Skip to main content

Full text of "The blue ribbon of the turf : a chronicle of the race for the Derby ..."

See other formats

\ > 


'\ :■ - 


' 4)''COD£>C£yC€''D-£>'Q4)'D4)^0-QD^ 

< ^-^ 



3 9090 014 540 369 























v> '^ 



When the hundredth anniversary of the Derhy fell to 
be celebrated, I thought we might then see announced 
a history of the turfs most-coveted prize. But the 
centenary of the world-renowned race passed over 
without anyone having ventured to write a sketch 
of its history. That task has in the meantime been 
left to me ; and has been a pleasant one, although 
materials for a chronicle of the earlier contests have 
proved scarce. 

I have made several vain searches to procure a list 
of ' entries ' for the first Derby ; fortunately, however, 
the names of the runners for what proved to be the 
beginning of a wonderful series of fine races have been 
preserved, and a competent authority has informed me 
that the entries for the premier Derby were taken 
when the horses were ' two-3'^ear-olds,' and that the 
gentlemen promised to subscribe again. 


It would be interesting to obtain a list of the sub- 
scribers, and the names and pedigrees of the animals 
named for the race ; likewise, some information of the 
way in which the race was run and won. All I have 
gleaned is inchided in the following pages, so that the 
reader may s[)eedily become as well informed on the 
subject as the writer. 

Could early commentators have foreseen the 
future magnitude of the race, and that in course of 
time it would become of international importance, 
the public, from the date of its institution, would 
doubtless have been placed in possession of some 
curious details regarding the Derby that cannot now 
be obtained, which would be read with avidity, not 
only by all who interest themselves in the affairs of 
the turf, but by the general reader as well. 

A countless number of ' Derby ' sketches have been 
written during the last fifty years, many of which are 
interesting; but I think I am correct in saying that 
this is the first history of the Derby which has taken 
the form of a ' book,' and the story of a book is some- 
times said to be of even greater interest than the book 
itself, could it be known. That is a saying which 
many will endorse, and so far as the present work 


is concerned, there can be no objection to its history 
being told : it is simple enough. 

The author longed to see the chief incidents of the 
race brought into focus, as well as some account of 
the horses running, and of their owners and jockeys ; 
also details of the betting, and the hundred and one 
occurrences which have taken place since Diomed 
earned the first ' Blue Ribbon ' for Sir Charles Bun- 
bury — ' hence these presents.* 

The process of compiling this work has from begin- 
ning to end been a labour of love ; as a matter of fact, 
it has been ' dug ' out of old newspapers and sporting 
records of many kinds — calendars, magazines, and 

By the time the Derby begins to grow old, as will 
be gathered from a perusal of the following pages, 
each successive year presents some new feature, such 
as the timing of the race, the opening of a line of 
railway to Epsom, the inauguration of a Parliamentary 
debate about the event, and the first use of the tele- 
graph. Other years are marked by other incidents, 
such as the Running Rein fraud, the Gladiateur 
triumph, ' the Bend Or scare,' Fordham's first Derby 
victory, etc. Slight sketches of the pedigrees and 

viii PREFACE. 

performances of the more celebrated horses which 
have won the race are also given, likewise brief 
memoirs and anecdotes of many of their owners, 
trainers, and riders. 

Information about bets and betting men, Derby 
dreams and omens, and money won on Epsom Heath, are 
included in the following pages, and the writer trusts 
that in recording what he knows he will not be accused 
of chronicling small-beer, his opinion being that all 
that can be said regarding our national racing holiday, 
and the event which has given it birth, is worth saying. 

In conclusion, all the author claims for this 
book is that, so far as it goes, it is a painstaking 
record of our chief Isthmian game. There are men, 
however, engaged on the sporting press of the period 
who could probably write a fuller and better history 
— only they have made no sign of doing so. 


Aiml 2bth, 1890.) 



a pkeliminaiiy canter ----- 1 

financial aspects of the race for the * clue ribbon' 17 

men who have won the derby - . - 37 

derby and other jockeys - - - - c3 

jockeys who have won the derby - - - 94 

trainers of derby and other horses- ,- - 97 

'tattersai.l's' - - - - - - 108 

TOUTS AND tipsters - - - - - 120 

'the FRENCH YEAR,' 1805- .... ]42 

'the AMERICAN YEAR,' 1881 .... 154 

BOOKMAKING - - - - - -170 

WHO SETS THE MARKET ? - - - - . 184 

DERBYANA .----.. 214 







The Derby, in name at least, is still the greatest racing 
event of the English turf; it is not, however, our 
oldest existing race, the St. Leger having been insti- 
tuted in the year 1776. The Oaks also takes prece- 
dence of the ' Blue Ribbon,' being a year older. 

It was in 1780 that the first Derby Avas run, the 
prize being won by Sir Charles Ihmburj^ the name of 
the victorious horse being Diomed ; the same gentle- 
man was so fortunate as to win again in the year 1801, 
v/ith his mare Eleanor, which also won the Oaks, now 
sometimes fancifully designated ' the Garter of the 
Turf.' ]\Iuch that has been written about the earlier 
races for the Derby is indebted chiefly to the imagina- 
tion of the writers, facts being scarce. 

The race was named after the Earl of Derby, but 
on the earlier occasions of its recurrence attracted 
almost no attention, its decision eliciting onl}' a 
bare record in such newspapers of the period as 



condescended to chronicle events of the turf: nor for 
many years was it otherwise, the Derby not ohtainino-, 
in common with other races, more than a bald 

Seeing that more than a century has passed away 
since the race was instituted, it would be most in- 
teresting to know the year in which any person now 
living first saw the Derby run for. Is it possible, for in- 
stance, that anj'one is still living who saw the Duke of 
Grafton's Whalebone win the ' Blue Ribbon ' in 1810 ? 
If so, that person, who will now have passed the age of 
sevent3?-nine years, must have been a mere child, but 
it is not of course impossible that some octogenarian 
may to-day be alive who witnessed the race for the 
Derb}^ of the year named. Selecting the races of 
later years, the chances of some of those having been 
witnessed by persons now living are much increased. 
In the year in which the battle of Waterloo was 
fought (1815), Whisker won the Deiby. Seventy-five 
3'ears have elapsed since that memorable battle took 
place, but not long ago paragraphs were going the 
round of the press about 'Waterloo veterans ' being 
still in life, and so it may well be that persons are 
yet among us who witnessed some Derby victories 
of the 3^ears beginning, say, with 1825. It would be 
of exceeding interest to find out and know something 
about the person or persons now living who were pre- 
sent to see the Derby run, say, even sixty years since. 

When the great race was instituted newspapers were 
not numerous, and 'news' was much scarcer than to- 
day, not much, apparently, being 'made' of such passing 
events as were thought worthy of the brief chronicles 


of the time ; racing news, in particular, being recorded 
— when it was recorded — in the baldest manner, prob- 
ably for the best of all reasons, namely, that few cared 
for it, the racing public of the period not being numer- 
ous. Many years elapsed, therefore, before the Derby 
came to be looked upon as something in the nature of 
a national event, or till it assumed the phase under 
which it is now so Avell known, of a great social func- 
tion, interesting to hundreds of thousands, the result 
of the race being telegraphed on its decision, without 
a moment's delay, to the uttermost ends of the earth ! 

It was not till Bell's Life in London began to be 
published that people came to single out the race f( r 
the Derby, and make so much of it. After-the advent 
of that newspaper, for many years the leading authority 
on matters of sport in the United Kingdom, 'the Derby' 
became a household word, and annually grew in 
favour, till it attained the importance of a national 
event ; but the exact date at which ' The Derby ' be- 
came the much-observed public festival wdiich it 
undoubtedly is at the present day, and has been for about 
two generations past, cannot be given with any degree 
of certainty. Nor does it avail to speculate on the 
subject — any ancient onlooker of the spectacle who 
can be interviewed has only one reply when his 
opinion is asked : he says, ' It was always so,' but, like 
* Topsy,' the Derby has ' growed/ until it has reached 
its present dimensions. 

In another part of this work it is shown how the 
race, as a race, has expanded in the matter of entries 
and competitors, from its first small beginnings till 
now, when to be entered for a struggle timed to take 



place two years afterwards confers a distinct value on 
a horse, which neither its birth nor its ' form ' can do, 

'What is the use of purchasing su3h an aniraal ?' has 
been said ; ' it is not entered in any of the classic races. 
I should not be able to run it either for the Derb}' or 
St. Leger.' 

It is difficult now to find persons who were at 
Epsom sixty 3'ears since. When found — there cannot 
be very many of them living — they give solemn assur- 
ance that 'it was always so,' that tlicre were always 
similar vast crowds of spectators, and the same irre- 
pressible excitement as ' they ' came round the corner. 
' I saw Priam win, sir,' said an old stableman to the 
writer; 'there uas a great big crowd, and it was a 
most exciting affair. The people seemed to be all 
raving mad as the field was a-coming in, they shouted 
so terrible hard ; there were thousands upon thousands 
on the Downs, and scores of pigeons Avent up in the 
air half a minute after the race.' 

Such statements must, however, be taken with due 
allowance for exaggeration as well as decay of memory. 
In the year 1830, when Priam won, there would not prob- 
ably be tens present on the Downs at Epsom for the hun- 
dreds of to-day. No means of transporting thither such 
crowds as now witness the race could, in the days of 
Priam, be called into requisition. It being now more 
than fifty-nine years since the date of Priam's victory, 
it is open to question if there will be even one person 
out of every two hundred alive this day who would be 
on Epsom Downs on that occasion. Assuming that 
thirty thousand people assembled to witness the great 
racing drama of 1880, less than two hundred of that 


number will now be liviii"', ' if, indeed, tbere be so 
many. And the roll-call of those who were eye- 
witnesses of any previous struggle for the ' Blue 
Ribbon of the Turf ' must be meagre indeed, although 
every now and again the newspapers of the day con- 
tain allusions to persons who saw ' such and such a 
Derby,' naming a far-back race. In Bluegown's year 
(1868), the author of this work conversed with a 
person who had seen Pan, Pope, and Whalebone win, 
which victories took place in 1808, 1803, and 1810 
respectively. The person in question was then travel- 
ling with his parents, who were members of a troupe 
of strolling players, and at the time he was about 
seven years of age. There seemed to be no reason to 
doubt his story. On one of the occasions the then 
Duke of Grafton, who came to the theatre, somewhere 
in the neighbourhood, gave every member of the 
strolling company a half-sovereign. 


The fjreat race and its surroundinofs have been 
written about from every possible point of view. All 
that can be seen on the road to Epsom Downs has 
been many a time related in graphic language. The 
* tramp ' overtaken on the road by the zealous re- 
porter has been interviewed in the interests of his 
paper, while the 'lovely costumes ' of the occupants of 
the luxurious carriages careering to the scene of sport 
have been painted in the brightest of colours by ready 
penholders. The scenes at the railwi^y-stations before 
and after the race have annually made work for the 


pens of ' special corresj^ondents,' and if all tales be 
true, some of these slaves of the pen have been clever 
enough to describe the scenes without seeing them. 
Most London and provincial pressmen have at one 
time or another ' done the Derb}'.' It is an open 
secret, indeed, that not a few of the men who have 
been or are eminent in literature — poets as well as 
writers of prose — have used their pens in writing a 
sketch of the Derby Day. 

Journ;ds which are specially devoted to our national 
sports and pastimes make a point of giving long 
descriptions of the race and its surroundings. But 
the writings of the period lack the ' go ' of olden 
times ; the ' Sunday gallops ' no longer take place ; 
the public, in fact, do not want them. Times have 
changed in these respects. The 'form ' of almost every 
horse that is to compete is known to an ounce, having 
been discounted by its two-year-old running, whilst 
the touts and prophets of the period keep up for the 
benefit of all concerned a perpetual current of infor- 
mation as to what is being done on the various train- 
ing-grounds. Still, the old story is well continued ; 
incidents of the most varied kind crop up for the 
benefit of the industrious reporters ; casualties are 
ever occurring : it must be so whenever and wher- 
ever a hundred thousand people gather together. 
There is the Derby dog and the Derby suicide ; there 
are also the Derby pickpockets and the Derby welshers 
to write about, and, although the glories of the road 
have so far faded, and the abundant chaff and horse- 
play which were at one time incidental to the journey 
have been toned down, something smart and spicy can 


yet be worked up about the conveyance by rail, the 
imaginative powers of some writers in this line of busi- 
ness not having become impaired b}' constantly work- 
ing the same mine of thought. A well-known London 
editor preferred, he said, the 'copy' of Mr. Blossom, 
because, being a work of the imagination, it contained 
sayings and doings of the Derby Day that gave plea- 
sure to the readers of his paper far beyond what they 
would have appreciated had the narrative been one 
of real facts and occurrences, no matter how sensa- 

The social aspects of the Derby, which has been 
characterized as one vast picnic, have no doubt been 
so largely drawn upon by those whose duty it is 
to describe them as to be pretty well used up ; but 
when the people of the period, their sayings and their 
doings, fail to afford pabulum to the penny-a-liner, 
the historic bearings of the race can be called into 
play — the reader can be reminded that in the year 
when the first Derby was run (1780) King George III. 
was on the throne, whilst Lord North was his Prime 
Minister as well as his Chancellor of the Exchequer. A 
feature of the first year of the race can also be recalled 
— the Gordon Riots — and the great facts that London 
at that time was without gas, and that neither telegraph- 
wire nor telephone, which are now called into such 
requisition on the Derby Day, had been thought of, 
can be made to yield some capital to the Derby 
describer. That there were no steamboats and no 
railways, no scheme of universal penny postage, and 
that a hundred other things which have since come to 
pass, and which cannot now be done without, wero 


lacking in the year 1780, can all be utilized to adorn 
the necessary article on the Derby, which might also 
embrace the social changes that have occurred in the 
course of a hundred years. 

The popularity of the Derby as a sight for the 
people, as has been indicated, was of slow growth. 
The century was advancing before it began to 
attract the attention of non-racing persons, and when 
it had to some extent obtained the notice of the mob, 
it was preached against and denounced as a scene of 
sinfulness, the crowd gazing on the race being stigma- 
tized as a o-atherim? of unmitisrated blacksruards. Not 
till many years after the race had been established did 
thirty thousand persons gather on the Downs of Epsom 
to witness the excitins? stru^fRle for the ' Blue Ribbon of 
the Turf.' Now five times that number, it is said, 
assemble to witness the Derbj', and the * House ' 
adjourns for the occasion. The visit of her Majesty 
and Prince Albert the Good to Epsom on the Derby 
Day gave a tillip to the attendance in future years. The 
Queen having set the example, tens of thousands of her 
loyal subjects followed in her wake. Persons who had 
previously thought ' the Derby ' to be a very vulgar 
institution, after her Majesty's patronage saw it in a 
different light, and followed up the royal visit with 
great assiduity, some even of the ' utterly re- 
spectable snatching a fearful joy in beholding the 
mighty assemblage of Epsom Downs. As the various 
lines of railways were constructed, additional tens of 
thousands were borne to the race-course, and from 
about 1840 the annual attendance began to be largely 
augmented. The cheap newspaper movement gave the 


race its next fillip, the conductors of the penn}^ papers 
devoting themselves to the event ; and as these publi- 
cations soon attained a large circulation, compared 
with the old-style journals, the Derby was brought 
home to still additional thousands. The cheap press 
for some years revelled in the fun, frolic and fraud 
incidental to the great event. No diminution has 
taken place in the crowd — every year finds a greater 
number of persons at Epsom than ever assembled 
before, and year after year we hear the same rendhig 
shout of 'They're off!' or 'The favourite's beat!' 
There are the same passions and excitements con- 
nected with the Derby of to-day as with the struggle 
of fifty years ago ; the vast crowds of faces on the 
numerous stands still turn with one accord to welcome 
the equine combatants as they stream round Tattenham 
Corner ; the mad career of the horses as they gallop to 
the winning post is still watched with breathless atten- 
tion for a moment or two by most of the crowd. The 
race scarcely takes three minutes, and during the last 
thirty seconds of that period the excitement to some 
of the spectators is of the intensest description, even 
though they may not have risked half-a-crown on the 
result. Others who have gambled heavily on the 
race, and have thousands at stake, may well be 
excused for feeling anxious, although there are many 
who can win or lose lar^^e sums with the (greatest 
equanimity. Still, it is a relief to all when the race is 
won and the shouting is over, and when those most 
interested know the best or the worst of the event. 

One feature of the changing years which marks the 
Derby, and indeed all other races, is the celerity with 


wbicli the result is now made known all over the 
world. It is the work of moments. No sooner is the 
number of the winning horse displayed on the signal- 
board than the electric flash conveys to London the 
ansioLisly-waited-for intelligence ; if the race has been 
won without doubt, the news will be in London, and 
perhaps in Manchester or Birmingham, and many 
other places as well, in a moment or two. By a dex- 
terous motion a telegraph-clerk can communicate with 
a sporting chum at Edinburgh or Glasgow, and that 
chum can speedily find ways and means to convey 
the news to friends long — that is, a minute or two 
■ — before any message can be delivered. A few years 
ago the name of the Derby winner was known in a 
small provincial town in Scotland within a period of 
seven minutes of the race being run; and in Edin- 
burgh, in some years, the result has been talked of on 
the streets within nine minutes after the race has 
been decided. In Manchester, Liverpool, Glasgow, 
and other towns, editions of the evening papers are 
issued on Derby Day often within ten minutes after 
the struggle has taken place. The result of the Derby 
is known in Paris almost as soon as it is in London. 
That the name of the winner is wired to America 
and India, and known in Bombay and New York with 
great celerity, is a matter of annually recurring gossip. 
The ' Iropertow,' that denoted the first three in the 
American Year, was in the New York clubs a few 
minutes after the event. The word quoted gave in 
abbreviated form the names of the first three which 
passed the post — Iroquois, Peregrine, and Town Moor. 



The race for the Derby, as all interested in it know, 
takes place on the Downs of Epsom. The origin of 
horse-racing at this once fashionable resort cannot be 
determined by a date ; some say that the sport began 
there in the reisfn of James I., who on various occa- 
sions resided at 'The Waters' for th^ benefit of his 
health, and also to enjoy the gay society which assem- 
bled at that resort. The King dwelt in the Palace of 
Nonsuch, and passed a portion of his time in hunting 
and other pastimes in which the ' noble animal ' plays 
a part, the probability being that 'horse matches' were 
frequently got up for his entertainment. 

Evidence is in existence to show that races were run 
on Banstead Downs as early as 1G48, during the latter 
part of the reign of Charles I. At all events, there is 
to be found in the literature of the period various re- 
ferences to the pastime. Pepys, for instance, laments 
his inability to be present at a Derby of his day. In 
his diary for September 11th, 1G60, he says: 'The Duke 
of York did go to-day by break of day to the Downs ;' 
and on May 27th, 1663, he records: 'This day there was 
a ffreat thronging to Banstead Downs, upon a great 
horse-race and foot-race. I am sorry I could not go 
thither.' Another entry referring to racing is dated 
July 25th of the same ^'ear ; it is the following : 
* Having intended this day to go to Banstead Downs 
to see a famous race, I sent Will to get himself ready 
to go with me ; but I hear it is put off, because the 
Lords do sit in Parliament to-day.' In ' Baily's 
Register ' there is a notice of racing on the 2nd, 3rd, 


and Gth of May, 1727, when a Give-and-Take Plate of 
GO guineas, a plate of 40 guineas, and a gold cup value 
40 guineas, were all run for. In the following year a 
race for a plate of 30 guineas for horses that never rau 
before was won by the Duke of Hamilton's Costly. 
No other event is recorded till ] 732, when two races 
took place on May 9th and 13th respectively — both 
purses for 30 guineas. From the date of 1730 racing 
was continued annually at Epsom, and carried on 
with regularity. 

In those times, both at Epsom and elsewhere, the 
day's racing was always interrupted by dinner. Sport 
began at 11 o'clock; and as soon as a couple of heats 
had been decided, the compan}'- adjourned from the 
racecourse to the town, wliere dinners were served, after 
which racing was resumed in the afternoon for an hour 
or two. 

The social customs which began in those early racing 
days were kept up for more than a century. In 182-i 
Mr. Apperly (' Nimrod ') in alluding to the dining 
customs, says : ' Chester, however, as a convivial meet- 
ing is not what Chester was. The chilling stream of 
refinement has passed over every corner of the empire; 
and neither a Welsh nor Cheshire squire can now be 
so vulgar as to be .seen on a racecourse after he has 
had his dinner. The two o'clock ordinaries, formerly 
so well aitended, and where so much mirth and good 
fellowship prevailed, are all knocked on the head, and 
private parties substituted in their room. The ofhco 
of steward appears almost a sinecure, and, for my own 
part, I never knew who they were till the races were 
almost over; instead of, as in former days, having 


drunk their health every day in the week with " three 
times three." ' 

In 1730 the following very curt description of the 
Epsom course appears in ' Magna Britannia :' ' On the 
Downs is a four-mile course for horse-races, from N.E. 
to S.W., which is much frequented.' After the date 
mentioned the contests brought off at Epsom con- 
tinued to increase in importance. In 1736 five days' 
racing took place at intervals, viz. : on May 3rd, 5th, 
8th,20th,and 22nd. In 1746, ten years afterwards, there 
Avas run on May 5th his Royal Highness the Prince of 
Wales's Plate of 50 guineas ; on May 6th £50 was 
given for a four-year-old race ; on the 7th a plate of 
£50 ; on the 9th £50 ; on the 10th £50. The total 
sum run for in 1756, at Epsom, was £200, divided into 
four sums of £50. In 1766 there were five races of 
£50 each decided at Epsom. In May, 1766, there were 
again four days' racing. In an October meeting which 
had been instituted that year the following incident is 
chronicled : ' A curious accident befell the jockey who 
rode the Avinner of the Sweepstakes. Just before he 
came in at the winning-post, being crossed by a gentle- 
man on horseback, the rider Avas thrown, but his lesf 
hanging in the stirrup, the horse, of course, carried his 
Aveight in, and Avon miraculously, Avithout hurting his 

More than a hundred years ago (1782) two meetings 
were held at Epsom, one in May and one in October. 
The following is the rubric of the races run in that 
year, which concludes all that need be said about 

May 8th : The Noblemen and Gentlemen's Pia'se of 


£50, for five-3^ear-ol(]s, 8 st., six-year-olds, 8 st. 9 lb., 
and aged, 9 st., mares and fillies allowed 3 lb. ; for all 
the plates, four-mile heats. 

9th : The Derby Stakes of 50 guineas each, h. ft. for 
three-year-olds, colts 8 st., and fillies 7 st. 11 lb. ; the 
last mile. The owner of the second horse received 
100 guineas out of the stakes. 

The Ladies' Plate of £50 for four-year-olds, 8 st. 
7 Ih. : two-mile heats. 

10th : The Oaks Stakes of 50 guineas each, 40 
guineas forfeit, for three-year- old fillies, 8 st. 4 lb. 
The owner of the second filly received 100 guineas out 
of the stakes. The last mile and a half. 

Lord Egremont's f. by Herod out of Maiden, 8 st., 
beat Wr. Parker's Ileptile, 7 st. 13 lb.; last mile, 100 

Mr. Douglas's Catch, 7 st. 11 lb., beat Lord Foley's 
Lausus, 8 St. 2 lb. ; last mile, 50 guineas. 

The Noblemen and Gentlemen's Parse of £50; four- 
mile heats. 

11th: The Town Purse of £50 ; two-mile heats. 

A Sweepstakes of 10 guineas each for three-3'ear- 
olds, colts 8 St., and fillies 7 st. 12 lb. ; the last mile. 

October 24th : £cO for four-year-olds ; three-mile 

25th : The Ladies' Plate of £50, for three-year-olds ; 
two-mile heats. 

26th: The Town Plate of £50; two-mile heats. 

The chief seats of racing at the present time, in so 
far as the attendance of the public is concerned, are 
undoubtedly Epsom, Manchester, and Ascot, as also 
Goodwood and Sandown Park. At Liverpool and 


Gosforth(Ne\vcastle-on-Tyne)immensemassesof people 
assemble to witness ceitain races, more especially the 
Liverpool Grand National Steeplechase and the North- 
umberland Plate, which has been called the ' Pitmen's 
Derby.' Bat it is not necessary that every seat of racing 
sport should be described or referred to in this work ; 
two or three places will be quite sufficient to represent 
the whole: E{isom, as bemg an outlet for the immense 
population of the great Metropolis; Ascot, for the excel- 
lence of its sport, and the rich nature of its prizes; Good- 
wood, as a picture of society enjoying a grand picnic ; 
and Manchester, as the largest gate-mone}' meeting in 
connection with the sport of horse-racing in Great 

Tne racing at Epsom has, fortunately for those 
having the greatest pecimiary interest in the sport, 
become endowed with the great centrepiece of ' the 
Derby ' to attract all the world to the Dov/ns. Lord 
Palmerston spoke of the races at Epsom as our 
'Isthmian games,' although a ciown of parsley would 
be esteemed a very poor reward by the man who won 
the big race — which has been felicitously named the 
' Blue Piibbon of the Turf,' and is a prize which is 
longed for by every man who plays a part on the turf. 

After the year 1820 the Derby became of note ; pre- 
vious to that year its popularity had been of slow 
growth, but during the fifty years between 1820 and 
1870 its importance had increased so largely as to 
perceptibly diminish the vast population of London on 
the day on which the race was run. It gives occasion 
for what may be termed a 'gigantic' holiday for the 
lower and middle classes of the Modern Babylon and 


its neiohbourhood. Some writers tell us that the 
glories of the Derby are beginning to wane, and that 
in a few 3'ears it will be shorn of its interest. It may 
be so, but in the meantime the evidence is very much 
the other way. A few years ago the value of the 
Derby stake exceeded S3vi3-a thousand pounds. Nor 
has the attendance of tne public diminished on the 
great holiday. In 1SS5 it was said to be the best on 
record, and the takings at the Grand Stand entrance 
were plethoric. Certainly the Derby may, in time, 
lose some of the interest which attaches to it, seeing 
that there are now so many good meetings held in the 
immediate vicinity of the great city ; but there will 
still remain an immense number of thousands who 
will never see any other races than those which talc3 
place on the Derby Day. 



It is not a little surprising- that a period of over a 
hundred years should have been allowed to elapse 
without those who for so loner a time have derived a 
handsome profit from the running of tiie Derby being 
peremptorily called upon to augment the stakes. 
Year after year owners have generously continued to 
enter, at considerable cost to themselves, from one to 
ten horses. The purse so obtained has, of course, at 
times been pretty well filled, as on several occasions 
the sum run for has amounted to £6,000, and even as 
much as £7,000, not one penny of which was provided by 
the Grand Stand Company. But, impelled no doubt 
by the force of public opinion, the authorities of 
Epsom have so far accommodated themselves to the 
spirit of the times as to have ventured on a new de- 
parture in respect of the monetary and other conditions 
which shall in future govern the great race. The new 
rules come into operation this year (1890); and what 
has been conceded may be gathered from the following 
copy of the terms on which it is to be run : 

'Epsom, 1890 — Wednesday: The Derby Stakes of 



5,000 sovs. for the winner, 500 sovs. for the nominator 
of the winner, SOO sovs. for the owner of the second, 
and 200 sovs, for the owner of the third, Colts 9 st, 
tilhes 8 St. 9 lb., then three-year-olds ; by subscription 
of 50 sovs, each ; half forfeit if declared by the first 
Tuesday in January, 1890, and 10 sovs, only if de- 
clared by the first Tuesday in January, 1889; any 
surplus to be ^J'tid to the v»-innGr. About a. mile and a 
half, starting at the high-level starting-post. 237 sub- 
scribers ; closed July 10th, 1888.' 

These new conditions are certainly an improvement 
on those which up till this time have governed the 
finance of the Derby, As all who take an interest in 
the sport of horse-racing are aware, the terms on which, 
for many ^^ears, horses have been entered for the 
Derby are £25, an additional sum of that amount 
having to be paid by those sportsmen who order their 
horses to be run in the race. At first the amounts 
paid were fixed at guineas, but in 1825 sovereigns 
Avere substituted. Many years passed away before the 
Derby became of much value. Not till the year 1831, 
when Spaniel won, did the entries for the race exceed 
100 horses, and sixteen more years elapsed before 
they numbered 200, whilst it was not till 182 T that 
as many as twenty horses came to the starting- 

Up till 1880 owners never seemed to think they 
should do other than follow their predecessors, and 
enter their horses on the terms prescribed. True, an 
occasional irrumble Avas heard about the avariciousness 
of the Epsom authorities; but it was not till the offer 
of much higher stakes at other meetings began to be 


mnae that proposals for the financial reform of the 
Derhy were ventilated ; and with the view of ' iniprov- 
inw * the conditions, and making the race a ' big thing,' 
fome remarkable suggestions found their way into 
J rint. 

It was at one time suggested, for instance, that the 
Jockey Club should be called upon to take action, and 
determine the amount of a bonus which ought to be 
added to the two great Epsom races, or to say how 
they ought to be so remodelled as to admit of the 
owners of horses obtaining something more than their 
own money from a company which was reputed to be 
making £20,000 or £30,000 per annum by means of 
the Derby and Oaks being run over ground which 
they had leased from the lord of the manor. 

In view of contingencies, a change of venue was 
even proposed. One writer on the subject enunciated 
the following views: 'The Derby is a name that is 
still potent to conjure with. This is not, however, a 
sentimental age, and the rose might, as Shakespeare 
has suggested, smell as sweetly as it now does, even if 
its name were to be changed; and even so the "Derby" 
might flourish if it were not run at Epsom, and the 
funds derived from the various sources of revenue were 
devoted to other uses than the enrichment of the 
jiersons who own the Grand Stand and lease the race- 
course. Moreover, it is beginning to be asked if any 
particular person or body of persons have "the right "* 
to take nominations for the two classic races run at 
Epsom ; and if so, from whom that right is derived ? 

' The race, as is well known, was instituted in the 
year 1780, and named in honour of the Lord Derby 

, . 2—2 


of that time It would lead, pvobabl^^ to curious 
revelations to know its history in the aspect of the 
question just asked, namely, Is the title of " the Derby 
Stakes" held by patent? if so, from whom? or is it 
copyright ? if so, where can the register be seen ? and 
how came the patent, or copyright, to be vested in the 
company which at present " bosses " the race ? ^^'hy 
should the gentlemen of England subscribe a matter 
of £10,000 per annum to be competed for on Epsom 
Downs, in order that the attraction so caused may 
enrich the proprietors of the Grand Stand ? They 
might as easily devote the money to some other pur- 
pose, or, as has been more than once suggested, run 
the race which they maintain elsewhere ; and prob- 
ably, at no distant date, that may bo done. Those 
interested — namely, the owners of the horses entered 
for the race — are surely entitled to dispense their 
patronage in any mode they please ; and were the 
Derby to be put up to auction, and the Oaks along 
with it, some enterprising race-course company might 
far outbid the present holders of the monopoly. This 
idea may be scouted as Utopian, but more unlikely 
things have happened before now, 

' No figures representing the receipts of the two race- 
meetings held at Epsom are ever published, so far as 
making them known to the general public is con- 
cerned ; but those familiar with racing finance have 
computed that in the course of the six days occupied 
by meetings at Epsom a sum of over £50,000 will be 
bagged in name of admission-fees and rents of many 
kinds. A well-known writer commenting recently on 
the financial aspects of the Derby and Oaks, stated 


that the receipts of the Grand Stand amount to many 
thousand pounds, and increase year by year. Shares 
are occasionally oll'ered for sale, and bring big prices, 
which points, of course, in the direction of very liberal 



In the absence of authentic information, the early 
history of the Derby, as regards its tinance, can only 
form matter for speculation. When first the race was 
run, its surroundings were of the most primitive kind, 
and at that period no pre-visions of its future celebrity 
as what may be termed a ' national event ' had been 
indulged in, nor, in all probability, would the lord of 
the manor of that day have the least idea that in the 
course of time the ground on which the race took 
place would be worth a thousand pounds per annum ; 
nor could it then have occurred to any person that 
before sixty years would elapse there would be required 
a Grand Stand of large dimensions, and many smaller 
erections of a similar kind, to accommodate the tens 
of thousands who annually journey to Epsom to gaze 
on the great struggle for the ' Blue Ribbon of the 

Certain particulars regarding the erection of the 
Stand have, it is right to say, been made public. It 
was erected in 1829-30, at a cost of about £14,000, the 
capital required being raised without any difficulty in 
shares of £20, of which 1,000 were issued. In Mr. 
Brayley's ' History of Surrey,' it is stated that tlio 


erection of the Stand 'had its origin in an arlfnl 
speculation devised by a small horde of questionable 
characters ; and it was not before great trouble and 
expense had been incurred that they were excluded 
from the management.' A lawyer's bill was incurred 
amounting to £557. . 

The Grand Stand was built from a set of plans 
drawn by Mr. William Trendall, and, in order to get rid 
of the 'questionable characters' referred to, a new com- 
mittee of management was formed, and an additional 
sum of raone}' was authorized to be raised. This was 
done : a mortgage of £5,000 being effected on the pro- 
perty, and two bends of £2,500 each were granted on 
annuity at 70 per cent., one of Avhich was redeemed m 
1836, partly by the creation of forty-nine new shares, 
carrying interest at 5 per cent., the value of which 
was assessed some years since at £75 each. The rent 
at one time paid for a considerable portion of the 
race-course was at the rate of £300 per annum, Avhich 
was deemed inadequate by Mr. Studd, who had (18G8) 
become proprietor of the Manor of Walton. That 
gentleman proposed a rent to be fixed at the rate 
of £1,000 per annum, extending over a twenty-one 
years' lease. Ultimately, however, the course was so 
altered as to avoid Mr. Studd's portion of the heath. 
When the Derby was instituted, the course to be run 
over was only a mile in length ; now, as is well known, 
it is half a mile longer. 

With reference to the Grand Stand and its ap- 
purtenances, it is related that it was a Mr. Charles 
Ijluck, from Doncaster, who originated the building of 
it, having proposed to the manorial court at Epsom to 


lease, for a period of sixty-one years, an acre of ground 
on which to build it. Ultimately, by agreement with 
the lord of the manor, the period of tenancy was 
extended to ninety 3-ears, and the document Avas 
signed on the 27th of November, 1828, the annual 
rent being fixed at £80. That lease will, of course, 
terminate in the year 1918. The stand has been an 
immense success, and may be said to have proved 
a gold-mine to its proprietors. ' The receipts of the 
Grand Stand,' says a popular writer, ' increase year 
by year. The charge is now two guineas for the four 
days, or one guinea for the Derby Day or the Oaks 
Day ; and the paddock, admission to which some 
years ago was only a shilling, now fills well at half a 

Every 3'ear the public patronage accorded to the 
Grand and parasitic stands, to the paddocks and other 
enclosures, increases at a wonderful rate. For re- 
freshments the demand is incessant, and the profit 
derived from this part of the business must be very 
large. No two persons will be found to agree as to 
the numbers who crowd to Epsom Downs to witness 
the Derby, but various estimates have been made, 
ranging from 70,000 to a quarter of a million. If, 
however, 100,000 persons are present, and each, 
striking an average, expends half a sovereign in 
railway fares and refreshments, that of itself totals 
up to a sum of £50,000 for the day's outing ! 

One of our ablest and most informed writers on 
horse-racing and the economy of the turf, whilst 
advocating, some j^ears since, that something should 
be done by way of augmenting the stakes of the Derby 


and Oaks, said : ' There is not a better paying property 
in. the country than Epsom Grand Stand, and it will 
pay still more now that there is to be an autumn 
meeting. The Stand has recently been improved at 
a cost of £12,000, and of this sum not less than 
£7,000 has already been got back. For the new club 
no less than 700 members have already been elected, 
the entrance fee being five guineas, and the annual 
subscription five guineas.' Writing of the Epsom 
Gratid Stand Company in another communication, 
the same gentleman says : ' Despite its wealth, it is 
the most niggardly racing corporation iu the kingdom, 
and not only do they not give one shilling to the 
Derby or Oaks, but not so long ago they had the 
impudence to make the winner of these races pay the 
salary of the judge and the police expenses for keep- 
ing the course, and also £-30 for champagne !' 


The different plans promulgated from time to time 
for the improvement of the Derby may now be 
briefly alluded to. 

Mr. John Porter, of Kingsclere, proposed to enhance 
the value of the race in the following fitshion : ' The 
])erby for more than a hundred years has been the 
race for which all nations have striven, and if we are 
to maintain its prestige something substantial must bo 
done by the Epsom authorities. This is what I vv'ould 
suggest to them — that, to make the Dciby of the 
future still the greatest race in the world, they should 


actually give in cash £5,000, and increase the entrance- 
fee from £50, half-forfeit, to £100, half-forfeit. We 
may reasonably suppose that this liberal donation 
Avould increase the number of entries, but even sup- 
posing that they should remain the same as at present 
(about 200), and that there are, say, twenty runners, 
tliis gives £2,000 subscribed by the runners, £9,000 in 
forfeits, with the £5,000 added by the execu*:ive, and 
would make a total of £16,000, which should indeed 
" eclipse " the value of any other race. Considering 
the number who attended to see the great race at 
Sandown under most depressing circumstances, it 
is almost impossible to grasp the magnitude of the 
assemblage we should see on Epsom Downs (the 
scene of so many glorious contests) to witness the 
Derby under these new and inspiriting conditions.' 

A recent writer on the financial aspects of the 
Derby thus ventilates his ideas of how matters ought 
to be adjusted between those who receive the nomina- 
tions and those who make them : ' Were ovv^ners of 
Derb}' horses to increase their subscriptions, in order 
to make the race a startling one as to amount, and 
thereb}' cause a sensation ; and were such a multitude 
to be attracted to the Epsom enclosures (they have 
been lately enlarged) as to make a gate worth £25,000, 
would it be too much to ask thiit half, or at least 
a third, of the sum that remained after expenses were 
deducted should be divided among the hrst three 
horses, and particuhirly that a handsome bonus 
should be awarded to tlie owner of the animal which 
obtains the second place ? It is not unreasonable to 
cal(;ulate that by such means a sum of from £8,000 


to £10,000 might be added to the subscriptions, of 
which £2,000 might be given to the owner of the 
horse which the judge placed second, and half as 
much to the owner of the other placed horse. The 
Oaks could be dealt with on a similar plan.' 

The following scheme was propounded some years 
since by the present writer, and may have had some 
slight influence in shaping the conditions under which 
the race is now run. ' A simple mode of augmenting 
the stakes would be to allow the owner of the winner 
to draw the whole amount subscribed, and that £1,000 
and £500 respectively should be given to the owners 
of the horses which run second and third in the Derby 
and Oaks ; in which case the Epsom authorities would 
have to find £3.000, Avhich they could well afford, and 
have plenty left over for dividends to Grand Stand 
shareholders. In this Avay £450 would be added to 
the sum given to the winning horse, that being the 
amount divided at present between the second and 
third — namely, £300 and £150. On behalf of those 
who would be more exacting in the matter of more 
really added money, it may be suggested that the 
chief stake should in every race be augmented to 
even money — that is, if the subscriptions (say at 
present rates) did not reach £5,000, £6,000, or £7,000, 
as the case might be, they should be supplemented 
in the way suggested. To j^revent misunderstanding, 
here is an example : Take the Derby won by St. Blaise 
in 1883; the sum came to £5,150: by the plan of the 
winner getting all the subscriptions, St. Blaise would 
have received the sum of £5,000, to be increased to 


£G,000. Were the Epsom Summer Meeting to be 
made a gate-money meeting, then, in the event of the 
two races being still run there, a bonus of at least 
£7,000 should be given to them, to be allocated as the 
stewards, or, better still, the subscribers to the race, 
might determine.' 

One more of the many schemes promulgated for 
the benefit of Derby nominators may be noticed, on 
account of its having been devised by * Borderer,' 
an excellent and all-round writer on our national 
sports and pastimes. This gentleman's plan was un- 
fortunately devised, it appears to the writer, more for 
the benefit of the (Irand Stand shareholders than 
those who provide the horses. Briefly, 'Borderer' 
proposed to raise the money in the following fashion — 
namely, a total sum of £135 to be paid for each foal 
entered, and £150 for each yearling. The conditions: 
' To close for foals of 1887 on the first Tuesday in 
July, 1887, entrance 10 sovs. ; to close for yearlings 
on the third Tuesday in September, 1888, entrance 
25 sovs. Horses not struck out of the race on or 
before the last Tuesday in March, 1890, to pay a 
further sum of 50 sovs. ; an additional charge of 
50 sovs. to be made for starters.' The sum obtained 
under these conditions (£12,000) 'Borderer' proposed 
to allocate as follows : 

The winner to receive - - £10,000 

Breeder of the Avinner - - 500 

Second hor?e . - - . 1,000 

Breeder of the second horse - 200 

Breeder of the third horse - 100 


It is somewhat remarkable that in nearly all tho 
schemes promulgated on behalf of the Derby and Oaks, 
the Epsom authorities receive the greatest degree of 
consideration ; all that is accorded to owners is the 
questionable privilege of paying a much larger sum 
in the shape of entry money ! All, for instance, 
that ' Borderer's' scheme leads up to is just a bigger 
gamble to be indulged in by the owners of the 
animals entered; whilst what is really wanted is that 
those who derive such a handsome return from these 
attractive races should not 'bag' more money, but 
should hand over a percentage of their gains to tho 
men who provide the horses. If the writer is not 
misinformed, it has long been a rule in all great 
'matches' for the pedestrians engaged, or those who 
* manage ' them, to receive a considerable share of the 
gate-money — and why not ? And why should it not 
likewise be so in the case of horse-racing ? Suppose, 
by way of argument, that the owners of, say, the best 
score of race-horses at present in existence were to 
agree to run them in a sweepstakes of £1,000 per 
horse at handicap weights, would these gentlemen not 
be entitled to say to the authorities of Sandown, 
Epsom, or Kempton Park, ' What sum will you give 
us if we decide this great race on 3'our course ?' Such 
an event might prove an enormous 'draw,' and yield 
a Avonderful 'gate.' It would only be reasonable, there- 
fore, that the directors of whatever course was selected 
should present the promoters of the race with a per- 
centage of the drawings. Co-operation is in vogue 
at present ; why, then, should not sportsmen who own 
valuable race-horses utilize them in the manner in- 


dlcatcd, both in handicaps, and in relation to the 
Derby, Oaks, and St. Leger, by co-operating to provide 
a big race ? 

It should be brought home to those chiefly in- 
terested that the persons who derive so great a pro tit 
from the Derby and Oaks should be compelled to 
disgorge a larger portion of it than they seem in- 
clined to those who in reality provide the sport — 
namely, the ladies and gentlemen who run their 
horses, some of which have cost thousands of pounds 
to purchase, and hundreds of pounds to maintain. 
Who would constitute himself an advocate for levia- 
than stakes, the gains of which go to enrich mere 
speculators, who in all probability have no soul for 
sport or, at any rate, for the sport of kings ? If 
an enormous stake were to be formnlated, the excite- 
ment Avhich would attend its decision, if decided so 
near London as Epsom, would probably be very gr^at* 

Many of the facts and figures pertaining to the 
Derby are of exceeding interest. It will be seen from 
the following tables that during the first ten j^ears of 
the race the total stake run for never exceeded 1,250 
guineas (calculating the amount from the number of 
entries and runners) ; whilst in the ten years ending 
with 1884, the average value of the stakes, as ascer- 
tained in the mode indicated, was £5,655. The entry 
in 1879 is the largest that has been recorded, exceed- 
ing that of Lord Lyon's year by four, and resulting 
in the biggest return for a Derby yet known. The 
average of the entries divides into 228 horses per 
annum, and the running horses average seventeen per 
annum over the ten years indicated. As regards the 


number of entries, a glance at once shows that for 
the race of 1885 121 subscribers entered 190 horses ; 
i-n the following year 202 horses were named by 
12^0 ladies and genilemen. For the 'Blue Ribbon* 
of' 1887, 112 persons entered 190 animals ; for tho 
r'kce of 1888 there were ninety different nominators, 
who named 1G3 horses. In 1889 the figures were 
92 subscribers and 171 horses. Many gentlemen 
name a considerable number of their colts in each 
year; thirteen animals have sometimes been entered 
by some of England's best sportsmen, whilst entries 
of from four to nine are common. When it is stated 
that the colts which compete in the Derby when 
they are of the age of three years have to be entered 
for the race while they are 'yearlings,' itwill be at onco 
obvious, even to persons who are not familiar with the 
economy of the turf, that many of the animals named 
never compete. Some die long before the day, others 
do not stand the strain of hard work which is abso- 
lutely necessary for tlieir preparation, and thus it comes 
about that perhaps not more tban twelve or fifteen 
are sent to the starting-place on the eventful Wednes- 
day on which the great riice falls to be run. It is 
obvious from what has been said or indicated that, in 
respect of the money involved, subscribers to each 
succeeding Derby might just as \vell write the names 
of their horses on a piece of paper and draw them 
out of a hat as run them in the race, or they might 
meet at dinner and toss against each other for the 
stakes !* That, of course, would not be esteemed 

* ' It was recently asked by a defender, or. rather, apologist 



sncli a sporting event as a race is thought to be; but 
why the chief sportsmen of EngLmd, France, and 
America should combine to run their horses at a 
heavy cost chiefly to benefit a company which has 
leased a portion of the Epsom Downs is not easy to 
understand, seeing that they might as well do so — if 
not for the benefit of some public hospital or other 
deserving charit}' — for their own profit. 
The following are the tables referred to : 


















Assassin * 

























Sir Peter Teazle 





Sir Thomas 









]\Iaking a big jump, the fifteen years ending with 
1889 show, of course, more prosperous times : 

of the arlministration : "Of what use are the horses without a 
race-course ?" That is, of course, one way of putting the case. 
The same style of logic was made use oP by a theatrical 
manager to a man who had written a play : " Of what value is 
your play if you are without a theatre in which to protiuce 
it ?" The answer given was the very obvious one : " Of what 
use is your theatre to you if yon have no plays to occupy your 
stage y ' — Manchester Sporting Chronicle. 






























Sir Bevys 





Bend Or 















St. Blaise 





Harvester and St. Gali n 















Merry Hampton 



















The conditions under which the race is now to be 
run, it will be generally admitted, are an improvement 
on previous arrangements, but so far as can be deter- 
mined at the time of penning these remarks, they will 
not cost the Epsom executive so much as a shilling. 
The sum allocated to the second horse is unsatis- 
factory ; if really honest racing is ever to be obtained, 
it will be when every animal taking part in the race 
is trying to win it. But in the Derby, and several 
other contents, where there is a big prize only for the 
first horse, there is always likel}^ to be a number of 
non triers. The instructions given to riders of such 
animals may well be supposed to be couched in the fol- 
lowing fashion : ' We are only going for the off-chance. 
If you think, when the push comes, that you can win, 
by all means do so ; bat if not, then ease y(jur horse. 
We don't care about getting a place in the Derby.' 

With a sum, however, of £2,000 or £1,500 for the 


second, and, say £800 or more to the third horse, 
owners would doubtlei-s Iiave less hesitation in trying 
to get ' a shop.' 

The case of the second horse in the Derby is 
frequently a hard one — a very hard case indeed. As 
the saying goes, it may just be ' beaten by the skin of 
its teeth,' because of a bad start, or from being 
cannoned against in the race, or in consequence of 
inferior jockeyship, or from some other cause ; and 
many a time, as sportsmen know, the second horse is 
better th-m the horse which wins the race, therefore 
the petty allowance so often made to the owner of the 
animal which comes in second in such a race as the 
Derby forms a poor reward for the anxieties that 
Lave attended its career since it was entered for the 
famous race, for which it has very likely been specially 
retained and trained. Another factor in the situation 
may also be alluded to: the owner is sure to sufEor 
from the form of his horse having been exposed — an 
animal which has run second or third in a Derby, 
Oaks or St. Leijer, is certain to attract the attention of 
handicappers, and to be well ' looked after ' in the 
weights of such events as his owner may enter it 

Another reason why owners do not usuall}^ care to 
have their horses ' placed,' is the contemptible rate of 
odds offered by bookmakers against horses that 
might be backed for places — the odds laid against 
any horse for a 'shop' have seldom the slightest re- 
lation to the price offered for a win : the one quotation 
may be 50 to 1, the other 5 to 1. But when hand- 
some allowances come to be made to the owners of 



the animals which run second and third, it may be 
assumed that nine-tenths of the horses which face 
the stnrter will be trying, and when that becomes 
generally known the place-odds will certainly expand, 
and very properl}'.* 

Think of the fact that for such a race as the St. 
Leger. the conditions bear that the owner of the 
second horse shall receive 200 sovs., and the third 
100 sovs. out of the stakes ! To some extent the 
claims of the owners of the second and third horses to 
be more liberally dealt with is being recognised in the 
bisr stake races which are becoming common. In the 
Lancashire Plate, for instance, the horse that follows 
the winner to the winning-pose wins for its owner 
1,000 sovs., and 500 sovs. for ihe nominator as well. 
But the disparity between the 12,000 sovs. which fall 
to the winner, and the 1,000 sovs. assigned to his 

* The following remarks by a practical sportsman, although 
uttered a few years ago, are apropos to the argument : ' One would 
assuredly look with more favour on these races, and others that 
are sure to follow on an even larger monetary basis, were the 
.sum of money to be given more equitably divided ; as at pre- 
sent arranged, the competitions to which I refer are simply a 
benefit to one horse, or rather to its ownei-. Why, for instance, 
should Sir Bevys contribute so large a sum as £7,000 to its 
owner's coffers, and nothing worth speaking of be paid on 
account of the animal that followed it home ? Assuredly the 
Derby, and other large stakes, require to be readjusted. It is 
alwa>s desirable to see big fields competing, and many of the 
small fields now seen would be larger were an inducement held 
out to those who own the horses to run them against those 
animals that are supposed to have the race at their me^-.y. Two 
years ngo, a friend of mine who had a good horse entered for 
the Derby would have run him if he could have backed him for 
a place on reasonable terms ; but the best offer he got was 7 to 
2, and that for an animal that was only supposed to have a 
50 to 1 chance to win.' 


nominator, and the like sum allotted to the second 
horse, is striking. The total sum to be distributed 
for the race (no matter, in the meantime, how pro- 
vided) is as follows : 

Winner - 

- 12.000 1 


Nominator of winner 

- 1,000 

Owner of second horse 

- 1,000 

Nominator of second 


Owner of third horse 


Nominator of ditto - 


15,000 „ 

Some who take an interest in racing will, doubtless, 
be able to divide the above amount after some pet 
plan of their own, and there are those who, like the 
writer, may think that ten thousand pounds to any 
winner would be an ample reward. In the New- 
market Stakes of 10,000 sovs. it is proposed to give 
1,000 and 500 sovs. respectively to the owners of the 
second and third horses. Should the race prove suc- 
cessful and be continued, the Jockey Club ought to re- 
adjust its financial features, and take into considera- 
tion the propriety of providing at least another 
thousand pounds to be divided between the owners 
of the second and third horses in the proportions 
(including, of course, the 1,500 sovs. already provided 
for) of 1,500 and 1,000 sovs. to the owners of the 
second and third horses. Other races might be re- 
ferred to in which winners will be Avell cared for, 
whilst the horses which run second and third will be 



passed over with a sop of two or three hundred ; but 
the examples just given will no doubt prove sufficient to 
draw attention to this feature of racing finance, which 
for so long a period has been in the nature of a blot 
on ' the sport of kings,' A little prophecy may here 
be ventured : it is that when the claims of the horses 
which obtain second and third places come to be 
fairly recognised, there will be found a much longer 
list of nominators. 

Sentiment must find no place in an exposition of 
Derby finance. It may be pretty well taken for 
granted that those who so ably work the oracle for 
the benefit of shareholders and themselves are simply 
hard -headed men who do not care much about 
sentiment, and they will evidently require a good deal 
of persuading to make a substantial money grant to 
the great race ; but seeing that the contest of the 
present year will not take a halfpenny out of their 
pockets, the conditions of the race in future years will 
undoubtedly be watched very closely. 



To give a brief account of even a few of the men who 
have taken part in what may be called the ' making of 
the turf would require a volume, but the materials 
for the compilation of a book of that kind are not 
quite at hand. Not, in fact, till the Derby had been 
run for a considerable number of 3'ears was much 
notice taken of racintj men of either hi<'h or low de- 
gree ; that is, in connection with their love of sport. 
Not till the advent of the so-called ' classic races ' does 
material for detailed biographies of turf men become 
abundant, and, above all, reliable. 

Long before that time, however, a man had appeared 
upon the scene who left his mark on the incidence of 
racing; his name was Tregonwell Frampton, and ho 
was born in the year 1G41, in the reign of Charles I. 
Frampton, who in his time was keeper of the running 
horses at Newmarket to their ^Majesties William III., 
Queen Anne, George I., and George II., died on 
March 12th, 1727, aged eighty-six, and lies buried in 
Newmarket. He has been called the 'father of the 
turf,' and has a distinct claim tD be considered tho 
discoverer of the capabilities of ' racing as a business.* 


His memory, it must be admitted, is somewhat clouded 
by questionable actions. A Newmarket visitor of that 
time Avrites : ' There was Mr. Frampton, the oldest and, 
as they say, the cunningest jockey in England, [The 
word 'jockey' is here made use of in the dictionary 
sense.] One day he lost a thousand guineas, the next 
he won two thousand, and so on alternately. Ho 
made as light of throwing away £500 or £1,000 at a 
time as other men do of their pocket-money, and was 
as perfectly calm, cheerful, and unconcerned when he 
had lost £1,000 as when he had won £1,000.' 

In the days of Frampton betting had become com- 
mon ; indeed, he was one of the chief instigators of that 
mode of speculation, and the first person in all proba- 
bility who ' arranged ' a race on the lines now so well 
known and so often adopted. Of the scenes at New- 
market in the latter days of Frampton, when horse- 
racing had become more of a ' business ' at the chief 
seat of sport than it was in earlier days, the visitor 
alreaily referred to says : ' I had the opportunity to 
see the horse-races and a great concourse of the 
nobility and gentry, as well from London as other 
parts of England ; but they were all so intent, so 
eager, so busy upon the sharping part of the sport, 
their wagers, their bets, that to me they seemed just 
as so many horse-coursers in SmithHeld ; descending 
the greatest of them from the high dignity and quality 
to the picking one another's pockets, and biting one 
anotlier as much as possible, and with so much eager- 
ness, as it might be said, they acted without respect 
to faith, honour, or good names.' 

It was wittily said that ' sin came upon the turf 


with tho advent of Frampton.' At an early period he 
hit up^u the phin of making any match that he had 
anything to do with a ' certainty,' so far as that could 
be accomplished. By means of a secretly-ridden trial, 
he endeavoured when it was possible to tind out which 
was the better horse ; if the animal was his own, then 
he backed it ; if his opponent's, then he supported it, 
and contrived by some means to lay against his own. 
Gf the many stories told to the disadvantage of Framp- 
ton, some are probably altogether imaginative, and 
others rest only, on a slight foundation of fact. 
AVhether the 'father of the turf was really guilty of 
the numerous sins laid to his charsje or not, there is 
plenty of evidence to show that he pla3'ed in his time 
an important part on the turf. In particular he was 
famed for the knowledge he treasured up of the form 
of the running horses of the period — a necessity, no 
doubt, of his position as the heaviest betting man of 
his time. As has been stated, Frampton died in the 
year 1727, at the age of eighty-six. Granting that he 
had been, as the saying goes, 'on the turf for a period 
of sixty years, he mu^-t have been familiar with the 
rise and progress of horse-racing. Unfortunately, the 
printed records of regular sport only begin in 1709, so 
that little is known of Frampton's numerous achieve- 
ments in the racing world. 

In the year 1727, the year in which he died, there 
was racing at Newmarket (two meetings), Whitechurch 
in Shropshire, Epsom, Walbasey in Cheshire, Guild- 
ford, Ipswich, Stamford, Richmond, Nottingham, Pres- 
ton, Peterborough, Ascot, Hambleton, York, Leighton, 
Lewes, Winchester, Grantham, Oxford, Bake well, Derby- 


shire, Lincoln, Leicester, Lichfield, and Great Marlow 
— twenty-four places in all. In the year 1720 the 
'father of the turf had the folio wing- named horses 
running at Newmarket : Potatoe, Highlow, Nutmeg, 
Hobler, Sparin Halls, Margaretta, and Sorrel Filly. 
The last time Mr. Frampton's name appeared on the 
record of races run at Newmarket was on April 10th, 

Sir Charles Bunbury, who won the first race for 
the Derby, was called 'father of the turf also, and 
others who promoted in its earlier stages the ' sport of 
kings,' notably some of the Kings themselves, might 
have had a similar title conferred upon them : why not 
James I. or Charles II. ? Many of the princes and 
nobles of a far-back time helped to make horse-racing 
what it is to-day. It is to them, indeed, that owners 
owe the strains of blood that now course through the 
veins of modern race-horses. It is in connection with 
the incidence of Avhat have been designated 'the classic 
races' that we find the men who did most for the turf 
in the way of expending money on their studs so as to 
improve the breeds of running-horses. Although in 
chronological order the St. Leger and. Oaks take pre- 
cedence of the Derby, the latter is the more pojtular 
race of the three ; and included among those who 
have won the ' Blue Ribbon of the Turf,' are to bo 
I'ound the names of many noblemen and gentlemen 
who did much to promote and popularize the pastime 
of horse-racing. 

As has been already mentioned, and as nearly all 
the world knows, 'The Derby,' and 'Tlie Oaks' too, 
derived its name from a well-known member of the 


peerage — Edward Smith Stanley, twelfth earl, born in 
the year 1752, and who died in the year 1834 (the 
eighty-second year of his age). His lordship was 
an honourable sportsman, who pursued the pastime 
of horse-racing for a period of sixty years with 
considerable success. During his lifetime he bred 
several horses which attained celebrity. Bridget, first 
winner of the Oaks, was his lordship's property ; and 
the Earl again won with Hermionc in 1794. Sir Peter 
Teazle, foaled in 1784, was a colt of the Earl's own 
breeding, and was successful in winning a considerable 
number of valuable stakes. In his fourth year. Sir 
Peter was reckoned the best horse of his time. 

That horse became the sire of many of the famous 
race-horses of a hundred years ago : Sir Harry in 1798, 
Archduke in 1799, Ditto in 1803, and Pari's in 180G, 
were all of them Derby winners, Sir Peter being their 
sire. Sir Peter was also the sire of two winners of the 
Oaks: Hermione and Parnsite. 

His lordship was an all-round sportsman, which 
was exemplified in his love of cock-fighting, now — ■ 
and happily so — a banished sport. In the cock-pit, 
as on the racecourse, he was at one time invincible, 
with his celebrated breed of ' black-breasted reds,' with 
which he gained a great series of victories in the cock- 
pits of Preston and elsewhere. For many years his 
lordship was an active member of the Jockey Club, of 
which institution he was ' the father ' at the date of 
his death. Lord Derby was twice married ; first to 
Lady Jane Hamilton, sister to the then Duke of that 
name. The union proved unhappy; the Earl of Derby 
never,however,sued for a divorce, but contented himself 


by suing the lady's paramour, from whom he received 
a large sura in name of damages. The death of the 
erring lady left him free to form another alliance, 
Avhich resulted in raising Miss Farren — 'a born lady,' 
she has been called — from the stage to the peerage. 
It proved a very happy union. 

In 1793, six jears after Sir Peter's victory, the 
Derby was won by another horse of celebrity, named 
Waxy, from whom probably half the winners of the 
great Epsom race are descended, a descendant of the 
curiously- named Pot-S-os. In 1809, and also in the 
following year, the Epsom trophy was secured by the 
Duke of Grafton with sons of that horse, as also in 
1815 ; whilst in the previous year, another son of 
Waxy, the property of Lord Stawell, was the victor in 
the race. The horse had been purchased by the third 
Duke of Grafton, and became as a gold-mine to the 
family. The name of Grafton occurs eight times 
among the winners of the Oaks, three of the mares 
being the produce of Wax}^ 

In those days the Dukes of Grafton were men of 
mark on the turf, three of them possessing similar 
'strokes of character.' The third Duke (born 1786, 
died 1811), despite the abuse lavished on him by ' that 
remorseless master of invective, the mysterious Junius,' 
was an excellent sportsman — in matters pertaining to 
sport, indeed, he has never been excelled — and was 
rewarded by great good fortune, being singularly lucky 
in the rearing of his race-horses. His mare Prunella 
was the dam of no less than eleven steeds of quality, 
and is said to have contributed to the Grafton ex- 
chequer a sum of over a hundred thousand guineas ! 


The names of most of the Duke's horses began with 
the letter P, no matter how they might be bred — a 
plan of turf nomenclature wl'ich happily has not been 
followed. In the year 1802, the Duke's horse Tyrant 
won him his first Derb}^, the colt being ridden by the 
famous Francis Buckle ; the number of horses enQ-aired 
in the race being eight, out of the thirty which had 
been nominated. In 1809 and 181 his Grace won 
two consecutive ' Blue Ribbons.' At the ripe age of 
seventy-six the third of the Graftons was gathered to 
his fathers, having done much for the improvement 
of the.Britisli race-horse, and leaving as a legacy a 
strain of blood of which breeders are particularly 


Before going farther it may bo noted that, in the first 
fifty years of the two great races run at Epsom, men 
with titles carried all before them. * The dukes and 
lords of tue period,' it has been said, ' were never done 
scoring.' The Oaks three times, and the Derby as 
often, fell to the name of Bedford before these races 
were twenty years old. Lord Grosvenor, in his day, 
was credited with a victory in the Oaks on six occa- 
sions, three of them being secured in consecutive 
years, and he thrice ' landed ' the Derby as well; The 
number of these two races won by the ducal house of 
Grafton has just been stated. Thirty-two times, in 


all, have Derby and Oaks fallen to Dukes. As for ' mere 
lords,' as Carlyle called a branch of the aristocracy, 
they corae to the front all through the chronicle, 
having on j"'^rty different occasions provided the 
"winner ; whilst the noble roll of baronets has twenty- 
six times been credited with ' Blue Ribbon ' or 'Garter.' 
On two or three occasions the earlier races were com- 
peted for by men of title only. 

Here, for instance, is a sample of how matters used 
to be : in 1779 only one commoner ran a horse, and of 
the eleven animals which came to the post, two were 
the property of the then Prince of Wales, two belonged 
to the Duke of Bedford, two to Lord Giosvenor, one 
to the Duke of St. Albans, others to Lords Egremont, 
Barrymore, and G. H. Hastings, Mr. Lade being the 
commoner. In 1794, when only four ran, three of 
ihern belonged to lords, the other was owned by a 
Duke ! Again, three years afterwards, the Derby 
field was entirely composed of the horses of titled 
owners ! 

The fourth Duke of Grafton, destined also to become 
a turf celebrity, was born in 1760, and not till Queen 
Victoria had been for a period of seven years on trie 
throne did he die, having attained his eighty-fourth 
year. During the lifetime of his father, the fourth 
Duke did not become conspicuous on the turf. After 
succeeding to the title and estates, he continued to 
maintain the Grafton stud successfully, winning many 
of the important stakes of his period. In one year ho 
won what was then thouglit an enormous sum, over 
twelve thousand guineas ! The Derby fell to him only 
on one occasion, but he was half a dozen times hailed 


winner of tho Oaks, and five times he was fortunate 
enough to win the Two Thousand Guineas. 

Magnificent presents are often given to successful 
jockeys — £1,000, and even £2,000, being occasionally 
bestowed on those important ' personages' for winning 
a Derby or great handicap. For winning two im- 
portant races for the Duke of Grafton, John Day, a 
jockey of the period, and an artist in the saddle, was 
sent for by his Grace in order to be presented with a 
gift. John appeared hat in hand, and, making his 
best bow, stood before tho Duke. ' John Day,' said 
his employer, ' I have sent for you as I am going to 
make you a present for your good riding ; there is a 
twenty-pound note for you, and I hope you will not 
waste it, but take great care of it.' In those days 
a present of £20 to a jockey was esteemed a 
very high compliment indeed. A turf-writer, speak- 
ing, some forty years ago, of the Dukes of Grafton, 
says : ' A mere list of their most celebrated winners 
would occupy more space than we can well afford, 
but they are said to have netted nearly a quarter 
of a million sterling in public stakes. The two 
Dukes have been alike and equally distinguished 
for tlieir extreme honour, liberaHty, and love of 

Harking back to the beginning of the Derby, the 
first wir^ner was Sir Charles Banbury, who gained the 
' Blue Ilibbon ' by means of his horse Diomed. Sir 
Charles departed this life on March 31st, 1821, at the 
good old age of eighty-one. Born in the year 1740, 
he had, before he was thirty years of age, become the 
owner of several race-horses ; so early, indeed, as 17G7, 


he was well known as a sportsman of some degree of 
mettle. Like many other men who have devoted 
themselves to a life on the turf, he was afflicted with 
a sort of craze, avIi h, put in so many words, Avas 
that he possessed ' the best horse in the world.' The 
animal in question was a horse named Bellario, a son 
of Brilliant, a fiimous racer and stallion of its day, tbu 
property of Mr. Crofts, of Norfolk, a gentleman who 
acted in many ways as a kind of * coach ' or mentor 
to Sir Charles when he first came on the turf. Bel- 
lario was started upon several occasions against the 
famous horse Eclipse, and although always beaten, the 
owner continued to believe that it was the better horse 
of the two. He was, in fact, a splendid judge of every 
person's horses but his own. Sir Charles Banbury's 
successes on the turf have been characterized as 
' chiefly of the small-beer kind,' and except on the 
three occasions on which he won the Derby, the 
victory of Eleanor in the Oaks, a double event, and 
of Smolensko in the Two Thousand Guineas, also 
a double event, the characterization may stand 
good ; but to win the Derby three times is a slice of 
Fortune's cake of which any man might well be 

Sir Charles was a member of the Jockey Club, and 
played a part in the celebrated investigation which 
took place as to the running of Escape, a horse belong- 
ing to the Prince of Wales. The baronet is reputed to 
have behaved rather fiercely over this affair, and to 
have bluntly told His Royal Highness that if he con- 
tinued to employ Chifney as his jockey no gentleman 
would start a horse to run against him. The jockey 


(who narrates in his pamphlet, 'Genius Genuine,' that 
* the row ' was entirely of the noble baronet's own 
seeking) was well able to turn tiie arguments em- 
ployed by Sir Charles against himself; he asked that 
the in-and-out running of some of that gentleman's 
own horses should be explained : ' Bellario gets beaten 
by a bad horse one day, and the next goes and beats 
a very good animal. How comes that to pass ?' asked 
the jockey. 

Sir Charles enjoys the credit, or the discredit, as 
some people think, of having instituted two-3'ear-old 
races. In the olden time races were usually run over 
the long distance of four miles, the horses, as a rule, 
carrying from ten to twelve stone. Personally Sir 
Charles was a man of good means. His father, the 
Rev. Sir William Bunbury, was originally a clergy- 
man, and Vicar of Mildenhall in Suffolk. That gentle- 
man ultimately succeeded to a title and the estates of 
his uncle. ' H. B.,' the caricaturist, was a younger 
brother of Sir Charles. Horace Walpole described the 
productions of ' H. B.' as being the work of a second 

The horse-racing baronet had a seat in the House 
of Commons, and was also at one time Secretary of 
Embassy in Paris. Sir Charles is known to have 
suffered very much from domestic troubles ; his first 
v.'ife was the beautiful Lady Sarah Lermox, whom he 
was necessitated to divorce in 1776, in consequence of 
her adulterous connection with Lord William Gordon. 

This brief notice of Sir Charles may be wound up 
with the following piquant anecdote : Sir Charles's 
training groom, a person of the name of Cox, being 


taken seriously ill about the date of the Epsom 
summer meetincf in 1801, his friends thous^ht it risrht 
that he should be visited by a clergyman, in order 
that he miij;ht receive some reliqious consolation before 
his death. When the parson arrived at Cox's house, 
he found that the poor man was speechless ; but from 
the efforts he was making to address him, the good 
priest thought that he must have something on his 
mind of which he was anxious to disburden himself, 
■whereupon he earnestly exhorted him to relieve his 
overburdened mind by confessing his secret, no matter 
what it might be. Making a terrible effort, the dying 
man rose up in his bed, and, with the dews of death on 
his forehead, said in hollow tones to the expectant 

clergyman: 'Depend on it, Eleanor is a d d fine 

mare !' which were his last words, for no sooner had he 
gasped them out than he fell back dead. 

As was the rule of several of his racing contem- 
poraries, Lord Grosvenor bred his own horses, John 
Btdl, winner of the Derby in 1792, being the sire he 
most esteemed, as was evidenced by the fact that six 
colts got by him had been named for the Derby before 
he died. Three times in the course of five years was 
Lord Grosvenor hailed winner of the ' Blue Ribbon,' 
whilst that noble horse has contributed as many as six 
to the list of Oaks winners. Born in l7ol, and com- 
mencing his career on the turf at the age of twenty- 
two, his lordship speedily became the owner of a 
magnificent stud of race-horses. However, at one 
time he was so very poor that he would have been 
obliged to abandon a match by which he stood to 
Avin a very large sum of money — it was the match 


between his lordship's horse Gimcrack and the Earl of 
Abingdon's Cardhial York. By the aid of Mr. Elwes, 
the notorious miser, who lent Lord Grosvenor a sum 
of £3,000 to make up the stakes, his horse was en- 
abled to run the match. It is related that Elwes, on 
returning home from seeing the race run, scrambled 
over the Devil's Dyke at Newmarket to avoid paying 
a toll of sixpence, and nearly broke his neck in doing 
so. The Earl died on xVugust 5rh, 1S02. 

Lord Clermont, wlio won the Derb}^ in 1785, died 
in November, 1805, at the venerable age of eighty- 
four, having begun his racing career in 1751. At his 
death he was ' father of the turf,' and was at one 
time, in conjunction with Lord Farnham, the possessor 
of a considerable stud of excellent horses. He was 
much abused, and was once denouncad as * a hardened 
veteran in every kind of iniquit}'.' A good story is told 
about his lordship and the Prince: 'On one occasion, 
shortly before his death, the Earl accompanied the 
Prince of Wales to Pagshot, and it being winter, and 
his lordship being at the time much indisposed, had 
wrapped his head in a sort of flannel hood. Thus 
equipped the Prince and his companion pursued their 
journey, the passengers remarking what an excellent 
young man he was thus to go out an airing Avith his 
old aunt, the Princess Amelia.' 

Lord Egremont was an ardent and honest folloAver 
of the ' sport of kings.' This nobleman died in the 
year 1837, in the eighty - sixth year of his age, 
having held an enjoyable position on the tiu-f for 
a period of half a century. At one time there were 
in his stud nearly seventy thoroughbred brood-mares, 



and no single individual, perhaps, ever owned so largo 
a stud of horses. 

Among other winners of the Derby occurs the name 
of Lord Foley, who won the race in 1806 with Paris, a 
son of Sir Peter Teazle. When he began ' racing ' he 
was possessed of an income of £18,000 a year, as also 
a sum in readv money of £100,000, all of which was 
lost by non-efiective speculations on the turf ' A.nd 
no wonder,' says a sporting writer, ' seeing that ho 
was for some years a confederate of that most in- 
Yeterate of all gamblers — Charles James Fox.' F'roin 
the year 1772 to 1793, when Lord Foley died, these 
gentlemen were partners in a numerous and excellent 

In 1788 the Prince of Wales, afterwards George IV., 
was well known on the turf, winning the Derby in the 
year just named by means of his horse Sir Thomas, 
Avhich beat ten competitors. His Ro3'al Highness ex- 
perienced a troublesome time during his connection 
with the turf, which began in 1784, and was carried on 
with great ardour for a period of two years, when 
from embarrassed circumstances he was compelled to 
rolincpiish racing till his debts had been settled. Upon 
his return to Newmarket in 1788 he once more threw 
himself into the delights of sporting life. In October, 
1789, on the Prince being accused of complicity in a 
supposed falsely-run race, in wliich His Royal Iligh- 
ness's horse Escaj^.e was ridden by Samuel Chifncy, 
one of the great horsemen of his day, he again retired. 
Explanations were demanded on the following day, 
when the same horse, ridden by the same jockey, won 
a race with great ease. Chifney madean affidavit, and 


was also examined on tho occasion by several gentle- 
men at the request of the Prince ; whilst the stewards 
of the Jockey Club inquired into the case. What may 
be termed a 'profound sensation' arose over the 
aft'air, about whicli much vvas written, and much more 
was said. I ^hifney's pamphlet on the subject is now 
very rare, and it has been said of the Escape scandal 
that it was ' well enveloped in a crowd of lies.' 

Wlien, as George IV., after much entreaty, 
the Prince returned to the pursuit of his favourite 
pas;ime, he once m.ore employed Cliifney, and con- 
tinued his services in connection witli the royal stud. 
Till the day he died the King continued to take a 
very keen interest in racing matters. While on his 
death-bed one of his horses ran in the Ascot Cup, and 
so interested was His Majesty^, that he had a messenger 
engaged, who was charged to come express with the 
result of the race. The Duke of York, the King's 
brother, twice won the Derby. His career on the 
turf was a somewhat exciting one ; he was a hon vivitnt 
of the good old school, and left this sublunary scene 
deeply in debt to all who would trust him. 


It would prove interesting to have a list of those 
men who have, especially in times past, tried in vain 
to win the Derby — men who entered many horses and 
ran them in vain ; some of them, as they are them- 
selves reputed to have said, ' not even seeing the road 
the winner went.' A long array of names might be 
compiled of men who never won the Derby. The 



names of Lade, Watson, and Queensberry may be cited 
as being among the unsuccessful. Other members of 
the peerage were quite as unsuccessful as ' Old Q.' 
The chivalric but hot-tempered Earl of Glasgow might 
be named, as well as Lord Palmerston and many more, 
some of whom, imleed, seem to have lived on with 
the one idea of winning the great race, but never 
succeeded in doing so, although in all probability they 
had expended thousands of p()unds in the endeavour. 

There is one gentleman who more than all the 
others deserves a prominent place among those who 
have aided in making the turf popular — Lord George 
Bentinck. He never won the Derby, but was un- 
ceasing in his endeavour to promote honest sport. 
Those who desire to know more about this estimable 
gentleman than can be told them in these pages, 
can gratify their curiosity by reading Mr. Disraeli's 
biography, in which occur these appreciative words : 
' He had become the lord paramount of that strange 
world so difficult to sway, and which requires for its 
government both a strong resolve and a courtly 
breeding. He had them both ; and though the 
black-leg might quail before the awful scrutiny of 
his piercing eye, there never was a man so scrupu- 
lously polite to his inferiors as Lord George Bentinck. 
The turf, too, was not merely the scene of the triumphs 
of his stud and betting-book. He had purified its 
practice and had elevated its character, and he was 
prouder of this achievement than of any other con- 
nected with his sporting life.' 

Lord George, had he not previously disposed of his 
stud, would probably have won both Derby and St. 


Lcgcr with Surplice, which was sold with his other 
horses, and won these two races in 1S48. It was the 
day after the victory of Surplice on Epsom Downs 
that he uttered that 'sort of superb groan' which has 
become familiar from its relation by his biographer, 
Lord Beaconsfield. 

'You do not know what the Derby is,' he moaned 
out in the library of the House of Commons. 

'Yes 1 do ; it's the '' Blue Ribbon of the Turf,"' was 
Mr. ]3israeli's repl}". 

His lordship sold the whole of his horses in one 
lot to Mr. Mostyn ' for £10,000,' having previously 
offered them to Mr. George Payne, who gave £300 to 
be allowed to consider the matter for a day, and then 
declined. Seven days after Surplice won the St Leger, 
Lord George was found lying dead on his father's 
estate of Welbeck. The name of Lord George Bentinck 
will assuredly be long honoured on the turf. As may 
be gathered from what has been said, Lord George 
was the sworn foe to turf evil-doers; he had a keen 
scent for all sorts of abuses, and was quick to have 
them exposed and reformed. 

Side by side with Lord George Bentinck must be 
placed Admiral Rous, the law-giver of the turf, whose 
name was for years a terror to racing evil-doers, and 
who may be said to have been, from the year 1840 to 
the day of his death, in June, 1877, dictator on all 
things pertaining to horse-racing, in which capacity 
ho has had no successor. It is said — for the Jockey 
Club docs not make its proceedings public — that he 
was the means of dragging that institution out of the 
quagmire into which it had fallen in a financial a.spcct. 


In a few 3'enrs he had quintupled its income. Admiral 
Rous was in his day distinguished for the felicity of 
his work as a handicapper, with which he took infinite 
pains, watching horses that were supposed to be on 
' the dodge ' with an eagle eye, in order to prevent 
their being apportioned a false amount of weight. 
But in spite of his almost unceasing yigilance, the 
Admiral was sometimes ' done ' by daring owners and 
trainers, and on occasion some horse would be admitted 
into a handicap at a stone or ten pound less weight 
than it ought to have carried. The Admiral never 
ceased to raise his voice loudly against the heavy 
betting, which he maintained was the curse of the 
turf and disgraceful to all concerned. But it was only 
against those who wagered big sums he fulminated; 
he did not object to betting on horse-racing on prin- 
ciple. Against men Avho staked £20, or even £50 or 
£100, nothing was said ; but when he heard of persons 
winninsT tens of thousands, he used to maintain that 
such sums could not be won honestly, and hs always 
asserted Avith great earnestness that all such ought 
to be ' warned off,' and in the case of such sums being 
won by members of the Jockey Club, that they should 
cease to belong to it. With regard to another pernicious 
practice that attends modern horse-racing — namely, 
the bestowal of large sums of money on jockeys for 
winning important races — he also protested in vigorous 
fashion, and with some degree of bitterness. His idea 
of trainers and jockeys was not a high one, and he 
never made pets of either; 'they should be kept in 
tlieir places,' was his constant iteration when he heard 
of fat^liionable horsemen being guests at clubs and 


afternoon teas. The Admiral was as strict a discipli- 
narian on the turf as he had been on the qnarter-deck. 
On all matters of the tiu'f he Avas in his time * the 
authority'; his judgments were willing! 3^ accepted in 
cases of dispute, and a volume which he issued on 
racing law contains some curious and interesting cases. 
Upon the occasion of a handsome testimonial being 
presented to Admiral Rous, Earl Granville, who filled 
the chair and Avho made the presentation, concluded 
an elegant address with the following eulogium : 
'Among the men of wealth, character, and position 
whose patronage has done so much for the turf, our 
honoured guest of this evening holds a conspicuous 
place. He has always done his best to repress every- 
thing of a fraudulent or dishonourable nature. He 
lias laboured to reconcile conflicting interests ; and 
although he may have committed mistakes, as the 
best and greatest of human beings are liable to do, he 
has enjoyed the respect or afi'ection of every class of 
the racing community, and I am sure there is but one 
feeling among all present this evening, and, indeed, 
among all true sportsmen throughout Great Britain, 
that if Admiral Rous should retire he will leave a void 
impossible to fill.' 


There have been p''enty of good men on the turf who 
never had the good fortune to win the Derby or take 
the Oaks. In the records of the St. Leger will be 
found names that do not occur in the annals of the 
Epsom races ; and men who never made their mark 


either on Doncaster town moor or on Epsom Downs 
(lid much for the turf, and expended both iheir money 
and their brain-power in aiding the national pastime. 
Among the early winners of the Derb}', the name 
of Denis O'Kell}^ must not pass without remem- 
brance in these pages ; his famous race-horse is 
known in the history of the turf The well-known 
prophecy, 'Eclipse first; the rest nowhere,' still lives 
in the annals of racing. Colonel O'Kelly was in his 
time renowned as a breeder of horse }, and was so for- 
tunate as to win the Derby on two occasions, with 
descendants of his great horse — in 1781 with Young 
Eclipse, in 1784 with Serjeant. O'Kelly was a most 
fortunate man; one of his untried two-3car-olds 
brought him the then (1775) unheard-of price of 1,000 
guineas. A word or tw^o in memory of ' Old Q ' (the 
Duke of Queensberry) may fitly be inserted here. He 
was a man of the turf more than 137 years since. At 
the July Newmarket Meeting of 1748, when he was in 
his twenty-third year, he rode two of his own horses, 
and scored a victory on each of them. As Earl of 
March he was esteemed to be the best gentleman 
horse-rider of his time ; he never tired of match- 
making, and rode in some of them almost as well as 
Dick Goodison, his own jockey, who was famous at 
Newmarket, and also on other race-courses. The 
Duke of Queensberry was a social sinner of the deepest 
dye, and has often been depicted in his character of 
the ' wicked nobleman,' whose name was ' a terror to 
all women.' It would not be a difficult task to fill 
a volume of many pages with an account of his terrible 
doinirs as a sj ambler and 'man of the world.' On the 


tnrf, it is said, he always went straight ; and his 
career on the race course Avas of great length, lasting 
till he died, December 23rd, 1810, aged eighty-six 
years. Some of his achievements on horseback were 
wonderful, and his matches were the talk of the time ; 
liis judgments, both of horses and men, were pene- 
trating and acute ; no man was more difficult to 
deceive in any matter connected with the sport of 
horse-racing, and he became a match for all the 'legs' of 
the turf, many of whom tried their best to ' have ' him. 

Lord Egremont has been already referred to in a 
preceding page. In the years 1788-89 that nobleman 
took the ' Garter of the Turf,' by the aid of his lillies 
Nightshade and Tag; in 1795 he won the same race 
with riatino, in ISOO with Ephemera, and again 
in 1820 with Carolina. His Derby victors were : 
Assassin in 1782, Hannibal in 1803, Cardinal Beaufort 
in the following year. Election in 1807, and Lapdog in 
1826. His lordship lived till he attained the great age 
of eighty-five, and for sixty years of that time he was 
a patron of the turf, spending tens of thousands on his 
stables, horses, and stable retainers ; and there are 
man}^ who will think he Avas well rewarded by winning 
the Derby and Oaks so often. Lord Egremont was 
the possessor of a very large income, and was exceed- 
ingly benevolent and charitable. 

Sir Tatton Sykes was born on August 22nd, 1772, 
and died in March, 1803, at the veneraMe age of 
ninety- one. Than Sir 'J'atton no man better de- 
serves a record in the annals of the turf, and such 
was the esteem in which he had been held during his 
lifetime that 3,000 persons assembled to see him laid 


in his irrave. The Yorkshire baronet was a keen 
turfite ; in his early days in London he walked down 
to Epsom to see Eager win the Derby in 1791 ; and up 
to 1861 Caller Ou's St. Leger was the seventy-sixth he 
had seen, with only one exception. Sir Tatton was 
one of the greatest breeders of blood stock of his day ; 
in 1863, at the period of his death, he possessed a stud 
of 200 horses ; and he bred, among others, Grey 
Momus, St. Giles, Dally, and Lecturer. The famous 
Yorkshire baronet was an excellent judge of horse- 
flesh, and was a frequent buyer at ]\Iessrs. Tattersall's 
northern sales ; the very best blood of the English 
thoroughbreds was concentrated in some of his brood- 
mares. As an amateur jockey he was well known in 
the saddle, and won a good many races. Sir Tatton 
was a model landlord, and took a continuous interest 
in the breeding of cattle and sheep, of all of which he 
was an excellent judge. He was the idol of his county, 
and died universally regretted. 

The owner of the far-famed Voltigcur, the second 
Earl of Zetland, deserves a passing record. He was 
by no means an enthusiastic turfite, although a liberal 
pation of the tine sport of racing. The grand horse 
Avhich has just been named cost only £350 — not much 
to give for an animal which was destined to win the 
great double event of his year (1850), the Derby and 
St. Leger. The splendid match of 1851, ' the race of 
the century,' between Flying Dutchman and Voltigeur, 
and which, after a keen battle, was won by the Earl of 
Eglinton's horse, will long live in the annals of horse- 
racing. His lordship died in his seventy-ninth year; 
and his great horse only survived him nine months. 


If Sir Joscpli Hawlcy had possessed no other 
horse than Bkie Gown, and never won any other 
race than the Derby of 1S68, he would have gone 
duvrn to posterity as one of the most fortunate turf 
magnates of his day and generation. It was found 
after the race that all the usual backers of horses were 
' on Blue Gown' to a man ; it took one book-maker and 
his staff of clerks three or four days to send off the 
various sums of money which his customers had won 
on that 3'ear's Derby. For a time Sir Joseph was a 
l^opular idol ; he had run Blue Gown to oblige the 
public, so it was I'eported ; but the great fact of the 
matter was that P]lue Gown scored the victory on his 
merits ; neither Green Sleeve nor riosicrucian could 
have won. Sir Joseph was undoubtedly one of the 
most fortunate turf-men of the present generation ; 
but it is no secret that he won almost nothing but the 
stakes by the victory of his horse Blue Gown. The 
stakes that year amounted in the gross to £7,000. 

The baronet of Kingsclere was wont to throw in for 
large sums over his Derby horses ; £80,000 is said to 
have been pocketed by him when Teddirigton, Beads- 
man, and Musjid won. Sir Joseph had backed Blue 
Gown, so it was said at the time, to win a similar 
amount, along with his other two horses, Green Sleeve 
and Rosicrucian, After the big bet in question had 
been taken about Blue Gown, it was thought by Sir 
Joseph that he was inferior to the other two, and in- 
structions were given to hedge all the money for 
which he had been backed, which was done. Enor- 
mous sums had been laid against Blue Gown for the 
Derby by all the leading bookmakers; and if that 


horse had won the Two Thousand Guineas (and it was 
thought at the time he could not have lost the race), 
it would have been impossible for them to adjust their 
books — the public would not look at the other horses ; 
and in the event of the bookmakers not beinof able to 
' back back ' some of tlieir money, the ring would have 
been broke. Such Avas the gossip which became 
current at the tiine. Sir Joseph Hawley made a 
public declaration to win with either Rosicrucian or 
Green Sleeve, and would, no doubt, have preferred to 
have won with one or other, and so realize the 
£80,000 for which he had backed them ; there was in 
reality no 'generosity' in his allowing Blue Gown to 
com])Cte. Had Blue Gown not run, Sir Joseph Hawley 
would not have won the Derby of 1868. 

Sir Joseph's first great success on the turf was 
achieved by Miami, in 1847, when, ridden by Sim 
Templeman, that fine mare won the Oaks. But time 
had still greater triumphs in store for the ' lucky 
baronet,' as he came to be called. Having become the 
purchaser, from Mr. John Gully, of Mendicant, winner 
of the Oaks in 1846, at the then rather long price of 
three thousand guineas, that mare was the means of 
adding one day to his bank account a sum of about 
£80,000, won by her gallant son Beadsman, who 
was credited with the Derby of 18-18. Ten 3-ears 
afterwards, namely, in 1868, Blue Gown, Beadsman's 
son, repeated the story of his sire's victory ! But 
before those memorable turf victories Sir Joseph had 
tasted the sweets of Derby honours, Teddington 
liavino" won the ' Blue Pabbon ' for himself and his 


colleague, Mr. J. M. Stanley. Sir Joseph Hawley won 


the Derby on four occasions, and ' landed,' in stakes 
and bets, more than a quarter of a million sterling. 
As has been mentioned, the lord of Leybourne Grange 
won the Oaks with Miami ; he also won the Two Thou- 
sand Guineas with Fitz-Roland, and the One Thou- 
sand Guineas with Aphrodite. The Kentish baronet's 
name is also recorded in the roll of St. Leger Avinners. 
Aphrodite could only secure second honours to the 
win of Newminster, but Pero Gomez credited Sir 
Josejih with the race in 1869. 

Sir Joseph Hawley was a inan of fine parts, who 
might, had it pleased him to do so, have mide his 
mark in the paths of either science or literature ; but 
he preferred to court distinction on the turf, and suc- 
ceeded — his success, indeed, was phenomenal. When 
the noble baronet became the purchaser of Mendicant, 
his folly in paying £3,000 for that horse was sneered 
at all round ; but the purchase was a fortunate one, 
her son Beadsman, as has been told, winning the Derby 
of 1858, Blue Gown, the son of Beadsman, perpetuating 
the victory ten years later. Sir Joseph possessed a fine 
stud, and endeavoured at one time, but unsuccess- 
fully, to make his mark in the racing world as a turf- 
reformer. He died in tlie year 1875, having attained 
the age of sixty-two years. 

This portion of the ' sport of kings ' might be 
greatly extended were it necessary, but it is impossible 
to devote space to all the prominent men of the turf, 
many of whom were only gamblers, who did nothing 
to improve the horse or purify the sport. In this 
category may be named Gully and Ridsdale, about 
"whom interestinir talcs could be told, and one or two 


other professional turfites miglit be bracketed with 

General Peel, whose name was at one time a tower 
of strength in racing circles, kept a stud of horses, and 
in his early days was a heavy speculator at Tattersalls' 
and in the ring. The General was the very soul of 
honour, and when, at the ripe old age of eighty years* 
he shuffled off his mortal coil, he was generally re- 
gretted. The Earl of Wilton, who for a long period 
Avas an honour to the turf, died eight years ago (1882), 
after having attained to the venerable age of eighty- 
two. That nobleman was an all-round sportsman of 
great ability, and was rich in the possession of numer- 
ous fi-iends, Kotices of Mr. John Bowes, Avho was 
fortunate enough to -win the Derby on four occasions, 
Mr. James Merry, the ' Scottish ironmaster,' Mr. 
Stirling Crawford, and Mr. Saville, might have been 
included in these rather brief memoranda, not to speak 
of Lord Falmouth, and the Dukes of Westminster and 
Portland, each of whom have boon recipients of the 
r>lue Ribbon on two occasions. 

Enough has probably now been revealed to show by 
•whom the fortunes of the British turf have been so 
securely built up, and the quality of the British race- 
horse at least maintained, if not improved, although 
many names of good men are doubtless wanting in 
the narrative. 



The chief joclvcys of the period are the fortunate 
follows of their day and generation ; they have had few 
of those hardships to endure which frequently formed 
the lot of their predecessors, and they obtain much 
greater rewards. Performing ihcir work in piesence 
of a vast concourse of spectators, their triumphs in 
the saddle are described to thousands in place of the 
tens who became familiar with the achievements of 
the old masters. Railways and newspapers have done 
this. Daily trains bear to the appointed places of 
sport thousands for the tens who, sixty years since, 
used to be present at a race-meeting, whilst the daily 
press recounts the prowess of successful riders. A lad 
who wins the Derby becomes for the moment a pcr- 
sdnacje of even more note than the statesman who 
expounds a Budget. Tommy Loates to day is even 
more in the public eye than Mr. Gladstone. Tommy 
has taken the lead in his business. Whether it be the 
good horses that make the good jockeys, or the good 
jockeys that make the good horses, or whether it be in 
some degree a mixture of both, need not at present bo 
argued ; the fact remains that a man may attain such 
pre-eminence on the turf as to gain for him an incomo 


equal to that of an Archbishop. The incomes earned 
by some professional horsemen are known to be large, 
and the presents every now and then given to them 
for some distinguished feat have amounted to as much 
sometimes as £3,000 ; many of the stories told about 
jockeys and their presents require, however, to be 
listened to with caution 

Could a complete chronicle of the lives and achieve- 
ments of the jockeys of England be compiled, it would 
not be devoid of interest, but in the present work, the 
records of horsemanship must, of necessity, be rather 
bald, as in the early days of the turf racing sadly 
lacked historians. It is wonderful, indeed, that so 
much information has been preserved as is now avail- 
able regarding the representative jockeys of last 
century and the years of racing which preceded 1700, 
Much of what is extant has been utilized in the follow- 
ing pages, with the view of showing the changed social 
conditions which now attend jockey life. Of the deeds 
of daring accomplished by the professional horsemen 
of the period the public are kept well informed, their 
doings being chronicled pretty much in the same 
fashion as the daily doings of Princes and politicians. 

The earliest public riders about whom there is 
reliable information are ' Matchem Timms ' and his 
son. The father appears to have been employed by 
the Earl of Carlisle ; in 1719 he is set down as having 
ridden Buckhunterfor that nobleman, in the Gold Cup 
of the York ]\[eeting. The horse is said to have. been 
a cood one, and of value as a trial horse. Timms won 
other important races, and was himself ov/ner of Bald 
Peg, by Snake, son of the Lister Turk who won his 


Majesty's guineas at Richmond (Yorkshire) in 1725. 
Young Timms was born in 1726. and became in time 
a horseman of some celebrity, when he rode for the 
Dukes of Ancaster and Devonshire, Lord Downe and 
others. His death took phice in the year 1791, on 
30th September. 

Singleton senior, who, it has been said, was the best 
jockey of his time, was born in Yorkshire in the year 
1715, and died at the ripe age of seventy-eight years, 
fifty of which were passed in his business. As show- 
ing the difference between then and now, it has to be 
stated that the father of John Singleton brought up 
his family and supported his wife and himself on 
wages of fourpence a day — all he could earn. Under 
such circumstances his children had a hard life of it, 
rendered still harder when their bread-winner died. 

At a tender age, the future jockey began to earn his 
own bread in the pastoral Occupation of helping to 
herd a flock of cattle which were grazed on Ross 
Moor, eiofht miles from which could be seen the wold 
hills, then famous as a training - ground. Young 
Singleton's fancy was fired by hearing of the race- 
horses trained thereabouts ; so in the end he ran away 
from home, and one morning early was found at the 
door of Mr. VVilberforce Read, near the wolds then 
unenclosed. Being just in want of a boy, Mr. Read 
engaged John Singleton on the then easily understood 
terms of ' board and lodging,' which meant simjjy a 
bed among the straw, and the run of the kitchen 
when there was anything to eat. Between master 
and boy, thus brought together, a friendship began 
which lusted throughout their respective lives. Mr. 


Read came of a good family, but was left to begin the 
world on bis own account with only a small portion. 
He commenced farming on ground rented from the 
Earl of Carlisle, at Grimsthorpe, near Pocklington, a 
sporting neighbourhood, each village, far and near, 
having its annual feast, and at every one of these a 
race or two was run, while in every race there wore 
numerous competitors. Mr. Read, taking to the turf, 
sold his oxen and purchased racing stock, thinking 
thereby to mend his fortunes. 

The life Singleton led with this gentleman for a 
period of twenty years is worth noting. Read took a 
liking to him, and the boy felt himself quite at home, 
and always delighted in being on the back of a race- 
horse. Singleton, having a fine seat and good judgment 
of pace, obtained plent}^ of riding at the ' feasts,' and 
speedily attained local fame as a jockey. One farmer 
for whom he won a race was so well pleased that he 
gave him a ewe, which Mr. Read agreed to keep for 
him in place of giving him wages, so that in a few 
years the jockey found himself possessed of a little 
flock of sheep, which he sold in order to assist his 
master. Sinodeton, discoverinsr that blood and breed- 
ing played a chief part in the improvement of the 
horse, and having gained experience, had come to 
the conclusion that English horses might be greatly 
improved by the infusion of a dash of Arab blood, and 
strongly advised his master to put one of his mares to 
such a horse ; but rooney being scarce at Grimsthorpe, 
the only wa}^ that suggested itself to Read was that of 
selling the little flock of sheep. A wage of £5 a year 
was agreed to in place of the food hitherto supplied to 


the increasing progen}" of the ewe. The money thus 
obtained was well spent ; it enabled Mr. Read to put 
one of liis mares to a stallion from Hampton Court, 
the produce being a fdly named Lucy, which won at 
Hambleton in 173G, beating a large field, and in the 
following year, being taken by Singleton to Morpeth, 
she won again. On this journey of 120 miles, which 
the jockey undertook with only 10s. in his pockc:: to 
meet expenses by the wa}', he played the part of 
trainer, groom, and jockey in the fiishion of the 

Being successful at Morpeth, he went to Stockton 
and Sunderland, winning at both places, and so earned 
some money for his master, and not a little reputation 
for himself. A filly bred by Singleton having attracted 
the attention of the Marquis of Rockingham, was 
bought by that nobleman, who at the same time 
engaged Singleton as groom and jockey at the then 
very liberal wages of £40 a year and certain clothes. 
Singleton had to leave Grimsthorpe without payment 
of his wages. As a matter of fact, he never had been 
paid any money during his service ; but he received a 
bond for the amount, which he afterwards burned, 
Mr. Read havinof had no success in horse-breedimT: 
after Sintjleton left him. On the other hand, the 
jockey not only succeeded after leaving Mr. Read's 
service, but had succeeded so well even before leaving 
him that he had become a landed proprietor, and at 
that date owned an estate near the place where his 
early days of poverty had been passed ; namely, in 
the township of Great Givendale. The money with 
which the land was bought had been earned by Single 



ton as a jockey, he having for several years before 
leaving been in possession of the greater part of the 
ridins: which was needed in the county. 

In the year 17-51 Singleton removed to the Marqnis 
of Rockinsfham's stables at Newmarket, where in course 
of time he was entrusted with the entire charge of his 
lordship's stud. Singleton continued at Newmarket 
till 1774<, at which date he resigned his 'livery' in 
favour of Christopher Seaife, who had become the 
husband of one of his nieces. 

DurinQf his residence at Newmarket Sinc^leton was 
well employed, riding many other horses than those of 
his master, and hayiug a few of his own in company 
with a colleague named Ottley. He became wealthy, 
and provided for many of his poor relations. The 
Marquis of Rockingham appreciated his services very 
highly — indeed, he appears to have treated him more 
as a friend than a servant. ' After the great race 
between Bay Malton, Herod, Turf, and Askham, over 
the Beacon Course at Newmarket First Spring Meet- 
ing, 1767, for 500 guineas each, the Marquis ordered a 
gold cup to be made on which the figures of Bay 
Malton and his rider are richly chased, with the 
pedigree and performances of that celebrated horse 
engraven thereon, also a statement that it was oftered, 
and not accepted, to run anj' horse, giving him 7 lb., 
over the flat for speed, or over the six-mile course for 
stoutness, and that he presented this cup to John 
Singleton, the rider of Bay Malton. Singleton also 
received, at the same time, a silver salver, on which 
was engraved all the above horses and their riders 
contending in the race, from an eminent silversmith. 


vrho, although he lost his money on the race, sent it 
as a mark of his admiration of his riding.' 

The economy of training in Singleton's period can 
be studied in Mr. Orton's sketch of that jockey s 
career. After stating that Lord Rockingham had 
engaged him in the double capacity of irainer and 
jockey, and to have charge of the Marquis's stalls 
at Mewmarket, he says: 'But during the winter 
months the young stock were prepared and made 
ready for going into work at Swinton, near Went- 
worth House (the Marquis's seat), Yorkshire, by 
one Lund, and at the conclusion of the Newmarket 
spring meetings, when the horses' engagements were 
run out there, and they were intended to run for stakes 
at Doncaster and York (of both of which meetings the 
Marquis was a great supporter), the horses were sent, 
under Singleton's inspection, to a place called Thixen- 
dale, near Maiton, where Singleton had purchased two 
farms, built stables and other conveniences there for 
training, which he considered the best ground for the 
purpose of any in the kingdom : and from this place 
they not uofrequently departed to win many of the 
best stakes, and defeat most of the first-rate hoi-ses of 
the day in Yorkshire.' There is every reason to 
believe that Singleton — for a portion of his career, at 
any rate — was looked upon as being the best jockey of 
his time. He retired from a laborious hfe greatly 
respected. His motto throughout seems to have 

'Act well Tour part, there all the honour lies.' 

There were other Singletons in the same line of 


business : William, son of John, who in his youth 
went to sea, but returned to Newmarket and became 
a public horseman and attracted the attention of his 
Grace the Duke of Grafton. Two of Singleton's 
nephews also became jockeys, and one of them, John 
Singleton, is said to have been the rider of Alabaculia 
when she won the first Three-year-old Stake at Don- 
caster, in 1776, afterwards known as the St. Leger 
This member of the Singleton family had entrusted 
to him, at one time, the management of the racing 
stud of the Duke of Orleans, father of Louis Philippe. 
A son of this John Singleton also became a jockey, 
and won the St. Leger for Earl Fitzwilliam. He was 
at first in the stables of the Duke of Bedford, where, 
taught by Mr. Stephenson, his Grace's head-groom, he 
soon came out as a rider of great promise. He died, 
however, in the prime of his youth, at Newmarket, in 
December, 1802. 


Among a group of jockeys of the last century there is 
to be found the name of ' The Flower of the North' — 
Joseph Rose- — in Avhose career was exemplified the 
kind of work which fell to some of those olden time 
horsemen. It is recorded, for instance, that on 
Monday, September 3rd, 1764, Rose rode Beaufreraont 
against Mr. Charteris' Favourite, for the King's riate,at 
Lincoln ; on Wednesday, tlie 5th, he rode the same horse 
amiinst Vizier, for the Ladies' Plate, also at Lincoln ; on 
Thursday, the 6th, he rode Young Davy at Rich- 
mond, Yorkshire ; and on Friday, the 7th, he rode 


Bachelor at Manchester; 'and all this at a period, be 
it remembered, when railways and locomoLives were 
not even dreamed of; roads were not macadamized, 
and coaches and public conve3'ances moved at the 
rate of, perhaps, five miles an hour. At that period it 
is very improbable that any coaches would run on the 
line of his journeys, and doubtless he would be 
reduced t o the necessity of riding his hack both late 
and early to reach the several places of his destina- 

'i'here died at Richmond, in Yorkshire, on April 
21st, 1791, ' the famous old jockey,' Cliarles Dawson, 
who, among other feats, won the Richmond Gold Cup, 
a great prize in its day, upon Silvio, in 1764, having 
four times previously ran second for the prize on the 
same horse. So celebrated became this jockey far his 
efforts on Silvio, that his residence near Richmond 
was called Silvio Hall. In the matter of gold cups, 
those,, in the olden time, were much sought after by 
owners of horses. Kirton, a northern jockey of 
renown, born in the year 1730, gained a celebrit}'^ in 
this class of contests, and won more gold cups than 
an}' of his contemporaries ; he also won the St. Leger 
in the year 1784, on Omphale, soon after which event 
he retired from his profession. Early in the present 
century he won a cause in the law courts, being 
declared heir to a relative who had died intestate. An 
equine artist of the name of Herring cannot be passed 
over, as he was killed in the performance of his duty, 
July 27th, 1796. Much of his celebrity as a jockey 
arose from the fact of his havimj won nineteen races 
in succession — at the time an unparalleled occurrence. 


George Herring was the winner of the St. Leger 
Stakes, on Hollandoise, in the year in which the great 
three-year-old race of Doncaster was ' named.' 

Leonard Jewson, who died in 1817 at the age of 
seventy-seven, was esteemed in his day as ' one of" the 
first of jockeys.' As rider and trainer he reahzed an 
independence, upon which he retired some years 
before his death. William South, of Newmarket, was 
one of the ablest horsemen of his da}' ; he died on 
September 13th, 1791. John Oakley was also, in 
his time, a horseman of great repute ; ' he had the 
honour of riding i/te -most celebratrd horse Britain ever 
produced,' namely, Captain O'Kelly's famous Eclipse, 
the first time of his starting at Epsom, on May 
3rd, 1769. A jockey who gained a considerable 
reputation for riding short races at Newmarket was 
Kichard Goodison, well known by his nickname of 
' Hell-Fire Dick.' He, too, was a Yorkshireman by 
birth, and died in 1817, 'in good circumstances,' 'aged, 
sixty-six years. Goodison was both jockey and trainer, 
and in those capacities served the Duke of Queens- 
berry for a long period, notwithstanding that they had 
frequent differences of opinion, which resulted in hot 
quarrels. The reputation of this jockey was founded 
on the alertness with which he got away on the fall of 
thefiag — a necessary accomplishment in a rider of short 
races. Goodison was a bold, fearless rider, possessed 
of great presence of mind and quickness. His successes 
on the Rocket Gelding attracted much attention, and 
gained him his nickname of ' Hell-Fire Dick,' One 
of Goodison's sons obtained a reputation as a jockey 
not inferior to that of his lather, and was in his day 


the rider of four Derby winners, viz , Pope, Smolensko, 
AVhisker, and Moses; he also won the Oaks twice, viz., 
on Music and Minuet, and was likewise a winner of 
the St. Leger, in which race he steered Barefoot to 
victory in the year 1823 — a gooa record. The rider of 
that celebrated horse Diamond, in the great match of 
1788 with Hambletonian, was Dennis Fitzpatrick. As 
the match was one of immense importance, ' the result 
being impatiently awaited all over the civilized world,' 
Fitzpatrick must have been thought a good horseman 
— as indeed he Avas. Among his achievements was 
his winning the Derby, in 1805, on Cardinal Beaufort. 


Passing over a number of the smaller fry of riders, the 
doings on the turf of the senior Chifney, a ' luminary 
of the first brilliancy,' must now be alluded to. He 
was not only considered, but was in truth, the best 
rider of his day. He was born in the county of 
Norfolk, and at an early period of his life found 
employment in the Newmarket racing-stables, where 
he soon became known for his knowledge of the horse 
and his ability in the saddle. His first masters were 
among the best training grooms of Newmarket : Fox, 
by whom he was em[)loyed in the year 1770, and 
Mr. Prince, groom to Lord Fuley, in whose stables he 
remained for some time. 

Taking Chilney at his own estimate of his abilities, 
he says : ' In 1773 I could ride horses in a better 
manner, in a race to beat others, than any person ever 


known in my time; and in 177-5 I could train horses 
for running better than any person I ever yet saw. 
Riding I learned myself, and training I learned from 
Mr. Richard Prince.' This estimate of his own 
abilities was, it seems, not overdrawn, but was en- 
dorsed by the best judges of the time, and Chifney, in 
consequence, soon found himself at the top of the tree 
as a horseman, being considered the superior of all 
his contemporaries, among whom were Oakley, J. P. 
Hindley, John Arnold, Sam Arnull, W. Clift and, 
though last not least, that excellent horseman, F. 
Buckle. His employers numbered some of the greatest 
patrons of the turf, including the Duke of Bedford 
and Lord Grosvenor. But he was best known pro- 
fessionally from his connection with George IV., then 
Prince of Wales, who, in consequence of his fame as a 
jockey, had engaged him on July 14t,h, 1790, to 
ride for him at the then handsome salary of £200 per 

Chifney senior is associated in the annals of the 
turf with what was, at the time, a cause cddbre, 
namely, his riding of the King's horse Escape, the 
proceedings in connection with which event excited 
an extraordinary degree of attention. Simply stated, 
the whole ati'air was as follows : He rode the horse 
in question on October 20th, 1791, and was de- 
feated in the race, but on the same horse he rode to 
victory the next day, and in consequence was accused 
by the Jockey Club of having rode the horse ' a cheat,' 
an accusation which he refuted with great spirit ; but 
although his innocence of any fraud was clearly 
established, the very accusation had so militated for a 


time against his career and prospects, that he ulti- 
mately wrote a history of the whole matter under the 
title of ' Genius Genuine.' His Royal Highness the 
Prince of Wales was perfectly convinced of the 
integrity of his servant, but withdrew from New- 
market. He continued, however, to be Chifney's 
patron at other meetings where he had horses running, 
and also settled a pension upon him, Avhich was to be 
paid so long as the Prince lived ; in addition to which, 
Chifney's two sons were received into the Prince's 

One of Chifney's sons, having heard that his 
father had been calumniated by Colonel Leigh, one 
of His Royal Highness's equerries, took the liberty of 
asserting his father's innocence by thrashing that 
gentleman, which led to the discharge of the lads 
from the royal stables and the withdrawal of the 
pension Avhich the Prince had bestowed on their 
father. This was in 1803, and in 1807 the senior 
Chifney died in his lodgings in Fleet Street, London, 
leaving a widow and six children in rather reduced 
circumstances. There is no doubt whatever that the 
elder Chifney was in every way a remarkable man, 
and although only about five feet five inches in height, 
a giant in his profession of horse-riding. He was 
possessed of an immense fund of knowledge with 
regard to the training and riding of horses, as also of 
stable economy. Ho was the inventor of a particular 
bit that bore his name, and he was the discoverer of 
what he called ' slack-rein riding,' about which there 
was at one time a great deal of controversy. The 
pamphlet ' Genius Genuine ' obtained a great sale. 



It is now the turn of Samuel Chifne}', junior, to come 
upon the scene. He and his brother William were 
taught the whole art of jockeyship by their father, 
who took infinite pains to instruct them in all the 
finesse of the business. He trained them by constant 
exercise on horseback, making them day after day 
ride all sorts of races in dead earnest, he riding in the 
contests with all his might, anxious that he should 
leave his fame to be perpetuated and added to by his 
sons. The father grounded his son William as a 
trainer. The ' Druid' has some genial gossip in one of 
his books with regard to the training of the brothers 
Chifney by their father whilst he resided at New- 
market; he tells us that the tuition given was severe, 
but at the same time affectionate; and while he carefully 
"■rounded Will in the rudiments of that training lore 
of which Priam and Zinganee were destined to be 
such enduring monuments, he gave Sam lesson after 
lesson in race-riding, from the moment he dared 
trust him on a pony alone. He used to slip off with 
him into the stables when he (Sam) was barely three 
stone, and after putting a racing- saddle on to Kit Karr, 
Silver, Sober Robin, or Magic, show him by the hour 
how to sit and hold his reins. Aided by lessons of 
this nature, and constant practice twice a day in the 
gallops, Will had already become a very expert 
horseman ; and while he was with the string at 
exercise, his father and Sam, one on his Heath hack 
and the other on a pony, would mark out a three 


hundred yards course, under the cover of the fir cKimp 
on the Warren Hill, and rim twelve or thirteen races 
during an afternoon. Every phase of finishing was com- 
pressed into the lesson. Sam would make the running, 
and then his father would get to his girths, take a pull, 
and initiate him into the mysteries of a set to. These 
tactics would then be reversed, and Sam taught to get 
up and win by a head in the last stride, or to nurse 
his pony and come in with a tremendous rush — ' the 
Chifney rush of after-years.' 

Samuel Chifney the younger began the work of his 
life at Brampton Park, in Herefordshire, where his 
uncle, Mr. Smallman, was training-groom to the Earl 
of Oxford. The young jockey — he was only in his 
thirteenth year Avlien he began to ride in the Earl's 
colours — soon began to put the precepts of his father 
into practice, and to play in earnest upon the lessons 
he received under the fir-clump on Warren Hill. His 
energy in riding was great, and his success was com- 
mensurate. He was able to out-jockey men who were 
far beyond him in years, and ought to have been able 
to out-jockey him. He played the waiting game ; 
allowed those who were more eager to ride till tbey 
were out of breath, and then, when just at the post, 
pounced upon them with that fearful final 'rush' for 
which he soon became so famous. The Earl of Oxford 
was a keen hand at the game of racing, and was fond 
of training his horses in harness ; in other words, he 
was a believer in the opinion of an old Yorkshire 
trainer, who used to say that, ' if horses want to be 
sweated, you may as well sweat them for the brass,' or, 
in plain language, run them in all the races they are 


entered in till they win, or the entries are exhausted. 
The success of Uncle Smallman and Nephew Sam had 
become so pronounced by the year 1802 as to attract 
the attention of the Prince of Wales, who at once en- 
erafjed Mr. Smallman as his trainer, and with him to 
Albury Grange, near Windsor, went Sam for a month 
or two, in order to try his hand in the colours of the 
Prince, which were ' purple jacket with scarlet sleeves 
and gold braid buttons, and black cap with gold 
tassel.' His Hrst ettbrt in His Royal Highness's livery 
on the Fidget colt was an unsuccessful one ; but for 
all that Sam was delighted with his mount, and always 
dated the real beginning of his career as a jockey from 
that time. Chifney returned to Newmarket to take a 
position in the stables of Mr. Perren, and his brother 
Will succeeded him at Albury Grange. 

The senior Chifney, as has already been mentioned, 
was still retained by the Prince, and had most of his 
riding- work entrusted to him ; but mounts were soon 
found for young Sam among some of Mr. Perren's 
patrons, to whom his riding gave great satisfaction. 
The Prince of Wales, it may be observed, had broken 
up his establishment at Albury Grange, and sent on 
his horses to Perren's stable at Newmarket. For the 
affair already alluded to, in which Will Chifney in- 
tiicted personal chastisement on one of the Prince's 
gentlemen - in - w'aiting, he was sentenced to six 
months' imprisonment, which was an unfortunate cir- 
cumstance for the family, as the royal patronage was 
at length withdrawn, and some of the patricians of 
the turf, headed by the Duke of Grafton, withdrew 
their patronage from Sam, which was rather hard on 


the poor jockey, and on his father as well, who had 
suffered a great deal of contumely in connection with 
the unfortunate Escape business. But Sam's star was 
only eclipsed speedily to rise again ; his brilliant New 
Claret victory on Lord Darlington's horse Pavilion, at 
the First Spring Meeting of 1805, having attracted 
universal attention, he Avas honoured with the royal 
colours. This was in every sense a great race for a lad 
of nineteen to win from such competitors in the saddle 
as W. Arnnll, Buckle, and Clift, wlio were the jockeys 
of the occasion. The following rubric of the race may 
prove interesting. 

The New Claret Stakes of 200 guineas each, h. ft., 
colts 8 St. 7 lb., fillies 8 st. 2 lb., D. I. The owner 
of the second horse received back his stake. Six 

Lord Darlington's b. c. Pavilion, by Waxy - S. Cliifney 1 

Mr. Mellish's b. c. Sancho .... F. Buckle 2 

Lord Egremont's b. c. Hannibal ... W, Ainull o 

Duke of Grafton's b. f. Pelisse . - « . Clift 4 

Betting : 6 to 4 against Sancho, 8 to 1 against Hanni- 
bal, 5 to 1 Pelisse, 7 to 1 Pavilion. The older jockeys 
bestowed a good deal of their ' chaff on Chifney, 
asking if he had come for a lesson, etc. ; but Sam had 
a great revenge : he rode a patient race, and, biding his 
time, came with what has since been described as an 
electric rush, and won the race by two lengths, much 
to the astonishment of his brother jockeys, and to the 
unbounded delight of Lord Darlington and his trainer. 
This race, which was undoubtedly won by the fine and 
patient riding of Chifney, established his fame as a 
Newmarket jockey of great power and originality, 


thanks to the patient training of his father. In ' tho 
land of the Tykes,' Sam pursued his victorious career, 
and told his brother that he could beat every jockey 
in Yorkshire. 

It would serve no good purpose to chronicle all 
Chifney's victories. It may be mentioned, however, 
that he won the Derby on two occasions, and also rode 
five of the Oaks winners to victory, beating the record 
of his father, who only once rode a Derby winner, but 
Avho was more fortunate in ' the Garter of the Turf, 
winnirtg, as he did, the Oaks on four occasions. The 
' rush ' of Chifney was his speciality as a jockey ; but 
although this feature of his riding was obvious enough, 
it was not always so obvious that previous to the 
'rush' taking place he had taken care to obtain a coign 
of vantage from which to effect it. Every jockey has 
some speciality in his mode of riding. It was com- 
plained of one of the most eminent of the brotherhood 
that he had ' a nasty way of stealing the race ;' but 
that is the essence of jockeyship. The word means 
that, and perhaps a little more ; it signifies that the 
race is being stolen, and that you know the fact. From 
■jockey' has arisen the phrase of being 'jockeyed out' of 
anything. Some jockeys draw their races too tine. It 
has been the boast of more than one of the fraternity 
that he was always annoyed at himself when he won 
by a greater distance than a head from his opponent. 
But that, in the opinion of most owners who have big 
sums depending in bets on the event, is much too close 
to be pleasant ; to obtain such a sum of money as the 
Derby or St. Leger produces at the risk of a 'head' can- 
not be pleasant. It will be a relief, at any rate, when 


the wiDiiing number is lioistod, so as to place the 
matter beyond dispute. Some jockeys, however, will 
persist in ' drawing it fine,' They are good artists, no 
doubt, but sometimes they are well beaten at their own 
game, getting ' kidded ' out of the race by a cunning 
competitor just when they think they have won the 
battle. As a trainer said on one occasion at Don- 
caster : * I like to see my horses winning by at least 
two lengths, and what is more, I like to see them with 
the race in hand for a hundred yards before they 
reach the judge's chair.' 

Jockeys, be it understood, are not to ride a race 
in any way they please; they 'must ride to order'; 
but circumstances sometimes arise in the course of 
the race which prevent their doing so, or, at all events, 
which prevent a literal compliance with their instruc- 
tions. The best order to give an intelligent jockey — 
one who is able to ride with his head as well as with 
his hands — is to ' win the race all the way if you can, 
but if you cannot do that, win at the end if possible,' 
which was the invariable direction given by an owner 
of the old school to whatever jockey was riding for 
him. Another owner who -was partial to giving com- 
plicated instructions to his jockeys was told on one 

occasion to ride his horse himself, as the rider 

did not understand any of his mathematics. 

The best instruction, perhaps, ever given to a jockey 
was to ' make every post a winning-post.' 



Among the horsemen of long ago will be foimd the 
name of one who was a credit to the turf, and who 
well deserves a few lines here by way of record. His 
name was Francis Buckle, who won the race for the 
Derby on five occasions, was victorious eight times in 
the Oaks, three of his wins being in consecutive years; 
Wiliile twice the St. Leger fell to his prowess in the 
saddle. Buckle was at an early age sent to the busi- 
ness of jockeyship, passing through the usual drudgery 
incidental to stable-boy life. 

It was discovered at an early period of his novitiate 
in the stable at Newmarket where he was trained to 
his duty, that the boy was possessed of a head which, 
on the occurrence of an emergency, led him to do the 
right thing at the proper moment. Buckle very soon 
became a good rider, and had only been at work for a 
month or two when he was entrusted with the impor- 
tant bvisiness of riding in trials, in which he showed 
such aptitude as to convince all who saw his perform- 
ances that he had the stuff in him of which good 
jockeys are made. After serving in the stable for two 
years, he was sent to ride on the race-courses ; and in 
the course of a few seasons he was acknowledged to 
have few superiors at the business. Buckle became 
especially great in match riding — unequalled, it has 
been said. A celebrated match in whicli he took part 
was that between Hambletonian and Diamond, for 
3,000 guineas, and which he won cleverly by means of 
his ' head.' Buckle was fond of telling the following 


story relating to that historical contest. Sir H. Vane 
Tempest had supported Hambletonian to win a very 
large stake, and his interest in the race became at 
length so intense as rather to unnerve him. At the 
last moment, just as the two horses arrived at the 
starting-post, he came to Buckle on pretence of giving 
him his tinal instruction, but in reality to learn what 
opinion his jockey had of the result. Buckle was so 
cool and collected that Sir H. V. Tempest was de- 
lighted ; grasping the rider's hand, he said, ' Buckle, 
I would give half the stake to be half as cool as you 

Of Buckle it has to be said that he was, as well as 
being one of the greatest horsemen of his day, an 
eminently respectable 'man.' He married and 'settled 
down ' at the age of twenty- four, being then in receipt 
of a good income ; but his wife only lived for a short 
period after her marriage. In 1807 he took to himself 
a second wife, and used, when not engaged in the 
business of riding, to ' farm,' at Long Orton, in Hunt- 
ingdonshire, devoting great attention to sheep and 
oxen, breeding some remarkably good animals. He 
afterwards occupied a fiirm at Peterborough; and while 
livinsf there he was in the habit of startinsr for New- 
market early in the morning on his hack, riding a few 
trials, and then returning to tea at six o'clock, the 
distance travelled being ninety-two miles. Buckle 
was a most trustworthy person in all the relations of 
life, and was able to make choice of mounts out of the 
circle of his masters, and would never ride a horse of 
which he did not like the look. His chief masters 
were Lord Grosvenor, Sir Charles Bunbury, and Colonel 

G— 2 


Mellish. One of the most extraordinary matches he 
ever rode was that against Mrs. Thornbill, which has 
been often noticed. His name L''ave rise to a frood 
deal of punning, says the Old Sporting Magazine : 

' A Buckle large was formerly the rage, 
But now a small one fills our sportive page.' 

Buckle died on February 7th, 1832, in the sixty- 
fifth year of his age, leaving his family with all the 
comforts of life. 

' Oh, where is a match for a treasure ?o rare ? 
Look round the wide world and you'll ne'er find a pair; 
For trained to the turf he stands quite alone. 
And a, pair of such Buckles was never yet known.' 

An examination of the records of the classic races 
will reveal the names of the famous horsemen of a 
hundred years ago who won the Derby, St. Leger, or 
Oaks, but more cannot be done here than make simple 
references to the names of a few of the more prominent. 
Marvellous tales have been told of the prowess of the 
old masters of horsemanship, who won the Derby and 
other races in the earlier years of their history ; but he 
must be a clever jockey who can win on a bad horse; 
and in these latter days we have probably seen as able 
men, or rather boys, in the saddle on Epsoui Heath as 
were Avitnessed b}^ our fathers and grandfathers. 

The first rider who won the Derby was S. Arnull, 
one of a family of horsemen of the period. The 
Chifneys, father and son, are both on the roll of suc- 
cessful Derby horsemen, the latter having won the 
race on two occasions ; so is Buckle. J. Arnull won 
several 'Blue Ribbons' ; Clift was a quintuple winner. 
Another of the many famous horsemen of the 


middle age of the Derby was J. Robinson, who won 
the race five times, and brought oil", for a wager, his 
great triple event of winning the Derby, the Oaks, and 
ffettintj married, all in the same week. He was of 
great respectability ; and there are turfmen living who 
can recount the dexterity he displayed in the saddle 
near the end of a race, when, with a mighty rush, he 
came to snatch a victory just at the winning-post. 
Other horsemen mio'ht be mentioned, men of renown 


in the saddle, who won the Derby : Chappie, Flatman, 
and Marson, as well as Frank Butler, a fine horseman, 
an "excellent judge of pace, and a brilliant finisher. 
On Job Marson, it used to be said, the mantle of 
Chifney had fallen, and he knew how to 'finish' 
as well as how to begin Old turfites tell us ' there 
were giants in those days,' and so far as the jockeys of 
the Derby are concerned, that is to be understood. 
Of the Derby horsemen of to-day nothing need be 
said ; the jockeys of the period are more than suffi- 
ciently petted by the sporting press and the sponing 

In the annals of the St. Leger there are some other 
names than those mentioned which deserve a place 
here. Mangle was a frequent rider and winner in the 
ijreat Doncastrian event. The names of Searle, Peirse, 
and Jackson are also enrolled in St. Leger annals. 
Likewise the names of Shepherd, Johnson, and Clift ; 
nor must B. Smith be forgotten, or the Days. These 
men have all biographies, but unfortunately there is 
not space in this volume to narrate their doings on 
the racecourse and the training-grounds. W. Scott's 
name is placed against nine St. Leger victories, four 


of them being consecutive Avins. The same names 
crop up in the annals of the Oaks, and were the 
chronicles of the various miscellaneous races and 
matches of about a hundred years ago to be carefully 
examined, it would be found that the riders just 
enumerated had taken their share in the daily work 
of the race-course, which at the period indicated was 
far more onerous than the jockey work of to-day, 
when there is no tiresome travelling work to undergo, 
almost no sweating, and no stable drudgery for lads 
who can ride in a race. The jockey of to-day keeps 
his valet, and rides to the seats of racing in a first- 
class railway carriage, with perhaps a Duchess on one 
side of him and a baronet on the other. 


The nominal remuneration of a jockey has been fixed 
by the Jockey Club at five guineas for a winning 
mount and three guineas for a losing one; but lead- 
ing horsemen possess other sources of income than 
their fees. Such is now the competition to obtain 
the services of a sober and clever jockey, that a lad 
of ability, in addition to his fees, will probably have a 
retaining-salary from two or three masters, England's 
chief horsemen, it is understood, have sev.eral retainers, 
and from these engagements they very likely derive 
more than they do in fees. In addition, however, to 
this source of income; several of them pocket a pretty 
considerable sum every season for riding trials, a great 
number of which are constantly taking place at New- 


market. The revenue from this source alone has been 
put down in the case of about half a dozen jockeys as 
not being less than from four to six hundred per 
annum. Then come the multitudinous presents made 
to popular riders, about which the public are every 
now and then being' told so much. Whenever a great 
race is decided, a paragraph at once goes the round of 
the press to tell all the world that ' the victorious 
jockey was presented by the gratified owner with the 
sum of one thousand pounds.' Such sums, indeed 
much larger amounts, have more than once been paid 
to successful jockeys, and lesser sums of a ' pony ' or a 
' century ' are frequently given to clever horsemen for 
their services. Suppose that a chief jockey is free to 
take a mount in a handicap of importance — in other 
words, that none of his masters have a horse com- 
peting, and that his services are being asked for by 
joerhaps three persons each having a horse in the 
race ; the result most likely will be that one of them 
will ask him to name his own terms, the authorized 
fee in such cases counting for nothings and so it may 
come that the jockey will get tv/o hundred guineas 
w'in or lose, and be ' put on ' five hundred or even a 
thousand to nothing on his mount. Archer, for in- 
stance, Avlien he rode Rusebery in the Cesarewitch, 
received a sum of one thousand pounds from the 
gentleman who ' engineered ' that memorable victory. 
For winning the sensational Derby of 1880, when 
Bend Or only boat Robert the Devil by, as the saying 
goes, ' the skin of his teeth,' the Duke of Westminster 
presented the rider with a checpie for £500. These 
sums will doubtless be looked upon by the outside 


world as being very large amounts to pay i'or what 
appears a momentary service. But a cliiet' jockey 
may say, as Sir Gilbert Scott, the eminent architect, 
once said to a high dignitary of the Church who had 
employed him to renovate a cathedral, and then 
grumbled at the amount of his account, ' My lord, I 
am a Bishop in my profession.' When a horse named 
Petrarch, quite contrary to general expectation, which 
was all the other way, won the Two Thousand Guineas 
Stakes, the jockey, a stable-lad at the time, who rode 
that horse, received from an anonymous donor a sum 
of £500 ; it was from a person, very likely, who had at 
an early period backed the horse to win a big stake, 
and in the circumstances was so thankful to win his 
money that he evinced his gratitude in the way 

It should be explained that the sums which jockeys 
are often said to be presented with on occasions of 
winning a big race are easily enough j)rovided by the 
owner of the horse backing it with a bookmaker for 
the amount to be given to the rider. In cases where 
the owner is not a betting man, then he pays the money 
out of the stakes which are won. Wells, the jockey 
who rode Blue Gown to victory in the Derby, was 
presented by his master with the stakes won on the 
occasion, amountinfj to a sum of over £6,000. When 
Teddington won, the same gentleman, it is said, gave 
the rider a cheque for £1,000. 

The official charge for fees being known, it is open 
to any public writer to calculate the sum represented 
by the number of a jockey's mounts, and to give his 
readers the benefit of the figures. As regards presents 


made to successful riders, few of those who are un- 
acquainted with the routine of turf hfe have the least 
idea of their number and value. It becomes a sort of 
instinct with many who unexpectedly obtain a big 
sum of money to give a portion of it away. Numerous 
instances could easily be cited in proof of the fact. 
Whtni a man by risking a ten-pound note finds him- 
self in possession of three or four hundred pounds, 
lus sense of gratitude becomes excited, and he at once 
hands to the jockey who has been in the greatest 
degree the instrument of his good fortune a five, ten, 
or twenty pound note, according to the depth of his 
feeling on the occasion. 

There are, of course, hundreds of hardened tiu'f 
men who never bestow one thought either on the 
horse or its rider ; they bag their winnings or pay 
their losings, and say nothiug to anyone about them. 
The presents in hard cash, and in jewels and other 
valuables, which are made to jockeys by persons who, 
through their exertions, have won considerable sums 
of money, are really remarkable both for their number 
and value. Only the other day, so to speak, a jockey, 
who was unfortunately killed at Liverpool, received 
over £3,000 from only two persons as a recognition of 
his success in winning a certain great handicap. A 
lad who a few years ago unexpectedly won an im- 
portant race found himself all at once a favoured 
child of fortune. The horse he rode, although at one 
time a favourite, had been driven back in the betting 
to a very long price, so much so that all who had 
backed it looked upon their money as having bei^n 
thrown away. Their delight at the ultimate success 


of tlie horse was evinced in the shower of presents 
which fell on the household of the fortunate rider, 
who up to that period had been a person of very little 
repute in the stables. Presents in money to the ex- 
tent of over £400 were made to him ; he was handed 
a jewelled ring for the finger of his wife Avhich a 
Duchess might be proud to wear; a set of diamond 
studs was bestowed upon him ; he became the re- 
cipient of thirty-two boxes of cigars, and of nine suits 
of clothes and nineteen new hats. The minor presents 
of pipes, tobacco, liquors, etc., need not be enumerated 
— they were far too numerous to be chronicled in 
tbose pages, and the variety of them was most laugh- 


'Why,' it has been asked, 'should the chief jockey 
have an income equal to that of an Archbishop, and 
far more than is received by a. Prime Minister or a 
General of the army ?' To answer that question is not 
so easy as may be imagined. It may be said, first of 
all, as regards his fees, that as he rides so many horses 
so his total accumulates, and if masters who keep race- 
hor.-5es compete for his services, who can prevent 
them ? and who is to stay the hands which offer him 
presents in gratitude for money won ? ' Yes,' it is 
answered ; ' but there is no money thrown away on a 
jockey, no capital expended on his education ; he is 
not sent to Eton or Harrow, or kept at Oxford or 
Ctimbridge till he is twenty-four years of age, at a cost 
of thousands to his parents.' A stable lad, it has been 


argued, goes to business at the age of ten or eleven, 
and obtains his food and as much money as will keep 
him in clothes as long as he is an apprentice, at the 
end of which period, if not before, he may obtain his 
£500 or £5,000 a year as a rider in horse-raceS ! That 
may be so, but the great prizes in jockeyland, it 
must be kept in view, are just about the proportion 
of Bishops to common clergy. Seventy-six jockeys 
can be singled out as having competed one year, one of 
the number only riding nine times. Supposing that 
only 2,000 boys are engaged in the English racing- 
stables, there are only a very few of them who can 
have the chance of becoming a Loates or Barrett, and 
earning the income of a Prime Minister. Some jockeys 
who display ability, and obtain the chance of distin- 
guishing themselves, unfortunately go rapidly to ' the 
bad,' and become waifs of the turf; they get spoiled 
by early successes, • flee to drink,' and in a very short 
time are incapacitated for their 'vvork. 

Jockeys who desire to succeed in their business 
must be of temperate habits, and comport themselves 
as if they had old heads on their young shoulders. 
Clever men as equestrians can at present be pointed 
out who have to stand down because of their bad 
conduct, and see riders, with, it may be, not a tithe of 
their abihty, making their fortunes. There is no 
calling of which its professors are exposed at so 
early an age to such terrible temptations as that of 
the jockey. It has been suggested, indeed, by a 
public writer that the leading jockeys are not paid so 
much for their skill as their honesty. It is not the 
iirst time that a turf rider has been bribed. ' I am 


backing this horse for the owner,' said a betting man 
to a bookmaker. * And I am laying it for the jockey,' 
was the reply; 'he says it has no chance to win, and 
when he says that I know what I am doing.' After 
all, what matters, the paying of £1,000 to a jockey by 
the owner of a horse who in the event of its winning 
the race will pocket fifty times the amount ? If a 
bookmaker has laid against a horse to lose £12,000 
or £15,000, it would be a grand bargain if he could, to 
a dead certainty, prevent it from winning by paying a 
large sum to its trainer or jockey to disable it. Such 
' arrangements ' have been made more than once, and 
in these and similar considerations, which will easily 
suggest themselves to the intelligent reader, must be 
sought an answer to the question, why a jockey should 
be well paid. 

The economy of the turf and the discipline of the 
racing-stable is nowadays greatly different from what 
it was in the time of Holman, who described his ex- 
periences of Newmarket. There are probably ten 
times the number of boys in the racing-stables that 
there was in his day. There are, certainly, it may be 
assumed, ten times the number of running horses, and 
it may be taken for granted that there will be, as a 
rule, a boy for each horse, to attend it in the stable 
and ride it at exercise. It is from these boys that the 
f.iture jockeys spring. They are watched by their 
m isters, and good riders among them are noted, 
a:id gradually entrusted with work ; taught to ride 
in trials, and by-and-by entrusted with a 'mount' 
in public, when thought fit for such a position of 
trust. Boys, of course, will be boys, and sad pranks 


are sometimes pla3'ed in the training-stables ; but dis- 
cipline, as a rule, is well kept up, and the lads are 
sharply looked after, which is necessary, as they are 
exposed to great temptations, which some of them, 
unfortunately for themselves and their masters, are 
unable to withstand. ^lany a fierce attack made on a 
horse in the money market has been traced to a 
breach of trust committed by boys in a training- 
stable. It w^juld be passing strange if among a body 
of 10,000 there were not a few black sheep. 

The social position of the jockey has greatly 
changed since the da^-s of Singleton and Buckle : he 
is now a gentleman, comparatively speaking, and ob- 
tains recognition from persons much above him in 
social station. When, during his holidays, the chief 
jockey takes a look round in foreign lands, he has 
noble captains for his companions. The jockey of the 
period does not nowadays require to walk, leading his 
horse from meeting to meeting, and there are riders 
now at a greater variety of weights than there were 
eighty or a hundred years ago. There are over two 
hundred licensed jockeys at the command of the 
OAvners of horses, and the Jockey Club never passed 
a more sensible law than that Avhich compels each 
jockey to take out a license : it is in the nature of 
a bond for their good behaviour, and has already 
proved beneficial. 



Aldcroft, Ellington, 1856. 

Archer, F., Silvio, 1877; Bend Or, 1880; Iroquois, 

1881 ; Melton, 1885; Ormonde, 1886. 
Arnull, J., Serjeant, 1784 ; Rhadamantlius, 1790 ; 

Didelot, 1796; Archdnke, 1799; Election, 1807. 
Arnull, S., Diomed, 1780 ; Assassin, 1782 ; Sir Peter 

Teazle, 1787 ; Sir Harry, 1798. 
Arnull, W., Hannibal, 1804; Octavius, 1812; Blucher, 

Barrett, F., Ayrshire, 1888 ; Sainfoin, 1890. 
Bell, F., Merry Monarch, 1845. 
Buckle, John Bull, 1792; Daedalus, 1794; Tyrant, 

1802; Phantom, 1811 ; Emilius, 1823. 
Bullock, Kettledrum, 1861. 
Butler, F., Daniel O'Rourke, 1852 ; West Australian, 

Cannon, T., Shotover, 1882. 
Chaloner, T., Macaroni, 1863. 
Chappie, Dangerous, 1833 ; Amato, 1838. 
Charlton, Blink Bonny, 1857. 
Chifney, sen.. Skyscraper, 1789. 


Chifnej, S., Sam, 1818 ; Sailor, 1820. 

Clift, Waxy, 1793; Champion, 1800; Ditto, 1803; 

Whalebone, 1810 ; Tiresias, 1819. 
Collinson, Pan, 1808. 

ConoUy, Plenipotentiary, 1834; Coronation, 1841. 
Constable, Sefton, 1878. 
Ciistance, Thormanby, 1860; Lord Lyon, 1SG6 ; 

George Frederick, 1874. 
Daley, J., Hermit, 18C7. 
Day, A., Andover, 1854. 
Day, S., Gustavus, 1821 ; Priam, 1830 ; Pyrrluis the 

First, 1846. 
Dockeray, Lapdog, 1826. 
Edwards, G., Phosphorus, 1837. 
Fitzpatrick, Cardinal Beaufort, 1805, 
Flatman, Orlando, 1844. 
Fordham, Sir Bevys, 1879. 
Forth, Frederick, 1829. 

French, T., Kingcraft, 1870; Favonius, 1871. 
Goodisori, Pope, 1809; Smoiensko, 1813; Whisker, 

1815 ; Moses, 1822. 
Grimshaw, H., Gladiateur, 1805. 
Hindley, Young Eclipse, 1781 ; Saltram, 1783 ; 

Aimwell, 17^5. 
Loates, S., Harvester, 1884 (d.h.). 
Loates, T., Donovan, 1889. 
]\Lacdonald, Little Wonder, 1840. 
Maidment, Cremorne, 1872 ; Kisber, 1876. 
Marlow, The Flying Dutchman, 184 J. 
Marson, J., Voltigeur, 1850 ; Teddington, 1851. 
Morris, Galopin, 1875. 
Osborne, J., Pretender, 1869. 


Parsons, Caractacus, 1862. 

Robinson, Azor, 1817 ; Codric, 1824; Middleton, 
1825 ; Mameluke, 1827 ; Cadland, 1828 ; Bay 
Middleton, 1836. 

Saunders, Eleanor, 1801. 

Scott, St. Giles, 1832; Mundig, 1835; Attila, 1842* 
Cotlierstone, 1843. 

Shepherd, Paris, 1806. 

Sherwood, R, Wild Dayroll, 1855. 

Singleton, J., c. by Fidget, 1797. 

Snovvden, J., Blair Athol, 1864. 

South, W, Sir Thomas, 1788. 

Stephenson, Eager, 1791. 

Templeman, Blo(jmsbur3^ 1839 ; Cossack, 1847 ; Sur- 
plice, 184S. 

Watts J., Merry Hampton, 1887. 

Webb, F., Doncaster, 1873. 

Wells, Beadsman, 1858; Musjid, 1859; Blue Gown, 

Wheatly, A., Spread Eagle, 1795 ; Prince Leopold, 
1816 ; Spaniel, 1831. 

White, J., Noble, 1786. 

Wood, C, St. Blaise, 1883 ; St. Gatien. 1884 (d.h.). 


' It strikes me very forcibly, sir, that nearly all 
our horses are over- trained — in fact, galloped to 
death ; and as nearly all trainers pursue the same 
system of training, no discovery of that great fact has 
yet been made. But some day, when an owner or 
trainer, of an original way of thinking, has the courage 
to take Nature for his guide, and not work a horse off 
its feet before the time fixed for it to run, then the 
great discovery will be made, and some important race 
be won with greater ease than any race was ever won 

These words were spoken at Epsom more than twenty 
years ago by a gentleman who possessed many claims 
to speak on the subject of race-horse training. He 
founded his observations by saying that training had 
become too much a matter of ' use and wont,' and that 
'head lads,' and jockeys who began business on their own 
account, simply followed the modes of work to which 
they had been accustomed in the stables in which they 
had been bred. Happily, of late years trainers have 
come upon the scene who have in many respects been 
better entered to their business than most of their 
predecessors — men who do not take every horse to be 



one and the same animal, and then proceed to gallop 
their charges as so many machines. Older practi- 
tioners in the art have also learned that ditferent 
horses have different constitutions, and require care in 
feeding and discrimination in the amount of exercise 
which is necessary ; and as a great deal of training — 
since railways opened up the scene of operations — is 
done in public, criticism is not wanting to temper erro- 
neous methods. 

It is somewhat difficult to obtain any very reliable 
information of the modes of training at Newmarket a 
hundred and twenty years ago — that is to say, about 
the time the Derby and Oaks were instituted — or 
resfardinsf the trainers and the social life of the stables. 
At the period indicated there were presumably no 
public trainers of horses in the sense that there are 
public trainers to-day ; at lenst, if there were anj^ 
they must have been few and far between. Doubtless, 
one ' training groom ' might have more than one man s 
horses in his charge, but his masters in that case 
would be friends or colleao^ues in racing. In the auto- 
biography of Holcroft, the comedian and dramatist, 
there is given a vivid sketch of the training and stable 
discipline of his day, written from personal experience, 
the author of ' The Road to Iluin ' having been a stable- 
boy at Newmarket. 

Holcroft travelled from Nottingham on the back of 
a race-horse, under the guidance of one Jack Clarke, 
who lived with Captain Vernon ; but his master was to 
be a Mr. Woodcock, who trained four or five miles 
from Newmarket. Poor Holcroft, on the way to his 
new home, was delighted; the plenty of excellent cold 


beef, bread and cheese, with the best table beer, and 
as mucli as he liked to eat when he stoj^ped to break- 
fast, were an indication of the happy change he had 
made from his previous state of poverty. Jack Clarke 
was so kind as to put the boy on his guard against the 
tricks Avhicli were always played upon novices in the 
racing-stables. One of the practical jokes of that 
period — about the year 1757 — was for the boys to per- 
suade their victim that the first thing necessary for a 
w^ell-trained stable-boy to do is to borrow as many 
waistcoats as he can, and in the morning, after he has 
fed and dressed his horse, put them all on, take a race 
of perhaps two or three miles, return home, strip him- 
self stark naked, and immediately be covered up in 
the hot dunghill — which they assure him is the 
method the grooms take when they sweat themselves 
down to ride a race. Should the poor fellow follow 
their directions, they conclude the joke with pailfuls 
of cold water Avhich stand ready to throw over him. 
Other practical jokes follow, some of them not quite 
so clean in detail as that just mentioned. Holcroft 
tells us, in his autobiography, that he rode at exercise 
in the procession of the stable horses, just as is done 
to-day both at Newmarket and elsewhere, and many 
of tlie disagreeable things wdiich occurred were over- 
looked by the futuie dramatist in consideration of the 
plentiful supply of excellent food which fell to the lot 
of the stable-boys. 

Various records of the old modes of training by rule 
of thumb are extant, and anecdotes and reminiscences 
of the old-time trainers are occasionally to be met 
with ; wbile the systems of the period, so far as they are 



a, modification of the old praciices, can be seen by any- 
one who takes the trouble to visit a training-ground. 

The writer of this volume makes no pretence of his 
ability to teach his grandmother to suck eggs, but he 
has no hesitation in saying, what indeed is an obvious 
truth, that ' there are trainers and trainers.' This 
truism was, on a late occasion, well exemplified in one 
of the Newmarket hotels, Avhere a few trainers and 
other racing men were congregated. One of the old 
school was chaffing one of the new school, who is some- 
what of a dandy, about his kid gloves and his fine 
linen. 'I am just as able to train a race-horse in a 
clean shirt as in a dirty one,' was the rather smart 
retort of the dandy. 

Nowadays trainers figure in the society papers 
among ' celebrities at home,' and why not ? They are 
■ — some of them — great in their vocation, and entrusted 
with most important interests. There are trainers 
of to-day who have charge of racing stock amount- 
ing in value »to probably more than a hundred thou- 
sand pounds ; not a few of the modern trainers have 
each from two to twelve horses in their chars^e, each of 
the value of from two to four thousand pounds. The 
Falmouth sale, a year or two since, would no doubt 
o])en the eyes of the non-racing public to the responsi- 
bilities of trainers, and the onerous duties which 
devolve upon them. One of these gentlemen, who had 
a horse in his keeping which was first favourite for the 
Derby a few years ago, told the writer that he was 
nearly done to death during the twenty days which 
preceded the race. Every day there came half a dozen 
anonymous letters, some containing threats, others 


warnings, others advice. Appetite fell off, sleep was 
banished from that trainer's pillow, and a chronic 
state of bad health seemed likely to result; but time 
and the hour Avore on, and the race well ovtr — and, 
what is better, won — the appetite returned, the faculty 
of sleeping came back, and health and serenity were 

The master of an important training-stable, having 
as customers five or six gentlemen, each being owner 
of half a dozen horses, and each more ambitious than 
the other of winning everything for Avhich he enters 
them, has not his sorrows to seek. The only way by 
which jealousies can be kept down, and discipline 
maintained, is to allow one or other of the patrons of 
the stable to direct affairs — the others playing second 
fiddle. But such arrangements are not easy to carry 
out — each peison being suspicious of his neighbour. 
Sir John Randolph is always thinking that Sir 
Randolph Jones is being favoured in some way, and 
' rows ' nut infrequently take place in consequence. The 
trainer may be as honest and upright as man can be, 
doing his duty by all the horses in his stable, but the 
fact will be doubted by some one or other of his em- 
ployers, so that there come quarrels, secessions, and 
changes. In several stables every owner fights for his 
own hand, so that the trainer has much suffering to 
endure when one of his patrons wins a race in wdiich 
the other owners have also something- runniu"'. It is all 

O O 

in vain they are told the best horse has won ; they will 
not believe that, and think themselves ill-used. ^Vhcn 
a trainer trains for several patrons, all of them inde- 
pendent of each other, he has a delicate part to play, 


and it is, under such circumstances, really wonderful 
that so few quarrels take place. 

In an important training-establishment a large 
number of persons have to be employed — mostly 
boys. These persons are always a source of anxiety 
to the head of the establishment. They are anxiously 
waited for by the scamps who hang around such places, 
who tempt them to betray their trust. Where the 
boys are so weak as to submit to such treatment, they 
are eagerly questioned and cross-questioned about all 
that takes place in the stables. They are treated to 
games of billiards, plied with liquor, and have presents 
made to them of occasional sovereigns and suits of 
clothes, all, of course, on condition of betraying their 
master's trust in them. Only a few months ago a 
Newmarket lad was kicked out of the stables for 
doing 'something' to one of his master's horses 
which had become a good favourite for an important 
handicap. It is impossible even for the most vigilant 
trainer to escape an occasional occurrence of the kind 
indicated. ]\Iany instances might be related of trainers 
being baffled by stable lads, and in consequence im- 
portant information becoming public, detrimental to 
the interests of the establishments. The domestic 
economy of such institutions requires a good deal of 
study — the provender for the animals nowada^^s has 
become costly, and when thirty or forty boys and 
other servants have to be fed four times daily, the 
bakers' and the butchers' bills require a good deal of 

Previous to the days of Mr. Thomas Dawson, of 
Middleham, training was done in the most haphazard 


i'asliion, and, as has been hinted, every horse was 
treated much after the same fashion. That gentleman 
thought out new modes for himself, and taught his 
brothers to know that individual horses diftered as 
much as do individual men and women, some having 
inordinate appetites, and some being poor feeders ; 
some horses requiring much more work in training 
than others need. Mr. Dawson's teachimys have borne 
good fruit : one of his brothers being lately at the head 
of his business, having a cjreat establishment and a 
big string of horses, with undoubtedly a . capable 
knowledge of his art, never perhaps evinced to 
greater advantage than in bringing Melton to the 
post (1885) in a condition to win the ' Blue Eibbon of 
the Turf.' The system of training now adopted by 
intelligent trainers is no doubt founded on experience, 
and is being gradually improved upon. When a horse 
is being prepared for a particular race, he is allowed 
plenty of excellent food, and is 'galloped' a mile or a 
mile and a half, as the case may be, once a day, at a 
daily increasing rate of speed, or it may happen that 
he is sent loncjer distances, according to the state of 
the particular training-ground on which he is pre- 
pared. The trainer of the hoise is of course present 
to see him do his work, scanning keenly the animal's 
every movement, and if the horse's legs be under 
suspicion he will feel extreme anxiety till the animal 
is again all right in his box. Another morning of 
anxiety comes to the trainer when the horse has to 
be formally tried with ' something good ' for the race 
for which he is being prepared. That well over, ' the 
stable ' will begin to think victory within its reach , 


but some days have still to elapse before the day arrives, 
and probably a long journey by railway will require to 
be undertaken, all of which bring more and more 
anxiety to the trainer — an accident may occur, or the 
journey may upset the horse, or he may be 'got at;' 
in short, ' uneasy lies the head that wears a trainer's 

'Brains' are quite as much required in training as 
in other professions, and, as has been indicated, the 
trainer of to-day is more alert to what is required of 
him than were his predecessors of sixty years since. 
A yearling or two which have each cost £1,500 or 
£1,600 must not be entrusted to persons who are 
ignorant of their business, or they may never train 
into horses suitable lor the business of the turf; 
nor is it every man who is fit to take charge of a 
trained racehorse which may ha\e cost its owner 
£3,000 or £4,000, prices which of late have been fre- 
quently paid fur horses in training. Another feature 
of modern racing economy may be here alluded to ; 
namely, the constant travelling to which horses are 
now subjected, which adds considerably to the anxieties 
of trainers. Horses now travel by railway-train, and 
in the case of particular animals their corn, and even, 
in instances, their water, is taken with them, so that 
they may not suti'er from a change of food. 

Trainers have not escaped a share of those calumnies 
to which persons connected with the turf are all more 
or less subjected. Probably they are sometimes blamed 
when they are innocent of all offence, but it is quite 
certain that trainers have on occasion done things that 
would not bear the light of day. So have jockeys, as 


all interested in horse-racing know. In all probability, 
the majority of trainers are most faithful to their em- 
ployers ; it is in their interests that they are reputed 
to do those things which they ought not to do. It is 
the public who suffer when a horse is ' stopped.' It 
may be left to others to argue or illustrate how far it 
is an offence, and of what magnitude, for a trainer to 
aid his employer in deceiving the public. That the 
public have often been deceived by various ' stables ' 
on various occasions may be taken for granted. 

Harking back to the old times and the old stories 
of training vicissitudes, ninnerous incidents and anec- 
dotes might easily be collected bearing on the subject, 
biographical sketches having been published of some 
of the more notable of them. ' Black Jack' (Mr. John 
Lowther) would form a good subject for a sketch, 
but limited space forbids. The old school were firm 
believers in discipline, and brought up their lads in 
wholesome fear of the rod. The riders who were 
trained in the Yorkshire stables about the end of the 
last century were well acquainted with the biting 
qualities of the supple ash plant. 

Mr. John Sct)it, of White-wall, may be cited as a 
trainer who began on the traditions of his art, and 
lived long enough to witness many of what were called 
'new-fangled' practices. Born about the close of the 
last century, John Scott had attained the good old 
age of seventy-seven years at the time of his death, on 
October 4th, 1«71. For a full half-century of his life- 
time he figured as 'a feature' of turf-life. His father 
had also been in his day a trainer, and lived to the 
grand old age of a century mhius three years. The 


'Wizard of the North's' introduction to the great 
business of hfe took place when he was thirteen years 
old. Three years before that time he had, however, 
been found useful in the stables, and was allowed to 
ride at exercise. But, it has been said, his ' beginning ' 
was bt'ing sent off to ride a race at a place called 
Blandford: the horse which he had to ride was named 
Tenbones, and his instructions were to ride the horse 
in the race for which it Avas entered, and then sell 
the mare to any person who would have her for 
£30. John was able to better his instructions, as 
he not only won the race, but obtained £50 for 
the horse, and came home triumphant by the coach 
— a very proud boy indeed. From that date fortune 
rained her best favours on John Scott, and in due 
time he blossomed into the great man he became, 
when he was known as England's foremost trainer. 
In 1825 he bought the house and stables at White- 
wall, and began a business there which speedily 
eclipsed all others of the kind. The hospitality of 
the distinguished trainer was inexhaustible. He kept 
open-house for his patrons and their friends. His 
stables and their surroundinoj's were a siqdit. Some 
of the finest horses in the country were trnined for 
their engagements by his instructions, and for a time 
he was almost invincible. He was much honoured by 
his dependents and friends, and was pointed out to 
strangers as a great man. Undoubtedly he was 
master of his business in all its branches. 

An interesting chapter in any history of the turf 
would be that devoted to the Days, one of the great 
trainincf and riding families of England. There have 


been many Days on the turf. Old Mrs. Day, it is 
recorded, saw four of her sons riding in one race. The 
first, ' Honest John ' of Danesbury, trained for the 
Dukes of Grafton. Alfred Day's name is famous in 
the annals of turf horsemanship ; one of his races was 
on Andover, for the Derby, by the victory of which 
horse a great stake was landed for the patrons of the 
Stockbridge stable. The late John Day continued the 
fame of the family, training in his time many of the 
most famous race-horses of England ; his name for a 
long series of years was as a household word in turf 
circles. The celebrated ' Old John Day' died in 1860; 
and there are still alive many who remember him 
dressed in his customary suit of solemn black, looking 
more like a clergyman than a man connected with a 
racing-stable. Years afterwards the John Day of more 
modern times died at Danebury. ' He was a man of 
genial disposition, kindly nature, hospitable, and an 
exceedingly amusing companion.' 

As is well known, many of the men connected with 
the training of the Derby winners of the last half 
century are yet alive, and amongbt the number are 
Mr. Alex Taylor,-of Manton, and Mr. Matthew Dawson, 
of Exning, who had a horse running for the ' Blue 
Ribbon ' half a century ago ! Mr. Robert Peck, who 
trained for Mr. Merry, and Mr. Thos. Jenniugs, who 
enabled France to avenge Waterloo, are still living, 
also Mr. John Porter, of Kingsclere, who trained some 
of Sir Joseph Hawley's horses. 


The ' dear delight ' of our sporting grandfathers is no 
longer what it was ; at any rate, it is not to their 
grandsons what it was to them. Nor does it stand on 
the same spot as it did when ' Tattersall's ' was the 
imdoubted centre of the English turf— so far, at all 
events, as the bettino- finance of racing was con- 

'I shall meet you at the Corner' used to be a 
frequent formula for an appointment, and there were 
hundreds of persons in the betting world who gave no 
other address. * Will see you at Tatt's,' was all that 
was vouchsafed by persons who were winning or losing 
thousands daily at the different race-meetings. Now- 
adnys settling at the Corner is but a phrase ; for 
transacting turf business Tattersall's has given place to 
another institution, the Victoria Club (and similar 
resorts), at which the greater j^ortion of the betting 
and settling is accomplished. So that the Corner is 
the Corner in the old sense no longer. The horse- 
repository of the period is still in the hands of the 
family, but is now situated at Knightsbridge, not at 
Hyde Park Corner. 

As a betting arena, more especially in co nioction 

'TATTERS alls: 109 

with the Derby, Tattersall's has paled its fires, betting 
being now mostly transacted at ' the clubs,' many of 
which have been so constituted as to admit of that 
class of business being carried on ; and at these the 
chief bookmakers, or their representatives, may be 
seen, except, of course, when a race-meeting of more 
than usual importance is taking place, when the 
pencillers Avill be found in ' the rings,' those of them 
who never leave London excepted. When a commission 
is required to be executed, Tattersall's is no longer, as 
of yore, resorted to ; the necessary transactions can be 
carried out at the Victoria or Albert, or other 
clubs, in which place a horse entered in the Derby, or 
in a big handicap, can be backed to win pretty con- 
siderable sums of money, quite as much, probably, as 
an owner may wish to bag over the victory of his 
animal The betting which now takes place at ' Tatt's ' 
is not a fiftieth |)art of what it was wont to be in the 
days of old, when tens of thousands of pounds used to 
change hands as if they were so many half-crowns. 
On days, indeed, when the ' betting at Tattersall's ' is 
sometimes eagerly looked for, there is none, that re- 
nowned resort, as the newspapers proclaim, having 
been ' drawn blank.' One or two old-fashioned news- 
papers still, however, quote * Monday's betting.' 

Those who remember Tattersall's in the days of its 
greatness as the chief money-market of the turf, will 
long regret, as Admiral Rous once said ' the disap- 
pearance of the old Corner, the gravel walk, the green 
lawn, the very cow — so emblematical of milk — and 
the plane-tree, under whose shade mysterious books 
have been scrutinized and judgment recordea.' At 


one time or another Tattersall's has been frequented 
by all the famous turf- men of England ; lords and 
'legs,' peers and parvenues, priests and publicans, noble 
captains and ignoble cads, have each in turn strutted 
and fretted their brief hour at the Corner, which in 
its time was the scene of many a turf tragedy, the 
stage of countless intrigues, and the centre of numer- 
ous plots and contrivances. At one time or another 
racing men of all grades used to have business at 
' Tatt's ' ; some who were not possessed of the entrde to 
the ' holy of holies ' had to wait in the ante-chamber, 
in order to make or obtain their payments ; and we 
have read of those who went to that famous resort to 
pay or receive their thousands, or tens of thousands. 
An old Scottish country gentleman, who was taken to 
the Corner by a friend, was hoard on his return to say 
that nothing surprised him so much as Tattersall's. 
* Thoosands ! absolute thoosands ! chinge frae man to 
man without so much as a " thank you" in return. I 
wonder where all the money comes from ?' 

In the 3'ear 1848 the number of subscribers to the 
subscription rooms at the Corner numbered 1,000 
persons. At first the rooms were pretty much in the 
possession of a coterie of rich exclusives, but in time, 
as betting extended, and men wanted to win larger 
sums of money than they could do from their com- 
panions, the portals of Tattersall's required to be 
widened, and men were admitted to the sacred 
chambers who would not otherwise have been tolerated. 
My lord felt no scruples in betting with a man in 
Tattersall's, or on the race-course, on whom he would 
have scowled had he sought admission to his house, 

* TA TTERSALLS: 1 1 1 

even by the area-gate. When gentlemen wanted to 
back their horses to win big purses of money for the 
Derby, or any other event, it was convenient to find at 
their elbow a bookmaker ready to accommodate them ; 
and many a heavy commission has been successfully 
worked at Tattersall's. Thirty years ago a writer gave 
indications of the immense sums of money which used 
to change hands at that famed resort, often enough to 
the extent of £100,000 on the settling-day after a 
great race : 

' What a theme for the moralist and historian does 
that simple word "Tattersall's" open up! How 
fortunes have been won and lost in " the room," and 
how emperors, kings, princes, and the most exalted of 
the aristocracy of all nations, have rubbed elbows with 
dealers, " legs," " copers," and the lower order of the 
" ossitocracy " in general in the yard, would prove an 
interesting story.' 

But apart altogether from the fame of the subscrip- 
tion-rooms which have ftn* such a long period been 
attached to the establishment, Tattersall's is well 
worthy of having its history written. It is surprising 
that a volume of ' Memories ' has not long since been 
devoted to its founder, and an account of the business 
(in horse-dealing) so long carried on, which is un- 
doubtedly the most important of its kind. Sketches 
of the first Mr. Tattersall— ' Old Tatt,' as he was 
fondly called by his familiar friends— and his cele- 
brated horse Highflyer liave been written, but the 
sporting public would undoubtedly read with relish 
an authentic history of the establishment, from the 
pen, say, of the present head of the house, or from 


someone actinqj under his autliority. The materials 
for such a work must be ample, and its interest would 
be great. Some member of the family might take 
this hint, and at once set to work. 

The report of the dinner given in honour of the firm 
in April, 1805, has supplied materials for the following 
sketch. The chair on that occasion was filled by 
Admiral Ptous, and over 250 persons were present at 
the banquet, the bill of fare of which comprised 100 
dishes. In proposing the toast of the evening, the 
Admiral said it was not the duration of time, or the 
great trade which had been carried on, which com- 
manded respect, but rather the probity and straight- 
forward conduct which had always characterized the 
firm, from father to sou. 

From the speech of Mr. Richard Tattersall we 
obtain an epitome of the rise and progress of the 
firm : 

' I am well aware that this high compliment which 
has just been paid us arises from no merit either of 
my own or my partners, but chiefly from a desire, 
natural to all Englishmen, to wish success to a busi- 
ness which has been carried on and conducted by the 
same family, and in the same locality, for so great a 
number of years, A higher compliment than this, I 
believe, has never before been paid to men in such a 
position. We are honoured by the presence of a great 
number of the nobility and gentry, and many who are 
unable to bo present themselves have done us the 
honour of sending their race-cups for the occasion. 
It is now one hundred j'ears ago — " bar one " — since 
my great-grandfather — who was best known to his 

* TA TTERSA LLS: 1 1 3 

contemporaries by the name of " Old Tatt "- — leased 
from the then Earl Grosvenor the ])iece of ground 
on which he established our business, long and 
familiarly known as The Corner, and by his honesty, 
uprightness and integrit}^ he secured the respect and 
confidence of all who knew him. The then Prince 
of Wales, afterwards George IV., was a constant 
attendant at the establishment in the time of my 
grandfather, and it was by his own desire that tlie 
bust of his Majesty, which stood in the old yard, was 
placed there, where it remained until we were "turned 
out," and it is now "up" in our new yard at Albert 
Gate. I remember heaving many strange stories con- 
cerning the Prince and his companions at the old 
Corner. Among them, one of a post-chaise and four 
galloping into Newmarket at night, His Royal 
Highness ridinc; the leaders and Charles James Fox 
the wheelers. My great-grandfather was succeeded 
about the end of last century by his son, my grand- 
father, who had likewise the reputation of being a 
man of strict integrity and honour, and who was also 
a good deal connected with the Prince of Wales, as he 
was for many years associated with the Prince as 
joint proprietor of the Mornivg Post newspaper. In 
1810 my father and uncle succeeded to the business, 
which they carried on, I might say, with credit and 
success, for nearly half a century. No men, perhaps, 
were ever more popular with all classes, and no men, 
I believe, ever made more sincere friends ; and among 
others I may mention the name of an English 
nobleman who was a model in every relntion of life — 
the late I>uke of Richmond. Time and the Marquis 



of Westminster have, however, driven us out from our 
time-honoured locality, and we have secured a spot 
as near to the Corner as we could get; but al- 
thouo'h we have changed our habitation, we have not 
changed our principles, and we hope to be still 
honoured with the confidence and patronage which 
we have for so many 3'cars enjoyed. A hundred 
years ago horse-racing and betting were confined to 
noblemen and gentlemen, and bookmakers were as 
little dreamt of as railways or electric telegraphs. But 
bookmakers have since arisen, and horse-racing has 
become far more popular, even amongst persons in 
humble ranks, who some few years since would as soon 
have thought of keeping a tame elephant as a race- 
horse, or of "making a book." In 1815 my grand- 
father opened a small room for the accommodation of 
bookmakers, who had hitherto been accustomed to 
walk about the yard picking up a stray " pony " when- 
ever they could. That room has become an institu- 
tion of the turf; and in our new premises neither 
time nor money has been spared to make the room 
fitted for the object for which it has been erected. I 
attribute the great success of m}^ family as being due 
to their untiring industry and integrity, and the up- 
rightness of their dealings. My grandfather used to say 
that he told more lies than any man in England, but 
that, like those of a counsellor, they were all " briefe-l " 
to him. I beg, in conclusion, to tliank the company for 
the honour they have done us by attending here this 
eveninsjf, and for the kind and confidential manner in 
which they have spoken of our firm ; and I assure you 
that no effort on the part of either myself or my 

* TA TTERSA LL'S: 115 

partner shall be spared to merit your approval and to 
conduct the business as our predecessors have done. 
As long as I live I shall look back to this day as one 
of the proudest and m(^st pleasant of my existence.' 

Mr. Tattersall's speech may be supplemented by a 
few additional facts of an interesting kind : 

The founder of the firm came to London, from some 
place on the borders of Lancashire and Yorkshire, the 
name of which has not been given, in the year 1743. 
He had been, when at home, a wool-comber, but was 
all his life fond of horses, and it is related that when 
he arrived in the great Metropolis he became a con- 
stant attendant at Beevor's horse-repository in St. 
Martin's Lane. Whether or not he found employ- 
ment there has not been stated ; but that he took a 
keen interest in all that went on at that place is cer- 
tain, and that he, either during his visits to Beevor's 
or at some previous date, had acquired a good know- 
ledge of horseflesh is evident from his having been 
appointed to a position of great trust in the stables of 
the second and last Duke of Kinoston. As training- 
groom he remained in the service of that nobleman till 
the year 1773, in which year the Duke died. 

Whether the celebrated livery-stables were opened 
at or before this date appears to be somewhat uncer- 
tain. Mr. John Lawrence, author of ' The Horse,' 
states that Tattersall's was opened in or about the 
year 1760 ; but in a paper contributed to the Penny 
Magazine, vol. xiii., the date is given as 1773. 
In this article the place is described as one ' where 
men of honour might congregate, free from the snioll 
of the stable, and enjoy a view of the most beautiful 



horses without being perpetually in contact with the 
jockey or horse-dealer.' The Penny Mtujazlne of the 
period was evidently not highly endowed with the 
gift of prophecy ; at any rate, the writer quoted was 
unable to foretell that a time would come when the 
jockey would often enough be the chosen companion 
of some of the highest in the land, finding admission, 
apparently on terms of equality, to the most exclusive 
drawing-rooms and clubs of London. Is it not the 
case that one or two foshionable jockeys of the period 
have been received at the ' at homes ' of ladies of 
very hvAx de^rree ? However, to come back to our 
horses, it has to be recounted that Mr. Tattersall at 
once obtained success in his business. Accordinsr 
to Mr. Lawrence, he was the proprietor of Young 
Traveller, a stallion, and also became in time the 
purchaser of Highflyer, a horse which was destined 
to have its name prominently emblazoned on the roll 
of turf celebrity. That the first Mr. Tattersall had 
greatly succeeded in his business at an early date is 
evident enough by the fact of his having been able to 
' pay down ' in ready money the sum of £2,500 for his 
fancy Highflyer, which was sold to him by Lord 
Bolinfjbroke. Indeed, the founder of the firm was so 
fortunate at the outset of his business as to obtain 
the high patronage and kindly countenance of several 
distinguished persons. One of his first important 
'jobs' was the disposal of the Duke of Cumberland's 
stud on the decease of that xoydX Prince. It may be 
here related, in reference to 'Tattersall's' (the subscrip- 
tion-room, that is), that it was opened about the year 
1789 with about seventy-six subscribers — among 

' TA TTERS ALL'S? 1 1 7 

whom were to be found some of the most distinguished 
names in the roll of the English nobility, the mem- 
bership being kept for a time exceedingly select. 

It may be taken for granted that the career of such 
a person as Mr. Tattersall will be surveyed with in- 
terest even in this bald sketch. The name of Tatter- 
sall is known wherever there is a horse. Richard 
Tattersall was the architect of his own fortune, and 
of the fortunes of his descendants; but he could 
never, seeing that he died on February 21st, 17D5, 
have foreseen the extent to which the business he 
had begun w^ould grow, or the enormous prices Avhich 
many of the horses sold under the hammer of his 
grandson would bring. 

The owner of the great horse and the fine Hall 
which was named after it was an eminently social 
and hospitable man, and drew around his fireside a 
select circle of the choicest spirits of the age. ]\len of 
high position did not disdain to partake of his fine old 
port. It was a proverbial saying among his friends 
that everything which old Mr. Tattersall touched 
turned to gold. He even became successful as a 
newspaper proprietor, being at one time a part 
proprietor of the Morning Post; but although that 
journal yielded .what was at the time considered a 
large profit, he became dissatisfied with its manage- 
ment, and started the Morning Herald in opposition. 

In his capacity of newspaper proprietor, Mr. Tatter- 
sall did not escape without a little taste of the d(Is- 
agrdmens of that risky position : being convicted of a 
libel on the Duke of Richmond, he was imprisoned for 
a period of three months in the King's Bench. After 


a few 3'ears' experience of the press Mr. Tattersall re- 
tired from the cares and anxieties of newspaper 
manaofement, and went to Hve in his Hall, where, in the 
choicest language of the story-teller, * he lived happy 
for a long period, and then died in the good graces of 
all men.' According to tho fashion of the period, he 
was honoured with an epitaph, worded as follows : 

* Sacred to the ashes of Richard Tattersall, late of 
Hyde Park Corner, in the county of Middlesex, Esq., 
who, by his indefatigable industry, irreproachable 
character, and unassuming manners, raised himself 
from an humble, though respectable, origin to in- 
dependence and affluence. To the rare excellence of 
bearing prosperity with moderation, he by his in- 
flexible integrity united (as he justly acquired) the 
exalted appellation of Honest Man, and continued un- 
corrupted even by riches. Thus universally respected 
and beloved by all Avho knew him he lived, and died 
as universally regretted on the 21st February, in the 
year of our Lord 1795, and in the 71st year of his age. 
But though his perishable part, together with this 
frail tribute to his ashes, shall decay, yet as long as the 
honest recollections of honest work, sociable manners, 
and hospitality unbounded shall bo dear to the 
memory of man, the remembrance of him shall live, 
surviving the slender aid of the proud pyramid, the 
boasted durability of brass, and the wreck of ages.' 

Harking back to ' the subscription-rooms,' it has to 
be' recorded tliat the ' Tattersall's' of to-day has fallen 
somewhat into disrepute as a tribunal for the settle- 
ment of disputed bets. Till about the end of the 
year 1842 the Jockey Club used to take cognizance of 

• TA TTERSALL'S: 1 1 9 

bettins? disputes ; but at that date a resolution was 
passed that the chib would not in future act in such 
matters, suggesting at the same time that disputes 
should be settled by reference, a referee to be chosen 
by each party, and, in the event of non-agreement, 
an oversman should be selected, whose decision 
should be final. So matters remained till 1858, when 
a number of rules — in all, nineteen — drawn up jointly 
by a committee of Tattersall's and the subscription- 
rooms at Newmarket were adopted, and similar rules, 
founded on these, are now in operation. 


Many interested in horse-racing, especially those who 
have been studying it for a period of twenty-five or 
thirty years, will remember that the sporting papers, 
about the time indicated, contained announcements 
from sundry persons anxious to foretell the winner of 
the Derby. The number of tipsters ottering informa- 
tion was so large as to render it evident that the busi- 
ness was a paying one : all sorts of people put on the 
mantle of prophecy for a few weeks previous to the 
day set for the decision of the race, and, no matter 
that the majority of them proved false prophets, the 
tips they gave were greedily purchased, eagerly 
scanned, and frequently acted upon — to the gain of 
the tipster and the almost certain loss of his victims. 
Most of those who engaged in the business were, very 
likely, persons who knew nothing about the Derby 
horses, but \.ere possessed of sufficient knowledge of 
the world, and of the fools who live in it, to be able to 
prey upon tliem with good effect. 

Ujion the occasion of a criminal trial some twenty- 
five years ago, it was elicited in evidence that a man 
who had been blind for the previous ten years had 
been acting (on paper) as a Derby tout and prophet. 


This was surely a case of the hlind leading the blind ; 
no matter, the proj)het confessed that he made a good 
living out of the business. Many instances of good 
livings being earned by tipping might be given. At one 
time there Avould not be less than perhaps a hundred 
persons engaged trying to make the fortunes of their 
fellow-creatures, but when the daily newspapers began 
to give extended notices of turf matters, these gentry 
became in less request. A selection of advertise- 
ments relating to the Derb}^, extending over the last 
fifty years, would form a curious chapter illustrative 
of human folly. Some of the tipsters advertised that 
they had dreamt the winner, and that they would 
impart their information on receipt of half-a- crown's 
worth of postage-stamps ; others, again, wished it to be 
known that, by means of clairvoyance, they had 
ascertained the name of the horse which would win, 
and also another one, at a long price, which would 
obtain a place. 

The Derby was selected by the adventurers as the 
best race to work upon, because of its strong hold on 
the popular affections of the people. Many persons 
bet a little over that event who never bet on any 
other race. There are men who say, ' I am not a bet- 
ting man, but I do sport a sovereign or two over the 
Derby, win or lose.' A surprising amount of success 
often attended the bouncing advertisements of these 
tipster knaves ; it became known, in the case of one of 
them, that for eight days before the Derby he received 
about two hundred letters each day, every one of which 
probably contained twelve postage stamps, as also a 
stamped envelope for reply. 


A rogne of the tipster kind carried on, for some 
twenty days before the great race, no less than eleven 
such agencies. One of his tricks was to advertise as a 
governess out of a situation, Avho had, while in her 
last place, obtained a grand turf secret — no less than 
the winner of the Derby — while acting as the amanu- 
ensis of her master ; her terms were a fee of live 
shillings by post-office order ; another dodge of this 
person was an advertisement purporting to be inserted 
by a clergyman, saying that he had obtained the names 
of the first three horses from a tout whom he had 
attended on his death-bed, the object of his advertise- 
ment being to provide a fund for the relief of the said 
tout's very destitute family. He also posed as a lady's 
maid who had discovered the name of the winning 
horse by accident, and who, for a fee of three shillings 
and sixpence, would tell all she knew. Other plans of 
this Kapoleon of the art were of a commoner sort, but 
proved more or less successful. An active tipster takes 
pains to spread his favours over all the horses likely to 
run in the race, sending a different selection to each 
applicant, so that in the event of one of those he has 
named ' pulling through,' i.e., winning, he can refer to 
' the great success of his tip, and ask with confidence 
for the renewal of past favours, having something 
good in reserve for one of the big handicaps.' Those 
were the tipsters of thirty years ago, and even further 

During the last fifty 5'ears, as has been hinted, the 
tips given for successive races for the Derby Stakes 
w^ould form a curious collection, especially if they were 
to be liberallv annotated with illustrative remarks. 


Sporting journalists Avho could rhyme a little were 
wont to invoke the muse about the time set for the 
decision of the Derby, and it is no more than the 
truth to say that some of their poetic prophecies Avere 
admirably done ; many of them not only gave the 
winner, but their selection was couclied in beautiful 
language, when the difficulty is considered of working 
with so many different names. 

It was in 1837 the poetical tips began : ' Vates,' a 
well-known turf-writer of that time, led off", scoring a 
brilliant success the first time of askincr : his lines 
ended as follows : 

' 'Tis over ; the trick for the thousands is done : 
George Edwards on Phosphorus the Derby has won.' 

Among the poetic prophets, ' Orange Blossom ' scored 
several successes, and so did ' Rhyming Richard ' and 
many others. Outsiders who had no access to the press 
also set themselves up as poets, and recited verses 
made for the occasion, in tap-rooms of public houses 
and on tlie street. In some years the poetry apropos 
to the Derby was much more in evidence than in 
others ; Blue Gown's year was one of them. One of the 
many doggerel songs which heralded the victory of Sir 
Joseph Hawley's Blue Gown is worth quoting, to the 
extent, at least, of the concludin<]f verse, seeinij that 
the ragged prophet who recited it, at The Cock, at 
Sutton, assured all who would listen to him that the 
poetry was his own, and that Blue Gown was a cer- 
tainty. After going over all the probable competitors, 
his 'poem' wound up as follows: 


' Yet thousatiiis there be who profess to believe 
In an easy-won victory by Sir Joseph's Green Sleeve j 
But all ye gay galhmts from London's big town 
Must shell out your gold on bonnie Blue Gown.' 

That particular poet, it may be noted, was possessed of 
a wonderful memory. As the returning crowd from 
the Downs halted at The Cock to refresh themselves 
on their way home, he was there to remind them of 
his prophecy, and to solicit largess, a demand which 
many persons good-humouredly complied with, more 
especially thos.e who had backed the horse. 

Stray poetic tips on several of the chief events of the 
year still make their appearance in some of the sport- 
ing newspapers, but the practice is evidently falling 
into desuetude. 

Coming to the present time, it may be asserted that 
touts and tipsters were never more industrious. Of 
this fact the numerous advertisements which con- 
stantly appear in the sporting journals aftbrd testimony. 
They — the tipsters — offer people fortunes for a shilling 
or two, but the fortunes which emanate from these 
people are mostly made up of ' rainbow gold,' very 

The touts, of course, come first, making it their 
business to supply information more or less reliable, as 
to the work done by horses trained at Newmarket and 
other places. It then becomes the duty of the tipsters 
to generalize and utilize the reports of the touts, and 
pass them on to the public, either through the columns 
of the sporting press, or by means of letters, telegrams, 
and circulars. The various training quarters are regu- 
larly ' touted ' by men well versed in their business, 


probably bred to it, indeed — at least, in the sense of 
having been in some way or other connected from an 
early period of their lives Avith the 'noble animal.' 
Some touts have in their day been themselves owners 
of race-horses; others have been trainers; three or four 
have been jockeys. Many persons take to touting 
simply from love of the work ; one industrious horse- 
watcher tells of himself that he was brought up to 
factory life ; another, as may be gathered from his 
communications, carries on a tailoring business, whilst 
some are petty shopkeepers as well as touts. 

At Newmarket a large number, probably half a 
hundred, of such persons find the business remunera- 
tive ; one of the community boasts of the comfortable 
cottaGres he has been able to build from his y-ains as a 
horse-watcher. Another is reputed to earn quite 
£1,000 per annum at the work! As there are some- 
times 1,000 horses training at 'headquarters,' it is 
suthciently obvious that the touts at that great centime 
of the 'sport of kings' have their work cut out for them. 
There are probably about fifty training-stables situated 
in other parts of the country, the horses trained in 
each of which are watched perhaps by a couple of 
capable touts, who will report to their employers 
every day by telegraph as to the work done by the 
animals at exercise. As in other occupations, so in 
touting there are degrees of celebrity — there are touts 
and touts. Newmarket horse- watchers have before 
now become famous in their sphere of labour by their 
industry and success, undergoing day by day a great 
amount of personal trouble and fatigue in order to 
obtain information. 


These men have been able sometimes to ' spot ' a 
horse for a particular race many months before it 
could be run, enabling their employers to win con- 
siderable sums of money by backing the animal when 
a big price could be got against its chance. Anec- 
dotes have from time to time been related of the 
tricks resorted to by touts to obtain information as to 
the training and tiials of horses. Owners of race- 
horses as a rule detest touts, and when they have a 
horse to try for some important race, study to mislead 
them, or throw them quite off the scent, by putting 
fanciful w^eights on the animals taking part in the 
trial, and by other devices ; but it is a difficult matter 
to baftle a tout. No matter whether the sun shine or 
the wind blow, the tout will be looking from some 
coign of vantage in an open drain, from a haycock or 
corn-rick, or from any spot where he can observe what 
is doing on the particular training-ground which it is 
his duty to watch. A certain nobleman once upon a time 
captured a body of touts, and had them driven in an 
omnibus to a distant town, where dinner had been 
ordered for them. In their absence an important trial 
was brought off, of which they were duly informed, too 
late, of course, to be of use to them. Some trainers 
have their training-grounds well searched by men and 
dogs, so as to be pretty sure their trials will not be 
overlooked. But even exceedingly vigilant people 
have been deceived. ' You need not mind that poor 
old mushroom-gatherer,' said a trainer to his men ; 
'she'll not know what we are doing.' But in that the 
trainer was wrong, the poor old woman being a tout 
in disguise, who saw all that he wanted to see, and so 


was able to serve bis employer by means of bis 
ingenuity, and tbereby put money in bis purse. 

The sporting newspapers, and many other journals 
as well, now give daily reports from the various train- 
ing places, especially from Newmarket. It is not very 
easy to say bow the work is accomplished. At New- 
market, the distances between some of the training- 
grounds being very considerable, more than one man 
is required for the work of the morning. As has been 
said, there are touts and touts. It is a proverb 
among the fraternity at Newmarket that ' those who 
lie in bed of a morning do no good for themselves ;' 
and touts are occasionally heard of who are never seen 
on the training-gallops, and would hardly know a 
horse if they saw one. It is insinuated, in fact, that 
they ' make up ' their reports at second-hand, having 
persons in their interest who suppl}' them with infor- 
mation — of a kind. Several of the Newmarket horse- 
watchers not only 'tout,' they 'tip' as well, sending 
long letters to particular journals, giving a full and 
particular account of the work done, analyzing and 
comparing form, and ending with an expression of 
opinion as to which of the horses in a race is likely to 
win, while the daily purveyors of training intelligence 
each give their tip immediately previous to a big race ; 
and it is not a little surprising to tind the touts at 
Newmarket, Man ton, Stanton, Kingsclere, and Mai ton 
each able to supply the winner of the same race ! 
Touts are well paid, many of them earning a good 
deal of money, liberal presents being occasionally 
bestowed on them when they are able to herald a big 


success, wliich some of the body will manage to do 
half a dozen times in the course of the season. 

The wife of the great trainer at Mai ton used to aver 
that she was always glad to see the touts about, as it 
was a sign that there were horses on the ground worth 
watching ; and in the palmy days of the ' Wizard of 
the North ' there was always a little knot of these 
persons taking stock of all they could see. The 
* Druid,' in one of his ch.irming ' gossips ' says Flying 
Dutchman w^as watched by a perfect regiment of them 
before the Derby, sixteen having been counted on one 
occasion waiting on the horse, and looking at it with 
hawks' eyes as it came out for exercise. A tout told 
the trainer that he had orders to watch the horse 
come out of its stable, and not to leave the ground till 
it went back. 'When Bill Scot (the famous jockey) 
lived near Knavesmire, his motions, whenever a trial 
at Malton was about to come off", used to be watched 
night and day. It was nearly impossible for him to 
steal away from York at any time without having 
them on his track.' 

Another reminiscence given by the ' Druid ' tells us 
that at one of the Yorkshire training towns a school- 
master commenced as prophet to a London paper, 
and in the sequel it appeared that he had got all his 
information by writing letters for touts between school- 
hours. As showing the ingenuity of the touts, it has 
been told that one of them, disguised as a drover, 
obtained valuable racing information from a trades- 
man employed upon a job at one of the Newmarket 
racing-stables. The place was a public-house, and 
over a can of ale the painter said that a certain horse 


which he described had walked, being quite Lame, from 
one box to another: ' It had two white heels,' said the 
painter. That bit of information was worth a good 
sum of money to the tout. 

An anecdote was printed some years ago detailing 
how a warder in one of the big prisons, who had under 
his charge the 'ne'er-do-well' son of a trainer, spent 
his holiday near Newmarket with friends of the con- 
vict, who by way of getting him favoured let the 
official into two or three good things, by which he 
made a sum of money sufficient to buy the goodwill 
of a public-house which had for a long time been the 
object of his ambition, as he had become heartily tired 
of prison life. A bolder game was played by a tout 
who, obtaining the use of a constable's uniform, told a 
trainer that he had come down from London to tell 
him that two noted characters had left for Newmarket 
on some evil mission. The supposed constable, who 
had come from Berkshire, was hospitably entertained 
and rewarded, but what was of greater importance to 
him, he learned a stable secret that he could not other- 
wise have penetrated. It was a clever dodge success- 
fully executed. 

The expense incurred by the newspapers of the 
period in the purveying of tips and racing intelligence 
runs undoubtedly in the course of the year into a 
large sum of money. Every daily newspaper of any 
consequence keeps a ' tipster,' or racing commentator, 
his duty being to give once a week a good long review 
of tlie past week's racing, and also to take a prophetic 
glance at the forthcoming meetings. The cost of the 



sporting element will not per1ia]:)s be less — perhaps 
more — than £1,000 a year. 

Sporting writers have a hard task set them. They 
are expected to be ' there or thereabouts ' on the occa- 
sion of every great race, and many of them are called 
upon to give ;'ips for the smaller everj^-day contests 
as well, so that upon occasions, such as in Whitsun 
Week, when there may be something like ten or a 
dozen meetings, their resources are taxed to the utter- 
most; and they must, too, be on their mettle, for at 
these holiday- meetings there are thousands of people 
who look to them for guidance and instruction in 
making their bets. Tipsters on such occasions are 
expected to work miracles on behalf of their clients, 
and should they fail to name the winners of at least 
two in every three races, they are stigmatized as hum- 
bugs not worth following. Yet how is a tipster to 
perform what is expected of him ? In many cases ho 
has only the public form of the horses to guide him, 
he is ignorant of the intentions of owners, and till the 
last moment ' there is no market ' to show how the 
cat intends to jump. No wonder it so often happens 
that ' the tipsters are floored to a man.' Tried by the 
results of their tips, tipsters as a rule are a failure. Not 
that they do not on occasion make a palpable hit, 
selecting sometimes two out of the first three in a great 
handicap, but they don't pay to follow systematically. 
That being so, it is not a little wonderful that their 
'vaticinations,' as they call their writings, continue to 
be so anxiously looked for and eagerly read. Anyone 
desirous of backing horses for particular races may 
easily discover for him.self all that is known about 


the animal from 'the book' — i.e., one or other of tho 
annual or weekly turf-guides now so numerous. 

The performances of each horse are set down with 
great accuracy in these repositories of turf knowledge, 
and for a few pence or a shilling or two they are open 
to all, so that there is nothing to prevent a man from 
becoming his own tipster. There are, of course, occa- 
sions when ' the book is a lie,' and therefore of no use, 
when a horse that has been running badly suddenly 
recovers its form and improves all at once some sixteen 
or twenty-eight pounds. No wonder, when such re- 
surrections take place, the anxious prophets find them- 
selves ' down in the dirt.' Even tipsters who supply 
a dozen papers, and give a different winner in each, 
are often on such occasions ignominiously ' floored.' 
On some days the followers of a tipster may be for- 
tunate, and back perhaps five out of seven of the 
winning horses in that day's racing, at such odds a,s 
are now allocated to the persons who do their business 
at what is called ' starting price,' which many people say 
is the price ' arranged ' by certain persons who, being 
themselves extensive layers of the odds, put the figures 
at a point that will save their own pockets. Be that, 
however, as it may, backers of any particular man's tips 
are sure to come to grief, despite such brief glimpses 
of sunshine as they may occasionally experience. 

How is it, will be asked by those who study the 
racing news given in the daily papers, that tipsters 
occasionally perpetrate such egregious b hinders by 
selecting horses to win that in the end are nearer last 
than first ? Take the case of the Oaks a few years ago, 
when awell-knowu special correspondent of a sporting 



newspaper Avas afforded an opportunity of looking over 
most of the competitors, more especially the mare 
which won and the one which was second in the race. 
But as he did not fix on either aniimd as the likely 
winner, the question may fairly be asked, how he failed 
to do so. Like all the other tipsters on that occasion, 
he prophesied that the favourite would win, and never 
so much as gave a word to the winner. The favourite 
had doubtless that best of all recommendations — the 
best public form. But the public do not require the 
services of a ' special ' correspondent to tell them that 
the horse possessing the best public form, and standing 
in the betting list at the shortest price, is the one that 
(on paper) seems most likely to win the race. As the 
saying goes, ' any fool can follow the money,' and it 
certainly needs no tipster to ' spot ' the favourite. 
What a backer of horses stands in need of, but what 
he is never likely to get, is a person who on looking 
over a lot of horses will point out the one which, all 
being fair and square, should win the race. Jenny 
Howlet started at a very long price fur the Oaks. 
Why ? Because none of the tipsters tipped her. Why 
not ? Why not, indeed ! Several events could be 
easily recalled on which the most wonderful prophetic 
unanimity was exerted in vain, as, for instance, the 
Royal Hunt Cup of 1880, when the prophets were 
floored to a man over Ruperra. 

Many other examples of tips which have been igno- 
miniously wide of the mark during the last seven years 
might be culled from racing newspapers or from the 
prints which deal in sporting intelligence. If some of 
the tipsters would only condescend to give their 


selections minus their reasons for giving them, they 
might, perhaps, be thought sensible writers, even 
when their prophecies come to grief. Imagine a 
tipster who would not entertain the chance of Robert 
the Devil for the St. Leger because in his opinion ' the 
horse could not stay '! Could not stay, and yet that 
horse was only beaten for the Derby by Bend Or b}^, 
perhaps, ten inches, and afterwards won the Grand 
Prize of Paris over a greater distance than the St. 
Leger is run over ! A tipster fortunate enough 
to select Buchanan for the Lincoln Handicap led 
his followers an expensive dance by continually 
selecting throughout the 3'car horses from the same 
stable to win the important races of the season. 
That tipster, at the close of flat racing, was ' nowhere ' 
among his fellows. Many turf writers imagine that, 
because a stable begins well, its good fortune is sure 
to continue throughout the season ; but it is an idea 
which very often brings those who believe in it to a 
condition of financial grief. It is scarcely worth while 
to occupy space with the failures of tipsters, they are 
so numerous, but a few samples ma}^ be given. A pro- 
fessional tipster wrote as follows of the Kempton Park 
November Handicap of 27th November, 18S0 : 'As to 
the bottom-weights, the Irish-bred animals Whist and 
Beauchamp II. [the Avinner !], they cannot go fast 
enough to keep themselves warm.' These remarks 
actually appeared in a paper having on its staff two 
sporting writers, which was issued on the morning of 
the race, and in which the scribe wrote of a horse 
which had been ' scr.itched ' some days previously as 
if it were still in the race. Some years since thero 


was groat fun over a tip for the Grand National 
Steeplechase, A well-known writer on turf matters 
said he would eat a certain horse if it won the race, 
and he was in the fulness of time put to shame by 
its victory. That tipster, as may well be supposed, 
was most unmercifull}' chaffed. 

It may be accepted as a rule that public tipsters 
* follow the money ' in making their selections, or, at 
all events, select horses which are sure to be backed 
and in time settle down as favourites. It has been 
affirmed by some persons of certain tipsters, that they 
write in the interest of bookmakers, and give horse 
after horse that has no chance of winning, so that 
infatuated turf gamblers may back them. These 
writers have plenty of time to do so, as in many cases 
the race is not run for several weeks after the entries 
are published. Such accusations, however, must be 
received with the proverbial pinch of salt ; but 
probably, from the persistent way in which they are 
reiterated, there is more than a grain of truth in 

With what a wonderful scream of delight some 
hysterical members of the sporting press rend the air 
when they are so fortunate as to find themselves 
correct in naming the winner of an important handi- 
cap or some classic race. Be sure, in such an event, 
that in the next number of their journal they will fill 
nearly a column by quoting every favourable line 
they have written about the horse since it made its 
first appearance on the turf Upon one occasion, the 
editor of a weekly sporting jor.rnal had the impudence 
to propose that his readers should subscribe to present 


a testimonial to his Newmarket tout because he had 
been so fortunate as to predict the winner of one of 
the classic races ! Lut, really, there was no merit in 
his doing so; other touts selected the sam.e animal, 
but refrained from crowing over their feat. The tout 
now alhided to writes upon occasion as if he were 
infallible ; in reality, he selects as few winners as most 
of his kind, and it is instructive to look back upon 
what he hrfe Avrittcn — after the event. It was amusing 
to find this great horse-watcher, when it was necessary 
to give a tip for the Cesarevvitch of 1881, saying, 
' They may back Robert the Devil that please, but I 
shall stand Big Jemima!' Of course he was 'not in 
it that time,' and when the race was run there were 
no jubilant quotations from former articles, pointing 
out the winner. With regard to the ' classic races,' 
as they are called, there is no merit in selecting one 
or two of the best two-year-olds to win the Two 
Thousand Guineas, nor is there much merit to be 
accorded to the tipster who selects the winner of the 
Two Thousand Guineas to win the Derby, should 
that horse be entered to take part in the race. 

Besides the newspaper men, whose doings in tipping 
have just been reviewed, there are the circular men, 
who publish weekly sheets containing notes on past 
and forthcoming events, as also a programme of the 
coming races, each horse having a number attached to 
it, so that it can be referred to in an advertisement. 
There are at least half a dozen such circulars of a re- 
putable kind among turf-men, as ' Locket's,' ' Judex's,' 
* Mentor's,' etc. There are also some of another kind, 
which need scarcely be further noticed ; it is so easy for 


an adventurer who can command a couple of pounds 
to set himself up as a guide to backers of horses. 
]\[any such are now at work ; they generally last for a' 
few weeks and then break down. As a rule they are 
persistent liars, and know as much about horses as 
they do about herrings. There is a knave of the kmd. 
who is constantly obtruding his mondacions advertise- 
ments on turf-men, always saying that his success is 
enormous, that his subscription-list is full, but that for 
the small sum of Hvc shillings he will give a few more 
persons the benefit of ' his own exclusive information,' 
as well as let them share in the knowledge of the 
gentlemen who write to him from the various training 
quarters. Tempted to send your five shillings for that 
particular 'circular,' you find it is a fraud : there is 
nothing in it but what may be found in the Sporting 
Chronicle, StanJard, or Daily Tdcgimph. In ten 
days or so ' the witch ' writes you in piteous terms to 
add another half-crown to your subscription. ' You 
Avill never regret doing so,' you are told ; ' there is 
something to come for the back-end handicaps that 
will prove a fortune to all who subscribe to the Witch 
of Endor.' I wrote for the circular just to test it, 
and of course found it to be worthless. Some of the 
more dishonest of the tout fraternity, in their despera- 
tion to make a living at the business, claim every now 
and then to have spotted nearly every winner at some 
particular meeting ; in proof of which assertion they 
offer to send back numbers of their circulars to be ex- 
amined by intending subscribers, and in more than one 
instance such persons have reprinted some of their 
' back numbers ' with no end of winning tips. By 


such means flocks of fresli gulls are obtained and 
the purses of the tipsters tilled. But b}^ several of 
the circular men subscribers are dealt with in an 
honest spirit, and really receive something like value 
for the two guineas, wliich is the cost of the sub- 
scription. Besides those which have been alluded 
to, there is a perfect host of miscellaneous and ' fancy' 
tipsters, always at work struggling to earn ' an honest 
penny ' throughout the racing year. 

There are still a few of this class living who 
occasionally resort to these old-fashioned methods of 
bleeding the credulous ; but the average backer of 
horses is too wide awake to fall readily into such 
meshes. As has already been hinted, the daily news- 
papers and the journals specially devoted to the turf, 
with their prophecies of the winners of races to come, 
their full reports of races past, and their columns of 
training intelligence, keep those persons who back 
horses fully up to the mark as to what is doing. They 
at least provide backers with the means of forming 
their own opinions ; whilst, as has been stated, some 
• backers keep a tout of their own, or, at any rate, 
receive special reports from a tout, so determined are 
they to make money at the game, which all who have 
tried it will confess to be a rather difficult task. Two 
or three of the fraternity indicated above, who stuck to 
one horse only, were rather successful in their pro- 
phecies. Nor did they follow the money. ' A country 
gentleman in temporary ditliculties ' sent Kingcraft 
for the Derby of 1870, and Favonius in the year 
following. In the year 18G2, one of the advertizing 
tipsters gave Caractacus as the dream of his little girl, 


who, althongli blind, savo the horse win with a hoy on 
his back as pale as death, A person who had a secret 
of the turf in his possession, and who posed as an old 
railway-guard, sent Doncaster to all his inquirers, as 
certain to win both the Derby and the St. Leger — not 
a bad tip, certainly, seeing that the horse started at 
the remunerative odds of 40 to 1 for the Derby, and 
won the race, while for the St. Leger he was second to 
his stable companion, Marie Stuart. It is a curious 
fact of tipping and touting that greenhorns, who ex- 
pend a shilling or two in the way indicated, have 
often on their tirst trial backed a winner. 

With his more than thirty 3^ears' experience of 
tipsters and their work the writer is well warranted 
in saying ' they are a failure.' This is susceptible of 
easy proof. There is, for instance, a persistent bouncer 
in the line who advertises that last year he absolutely 
gave over GoO winners ; but as racing goes on for over 
250 days of the year, and seven races on the average 
are run each day (on some days there are three or 
four meetings going on), it is clear enough that his 
winners would not anything like balance his losers; 
as a matter of fact, this man's tips, like the production 
of Shakespeare at Drury Lane, spelt 'ruin' through- 
out the year. This tipster, at the time this book was 
in process of printing, gave 31 horses for one day's 
racing (three meetings), and out of the lot he found 
three winners— one at 7 to 1, another was an even 
money chance, whilst the other started at odds on ! 
But at the close of the season this man will probably 
be shouting with all his might that he has 800 winners 
to his credit for the season ! After all, the eccentric 


person was right who said that any sign of the 
morning that could by any process of twisting be 
brought to bear on any of the racing events iixed for 
that day, was just as good as a half-crown tip from a 
professional tout. In this category comes the story 
of the man who, finding that he had come into his 
place of business on a Derby morning riding on the 
knife-board of a ' Favourite ' omnibus, accepted the 
circumstance as of good omen, putting therefore a 
fiver on the horse that had been made favourite, and 
winning his money ! 

If those who tvill back horses could first get a 
glimpse of the persons and surroundings of some of 
the beer-swilling and gin-consuming prophets to whom 
they entrust their shillings, they would at once be 
convinced they would serve their purpose as well by 
putting the names of the horses in a hat and backing 
the one they might first happen to draw from it. 

The hack-tipster, as a rule, is an abject follower of 
* the money,' and although some of the band deny 
that this mode of tipping is adopted by them, they 
unwittingly let the cat out of the bag in such phrases 
as, ' with no market to guide us,' ' but as the horse has 
not yet been backed, it would be unsafe to select him, 
etc., etc. In fact, there are no tipsters who can honestly 
tip on any other system. When a horse wins a popular 
handicap, starting at the liberal odds of .50 or 66 to 1, 
the chances are that its name has never been men- 
tioned by any of the tipping fraternity as being a likely 
winner, and on such occasions, as the phrase goes, ' the 
prophets are floored to a man.' Why, then, are there 
prophets, and where there are any, of what use are they ? 


Bouncing tipstors who so confidently and loudly 
assert that they do not follow the money manage matters 
in this way: When the weights for a popular handicap 
are published, they preliminarily select ten or a dozen 
horses in stables which are sure to be followed, and in 
due course backed by the public ; then when the time 
comes at which they must bind themselves down to a 
specific selection, they name three out of the lot they 
had previously fixed upon, probably stating at the same 
time, ' In selecting these three for win and places, we 
cannot be accused of following the money, because, as 
our readers will probably remember, we took them on 
our side immediately the weights were published, and 
before there was any betting on the race.' 

Weak-kneed bettors, with more money than brains, 
lean on certain tipsters with a surprising degree of 
reliance, considering how often they must be dis- 
appointed. As already stated, many of the principal 
newspapers of the day keep a tipster for the benefit of 
tlieir sporting readers, and pay a large sum of money 
annually for racing information. The business of 
supplying the London and provincial journals with 
these tips and that kind of information is mainly at 
present in the hands of one gentleman, who, after pay- 
ing his assistants, must derive from his labours a 
very handsome income indeed, as matter of the kind 
is paid for at a high rate. 

Ne¥/ modes of distributing tips are every now and 
again adopted ; in several cities and towns the selec- 
tions of men who are supposed to be able to 'spot' 
three or four winners every day will be found on sale 
at places appointed about noon. These are largely ia 


demand, at prices ranging from threepence to a 
shilling, according to the number of prophecies given 
or the celebrity of the tipster. ' Paddock wires,' 
* Special knowledge telegrams,' ' Latest information,' 
and several other varieties of the modern tipster's art 
can be obtained at prices suitable even to * leanly 
furnished purses.' The anxious inquirer after winners 
can also communicate direct with distant touts by 
paying for their reply — the payment of a fee being as 
a matter of course included in the remittance. Tips 
for the day's races are now often hawked about the 
streets at the price of a penny or twopence, and, as 
all who frequent racecourses know, tipsters are rapidly 
becoming a nuisance, but the work is remunerative. 
One of the fraternity told the writer at a recent meeting 
that he could sell every day thirty or forty marked 
cards to ' the swells ' at a ' bob ' (Is ) each, and eighty, 
or perliaps a hundred, at sixpence apiece ; ' but then 
you know, sir, I has all them cards to pay for, and 
that takes some of the gilding off the cake, I can tell 


In 1865 tlie name of the horse which won the Derby 
had not an Enghsh sound ; it was Gladiateur, Avho, in 
presence of the much-mobbed Prince of Wales, gained 
the verdict of the judge, and earned the ' Blue Ribbon 
of the Turf,' having behind him as he galloped past 
the winning-post twenty-nine opponents. The victory 
of tlie French horse will be long remembered by those 
who saw it. The success of Gladiateur — it is now 
twenty-five years since it Avas obtained — was not un- 
attended by incidents of a sensational kind, which 
may be briefly noted for the information of those who 
know nothing about them. A hundred stories, in- 
deed, might be related about the victory of Gladiateur, 
which afforded a subject of talk for many months to 
the turf-men of the time. 

It was doubtless a veritable triumph for Franco to 
beat us at our own game, and on our own ground; but 
we had our revenge in the Grand Prix. As has been 
hinted, there was much said during the French year, 
and much of what was said has been exaggerated in the 
chronicling. There was certainly, as has been again 
and again asserted, no consuming desire among British 
sportsmen to see the French horse beaten ; nor has it 

* THE FRENCH YEAR; 1865. 143 

ever been proved that any unfair means were resorted 
to to stop the animal from winning. There are 
persons who rejoice, no doubt, to see the downfall of a 
favourite brought about; but with these it is no ques- 
tion of nationality; they would as soon 'nobble' an 
English race-horse as a French one. There may have 
been a feeling of soreness, but it was certainly not 
apparent at Epsom ; for as the horse came back, 
bearing his victorious rider to the scales, guarded by 
Inspector Tanner, cheer upon cheer was given in the 
heartiest manner. Count de Lngrange, the owner, 
Avas warmly coni^ratulated by the noblemen and 
gentlemen present, and by none more warmly than by 
that best of English gentlemen, the Prince of Wales, 
who took a deep interest in the race. So far, then, as 
outwaid show was concerned, there seemed no fly in 
the Count's pot of ointment ; and as regards the 
honours of horse-racing, he had every reason to be 
satisfied, inasmuch as he had in the preceding year 
secured the 'Garter of the Turf with Fille de I'Air, 
whilst the Two Thousand Guineas had fallen to him 
by the prowess of the horse he had just led in at 
Epsom, a Cambridgeshire and a Goodwood cup 
having previously rewarded his enterprise. Many an 
English geutleraan. after a lonc^ strui^orle, has at lensfth 
retired from the turf without even taking one of these 
important races. 

The ])recautions which for the first time were taken 
by the Epsom authorities to prevent any fraud being 
perpetrated may be here recited from a sporting 
chronicle of the period : ' Between the preceding race 
and the race for the Derby an interval of an hour was 


allowed fur the necessary preliminaries, which, on the 
present occasion, included a new feature, by special 
order of the stewards, so as to guard against any foul 
play or chicanery respecting short weights, which — it 
is a common talk in sporting circ^.^es — more than one 
winner of the Derby was supposed to have carried 
within the previous thirty years ! The weighing was 
conducted with scrupulous minuteness, the saddle, 
bridle, and all the other riding paraphernalia being 
privately marked, and weighed separately from the 
jockey, whose bodily vveight was also registered, after 
which he was weighed with his ' gear ' in the aggregate ; 
and to guard against the slightest deception, a body of 
mounted police had orders to escort the winner back 
to the Stand, where a detective would superintend the 
unsaddling, and conduct the jockey to the scale — a 
very proper precaution, it will be admitted on all hands, 
but affording sad cause for reflection that the whole 
system of racing has become so foul as to necessi- 
tate it.' 

No sooner had the race been run than stories of 
many kinds were set afloat as to the money that had 
been won and lost. In the winnings the stake netted 
must, of course, claim a place ; the purse taken by 
Gladiateur contained the handsome total of £6,875, 
whilst the Count was enabled to claim from the ring 
the sum of about £40,000, his trainer also winning a 
o-ood amount — £13,000, it was stated; Count de La- 
o-rauf^es commissioner won about as much, whilst a 
considerable number oC persons were known to ' land ' 
from £2,000 to £10,000 over the victory of Gladiateur, 
who, as may be surmised from the short price at 

^ THE FRENCH YEAR; 1S65. 145 

which ho started, was hirgely backed by the public. 
Three of the Liri;er bookmakers, it was said at the 
time, would have, at least, to pay between them 
£100,000. The placed horses were each well backed 
for a * shop,' which they obtained, Mr. Robinson, in 
particular, pocketing £3,000 or £-i,000 in virtue of Lis 
horse — Eltham gaining third position in the race. 
Some of the more astute Frenchmen backed Gontran 
to win the French Derby, and Gladiateur to win the 
Derby of Epsom, and had the good fortune to pocket 
considerable sums in consequence. Not a few curious 
stories have been told of the betting incidents of the 
race won by the French horse. One is told of an 
irate old Colonel who drcAV Gladiateur in his club 
sweepstakes ; but as he could not believe in the pos- 
sibility of a French horse winning our greatest English 
race, he prevailed on a member of the club to exchange 
tickets with him. Curiously enough, the member in 
question had himself drawn Breadalbane, but had 
been persuaded by a fellow-member, who had a strong 
fancy for that particular horse, to take Christmas 
Carol in lieu of it ; that ticket for Christmas Carol he 
now passed to the prejudiced old officer, in exchange 
for Gladiateur, thereby winning the first prize of £100, 
the Colonel having, of course, to put up with the 
second prize of £40, as the reward of his unbelief and 

Many friends of Count Lagrange showed their faith 
in the French horse by backing it to win them pretty 
big sums of money, which, as he failed to win both the 
Prendergast and Criterion Stakes, they were enabled to 
do at somewhat long prices, those of them who were 



prudent afterwards hedging- when his victory in the 
Two Thousand had brought him to short odds. At 
one time in the course of the winter preceding the 
Derby ' any odds ' might have been obtained against 
Gladiateur. A London wine-merchant, or rather 
'gigantic pubhcan,' founded his future on a triple- 
event bet, laid him by a bookmaker who frequented 
his pailour, against the French horse winning the 
three classic races. The bet laid was £2,400 to a case 
of champagne, and was duly paid on the Saturday 
following the St. Leger, the wine being consumed 
along with a huge pile of anchovy toast at the same 
time. When the bet was made it was thouglit the 
French horse would prove to be an impostor ; and Lid- 
dington was first favourite for both races, wliile 
Broomielaw and Breadalbane, for which Mr. Chaplin 
gave £11,000, were each quoted at short prices, the 
former at 8 to 1 for the Guineas, the latter at the 
same figure for the Derby. 

The following account of the race is from the pen 
of a competent turf-reporter who was present at 
Epsom on the occasion : After fully half an ho.ur 
had been expended in several breaks-away, the flag 
at length fell at a favourable moment, so that a good 
beginning was ensured. It is hardly necessary per- 
haps to say that all had been on the tiptoe of expec- 
tation, some, indeed, on the rack, during the five or six 
false starts that had taken place. Popular feeling, in 
fact, was at white heat, the vast concourse of spectators 
who were looking on seeming to have but one heart 
and one head. The starter, whose every movement 
"was keenly watched and criticised, had evidently re- 

' THE FRENCH YEAR; iS6<;, 147 

solved to do his very best to ensure that there would 
be no complauit from either owners or the public, and 
he certainly succeeded, as was afterwards universally 
admitted. The winner was in no way favoured, al- 
though, as may be well supposed, there were not want- 
ing those who if they could would have favoured some 
of the English horses. Wild Charley, Mr. Merry's 
horse, was first off, but was at once held back by his 
jockey, and, ilhistrating the proverb, was almost the 
last horse in the race when the moment arrived for 
judgment to be recorded. Almost from the start the 
horses were so crowded too^ether that some of them 
could not act. Tilt v/as seen in front till the mile- 
post was reached, and then Eltham, running vigorously, 
got his head in front and still further improved the 
pace. After passing the mile-post a 'scrimmage' took 
place among the second lot in the race ; some of the 
jockeys in consequence using language to each other 
that was more forcible than polite. In the melee 
Wild Charley was greatly interfered with, and was 
actually at one place carried off his feet, and when 
released from his awkward position stumbled upon 
Archimedes, who in turn canoned against Gladiateur, 
and so much imperilled his chance for the moment 
that Grimshaw (his jockey) was compelled to pull him 
short up, which in turn interfered with Longdown. 
Toddlcben and Braham were now brought to the front 
by their jockeys, and ran well among the horses that 
were leading. By the time that Tattenhara Corner 
was reached the field was seen to be a straoi-'dinsf one. 
Christmas Carol on the inside berth came round in 
grand style, indicating that he had a fair chance of 



being hailed the winner. Eltham also looked at this 
point like attracting the attention of the judge, having 
a good place on the lower ground. Longdown also 
got through his horses pretty well, and began to show 
in the race to some advantage, steered by John Osborne. 
And where all this tinae was the mighty Ghidiateur, 
the destined winner of the race, will naturally be asked? 
He was simply biding his time, althongh he was rather 
far off to please his friends, many of whom were be- 
coming anxious, whilst one or two were in despair. 
Grimshaw, however, was carefully nursing his horse, 
and when the supreme moment arrived he was among 
them as if by magic. Shouts were just being raised 
for Eltham, when French shot ahead of him on Christ- 
mas Carol, and then the cheers arose for the latter; 
but they lasted only for a moment, as the Frenchman 
came up at a rate of speed which looked (and was) 
wonderfully fast. The mighty crowd which was gazing 
on the scene held their breath for a moment or two, 
and then as Gladiateur stride after stride overhauled 
first Eltham and then Christmas Carol, a mighty shout 
rent the air as the Frenchman passed the judge winner 
of the much-coveted ' Blue Ribbon of the Turf ' in 
18G5. Two lengths was the distance by which this 
memorable race was won, and ' Waterloo avenged.' 
The second favourite in the betting was Mr, Chaplin's 
horse Breadalbane, who made no show in the race, 
and was beaten by his less thought-off stable com- 
panion, Broomielaw ; but Derby honours were in store 
for the owner of these animals, as in 18G7 Hermit's 
famous race excited quite as great a sensation as 
that of Gladiateur. Kangaroo, the property of a 

• 'THE FRENCH YEAR; 1S55. 149 

noted sportsman, ran ' nowhere,' and the Marquis ot 
Hastings was not destined to be hailed the owner 
of a Derby winner. 

As has been mentioned, the French horse had pre- 
viously won the Two Thousand Guineas Stakes, for 
which, however, he did not start anything hke I'avourite, 
Bedminster, Liddington, Breadalbane, and Kangaroo 
taking precedence of Gladiateur in the price current. 
In the race for the Guineas seventeen horses followed 
the victor to the winning-post, and of that number the 
following took part in the struggle for the Derby : Sir 
Joseph Hawley's Bedminster, which started favourite 
for the Two Thousand, but was only placed seventh ; 
Le Mandarin, also the property of Count Lagrange; 
Archimedes, Breadalbane, Kangaroo, Tilt, Ariel, Rifle, 
and Joker. Of the race for the Guineas, we were told 
at the time that 'Gladiateur, without being called 
upon in earnest, maintained the best of it to the end, 
and won very cleverly, if not easily, by a neck from 
Archimedes, Mr. Merry's horse Liddington being third.' 
At the stud, to which he was rolefrated after his v/on- 
drous successes on the ra(^.ecourse, Gladiateur proved 
a sad failure; yet the Count in the year 18G9 refused 
the big sum of £16,000, which Mr. Blenkiron, the 
well-known breeder, offered him for it, but that 
gentleman became ultimately his owner a year 
later, when he bought the horse at less than half 
the money. 

When Lagrange died, the event was of course 
utilized by our literary turf-men, while recording the 
achievements of his horses, to rechronicie the scandals 
which they said were the accompaniments of his racing 


career. Thin_qs Avere done openly on the turf by the 
Count, we were told, which were the reverse of straight- 
forward ; he certainly did not race in a spirit of 
chivalry, and more than once the running of his horses 
provoked, a popular outbreak. Count de Lagrange 
raced in the grandest possible fashion. In his best 
days he was a giant on the turf, and his stud must 
have cost him for several years an enormous expendi- 
ture. According to Mr. Corlett, his racing field was a 
large one ; it was bounded by Newcastle on the north, 
and Marseilles on the south ; Baden-Baden on the 
east, and Brest on the west. Such a stable as his had 
never before been known, his training and incidental 
expenses having on occasion been as much as £50,000 
a year. Such a man could not afford to throw away a 
single chance — he would require, in order to meet 
such a vast expenditure, a good deal more than what 
he could obtain in stakes, even when the race was 
a Derby or St. Leger. In 1865 he won £25,000 in 
stakes alone, and probably for>r times that sum would 
not represent the favourable balance presented in the 
pages of his betting-book. 

Gladiateur's career on the turf brought his owner a 
sum of over £30,000, but in his day the Count had other 
horses which put money in his purse, notably Fille de 
I'Air and Chamant, the best animal, probably, that 
ever his stud contained. In 1S76 that? horse was the 
hero of the Middle Park and Dewhurst Plates, and in 
the following year he would, in all probability, had ho 
not broken down a few days before it w^as run, have 
credited his owner with a second * Blue Ribbon.' His 
victory in the Two Thousand Guineas undoubtedly 

^THE FRENCH YEAR,' 1865. 151 

foreshadowed another Derby and St. Leger triumph 
for Count de Lacrrancfe. ' Had not Chamant broken 
down,' said Lord Falmouth, when Silvio won for him 
his second Derby, ' Archer would not this year have 
ridden his first Derby winner.' The Count also won 
the St. Leger with his horse Rayon d'Or — which 
many persons said ought also to have won the Two 
Thousand and Derby. 

That the French horse had a year in hand when ho 
gained the Derby was, with many persons, a solemn 
belief, and the owner of Regalia (Mr. Graham), both 
before and after the St. Leger was run, demanded an 
examination of the horse's mouth ; but the stewards 
of the meeting declined to accede to the request, 
' unless Mr. Graham would state in writinof his cfrounds 
for supposiug the horse was not of the right age.' There 
can be no doubt that in thus disputing the age of Gladia- 
teur an indignity was put on his owner. As a public 
writer of the period said, in commenting upon the race 
for the Derby, ' there can be no question that by far the 
best horse won ; and the imputation of the winner 
having ayear in hand is only the idle gossip of those who 
are ignorant of the fact that it is necessary to register the 
birth of every foal bred in France, with its distinguish- 
inor marks, to entitle it to run for the Government and 
other prizes. ' 

When Gladiateur won the St. Leger, all Yorkshire 
roared approval; the shouts sent up by the 'tykes' 
were deafening indeed, and had Count de Lagrange 
valued the approval of the tens of thousands who 
welcomed the victory of the Frenchman at Doncaster, 
he might have gone home a happy man ; but he took 


fortune as it came to him— good or bad — witli much 

In the Two Thousand Guineas of 1864, Fille de I'Air, 
which started first favourite at odds of 9 to 4 against 
her, was the absokite last in the race, to the great won- 
derment of her backers. To the inexpressible disgust 
of Edwards, her jockey, the filly was 'out of it the 
moment the flag fell.' Severe comments were made 
on the form of the Count's filly : ' For to suppose that 
Fille de TAir, the best animal of her year in October 
last, and pronounced to be invincible by her own 
trainer on the very morning of the present race, has 
trained off to the veritable rosse her performance to- 
day indicates, is too ridiculous for a moment's consi- 
deration. There was a scene at Epsom, when, the filly 
having won the Oaks, her jockey returned to weigh in, 
which those who saw will long remember. To the 
mob, the victory of the Count's mare, after what had 
taken place in the Guineas, was most unpalatable — 
but why the ill-natured thousands who groaned and 
yelled should have selected the rider of the horse as 
the object of their wrath is difficult to understand, 
because if there was a,ny " manipulation of the mare " 
in connection with the race for the Guineas, it is not 
in the least likely that the jockey would be taken into 
the confidence of the criminals ; some good judges, 
indeed, were of opinion that no crime had been com- 
mitted, but that the mare had for the time lost her 
form. At some future time we shall probably get to 
know "all about it" ; but it seems passing strange that 
such a stake as rewards the winner of the Two Thou- 
sand Guineas — in this instance £i,400 was the net 

^THE FRENCH VEAR,' 1S&5. 153 

value — should not have been thought worth picking 
up. The explanation probably lies in the fact that, at 
York Spring Meeting, ochls of 10 to 1 were quoted 
asfainst the Count's candidate for the Oaks ; later on, in 
the season at Bath, 1,900 to 300 was taken about Fille 
de I'Air— about which enough has now been said.' 

The confederacy of gentlemen of which Count 
Lagrange was at one time the moving power con- 
ducted their operations in a business spirit, so that 
they were able to put money m their purses. For 
popularity they cared nothing — the horse, to them, 
was simply an instrument to gamble with. It is not 
pleasant to have to speak evil of a dead man who can 
give no explanation, and who can offer no defence, 
and it is quite possible that, had he chosen to do so, 
he could have shown that no action of his was in the 
least degree wrong — at all events, he quite disregarded 
an}^ insinuations that were made against him, ever 
looking on at the great game with a pleasant coun- 


The racing sensations of 1881 wore the victories in 
the Derby and St. Leger of Mr. Lorii lard's horse, 
Iroquois, and the winning of the double event — 
Cesarewitch and Cambridgeshire - by Mr. Keene's 
Foxhall. After these events had taken place, sporting 
writers began to speak of the 'American year,' and 
sporting journals became filled with gossip incidental 
to the subject. 

Mr. Lorillard, the owner of Iroquois, was of course 
' biographied,' interviewed, and described ; his trainer, 
Jacob Pincus, was written about till the subject be- 
came quite stale. The pedigrees of the winning 
liorses were traced, the system of preparation adopted 
by American trainers was compared with our system, 
and when these topics were exhausted, ' the American 
plunger ' was set upon, and his doings on our race- 
courses remorselessly chronicled and commented upon. 
Turf-writers, although they adaiitted our best horses 
had ' gone down like ninepins before the representa- 
tive animals of the great Transatlantic Republic,' were 
fain to take refutre in the excuse that the English 
race-horses, which competed in the American year as 
three year- olds, were a ' very moderate lot,' and, in 


consequence, Iroquois and Foxhall were exceptionally 
lucky. That is but shabby reasoning. Iruquois could 
only beat the horses set against him, and if ' he never 
met a really first-class three-year-old, as sound in wind 
and limb as himself"' that is due to the fact of EnHish 
owners not having entered any such— if any such were 
that year in existence. It was forgotten by our turf- 
writers, in their anxiety to keep up the credit of Old 
England as a horse-breeding nation, that the mighty 
Btnd Or was well beaten, in the Cambridgeshire, by 
Foxhall, at a ditlerence of 8 lb., the one being a three- 
year-old and the other a four-year-old. True, previous 
to tliat. in the City and Suburban, the English horse 
gave the American 3-t lb. and a beatinuf, but after that 
Foxhall won the Grand Prize of Paris, and, in all 
probabilit}^, could have beaten Bend Or in their Octo- 
ber struggle at level weights. One or two of our racing 
commentators became alarmed at the future prospects 
of our English horses, because of what had been 
achieved by the Americans, but, happily for their own 
peace of mind, they soon calmed down. 

The story of the Derby taken to America by 
Iroquois can be easily told. It was anticipated by at 
least one of our best-informed racing commentators 
(Mr. John Corlett), that sooner or later the Derby 
winner would be a horse hailing from America, and 
his prophecy was probably more speedily fulhlled 
than even he expected. Peregrine's easy victory in 
the Two Th'msand Guineas led, of course, to his being 
first favourite for the Derby of 1881, for which his 
quotation at the start was pretty nearly even money, 
6 to 5 against him being the exact figure, whilst 


11 to 2 was betted a<^ainst the chance of Iroquois, who 
was ridden by tlie first horseman of the day — Fred 
Archer. The race for the Derby saw the same horses 
first and second as in the Two Thousand Guineas, 
but with this important difierence, that their positions 
in the race were transposed. In the Guineas 
Peregrine won with great ease, beating Iroquois by 
three lengths, Don FuLano being third. The verdict 
of the judge in the Derby, as interpreted by the 
compilers of our turf-guides, was, ' Won somewhat 
easily by half a length '; but those who witnessed the 
finish of the struggle were somewhat uneasy, as it 
appeared that at any moment the other horse might 
prove the better animal of the two ; as the late Mr. 
Merry used to say on such occasions, ' it's rather too 
close to be pleasant.' Jockeys, it is said, like that 
sort of work, and some of them, we are told, are such 
adepts in the business as to be able to win by a 
short head, having, in turf parlance, ' a little bit up 
their sleeve '; it is much pleasanter, hov»-ever, to see 
one's fancy secure a race by a length than a short 
head, which means only a distance of about six 

So little was the chance for the Derby of the 
American horse esteemed, that between the date of 
that race and the Two Thousand Guineas good odds 
were to be obtained against its chance of winning ; at 
one time, indeed, it was easy to obtain as much as 
25 to 1. Two wins at llo3'al Ascot — one in the Prince 
of Wales's Stakes, and the other in the St. James's 
Pahxce Stakes — coupled with the fact that Archer 
would be again in the saddle, tended to keep Iroquois 


at a sliort prico for tlic St. Lcger. Ono of the factors 
in the comparatively short figure at which tlie horse 
■was ultimately backed for the Derby Avas comprised 
in the circumstance that Archer would be his rider, 
and as showing the importance attached to having 
such a horseman on his back, the mere rumour one 
day, that Archer was ' not to ride,' led to the horse's 
declining in the market to the extent of two points. 
Rightly or wrongly, the services of the jockey in 
question were thought of such importance that the 
rumour of his having 'the mount' on ^r\y particular 
animal proved at once highly favourable to its market 

Iroquois won the great St. Leger Stakes by the 
distance of a length from the horse which was second, 
Geologist. Previous to the day of the race, from the 
time of the York Meeting, in fact, what may be called 
a ' dead set ' was made against the horse in the 
market. One or two bookmakers, as the saying goes, 
'never left him,' but continued their deadl}' fusillade 
almost to the hour of the race. jSiO person could 
understand why Iroquois should be the victim of such 
formidable opposition. Some there were who insinu- 
ated that when the horse appeared at the post it would 
be seen that he was not half trained for so severe a race ; 
this was said, too, in the face of a report made by 
Archer, who had ridden him a fine gallop on the Satur- 
day before he left for Doncaster, on the Town Moor 
of which the race is run. That report being to the 
eflect that his jockey was perfectly satisfied with the 
horse and the condition in which he found him. 
Pincus, his trainer, did not make much of ' a show ' of 


Iroquois in his morning gallops on the St. Leger course ; 
on the contrary, the horse Avas rushed through his 
work, and hurried back to his stable, almost before 
any person had an opportunity of looking him over. 
This fact strengthened an opinion that had gained 
frround, that the horse was a ' stiff 'un,' and there is 
no doubt that among the majority of racing men he 
was looked upon in the light of a ' market horse ' — of 
being, in fact, already numbered with the deadest of 
the dead. 

Never before had there been a St. Leger favourite 
about whom there was so much nioney to lay. An 
owner of horses of some repute, it is said, was pressed 
by a well-known bookmaker to accept £4 000 to £1 ,000 
just before the race. He declined the bet, unwilling 
to be ' had ' with his eyes open. If the horse at any 
time seemed to rally, the deadly tide of opposition 
again began to flow, and the waves seemed to increase 
in strength. As a Derby winner and as a victor at 
Ascot, on the morniug of the St. Leger Iroquois ought 
to have been at even money in the betting, instead of 
at prices which varied from 7 to 3 to 1. Those who 
had backed him on the strength of his Derby win 
gladly got quit of their money at a loss; as one 
gentleman told the writer, ' they shook it all out of 
me, at a price that entailed a large loss.' Three of 
the best-known trainers at the great seat of training 
were publicly heard to assert ' the horse had not the 
ghost of a chance,' and whilst the training reports 
announced that Iroquois was undergoing a -fair turn 
of work, galloping daily a good distance, private 
gossip was busy with an opposite stor}^, and at the 


clubs the belief was fully entertained that the American 
would be easily beaten. 

This has often been so; similar 'dead sets' have 
been made on horses before, and the performance of 
the animal, as in the case of the American, has given 
the lie to the actions of the enemy. But it has to be 
confessed that when the ' undertaking ' machinery of 
the turf market is set going it has usually but one 
result: the horse operated upon, to describe what occurs 
in an unotfensive way, ' does not win.' The ' death's 
head and cross-bones men ' rarely act without orders. 
The'chief grave-digger' only opens his mouth fordoom: 
either he or some friend of his has 'the key of the stable' 
in which the sickly horse is housed ; but no fellow 
could understand why Iroquois should have been 
given over to these ghouls just before the great race 
which would set the seal upon his fame. Nor has the 
mystery which attended Iroquois at Doncaster ever 
been solved. Grantinsf that the cok had retained his 
fine form and his good health, why should Mr. 
Lorillard not desire that the value of the animal should 
be enhanced by a victory on that battle-ground which 
had seen over a hundred equine tights, in which the 
combatants were of unsurpassed ability for speed and 
stamina ? Why, indeed ? 

Sutiice it to say that when the hour came the steed 
was ready and was not found wanting. At the last 
moment the betting settled down, and Iroquois started 
for the St. Leger as first favourite, the price offered 
being 2 to 1. The story of the struggle need not be 
retold. An exciting race between Geologist and the 
American resulted in the victory of the latter, well 


ridden by EngLi'id's greatest jockey, by r length. The 
win was a popular one, as Iroquois was seen to have 
the race in hand. The excited shouts of 100,000 
persons rent the air ; the cheers resounding again 
and again as Archer brought his horse into the 
enclosure : all present seemed highly gratified at the 
result of the race, and the defeat of those birds of evil- 
omen which had croaked a few short hours before, as 
if the disgrace of the gallant American steed was a 

Some backers of the colt never faltered in their 
loyalty, the more Iroquois was decried, and his chance 
made light of, all the readier they seemed to back their 
opinion with their money. When the horse was seen 
stripped for the race, all men who could judge saw in 
a miimcnt that he was as tit as hands could render 
him, and many of those Avho had hedged their money 
at a loss because of the evil reports which had been so 
industriously circulated, would have been glad enough 
to have again baci^ed him could they have the oppor- 
tunity ; but, alas ! it was too late ; they were wedged in 
the dense mass of people who filled the stand, and had 
no alternative but to patiently wait and see Iroquois 
credit Brother Jonathan with his first St, Leger. 
During all that took place the quiet confidence of 
Jacob Pincus never faltered. Some persons were so 
bold as to suggest that he miglit have been bought by 
'the enemy,' but Jacob went on with his training dudes, 
heeding not the idle rumours ; and who will say that 
his reward was not a great one, as he proudly led the 
steed into the paddock after the supreme excitement 
of witnessing the race had been endured ? 


Foxliall, as all persons versed in the lore of the turf 
are aware, lost the City and Suburban Handicap, run 
at theEpsomSpring Meeting — havingmet his conqueror 
in the gallant Bend Or, a J^orby winner of the year 
before; but after the lapse of a few weeks Mr. Keene's 
horse crossed the Channel, and won the greatest prize of 
the French turf, the Grand Prize of Paris, a race the 
value of which is seldom surpassed even by the Derby ; 
in 1881 the stake- amounted to £G,874, besides the 
amount which might bo won in bets. Tristan, the 
horse which was second to Foxhall in the Grand 
Prize, has since proved himself a steed of metal ; so 
also has Fiddler, the fourth in the strut^'-ole, thus 
demonstrating that the animal wliich secured the 
trophy, as, indeed, was afterv/ards proved, was a horse 
of mark and merit. 

But a grander coup was accomplished when Foxhall 
scored the double event of and Cam- 
bridgeshire. These ara undoubtedly the two greatest 
races of the handicap order wliich are run in Enghmd, 
and for one horse to secure both events with the 
weight carried by Foxhall was an altogether unex- 
pected feat. In the Cesarewitch he was loaded with 
7 St. 12 lb,, which, for a three-year-old, was a suffi- 
ciently heavy iraj)ost when the distance over which it 
had to be carried is taken into account. Robert the 
Devil, also a Grand Prize winner, and a victor in the 
St. Leger as well, had won the previous year's Cesare- 
witch, carrying the unprecedented weight of 8 st. 6 lb., 
a weight which many persons, supposed to be good 
judges, asserted it was ' impossible' to win with; but 
the horse won, nevertheless. When Julius, a three- 



year-old, and a placed horse in the St. Leger of 1SG7, 
secured the Cesarevvitch, carrying 8 St., it was con- 
sidered a marvellous result. Having earned a penalty, 
Foxhall, vvith 9 st. on his back, beat thirty-one horses, 
and won the Cambridgeshire, one of the greatest turf 
events ever celebrated in England. Blue Gown, a 
Derby v.^inner, could only manage in 1868 to obtain 
the second place with 'a similar weight. The double 
event of Cesarewitch and Cambridgeshire had only 
been once before acbieved, Avhen Roscbery won both 
handicaps : the Cesarewitch carrying 7 st. .5 lb , and 
the Cambridgeshire with 8 st. 5 lb. on his back. 
That horse was a four-year-old. 

The money won in stakes by the two famous 
American horses is worth noting, Iroquois ran nine 
times, and only lost two races, and .in these he was 
second and third respectively. lie won the following 
sums : 

Newmarket Stakes - - £275 

Rurwell Stakes (w. o.) - - 180 

The Derby ... - 5,925 

Prince of Wules's Stakes - 2,800 

St. James's Palace Stakes - 1,500 

The St. Leger - - - 5,450 

Newmarket Derby ... 075 

Being a totul of - - £10 805 

The sum credited to Mr. Lorillard by the turf 
statisticians is £18,787 ; but the above are the ligures 
contained in ' Ruffs Guide,' to which must, of course, 
be added a sum for the second horse in the Two 


Thousand Guineas. Mr. Keenc, by the saoie anthorlty 
(Ruf!), won a sum of £5,2IG, besides the vahie of the 
Grand Prize of Paris. Foxhall ran upon seven 
occasions, and scored five wins : 

Grand Prize of' Paris 


Grand Duke Michael Stakes - 


Cesare witch 


Select Stakes . - . 


Cambridc^eshire . - . 


Making a total of - - £10,S70 

When these great stakes had been won, the Ameri- 
can horses came in for some critici.-^ra, and venturesome 
persons began to predict a great caieer on the English 
turf for Transatlantic sportsmen, just the same as they 
did for Frenchmen when Gladiateur carrieJ of[ tlie 
triple event of Guineas, D.rby, and St. Leg^r ; but we 
have notyetseenon theEnglishturf anotherGladiateur. 

An American writer wrote the following very 
sensible remarks on this part of the questi<ni : 

•'In considering the chances ]\Ir. Lorillard'.s staldc 
v,-ill have in England, writers for the press do not take 
into consideiatiuti the vast odds against him. Jt is the 
height of folly to expect a single stable, with only 
some two or three tried horses in it, to go to England, 
meet an army of race-lior>es, and beat the pick and 
be>t of that country, France and the Continent i)f 
Euro[)e. We do not bcHeve the English could bring 
a single stable here and beat the be.>t of this country, 
and it is a still harder matter to go there and beat 



tliem, as tbcy have three times as many race-horses in 
trainin;^. As an iUusLration, take the number of foals 
dropped annually in Engbmd, to say nothing of 
France, Germany, Austria, and Hungary, and then 
wcii^h the chances of a sino^le stable atjainst them. 
In 1874 England bred 1,G0G colts and fillies, in Ls75 
bred i,620, in 1876 bred 1628; total Hving foals for 
three years, 4,85-1. In 1874 we bred in America 336, 
1875 bred 409, and 1876 bred 604; total living foals 
for three years, 1,349. Hen^ is a difference of nearly 
four to one in favour of England. Now, is it reason- 
able to suppose that America can breed and produce 
a better or greater number of tirst-cla^s race-horses 
from 1,349 foals than England can from 4,854 ? Is 
our stock of sires and brood-mares superior to hers ? 
I^ocs it look reasonable that we can select a single 
representative, or a hult'-dozon, send them to England, 
uiiacclimatized, and beat them ? PanJe, Duke of 
Magenta, and Uncas will have to meet the best of the 
foals of 1874, 1875, and 1876; and is there any cer- 
tainty, and does it not look improbable, judging by 
public performanes, that Parole can beat such horses 
as Silvio, four years, who recently gave Start, four 
3'ears, 22 lb., and an easy bL-ating ; and such horses 
as Verneuil, Lady Golightly, Julius Ciesar, Pageant, 
and Ni.rwich, for it is against such he will have to 
run ? Can Duke of Magenta beat, weiijht for a^-e, 
such as Jannetto, In-^ulaire, Thurio, and Sefton ? and 
can Uncas beat Whe 1 of Fortune, Peter, Cadogan, 
Strathern, Gunner.-.bury, Rti|>erra, Ptayon d'Or, Leap 
Year, Charibert, and a number of others of almost 
Cipial merit? That Mr. Lorillard's stable will be sue- 

'THE AMERICAN YEAR; i88r. 165 

crssful in England, with the odds against them, to say 
nothing of the chmate, change of feed, water, etc., is 
hke hojiing against hope ; and those who have hiuded 
them to the skies, and built up expectations not to be 
realized, will have to answer to a disappointed public' 
Jacob Pincus, the trainer of Iroquois, came in for 
a large share of observation on his arrival on the 
Newnjarket training-grounds. The ways of American 
trainers are not as the ways of Engli.^hmen following 
the same pursuit. Jacob was well versed in his business, 
and had served a long apprenticeship before arriving 
in Europe, Twenty-six years ago he rode Mr. Ten 
Broeck's Pryor in the first race he ran ; he filled the 
saddle for various other American breeders and owners 
of horses, and in his time has superintended the train- 
ing of some of the more notable Transatlantic race- 
liorses. Pincus has the great merit of 'making' 
Iroouois; and the colt gave his trainer such a vast 
amount of trouble as to render his work no sinecure. 
The liorse had as a two-j'car old undergone a severe 
orileal, having been called upon to run twelve races, 
some of them, too, with very heavy weights upon his 
back. Various ills overtook the horse — swelled knees, 
indigestion, loss of appetite, etc. ; but care and atten^ 
tion brought him round, till ultimately Pincus led him 
in as a winner of the greatest English race. Mean- 
time, Barrett, in the same stable, became a public 
fancy. Passaic was aL.o trained in the American 
stable at one time, bu^ was parted with ; and it may 
be somewhat mortifying to those who once owned him 
that he proved good enough to win an important 


As has been already told, Iroquois ran in the Two 
Thousand Guineas, gaining second honours in the 
race, a position that, considering the sickness the 
animal had encountered, his trainer, perhaps, scarcely 
expected he would gain. Pincus, as soon as the 
Guineas had been decided, commenced to give Iroquois 
his Derby preparation. He was laughed at. No 
person had ever before seen a horse trained for the 
great Epsom struggle in the same fashion ; touts and 
newspaper oracles were amazed at the style adopted 
by the American trainer; they at once predicted 
failure. But Jacob carried on in his own way ; 
criticism had no effect upon him ; he saw that day by 
day the horse was ripening for the great effort which 
he would be required to make, although he was not 
over- sanguine of success. Pincus, however, soon 
became aware that if he was to win the Derby for Mr. 
Lorillard, it would not be by means of Barrett, who 
was never able to beat Iroquois in any trial that took 
place. Still, the public tvould back that horse ; piles 
of money came from America, and from places nearer 
the scene of action, all of it for Barrett, much to the 
gain of the bookmakers. It is to the credit of 
Mr. Matthew Dawson, of Newmarket, and shows his 
discrimination, that he discovered in Iroquois, at an 
early period of his career, the makings of a Dei by 
victor ; and in spite of the gabblings of profes- 
sional and other touts, backed the horse to win him 
some money. The trainer's best reward was in seeing 
his horse win the great race. But Iroquois was called 
upon to perform a feat which no Derby winner had 
ever succeeded in accomplishing, and that was to win 


the Prince of Wales's Stakes at Ascot, over one of the 
most trying courses in England ; and the horse did all 
that he was asked to do on that occasion : he won the 
race, which was even denied to Lord Lyon, who was 
compelled to put up with second honours to Rustic. 
When in health Iroijuois never tired of work — that 
was one of the thine^s he never cfot enouij^h of — nor 
did he ever tire of eating the good Scotch oats on 
v/hich he was fed. All who took an interest in 
Iroquois may rest assured that had it not been for 
Jacob Pincus the horse would never have cut that 
fitjure on the English race-courses that has made him 
so celebrated. 

A feature of the American 3'ear was the success 
of Mr. Walton — ' the plunger/ as he was called. The 
word in question is applied to persons who bet in 
large sums ; and the bookmakers as a body are not at 
all slow to do business with the ' plungers,' as it is a 
tradition of the fraternity that they are sure to get all 
the money won by a ' plunger ' back again, and much 
more in addition to it. Mr. Walton, the American 
'plunger,' has told his own story, the relation of his 
adventures on the English race-courses as a backer of 
horses having been made to one of the gentlemen who 
interviews celebrities of all kinds for the New York 
Herald. Some of Mr. Walton's confessions are not a 
little astounding ; in the first place, there is the mag- 
nitude of his v.'innings — these amounted to £93,000 
net money. Mr. Walton's perseverance in seeking 
information attracted the attention of our English 
turf-writers. He was accused of bribing jockeys or 
other persons, in order to obtain the requisite kuow- 


ledge before investing his cash on any particular 
horse; but if he did so, he is certainly by no means 
the first turf-gambler Avho has done so ; and Avhy 
English turf-writers should have worked themselves 
into such a state of misery about a matter that has 
been carried on for years, and is practised every day 
by Englishmen, is one of those things that no fellow 
can imderstand. 

The 7norale of such procedure is the same whether 
the sums expended in bribes or rewards be large or 
small. Here, however, is 'the American plunger's' 
own view of the matter : ' The man who starts specu- 
latinGf on horse-racin'^ with the idea that his unaided 
judgment is going to lead him on to fortune will soon 
find himself at the end of his financial tether, no 
matter how big a bank account he may start operat- 
ing with. Now, I have been bitterly attacked by 
certain sporting papers for giving jocke3's money and 
paying for any information legitimately obtainable 
that I thought worth having, but in so doing I claim 
that I am only protecting my interests in a manner 
that I have a perfect right to do. Do you suppose 
that a bookmaker has never given a jockey mone}^ to 
lose a race ? Well, when I back a horse to win me, 
say, £5,000 or £10,000, I can afford to insure myself 
by promising the jocke}" £1,000 if he wins. Now, the 
bookmaker cannot afford to give him any such sum, 
even if he were willing to be bought, as often I have 
only £1,000 or so at stake, while I stand to win £10,000. 
Don't run away with the idea that I wish to imply that 
all the bookmakers and jockeys are in a conspiracy to 
rob the backers. There are plenty of jockeys like 


Archer, Cannon, and Wood, and poor j\rDonald and 
Watts, Barrett and Osborne, whom no money could 
buy, and hundreds of bookmakers who are as 'square 
as brokers and bankers; but, as I say, I choose to 
anticipate a certain amount of my probable winnings 
in the way of insurance, and whether that has any- 
thing to do with what you call my phenomenal success 
I must leave you to judge.' 

Further says Mr, Walton, in his frank, off-hand way: 
' We surely have a right to presume that when a 
gentleman starts a horse for a race it is his intention 
to win if he can. Very well, then, he cannot take up 
the position that I have paid his servants to disobey 
his orders, and why I am not at liberty to express my 
admiration for a brilliant piece of horsemanship by a 
substantial money gift, just as actors and singers aro 
often loaded with handsome presents by persons other 
than those who pay their salaries, I am at a loss to 

An account of the American j'ear would certainly 
have been incom[)lete if it had contained no reference 
to the doings of Mr. Walton. The story of the Ameri- 
can's interview with an honourable baronet who lost 
his temper because Walton had 'dared' to back his 
horses was told at considerable length by the 'plunger,' 
but as that irascible but kindly-natured gentleman 
has in all probability repented the part he played ou 
the occasion, the incident shall not be further per- 
petuated hero. 



* Had there been no bookmakers,' said John Gully, 
' the Derby never would have become what it is.' 
That saying is, of course, applicable to the turf gener- 
ally, and may be accepted without comment. The 
professional bookmaker stands up to be shot at by all 
comers, and goes on laying the odds at varying prices 
on every race of the season till the horses start, and 
on some occasions even as the animals are runninof. 

Of late years bookmakers have been well abused, 
having been described by one turf-writer as ' swme,' 

and by another as ' swindlers,' a third capping 

these two classifications by designating them ' ignorant 
blackguards,' which phrases, when indiscriminately 
applied, are certainly not deserved. Many of the book- 
makers doinoc business on our race-courses are doubtless 
ignorant of matters not connected with their own pur- 
suit, and probably they never interfere with the atiairs 
of other people ; but as a rule the leading men of ' the 
profession ' are civil enough, and eager to trade, not a 
few of them being persons of gentlemanly deportment 
and good manners ; some are even educated men. 
Judging from what one sees at the various meetings, 


there must Le a vast number of bookmakers at work. 
At Epsom Summer Meeting, at Royal Ascot, and at 
Goodwood, the paddocks seem as crowded with these 
busybodies as with the pubhc. At Doncaster during 
a meeting a curious inquirer was able to count over 
seven hundred industrious pencillers inside and out- 
side the various rin^s, a considerable number of whom 
Avere no doubt ' welshers ' or thieves. As a rule, the 
professional bookmaker is an industrious, hard-working 
person. There is now such a plethora of meetings, 
and so much business to be got through on each day, 
that it may be said without exaggeration that he lias 
to work every day of the year. When not engaged in 
shoutinsf and noting' the odds on the race-course, he is 
either travelling to the next meeting or engaged in 
making up his accounts or carrying on his correspon- 

Bookmakers have favourite circuits to which they 
adhere ; some never go north of Trent, others never 
venture south of that river; not a few, however, go 
everywhere, and are to be found in the paddock at 
most of the important meetings of the season, from 
Lincoln Spring to Manchester Autumn, and then they 
begin a round of steeplechasing, which carries them 
irom the end of November to the beginning of March. 
Besides the men who devote themselves to the busi- 
ness all the 3'ear round, there are not a few who carry 
on book- making b}' fits and starts, small tradesmen 
and others who, combining business with pleasure, 
mMko a book at some favourite racing resort, and thus 
see the races for nothing, and sometimes make a little 
money in addition. 


Many of the larger bookmalcers are men who have 
invested, their savings in a business of some kind, such 
as a brewery, a flour-mill, a cutlery establishment, a 
newspaper, a tavern, hotel, or common ' pub.' Some 
bookmakers work in partnership, or in syndicates, and, 
if they do not divide profits, they share the cost of 
acquiring information and other expenses. The pro- 
fits of 'ready-money' bookmaking on the racecourse 
are undoubtedly considerable, there being no risk of 
bad debts. As there are from five to eight races de- 
cided every day at each meeting, it goes hard with 
the 'ayer of the odds if he does not twice in a day find 
the favourite overthrown, and the money for which it 
was backed safe in his pocket ; and in the event of a 
horse winninc^ aq-ainst Avhich he has not laid the odds, 
then he in all probability reaps a handsome profit — 
' skins the lamb,' as the savincf Efoes. Some book- 
makers lay the horses running to any amount, say to 
lose £50, a £100, or even £500, according to status 
and means. They will more especially do so if they 
find that three or four horses are being backed by 
the public, and that there is some chance of an out- 
sider winning. They take care to lay the smallest pos- 
sible price against each horse that the jDublic will be 
satisfied, with. If ' backing at his own prices ' be at 
all brisk, the bookmaker has not much to fear when 
his frequent chances of 'skinning the lamb ' are taken 
into account. Seeing that there are every racing day 
from thirty to fifty horses running, the bookmaker has 
his work cut out, and must shout loudly, and by the 
aid of a clerk pencil actively, to get ' field money ' in 
his book. No wonder after returnint? from the scene 


of action that he feels tired and much inclhicd to eat 
a good dinner and go early to bed. As a rule, the best 
bookmakers are rather abstemious in regard to drink- 
ing, and as a class they are sober men, many of them 
not tasting wines or spirits for months at a stretch. 

A goodly number of the present bookmakers have 
'risen' from nothing, and it is to their credit that many 
of them are known to make a ofood use of their savin-^s, 

o O 

Their rise to wealth in most cases has been slow but 
sure, and not without vicissitudes of varying fortune. 

' I one day put my whole savings on a single 
chance,' said one of them to the writer, ' and had it 
not come off in my favour, I would probably have 
needed to go back to my O'd trade of costerraonger- 
iiig, and the missus, instead of riding about in her 
brougham, might have been shouting " Sprats !" over 
Lambeth way.' 

Said another bookmaker : * I was potman in a 
West-End beerhouse twenty-five years ago near the 
Corner, and what struck me was that lots of gentle- 
men's coachmen were always asking me for the loan 
of a sovereign or a tiver to pay their bets with, giving 
me a small acknowledgment for the favour when they 
got their wages. I thought to myself, That's very odd : 
these men seem to be always a-dropping of their 
money ; who can be a-lifting it ? It's them bookmakers, 
thinks I, and that book making is surely not a bad 
game if people be alwa3-s a-backing of the wrong horse. 
So then and there I starts a little book, just for silver 
money, and I got on so ^vell at the business that I 
gave up handling the pots, and now I go to the meet- 
ings with the best of 'em, and can lay the odds to a ten 


or twenty pound note, and think nothing^ of it. Only 
fools buck horses, sir ; wise men turn booJ^rnakers and 
lay 'em, and as I know there are a thousand fools for 
every wise man. so you see, sir, there's plenty of busi- 
ness for me and such as me.' 


The rationale of bookmaking ma}' now be entered 
upon, for the benefit of those who know nothing about 
it. Persons unacquainted with the machinery of the 
turf ate doubtless surprised when they learn fiom an 
occasional paiagraph in their daily newspaper that 
' Mr. So-and-so has won £10,000 by the success of his 
horse in such and such a race,' probably some handi- 
cap ; and not knowing how the amount has been 
gathered together, they at once hold up their hands 
in horror at the awful sum of money wliicli some 
\uifortunate person must have lost. Even Canon 
Kingsley, of ' Westward Ho !' celebrity, wap so ignorant 
of ihe mode in which the betting of the period is 
carried on, that he fancied and wrote as if one man 
betted with and lost thousands to his brother man — 
the Canon (intelligent as he was) being apparently 
iofnorant of the bookmaker and his functions as the 
go-between, or intermediary, of the forty oi- fifty thou- 
sand persons who lose a sovereign each, and the half- 
dozen fortunate people who each gain a few hundreds, 
or, it may be, thousands, by backing the winner of 
some particular race. The mission of the bookmaker 
is to gather in a. great sum of nioney in small or large 
sums, as the case may be, over each race that is run, 
and then to deal out the amount in portions to those 

B O OKMA KING. \ 7 5 

persons who have been so fortunate as to back the 
horse which wins the race. 

The modus oj^evandl of bookmakino" and betting- as 
it exists to-day may be expUiined as follows: A given 
handicap, or other race, being set'for a particular date, 
the bookmaker begins business by oft'ering to ' lay,' say, 
by way of illustration, 20 to 1 on the field, ' the field' 
meaning the whole of the horses engaged in the race. 
There are pi-obably forty horses left in the race after 
tlie acceptances for the handicap have been declared, 
and a })crsnn may select any one of the lot he pleases, 
and by pacing £1, or by promising to pay that 
sum, he will receive £20 and (if he has paid it) his 
own pound back, if the animal wdiich he selects Avins 
the race. It will be apparent that, if every one of the 
forty horses which have accepted for the handicap 
Avas to be backed at 20 to 1, the bookmaker would 
have £40 in hand with which to pay the £20 
earned by the backer of the winning horse — a good 
enough profit, it will be thought. But the stiite of the 
odds is rarely so simple as has been indicated. The 
public backers, or persons who are ' in the know,' as it 
is called, of the form, private or public, of some parti- 
cular horse, soon make it ' first favourite,' by rushing 
to back it at lessening prices, so that in a short time 
the odds against that particular animal are quoted 
probably at 5 to 1, instead of 20 to 1 ; others maj^ be 
priced at 25, S3, or 40 to 1. Betting on the great 
handicaps of the season begins early and goes on vigor- 
ously to the day of the race. The following specification 
of the financial result will shov/ the mode in which the 
bookmaker squares his account and realizes his profit. 


Let it bo supposed, for easy calculation, that tho 
bookmaker has resolved to wager to lose £1000 against 
every one of the horses engaged in the race after the 
acceptances have been declared, and that he receives 
no money over tho horse that wins, or, if he has been 
betting for ready money, that he has of course to 
return the stakes deposited on behalf of the winning 
horse. His account then may stand as follows just 
previous to the race : 

Will win if first favourite loses (laid at an 

average of 5 to 1 ) 
"Will w'.u if second favouiite loses (laid at an 

average of 7 to 1) 
Will win if tliird favourite loses (liiid at an 

average of 8 to 1 ) 
Will win if fonrlb favourite loses (laid at an 

average of H) to 1) 
Will win if fifth favourite loses (laid at an 

average of 10 to 1) - 
W'ill win if all the others lose, including those 

scratched, say ----- 

The total of these is £l,-ii;0 U 

If the bookmaker has been so fortunate as to lay the 
odds against all the horses in the race, accordinof to 
the above figures, he has, in turf parlance, ' got round' 
— in other words, he has in his book, if not in his 
pocket, £1,200 of field money with which to pay the 
£1,000 he has wagered against the winning horse ; but 
it v.'ill be seen that if the favourite wins ho makes no 
profit, as the £200 standing against it has to be repaid 
if it has been received, or, if not rc'^eived, it does not 
count. Jn the event of any of the other horses being 
first, which is not at all uncommon — as first favourites 
do not always win the larger handicaps— the book- 








maker will have a profit of greater or lesser amount ; 
in other words, some of the horses may be only 
backed to win a few hundreds, instead of the whole 
thousand, while one or two may not be backed at all, 
in which case he ' skins the lamb.' 

These figures, however, must be taken cum grano 
sails ; they are merely given by way of illustration, and 
nothing varies so much as the finance of a handicap. 
In not a few instances the bookmaker finds it diflicult 
to make ends meet; he is unable, that is, to bet round 
or lay against every horse, and there may be no 
scratchings to speak of. When a few of the leading 
horses — taking it for granted they have been well 
backed — are struck out of the race at an early date 
(' scratched '), it is just so much money found. Some- 
times the public partiality for particular horses is so 
pronounced that they will not back more than ten 
or twelve out of the forty or fifty which may have 
accepted for the race. In such a case, if the book- 
maker has the run of a good market, he tries various 
plans to get laid against the horses which are not 
generally fancied ; he wrll offer them in lots, or in a 
lump ; at all events, he will do his utmost to get money 
out of them. In making a book for a handicap of 
importance, on which betting (all in)* begins months 
before the day fixed for the race, such as the Lincoln- 
shire Handicap, Cit}^ and Suburban, or Cesarewitch and 
Cambridgeshire, bookmakers have numerous advan- 
tages. Not to speak of those horses which are never 
entered, or those which may not accept, they have the 

* 'AH ill' means that the backer takes the chance of the 
bofse being entered. 



advantnge of bao^ging all the money for those animals 
which, from various causes, are struck out of the race. 

When ' the favourite/ or any other animal which 
has been prominent in the betting, is scratched, it 
is the best of all news to the layer of the odds, how- 
ever mortifying it may be to the poor backer. A 
typical book on a big handicap has been given in the 
preceding remarks as being of the extent of £1,000, 
but much larger books are made ; all, however, are 
made in much the same fashion, and for the £ s. d. of 
a £10,000 book the reader can multiply the figures 
previously given by ten. It is alwa3's difficult to 
obtain exact knowledge as to the manipulation of some 
of the large books which are nowadays opened on 
some of the more important races. Many of the more 
active of the bookmakers hack horses as well as lay 
the odds against them ; the f.ict is, the bookmakers of 
the perio;l get to know so much that they cannot 
restrain themselves. One of them, for instance, will 
know that Sir George Blank's horse has been so 
highly tried for some given race that, in the opinion 
of his trainer, he cannot be beaten ; therefore he backs 
that horse to win him a thousand or two, and if he 
values the information very highly, he * peppers ' all 
the others by laying more against them than he ought 
to do. What one bookmaker does, many others do, so 
that, as a matter of fact, there is no really fiiir and 
square laying of the odds to a measured sum ; on the 
contrary, there is much gambling, and on occasions — 
a necessary corollary, as it may be said — a sad break- 

J3ookmakers, as a rule., take care to be well in- 


formed of what is going on on the training-grounds; 
the}^ are fed with information either at their own ex- 
pense or b}^ their numerous chents. When a horse 
Avins or loses a trial, they are pretty sure to know the 
fact before the general body of bettors can obtain the 
same information. When a commission is thrown 
into the market they vor}'- soon smell the fact ; but 
they would be dunces, indeed, if the mere significance, 
the constant demand to back a horse, did not show 
them that the animal was likely to become a favourite, 
and in time be backed at 10 to 1 instead of 40 to 1 ; 
that being so, they act a cautious part, and perhaps 
finesse for a time, so as to be able to Iny the shortest 
possible odds. 

It is a remarkable fact of the betting-ring that tens 
of thousands of pounds change hands without bill or 
bond. ' Put me down ten monkeys, Iroquois,' says a 
bettor to a bookmaker with whom he bets, and the 
bet is at once entered in the Httle betting-books carried 
by each. That is all — nothing more simple, indeed ; 
but on the Monda}^ after the race the transaction 
will be implemented by the bookmaker if the horse 
■wins the race it has been backed for ; whilst the backer, 
even if he be ' broke,' will own to the liability. On 
the settling-day of a big race, or over the transactions 
of a heavy week at Goodwood or Newmarket, thousands 
of pounds will change hands in the most primitive 
way, no receipts being asked for or oftered. The 
balance entered in the settling-book when paid is 
marked with a X to denote that it has been paid ; 
nothing more is necessary. There are men who make 
it their business to settle for bettors who do not find 



it convenient to attend the clubs or have not the 
entn'e. On these setthng-sbeets will be set down a. 
host of transactions, no evidence being required of 
the making of the bets ; and in most cases there is 
scarcely an error, although, perhaps, 200 or 300 bets 
will have been made in' a heavy week with half a 
dozen different bookmakers. ' Have you Mr. Blank's 
account ?' will be asked. ' Yes, I have it,' will be the 
answer, ' How much do you want ?' * Three-fifty.* 
' All right, there you are ;' and down goes a X in each 
of the books, and the affair is done with. £350 has 
changed hands without any fuss or bother, and so the 
settlements go on year after year, no bill or bond 
being necessary. 


As a matter of course, ' there are bookmakers mid 
bookmakers ;' it has been wittily said that if you 
were to skin a few of them you would find them 

* welshers,' Practices exist in betting matters that are 
little removed from dishonesty. An anecdote regard- 
ing the betting transactions of a nobleman was recently 
related that affords an illustration of doings which, 
to put the case mildly, are not creditable. On one 
occasion the noble lord, it is said, lost £100 to a 
certain bookmaker, but in the course of the same 
week won £3,000 from him. On the Monday his lord- 
ship put the £100 he had to pay in his account, but 
took no notice of the £3,000 which he had to receive. 

* The penciller, thinking that his lordship had over- 
looked the transaction, and that no more would be 


heard about it, purchased, it is said, a brougham and a 
pair of horses as a present for his wife,' A few days 
later, however, the bookmaker and his client happened 
to meet, and whilst the peer, so the story goes (it may 
not be true, however), genially accepted a glass of 
sherry, ho took care to remind the man of odds of 
the £3 000, ' observing that he had not asked for it on 
the Monda}', as it might have cramped his debtor in 
his settling' 

Readers may place what construction they please 
on this mode of conducting business, but it is quite 
certain that, if his lordship had lost his bet instead of 
winning it, the stake would have been carefully asked 
for. The bookmaker who dealt with the nobleman 
referred to was not, however, a bit worse than many 
of his brethren of the pencil. ' What do I owe you V 
they ask. If you name a smaller sum than the 
correct amount, it is not their business to keep you 
right. That is their argument. Moreover, they reply, 
' If we make a blunder we have just to suffer for it ; no 
one who may be paid a tenner too much ever says a 
word about it.' As the bookmaker has it, it is a case of 
diamond cut diamond. Other sins of a still more 
heinous nature are not seldom laid at the door of 
the bookmaker. 

1 he hero of the anecdote just referred to was on 
some occasions a very heavy speculator on the turf, 
making every now and then bets to win or lose large 
sums of money, wagering, for instance, £3,000 to win 
£5,000, or vice versa, and not seldom proving 
victorious. The final transaction on the turf of this 
gentleman was ri;:king £10,000 to win £4,000, the 


instrument of this particular gamble being a cele- 
brated raco-horse of the period. His lordship on that 
occasion lost his money, and was not slow to assert 
that he had been 'done.' The occurrence was much 
talked about, and assertions were made (probably with- 
out much foundation in fact) that some persons 
were implicated in the transaction from whom better 
behaviour might have been expected. The hints 
thrown out were, generally speaking, to the effect 
that the race in question, if it had not been 'got up' 
for his lordship, ended in the liorse backed by him 
being made what in turf parlance is called a ' safe one.' 
£10,000 was a nice plum to pluck, and would bear a 
good deal of dividing. Many such events come under 
the knowledge of bookmakers, and owners of horses 
who associate with them for ' business ' purposes. 

It may be taken for granted by those who have 
never ventured behind the scenes of turf speculation, 
that the bookmaker, of the two, always knows more 
than the backer. It must be so. The boolanaker is 
constantly being inspired, even by those who come to 
take the odds from him. When any of the big 
handicaps are imminent, owners come to the book- 
maker to back their horses. He hears from them the 
strength of the trials which have taken place : Damon, 
a three-year-old, he learns, is better thun Pythias, a 
four-year-old, and as Pythias lately beat Castor in an 
important race, he thus obtains a valuable clue to work 
by ; no woijder he is alert in laying the odds against 
CJastor and one or two other horses which he knows 
have no chance of winning. Then again, as often as not, 
he has ' dead ones ' to lay against — horses that might 


■u'in the race but avIU not run, or if they do, will not 
for some reason be permitted to do their best. It is 
any odds, under such circumstances, against the every- 
day backer — he is bound to fail. He may, as the 
saying goes, ' tumble ' to the situation in the end, and 
so save him.self by finding the pea ; but it is vain to 
fight against the bookmaker, who has many un- 
suspected agencies at work to supplj' him with infor- 
mation ; he knows, often enough before the owner of 
the animal himself, when a horse has been beaten in 
its trial or has broken down at exercise, and is prompt 
on all such occasions to make quick use of his 
knowledge. Many a time does the poor backer crow 
at having, as he thinks, got good odds to his stake, 
but in the end the bookmaker has all the profit. 



As to the amount of betting which now takes place 
on the great popular race of the season, who can put 
it down in ' exact figures '? Certainly not the present 
writer. It is being said that betting on the Derby is 
not what it used to be, and, perhaps, in some respects 
it is not ; but the amount of money which changes 
hands is certainly not less than it was forty or fifty 
years since. Individual bets may not be so large, 
but that is made up for by the multiplicity of small 
sums ventured on the race. Thousands of persons 
are betting a little in these days for the hundreds 
who gambled on the result of the Derby half a 
century ago ; and for each hundred who made ' books ' 
on the race in the year 1835, there are now, in all 
probability, a thousand at the same busijiess. It 
would not, probably, be an exaggeration to say that 
for the next race lour or five of the competing horses 
will be bucked, or have been backed, to win, by their 
owners, their friends, and the gt neral public, at least 
a quarter of a million sterling, whilst one or two 
animals which have been struck out — 'scratched ' is the 
phrase — and the remainder of the animals that will 


run, will also have been supported to win a good 
round sum of money. The falling off in what may be 
designated ' big betting' is only what was to be ex- 
pected in the face of the changed surroundings of the 
Derby, inasmuch as the ' form ' of the horses com- 
prising the field is so well known by means of their 
j^revious performances that, as a rule, very short odds 
only can be obtained from the bookmakers about 
animals likely to win, and even very sanguine bettors 
pause before taking 2 or 3 to 1, to hundreds of pounds ; 
such odds not being tempting to rncn who like big 
prices, and who in consequence elect to bet on one or 
other of the big handicaps of the season at rates 
ranging from 100 to 8 to K-O to 2|. Many persons 
prefer to ' try their luck ' in a ' sweepstake,' and 
willingly risk their sovereign in the purchase of a 
ticket which mic^dit result in their winninof £100, 
should they be fortunate enough to draw the 
first prize, rather than back one of the favorites to win 
a couple of pounds. It is seldom 'dark' horses win 
the Derbj', but there are still a few men who back 
outsiders : ' It feels so nice,' they say, ' to have 33 to 1 
about a horse that may win.' Unfortunately for 
them, however, such bets seldom put money in their 

In noting the prices offered against the chances of 
the various horses, either in the Derby or any other 
race, the question at once presents itself. Who fixes 
the ' odds,' or, in turf parlance, ' Sf ts the market '? 

In many cases the public make their own market ; 
in others the market is set by one, or in cases by two 
or three, of the more long-headed bookmakers. It is 


amusing at some race meetings to note what takes 
place ill tliis matter of regulating the prices of 
different horses. It may be taken for granted, of 
course, that the persons most interested, namely, the 
bookmakers, take good care of themselves, and never 
by any chance make a mistake in naming prices 
that are too liberal. At a race m^eetins:, the moment 
the numbers are exhibited for a small race, say a 
field of from four to seven horses, a stentorian voice 
may be heard to shout ' Six to four on the field !' which 
'sets the market' for the race, and immediateW all 
the leatlicr-lunged community of hxyers of ' the odds' 
will bo heard singing the same song, probably varying 
their offers with ' Two to one bar one,' which means 
that the price of the second favourite is two to one ; 
whilst another may be at odds of four, and another at 
five to one. The announcement of six to four on the 
field, or whatever the initial price may bo fixed at, 
is often enough purely capricious, having no relation 
whatever to the m.crits or chance of the horse in the 
race about to be decided ; it is a custom of the business 
to offer such odds — use and wont, in fact — and all 
follow the first shout. 

These or similar odds are proclaimed over and over 
again, day by daj', as i-acing progresses, no matter 
whether they prove true or false. That such is the 
case the following anecdote will prove : 

A friend of the writer's having been often struck 
with the stereot^'ped and parsimonious character of 
the prices oli'ered at one or two of the great race 
meetings, and not being able to ascertain fi-om any 
one present the reasons which governed the offers. 


resolved on a particular occasion to try a practical 
joke on the assembled bookmakers. lie arranged on 
two different days that a ' pal ' of his should try to 
' set the market,' and he succeeded in doing so. In 
one of the races agreed upon, four horses were ulti- 
mately numbered on the board ; and as soon as the 
third one was placed, the person in question shouted 
in the usual stentorian fashion, * Five to two on the 
field !' ' Yes,' replied a group of bookmakers near 
him, 'five to tvvo on the field;' and, extraordinary as 
it may seem, the large fiock of professional miCn who 
were present went on with their business on the foun- 
dation tluis given, whilst it was really a case of 'even 
money' being the proper price as regards one of the 
horses compct'ng ni the race, the one which, in this 
event, actually won the race, and the owner of which 
was so surprised at the liberal nature of the odds 
offered, that he at length became chary of accepting 
the price, thinking the bookmakers knew 'something' 
against the horse that he was unacquainted with. 

The other was a very marked case, and showed con- 
clusively that the rank and file of bookmakei's bet by 
practice, and disregard principle. The saroe tactics 
were adopted : a field of seven horses was displayed on 
the board ; and just before it was hoisted into its 
position, the sliam bookmaker, pencil in hand, bawled 
out, 'I'll take odds !' which meant that the backers of 
the horse which was thus made favourite Avould have 
to risk £G to win £4 — 'I'll take six to four' being 
shouted all over the paddock ; and there were plenty of 
inconsiderate fools who backed the favourite at the rate 
of odds mentioned, while in reality the figure should 


have probably been 2 to 1, or even more, against its 
chance, as the horse never showed prominently in the 
race, which vras won by an animal so little fancied by 
baclcers that IG to 1 was actually laid against its chance. 

When there is sufficient time, even in the space of 
three or four minutes sometimes, ' the market,' as the 
saying goes, ' will revolutionize itself' and the horse 
Avhich was made favourite be relec^ated to a lonq" price, 
some other animal being promoted to the post of 
honour. It is difficult to give a reason for this, other 
than one given to the writer b}^ a hanger-on at race- 
meetings, who has acquired considerable knowledge of 
such matters. 

' You see, sir,' he said, ' it's the money as does it all. 
It's fine business, it is, Avhen a man has laid forty to 
sixty agin a horse as goes back to five to one, and is 
then able to lay fifty to forty, or mayhap even money, 
agin another as comes with a rush acause of its being 
heavily backed by its owner. In that case, you see, 
sir, he has a century any way in his book, if neither o' 
the two win, and has other four all a running for him 
at some sort o' odds ; and if he has booked a matter 
o' sixty quid (pounds) for them, he is sure to get 
round with a big profit. Only one horse can come in 
first, you know, sir, and that is the one he's got to pay 
over ; and, of course, if he's a-doin' for " the ready," 
he has to give back the stake. The reason as how 
horses come and go is that a cute owner, thinking the 
horse he has entered in the race can beat all the 
others, waits till he sees a good favourite made before 
he backs his own horse, and then he goes and puts on 
a couple of monkeys (£1,000) with one of the big pen- 


cillers, such as Fry or Peecli ; and then tliera cute 
ones send their agents round the ring, and get their 
money back by backing the horse with the Httle men, 
taking a bit for themselves if they think the horse a 
likely one to win. If three or four owners each back 
their " <^ee'^QQ " to win " the odds," to a monkey or two, 
the price is sure to come to a short figure ; and that's 
how it all comes about,' 

An old-fashioned bookmaker gave the following 
explanation of how. the prices are fixed : * No Liyer of 
the odds needs to trouble himself about the matter, 
for the best of all reasons — namely, that the public 
make their own prices. I shout, "The field a pony" ; 
and when a backer comes up, I say, " Even money," 
against his choice, no matter what horse he names. 
Should he take the price, then I think he knows 
something, and in less than a minute there will be a 
favourite made. After that the rest is easy enough : 
I just try to bet round, so as to be safe ; and occasion- 
ally, as you know, one that has not been backed for a 
penny romps home to the winning-post, and the race 
is over.' 

So far as they go, the foregoing remarks give a 
pretty fair explanation of how the odds are fixed ; but 
■what has to be made still |)lainer is the great fact 
that ' the market,' in the majority of instances, does 
not represent with any degree of faithfulness the 
quality of a horse, or its ability to win a given race. 

The odds offered on the race-course have often 
about as much relation to the chances of the animal 
as the price of railway stock has to the financial con- 
dition of a railway, and its ability to declare a certain 


dividend. As a rule, which, however, hke other rides, 
is not without its exceptions, the ' form,' or winning 
abiUty, of all horses which have run in races is known, 
so that their chances of winning can be pretty well 
estimated. When, therefore, seven horses are brought 
together to compete in one or other of the commoner 
or smaller handicaps of the time, bettors make it their 
business to ' weigh up ' the merits, or demerits, as the 
case may be, of each of the competitors, the perform- 
ances of the different horses being hefore them in the 
printed guides to the turf, with the view of backing 
whichever horse has, in their opinion, the best chance 
of winning the race. Well, what ought the odds to be 
against any given horse, and how should the odds be 
determined ? 

It used to be said of a certain bookmaker, clever at 
figures and quick at setting the market, that he em- 
ployed a Cambridge man to fix the prices for him, and 
that it was done according to the doctrine of pro 
babilities. That, of course, was somewhat of a joke ; 
but one would almost think, so quickly are prices 
fixed and so glibly run off the tongue, that the merits 
of each horse, or rather its chance of winning a given 
race, had been appraised on mathematical principles. 
No such thing in reality happens, and the prices 
quoted, it may be safely asserted, are in every sense 
* fancy prices ' offered on the spur of the moment. 
In a race for which seven or eight horses are brought 
to the post, prices may range from perhaps 7 to 4 to 
20 to 1. If the race is a handicap, the weights appor- 
tioned to the different competitors are supposed, in 
t'leory, at least, to render the chance of every animal 


in the race equal : one horse may he apporlioncd a 
weight of 8 st. 12 lb., whilst another may have only 
7 St. 4 lb, to carry ; another may have 6 st. 10 lb., 
whilst the lowest weight borne in the race may be 
5 St. 7 lb. Although the handicapper does his very 
best to adjust the weights so as, in his opinion, to 
equalize the chances of all, it is exceedingly difficult 
for him to succeed in doing so, for even in the smallest 
races horses have been known to have a weight appor- 
tioned to them not in accordance with their merit, and 
in consequence backers who attend daily meetings 
have frequently to speculate in the dark, having to 
contend aiirainst unknown factors brouij-ht into the 
account without their knowledge. 

Some bookmakers simply ' gamble ' on the smaller 
daily races. ' Others may bet to figures,' said one of 
these gentlemen recently on being interviewed. ' I 
don't. I know very well the favourite is as often 
beaten as not, therefore I lay against the favourite with 
all my might, and against every other horse as well; 
but I do like to lay the favourite when it is at a short 
price. When it is five to four or even money against 
a horse, if the betting is at all brisk, and there be 
half a dozen or eight running, you can get a power of 
mone}^ into your book if you are not afraid. The great 
fact to bear in mind in betting is that there is often a 
'dark' horse that may win. You may be "had," of 
course, over the ' dark ' one ; but then you have all the 
money received for the favourite and the others Avith 
which to pay. Favourites, I have calculated, do not 
win oftener than twice in five times — in fact, not quite 
so often by a fraction. Acting on that theory, I simj)ly 


gamble clay by day, and it pays me to do so. The 
small prices which we lay, you see, are greatly in our 
favour. I sometimes gamble as well on the larger 
handicaps, at the post especially, when they back six 
or seven at pretty fair prices. I won some money by 
laying against Todhunter at Liverpool. The price of 
that animal was seven to two ; it had become first 
favourite, an 1 was most extensively backed, but made 
no show in the race. As the reporters said, it never 
looked dangerous, and was well beaten throughout. I 
considered that another horse, with Archer on its back, 
had the best claim to support. From its previous per- 
formance it was second favourite, and I also laid as 
much as I could against it ; but the people seemed 
crazed about Todhunter. We were near " skinning the 
lamb," as the race was won by a short head only, the 
odds against the second horse being 20 to 1 ; the 
horse which was placed third started at 16 to 1. Races 
often result in that way, so that one cannot help 
gamblino^ a little on such occasions. Then, you know. 
I sometimes get into a good thing when there is a 
** plant " on in which any of my training friends are 


Some of the bigger frauds and chicaneries of the 
turf would require to be discussed at length ; but the 
ever3'-day frauds, which in one way or other affect 
the state of the odds, may be alluded to in passing. 

Frequently a * plant ' is arranged to come oti' in con- 
nection with some of the little handicaps, or, to put 
the case in plain English, when it is found that a horse 


quietly reserved for a particular event has been 
awarded a weight that will make iuS victory as 
nearly as may be a foregone conclusion, a coup will be 
planned. In a case of this kind, the better to improve 
the occasion, two or three of the leading bookmakers 
are often taken into the confidence of owner and 
trainer. The market, if possible, will be set in such 
fashion as to make a particular horse favourite in 
order that a good price may the more readily be ob- 
tained against the ' planted ' animal. Those not in 
' the know ' become the sufferers, and wonder how it 
occurs that the nag, about which they hastened to 
take 5 to 4, could possibly be beaten by a horse that 
started at 8 to 1, and, to ail appearance, had not been 
backed by anybody. The bookmakers in the secret 
would, as the saying goes, field heavily against the 
other horses in the r^ice, and so be able to accommo- 
date the owner of the winner with a crood big" sum at 
a fair price. Such is one way of 'sophisticating 
the odds,' and fleecing the outside racing public. 
No backer of horses, however astute or experi- 
enced he may be, can contend against such practices 
■ — practices which are reputed to be of frequent occur- 

So far, the rate of odds incidental to every-day races 
have only been treated of. As L>gards the two 
greatest handicaps of the season, and other important 
events of the same kind, the odds offered for the 
acceptance of backers are still more fanciful and un- 
just than in the case of the smaller races. Long 
before the ' entries ' are due for the Cesarewitch and 
Cambridgeshire, and therefore long before it can be 



known, except to persons more immediately con- 
cerned, whether or not a particuhir horse will be 
entered, 50 to 1 ma}^ be had against any animal for the 
long race (the Cesarewitch), and ^^ to 1 against any 
one animal for the Cambridgeshire, which means in 
plain language that the bookmaker will give Z\i^ to 
tlie person who can name the wanning horse — £1 
being the forfeit of non-success. 

These figures may seem to denote a liberal price, 
but in reality do not, for if even 200 to 1 were offered, 
it would not in all probability covur the chance of the 
animal selected. In the first place, the horse chosen 
may not be entered for the race ; in the second place, 
if entered, the ovv-ner ma} be dissatisfied with the weight 
assigned to it, and in consequence not accept; in the 
third place, if accepiance should be declared, the horse 
may not be started in the race ; and in the fourth place, 
should it actually take part m the struggle, it may not 
prove the winner. Of these two races, after the handi- 
cap is published (that is, when the weight to be carried 
by each horse has been signified) the public bettors 
may be said themselves to ' make ' the prices ; indeed, 
long before the weights have been iixed a favourite 
has frequently been well established. The bookmaker 
very soon finds out for which hor>.e backers evince a 
preference, and as it continues to be backed he gradu- 
ally reiluces the odds. In the slang of the turf it has 
been called a ' mug's game ' to back horses for any 
race previous to the acceptances' being declared, but it 
is a game jrom wdiich the votaries of the turf cannot 
be weaned. They come to ' the scratch ' year after 
year to obtain the so-called ' long prices,' and season 


after season in time to come they will doubtless return 
to their vomit. 

The Cesarewitch, as has been indicated, is a long- 
distance race, the course over which it is run being 
two miles and a quarter in length, and the reason 
given by the bookmakers for fixing the initial rate of 
odds against the field at 50 to 1 only is that so very 
few horses can successfully travel the distance, that 
those which can do so are sure to be ' spotted ' by the 
backers, and be heavily invested upon. It is not odds 
of 10 to 1, they say, against certain of the horses if 
they should be entered and not be overweighted. 
There is a grain of truth in the protest, but a grain 
only, for the race has been oftener than once secured 
by a horse carrying a weight which it was thought 
would prevent its gaining a victory. It has likewise 
been won by horses never thought of before the entries, 
as Primrose Day, and the merits of which were perhaps 
only discovered ten days before the race, so that on 
the whole the bettors who take the odds have usually 
the worst, and the bookmakers who lay the odds tlio 
best of the bargain, no matter how liberal the price 
ma}^ be that is offei'ed. It has to be taken into account 
also that the race is often enough won by a horse 
which has been kept and 'worked' for the race — a 
horse that only the trainer and owner will know the 
merits of, the public, when possible, being kept in the 
dark, so that those immediately connected Avith the 
stable may obtain an enhanced price. This is a phate 
of turf chicanery often practised. 

As a rule, the la3-er of the odds against the chances 
of individual horses has a long way the best of the 


bargain. He is pretty sure (it is his business) to 
hnoiv more than the backers ; he may, for instance, 
know that the horse backed is not ultimately intended 
to run in that particular race. Tlie bookmaker, it 
may be afhrmed, plays the game with loaded dice. 
' I had one year,' said a bookmaker to a friend, ' nine 
horses to lay agaiiid for the Cambridgeshire after the 
accej)tances were declared, and as two of these became 
pretty hot favourites, I made a good bit of money out 
of them.' Sixty-six to one is a niggardly price to lay 
when all the contingencies that may prevent a horse 
winning are taken into account. The fortunate per- 
sons who by a stroke of good luck find, after the race 
has been decided, that they have selected the winning 
horse at the long odds may rest assured they have not 
received value for their m.oney, gratifying for the time 
as may be the result. Of the 120 horses entered for 
the race, only seventy may have accepted, and out of 
the fifty non-acceptors probably fifteen will have been 
pretty well backed, in addition to which several horses 
will have been pretty heavily supported than did not 
enter. Then, again, before the day of the race half 
a dozen of the horses after becoming pretty good 
favourites will be ' scratched ' ; that is, struck out of 
the contest, all of which occurrences, while they favour 
the bookmaker, are the reverse of favourable to the 
backers, but are important factors in regulating the 
state of the odds. 

The Cambridgeshire is a much more important race 
than the Cesare witch, as far as betting is concerned, 
and, as has been stated, the initial odds against naming 
the wmner are ucually fixed at Q6 to 1, and well may 


they be so, seeing that over 160 horses maybe entered 
for com^ietition, whilst a dozen of horses perhaps will 
be supported to Avin considerable sums that may not 
be entered. As illustratinir what the odds ouqht to 
be, the case may be stated as follows : Horses entered, 
i60; of which pretty heavily backed, 40; more or 
less heavily backed, but not entered, say 15 ; ac- 
cepted, 90 ; proportion of those heavily backed which 
accepted, 15. 

The bookmakers, therefore, so far as the Cambridg.^.- 
shire is concerned, have had 175 horses to work with, 
forty of which (including the fifteen never entered) 
must have laid a capital foundation for a proiitable 
book on the termination of the race. Well, then, 
under such circumstances, and in view of the above 
figures, Avhat ought to be the initial odds ? in plain 
language, how should the market be set to give in- 
tending bettors fair play ? It looks on the face of the 
case that even 100 to 1 would be nothing like a fair ofi'er, 
considering that the horse which wins the race has 
frequently started at long odds. If bettors were less 
foolish, if the}'' had more brains than money, they 
would refuse even 100 to 1 as the inkial odds for such 
a race as the Cambridgeshire. According to a roug^h- 
and ready estimate of the real odds, if there can bo 
such a thing as real odds in the case, the initial price 
against each horse, if not fixed at 200 to 1, should at 
the least be fixed at the number of entries, taking for 
guidance, say, the average number enteied in the five 
preceding years ; say, by way of example, 160 to 1, a rate 
of (initial) odds that would certainly not be excessive. 

In the matter of setting the market on big races, 


backers have themselves to blame for the poverty- 
stricken prices which they obtain. It has been argued, 
in considering the prices offered against horses running 
in small handicaps, that the price oiight to be governed 
on the principle of placing the balls used in pool (bil- 
liards) in a wicker bottle, and then betting as to which 
colour will come out first ; but there is a striking differ- 
ence to be considered: billiard-balls are dead and inert; 
horses, on the contrary, are alive and active, so are 
their jockeys, whilst their owners and trainers have 
always a potent voice as to what the conduct of their 
horse in the race shall be. Billiard-balls, it may be 
taken for granted, are always in the same condition; 
horses are not, neither are their owners and trainers 
always in a winning mood. It can never, therefore, 
be a case of similar odds to the appearance of a parti- 
cular billiard-ball, whilst the influence of the betting 
public must, as a matter of course, affect the prices 
offered ; but the bookmakers have always this advan- 
tage, that while one, or even two, out of seven horses 
may be heavily backed for a handicap or other race, 
only one can win ; if the favourite starts at even 
money, the bookiflaker has the chance of one of the 
other six winning the race. Moreover, the horse 
which has been backed to win the least amount of 
money may prove the victor, or the winner's name 
may not have been mentioned in the betting, in which 
case the bookmaker will 'skin the lamb,' In setting 
the market, the jbim displayed by a horse is said to be 
carefully taken into account; but curiously enough, in 
races in which it is the rule for all horses to carry an 
equal weiL;ht, better prices arc sometimes obtained by 


the backer than in the case of handicaps in which 
ever}' horse has, as the case may be put, a ditferent, 
impost on its back, and in which the correct form of 
nearly every horse li]\:ely to compete is known, or 
through collateral running may be estimated. 


Many persons who take for granted things that do 
not occur, and who believe in that kind of racing 
superstition which would ahva3's give the victory to 
the favourite, and who never think of inquiring 
minutely for themselves, will be a little surprised to 
learn that even in the classic races, where, as has been 
hinted, the form of all the runners can be perfectly 
well ascertained, the odds at the start, over a series of 
years, averaofe a rather hirdi fi'j^ure for the winner. 
Horses starting at comparatively long prices have fre- 
cpjently won the Uerb}', Oaks, and St. Leger — the 
favourite sometimes being, as they say in racing 
circles, ' nowhere,' or, to put the case gently, beaten. 
In big handicaps the same fate often enough befalls 
horses which start as ' hot ones.' Without troubling 
the reader with a phalanx of figures on the subject, it 
may be mentioned, with respect to the Ccsarewitch, 
that the price of the winner at the start for the race in 
1869-70 was 20 to 1 ; in 1873, 22 to 1 ; in 1874, 25 to 
1 ; in 1878, 20 to 1 ; in 1879, 22 to 1 ; in some pre- 
vious years even longer odds than these are recorded. 
Of the Cambridgeshire horses, it falls to be related 
that, on occasion, very long odds have been obtained 
just before the race was decided ; examples may be 


quoted : ]\[ontargis in 1873, started at 50 to 1, and of 
Isonom}', in 1878, the price at the start was 40 to 1 
More recently Bendigo and Gloriation started at 50 
and 40 to 1 respectively. The starting prices of the 
Derby and Oaks winners are given elsewhere. 

One phase of Derby betting which ])revailed at one 
time has been greatly fallen from, namely, the making 
of books on the yearlings entered for the race. Some 
thirty or forty years since there were men who would 
lay to lose £10,000 against any animal entered for 
the" Derby, and even now it is said one or two ama- 
teur bookmakers are trying their hand at a yearling 
Derby book. These speculations never paid, some one 
or other of the backers being so fortunate as to back 
♦;he yearling to which victory ultimately fell. As 
regards the general run of betting on the Derby, there 
are men who never touch that race as a medium fur 
speculation, ' It is not worth my vv^hile to back horses 
for the Derby,' said recently a well-to-do backer to the 
writer ; ' I prefer to risk my fivers on some of the other 
events — the Derby betting is too stereotyped for m}' 
taste.' On the other side of the question there are 
many shrewd backers who bet on the Derby, and put 
money in their purses by so doing. 

The odds now betted against horses for places, espe- 
cially in what are called the ' classic events,' are more 
fanciful than they used to be. For the benefit of the 
uninitiated in racing economy, it has to be explained 
that three horses in each race are ' placed ' by the 
judge, viz., the winner, as also the second and third 
horse — a fourth animal being sometimes placed. In 
all the large races^ in consequence of that arrange- 


mcnt, there has hcen 'place hctting.' At one time in 
the history of the turf, there was a good deal of betting 
' one, two ' — that is, that a given horse would either be 
first or second in the race. For that contingency half 
the odds were betted ' one, two,' that were offered for 
a win — if the price against a horse winning was 20 to 1, 
then 10 to 1 would be ofiered against a horse being 
first or second. If it be these odds against a horse 
being first or second, why should only ' a fourth ' of tlie 
odds to win be ofiered aj^ainst the chance of a horse to 
be first, second, or third ? And why, in the case of the 
rJerby, and one or two other races, should, as has been 
the case in some years, only about a sevt nth of the odds 
be offered against that contingency ? In place of being 
so ' nippit,' the odds against a horse obtaining a place 
ought really to be liberal, seeing that, in general, only 
two or three of the horses running in a race try for 
places, especially in the early part of the season. A 
jockey generally gets orders not to ' bustle the h>rse,' 
if it becomes obvious during the race that he has no 
chance of winning. Under all the circumstances, the 
odds for a place ought to be one-third of the odds 
ofiered for a win, seeing that the backer has so small a 
chance on his side of gaining his mone}^ ; as to the 
place prices now offered on the Derby, none but very 
foolish people accept them. 

A few necessary remarks on a favourite mode of 
betting in which the backer has usually the Avorst of 
the bargain may now be offered. The prices of double 
and triple event bets are effected by the multiplication 
of the current odils offered against each horse. For 
instance, it may be that the quotation against Sin for 


the Lincoln Handicap is 20 to 1, whilst the price of 
Misery for the City and Suburban is 40 to 1, which 
gives 800 to ] as the va,lue of the double event. A 
triple event is arranged in a simihir fashion, as thus : 
Gastronomer at 16 to 1 for the Lincoln race, Pleasure 
20 to 1 for City and Suburban, Dj'spepsia 25 to 1 for 
the Derby, or SCOO to 1 as the value of the triple 
event ! But no such price as that can be obtained. 
Bookmakers who do business in these fancy bets 
restrict the amount of the odds they offer on doubles 
to £2 000, and on triples to £3,000 respectively — a 
capital win in either case when it can be etl'ected ; but 
it is not often that such sums as even these restricted 
amounts are realized. Nothing is more difficult in 
bettinq- than to select two horses which will win a double 
event — to name a scries of three winners is still more 
difficult — racing is such a lottery, especially to those 
who are not very much behind the scenes. The bet 
when taken may look thoroughly practical ; all the 
horses may be in good fettle, and be meant to contend 
in the various races in the most honourable manner ; 
the first event of either series may indeed be realized; 
but some fine morning the remaining horse, or one of 
them if it be a triple event, may be found to be lame 
• — rnd, lo ! the chance of an easily-made fortune flees at 
once away. Each horse must gain the race it is 
named for, or the bet becomes null and void. 

The philosophy of a well-[)lanned double event, and 
triple event also, is, stated briefly, that it should be so 
arrancfed that the winnino^ of the horse in the first; 
event should have a favourai>le effect on the animal 
selected for the second thus the success of Sin, by 


previous ' form,' should bring Misery ' to the front,' or 
so improve its position in the betting that it will afford 
good hedging — it has become a proverb of the turf 
that 'no bet is good till it is well hedged.' If, for in- 
stance, Sin wins the Lincoln Handicap, then the bettor 
stands to win £800 by the success of Miser}^ in the 
City and Suburban ; and as Misery has twice before 
beaten Sin, Misery, in consequence of the success of 
Sin, comes to be quoted in the betting at 100 to 6, so 
that the bet can be hedged at about that price to 
any extent under £8C0. The holder of the bet, to use 
the phraseology of the turf, can in such case ' stand 
on velvet,' and win either way. He can lay, if he 
])!eases, £400 to £20, and so win £19 if the horse loses, 
or £400 if it wins. If the horse loses tlie race, that is, 
he has £20 to receive of hedging-raon'r^y and his stake 
of £1 to pay ; if the wins he receives £800, out of 
which he has to pay the £400 he laid. It may be 
said that it would be better to back the horses singly, 
because the stake won over the first horse could then 
either be reinvested or saved. There are, however, 
two sides to that way of putting the case. One side is 
that odds of £800 to £1 are obtained against the 
double event being realized. Ju>t so ; but if Sin had 
been backed singly at 20 to 1, Misery, when the first 
event came olf, as has been explained, may have risen 
in the price current to IG to 1, so that if both winnings 
and stake of £1 were to be reinvested, all that could 
be realized in the event of the second win coming off 
would be a sum of £8.')G. On the other hand, the 
second horse may have gone back in the betting to 
50 to 1 against its chance ; and in that case, if tlio 


bettor was still inclined to go on, his £21 would pro- 
duce the sum of £1,050. 

A bookmaker who in one year laid as many as 
seven hundred double event bets on the Lincolnshire 
Handicap and Liverpool Grand National Steeplechase, 
found, after the first race had been decided, that only 
nineteen of his clients had succeeded in naminof the 
winner of the first event ; moreover, the said nineteen 
selected seven difT^irent horses for the steeplechase ; 
and the bookmaker, having in his possession all the 
money invested on losers, was able himself to back 
the seven different horses in the steeplechase for all 
the money he had engaged for, and have a handsome 
profit left over. The prices of the seven horses which 
he required to make safe when the first event had 
been determined were respectively 5, 7, 8, 10, 12, 14 
and 20 to 1, and as it happened that he only stood 
to Jose £200 on the horse which was at 5 to 1, he 
covered that particular risk for £4<0 ; his heaviest 
risk was on the horse at 1-i to 1, which, when most of 
the doubles were taken, was twice that rate of odds : he 
took 100 to 7 ten times in the market, that is, at his 
club, so that for a sum of £70 he was able to cover 
what he stood to lose in the event of that particular 
liorse winning. In the end, only one of the seven horses 
proved successful, but the prudent bookmaker could 
not foresee which of them it would be, and therefoie 
he very properly took care to make himself safe ; but, 
as the sequel showed, the sum of £40 would have 
been ample to secure himself against any loss that 
might have occurred to him from double events. 

Many similar experiences might be related. It has 


Tjcen told of one bookmaker that he kiiJ a sum of 
£10,000 to one person against a triple event. Two of 
the events came off in favour of the backer, and that 
bookmaker found himself in the position of having to 
pay £10,000 if the third horse should win; however, 
after the first part of the bet had been determined, 
the bookmaker had taken a double event to cover his 
risk. Ultimately, before the Derby (which was the 
third race), he bought up the claim for a handsome 
sum, and the Derby of that year was won by a horso 
(Blue Gown) in the same stable as the horse which was 
included in the triple event. 

A Scottish gentleman one season invested a few 
pounds to win him a triple event of tlie value of 
£4',000, but it did not come off. The horses selected 
were : Footstep, for the Lincolnshire Handicap, which 
won; Austerlitz, which won the Grand National Steeple- 
chase at Liverpool ; the third horse of the series was 
St. T,eger, for the City and Suburban Handicap, run 
at E[)sora, which, however, failed to win that event. 
The speculative Scotchman might have had fine 
hedging over the third horse, which at one time was 
quoted at 12 to 1 ; the twelves in four thousand, 
therefore, at one time represented the value of the 
bet. Double and triple events for places can also be 
negotiated. The writer, by way of experiment, took 
100 to 1 King Lud, 1, 2, 3, Cesare^itch ; and Sterling, 
1, 2, 3, Cambridgeshire, and won his money; he also 
upon one occasion speculated in a triple-place event 
which proved successful, namely, Reveller for Good- 
wood Stakes; Cipolata for the St. Leger; and Fernandez 
for the Cambridsi'eshire. 



A way of betting at the present time much favoured 
by persons who do not find it convenient to attend 
race meetings is known as 'starting price.' The person 
speculating in that way of doing business instructs a 
bookmaker to put £1 on Bnsybee, on his behalf, for 
the Honey wood Handicap at ' starting price,' which, 
it need scarcely be explained, is tlie price at which 
the horse starts for the race ; it may be 2 to 1 or 
10 to 1, the backer being paid accordingly. A vast 
amount of money is day by day staked in this fashion, 
both in clubs and with outside bookmakers who affect 
this mode of doing business. A limit is fixed, beyond 
which pa.yments will not be made; it is usually fixed 
at 8 or 10 to 1 on the smaller races, and ranges from 
16 to 33 to 1 on the larger handicaps. Thousands of 
persons may daily be seen backing horses at ' starting 
price '; that they do not make much money at the 
game can be seen by looking at them. No wonder, 
seeing the small rate of odds at which the horses they 
usually back start at, and seeing that when the odds are 
large backers do not get the full tale of their invest- 
ments because of the limitation referred to. As a 
rule, the horses invested on start (as has been shown) 
at exceedingly short prices; often enough it is a case 
of odds on them ; at other times even money or 6 to 4 
against the horse backed. When, therefore, a starting- 
price backer, as is often the case, backs six or more 
horses in a day, and when, as frequently happens, he 
backs tvv'o anim.als running in the same race, he is 
certain in the course of time, if not at once, to lose 


his monc}'. Startinj^-price backers, as a rule, blindly 
follow a tout or tipster, either sending to them direct 
by letter or telegram, or 'tipping' through the 
columns of a newspaper, and in this way they are 
called upon to back every day a matter of seven or 
eight horses. In the course of the day they will be 
much gratified at hearing the good news that three of 
the animals selected have each won the race for 
Wiiich it had been backed; but their joy is damped 
when they learn that one horse has started at odds of 
2 to 1 on it, and another at even money, whilst the 
price of the third was 9 to 4. 

The following is the result of an illustrative experi-. 
ment recently made by the author of these pages : A 
sum of £7 was expended on seven horses, three of 
which only won their respective races, so that £4 
was lost over the non-winners, one of which rau a 
dead-heat with odds laid on it ; and the stakes being 
divided, a loss of three shillings was incurred on that 
winner, 2 to 1 was earned on another of the horses, 
and even money was earned on the third : the sum 
gained was, therefore, £2 17s., to pay a loss of £4. 
On some occasions backers are much more fortunate, 
and realize chances of 4 or 5, and sometimes 7 or 
8 to 1 ; and to last for any time at such a busi- 
ness they would require frequently to obtain such 
chances. Non-betting readers may feel surprised 
at the possibility of a loss on a horse that has in 
efi'ect won the race, but in the case of a dead- heat, 
which is not ' rini off,' the backer's stake and the 
money laid against it are put together and divided ; 
and in the case of odds being laid on a horse, say that 

2q8 the blue ribbon of the turf. 

£1 is risked to win los., tlie backor at £1 would only 
be entitled to receive 17s. Gd., thus losing 2s. 6d. by 
the transaction ! This has occurred often, and to what 
is called ' big money.' 

^[uch controversy has at various times taken place 
as to what is starting price, and how it is to be made 
known. It is on the one hand contended that at all 
race meetings the price at which the various horses 
start for any given race is different at different places, 
i.e., in the various rings — one man may be laying 
2 to 1, while another may be shouting 9 to 4, or even 
5 to 2, about the same horse. It is obvious, therefore, 
that for behoof of starting-price backers an average 
must be struck ; and in that case arises the question, 
Who is the man to strike it ? Practically, every 
starting-price bookmaker informs his customers that 
he settles by the prices quoted, in a given newspaper. 
All the sporting papers have representatives in the 
ring, whose duty it is to gather the prices and quote 
the odds. At the end of each race described, the 
betting is duly set forth — and, speaking roundly, 
there is usually very little difference to be found in 
the quotations given by tlie diff'ert-nt papers — and the 
prices collected find their way into all the daily and 
other prints which devote a portion of their space to 
racing intelHgence, so that bookmakers obtain a large 
choice of references to select from. Doubts are often 
expressed that the real odds are not given, and cases 
have been cited in favour of those holdinsf such 
opinions. There are two cases in point wdiich may be 
mentioned. The odds laid against the winning horse 
in each case were quoted by most of the papers as 


being 10 to 1, but the newspaper which was at the 
time of the race the accredited authority on starting 
prices pubhshed 8 to 1 as the figure. There arose in 
consequence a great cr}' against the journal in ques- 
tion, which was stigmatized as the * bookmakers' 
organ,' and loudly denounced as having given an un- 
truthful return; but the editor of the paper stuck to 
liis text, and asserted that he had ^^iven the fair 
figures. It is not necessary to give here a precis of 
the controversy, or to recall wdiat was said on either 
side; but in time that particular paper was dethroned, 
and another daily sporting print was elected as the 
arbiter of starting prices. By-and-by the new 
authority fell into as great disgrace as its predecessor, 
in giving 8 to 1 as the starting price of an animal 
which it was maintained started at two points longer 
odds. There was another 'row' over this matter, and 
probably there are many more quarrels and disputes 
in store for starting- price speculators. 

To non-sporiing readers, all that has been said on 
this topic may appear ver}' much of the storm-in-a- 
teapot order; but a deduction of £2 in a case where 
thousands of bets may have been made is a serious 
business to the bettors, as it re})resents a total sum of 
large amount ; a difference even of 5s. or 10s. in the 
price makes a hole in a settling. There are persons 
who say that, taken all over, the paper odds are really 
vai'TQ liberal than the prices which can be obtained by 
individual bettors attending the various meetings. 
Another factor in the matter of starting price is the 
general belief held by thousands of those persons who 
back horses — that the p 'rsons whoso duty it is to 


collect and quote the prices can be got at and bo 
' squared.' There are many people who assert that 
every man on the turf has his price, and that by 
giving a reporter ten pounds, the quoted odds can bo 
shown on paper to be less than tlicy were in the pad- 
dock. Even if the Jockey Club were to appoint an 
official reporter, he, too, according to the opinion of 
those knowinc^ most about such afiairs, miirht be tarn- 
pered with. 

AVhy should there be any 'limit' in the matter of 
starting price ? Bettors in the ring obtain the real 
price, whether it may be 2 to 1 or 20 to 1 ; why, 
then, should those who bet in towns not obtain their 
proper winnings \ Wei-e backers of horses not the 
fools they so often show themselves to be, they would 
cease to do business on any other terms. The real 
starting price is little enough for the risk run by 
persons betting in the dark, but vfhen the odds of 
20 to 1 are cut down to 8 or 10, it is really scanda- 

Before concluding this part, it may be well to take 
a glance at the starting-price bookmaker at home. 
His home for the day maybe at his club, where he has 
a table at which to do business, or he may be the pro- 
prietor of a billiard- room, or the tenant of a good- 
going pub, or little shop for the sale of cigars or 
newspapers ; no matter what his mode of blinding the 
authorities may be, his real work is that of book- 
making, doing business chiefly on the daily races, and 
with the majority of his customers for ready money, 
from, perhaps. Is., up to £5, or even £10. 
There are various ways of carrying on such a busi- 


ncss ; the proprietor may gamble tliroijo-liout, or he 
may bet to figures. Take an average day, and we 
shall fi,nd six races set for decision, in which from 
thirty to forty horses may actually compete, starting 
at such prices as have been recorded in a previous 
page. From an early hour the bookmaker's friends 
and clients begin to pop in, some to invest at once, 
others to gossip over the chances of the day. Opinions 
are exchanged. ' I know one good thing for to-day/ 
observes Bill Thomson. ' Well ?' says Jack Johnson, 
* Trapbois should win that 'ere welter easy, seeing as 
how he ran The Nig'^er to a nose two weeks since. 
I'll have my thick 'un (sovereign) on that 'oss.' And 
so the day proceeds ; men who receive telegrams from 
the course plank down their dollars and half- 
sovereigns, till a considerable sum has been received ; 
and the bookmaker, finding that he has taken rather 
much for some of the likely winners, sends out his 
scouts to place some of the money he has drawn with 
other layers of the odds. As the forenoon advances, 
timid-looking men slink in, and whisper their desires, 
evidently fearful of being noticed ; others, with less 
reticence, make their investments boldly, not caring 
who knows what they are doing. Racing begins at 
l.oO; and in a few minutes after that time a man 
rushes in to say that The Plover has won, Bantam 
second. Partridge third. All present are affected by 
the news: 'Just my luck; second again!' says one. 
' Pm not in it,' says another ; ' I backed The Peacock ;' 
and so the wail goes round ; and on the fact being 
found out that no one has backed The Ph)ver, the 
bookmaker is chaffed into standing drinks. Better 



luck awaits speculators over the second race of the 
da}?- — Clarion tirst; all have backed it; but the price, 
when made known by the tape, staggers the chque — 
'Even money be blowed, and seven runners !' Seeing 
that all the horses in the daily races are backed to win 
by some person or other, it is not a little remarkable 
that so many of the stavting-price bookmakers win 
money; but in the endeavour to do so they are aided 
by tlie occasionally very short odds at which many of 
the horses are backed. When a man takes £20 for 
a high-mettled steed, which starts at even money, he 
has only £20 to pay and the stakes to give back; and 
if throe or four horses have been backed for the same 
race, he has in all probability plenty to pay with, and 
something over as well. If there have been as many 
as seven competitors, the bookmaker may have taken 
as much as £100, spread over the lot, or, if his busi- 
ness is a largo one, twice that sum. 

Starting price is a favourite mode of backing a 
horse with some owners. A ' plant ' is laid somewhat in 
the following' fashion : Messrs. Brown, Jones and 
Robinson, who each have a horse or two in a small 
stable, find out that one of their nags is rather smart 
at a mile, and so, with the aid of their trainer, they 
have him placed along with a stable companion in a 
well-selected race. The pair are taken to the scene of 
action and made ready for the start. The owner of 
one of the horses makes a show of backing it with two 
or three bookmakers who are in the plot, and the herd 
of bettors on the spot follow suit, so that the horse 
comes to a short price. To the surprise of all present, 
the other horse of the stable wins the race, without, to 


all appearance, having been backed for a slnlling'. But 
in reality it has been backed to win £2,000 or £3,000 ; 
nearly every provincial bookmaker in the three king- 
doms, through the medium of commissioners and 
agents, having laid against it, and the price is the 
maximum in consequence of the tactics adopted. 
Such details as the foregoing may appear somewhat 
long-winded to those who are familiar with all the outs 
and ins of the modern turf; this book has not, how- 
ever, been written for the behoof of such persons, but to 
afford information to those ignorant of the machinery 
of racincf. 

In concluding this disquisition on the rate of the 
odds, it must be admitted that the setting of the 
market is not a matter for dogmatic deliverance, but 
for inquiry and elucidation. A bookmaker's argument 
is that it is the bettors themselves, and not the book- 
makers, who are responsible for the prices laid. ' We 
cannot,' such is their argument, ' go on laying . the 
same horse at the same price all through the piece ; 
that v.-ould never do, for the more a horse is backed 
the shorter must the price against its chance bccomiC.' 
That is so, doubtless, in many cases, because the 
bookmaker is bound to get as much money into his 
book as he can, and when there are only a few animals 
entered in a race, the persistent sup[)ort of one of 
them must naturally atfect its price ; but bookmakers 
should bear in mind that the more prices contract 
ao^ainst the six or sevtii leading favourites in an im- 
portant handicap, all the more should become the 
odds against the ' rank outsiders.* 


It would be a work of considerable difficulty to bring 
into focus much matter about the Derb^' that has 
not already done duty in print either in the ' memoirs ' 
of the period, or in the columns of the sporting 
newspapers, of which there are now so many. For 
those who make racing matters a study it is almost 
hopeless to suppose that anything can be given that 
"will be fresh or novel ; happily, however, there is a 
larger public — a public to wliom some of the 'ana' 
belonging to the great race will probably prove 
acceptable reading, and it is in that hope these scraps 
are offered as a portion of this volume. 

Subscription pools, ' Derby sweeps ' they are called, 

have existed in connection with the race for a very 

long period ; the writer has not been able 

Derby Sweeps. ^ i i ^ • • i 

to nnd out when they were mstituted, or 
■who first becran them ; but he was himself a sub-' 
scriber to one of them (a half-crown sweep) so far 
back as the 3'ear in which Phosphorus won. During 
the last forty or fifty years there is scarcely a town in 
the United Kingdom in which a Derby sweepstake 
has not been organized. In some of the larg^er towns 


there will be from forty to two hundred or more drawn 
every year of greater or lesser amount, the subscrip- 
tions ranging from as little as sixpence to as much as 
a couple of sovereigns ; the principal prize being fixed 
accordingly, in some instances as low as £1, in other 
cases ranging frum £50 to £500. It is said that in 
the year in which one of Mr. Merry's horses proved 
successful, twenty-five gentlemen of the West of 
Scotland put each down £100, £1,500 of which was 
allotted to the man who drew the Avinning horse, £700 
to the ticket for the second, and £300 to the third 
horse : the winner of the first prize engaging to invite 
the other subscribers to a champagne dinner. Many 
Derby sweeps are drawn every year in Glasgow, the 
drawing of the ' Exchange Sweep,' in particular, 
exciting a great deal of attention — it is promoted 
by the gentlemen who are subscribers to the Royal 
Exchanofe Readimj-room. In most of the clubs in 
Scotland Derby sweeps are drawn, some of them 
being of considerable amount, the first prize being 
seldom less than £G0, but £100 is no imcom.mon 
sum to be paid to the holder of the ticket containing 
the name of the winner, whilst a similar amount will 
ver}' likely fall to be distributed among the placed and 
runninfj horses. 

In the course of proceedings instituted against a 
licensed victualler, an inspector of police stated to 
London Derby ^^^® of the magistrates that it was within 

Sweeps. }iis knowledge that more than 1,000 Derby 
sweeps were every year got up in the great Metropolis, 
many of them representing large total amounts — the 


Avinning ticket in some of the larger organizations 
taking as much as £200. It is no exaggeration to say- 
that the number of sweeps got up in London far 
exceeds the figure given by the inspector of police ; 
one sporting publican, Avell versed in such matters, 
thought there would be no fewer than 10,000, big 
and little, ranging from the palatial clubs of Pall Mall 
and Piccadilly to the ' free and easies ' of the working- 
men in the various suburban localities of the ofreat 
J\Letropolis ; while in many of the London cit}^ ware- 
houses, shops, manufactories, and printing-offices, 
Derby sweeps are annuall}' organized, Li the markets, 
too, pools are got up over the great event, and in 
the theatres and music-halls there is always sufficient 
excitement to induce the artistes to promote a crown 
or half-sovereign sweep — the servants of the stage 
following suite with their go at 'a bob' for a ticket: 
there are in London sweeps for all classes, at all prices. 

Some of the Indian and Colonial subscriptions to 

Derby sweeps attain to very large amounts. The 

T V , following statement, as will be seen, refers 

ludian and •^ ' '_ 

Coioiiiii to Ben' Or's Derby. 'The sweep this year 

Dcrl)y Sweeps. , , • i i 

was the largest ever drawn, with the ex- 
ception of the one in 1877, when the first prize 
amounted to over £15,000, over £25,000 having been 
subscribed. This year 27,002 tickets at £1 each 
had been taken, and the prize for the first horse 
amounted to £11,153, for the second £5,576, and for 
the third £2,788 ; £459 being divided amongst all 
starters, except those who got a place, and £688 
amonofst non-starters. As was stipulated beforehand, 

DERBY AN A. 217 

£1,148 was placed to the credit of the Umballa Race 
Fund, and a simihxr amount was put down as ex- 
penses. Bend Or, the first horse, was drawn by a 
European clerk of the Public Works Department of 
Simla. I have heard that he had sold his ticket to a 
European officer for £1,."00, and a further £4,000 if 
the horse came first. Robert the Devil Avas drawn by 
a Gundamuck gentleman, and Mask by a Mr. Gordon, 
of Nizam IJ^'dcrabad. Apollo fell to the lot of a Hindoo 
clerk in a solicitor's office in Bombay, who sold it for 
£500, and £3 000 if it came first. Valentino was the 
portion of a little Parsee boy of Bombay, named 
Badeshir Banaji, alian Munshi, who sold it to Captain 
Beaver for £400, and to get £3,000 more if it came 

Some person or another invariably dreams the 
winner of the Derby, but the name of the horse, or the 
Dremns of the circumstanccs whicli attend the revelation, 

Derby. r^^.g j,qj^ usually made public till after the 
race has been decided. Several of the dreams, how- 
ever, have been authenticated, and three or four of 
them have been not a little remarkable, whilst not a 
few of them have gone the round, and have been 
quoted again and again. The dreams and omens with 
which we havebeenmadefamiliarseemto have assumed 
many shapes. Some dreamers appear to see the race 
and take notice of the jockey and his colours ; others 
see the number of the winning horse hoisted ; to 
others, again, is revealed the name of the winner; 
whilst some dream that they read the name of the 
first three on the tissue which comes with the news to 


their club. A gentleman — a member of a sporting 
club — saw one night in his mind's eye during his 
slumbers the tissue which contained Iroquois first, 
Peregrine second, Town Moor third. That seer was the 
special favourite of fortune, as on a previous occasion 
he dreamt that Hosebery had won the ' Camberwitch,' 
a dream which, for the moment, puzzled him ncta little; 
but he was clever enough to solve the difficuky by 
backing the horse for both CesarcAvitch and Cambrid(?e- 
shire, and Rosebery, as is well kno'vn, wun both of 
these races. 

' Priam !' * It's Priam that's won, I tell you. I 
heard the guard say so.' It must have been on the 
Derby News Saturday forenoon after the Derby of 1830 
Loug Ago. tijat I heard these words spoken by a stable- 
man at one of the hotels in the town of Haddington. 
I did not at the time know to what they related, being 
then a boy of some six years or so at school there. I 
soon became enlightened by a bigger boy, who told 
me Priam was a horse, and that it was t'le Derby it 
had won. * And the Derby — what is that ?' was asked 
by another boy. An explanation was given, and next 
year some of us boys took such an interest in the race 
that half a dozen went two miles out of the town to 
learn the news of Spaniel's victory. A man on horse- 
back was before us, but we heard him get the tip, and, 
setting spur to his horse, he galloped off to Edinburgh 
with the news by a cross-road at full gallop. And next 
Derby the same man I noticed was again in waiting, 
was again told the name of the winner, and again set 
off at great s^tecd for Edinburgh. Why he did so I 

. DERBYANA. 219 

learned in due time when residing in Edinburgli, but 
it would seem passing sirange if we had nowadays to 
wait so long for news of our Derby winners ; sixty 
3'ears since there was no alternative. Those who were 
desirous of knowing 'what had won' required to wait 
for thirty-six or forty hours till the mail brought the 
news, and on every occasion of a great race the guard 
might be heard shouting to some little group of people 
as the coach rattled along, ' Smolensko,' ' Plenipoten- 
tiary^/ or some other name, and at stations where a 
halt was made to change horses some interested per- 
sons would be waiting to hear the news of a Derby, 
St. Leger, or other victory. These were not the days 
of express trains, daily newspapers, or electric tele- 
graphs. In various remote parts of the country the 
name of the horse that won the Derby was sometimes 
not known till ten days or a fortnight after the race 
had been run. On the great mail-roads it was different ; 
the coachman and guards spread the news as they 
bowled alonsf, and the name of the winner Avould in a 
short time be known by those interested for an area 
of ten miles on each side of the great coach-routes. 

After leaving Haddington, by which town the mail 
came to Edinburgh, I discovered why a man on horse- 
back had come there — a distance of seven- 

TbeLspsof . 1 • <• , i , 

Early tcon milcs — to oDtam Irom the guard tlio 

Intelligence. r « 1 i. i i ^ i'\ 

news 01 what had won. Un some occa- 
sions there were as many as five messengers employed 
to bring on the news of what horse had won the Derby. 
I forget now how the stages were arranged, but the 
horsemen, from their knowledge of the country and 


the speed of their horses, were able on some occasions 
to beat the stage-coaches by as much as twenty-five 
minutes, which enabled those who had arranged the 
express to do a good deal of business, as much, at any 
rate, as paid all expenses and left ' a bit of profit,' 
more especially in one or two 3'-ears in which a pretty 
hot favourite happened to be beaten. During the 
'thirties' and ' forties' a good deal of quiet betting took 
place on the Derby and some other races in Edinburgh 
at certain well-known (to the initiated) places of ren- 
dezvous. The ' Haddington horse express,' as it came 
to be called, was planned in one of these, the leading 
spirit of the enterprise being a well-known hotel-keeper 
of the Modern Athens, who, along wiih two or three 
companions, shared the profits. All that was done 
was very simple. As a matter of course, there would 
be from sixty to a hundred people waiting in the 
difi'erent rooms of the Black Bull and other hotels for 
the news, most of whom had backed something for 
the race, and betting would go on till the mail reached 
the post-office. Meantime, the two or three in ' the 
know' had ample opportunity of laying against the 
horse that had lost the race, and backing the one that 
had won it. The mode of anticipation just described 
was carried en with varying degrees of success for 
several years, 

* Bob Smart,' of the Gun Tavern — ' Money Bob,' as 
he was afterwards called by intimate friends and 
_ „ ,,, others for whom he discounted bills— 

The \\ ouulbe 

Biters bitteu. nscd to tcll about liow tlic trickstcrs who 
ran the Haddington express were themselves ' done ' 


upon one occasion. ' I had something to do ",vith that 
business,' said Bob one evening to a few friends ; ' but 
it never put much money in my purse, and one 3'car it 
took a clean hundred pounds out of it in one bet. That 
was a good few years since : Spaniel's Derby, it was. 
Well, there was some of us waiting for the news in my 
room. It wanted a full hour of the time the mail would 
arrive, and we had no expectation of hearing what had 
won till about twenty minutes before the time set for 
the mail. The great favourite for that year's race was 
a horse called Riddlesworth, which it was said could 
not lose. I had backed it early on, but could not get 
good odds. Well, as I was saying, we were all waiting, 
when two officers from the cavalry barracks at Jock's 
Lodge sauntered in fully three-quarters of an hour 
before the news of "what had won" could reach us, 
and ordered brandy-and-sodas. One of them had a 
very fine sporting dog with him which, some of my 
customers greatly admired. "Ah," said one of the 
officers, " that is the winner — Spaniel, you know." 
There was a general titter at the idea of Spaniel win- 
ning the Derby, " Well, you may laugh as 3'ou like, 
but if any of you want to lay, I'll risk it and back the 
horse." As I thought they couldn't possibly know 
the result, I laid him £1U0 to £3, and I think Charley 
Fraser laid the other officer £50 to 30s. Havin"- 
booked their bets and finished their drinks, they left 
on their way to visit a bilHard-room. In about fifteen 
minutes afterwards our tip came. You can imagine 
our surprise when we knew it was Spaniel. We had 
been " had," of course, but dared not saj' so, as we 
bad " done " the same men over several other races. 


I never could Iparn for certain how the officers had 

efot tlieir information so loiiii^ before we cfot ours, but 

heard afterwards they had obtained the news from 

the stage before Haddington by means of flying 

pigeons, one of the sergeants of their regiment having 

trained them. Before coming to my place they had 

called in at the Black Bull and laid against the 

favourite to a good tune, and when they got to the 

billiard-room they got another hundred about Spaniel.' 

Epsom races of the present day and of Amato's 

time present a wonderful contrast. Private boxes in 

the stand were undreamt of, and there 

i^'^'^"r,^(/ o^f were no T.ittersall's or other enclosures 

the Monnnij ^s now. The weighinsr-room and business 


offices were in the small building oppo- 
site the winning-post at present known as the Angle- 
sey Stand ; and after the ring broke up in the town 
the horsemen reassembled around the ' betting-post ' 
on the hill, near the extremity of the loop of the 
present Metropolitan Course. A great deal of betting 
took place in Epsom before the races in those days, 
and whilst engaged in recording the same I happened 
to be standing wdthin a couple of yards of Lord George 
Bentinck on the broad step in front of the Spread 
Eagle in Running Rein's year (lS-14), when, with his 
jockey's betting-book open in his hand, his lordship 
calmly incjuired : ' Has anybody else any bet with 
Samuel Rogers to compare ?' But the taker of the 
£10,000 to £1,000 against Ratan from Rogers, which 
figured at the top of a page, did not come forward to 
verify the origin of what subsequently developed into 
the historical ' Ratan aflair,' that hurried Crockford, 


Eatan's owner, into bis s^rave, and helped to ' pile up 
the agony' in connection with the most notorious 
Derby on record. It may be newr, to many, perhaps, 
that Lord Georsfe Bentinck was the originator of the 
p»resent system of enclosures, of numbering horses on 
the cards, of telegraphing the starters and jockeys in 
accordance therewith, and of starting by the flag 
system. It was at his instigation, too, that the late 
Mr. Dorlinor formed what was then called the 'New 
Derby Course,' to distinguish it from the original one, 
of which the first half-mile was out of sight of the 
occupants of the stand. Ihe start took place on the 
other side of Sherwood's house, but in Surplice's year 
it was altered to this side, and the horses entered the 
old course near the mile-post, which track continued 
to be used until the formation of the present ' high- 
level ' course, owing to what was known as the ' Studd 
difficulty,' on that gentleman becoming Lord of the 
Manor of Walton. 

One evening, in the spring of 182S, a small but 
merry party sat at the dinner-table of that fine old 
ACheap Derby English gentleman, Lord Egrcmont. The 

Winuer. bottlo was in active circulation, and the 
good old peer in great glee — his friends around him, 
and his racehorses the theme. ' What will you do, 
my lord, with that Young Whalebone weed in the 
farther paddock ?' quoth one of the guusts. ' Sell 
him,' was the reply. ' The price ?' ' A hundred and 
fifty.' ' He is mine !' That ' weed ' was Spaniel, winner 
of the Derby ! 

From some cause or other Spaniel went so badly in 
the Derby betting that before the race he retreated 


in the betting to 50 to L Wheatly, the jockey 

who had been engaged to ride the horse, had backed 

his mount to win him £200, but, be- 

An Inciflpiit of ... , . , 

S|i:uiii4's conung alarmed, hastened to the man who 
'^^^^' had laid him the odds to bee: oft' the 
bet, a request which was good-naturedly complied 
with. The race ended as has been recorded, Avith 
the triumph of jockey and horse. The news of victory 
in due time reached Mrs. Wheatl}^ the wife of the 
fortunate and unfortunate jockey. Overjoyed at the 
success of her husband, she assembled her neigh- 
bours, and provided them with a liberal supper and a 
supply of good liquor. The jockey's health was (h'unk 
with great glee by his wife and the good company. 
Next morning came a letter from the husband to his 
loving wife, telling her that he had won the race, but 
had unluckily begged ofi' ail his bets ! 

' Honest, true and able,' Frank Buckle left indeed 
a blank upon the turf, which since his death has 
Friink p.nckie : ^ever 3'et been filled. No man was more 

a Eulogy, esteemed in public for integrity, nor in 
private hfe for his warm friendship and frank, free 
demeanour. In private circles he was talkative and 
cheerful, and owing to the stirring scenes in which 
he had played so conspicuous a part, his conversa- 
tion proved an ample fund of information and amuse- 
ment. He excelled in anecdote, the subject of his 
remarks being either some well-known public character, 
some excellent horse, or some feat achieved by the aid 
of his own consummate judgment. May he rest, as 
he rode, easily ! may he come true to the scale, and 
may the turf, which ho a.Iorned while living, lie light 
on his trrave ! 


Touchstone was not a Derby winnor, but be was 

a good animal, and won the St. Leger at Doncaster ; 

this horse was G^reatly prized by his noble 

Lord West- , , P i i r 

minsters Price owncr, and liis answer to a would - be 
for a Horse, p^yg^jr^gcj. ^vho was dssirous of securing 
the colt for Germany was : ' A German principality 
could not buy Touchstone.' 

No sooner had the Duke of Westminster's horse 
won the Derby, than there arose a rumour that Bend 
TheBeiKiOr C>r ' was a wrong one,' and would bo 
Scare. objected to. As there is never smoke 
without fire, so there was truth to a degree in the 
report. What was asserted was that the animal which 
won the race was not the horse it was represented to 
be, and would, therefore, as ' a changeling,' have to be 
disqualified. It (the rumour or assertion, or what it 
may be called) proved a false alarm, the babbling 
of a garrulous old stableman, and within a few days 
it was seen there was ' nothing in it '\ but had it 
proved true, and led to the disqualfication of Bend Or 
it would have been a fine thing for the backers of 
Robert the Devil. Some turfites maintain that horses 
have been changed before now, and that animals have 
more than once won important races that, as Polly 
Eccles says in the play of ' Caste,* * had no business to 

At one period in its history, a case of suicide in 

connection with the Blue Ribbon was frequently 

j)^j.i,y reported ; many of the deaths, however, 

Suicjues. -which were so recorded, might easily have 
been traced to other causes. The first Derby suicide 
that is recorded, so far as is known to the writer, is 



that of the Ht)n. II, A. Berkeley Craven, which took 
place in Bay Middleton's year. Although no evidence 
was otlered at the inquest that the melancholy event 
was caused by losses on the race, it was known at the 
time that if Bay Middleton won he would have been 
totally unable to defray his racing debts, ' a posi- 
tion which a person of his sensitive feeling of honour 
was unable to face.' It was stated at the time of 
the traefic occurrence that he would have been a 
defaulter to the extent of between £8,000 and £9,000, 
caused by ' backing the field against Lord Jersey's 
Bay Middleton.' 

The custom of moving the adjournment of the 
House of Commons over the day appointed for run- 
The Derby in ^^'^"'o ^^^^ Derby began on May 18, 1847, 
Pariiamtiit. y^l^^xi Lord Gcorge Bentinck brought 
forward a motion of which he had o-iven notice, ' that 
the House at its rising do adjourn till Thursday.' In 
doing so, lie stated that for more than half a century 
the Derby Day had been a recognised holiday. The 
motion was agreed to, as a similar motion has often 
been since. Joseph Hume and John Bright used to 
oppose the adjournment of the House for such a pur- 
pose. Upon one occasion, when the opposition to the 
custom was waxinc^ hot — it was in 18d0 — Lord Palmer- 
ston, in answer to the question whether or not the 
House would adjourn for the Derby, replied, ' To 
adjourn for that day is part of the unwritten law of 



[The following list of Derby winner?, and placed as well as other 
notable horses, will perhaps prove useful for occassional refer- 
ence. Incidents of importance are, of course, recorded or 
alladed to, but no attempt is made in this chronicle to 'swell' 
the narratives given. As regards fuur-fifths of the races 
there is almost nothing, except a very bald record of what 
took place, to fall back n])on ; and those struggles for the 
Derby which at the period gave rise to heated controversiea 
can be now more calmly recorded, points in dispute having 
long since been fought and settled, or, if not ' settled,' having 
been by consent abandoned, each party retaining their own 
opinion. No consecutive account of the great race, so far as 
the writer is aware, has ever been attempted ; but a founda- 
tion having here been now laid, it will not prove a difficult 
task to indite at some future t'.me a fuller account.] 

It was on Thursday, May 4th, 1780, that tho 
first race for the Derby Stakes was run ; there were 
j^gQ thirty-six subscribers. The field numbered 
Diomed. nine horses, the terms of the contest being 
stated as follows : ' The Derby Stakes of 50 guineas 
each, half forfeit, for throe-year-old colts, 8 st. ; and 
fillies, 7 St. 11 lb.; one mile.' The winning horse proved 
to be Diomed, a chestnut colt by Florizel out of sister 
to Juno, by Spectator, and was the property of Sir 
Charles Bunbury. No record is extant of how the 
race was run, or how far it was won, but a complete 



list of the competing horses has been preserved, and 
the places they obtained. The horse which is recorded 
as running second is Major O'Kelly's b. c. Boudrow, 
brother to Yevtumnus, by Eclipse ; Spitfire, the horse 
placed third, was also by Eclipse out of Houghton's 
dam, and was the property of Mr. Walker; Sir F. 
Evelyn, Mr. Panton, jun., H.R.H. the Duke of Cum- 
berland, Mr. Sulsh, Mr. Delme and the Duke of Bolton, 
also ran horses in the first race for the Derby. The 
wnnning jockey was S. Arnull, who was so fortunate as 
to have the mount on the victorious horses of 1782, 
17S7, and 1798. The betting is quoted as follows: 6 
to 4 against Diomed ; 4 to 1 against Boudrow ; 7 to 1 
against Spitfire, and 10 to 1 against the Duke of Bol- 
ton's colt. The value of the stakes would be 1,015 
guineas. The compiler of this chronology has not 
been successful in his search for a complete list of the 
subscribers, which would undoubtedly prove of great 
interest. The J\Iessrs. Weatherby state that the race 
did not close till the horses were two-year-olds, and 
that the race "was made ' to be continued the following 
year,' which phrase may be taken to m.ean that the 
subscribers pledged themselves to subscribe again. 
One at least of the newspapers of the period men- 
tioned the event, and another journal tells of the 
break-down of a one-horse chaise on the road home 
from Epsom, No public interest, in fact, had yet 
attached itself to a race ultimately destined to become 
so celebrated. Ilorse-racing in the first year of the 
Derby was only one of the sports of Epsom ; there 
was cock-fighting as well : and in the year 1780 the 
Epsom programme had been strengthened with a 


cock-fi'jht between the frentlemen of Middlesex and 
Surrey a,nd the gentlemen of Wiltshire. From the 
fact of Diomed starting favourite, the success of Sir 
Charles Bunbury's colt seems to have been expected. 
All the nine starters seem to have been ' place*!,' but 
according to some writers, the judge placed the tirst 
four animals only, and these, in accordance with the 
fashion of the period, Avere simply designated as Mr. 
So-and-So's b. c. or b. f , as the case might be. The 
history of the horse which won the first Derb}-" Stakes 
may be briefly related. Diomed was purchased as a 
foal from the Hon. Richard Vernon, of Newmarket, 
and, as Sir Walter Srott would have said, was 'come 
of good kith and kin ' ; among his ancestors on the 
dam's side being Childers, as also the Paget Turk and 
the Leedes Arabian. Previous to winning the Derby 
Diomed had been recorded victor in a race for a 
sweepstakes of 500 guineas each, six subscribers, run 
at the Sijrino: Meetin'jf held at Newmarket, and in 
which he carried 8 st. According to the list of 
winning horses for the year 17S0, published in the 
Racing Calendar for that season, Diomed won, for Sir 
Charles Bunbury, the Derby Stakes of 1,015 guineas, 
and other races which increased the total sum to 
5,165 guineas. Diomed as a four-year old won several 
races of considerable value. At the Newmarket 
Craven Meeting he received forfeit from Susannah, 
b. c., 500 guineas, h. ft. ; he Avon the Fortescue Stakes 
of 300 guineas each, eleven subscribers ; and he also 
won the Claret Stakes of 200 guineas each, h. ft., four- 
teen subscribers. At Nottingham he experienced the 
bitters of defeat by Fortitude, and was also beaten by 


Boudrow, the horso which ran second to him at 
Epsom, and which lie had previously defeated at 
Newmarket in tlie big sweepstakes referred to. 
Diomed did not run in the year 1782, and in the fol- 
lowing year, although he won the King's Purse in 
three four-mile heats, it was his fate to be beaten on six 
occasions. Falling lame, the horse was turned out of 
traininsf, and releixated to the stud, where he covered 
at various 'places at fees varying from five to ten 
guineas, and was ultimately sold by his owner for fifty 
g. lineas, at the end of 1798, to go to America, where 
he was resold for a sum of one thousand guineas. He 
died, however, soon after changing hands. 

A complete list of the horses comprising ' the field ' 
for the first race for the Derby cannot fail to prove 
interesting : 

Sir C. Bunl)ur\'s cb. c. Diomed, by Florizel out of sister to 
Juno, by Sjiectator- - - - - - - -1 

Major O'Kelly's b. c. Boudrow, brother to Vertunmus, by 

Eclipse --2 

Mr. Walker's c. Spitfire, by Eclipse out of Houghtou's dam - 3 
Sir F. Evelyn's b. c. Wotton, by Yauxhall Snap out of Miranda 4 
Mr. Panton, jtin.'s c. by Herod, dam bv Blank - - - 5 
Duke of Cumberland's c. by Eclipse, dam by Spectator - 6 

Mr. Sul.^^bs b. c by Cardinal Puff out of Eloisa - - - 7 
Mr. Delme's gr. c. by Gimcrack out of Haras (VVolsey's dam) 8 
Duke of BoltOT;'s b. c. Bay Bolton, by Matchem out of 
Brown Regulus - - - - - - - -9 

The winner of the Oaks— for which eleven fillies 
came to the starting-po t — was Teetotum, named by 
Mr. Douglas. Tlie first race for the Oaks Avas run in 
the preceding year, when Bridget, the property of 
Lord Derby, proved successful ; there were seventeen 


Although there was a subscriber less to the race of 
1781, six additional starters came to the post. Victory 
jygj fell to Major O'Kell}^ his horse Young 

YouugEciipse. Eclipse, by Eclipse, ridden by Hindley, 
being placed first by the judge ; Sir J. Lade's colt 
Crop, by Turf, being second ; and Lord Clermont's 
Prince of Orange, by Herod, third. Tlie winner 
, started at 10 to 1, Crop being favourite at 5 to 4, with 
' high odds against an}' other.' The Duke of Cumber- 
land, I\lr. Walker, and Mr. Sulsli again ran the colts 
they had entered. In addition to his horse Prince of 
Orange, Lord Clermont also ran a colt, named Arbutus, 
brother to Florus. The Duke of Queensberry, Lord 
Derby, Lord Milfintown, and Lord Craven also ran 
horses in the second Derby. Other gentlemen wdio 
ran their colts were General Smith, Mr. Kingsman, 
Mr. Douglas, and Sir C. Danvers, It is impossible to 
give particulars, no record of the running being appar- 
ently in existence. The conditions of the race were in 
no way changed from those which pertained to the 
struggle of the preceding year. A'alue of stakes 1.250 
guineas. Ecli[)se, which was the sire of this year's 
winner, and of two other heroes of the Derby, namely, 
Saltram (1783) and Serjeant (17S4), has 'a history' 
which, although it has been often enough related, may 
be again briefly told. If all that has been written 
about him can be believed, he was a wonderful horse; 
but as the timing of races was unknown in the days of 
O'Kelly's colt, it is quite on the cards that wo have 
had in these latter days even better, or let us say 
faster, horses. Still, it Avould not be fair to under- 
estimate Eclipse, who was claimed as the sire of 335 


winners, who took among thorn a sura of £1G0,000, 
besides a number of cups and phates. His career on 
the turf extended to one year and five months (and, 
be it noted, he only made his ddbiii when he was a 
five-year-old), during whicli he won for his owners a 
sum of £2,500 — a large amount in those daj's. Eclipse 
was bred by His Royal Highness the Duke of Cum- 
berland, who ran horses in the Derby of 1781, 1782, and 
1783 without success. At the death of His Royal High- 
ness he became the property of Mr. Wildman, a sheep 
salesman, who purchased him for the insignificant sum 
of 75 guineas ; the price paid by O'Kelly for a half- 
share in this turf gold-mine was 250 guineas; and 
ultimately Eclipse became the sole property of the 
Irish sportsman for an additional sum of 750 guineas, 
raakinsjf ],000 in all. Durinc^ his short reign on the 
turf he was never beaten. The following horses of his 
'Gfet,' in addition to the three which attained the first 
place, ran in the Derb}', namely, Spitfire, who was third 
in 1780 ; Alphonso (in addition to the Avinner), 1781 ; 
Achilles and Plutus, 1782 ; Dungannon second, and 
Cornet, not placed, in addition to the winner, in 1783 ; 
besides Mr. Davis's ch. c, by Herod, dam by Eclipse — 
four out of the six animals which composed the field in 
that year were by Eclipse. Serjeant, by Eclipse, won 
the Derby of 1784 ; next year Chauntt-r and Clarinet re- 
presented this grand sire. In 1786 ^Icteor was second, 
and Scota unplaced ; both of these were by Eclipse. 
Gunpowder, second in 1787, and Aurelius, second in the 
succeeding year, continued the story ; whilst an Eclipse 
colt ran in the colours of the Prince of Wales in the 
Derby of 1789, in which year His Royal Highness had 


two horses running in tlie great Epsom event. 
Another Eclipse co)t ran in 1791, the last of the direct 
line, so far as the Derby is concerned ; but the winner 
of the Derby in the following season was John Bull, by 
Fortitude out of Zantippe, sister to Don Quixote, by 

Lord Grosvenor's Faith provel the winner of this 
year's Oaks, for which six competitors went to the post. 

In the rubric of the race for this 3'ear appears the 

statement (see Oiton's 'Annals of the Turf), 'The 

1782 owner of the second horse received 100 

Assassin, guineas out of the stakes,' which is the only 
alteration in the conditions. There was again an entry 
of thirty-tive colts, as in the preceding year, and the 
held of competitors numbered thirteen animals, being 
two less than in the Derby of the year before. The 
race was won by Lord E-remont's b. c. Assassin, by 
Sweetbriar out of Angelica, by Snnp, the successful 
jockey being again S. ArnuU. Sweet Robin was made 
favourite at the start at the price of 3 to 1 ; 5 to 1 
against Assassin, and 10 to 1 aijainst Fortunio. The 
value of the stakes would amount to 1,200 guineas, 1,100 
of which would fall to the owner of the winning horse. 

The following list comprises the names and pedi- 
grees of the runners : 

Lord Egremont's b. c. Assassin, by Sweetbriar out of Angelica, 
by Snap ...-l 

Lord Grosvenor's b. c. Sweet Rol)in, by Sweetbriar out of 
Bonduca, by Bandy -...-.. 2 

Sir C. Bunbury's b. c. Fortunio, by Florizel out of Nettletrap 3 

Duke of Bolton's ch. c. Achilles, by Eclipse ; Mr. 
O'Kelly's ch. c. Confederate, by Conductor ; Mr. 


Napier's b. c. G lancer, by Herod ; Mr. Turner's b. c. by 
Ranthos ; j\Ir. Vernon's b. c. Berwick, by Florizel ; Lord 
Clermont's ch. c. FKrfcator, by Conductor; Duke of 
Cumberland's b. c. Eparainondas, by Herod , Mr. 
Parker's c. Ascot, by Herod ; Mr. Fox's c. Brutus, by 
Mark Antony ; Sir W. Moore's b. c. Plutus, by Eclipse. 

So far as can be ascertained, no particulars of the 
Derby of 1782, the third of the series, ever were pub- 
lished, the race not having then attracted the attention 
of journalists. Notices of the sires of Derby winners are, 
however, not difficult to discover in the sporting maga- 
zines of the period, and the turf histories wliich have 
been compiled from them. Eclipse has been already 
noticed. The sire of the first winner of ' tbe Blue 
Eibbon of tbe Turf was Florizel, who was also the sire 
of Eager, who won the race in 1791 for the Duke of 
Bedford, and in 1792 and 1793 gave two winners of 
the St. Leger, in Lord A. Hamilton's Tartar, and Mr. 
Clifton's Ninety-Three. Sweetbriar, sire of Assassin, 
was a chestnut, and was foaled in 17G9, bred by Mr, 
Thomas Meredith, and sold to Lord Grosvenor. He 
won several important events in his day, and was 
never beaten, but he paid forfeits on three occasions. 
Sweetbriar, while the property of his lordship, stood as 
a sire, and came into considerable request at a con- 
siderable fee for the period, namely, 25 guineas and 
80 guineas. He was sold at Tattersall's, in 1790, 
for the sum of 20 guineas. A list of thirty winners, 
of which Sweetbriar was the sire, is contained in 
Whyte's ' History of the Turf,' Assassin being of the 

Wiuh odds of 7 to 4 betted on her, Lord Grosvenor's 


Ceres won this yjai'd Oaks, boating eleven com- 

Only six of the tbirty-four horses entered started for 

the Derby of 1783, the winner proving to be Saltrarn, 

jr-gg a colt nominated by Mr. Parker. It was 

Sdtmm. described as brother to Speianza, by 
Eclipse out of Virago, by Snaj3, and gave another win- 
ning mount to Hindley, who rode Young Eclipse on 
the second of the series of races for the Derby. Colonel 
O'Kelly ran second with Dungannon, also 'an Eclipse 
horse ;' the same gentleman ran another ' Eclipse,' 
named Cornet. The colt which was placed third was 
Mr. Stapleton's Parlington, by Morwick Ball out of 
Miss Skeggs, by Matchem. The other runners were 
the Duke of Queensberry's Gonzales, brother to 
Slander, by Herod, placed fourth, and Mr. Davis's 
eh. c. by Herod, dam by Eclipse. Betting on the race : 
5 to 2 as^ainst Saltrarn, 5 to 2 asfuinst Cornet, to 1 ])un- 
trannon, 8 to 1 Gonzales, 10 to 1 the other two colts. 
It is not stated whether or not the 100 guineas to the 
second horse was bestowed this j'car. Value of the 
stakes, 900 guineas. 

The Oaks of this year also fell to Lord Grosvenor, by 
the aid of his ch. tilly Maid of the Oaks, which started 
favourite (4 to 1 against), beating nine others. 

The race still continues to be run on Thursday. 

This year it was decided on May 20Lh, victory falling 

y.^^^ to Colonel O'Kelly, by means of Serjeant, by 

SerjeHut. Eclipse out of Aspasia, bj' Herod, who was 
ridden by J. Arnull. Lord Grosvenor's gr. c. Carlo 


Khan, by Mambrino out of Pigeon, was second ; and 
Lord Derbj^'s Dancer, by Herod, ran third. Other 
runners were the Dulve of Cuniberhind's Fencer, which 
was pLaced fourth, the Duke de Chartres' Cantator, 
Lord Derby's Collector, Sir C. Danver's Pitch, Sir 
Charles Bunbury's Pharamond, Mr. Stapleton's (un- 
named at the time) ch. c. by Herod, dam by Gold- 
finder, j\rr. Douglas's colt Ishmiiel, Lord G. H. Caven- 
dish's br. c. Steady; thus eight of the hoi'ses were 
nominated by persons of high rank. 1'hc following is 
a brief chronicle of the state of the odds at the start : 
3 to 1 against Serjeant, 5 to 1 Pitch and Dancer, 20 to 
1 Carlo Khan. There were thirty subscribers, and, as 
has been enumerated, eleven starters. The value of the 
stakes was 1,025 guineas. The weights for the Derby 
were this year fixed as follows : colts, 8 st. 3 lb. ; fillies, 
8 St. The distance to be run was also increased, the con- 
dition in that respect being ' the last mile and a half.' 
Mr. Burlton's Stella won the Oaks, starting at the 
nice price of 20 to 1. Lady Teazle, who had been 
made favourite, only obtained second honours. She 
was the property of Lord Derby. 

A few words are all that need be said about the 

Derby of 1785, which was won by Lord Clermont's 

j^gg b c. Aimwell, by Mark Antony out of sister 

Aimweii. to Postmastcr, by Hero.d, ridden by G. 
Hindley, Value of the race, 975 guineas. Lord Gros- 
venor's Grantham v^as second (it was favourite in the 
betting, at 2 to 1). Mr. Wastell's Verjuice was placed 
third. Mr. O'Kelly started two of his horses in the 
race. Lord Grosvenor's Vulcan also ran. Sir F. 


Standish, Lord Foley, and Lord Slierborno also ran 
horses. Aimwell, the "winner, started at 7 to 1. There 
were twenty -nine subscribers to the Derl)y of 1785. 

Lord Clermont had the good fortune to win the 
Oaks as well as the Derby of 1785, being the first 
owner to secure the double event. Mr. Parker nearly 
achieved the same feat in the year 1783, when he won 
the Derby with Saltram, and was second for the 
'Garter of the Turf with Hebe; in the previous year 
Lord Grosvenor ran second for the Derby with Sweet 
Robin, and won the Oaks with Ceres, having tMken the 
same raee in the previous season by the aid of Faith, 
and again the recipient of the ' Garter of the 
Turf in the following year (1783), when Maid of the 
Oaks won. Trifle, the Oaks victress of 1785, was 
escorted to the winning-post by Lord Egremont's 
sister to Camilla, who got second place ; Miss Kitt}', 
the property of the Prince of Wales, being third, 
whilst Mr. Olvelly's Boniface Avas placed fourth. 

With odds of 30 to 1 betted against him, Mr. Pan ton's 
Koble, ridden by J. White, won the Derby of 17SG. 
i7gg_ The winner was by Highflyer out of Brim, 
Noble. i^y Squirrel. The other horses which ran, 
fifteen out of the tvventy-nine entered, belonged chiefly 
to persons of title. The Dukes of Orleans and Queens- 
berry each contributed a runner, so did His Royal High- 
ness the Prince of Wales ; Lord Grosvenor ran two of 
his colts, whilst Lord Clermont (who won the race in 
the preceding year) and Lord G. A. Cavendish each 
supplied a competitor, as did also Mr. Wyndham and 
Mr. Douglas. Mr. O'Kelly had two running that year. 


The judge awarded second lionours to Lord Gros- 
venor's Meteor, the third place being occupied by Sir H. 
Featherstonhaugh's Smart, afterwards Claret. Scota, 
one of Mr. O'Kelly's pair, started favourite with odds 
of 2 to 1 betted against her. The date of the race this 
year was Wednesday, May 31st. Highflyer, the sire 
of this year's Derby winner, has a history. He was a 
celebrated horse, ranking about third in fame in the 
days of his career — Childers and Eclipse only coming 
before him. His sire was King Herod, his dam 
Rachel, by Blank. Highflyer was foaled in 1774, and 
died in October, 1793 ; he was bred by Sir C. Banbury, 
who won the first Derby with Diomed ; afterwards he 
became the ])roperty of Viscount Bolingbroke, and 
was then sold to Mr. Richard Tattersall, and is said to 
have laid the foundation of the fortunes of that famil}'. 
The horse had a famous career on the turf; he was 
never beaten, and never paid forfeit, and was probably 
the best horse of his day. His winnings are said to 
have amounted to the sum of £9,000, a large amount 
for the period. Highflyer, so soon as he had ceased 
to race, stood as a stallion at the country seat of his 
owner — Highflyer Hall, at Ely, in Cambridgeshire, 
where he became the sire of an uncommon number of 
really good horses, who in time made their mark either 
on the turf or at the stud. 

' By his prolific deeds was bnilt a court, 
Near where famed Ely's lofty turrets rise ; 
To this famed sultan would all ranks resort, 
To stir him up to am'rous enterprise.' 

It has been calculated that the progeny of Highflyer 
won in stakes, from 1783 to 1801, a sum of over 


£170,000. He sired three winners of the Derb}', four 
winners of the St. Leger, and one winner of the Oaks, 
whilst his sons, in their turn, became sires of m;iny 
other classic celebrities, the names of which will be 
found in the following pages. Other two of the sons 
of Highflyer ran in the iJorby of 17SG, in addition to 
the winner. The value of the stakes was 1,100 guineas. 
No less than three of Highflyer's daughters took 
part in the Oaks of the same 3'ear, one of them, Letitia, 
being second to Sir F. Standish's chestnut, the Yellow 
Filly, by Tandem out of Peitlita ; the third in the race 
Avas Scota, which also ran in the Derby — the second 
instance of a filly taking part in that race. There 
were twenty- four subscribers to the Oaks of 1786, and 
thirteen came to the post. J. Edwards rode the 

j^„g^ On Thursday, May 24th, the following 

Sir Peter scvcn horses started for the Derby of the 

Teazle. . , 

period : 

Lord Derby's br. c. Sir Peter Teazle, by Highfljer out of 
Papillon -.-----..-1 

]*.Ir. O'Kelly's cb. c. (Gunpowder, by Eclipse - - - - 2 
Mr. Vernou's ch. c. Bustler, by Florizel - - - - 3 

Lord Grosvenor's br. c. Mentor, by Justice out of Sweet- 
briar's dam; Lord Grosvenor's b. c. Whitelegs, by 
Justice out of sister to Sweetbriar; Mr. Charlton's 
gr. c. Twitch, by Pontifex ; Mr. Aston's c. by Highflyer. 

Betting : 7 to 4 against Bustler, 2 to 1 against Sir 
Peter Teazle, 3 to 1 against Lord Grosvenor, and 8 to 
1 against Gunpowder. Value of the stakes, 1,000 

From the above list it will be seen that the seventh 


Derby was won by a horse belonging to the noblemin 
who originated the contest, or, at all events, after 
whom it was named. Ho had courted fortune previ- 
ously, with King William in 1781, and with Dancer 
and Collector in 1784, but without success. He was 
more fortunate in the Oaks, 'The Garter' havInGf 
fallen to him the first time of asking, and again in 
] 794. The Earl only secured one Derby, but he ran 
third in 1790, with Lee Boo, and secured the same 
place with Bustard in 1792 ; in the following year 
his lordship's horse. Kidney, was unplaced, and in 
1801 his g. c., by Sir Peter, was placed seventh in 
Orton's lii:t of runners. That the twelfth Earl of 
Derby was a famous breeder of horses, a right good 
sportsman, and one of the ' fine old English country 
gentlemen ' of his day, there is abundant evidence to 
show. His lordship lived to the great age of eighty- 
three years : his personal character has been alluded 
to in a previous page ; here, however, it Avill be ap- 
propriate to say something about his stud of horses, 
and those of them which became distinguished on 
the turf. It is said that the winner of this j^ear's 
Derby was named Sir Peter Teazle as a compliment to 
his Countess, the vivacious and beautiful Miss Farren, 
whom he elevated from the stage to the peerage, one 
of whose fine histrionic assumptions was the heroine 
of Sheridan's most brilliant comedy. Sir Peter, who 
gained for his lordship ' the Blue Ribbon of the Turf 
in the year 1787, was descended from the famous 
Godolphin Arabian. That fine colt was bred by the 
lord of Knowsley himself, and was renowned for his 
speed ; he was foaled in 1784, and during his three 


and four years old career he earned a great reputa- 
tion and v/on for his noble owner a large sum of money 
in stakes. It has to be said of Sir Peter Teazle that 
the fame he acquired on the race-course was per- 
petuated in the breeding paddocks, where his fee rose 
from ten to thirty guineas, and horses of his 'get' long 
(continued to make their mark on the English turf 
He sired in his time a large number of winning horses, 
and, among others, the following winners of the Derby : 
Sir Harry, Archduke, Ditto, and Paris, as also Am- 
brosio, Avinner of the St. Legcr of 179G ; likewise three 
consecutive winners of the same race, 180G, lri07, and 
1S08: these were Fyldener, Paulina and Petronius. Two 
Oaks heroines were got by the same sire, Hermione and 
Parasote. Sir Peter Teazle attained the venerable age of 
thirty years, and stood at the stud to the last. In the 
earlier half of his career as a stud horse he earned an 
immense reputation, so great, indeed, as to induce 
numerous applications for his purchase, among others 
one of 7,000 guineas from the American Consul. 
'Nay,' replied his lordship, ' I have already refused an 
offer of 10,000 guineas for Sir Peter.' 

The Oaks of the 3'ear was won by a filly named 
Annette, the property of Mr. Vernon ; she was accom- 
panied to the post by seven others, of which three 
were supplied by Lord Grosvenor. There were twenty- 
four subscribers. 

This year's 'Blue Piibbon,' competed for on Thursday, 

j-gg May 8th, fell to His Royal Highness the 

Sir Thomas. Princo of Wales, his horse, Sir Thomas, 

having beaten the ten Avho raced with him for tho 



trophy. There were thirty horses nominated for the 
race, and the following is the list of those who ran : 

Prince of Wales' cb. c. Sir Thoraa'?, by Pontac out of Sports- 
mistress -.-----.--1 
Lord Grosvenor's cb. c. Aurelius, by Eclipse, dam by Blank - 2 
Lord Karrymore's b. c. Feenow, by Tandem out of Crop's 

dam ....--....3 

Lord Foley's cb. c. Altamont, by Garriclc. dam by Hc-ro'l - 4 
Mr. Fox's gr. c. Grey Diomed, by Diorned out of Grey Dori- 
mout - - - - - - - - --5 

Also ran • Duke of St. Alban's b. c. brother to Cowslip, 
by Highflyer ; Mr. Taylor's b. c. Star, by Highflyer ; 
Lord Clermoni's b. c. Ponto, by H'mio ; Duke of 
Queensberry's b. c. Golia, by Giant ; Mr. Lade's ch. c. 
Conflaus, by Woo.lpecker ; Mr. Hall's ch. c. by Jupiter 
out of Amaranda. 

Betting: 6 to 5 on Sir Thomas and 5 to 2 against 
Aurelius, Vakie of the stiikes, 925 guineas. 

His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, afterwards 
' His Majesty George the Fourth,' was for a time a 
keen votary of the sport of kings, and although in 
some matters hewas probably more sinned against than 
sinning, he found his name in bad odour, most unkind 
thiuLTS beiuLC said ret^ardino- the runnin<j^ of some of 
his horses, and the equivocal conduct of Samuel 
Chifney, his jockey. The story of Escape does not 
belong in any way to the Derby, but what was called 
'the out and in ' running of that horse, on two occa- 
sions, gave rise to some scandal which led to the with- 
drawal of His Roj^al Highness from all turf pursuits, 
and, four j'ears later, to the publication, by his jockey, 
of that celebrated work ' Genius Genuine,' a most in- 
teresting book, now very rare, the reprint even being 


scarc3. The Escape affiiir is thus briefly nariMted in 
Whyte's ' History of the British Turf : 'On the 20l!i 
October, 1791, the Prince of Wales' best horse, Escape, 
ridden by the late Samuel Chifney, was beat by 
Coriander (by two lengths) and Skylark, for the Plate, 
for which he was the favourite in the betting, " Ditch 
In." On the following day, the betting being 4 and 5 to 1 
against Escape, this liorse, jockeyed again by Chifney, 
beat Skylark and other horses easily. Upon this a 
great outcry was roised at Newmarket by the losers, 
who did not hesitate to say that Chifney had rode to 
lose on the 20th, and that the Prince of Wales was 
implicated in the cheat.' The Prince gave up racing 
for a time, having, as we have read, ' been houmled off 
the turf in consei.|ueuce of his popularity,' which was 
unbounded; he had made himself, without any sacri- 
fice of dignity, ' everybodj^'s body :' he was vociferously 
cheered whenever he appeared. The Prince returned 
to the turf again in 1826, when he followed the 
pastime with greater ardour than before. His chief 
advisers were the Chifneys, whom he engaged to 
manage and ride his horses, some of which were 
bought at big prices. 

The Oaks was won by Lord Egremont's Nightshade. 
His lordship, who was a keen sportsman, had tried 
several times to obtain the ' Garter of the Turf,' and 
now his ambition was gratified. There were seven 
runners out of eighteen nominations ; the winning 
jockey was again Fitzpatrick. The Duke of Bedford 
ran second with Busy, and Mr. Wastell's filly by Alfred 
out of Magnolia was third. The Duke of Grafton, 
Lord Grosveni«r, Sir F. Standish, Lord G. H. Cavendish, 



comprised the other owners who ran their fillies in tha 
race. The betting was 2 to 1 o)i Nightshade. 

The Derby Stakes run for on Thursday, May 2Sth, 

of this year, was of the value of 1,025 guineas. 

jygc, Eleven out of the thirty horses entered 

Skyscraper, started for the race, which was won by the 

favourite, ridden by the senior Chiaiey. 

Duke of Bedford's b. c. Skyscraper, by Highflyer out of 
Everlastin<4 ..------ -1 

Duke of Bedford's b. c. S r George, by Bordeaux out of 
Dancer's dam -*-------- 2 

Lord Grosveiior's b. c. brotlier to Skylark, by Highflyer - 3 

Prince of Wales' ch. c. Soujah ul Dowlah, by Eclipse out of 
Duchess ----------4 

Prince of Wales' ch. c. Cheyt Sing, by Eclipse or Vertumnus - 5 

The following also ran: Lord G. H. Cavendish's 
ch. c. Competitor, by Ecli])se; Lord Grosvenor's ch. c. 
by Pot-8-os out of Maid of the Oaks; Duke of St. Alban's 
b. c. Bashful, by Highflyer ; Lord Bairymore's br. c. Sir 
Christopher, by Evergreen ; Mr. Lade's gr. c. by Panta- 
loon ; Lord Egremont's b. c. Sublimate, by Mercury out 
of Blemish. Betting : 7 to 4 on Skyscraper, 7 to 2 
against Soujah ul Dowlah, 100 to 8 against the Pot-8 os 
colt. This year was truly an aristocratic Derby, so 
far, at all events, as the owners of the running horses 
were concerned — a prince, two dukes, and four lords 
all supplying competitors, three of them being doubly 
represented. His Grace the Duke of Bedford won 
the Derby on two other occasions. An opportunity 
has been taken in a preceding |)age of this volume to 
refer to him and his horses, and to take note of his 
career as a sportsman. 


The O:\ks was ag'ain won by Lord Egremont, by tho 
aid of Tag, by Trentham out of Venus, by Eclipse, the 
jockey on this occasion being the senior Cliifney, 
Lord Grosven^ir ran second with his filly by Justice 
out of Cypher ; Mr. Vernon's Hope was third. A 
fourth Avas also placed ; it was the Duke of Grafton's 
])atrodil, by Magnet out of Hebe. The Duke of Bed- 
ford had also a runner, whilst Lord Clermont swelled 
the field with two of his fillies. The betting at the 
start was -5 to 2 against Tag and Hope, 5 to 1 against 

Of the thirty-two entries for the Derby of this year ten 

came to the starting-post on Thursday, May 20th, when 

.„„„ Lord Grosvenor ran first and second, beat- 

1/90. _ . . . 

EiiiKiiiman- ing all liis aristocratic companions in arms. 

tlius. ... 

The following list will show the strength 
of the field : 

Lord Grosveuor's br.c. Rhndamanthus, by Justice out of Flyer 1 
Lord Gro.svennr's cb. c. Asparagus, by Pot-8-os, dam by Justice 2 
Lord Derby's b. c. Lee Boo, brother to Hope, by Florizel - 3 
Prince of Wales" b. c. Chimbone, by Mambrino out of Tabitha 4 
Mr. Pantou's b. c. Griffm, by Woodpecker out of Hyajna - 5 

There also ran : the Prince of Wales' b. c. Fitz- 
william, brother to Rockingham ; Lord Foley's Rattler, 
by Liiperator; Lord Clermont's b. c. Bagho, biother to 
Markho ; Duke of Queensberry's gr. c. Burgundy, by 
Bordeaux ; Mr. Panton's b. c Ostrich, by Woodpecker. 
Betting: 5 to 4 against Rhadamanthus, 4 to 1 against 
Asparagus, 5 to 1 against Grifiin, 7 to 1 against Leo 
Boo. The winner was ridden by J. Arnull. Value 
of stakes, 1,050 guineas. Lord Grosvenor in his day 
was a more than ordinarily fortunate sportsman, seeing 


that he won the Derby on three, and the Oaks on six 
occasions, three of his victoi ies following in consecutive 
years. Including his first and second upon the present 
occasion, liis lordship had started thirteen horses for the 
Derby. His lordship would in all likelihood have won 
another Derby Avith some one of the six colts, all got by 
his favourite stallion John I3ull,Avhich had been nomi- 
nated for the race at the period of his death. Ho died 
in the year 1802 ; and as he began his sporting career, 
so far as the turf was concerned, in 1753, it will be 
seen that his experience of the pastime was a long 
one. He was in his day the owner of one of the most 
extensive and valuable studs in the kingdom, and had 
some very successful racehorses always running in his 
colours. John Bull, winner of the Derby in 1792, one 
of his lordships most valuable stallions, died in 1814. 
He had a good pedigree, his sire being Fortitude, who 
was got by Herod. John Bull was the sire of Alfred, 
Cassario, Enterprize, Ferdinand, Muly Moloch, and 

All the sporting aristocrats of the day ran their 
horses at this period in the classic races. The Prince 
of Wales, the Dukes of Bedford and Queensberry, Lords 
Grosvcnor, Derby, and G. H. Cavendish, all ran horses 
in the Oaks of this year, for which the following were 
placed by the judge, out of the twelve which formed 
the field : 

Duke of Bedford's ch. Hippolytn, by Mercury out of Hip, by 
Herod - - 1 

Lord Grosvenor's cb. Mistletoe, by Pot-8 os out of Maid of tbe 
Oaks 2 

Puke of Bedford's b. f. by Giant out of Heinel - - - 3 

Mr. Vernon's ch. Crazy, by Woodpecker out of sister to 
Mercury .---------4 


Betting: 5 to 2 against Crazy, 3 to 1 against Mistletoo, 
G to 1 against Hippolyta, 10 to 1 against Louisa. 

Nine horses selected from the thirty-two nominated 
came to the post to compete for the ' Blue Ribbon ' of 
j„qj June 9th, ITUl, when the Duke of Bedford 
Eager. was accorded the trophy. His grace also 
won the Oaks, with Portia. The following list em- 
braces all the horses that started for the Derby, of 
which four seem to have been placed by the judge: 

Duke of Bedford's br. c. Eager, by Flovizel out of Fidget's 

dam -.-..-----1 
Lord Foley's br. c. Yermin, by ITigbflyer out of Rosebud - 2 
Lord Egremoiit's b. c. Proteus, by Mercury out of Pastorella 3 
Prince of Wales' cb. c. St. David, by Sallram - - - 4 

Prince of Wales' b. c. by Highflyer, dam by Engineer ; 
Mr. Vernon's gr c. by Garrick out of Blowzy ; Sn* 
Charles Bunbury's b. c. Playfellow, by Diomed, dam 
by Turf; Mr. Graham's ch. c. by Eclipse, dam by 
Pincher ; Lord Grosvenor's br. c. Gumcistus, by Pot-8-os 
out of Elfrida. Betting : 5 to 4 against Vermin, 5 to 2 
a'j^ainst Eacjer, 8 to 1 jio-ainst St. David, 10 to 1 against 
Proteus, The name of the winning jockey was Ste- 
phenson, and the value of the stakes would amount to 
1,025 guine;is. 

None but persons of title ran their fillies in the 
Oaks, among others the Prince of Wales, the Dukes of 
Grafton and Bedford, as also Lords Grosvenor, Bany- 
more, and Egremont. Tlie subscription list for 1791 
included thirty-ei'dit fillies, as against the eighteen of 
the three previous years, and the twenty-four of 1785, 
1786, and 1787, which is some proof that the race was 


by this time increasing in favour with owners and 
nominators. His Grace the Duke of Bedford was this 
year again the fortunate recipient of -the 'Garter of the 
Turf.* The name of the winner was Portia, by Vohm- 
teer out of sister to Sting, by Herod. J. Singleton 
was the jocke}' ; and the betting at the start was 5 to 
2 against the winner. There were nine starters for the 
race, Lord Grosvenor's Astnta being second, Sir F. 
Poole's Kezia third. The Prince of Wales, the Duke 
of Grafton, and Lord Egrcmont were also represented 
in the race, which took place on Friday, June 10th. 

This year, for the third time in succession, there 
1792 were thirty-two subscriptions taken out 
Johu BuU for the. Derby of May 24th, for which the 
following colts came to the post : 

Lord Grosvenor's ch. c. John Bull, by Fortitude out of 

Zautippe ..---..--1 
Lord Clermont's b. c. Speculator, by Tiumpator out of Fan- 
tail's dam - -2 

Lord Derby s b. c. Bustard, by Woodpecker out of Matron, 

by Alfred 3 

Mr. Graham's ch. c. Lyricus, by Dungannon - - - - 4 
Mr. Wyndham's b. c. St. George, by Highflyer - - --5 
Prince of Wales' b. c. Whiskey, by Saltram - - - - G 
Duke of Queensberry's bl. c. by Pharamond out of Pecker's 
dam -----.-.---7 

Betting : 6 to 4 on John Bull, 5 to 2 against Bustard, 
8 to 1 against Whiskey, 100 to 1 against Speculator. 
The value of the stakes would this 3'ear be 795 
guineas. Some notice has already been taken of John 
Bull : Whiskey, who became the sire of Eleanor, 
who in ISOI was hailed winner of the double event 
of Derby and Oaks, as also of Pelisse, who won ' The 


Garter' for tlie Duke of Grafton, in 1S04, must bo 
passed over in the meantime. For the tirst time the 
name of the winning jockey (F. Buckle) is given this 
j-ear in Orton's ' Annals of the Turf He was one of 
the most celebrated horsemen of his time, and won 
the Derby on five occasions ; on two occasions he won 
tlie St. Leger, on Champion in 1800 (a horse which 
won the Derby of the same year), and on Sanclio in 

F. Buckle was successful in winnini? the Oaks no 
less than eight times, three of his victories being 
gained in consecutive years. Lord Grosvenor also 
ran third in the Oaks of this year, Avhich was "won by 
Lord Clermont's Viol ante, the same nobleman's Trum- 
petta being second, Lord Grosvenor being third with 
Boldface. Eleven ran, the Prince of Wales, the Duke 
of Grafton, Lord Barrymore, Lord Egremont, and 
Lord Winchelsea, rdl having representatives in the 
race. C. Hindi ey was the pilot of the winner. The 
betting was * 5 to 4 the field against Trumpetta and 

As will be seen from the following complete list of 
starters, ten of the horses competing belonged to 
1793 gentlemen of title ; indeed, this must be 
Waxy, put down as a somewhat memorable year, 
freeing that the number of subscriptions had reached 
fifty, and that the race was run in the presence of the 
Prince of Wales. The day on which the Derby of 
1793 was decided Avas Thursday, May ICth. The 
names of the thirteen horses which took part in the 
struggle are as follows : 


Sir F. Poole's b. c. Waxy, by Pot-S-osout of Maria, by Hi rod 1 
Lord Egremont's b. c. (iohanna, brother to Precipitate, by 

IMercury ---.-....2 

Lord Giosvenor's b. c. Triptolerau*!, by Pot-8-os - ' - - 3 
Lord Grosvenor's ch. c. Druid, by Pot-8-os - - - - 4 
Mr. Hull's ch. c. Xauthns, by Volunteer - - - -5 

Sir F. Staudish's gr. c. Darsham, by Crop, dam by Herod - 6 

Also ran the followinc^ : Lord Derby's b. c. Kidney, 
by Pot-8-os ; Lord Strathmore's ch. c. by Mercury out 
of Cowslip ; Lord Grosvenor's b. c. Lilliput, by Pot-8-os; 
Lord Grosvenor's ch. c. by Pot-8-os out of Perdita; 
^Ir. Kaye's ch, c. Gay Deceiver, by Phii^nomenon 
out of Ptecovery ; Sir F. Poole's b. c. Mealey, by 
Pot-Sos ; Mr. Philip's b. c. Brother to King David, 
by HighHyer. 

Betting: 11 to 10 on Gohanna, 8 to 1 against 
Xanthus, 10 to 1 against Druid, 12 to 1 against Waxy. 
Clift rode the winner. Value, 1,575 eiiineas. 

Orton gives the following note : * This race was de- 
cided in the presence of as numerous a company as 
Avas ever before witnessed. His Pioj^al Highness the 
Prince of Wales appeared on the course about half- 
past twelve o'clock, and in a few minutes after the 
liorses started. Gohanna took the lead, and made 
running up to Tattenham Corner, where Waxy passed 
him, was never headed, and won very easy. Waxy 
was so little thought of for the race, that at Tatter- 
sail's rooms his name was never mentioned.' As will 
be seen from the list of runners, Pot-8-os sired no less 
than seven of the runners, including^ the winner, and 
Pot-8-o's colts had run in throe previous iJorbys. 
Pot-8-os won, or v/.dkcd over, for about twenty-five races 
during his career on the turf, and afterwards became 


celebrated as a sire ; a majority of tlie Derby winners 
claim to be of his blood. This great horse was got by 
Eclipse out of Sportsmistress, foaled in 1773; he died 
early in November, 1800. A curious anecdote is re- 
lated as to how he came by his name of ' Pot-S-os.' It 
was always intended by his breeder, Lord Abingdon, 
that he should be called Potatoes, and upon the 
occasion of his lordship mentionmg to his trainer that 
such was his intention, a stable lad who had been hs- 
tening to the conversation could not refrain from 
uttering a hearty ' Oh my !' This tickled the fancy of 
Lord Abingdon, who then asked the boy if he could 
write ; and on being answered in the aHirmative, re- 
plied : ' Well, my lad, take that bit of chalk, and write 
down the name on the top of the corn- chest, and you 
shall have a crown if you do it correctly.' The boy 
took the chalk, and wrote the word his own way, as 
some say ' Fot-S-os,' and as others say Potouooouoos. 
Ko matter which of these ways it was, the boy got 
the crown, and his lordship adopted the boy's ortho- 
graphy. Pot-8-os was also the sire of the Derby winners 
of 1800 and 1802. Waxy in turn became the sire of 
four winners of the 'Blue Ribbon'— 1809, 1810, 1814, 
1815 — and AVhalebone, one of Waxy's colts, of three 
winners ; whilst Gohanna, the second in the Derby of 
1793, became the sire of Cardinal lieaufort, the winner 
of the Derby in 1805. "Waxy also contributed three 
winners of the Oaks. 

The Oaks of 1793 Avas run on Friday, ]\Iay l7t]i, 
upon which occasion there were thirty-seven subscri- 
bers and ten competitors, the Duke of P)edford carrying 
off the prize by the aid of Coilia, who was ridden by J. 


Singleton, and who started for the race with odds of 
4 to 1 against her. Black Puss, the propert}^ of Mr. 
Golding, was second, the Duke of Bedford's Piachael 
being third. 

Although the entries were but one less than in the 

previous year, forty-nine against fifty, only four horses 

jyr)^_ started for the Derb^r of this year, which 

Dcfcdaius. ^vag run on Thursday, June 5th. The fol- 
lowing are the four colts which comprised the field, 
the smallest that ever started for the race : 

Lord Grosvenor's br. c. Dcednlns, by Justice out of Flyer, by 
Sweetbriar --...----1 

Lord Egreniont's br. c. Ragged Jack, by Highflyer out of 
Camillia .--..----2 

Duke of Bedford's ch. c. Leon, by Dungannon - - - 3 

Loid Grosvenor's b. c. Young Drone, out of Anna - - 4 

Bettinof: 5 and G to 4 on Leon, 2 to 1 against Ragged 
Jack, 6 to 1 Dtedalus. The successful jockey was 
F. Buckle, and the value of the stakes would amount 
to 1,325 guineas. The second horse received 100 

The Oaks fell, for the second time, to the Earl of 
Derby, by the aid of his filly Hermione, by Sir Peter 
Teazle out of Paulina, ridden by S. Arnull. There 
were thirty-one subscribers; and the field comprised 
eii^^ht fillies, Lord Grosvenor having two in the race. 

The following eleven formed the field for the 
1795 Derby of this year, which was run on 

Spread Eagle. Thursday, May 21st. There were forty- 
five subscribers. 


Sir F. Standislj's b. c. Spread Eagle, by Volunteer out of 
Eaule's dam ---------1 

Lord E'Tremont's b. c. Caustic, brother to Precipitate - - 2 
Sir F. Poole's br. c. Peiter, by Fortunio out of i\Iica:ia - 3 

Mr. Dawson's b. c. Diamond, by Highflyer out of Screveton's 
dam ----..--..4 

Lord Grosvenor's b. c. Yorkshire Bite, by Pot-8-os out of Sting 5 

Also ran : Lord Egremont's b. c, by Mercury, dam 
by Highflyer; Duke of Bedford's br. c. Brass, brother 
to Hermione, by Sir Peter; ^Ir, Durand's br. c. by 
Sal tram out of Pyrffimons, dam by Eclipse ; i\Ir. 
Kallet's ch. c. Volunteer, dam by Herod ; Mr. O'Kelly's 
br. c. by Volunteer, diim by Evergreen ; Mr. Turner's 
b. c. Miller, by Volunteer out of Maid of the Mill. 
]>ettlng : 5 to 2 against Spread Eagle, 5 to 2 against 
Lord Egremont's colt (dam by Highflyer), 3 to 1 
against Yorkshire Bite, 9 to 1 against Peiter. A, 
"Wheatly rode the winner, and the value of the prize 
would be 1,400 tjuineas. 

Lord Egremont's Platina, sister to Silver, won the 
Oaks. The filly was ridden by Fitzpatrick, who had 
twice before proved the successful jockey of the ladies' 
race. Lord Grosvenor's Ariadne ran second. There 
Avere forty-two subscribers and eleven runners, but 
only the above two were placed. The winner and 
another filly of Lord Egremont's were quoted in the 
betting at 3 to 1 asjainst them. 

The race for the Derby Stakes (the seventeenth) was 

run on Thursday, May 12th, and was again Avon by 

^^(jj,, Sir F. Standish, the victorious horse being 

Dideiot. ridden by J. Arnull, the value of the stakes 
'being' 1,400 guineas. Out of forty-five nominated for 
the race, eleven ran. 


Sir F. Standish's b. c. Dldelot, by Trumpator out of Spread 

Ea<?le's dam (Buckle) 1 

Mr. Hallett's b. c. Stickler, brother to Diamond, by Highflyer 2 

Duke of Bedford's b. c. Leviathan, by Highflyer - - - 3 

The following also formed part of the field: Mr. 
Smith's b. c. Little Devil, by Dangannon ; Duke ot 
Queensberry's ch. c. by King Fergus, dam by Sweet- 
briar; Mr. Bullock's ch. c. Hanger, by Javelin ; Lord 
Egremont's b. c. PiubinelH, by Mercury out of Rose- 
berry; Sir H. V. Tempest's ch. c. by Volunteer out 
of Hip ; Sir F. Standish's b. c. Mr. Teazle, by Sir Peter 
out of Horatia ; Mr. Bullock's b. c. Arthur, by Buzaglo ; 
j\[r. Lade's b. c. Oatlands, by Dangannon out of Letitia. 
Betting: 10 to 8 against Mr. Teazle, 9 to 2 against 
Leviathan, 7 to 1 against Stickler. The above appears 
to have been the last appearance of the Duke of 
Queensbcrry on the Derby stage. Many sketches of 
this eccentric nobleman's career on the turf have 
been written, and the peccadilloes of ' OM Q.,' as he 
Avas called, have more than once been painted with a 
vigornus brush. Very harsh things were said of him, 
most of them probably being undeserved. 

Parasote, by Sir Peter out of Deceit, the property of 
Sir F. Standish, starting at odds of 7 to 2 against, 
was the winner of this year's Oaks, for which there 
were twelve starters. Parisot was ridden by J. Arnull. 
Mr. Harris's Miss Whip, by Volunteer, was second, 
Mr. Phillip's Outcast, by Pot-8-os, being third. There 
were forty-two subscribers, and Frisky, who, however, 
ran out of the course, started favourite. 

Sir F. Standish's br. c. Stamford, by Sir Peter out 


of Iloratia, starte.l favourite for this year's Derb}^ but 
,-„- could cret no nearer than fourth, beini.'' in 

Colt by Fuiget. the middle of the tield with three in front 
r.nd three behind hira, the lace being won by the 
Duke of Bedford's br. c. by Fid^-et out of Sister to 
rharamond, by Highflyer. The number of starters 
out of an entry of thirty-seven was only seven, and all 
(if them w^ere placed. The winner started at 10 to 1. 
The race was run on Thursday, June 1st. The follow- 
ing horses composed the field, and J. Singleton rodo 
the winner : 

Duke of Bedford's br. c. by Fidget out of Sister to Pharamond 1 
Lord Grosvenoi s ch. c. Esculus, by Meteor out of Maid of 

the Oaks 2 

Lord Darlington's b. c. Plaistow, by Alexander - - - 3 
Sir F. Standi- h's b. c. Stamford, by Sir Peter out of Iloratia 4 
Sir C. Bunbury's br.c. Vv' rangier, by Diomed out of Fleacateher 5 
Lord Egreinont's ch. c. Came'eon, by Wookpecker - - 6 

Lord Egreniont'.s ch. c. Young Woodpecker, by Woodpecker 

or Precipitate - -.----.-7 

Bettino:: 11 to 8 against Stamford, 2 to 1 against 
Plaistow, 10 to 1 against the Duke of Bedford's colt, 
20 to 1 against Esculus. Value of the slakes, 1,100 

F. Buckle, destined to be famous as the rider of 
nine winners of the Oaks, rode Nike, who this year 
secured for Lord Grosvenor 'the Garter of the Turf,' 
being his lordship's fourth victory. Sir F. Poole w^as 
second with Mother Shipton ; Mr. Broadhurst's Rose, 
by Young Eclipse, being third. There were thirty-ono 
nominations, and five runners. Kike started at odds 
of 15 to 8 against her. 

The nineteenth Derby was won by a son of Sir 


Peter Teazle— Sir Harry— ridden by S. Arnull. The 
j^Ygg race took place on Thursday, May 24th, 
Sir Harry, -vvhcii Gilt of thc tliivty-seveii colts nomi- 
nated, ten were seen at the starting-post. The follow- 
ing three were placed by the judge: 

Mr. C( okson's b. c. Sir Ilarr}', by Sir Peter oat of Matron - 1 
Mr. Baldock's? br. c. Telegraph, by Sir Peter out of Fame - 2 
Mr. Deliiie"s b. c. Young Spear, by Javelin out of Juliana - 3 

The other runners were : Lord Egreinont's ch. c. 
Bobtail, by Precipitate ; Lord Grosvcnor's br. c. 
Admiral Nelfion, by John Bull ; Lord Grosvenor's 
b. c. Worthy, brother to Wax}', by Pot-8-os ; Lord 
Clarendon's b. c. Brother to Ptecruit, by Volunteer; 
Mr. Durrand's b. c. Sheet Anchor, by Noble; Mr. 
Concannon's ch. c. Sparrow-Hawk, by Falcon; Mr. 
Perren's b. c. Young Javelin, by Javehn. Betting : 
f) and 7 to 4 against Sir Harry, 3 to 1 against Bobtail, 
6 to 1 against Admiral Nelson, 8 to 1 against Youns; 
Spe?r, 100 to 3 against Telegraph. 'Ihe vahie of the 
subscrpt'o IS was represented by a sum of 1,175 

F. Buckle was again the fortunate jockey who won 
the Oaks of 1798, on Mr. Durrand's b. Bellissima, by 
Phenomenon out of AVren, by Woodpecker, Sir F. 
Poole's ch. Duchess of Limbs, by Pot-8-os, being second. 
Lady Bull, by John Bull out of Isabella, nominated 
by Lord Grosve...or, came in third. 

The Derby of this year was run on Thursday, 

May 9th, and was won by Archduke, who beat Eagle, 

j^gg belonging to the same owner, and which 

Archduke, started first favourite, and the other nine 
colts (the field numbered eleven, there being thirty- 


three horses nominated) wiiich opposed hhn. Four 
were placed by the judge : 

Sir F. Standish's br. c. Archduke, by Sir Peter out of Horatia 1 
Lord Egreniont's b. c. Gislebert, by Precipitate - - - 2 
Sir F. Standish's b. c. Fagle, brother to Si>read Eagle - - 3 
Mr. R. Heithcote's b. c. Vivaldi, by V/oodpecker, dam by 
Mercury- - - - - - - - --4 

Also ran : Mr. Cookson's b. c. Expectation, by Sir 
Peter out of Ziha ; Mr. Wilson's b. c. Kite, by Buzzard 
out of Calash ; Duke of Grafton's ch. c. Vandal, by 
Skyscraper; Lord Grosvcnor's ch. c. Canterbury, by 
Pot-8-03 out of Shipton's Sister; Mr. Waller's ch. c. 
by Satellite out of Isabella, by Shark ; Mr. Phillips' 
ch. c. Dart, by Spear, dam by Conductor ; Mr. Lake's 
b. c. Gouty, by Sir Peter out of the Yellow Mare. 
Letting : Evens on Eagle, 7 to 2 against Canterbury, 
8 to 1 ajjfainst Vivaldi, 10 to 1 ajzainst Kite, 12 to 1 against 
Archduke, 17 to 1 against Gislebert. The amount raced 
for this year was 1,100 guineas, and the jockey who had 
the mount on Archduke was J. Arnull Archduke was 
the third and last winner of the Derby owned by Sir E. 
Standish, who had the further good fortune of twice 
being hailed as winner of the Oaks ; namel}^, in 
1786, with Perdita tilly, and again in 1790, with 

On Friday, May 10th, 1799, the Oaks was won by 
Lord Grosvenor's Bellina (F. Buckle having again the 
good fortune to ride the winner), who was followed to 
the winning-post by Lady Jane, St. Ann, and Polly 
P>aker. There were twenty-four nominations, and as 
has been shown, twenty of the fillies did not run. The 
following was the betting on the race : 11 to 8 against 



St. Ann, 11 to 4 against Bellina, 4 to 1 against Lady 

The f(,>llowi!!c: were the first three horses in the 
;^gf^ Derby of 1800, for which there were 
Champion, thirty - three subscribers and thirteen 
runners : 

Mr. Wilson's b. c. Champion, by Pot-S-os out of Huncamunca 1 
Lord Egremout's cb. o. Tag, by Precipitate out of Ta? - 2 

Lord Egremont'sch. c. Mystery, by Woodpecker out of Platina 3 

The other ten starters were : Lord Grosvenor's b. c. 
Quick ; Lord Donegal's br. c. Fortitude ; Sir H. T. 
Vane's br. c. Glenarm ; Mr. Ladbroke's ch. c. Lazarus ; 
Duke of Grafton's b. c. Chuckle ; Mr. Heming's ch. c. 
Sir Sidney ; Mr. Wilson's b. c. ; Mr. Watson's 
b. c. Triumvir; Mr. White's ch. c. Statesman (aft r- 
wards named Sncripant) ; Mr. Panurwell's ch. c. by 
Eockingham. The winning horse was ridden by Clift ; 
and ridden by Buckle, Champion also won the St. 
Leger, for which a field of ten runners came to the 
post. For the Derby the winner was favourite at 
13 to 8, 7 to 2 was the starting price of Tag, 11 to 2 
was quoted against Lazarus, 10 to 1 against Glenarm, 
and ' high odds against any other.' The value of the 
stakes amounted to 1,150 guineas. 

Lord Egremont, who ran two of his horses for the 
Derby, was this year compensated for his want of 
success in that race by a victory in the Oaks, his filly 
Ephemera, afterwards known as Rushlight, having 
beaten the seven competitors Avhicb. tried for honours 
ixi the ladies' race. The wmner was ridden by Fitz- 


The Derby of this year will al\va3'S be memorable on 

account of the winner having also won the Oaks — the 

jgQj first time of the double event being ac- 

Eieaiior. complished. Fillies this year, it may be 
stated, carried only 7 st. 12 lb. Sir Charles Bunbury, 
the owner of Diomed, winner cf the first Derby, was 
also the fortunate possessor of Eleanor, who took the 
double event. There were thirty-one subscrii)tions 
taken out for Eleanor's Darby, and of the horses en- 
tered eleven came to the post, all of which wore 
apparently placed by the judge. 

Sir C. Bunbury's filly Eleanor, by "Whiskey out of Youn^ 

Giantess -..-.-..-1 

Mr. Wyndham's br. c, by Fidget out of Cselia - - - 2 
Duke of Grafton's ch. f. Remnant, by Truuipator - - .3 

The other runners were Mr. Watson's b. c. Gaoler; 
Lord Grosvenor's ch. c. Matthew, afterwards Columbus; 
Sir W. Gerard's b. c, Bellisle, afterwards Cheshire 
Cheese ; Lord Derby's gr. c. by Sir Peter out of 
Bab ; Lord Clermont's b. c. Brother to Young Spear ; 
Lord Donegal's b. c. Curb ; Mr. Heming's ch. c. Pugilist ; 
Mr. Hoomes' ch. c. Horns. The betting was as follows : 
11 to 8 against Eleanor, 7 to 2 against Gaoler, 6 to 1 
against Remnant, 10 to 1 against Brother to Young 
Spear, and 12 to 1 against Bellisle. Value of the 
stakes, 1,050 guineas. 

Saunders rode the mare in both races. The field in 
the Oaks embraced six runners, including the winner 
Eleanor, Lord Grosvenor's Tulip being second, and 
Lord Egremont's Crazy Poetess third. 

We begin now to find occasional notes given by the 



turf writers of ' those days/ as to ' how the Derby was 
ISO-' won ' — in other words, descriptions of the 
Tyi-aut. race have been written and are extant; in 
the present instance, however, the description is very 
brief, although the verdict is emphatic enough, con- 
sisting only of two words : these are ' won easy.' The 
whole of the starters, nine in all, seem to have been 
placed by the judge. The first three were : 

Duke of Grafton's b. c. Tyrant, by Pot-8-os out of Seafowl - 1 
Mr. Wilson's b. c. Young Eclipse, by Young Eclipse out of 

Tekeli's dam, by Higliflyer 2 

Sir-Charles Bunbury's b. c. Orlando, by "Whiskey out of Amelia 3 

There also ran: Mr. Whaley's Gulliver, Sir F. 
Standish's Duxbury, Lord Clermont's Piscator, Sir F. 
Standish's Master Eagle, Lord Grosvenor's ch. filly 
Margery, Lord Cameford's Omnium. There were 
thirty subscribers in Tyrant's year, and the winner 
was again the mount of Buckle. Young Eclipse 
started favourite at 11 to 8 against ; the price of Pisca- 
tor was 4 to 1, Orlando 10 to 1, ' and very high odds 
against any other.' Tyrant's price at the post was 7 
to 1. The stakes amounted to 976 guineas. 

On the Oaks of 1802, which was won by Mr. 
VVastell's Sophia, it is recorded that ' there was more 
betting on this race than the Derby,' and it is described 
as having been a ' very good race amongst the first 
three,' Buckle, the great jockey of that day, also rode 
the winner of the Oaks. 

Out of the thirty-five horses entered for this year's 
jgQ3 Derby (value of the stakes, 885 guineas) 
Ditto. only gjx came to the post, of which the 
following is a complete list, Clift riding the winner. 


Sir IT. Williampon's b. c. Ditto, brother to Walton, by Sir 
Pfter out of Aretbusa - - - - - - -1 

Lord Grey's b. c. Sir Oliver, by Sir Peter out of Fanny, by 
Diomed ----------2 

Sir F. Standish's b. c. Brother to Stamford, by Sir Peter - 3 
Ilcn. G. Watson's c. Dreadnought, by Buzzird out of Sister 
to Doctor ----------4 

Sir H. T. Vane's b. c. Di-cussion, by Patriot out of Co-heiress 5 
Colonel Kingscote's ch. c. Wheatear, by Young Woodpecker 6 

As will doubtless be observed, tlie first three are all 
by Sir Peter. Brother to Stamford was made favourite 
at 7 to 4 ; the winner. Ditto, started at 7 to 2. ' Won 
very easy,' which may be termed a short and sweet 
description of the race. The weights carried by Derby 
competitors were now fixed as follows : colts 8 st. 5 lb., 
fillies 8 St. 

The Oaks of the same 3'ear, which was won by Sir 
T. Gascoigne's Theophania, is said to have been ' a 
very fine race, and won by half a neck.' 

' \Yon very easy ' v/as this year again the verdict, 

when Hannibal, the property of Lord Egremont, on 

jgQ4 Thursday, May 17 th, and ridden by W. 

HaunibaL Arnold, was declared the victor, beating 
seven competitors, all that came to the post of the thirty- 
three subscribers. The following were the first three : 

Lord Eprremont's b. c. Hannibal, by Driver out of Fractious, 

by Mercury ---.....-1 
Mr. Wilson's b. c. Pavilion, by Waxy out of Totterella ■ 2 

Mr. Dawsion's b. c. Hippocampus, by Coriander out of Miss 
Green --.--.-.-.3 

The other five competitors wore Lord Darlington's 
ch. c. Zodiac, Mr. Lake's b. c. Lyncous, Sir F. Poole's b c. 
Sir Walter Pialoigb, Mr. Warrington's two colts, one 


being "Woodcot, by Guilford, the other being un- 
named, but also by Guilford, dam by Highflyer out 
of Eyebright. The names of the jockeys wbo had the 
mounts on the second and third horses respectively 
(W. Clift and D. Fitzpatrick) are this year given in the 
records of the race. The starting prices were as 
follows : 100 to 43 against Pavilion, 5 to 2 and 3 to 1 
against Hannibal, 7 to 2 and 3 to 1 against Zodiac, 
9 to 2 against Hippocampus; 'much betting between 
Hannibal and Zodiac' Value of the stakes, £1,025. 

The winner of this year's Oaks was the Duke of 
Grafton's br. f. Pelisse, which, ridden by W. Clift, ' won 

The race was in 1805 contested by the excellent 
field of fifteen runners, the number of subscribers 
being set down as thirty-nine. The winner proved 
to be Lord Egremont's b. c. Cardinal 
CarJiuai Beau- Beaufort, by Golianua out of Colibri, 
°^ ■ ridden by I). Fitzpatrick ; Lord Grosvenor 
supplied the second and third horses — Plantagenet, by 
John Bull, and Goth, by Sir Peter. Mr. Bigg's Bas- 
sanio was placed fourth, Lord Foley's Little Peter 
being fifth. The other ten horses which took part in 
the Derby of 1805 Avere Lord Egremont's Impostor, 
General Gower's Swinley, the Prince of Wales' Bar- 
barossa, Mr. Wilson's Newmarket, Mr. Howorth's 
Honesty, Mr. Glover's Sigismunda ; Mr. Jones's Free- 
dom and Junius, Mr. Harris's Farmer, and Mr. Best's 
colt by Dungannon out of Flirtilla. The Cardinal 
started at 20 to 1, Impostor and Plantagenet being 
equal favourites at 2 to 1. There was, we are told, 


mucli betting on the race, which was won by a neck, 
Fitzpatrick being the successful jockey. Mr. Best's 
colt, Dungannon, Avas tlirown down b}' some horsemen 
imprudently crossing the course before all the race- 
horses had passed, his rider, B. Norton, being much 
bruised b}' the fall. The value of the stakes, 1,250 

Lord Grosvenor, who ran second and third for the 
Derby, won the Oaks by the aid of Mcteora, Avho was 
steered to victory by Buckle, the field numbering eight 
fillies ; the Duke of Grafton being second with Dodona, 
Sir F. Standish's Sister to Duxbury, by Sir Peter, 
being third. 

The field for each of the great Epsom races this 
year numbered twelve, there being thirty-nine entries 
for the Derby and twenty-seven for the Oaks. The 
1806, successful jockeys were, respectively, J. 
Pans. Shepherd in the Derby and W. Edwards in 
the Oaks. The stakes for the Derby amounted this 
year to 1,275 guineas. The following three horses ran 
first, second, and third respectively : 

Lord Foley's br. c. Paris brother to Archdakn., by Sir Peter- 1 
Lord Egremont's b. c. Trafalgar (afterwards Harpocrates) - 2 
IMaigravine of Anspach's gr. c. Hector - - - - - 3 

The remainder of the field comprised Mr. Wilson's 
b. c. Smuggler, Duke of Grafton's b. c. Podagrus, Lord 
Egremont's b. c. Hedley, Mr. Dixon Boyce's ch. c. 
Achilles, Sir J. Shelly's br. c. Clasher, Mr. Mellish's 
b. c. Luck's All, Sir F. Stan dish's ch. f by Mr. Teazle, 
Mr. Batson's b. c. Rupture, Mr. J. Croft's Ploughboy. 


The betting at start was 5 to 1 against Paris, Sir 
Frank Stanrlish's fillv beinof favourite at 4 to 1. 
Against Trafalgar C to 1 was laid, whilst Hector's price 
was 25 to 1. The following is a description of the 
race : ' At half-past one they started, and went at a 
good speed to Tattenham Corner, on turning which it 
was observed that Shepherd, who rode Paris, rather 
pulled, wdiilst Trafalgar was making play ; notwith- 
standing Lord Egremont was backed to win. Upon 
coming to the distance-post, Trafalgar and Paris ran 
neck and neck, in which situation they continued till 
within a few yards of the winning-post, when Shep- 
herd made a desperate push and won the race by 
about half a head.' 

The Oaks of the year was ' won easy ' by Mr. 
B. Craven's br. Bronze, sister to Castrel, who beat Lord 
Egremont's Jerboa and eleven others. The. value of 
the Derby Stakes this year was 1,275 guineas. 

For the race of 1807 there were thirty-eight nomina- 
tions, and thirteen horses faced the starter on the 
1807 ^'^y fixed for the race, which was Thurs- 

Eiection. day, May 14th. It was described by the 
chroniclers of the period as ' a very tine race.^ Giles 
Scroggins took the lead, and kept it till he was passed 
by Coriolanus at the distance-post, who in turn was 
headed by Election, who in the end won by a length. 
The winner was the property of ] ord Egremont, and 
was by Gohanna out of Chesnut Skein. The jockey 
who rode Election was J. Arnold, sen. ; Mr. Wilsons 
Giles Scroggins (afterwards Master Goodall), ridden by 
\V. Clift, was placed second ; the third horse, Corio- 


lanns, ridden by W. Wheatl}^ Wi\s also by Gohannn. 
The names of the other competing animals were 
Corsican, Piosario, Pioneer and Musician (both entered 
by the Duke of Grafton), IMungo and Lewis (both the 
property of the Prince of Wales), Job Thornberry, 
Chaise and One, a b. c. by Sir Peter, belonging to Sir 
F. Standish, and Lord DailinL;ton, brother to Expec- 
tation, also by Sir Peter. The value of the stakes in 
1807 w^ould be 1,270 guineas. In the betting at the 
start. Election started favourite at 3 to 1 against ; 
the betting against the others was as following : 7 to 2 
Musician, 4 to 1 Job Thornberry, 9 to 2 Giles Scrog- 
gins, 10 to 1 Chaise and One, ' and very high odds 
against the rest.' Weights now fixed at, colts 8 st. 7 lb., 
fillies 8 St. 2 lb. 

Curiously enough, the field for the Oaks also num- 
bered thirteen, there being thirty-one subscribers. 
The winner proved to be General Grosvenor's Briseis, 
by Benningborough out of Lady Jane, the rider being 
S. Chifney, and the filly started with the liberal odds 
of 15 to 1 betted against her. 

igQg The following four horses were placed by 

Pa"- the judge in this year's Derby, namely : 

Sir H. Williams on's cb. c. Pan. by St. George out of ArethiiFa 1 

Duke of Grafton's br. c. Vandyke, by Sir Peter out of Dab- 
chick ..--2 

Lord Grosvenor's b, c. Chester, by Sir Peter, dam by Wood- 
pecker ----------3 

Prince of Wales' ch. c. Rubens, brother to Castrel, by Buzzard 4 

Other six animals ran in the race, two of the number 
being Lord Egremont's Scorpion and Brighton Lass, a 
b. f. by Gohanna. Mr. Sitv^ell ran Clinker, also by Sir 


Peter. Tlie name of Lord Stawell's horse was No 
Conjurer. Mr. Ladbroke's Tristram also ran, as like- 
wise Mr. Mellish's Bradbury. This Derby is described 
as having been 'a very gieat betting race' — Vandyke 
being elected favourite at the start, at odds of 2 to 1 
against it; the Prince of Wales' horse Ptubens was 
second favourite, at 7 to 2 ; Pan started at the re- 
munerative price of 20 to 1, and was steered to victory 
by F. CoUinson, winning by half a length. This year's 
contest was allowed to be one of the finest races ever 
run for the Derby, and Frank Collinson rode in a 
masterly Yorkshire style. There were thirty-eight 
subscriptions taken out, and ten horses appeared at 
the starting-post ; the value of the sum contended for 
was therefore 1,200 guineas. 

The Duke of Grafton again won the Oaks, this time 
with Morel, by Sorcerer out of Hornby Lass, by Buz- 
zard, VV. Clift being the successful jockey. The Duke's 
filly started favourite, and won by a length and a half. 

The subscriptions to the Derby begin now to increase, 

there being seven more this year than last, namely 

ig09. forty-five to thirty-eight, the field at the 

Pope. start numbering ten horses, six of which 

were placed, namely : 

Duke of Grafton's b. c. Pope, by Waxy out of Prunella - 1 

Mr. Wilson's ch. c. Wizard, by Sorcerer - - - - 2 

Duke of Rutland's b. c. Salvator - - - - - - B 

Sir C. Bunbury's br. c. Fairstar - - - - - - 4 

Mr. Wyndham's cb. c. Trusty, by Wcrtliy - - - - 5 

Lord Foley's br. c. Osprey, by Eagle - - - - - 6 

Also competed : Sir J. Shelly 's Robin, Mr. Lake's 
Break, Lord Lowther's Blue Ruin, Sir J. Mawbey's 


br. c. Botleys. The race took jJace on Thursda}-, 
May 18th. Salvator began by taking the lead, which 
he kept till Tattenhain Corner was turned, when 
AA'izard came up and disputed the place; but within 
a few yards of the Avinning-post Goodison, who had 
brought Pope with one run, won the race by a neck, 
the general verdict being that he rode his horse with 
much skill and judgment. W, Clift rode Wizard, the 
second horse, which started favourite at 5 to 4 on it; the 
starting price of Pope, the winner, was 20 to 1 ; a^i^ainst 
the third, horse 9 to 1 was betted at the start. The 
value of the stakes would be 1,375 guineas. In this 
year was run the fiist race for the Two Thousand 
Guineas Stakes, a race which was destined to have 
much influence on the incidence of the Derby. The 
first winner of the Guineas, it may be noted, was 
Wizard, which, as has been told, ran second for the 
* Blue Ribbon.' 

There were thirty-three subscribers to the Oaks, 
from which there came to the starting-post a field of 
eleven, victory falling to General Gower's Maid of 
Orleans, ridden by B. Moss, and starting with odds of 
15 to 1 against. 

On June 7th the Duke of Grafton Avas so fortunate 
as to win the Derby again, it being his third victory ; 
1810. t,he winning horse was by Waxy, the Derby 
Whalebone, yictor of 1793, and, as in the preceding 
year, there Avere forty-five subscribers, eleven of which 
came to the post, among the lot being Hcphestion, 
the Avinner of the Two Thousand Guineas. The 
three horses placed Avcre : 


TLe Duke of Grafton's b. c. Whalebone, by Waxy out of 

Penelope -.-...---1 

Lord Kinnaird s ch. c. The Dandy, by Gohanna out of Active 2 
Lord G. H. CavendL-h s b. c. Eocleston, by Csesarioout of Nike 3 

Also ran tho following: Lord Grosvenor's Hephes- 
tion, Duke of Grafton's Pledge, Mr. Lake's Breslau, 
General Gower's Abdiel, Lord Egremont's Interloper, 
Major Wilson's Erebus, Mr. Howartli's Revoke, and 
Mr. Thompson's br. c. O.P. Whalebone, ridden by 
W. Clift, and starting favourite, ' took the lead, was 
never headed, and won easy.' The value of the stakes 
may be set down at 1,300 guineas. By this time the 
Derby had begun to attract public attention, and the 
horses running and those who owned them came in 
for a good deal of criticism, and so did the jockeys. 

Eleven also came to the starting-post for the Oaks, 
the winner being Oriana, by Cenningborough out of 
Mary Anne, by Sir Peter. She was the mount of W. 
Pierse, and started second favourite, with odds of 7 to 
2 betted against her. Pirouette, who ran second, was 

The race, for which there were forty-eight subscri- 
bers, was run this year on May 30th, and, with Buckle 
1811 in the saddle, was won by Sir John ShelJy's 

Phantom. ^qJ^^ ^^j^q \iQ,isX fifteen o{)ponents, gaining 
a victory over the second horse within the very last 
stride of the winning-post. Only two of the horses 
seem in 1811 to have been placed by the judge ; they 
were : 

Sir John Shelly's b. c. Phantom, by Walton out of Julia, 

sister to Eleanor -.----..1 
Mr. Astley's ch. c. Magic, by Sorcerer out of Elve's dam - 2 


The other runners were : Trophonius, winner of the 
Two Thousand Guineas, Hit or Miss, Mountebank, 
Wellington, Merry Go Round, Rival, Timour, Nismus, 
Joker, Prince Regent, b. c. by Sir Solomon out of Tot- 
torella, b. c. by Sorcerer out of Sister to Oatlands, 
Beresford and Rapid. Tlie Duke of Rutland, Sir F. 
Standish (2), Sir Charles Bunbury, Lord Darlington (2), 
and Mr. Payne all had runners in the race. Tro- 
phonius, with 3 to 1 betted against it, was favourite at 
the start, 5 to 1 being offered against the winner. 
Buckle, who had the mount on Phantom, rode, we are 
told, in his usual excellent manner. The value of the 
stakes for this year's Derby must have been ],G00 
guineas, the second horse, as for some time had been 
the practice, receiving 100 guineas out of the stakes. 

Lord Derby, Lord Grosvenor, General Gower, Sir F. 
Standish, Sir J. Shelly, and other gentlemen, ran their 
fillies in the Oaks of 1811; but it was the Duke of 
Rutland who supplied the winner, Sorcery, ridden by 
S. Ch!fne3\ There were forty animals nominated, 
twelve of which ran in the race, the Duke's lilly, which 
was favourite in the betting, winning cleverly. 

With one subscriber less than in the preceding 
1812 year, fourteen starters came to the post for 
Octavius. the Derby of 1812. The placed horses 
were : 

Mr. Ladbroke's b. c. Octavius, by Orville out of Marianne, 

by Mufti 1 

Lord Egiemont's b. c. Sweep, by Gohanna out of Amazon - 2 
Sir J. Shelly's ch. c. Conius, by Sorcerer out of Houghton Lass 3 

The following is a description of the race : Wisdom 


took the lead to Tattenham Corner, after which 
Octavius, Sweep, and Coinus came up and made a 
severe race to the distance-post, when the two first 
singled themselves out and contested a tremendous 
and severe race to the ending-post, where Octavius 
won by half a neck, Coinus being beat about a length. 
Arnold had the winning mount. Wisdom was the 
property of Mr. Wilson, and was ridden by Clift. Mr. 
Mellish had tvv^o of his in the race — Flash, by Sir 
Oliver, and Bodkin, by Trumpeter ; the Duke of Rut- 
land, General Gowcr, Lord Lowther and Sir F. 
Standish also ran their colts in the race, Comus was 
favourite in the betting ; the price, against Octavius at 
the start was 7 to 1. The stakes amounted to 1,525 

Mr. Hewett's b. Manuella, ridden by W. Pierse, won 
the Oaks by three quarters of a length from the Duke 
of Rutland's Elizabeth, on whom S. Chifney had the 

In 1813 lucky Sir Charles Bunbury won his third 
Derby, by the aid of Smolensko, which had previously 
1813. credited him with the Two Thousand 
Suioieusko. Guineas, and as there were fifty-one sub- 
scribers, and twelve of their hort^^es started for the 
race, the value of the stakes must this year have been 
1,575 guireas. The names and breeding of the first 
three horses were as folloAvs : 

Sir C. Bunbury 's bl. c. Smoleusko, brother to Thunderbolt, 
by Sorcerer -------.-1 

Lord Jersey's br. c. Caterpillar, by Haphazard out of 
Mary 2 

Mr. Glover's b. c. Illusion, by Haphazard out of Miss Holt - 3 


The Duke of Paitland ran two of his, namely, Soli- 
man and Rastopchin ; Mr. Lake also ran t.wo, Eurus 
and Aladdin ; Lords Suffield, Derb}^, Darlington 
and Grosvenor also supplied runners. The placed 
jockeys were respectively T. Goodison, F. Buckle and 
W. Wheatly. Smolensko, at evens, started favourite, 
7 to 1 against Caterpillar. Buckle made play at once, 
and kept the lead till within a few lengths of the win- 
ning-post, when Smolensko, forging to the front, got 
home with about half a length to the front. 

Music credited the Duke of Grafton with his third 
Oaks, Goodison being, as in the Derby, the successful 

Of the fifty-one horses entered for this j^ear's race, 

fourteen came to the starting-post on the 26th of May 

1814 — ^ Thursday — and victory fell to the share 

Biucher. of Lord StawcU by the aid of his b. c. 
Blucher, which was ridden by W, ArnoLl. The winner 
was by Waxy (who in 1793 credited Sir F, Poole with 
the Derby of that year) out of Pantiiia, by Buzzard, 
grand-dam by Treutham out of Cytherea. The only 
other horse which appears to have been placed was 
Mr. Prince's ch. c. Perchance, by Haphazard out of 
Miss Holt, by Buzzard, on which Clift had the mount. 
Other two Waxy colts took part in the Derby of the 
year; namely, the Duke of Rutland's Kutusoff' and 
the Duke of Grafton's Jeweller. Lord Egremont and 
Lord F. Bentinck also supplied competitors, whilst 
Mr. Lake ran two of his colts. Blucher was favourite 
at the start at 5 to 2 and 3 to 1. During the runnino- 
of the race it looked as if Perchance could not possibly 


be beaten, and it was at the last moment that Blnchor 
headed Mr. Prince's colt and was awarded the victory. 
The race now began to be of considerable account, the 
value of the stakes this year being 1,625 guineas, 
100 guineas being paid to the owner of the second 

The Oaks was won by the Duke of Eutland's 
ch. f. Medora, by Sclim, dam by Sir Harry, the rider 
being S. Barnard. There were forty-four entries, and 
of the nine fillies which faced the starter, the Duke of 
Grafton supplied the second and third in Vestal, by 
Walton out of Dabchick, and Yv^ire, a sister to Whale- 
bone, by Wax}", which, with Goodison on her back, 
started favourite at about 5 to 2. 

The Oaks was run on the Fridays. The fillies' race 
for the One Thousand Guineas was instituted this 
year, and was destined to have considerable influence 
on the contest for the Oaks in the same way as the 
Two Thousand has a bearing on t!ie Derby, 

The number of horses nominated was again fifty- 
. one, thirteen of which came to the 

Whisker, startiug-post, General Gower's Raphael 
being made favourite. Only two of the competitors 
were distinguished by the notice of the judge; these 
were : 

The Duke of Grafton's b. c. Whisker, by "Waxy out of Penelope 1 
General Gowei's b, c. Raphael, by Rubens out of Iris - - 2 

These colts were respectively ridden by T. Goodison 
and John Jackson. General Gower supplied another 
runner in his br. c. Busto, by Clinker. Lord Foley, 


liOrd Rous, and Mr. Payne also had colts in the race ; 
Mr. Lake had two competitors running ; Mr. Stone- 
hewer, Mr. Wyndham, Mr. Andrews, Mr. S. Buncombe, 
and Sir B. R. GraJiam's colts helped to swell the field. 
The story of the race is easy to tell. Busto started 
well, and made severe pla}'', keeping the lead from 
Tattenham Corner to within two hundred 3'ards of 
the ending-post, when Raphael passed him, but in 
the last two or three strides Whisker came up and 
won by about half a head. 'Busto, although not 
placed, was not beat for second place by more than a 
neck, so that General Gowcr's horses ran second and 
third,' the best race ever remembered to have been 
run by the first three for the Dcrb^y, the others being 
beat a long way. Busto was ridden by W. Pierse, 
and was sold to Mr. Blake for a very large sum. 
Jackson, in consequence of the crowd at the winning- 
post pressing on his horse, was thrown, but was not 
much hurt. The betting at the start was 3 to 1 and 
7 to 2 against Raphael, and 8 to 1 against Whisker ; 
Mr. Wyndham's Frolic was second favourite at 7 to 2 
against. Value of the stakes, 1,600 guineas. 

The Duke of Grafton was also fortunate enough to 
win the Oaks with Minuet, by Waxy out of Woodbine, 
Goodison being the rider ; the same nobleman also 
ran Discord. The winner of the One Thousand, Lord 
Foley's br. f. by Selim, started second favourite, but 
liaving fallen opposite the distance- post and dislocated 
her shoulder, it was found necessary to destroy her on 
the course. 

At this Derby, run on May 30th, we are told ' tho 



number of people present was greater than ever before 
jgjg remembered.' Eleven of the fifty-one 

Prince Leopold, horses nominated came to the post, the 
placings by the judge being as follows : 

Duke of York's br. c. Prince Leopold, by Hedley out of 
(Jramarie- .-.-...--1 

Lord (t. H. Cavendish's br. c. Nectar, by Walton out of 
li'Huile de Venus - - - - - - - -2 

Lord Stawell's ch. c. Pandour, by Walton out of Pon+ina - 3 

The respective jockeys of the first three were W, 
Wheatly, F. Buckle, and W. Arnold. The Duke 
of Grafton and Lord Foley each started a colt; Mr. 
Blake ran two of his horses ; Mr. Wyndham, Mr. 
Terrett, Mr. S. Duncombe, and ]\Ir. T. Scaith also 
supplied competitors to the field. At the start 
100 to GO was laid against Nectar, who, being winner 
of the Two Thousand, had been made favourite, and 
ran well in a hotly-contcstcd race, which was in the 
end Avon by Prince Leopold by half a length. The 
Duke of York hacked his horse freely, and landed a 
few thousands by his victory. The value of the stakes 
would be in all 1,575 guineas. 

The Oaks, run on Friday, May 31st, was also con- 
tested by a field of eleven runners, General Gower's 
Landscape, ridden by S. Chifney, being placed first by 
the judge. Lord Foley running second with Duenna. 
The winner started favourite with odds of 2 to 1 oflered 
against her. Forty-eight subscriptions were taken 
out to this year's Oaks. Bhoda, the property of the 
Duke of Rutland, and winner of the One Thousand, 
ran unplaced 

Fifty-six horses were entered for the great race of 


1817, wliich was contested on May 22nd by a field of 
jg^y thirteen horses, only two of the number, 
Azor. however, being placed by the judge. 

These were : 

Mr. Payne's ch. c. Azor, by Selim out of Zoraida, by Don 
Quixote ----------1 

Mr. Wilson's ch. c. Young Wizard, by Wizard, dam by Sir Peter 2 

J. Robinson had the mount on Azor, who beat 
Young Wizard by half a length. The Student started 
favourite with 7 to 4 against him ; Azor started at 
50 to 1. The Student was nominated by Mr. Udny. 
Mr. Lake had three horses in the race; the Duke 
of Rutland, Lord Darlington, and Lord Stawell 
supplied each a colt, as did also Mr. Hallett, Mr. 
Stephenson, and AI r.Yansittart. The race Avas somewhat 
remarkable for the easy way in which the favourite 
was beat. Value of the stakes, 1,725 guineas. 

Mr. Watson's Neva started first favourite for the 
Oaks at evens, and won ' easy,' beating ten opponents, 
F. Buckle being the successful horseman. Neva had 
previously won the race for the One Thousand Guineas, 
beating nine opponents. 

Sir J. Shelly 's Prince Paul was made favourite for 

the thirty-ninth Derby, run on May 2Sth, but the 

jgjg race fell to the second favourite. The 

Sam. following are the three named by the judge 

as being first, second, and third respectively : 

Mr. TbornhiU's ch. c. Sam, by Scud out of Hyale - • - 1 

Lord Darlington's gr. c. R iby, by Sorcerer out of Grey 
Midflleham's darn - - - - - - - -2 

Sir J. Shelly's b. c. Priuce Paul, brother to Crec}'- - - 3 

]8— 2 


S. Chifney was on Sam, whilst W. Pierse ro^e Haby, 
Edwards having the guidance of Prince Paul. Other 
noblemen and gentlemen who ran horses were the 
Dukes of Grafton and Rutland, Lord Stawell, Mr. 
Payne, Mr. Blake, Mr. Lake, etc. It was unfortunate 
for Sir John Shelly that there were so many false 
starts for this Derby — no less than ten — in five of 
which Prince Paul took the lead, but by being pulled 
up so often the colt became fretful and lost his temper 
and — the race. Chifney, the jockey, is reputed this 
year to have 'shown a masterpiece of horsemanship,' 
and won by three-parts of a length. The winner 
was foaled on May "icSth, 1815, and won the Derby 
on the day he was three 3'ears of j)ge. At the start 
Prince Paul was favourite in the betting at 2 to 1 ; 
Sam was quoted at double those odds. There were 
fifty- six subscribers to Sam's Derby, and sixteen horses 
started for the race. The value of the stakes would 
be 1,800 guineas. 

F. Buckle won the Oaks on Mr. Udny's Corinne, by 
Waxy out of Briseis (winner of the One Thousand), 
beating nine competitors. Fanny, the property of Mr. 
Jones, was favourite, but only got third ; 5 to 2 was 
betted against Corinne. 

Of the fifty-four horses nominated, sixteen came to 

the starting post. Only two of the competing colts 

jgj() were distinguished by the judge. These 

Tiiesias. were the Duke of Portland's br. c. Tiresias, 
by Soothsayer out of Pledge, by Waxy, placed first, 
and Mr. Crockford's b. c. Sultan, wliich was assigned 
second honours. Tiresias, ridden by W. Clift, took 


the lead, and, despite the challenges of Euphrates 
and Truth, was brought home a winner, beating Sultan, 
who ruade an effort in the last hundred yards, by 'half 
a neck.' Mr. Crockford also ran Emperor. Lords 
Foley, G. H. Cavendish, and Rous had horses in the 
race ; also \\x. Payne and Mr. Lake. The odds against 
Tiresias, who was favourite at the start, were 2 to 1. 
Value of the stakes, 1,750 guineas. 

In 1819 there were thirty-nine subscribers to the 
Oaks, and ten fillies came to the post. Evadne, the 
property of Mr. AA'atson, was made favourite in the 
bettiug, but the winner turned up in Mr. Thornhill's 
Shoveller, by Scud out of (Josseander, which, ridden 
by Chifney with great skill, only beat Lord G. H. 
Cavendish's Espagnolle by 'little more than a head,' 
F. Buckle was entrusted with the guidance of the 
second horse. Catgut, the Duke of Grafton's filly, 
winner of the One Thousand Guineas, starting at 
12 to 1, was not placed. 

Wx. Thornhill's ch. c. Sailor, by Scud out of Gosse- 
ander, by Hambletonian, ridden by S. Chifney, was 
^^g.Q the winner of this year's Derby. F. Buckle 
Sdiior. ^yr.^g entrusted with the handling of Mr. 
Udnj-'s Abjer, which had to put up with second 
honours. Lord (J. H. Cavendish had tliird place 
awarded to him by the aid of Tiger. The Duke of 
Grafton's Pindarric, on the strength of his victory in 
the Two Thousand Guineas, was elected favourite, the 
odds of 3 to 1 beinof offered aj^ainst him. The race is 
described in one account of it as having been won by 
two lengths. The Duke of Rutland supplied a runner 


ill The Main, Lord Warwick his filly Selina ; Lord 
Stawell's Anti-Gallican, by Waxy, as also Lord Jersey's 
c. by Waxy out of Defiance, took part in the race. 
Lord Rous ran Hoopoe ; Messrs. Pierse, Wilson, Milner, 
Payne, Fox, and Lake likewise supplied runners. The 
odds offered against Sailor were at the rate of 4 to 1. 
' There was some even betting between Pindarrie and 
Sailor a short time before starting.' 

The Duke of Grafton's Ptowena, winner of the One 
Thousand Guineas, was made favourite for this year's 
Oaks, but the race was won b3"Lord Egremont's Caro- 
line, steered to victory by Edwards ; Lord Grosvenor's 
Bombazine was third, the favourite being awarded 
second place. ' Won by a length.' There were thirty- 
nine subscribers. 

'The race (run on Thursday, June 7th) was between 

Gustavus and Reginald; the latter made the play to 

jgoi the distance-post, where Gustavus took the 

Gustavus. lead, and won by about half a length.' 
Such is a brief narrative of the contest for the Derby 
of 1821, for which fifty-four horses were nominated, 
of which thirteen were placed under the starter's 
charge. The placed horses may be named here in full : 

Mr. Hunter's gr. c. Gustavus, by Election out of Lady Grey 1 
Duke of Grafton's b. c. Reginald, by Haphazard out of 

Prudence ..-.--..-2 

Mr. Rams>bottom's br. c. Sir Hildebrand, by Octavius out of 

Truth's dam - 3 

S. Day rode the winner, F. Buckle being on the 
second horse. Gustavus was favourite in the betting, 
2 to 1 being offered against it at the fall of the flag ; 
Reginald, despite his victory in the Two Thousand, 


was only second favourite at 4 to 1. The Duke of 
York ran a b. c. by Walton ; the Duke of Rutland's 
ch. f. Mandoline, by Waxy, also ran in the race ; Lords 
Jersey and Exeter likewise supplied runners, as did 
Mr. Fox, Mr. Duncombe, Mr. Batson and other sports- 
men. Value of the stakes, 1,675 guineas. 

All the runners in this year's contest for the Oaks 
seem to have been placed by the judge, but the 
winner of the One Thousand, the Duke of Grafton's 
br. f., Zeal, only got fourth — the winner being found 
in Lord Exeter's Augusta, which, ridden by J. Robin- 
son, started favourite with orlds of 20 to 11 betted 
against her ; she made all the running and won very 
easy, being in front from start to finish of the race. 

Run on May 23rd, this year's race h;is been de- 
scribed as one of the best which ever took place fur the 
jgo.2 Derby Stakes. The winner was the pro- 
Moses, perty of the Duke of York, who had six 
years previously won with Prince Leopold. The 
three placed horses were : 

The Duke of York's b. c. Moses, by Whalebone or Seymour 

out of Sister to Castanea, by Gobanna - - - - 1 
Mr. liogers' b. c. Ficraro, by Haphazard, dam by Selim - - 2 
Duke of Grafton's ch. c. Hampden, by Rubeus - - - 3 

Goodison rode th.e winner, the odds against him at 
the start being 11 to 2, 3 to 1 being offered against 
Hampden, which had been elected favourite. Lords 
Darlington, Exeter, and Egremont supplied runners, 
of which there were twelve in all, selected from the 
fifty-three nominated. The Duke of York's colt led 
the field nearly the whole of the way, and in the 


end won by a head. Value of the stakes, ],G25 

The race for the Oaks was won by the Duke of 
Grafton's b. f. Pastille, by Rubens, who had previously 
won the Two Thousand Guineas, F. Buckle being the 
jockey, beating three other tillies of the same sire — ' an 
uncommonly fine race,' won by a head, Major Wilson's 
ch. f. by Rubens being second, and Sister to Neva 
third. The odds were 11 to 8 ao'ainst the Duke of 
Grafton's Whizgig, which had been elected favourite ; 
Pastille's price was 7 to 2. 

Although sixt}^ horses had been nominated for this 

year's Derby, only eleven of the number appeared at 

jgo3 the starting-post on Thursday, May 29th. 

Emiiius. 'p^yQ Qf ^\^Q i^im^ber were placed by the 
judge ; those were : 

Mr. Udny's b. c. Emiliup, by Orville out of Emily - - 1 

Mr. Rogers' b. c. Tailored, brother to Pacha - - - - 2 

Mr. Rogers also ran Nicolo, the winner of the Two 
Thousand Guineas — this horse was a twin, and was 
brother to Langar, b}'- Selim. The Duke of Grafton 
ran two of his colts. F. Buckle and W. Wheatly were 
the placed jockeys. Emiiius and Tancred started 
equal favourites, the price being 7 to 4 against either. 
The race has been briefly described in the following 
fashion : ' Emiiius took the lead until he came to Tat- 
tenham Corner, when he Avas headed by Tancred ; 
Emiiius, however, soon defeated him and won by a 
lengtli in fine style.' The value of the stakes amounted 
to 1,775 guineas. 


By the success of h's brown fill}", Zinc, the Duke of 
Grafton won tliis year his sixth Oaks. Buckle was the 
rider, and defcuted nine runners, winning by three 
lengths. The Duke's filly had previously wun the 
One Thousand Guineas. 

Seventeen of the fifty-eight horses nominated f(>r 
jy9^ the race of June 3rd came to the starting- 

Cedric. post — Ccdric, the winner, being ridden by 
J. Fvobinson. The first .and second horses only were 
placed, namely : 

Sir J. Shelly's ch. c. Cedrir, by Phantom ont of Sister to Parrot 1 
Sir W. M. iMiloers br. c. Uiuioud, by Filho da Puta out of 
Banshee ----------2 

Other noblemen and gentlemen who supplied 
runners were the Duke of Grafton, Lord Stradbroke 
(2), Loid Egremont and Lord G. H. Cavendish, 
General Grosvenor, Mr. Udny, ]\lr. Forth, Mr. Houlds- 
worth, Mr. Greville, Mr. Batson, etc. Mr. Thornhill's 
ch. c. Beform started favourite with odds of 5 to 2 
being offered against him ; 4 to 1 was the price laid 
against the winner. Osmond, described as beino- 
' amiss,' ran well, especially in three false starts 
which took place, but in the race, at the fourth 
time of asking, he did not get well away — Cedric, when 
it came to real business, taking the lead, keeping in 
front and winning eas}'. Value of the race, 1,875 

Lord Jersey's filly, Cobweb, by Bhnntom out of 
Fillagree, winner of the One Thousand, also proved 
victorious in the Oiiks. She was ridden in both races 
by J. Robinson, who had twelve opponents, and beat 


Colonel Yates' Fille de Joie by a length. Betting : 
6 to 4 on Cobweb. 

J. Robinson, W. Arnold, and S. Chifney were the 

riders of the three placed horses in the Derby of 

ig25. 1825, which was run on May 19th. There 

Middieton. ^^y;QXQ, fifty-eight subscribers to the race, and 
eighteen horses came to the starting-post ; the largest 
field that had yet assembled to run for the ' Blue 
Ribbon of the Turf.' The following is a list of the 
three — all chestnut colts — placed by the judge : 

Lord Jersey's ch. c. Middieton, by Phantom out of Web, by 
Waxy ----------1 

Duke of Grafton's ch. c. Rufus, by Election out of Prudence, 
by Waxy 2 

Mr. Batson's ch. c. Hogarth, by Rubens out of Pranks, by 
Hyperion -------.-3 

The Duke of York and Lord Oxford also had runners 
in the race, as had also several of the prominent 
sportsmen of the period, such as Mr. Udny, Mr. 
Wyndham, Mr. Heathcote, Mr. Rogers, and Mr. 
Milner. The race is reputed to have been won 
cleverly by two lengths, Robinson making a rush 
about fifty yards from the winning-post ; Mr. Benson's 
Dauntless, by Whalebone, came in fourth. The bet- 
ting at the start indicated the result, the odds offered 
being 7 to 4 against Middieton and 2 to 1 against 
Rufus. The stakes this year amounted to 1,900 
guineas, the largest sum that had yet accrued. 

The Oaks of the year was won by a neck (owing to 
the superior skill of Chifney) by Wings, a chestnut 
iilly belonging to General Grosvenor. Mr. F. Craven's 


Pastime was placed second in a field of ten, and the 
Duke of Grafton's Tontine, the winner of the One 
Thousand Guineas, was only the recipient of third 
honours. General Grosvenor also ran the Brownie ; 
the Dukes of York and llutland had also runners in 
the race. There were fifty subscribers to the Oaks of 

Nineteen (one more than in the preceding 3'ear) 

out of the fifty-seven horses nominated for the race 

2306 came to the starting-post, only two of 

Lapdog. the number, however, being placed by the 
judge — namely : 

Lord Egremont's b. c. Lapdog, brother to Twatty, by VVliale- 
bone (riddun bj' G. Dockera}) - - - - - 1 

Mr. West's br. c. S'lakespeare, by bmulensko out of Charmiiif^ 
Molly 2 

His Grace the Duke of Grafton ran two of his horses 
• — namely, Dervise, winner of the Two Thousand, and 
Dollar; Lord Exeter was also doubly represented in 
the race, his horses being Tiriiilleur and Hobgoblin. 
The other runners were the property of gentlemen 
whose names have been given as running horses in 
some of the preceding races. On May 25th, the day 
of the race, there fell an incessant downpour of rain, 
which threw a damper on the proceedings. At the 
starting-post 30 to 1 was offered against the winner, 
but the race was won cleverly enough by a length. 
Mr. Forth's Premier started favourite at 3 to 1 offered 
against it. Value of the stakes, 1,800 sovereigns — the 
entry- money having been changed this year from 
guineas to pounds. 


The Duke of Grafton's Problem, winner of the One 
Thousand, started a pretty hot favourite (5 to 4 against) 
for the Oaks, but only obtained second place to Mr. 
Forth's Lilias (afterwards Babel), ridden by T. Lye, who 
rode a fine race and won by a length. There were 
forty- nine subscribers, and fifteen of their fillies came 
to the starting-post. 

An increase of thirty-two over the number of last 
year brings the subscribers for the race of 1827 up 
1827 ^^ eightj'-nine, at which it remains, as 
Mameluke. vviU be socu by-aud-by, for the three suc- 
ceeding years. Twentj'-thrce of the number were 
seen at the starting-post, and the race resulted as 
follows : 

Lord Jersey's b. c. Mameluke, by Partisan out of Miss Sophia 1 
Lord Jersey's b. c. Glenartney, brother to Middleton, by 
Phantcru - -- - - - - - -2 

No third was given. J. Kobinson had the mount on 
the winner, H. Edwards being on the second horse. 
Several of the sportsmen of the period, in addition to 
Lord Jersey, were doubly represented, thus the Duke 
of Grafton ran Turcoman, winner of the Two Thousand, 
and Roderick, whilst Lord Egremont was represented 
by Gaberlunzie and Grampus. Mr. Yates also ran a 
couple, as did Mr. Haffenden, Mr. Payne, and Mr. 
Forth. Other competitors were supplied by Lord 
Exeter, Mr. Berkeley, Captain Locke, Mr. L. Charlton, 
and Mr. Sadler. Odds of 9 to 1 were ottered against 
Mameluke at the start, Glenartney being favourite at 
5 to .1. Mameluke v/on easily by two lengths. Value 
of the stakes, 2,800 sovereigns. 


The Oaks of this year also shows increased numbers, 
there being seventy-nine entries for the race, and a 
capital tield of nineteen starters. The Duke oF Rich- 
mond's Gulnare, by Smolensko out of Medora, by 
Selim, ridden by F. }3oyce, won by half a length, 
starting with odds of 1-i to 1 against her. The value 
of the (Jaks Stakes this year would be 2,450 sovereigns ; 
the owner of the second horse was paid a hundred 

A memorable Derby year, resulting, first of all, in a 

dead-heat, and then in tlie victory of Cadland, The 

jj.,,,^ Colonel having to put up with second 

Cadiaud. houours. The competing jockeys were J. 
Robinson and W. Scott. None, other than the two 
animals named, had any chance, and they finished 
* a most beautiful race,' so close together that they 
could not be separated. Out of the eighty- nine horses 
nominated, fifteen faced the starter. One of the 
number fell, his rider being much injured. The 
Colonel and Cadland started nearly equal favourites 
in the betting ; the latter, as winner of the Two 
Thousand Guineas Stakes, had a strong following. 
' The sensation caused by the unlooked-for event of a 
dead-heat for the Derby,' says a commentator on the 
race, 'did not subside for some time. It being de- 
cided that the second heat should be run after the 
race for the Dardans Stakes, betting began anew 
between The Colonel and Cadland, the former havin<r 
the call at 6 to 5. Cadland agiiin set off at good 
sound running, being well looked after by The Colonel, 
and so they went to the chains, where the latter made 


play and got up. A desperate contest followed, and 
lasted to the last few yards, when Cadland won by 
half a leno^th.' The followino: was the result : 

Duke of Rutland's br. c. Cadland, by Andrew out of Porcery 1 
Mr. Petre's ch. c. The Colonel, by Whis-ker out of Sister to 
Miss Newton ---2 

No thh'd horse was placed by the judge. The Duke 
of Grafton ran two colts in this 3'ear's race. Mr. W. 
Chifney's Zingaree also started ; and ]jord Grosvenor 
and General Grosvenor also supjjlied starters, as did 
also Messrs. Payne, Holdsworth, Benson, and Thorn- 
hill ; and ' two finer races than those for this year's 
Derby never were seen.' The value of the stakes 
would be 2,G00 sovereigns. 

The Duke of Grafton's Turquoise, by Selim out o 
Pope Joan, by Waxy, beating thiiteen opponents, won 
the Oaks, for which there were seventy-eight sub- 

Several incidents in connection with the Derby of 
1829, other than the race itself, deserve to be 
jgo() chronicled. In the first place, a new 
Frederick. Grand Stand bad been erected, and, in the 
second place, the horses were started for the first 
time at Epsom by means of flags, the plan successfully 
adopted at the Doncaster meeting of the preceding 
year; thirdly, the jockey who rode the winner (Forth) 
was over sixty years of age ! The field numbered 
seventeen runners, and would have been swelled by 
three more had not Rupert, Harold, and Camel colt 
been drawn an hour or two before the race. The 
subscribers of this year included, as usual, several 


members of the aristocracy. Lords Sligo, G. Caven- 
dish, Exeter, Sefton, Grosvenor, and Egremont ran 
horses in the race. Previous to the day appointed for 
the contest, there had been many ups and downs in 
the betting, horses having been brought prominently 
forward in the market and quoted at short prices that 
liad no chance to win. No ])revious Derby had shown 
in the market quotations so many 'first favourites,' 
and at such long odds. And to show the slings and 
arrows of the outrageous fortune v.diich oftentimes 
attend the efforts of backers, it may be here re- 
corded that Cant, which was heavily backed, and 
might have won, died before the race could be run. 
The King's Electress colt was another good one which 
might have shown prominently during the struggle, 
but death intervened in this case also. Lord Exeter 
was owner of the colt Avhich enjoyed the pride of 
place at the start, while the handsome odds of 33 to 1 
might have been got about Frederick, the Avinner. 
Quoting from a writer of the period, the following 
paragraph on the subject of tlie betting on this Derby, 
which from its commencement up to the Newmarket 
Craven Meeting possessed an extraordinary character, 
will be found interesting : ' On former occasions it was 
thought wisest to back winners, but speculation, like 
the times, has brought about quite a new thing in the 
art of making a book. Nowadays, forsooth, it is 
looked upon as the safest to select the favourites from 
the crowd of beaten horses, or horses from bad or un- 
lucky stables. For instance, they (the bettors) picked 
out Canvass, Luss, Prince Eugene, Brother to Moses, 
etc., upon whom they laid it on pretty strong, havino- 


them at various periods at the top of the odds, nor did 
they find out their mistake till it was too late to save 

There is little that is of much interest to chronicle 
about the runniuj^ of the race. Frederick, it was soon 
made obvious to all the lookers-on, had the race at his 
mercy from the start. When this fact dawned on the 
spectators it tilled them with consternation ; very few 
indeed had thought it at all probable that Frederick 
would win the Derby. Forth, his trainer and rider, 
was early of opinion that he had in his stable the 
winning horse, and when he tried Frederick and found 
he could beat Exquisite, he felt pretty sure of victor3^ 
His original intention was to ride Exquisite himself, 
but after the trial he chauGfed his mind, and elected to 
ride the winner, putting up young Buckle on the 
second horse. Frederick only won by a head ; but it 
was quite clear to all that his veteran jockey might 
liave taken the race by a lengr-h, or even two lengths, 
if he had pleased. His jockeyship was excellent all 
the way, displaying thorough of the temper 
of his horse ; in short-, his intrepidity and coolness 
durinfi" the race were remarkable, and the belief he 
entertained of the ability of his horse to win was shown 
in the fact of his having backed him to win twenty 
thousand pounds ! Nearly every betting man, as the 
saying goes, was ' on ' Patron (winner of the Two 
Thousand) in the end, which caused the short odds of 
G to 5 to be accepted, and as a rule the betting public 
lost heavily by the victory of the outsider. The two 
placed horses were Mr. Gratwicke's bl. c. Frederick, by 
Little John, dam by Phantom, ridden by John Forth ; 


Exquisite, the property of ]\Ir. Forth, was awarded 
second honours. This year a complete Kst of the 
jockeys is given. A horse called Oaklands, the property 
of Mr. Rush, might have been placed third. Value of 
the stakes, 2,G50 sovereigns. 

Out of the seventy-seven subscriptions for the Oaks, 
fifteen runners started. Victory fell to Lord Exeter's 
filly Green Mantle. His lordship also had second 
honours with Varna. Mr. Ridsdale's ClotiJde, which 
started favourite, is reputed to have been third. Lord 
G. H. Cavendish's Young Mouse, winner of the One 
Thousand Guineas, started second favourite. 

Out of the eighty-nine horses entered for the Derby 
of 1880, run on Thursday, May 27th, twenty-three 
jg30, came to the post — the value of the stakes being 2,800 sovereigns ; the second horse 
earning JOO sovereigns. Several of the prominent 
sportsmen of the day contributed runners to the 
race, his Majesty being one of the number. The 
King's horse was Young Orion, by Master Henry, 
out of Orion's dam. Three of Lord Exeter's horses 
ran, one of them being Augustus, by Sultan, out of 
Augusta, the Vv^inner of the Two Thousand. Lords 
Grosvenor, Egremont, Cleveland, Sligo, Sefton, and 
G. H. Cavendish also supplied competitors, as did Sir 
M. Wood (2) and Sir David Baird. The first, second, 
and third in the race, ridden by Sam Day, S. Temple- 
man, and John Day, respectively, were : 

Mr. W. Chifney's b. c. Priam, by Emilias out of Cressida - 1 
Mr. Ridsdale's ch. c. Little Red Rover, by Tramp out of 

Miss Syntax 2 

Lord Exeter's b. c. Mahmoud, by Saltan out of Advance - 3 



The favourite at the start was Priam, against whom 
4 to 1 was betted, 5 to 1 was laid against Little Red 
Rover, 6 to 1 against the King's horse, Young Orion, 
12 to 1 against Augustus, the winner of the Two 
Thousand Guineas. A number of false starts occurred 
before the real race came on for decision, but the 
horses at length ' got off in a most beautiful manner.' 
The following is one account of how the victory was 
achieved by Priam, and it is a noticeable circumstance 
that the Derby now attracts every year a large degree 
of attention. * Donizelli, the property of Mr. Gully, 
took the lead at a good pace, followed by Lord Exeter's 
Red Rover, his little namesake lying next, with Port 
and Mahmoud, the others being well laid up in a body, 
Priam outside and nearly the last horse in the race. 
Donizelli continued the running up the hill, when 
Red Rover challenged and went to the front. He kept 
there till just before the turn, and then Little Red 
Rover took the lead, Augustus coming up at the same 
time. These two maintained the running to the dis- 
tance, where Mahmoud joined them. Priam had been 
in the rear till past the rubbing-house, then Sam Day 
beo-an to draw upon his horse, and at Tattenham 
Corner he was in the foremost ranks with Young 
Orion. Brunswicker, Mummer, Thermometer, Brine, 
etc. ; but he waited with great patience till they got to 
the Grand Stand, where Augustus gave up, Mahmoud 
at the same tim3 beginning to flag. Day then made a 
rush a la Ch'ifney, shook off Little Red Rover after 
a short struggle, and won very cleverly by two 

G. Edwards, riding Mr. Scott Stonehewer's fill}', 


named Variation, won the Oaks from Feventeen com- 
petitors ; Lord Sefton's Moiiche being second, ridden by 
G. H. Edwards ; whilst Mr. Corbet's Jenny Vertpre, 
steered by A. Pa vis, was phiced third. Lord Jersey's 
Charlotte West, winner of the One Thousand, was 
among the starters. Variation won by two lengths. 
There were seventy-seven subscribers. Priam, it should 
be recorded here, ultimately found a home in Virginia. 
The price for which he was sold was thought at the 
time to be a big one ; it was 3,500 guineas. 

Of the twenty-three hor.-es which, on May 19th, 

started for the Derby of 1831, more than half belonged 

1831 ^® persons of title, ' the Dukes and Lords 

Spaniel, of the Derby ' being well represented. The 
King contributed one runner ; the Dukes of Richmond 
and Grafton had also one each in the field ; Lord 
Jersey ran two, one of them getting second ; Lords 
Sligo, Exeter, Verulam, Chesterfield, and Egremont, 
also furnished each a runner; whilst Lord Lowther 
supplied the winner. Only two of the runners were 
placed ; these were '. 

Lord Lowther's b, c. Spaniel, brother to Lapdog, by Whalebone 1 
Lord Jersey's ch. c. Riddlesworth, by Etuilius out of FiUagree 2 

their respective jockeys being W. Wheatly and H. 
Edwards. Chifney had two in the race. Mr. S. Day 
ran Caleb, by Waterloo. Among the other subscribers 
who contributed to the field were Mr. Cooke, Mr. Beards- 
worth, Mr. Rush, Mr. Petre, Mr. Thornhill, Mr. Vau- 
sittart, and Sir R. W. Bulkeley. Spaniel started at 
the very remunerative odds of 50 to 1, odds of 6 to 4 



Leing laid on the favourite, Riddlesworth, who had 
won the Two Thousand Guineas. The race, which 
was considered ' a slow run one,' Avas won very easily 
by nearly three-quarters of a length, and Spaniel, the 
winner, bred by Lord Egremont, was bought as ' a 
weed' for a very small sum, as is elsewhere related. 
The horse, as far as pedigree is an indication, was bred 
to win, but he made no great show — in fact, was a 
faihu-e so far as his two-year-old career was concerned. 
As a three-year-old he was destined to cut a greater 
figure, the Whalebone blood being better able at that 
age to assert itself, and so before the Derby Day he had 
placed two races to his credit. His race was run when 
he won the Derby, and he did very little good after- 
wards, winning, however, a plate or two. In all, he ran 
in nineteen races, of which he won eight, of the collec- 
tive value of £3,G75, to which the Derby contributed 
£3,000. The value of the stakes that year was 
£3,200, of which sum £100 was given to the second 
horse, and £100 was deducted for police expenses ! 
Of Spaniel, what was said by a critic of the period 
may be here quoted : ' He was honest, stout, and true, 
and possessed a hide of silk and a heart of oak.' 

Oxygen, the property of the Duke of Grafton, and 
the winner of the Oaks, was the best mare of her 
year ; she was ridden in the race by J. Day, beating 
Lord Exeter's Marmora by a neck ; Lord Lowther's 
Guitar being third, and ]\[r. Houldsworth's Circassian 
fourth. The Duke of Grafton also ran Blassis (after- 
wards Mistletoe) ; the King's representative was 
Minetta. Eighty- six fillies were nominated, from 
which a field of twenty-one faced the starter. 


The nominations this year were less by four than in 

1831, still leaving the number above the hundred, which 

1830 shows that the race had at last become a 

St. Giles. i^y.[ event of considerable importance. Mr. 
Piidsdale in 1832 ran first and third, his confederate, Mr. 
Gully, being placed fourth by means of his horse Mar- 
grave, which was destined to win the St. Leger of the 
same 3^ear. Of the 101 nominated, twenty-two 
came to the post, the following three being placed by 
the judge: 

Mr. Ridsdale's ch. c. St. Giles, by Tramp out of Arcot Laes, 
by Ardrossan ---------1 

Mr. Vansittart's ch. c. Perion, by Whis-ker out of Darioletta - 2 
Mr. Ridsdale's ch. c. Trustee, by Catton out of Emma - • 3 

W. Scott was the jockey who rode the winner, and 
F. Boyce and G. Edwards were on the second and 
third horses. Lords Exeter and Lowther ran each two 
horses in the race ; Lords Chesterfield, Mountcharles, 
Worcester, Portarlington, and Oxford also supplied 
runners, as did Sir G. Heathcote, W. Chifney, and Mr. 
Forth. St. Giles started favourite, with odds of 3 to 1 
against it, 5 to 1 Perion, 6 to 1 Margrave, and 25 to 1 
against Trustee, who ran a remarkably good race, 
being only half a length astern of Perion at the finish; 
but in the end, after much shifting about, St. Giles 
took the race by a length and a half, the verdict being 
' won easily.' Peiram, Lord Exeter's horse, was at one 
time favourite for the race, and was greatly liked, but 
before the start his figure in the price current was 20 
to 1. According to a turf writer, St. Giles was 'one 
of the fastest racers ever seen for the Derby, and a 
proud triumph for the north country, their horses 


being first, second, third, and fourth,' while both the 
owner, and winner, and the jockey were Yorkshire. 
An objection was entered against the winner, which 
caused a sensation : on the matter, one of wrong 
description, being considered by three gentlemen who 
were asked to adjudicate, they gave the victory to 
the hor.';<3 that had won it. The St. Giles party, it was 
said at the time, won a ' heap ' amongst them, the 
trainer pocketing a large sum, whilst Crockiord was 
reputed to have gained six or seven ' thou ' on his 
book. St. Giles was kept at work till about the close 
of his sixth year, and was ultimately sold to go to 
America. The nominal value cf the stakes run for in 
1832 was 3,075 sovereigns. 

Galata, the property of Lord Exeter, won both the 
One Thousand Guineas and the Oaks, taking honours 
in the latter race by two lengths, beating Mr. S. Day's 
Lady Fly (second), and Mr. Sadler's Eleanor, by 
Middlcton (third). She was ridden by P. Connolly, and 
started favourite, with odds of 5 to 2 laid against her. 
Nineteen out of the eighty-three entered ran. ' As St. 
Giles is to London, so is Galata to Constantinople; and 
so there's a sort of coincidence, you see, on the two 
results.' This fine mare won eight of the eleven stakes 
for which she started. 

To the Derby of this year, decided on Thursday, 

May 23rd, there were 124 subscribers, the largest 

jg33 number ever recorded up to the date. 

D.ingerous. Ainoug tliose wlio helped to swell the 

entry, and who sent their horses to the post, were 

many of the best-known sportsmen of the day, al- 


tliougli those possessing titles — or as an old groom used 
t ) say, ' 'andles to their names ' — were conspicuously 
1 3ss than usual. The Dukes of Grafton and Richmond, 
however, each sent a horse to the post, as did Lords 
Jersey and Verulam, Avhilst Lord Exeter had two colts 
in the field. Mr. John Scott, Mr. C. Forth, and Mr. 
W. Chifney were also represented, as also Mr. Ridsdale. 
The horses of Messrs. Greville, Houldsworth, Sir G. 
Heathcote, and Mr. Payne, also came to the starting- 
post. The three placed by the judge out of tho 
twenty-five which started (the largest field that had 
yet competed in the lace) were : 

Mr. Sadler's ch. c. Dangerous, by Tramp out of Defiance - 1 
Mr. J(_ihn Scott's br. c. Connois^eur, by Chateaux Margaux - 2 
Mr. Ilawlinsoii's b. c. Revenge, by Fungus - - - - 3 

The respective jockeys were J. Chappie, S. Temple- 
man, and T. Cowley. Mr. Ridsdale's Glaucus was 
elected favourite, and started with odds of 3 to 1 
betted against him ; the price laid against the first 
three was 25 to 1, 100 to 1, and 18 to 1. After three 
or four false starts, the runners got away in fine 
style. Dangerous defeated Connoisseur at the Grand 
Stand with scarcely any trouble, by a length ; Revenge, 
coming up stoutly in the last fifty yards, managed to 
get third honours. Value of the stakes, 3,725 

Although Mr. Cook's Tarantella, the winner of the 
One Thousand, was made favourite for the Oaks, 
that filly did not even gain a place, the race falling to 
Sir Mark Wood's Vespa, who won by a neck, after a 
S3vere struggle, and without a quotation in the price 
list. Chappie was the victorious jockey. The Duke 


of Grafton ran second with Octave. Yespa, the 
winner, was put to the stud, but ultimately found a 
home in Hungary. The Oaks victory was mo^t un- 
expected ; Sir Mark Wood, when he was told, would 
hardly believe in his success. Dangerous, the winner 
of the Derby, also found a home abroad, having been 
purchased by the French Government. 

On Thursday, May 20th, 1834, the Derby was Avon 

by a horse named Plenipotentiary, the owner being 

Mr. Batson. Oat of the 123 animals 

1834. . T 

pieiiipoten- nommatcd, twenty- two came to the start- 
^^'^^' ing-post, two of the number being' the 
property of the Duke of Cleveland. The Dukes of 
Grafton and Rutland each supplied a runner, as did 
also Lords Lowther, Orford, and Jersey. The follow- 
ing are the three placed by the judge : 

Mr. Batson's cb. c. Plenipotentiary, by Erailius out of Harriet 1 
Duke of Cleveland's b. c. Shillelagb, by St. Patrick out of 

Emilius' dam ----.--.-2 
Lord Jersey's ch, c. Glencoe, by Sultan out of Trampoline - 3 

P. Conolly rode the winner, the rider of Shillelagh 
being S. Chifney, whilst Gleneoe, which had previously 
won the Two Thousand Guineas, was handled by 
J, Robinson. Pavis, Buckle, W. Scott, J. Day, Chappie, 
and other well-known horsemen of the time had also 
mounts in the Derby of 1834, which was won by Mr. 
Batson's horse in a canter, by two lengths. In these 
days great delays often took place before the horses 
could be started ; in the case of the race now being 
referred to there were five false starts — false starts, 
indeed, were of frequent occurrence. Plenipo started 
favourite in the betting, with odds of 5 to 2 betted 


against him, 3 to 1 being offered against Shillelagh. 
The value of the stakes in 1834 would amount to 3,625 
sovereigns. The Derby of 1834 was thought at the 
time it was run to have been a race'of more than ordi- 
nary interest, because of the many good horses that 
took part in the struggle — Plenipo being greatly 
admired and much thought of, especially by the 
' gentlemen ' ; he was thought, indeed, to be a horse 
the like of which might never again be looked upon. 
The Chifneys declared he was a 5 lb. better horse 
than ever Priam had been, and in consequence backed 
him very heavily. As was to be expected, Plenipo was 
made favourite for the St. Leger; but, unfortunately 
for his backers, he made no show in the great north- 
country race, at which the racing public professed to be 
thunderstricken, and many were not slow to assert that 
on the St. Leger Day Plenipo was 'a safe 'un.' An 
offer of £5,000 down, -or £1,000 a year as long as he 
might live, was refused for the Derby victor of 1834. 

Fifteen fillies ran for the Oaks, which fell to Mr. 
Crosby, by the aid of Pussy, ridden by J. Day ; Mr. 
Perth's Louisa Avas second, Mr. Richardson's Lady Le 
Gros third. The winner started with odds of 20 to 1 
betted against her, and won cleverly enough by a 
length. There Avere ninety-five subscriptions taken 
out for the race. 

Three dukes and three noble lords were among 

those who nominated (there were 128 subscribers) 

jg35 and ran horses on Epsom Heath this 

Mundig. yQc^x with a view to winning the great 
race of the period, which, however, fell to Mr. Lowes' 


ch. c. Maadiq-, odds of 6 to 1 beino^ laid accainst him 
at the start, the favourite being one of the Ibrahims. 
It must have been productive of some confusion to 
find two horses of the same name in the betting; 
but as neither of them won nor was much fancied 
for a place, no wrangling took })lace. The race, as 
described by the turf reporters of the day, seems to 
have been of a most common-place description. The 
pace is described as being 'severe throughout, but 
there was not much of a tail at the finish,' which 
would point to the field being pretty much on an 
equality. ' All the horses were very moderate,' asserts 
one writer ; ' how can it be otherwise when we find 
such an animal as Pelops third ?' The race was 
behind time in consequence of the fractiousness of 
one or two of the horses. There were several false 
starts ; Silenus at length went off with the lead in 
order to serve Ibrahim, whilst Luck's All was started to 
pilot Mr. Ridsdale's c. Coiiolanus. Silenus took his 
field along at a powerful rate of speed, all the horses 
keeping well together ; nor did Lord Jersey's horse 
give up his place till he was well within the distance. 
Just before reaching the road Mundig and Ascot both 
bettered their places, the first-named taking the upper 
ground, and the latter taking the lower part of the 
road. When the Stand was reached only four seemed 
to be left with any chance of winning the race — these 
were Ibrahim, Ascot, Pelops, and ]\lundig. Each of 
these seemed to be running a match, so to put the 
case — Ibrahim and Ascot, and Pelops and Mundig. 
Before the stand was reached one of each of these 
pairs cried Feccaui. Mundig and Ascot were then 


only left of the fourteen to fight out the battle. It 
Avas a moment of suspense as the two came on locked 
together, just <d the pod (which is the right place to 
■win). Mundig won the race ; at the next stride Ascot's 
head was in front. As a matter of fact, this year's Derby 
was won on the post, and for some brief moments it 
was not known to which horse the judge would accord 
the victo^3^ Only two horses were placed, but to 
Pclops was generally awarded the honour of being- 
third, lie was a full length behind Ascot, and 
Ibrahim was so close beside liim that it was difficult 
to separate them. A gentleman who witnessed this 
stru^c'le for the ' Blue Kibbon,' told the writer in Blue 
Gown's year that if time had been taken in Mundig's 
year it would have recorded a very fast-run race. 
W. Scott was the successful jockey in a field of 
fourteen. The value of the stakes, subject to the 
usual deductions, was £3,550, and Mr. Bowes is said 
to have won £10,000 in bets, the trainer of the horse 
and his brother, who rode it, bagging each an equal 
sum by the victory of Mundig. 

Mundif? before beini,^ withdrawn from work did a 
good deal of what was described by an old turfite as 
* general utility work.' He won eleven races between 
Epsom and Doncaster, so that the horse was not allowed 
to eat the bread of idleness. The winner of the Two 
Thousand, Lord Jersey's b. c. Ibrahim, by Sidtan, ran 
in the race for the Derby. 

The Oaks this year was won in a 'common canter' 
by Mr. Mostyn's br. f. Queen of Trumps, who beat 
nine competitors. She was ridden by T, Lye. There 
were ninety-eight subscribers to the race. Mr. Grc- 


ville's Preserve, winner of the One Thousand, started 
favourite. With odds of 6 to 4 betted against her, 
Queen of Trumps won the race for the St. Leger at 

PubUc interest in the Derby began to grow more 
intense about the middle of the ' thirties,' when the 
^g3g entries began to grow and multipl}'' till 

BayMiddieton. the year (1868) Blue Gown credited Sir 
Joseph Hawley with the stakes accruing from 262 
entries and eighteen runners. Only once since Blue 
Gown's 3^ear has a larger number of horses been 
entered, and that was when Sir Bevys won from 
twenty-two competitors, the number entered being 
278. The value of the stakes depends chiefly on the 
number of horses entered, and in a lesser degree on 
the number that run. The amount won by the 
victory of Sir Bevys in 1879 was the largest that has 
ever fallen to the owner of a Derby winner. The 
greatest number of horses that ever ran for the race 
was in 1862, when Caractacus carried off the stakes, 
beating thirty-three competitors. As has been in- 
dicated, no great amount of interest was excited by 
the Derby in the earlier j^ears of its existence, nor 
was much written about it in the newspapers of that 
time. In 1886 the number of horses nominated was, 
as in the preceding year, 128, and of these twenty-one 
came to the starting-post on May 19th. Although as 
many as five of the horses might have been placed, 
only two were so honoured. These were : 

Lord Jersey's b. c. Bay Middleton, brother to Nell Gwynne. 
by Sultan out of Cobweb - - - - - - 1 

Lord Wilson's ch. c. Gladiator, by Partisan out of Pauline - 2 


ridden respectively by J. Robinson and W. Scott. 
Mr. J. Day's Venison came in third, Colonel Peel's 
Slane and Lord Chesterfield's Alfred being fourth and 
fifth respectively. The Colonel and Lord Chesterfield 
had each another colt in the race. The Dukes of 
Beaufort and Richmond also supplied competitors, as 
did also Lords Egremont, Exeter, and Lichfield. Bay 
]\Iiddleton ran home a gallant winner by two lengths, 
and as winner of the Two Thousand was elected 
favourite with odds of 7 to 4 betted against him. 
Lord George Bentinck became the purchaser of the 
winner, paying for him a sum of 4,000 guineas. Value 
of the stakes, 3,725 sovereigns. 

Steered to victory by W. Scott, Mr. J. Scott's 
Cyprian, by Partisan out of Frailty, by Filho da Puta, 
won the Oaks, beating eleven competitors, there being 
ninety-eight subscribers. Mr. Houldsworth's Destiny, 
winner of the One Thousand, came in second. Odds of 
2 to 1 were offered against Cyprian at the start. ' It 
was a beautiful race at the close, Scott by dint of 
punishment landing his mare first by half a length.' 

That not much was thought of the chance of Phos- 
phorus for Derby honours is evidenced by the price of 
is.-jT. the horse in the betting, namely, the odds 
Pho.piion.s. Qf 4Q J.Q 1 against him at the start, the 
favourite being a horse belonging to the Duke of Rut- 
land, called Rat Trap. As a matter of fact, Lord 
Berners' colt was a dark horse, although the poet 
who initiated the system of tips in verse went for him : 

* 'Tis over ; the trick for the thousands is done ; 
George Edwards on Phosphorus the Derby has won,' 


\ But the ' knowing ' turf men of 1837 asserted that tho 

J odds were all Lombard Street to an orange against 

him. And yet he won the race, his jockey being 
the G, Edwards of the rhyme, Avho beat Pavis, 
Conolly, W. Scott, J. Day, S. Chifney and all the 
/ other jockeys who took part in the race. Finding, 

/ the night before the Derby, that the horse was lame, 

his trainer went to his owner to know what was to 
be done ; the orders given were laconic, but to the 
point : * Run — I always run.' Only two of the seven- 
teen horses which composed the field seem to have 
attracted the attention of the judge. These were : 

Lord Berners' b. c. Phosphorup, by Lamplighter out of 
Cameron's dam ......--1 

Lord Suffield's br. c. Caravan, by Camel out of Wings - - 2 

/ Three of the other runners were each named as being 

third, two of which were in the ownership of Lord 
Exeter ; these were Hibiscus and Dardanelles ; Mr. 
Osbaldes"':on's Mahomedan was the other claimant for 
place honours. Still another horse was supplied by 
i.ord Exeter in Troilus, by Priam, out of Green 
Mantle. One of the animals which helped to swell 
the field, Pegasus, by Shakespeare out of Isabella, 
was ridden by a bootmaker of the name of Barclay, 
who, for a non-professional, made a reasonable figure 
up to a <;evtain point. At the third trial a good start 
was effected, and after ' the usual ups and downs,' 
Phosphcrus landed the race in the last three or four 
strides, the struggle at the conclusion being quite 
equal in interest and severity to that witnessed between 
Mundio- and Ascot in the race of 1835. There 
were nominated for this year's 'Blue Ribbon' 131 


liorses, and the value of the stakes would be 3,700 

Ninety-two fillies were nominated for the Oaks of 
1837, of which thirteen faced the starter. The winner 
was found in Miss Letty, by Priam out of Miss Fanny's 
dam, ridden by John Holms, and nominated by Mr. 
Powlett, the winner of the One Thousand, Chateau 
d'E«pague, mounted by John Da}'', being second ; 
Lord Exeter, who ran two of his fillies in the race, 
being awarded third honours. Chateau d'Espagne 
was made favourite in the betting, with odds of 2 to 1 
offered against her ; the odds against the winner at the 
start were 7 to 1, and she won easi^.y by a length, 
which, had her rider pleased, might have easily been 
increased. The filly was not named till she had been 
placed on the roll of Oaks winners. 

The grave of Amato, the * coughing pony,' who 

won the Derby of 1838, is still to be seen by those 

1838. who pass through the Durdans on their 

Amato. ^^,^^, J.Q ^i^g Yi\\\, It was a victory of local 

importance ; the horse was the property of Sir Gilbert 
Heathcote, and had been trained at Epsom by 
Ralph Sherrard, who died at the patriarchal age of 
eighty-nine years. Amato was, in turf parlance, a 
'dark horse' that, previous to winning the Derby, 
had never appeared in public, and only ran one 
race — that being the Derby— so that Amato may 
be described as a 'single speech Hamilton' among 
race-horses ! Sir Gilbert, who was not a bettinsf man, 
running his horses for honour and stakes only, was 
much complimented on his rather unexpected victory. 


A deputation from the town of Epsom waited on 
liim at the Durdans, and in reply to their congratu- 
lations Sir Gilbert said that he looked upon their 
good opinions thus expressed as equal to winning the 
race itself As has been stated, Sir Gilbert never 
betted, and the claims of Amato to Derby honours 
were not recognised till about the middle of April, 
and then 100 to 1 was oft'ored against ' the pony,' as 
some called the horse, which, however, stood \h\ 
hands high. The price of the winner at the start 
may be put down as being 100 to 3, and several 
residents of Epsom, from seeing the horse in training, 
backed him to win them a little money, and so 
profited by the result. 

The following list of the placed horses and other 
starters of Amato's year, as also the description of the 
race, is taken from a newspaper of the period: 

Sir G. Heathcote's Amato, by Velocipede out of Jane Shore 

(Chappie) .._-..-_... 1 
Culonel Peel's Ion, by Cain out of Margaret (Pavis) - - 2 
Lord G. Bentinck's Grey Momus, by Comus (S. Day) - - 3 

Mr, H. Combe's Cobham, Lord Jersey's Phoenix, Mr. 
Payne's Young Rowton, Captain Berkeley's Bullion, 
Mr. Tarlton's Blaise, Sir J. Mill's Volunteer, Lord 
Chesterfield's Bretby, Lord Westmoreland's Albe- 
marle, Mr. E. Peel's Early Bird, Duke of Grafton's 
Chemist, Mr. Forth's Conservator, Mr. Stirling's Miss 
Manager colt. Lord George Bentinck's D'Egville, Mr. 
Worral's Dormouse, Mr. Buckley's Tom, Mr. Edward's 
Drum Major, General Grosvenor's D*dalus, Mr. 
Bend's Scurry colt, Mr. Pettitt's Surprise colt, Sir 
James Boswell's Constantine. 


Betting : 2 to 1 Grey Momus, 7 to 2 Cobham, 7 to 
1 Phoenix, 8 to 1 D'Egville. 13 to 1 Young Eovvton, 
25 to 1 Early Bird. 30 to 1 Amato, 1,000 to 15 
"Bretby, 1,000 to 15 Dadalus, Constantine, and the 
Scurry colt jointly. 

' The race was appointed to be rim at two o'clock, 
but, what with delay amongst the jockeys and two or 
three false starts, the clock had struck three before 
the horses were off. Even then the start was so 
unsatisfactory that several half stopped their horses. 
Young Rowton was pulled up after running to the 
first post, and the Surprise colt was left behind 
altogether. It is strange that this bungling work 
occurs only at Epsom. Finding that the flag was 
down, Bretby went away at a very good pace, followed 
by Amato, Grey Momus, and Tom, with Phoenix, Ion, 
Conservator, Daedalus, D'Egville, and Cobham well u•^), 
the latter lying inside. Albemarle, who had a bad 
start, soon joined this lot. They observed this order 
up the hill, at the top of which Bretby declined and 
fell into the rear. The Grey then took the lead, 
which he kept to the turn. Phoenix, who had run 
well to this point, tired and gave up, so also did 
D'Egville ; Constantine, Cobham, and others having 
shut up long before. On making the turn, Amato 
shot by the Grey, and increased the pace tre- 
mendously, the Grey following, Tom still up, and 
Ion just beginning to emerge from the ruck of beaten 
horses. Amato had made the Grey safe directly he 
took up the running, and although Ion made a 
des[)erate effort for victory half-way up the distance, 
It was with no other result than to get second place. 



The judge awarded the prize to the Epsom nag by a 
length, his advantage over the Grey being four times 
as great.' 

The best daim to notice Avhich the Derby of 1838 
can put forth is the fact of the pubhc being, for the 
first time, carried to Epsom by railway in that year. 
The accommodation provided at Nine Elms was 
ntterly inadequate to the numbers who desired to be 
taken to Epsom, and the arrangements resulted in a 
partial breakdown; the immense crowd who assembled 
at the station, impatient to reach the scene of action, 
carried the place by storm, and impeded the officials. 
Not till a large body of police, who had been sent for 
by the authorities, came on the scene could order 
be restored, or the station be cleared of persons who 
insisted upon being taken by the railway to see the 
Derby. At twelve o'clock the carriage resources of 
the company were exhausted, and a notice was at 
once issued to the effect that ' no more trains will 
start this morning.' Hundreds were, of course, 
terribly disappointed at the breakdown, and had no 
alternative but to revert to the old modes of con- 
veyance by carriage of some kind, at a cost of from 
three shillings to five shillings each. The value of 
the stakes in 1888 was 4 005 soverei^rns. The race 


was run on a Wednesday. 

The Oaks of the j-ear fell to the share of Lord 
Chesterfield by the victory of his br. f Industry, which 
was ridden by W. Scott. Out of the ninety-seven 
fillies nominated, fifteen came to the post. In addi- 
tion to the winner. Lord Chesterfield and Lord Exeter 
was doubly represented. The Duke of Gral'ton, 


Colonel Peel, and other sportsmen also contributed to 
the tield. The second filly was made favourite, Lord 
Suffield's Calisto, against which odds of 5 to 2 were 

' The Derbys ' about this time, for several years 
' fore and aft,^ presented no aspect of novelty, being, 
1839. as a rule, common-place races. Notwith- 
Bioomsbury. withstanding that fact, the general body of 
the public, whatever may have been felt by sports- 
men, did not abate their interest in tlie struggle one 
jot. Each year the crowd of spectators seemed to 
wax greater, the road and the rail being more thronged 
than on previous Derb}^ Days The betting, too, 
increased, both in the amount of the bets and the 
number of bettors. ' Sweeps ' grew in popularity, and 
became a feature of nearly every public-house parlour 
throughout London, as also in large shops and ware- 
houses, whilst in the Great Metropolis the inhabitants 
appeared eager to seize the occasion of the mighty 
contest in order to obtain a holiday. Bloomsbury's 
year may be described as a somewhat memorable one, 
frimi the fact of the race having been run during 
a snowstorm, and also because of an objection which 
was lodged against the winner by Mr. Fulwar Craven, 
owner of Deco[)tion, which, although she only obtained 
second place in the Derby, recompensed her owner by 
winning the Oaks on the following Friday. Llooms- 
bury, Vv'hich started at the very handsome odds of 30 
to 1 against it, was what is called, in the slang of the 
turf, a ' dark horse ;' in other words, it had never pre- 
viously run in a race. The reason why an objection 



was taken to the winner was that the ' Calendar ' and 
' Stud-Book ' differed as to his pedigree, the 'Calen- 
dar's ' description being by Mulatto, whilst the * Stud- 
Book ' gave it as by Tramp or Mulatto. T!ie objection 
was overruled by the Stewards of Epsom Races. Mr. 
Craven was not satisfied, and, being determined to go 
to law about the matter, gave notice to the stake- 
holders not to pay the stakes to Mr. Ridsdale. There 
was great confusion in consequence among backers 
and layers, but, to raalce a long story short, when the 
cause at length came to trial, the verdict was in 
agreement with that of the stewards. In writing of 
the race and its troubles, a critic of the event said of 
Bloomsbury : ' He was a most fortunate horse, though 
almost unfortunate to his owners and backers. He 
won the Derby and a lawsuit ; he caused the non- 
settlement of a settlement ; he embroiled Lords and 
Commons, enriched poor men, impoverished wealth, 
and made all the world stare when their eyes were 
opened.' Although only two of the twenty-one runners 
were placed, those who saw the race had no difhculty 
in spotting the animals which came in third and 
fourth, namely, Mr. Thornhill's Euclid and Colonel 
Peel's Dey of Algiers. The first and second were : 

Mr. W. Ridsdale's b. c. Bloomsbury, by Mulatto - - - 1 
Mr. Fulwar Craven's b. f. Deception, by Defence out of 
Lady Stumps - ..- - . - . . -2 

The respective jockeys were S. Templeman and 
Trenn. Lord Jersey ran two of his ; Lords West- 
minster, Exeter, and Albemarle also contributed to 
the field. Lord Lichfield's Corsair, winner of the 
Two Thousand, also faced the starter. Long descriptions 


of the race have been pubhshed, but Bloomsbury beat 
Deception cleverly by two lengths. Lord Westminster's 
Sleight-of-Hand was favourite in the betting, with 
odds of 9 to 2 betted against him ; the odds offered 
against the winner have already been stated, oQ to 1. 
Value of the stakes, 4,100 sovereigns. 

Deception, second in the Derby, won the Oaks in a 
canter, without ever having been headed. J. Day 
was the fortunate jockey. There were ninety-six 
subscribers, and thirteen fillies came to the post. 
Betting : 6 to 4 on Deception. 

The appearance at Epsom of the Queen and Prince 
Albert was the feature of this year's Derby, which was 
1840 ^^^^ ^y -^^^^ Robertson's horse called Little 
Little Wonder. Wonder. Out of the 144 colts nomi- 
nated, seventeen started for the race, but only two of 
the number were placed by the judge. These were : 

Little Wonder, by Muley out of Lacerta, bv Zodiac - - 1 
Lord Westminster's Launcelot, brother to Touchstone - - 2 

The horseman who rode the winner was William Mac- 
donald, who was presented with an elegant riding-whip 
by Prince Albert. The rider of Launcelot was W. Scott, 
who afterwards Avon the St. Leger on the same animal. 
Most of the celebrated jockeys of tlie period had mounts 
in the Derby of 1840— Rogers, Flatman, J. Day, jun. ; 
Robinson, Buckle, and others. Forth rode his own 
horse, a brown colt by Muley out of Solace. Among 
the horses which ran were a colt by Mulatto out of 
j\[elody, which might have been placed third ; the 
Duke of Cleveland and Lord Exeter had each two in 


the race. The colts of Lords Albemarle, Kelbiirne, 
Orford, and Jersey, also helped to swell the field. Mr. 
Houldsworth and Sir G. Heathcote also supplied 
runners. The start was somewhat protracted by a 
break-away, but in the end Little Wonder came in 
victorious by fully half a length. The value of the 
stakes, after making the usual deductions, was £3,775. 
The winner's figure in the betting was 20 to 1, the 
favourite being Launcelot at odds of 9 to 4 against. 

Lord George Bentinck's celebrated filly Crucifix, the 
winner of the Two Thousand Guineas, ridden by John 
Day, sen., won the Oaks, beating a field of fifteen ; Mr. 
Payne's Welfare was second, her rider being Nat Flat- 
man ; a filly named Teleta was third. Lord George 
also ran his filly by Glencoe out of Victoria, with odds 
of 5 to 4 laid on her. The same filly, ridden by his 
Derby jockey, won the Oaks in a field Avhich numbered 
thirteen. There were 130 subscribers to that year's 

In the big field (the largest ever yet seen for the 
Derby) of twentj'-nine horses — the entries numbered 
jg.^j 154 — the recipient of the 'Blue Ribbon' in 
Coronation. J 34]^ ^yas Mr.'Rawliuson, who won the race 
by the aid of his br. c. Coronation, which was ridden 
by P. Conolly. Two only out of the field were placed 
— namely : 

Coronation, by Sir Hercules out of Ruby - - - - 1 
Lord Westminster's b. c. Van Amburgh - - - - 2 

As will be seen. Lord Westminster was again second. 
He ran two in the race, and made a declaration to win 
with Marshal Soult, which was beaten early in the 


struggle. The weighing-out of the jockeys for this 
Derby, we read, was completed by two o'clock, but in 
consequence of six or seven false starts it was nearly 
four o'clock before the starter was able to set the lot 
away on equitable terms. The race Avas won easily by 
Coronation ; ' by three lengths ' was the verdict of the 
man in authorit}^ No favourite had won since the 
victory of Bay Middleton in 1836. The odds offered 
against the winner were 5 to 2 ; the price of Van 
Amburgh was 12 to 1. Ralph, winner of the Two 
Thousand, was second favourite at 5 to 1. In addition 
to the stake, valued at £4,275, Mr. Rawlinson won 
£8,000 in bets. Mr. Isaac Day, who had partial 
charge of the horse, was by far the largest winner 
over the race. The Duke of Rutland, as also Lords 
Jersey,' Albemarle, Exeter, and Orford, contributed 
colts to the field of runners. 

Lord Westminster was more fortunate in the Oaks, 
which he won by the aid of Ghuznee, ridden by W. 
Scott. His lordship also supplied a runner in Lam- 
poon. As in the Derby, the judge seems only to have 
placed two. Miss Stilton was second in a good field 
of twenty-two. 

Of the 182 horses nominated for the Derby of 1842, 
.there came to the starting-post twenty- four. Lord " 
1842. Westminster again trying his luck by run- 

Attiia. nii^g two of his colts, neither of which * 
succeeded in attracting the attention of the judge. 
Only two of the lot were placed ; these were : 

Colonel Anson's b. or br. Attila, by Colwick out of Progress 1 
Lord Verulam's br. c, Robert De Gorham - - - - 2 


W. Scott and W. Cotton being the respective jockej'S. 
Mr. Allen's b. c. Bc^crour, ridden by J. Marson, might 
have been placed third, which was the position of the 
horse at the close of the race. Attila Avon with the 
most perfect ease imaginable by two lengths. The 
price against the winner at the start Avas 5 to 1. 
Coldrenick, the favourite, was backed at 6 to 4, but 
made no great shoAv in the struggle, contrary to the 
expectations entertained by his backers. The value 
of the stakes is set down as being £4.900. Lords 
George Bentinck and Chesterfield also supplied run- 
ners. Mr. Forth contributed two colts to the number 
of starters, and Mr. Meiklam, General Yates, Mr. 
Osbaldeston, and Colonel Wyndham also ran colts. 

The Oaks of the period, for which there were 117 
subscribers and sixteen runners, was secured by Mr. 
G, Dawson, jun.'s ch. f. Our Nell, ridden by T. Lye ; 
Meal, by Bran out of Tintoretto, the property of Mr. 
Shackle, was second. The race was won cleverly by 
a length. Fillies of the Dukes of Richmond and 
Grafton helped to swell the field. Lords George 
Bentinck, Chesterfield, Exeter, and Jersey, were also 
represented in the race. 

Twenty-three of the 156 colts which had been 
nominated ran in this year's Derby, victory fall- 
jg^o ing to Mr. Bowes by the aid of Cother- 
CotLeistone. stouc, Avhich had previously won the Two 
Thousand. Strong steps Avere taken b}'' the stewprds 
to put a stop to the system of false starts by issuing a 
peremptory notice to the jockeys, Avhich seemed to 
have the necessary effect, an admirable start being 


effected for once. Cotherstone, ridden by W. Scott, 
won in a common canter b}' two lengths. As seems 
to have been a rule at this time, two horses only were 
again placed by the judge: 

Cotherstone, by Touchstone out of Emma, bj- Whisker - 1 

Colonel Charritie's b. c. Gorhambury, by Buzzard - - - 2 

F. Buckle had the mount on the latter, and Rogers, 
Flatman, Marlow, S. Chifney, and other famous horse- 
men of the time took part in the struggle. Lord G. 
Bentinck's Gaper, which started second favourite, and 
from which so much was expected, continued to lead 
a few strides over the road, and then, quite beaten, fell 
behind ; a brown colt named Dinkol, the property of 
Sir G. Hcathcote, was third. Value of the stakes, 
£4,225. The notice issued to the jockeys was as 
follows : ' No false start will be allowed. Every jockey 
attempting to go before the starter has given the word 
will be considered as taking an unfair advantaj:e under 
Rule 57, and fined accordingly.' 

The Oaks was won by Mr. Ford's ch. f. Poison, by 
Plenipotentiary out of Arsenic, F. Butler being the 
successful jockey; Extempore, winner of the One 
Thousand, was second. There were ninety-six nomi- 
nations, out of which twenty-three faced the starter. 

It would not be difficult to indite a very long yarn 

about this year's Derby, for which a horse called 

1841 Running Rein had been entered by a Mr. 

Orlando. Wood. This colt, Avhich came in first for 
the race, did not, however, obtain the stakes, nor did 
persons who had backed it to wan obtain payment of 


their bets. Althougli the horse was allowed to start 
for the Derby, it was well enough known by all 
interested that in the event of its winning it would be 
objected to, and there was great excitement in conse- 
quence. As soon as the judge had given his decision, 
Colonel Peel claimed the stakes, and as legal proceed- 
ings were to be taken for the recovery of the money, it 
was at once paid into the Court of Exchequer by 
Messrs. Weatherby, who acted as stake-holders. In 
that court the trial took place, when it was proved 
that the animal which was started as a three-year-old, 
in compliance with the conditions of the Derby, was 
in reality Maccabeus, and was four years of age. A 
verdict in accordance with the evidence gave the race 
to Orlando, and the stakes raced for to his owner. 
Colonel Peel, who was warmly congratulated on his 
success, as was also Lord George Jientinck, who had 
played an active part in exposing the plot. Another 
colt wliich ran in the Derby of 1844 was Leander, 
which, had it won, would not have been awarded 
Derby honours — seeing that it, also, would have been 
i:)roved to be a four-year-old — but no difficulty arose, 
as, in running, Leander fell and, breaking his leg, 
required to be destroyed. This year Colonel Peel ran 
first and second (ignoring the performance of Running 
Rein), Orlando beating Ionian by two lengths, Bay 
Momus being close up. There Avere twenty-nine 
runners, including the impostor, and the placings of 
the judge were as follows : 

Colonel Peel's b. c. Orlando, by Touchstone out of Vulture - 1 
Colonel Peel's b. c. Ionian, by Ion out of Malibran - - 2 
Colonel Anson's b. c. Bay Momus, by Bay Middle ton - - 3 


The respective jockeys were J. Day, jun., on Orlando, 
G. Edwards and F. Butler ridins- second and third. 
Mr. J. Day, Mr. J. Osborn, and Mr. Forth also supplied 
candidates. Sir Gilbert Heathcote ran two of his 
colts, Akbar and Campanero. Mr. Bowes supplied 
a competitor in T'auld Squire; Lords Glasgow and 
Westminster were also represented in the race. Mr. 
J. Day's horse. The Ugly Buck, winner of the Two 
Thousand, was favourite with odds of 5 to 2 laid 
a:iainst it; 10 to 1 against Running Rein, 14 to 1 
Leander, and 20 to 1 Orlando. The subscribers to the 
Derby of 18 i4 numbered 153, and the value of the 
stakes would be £4,450. 

Out of 117 horses nominated for the Oaks, twenty- 
live came to the starting-post. The race was won by 
F. Butler on Colonel Anson's ch. f. The Princess, 
Lord Exeter's Merope being second, and Mr. Gregory's 
bl. f. Barricade third. Won by two lengths— 5 to 1 
against the winner. Curiously enough, Julia, one of. 
the runners, started by the owner of Leander, was 
found on examination to be a four-year-old. 

Of the 137 subscribers in Merry 
Merry Mon- Mouarch's year, thirty-two came to the 
post, four of which were distinguished by 
the judge ; these were : 

Mr. Gratwicke's b. c. The Merry Monarch, by Slane - - 1 

Mr. A. Johnstone's br. c. Annandale, by Touclistono - - 2 

Mr. Gully's b. c. Old England, by Mulatto - . - . ;} 

Mr. Mostyn's br. c. Pantassa, by Picaroon - - - - 4 

The respective horsemen were F. Bell, Marson, 
S. Day, and Marlow. The owner of the winning horse 


also ran his b. c. Doleful, by Slane, which ran we!l. 
Wood-Pigeon, the propert}^ of Lord Exeter, made like- 
wise a creditable show in the race ; Mr. Gully's 
Weatherbit also put in an appearance. Lord Strad- 
broke was represented by Idas, which had won the 
Two Thousand. Lords Chesterfield, Verulam, and 
Glasgow also contributed to the strength of the field, 
as did also the Duke of Richmond. Colonel Peel, Mr. 
Greville, and Mr. Mytton were also represented in the 
race. Idas was made favourite with odds of 3 to 1 
offered against it, 7 to 2 was laid against Weatherbit, 
15 to 1 against Forth's lot. ' Won by a length,' but 
the struggle was not without incident : Alarm kicked 
Libel and ran away, but Avas captured and remounted. 
In the race Pam fell, about the bend of the course, 
and Old England and Weatherbit jumped over him. 
The horse Avas much injured; not so his rider, who 
had the good sense to lie still. Value of the stakes, 

The Oaks was secure.l for the Duke of Richmond 
by the aid of his br. f. Refraction, ridden by H. 
Bell. Mr, Bennett's ch. f. Hope was placed second, 
and Major Tarburgh's Miss Sarah third. The verdict 
of the judge was, ' Won easily by two lengths.' A filly 
called Queen of Cyprus was not allowed to start, being 
declared by Messrs. Bartlott, the veterinary surgeons, 
to be a four-year-old ; on being examined by other 
vets., she was declared to be a three-year-old. There 
were 128 subscribers to the Oaks, twenty-one of which 
came to the starting-post. The odds laid against the 
winner were 25 to 1, Lancashire Witch being favourite 
at 7 to 2 against her chance. 


Mr, Gully's ch. c. Pynliiis the First was destined 
to be the hero of this year's Derby, for 


Pyrrbus the Avhicli 193 Subscribers had entered, the 
^^^*' field numbering twenty-seven horses, three 
of which, as is the general rule, were placed by the 
judge, namely : 

Mr. Gully's cb. c. Pyrrhns the First, by Epirus - - - 1 
Llr. W. Scott's b. c. Sir Tatton Sykes, by Melbourne - - 2 
General Shubrick's br. c. Brocardo, by Touchstone - - ?* 

S. Day rode the winner for Mr. Gully, Scott rode 
his own, and a jockey named Holmes was on Brocardo. 
The race was avou by a neck ; Brocardo was beaten a 
length by Sir Tatton, who had won the Two Thousand 
Guineas. Mr. Meiklam's Fancy Boy started favourite 
with odds of 5 to 1 betted against him ; Pjarhiis the 
First was made second favourite at 8 to 1, IG to 1 
against Sir Tatton, 25 to 1 Brocardo. Many of the 
sportsmen of the period ran their horses in this year's 
Derby; Sir Joseph Hawley's Humdrum, Mr. Merry's 
colt by Don Juan, Mr. Ramsey of Barnton's Malcolm, 
Count Batthyany's Tragical, Lord Eglinton's Sotades, 
and Colonel Anson's lago being among the starters. 
The amount of the stakes won by Gull}'^ was £5,500. 
One of the incidents connected with this year's race 
was the fining of W. Scott £5 for disobeying orders 
and using improper language. The Derby now began 
to be * timed ' ; 2m. 55s. is set down for Pyrrhus the 

Mr. Gully had the good fortune to take the double 
event — Derby and Oaks — the latter being gained by 
the aid of Mendicant, who had previously won the One 


Thousand Guineas, S. Day being again the successful 
horseman. Mr. Wyatt's Laundry raaid ran second to 
Mendicant, one of Lord Gkisgow's unnamed ones being 
third. There were 140 fillies entered, twenty-four of 
which faced the starter. Mr. Gully's filly won 
easily by two lengths. The betting was 9 to 4 
against the winner, and 12 to 1 against Laundry- 

Run on Wednesday, RLay 19th, the field for the 

Derby comprised thirty-two horses, one gentleman 

jg,j7 (Mr. Mostyn) supplying four of the runners ; 

Cossack, ^ix of the competitors, it is worth noting, 
were the produce of Lanercost, two of his 'get' being 
placed. The three named by the judge were : 

Mr. Pedley's ch. c. Cossack, by Hetmau Platoff - - - 1 
Mr. P>ouverie'f* br. c. War Engle, by Lanercost - - - 'J 
Lord PJglintoa's br. c. Van Tiomp - - - - - 3 

The winner was ridden by Templeman, starting 
with odds of 5 to 1 against him. Conyngham, winner 
of the Two Thousand, was made favourite, his price 
being 5 to 2, 7 to 1 Van Tromp, 20 to 1 War Eiigle. 
The Duke of Riclimond, Lord Glasgow, Mr. Merry, 
Lord Strathmore, Colonel Anson, Mr. Bowes, and other 
good sportsmen of the day, suppl^xi runners to the 
race. The race was an easy one : Cossack, almost at 
the start, \vent to the front and was never headed. 
188 subscribers ; value of the stakes, £5,500. 

Four were placed for the Oaks, which was won by 
Sir Joseph Hawley's roan, Miami, the jockey being 
Templeman, who also rode the winner of the Derby. 
Sir Joseph's filly was followed home by Mr. Payne's 


Clementina, Captain Harcourt's Ellerdale, and Lord 
Exeter's Cosachia. Lord Chesterfield started two of 
his, so did Mr. Mostyn ; Sir Joseph Hawley supplied 
another runner, and Mr. Merry was also represented 
in the race, to which there were 152 subscribers and 
twenty-three runners. With odds of 9 to 1 laid 
against her, Miami won by a length. 

The favourite won the Derby of 184S, to Avhich 
j^j^ there were 215 subscribers and seventeen 
Suiipiice. starters. Four horses were placed : 

Lord Clifden's b. c. Surplice, by Touchstone out of CfuciCx - ] 
Mr. Bdwcs' b. c. Springy Jack, by Hetnian PlatofE - - 2 

IMr. B. Green's bl. c. Shylock, by Siinnom - - - - 3 

Mr. Payne's b. c.^Glendown, by Slane - - - - - 4 

Terapleman again rode the Avinner, F. Butler, 
S. Mann, and Flatman having the ir.ounts on the 
second, third, and fourth horses. No animal of any 
particular note made its appearance among the 
starters The Duke of Rutland and Lords Clifton and 
Eglinton were represented in the race, as were also 
Mr. J. B. Day and Mr. T. Parr. ' Won by a nock,' was 
the verdict of the judge. Betting: evens on Surplice, 
4 to 1 against Glendown, 14 to 1 Shylock, 15 to 1 Saucy 
Jack. 215 subscribers; 17 starters. Value of stakes, 

There were 152 subscribers to the Oaks, and an 
excellent field resulted, twenty-six animals being 
placed at the bidding of the starter. Mr, Dixon's 
f. Do it Again was made favourite ; but Cymba, the 
property of Mr. S. Hill, ridden by Templeman, won 
the race by a length, being follo^ved by Mr. Quin's 


Attraction and Mr. Foljambe's Queen of the May. 
Lord Exeter ran two of his ; and Mr. Merry, Baron 
Rothschild, Colonel Peel, and Sir Joseph Hawley all 
supplied competitors. 

There were this year 237 subscribers to the Derby, 

and the field numbered twenty-six horses, 

The Flying four of which Were placed by the judge, 

Dutchman. i 

namely : 

Lord Eglinton's br. c. The Flying Dutnhmaa - - - 1 

Mr. Godwin's br. c. Hotspur, by Sir Hercules - - - 2 

Colonel Peel's b. c. T.idinor, by Ion - - - - - 3 

Lord Clifden's b. c. Honeycomb, by Bay Middleton - - 4 

Lord Eglinton also ran his c. Elthiron, declaring, 
however, to win with the Dutchman, who was ridden 
by Marlow ; Whitehouse, Flatman, and Robinson being 
on the other placed horses. Tadmor and The Flying 
Dutchman started equal favourites in the betting, at 
2 to 1 each ; but the half-bred Hotspur was the horse 
most liked by the crowd. He made a gallant fight 
for victory, and had he not been ' hashed about ' a 
good deal before reaching the starting-post, he might 
liave won. The Dutchman gained the verdict of the 
judge by only 'half a length.' The start, was a good 
one, but, as is frequently seen in great races, the horses 
that attract attention by the alacrity with which they 
start are soon beaten ; Uriel, for instance, which led 
the field on the present occasion for a few seconds, 
was passed by Weston, Chantrey, Henry of Exeter, 
Elthiron, the stable companion of the winner, and 
Tadmor. Weston in his turn was dis{ilaced in the 
lead by Vatican; a few horses followed, and then came 


the two animals who were destined to fiajht out the 
battle — Hotspur and The Dutchman — each of them 
running well within their powers, their jockeys watch- 
ing for good places. Hotspur ran with great gameness. 
and when Vatican was beaten at the road, took his 
place in front of all the field. Now the aspect of the 
race assumed a different hue — Marlow, on The Flying 
Dutchman, cominsf round the turn almost hugrrinij^ the 
rails, and lookim? all over intent on business. Hot- 
spur, however, was at his side, and seemed as if he 
Avould prove in the end as gallant a runner as Lord 
Eglinton's colt. At this juncture of the race Tadmor 
was in the third place for a time, but failed for a brief 
space to maintain that position, not being able to race 
with two such horses as the Dutchman and Hotspur. 
The latter continued to stick well to the Earl's najr, 
and looked, at the Stand, as if he would win ; but 
Marlow rousing up The Dutchman by a smart touch 
or two of his whip, the effort proved successful; but it 
was only by half a length that the ' Lord of the Tour- 
nament ' held at Eglinton Castle secured the * Blue 
Ribbon of the Turf.' Tadmor, who had been beaten 
for pace, ' came again,' as the saying is ; and but for 
having to go round Hotspur to obtain an opening, by 
which he lost three lengths, might have landed the 
fifties to one which some of his admirers took about 
his chance; as it Avas, this disappointed horse was 
only half a length behind Hotspur, so that the reader 
will see the contest was a keen one. The strusr^le for 
this 3'ear's Derby lasted for exactly three minutes, 
being twelve seconds more than the race of the pre- 
ceding year. Uriel, which started with the lead, 



obtained fifth place ; Honeycomb, after several dis- 
appointments, came on with a great show of speed in 
the end, and got fourth. The Earl of Eglinton, and 
Fobert, of Spigot Lodge, near Middleham, who trained 
for his lordship, were sanguine of success on this 
occasion, having tried the Dutchman to be ten pounds 
better than his stable companion Elthiron, which was 
not a mean animal. His lordship, not being a heavy 
bettor, only won £8,000 in addition to tlie stake, and 
he had that sum at comparatively little risk, having 
obtained good odds. Half a dozen members of the 
Army and Navy Club threw in for the handsome stake 
of £30,000 between them. Some GIas:jrow gentlemen 
won each a few thousands, but there is no record of 
any very heavy wagers being lost or won. Davis, 'the 
Leviathan,' as he was called, lost over £20,000 on his 
book ; his sympathies were all with the second horse ; 
and if Hotspur had won that year's Derby, his bank 
account would have been swelled to the tune of some 
£40,000. The Flying Dutchman was in his time a 
horse of mark and merit. Up to the day on which ho 
was beaten for the Doncaster Cup by Lord Zetland's 
Voltigeur, he had proved victorious in ten races, 
had been allowed to 'walk over' on four occasions, 
and had placed to Lord Eglin ton's credit a sum of 

The great match which was run by these famous 
horses has taken its place as one of the classic events 
of the turf. It was on the Knavesmire at the York 
Spring Meeting of 1851 that The Flying Dutchman 
and Voltigeur were brought together, in order to deter- 
mine which was the better horse. The pair are still 


reputed as having been about the best of their kind ; 
and the fact of their being ' matched to ri n a race ' 
was one of the turf sensations of the pericd. The 
terms of the contest were fixed at £1,000, half forfeit, 
tvv'o miles over the old course. The betting, which 
had been evens throughout, continued so up to the 
fall of the flag, as if it were expected the horses would 
run a dead heat ; but that event did not occur, as after 
what may be described as a ' punishing race,' the 
Scottish Earl's horse proved the victor by a short 
lencrth. The stru2r""le from bei^innino^ to end was an 
excitinof one. Voltigeur started with a lead of about 
three lengths, which he maintained for a long distance ; 
but the heavy state of the ground soon began to have 
its effect, and when his jockey (Marlow) put a pertinent 
question to The Dutchman, the horse responded with 
great gameness. The finish of the race exhibited a 
desperate struggle; but stride by stride Marlow's horse 
came up on Lord Zetland's fine colt, and won the 
match amid a scene of wonderful excitement and 
enthusiasm. The value of the Derby stakes in The 
Dutchman's year was £6,575. 

Lord Chesterfield's br. f. Lady Ev.elyn, ridden by F. 
Butler, won the Oaks by a length, from fourteen oppo- 
nents, Mr. B. Green's Lady Superior being second, and 
Mr. Wreford's Woodlark third. 172 subscribers. 

Run on Wednesday, May 29th, the Derby honours 

of 1850 fell to that excellent sportsman, Lord Zetland, 

1850 whose representative, ridden by Job Marson, 

Voitigeur. \)Q2X the twenty-thrce competitors who 

opposed him. The horses placed were the following : 



Lord Zetland's br. c. VoUigenr, by Voltaire out of Martha Lyon 1 
]\fr. H. Hill's Pitsford, by Epirus - - - - - - '2 

Lord Airlie's br. c. Clincher, by Tuicoman - - - - ?> 

Mr. Gratwicke's bl. c. The Nigger 4 

There also ran the Duke of Richmond's b. c. GhilHe 
CaUum, Lord Exeter's Nutshell, Count Batthyany's 
Valentine, Mr. Merry's Brennus, Lord EgUnton's 
Mavors, Sir G. Heathcote's br. c. by Sir Hercules. The 
price of the winner at the start was 16 to 1, Clincher 
having been elected favourite at odds of 4 to 1 against 
him. A horse named Mildew, the property of Mr. 
Jaques, was second in favour at 9 to 2, atid although 
Pitsford had won the Two Thousand, odds of 12 to 1 
were offered against that horse, which was the mount 
of A. Day. Butler and Flatman were the riders of 
the horses which were placed third and fourth. The 
race proved an easy task for Lord Zetland's horse, who 
without an effort quitted Clincher, who was with him 
at the road, and won by a length; Pitsford beat 
Clincher by half a length, and was placed second. 
205 subscribers ; value of the stakes, £4,975. Voltigeur 
v/as in his time considered a grand horse, and 
possessed a pedigree ( f great merit, being — according 
to sporting historians — descended from the Godol- 
phin and the Darley Arabians : * Every one of the 
thirty-two sires and dams that appear in the pedigree 
of Voltigeur can be deduced from the horses just 
named.' In 1874 Voltigeur had to be destroj^ed in 
consequence of having had his leg broken by a kick 
from a mare. 

Mr. Hobson's Rhedycina won the Oaks, F. Butler 
being jockey; Mr. Powney's Kathleen was second. 


ridden by A. Day; Mr. Gratwicke's Conn' ess was 
placed third. This j'ear there were 128 subscribers, 
and fifteen of the fillies entered came to the post. 

The value of the Derby Stakes of 1851, won by 

Sir Joseph Hawley's Teddington, to which there 

1S51. were 192 subscribers, was £5,325. The 

Teddington f^Q\^ numbered thirty-three in all, of whicli 

the following four were placed by the judge : 

Sir J. Hawley's ch. c. Teddington, by Orlando out of Miss 
Twickenham ---------1 

Mr. J Clark's br. c. Marlborough Buck, by Venison - - 2 
]\[r. Wilkinson's br, c. IVeasham, by Hetman Plato If » - .'5 
Lord Enfield's br. c. Hernandez, by Pantaloon - - - 4 

These four were ridden respectively by Marson, 
Whitehouse, Holmes and Mann. Behind the placed 
ones were another of Sir Joseph's, The Bass ; two of 
Lord Eglinton's horses, Bonnie Dundee and Hippo- 
lytus ; Sir R. Pigot ran two; Mr. Merry's Napoleon 
helped to swell the field ; Baron Rothschild also 
supplied a runner, as did Lords Exeter, Enfield, and 
Chesterfield. The betting was 3 to 1 airainst Ted- 
dington, 7 to 2 against Marlborough Buck. Tho 
favourite won in a canter by two lengths, beating 
more horses than had ever before ran in the Derby. 
The secret of Teddington's probable success was well 
kept, and a pot of money was landed by the ' lucky 

Lord Stanley's Iris won the Oaks (the jockey being 
r. Butler), beating Lord John Scott's iliserrima, Mr. 
Gratwicke's Hesse Hombutg, and twelve others, by 
three-quarters of a length. 131 subscribers. The 


Oaks \\ inner of 1851 'was altogether a strong, power- 
ful, but by no means handsome filly, of very high 

The nice odds of 25 to 1 were obtainable against 

Daniel O'Rourke, the winner of this year's Derby, to 

.gr2 which there were 181 subscribers, the field 

Daniel numbering twenty-seven starters. As ap- 

O'Eourke. '^, . "^ , , , /. 

pears to have been the rule about this 

period, the first four were placed by the judge. These 

were : 

Mr. Bowes' cb. c. Daniel O'Rourke, by Irish Birdcatcher out 

of Forget-Me-Not 1 

Mr. Bradsbaw's b. c. Barbarian, by Simoom - - - - 2 
Mr. Dorien's bl. c. Chief Baron Nicholson, by the Baron - 3 
Mr. Merry's Hobbie Noble, by Pantaloon - - - - 4 

These were ridden by F. Butler, Hiett, Kitchener and 
W. Sharp respectively, the victory being accomplished 
by half a length. Little Harry started favourite, odds 
of 7 to 2 being betted against him ; 4 to 1 was offered 
against Hobbie Noble, 40 to 1 and 100 to 1 respectively 
against the Chief Baron and Barbarian. The value 
of the stakes would amount to a sum of £5,200 ; the 
portion allotted to the second horse w^as £100, and 
the winner was amerced in sums of £100 for police 
expenses ! as also a fee of £50 to the judge ! Two of 
the Duke of Richmond's horses were among the 
runners, Joe Miller was in the field, and Lords Zethmd, 
Ribblesdale, Orford and Exeter, also Lord Eglinton, 
contributed to the number of starters. The race was 
Avon by half a length. The winner was bred by Mr. 
Bowes, his owner. 

Of the 123 fillies entered for the Oaks, fourteen 


came to the post, the victorious one being Mr. J. 
Scott's Songstress, by Irish Birdcatcher ; Bird-on-the- 
Wing, another Irish Birdcatcher, was second ; whilst 
Gossamer, another of the same breed, was third. 
F. Butler, S. Rogers and Job Marson were the 
respective jockeys of the first three in this year's 
Oaks. The winner was bred by John Scott, the 
cslebrated trainer. The value of the Oaks won by 
her was £3,145. 

West Australian, one of the few wearers of the 
equine triple crown, ridden by F. Butler, and starting 

with odds of G to 4 laid against his chance, 
West Austra- placed the great race of the year to the 

credit of Mr. Bowes, beating twenty-seven 
opponents, and winning very easily, as a reference to 
AN'eatherby shows. The judge placed the first four 
as follows ; 

Mr. Eowp.s' b. c West Australian, by Melbourne out of 

Mowerna ..--.----1 

Duke of Bedford's ch. c. Sittingbourno, by Chatham - - 2 
Mr. Powney's b. c. Cincas, by Touchstone or Epirus - - ii 
Mr. Ho v\ aid's ch. c. Rataplan, by The Baron - - - 4 

Baron Rothschild's Orestes, Lord Londesburgh's Tho 
Mayor, Count Batthyanj^'s Stone Plover ; Lords Exeter, 
Derby, Clifden, Glasgow and Eglinton also contributed 
horses to the field. Mr. Surtees' Honeywood started 
second favourite at C to 1, but was not placed ; 8 to 1 
Avas betted against Sittingbourno (second in the Two 
Thousand Gunieas), 20 to 1 against Cincas, and 30 to 1 
against Rataplan. 194 subscribers; value of the 
stakes, £4,450. The ' West ' was bred by Mr. Bowes in 
1850, and was from the beginning considered a horso 


of mark, and besides winning the great triple event, 
took some other races of importance. The horse was 
disposed of to Lord Londesboro' for a sum of £4,750, 
and in the end became the property of the late 
Emperor Napoleon. 

Catherine Hayes, by Lanorcost, the property of Mr. 
Waiichope, started favourite (5 to 4 against her), and 
won the Oaks, beating Lord Exeter's Dove and Lord 
Glasgow's Don John, as also Mr. Stanley's Nicotine 
and thirteen others, among thoin Baron Rothschild's 
Mentmore Lass, winner of the One Thousand Guineas. 
Marlow rode the Avinner, securing the victory by 
a length and a half. 141 subscribers. 

'Won by a length' was the verdict given when 

Andover came to the winning-post in the year 1854; 

1854. the horse placed third (Hermit, first in the 

AiKiover. rp^^^ Thousand) was the property of the 
same owner. There were 217 subscribers, and the 
starters numbered twenty-seven, of which the follow- 
ing four were placed : 

Mr. Gully's b. c. Andover, by Bay Middleton out of Sister 
to ^gis 1 

Baroa Rothschild's b. c. Kinof Tom, by Harkaway - - 2 

Mr. Gully's b. c. Hermit, by Bay Middletou - - - - 3 
Mr. Copperthwait's b. c. The Early Bird, by Irish Birdcatcher 4 

The riders of the placed horses were respectively 
A. Day, Charlton, Wells, and Aldcroft. Lords Derby, 
Zetland, Lonsdale, and Clifden (2) were represented in 
the race, as also Baron Rothschild, Mr. R.E.Cooper (2), 
and Mr. Merry. The betting was 5 to 2 against Lord 
Derby's Dervish (Avhich came in fifth), 7 to 2 Andover, 


8 to 1 King Tom, 20 to 1 Early Bird. Value of the 
stakes, £6,100. 

Mincemeat, the property of Mr. Cookson, won the 
Oaks, steered to victory by Charlton. Lord Derby's 
Meteora was second, Lord Bruce's Bribery third. There 
were 156 subscribers, and tifteen fillies came to the 
starting-post. Meteora, which had gained second place 
in the One Thousand, started favourite with odds of 
6 to 4 071. 

1855. Twelve horses only started for the 

WiidDayreii. Perby of 1855, the following four of 
which were placed : 

Mr. F. L. Popham's br. c. Y/ild D.ivrell, by Ion or.t of Ellen 

Middletun . . . -" 1 

Mr. H. Hill's br. c. Kingstown, by Tearaway - - - 2 

Mr. Merry's Lord of the Isles, by Touchstone - - - 3 

Mr. Adkin's b. c. Flatterer, by Hetman Plato ffi - - - -i 

The other runners were Rylstone, Courtency, Strood, 
Little Brownie, The Cave Adullam, Dirk Hatteraick, 
Corobeus, and Lord Alfred. '\ he jockey who rode 
the winner, R. Sherwood, is now in business as a most 
prosperous trainer at Newmarket. The race was Avon 
by two lengths. Although Lord of the Isles had won 
the Two Thousand Guineas, Wild Dayrell was made 
favourite at even money; 7 to 4 against Lord of the 
Isles, 12 to 1 Kingstown, 20 to 1 Flatterer, who is 
described as being a very bad fourth. 191 subscribers ; 
value of the stakes, £5,075. 

Mr. Rudstone Read's iilarchioness, by Melbourne 
out of Cinzelli, ridden by Templeman, won the Oaks 
of the period by half a length, followed home by 
Blooming Heather and nine other fillies, the property 


of Lord John Scott, Lord Glasgow, Lord Cli;den, and 
other sportsmen. One of the competitors. Nettle, 
ridden by Marlow, fell, her jockey's leg being broken 
in consequence. 1G2 subscribers. 

Three of the horses which ran in this year's Two 

Thousand reappeared in the Derby, Yellow Jack being 

1856. second in both events. Fazzoletto, the 

Eiiiugton, property of Lord Derby, who won ' the 
Guineas,' although he started favourite for the ' Blue 
Kibbon/ only attained the barren honour of being 
fourth. The placings, as given by Weatherby, were 
as follows : 

Admiral Harcourt's br. c. Ellington, by The Flying Dutchman 1 
Mr. Howard's ch. c. Yellow Jack, by Irish Birdcatcher - - 2 
Lord John Scotl's b. c. Cannobie, by Melbourne - - - 3 
Lord Derby's b. c. Fazzoletto, by Orlando - - - - 4 

Aldcroft rode the winner; the jockeys of the other 
three were Wells, R. Sherwood, and Flatman. j\lr. 
Howard and Lord John Scott had each a couple of 
colts in the race; Mr. Gratwicke also ran two of his. 
The betting at the start was as follows : 5 to 2 against 
Fazzoletto, 7 to 2 against Mr. Fitzwilliam's Wentworth 
(ridden by A. Day), 6 to 1 against Cannobie, and 
15 to 1 against Yellow Jack ; the price of Ellington, 
the winner, being 20 to 1. There were 211 nomina- 
tions, of which twenty-four appeared at the starting- 
post. Value of the stakes, £5,875. A veiy brief 
account of the race is narrated as follows : ' Won by 
a length ; half a length between second and third.' 

Mincepie, by Sweetmeat, the property of Mr. H. Hill, 
won the Oaks of 1856, to which there were 135 sub- 


seribers (or entries), ten of which started, -A. Day 
having the mount on the winner. Lord CHfden's 
!Mehssa was second, whilst Victoria, the property of 
Mr. Bowes, ran into third place. The race was won 
by a neck. 

This was BKnk Benny's 3-ear, Mr. J. Anson's fine 

1857. filly, with odds of 20 to 1 betted against her, 

Bimk Bonny, ^yii^^jng ()^q ^ace by a neck in the large 

field of thirty horses. There were 202 entries. The 
following were placed : 

Blin'c Bonny, by Melbourne out o£ Queen Mary - - - 1 

Mr. Drinkald's Black Tommy, by Womersley - - - 2 

Mr. Mellish s b. c. Adamas, by Touchstone - - - - 3 

Mr. C. Harrison's b. c. Scrathuaver, by Flatcatcher - - 4 

Charlton was the winning jockey ; Covey rode the 
second. Wells the third, and Bumby the fourth horse. 
Lords Zetland, Exeter, Anglese}^, and J. Scott helped 
to swell the field by starting their colts ; Lord Cilfdcn 
supplied two runners, and Baron Rothschild one. Mr. 
Merry ran Special License, Lord Anglesey's colt was 
Ackworth, Mr. Bowes was represented by Bird-in-the- 
Hand. Mr. J. S. Dou<j:las' Tournament was elected 
favourite, as little as 4 to 1 being laid against it at the 
start. Odds of 1,000 to 5 were offered against Black 
Tommy, whilst 12 to 1 was the price of Adamas. 
Blink Bonny bec;uiie the dam of Blair Athol, winner 
of tiie Derby in 1SG4. Queen Mar}', the dam of Blink 
Bonny, was presented by his emplo3'er, the then iMr. 
llamsay, of Barnton, to Mr. J. Anson, wlio disposed of 
her for a trifie ; then, after a time, the trainer re- 
covered her, with the result narrated. 


The Oaks was also won by Blink Bonny. There 
were 130 subscribers, and thirteen of their fillies faced 
the starter. Charlton rode the winner. 

Sir Joseph Hawley was this year the happy recipient 

of the two great stakes of the Two Thousand and the 

1858. Derby. The first event fell to him through 

Beadsman. ^|^g ^^^ ^>^ ^xtz Ptoland, by Orlando ; whilst 

Beadsman gave him the ' Blue Ribbon.' Four of the 

runners were named by the judge ; these were : 

Sir J. Ilawlej's br. c. Beadsman, by Weathcibic out of 

JNIendicant -.1 

Lord Derby's b. c. Toxopbilite, by Longbow - - - - 2 
Mr. Harrison's b. c. The Hadji, by Faugh-a-Ballagh - - 3 
Mr. Howard's b. c. Eclipse, by Orlando - - - - 4 

Wells, the favourite jockey of Sir Joseph, had the 
mount on the winner. The other riders were respec- 
tively Flatman, Aldcroft, and 0. Fordham. There 
were 200 subscribers to this Derby, twenty-three of 
which came under the orders of the starter. Mr. 
Howard had three running ; Mr. Gratwicke ran two of 
his. Lords Glasgow and Ilibblesdale had each a horse 
in the field, Brother to Bird-on-the-Wing being the 
first-named nobleman's colt. Lord Derby's horse 
started favourite, with odds of 100 to 30 against it, 
but only got second, the race being won easily by a 
length. Ten to 1 vvas offered against Beadsman. 
Value of the stakes, £5,575. 

Mr. Gratwicke's Governess, which had previously 
won the One Thousand Guineas, won this year's Oaks, 
ridden by Ashmall, and beating (after a dead heat) 
Admiral Harcourt's Gildcrmire, Mr. Jackson's Tunstall 


Maid, and ten others, including fillies started by Lords 
Derb}-, Londesborough, Clifden, Portsmouth, and 
Chesterfield. Mr. Merry's Sunbeam helped to swell 
the field, * Won by three-quarters of a length ' was 
the verdict given by the judge. 

Beadsman proved a gold-mine to Sir Joseph. Not 
only did he win a Derby on his own account ; he 
became th.e sire of another winner of that classic race 
in Blue Gown, who, ten years later, became the hero 
of the ' Blue Ribbon.' Beadsman was also the sire of 
Green Sleeve, the winner of the Middle Park Plate. 
Rosicrucian also was sired by Beadsman. Pero Gomez, 
too, was a product of the same sire. 

Sir Joseph was again credited vviih the Derby Stakes 

by the aid of Musjid and his jockey Wells. Out of 

jgjf) the 246 horses nominated, thirty came to 

Musjid. t,he post, of which the following attracted 
the attention of the judge : 

Sir J. Hawley's b. c. Musjid, by Newminster - - - 1 

Mr. C. E. Johnston's br. c. Marionette, by Touchstone - - 2 

Mr. H. Hill's ch. c. Trumpeter, by Orlando - - - - 3 

Mr. W. Day's br. c. The Promised Land, by Jericho - - 4 

Rogers had the mount on Marionette ; A. Day rode 
Trumpeter, and W. Day was, of course, the rider of 
The Promised Land, winner of the Guineas. Sir J. 
Hawley also ran his colt Gallus. Mmy of the other 
prominent sportsmen of the pei iod contributed to the 
field : Mr. Payne, Mr. Merry, and Baron Rothschild 
among others. The race was won by half a length. 
The judge had placed Ticket- of-Leave second, but the 
owner of Marionette made the claim of second place 


for his horse, which was allowed by the judge. Musjid 
was fovourite in the betting, the odds being quoted at 
9 to 4 against him ; the quotation against Promised 
Land was 7 to 2. Value of the stakes, £5,400, 
Musjid, it may be mentioned, was bought by Sir 
Joseph as a two-year-old, at Tickhill, for a very small 
sum ; but the Lord of Kingsclere won a large amount 
of money by his victory. 

Lord Londesboro's br. f. Summerside, by West 
Australian, won the Oaks, beating fourteen opponents, 
George Fordham being the rider. Scent was second, 
Wild Rose third, and Mayonnaise, winner of the One 
Thousand, fourth. There were 168 subscribers, and 
the winner won by half a length. 

Custance, on Thormanby, won this year's race for Mr. 
jggo_ Merry, having a field of twenty-nine horses 
Thormanby. behind him, there having been 224 entries. 
Four were placed by the judge : 

Mr. Merry's ch. c. Thormanby, by Melbourne or Windbound - 1 

Mr. Nichols' b. c. The Wizard, by West Australian - - 2 

Captain Christie's b. c. Horror, by Wild Dayrell - - - 3 

Count F. de Lagrange's ch. c. Danger, by Fitz-Gladiator - 4 

The Wizard, which had won the Two Thousand, 
was made favourite, 3 to 1 being laid against him ; 4 to 
1 against Thormanby was the price of the winner. 
Mr, Merry had two strings to his bow that year — 
Northern Light, by Chanticleer, running, for him. Sir 
Joseph Hawley also ran a couple of his horses. Lord 
Palmerston had a try with Mainstower, and Lords 
Stamford, Strathmore, Derby, Portsmouth, Glasgow, and 
Zetland also supplied runners, as did Baron Rothschild. 


Mr. Ton Brocck's Umpire, wliicli was causelessly ob- 
jected to by Mr. John Wyatt, the owner of Nutwith, 
also ran. Captain Little, Sir Charles Monck, and Mr. 
I'Anson were also represented in the Derby of 18G0. 
French had the mount on the second horse, Chal- 
loner being on Horror. The value of the stakes in 
Thormanby's year amounted to £G,850. 

Mr. Eastwood's Butterfly won the Oaks of 18G0, and 
was followed home by Avalanche, Contadina, Rupee, 
and other nine runners. The winner was steered to 
victory by James Snowden, Wells having the mount 
on the second, L. Snowden riding the third. The 
race was won by half a length. There were 158 

• The opinion of all who witnessed this year's Derby 
jggj was that, had not Mr. Merry's Dundee 

Kettledrum, broken down just as victory was within his 
grasp, he would have been returned the winner of 
the great race ; as it happened, running on three 
legs, he was beaten by a length for the premiership. 
The placings were as follows : 

Colonel Towneley's ch. c. Kettledrum, by Rntaplan - - 1 

Mr. Merry's b. c. Dundee, by Lord of the Isl^s - - - 2 

Lord Stamford's ch. c. Diophantus, by Orlando - - - 3 

Mr. Hamilton's b. c. Aurelian, by Stockwell - - - - 4 

Bullock, Custance, A. Edwards, and J. Goater were 
the respective riders of the placed horses. There were 
236 entries and eighteen runners. Diophantus, which 
had placed the Two Thousand Guineas to the credit of 
his noble owner, was nearly as good a favourite at the 
start as Dundee, their respective prices being 3 to 1 
and 4 to 1. The odds quoted against the winner at 


starting were IG to 1. York Minster ran for Mr. 
Townley ; Mr. Merry's horse, Russley, also ran ; and 
Count de Lagrange, Lord Glasgow, Lord Stamford, 
and Sir Joseph Hawley were likewise represented in 
the race. Value of the stakes, £6,3-50. 

Nemesis, the winner of the One Thousand Guineas, 
was made favourite for the Oaks, along with Fair- 
water, but the ' Garter ' of the year fell to Mr. Saxon, 
by the aid of his filly Brown Duchess, which, ridden 
by Luke Snowden, won the race by a neck. Mr, 
Harrison's Lady Ripon was second, and Fairwater 
third. Lords Ailesbury, Chesterfield, and Stamford 
were represented in the race, as also Baron Rothschild 
and Count de Lagrange. There were 171 subscribers, 
and the field embraced seventeen starters. 

' Forty to one against Caractacus ' was on offer on 
the 4th day of June, 1862, the Marquis, winner of 
jg^^o the Two Thousand, and Mr. Merry's Buck- 
Caractacus. stonc, being respectively first and second 
favourites at odds of 5 to 2 and 100 to 30 against 
their chances. The following are the names of the 
first four : 

Mr. Snewing's b. c. Caractacus, by Kingston - - - - x 

Mr. S. Hawke's b. c. The Marquis, by Stockwell - - - 2 

Mr. Merry's br. c. Buckstone, by Voltigeur - - - - 3 

Mr. Jackson's br. c. Neptuuus - - - - - - 4 

The jockeys, in their order, were J. Parsons, Ashmall, 
n. Grimshaw, and Bullock. There were thirty-four 
runners, among the lot being three of Lord Glasgow's 
unnamed ones ; Sir J. Hawley ran two of his colts. 
Argonaut and St. Alexis ; Mr. Parr also had two in 
the field ; Mr. Merry, in addition to Buckstone, ran 


The Knave ; Lord Stamford ran his br. c. Ensign, 
which was left so far behind at the start as to lead to 
a complaint being made by his lordship against the 
starter, Mr. McGeorge, who was severely reprimanded 
for starting the horses in advance of the starting-post. 
* A repetition of the offence,' said tlie stewards, ' will 
justify his dismissal.' Won by a neck ; a length and 
a half between second and third. There were 233 
subscribers, so that in Caractacus's /ear the value of 
the stakes must have araoimtcd to the handsome sum 
of £6,675. 

With odds of 20 to 1 laid against her, Mr. Nayloi's 
ch. f. Feu de Joie, ridden by Challoner, won the Oaks, 
followed home by Imperatrice, Hurricane, Avinner of 
the One Thousand Guineas, and sixteen others, the 
entries having numbered 124. Won by two lengths 
was the verdict of the judge. 

Thirty-one horses started on the 20th of May for 

this year's race, the tield being swelled by three of 

jgg3 Lord Glasgow's, Rapid Rhone, one of the 

Macaroni, number, being placed third. Count de 
Lagrange supplied two of the number that ran, as did 
Mr. Naylor, one being the winner, the other Aggressor. 
Lord Palmerston was also an aspirant for Derby honours; 
he ran his ch. c. Baldwin. Mr. Bowes, Mr. H. Saville, 
Sir F. Johnstone, Lords Strathraore, Durham, Stam- 
ford, and Bateman also supplied candidates. The 
following horses received honours from the judge : 

Mr. R. C. Naylor's b. c. Macaroni, by Sweetmeat - - - 1 

Lord St. Vincent's b. c. Lord Clifden - - - . - 2 

Lord Glasgow's ro. c. Rapid Rhone, by Melbourne - - 3 

Captain D. Lane's b. c. Blue Mantle, by Kingston - .4 


Challoner had the mount on Mr. Naylor's colt, on 
which he had previously won the Two Thousand. 
George Fordham rode Lord Clifden, which, ridden by 
John Osborne, afterwards won the St. Leger. Doyle 
officiated as jockey for Lord Glasgow, and steered 
Rapid Rhone into third place. The race was not 
without some untoward incidents. A horse named 
Tambour Major was left at the post, whilst two of the 
runners foil. The verdict when all was over was : 
'Won by half a head.' There were 255 subscribers; 
the value of the total stake would be £7,100. 

Lord Falmouth won this year's Oaks by the aid of 
Queen Bertha, her rider being Aldcroft. The field 
numbered twenty, selected from a subscription-list of 
185. Mr. Harfrreaves obtained second honours with 
Marigold, Yivid, the property of Count de Lagrange, 
being third. Odds of 40 to 1 were offered against 
the winner, who was declared victorious by a head 

The four placed horses of this year's Derby were 
1864 supplied by Mr. W. I'Anson, Lord Glas- 
BiairAthoi. gow, Mr. Merry, and Captain A. Cooper. 
As signalled by the judge these were : 

Mr. I' Anson's cb. c. Blair Athol, by Stock well out of Blink 
Bonny ----------1 

Lord Glas-gow's b. c. General Peel, by Y. Melbourne - - 2 
Mr. Merr) 's b. c. Scottish Chief, by Lord of the Isles - - o 
Captain A. Cooper's br. c. Knight of Snowdea - - - 4 

The number of subscribers in Blair Athol's year was 
234, and of these thirty ran their horses. The win- 
ning jockey was J. Snowden (brother of Luke), Ald- 
croft beinij on tlie second horse. Amonsr the beaten 


lot were the colts of Lord Westmoreland, who sent two 
to the post, as did Lord Glasgow, his lordship's second 
horse beinof Strafford. Mr. H. Hill's Ackworth and 
Copenhagen also ran. Mr. Naylor helped the field 
with two of his, whilst Mr, Ten Broeck and Sir Joseph 
Hawley were also represented. Mr. Hodgman, Sir F. 
Johnstone, Mr. Saville, and other good patrons of the 
turf, sent their horses to the starting-post. At one 
j)oint of the struggle it was thought that General Peel 
had the race at his mercy, and loud cries Avent up of 
' Lord Glasi^ow wins !' but the winner was not lonsf 
left in doubt, as IJlair Athol, who had been ridden 
hard all along the line, won easily enough in the end 
by two lengths, the General having ' tired to nothing ' 
some little distance from home. The betting was as 
follows : 9 to 2 against Scottish Chief, 5 to 1 against 
General Peel (winner of the Two Thousand), 11 to 2 
afjainst Birch Broom, 7 to 1 ao;ainst Cambuscan, and 
13 to 1 as^ainst Blair Athol. Net value of the stakes, 
£6,450. Mr. Jackson was reputed at the time to have 
won £30,000 by the victory of Blair Athol, whilst he 
also stood to win £20,000 if General Peel had proved 
successful. Mr. PAnson, in addition to the stakes, took 
less than £10,000 out of the ring. No bis^ sums were 
won, but the public won largely in little amounts. 
Some patrons of the stable, indeed, were under the 
impression the horse would not start ! Blair Athol 
had never appeared to run on a racecourse till the 
day he won the Derby. He was considered one of the 
three best animals of his time, and it was hoped that 
he would earn a great reputation at the stud, at which, 
however, he proved a failure, 



Fille de I'Air, the property of Count de Lagrange, 
ridden by A. Edwards, won the Oaks, with odds of 
11 to 8 laid against her; Baron Rothschild's Breeze, 
ridden by Daley, was second, the same owner's Tomato 
being third. There were 188 subscribers, and nineteen 
starters. The race was won very cleverly by halt" a 
length. The winner was bred for her owner at Dangu, 
in Normandy, where was situated his stud-farm ; she 
was by Faugh-a-Ballagh out of Pauline, her sire having 
in his racing days been a horse of great reputation, 
having won the St. Leger and the Cesarewitch, carry- 
ing the wonderfully great weight for a three-year-old 
of 8st. 

As * the French year ' is noticed at length in 
jggg another part of this volume, it is un- 
Gkdiateur. necessary to do more here than give the 
names of the placed horses ; these were : 

Count F. de Lagrange's b. c. Gladiateur, by Monarque out 
of Miss Gladiator --------1 

Mr. R. Walker's br. c. Christmas Carol, by Rataplan out of 
Middleton 2 

Mr. Robinson's ch. c. Eltham, by Marsyas out of Butterfly - 3 

Mr. Spencer's br. c. Longdown, by Rattle out of Subtilty - 4 

The respective jockeys were H. Grimshaw,T. French, 
S. Adams, and J. Osborne. In addition to the above, 
there were twenty- six other horses in the field. Lords 
Stamford, Poulet, Durham, Glasgow, and Westmore- 
land sending runners. Baron Rothschild, Messrs. 
Chaplin, Merry, Bowes, and T. Parr also sent their 
representatives. The net value of the stakes (249 
subscribers) was £6,875. 

Mr. Harlock's Regalia won the Oaks, steered to 


victory by Jockey Norman ; Mr. Kenny's Wild Agnes 
was second, and Baron Rothschild's Zephyr ran third. 
Regalia, with odds of 20 to 1 betted against her, won, 
•hands down,' by ten lengths. There were 197 sub- 
scribers and eighteen starters, the net value of the 
stakes being £5,300. 

"With odds of 6 to 5 on him, Lord Lyon Avon the 
Derby Stakes in 1866. the richest of all the races ibr 
1866 '^^^ ' Blue Ribbon ' that had yet been run, 
LordLj-on. ^\^q j^q^ value of the stakes having been 
£7,350. The owner, Mr. Sutton, won, it was said at 
the time, £58,000 in bets, part of that sum being the 
£10,000 to £100 which he took when the horse was a 
yearling. Mr. Sutton was also in this happy position, 
that had his own horse lost the race and Rustic 
won, he would have landed £17,000, whilst the one 
that was placed second would have brought him half 
that sum : by each of the others he stood to win 
£7,000. Lord Lyon had previously won the Two 
Thousand. The horses placed were : 

Mr. R. Sutton's b. c. Lord Lyon, by Stockwell out of 
Paraclitjm ...-..-.-1 

Lord Ailesbury's cb. c. Savernake, by Stockwell out of Bribery 2 

Duke of Beaufort's cb. c. Rustic, by Stockwell out of Village 
Lass .....--_.-, 3 

Lord Exeter's Knight of tbe Crescent, by Knight of St. Patrick -i 

Mr. Bowes ran a horse, of which Stockwell was 
also the sire, whilst five ' Newminstcr ' horses took 
part in the race. Custance rode the winner, and is 
described as havinfj won * one of the moct excitincj 
and punishing races ever witnessed, by a head only.' of the racing papers of the date states that, ' from 


being first favourite, Lord Lyon, as a matter of course, 
was the idol of most of the prophets and tipsters/ which 
meant that these gentlemen then, as now, were in the 
habit of following the money. Westwood, Vespasian, 
Strathconan, and Monarch of the Glen were among the 
twenty-six runners. There were 274 subscribers in 
Lord Lyon's year. 

Tormentor, the property of Mr. B. E. Dunbar, won 
the Oaks, the rider being J. Mann, Mr. Merry's Mirella 
being second, and the Duke of Beaufort's Ischia third. 
There were 175 subscribers, and seventeen fillies came 
to the starting-post. 

Hermit's Derby was in some respects the most 

sensational of all the long series of these races. The 

18G7. horse, starting with the wonderful odds of 

Hermit, -yi)^ to 1 against him, won, just by a nook, 
one of the most excitirg races ever known, being 
remarkably well ridden by J. Daley, thus enabling 
Mr. Chaplin to win the Derby at the third time of 
asking. The horses placed in this year's race were : 

Mr. Chaplin's ch. c. lieriuit, by Newiiiinster out of Seclusion 1 
Mr. Merry's ch. c. Marksman, by Dundee out of Shot - - 2 
Duke of Beaufort's br. c. Vauban, by Muscovite out of Palm 3 
Duke of Hamilton's b. c. Wild Moor, by Wild Dayrell out of 
Golden Horn 4 

Messrs. -Saville, Eastwood, and J. Johnstone 
each ran two. Amongst the horses that ran were 
Taraban, Tynedale, Van Amburgh, The Rake, The 
Palmer, Julius, and Uncas. Vauban, winner of the 
Two Thousand Guineas, ridden by George Fordham, 
started favourite in Hermit's year, with odds of G to 4 
against him ; The Palmer, at 7 to 1, was made sccoi d 


favourite. There were 256 subscribers, thirt}' of which 
came to the post. The net value of the stakes 
amouiited to £7,000. A volume of the stories circu- 
lated might easily be collected about 'Hermit's 
Derby ' ; many of them, however, were not founded 
on fact, while the best of them have been so often 
told that they will not bear repetition. About the 
jockey's fee for riding Hermit absurd tales were 
related; as a matter of fact, he was promised £3,000 
if he won the race, and he got the money. A racing 
paper of the day stated that Mr. Chaplin won £141,000 
in bets by the success of his horse, Avhich has since 
earned a fortune for his owner at the stud. The 
horse was purchased from Mr. Blenkiron for a thou- 
sand guineas ! The Duke of Hamilton, who had laid 
£180,000 to £6,000 against Hermit for the Derby, 
must have rejoiced at his good fortune in getting the 
bet declared ' off' long before the day of the race. 

For the Oaks this was Hippia's year, ridden by 
J. Daley. She brought home the * Garter ' to Baron 
Rothschild, winning the race in clever fashion by 
a length. Colonel Pearson and Mr. J. Osborne ran a 
dead heat for second honours with Achievement and 
Romping Girl. The winner started at 12 to 1, 3 to 1 
being laid on Achievement, who was made favourite. 
206 subscribers, eight runners. 

The eighty- ninth Derby was won by Sir Joseph 

Hawley, his horse, Blue Gown, ridden by Wells, being 

1863. declared the victor. Green Sleeve and 

Blue Gown. Rosicrucian being also started by Sir 

Joseph. Lady Elizabeth was made favourite, odds 


of 7 to 4 bcino^ laid ao^ainst her ; but she never showed 
prr ninently in the race, and 'the Lady EHzabeth 
scandal ' was for a long time a prominent theme of 
controversy, whilst the fortunes and misfortunes of 
the Marquis of Hastings have been over and over 
again discussed in journals and other periodicals 
devoted to the interests of the turf. The three placed 
horses were : 

Sir J. Hawley's b. c. Blue Gown, by Beadsman - - - 1 
Baron Rothschild's b. c. King Alfred - - - - - 2 

Duke of Newcastle's b. c. Speculum - - - - - 3 

Norman rode the second horse, and Ken3'on had 
the handling of Speculum. Other horses of note in 
the race were Mr. Hodgman's Paul Jones (which, in 
expectation of its victory, had a large following), 
St. Ronan, the property of Mr. Chaplin, and Lord 
Wilton's See-Saw. Baron Rothschild also ran Suffolk, 
whilst Lord Glasgow was represented by Brother to 
Bird-on-the-Win<;. Pace, a horse belonsfinsf to the 
Duke of ^'ewcastle, broke down, and did not run, but 
the field numbered eighteen, and there were 260 sub- 
scribers, the value of the stakes, as jjiven in the 
' Calendar,' being £G,800. Sir Joseph declared to win 
with either Rosicrucian or Green Sleeve in preference 
to Blue Gown, which the public would have, despite 
the fact that the owner would not have it. It was said 
that the jockey, on being ottered his choice of the 
three, selected Blue Gown, which started at odds of 
7 to 2, Paul Jones being next in demand at 8 to 1. 
The race was won by half a length. Several mishaps 
occurred in the course of the struggle. Samson broke 
down, and Lord Ailosbury's Franchise, a chestnut 


filly, broke her leg, and was destroyed. Sir Joseph 
sold Blue Gown to the Prussians for £7,000. During 
his three-year-old career the horse had won £10,000 
for his owner in stakes alone, includin-jf, of course, the 
Derby, the fourth of the series which fell to the 
Kingsclere breeder. Blue Gown was trained by Mr. 
John Porter. 

The Oaks of 1868 fell to Formosa, ridden by G. 
Fordham. Lady Coventry ran into second place, 
J. Daley being her rider. Athena, the property of 
Mr. Padwick, was placed third. Lady Elizabeth was 
also among the starters, but not one of the eight fillies 
was able to keep Formosa out of the first place, which 
she gained by ten lengths. There were 215 sub- 
scribers, and the stakes amounted to a sum of 

Starting ' first favourite ' for the Derby of this year, 
and ridden by John Osborne, Pretender, winner of the 
1869. Two Thousand Guineas, beat Sir Joseph 
Pretender. Hawley's Pero Gomez by a liead, and by so 
doing secured the 'Blue Ribbon ' for Mr. Johnstone. 
Many persons, however, would not accept the verdict 
of the judge, maintaining that Pero Gomez had won; 
and Avhcn that horse won the St. Leger, in which 
Pretender was not in the first three, the usual cry of 
' Didn't I tell you that ?' was everywhere heard. The 
three placed horses were : 

Mr. J. Johnstone's br. c. Pretender, by Adventurer - - 1 
Sir J. Hawley's br. c. Pero Gomez - - - - - 2 

Mr. G. Jones's b. c. The Drummer - - - - - 3 

Wells and Morris rode the second and third. 


Martyrdom, Belladrum, Perrydown, Rhjsliworth, Ladas, 
Alpenstock, and Ethus also ran in the Derby of 1869, 
for which there were 247 subscribers and twenty-two 
runners, the stakes being valued at the sum of £G,225. 
The race was won by a head, there being a length 
between the second and third. Betting: 11 to 8 
afi"ainst Pretender, 11 to 2 as^ainst Pero Gomez, and 6 
to 1 against Belladrum. 

Sir F. Johnstone won the Oaks, the ninety-first of 
the series, by the aid of his filly Brigantine, which 
was ridden by Cannon. Sir Joseph Hawley's Morna 
was second, and Sir R. W. Bulkeley's Martinique 
third. The race was won by two lengths, Morna 
starting favourite with odds of 6 to 4 against her. 
There Avcre 187 subscribers and fifteen runners. 
Value of the stakes, £4,550. Brigantine ran in the 
One Thousand Guineas, being placed third. Scottish 
Queen, the winner of the One Thousand, was not 
placed in the Oaks. Morna achieved second honours 
in both of these races. 

It was not to be wondered at that MacGregor should 

start a ' red-hot favourite ' for the Derby of this year, 

jg-Q seeing that he had previously won the Two 

Kingcraft. Thousaud Guiucas by five lengths — King- 
craft running third. It will be Avell in the recollection 
of all race-goers that the defeat of Mr. Merry's horse 
caused quite ' a sensation,' and that all sorts of ugly 
stories Avere circulated regarding the untoward event, 
which affected many thousandswho had backedhim,Mr. 
Merry's horses being always heavily supported by the 
public. No true reason for the defeat of MacGregor 


was ever arrived at ; but many suppositions, some of 
them ugly enough, have from time to time been made. 
In 1870 the field numbered fifteen hor.Des, of which, as 
usual, three Avere placed, these being : 

Lord Falmouth's b, c. Kingcraft, by King Tom - - - 1 
]Mr. W. S. Crawford's br. c. Paluierston - - - - 2 

Lord Wilton's bl. c. Muster - - - - - - -3 

The race was won by four lengths, T. French riding. 
MacGregor, ridden by George Fordham, only obtained 
the fourth place ; Mr. Joseph Dawson ran two horses, 
King o' Scots and Camel. Lord Stamford's Normanby, 
second in the Guineas, also ran ; the third in the 
Guineas was Kinj^craft. The bettinsr at the start was 
9 to 4 on- MacGregor, 20 to 1 against Kingcraft. 
Muster does not seem to have had a quotation. Two 
hundred and fifty-two subscribers ; value of the 
stakes, £6,175. 

Fordham rode the winner of the Oaks, Games, the 
property of Mr. G. Jones, which won by a length from 
Mr. Merry's Sunshine, Mr. England's Pate being third. 
Mr. Joseph Dawson's Hester was made favourite at even 
money ; the price of Gamos was 12 to 8. One hundred 
and eighty-seven subscribers ; seven started. 

This was ' The Baron's year,' and there were many 

who took advantage of the advice given to ' follow The 

187J Baron,' who this year won the Derby, Oaks, 

Favonius. gt_ Lcgcr, and Cesarewitch, as well as some 
other races of lesser value. A felicitous name was 
chosen for the Zephyr colt when it was called 
Favonius. In 1871 there was a dead h'jat for 


vsecond honours. The following were named by the 
judge : 

Baron Rothschild's ch. c. Favonius - - - - - 1 

Mr. Cartwright's cb. c. Albert Victor - - - - - f 

Mr. Merry's b. c. King of. the Forest - - - - - t 

Mr. G. G. Keswick's bl. c. Digby Grand - - - - 4 

Both well, winner of the Two Thousand Guineas, also 
ran ; likewise Mr. Saville's Ripponden and Mr. Bowes' 
Field- Marshall ; Messrs. Chaplin, Naylor, and H. Jen- 
nings were also represented in the field. The winning 
jockey was T. French. Custance, Snowden, and Ford- 
ham had also mounts. Betting : 5 to 2 against Bothwell, 
4 to 1 Albert Victor, 8 to 1 Pearl, 9 to 1 Favonius. 
Mr. Johnstone, who ran two, declared to win with 
Bothwell. Two hundred and eight subscribers ; 
seventeen starters. Value of the stakes, £5,125. 

Hannah won the Oaks, and was followed home by 
Noblesse, Hopbine, and six other fillies. ' The Baron ' 
also ran Corisande, but declared to win with Hannah, 
who was ridden by Maidment- The Pearl also started. 
The betting was 6 to 5 against Hannah, who won the 
race by three-quarters of a length. One hundred and 
seventy- five subscribers. 

* Won by a head,' Avas the verdict in favour of the 
1872. horse which came in first for the ninety- third 
Cremorne. renewal of the Derby Stakes, beating twenty- 
two competitors. The following were placed : 

Mr. H. Saville's b. c. Cremorne, by Parmesan - - - 1 

Mr. J. N. Astley's br. c. Pell Mell 2 

Lord Falmouth's Queen's Messenger - - - - 3 

Cremorne and Queen's Messenger ran second and 


third respectively to Prince Charlie in the Two Thou- 
sand Guineas. Landmark, Almoner, Wenlock and 
Statesman also ran in both races. Prince Charlie, 
although placed second to Wenlock in the St. Leuer, 
did not gain honours in the Derby. Among the other 
candidates for the ' Blue Ribbon ' were Vanderdecken, 
Laburnam, and Bertram. Maidment rode the winner ; 
Chaloner and T. French coming in second and third. 
There were 191 subscribers. Betting: 5 to 2 against 
Prince CharHe, 3 to 1 Cremorne, and G to 1 Queen's 
Messenger. Value of the race, £4,830. 

Reine, by Monarque, the property of Mr. Lefevre, 
ridden by G. Fordham, won the Oak? ; Mr. Cart- 
wright's Louise Victoria being second, and Guadaloupe 
third. 170 subscribers ; seventeen runners. Won by 
half a lenq-th. Betting: 5 to 2 against Louise Victoria, 
3 to 1 Reine. 

Gang Forward and Kaiser, who ran first and second 
in the Two Thousand, could only run a dead-he it for 
1373 second place in the Derby of 1873, which 
Doiicaster. ^^s won by a horse that was not placed in 
the Guineas, and which, starting at 40 to 1, was evidently 
not expected to do much in that race. Six of the 
horses Avhich ran in the big Newmarket event formed 
half the field at Epsom, the rimners-up being : 

Mr. Merry's ch. c. Doncaster, by Stockwell - - - .1 
Mr. W. S. Crawford's ch. c. Gang Forward - - - - f 
Mr. Saville's b. c. Kaiser ....... .-j- 

Montargis, Beadroll, Snail, Andred, Chandos, Hoch- 
stapler, Meter, Somerset, and Sulieman. F. Webb was 


the pilot of the winner ; Chalonerand Maidment beinj^ 
on the dead-heaters. The race was won by a length 
and a half, the odds offered against Doncaster at the 
start being 40 to 1 ; 9 to 4 against Gang Forward, 
4 to 1 against Kaiser. Chandos ran into fourth place. 
There were 201 subscribers. Value of the stakes, 
£4,825. Doncaster has, it may be said, proved a gold- 
mine to the Duke of Westminster, who purchased the 
horse from Mr. Robert Feck at a cost of £14,000, or 
guineas, the animal having been bought by Mr. 
Peck for £4,000 less than that amount from Mr. 
Merry, for whom he trained it ; it has been said 
the purchase of Doncaster was the best day's work 
the Duke ever did, and the sale of the horse the 
worst day's work ever done by Mr. Peck ; but then 
it could not at the time be foreseen that Doncaster 
would prove such a rare good bargain. Mr. John 
Corlett, a well-informed writer on turf affairs, esti- 
mates that the horse and his progeny have been 
worth to the noble Duke considerably over £150,000. 

'It never rains but it pours,' says the old proverb, 
and in Mr. Merry's case it proved true, the Oaks and 
also the St. Leger falling to him by the aid of his 
charming filly Marie Stuart, which, ridden by Cannon, 
beat seventeen competitors (139 subscribers), winning 
the race by five lengths. Wild Myrtle was second, 
Ano-ela third. The odds of 2 to 1 were offered against 
Marie Stuart. Marie Stuart, the winner of both the 
Oaks and St. Leger, was purchased from Mr. JMerry, to 
whom she belonged, for a sum of 3,500 guineas, by 
Mr. W. S. Crawford. 


Lord Falmouth ran tvro of his horses in this year's 
Derby, one of them being Atlantic, the 
George Avinner of the Two Thousand Guineas, but 
Frederick. ^^^ , ^-^^^^ Ribbou ' fell to another gentle- 
man, Mr. Cartwright, who also ran two of his colts. 
The three placed horses were : 

Jvlr. W. S. Cartwright's ch. c. George Frederick, by Marsyas - 1 
liord Rosebery's br. c. Couronne de Fer - - - - 2 

Lord Falmouth's ch. c. Atlantic - - - - - - 3 

The name of the winning jockey was Custance. 
Among the other runners were Ecossais, Glen Almond, 
and Trent. The race was won by two lengths. Mr. 
Merry's horse, Glen Almond, started fiivourite at 9 to 2, 
9 to 1 was laid against George Frederick, and 7 to 1 
ftfjainst Couronne de Fer. There were 212 subscribers, 
twenty horses coming to the starting-post. Value of 
the stakes, £5,350. 

Apology, ridden by John Osborne, won the Oaks by 
three lengths from Miss Toto ; Aventurine was among 
the competitors ; Lady Patricia ran third. Miss Toto 
was favourite with odds of 7 to 4 against her ; Apology 
started at 5 to 2. 182 subscribers, eleven ran. 

There were 198 subscribers to this year's Derby, the 
1875 value of which is set down at £4,950, and a 
Gaiopin. fjeU of eighteen horses came to the post, 
the following three being placed : 

Prince Batthyany's b. c. Gaiopin, by Vedette - - - 1 

]jord Aylesford's b. c. Claremout - - - - - - 2 

Lord Falmouth's Repentance Colt - - - - - 3 

His lordship also ran Garterly Bell. Count de La- 
grange ran two of his horses ; Camballo, which had 


won * the Guineas ' for Mr. Yyner, a] so ran, but was 
not placed. Balfe, Earl of Dartrey, Temple Bar, and 
Woodlands helped to strengthen the field. The placed 
jockeys were Morris, Maidment, and F. Archer. Bet- 
ting : 2 to 1 against Galopin, 100 to 12 against Balfe, 
9 to 1 against Camballo, 100 to 7 against Claremont. 
Won by a length. 

Loid Falmouth ran two in the Oaks, and won with 
Spi laway, ridden by F. Archer; he also ran second 
with Lad3dove, ridden by Constable. Th^re were seven 
runners, the nvnnber of subscribers being 128. The 
race was won by three lengths. 

The race for the Derby Stakes, run on Wednesday, 

May 31st, was won by Kisber, says a brief chronicle of 

jgyg the race, ' in a canter, by five lengths.' 

Kisber. There were 226 subscribers, and fifteen 
horses faced the starter ; these were Mr. Baltazzi's 
Kisber (the winner), Forerunner (second), Julius 
Caesar (third — second in the Two Thousand Guineas), 
Tetrarch (winner of the Two Thousand and St. Leger), 
All Heart, Father Claret, Bay Wyndham, Skylark, 
Great Tom, Coltness, Hardrada, Braconnier, Wild 
Tommy (afterwards second in the St. Leger), Advance, 
and Wisdom. The betting was 7 to 2 against Mr. 
Baltazzi's colt and 2 to 1 against the favourite, 
Petrarch, the winner of the ' Guineas,' which, however, 
only gained fourth honours. Maidment rode the 
winner, Webb, Cannon, and Morris having the mounts 
on the other placed horses. Value of the stakes, 

' The Oaks Stakes of £4,000,' saj^s a racing writer of 


tlie period, ' resulted in a dead-lieat between Mr. 
Lupin's Enguerraiide,by Yermout.and LordFalraoulli's 
Camelia, and the first-named, having wallced over, was 
considered the winner, but the stakes were divided.' 
The winner was ridden by Hudson, Glover having the 
mount on Camelia. There were 164- subscribers, and 
the field comprised fourteen horses. 

Silvio, the property of Lord Falmouth, by the aid 
of F. Archer — now started on his career as an able and 
1S77 prosperous jocke}' — won this year's Derby 
savio. by half a length. There were 245 sub- 
scribers, and seventeen horses came to the starting- 
post, of which four were placed by the judge; these 
were : 

Lord Falmo'ith's b. c. Silvio, by B'air Athol . - » - 1 
Mr. W. S. IVIitchell Innes's b. c. Glen Artbur - - - 2 
Mr. J. T. Jlackenzie's cb. c. Rob Roy - - - - - 3 
Mr. W. Bevill's b. c. Rhidoroch 4 

Other runners were Thunderstone, Chamant, Don 
Carlos, and Touchet. Rob Roy was elected favourite 
in the betting, with odds of 3 to 1 offered against him ; 
the price of the wmner was 100 to 9. Weatherby 
gives the value of the race at £6,050, but, according 
to Cocker, the amount should be £6,550 ; a sum of 
£450 deducted for second and third would therefore 
leave £6,100 to the winner. 

The ninety-ninth race for the Oaks fell to JMr. 
Pulteney's Placide, ridden by H, Jeffrey, Belphoebe 
second, Muscatel third. Lady Golightly and five 
others ran, including Lord Wilton's Quickstep. The 
race was won by threc-auarters of a lenoth. 



The ninety-ninth renewal of the Derby Stakes was 
jgyg contested by a field of twenty-two horses. 
Sefton. To the race of 1878 there were 231 sub- 
scribers. The following were placed : 

Mr. W. S. Crawfurd's b. c. Sefton, by Speculum - - - 1 
Count F. de Lagrange's bl. c. Iiisulaire - - - - 2 

Lord Falmouth's b. c. Ohilderic - - - - - - 3 

The jockeys of these horses were Constable, Goater, 
and Archer; the race was won by a length and a half. 
In the field were Thurio, Attalus, and two of Count 
de Lagrange's horses, in addition to tlie one placed 
second, which started favourite with odds of 100 to 80 
betted as^ainst it. Bonnie Scotland, one of Lord Rose- 
bery's — his lordship ran two — was second favourite; 
100 to 12 was laid acjainst Sefton. The value of the 
race, as given in the ' Book (Calendar,' was £5,825. 

On Friday, June 7th, was run the hundredth Oaks, 
which Avas secured by Lord Falmouth by the aid of 
Jannctto, ridden by F. Archer. Pilgrimage, the pro- 
perty of Lord Lonsdale, was second, and was made 
favourite m the betting at even money, in consequence, 
no doubt, of its victory in the Two Thousand and One 
Thousand Guineas, in the latter of which she beat 
Jannette by three-quarters of a length. Clementina 
was third in both races. 212 subsci-ibers; eight ran. 

The one hundredth renewal of the Derby Stakes, run 

on Wednesday, May 28th, was signalized by a circum- 

jgyg stance with which many persons were grati- 

Sir Bevys. fjed : it was the winning of the Derby by 
George Fordham, atone period the 'chief jockey ' of the 


United Kingdom, and undoubtedly an able and honest 
horseman, who had often before been entrusted with a 
' Derby mount,' but had never proved successful. The 
hoi-se he rode was Sir Bevys, which started at the 
odds of 20 to 1, and was said to have Avon the race 
because ' the state of the ground made it heavy going,' 
etc., etc. The first three were : 

Mr, Acton's br. c. Sir Bevys, by FavoniiK - - - - 1 
Mr. J. Trotter's ch. c. Palmbearcr - - > - - 2 

Lord Rosebery's br, c. Visconti - - ^ - - - 3 

Lord Falmouth's Charibert, winner of ' the Guineas,' 
also ran ; likewise Victor Chief, Cadogan, Rayon d' Or, 
Zut, and Riiporra. The betting was 9 to 2 against 
Cadoi^'an, 5 to 1 against Victor Chief, 6 to 1 accainst 
Charibert, ^^ to 1 Visconti, and 100 to 1 Palmbearer. 
' Won by three-quarters of a length ; alength between 
the second and third.' 278 subscribers ; twenty- 
three runners. The value of the stakes to the winner 
is given in the Calendar at £7,025 ; but if all the sub- 
scribers paid, the vahie of the race should be stated 
at £7,525, of which the second horse earns £300, and 
the third £150. 

This year the 'Garter of the Turf was awarded to 
Lord Falmouth. Wheel of Fortune, ridden by F. 
Archer, won the race by three lengths in a field of 
eight competitors. Mr, Cookson's Coromandel IL 
took second honours, the Duke of Westminster 
running into third place Avith Adventure. 189 

. Bend Or's Derby may certainly claim a place among 



the more sensational of these races, seeing that the 
jggg horse was objected to on the ground that 
Bend Or. j^g vvas not the horse he was represented to 
be either in the entry or at the time of the race ; and 
so there arose what was known at the time as a ' Bend 
Or scare,' and there are many who still beheve, not- 
withstanding the decision of the stewards, that Bend 
Or was a changeling. The decision of the stewards 
was worded as follows : ' We, as stewards of Epsom, 
unanimously decide that the chestnut colt Bend Or, 
which came in first for the Derby of 1 880, is by Don- 
caster out of Rouge Rose, and therefore the objection 
lodged by Messrs. Brewer and Blanton is overruled.' 
Additional particulars of the Bend Or fright will be 
found on another page. The following were among 
the runners : 

Duke of Westminster ch. c. Eend Of, by Doncastcr - - 1 

Mr. C. Brewer's Robert the Devil 2 

Prince Soltjkoff's ch. c. Mask - - - - - - 3 

F. Archer rode the winner. Muncaster also ran for 
the Duke of Westminster, and two of Lord Rosebery's 
horses helped to swell the field ; Mr. R. Jardine ran 
Teviotdale ; Cylinder and Apollo also ran. The winner 
started favourite with odds of 2 to 1 betted against him. 
Yon Der Tann, the property of Lord Calthorpe, was 
second favourite at 100 to 15 against ; Robert the 
Devil's price in the quotations was 7 to 1. 256 
subscribers ; nineteen starters. Value, £0,375. The 
race was won by a head. 

Jenny Howlet, the property of Mr. Perkins, starting 
with odds of 33 to 1 against her, and ridden by Snow- 


den, beat twelve opponents and won the Oaks ; Bonnie 
Maiden second, War- Horn third. Versign}^ was made 
favourite at G to 5. 187 subscribers. Won easily by- 
four lenfTths. 

This may be called the American year, and when 

the made-up word ' Iropertow,' denoting, as per 

1881 arrangement, the iirst three in the race, 

Iroquois, -yyas received in New York, the rejoicing in 
s])ortin2f circles was somethinsf wonderful to behold. 
The word is composed of the first three letters of the 
names of the tirst three horses in the race ; these were • 

Mr. P. Lorillard's br. c. Iroquois, by Leamiagtoa - - - 1 
Mr. Grosvenor's br. c. Peregrine - - - - - - 2 

Lord Rosebery's b. c. Town Moor - - - - - - 3 

In addition to these there were among the starters 
Prince Soltykoffs Scobell, Mr. T. Gretton's Geologist, 
Lord Rosebery's Voluptuary, Mr. Keene's Don Fulano, 
Mr. Lefevre's Tristan, and eight other horses belong- 
ing to various owners, so that the field comprised six- 
teen animals, Iroquois winning the race by half a 
length. The American horse was ridden by F. Archer, 
Webb and Lemaire riding second and third respec- 
tively. Peregrine, as winner of the Two Thousand, 
was made favourite in the Derby betting, the quota- 
tion beinor 6 to 5 against him ; 1 1 to 2 was laid against 
Iroquois, which was second in the Guineas ; Geologist 
was next in demand, whilst 25 to 1 was laid against 
Town Moor. For this year's Derby there were 242 
subscribers, the value of the stakes being £5,925. 

Furdham this year rode the winner of the Oaks, 


Tliebais, the property of Mr. W. S. Crawfiird, whicli 
won easily by three lengths, beating eleven competi- 
tors ; Lucy Glitters was second, Myra third. There 
were 182 subscribers to the Oaks of i881. 

Although Shotover won the Two Thousand Guineas, 

Bruce started favourite for this year's Derby, ridden 

188'2 '^y ^- Mordan ; but that horse was not 

Shotover. destined to prove the winner, as the follow- 
ing list of the placed horses will show : 

Duke of Westminster's ch. f. Shotover, by Hermit - - 1 

Lord liradford's b. c. Quicklime - - - - - - 2 

Mr. P. Lonllard's ch. c. Sacheoi - - - - - - ?> 

Mr. IJ. II V mill's b. c, Bruce - - - . - . .i 

Among the other ten runners which, with the above, 
comprised the field, and which were afterwards known 
as horses of mark, were Lord Falmouth's filly Dutch 
Oven and Count de Lagrange's horse Executor. T. 
Cannon was entrusted with the handling of the Duke's 
lilly, whilst Wood and Webb rode the second and 
third. Letting: 9 to 4 against Bruce, 11 to 2 against 
Shotover, 10 to 1 against Dutch Oven. Shotover won 
the race by three-quarters of a length. 197 sub- 
scribers. Value of the race, £4,775. 

T. Cannon was so fortunate as to ride the winners 
of both races. The first three were Geheimniss, the 
property of Lord Stamford, Mr. W. S Crawfurd's 
Marguerite, and Mr. L. de Rothschild's Nellie. Lord 
Stamford also ran Incognito, and Count de Lagrange's 
Lady May completed the field. The betting is re- 
corded as being G to 4 on Geheimniss. There were 


150 subscribers, the value of the stakes being £3,375. 
* Won by two lengths.' 

Eleven horses only came to the post on AVednesday, 
iggg May 24th, although the entries numbered 
St. Blaise. 215, and the value of the race was £5,150. 
The first three were : 

Sir F. Johnstone's ch. c. St. Blaise, by Hermit • - - 1 
Lord Ellesmere's b. c. Highland Chief - - - - - 2 
Lord Falmouth's br. c. Galliard 3 

The Prince, Splendor, Goldfield, Beau Erummel, 
Ladislas, Laocoon, Sigmaphone and Bon Jour were 
the other runners. GaUiard, as Avinner of the Two 
Thousand Guineas, started favourite with odds of 
7 to 2 betted against him, 5 to 1 each against The 
Prince, Goldfield and St. Blaise. Charles Wood rode 
the winner, and 'won by a neck' was the verdict of 
the judge, although many who were present thought 
that victory had fallen to Highland Chief. 

Lord Roseber}', owner of the Durdans Estate at 
Epsom, whose great ambition is, it is said, to win the 
Derby, obtained this year a foretaste of good fortune 
in whining the Oaks with his fill}' Bonny Jean, whj ;h 
was steered to victory by J. Watts. The betting at 
the start was 5 to 1 against his lordship's mare, which, 
with thirteen horses behind her, obtained a very easy 
victory. There were 145 subscribers to the race. 

,_, The hundred and fifth Derby resulted 

1884. . . -^ 

St. Gaiien and in a dead-hcat, the dual winners being 
St. Gatien and Harvester, who beat their 
eleven opponents. The following were the placings : 


Mr. J. Hammond's b. c. St. Gatien, by Rotheihill or Hover ) .. 
Sir J. Willoughby'.s br, c. Harvester . - - . j 

Sir J. Wilioughby's ch. f. Queen Adel.iide - - - - 3 

Mr. W. Stevenson's ch. c. Waterford - - - - - 4 

St. Medard, Talisman, Loch Ranza, Ercst, Bedouin, 
Beaucbamp, Borneo, Bichmond, Condor, Woodstock 
and The Hopeful Dutchman made up the field of 
seventeen. The jockeys who brought about the dead- 
heat were C. Wood and S. Loates. 'Jlie betting 
against the placed horses was as follows : 5 to 2 
Queen Adelaide, 100 to 9 Waterford, 100 to 8 St. 
Gatien, and 100 to 7 Harvester. 189 subscribers. Value 
of the race, £4,900. Verdict, 'A dead heat; Queen 
Adelaide beaten two lengths.' St. Medard and 
Harvester ran second and third in the Two Thou- 

Mr. Abington's b. f. Busybody won the Oaks, Mr. 
Peck's Superba being second, Queen Adelaide third. 
Cannon rode the winner, which started at odds on of 
105 to J 00, and took the race by half a length. 148 
subscribers ; nine starters. 

Twelve horses started for the Derby, which was 
jgg5 run on Wednesday, June 3rd, to which 
Melton, there were 198 subscribers, the value of the 
race being £4,525. The order of placing was : 

Lord Hastings' b. c. Melton, by Master Kildare - - - 1 

Mr. Brodrick-Cloete's Paradox 2 

Mr. Child wicks b. c. Itoyal Hampton - - - - - 3 

F. Archer, C. Webb, and A. Giles rode these horses; 
in addition to which the following ran : Xaintrailles, 
Red Ruin, Sheraton, Choubra, Esterling, Crafion, 


Luminary, Lj'nette Colt and Kingwood. ' Won by a 
head, a bad third.' 

Lord Cadogan's br. f. Lonely, by Hermit, ridden by 
Archer, won the Oaks of the year, and was followed 
home by St. Helena, Cipollina, and seven other fillies. 
The winner started favourite at odds of 85 to 40 
against her. There were 144 subscribers, and the race 
was won by a length and a half. 

Winner of the Two Thousand, Derby, and St. 
1836. I''6ger, the Duke of Westminster added 
Ormoiuie. largely to his turf successes by the aid of 
Ormonde. The first three in the Derby were : 

Diike of Westminstei's b. c. Ormonde, by Bend Or - - 1 

Mr. R. Peck'.s ch. c. The P.ard 2 

Mr. Manton's br. c. St. Mirin - - - - - - 3 

Button Park, Ariel, Scherzo, Coracle, Grey Friars, 
and Chelsea ako ran. Archer rode the winner, which, 
starting with odds of 9 to 4 laid on him, won the race 
by a length and a half, 199 subscribers, and nine 
starters. Value, £4,700. 

Miss Jummy, the property of the Duke of Hamilton, 
won the Oaks, beating Argo Navis, Braw Lass, and 
nine others. Webb rode the winner, which, starting 
at evens, won the race by half a length. 138 sub- 

Mr. Abington may be said to have obtained at 
almost the first time of askinjj what other 


Merry Hamp- men have tried for many long years to 

obtain — namely, the honour of winning 

the Derby — and have not succeeded. Of the 100 


subscribers who entered for the 'Bhie Ribbon 'of 18S7, 
Mr. Abington was the man to whom victory fell by 
the aid of his horse Merry Humptoi), ridden by John 
Watts, which came in tirst in a field of eleven, win- 
ning the race by four lengths ; Mr. Fern's The Baron 
obtained second place, Martley being third. Among 
the runners were Aintree, Eiridspord, and Grandison. 
The Baron was made favourite in the betting, and 
started with odds of 5 to 4 on him ; Eiridspord and 
Martley were next in demand ; whilst the price of the 
winner was 100 to 9. The value of the stakes was 

His Grace the Duke of Beaufort secured the Oaks 
by the aid of Reve d'Or, C. Wood being the successful 
jockey. The filly started with odds of 11 to 4 betted 
on her, and raced away from eight competitors, beating 
St. Helen, wlio was second, by three lengths. There 
Avere 142 subscribers to the race. 

Ridden by F. Barrett, and with odds of 6 to 5 laid 
jj^gj, on him, Ayrshire credited the ])uke of 
Ayrshire. Portland with the ' Blue Ribbon of the 
Turf.' The following horses comprised the field : 

Duke of Portland's Ayrshire - - - - - 1 

1\.\\ Vyner'a Crowberry .-.-..-2 

Mr. C. D. Rose's Van Dieman's Land - - - - - 3 

Galore, Orbit, Chillington, Nether Avon, Simon ruvc, 
and Gautby. Ayrshire had previously won the Rid- 
dlesworth Stakes at Newmarket, beating his sole 
opponent by twenty lengths. The Two Thousand 
Guineas was also won by the same horse, beating the 


field of five that opposed him. There were 1G3 sub- 
scribers, and as has been stated, nine runners, the 
vahie of the stakes being given in the turf-guides as 
£3,075. Osborne, Watts, Webb, and Cannon, as also 
Loates, Robinson, Rickaby, and Elliot had mounts in 
the race, which was won by two lengths. 

Six filhes only out of 132 entered came to the 
starting-post to compete for the 'Garter of the Turf,' 
which was secured by Lord Calthorpe's Seabreeze, 
ridden by F. Robinson ; Rada was second, and Belle 
Mahone third. The judge's brief descripticm was: 
' Won by two lengths.' 

The Derby of 1889 requires the briefest possible 

chronicle, as the race cannot yet have been forgotten. 

jggg It was won for the Duke of Portland by 

Douovan. Donovan, Avhich did not win the Two 
Thousand Guineas, but afterwards won the St. Leger 
at Doncaster, and, in the course of the year, several 
other races. There were thirteen in the competing 
field, the first three bei£.g . 

Tbe Duke of Portland's Djnovan - - - - - - 1 

Mr. J. Gratton's Miguel - - -J 

Mr. D. Baird's El Dorado ;} 

The other horses started for the race wore Pioneer, 
Gay Hampton, Morgla}^ Laureate (winner of the 
Cambridgeshire), Enthusiast, The Turcophone, Gulliver, 
Folengo, Glover, and Royal Star. Donovan was 
ridden by T. Loates, Miguel by G. Barrett, El Dorado 
by T. Camion. ' Won by a length and a half.' 1G9 


subscribers. Value of tlie stakes, £4,550. Betting : 
11 to 8 on Donovan, 25 to 1 against Miguel, 100 to 8 
ao;ainst El Dorado. 

The Oaks of this year was secured by Lord Randolph 
Churchill by the aid of L'Abbesse dc Jourarre, ridden by 
J. Woodburn, Minthe being second, and Seclusion third. 
'Won by a neck.' There were 112 subscribers, and 
twelve came to the post. 

The Derby stakes, 1890, took place at Epsom, June 
4th. The weather was showery, dull and unsettled. 

Eiglit horses faced the starter and the race was won 
by Sir James Miller's chestnut colt Sainfoin by three- 
quarters of a length. Mr. Lcfevre's chestnut colt Le 
Nord finished second, a neck before the Duke of West- 
minster's brown colt Orwell, tliird. Surefoot, the all 
winter and post favorite, was fourth. 

The result of the race created the most tremendous 
excitement. Surefoot, the winner of the two thousand 
guineas, had been backed to win to the extent of hundreds 
of thousands of pounds. Among his backers were large 
nimil^ers of the aristocratic classes and they suffered 

A full summary of the race is as follows : — 

The Derby stakes of 5,000 sovs. for the winner, 500 

sovs. for the nominator of the winner, 300 sovs. for the 

1890. owner of the second and 200 sovs. for the 

Sainfoin, owner of the third ; for colts 9 st. and fillies 
8 st. 9 lbs. ; for three-year-olds ; by subscription of 50 
sovs. each ; half forfeit if declared by the first Tuesday 
in January, 1890, and 10 sovs. only if declared by the 


first Tuesday iu January, 1889 ; any surplus to l^e paid 
to the winner ; about a mile and a half, startino; from 
the high level starting post; 233 subscribers, 106 of 
whom paid 25 sovs. each and 63, 10 sovs. eaeli. 

Sir James Miller cli. c. Sainfoin, by Springfield - - - 1 

Mr. Lefevre's ch. c. Le Nord. by Tristan - - - - 2 

l^uke of Westminster's b. c. Orwell, by Bend Or - - - 3 

!Mr. A. W. IMerry's b. c. Surefoot, by Wisdom - - - 4 

Mr. N. J. Corballv's b. c. Rathbeal, bv Boulevard - - 5 

Mr. E. W. Baird's b. c. GoMen Gate, "by Bend Or - - 6 

3Ir. James Wliite's ch. c. Kirkham. by Chester - - - 7 

Mr. James Snarry's b. c. JIastagon, by Bend Or - - - 8 
Time, 2:49i 

T]ic Bettiiir/. 

40 to 95. Surefoot, 1 to 8 place. 
7 to 1, Sainibin, 1 to 2 place. 
] 4 to i , Le Nord, 4 to 5 place. 
14 to 1, Ratiibeal, 7 to 1 place. 
50 to ] , Golden Gate, 4 to 1 place. 
50 to 1, Kirkham, Ah to 1 place. 
100 to 1, Orwell, 5 to 1 place. 
100 to 1, Mastagon, 7 to 1 place. 

The Race. — The horses got away at the first attempt. 
Orv/ell took the lead at the start and made the running 
slowly. He was followed by Sainfoin, while Le Nord 
and Surefoot were the last to get off. AVhen the mile 
])Ost was reached Orwell showed well in front. In 
making the hill for Tottenham Corner Sainfoin took the 
lead, and coming on won by three-quarters of a length. 
Le Nord was second a neck before Orwell, third. Sure- 
foot was beaten 500 yards from home, and came in a 
head behind OrAvell. The winner was ridden by AA'^atts. 

The wiimer, Sainfoin, Avas bred at Her ^Majesty's stud 
and was trained by John Porter. As a two-year-old 


Sainfoin won the Astley stakes, his only start, and won 
the Dee stakes, at Chester, in April He was purchased 
by St. James Miller in March, 1890, for £7,000 and a 
contingency — half the net amount of the stakes if he 
won the Derby. 


Oaks stakes of 4,000 sovs. to the winner. It was 
won by the Duke of Portland's brown filly Memoir by 
St. Simon — Quiver, Chevalier Ginistrelli's brown filly 
Signorina, by St. Simon — Star of Portici, was second 
and Mr. J. H. Houldsworth's bay filly Ponza, by 
Springfield — Napoli, was third. The other starters 
were the Duke of Portland's bay filly Semolina, Mr. 
Manton's chestnut filly Shall We Eemember, Sir W. 
Throckmorton's chestnut filly Albertine and Prince 
Soltykoff's chestnut filly Star, 

Semolina was first away and held the lead to the dis- 
tance post. Here Memoir came out and was never after- 
ward headed, M'inning by three-quarters of a length. 
There were two lengths between Signorina and Ponza. 
Semolina was fourth. The winner was ridden by F. 

The last betting -was 4 to 1 against Memoir; even 
money against Signorina ; 1 2 to 1 against Ponza ; 4 
to 1 against Semolina ; 33 to 1 against Shall \Ye Re- 
member, and 66 to 1 each against Albertine and Star. 




Cu!V;;:;;r,u; :.