiathar 
was a patterne and prejident unto all Civill Magijirates, 
why not alfo in putting Zadok in his roome, ver. 35. 
But againft this the Pope, the Bijhops, the Presbyte- 
rians, and the Independents will all cry out againft 

The Bloudy Tcnent. 341 

fuch a pra6lice in their feverall refpe6live claimes and 
challenges for their Minijiries. 

We find the Libertie of ihtfiibjeBs of Chriji in theT^^^''^^''- 
choice of an [195] Apojlle^ AB. i. of a Y^eacon^ AB.qy^^x'^i. 
6. of Elde?-s, AB. 14. and guided by the aj/ijla?ice Oxurchcs 
either of the Apojlles or Evangelijis^ i Twi. i . T/V. i . '" ^!^^^ 
without the leafl: influence of any r/W// A/ ^z^^/r^^/f, their offi- 
which Ihevves the beauty of their liberty. ^ers. 

The Paj-liaments oi England have by right freeAcivill 
choice of their Speaker^ yet fome Princes have thus'"^"^""^^ 
tarre beene gratified as to nominate, yea and impHc- to"fh"°"^ 
itely to commend a Speaker to them.' Wije ?nen have Saints lib- 
feene the evill confequences of thofe influences (though '^''^'^^" 
but in civill things) how much farre greater and 
ftronger are thofe fnares, when the golden Keyes of 
the Sonne of God are deUvered into the hands of civill 
Authority ? 

Peace. You know the noife raifed concerning thofe 
famous aBs of AJa, Hezekiah, lehojdphat, lojiah. 
What thinke you of the Faft proclaimed by lehoja- 
phat ? 2. Chron. 20. 3. 

Truth. I finde it to be the duty of Kings and all 
in authority^ to incourage Chrijis Mejfengers of Truth 
proclaiming Repentance^ &c. 

But under the Gojpel to enforce all naturall and 
unregenerate people to aBs of worjlnp, what prelident 
hath Chriji lejus given us ? 

Firft, tis true lehojaphat proclaimed a Fajl^ (^^. Jehoik- 

' "As foon as his majefty [Charles I.] been by the defignation of the King.)" 

had relolved upon the calling of a Par- Clarendon, Hijlory of Rebellion, vi: 281, 

liament, he confidered of a fit fpcaker App. D. 
(the eleftion of whom in all times had 

342 The Bloudy Tenent. 

phats faft i^m ^^g }^g j^Qj- jj^ matters fpirituall 2. type oi Chrift. 

examined. , 7-^. r t r 1 '^ 

the true King or IJrael f 

Secondly, lehojaphat calls the members of the true 
Church to Church fervice and worjhip of Go<^. 
If civill gut conlider, if civill Powers now may judge of 

m?yTn- ^""^ determine the actions of worjhip proper to the 
joyne the Saints ; If they may appoint the time of the Churches 
"ii"^Vh "^orjhip, Fafting and Prayer, &c. why may they not 
cheswor- ^s wel forbid thofe times which a Church oi Chriji 
fhip, they fliall make choice of, feeing it is a branch of the fame 
forbid her-^^^^ ^^ forbid what liketh not, as well as to injoyne 
times. what pleafeth ? 

And if in thofe moft folemne duties and exercijes, 
why not alfo in other ordinary meetijigs and worjhips? 
And if fo, where is the power of the Lord lefus 
bequeathed to his Mi?iijlers and Churches^ of which 
the power of thofe Kings was but a (hadow 1 


Peace/ | ^He liberty of the SubjeB(o\xv\diS moft fweet, 

A London and Oxford both profelfe to iight 

for it : How much infinitlv more fweet is that true 

foule liberty according to Chrijl lefus ? 

God will I know you would not take from Cccfcir ought, 

"o^^^^°"g although it were [196] to give to God: And what is 

Cjefar' Gods and hh peoples I wifli that Cafar may not take. 

fhould not Yet for the fatisfad:ion of fome, be pleafed to glance 

^'^"j"^ upon lofiah his famous ABs in the Church of God 

concerning the worjlnp of God, the Priejis, Levttes^ 

and their Services, compelling the people to keepe 

the Pajfeover, making himfelfe a covenant before the 

'The Bloudy Tenent. 343 

Lord, and compelling all that were found in leruj'a- 
lem and Benjamin to ftand to it. 

Truth. To thele famous pra6lices of \oJiah I (hall 
parallell the practices of Englands Kings : and firft 
lie jiire^ a word or two of their right : then de faBo^ 
difculfe what hath been done. 

Firft, de jure : \oJiah was a precious branch of that ^^^ ^^^' , 
Royall Root King David, who was im mediately j^fjjj^ g^- 
defigned by God : and when the golden linkesof theamined. 
Royall chaine broke in the ufurpations of the Romane 
Conquerour, it pleafed the moft wife God to fend a 
Sonne of David, a Sonne of God, to beginne againe 
that Royall Line, to fit upon the Throne of his Father 
David, Luc. i. 32. ABs 2. 30. 

It is not fo with the Gentile Princes, Rulers andMagiftra- 
Magiftrates, (whether Monarchical!, Arijhcraticall,'^^^^^^^^ 
or Democraticall) who (though government in generall God, the 
be from God, yet) receive their callings, power andP^''"'^^^^'' 
authority, (both Kings and Parliamejits) mediately f°™ ^^e 
from the people. people. 

Secondly, \oJiah and thofe Kings were Kings and 
Governours over the then true and onely Church of 
God National!, brought into the Cove?iant of God in 
Abraham, and fo downward : and they might well 
be forced to ftand to that Covenant into which with 
fuch immediate fignes and miracles they had beene 

But what Commiffion from Chriji lefus had Henry ^^^^^^^°'^- 
the eight, Edward the 6. or any [\oJiah like) to force a Nation- 
the many hundred thoufands of Englijlj men and all Cove- 
women, without fuch immediate liQ-nes and ?uiracles^^^^^, ^ 
that Ifrael had to enter into an holy and Ipn-ituall tions. 

344 "^^^ Bloudy Tenent. 

fignes, and Covenant with the invifible God, the Father of Spirits, 
buTfo n^ot ^^ upon paine of death (as in \ofiahs time) io Ji and to 
England, that which they never made, nor before Evangelicall 

Hepentance are poffibly capable of. 

Henry 8. Now fecondly de fa5io, let it be well remembred 

J^^ f^''^^ concerning the Kings of England profeffing Refor- 

governour niatiou. The foundation of all was laid in Henry the 

of the 8. The Pope chalengeth to be the Vicar oi Chriji 

EnTand° ^^^ here upon earth, to have power of reforming 

the Church, redreffing abufes, &c. Henry 8. falls out 

with the Pope, and chalengeth [197] that very power 

to himfelf of which he had defpoiled the Pope, as 

appeares by that AB oi Parliament eftablifhing Henry 

8. the fupreme Head a.nd Governour in all cafes Eccle- 

liafticall,' &c. It pleafed the moft High God to plague 

the Pope by Henry the 8. his means: but neither 

Pope nor King can ever prove fuch power from Chriji 

derived to either of them. 

The won- Secondly, (as before intimated) let us view the 

fomin s Workes and ABs of Englands imitation of \oJiahs 

and re- practice. Henry the 7. leaves England under the 

' " Be it enafted by authority of this tire from the defignation. Yet it an- 

prefent Parliament, that the King our fwered a purpofe in marking the nature 

Sovereign Lord, his heirs and fucceilors, of the revolution, and the emphafis of 

Kings of this realm, fhall be taken, ac- the name carried home the change into 

cepted and reputed the only fupreme the mind of the country. It was the 

Head in earth of the Church of England, epitome of all the meafures which had 

&c." been pafTed againll the encroachments of 

The Aft of Supremacy is quoted in the fpiritual powers within and without 

full by Froude, Hijl. of England, ii : 324, the realm ; it was at once the fymbol of 

who adds : " Confiderable farcafm has the independence of England, and the 

been levelled at the affumption by Henry declaration that thenceforth the civil 

of his title ; and on the accefTion of magiilrate was fupreme within the Eng- 

Elizabcth, the crown, while reclaiming lidi dominions over church as well as 

the authority, thought it prudent to re- ftate." 

^he Bloudy Tenent. 345 

llavifli bondage of the Popes yoake. Henry the 8.^°''"^'"g^ 
reformes all England X.o a new fafhion, halfe P^pijK \onhy^' 
halfe Protejiant. King Edward the 6. turnes about Englands 
the Wheele of the State, and vvorkes the whole Land^'"^^* 
to abfolute ProteJia?iifme. Queene Mary lucceeding 
to the Helme, fteeres a dired: contrary courfe, breakes 
in peeces all that Edward wrought, and brings forth 
an old edition of Englands Reformation all Popijh. 
Mary not living out halfe her dayes (as the Prophet Kings 
fpeakes of bloudy perfons) Elizabeth (like I?///'/^) ""ttifphnt 
advanced from the Prifon to i\\Q Palace, and from and often 
the irons to the Crow?ie, ilie pluckes up all her lifter P'"':'^."P 
Maries plants, and founds a Trumpet all Protejiant. ^ ^^ ° 

What fober man ftands not amazed at thefe Revo- 
lutions f and yet like Mother like Daughter : and 
how zealous are we their off-fpring for another 
imprejjion and better edition of a Nationall Canaan (in 
imitation of \udah and lojiah) which if attained, who 
knowes how foone fucceeding Kings or Parliaments 
will quite pull downe and abrogate ?' 

Thirdly, in all iheie formings and reformings, aANation- 
Nationall Church of naturall unregenerate men was ^^' ^^^^f'^^ 

-. ever 111 n — 

(like wax) the fubje6t matter of all thefe formes andjea to 
changes, whether Popijh or Protejiant : concerning turne and 
which Nationall State the time is yet to come when^^^^^™^' 
ever the Lord Jefus hath given a word of injlitution 
and appointment. 

' The Wertminfter Afl'embly was then 1644-6, was already in preparation while 
in ieilion. The Solemn League and The Bloudy Tenent was going to prefs. 
Covenant was fubfcribed Sept. 25, 1643, the committee having it in charge being 
not long after Williams's arrival in Eng- appointed Odt. 17, 1643. Neal, Hifi. of 
land. The Dircdory of Public Wor- Puritans, i: 495. Events foon juftified 
fliip which was ellablifhed by an ordi- the author's anticipations of its fliort con- 
nance of Parliament, dated January 3, tinuance, and of another revolution. 

346 'T^he Bloudy Tenent. 


A woman Peace.^\TOM bring to minde (deare Truth) a plea of 

head of the ^ fome wifer Papijis for the Popes fupremacy^ 

Church, viz. that it was no fuch exorbitant or unheard of 

power 2.v\di jurifdi^ion which the Pope chalenged, but 

the very fame which a Woman, Queene Elizabeth her 

felfe chalenged, ftiling her PapiJJa, ox floe Pope : with- 

all pleading that in point of Reafon it was far more 

fuitable that the Lord Jefus [198] delegate his power 

rather to a Clergie man then a Lay man, as Henry the 

8. or a woman, as his daughter Elizabeth. 

The Pa- Truth. I beleeve that neither one nor t'other hit 

piibneer- ^j^^ white,' vet I beleeve the Papifts arrowes fall the 

er to the , J , , , \ ^ 

Truth con neareft to it in this particular, viz. That the govern- 
cerning ment of the Church of Chriji fhould rather belong to 
ernment ^^^^ ^^ profelfe a Minijiry or Office Spirituall, then 
of the to fuch as are meerly Temporall and Civill. 
Church gQ ^j^^^ jj^ conclulion, the whole controverjie con- 

Protef- cerning the government of Chrijis Kingdo?ne or Church, 
tants. will be found to lye between the true and falfe Min- 
ijiry, both chalenging the true conuniffion, power and 
keyes from ChrijL 
The Peace. This all glorious diadem of the Kingly power 

pow^r^of ^^ ^^ Lord 'Jefus hath beene the eye-fore of the 
the Lord World, and that which the Kings and Rulers of the 
w^"^ nT' ^^^^^ have alwayes lift up their hands unto. 
Kings and The firft report of a new King of the "J ewes puts 
Rulers Herod 2indi 2i\\ J eruf ale fn into frights ; and the power 

' The centre of the hutt in archery " 'Twas I won the wager, though you 

was formerly painted white. hit the white." Shakefpeare, Taming of 

the Shrew, v. 5. 

The Bloudy Tenent. 347 

of this moft o-lorious King- o^ King's over the SoiiIcs'^J^^'^\\ 

1 ^ /— r .U • /• A World. 

and Conjciences or men, or over their //i;^j- and wor- 
Jhips, is ftill the white that all the Princes of this 
World (hoot at, and are enraged at the tidings of the 
true Heire the Lord Jefus in his fervants. 

Truth. You well minde (deare Peace) a twofold A twofold 
exaltation of the Lord Jefus, one in the Soules and*^^.^'^j|"°" 
Spirits of men, and fo he is exalted by all that truly 
love him, though yet remaining in Babels captivity, 
and before they hearken to the voyce of the Lord, 
Come forth of Babel my people. 

A fecond exaltation of Chrijl Jefus upon the Throne 
of David his Father in his Church and Congregation, 
which is his Spirituall Kingdome here below. 

I confelTe there is a tumultuous r^^^' at his <?«/r^;z<:f The world 
into his Throne in the Soule and Conjciences of any of'^o'^meth 
his chofen ; but againft his fecond exaltation in his^ 
true Kingly power and government, either Monarchi- 
call in himfelf, or Minijleriall in the hands of his 
Minijiers and Churches, are muftred up and fliall be 
in the battels of Chrijl yet to h& fought, all the powers 
of the gates of Earth and Hell. 

But I (hall mention one difference more between A fourth 
the Kings of IJrael 2.nd Judah, and all other Ki?igs'-^^'^^'^^^^?- 
and Rulers of the Gentiles. iiVael 

Thofe Kings as Ki?igs of Ifrael were all inverted types. 
with a typicall 2.nd figurative refpe6t, with which now 
no Civill power in the World can be inverted. 
199] They wore a double Crowne, Firrt, Civill :ThGy 
Secondly, Spirituall, in which refpe6t they typed outj^^°J|^j^ 
the Spirituall King of IJrael, Chri/l fejus. Crown. 

When I fay they were types, I make them not in 

348 T^he Bloudy Tenent. 

all refped: fo to be, but as Kings and Governours over 
the Church and Kingdome of God^ therein types. 
'T^p Hence all thofe Saviours and Deliverers^ which it 

of the pleafed God to ftirre up extraordinarily to his people, 
Jewes, Gideon, Baruc, Sampfon, &c. in that refpedt of their 
figures being Saviours, 'Judges, and Deliverers of Gods peo- 
Saviour pie, fo Were they types of lejus Chrijl, either Mon- 
of the archically ruling by himfelf immediately, or Minif- 
terially by fuch whom he pleafeth to fend to vindi- 
cate the liberties and inheritances of his people. 



Peace.TT muft needs be confeft that fince the Kings 
X of Ifrael were ceremonially anointed with 
Oile : and 

Secondly, in that they fat upon the Throne of 
David (which is expreflely applied to Chrijl lefus, 
Luc. I. 32. ylBs 2. 30. lohn i. 49.) their Crownes 
were figurative and ceremoniall : but fome here quef- 
tion whether or no they were not types of civill 
Powers and Rulers now, when Kings and ^eens 
fliall be nurling Fathers and nurfing Mothers, &c. 
The Men- Truth. For anfwer unto fuch, let them firft remem- 
^^^^M-^^ ber that the difpute lyes not concerning the Mon- 
ifteriall archicall power of the Lord lejus, the power of 
power of making Lawes, and making Ordinances to his Saints 
" • and Subjed:s : But concerning a deputed and Minif- 
teriall power, and this diftindlion the very Pope him- 
felf acknowledgeth. 
Q^^^^ There are three great Competitours for this depu- 
Competi- ted or Minifleriall power of the Lord lejus. 

The Bloudy T^enent. 349 

Firft, the Arch-vicar or Nathan, the pretended ^°"''!fo'" 
Vicar of Qhriji on Earth, who fits as God over the iaeriall"" 
Te?fiple oi God, exalting himfelfe not only above all power of 
that is called God, but over the Joules and ^onfciences^^^^- 
of all his vajfalls, yea over the Spirit oi Chriji, over great pre- 
the holy Scriptures, yea and God himfelfe, Dan. g.tfndersfor 

1 ^^ -r^ -^ 1 -1 rr/ r theMinil- 

& I I chap. & Rev. 15. together with 2 IheJ. 2. ^gj-jaij 

This pretender although he profelfeth to claime power of 
but the Minifteriall power of Chrift, to declare his ^||'J^^-_^j^^ 
Ordinances, to preach, baptife, [200] ordaine Min- upon the 
ifters, and yet doth he upon the point challenge the point chal 
Monarchicall or abfolute power alfo, being full of^^^Jj.|,^j^_ 
felfe exalting and blafpheming, Da?i. 7. 25. & 1 1. icall alfo. 
36. Rev. 13. 6. fpeaking blafphemies againft the God 
of Heaven, thinking to change times and Lawes : 
but he is the fonne of perdition arifing out of the 
bottomlelfe pit, and comes to deftrudion. Revel. 17. 
for fo hath the Lord Jefus decreed to confume him 
by the breath of his mouth, 2 The/. 2. 

The fecond great Competitour to this Crowne of The fec- 
the Lord Jefus is the Civill Magiftrate, whether °;:^^^/;^^^^ 
Emperours, Kings, or other inferiour Officers ot the Civill 
State who are made to beleeve by the falfe Prophets Magiilrate 
of the World that they are the Antitypes of the Kings 
of Ifrael and Judah, and weare the Crowne of Chrift. 

Under the wing of the Civill Magiftrate doe three 3 Great 
great factions fhelter themfelves, and mutually oppofe |^^/^|°"^ 
each other, llriving as for life, who ihall fit downcingan 
under the fhadow of that Arme of Flefh. Arme of 

Firft, the Prelacie, who (though fome extravagants ^ ' 
of late have inclined to wave the King, and to creepe preiade. 
under the wings of the Pope, yet) fo far depends upon 

35° T^he Bloudy Tenent. 

the King^ that it is juftly faid they are the Kings 

2- The Secondly, the Prejhyterie, who (though in truth^^ ^ ^' they afcribe not fo much to the civill Magijirate as 

fome too groffely do, yet they) give fo much to the 
The Yo^^^ civill Magijirate as to make him abfolutely the Head 
and Pref- q£- ^j^^ Church : For, if thev make him the Reformer 

bytene •' 

make ufe of the Church, the Supprelfour of Schifmaticks and 
of the Hereticks, the Prote6tour and defendour of the 
Magiftrate Church, &c. what is this in true plain Englifli but 
but as of to make him the Judge of the true and falfe Church, 
an jixecu- Judge of what is truth, and what errour ; who is 

tioner. . . 

Schifmaticall, who Hereticall, unlelfe they make him 
only an Rxecutioner^ as the Pope doth in his punifh- 
ing of Hereticks ? 

I doubt not but the Ariftocraticall government of 

Presbyterians may well fubfift in a Monarchie (not 

only regulated but alfo tyrannicall) yet doth it more 

naturally delight in the element of an Ariftocraticall 

government of State, and fo may properly be faid to 

be (as the Prelates, the Kings fo thefe) the States 


3. Inde- The third, though not fo great, yet growing fac- 

pendents. tion is that (fo Called) Independent : I prejudice not 

the perfonall worth of any of the three forts : This 

The Inde- latter (as I beleeve this Difcourfe hath [201J mani- 

pendents: fefj-g^j) jumpes with the Prelates, and (thouf^h not 

who come r\\ \ • • i i i 

neerefl to more fully, yet) more explicitely then the Presbyte- 

the Bilh- rians caft down the Crowne of the Lord Jejus at the 

°^^* feet of the Civill Magijirate : And although they 

pretend to receive their Minijirie from the choice of 

2 or 3 private perjons in Church- covenant, yet would 

'The Bloudy Tenent. 


they faine perfwade the Mother Old England lo imi- 
tate her Daughter New England's pradiice, viz. to 
keep out the Presbyterians, and only to embrace 
themfelves, both as the States and the Peoples BiHiops.' 

The third competition for this Crown and power ofThe third 
the Lord Jefus is of thofe that feparate both from Ji°n^^of" 
one and t'other, yet divided alfo amongft themfelves thole that 
into many feverall profe/Jions. 

' This pifture of the religious parties 
of that time is fomevvhat more unfavora- 
ble to the Independents than the judg- 
ment which hirtory has paffed upon 
them. Williams judged them from his 
own advanced point of view, and per- 
haps jullly, as holding eflentially the 
fame view of the power of the civil mag- 
illrate with the Prefbyterians, and only 
competing with them for the pofl'eflion 
of that power. The open connexion 
between them and the perfons in New 
England who had fent him into exile, 
and whofe views he knew fo well, might 
have led him to think that there was lit- 
tle to choofe between the two. His 
judgment he evidently refts on thofe 
views of the New England miniflers 
which he is here controverting, — "as I 
believe this difcourfe hath manifefted." 
The Prefbyterians in their diicuffion 
with the Independents in the Wellmin- 
fter Alfembly, while trying to fettle lome 
fcheme of accommodation for tender 
confciences, fay in the paper prefcnted 
December 25, 1645, "As for fuch a tol- 
eration as our brethren dcfire, we appre- 
hend it will open a door to all fefts ; and 
though the Independents, now plead for 
it, their brethren in New England do not 
allow it." Neal, Hijl. of Puritans, ii: 17. 
But it is evident from their language 
that the Prefbyterians underftood, or at 


leall wifhed to make it appear, that the 
Independents were feeking for a tolera- 
tion which would cover more than them- 
felves. " They plead for an accommo- 
dation to other feds as well as to them- 
felves," faid Robert Bayl'ie, defcribing 
the difcuffion with the Independents in 
the Committee for Accommodation. 
Letters, ii: 172. They at leail were 
bitter enough againft any fort of indul- 
gence. The Scottifh Parliament wrote 
(Feb. 3, 1645-6) to Weilminller that 
" it was perfuaded That the Piety and 
Wifdom of the Honourable Houfes will 
never admit Toleration of any Se<fl:s or 
Schifms contrary to our Solemn and 
Sacred Covenant." Rufhworth, Hiftori- 
cal ColleSlions, vi : 234. Edmund Ca- 
lamy faid to Parliament, in a fermon in 
1644, "If you do not labor according to 
your duty and power to fupprefs the 
errors thereby that are fpread in the 
Kingdom, all thofe errors are your 
errors, and thofe herefies are your here- 
fies. You are the'Anabaptiils, you are 
the Antinomians, and 'tis you that hold 
that all religions are to be tolerated." 
Crofby, Hiji. of Baptijls, i: 176. 

Baylie hated the Independents with 
all the vigor of a good hater, but it was 
becaule he hated their doctrines. In the 
preface to a Sermon before the Houfe of 
Lords in 1645, he fays: "It is more, at 

352 "The Bloudy Tenent. 

Of thefe, they that goe furtheft, profefTe they muft 

yet come neerer to the wayes of the Son of God : 

And doubtlelTe, fo farre as they have gone, they bid 

the moji^ and make xho. faireji plea for the puritie and 

power of Chriji J ejus, let the reft of the Inhabitants 

of the World be Judges. 

Their Le|- 2\\ the former well be viewed in their exter- 

formitie to "^1^ State, pomp, riches, conformitie to the World, 

Chrift. &:c. And on the other fide, let the latter be con- 

lidered, in their more through departure from Jinne 

2indi Jinfull JVorJhip, their condefcending (generally) 

to the loweft and meaneft content?nents of this life, 

Ju I, their expoling: of themfelves for Chri/i to greater fuf- 

Churches , . i i • i r • r^- •^^ r i a-" 

of the Septerings, and their denring no Civill fword nor Arme 
eration gf Flefh, but the two-edged fword of Gods Spirit to 
Human^ ^^7 ^^^ ^^^ matter by : and then let the Inhabitants 
tie and of the World judge, which come neereft to the doc- 
Subjedls trine, holines, povertie, patience and practice of the 
not to be Lord Jefus Chrift ; and whether or no thefe later 
opprefled, deferve not fo much of Humanitie, and the Subjects 
le'aft)^per- Libertie, as (not offending the Civill State) in the 
mitted. freedome of their Soules, to enjoy the common aire 
to breath in. 

leaft not lefs, unlawful for a Chriftian pendency wherein many religious fouls 

State to give any liberty or toleration to for the time do wander, is the chief 

errors, than to fet up, in every city or hand that opened at firft, and keepeth 

parilh of their dominions, bordels for open to this day, the door to all the 

uncleannefs, ftages for plays and liils for other errors that plague us." Quoted by 

duels. That fo much extolled Inde- Palfrey, HijL of New England, ii: 89, 

'The Bloudy Tenent. 353 


P^^r^. T^ Eare Truths you have (liewne me a little 
\J draught of Zions Ibrrowes, her children 
tearing out their mothers bowels : O when will Hee 
that iVablilheth, comforteth, and builds up Zion, 
looke downe from Heaven, and have mercy on her ? 

Truth. The Villon yet doth tarry (faith Habacuk) 
but will moll [202] furely come: and therefore the 
patient and believing mull wait for it. 

But to your laft Propolition, whether the Kings of 7 Reafons 
Ifrael and Judah were not types of Civill Magiftrates ? [^j^g^^'^jf^ 
now I fuppofe by what hath been already fpoken, Kings of 
thefe things will be evident. ^^''^^l a"^ 

Firll, that thole former types of the Land, of the^^Q^^g^g"' 
People, of their Worjhips, were types ^nid figures of a any other 
fpirituall Land, fpirituall People, 2iX\di Jpirituall Wor- '°^^\{'f^' 
jhip under Chrijt. Therefore confequently, their titype. 
Sai' tours, Kedeemers, Deliverers, Judges, Kings, mull Civill 
alfo have th^ir fpirituall Antitypes, and lb confequently f^ \jres ^" 
not civill hwi fpirituall Gover?iours and Rulers; left mull needs 
the very ejjhitial nature of Types, Figures and Shad- '^^ f^"^^^^*"" 
owes be overthrowue. ituall An- 

Secondly, although the Magiftrate by a Civill fword titypes. 
mi^ht well compell that Nationall Church to the^^;"'^"' 

o . , -f^ , . . . pullion 

externall exercife of their Naturall Worlhip : yet it was prop- 
is not poffible (according to the rule of the New^^^"^'-^, 

i-r. n \ 11 1 1 XT • r» Nationall 

1 eltament) to compell whole JNations to true Repent- church 
ance and Regeneration, without which (to farre as of the 

' By mifprint there are two chapters numbered alike. 

354 '^^^ Bloudy Tenent. 

Jewes, but niay be difccmed true) the Worfhip and holy Name 

proper in ^^ ^^d is prophaned and blafphemed. 

the Chrif- An Amic of Flefli, and Sword of Steele cannot 

•s^n'TNa^^^^^^ to cut the darkneffe of the Mind, the hard- 

tionall. nelle and unbeleefe of the Heart, and kindely operate 

upon the Soules affedlions to forfake a long continued 

Fathers worfhip, and to imbrace a new, though the 

beft and trueft. This worke performes alone that 

fword out of the mouth of Chrift, with two edges. 

Rev. I. & 3. 

Thirdly, we have not one tittle in the New Tefta- 
Neither ment of Chrift Jejus concerning fuch a parallel, 
Tefus nor neither from Hhnjelfe, nor from his Minijlers, with 
his Mef- whom he converfed fourty dayes after his Refurrec- 
fengers ^y^„ inftru^tins: them in the matters of his Kins'dome. 

have made a r^ o ' 

the Civill Acts I. 

Magiilrate Neither find we any fuch conwiijjion or direBion 
\:\^^l i^"j given to the Civill Magijir ate to this purpofe, nor to 
the con- the Saints for their Ju/^miffion in matters fpirituall, 
trary. ^3^(. j-j^g contrary, A^s 4. & 5. i Cor. 7. 23. Colojf. 

2. 18. 

Civill Fourthly, we have formerly viewed' the very nature 

Magiftra- ^^^ elTence of a Civill Magijir ate, and find it the fame 

tiallycivill ^"^ "^ parts of the World, where ever people live upon 

and the the face of the Earth, agreeing together in Townes, 

fame in all Qifi^^^ Proviuces, Kiugdomes : I fay the fame effen- 

the World tially Civill, both from, i. the rife and fountaine 

whence it [203] fprings, to wit, the peoples choice 

and free confent. 2. The Objedt of it, viz. the com- 

mon-weale or fafety of fuch a people in their bodies and 

goods, as the Authours of this Modell have themfelves 


' Chap. xcii. 

The Bloudy Tenent. ' 355 

This civi/l Nature of the Magijirate we have proved Chnilian- 
to receive no addition of power from the Magijirates ^^^ ^^ ^^^ 
being a Chrijliariy no more then it receives diminution-i^^.xwxz of 
from his not beino; a Chri/iian : even as the Cowwo/z-^. 
weale is a true Qommon-weale^ although it have not weak, nor 
heard of Qhrijlianitie ; and Chrijiianitie profelfed in "^oth want 
it (as in Pergattius^ Epbefus, &c.) makes it ne're no°gj^jjj"" 
more a Commonweale, and Chrijiianitie taken away, diminifh 
and the candlejiick removed, makes it ne're the leffe'^- 
a Commonweale. 

Fifthly, the '$)pirit of God exprelly relates the worke Rom. 13. 
of ih^ civill Mau-iftrate under the Go/ pel, Rom. 10 e^-'^ently 

oy J I ^ J proves 

exprelly mentioning (as the Magijirates objedt) thetheCivill 
duties of the fecond Table, concerning the bodies and work and 
goods oi\\i^fubjea. _ th^Civill 

2. The reward or wages which people owe for Magi Urate 
fuch a worke, to wit, (not the contribution of the 
Qhiirch for 2.ny J pirituall work, but) tribute, toll, cuj- 
tome which are wages payable by all forts of men. 
Natives and Forreigners, who enjoy the fame benefit 
oi pub lick peace and commerce in the Nation. 

Sixthly, Since the civill Magijirate, whether Kings 
or Parliaments, States, and Goverjiours, can receive 
no more in jujiice then what the People give, and 
are therefore but the eyes and hands and injiruments^'^'^ 
of the people (limply confidered, without refped: to yet moil 
this or that Religion) it muft inevitably follow (as true con- 
formerly I have touched) that if Magijirates have J-J^^^"^^^ 
received their power from xhc people, then the greateftcivill 
number of the people of every Land have received Magif- 
from Qhriji lejus a power to ejiablijh, correB, ^-^Jorme^^^- jh^ 
his Saints and Jervants, his wij'e and Jpowje, the Antitype 

356 T^he Bloudy Tenent. 

of the Church : And fhe that by the exprefTe word of the 

Ifrad and Lord [Pfal. 1 49.) binds Kings in chaines, and Nobles 

Judah. in //«/^j- of iroji^ mufl her felfe be fubjed: to the 

changeable pleafures of the people of the World 

(which lies in wickednejfe^ \ lohn 5.) even in matters 

of Heavenly 2.ndi J pir it uall Nature. 

Hence therefore in all controverfies concerning 
the Church, Miniftrie and worfhip, the lafl: Appeale 
muft come to the Bar of the People or Common- 
weal, where all may perfonally meet, as in fome 
Commonweales of fmall number, or in greater by 
their Reprefentatives. 
If no Re- 204] Hence then no perfon efteemed a beleever, and 
^f "'^ ^^^Udded to the Church. 

that which ^.j ^^rr ^ r i i • i 

the Com- JN o Omcer cholen and ordamed. 
monweal ]S[o perfon caft forth and excommunicated, but as 
thrno^^ the Commonweale and people pleafe, and in con- 
Chrift, no clufion, no Church of Chrift in this Land or World, 
God, but ^j^^ confequently no vifibly Chrift the Head of it. 
pleafureofYea yet higher, confequently no God in the World 
this world worfliipped according to the inftitutions of Chrift 
2. P'J°-jefus, except the feverall peoples of the Nations of 
the World Ihall give allowance. 

Peace. Deare Truth, Oh whither have our Fore- 
fathers and teachers led us ? higher then to God him- 
felfe (by thefe doctrines driven out of the World) you 
cannot rife : and yet fo high muft the inevitable and 
undeniable confequences of thefe their dod:rines 
reach, if men walke by their owne common Princi- 
The true Truth. I may therefore here feafonably adde a 
antitype feventh, which is a necellary confequence of all the 

The Bloudy Tenent. 357 

former Arguments, and an Argument it felfe : 17*2;. we°^. ^^^ 
finde exprelly a Ipirituall power of Chrijl J ejus in the j,,.a|i^aj^(l 
hands of his Saints, Minijiers and Churches, to beejudah. 
the true Antitype of thofe former figures in all the 
Prophecies concerning Chriji hhjpirituall power, Ifa. 
9, Dan. 7. Mich. 4. &c. compared with Luc. i. 32. 
Ad. 2. 30. I Cor. 5. Math. 18. Marc. 13. 34. &c. 


Peace. /^ Lorious and conquering Truth, mee 
Vj^ thinkes I fee moft evidently thy glori- 
ous conqueflis : how mighty are thy fpirituall weapons 
(2 Cor. 10.) to breake downe thofe mighty and ftrong 
Holds and Caftles, which men have fortified them- 
felves withall againft thee ? O that even the thoughts 
of men may fubmit and bow downe to the captivity 
of Jefus Chrift ! 

Truth. Your kinde incouragement makes mee pro- A fourth 
ceed more cheerfully to a fourth difference from the ^J- ^^^^^^^^ 
Lawes and Statutes of this Land, different from allandStat- 
the Lawes and Statutes of the World, and parallel'd ",\" ^'""^ 
onely by the Lawes and Ordinances of fpirituall 

Firft then confider we the Law-fnaker, or rather Mofes a 
the Law-publifier or Prophet, as Mofes calls himfelfe, ^^'P^^.^"^ 
Deut. 18. and AB. 3. he is [205] exprelly called that 
Prophet who figured out Chriji Jejus who was to 
come, like unto Mofes, greater then Mojes, as the 
fon is greater then the fervant. 

Such Law-givers or Law-pub lijhers never had any 
State or People as MoJes the type, or Chriji JeJus, 

358 T^he Bloudy Tenent. 

miraculoully ftirred up and fent as the mouth of God 
betweene God and his people, 
'^he Secondly, concerning the Lawes themfelves : It is 

nVael un- true, the fecond Table containes the Law of Nature, 
parallel'd. the Laiv Morall and Civilly yet fuch a Law was alfo 
given to this people as never to any people in the 
World: fuch was the Law of worjhip, PJal. 147. 
peculiarly given to 'Jacob, and God did not deale fo 
with other Nations : which Lawes for the matter of 
the worfldip in all thofe wonderfull fignificant Sacri- 
fices, and for the manner by fuch a Priejihood, fuch a 
place of Tabernacle, and afterward of Temple, fuch 
times and Jolemnities of Fejlivals, were never to be 
parallel'd by any other Nation, but onely by the true 
Chrijiian Ifrael eftabliflied by yefus Chriji amongfl 
yewes and Geiitiles throughout the World. 
Gods Thirdly, the Law of the tenne Words [Deut. lo.) 

owne fin- the Epitomc of all the reft, it pleafed the moft high 

per uenn Q 

Lawes for God to frame and pen twice with his owne moft holy 
Ifrael. and dreadfull jinger upon Mount Sinai, which he 
never did to any other Nation before or fmce, but 
onely to that fpirituall Ifrael, the people and Church 
of God, in whofe hearts oi jlejh he writes his Lawes, 
according to Jer. 31. Heb. 8. and 10. 

Peace. Such promulgation of fuch Lawes, by fuch 

a Prophet, muft needs be tnatchlejfe and unparalleVd. 

Fift differ- Truth. In the fift place conlider we the pimijhtnents 

enceTem- ^j^^ r^w^r^j" annexed to the breach or observation of 

porallproi i /- 7- ^ 

peritymoil thele Lawcs. 

proper to Firft, thofe which were of a tejnporall and prefent 
ran N^?° confideration of this life : BleJ/ings and Curfes of all 
tionaii forts opened at large, Levit. 26. and Dent. 28. which 

The Bloudy Tenent. 359 

cannot poffibly be made good in any State, Countrey^^^^^ ^'^' 
or Kingdovie, but in a fph'ituail {qv\(q in the Church ^J^^^^* 
and K'mgdome of ChrijL 

The reafon is this, fuch a temporal! profperity of The 
outward peace and plenty of all thinp:s, of increa/e of 'P'"^"^!^ 
children, of cattell, of honour, of health, of Juccejfe, of of Gods 

victory, fuits not temporally with the afflicted and People 


perfecuted ertate of GWj people now: And therefore ""^Y' 

Jpirituall and foule blejjednejje mufl be the Antitype, 
•u/^;. In the midft oi revilings, and all manner of evill 
fpeeches for Chrijis fake, foule blejjednejfe. In the 
mid ft of ajJiiBions and perfe cut ions, foule blejjednejje, 
206] Math. 5. and Luc. 6. And yet herein the Ifrael 
of God (liould enjoy their fpirituall peace. Gal. 6. 16. 

Out of that blelfed temporall ejiate to be caft or What 
caried captive, was their exco?nmunication or caftinp"^^"^^^^^ ^^' 

c A ] r 1 Tz- rr^i r '-^ communi- 

out or Kioas Jigbt, 2 King. 17. 23. 1 hererore was cation 
the blajphemer, the /^z^yt' Prophet, the idolater, to bee was. 
call: out or cut off from this holy hand: which pun- 
ijhfnent cannot be parallel'd by the punilliment of any 
State or Kingdo?ue in the world, but onely by the 
exco7nmunicati7ig or outcafting of perfon or Church 
from the iellowfhip of the faints and Churches of 
Chriji jej'us in the Gojpel. 

And therefore (as before I have noted) the putting The cor- 
away of the falfe prophet, by ftoning him to ^'^^^'^, fn°"n^|he" 
Deut. 13. is fitly anfwered (and that in the very fame Law, 
words) in the Antitype, when by the generall conjent^yf'^.^ °^^ 
or Jioning of the whole AJJembly, any wicked perj on is jfj^'ing^ in 
put away from amongft them, that is, fpiritually cut the Gof- 
off out of the Land of the fpiritually living, the peo- P^^^* 
pie or Church of GW, i Cor. 5. Galat. 5. 

360 The Bloudy Tenent. 

The re- Laftly, the great and high reward or punijhment of 
punifli- th^ keeping or breach of thefe Lawes to Ifrael, was 
ments of fuch as cannot fuit with any State or Kingdome in 
the Lavves j^orld bclide : the Reward of the Obfervation was 

Or Jlrael . ^ 

not to be Life^ Etemall Life. The Breach of any one of thefe 
parallel'd. Lawes was death, Etemall death or da?nnation from 
the prefence of the Lord. So Ro7u. 10. lam. 2. Such 
a Covenant God made not before nor lince with any 
State or People in the world. For, Chriji is the end 
of the Law for righteoufnejfe to every one that 
beleeveth, Rotn. 10.4. And he that beleeveth in that 
Son of God, hath eternall life ; hee that beleeveth 
not hath not life, but is condemned already, Joh.n 3. 
and I John 5, 


The wars p^^^^^T^Eare Truth, you have moft lively fet forth 
typical!. -L/ \\\^ wiparalleVd ^2i\.^ oi \\\2itty pic all Land 

and people of the lewes in their peace and quiet gov- 
ernment : Let mee now requeft you in the laft place 
to glance at the difference of the wars of this people 
from the wars of other Nations, and of their having 
no Antitype but the Churches of Chrijt lejus. 

[Truth.] Firfl, all Nations round about Ifrael more 

or lelfe, fometime or other, had indignation againft this 

Ifraels people, /Egyptians, Edomites, [207] Moabites, Ammo- 

Enemies ^/^^,j.^ Midians, Philifians, AJfyrians and Babylonians, 

about. &c. as appeares in the Hiflory 0I Mofes, Samuel, ludges 

and Kings, and in all the Prophets: You have an 

exprelfe Catalogue of them, Pfal. 83. fometimes many 

The Bloudy Tenent. 361 

hundred thoufand Enemies in pitcht field againft 
them : ot Kthiopians ten hundred thouTand at once 
in the dayes oi AJa, 2 Chron. 14. and at other times 
as the land upon the Sea flioare. 

Such Enemies the Lord lejus foretold his Ifrael,^^'^ Ene- 
The World (liall hate you, lohn 16. You fliall beJJJy^fJi°aii 
hated of all men for my Names fake, Matth. 24. HVael. 
All that will live godly in Cbriji lefus muft be per- 
fecuted or hunted, i Ti7n. 4. And not only by flejl:) 
and blond, but alfo by Principalities, Powers, Spirituall 
wickednelfe in high places (Rphef. 6.) by the whole 
Pagan World under the Roman Emperours, and the 
whole Antichrijiian World under the Roman Popes, 
Rev. 12. & 13. Chap, by the Kings of the Earth, 
Rev. 17. And Gog and Magog, like the fand upon 
the Sea flioare (Rev. 20.) 

Peace. Such Enemies, fuch Annies, no Hiftory, no 
experience proves ever to have come againft one 
poore Nation as againft Ifrael in the type ; and never 
was nor Ihall be knowne to come againft any State 
or Country now, but the Ifrael of God the Spirituall 
yewes, Chrijis true followers in all parts and quarters 
of the World. 

[Truth. I Befide all thefe without, Ifrael is betraied Enemies 
within her owne bowells, bloudy aS'^z^/j-, Abfaloms,'^^^^'^^ 
Shehaes, Adonijahs, leroboatns, Athaliahs railing infur- her owne 
reBions, co?f piracies, tumults, in the Antitype, and Par- bowells. 
allell[,\ the Spirituall ftate of the Chriftian Church. 

Secondly, confider we the famous and wonderfull 

bat tells, viBories, captivities, deliverances, which it 

pleafed the God of Ifrael to difpence to that people 

and Nation, and let us fearch if they can be paralleld 


362 The Bloudy Tenent. 

by any State or people, but myftically and Spiritually 

the true Chrijiian Ifrael of God^ Gal. 6. 

The fam- How famous was the bondage and ilavery of that 

cdly^cap- people and Nation 430 yeares in the Land oi /Egypt , 

tivities of and as famous, glorious and miraculous was their 

the Jews, jr^^nf^f^g through the Red Sea (a figure of Baptifme^ i 

Corinth. 10. and /Egypt a figure of an /Egypt now, 

Rev. II. 8 ?) 

How famous was the 70 yeares captivity of the 
lewes in Babel tranfported from that Land of Canaan, 
and at the full period returned againe to leruj'aletn, 
a type of the captivity of Gods people [208] now 
Spiritually captivated in myfticall Babel, Rev. 18. 4.? 
Their Time would faile me to fpeake q>\. lojhua s conqueft 

Tn^^T of literall Canaan, the flaughter of 11 Kin<rs, of the 

full Vldto- . 1 • r • / 1 ^- • r^' 1 

ries. miraculous taking of lericho and other Cities ; Gideon 

his miraculous battell againft \\\q Midianites ; Io?ia- 
than 2iV\di his Armour bearer againfl: \.\\t Philijii?ns ; 
David by his 5 fmooth ftones againft Goliah ; Afa, 
lehofaphat, Hezechia, their mighty and miraculous 
viBories againft fo many hundred thouland Enemies, 
and that fometimes without a blow given. 

What State, what Kingdome, what warres and 

combats, vi(^tories and deliverances can parallel this 

people, but the Spirituall and myfticall Ifrael of God 

in every Nation and Country of the World, typed out 

by that fmall typicall handfull, in that little fpot of 

ground the land of Canaan F 

The myf- xhe Ifrael of God now, men and women, fight 

tells of ' under the Great Lord Generall, the Lord lefus Chriji: 

Gods If- Their Weapons, Armour, and Artillery, is like them- 

raci now. fgiygg Spirituall, fet forth from top to toe, Ephef. 6. 

The Bloudy Tenent. 363 

So mighty and fo potent that they breake downe the 
ftrongeft ho/ds and Cajiles^ yea in the very foules of 
men and carry into captivity the very thoughts of 
men, fubje6ting them to Chriji lefus : They are Spirit- 
ual! conqiierours^ as in all the 7 Churches ot AJia^ He 
that overcommeth : He that overcommeth. Rev. 2. 

^ 3- . . . 

Their viBories and conquejis in this are contrary to 

thofe of this Worlds for when they are llaine and 
llaughtered, yet then they conquer : So overcame 
they the Divell in the Rotnati Efftperours, Rev. 12. 
By the bloud of the Lawbe : 2. By the word of their 
Tejiiniony : 3. The cheerfull fpilling of their owne 
bloud for Chriji ; for they loved not their lives unto 
the death : And in all this they are //lore then Con- 
querors through him that loved them, Ro/n. 8. 

This glorious Ar?uie of white Troopers, horfes and^^^^ '"y^- 
harnelfe [Chriji lejus and his true IJraei) Rev. 19- Army of 
glorioufly conquer and overcome the Beaji, the falfe white 
Prop/jet cxndi the Kings of the Earth up in ArmesjJ^^P^" 
againrt them, Rev. 19. and laftly, raigning with Chriji 
a thouland yeares they conquer the Diveli himfelte 
and the numberlelfe Armies (like the fand on the 
Sea (lioare) of Gog and Magog, and yet not a tittle of 
mention of any Jword, helmet, hreajtplate, Jijield or 
/jorje, but what is Spirituall and of a heavenly nature: 
All which Warres of IJrael have been, may be, and 
fliall be fultilled myftically and Spiritually. 
209] I could further inlill: on other particulars of 
IJraels unparalled ftate, and might difplay thofe excel- 
lent paifages which it pleafeth God to mention, 
Nehem. 9. 

364 T^be Bloudy Tenent. 


Peace.^KZOw have (deare Truth) as in a glafle pre- 
-L fented the face of 0/<^and New IJrael, and 
as in water, face anfwereth to face, fo doth the face 
of typicall IJrael to the face of the Antitype^ between 
whom, and not between Canaan and the Civill 
Nations and Countries of the World now, there is an 
admirable confent and harmony : But I have heard 
fome fay, was not the civill Jiate and ]udicialls of that 
people prelidentiall ? 
Whether Truth. I have in part, and might further difcover, 
ftate of ^^^^ from the King upon his Throne, to the very 
Ifrael was Beajis, yea the excrements of their bodies (as we fee in 
prefiden- ^^^^ going to War, Dent. 23. 12.) their civills, mor- 
alls, and naturalls were carried on in types : and 
however I acknowledge that what was limply inorall, 
civill, and naturall in IJraels Jiate, in their conjiitu- 
tions, Lawes, pu?iijhnients, may be imitated and fol- 
lowed by the States, Countries, Cities and Kingdomes 
of the World : Yet who can quelfion the lawfulnejfe 
of other formes of Government, Lawes and punijh- 
??ients which differ, fince civill conjlitutions are mens 
Ordinances (or creation, 2 Pet. 2. 1 3.) unto which 
Gods people are commanded even for the Lords fake 
to fubmit themfelves, which if they were unlawfull 
they ought not to do ? 

Peace. Having thus far proceeded in examining 
whether God hath charged the Civill State with the 
eftablifliing of the Spirituall and Religious, what 
conceive you of that next alTertion, viz. " It is well 
" knowne that the remilfenes of Princes in Chriften- 

T^he Bloudy Tenent. 365 

"dome in matters of Religion and Worfhip, divolv- 
" ing the care thereof only to the Clergie, and fo 
" fetting their Homes upon the Churches head, hath 
"been the caufe of Antichriftian invention, ufurpa- 
" tion and corruption in the Worfhip and Temple of 
" God. 

Truth. It is lamentably come to palTe by Gods jufl: 
permijjion, Sathans policie, the peoples finne, and the 
malice of the wicked againft Chriji^ and the corruption 
of Princes and Magijlrates^ that fo many inventiojis, 
ujurpations^ and corruptions are rifen in the Worjhip 
and Teniple of God throughout that part of the World 
which is called Chrijiian, and may moft properly be 'The true 
called the Popes Chrijiendome, [210] in oppolition to^^^^^ 
Chriji J ejus his true Chrijiian Com?nonweaie^ or Church 
the true Chrijlendome : But that this hath arifen from 
Pr/;^^'^ remilfenelle in not keeping their watch, to 
eftablilh the Purity of Religion^ DoBrine and Wor- 
jhip, and to punifh (according to Ifraels patterne) all 
falfe Minifters, by rooting them and their worfhips 
out of the World, that, I fay, can never bee evinced ; 
and the many thoufands of glorious Soules under the 
Altar, (whofe blood hath beene fpilt by this pq/ition) 
and the many hundred thoufand foules, driven out of 
their bodies by Civill Warres, and the many millions 
of foules forced to hypocrijie and ruine eternall, by 
inforced Vniformities in Worjhip, will to all Eternity 
proclaime the contrary. 

Indeed it fliewes a moft injurious idlenes and unfaith- Great un- 
fulnes in fuch as profelfe to be MeJ/higers o£ Chri/i^'^^^^^^^- 
jfejus, to caft the heavieft weight of their care upon Mmifters 
the Kings and Rulers of the Earth, yea, upon the very to call the 

366 'The Bloudy Tenent. 

chiefeft Cof?jmon-weaks, Bodies of People, (that is, the World 
judging i^ felfe) who have fundamentally in themfelves the 
and eikb- Koot o^ Power, to fet up what Government and Gov- 

ChrHlia^"^^^^^''^^'^ they fliall agree upon. 

ity upon Secondly, it lliewes abundance of carnall diffidence 
the Com- and diftruft of the g\onous power and gr2iC\ou?, prefence 
or world ^^ ^^^ Lord Jefus, who hath given his pro?nife and 
it felfe. Word, to bee with fuch his tnejfengers to the end of 

the world, Matth. 28. 

That Dog that feares to meet a man in the path, 

runnes on with boldnes at his mailers comming and 

prejence at his backe. 
To gov- Thirdly, what imprudence and indifcretion is it in 
erne & ^^ moft common affaires of Life, to conceive that 

ludge in . 

civill af- Emperours, Kings and Rulers of the earth muft not 

faires load only be qualified with politicall and Jiate abilities to 

the"civi°r^^^^'^^ and execute fuch Civill Lawes which may con- 

Magirtrate cerne the common rights, peace 2ind fa fety (which is 

worke and bufineffe, load and burthen enough for 

the ableft (lioulders in the Commonweal) but alfo fur- 

nifhed with fuch fpirituall and heavenly abilities to 

governe the fpirituall and Chrijlian Cotmnonweale, the 

jlocke and Church of Chrijl, to pull downe, and fet up 

Religion, to judge, detertnine and punijh in fpirituall 

^^8'^" contr over lies, even to death or banijhtuent : And befide, 

have no that not Only the feverall forts of civill Officers (which 

morepow-the people lliall choofe and fet up) muft be fo author- 

ert ent e ^^'^ ^^ ^^^^^ |j j-^fpe^c^ive Commoiiweales or Bodies of 

common * r 

confent ofpeople are charged (much more) by God with this 
ft!^i^K°^'^ 'zt'or/6^ and bujines, radically and fundamentally, becaufe 
truft them^^l ^^^^^ civHl Magijlratcs, have not the leaft inch of 
with. civill power, but what is meafured out to them from 

The Bloudy Tenent. 367 

the free confent of the [211] whole: even as a Qom- 
mittee of Parliament^ cannot further a(^t then the 
power of the Houfe (liall arme and enable them. 

Concerning that Objection which may arife from'.^^°"- 
the Kings of Ifrael and Judah, who were borne ia^f^]° 
members of Gods Church, and trained up therein allMagif- 
their dayes, (which thoufands of lawful! Magl/lrates^^^^^^ "^^^ 
in the world, polfibly borne and bred in falfe VVor- heare of 
lliips, Pagan or Antic hrijliaii, never heard of) and^^^f''"^ 
were therein types of the great anointed, the King oJ^q^^^ 
Ifrael, I have fpoken fufficiently to fuch as have an 
eare to heare : and therefore 

Lalily, fo unfutable is the commixing and intang- The Spir- 
ling of the C/W//with the Spirituall charge and Goi'-'J,"^!!,^"^ 
erntuent, that (except it was for fubfiftence, as we fee Sword can 
in Paul and Barnabas, working with their owne^oi^^e 
hands) the Lord fejus, and his Apojlles, kept them-|^y"^ff„j 
felves to one : If ever any in this world was able to the fame 
manage both the Spirituall and Civill, Church and?^''^""- 
Commonweale, it was the Lord Jefus, (wifedome it 
felfe:) Yea hee was the true Heire to the Crowne 
of Ifrael, being the Sonne of David : yet being fought The Lord 
for by the people to be made a King, Joh. 5. hel^f^j""^' 
refufed, and would not give a prefident to any King, manage 
Prince, or Ruler, to manage both fwords, and to^^^h- 
affume the charge of both Tables. 

Now concerning Princes, I defire it may bee Nero and 
remembred, who were moft injurious and danp:erous^^^. P^''if' 

/^i • c\- • 11 A T T^ • • o 7- cuting tm 

to Chriltianity, whether Nero, Domitian, Julian, ^qtouvs 
&c. Perfecuters, or Qonjiantine, Theodojius, &c. who^o'. ^°'"- 
alfumed this Power and Authority, in and over thech°"4n° 
Church in Spirituall things: It is confeft by theity,asCon- 

368 "The Bloudy Tenent. 

ftantine Afifiverer and others of note, that under thefe later, 
who°ar- "^ t^^ Church, the Chriftian State, ReUgion, and Wor- 
fumed a fhip. Were moft corrupted : under Qonjiantine, Qhrif- 
power in f^^j^s fell afleepe on the beds of carnall eafe and Lib- 
things, erty : infomuch that fome apply to his times, that 
Under fleepc of the Churchy Cant. 5. 2. I lleep though mine 

Conftan- 1.1,1, 

tine Chrif- heart waketh. 

tianity fell 
into cor- 
and Chrif- 

tiansfell CHAP. CXXIV. 


Peace. ^KT^'Sl, but fome will fay, this was not through 
J- their affuming of this power, but the ill 
managing of it. 

Truth. Yet are they commonly brought as the 
great Prejidents for all fucceeding Princes and Rulers 
in after Ages : and in this very controvelie, their 
practices are brought as prefidentiall to eftablifh per- 
fecution for confcience. 

I A Brief Expofition of the whole Book take of the benefits of the Churches fer- 

of Canticles, or, Song of Solomon; Live- viceable graces to God and him." Pro- 

ly defcribing the Eilate of the Church ceeding, he continues the application in 

in all the Ages thereof, &c. &c. Written chap, 5. " Conjlantine came into the 

by that Learned and Godly Divine John Church, enjoyed the fellowfhip of it, did 

Cotton, etc. London. 1642. partake in all the parts of it, yea and 

" This Song containes the eftate of the richly endowed it; io that the Church 

Church, as well in the worft as beil and all her friends did eat and drinke, 

times." p. 7. " This booke was chiefly yea and did drink abundantly of wealth, 

penned to bee an hiftoricall prophecie preferments, &c. whence it was that fhee 

or propheticall hiftory." p. 10. Follow- fell into a deepe fleepe. ver. 2. to chap, 

ing this application of it, chap. 4, ver. 6. ver. 4. Now followeth the defcrip- 

16. Let my beloved come into his garden, tion of the Church from Conftantines 

and eat of his pleafant fruits, he explains: time to the time of the rclloring of the 

" Let Conftantine come to them, and par- Gofpell." pp. 139, 141. 

The Bloudy Tenent. 369 

212] Secondly, thofe Emperours and other Princes ^^^^^^^^ 
and Magijtrates ad:ed in Keligion according to their j-^,;^^^^""^ f 
confciences perfwalion, (and beyond the Hght and per- others, yet 
fwafion of confcience can no man Uvin": walk in anv^'^M,"°^ 

^ . , , "^ willin? to 

feare ot God.) Hence have they forced their yi^/^V^j- be forced 
to unifor^nitie and conformitie unto their own ro«-them- 
fciences (what ever they were) though not willing to ^ ^^^' 
have been forced themfelves in the matters of God 
and Confcience. 

Thirdly, Had not the light of their eye of confcience^ Conflan- 
and the confciences alfo of their 'Teachers been dark- otTerT 
ned, they could not have been condemned for want wanted 
of heavenly ^t't'v'/o;/, rare devotion, wonderfull care"°^!° 
and diligence, propounding to themfelves the beft pat- feaion as 
ternes ot the Kings of fudah, David, Salomon, Afa,'^^^'^'^^^- 
Jehofaphat, Jq/iah, Hezekiah : But here they loft the ^'^^'^JJ^^^^ 
path, and thenifelves, in perfwading themfelves to be 
the parallels and antytipes to thofe figurative and typ- 
icall Princes : whence they conceived themfelves 
bound to make their Cities, Kingdomes, Empires new 
holy lands of Canaan, and themfelves Governours and 
Judges in fpirituall caufes, compelling all confciences 
to Chriji, and perfecuting the contrary with fire and 

Upon thefe rootes, how was, how is it poftible but Sad con- 
that fuch bitter fruits (hould grow of corruption ^'^ I'^'^^^^^l 
Chrijiianitie, Perfecution f of fuch godly, who happily ing the 
fee more of ChriJI then fuch Rulers themfelves) their ^'^'^^ 
Dominions and Jurifdi6lions being overwhelmed with w'ith^the 
inforced difjimulation and hypocrife, and (where power care of 
ol refijlance) with flames oi civill combujiion, as at this^JJ^"'"' 
very day, he that runs may read and tremble at. 

370 'T^he Bloudy Tenent. 

Peace. They adde further, that the Princes oiChrif- 
tendome fetting their Homes upon the Churches head, 
have been the caufe of Antic hrijiian inventions, &c. 
Civill Truth. If they mean that the Princes of Europe 

giyin J giving their power and authoritie to X.\\q f even- headed 
lending and tcn-homed BeaJI of Pome, have been the caufe, 
u^"" &c. I confelTe it to be one concurrinff caufe : vet 

rlorns or '-' ■' 

Authority withall it muft be remembred, that even before fuch 
toBifhops, P;-/;^^^j- fet their homes or authoritie upon the Beajis 
gerous^to head, even when they did (as I may fay) but /?W their 
the truth homcs to the Bijhops, even then rofe up many Anti- 
of Chriil. cijfijll^yi abominations. And though I confelle there 
is but fmall difference (in fome refped:) betweene the 
fetting their homes upon the Priejis heads (whereby 
they are inabled immediately to pufli and gore who- 
ever crolTe their doBrine and praBice) [213] and the 
lending of their homes, that is, pufiing and goring fuch 
themfelves, as are declared by their Bifiops and Priejis 
to be hereticall, as was and is pra(51:ifed in fome Coun- 
tries before and fince the Pope rofe : yet I confidently 
aifirme, that neither the Lord Jefus nor his firft 
ordained Minijiers and Churches (gathered by fuch 
Minijiers) did ever weare, or crave the helpe of fuch 
homes in Spirituall and C hrijiian affaires : 1l\\q Jpirit- 
. uall power of the Lord yejus in the hands of his true 
ituaHpow-^^^^/^^^-f and Churches (according to Balaams proph- 
er of the efie Num. 23.) is the home of that Unicome or Rhi- 
Lord Jefus ^^ ipr^l^ Q2,) which is the ftrong-eft home in the 

compared , , .^ ^ -r r i • i L /i n. u 

in Scrip- world, m Companion or which the Itrongelt nornes 
ture to the Qf ^j-jg Bulls of Bdjan breake 2.^ Jticks and reeds. Hif- 
raWe"^^^' ^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^s how that Unicomc or one-horned Beaji 
home of the Rhinoccrot, tooke up a Bull like a Tennis ball, in 

The Bloudy Tenent. 371 

the Theater at Kome before the Emperour^ according ^^^ Rhi- 
to that record of the Poet ;' "°"'°'- 

^antus erat cornu cui pila Taurus erat ? 

Unto this Spiritual! power of the Lord Jefus^ the 
Joules and thoughts of the higheft Kings and Emp- 
eroiirs mull: [be] fubjecfl, Math. 16. & 18. i Cor. 5. & 
10. chapters. 


P^^r^.T^Eare Truths You know the noyfe is made 
J-^ from thofe prophecies^ Ifa. 46. Kings and 
^eenes Ihall be nurfmg Fathers, &€. and Revel. 21. 
the Kings of the Earth fhall bring their G/ory and 
Honour to new jferuja/emj &c. 

Truth. I anfwer with that mournfull Prophet, Pfal. ^ ""^^ 
74. I fee not that man, that Prophet, that can tell usq^j" 
how long. How many excellent Pen-fnen fight each pie are 
againll: other with their pens (like JworJs) in the ^'^.^^l'^ ^' 
application of thofe prophecies of David, Ifa, Jer. Gods 
Ezekiel, Daniel, Zacharie, John, when and how thofe worfhip. 
Prophecies fhall be fulfilled ! 

Secondly, When ever thofe prophecies are fulfilled, Nurfmg 
yet fhall thofe Kings not be Heads, Governours, and fathers 

' Marua], De Spe/lacu/ij LtSc//us,Ep. IX. Has fought the battles, he had not de- 

Praeftitit exhibitus tota tibi, Csfar, arena, tt i-'ii- i h i 

^ •/- 1- , . How did his headlong rage the pit ap- 

Quje non promnit, praelia rhinoceros. ,, , t> b r r 

O quam terribiles exarfit pronus in iras! tt n n i i i i in 

Q^ . , . !, , How nalht the horn, that made a bull a 

uantus erat cornu, cui pila taurus erat I ■ n ■ 

^ ball ! 

He, who with armed noftril wildly Tranjl. of 'James Elphinfton. 


372 The Bloudy Tenent. 

and moth- Judges in Ecclefiafticall or Spirituall caufes, but be 
themfelves judged and ruled (if within the Church) 
by the power of the Lord Jefus therein. Hence 
faith Ifaiah, thofe Kings and Queenes (hall Uck the 
Duft of thy feet, &c. 

214] Peace. Some will here aske, What may the 
Magistrate then lawfully doe with his Civill home 
or power in matters of Religion ? 

Truth. His home not being the home of that 
Unicorne or Rhinocerot^ the power of the Lord Jefus 
home or ^^ Spirituali cafes^ \\\s /word not the two-edged /word 
power ot the Spirit, the word of God (hanging not about 
being of a|.}^£ loiues or fide, but at the lips, and proceeding out 
conftitu- of the tnouth of his MiniJIers) but of an humane and 
tion can- Civill nature and conftitution, it muft confequently 
ofahu- ^be ot a humane and Civill operation, for who knowes 
mane op- not that Operation followes cotijlitution F and there- 
eration. fQj-g J fhall end this paffage with this conjideration: 
The Civill The Civill Magijlrate either refpe6leth that Religion 
power ^j-j^ Worjhip which his co?ifcicnce is perfwaded is true, 

owes x , . 

things to ^nd upon which he ventures his Soule; or elfe that 
the true and thofe which he is perfwaded -^lvq falje. 
ChHft ° Concerning the firfl:, if that which the Magijlrate 
believeth to be true, be true, I fay he owes a three- 
fold dutie unto it : 

1. Appro- Firft, approbation and countenance, a reverent 
bation. efteeme and honorable Tejiimonie, according to IJa. 

49. Revel. 21.) with a tender refped: of Truth, and 
the profeffours of it. 

2. Submif- Secondly, Perfonall fub?niJ]ion of his owne Soule to 
fion. j.j^g power of the Lord Jefus in that fpirituall Gov- 
ernment and Kingdome, according to Mat. 18. i Cor. 5 

T^he Bloudy Tenent. 373 

Thirdly, ProteBmi of fuch trut pro fe [fours of Chriji, 3- Protec- 
whether apart, or met together, as alfo of their ejiates 
from violence and injurie, according to Rom. 13. 

Now fecondly, if it be a falfe Religion (unto which T'^^.^'^'^^ 
the Civill Magijlratc dare not adjoyne, yet) he owes, o^es to 

Firll, permijjion (for approbation he owes not to falfe wor- 
what is evill) and this according to Matthew 13. 30. ^ 'pg^J^-f- 
for publike peace and quiet fake. fion. 

Secondly he owes protection to the perfons of his 2. Protec- 
Subjed:s, (though of a falfe worjhip) that no injurie ^'°"- 
be offered either to the perfons or goods of any, 
Rom. I 3. 

Peace. Deare Truthy in this 1 1 head concerning 
the Magijirates power in Worjlnp, you have examined 
what is affirmed :' that the Magijlrate may doe in 
point of Worjhipy there remaines a fecond ; to wit, 
that which they fay the Magijirate may not doe in 

215J They fay, "The Magijlrate may not bring in 
" (q\. formes oi prayer : Nor fecondly, bring injignifi- 
*^ cant ceremonies : Nor thirdly, not governe and rule 
" the acls of worjhip in the Church of God^ for which 
" they bring an excellent Jimilitude of a Prince or 
" Magijlrate in a jhip^ where he hath no governing 
'■^ power over the a£lions of the mariners: and fec- 
" ondly, that excellent prophecie concerning Chrijl 
" lejusy that his government fliould be upon his Jhoul- 
^^ ders, IJd. 9. 6, 7. 

Truth. Unto all this I willingly fubfcribe : Yet can ThcCivill 
I not paffe by a moil: injurious and unequall pra(5lice '^^g'^- 
toward the Civill Magijlrate : Ceremonies^ Holy dayes^^^-^^^^^^ 
Common Prayer ^ and what ever elfe diilikes their ro«-torne and 

' The colon fhould follow the fubfequent word "worfhip." 

374 ^^^ Bloudy Tenent. 

diftraaed Jctetices^ that the Magijlrate muft not bring in : 
the divers Others againe as learned, as godly, as wife, have con- 
and con- ceived the Magijirate may approve or permit thefe 
trary af- -^^ ^j^^ Church, and all men are bound in obedience 

firmations , . ' n i i t\ a • n r • i 

even of to Obey him. How Ihal the Magijtrates conjcience be 
the moft herein (between both) torn and diftrad:ed, if indeed 
formers ^' ^^ power either of ejiablijhing or abolijlding in Church 

matters bee committed to him ? 
The Au- Secondly, me thinkes in this cafe they deale with 
thors oi j-j-^g Civill Ma^i/irate as the Souldiers dealt with the 

tilCiC DO- ., 

fmonsdeal Liord y ejus : Firft they take off his owne clothes, 
with the and put upon him a purple Robe^ plat a Crowne of 
MTiftrate T^^omes on his head, bow the knee, and falute him 
asthefoul-by the name oi King of the Jewes. 
diers dealt They tell him that he is the Keeper of both Tables, 
Loj-d h^ muft fee the Church doe her duty, he muft eftab- 
Jefus. lifti the true Church, true Minijiry, true Ordinances, 
he muft keepe her in this purity. Againe, hee muft 
abolifti fuperjlition, and punifti falfe Churches, falfe 
Minijlers, even to banijhtnent, and death. 
The rife Thus indeed doe they make the blood run downe 
Commif ^^ head of the civill Magijirate, from the thorny vex- 
fions.&c. ation of that power which fometimes they crowne 
him with (whence in great States, Kingdo/ns or Mon- 
archies, neceifarily arife delegations of that fpirituall 
power. High Com??iiJ/ions') &c. 

' The High CommifTion fprung from CommiiTion Court." Hallam ( Conjlitu- 

the Aft of Supremacy paffed in the firft tional Hi/iory, i: 272, note. 1 fays, "The 

year of Queen Elizabeth. Burnet fays, germ of the high commiffion court feems 

{Hifl. of Reformation, ii : 599. ) " The to have been a commiiTion granted by 

power that was added for the Queen's Mary (Feb. i 557 ) to certain bifhopsand 

commillionating fonie to execute her others to inquire after all herefies, pun- 

fupremacy gave the rife to that Court, ifh perfons miihehaving at church, &c. 

which was commonly called the High Burnet, ii: 347. But the primary model 

The Bloudy Tenent. 375 

Anon againe they take off this purple robe, putP'Q^s'^^g 
him into his own clothes, and tell him that he hathj^'^^i^jj^^^ 
no power to command what is againft their r^w- confcien- 
fcience. They cannot conforme to 2i Jet form oi prayer, j:^^ h'^h f^'^ 
nor to Ceremonies, nor Holy dayes, Sec. although thethat,which 
crui// Magijirate (that moft pious Prince Edw. 6. and other Mag 
his famous Bijhops (afterwards burnt for Chrift) werej,^^^(-^^j^j^_ 
of another confcience : which of thefe two confciences ccs con- 
(liall ftand, if either Magijirate muft put forth his'^^"'"^- 
civil! [216] power in thefe cafes, the ftrongeil: arme 
of fiejh and moft conquering bloody y^^or^ of Steele 
can alone decide the Qiieftion. 

I confeffe it is moft true, that no Magijirate (as To pro- 
no other fuperiour) is to be obeyed in any matter ^^^ .^!^^ 
difpleafing to God: yet, when in matters of worjhip ^^^^ >[q^cc 
we afcribe the abfolute headfhip and government to thetheChurch 
Magijirate, (as to keepe the Church pure, and force ^^j^^^^^"^^ 
her to her duty, Minijlers and People) and yet take muft not 
unto our felves power to judge what is right in ourJ"j"^8^.^hat 
owne eyes, and to judge the Magijirate in and for^ha^jsit 
thofe very things, wherein we confeffe he hath power but to 
to fee us doe our duty, and therefore confequently E /.'" ,, 
mull /W^f what our duty is : what is this but to playthings? 
with Magijirates, with ih^ Joules of men, with Heaven^ 
with God, with Chriji lejus ? &c. 

was the inquifition itfelf." Lingard fays, oured to eftablifh in the Low Countries, 

{HijJory of England, viii: 88, note,) will find that the chief difference be- 

** Whoever will compare the powers tween the two courts confilled in their 

given to this tribunal with thofe of the names." It was abolifhed in 1641. 

inquifition, which Philip II. endeav- Clarendon, Hijl. of Rebellion, i: 412. 


An apt 
ing the 

qua^rie : 
what if 
the Prince 
the Mr. or 
Pilot to 
fleere fuch 
a courfe 
they know 
will never 
them to 
the har- 

The Bloudy Tenent. 


Peace. \^h^Q on (holy Truth) toth^itjimi/itudewhere- 
JT by they iUuftrate that Negative AJfertion: 
" The Prince in the Ship (fay they) is governour over 
" the bodies of all in the Ship, but hee hath no power 
" to governe the Ship or the Mariners in the ABions 
" of it : If the Pilot manifeftly erre in his ABion^ the 
** Prince may reprove him, (and fo fay they may any 
*^ pajfenger) if hee offend againft the life ov goods of 
" any, the Prince may in due time and place punifh 
** him, which no private perfon may. 

Truth. Although (deare Peace) wee both agree 
that civill powers may not injoyne fuch devices, no 
nor inforce on any Gods Injlitutions, lince Chrijl lefus 
his comming : Yet for further illujiration I (liall pro- 
pofe fome ^[uaries concerning the civill Magijirates 
paffing in the rtiip of the Church, wherein Chriji lefus 
hath appointed his Minifers and Officers as Govern- 
our s and Pilots, &c. 

If in a fhip at Sea, wherein the Governour or Pilot 
of a fliip undertakes to carry the fliip to fuch a Port, 
the civill Magi/Irate (fuppofe a King or Rmperour) 
(liall command the Mafer fuch and fuch a courfe, to 
fteere upon fuch or fuch a point, which the Mafer 
knowes is not their courfe, and which if they fteere 
he fliall never bring the Ship to that Port or harbour : 
what fliall the Mafer doe ? Surely all men will fay, 
the Mafer of the Ship or Pilot is to prefent Reafons 
and Arguments from his Mariners Art (if the Prince 
bee capable of them) or elfe in humble and fubmif- 
five manner to perfwade the Prince not to interrupt 

The Bloudy Tenent. yjj 

them in their courfe and duty properly | 217] belong- 
ing to them, to wit, governing of the Jhip.Jieering of 
the courfe y &€. 

if the Mafier of the Ship command the Mariners '^•P^^^]^- 
thus and thus, in cunning' tht Jhip, managing the helme^^f^}^^Q^^{ 
tri?nming the faile^ and the Prince command the command 
Mariners a different or contrary courfe, who is to be '^^ mam- 

J ' ners thus, 

obeyed ? & the 

It is confeft that the Mariners may lawfully difo- Prince 
bey the Prince^ and obey the governour of tht. Jhip in the con- 

the anions of the Jhip. trary,who 

Thirdly, what if the Prince have as much skill '^, ^° ^,^, 

. . . , . . obeyed ? 

(which is rare) as the Pi/ot himfelfe ? I conceive it if the 
will be anfwered, that the Mafier of the ihip and Prince 
Pilots in what concernes the (hip, are chiefe and abo've j^^J^^j^^^^l^Uj 
(in refped: of their office) the Prince himfelfe, and as the Mr. 
their commands ought to be attended by all the°'' ^'^°^' 
Mariners : unleffe it bee in manifeft errour, wherein 
tis granted any palTenger may reprove the Pilot. 

Fourthly, I aske if the Prince and his Attendants d^.Q^d^ne:. 
be unskilfull in the fijips affaires, whether every Say/er 
and Mariner, the youngeft and loweft, be not (fo 
farre as concernes the Ihip) to be preferred before 
the Princes followers, and the Prince himfelfe ? and 
their counfell and advice more to be attended to, and 
their fervice more to bee delired and refpedled, and 
the Prince to bee requefted to ftand by and let the 
bufinefe alone in their hands. 

' "The Cunning of a Ship is the Di- Wright, DiSl. of Obfolete and Provincial 

refting the Perlbn at Helm how to fleer Englijh. 

her." Bailey, Diclionariurn Briiannicum, "Cunning" evidently carries the mean- 

ed. 1736. ing of "condudl," and probably comes 

" Cond, V. To conduct. Chaucer^ from "Cond." 

3/8 T^he Bloudy Tenent. 

5.Qua;rie. Fifthly, in cafc a wilfull King and his Attendants^ 
the mean- o^i^ of Opinion of their skilly or wilfulnefTe o'i pajjion^ 
eft faylor would fo flccre the courfe, trim fayle, &c. as that in 
<^^" /'.^^P^.'l^ the judgement of the Majier and Seamen the (hip and 
and fer- hves fliall bee indangered : whether (in cafe humble 
vice) be perfwalions prevaile not) ought not the Ships co?n- 
prefe*rred P^^y ^o refufe to ad: in fuch a courfe, yea and (in 
before the cafe power be in their hands) refift and fuppreffe 
J*""-^^ thefe dangerous praBices of the Prince and his fol- 
lowers, and fo fave xh^Jhip? 
6.Qujerie. Laftly, fuppofe the Mafter out of bafe feare and 
if th^e Mr. cowardife, or covetous defire of reward, fliall yeeld to 
of theihipgratifie the minde of the Prince, contrary to the 
gratiiiethej.|jjgg of Art and Experience, &c. and the (hip come 

rrince to ' .... 

thecaftingin danger, and perifh, and the Prince with it : if the 
away of Mafter get to (hore, whether may he not bejuftly 
^^j^jPj.'jP^gqueftioned, yea and fuffer as guilty of the Princes 
&c. he be death, and thofe that perilhed with him .? Thefe 
"°i r^K^ cafes are cleare, wherein according to this limilitude, 
to anfwer?the Prince ought not to governe and rule the actions 

of the lliip, but fuch whofe office and charge and 

skill it is. 
The ap- 2 1 8] The refult of all is this; The Church of Chrift 
P ication -g ^j^g Ship, wherein the Prince (if a member, for 

in general! -r 1 r • 1 i\ • /r t u- 

ofthe {hipotherwile the cale is altred) is a pallenger. In this 

to the {}^ip ([^Q Officers and Governours, fuch as are appointed 

&c."'^^ ' t)y the Lord Jefus, they are the chiefe, and (in thofe 

refpedis) above the Prince himfelfe, and are to bee 

obeyed and fubmitted to in their works and admin- 

iftrations, even before the Prince himfelfe. 

^ n. In this refped: every Chriftian in the Church, man 

meaneft . i , ■' r r^\ • r\\ 

Chriftian or woman (it ot more knowledge and grace 01 Chrilr) 

The Bloudy Tenent. 379 

ought to be of higher efteeme (concerning ReIigioTi^^^°\'^^'^% 
and ChrijUanity) then all the Princes in the world, 1^^^^^]^^ 
who have either none or leffe grace or knowledge of and grace, 
Chri/i : althou2;h in aW// things all civill reverence, ^^^^\'^^,^' 

, ^ iCrrcd DC- 

ho7ioiir and obedience ought to be yeelded by all men. tore the 
Therefore, if in matters of Religion the King com- higheft 
mand what is contrary to Chrijis rule (though accord- ^p^°^,g^^^ 
ing to his perjkvajion and conjcience) who fees not that none or 
(accordino- to the limilitude) he ou2;ht not to be '^^5 J''^';^ 

\ o _ . ^, . . ot Chriil. 

obeyed ? yea, and (in cafe) boldly with fpirituall force 
and power he ought to be relifted : And if any Offi-^^''^^ 
cer of the Church of Chriji (hall out of bafenelTeof Chriil 
yeeld to the command of the Prince^ to the dangero^ght to 
of the Churchy and foules committed to his c\\2iVgQ,''^^^[^^J 
the foules that peridi (notwithflanding the Princes rule x.\\tn 
command) (liall be laid to his charge. ^^^ ^°"\' 

It fo then, I rejoyne thus : How agree thefe truths civill Au- 
of this fmiilitude with thofe former pofitions, ^72;. fho"""/ ^" 
that the Civill Magillrate is keeper of both Tables, ^P^[^^^";'" 
That he is to fee the Church doe her duty, That he 
ought to eftablifli the true Religion, fuppreffe and 
punifli the falfe, and fo confequently muft difcerne, 
judge and determine what the true gathering and 
governing of the Church is ; what the dutie of every 
Minijler of Chriji is ; what the true Ordinances are, Former 
and what the true Adminijirations of them; andP"''^'°"^ 
where men faile, corredt, punifli, and reforme by the ^^1^^ this 
Civill Sword: I defire it may be anfwered in thefimilitude, 
feare and prefence of him whofe eyes are as a flame of ^" °"" 

• ' 1 • 1 1- 1 - ■!• 11 1 "-^ contra- 

Jire^ it this be not (according to the limilitude, though dift each 
contrary to their fcope in propofing of it) to be Gov-^^^^"^- 
ernour of the Ship of the Churchy to fee the Majier^ 

380 'The Bloudy Tenent. 

Piloty and Mariners do their duty, in fetting the 
courfe, fleering the fliip, trimming the failes, keep- 
ing the watch, &c. and where they faile, to punijh 
them ; and therefore by undeniable confequence, to 
judge and determine what their duties are, when they 
doe righty and when they doe wrong: and this not 
219] only in manifeji Errour^ (for then they fay every 
paifenger may reprove) but in their ordinary courfe 
and prad:ice. 
Thefimil- The iimilitude of a Phyjitian obeying the Prince in 
th M*^ the Body politick ; but prefcribing to the Prince con- 
iflratepre- cerning the Princes body, wherein the Prince (unleffe 
fcribing to the Phyjitian manifeftly erre) is to be obedient to the 
tian in civ- Pl^jjiti^^i and not to be Judge of the Phyjitian in his 
ill things Art, but to be ruled and judged (as touching the ftate 
p"^ J.^.^ of his body) by the Phyjitian : I fay this Iimilitude and 
to the many others fuiting with the former of ^ijljip, might 
Magiftrate be alleadged to prove the diJiinBion of the Civill 
i^ng hTs"' ^"^ spiritual! eftate, and that according to the rule 
body. of the Lord "J ejus in the Gojpel, the Civill Magijirate 
is only to attend the Calling of the Civill Magijiracie, 
concerning the bodies and goods of the SubjeBs, and 
is himfelfe (if a ?nember of the Church and within) 
fubjed: to the power of the Lord "J ejus therein, as 
any member of the Church is, i Cor. 5. 


P^<2r^. 'TX Eare Truth, you have uprightly and aptly 
M^ untied the knots of that i 1 Head, let me 
prefent you with the 12 Head, which is 

Concerning the Magi ft rates power in the Cenfures 
of the Church. 

'The Bloudy Tenent. 38 

" Firfl: (fay they) he hath no power to execute or'rh^ ^ 
" to fubftitute any Civill officer to execute any Church alined 
*' cenfure, under the notion of Civill or Eccleliafti- 
" call men. 

" Secondly, Though a Magiftrate may immedi- 
" ately Civilly cenfure fuch an offender, whofe fecret 
" finnes are made manifeft by their cafting out, to be 
" injurious to the good of the State ; yet fuch offen- 
" ces of excommunicate perfons, which manifeftly 
"hurt not the good of the State, he ought not to 
" proceed againil them, fooner or later, untill the 
** Church hath made her complaint to him, and given 
" in their juft Reafons for helpe from them : For to 
" give libertie to Magiilrates without exception to 
** punilh all excommunicate perfons within fo many 
" moneths, may prove injurious to the perfon who 
" needs, to the Church who may defire, & to God 
*' who cals for longer indulgence from the hands of 
" the.[them] 

*' Thirdly, for perfons not excommunicate, the 
" Magiftrate hath no power immediately to cenfure 
"fuch offences of Church members by the power of 
"the Sword, but onely for fuch as doe immediately 
220] "hurt the peace of the State: Becaufe the 
" proper end of Civill Government being the prefer- 
" vation of the peace and welfare of the State, they 
" ought not to breake downe thofe bounds, and (o to 
" cenfure immediately for fuch fins which hurt not 
" their peace. 

" Hence, firft, Magifi:rates have no power to cenfure 
" for fecret finnes, as deadneffe, [or] unbeleefe, becaufe 
" they are fecret, and not yet come forth immediately 



382 The Bloudy Tenent. 

" to hurt the peace of the State ; we fay immediately, 
" for every linne, even originall fmne, remotely hurts 
" the Civill State. 

" Secondly, hence they have no power to cenfure 
** for fuch private finnes in Church members, which 
** being not hainous may be beft healed in a private 
** way by the Churches themfelves. For that which 
** may be beft healed by the Church, and yet is prof- 
" ecuted by the State, may make a deeper wound and 
** greater rent in the peace both of Church and State : 
** the Magiftrates alfo being members of the Church, 
" are bound to the rule of Chrift, viz. not to pro- 
** duce any thing in publike againft a brother, which 
*' may bee beft healed in a private way. 

" Now we call that private, 

" Firft, which is only remaining in Families, not 
** knowne of others : and therefore a Magiftrate to 
" heare and profecute the complaint of children 
"againft their parents, fervants againft mafters, wives 
"againft their husbands, without acquainting the 
** Church firft, tranfgreifeth the rule of Chrift. 

*' Secondly, that which is between members of the 
" fame Church or of divers Churches : for, it was a 
"double fault of the Corinthians (i Cor. 6.) firft to 
" goe to Law, fecondly to doe it before an Infidell, 
"feeing the Church was able to judge of fuch kinde 
" of differences by fome Arbitratours among them- 
" felves : So that the Magiftrates Ihould referre the 
" differences of Church members to private healing, 
"and try that way firft: By meanes whereof the 
" Churches fhould be free from much fcandall, and 
" the State from much trouble, and the hearts ot the 
" godly from much griefe in beholding fuch breaches. 

The Bloudy Tenent. 383 

" Thirdly, fuch offences which the Confcience of 
" a Brother deahng with another privately, dares not 
" as yet publiih openly, comming to the notice of the 
** Magiftrate accidentally, he ought not to make pub- 
" lique as yet, nor to require the Grand Jurie to 
221] "prefent the fame, no more then the other pri- 
" vate brother, who is dealing with him, untill hee 
"fee fome illue of the private way. 

"Thirdly, hence they have no power to put any 
" to an oath ex officio, to accufe themfelves, or the 
" brethren, in cafe either criminis JufpeBi, or prcetenji, 
" becaufe this preferves not, but hurts many wayes 
" the peace of the State, and abufeth the ordinance 
"of an Oath, which is ordained to end controverfies, 
"not to begin them, Heb. 6. 16. 

" Fourthly, hence they have no power to cenfure 
" any for fuch offences as breake either no Civill Law 
" of God, or Law of the State publifhed according to 
" it, for the peace of the State being preferved by 
" wholefome Laws, when they are not hurt, the peace 
" is not hurt. 

Truth. In this paffage (as I faid before) I obferve 
how weakly and partially they deale with the foules 
of Magijirates in telling them they are the Guardians 
of both Tables, muft fee the Qhurch doe her duty, 
punifh, &c. and yet in this paffage the Elders or Min- 
ijlers of the Churches not only fit 'Judges over the 
Magijirates ad:ions in Church affaires, but in civill 
alfo, rtraitning and inlarging his cof?ifniffion according 
to the particular interefts of their owne ends or (at 
the belt) their Confciences. 

I grant the Word of the hord is the only rule, light 

384 The Bloudy Tenent. 

To give J, 1^1 Uintborny in all cafes concerning Ciod or Man : 
ernmcnt '^"^^ ^^"»'^^ ^^^ Mitiijtcrs of the Gofpi'll are to teach this 
of the way, hold out this hanthornc unto the feete of all 
^^""■,^;'Vf['men : but to give fuch an abfolute power in Sph'it- 
M;\p[\mcUall things to the C.ivill Magijlrati\ and yet after 
(ashefore) their owne ends or Co7i/ciences to abridge it, is but 
anc yet to I fQ,-,^-^.,- fportinir with liolv tliiniTs, and to walk in 

abridge his i o , J o ' 

conk\cncc Co?/trd{i/(-//o?is, as bctorc I noted. 

what IS It Many of the particulars, I acknowledire true, where 

biittolport I n/T •/; • at / /- 1 ^»/ "^ / /- 

with holy ^he Magijtrati' is a Member o\ the iJjurch : yet lome 

things? palTiigcs call \ov l']xplic(itio}i, and Ionic for Ohfcrvation. 

^'- Firll, in that they fay, the Civill Magijirate ought 

not to proceed againft the ofJ^ences of an Rxcodwiu- 

niciitc perfon, which manifeitly hurt not the good of 

the jlatc^ untill the Church hath made her complaint 

for helpe from them, I oblerve 2 things : 

An evi- Firfl, a cleare grant, that when the Church com- 

dentcon- playnctli for helpe, then the Magijirate may punifli 

'""■fuch offences as hurt not the gxHni of ihc Jiate : and 

yet in a few lines after, they fay, the Magijirates 

have no power to cenlure luch oJfe?ices ot Church 

members | 222] by the power of the civiil /'wordy but 

only fuch, as doe immediately hurt the peace of the 

civill Jiate \ and they adde xh^ Reajofi, becaufe the 

An excel- pj-j^^pj.,. ^.,^^^\ ^^^' f|-^^. ^/.j,/// Ciovertu/wHt, being the pref- 

feihon of crvation of the peace and welfare of the /iate^ they 
the proper ought uot to brcakc dowuc thof'e hounds^ and fb to 
^"'^•n-., cenfure immediately for fuch linnes which hurt not 

Livill (jo- . . ^ •' 

vcrnmcnt. their pcacc. And in the laif place, they acknowledge 
Lawes arc (1-,^ Magijirate hath no power to punilh any, for any 
en it is ' ^'i-i^'h oficiiccs as brcake wo civill Law of dud, or Law 
confeil of the Jiate, publillied according to it: For the ^^^r^ 

The Bloudy Tenent. 385 

of i\\G.Jiate^ (fay they) being preferved by wholefome ^^^^ ^'/''' 
LaweSy when they are not hurt, the Peace is not ngt^'j^Jr^ 


Peace, f^ Ear e Ti'iith, here are excellent confefTions 
JL/ unto which both Truth and Grace may 
gladly affent : but what is your fecond Obfervation 
from hence ? 

Truth. I obferve fecondly, what a deepe charge of 
weaknes is layd upon the Church of Chriji, the Lawes^ 
Government and Officers thereof, and confequently 
upon the Lord "Jcfus himfclte : to wit, that the 
Church is not enabled with all the power of Chriji^ 
to cenfure lufficiently an offendour (on whom yet they A griev- 
have executed the deepeli cenfure in the world, to wit, *^"^'■n "^p 
cutting oft from Chrijt, jhutting out of Heaven^ cajt- Chriilian 
ing to the Divell) which ofFendours crime reacheth ^^"'■'^^^' 
not to hurt the good of the civill Jiate^ but that ^e^j^ ^ 
is forced to make complaint to the civili Jiate^ and the it. 
Officers thereof, for their helpe. 

O let not this be told in Gath, nor heard in Ajh- 
kalon\ and O! how dimme mull: needs that eye be, 
which is blood jhoty with that bloody and cruell Tenent 
of Perfecution for caufe of Conjcience ? 

Peace. But what fhould be meant by this paflage? 
viz. " That they cannot give liberty to the Magijirate 
** to punifh without exception all excommunicate per- 
" fons, within fo many months. 

Truth. It may be this hath reference to a L*^^ J^ '^""S*^ 
made formerly in New England, that if an excom- New Eng- 


The Bloudy Tenent. 

land for- municatc perfon repented not within (as I have heard) 
agahiilEx-^^^^^ ^^^OTiths after fentence ot excommunication^ then 
communi- the CivHl Magijlrate might proceed with him.' 

• " It is therefore ordered, that whofo- 
evcr fhall iland excommunicate for the 
fpacc of 6 months, without laboring what 
in him or her Iveth to bee reltorcd, luch 
perfon fhall bee prefcnted to the Court 
of Afliilants, and there proceeded with 
by fine, imprilbnment, or further, &c." 
Mnfs. Colonial Records, i : 242. Sept. 6, 
1638. This was repealed Sept. 9, 1639. 
Records, i : 27 I. 

Cotton was oppofed to ufing the civil 
power to luch extent, and, it may be, 
had influence; in the repeal of this flat- 
ute. For he fays early in 1640, " It was 
a matter in queilion here not long agoe, 
whether the Court fhould not take a 
courfe to punifh fuch perlons as flood 
excommunicate out of the Church, if they 
fhould iland long excommunicate, but it 
was a good providence of God that fuch a 
thing was prevented : Let not any Court, 
ipfo f'ndo, take things from the Church." 
An Expofitlon upon the Thirteenth Chap, of 
the Revelation, p. 19. But he would not 
allow communication with fuch. "The 
Jews would not eat with a publican, nor 
Ihould we with an excommunicate." 
Wa^ of the Churches, p. 93. ( 1645.) 

Francis Hutchinfon, fon of the famous 
Anne, after the family removed to Aquid- 
neck wrote to the Church in Bollon for 
a letter of diimiffion. Cotton wrote 
"with the reft of the elders, in the name 
of the Church," declining todifmifshim 
"to no church," &c. He then proceeds to 
explain what the Teacher of the Church 
was reported to have faid about Hutch- 
infbn's holding any connexion with his 
mother. " For in general, he laid indeed. 

that with excommunicate pcrfons no 
religious communion is to be held, nor 
any civil familiar connexion as fitting at 
table. But yet he did put a difference 
between other brethren in church fel- 
lowfliip, and iuch as were joined in nat- 
ural or civil near relations, as parents and 
children, hufhand and wife, &c. God did 
allow them that liberty which he denies 
others." Mafs. Hi/J. Coll., 2d Series, x: 

Lechford, writing in 1641, fays, "The 
excommunicate is held as an Heathen and 
Publican. Yet it hath been declared in 
Bojlon in divers cafes, that children may 
eate with their parents excommunicate; 
that an elefted Magitlrate excommuni- 
cate may hold his place, but better an- 
other were cholen ; that an hereditary 
Magillrate, though excommunicate, is to 
be obeyed ilill in civill things; that the 
excommunicate perfon may come and 
heare the Word, and be prefent at 
Prayer, lb that he give not publique of- 
fence, by taking up an eminent place in 
the AfTembly." Plain Dealing, p. 32. 

The Synod at Cambridge in 1649 
agreed as follows : " 5." While the offen- 
der remains excommunicate, the church 
is to refrain from all member-like com- 
munion with him in ipiritual things, and 
alio from all familiar communion with 
him in civil things farther than the ne- 
ceffity of natural or domeilical or civil 
relations do require ; and are therefore 
to forbear to eat and drink with him, 
that he may be alhamcd. 6. Excom- 
munication being a ipirituall punifhment, 
it doth not prejudice the excommunicat 

The Bloudy Tenent. 


Thefe worthy f?jen fee caufe to qiieftion this Law 
upon good reafons rendred, though it appears not by 
their words that they wholly condemne it, only they 
defire a longer time, implying that after I223I fome 
longer time the Magiftrate may proceed : and indeed 
I fee not, but according to fuch principles^ it the 
Magijirate himfelfe fliould be caft out, he ought to 
be proceeded againfl: by the Civill Jlate^ and confe- 
quently depofed and punidied (as the Pope teacheth) 
yea though happily he had not offended againil: either 
bodies or goods of any fubjed:. 

Thirdly, from this true confcjjion that the Magij- 
irate ought not to punidi for many linnes above men- 
tioned : I obferve how they croffe the plea which 
commonly they bring for the Magijirates punilhing 
of falfe DoBrines, Heretiques, 6cc. [viz. Kom. 13. 
The Magi/irate is to punilh them that doe evill : | 
and when it is anfwered. True, evill againfl: the 
Second Table, which is there onely fpoken of, and 
againft the Bodies and Goods of the Subjefl, which 
are the proper objeB of the Civill Magijirate, (as they 
confeffe ;) It is replied, why is not Idolatry finne ? 
Herejie fmne ? Schijme and falfe JVorjhip finne? Yet 

cate per- 

A dan- 
againil all 

Many fins 
to be pun- 
ilhcd by 
the Mag- 
illrate and 
yet they 
alio charge 
him tu 
punifli all 
lin, Rom. 

in, or deprive him ot' his civil rights, and 
therefore toucheth not Princes, or other 
Magiflrates, in point of their civil dig- 
nity or authority." Cambridge Platform, 
xiv. p. 22. 

In England till quite a recent period 
excommunication worked civil difquali- 
fication quite beyond any known here. 
" Formerly an excommunicated man was 
diiablcd to do any ad that was required 
to be done by a probus et legalis homo. 
He could not ferve upon juries, could 

not be a witneis in any court, and what 
was worit of all, could not bring an 
aflion, either real or perfonal, to recover 
lands or money due to him. But now 
by 53 Geo. III. C. 127, S. 3, no perfon 
who fhall be pronounced excommunicate 
fhall incur thereby any civil penalty or 
incapacity whatever, lave fuch imprifon- 
mcnt, not exceeding fix months, as the 
court fo excommunicating luch pcrion 
Ihall pronounce." Stephen, Commenta- 
ries, i v : 17. 

388 T^he Bloudy Tenent. 

heere in this palTage many evils, manyy/wj, even of 

Parents againft their Children, Majiers again ft their 

Servants, Husbands againft their Wives, the Magif- 

trate ought not to meddle with. 
Originall Fourthly, I dare not aflent to that aifertion, " That 
to hur[^re- ^'^^^ originall Jinne remotely hurts the civill State. Tis 
motely true, fome doe, as inclinations to murther, theft, whore- 
Y'^^ }^ ' do??ie, Jlander, dijobedience to Parents and Magijirates : 
civill but blindnes of ??iinds, hardnes of heart, inclination to 
^ate- choofe or worfhip this or that God, this or that Chrijl, 

befide the true, thefe hurt not remotely the civill 

Jiate, as not concerning it, but \.\\^ JpiritualL 
Magif- Peace. Let me (in the laft place) remind you of 

ft"aTel tbeir charge againft the Magijtrate, and which will 
forbidden neceflarily turne to my wrong and prejudice : They 
to hear f^y^ ^^ Magijlrate in hearing and profecuting the 
plaints, complaints of children againft \}a^\x parents, oi Jervants 

againft their majiers, ot wives againft their hujhands, 

without acquainting the Church firft, tranfgrefteth 

the rule of Chrijl. 

Truth. Sweet Peace, they that pretend to be thy 

deareft friends, will prove thy bitter enemies. 

Firft, I ask for one rule out of the Tejlament of the 

Lord "Jejus, to prove this deepe charge and accufa- 

tion againft the Civill Magijlrate ? 
Thou- Secondly, This is built upon a fuppolition ot what 

fands of rarely falls out in the World, to wit, that there muft 
weales necelfarily be a true [224] Church of Chrift (in every 
where no lawfull State) unto whom thefe complaints muft goe : 
^h"^ h f ^bereas how many thoufand Common-weales have 
Chrift. been and are, where the name of Chrift hath not (or 

not truly) been founded. 

T^he Bloudy Tenent. 389 

Thirdly, The Magillrates office (according to their The com- 
own grant) properly refped:ing the bodies and goods fg^'jjigg" 
of their SubjeBs, and the whole body of the Common- properly 
weak being made up of Families (as the ?}ie?nbers con- ^f'^ '"'° . 

I 1 r 1 T L COgni- 

ftituting that body) I fee not how (according to thezanceof 
rule oi Chriji (Rom. 13.) the Magijirate may refufe the civill 
to heare and helpe the juft complaints of any fuch ^^3^^^' ' 
petitioners^ Children, Wives, and Servants, againft 
opprejjion, ^c. 

Peace. I have long obferved that fuch as have been They who 
ready to afcribe to the Civill Magijirate and his Sword ^^ 5° 
more then God hath afcribed, have alfo been moll trates more 
ready to cut otf the skirts, and (in cafe of his inclin-then is 
ing to another conjcience then their owne) to fpoil^j^^J^^ ^p^^ 
him of the robe of that due Authoritie with which to difrobe 
it hath pleafed God and the People to inveft and^^f^^^ 

. - 1^ -^ what IS 

Cloath him. theirs. 

But I fliall now prefent you with the 13. Head: 
whofe Title is, 


What power Magijirates have in publike AJfemblies ,3. Head. 
of Churches. 

** TT^Irfl: (fay they) the Churches have power to 
" 1/ alfemble and continue fuch Aflemblies for the 
" performance of all Gods Ordinances, without or 
" againft the confent of the Magiftrate, renuente Mag- 
" i/iratUy becaufe 

" Chriftians are commanded fo to doe, Matth. 28. 
" 18. 19. 20. 

390 T^he Bloudy Tenent. 

" Alfo becaufe an Angel from God commanded 
" the Apoftles fo to doe, ABs 5. 20. 

" Likewife from the pradice of the Apoftles, who 
" were not rebelHous or feditious, yet they did fo, 
'' AB. 4. 18. 19. 20. JB. 5. 27. 28. 

** Further from the practice of the Primitive Church 
" at Jerufalem, who did meet, preach, pray, minifter 
" Sacraments, cenfures, AB. 4. 23. renuente Magijiratu. 
225] *' Moreover from the exhortation to the 
" Hebrewes, 10. 25. not to forfake their Affembhes, 
" though it were in dangerous times, and if they 
" might doe this under profeffed Enemies, then we 
"may much more under Chrillian Magiftrates ; elfe 
** we were worfe under Chriftian Magiflrates then 
** Heathen : therefore Magiftrates may not hinder 
" them herein, as Pharaoh did the people from fac- 
"rififing, for Wrath will be upon the Realme, and 
" the King and his Sons, Ezra 7. 23. 

Secondly, it hath been a ufurpation of forraigne 
" Countries and Magiftrates to take upon them to 
" determine times and places of Worship : rather let 
" the Churches be left herein to their inoffenfive 
" Libertie. 

Thirdly, concerning their power of SynodAlTemblies: 

" Firft in corrupt times, the Magilirate defirous to 
" make Reformation of Religion, may and (hould 
"call thofe who are moft ht in feverall Churches, to 
" aflemble together in a Synod, to difculfe and declare 
" from the Word of God, matters of Dodrine and 
" Worfliip, and to helpe forward the Reformation of 
"the Churches [of J God: Thus did Jojiah. 

Secondly, in the reformed times he ought to give 

^he Bloudy Tenent. 391 

" Libertie to the Elders ot feverall Churches to alTem- 
" ble themfelves by their owne mutuall and voluntary 
"agreement, at convenient times, as the meanes 
** appointed by God, whereby he may mediately 
** reform matters amilie in Churches, which imme- 
" diately he cannot nor ought not to doe. 

Thirdly, Thofe meetings for this end we conceive 
" may be of two forts. 

** 1. Monthly, of fome of the Elders and MelTen- 
"gers of the Churches. 

*' 2. Annuall, of all the Melfengers and Elders of 
" the Churches. 

•* Firlf monthly of fome: Firft, thofe members of 
" Churches which are neereft together, and fo may 
" moft conveniently alTemble together, may by mutu- 
** all agreement once in a moneth confult of fuch 
" things as make for the good of the Churches. 

" Secondly, the time of this meeting may be fome- 
" times at one place, fometimes at another, upon the 
" Lecture day of every Church where Led:ures are : 
" and let the Lecture that day be ended by eleven of 
** the clock. 

226] "Thirdly, let the end of this AlTembly be to 
** doe nothing by way of Authoritie, but by way of 
" Councell, as the need of Churches fhall require. 

Secondly Annuall, ot all the Elders within our 
"jurifdid:ion or others, whereto the Churches may 
** fend once in the yeare to confult together for the 
"publike welfare of all the Churches. 

" Firft, let the place be fometimes at one Church, 
" fometimes at another, as Reafons for the prefent 
" may require. 

392 T^he Bloudy Tenent. 

" Secondly, let all the Churches fend their waighty 
" queftions and cafes fix weeks or a month before the 
"fet time, to the Church where the AlTembly is to 
" be held, and the Officers thereof difperfe them 
" fpeedily to all the Churches, that fo they may have 
** time to come prepared to the difcuffing of them. 

** Thirdly, let this AlTembly doe nothing by Author- 
" itie, but only by Councell, in all cafes which fall 
"out, leaving the determination of all things to par- 
" ticular Churches within themfelves, who are to 
"judge, and fo to receive all doctrines and dired:ions 
" agreeing only with the Word of God. 

The grounds of thefe AJfemblies. 

" Firft, need of each others helpe, in regard of 
" dayly emergent troubles, doubts, and controverfies. 

" Secondly, love of each others fellowfhip. 

" Thirdly, of Gods glory out of a publike fpirit to 
" feeke the welfare of the Churches, as well as their 
" owne, I Cor. i o. 33. 2 Cor. 11. 23. 

Fourthly, The great bleffing and fpeciall prefence 
" of God upon fuch Aflemblies hitherto. 

Fifthly, the good Report the Elders and Brethren 
" of Churches (hall have hereby, by whofe com- 
" m union of Love others fhall know they are the 
" Difciples of Chriff. 


A ftrange Truth. ^ May well compare this pajfage to a double 

double J^ piBure : on the firft part or fide of it a moft 

faire and beautifull countenance of the pure and holy 

T^he Bloudy Tenent. 393 

Word of God: on the later lide or part, a moft fowre and 

uncomely deformed looke of a meere humane invention. 

227] Concerning the former, they prove the true and Thegreat 

unqueftionable power and priviledge of the Churches'^^^\l^l^f^^ 

oi Chriji to alfemble and pradiife all the holy Ordi- Spouk or 

nances of God^ without or againfl the confent ©f the^Jj".''^^ °^ 


Their Arguments from Chrijls and the Angels 
voyce, from the Apojiles and Churches practice, I 
delire may take deepe imprejjion written by the point 
of a diamond, the finger of Gods fpirit, in all hearts 
whom it may concerne. 

This Libertie of the Churches oiChriJl he inlargeth 
and amplifieth fo far, that he calls it an ufurpation of 
fome Magijlrates to determine the time and place of 
IVorJhip : and fay, that rather the Churches (liould be 
left to their inoffenfive libertie. 

Upon which Grant I mufi: renew my former To hold 
9ucerie, Whether this be not to walke in cojitradic^^^^y ''f,^^ 

• 1 1 1 • 1 /• / 11 • 77 'i r ^ walk 

ttons, to hold with light ^ yet walke m darknes ^ for in dark- 
How can they fay the Magijlrate is appointed by"^^"^- 
God and Chrijl the Guardian of the Chrijiian Church 
and JVorJhip, bound to fet up the true Church, Min- 
ijlrie and Ordinances, to fee the Church doe her duty, 
that is, to force her to it by the Civill /word : bound 
to fupprelfe the falfe Church, Minijlrie and Ordi-^Y^^^ 
nances, and therefore confequently, to judge and Magiftrate 
determine which is the true Church, which is thel'^^'^P ^° 

be tiie 

falfe, and what is the duty of the Church officers and chief gov- 
members of it, and what not: and yet (fay they) the ^'■"°^'' o'^ 
Churches muft aifemble, and pradice all Ordinances,\^^ ^^'^ 
without his coiijent, yea againlf it : Yea and he hath call downe 

394 '^^^ Bloudy Tenent. 

not to have not fo much powcF as to judge what is a convenient 
appdnt ° ^^^^''^ ^^^ place for the Churches to afTemble in ; which 
the place if he fhould doe, he fliould be an ufurper, and fhould 
or time of abridge the Church ot her inofFenlive libertie. 

As if the Majier or Governour of a Ship had power 
2 Simili- to judge who were true and lit officers, mariners, &c. 
tudes illuf-for the managing of the Ship, and were bound to fee 
MagHlrate ^^^"^ each performe his duty, and to force them 
cannot be thcreunto, and yet he (liould be an ufurper if hee 
both gov- {l^ould abridge them of meeting and managing the 
theChurch'^C/^^ at their pleafure, when they pleafe, and how 
and yet they pleafe, without and againfl: his confent : Cer- 
comina^ncT^^^'^^y if a Phjfitian have power to judge the difeafe 
ing. of his patient^ and what courfe of Phyjicke he mufl 

ufe, can he bee counted an ufurper unlelTe the patient 
might take what phyjicke himfelfe pleafed, day or 
night, fummer or winter, at home in his chamber, 
or abroad in the aire ? 
If a 228] Secondly, by their grant in this pafTage that 

Church Qods people may thus alTemble and practice ordinances 
fenfble without and again ft the confent of the Magijlrate I 
without infer, then alfo may they become a Churchy conjiitute 
th'^MHr-^"^ ^^^Md'r without or againft the confent of the 
trates con- Magijlrate : Therefore may the Mejfengers of Chrijl^ 
fent fas is preach and baptije^ that is, make difciples and wajlj 
then"rnuch them into the true profeffion of Chrijlianity accord- 
more con- ing to the commijjion^ though the Magijlrate determine 
ihtute and^j^^ publikly declare, fuch Minijlers^ fuch baptijmes. 
Church, fuch Churches to be hereticall. 

&c. Thirdly, it may here be queftioned what power is 

now given to the Civill Magijlrate in Church matters 
and Spirituall affairs ? 

The Bloudy Tenent. 395 

If it be anfwered that although Gods people may- 
doe thus againft the Magijlrates confent, yet others 
may not. 

I anfwer (as before) who fees not herein partiality G''"^^. 
to themfelves : Gods people muft enjoy their Liberty^^^ la 1 >• 
of Conjcience^ and not be forced ; but all the Subjedls 
in a Ki7igdome or Monarchies or the whole world 
befide, inuft be compelled by the power of the Civil/ 
Sicord to alfemble thus and thus. 

Secondly, I demand who fhall judge whether they H" the Civ- 
are Gods people or no, for they fay whether the Mag- ^^jj^l^^^^^ 
ijlrate cojijent or confent not, that is judge fo or not, build the 
thev ought to goe on in the Ordinances renue?ite Macr- Spirituall 

-n ^ , f ^ ^ or Chrif- 

i/iratU^ ^ _ _ tianhoufe. 

How agrees this with their former and generallhe muft 
aj/ertion, that the Civill Magi/irate muft fet up theJ^^g^°^^ 
Chrijiian Church and Worjhip^ therefore by their ter. 
owne grant he muft judge the godly themfelves, he 
muft difcerne who are fit matter for the Houfe of 
GW, living Jlones, and what unfit matter, trajh and 
rubbijh ? 

Thofe worthy men^ the Authours of thefe pojitions, A dole 
and others of their judgement have caufe to examine J-"jj j^'^^j.] 
their foules with feare and trembling in the prefencegatory to 
of God upon this inter^atory, viz. whether or no this^^.^ "^°"' . 


be not the bottome and root of the matter : If they the au- 
could have the fame fupply of maintenance without thors of 
the helpe of the Civill Sword, or were perfwaded to^^^ ^ P°" 

1 •/ • r • iitions. 

live upon the voluntary contribution of poore Saints, 
or their owne labour , as the Lord J ejus and his firft 
Meff'engers did ; I fay, if this lay not in the bottom^ 
whether or no they could not be willingly fhut of 

396 The Bloudy Tenent. 

the Civill power ^ and left only to their inoffenjive lib- 
erties ? 
A fad J could alfo put a fad ^cerie to the confciences of 

fome con°- ^'^'^^» viz. what fhould be the reafon why in their 
cerning native Country whcvQ the Magi/irate [229] confented 
their prac-j^Qj.^ they forbore to prad:ice fuch Ordinances as now 
they doe and intended to doe, fo foone as they got 
into another place where they might fet up Magif- 
trates of their owne, and a Civill Sword^ &c. How 
much is it to be feared that in cafe their Magijlracie 
• fhould alter, or their perfons be caft under a Magif- 
tracie prohibiting their practice, whether they would 
then maintaine their feparate meetings without and. 
again ft the confent of the Magiftrate, renuente Mag- 
iftratu ? 
Amarvail- Laftly, it may be queftioned how it comes to palfe 
ous chal- that in pleading for the Churches liberty more now 
more Lib- ^^^er the ChrijUan Magijlrate, lince the Chrijlians 
ertie to tooke that liberty in dangerous times under the 
Chnftians Jj^athen, why he quotes to prove fuch liberty, Pha- 
Chriilian ^^ohs hiudriug the Ifraelites from worjhip, and Ezra 
Magiftratey, 23. Artaxcrxes his feare of wrath upon the Realme? 
the^Hea^'^ Are not all their hopes and arguments built upon 
then. the ChrijUan Magijtrate, whom (fay they) the hrft 
Chrijlians wanted, and yet do they fcare the ChrijUan 
Magijirate (whom they account the governour of the 
Church) with Pharaoh and Artaxerxes that knew not 
God, expedting that the ChrijUan Magijirate lliould 
a(fl and command no more in Gods worfliip then 
they ? 

But what can thofe inftances of Pharaohs evill in 
hindring the IJraelites worOiipping of Gody and Arta- 

T^he Bloudy Tenent. 397 

xerxes giving liberty to Ifrael to wordiip God, and 
build the Tt'ffiplt\ what can they prove but a duty in 
all Prhices and Civill Magijlrates to take off the 
yoake of bondage, which commonly they lay on the 
necks of the foules of their fubjeBs in matters of 
Conjcience and Religion ? 


Peace.TT is plaufible, but not reafonable that Gods^^^^^^^- 

X people fhould (confidering the drift of thefe/p^po-nte? 
pofitions) expe(5l more liberty under a Chrijiian then by Chrift 
under a Heathen Mag-i/irate : Have Gods people more-^^'"^ ^°^; 

1 1 r 1 • )• ernours or 

liberty to breake the command of a Chrijtian then his King- 
an Heathen governour f and fo to fet up Chrijis Church dome, it 
and Ordinances after their own^ confcience ?i.g2.m{]i hiSreaibnable 
conlent more then againft the confent of an Heathen tha\iChni- 
or unbeleeving: Mas-iiirate f what is become of all ^i^^smouJd 

o .^ ^ , . more tree- 

the great expectation what a Chrijiian Magijlrate ly breake 
may and ought to doe in eftablidiing the Church, in^he com- 
retorming the Church, and in punifhing the contrary ? [^^"q^}^°j-_ 
'Tis true (fay [230] men) in ChriJls time and in thetian, then 
time ot the firft Miniders and Churches there were°I ^^f 
no Chrijiian Magijlrates, and therefore in that cafe, Magif- 
it was in vaine for Chrijlians to feeke unto the Heathen^^^^^- 
Magijlrates to governe the Church, fuppreffe Here- 
ticks, &c.but nowweenjoy Chrijiian Magijlrates, &c. 
Truth. All Reajon and Religion would now expert 
more fubmiffion therefore (in matters concerning 
Chrijl) to a Chrijiian Magijlrate, then to a Pagan or 
Antichrijlian ruler! But (deare Peace) the day will 
difcover, the fire will trie, i Cor. 3. what is but wood, 

398 The Bloudy Tenent. 

hay, and ftubble, though built (in mens upright inten- 
tion) on that foundation Jefus Chriji. 
The ne- gut (to winde up all) as it is moft true that Mag- 
Civnlgo- ifti^^cy hi generall is of God (Rom. 13.) for the pref- 
vernment ervation of Maukindc in civill order and peace, (the 
'"f r"5^^'^ /F(5r/^ otherwife would bee like the Sea, wherein 
but the' Men, like Fijhes would hunt and devoure each other, 
fpeciaJl and the greater devour the lelfe:) So alfo it is true, 
men^^i° '■^^^ Magijlracy in fpeciall for the feverall kindes of 
Pet. 2. it is of Man, i . Pet. 2. 1 3. Now what kinde of Mag- 
*3- ijirate foever the people fliall agree to fet up, whether 

he receive ChrijUanity before he be fet in office, or 
whether he receive ChrijUanity after, bee receives no 
more power of Magijlracy, then a Magijirate that 
hath received no ChrijUanity. For neither of them 
both can receive more, then the Conwwiiweal, the 
Body of People and civill State, as men, communicate 
unto them, and betruft with them. 
Civill All lawfull Magijtrates'm the World, both before 

Magif- the comminp; of C/6r/// ye/us, and fince, (excepting 

trates are '-' . *^ . •'^ , 

deriva- thofe uuparaleld typicall Magijlrates of the Church of 

tives 'irovci IJrael) are but Derivatives and Agents immediately 

tainero"" ^^^ived and employed as eyes and hands, ferving for 

bodies of the good of the whole : Hence they have and can 

people, have no more Power, then fundamentally lies in the 

Bodies or Fountaines themfelves, which Power, Might, 

or Authority, is not Religious, Chrijiian, &c. but nat- 

urall, humane and civill. 

A beleev- And hence it is true, that a Chrijiian Captaine, 

ing Mag- Chrijiian, Merchant, Phyjitian, Lawyer, Pilot, Father, 

n^Q^e a Majler, and (fo confequently) Magijirate, &c. is no 

Magiilrate morc a Captaine, Merchant, Phyjitian, Lawyer, Pilot, 

The Bloudy Tenent. 399 

Father^ Majier^ Magijirate^ &c. then a Captaine, f*^^" ^n 
Marchant, &c. of any other Confcience or ReHgion. J^" ^ ^^^" 
Tis true, Chriftianity teacheth all thefe to ad: in The ex- 
their feverall callings, to an higher ultimate end, "^'^J^.'^ 
from higher principles, in a [231 | more heavenly and tianity in 

fpirituall manner, &c. all call- 



Peace. O that thy Light and Brightnes (deare Truth) 
might fliine to the darke World in this particular : 
let it not therefore be grievous, if I requeft a little 
further illullration of it. 

Truth. In his feafon Go^ will glorifie himfelfe in 
all his Truths : but to gratifie thy defire, thus : A 
Pagan or Antichrijlian Pilot may be as skilful! to 
carry the Ship to its defired Port, as any Chrijiian 
Mariner or Pilot in the World, and may performe 
that worke with as much fafcty and fpeed : yet have 
they not command over the Joules and conjciences of The 
their pajjengers or mariners under them, although 1^^^' p-^^^ 
they may juflly fee to the labour of the one, and theintheShip 
civill behaviour of all in the Jhip : A Chrijiian Pilot ^^ ^^e 
he pertormes the fame worke, (as likewife doth the^°^^°"' 
Metaphoricall Pilot in the fhip of the Commonweale) 
from a principle of knowledge and experience : butchriaian- 
more then this, he a6ts from a roote of the feare ofitie fleeres 
G«?^ and love to mankind, in his whole courfe. Sec- ^. p.',' 
ondly, his aime h more to glorifie God xh^n to gainecourfe. 
his pay, or make his voyage. Thirdly, he walkes 
heavenly with Men, and God^ in a conllant obferva- 

400 The Bloudy Tenent. 

TheGhriftion of Gods hand mjlormes, calmes, &c. So that the 
hath no°^ thread of Navigation being equally fpun by a believ- 
morepow- ing ov unbelievifig Pilots yet is it drawn over with the 
eroverthe^^^^ of GodUnes and Chrijiianitie by a Chrijiian Pilots 
his Mari- while he is holy in all manner of Chrijiianitie, i Pet. 
ners or I. I 5. But laftly, the Chrijiian Pilots power over the 
then"fhr' Soules and confciences of his Sailers and Pajfengers is 
unchriftiannot greater then that of the Antichri/iian, otherwife 
or Pagan ^\yqy\ he can fubdue the foules of any by the two- 
edged fword of the Spirit, the Word of God, and by 
his holy demeanour in his place, &c. 

Peace. I fliall prefent you with no other conlider- 
atioon in this firfl part of the Pid:ure, but this only : 
The Although the tearme Heathen is moft commonly 

tearmes appropriated to the wilde naked Americans, &c. yet 
^JchHr tt^^^ worthy men juftly apply it even to the civilized 
tian Mzg- Romanes &c. and confequently muft it be applied to 
iftrate. ^^ moft civiHzed Antic hrijlians, who are not the 
Church and people of God in Chriji. 

Truth. The Word ZD^J in the Hebrew, and Ifivrj 
in the Greeke, fignifie no more then the Gentiles or 
Nations of the Earth, which [232] were without and 
not within, the true typicall nationall Church of the 
yewes before Chriji, and fince his comming, the 
Gentiles or Nations of the World, who are without 
that one holy Nation of the Chrijiian IJrael the 
Church gathered unto Chriji Jejus in particular and 
^!^ °T°^ diftind: cono-reg-ations all the World over. 

Chnil are " o . , , i a> 

heathens, Tranjlatours promilcuoully render the words Gen- 
that is of fii^s. Heathens, Nations : whence it is evident that 
tions o^r ^^eu fuch as profefTe the Name of Chriji in an unre- 
Gentiles. generate and impenitent eftate, whether Papijl or 

The Bloudy Tenent. 401 

Protejiant are yet without, that is Heathen^ Gentiles 
or of the Nations. 


P^^fd'. T^ Eare Truths it is now time to caft your eye 
\J on the fecond part of this Head ox picture 
uncomely and deformed. 

Truth. It containes two forts of Rehgious meet- 
ings or afl'embhes. 

Firft, more extraordinary and occafionall, for which 
he quotes the practice oi Jojiah. 

An. Jojiah was in the type, fo are not now theJ°^^^^^ 
feverall Governours of Commonweales, Kings or Gov- chrift 
ernours of the Qhurch or IfraeL whofe ftate I have jefus the 
proved to be a Nofie-fuch, and not to bee parallel 'd 7^'"^° , 
but in the Antitype the particular Qhurch of Chriji^ 
where Chriji Jefus alone fits King in his owne mo ft 
holy Government. 

Secondly, they propound meetings or ajfemhlings 
ordinarily Jiated 2.nA conjlant, yearly and tnonthly unto 
which the civill Magi/irate (liould give liberty. For 
thefe meetings they propound plaufible arguments 
from the necej/ity of them from Qhrijiian fellowjhip 
from Gods glory ^ from the experience of the benefit 
of them, and from the good report of them, as alfo 
thofe two Scriptures, 1 Cor. 10, 33. 2 Cor. 11. 38. 

To thefe I anfwer. If they intend that the ai;///^" ^"J"^ 
Magijlrate iliould permit liberty io the free and vol- fj" ^ j^fire 
untary Spirituall meetings of their Subjects, I fhall of liberty 
fubfcribe unto them: but if they intend that the'°^°"^^ 

/ conlcien- 

Magijlrate lliould give liberty only unto themfelves, ces, & 

402 The Bloudy Tenent. ■ 

bondage ^nd not to the reft of their JubjeBs^ that is to defire 
odiers' their owne foules only to be free, and all oxh^v Joules 
oi t\\Q\Y fubjeBs to be kept in bondage\:]^ 
233] Secondly, if they intend that the Magijlrate 
fliould inforce all the Riders of luch Churches under 
their 'JuriJdiBion^ to keepe correfpofidencie with them 
in fuch meetings, then I fay (as before) it is to caufe 
him to give Libertie with a partiall hand, and unequall 
Ballance : for thus I argue: If the Civill State 2in& 
Civill officers be of their Religion and Confcience, it is 
not proper for them to give libertie or freedome^ but 
to give honourable tejlimonie and approbatto?i, and 
their own perfonall fub?niJjion to the Churches. But 
- if the civill State and Officers be of another confcience 
and tvorfhip, and lliall be bound to grant permiffion 
and libertie to them, their confciences and ?neetif2gs, 
and not to thofe of his own Religion and Conjcience 
alfo, how will this appeare to be equall in the very 
eye of Common peace and righteoujhejje ? 

For thofe jK^^^^-^ and monthly meetings, as we find 
not any fuch in the firft Churches ; So neither will 
thofe generall arguments from the plaulible pretence 
of Chrijiian fellow (liip, Gods glory, &c. prove fuch 
particular wayes oi glorifying God, without fome pre- 
cept ox prejident of fuch a kind. 

For thofe Scriptures, i Cor. 10. 33. & 2 Cor. 11. 
38. expreffing the Apoflle Paul his zeale for glorify- 
ing God, and his care for all the Churches, it is cleere 
The Com- they conceme fuch as are indeed Pauls fuccejjors, fent 
miffion forth by Qhrijl J ejus to preach and gather Churches : 
of ^pi-each- but thofe Scriptures concerne not the Churches them- 
ing and felvcs, nor the Pajiours of the Churches properly, 

T^he Bloudy Tenent. 403 

leafl: of all the Civill State and Qoiiunonnjoealth, neither baptizing 
of which (the Churches^ the Pajiours^ or Qo}/uno7i-'l^)^J'l^^^'^_ 
wealth) doe goe forth perfonally with that comviijjion^^^^ to the 
Matth. 28. to preach and baptize, that is, to gather ^^"'"^j"' 

-^ -« ' » o or fixed 

(churches unto K^hrijt. Teachers 

For as for the tirll, the Churches are not Minijlers'^{ i^ ^eail 
of the Go/pel : the Angels or MeJJhigers of the^^^j^^^Qj^^^ 
Qhurches, and the Churches themfelves were diflind:, weak. 
Revel. 2. <^ 3. 

As for the fecond, the pajlours and Elders of the A qua?rie, 
Church, their worke is not to g-ather Churches, but^^°^^^^ 

1 /' / 1 ^ r-f n^ T~» "ow the 

to govertie feed them, Acts 20. & i ^rtY. 5. ^are of 

As for the civill Magijir ate, it is a Minijiry indeed : all the 
(Magijtrates are Gods Minijiers, Rom. 13.) but it is •-'^^''^'h"- 
of another Nature, and therefore none of thefe, the 
Churches of Chriji, the Shepherds of thofe Churches, 
nor the civill Magijlrate, fucceeding the Apojiles or 
firft MeJJetigers, thefe Scriptures alleadged concerne 
not any of | 234] thefe to have care of all the Churches. 
Peace. Deare Truth, who can heare this Word, 
but will prefently cry out. Who then may rightly 
challenge that com?)iiJ/ion, and \\\2X promije. Math. 28. 

Truth. Sweet Peace, in due place and feafon, that^ M'n'i- 
^ejiion may be refolved ; but doubtles the truey^c- Jj^'^(^^^°^^ 
cejjours muft precede or goe before the Church, mak- 
ing Difciples, and bapti-ziiig as the Apojiles did, who 
were neither the Churches, nor the Pajlours and 
fixed Teachers of them, but as they gathered, fo had 
the care of the Churches. 


The Bloudy Tenent. 

,T Ceafe to urge this further; and, in the lafl 

Peace. ^ 

place, marvell what fhould be the reafon of 
that Gonclulion, " viz. There is no power of deter- 
" mination in any of thefe meetings, but that all muft 
** be left to the particular determination of the 
** Churches.' 
Jas 15. Truth. At the meeting at Jei'Mfalem^ when Paul 
common Vj^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^^ Others were fent thither from the 
Church of Chriji at Antioch^ the Apojiles and Elders 
did not only confult and advife, but particularly deter- 
7nined the ^ejlion which the Church of Antioch fent 

• The doftrine of the "Model" in 
regard to the determinative power of 
Councils and Synods is about the fame 
as that laid down in the " Anfwer to 
Two and Thirty Quellions &c.," writ- 
ten by Richard Mather iome four years 
later. That quotes with approbation 
from Ames, " The fentence of a Synod 
is onely a certaine enquiring and giving 
of lentence by way of Miniftery, and 
with limitation ; fo that the decree of 
the Councell hath fo much force as there 
is force in the reafon of it." Alfo from 
Junius, " The fentence of a Councell is 
of itfelfe onely of advice, not of compul- 
fion or conllraint, and brings with it a 
judgement miniileriall, not authority of 
it felte, nor neceffitv." Anfwcr, {^c. p. 

The "Body of Liberties" drawn up 
by Ward of Ipfwich, and adopted by 
the General Court in 1641, in the 95th 
claufe, eleventh ledlion, provides "That 
once in every month ot the yeare (when 
the feafon will bear itj It fliall be law- 
full for the Minillers and Elders of the 

Churches neere adjoyneing together* 
with any other of the breetheren, with 
the conlent of the churches to affemble 
by courfe in each feverall Church one 
after an other. Provided that the whole 
adlion be guided and moderated by the 
Elders of the Church where the Aflem- 
blie is helde, or by fuch others as they 
fhall appoint. And that no thing be 
concluded and impofed by way of Au- 
thoritie from one or more churches upon 
an other, but onely by way of Brotherly 
conference and confultation." 3 Mafs. 
HijL Coll., viii: 235, 236. 

The Cambridge Platform allows fome- 
what more authority to iuch bodies. 
" The Synod's directions and determina- 
tions, fo far as conlonant to the Word of 
God, are to be received with reverence 
and fubmilfion : not only for their agree- 
ment therewith (which is the principal 
ground thereof, and without which they 
bind not at all) but alfo fecondarily, for 
the power, whereby they are made, as 
being an ordinance of God appointed 
thereunto in his word." Platform, w'w^. 

The Bloudy Tenent. 405 

to them, about ABs 15. and fend their particular 
deterininations or decrees to the Churches afterward. 

So that if thefe AJjhnblies were of the nature of 
that pattern or prejident (as is generally pretended) 
and had fuch a promije of the ajjijiance and concur- 
rence of the spirit, as that AJfembly had, they might 
then fay as that AJJetnbly ^xk, ABs 15. It feemeth 
good to the holy Spirit and to us : and fliould not leave 
particular determinations to the particular Churches, 
in which fometimes are very few able Guides and 

Peace. But what fliould be the Reafon to perfwade 
thefe worthy men to conceive the particular Congre- 
gations or Churches to be more fit and competent 
Judges in fuch high points, then an AJfembly ot fo 
excellent and choice perfons, who muft only confult ^^^"'^^^ 

,,.,,.■' -^ promile 

and advile, ^c. ? and pre- 

Truth. Doubtlelfe there is a ftrong convid:ion in fence only 
their Soules of a profelfed promifed prefence of the^J-^^^^^j" 
Lord J ejus in the midll of his Church gathered after blefled. 
his mind and will, more then unto fuch kind [235] ot 
AJI'emblies^ though confining of far more able per- 
fons, even the Jlower and creame of all the Churches. 
Peace. It is generally conceived, that the promife 
of Chrijis prejence to the end of the World (Matth. 
28.) is made to the Church. 

Truth. There is doubtlelfe a promife of Ch rifts The pro- 
prefence in the midft of his Church and Congrega- chriils 
tion, Matth. 18. but the promife of Chrifts prefence, prefence, 
Matth. 28. cannot properly and immediately belong ^^^Ij^^^* 
to the Church conftituted and gathered, but to fuch tVom that, 
Minijiers or Mejfengers of Chrijl JeJ'us^ whom he is Mat. 28. 

4o6 The Bloudy Tenent. 

pleafed to imploy to gather and conftitute the Church 
by converting and bapti^mg : unto which MeJJengers 
(if Chrift Jefus will be pleafed to fend fuch forth) 
that palTage, ABs 15. will h^ prejidentiali. 
14. Pofi- Peace. The 14. generall head is this, t'/z. What 
am^ned power particular Churches have particularly over 

" Firft (fay they) they may cenfure any Member 
" (though a Magiftrate) if by finne he deferve it. 

** Firft, becaufe Magiftrates muft be fubjed: to 
"Chrift, but Chrift cenfures all offenders, i Cor. 5. 


Secondly, Every Brother muft be fubje6t to Chrifts 
cenfure. Mat. 18. 15, 16, 17. But Magiftrates are 
brethren, Deut, 17. 15. 

Thirdly, They may cenfure all within the Church, 
■ I Cor. 5. 1 2. 

" But the Magiftrates are within the Church, for 
" they are either without, or within, or* above the 
*' Church : not the firft, nor the laft, for fo Chrift is 
** only above it. 

" Fourthly, The Church hath a diarge of all the 
" Soules of the members, and muft give account 
"thereof, Heb. 13. 17. 

" Fifthly, Chrifts cenfures are for the good of 
" Soules, I Cor. 5. 6. but Magiftrates muft not be 
*' denied any priviledge for their Soules, for then they 
** muft lofe a priviledge of Chrift by being Magif- 
*' trates. 

"Sixthly, In Church priviledges Chriftians are all 
"one. Gal. 2. 28. Col. 3. 11. 

2. Magiftrates may be cenfured for apparent and 

The Bloudy Tenent. 407 

" nianifeft finne againfl: any Morall Law of God, in 
'* their judicial! proceedings, or in the execution of 
" their otfice. Courts are not Sand:uaries for lin ; and 
"if for no lin, then not for fuch efpecially. 

" Firft, becaufe finnes of Magiflrates in Court are 
" as hatefull to God. 2. And as much fpoken againft, 
'' Ifa. 10. I. Mic. 3. I. [236] Thirdly, God hath no 
" where granted fuch immunity to them. Fourthly, 
" what a brother may doe privately in cafe of private 
*' offence, that the Church may doe publikely in cafe 
"of publike fcandall. But a private brother may 
" admonidi and reprove privately in cafe of any pri- 
" vate offence, M^/'. 18. i ^. Luc. 19. ij.Pfal. 141. 5. 

" Laftly, Civill Magiilracy doth not exempt any 
" Church from faithfull watchfulnelfe over any mem- 
" ber, nor deprive a Church of her due power, nor a 
" Church member ot his due priviledge, which is to 
" partake of every Ordinance of God, needfull and 
" requifite to their winning and falvation. Ergo, 


Truth/ I ^Hefe Arguments to prove the Magijirate 
J- fubjed: ( even for linne committed in judi- 
cial! proceeding) I judge, like Mount Ziori, immove- 
able, and every true Chrijiian that is a Magiftrate 
will judge fo with mee : Yet a Quasrie or two will 
not be unfeafonable. 

Firll, where they name the Church in this whole church 
palfage, whether they meane the Church without the ^.^"^'"'^'■^ 
M'uiijtry or Gover?iours of it, or with the Elders and^-'ha^ged^ 
Governour s \oyni\y ? and if the latter, why name they firillyupon 

4o8 The Bloudy Tenent. 

the Min- ^Qt the Govemoiirs at all, lince that in all adminijlra- 
Qf^ tions of the Church the duty lies not upon the body of 

the Churchy but firftly and properly upon the Elders 
It is true in cafe of the Elders obftinacy in appa- 
rent finne, the Church hath power over him, having 
as much power to take down as to fet up, Col. 4. 
Say to Archippus^ <S?r. Yet in the ordinary difpenfa- 
tions and adminiftrations of the Ordinances^ the Min- 
ijlers or Elders thereof are firft charged with duty, 
&c. , 

The Min- Hence firft for the Apojlles, who converted, gath- 
ifters or ^j.^^ ^ efpoufcd the Churches to Chrift, I queftion 

Liovcrnors *■ -j ^ l 

of Chriils whether their power to edification was not a power 
Church to over the Churches^ as many Scriptures feem to imply. 
ledgedTiT Secondly, for the ordinary Officers ordained for the 
their dif- ordinary and conftant guiding, feeding, and govern- 
penfations jj^g ^^iq Church, they were Rulers, Shepheards, Bijh- 
ops, or Overfeers, and to them was every letter and 
charge, commendation or reproof e dired:ed. Revel. 2. 3. 
ABs 20. And that place by them quoted for the 
fubmiffion of the Magifirates to the Church, it men- 
tions only fubmij/ion to the Rulers therof, Heb. 13. 
17. Thole excellent men concealed not this out of 
ignorance, and therefore moft certainly in a filent way 
confelfe that their doBrine concerning the Mazilirates 

A para- - ^ 

dox, Mag- power in Church caufes would [237J feem too grolTe, 
iftrates if they fliould not have named the whole Church, 
ludg^es^ ^ ^"^ ^^^ filently implyed the Governours of it ; And 
of the is it not wonderfull in any fober eye, how the fame 
Churches, pgj-^Qj^g i^Magift rates) can be exalted over the Minif- 
ernours of^^^-^ '^'^^ Members, as being bound to efiablijh, reforjue, 
them, yet fupprejje by the civill /word in punifliing the body or 

The Bloudy Tenent. 409 

goods, and yet for the fame actions (if the Church ^^"'"'■able 
and Governours thereof fo conceive) be Hable to a ^ ^ ^^' 
punifhment ten thoufand times more tranfcendent, 
to wit, exconununicatmi, a punifliment reaching to 
their Joules and co?iJciences, and eternall eftate, and 
this not only for common lins, but for thofe aBions 
which immediately concerne the execution of their 
civill office, \n judiciall proceeding. 

Peace. The Prelates in ^^ Elizabeths dayes, kept Queene 
with more plainnelfe to their principles, for acknow- ^^'^•^^^- 

■I 1^1' ops truer 

ledging the ^ceen to be Supreme in all Church caufes, to the 


(according to the Title and Power o^ Henry the 8. P'^'^^'P'^^' 
her Father, taken from the Pope, and given to him ofTb^tTer 
by the Parliament) they profelfed that the ^een wasfpirit and 
not a Jljeepe, but under Chriji the chiefe Shepheard,'^'''^^^^''^' 
and that the Church had not power to excotmjiunicate 
the ^een. 

Truth. Therefore (fweet Peace) it was efteemed Mr. Bar- 
capitall (in that faithfull witnejfe of fo much truth as^^^^^ pi'o- 
he faw, even unto death, Mr. Barrow) to maintainecern°inr"" 
before the Lords of the Councell, that the ^leen her- Queen 
felfe was fubjed: to the power oi Chriji J ejus in the ^^'^'^'^^^'^* 
Church: which Truth overthrew that other Tenent, 
that the ^eene (hould be Head and Supreme in all 
Church caufes." 

■ Henry Barrowe was executed at Ty- Penry and Greenwood before the High 

burn, April 6, 1593. He had been kept Commiffioners, " penned by the prifon- 

in clofe prifon tor many years. He ers themfelves, before their deaths," was 

ftudied at Cambridge and was a lawyer printed in 1586. One of the queftions 

of Gray's Inn. He was at the head of was " Whither he thinketh the Queene's 

the llrifter Puritans who were called Majeftic be fupreine governour of the 

Brownills or Barrowilh. Strype, Life of Church ; and whither fhe may make 

Whitgift, ii: 191. lawes for the church which are not con- 

An account of his examination with trary to the Word of God, or no ? 


41 o The Blouiiy Tenent. 

Peace. Thole Bilhops according to their principles 
(though bad and talle) dealt plainly (though cruelly) 
with Mr. Barrow: but \\\q(q Authors, whoi'a principles 
are the lame with the Bifhops (concerning the poiver 
of the Mdgijiratc in Qhurcb affaires) though they 
wave the Title, and will not call theni Heads or Gov- 
ernors (which now in lighter times feems too grolfe) 
Is not thisyt^f giye they as much Jpiritua// power and aiithoritie 
tlic Popes ^^' ^^^^ civill Magijirate to the full, as ever the Bijhops 
profcilion gavc unto them, although they yet alfo with the fame 
ot jcrvus breath lav all their honour in the dulL and make them 

Jervorum { i ,\ r y r r y r ^^ i • • 

Dii, yet to hck the aiijt or the reet or the L hiu'ches, as it is 
holding prophelied, the Kifigs and ^leens of the Earth Ihall 
ili'ppcrto ^^^■*^' when Chrifl: makes them nwvdn^ fathers, and 
the lips ofnurfmg mothers, Ifa. 49. The truth is, Chrift Jefus 
Princr.s, jj, honoured, when the m'///7V/<'/Q-///r<7/'t' a member of 

Kings ;ind . ^ ,, i • /i i i r^ / / r i 

Empe- the L hurch, punilheth any member or tjlacr or the 
rours? (Church with the civill fword, even to the death, for 
any crime againil: the civill State fo deferving it; for 
he beares not the fword in vain. 

238 I And Qhriji "Jejiis is againe moll highly hon- 
oured, when for apparent linne in the Magijirate^ 
being a member ot the church (tor otherwiie they 
have not to meddle with him) the Elders with the 
Church, admonilh him and recover his Soule, or if 
ohjlinate in fin, caft him forth of their Spirituall and 
ilhrijlian fellowfhip, which doubtlelfe they could not 
doe, were the Magijirate J'upreme Governour under 

Anfzv. I thinke the Queene's Maicilie church itlelf, may make any lavvcs for 

lupreme governour of the whole land, the church, other than Chrill hath 

and over the church alio, bodies and already left in his worde." Hitrleitin Mif- 

goods : but I thinke that no prince, ric/A///y, iv : 348. ^vooV, Lives of Puritans 

neither the whole world, neither the ii: 30. Neal, Hijl. of Puritans, i: 201. 


The Bloudy Tmcnt. 4 1 i 

Qhri/i in Ecc/c/iujtical/ or i^btirch caiiTes, ami lo con- 
fequently the true heire and llicceirour of the Apojilcs. 


Peace. ^ | ^He 1 5. Head runs thus : viz. In what cales '^ ll^«»^] 

JL mull Churches proceed with Magillrates 
in cafe ol offence. 

** We Hke it well, that Churches he llower in pro- 

* ceeding to excommunication, as of all other, lo ol 
' Civill Magilh-ates efpecially in point of their Judi- 

* ciall proceedings, unlelfe it he in fcandalous hreach 

* of a manifcll: Law of God, and that alter notorious 

* evidence of the fadt, and that after due feeking and 

* waiting for latisfadtion in a previous Advertilenient. 

* And though each particular Church in refpedt ot 
' the (iovernment of Chrill he indepeniient and ahk)- 

* lute within it felfe, yet where the Commonweale 
' CO nil lis of Church memhers, it may he a point ot 

* Chrillian wifedome to conlider and conlult with 

* the Court alio, fo far as any thing may feeme douht- 

* full to them in the Magillrates cafe, w''' may he 

* further cleered hy intelligence given from them ; 

* hut otherwife we dare not leave it in the power ot 
'any Church to forhear to proceed & agree upon 

* that on Earth, which they plainly fee Chrilt hath 
' refolved in his Word, and will ratifie in Heaven. 

Truth. If the fcope of this Head he to tjualilie and 
adorne chrijiian unpartialitie and faithfulnes with 
chrijtian wi/'douie and tendernejjt\ I honour and applaud 
fuch a ilhrijl'um motion : hut whereas that cale is put, 
which is no where found in the patterne ot the firft 

4 1 2 The Bloudy Tenent. 

Qbia'chesy nor fuiting with the Rule of Qhrijtianitiey 
to wit, that the Q^ommonwealc fhould confift oi Church 
fnemberSy which niufl be tdken privatively^ to wit, that 
none (hould he admitted members of the Qo/nnion- 
wca/c, but luch as are lirll members of the Church 
(which mull: neceifarily run the Church upon that 
Temptatioji to feele the puH'e of the Court concern- 
ing a delinquent Magijirate, before they dare proceed) 
The invcn J ^:^y \^[ [\\c\\ PradUces be brought to | 239 | the Touch- 
men in Jiofw of the truc frame of a civi/l commonwcaie^ and 
iwarving the true frame of the Spiritual/ or Cbriftian conwion- 
trom the ,^^^,^^ t}-je Church of ChrilL and it will be feen what 

true elien- ,'^ 

tialls of ivood^ hay, and Jluhhlc of carnall policie and humane 
Civill ^"^^ inventions in Chri/ts matters are put in place of the 
QQ^mon-P^'^'^'^^^^^ //o;/6'j-, gold and ///I't'r of the Ordinafices of the 
weales. moll High and only wife God. 


16. and P<?/26Y.T^Eare Truth, We are now arrived at their 

lall Head |^ j.^^ j^^^^ . ^j^^ ^-^j^ -^ ^^- ^-^^ 

examined. ' 

Their power in the Liberties and Priviledges of 
theje Churches. 

" Firfl, all Magiftrates ought to be chofen out of 
" Church-members, Exod. 18. 21. Deut. 17. 15. Prov. 
** 29. 2. When the Righteous rule, the people rejoyce. 

" Secondly, that all free men elected, be only 
" Church-members. 

I. Becaufe if none but Church members (hould 
" rule, then others fliould not choofe, becaufe they 

l^he Bloudy Tenent. 4 1 3 

" may ele(fl others befide Church members. 

2. From the patterne of I/rael, where none had 
** power to choofe but only Ifrael, or fuch as were 
"joyned to the people ot (iod. 

3. If it (liall fill out, that in the Court confifling 
"of Magiftrates and Deputies, there be a diifent 
"between them which may hinder the common 
" good, that they now returne for ending the fame, 
" to their firft principles, which are the Free men, 
" and let them be confulted with. 

Truth. In this Head arc 2 branches: Firft con-^Krcai 
cerning the choice o( Magijirates, that fuch ought to^jj^^"^"' 
be chofen as are Church members : for which is quo- Whether 
ted, Exod. 18. 21. Dut. 17. 15. Proverbs 19. 29. c"hurch 

Unto which I anfwer : It were to be wiOicd, that members 
fmce the point is fo weighty, as concerning the /VA/r^t'iat'sasis 
and Steer esmen of Kingdoms and Nations, &c. on whofe QodllnVr. 
ahilitie, care and faithfuhic[]c depends moft commonly ions in a 
the peace and fafety of the cofufnonwealcs they fail in : P;"'tKular 
I fay it were to be wiHicd that they had more fully diatc, be 
explained what [240] they intend by this Affir?native, on\y eligi- 
viz. Magijirates ought to be chofen out of ^^^^^-'^-^ \,^ X<Tcn 
members. for Magif- 

For if they intend by this \Ought to be choJhi\ a""ates. 
neceJIitie of convenience, viz. that for the greater 
advancement of common uti/itie and rejoycing of the 
people, according to the place quoted (Prov. 29. 2.) 
it were to be defired, prayed for, and peaceably 
endeavored, then I readily alTent unto them. 

But if by this | ()ught\ they intend fuch a neceffitie 
as thofe Scriptures quoted imply, viz. that people 
fhall fm by choofing fuch for Magijtrates as are not 

414 '^ke Bloudy Tenent. 

members of Churches ; as the Ifraelites (hould have 

finned, if they had not (according to Jethros counfell, 

Exod. 1 8. and according to the co77imand 0I God^ Deut. 

18.) chofen their Judges and Kings within themfelves 

in IJrael : then I propofe thefe necelTary ^laries. 

Lawtull Firft whether thofe are not lawfull Civill cojubina- 

States, tiofiSy focieties, and communions of men, in Townes^ 

where Cities^ States or Kingdoms^ where no Church of Chriji 

f Ch^iT ^^ relident, yea where his name was never yet heard 

are not. of: I adde to this, that Men of no fmall note, skil- 

full in xh^Jiate of the World, acknowledge, that the 

Theworld World divided into 30 parts, 25 of that 30 have never 

^.'j"f ^'- yet heard of the name of Chrill :' If their Civill pol- 

vided into-'. . , . . , i - n /i - i 

30 parts, ities and combinations be not lawfull, (becaule they 

25 never are not Churches, and their Magijirates Church mem- 

Chriil bers) then dijorder, confu/ion, and all unrighteousnes is 

lawfull, and pleafing to God. 

Lawful! Secondly, whether in fuch States or Common- 

heires ot ^veales, where a Church or Churches of Chrift are 

& Civill refident, fuch perfons may not lawfully fucceed to 

Govern- the Crown or Government, in whom the feare of 

ment, a - Q^^ (according: to yethroes councell) cannot be dif- 

thougnnot \ o J - i >,i i 

Chriilian ccmcd, nor are brethren ot the Church, according 
and godly, to Dcut. \j.) but Only are fitted with Civill and 

Morall abilities, to manage rhe Civill affaires of the 

Civill State. 
ChTiftians Thirdly, fince not many WiJ'e and Noble are called, 
wife and but the poorc rcceivc the Go/pel, as God hath chofen 
noble and ^j^g />oor^ of the World \.o be rich in Faith, i Cor. i. 

qualified -f . . ' 

for affaires Jam. 2. Whether It may not ordmariiy come to 
of State, palfe, that there may not be found in a true Church 

' Hireling Minijiry, p. 3. See fu/tr/i p. 321. 

The Blondy Tenent. 415 

of Chriji (which Ibmetimes confilleth but of few 
perfons) perfons lit to be either Kings or Govcrnours^ 
&c. whofe civi/I ojfice is no leiTe difficuh then the 
office of a DoBor of Phyjick, a Majler or Pilot of a 
Shipy or a Captaine or Commander of a Band or Army 
of men: for [241] which fervices, the children of 
Go^ may be no wayes qualified^ though otherwife 
excellent for they^^r^ of God^ and the knowledge and 
Grace of the hord lejus. 

4. If Magijtrates ought (that is, ought only) to be^°"^.^ 
chofen out of the Churchy I demand if they ought f^^e Pro- 
not alfo to be dethroned ^iuA depojed, when they ceafe teilants 
to be of the Churchy either by voluntary departure ^^"^^^Y" 
from it, or by excommunication out of it, according to of Magif- 
the bloody tenents and practice ot fome Papijh^ with^''^^^^- 
whom the Protejtants (according to their principles) 
although they feeme to abhor it, doe abfolutely 

agree ? 

5. Therefore laftly, I ask if this be not to turne 
the World upfide down, to turne the World out of 
the World, to pluck up the roots and foundations of 
all common Jocietie in the World} to turne the Garden 
and Paradice of the Church and Saints into the Field 
of the Civill State of the World, and to reduce the 
World to the fir ft chaos or confujion. 


Pftfff.T~\Eare Truth, thou conquereji, and flialt 
Jl^ triumph in feafon : but fome will fay. 
How anfwer you thofe Scriptures alleadged ? 

Truth. I have fully and at large declared the vaft 

41 6 'The Bloudy Tenent. 

differences between that holy Nation of typicall Ifrael, 

and all other Lands and Countries, how unmatchable 

then and now, and never to be parallel'd, but by the 

true Ifrael and particular Churches of Chriji, refiding 

in all parts (and under the feverall civil! Governments) 

Thoie Qf fi^e %vorld :^ In which Churches, the Ifrael of God, 

Ex^d.^i? ^^'^ Kingdome of Chrijl lejus, fuch only are to be 

Deut. 17. chofen fpirituall Officers and Governours, to manage 

^ '^; ^^: his Kindly power and author itie in the Church, as are 

parallel'd . , • "^ -^ 1 n • 1 t^ Un 

in the true (according to the bcriptures quoted, not rope, Bijhops, 
fpirituall or CivHl powers, but) from amongil: themfelves, 
J "^^ij^ ^' Brethren, fearing God, hating covctoufneffe or filthy 
& Tit. I. lucre, according to thofe golden Rules given by the 
Lord lefus, i Tim. 3. & Tit. i. 

The want of difcerning this true parallel, between 
Ifrael in the type then, and Ifrael the antitype now, 
is that rock whereon (through the Lords righteous 
jealoifie, puniiliing the World, and chaftiling his 
people) thoufands dafh, and make wofull Shipwrack. 
242] The fecond branch, viz. that all Freemen elected 
be only Church ?ne?nbers, I have before (liewne to be 
built on that fandy and dangerous Ground of Ifraels 
patterne : O that it may pleafe the Father ot Lights 
to difcover this to all that fear his name ! then would 
they not lin to fave a Kingdome, nor run into the 
lamentable breach of civill peace and order in the 
world, nor be guilty of forcing thoufands to Hypoc- 
rifie, in a State worjhip, nor of prophaning the holy 
name of God and Chrijl, by putting their Nat7ies and 
Ordinances upon uncleane and unholy perfons : nor of 
fliedding the blood of fuch Hereticks, &cc. whom 

• Chapters cx.-cxiv. 

T^he Bloudy Tenent. 417 

Qhriji would have enjoy longer patience and perjiiif- 
Jion untill the Harveji : nor of the blood o{ xho. Lord 
lefus h i m fe 1 fe , in his fa i t h f u 1 1 Witnejfes o f Truth : 
nor laftly, of the blood of fo many hundred thoufands 
flaughtred men, women, and children, by fuch uncivill 
and unchrijlian wars and combujiions about the Qhrif- 
tia?! faith and Religion. 

Peace. Deare Truth: before we part, I aske your The Nin- 
faithfull helpe once more, to 2 or -2 Scriptures, which ^^'^^^. , 

11 J J r r I r examined. 

many alleadge, and yet we nave not Ipoken or. 

Truth. Speake on ; here is fome fand left in this 
our houre glalfe of mercifuU opportunitie : One graine 
of Times ineftimable fand is worth a golden tnoun- 
taine ; let's not lofe it. 

Peace. The firft is that of the Ninevites faft, com- 
manded by the Ki?ig of Nifievie and his Nobles, upon 
the preaching of 'Jonah ; fucceeded by Gods tnerci- 
full anjwer in fparing of the Citie ; and quoted with 
honorable approbation by the Lord 'Jcjus Chriji, 
Jonah 3. & Math. 12. 

Truth. I have before proved,' that even Jehoja- 
phats faft (he being King of that Nationall Church 
and people oi IJrael) could not pofTibly be a type or 
warrant for every King or Magijlrate in the World 
(whofe Nations, Countries or Cities cannot be 
Churches of God, now in the Go/pel, according to 
Chrijl J ejus : 

Much lefTe can this patterne of the King of Nin- 
evie and his Nobles, be a ground for Kings and Mag- 
ijirates now, to force all their Subjects under them 
in the matters of Worjhip. 

' See Chap, cxvii. p. i\2,/upra. 

41 8 The Bloudy Tenent, 

Peace. It will be faid, why did Godthws, anfwer them ? 

Truth. Gods mercy in hearing doth not prove an 
aBion right and according to rule. 

It pleafed God to heare the Ifraelites cry for Flejh, 
and afterward for a King, given both in anger to 

243] It pleafed God to heare Ahabs prayer, yea and 
the prayer of the Devils (Luc. 8.) although their 
perfons and prayers in themfelves abominable. 
ObjeB. If it be faid, why did Chriji approve this example.? 
Anfw. I anfwer, the Lord Jejus Chriji did not approve 
the Kifig of Ninevies compelling all to Worlhip, but 
the men of Ninevies repentance at the preaching of 

Peace. It will be faid, what {h2\\.Ki?igs and Mag- 
ijirates now doe in the plagues of J word, famine, 
pejiilence ? 

Truth. Kings and Magiftrates muft be confidered 
(as formerly) inverted with no more power then the 
people betruft them with. 

But no People can betruft them with 2iny Jpirituall 
power in matters oi worjhip, but with a Civill power 
belonging to their goods and bodies. 

2. Ki?jgs and Magijirates muft be confidered as 
either godly or ungodly. 

If ungodly, his own and peoples duty is Repentance, 
and reconciling of their perfons unto God, before 
xh^'w facrijice can be accepted. Without Repentance 
what have any to doe with the covenant or promife 
oi God? Pfal. 50. 

Againe, if Godly, they are to humble themfelves, 
and beg mercies for themfelves and people. 

The Bloudy Tenent. 419 

Secondly, upon this advantage & occajton^ they are 
to ftir up their people (as poffibly they may) to 
Repetita?jce : but not to force the confciences oi people 
to ivot'jhip. 

If it be faid, What mufl: be attended to in this Objed. 
example ? Anjw. 

Two things are moft eminent in this example. 

Firft, the great worke of Repentance^ which God 
calls all men unto, upon the true preaching of his 

Secondly, the nature of that true repentance whether How Eng- 
Legall or Ev angelic all : The people of Ninevie turned land and 
from the violence that was in their hands : And con-n^gyyetbg 
fident I am, if this Nation (liall turne (though butTpared. 
with a Legall repentance) from that violent perfecu- 
ting or hunting each of other for Religion fake, (the 
greateft violence and hunting in the wildernejfe of the 
whole World) even as Sodome and Gomorrah upon a 
Legall repeiitance^ had continued untill Chrijls day ; 
fo confequently might England, London, &c. continue 
free from a generall deJiruBion (upon fuch a turning 
from their violence) untill the Heavens and the whole 
World be with lire confumed. 

244] Peace. The fecond Scripture is that fpeech of 
the Lord Chriji, Luc. 22. 36. He that hath not a 
Jword, let him fell his coat, and buy one. 

Truth. For the cleering of this Scripture, I mult Luc 22. 

propofe and reconcile that feeming contrary com- ^^^ ["^'^'"S 

mand of the Lord Jefus to Peter [Mat. 2. 6.) Put upcoat, to 

thy I'lcord into his place, for all that take the fword.^^y ^ 
n 11 -n k -^ 'Sword, 

Hiall perilli by it. d\^c^i^.d. 

In the former Scripture [Luc. 22.) it pleafed the 

420 T^he Bloudy Tenent. 

Lord Jefus^ fpeaking of his prefent trouble, to com- 
pare his former fending forth of his Difciples without 
fcrip, &c. with that prefent condition and triall com- 
ming upon them, wherein they fliould provide both 
fcrip and fword, &c. 

Yet now, firft, when they tell him o£ two fwords^ 
he anfwers, It is enough : which fhiewes his former 
meaning was not literall, but figurative, forefhewing 
his prefent danger above his former. 

Secondly, in the fame cafe at the fame time [Mat. 
26.) commanding Feter to put on his fword, he gives 
a threefold Reajon thereof. 

1 . [verf. 52,) from the event of it : for all that take 
the fword, fhall perifh by it. 

2. The need/efnes of it : for with a word to his 
Father, he could have i 2 legions of Angels. 

3. The councell of God to be fulfilled in the Scrip- 
ture : Thus it ought to be. 

Feace. It is much queftioned by fome, what (hould 

be the meaning of Chriji 'Jejus in that fpeech, All 

that take the fword, fhall perifli by the fword. 

A three- Truth. There is a threefold taking of xh^ fword : 

■ qC j'j^g Firft, by murtherous crueltie, either of private perfons, 

Sword, or fecondly, publike States or Societies, in wrath or 

revenge each againft other. 

Secondly, a juft and righteous taking oi \h^ fword 
in punifliing offenders againft the Ci-vill peace, either 
more perfonall, private and ordinary ; or more pub- 
like, Opprelfors, Tyrants, Ships, Navies, &c. Neither 
of thefe can it be imagined that Chriji Jefus intended 
to Feter. 

Thirdly, There is therefore a 3. taking of \\\^ fword. 

T^he Bloudy Tenent. 421 

forbidden to Peter, that is, for Chriji and the Gofpels 
caufe, when Chrift is in danger : which made Peter 
ftrike, &c. 

Peace, It feemes to fome moll: contrary to all true 
reafon, that [245] Chriji J ejus, Innocencie it felfe, 
fliould not be defended. 

Truth. The foolifhnes of God is wifer then the 
wiledome of Man. 

It is not the purpofe of God, that the Spirituall 
battailes of his Son lliall be fought by carnall weapons 
and perfons. 

It is not his pleafure that the World ihall flame on 
fire with ciiill combujiions, for his Sons fake. It is 
dired:ly contrary to the nature of Chrijt yefus, his 
Saints and Truths, that throats of men (which is the 
higheft contrarietie to civill converJV\ fhould be torne 
out for his fake, who moft delighted to converfe with 
the greateft finners. 

It is the councell of God, that his fervants fhall 
overcome by 3 weapons, of a fpirituall nature, Revel. 
12. II. And that all that take the J word oi fteele, 
fhall perifli. 

Laffly, it is the Councell of Go^,that Chriji Jefus (hall 
(liortly appeare a moft glorious ludge and Revenger 
againft all his Enemies, when the Heavens and the 
Earth fhall flee before his moft glorious prefence. 

Peace. I ftiall propofe the laft Scripture much ^^^^^- '7- 
inhfted on by many, for carnall weapons in fpirituall j^j'^ 
cafes, Revel. 17. 16. The 10 homes which, thou faweft hating 
upon the Beaji, thefe ftiall hate the whore, and ftiall^,^'^^ 
make her delolate and naked, and ftiall eat her ^tyZ^, diHufTed. 
and ftiall burne her with^r^. 

422 The Bloudy Tenent. 

Truth. Not to controvert with fome, whether or 
no the Beaji he yet rifen and extant. 

Nor fecondly, whether either the BeaJi, or the 
Homes, or the Whore may be taken hterally for any 
corporall Beajl or Whore. 

Or thirdly, whether thefe lo Homes be punctually 
and exactly lo Kings. 

Or fourthly, whether thofe lo Homes fignifie thofe 
many Kings, Kingdomes, and Governments, who have 
bowed down to the Popes yoake, and have commit- 
ted fornication with that great Whore the Church of 

Let this laft be admitted (which yet will coft fome 
work to cleer againft all oppofites :) Yet, 

Firft, can the Tijne be now cleerly demonltrated 
to be come, &c ? 

Secondly, how will it be proved, that this hatred 
of this Whore fliall be a true, chajie, Chrijiian hatred 
againft Antichrijiian whorijh prad:ices, &c ? 
246] Thirdly, or rather that this hating and defola- 
ting and making naked and burning fhall arife, not by 
way of an ordinance warranted by the injiitution of 
Chriji 'J ejus, but by way of providence when (as it 
ufeth to be with all ^whores and their lovers) the 
Church of Rome and her great lovers fliall fall out, 
and by the righteous vengeance of Ciod upon her, 
drunke with the blood of Saints or holy Ones, thefe 
mighiy fornicators fhall turne their love into hatred, 
which hatred fhall make her a poore defolate naked 
Whore, torne and confumed, &c. 

Peace. You know it is a great controverfie how 
the Kings of the Earth fhall thus deale with the 

T^he Bloudy Tenent. 423 

Whore in the 17 Chap, and yet fo bewaile her in the 
18 Chapter. 

Truth. If we take it that thefe Kings of the Earth 
{hall firft hatCy and plunder, and teare, and <^^^r«^ this 
Whore, and yet afterward fliall relent and bewaile 
their cruell dealing toward her : Or elfe, that as fome 
Kings deale fo terribly with her, yet others of thofe 
Kings (liall bewaile her. 

If either of thefe two anfwers ftand, or a better be 
given, yet none of them can prove it lawfull for peo- 
ple to give power to their Ki?igs and Magijirates 
thus to deale with them their fubje(fls[,] for their con- 
fcience ; nor for Magijirates to alTume a title more 
then the people betruil: them with ; nor for one peo- 
ple out of confcience to God, and for Chrijl his fake, 
thus to kill and (laughter and burne each other : 
However it may pleafe the Righteous Judge, accord- 
ing to the famous types of Gideons and "Jehojaphats 
battells, to permit in Jujlice, and to order in tVif- 
dome thefe mighty and mutuall {laughters each of 

Peace. We have now (deare 'Truth) through the 
gracious hand of God clambered up to the top of 
this our tedious Difcourfe. 

Truth. O 'tis mercy unexpreffible that either Thou 
or / have had fo long a breathing time, and that 
together ! 

Peace. If Englijh ground muft yet be drunk with 
Englijh blood, O where (hall Peace repofe her wearied 
head and heavy heart ? 

Truth. Deare Peace, if thou iinde welcome, and 
the God oi peace miraculoufly pleafe to quench thefe 

424 T^he Bloudy Tenent. 

all-devouring flames, yet where fhall Truth finde 
reft from cruell perfecutions ? 

Peace. Oh, will not the Authority of holy Scrip- 
tures, the Commands and Declarations of the Sonne 
of GW, therein produced by thee, together with all 
the lamentable experiences of former and [247] pre- 
fent flaughters prevaile with the Sons of Men (efpe- 
cially with the Sons of Peace) to depart from the 
dens of Lyons, and mountaines of Leopards,^ and to 
put on the bo%vels (if not of Chrijiianitie, yet) of 
Humanitie each to other ! 

Truth. Deare Peace, Habacucks Fifties^ keep their 
conftant bloody game of Perfecutions in the Worlds 
mighty Ocean ; the greater taking, plundring, fwal- 
lowing up the leifer : O happy he whofe portion is 
. the God oi lacob ! who hath nothing to lofe under 
the Sun, but hath a State, a Houfe, an Inheritance, a 
Name, a Crowne, a Life, paft all the Plunderers, Rav- 
ijhers, Murtherers reach and furie ! 

Peace. But loe ! Who's here ? 

Truth. Our Sifter Patience, whofe defired company 
is as needfull as delightfull : 'Tis like the Wolfe will 
fend the fcattered Sheep in one : the common Pirate 
gathers up the loofe and fcattered Navie : the ilaugh- 
ter of the Witneffes by that bloody Beaft unite the 
Independents and Presbyterians. The God of Peace, 

» "Come with me from Lebanon, my that deal treacheroufly, and holdefl thy 

fpoufe, with me from Lebanon : look tongue when the wicked devoureth the 

from the top of Amana, from the top of man that is more righteous than he ? and 

Shenir and Hermon, from the lions' makeft men as the fiflies of the fea, as 

dens, from the mountains of the leop- the creeping things, that have no ruler 

ards." Song of Solomon, iv: 8. over them ? Habakkuk, i: 13, 14. 

s "Wherefore lookell thou upon them 

The Bloudy Tenent. 


the God of Truth will fhortly feale this Truth, and 
confirme this Witnes, and make it evident to the 
whole World, 

That the Dod:rine of PerJecutio7t for caufe of 
Confcience, is moft evidently and lamentably contrary 
to the dod:rine of Chriji lejus the Prince of Peace. 



PAge 23. line 28. /or this, read that. p. 31. ]. alt. his foule. p. 32. 1. 
12. r^^d' mouth, ibid. r. perfon. p. 35. 1. 16. r. turned off, or loofed 
from. p. 37. 1. 'i. for to, read doe. p. 38 1. 2. (/fA" affirmc. p. 41. 1. 
22. his perilous foule. p. 43. 1. 20. r. or 1. ult. Anfwerer. p. 44. 1. 28. 
be clofer. p. 49. 1. i. laft. p 57. 1. 22. cut. 1. 24. I affirme that Juftice. 
p. 58. 1. 5. the lying, p 98. 1. 6. read, or doe thefe p. 1 14. 1. 29. r. the 
31 queftion. p. 119 1. 10. r. members, p. 139. I. 9. immunitie. p. 161. 
1. 28. or Chrift. p. 214. 1. 36. dele Ihall. p. 225. 1. 19. the Churches of 
God. 225. 1. 25. nor might not. 

' On page 52 the reference to R. Wal- 
lace, Antitrinitarian Biography, i. 352, 
fhould be ii: 103, 112, and to Jac. 
Spon, HiJIoire de Geneve, fhould be tom. 
I, p. 301, Geneve, 1730. The refer- 
ence to C. C. Sand, Biblioth. Antitrin. 
is to the edition Freijladii, 1684. 

On page 233 the reference in the margin 
to " Chamer de Eccles." is to a work of 
Daniel Chamier, the French Proteilant 
polemic. The only work of his I have 
been able to confult is his principal one, 
Panflrateia: CathoUcfg, Genevje, 1626. 

Tom. 3, lib. 15, cap. 8-17, is De con- 
ftitutionibus Ecclefias. But I cannot 
verify the allufion of the text. The 
reference to " Park. part, polit." is to De 
PoUteia Ecclefiajiica Chrijii et Hierarchka 
oppofita of Robert Parker. It is often 
quoted by Mather in the "Anfwer of 
the Elders, &c.," and by Cotton, who 
acknowledges that he firft received light 
from him as to the true llrudlure dI a 
Church. Way of Cong. Churches Cleared, 
p. 14. 




Date Due 


JCT 11 


-Jm —