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THE BOHEMIAN JINKS 

A Treatise 




THE STAGE IN DAYTIME 



The 

BOHEMIAN 

JINKS 

A Treatise 



By 
PORTER GARNETT 



BOHEMIAN CLUB 

SAN FRANCISCO 

MCMVIII 



Copyright. I90& 
By Porter Garnett 



PRINTED BY THE HICKS-JUDD CO. S. F. 






ACKNOWLEDGMENT 



The author expresses his grateful acknowl- 
edgment for permission to write this treatise 
granted on February 8, 1908, by the Board of 
Directors of the Bohemian Club constituted as 
follows : 

Frederic W. Hall, President 
William Ff. Smith, Jr., Vice-president 
Paul Cowles, Secretary 

Fred G. Sanborn, Treasurer 

Laurie Bunten Francis P. McLennan 

James McNab Wallace A. Sabin 

Albert P. Redding 

George W. Turner Thomas S. Wilson 

and also his sincere appreciation of the assist- 
ance and encouragement given him by the present 
board : 

J. Wilson Shiels, President 
John Landers, Vice-President 
John B. Leighton, Secretary 

William Letts Oliver, Treasurer 

E. Courtney Ford Philip Mills Jones 

Louis Lisser James McNab 

Francis P. McLennan 

Albert P. Redding George W. Turner 

July, 1908. 

[vii] 

800129 



IN PREFACE 



' M ^ HE grove-plays of the Bohemian 
-* Club in their present type, which 
they have reached only after a gradual 
development of thirty years, present what 
must be acknowledged to be a significant 
phenomenon in art. That this growth 
toward something distinctive should have 
taken place here in California, where we 
are sufficiently far away from the rest of 
the world, and whither sophistication in 
art reluctantly pervenes, is, in a way, 
extraordinary ; and yet it is our very isola- 
tion that is at the root of the creative im- 
pulse displayed in these forest dramas. 

The Midsummer High Jinks, as they arc 
called, of the Bohemian Club have carried 
the name of the organization over seas 
until, among a certain class of persons in 
every part of the world, it is as familiar as 
[ix] 



In Preface 

that of the city in which it has its home. 
Unfortunately the annual encampments of 
the Bohemians are associated in some 
persons' minds with the license of a 
Dionysiac revel, and the woodland perfor- 
mances with which they end hare been 
given a facticious celebrity which militates 
against their serious comsidcration as 
works of art. 

These grove-plays are known to many 
who are unaware of their higher import- 
ance, while, to many who would sense their 
significance, they are unknown. The pur- 
pose of this book, therefore, is to introduce 
to the public a subject with which, in the 
nature of things, it can have no intimate 
acquaintance ; a subject, moreover, which 
it is proper to bring to the attention of 
students of dramatic literature. 

I am indebted for valuable information 

[x] 



/ // Preface 

concerning the early festivals of the club 
to Mr. Hugh M. Burke, Mr. Peter Robert- 
sou, Mr. Vanderlynn Stoic, Dr. H. J. 
Stewart and Captain Robert Howe 
Fletcher, the official historiographer and 
author of The Annals of The Bohemian 
Club. To these, and to many others who 
have enlightened me on minor details, I 
wish to express my sincere thanks. 

P. G. 

Berkeley, July 8, 1908. 



[xi] 



CONTENTS 



T. The Setting 
II. History and Development . 

III. Origin and Analogies 

IV. Synopses 

The Man in the Forest 

Montezuma 

The Hamadryads . 

The Quest of the Gorgon 

The Owl and Care 

The Triumph of Bohemia 

The Sons of Baldur 

Y. Conclusion 

Appendix 

Chronological hist of Jinks 
i8j2- 1908 



PAGK 

1 

17 

33 

46 

?2 
59 
67 
73 
7* 
92 

104 



115 



[xiii] 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



The Stage in Daytime . . Frontispiece 
Appearance of the Naiad — 

"The Hamadryads" (1904) Facing page 4 

In the Grove ... 8 
The Bar, Barber-Shop, and 

Writing-Tent . " 14 

The Campfire Circle . 20 

The Swimming-Hole . 24 

The Club-House . . 30 

The Studio ... " 36 

Temple Bar ... " 40 

An Impromptu in the Circle 44 

dlxxer at the encampment 48 

A Campfire Entertainment 54 

A Hillside Camp . . 58 

Oxe of the Larger Camps . 62 

The Pleasaxt Isle of Ayes . 66 
George Sterling, Jack Loxdox, 

and the Author at Home 70 

Dai Butsu — Buddha Jinks 

(1892) . . . " . " "74 

[xv] 



1 1 lust r at i o n s 



The Illumination — Faust 

Jinks (1897) . . . Facing page 80 
Woodmen — "The Triumph of 

Bohemia" (1907) . . " 84 

Behind the Scenes: Mechan- 
ism for the Flight of 
the Owl — "The Triumph 
of Bohemia" (1907) . " " 88 

The Cremation of Care (1907) 94 

The Sunday Morning Concert 

(1907) .... " 98 

An Academic Group: Members 
of the Faculties of Cali- 
fornia and Stanford Uni- 
versities ... "102 

The Sire and His Assistants 
— "The H a m a d r y a d s" 
(1904) .... " 106 

Chart of the Grovl .... Insert 



[xvi] 



THE BOHEMIAN JINKS 

A Treatise 



T — The Setting 



On the Saturday night nearest the full of the 
moon of August — sometimes in July and, in 
former years, as early as June — a dramatic and 
musical performance is given in a redwood forest 
in California by members of the Bohemian Club 
of San Francisco, an organization which, at one 
time made up chiefly of artists and writers, still 
has in its membership a fairly large representa- 
tion of men who practice the arts. 

These woodland productions are called the 
Midsummer High Jinks, a title inherited from 
early and less formal festivals of the club, but 
which, with its frivolous connotations, is ill-suited 
to the dignified performances of recent years. 
The Bohemian Club owns the forest in which 
its festivals take place, and it is known as "The 
Grove ;" the title of Grove- Play, therefore, which 
is not infrequently used by members in alluding 
to the jinks, although imperfectly descriptive of 
these performances, will be used in the present 

[11 



The Bohemian Jinks 

treatise to indicate the type of woodland produc- 
tions now given by the Bohemians in contradis- 
tinction from the earlier and less complex type 
for which the title of High Jinks will be retained. 
The text of the grove-play is written by a 
member of the club, usually a poet, and the 
music which is of equal importance is also the 
work of a member. Members, also, take the 
parts and only members and visitors holding 
cards of membership are permitted to witness 
the performance. Women are rigidly excluded. 
The play is the culmination of an encampment 
lasting a fortnight, and the length of time that a 
Bohemian may devote to this annual outing 
varies from one day to the whole period of two 
weeks. 

The Performance 

It is nine o'clock at night when the perform- 
ance begins. Six hundred men are gathered in a 
spacious glade of the redwood forest. Rows 
of redwood logs are used for seats. All is dark- 
ness save for a group of tiny shaded lights that 
make the figures of the men and their surround- 
ings dimly visible. They are the lights for the 
musicians in the orchestra-pit. Beyond them is 
a stage innocent of scenery except that supplied 

[2] 



The S etting 



by Nature. On either side of this stage two 
immense trees forming the proscenium stretch 
upward into the greater darkness overhead, 
where the black masses of their foliage, mingling 
with the foliage of their fellows, are vaguely 
outlined against an indigo sky. On all sides 
great trunks — ten, fifteen feet in diameter, two 
hundred, three hundred feet in height — tower 
aloft. At the back of the stage is an abrupt hill- 
side covered with a dense growth of shrubs and 
small trees, picked out here and there with the 
shafts of redwood. Amid the tangle of brake 
and brush, the trail, which the eye can scarcely 
see by day, winds its devious course. 

But now all beyond the huge trees at the 
front of the stage is dark and mysterious, like 
the transept of some great cathedral, lighted only 
by the candles that burn on the altar. All is in 
readiness. For this moment the members of 
the club have been waiting for a year ; that is, 
since the performance of the last grove-play. 
Toward this moment those actively engaged in 
the preparation of the production — author, com- 
poser, actor, singer, supernumerary — have been 
laboring assiduously for months. For many of 
the spectators this moment brings with it the 
crowning pleasure of a fortnight of camp life ; 



[3] 



77/ c B oh e in i a n Jinks 

for others, less fortunate, it is the diversion of 
the week-end. 

Everything is tuned to the occasion — the hush 
and the darkness, the majesty of the ancient trees, 
the subtle perfumes of the forest in the soft night 
air. It is the atmosphere of poetry ; it is beauty, 
peace. The psychical key of the time and place 
is thus charmingly suggested by Will Irwin in 
the prologue of The Hamadryads, the grove-play 
of 1904:' 

Gather, ye forest-folk, and cast your spells 

Over these mortals. Touch their world-blind eyes 

With fairy unguents. Open their eyes of fancy. 

Lull all their memories of yesterday 

And seal the gates of sorrow. Waken brothers ! 

Waken, ye gentle spirits of hill and stream ! 

The magic hour arrives. Begins the dream. 

Now, far above the crests of the lofty trees, 
the moon glides into view, making lacework of 
their leafage, and dappling the forest floor with 
jagged patches of soft light amid shadows denser 
than before. Suddenly out of the stillness the 
rippling of viols is heard; the celli drone and 
with 

Braying of arrogant brass ; whimper of quer- 
ulous reeds, 

the orchestra throbs its harmonies through the 
[4] 




APPEARANCE UK THE NAIAD— "THE HAMADRYADS" (1904) 



The Setting 



aisles of the free forest ; they mount the hillside 
and are flung hack again, echoing among the 
trees, and the night is filled with music. 

Slowly, mysteriously, the only curtain — which 
is one of darkness — is lifted, and the stage is 
lighted by artificial means, cunningly disguised, 
augmenting the placid rays of the moon. The 
action of the play begins. Now the voice of an 
actor rises rhythmically in a passage of poetry ; 
now a troup of choristers sing a mighty chant 
while the orchestra leaps to their aid with a great 
volume of sound that fills every recess of the 
grove. Splendid figures, in auras of light that 
seem to emanate from their persons, appear at 
various points on the hillside and take part in 
the action ; a band of dancers run upon the stage 
and perform a sylvan dance with gracile wavings 
of branches or the clinking of cymbals. Again 
and again, through this fabric of poetry, music, 
and spectacle, the maleficent Spirit of Care ob- 
trudes his hideous presence uttering threats and 
vituperation only to be discomfited in the end by 
some god or hero who personifies the spirit of 
goodness and right, and who is the savior of the 
grove and its denizens. This denouement, 
achieved in allegory or by symbolism, is finally 
resolved by the death of Care. 



[5] 



77/ e B oh e m i a n J in ks 

There is something' in the spiritual content of 
this composite art — poetry, music, mise-en-scene, 
aided by the ministry of Nature, the spell of the 
forest and of the night — that subjugates the soul. 
It exerts a subtle hypnotism over the emotions ; 
it leads one gently through its mysteries, only 
to whelm the visual sense at the end with a spec- 
tacle which sophistication cannot rob of its sur- 
passing wonder. This is the illumination of the 
hillside which is coincident with the end of the 
performance. Gradual, at first — a rosy glow on 
the far hill-top — it grows in unison with the 
music until, with the chorus and orchestra on the 
last triumphal chord, the hillside is swept with 
an avalanche of light and the grove-play is over. 
The ceremony known as the Cremation of Care 
follows, after which there is a midnight supper 
and, still later, the low jinks. 

In the Beginning 

It was on Saturday, June 29, 1878, that some- 
thing less than a hundred members of the Bo- 
hemian Club, which had been in existence for 
six years, conducted in the woods near Taylor- 
ville, Sonoma County, California, the first 
midsummer high jinks. This festivity was hardly 

[6] 



The Setting 



more than a nocturnal picnic arranged for the 
purpose of bidding farewell to Mr. Henry Ed- 
wards, better known as Harry Edwards, actor, 
entomologist, and sometime president of the 
club. The camp was without many comforts, 
but the campers were well supplied with the 
traditional Bohemian spirit the factors of which 
are intellect, taste, conviviality, self-indulgence, 
and the joy of life. They were also provided 
with blankets to keep them warm and a generous 
supply of liquor for the same purpose. The dec- 
orations consisted of a modest quantity of Japan- 
ese lanterns. Although extremely unpretentious, 
the affair, according to the testimony of the "Old 
Guard," was none the less enjoyable. 

From this small beginning has grown, in the 
course of thirty-one years, the impressive cere- 
mony which now takes place every summer in 
the club's own grove near Guerneville, on the 
Russian River. This grove consists of two 
hundred and forty acres of forest land which 
became the property of the club by purchase in 
1899. It is situated seventy-five miles from San 
Francisco and is reached by two railroads, one 
of which has its terminus four miles from the 
grove, to which, on the occasion of the Bohemian 
encampment, a special train is run, and the other 



[7] 



T he B oil c m i a n J i n k s 

passes a station that is less than one mile distant 
from the club property. 

The Grove 
The grove itself is a spot that one calls beauti- 
ful with a sense that the word is inadequate. To 
see it for the first time is to be filled with a 
wonder that is never lost though one returns to 
it again and again. To quote Mr. Irwin once 
more : 

You come upon it suddenly. One step and its glory 
is over you. There is no perspective ; you cannot get 
far enough away from one of these trees to see it as a 
whole. There they stand, a world of height above you, 
their pinnacles hidden by their topmost fringes of 
branches or lost in the sky. 

It is, moreover, singularly well adapted to the 
purposes to which it is dedicated. Lying at the 
meeting point of two canons, it is begirt with 
sudden hills that wear a perennial garment of 
laurel, huckleberry, and fern, from which rise 
the great shafts of redwoods. One gets an in- 
stant sense of seclusion upon entering the grove. 
The circumvallating hills and the towering trees 
with their heavy foliage shut out not only the 
careful world but the expanse of sky. Many of 
the largest and tallest of these trees spring from 
the level floor of the grove, and have been so 

[8] 




IN THE GROVE 



The Setting 



arranged by Nature as to form a series of circu- 
lar glades. In one of the largest of these are the 
dining tables in concentric circles, and here on the 
night of the grove-play some six hundred mem- 
bers of the club and their guests sit down to a 
dinner very nearly as good in point of menu and 
service as they enjoy in their city club-house. 
The tables are lighted by means of acetylene gas. 
In the centre of the circle a fountain plays. 

In another part of the grove is the campfire, 
placed in the centre of a well of great trees. 
Around it in a circle sixty feet in diameter are 
set a number of seats hewn from enormous logs 
five feet from bark to bark. At one point in the 
circumference of this circle is a low platform, 
rudely built, on which stands a piano masked by 
a rustic screen. Here the singers and musicians 
of the club may be heard in impromptu solos 
during the sunny lounging hours of the clay. At 
such times the seats in the circle are occupied by 
groups of men chatting or reading newspapers, or 
merely basking in the sun, grateful for the boon 
of existence in such surroundings. At night 
when, from the flames of a roaring campfire a 
swarm of sparks like tiny quivering leonids 
stream upward and vanish, the circle is the 
general gathering-place, and there informal con- 



[9] 



77/ c Boh em i a n J in ks 

certs are conducted. On the Friday night im- 
mediately preceding the climacteric event, the 
performance in the campfire circle is a formal 
affair in which not only the members take part. 
but also such entertaining guests as may be 
present. 

Not far from the circle is a rustic building 
which contains the bar, and in the immediate 
vicinity are the writing-tent, the barber-shop, and 
the bath-house. In this last are tubs and showers 
provided with hot water. On the river, reached 
by a beautiful walk of half a mile, which does not 
take one outside of the grove, is another bath- 
house on the bank of the swimming-hole, and 
here a great many members take a daily dip. 

Hanging on the hillside that overlooks the river 
is the club-house, a picturesque building with 
wide verandas and equipped with everything 
needful for the house-parties that go to the grove 
for week-ends during the year. Three cabins 
near by provide sleeping quarters. Here, also, 
the members who go to the grove prior to the 
regular encampment for the purpose of preparing 
the jinks are housed. 

The club-house which, as we have seen, is 
near the river and consequently some distance 
from the campfire circle — the center of camp- 

[10J 



The Setting 



life — is not used during the encampment when 
everyone sleeps in tents. These tents are 
scattered along winding avenues which, for 
the most part, radiate from the campfire circle. 
A number, however, are pitched on one of the 
hillsides. The tents vary in color, arrangement, 
and size, from the smallest, accommodating two 
persons, to large pavilions with sleeping com- 
partments and a central lounging space. They 
are generally erected on portable platforms, 
though in some cases the foundation structure 
is permanent. Of such are the hillside camps. 
Many of the tents are decorated with Japanese 
lanterns, and in some of them grill suppers and 
other entertainments are held. Most of the 
members who attend the encampments 
regularly own their tents, but, to those who do 
not, tents are rented by the club, as well as 
cots, mattresses, pillows, tables, chairs, 
lanterns, pails, basins, and dippers. All mem- 
bers are obliged to supply their own bed- 
clothes and towels. The minimum cost to a 
member is $10 which purchases transportation, 
lodging, and subsistence from Saturday even- 
ing until Sunday afternoon, a regular per diem 
charge of $2.50 for subsistence is levied for 
additional days spent in camp. The same 



[11 



T h c B oh c m i a n J i n k s 

arrangements apply to non-members holding' 
visitors' cards, except that the initial charge 
is $25 instead of $10. 

The Encampment 

On the first day of the encampment, twenty 
or thirty clubmen may go to the grove to spend 
the full fortnight. This number increases from 
day to day until on the Friday preceding the 
performance the camp will number three or 
four hundred souls. On Saturday, a special 
train brings those who can spare but a single 
day, and the population is swelled to six 
hundred or over. The organization and equip- 
ment of such a camp has, in late years, 
assumed colossal proportions and involves the 
expense of many thousands of dollars. An 
army of servants is employed and the housing, 
or rather the tenting, of this large number of 
members, who expect from their club perfect 
service and every comfort, is a task that calls 
for the greatest diligence and a high order 
of efficiency. The office of Captain of the 
Camp, which carries with it not only the duties 
of quartermaster but of general superintendent 
as well, has fallen, for some years and during 
a period when the work has been most severe, 

[I- 7 ] 



The Setting 

upon the shoulders of Mr. William Letts 
Oliver, for whose resourcefulness, capacity, 
and patience there can be no adequate praise. 
It is not an uncommon thing for travellers to 
so arrange their itineraries that they will be in 
California at the time of the Bohemian outing 
which, if they come with letters to a member of 
the club, they may be privileged to see. The 
members themselves who reside in the Eastern 
states sometimes cross the continent to attend 
the encampment, and occasionally one hears of 
a wanderer in Europe bending his course 
homeward in order to reach California in time 
for the annual festival. 

Camp Art 

Some of the artists in the club play an im- 
portant part, not only in the staging of the 
plays but in the activities of the camp. In a 
clump of redwoods near the campfire circle is 
an open-air studio where the artists who 
volunteer their services for the encampment 
produce a variety of cartoons and posters — 
usually in distemper — with which the camp is 
decorated. Many of these are caricatures and 
are used by members as personal signs and 

[13] 



T h c Bohemia n J i n k s 

exposed at their lodgings. In 1903, when 
Montezuma, an Aztec play, was produced, the 
camp signs, to be in keeping with the 
character of the drama, were in the the form 
of fantastic glyphographs. The following year, 
a Greek play. The Hamadryads, gave an 
Hellenic tone to the decorations ; the roads 
took the names of the Muses — 'OAOS 
KAAAEIOIIH, <OA02 EY<I>P02YXH ; the circle 
was <H ArOPA; the dining place 'O TPIKAINOS. 
A particularly elaborate decoration was executed 
for the bar— TO KAHHAEION. 

For many days two Bohemians labored in 
secret in a warehouse on the outskirts of the 
grove painting an enormous canvas in the 
form of a Greek pediment. On this were a 
number of life-size figures, caricatures of 
members of the club who, classically nude, 
rendered reverence to Bacchus. Early in the 
morning of the last and most eventful day of 
the encampment, the perpetrators of this con- 
ceit erected it with supporting Doric columns 
over the bar. The amazement of the other 
members when they appeared for breakfast 
a little later was fully as great as that of the 
good Chinamen who beheld the wonderful 
palace of Aladdin built in a single night. 

[14] 




THE BAR. BARBER SHOP, AND WRITING TENT 



The Setting 

The best cartoons painted in the grove are 
framed and put on the walls of the city club- 
house. A more serious and important com- 
memorative cartoon is also painted for all 
jinks by an artist selected by the sire and 
added to the club's collection which, prior to 
the disaster in 1908, was a large and interest- 
ing one. 

The Stage 

We come now to the grove's most important 
and most distinctive feature, the stage. It is 
situated at the foot of a wooded hillside and, as 
has been already said, is framed by the trunks of 
enormous trees that form a natural proscenium. 
In front is an orchestra-pit large enough to 
accommodate the fifty or more musicians em- 
ployed in the production. These are the best 
professionals that can be engaged in San Fran- 
cisco. The hillside rises abruptly from the back 
of the stage, and on it is a series of platforms, 
completely masked by foliage, where parts of 
the action take place. This stage or set of stages 
which calls for, and admits of, different treatment 
from all others, has its chiefest dissimilarity in 
what may be called its vertical character. The 
action may take place here, not at one, two, or 

[15] 



T he Bo h e in i a n J i // k s 

three elevations, but at ten, or even more if 
necessary. It is possible, of course, to compass 
on such a stage effects that cannot be produced in 
the ordinary theatre, and the productions invented 
for it are usually shaped to its magnificent possi- 
bilities. 

A rugged trail, concealed by underbrush, as- 
cends the inclined portion of the stage in a zig- 
zag course to a point over a hundred feet in a 
straight line from the lowest platform and at an 
elevation above it of some sixty feet. But these 
figures are deceptive, for both of the distances 
seem to be much greater, particularly at night. 
The hillside is a natural sounding-board, and the 
acoustics of the place are so good that words 
spoken in a normal tone from the highest point 
on the trail by a person whose voice has ordinary 
carrying power, can be distinctly heard at the 
back of the auditorium gdade. 



[16] 



II — History and Development 

Before essaying anything in the way of a 
specific description of the grove-plays, it is 
necessary to go back to the beginning, not of the 
midsummer jinks which, as we have seen, began 
in 1878, but to those earlier entertainments of the 
club which began almost as soon as it was organ- 
ized. These are known as house-jinks to dis- 
tinguish them from the forest festivals. The 
Christmas Jinks of to-day is modelled closely 
upon the old affairs. The Sire (a title bestowed 
upon the master of ceremonies) who, at Christ- 
mas time, is always the president of the club, 
appoints a subject upon which he invites members 
of his own selecting to read papers or poems, 
and summons the club by proclamation to attend 
the jinks over which, when the time comes, it is 
his duty to preside. The early jinks of this 
character, which were supposed to take place on 
the last Saturday of each month, were usually 
devoted to the exposition of the work of a given 
author as, for example, the Shakespeare Jinks, 
the Dickens Jinks. The first of which any record 
has been kept was the Tom Moore and Offenbach 

[17] 



The B ohe m i a n Jink s 

Jinks, Daniel O'Connell, Sire, held November 30, 
1872. A number of jinks and receptions had been 
held before this time by the Bohemian Club, but 
Mr. O'Connell's literary and musical entertain- 
ment seems to have been the first one for which 
an announcement was issued. In these early days 
the term "high jinks" was almost invariably 
used ; it was not long, however, before the intro- 
duction of what was called the low jinks. This 
took place after the supper that followed the 
high jinks and was, for many years, entirely 
impromptu, the sire being appointed on the spot, 
and the contributors being called upon without 
warning. The evolution from this type of en- 
tertainment to a more or less formal affair such 
as the Christmas jinks of today — burlesque, or 
pantomime, with rehearsals, costumes, scenery, 
and all the accessories of a regular theatrical 
performance — was an inevitable development. 

At an early date in its history the club 
selected the owl as its Patron, and the bird 
of wisdom has always been the motive of 
Bohemian art and song. It often plays an 
important part in the jinks as will be seen. 

Early Jinks 
It was Mr. Hugh M. Burke who made the 
[18] 



History and Development 

suggestion that led the Bohemians into the 
woods for their first midsummer jinks in 1878. 
At this encampment the ceremony, such as it was, 
resembled in its general characteristics the older 
house-jinks, save for the added freedom and 
zest imparted by the surroundings. There were 
addresses and songs and such merrymaking as 
the impulse of the moment suggested. The out- 
ing was so thoroughly enjoyed that it was re- 
solved to repeat the experience and on June 28th 
of the next year, the second forest jinks and the 
first to take place in the redwoods, was held, Mr. 
Burke being the sire. The extreme simplicity 
of this affair is interesting in view of the elabor- 
ate and complex productions of which it was the 
genesis. It consisted of an address of welcome 
by the sire, some casual singing, and two 
speeches. After this everybody was advised to 
take a walk up the canon to inspect the illumina- 
tion of a waterfall which some of the artists had 
decked with Japanese lanterns. 

With the midsummer jinks of 1881, James F. 
Bowman, Sire, the ceremony of the Cremation of 
Care was conducted for the first time. Of this 
and its important bearing on the grove-plays of 
the present day more will be said. 

[19] 



The Bohemian Jinks 

The midsummer jinks of 1884 is described 
in a contemporary account as follows : 

The Bohemians grouped themselves about the amphi- 
theatre [this was before the hillside was used] in readi- 
ness for the exercises. These latter were opened with a 
forest hymn by the band, which marched in twenty-five 
strong, with flaming torches in their caps. Then fol- 
lowed the address of welcome, and after that came 
prepared addresses, original poems, and recitations, 
interspersed with instrumental music and a number of 
glees by a well-balanced chorus. This part of the pro- 
gramme lasted nearly two hours. It was then announced 
by the sire that the ceremonial of the Cremation of 
Care was about to commence. 

Growth 

The next step in the development of the mid- 
summer jinks may be thus described: the sire, 
having devised a plan or framework, would 
invite some of his fellow members to clothe the 
skeleton which they would do by contributing 
original papers or poems, by singing songs or 
furnishing a musical interlude. All of these vari- 
ous elements were woven together as parts of 
a performance given in costume and with the 
aid of various spectacular effects. The most 
noteworthy of this type of jinks were : The 
Festival of the Leaves, known as the Buddha 

[20] 



History and Develop m c n t 

Jinks, in 1892 ( for which a colossal Dai Butsu, 
modelled after the original in Japan, was erected 
by Mr. Marion Wells, a sculptor and a member 
of the clnb ) ; The Sacrifice in the Forest, or 
Druid Jinks, in 1893, Mr. Joseph D. Redding, 
Sire; and the Gypsy Jinks, in 1894, Mr. Peter 
Robertson, Sire. The following extract is from 
a contemporary account of the Druid Jinks: 

Mr. Redding's plot dates back to the beginning of the 
Christian era and embodies the birth of brotherly love, 
the conversion of the Druids from their practice of 
bloody sacrifice and the cremation of the Bohemian 
enemy, Care, in the face of the protest of the Devil. 
The conception was worked out in its entirety by the 
sire, save for the main speeches of the principals, who 
were requested to furnish their own papers in the parts 
of the theme assigned them. 

Thus the form of the midsummer jinks be- 
came to a certain degree established as a com- 
posite production of several men. As such it 
approached nearer and nearer to the play type. 
This is exemplified by The Sacrifice in the Forest, 
by Mr. Redding and the Gipsy Jinks, by Mr. 
Robertson, for many years dramatic critic of 
the San Francisco Chronicle. 

A little later, Captain Robert Howe Fletcher 
presented a jinks that had a libretto devised 
chiefly as a vehicle for a series of tableaux, and 

[21] 



77/ c B o h e 111 i a n J in ks 

the Faust Jinks, Dr. II. J. Stewart, Sire, given 
in 1897, was built upon Gounod's opera. 

The New Form 

These early attempts toward dramatic form 
were really symtomatic of the significant step 
that was taken in 1902 when The Man in the 
Forest, by Mr. Charles K. Field, with music by 
Mr. Joseph D. Redding, was given. Here we 
have for the first time a jinks, or, in reality, a 
play or masque, the libretto of which was entirely 
the work of one man, accompanied by specially 
composed music by another member of the club. 
In this we see the first Bohemian grove-play as a 
distinct genre of stage art. 

This important departure came about in the 
following manner: The usual composite jinks 
was contemplated; it was to be Indian in char- 
acter ; a number of conferences were held ; and 
the question of using the music of a certain light 
opera was entertained. The sire, Mr. Richard 
M. Hotaling, asked Mr. Field to do the writing 
of the jinks, but there was no concrete scheme 
evolved until Mr. Amedee Joullin, one of the 
artist members, suggested to Mr. Field a certain 
Indian legend. This crystallized in Mr. Field's 



History and D evelopment 

mind instantly, and Mr. Redding, caught in the 
stream of enthusiasm, volunteered to write the 
music. The result of this collaboration was The 
Man in the Forest, the first grove-play. 

This play was at once a revolution and a 
revelation. It not only established a precedent 
for Bohemian Club productions, but (and this 
is a matter of far greater importance) it 
marked the point of divergence of a new form 
of stage art which subsequent sires and 
authors have developed into a genre of real 
literary significance. Since then the book of 
the grove-play has been written entirely by one 
member, and original music has been com- 
posed for it by one of the club musicians. 

The sires and musical sires are selected by 
the Jinks Committee acting with the Board of 
Directors of which it is a part. Upon the 
chairman of this committee falls important 
duties connected with the organization of the 
various jinks during his term of office. His 
functions resemble in many ways those of the 
Master of the Revels who was an officer of the 
crown in England in the sixteenth century. 

In the early days of the Bohemian Club, 
the Sire of the Midsummer High Jinks had 
complete control of the encampment and its 

[23] 



The B ohe m ian J i n k s 

manifold and multiform activities. His pre- 
rogatives were higher than those of the 
president of the club; he presided at the jinks 
dinner and, in fact, ruled the camp for a 
period of two weeks. With the increasing 
complexity of the forest festivals, the duties 
that once belonged to the sire have been as- 
signed to various functionaries each of whom 
has a number of assistants. The Captain of 
the Camp, the Chairman of the Jinks Commit- 
tee, and the Stage Director now have the 
burden of most of the work and worry. 

In form, the grove-play differs in some 
essential particulars from all other theatric 
forms. It is restricted in length as well as by 
the Aristotelian unities. It must have a forest 
setting for no scenery is used, and it is not 
divided into acts. All of these hypothetical 
regulations are the conclusions drawn from the 
practices of recent years ; they have been 
ignored in some cases and will doubtless be 
ignored again. The component parts of the 
presentation are dialogue, songs, choruses, 
dances, and orchestral interludes, and the rela- 
tion between the spoken word and the musical 
factor is adjusted as in no other form. The 
Bohemian grove-play is, therefore, distinct in 

[24] 



History and Development 

shape from the various types of drama, from 
opera, and from music-drama. 

A restriction that helps to mark these plays 
as unique lies in the fact that, traditionally, 
the malign character Care, is introduced in all 
of them. This is a heritage from the old jinks, 
and was brought about by a desire to furnish a 
raison d'etre for the ceremony of cremation. 
In the grove-plays of the present, Care stalks 
through the plot bringing woe in his train 
until vanquished and slain at last by the aveng- 
ing power of goodness and right. An underly- 
ing intention is to present symbolically the 
salvation of the trees by the club and its pur- 
pose to preserve the grove for all time. 

These features — Care and his destroyer — 
are held by some to be an ill-advised adherence 
to tradition, restrictive in its effect upon crea- 
tive impulse, and inimical to artistic expansion 
and progress. On the other hand it is urged 
that these restrictions are a challenge to the 
ingenuity and artistry of the poet. There is 
abundant precedent for the imposing of re- 
strictions upon artists. Artists, in fact, are dis- 
posed to impose restrictions upon themselves. 
Poets in all periods have lent their highest powers 
to the glorification of some princely patron. Were 

[25] 



The B ohe m i an J i n k s 

all such cannina votiva destroyed the world 
would lose some of the greatest works of litera- 
ture. Be this as it may, the motives of Care and his 
destroyer remain integral parts of the grove- 
play. How long they will continue to give 
character to these Californian productions it 
is impossible to say. It may be asserted, how- 
ever, that, to the commentator of the future, 
writing of the twentieth century stage, nothing 
in the Bohemian grove-plays will claim his 
attention as a distinct expression of type so 
much as these two elements, restrictions 
though they be. 

Upon the death of Care in whatsoever guise 
or character he may appear, the orchestra 
plays a march and a procession of cowled 
figures down the hillside is usually contrived. 
The march merges into the final chorus which 
is sung while the whole face of the hillside is 
illuminated with red and green fire, ignited 
behind the trees by electricity. This illumina- 
tion of the forest has been gradually perfected 
in the course of years until the placing of the 
stations and the timing of the fires have been 
worked out to produce an effect that is at 
once stupendous and beautiful. 

The first time that red fire was used in a 

[26] 



H ist o r y and Develop m c n t 

jinks was in 1885. It was suggested by Mr. 
Peter Robertson and the ten pounds that were 
then burned as an incident of the witches' 
scene from Macbeth produced such an effect 
that its use thenceforward became a regular 
practice. It was employed to advantage in one 
of the early jinks when the casting of the 
bullets from Der Freischutz was given. The 
present effectiveness of the illumination has 
been accomplished very largely through the 
efforts of Mr. Edward J. Duffey who has 
devoted his knowledge and skill to the solution 
of many difficult problems involved in the 
lighting of the grove stage. 

When the cessation of the final musical 
number marks the end of the play, the body of 
Care is carried off the stage followed by the 
participants. The lights die down. The curtain 
of darkness falls again. 

The Cremation of Care 

Begins here the Cremation of Care. From 
among the trees behind which the corpse of Care 
has been carried the lugubrious strains of 
Chopin's Marche funebre are heard. A cluster 
of wavering lights appears among the trees 
and a band of musicians, clad in long gowns, 

[27] 



Th c B <> h e m ia n J in ks 

is seen approaching in solemn procession, fol- 
lowed by the bearers with the body of (are and 
all the participants in the play. Those who 
a moment before bad been merely spectators 
don gowns of red and of black and join the 
cortege. In this wise they all proceed to a 
little hollow a few hundred yards distant. 
Here the burden of dead Care is placed on the 
funeral pyre, and the High Priest of Bohemia 
ascends a rustic rostrum whence he delivers 
the exequial oration. He recalls all the injuries 
that have been inflicted upon the world and 
particularly upon the Bohemian Club and its 
members by the foul and pestilential demon, 
carking Care, and gives thanks to the gods of 
Bohemia for deliverance from his malign in- 
fluence. Exultingly, Care is consigned to the 
flames, the pyre is ignited, the band strikes up 
a quick-step; simultaneously, the forest on all 
sides is illuminated with red and green fire, 
the coffin of Care belches pyrotechnics in a 
column of light, and the chorus in their trap- 
pings dance wildly around it with shouts of 
joy. The return to cam]) is without order, the 
band playing popular airs therewhile. It is 
midnight when the throng sits down to a hot 
supper. 

[28] 



History and Development 

The ceremony of the Cremation of Care which, 
as we have seen, dates back to the year 1881, 
and which at times constituted the principal 
feature of the early jinks, is sometimes varied 
with dialogue, action, dances, singing, and 
spectacle, and, like the stage performances, is 
being gradually developed into a more and 
more elaborate affair. In a sense, it may be 
said to have a basis of form which might give 
it claim to be considered as a type of entertain- 
ment in itself. 

Into the Cremation of 1906, which took place 
shortly after the great disaster in San Fran- 
cisco, Mr. Charles K. Field, its author, im- 
ported a literary quality and scenic scheme 
that gave the ceremony a new significance, 
and special music was composed for this 
ceremony by Dr. Stewart. The Cremation of 
Care of 1907, conducted by Air. A. R. Hardin, 
was even more elaborate. The music was com- 
posed by Mr. Theodor Vogt, and a formal 
dance and brilliant spectacular effects were 
undertaken. 

The office of High Priest at the Cremation of 
Care has, for a great many years, been assumed 
by Mr. George T. Bromley, who was eighty- 
nine years of age when he discharged thi'- 

[29] 



The Bohemian J inks 

function in 1907. Mr. Bromley appeared 
before the club for the first time in September 
1873 in a house-jinks of which he was the 
sire, since which time he has been the most 
notable figure in the personnel of the Bohemian 
Club. He is known to all the members as 
"Uncle George." 

The Low Jinks 

After the midnight supper that follows the 
Cremation of Care, comes another feature of the 
woodland festival. This is the low jinks which 
takes place frequently as late as one o'clock 
in the morning. Care is dead and burned to 
ashes. The spirit of Bohemia is liberated and 
must, perforce, find expression — a vent for 
feelings already in reaction. The low jinks 
was omitted in 1906 and 1907, and it has no 
place in the order of events in 1908. For this 
function the members gather before the low- 
jinks stage; a small orchestra plays popular 
airs incessantly during the wait for a tardy 
curtain ; the audience naturally takes to sing- 
ing, and what might have been impatience is 
averted by good nature, and a spirit of levity 
prevails, perfectly in keeping with the character 
of the performance about to be revealed. 

[30] 




THE CI.L'B-HOL'SE 



Hist or y a n d Develop m c u t 

In the earlier days the midsummer low jinks 
was invariably an impromptu affair such, for 
example, as a mock trial, when the judge, the 
jury, the opposing counsels, the accused, and 
the witnesses were elected on the spot. As 
far as can he ascertained the first low jinks in 
the grove, that was in any sense prearranged 
was a circus jinks sired by Mr. Clay M. Greene. 

Precisely as the low jinks held in the city have 
become more and more elaborate, so have those 
held in the woods increased in complexity. They 
may he anything', from a more or less symmetri- 
cal farce with specially composed music, to a 
vaudeville with impromptu interpolations. Not 
infrequently they burlesque the grove-play. 

With this farce the entertainment of the night 
comes to an end save for such voluntary contri- 
butions as may be offered around the campfire, 
and which sometimes last until long after dawn. 

At 10 o'clock on Sunday morning following 
the jinks night, an orchestral concert takes place 
on the stage. Excerpts from the score of the 
previous night are given, the performance being 
conducted by the composer of the music. ( )ther 
musicians of the club direct compositions of their 
own, and the programme also provides several 
orchestral number's not too severe in character, 

[31] 



The Bohemian Jinks 

as, for example, a movement from one of the 
more popular symphonies of a selection from a 
Wagnerian music-drama. 

At about half-past two in the afternoon a 
special train takes all (save a few who are lured 
by the enchantments of the grove to linger in 
its grateful shade) back to the city with its 
turmoil and cares, better spiritually and physi- 
cally for having experienced the contact of 
Nature and the influence of Art. 



[32] 



Ill — Origin and Analogies 



By far the most curious, and, from the com- 
mentator's point of view, the most interesting, 
quality of these grove-plays is in their relation 
with other phases of dramatic art — their re- 
semblances to, and divergences from, other 
forms. It is particularly interesting to note in 
these plays the strong tendency, observable in all 
branches of art, to be merely imitative ; to pro- 
duce nothing more vital than some form of 
modified drama ; and how, at the same time, 
certain purely physical difficulties have operated 
to bring about results that are significant chiefly 
because they are the fruit of creative skill rather 
than mimetic impulse. To a certain degree the 
men who, through the years, have contributed 
each his part toward the formulation of the 
present type of grove-play, have been forced into 
originality by the peculiar conditions and limita- 
tions of their setting. 

Although the drama and the opera were the 
progenitors of the Bohemian grove-play, in its 
ultimate form it bears a greater resemblance to 
the masque than to either. This is all the more 



[33] 



77/ e B o he m ia n J in ks 

curious because it may be safely said that no 
constructor of a midsummer high jinks, no writer 
of a grove-play, ever used the masque for his 

model. We find, therefore, in California, in the 
first years of the twentieth century, an inde- 
pendent occurrence of the masque type brought 
about by an entirely different set of conditions 
from those that produced the original examples 
of this genre nearly four hundred years earlier. 

The Elizabethan Masque 

The masque flourished in England, whither 
it was introduced from Italy, during the reigns 
of Elizabeth and James I — that is, in the late 
sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. It 
reached its highest state in the work of lien 
Jonson. Between it and the Bohemian grove- 
play there are fundamental differences, as will 
be shown, but in spirit, in their relations with 
the drama and in their general form they are 
strikingly similar. 

Gifford says in his Life of Bat Jonson: 

The masque admitted of dialogue, singing, and danc- 
ing — these were not independent of one another, a- in 
the "entertainments" of the old court, but combined by 
the introduction of some ingenious fable into an har- 
monious whole. 

I.UI 



O r i g i n a n d A nalo g i c s 

H. A. Evans in The English Masque gives the 
following definition : 

The masque, then, is a combination, in variable pro- 
portions, of speech, dance, and song, but its essential 
and invariable feature is the presence of a group of 
dancers, varying in number, but commonly eight, twelve, 
or sixteen, called Masquers. 

In a passage describing the dances of the 
Masquers the same author says : 

The dances are of two kinds — stately figure dances 
performed by the Masquers alone and carefully re- 
hearsed beforehand, and commonly distinguished as the 
Entry, the Main, and the Going Out; the Revels, livelier 
dances such as galliards, corantos, and levaltos, danced 
by the Masquers with partners of the opposite sex, 
chosen from the audience. 

In this will be seen at once the chief difference 
between the masque and the Bohemian grove- 
play. In the latter the dance, if it occurs at all, 
is of less importance than the other elements. 

Similarities and Differences 

A curious analog)' between the two forms may 
be found in the fact that both have been invented 
and performed for audiences limited by privilege. 
The Elizabethan and Jacobean masques were 
written for the diversion of the court, or to 

[35 | 



The Bohemian Jinks 

celebrate a noble marriage. This being the case, 
they were, in the main, viewed only by the nobil- 
ity, although there are instances of the admission 
of plebeians. Attendance at the Bohemian enter- 
tainments is not regulated by social restrictions, 
but membership in the club, either regular or 
transient, is, theoretically at least, an essential 
qualification, and it is for this limited body that 
the plays are produced. In A History of Theatri- 
cal Entertainments at the English Court, by J. 
K. Chapman, may be found the following pas- 
sage which not only sets forth the restriction 
of the masque to the court, but points out the 
effect that this condition had upon its content : 

Dramatic representations were open to all the world 
at the theatres, but the masque was essentially courtly 
and regal in its character. It was produced at great 
expense and was, like the Italian Opera, conceived in 
that artistic spirit which makes its own laws and 
boundaries. 

This common character of the two forms is 
undoubtedly accountable for certain qualities in 
each — such as artistic sincerity — which are the 
fruit only of a labor of love or a labor of pride — 
a masque for one's king or a play for one's club. 
The resemblance, however, carries with it an 
intrinsic difference. This relates to the question 

[36] 



r i g i n a it d A n al o g i c s 

of scenery. Says one commentator on the Eliza- 
bethan stage : 

The essence of the masque was pomp and glory and 
it could only breathe in the atmosphere of the court. 
Thus, while the stage [the public theatres] was in a state 
of absolute nudity, movable scenery of the most costly 
and splendid kind was lavished in the masque. 

To-day, however, when mechanical devices and 
sumptuous setting's have been brought, in the 
commercial theatre, to a high state of perfection, 
scenery is entirely dispensed with in the Bohemi- 
an grove-plays. 

Splendor of the Masque 

Some idea of the splendor of a seventeenth 
century masque may be gleaned from Jonson's 
directions for his Hymenm. At the beginning 
of this masque, the masquers appear in gorgeous 
costumes embellished with gold and silver and 
jewels, from a microcosm or globe. This, in the 
poet's own words was 

filled with countries and these gilded; where the sea was 
expressed heightened with silver waves. This stood or 
rather hung for no axle was seen to support it. . . . 
On the sides of this, which began the other part, were 
placed two great statues, feigned in gold, one of Atlas 
the other of Hercules, in varied postures bearing up the 

[37 ] 



The Bohemia n J i n k s 

clouds, which were of relievo, embossed and tralucent 
as naturals; to these a cortine of painted clouds joined, 
which reached to the utmost roof of the hall; and, 
suddenly opening, revealed the three regions of air : in 
the highest of which sat Juno, in a glorious throne of 
gold, circled with comets, and fiery meteors, engendered 
in that hot and dry region ; her feet reaching to the 
lowest ; where was made a rainbow, and within it 
musicians seated, figuring airy spirits, their habits 
various, and resembling the several colours caused in 
that part of the air by reflection. The midst was all 
dark and condensed clouds, as being the proper place 
where rain, hail, and other watery meteors are made ; 
out of which two concave clouds from the rest thrust 
forth themselves (in nature of those Nimbi, wherein, 
by Homer, Virgil, &c, the gods are feigned to descend) 
and these carried the eight ladies over the heads of the 
two terms [Atlas and Hercules] ; who, as the engine 
moved, seemed also to bow themselves (by virtue of 
their shadows) and discharged their shoulders of their 
glorious burden ; when having set them on the earth, 
both they and the clouds gather themselves up again, 
with some rapture of the beholders. 

But that which (as above in place, so in the beauty) 
was most taking in the spectacle, was the sphere of 
fire, in the top of all, incompassing the air. and imitated 
with such art and industry, as the spectators might dis- 
cern the motion (all the time the shews lasted) without 
any mover ; and that so swift, as no eye could dis- 
tinguish any colour of the light, but form to itself five 
hundred several hues out of the tralucent body of the 
air, objected betwixt it and them. 

[38] 



O r i g i n a n d Analo g i c s 

And this was crowned with a statue of Jupiter the 
Thunderer. 

The mise-en-scene for this (and many other 
masques of the period) was devised by Inigo 
Jones, the architect, a considerable part of 
whose fame rests upon his splendid and ingen- 
ious settings for the masques of Jonson and 
other poets. So important was the work of the 
architect and stage-master in these courtly 
masques that Jones at one time had a serious 
quarrel with Jonson because the poet's name 
was placed before his on the title page of one 
of the masques. This drew from Jonson a 
withering retort in verse worthy in point of 
ferocity of the giant that he was. The expense 
that attached to the production of these royal 
recreations was enormous. The presentation 
of Jonson's Masque of Blackness is said to have 
cost fifteen thousand dollars. A number of 
other masques were only slightly less expen- 
sive. When it is remembered that these per- 
formances were given, at most, only a few 
times and, in some cases only once, the out- 
lay seems prodigious. Plutarch, however, tells 
us that, in the fourth century, the cost of 
presenting a play of Sophocles in Athens repre- 

[39] 



77/ c B o h e m ia ii J in ks 



sented a sum equal to five hundred thousand 
dollars. 

We have seen that the masque was so con- 
trived as to provide for the entrance of the 
masquers who, in the earlier entertainments of 
this kind called "maskings" or "disguisings," 
invariably wore visors over their faces. It was 
the dancing- of these masquers that "consti- 
tuted,"' says Evans, "the distinctive character- 
istic of the masque, dialogue and singing being 
subsidiary adjuncts." Mr. Will Irwin, the 
author of The Hamadryads, the grove-play of 
1904, gave to it the sub-title . / Masque of . I polio. 
Judged rigidly, however, The Hamadryads was 
not a masque. As it left its author's hands, it 
did not provide for a dance of any kind. 
although, as we have seen, the dance is the 
conditio sine qua non of the masque. Mr. Irwin 
was called away from California before The 
Hamadryads was staged; it being thought ex- 
pedient, a dance was introduced, thus making 
it a true masque or, at least, a form more 
nearly resembling the old type than any other 
grove play with the possible exception of 
The Triumph of Bohemia, by Mr. George Sterl- 
ing, produced in 1 ( X)8. 

The masque, even at the highest point of 

[40] 




TEMPLE HAR 



r i g i n and Analogies 



its development, displayed little dramatic 
verisimilitude, which again marks a distinc- 
tion from the grove-play. Except in some of 
the later masques of Johnson who, toward the 
end of his career as a writer of masques, held 
that the auditors should be expected to exercise 
their intellegence, the scheme of the masque 
was set forth by a "presenter." The grove-play, 
on the contrary, has always a homogeneous 
plot. Again we find a striking similarity 
between the two forms in the "personified 
virtues and vices which combined with the 
gods and goddesses of classical mythology to 
form its [the masque's] dramatis persona:." 

Allegory is intimately associated with the 
masque, as may be shown by the classification of 
masques as given by Brotenek in his exhaustive 
treatise Die Englischen Maskenspiele. He casts 
them into the following classes : Mythological, 
astronomical, mythological-allegorical, allegori- 
cal-romantic, allegorical-historical, and fantasti- 
cal. In the same admirable work is to be found 
analyses of all the important Elizabethan and 
Jacobean masques which form a practical basis 
for comparison with the grove-plays. For ex- 
ample, the episodic sequence of Jonson's Masque 



[41 



The Boh e in i a n J i n k s 

of Queens, which Swinburne calls "the most 
splendid of all masques," is as follows : 

(Dance — Dialogue — Dance) — Appearance of 
the masquers — Dialogue — Entrance of the mas- 
quers — Song — Dance and Song — Final Song. 

The scheme of episodes in The Hamadryads 
is in the following sequence : 

Orchestral prelude — Prologue — Speech with 
Music — Chorus — Solo — Speeches — Dance — 
Speech with Music — Song — Speeches — Dialog ue 
— Speech — Speech with Music — Song — Solo and 
Chorus — Speech — March and Chorus. 

It will be seen from these typical synopses 
that the grove-play is considerably longer than 
the masque ; that it contained less dancing and 
more music. In the masque, however, music was 
an important element. Thomas Campion, a 
writer of masques, was, also, a composer. The 
music that accompanied Jonson's masques was 
made by a number of different men, but chiefly 
by Alfonso Ferrabosco. 

Evans draws from Collier's Annals of the 
Stage the following account of a sixteenth cen- 
tury court orchestra : 

In 1571 Elizabeth had eighteen trumpeters, seven 
violins, six flutes, six sackhuts. and ten musicians i. e. 
singers or "musicians for the voice." 

[42] 



O r i g i n a n d A nolo g i c s 

From Bullen's Campion, quoted by Schelling 
in his Elizabethan Drama, we learn that for the 
performance of Phoebus' Knights, by Campion in 
1607, the following arrangement of musicians 
was made : 

On the right hand of the skreene were consorted ten 
musicians with base and mean lutes, a bandora, a 
double sack -bote, and an harpsichord, with two treble 
violins; on the other side, somewhat nearer the skreene 
were- placed nine violins and three lutes, and to answer 
both consorts (as it were in a triangle) six cornets and 
six chapel voices in a place raised higher in respect to 
the piercing sound of these instruments. 

Survivals of the Masque 

Although the old masque is an outmoded form 
of art, in certain masque-like plays, notably The 
Tempest and A Midsummer Night's Dream, it 
has survived the centuries since it flourished. In 
France it has persisted in the form of the ballet 
d' action, and ever now and then some masque is 
revived by an organization such as the Eliza- 
bethan Stage Society or by a university or school. 
In October 1907, The Hue and Cry After Cupid 
was given by students of the University of Cali- 
fornia in the Greek Theatre at Berkeley. Many 
of the pageants that have been given recently in 

[43] 



The B ohemian Jinks 

England, notably that held at Oxford, contained 
masques. A few original masques on the Jon- 
sonian model have been written in late years. 
The first of these was Beauty's Awakening, .1 
Masque of Winter and of Spring, presented in 
the Guildhall, London, in 1899, by the Art 
Workers. 

The authorship of this masque is usually 
attributed to Mr. A. Ashbee, but it was really 
the work of a number of men who not only 
wrote parts of the text but also designed 
costumes and properties. The most notable 
of these were Mr. Walter Crane and Mr. Selwyn 
Image. 

Charles Hastings, in his useful work, The 
Theatre, also mentions a masque given in Febru- 
ary 1900 and entitled Peace and I Tar, which he 
says was 

especially got up by the elite of London society in aid 
of the soldiers wounded in the Transvaal. In this the 
different parts were undertaken by well-known mem- 
bers of society, and the performance in every way re- 
sembled the splendid shows of the seventeenth century. 

The Bohemian grove-play produced in the 
redwood forest of California is not a revival 
of the masque but rather a curious parallelism 
and, as such, presents an extremely interest- 

[44] 



Origin and Analo gies 



ing literary phenomenon. These two similar 
but unrelated types of stage presentation con- 
sist of an almost arbitrary arrangement of the 
same factors, the constancy rather than the 
order of which constitute the form. The grove- 
play is a combination, year after year, of the 
same elements in varying sequence with the 
personifications of virtue and care as constant 
factors. We have seen how it evolved from the 
midsummer high jinks which, curiously 
enough, bore a certain resemblance to trie 
"entertainment" that antedated the masque. 
In this as in the jinks the nucleus was an 
address of welcome. 

The Cremation of Care with its more or less 
fixed ritual is, also, an expression of the crea- 
tive spirit which has its analogue in the anti- 
masque. The low jinks alone is without dis- 
distinction as a genre. Originality may be and 
often is displayed in its component parts, but. 
as a whole, it has neither form nor feature that 
marks it as other than a type derived directly 
from the commercial theatre. 



[45 J 



IV — Synopses 

THE MAN IN THE FOREST, A LEGEND 
OF THE TRIBE 

(1902) 

by Charles K. Field 

Music by Joseph D. Redding" 

Richard M. Hotaling, Sire 



The Sire's Announcement 

"Ye who love the nation's legends. 
Love the hallads of a people. 
That like voices from afar off 
Call to ns to pause and listen. 
Speak in tones so plain and childlike 
Scarcely can the ear distinguish 
Whether they are sung or spoken, — 
Listen to this Indian legend." 

Brother Bohemians : 

Under the perpetual green of our mystic woods, in the 
glow of our annual camptire, assemble for the great 
Midsummer Peace-pipe, on the sixteenth day of the 
Moon of August. Then shall he told you a story, in the 
music of Redding, the poetry of Field and the faithful 

[46] 



S y nop s c s — M a n i n the Forest 



coloring of Joullin — the tale of The Man in the Forest. 
A Legend of the Tribe, and as once, in the Indian's 
tradition, the Evil Spirit was banished from the wig- 
wams, so shall Care be slain in the forest and his ash.es 
flung to the winds of Heaven. 

Hotaling, Sire. 

"I will send a prophet to you. 
A deliverer of the nations, 
Who shall guide you and shall teach you 



Bathe now in the stream before you. 
Wash the war paint from your faces. 
Wash the blood stains from your fingers. 
Take the reeds that grow beside you. 
Deck them with your brightest feathers, 
Smoke the calumet together. 
And as brothers dwell henceforward !" 



The Chief 

The Owl 

A Runner 

An Aged Indian 

A Young Brave 

The Historian 

The Medicine Man 

The Musician 

A Hag 

The Bohemian 

Care 



The Cast 

Mr. J. C. Wilson 

Mr. Frank P. Deering 

Mr. Rohert I. Aitken 

Mr. Edgar D. Peixotto 

Mr. William Thomas 

Mr. Richard M. Hotaling 

Amedee Joullin 

Mr. Denis O'Sullivan 

Mr. William H. Smith. Jr. 

Dr. J. Wilson Shiels 

Mr. Charles K. Field 



47 



T h e B o h e in i a n J i n k s 

The argument of the play in the words of the 
author is as follows : 

The Chief, alone among the silent wigwams, laments 
the threatened destruction of his tribe. An owl is 
heard hooting through the dark forest, and the Chief 
invokes the mysterious bird. The Owl prophesies that 
a deliverer shall come to the tribe and warns him 
against unwittingly destroying him. The Chief sum- 
mons his people and repeats to them the oracle of the 
Owl. The Indian's lament is broken by the arrival of 
a runner who announces the capture of a pale-face. 
the braves gather in the council-ring. An aged Indian 
advises peace; a young brave urges fight; then the His- 
torian recites the legend of The Man in the Forest, and 
exhorts the people to prayer. The tribe dances the 
sacred Prayer Dance. It is interrupted by the return 
of the foraging party bringing the captive. The Indians 
threaten him. Suddenly upon the hillside appears the 
ghastly skeleton of Care. The Indians fall before the 
advancing spectre, but the bound captive faces the 
Apparition and before his calm gaze Care vanishes. 
Then the warning hoot of the Owl is heard and the 
Chief, mindful of the oracle, unbinds the captive. The 
white man announces himself as from the country <>i 
Bohemia, and he promises protection to the forest. 
Lifting his hand to the hillside he calls through the 
trees and the forest becomes illuminated while down the 
hill pour- a company of garlanded harvesters laden with 
corn and fuit and bearing deliverance to the tribe. 

Undoubtedly the most striking episode in 
this play was when a sudden light on the hill- 

[48] 



Synopses — Man in the Forest 

side disclosed the Indian runner rapidly de- 
scending the slope. He was stark naked save 
for a breech-clout and moccasins and his 
bronzed skin, under which his muscles were 
seen to play, shone in the light as he darted 
down the winding trail. Once or twice he 
ignored the path and dashed down the 
declivity, crashing through the underbrush and 
leaping, at the risk of serious injury, over 
bramble and brake, over stones, logs, and 
gullies, until, bleeding and breathless, he stood 
before the Chief and delivered his message. 

This introduced the naked actor in the grove- 
play. It will be shown later how this feature 
was used to advantage in subsequent per- 
formances. 

Unfortunately, every existing copy of The Man 
in the Forest was destroyed in the San Francisco 
fire. The Legend recited by the Historian alone 
survives. It is, in part, as follows : 

Long ago the woods were blighted 
By the breath of evil spirits, 
By the presence of the Dark One ; 
In the river-mist lurked evil, 
In the leaves a terror whispered ; 
All the happy hunting-places 
Were deserted, bare and barren 
As the prairie desolated 

[49] 



77/ c I) o Ii c m ia n J i u k 



By the curse of fire and ashes ; 
No more came the deer at evening 
To the quiet water-courses, 
No more drummed the hidden partridge 
Or the grouse among the shadows, 
Gone the great hear from the mountains. 
Gone the hison from the prairies; 
And the tender corn, the comfort. 
Dried and shriveled ere its blooming, 
Drooped and faded into yellow 
Like a girl that dies of fever 
In the Moon of Evil Vapors. 

Then came Famine through the forest. 
Gaunt and gray, with mocking laughter. 
Gloated by the cheerless wigwams. 

While through all the dismal forest 
Nothing hroke the awful stillness 
Save the ghastly laugh of Hunger 
That from far the gaunt coyote 
Like a mocking echo answered. 

From the shadow of his wigwam 
Struggled Mee-das, the magician. 
Waited by the touch of Famine 
And the fires of his long vigil ; 

In the strength of his death-anguish 
Danced he there among the dying. 
In the sacred snake-dance moved he 
Round and round in prayer unceasing. 



;so] 



Synapse s — M a n i n t li c Forest 

But alas, he failed and faltered 

And at length his strength went from him 

And he fell among his people 

And his hope burned out in darkness. 

But the mocking laugh of Famine 

Rang no more through all the forest ; 

There among the silent wigwams 

Stood the figure of a stranger ! 

In his hair the gold of morning, 

In his eyes the azure heavens, 

Tn his voice the tender music 

Of the south wind in the woodland. 

Breathing through the maize at day-break. 

Dying eyes looked up and saw him. 

And a dreamy strength came thrilling 

Through the twisted limbs of anguish 

Till the people rose about him. 

Caught and kissed the stranger's garment. 

Then with waving hands the savior 

Called afar through all the forest, 

And behold a wonder happened ! 

Through the forest came the red deer. 

And the partridge and the squirrel. 

Came the heavy bear and bison. 

And the corn grew tall and heavy 

Tn the magic of his music 

And the water wet the mosses, 

Turning green the blighted woodland. 

Gratefully the rescued people 

Turned to bless their strange deliverer; 

He had vanished from among them 

[51] 



T he Bo h c m i a n J i n k s 

As the noiseless water-serpents 
Vanish in the pools at twilight, 
But the beauty of his presence 
There remained to bless the forest 
And the Indian ever after. 



MONTEZUMA 

(1903) 

by Louis A. Robertson 

Music by Humphrey J. Stewart 

Louis A. Robertson, Sire 



Bohemians : 

When Cynthia, garbed in all her silvern splendor, 
climbs through the cloudless August night over our 
classic grove, 

Beneath the Titan trees we hope to show 
How mighty Montezuma faced the fate 
That left him throneless, thralled, and desolate 

In Cortez' clutch four hundred years ago. 

Upon a victim's breast a fire shall glow — 

A war god's favor to propitiate ; 

And you shall hear the priests and prophets prate 
The princely Aztec's doom and overthrow. 

[52] 



S y n apse s — M onte z it m a 

There Aitken's able genius shall unfold 
A gorgeous spectacle and ghastly rite; 

While Stewart's matchless minstrelsy is rolled 
To where the star-bedizened dome of night 

Sends back an echoing chorus ; while your sire 

Lends to the scene and song an answering lyre. 

Louis Robertson, Sire. 

The Cast 
Montezuma Mr. J. C. Wilson 

The Astrologer Mr. Richard M. Hotaling 

Malric, the Victim Mr. Robert I. Aitken 

The High Priest Mr. Donald deV. Graham 

Charac, a Chief Dr. J. Wilson Shiels 

Dragonda, a Chief Mr. H. McD. Spencer 

A Crier Mr. James B. Smith 

A Messenger Mr. William H. Smith, Jr. 

In this play the hillside was not used, but 
instead an elaborate arrangement of canvas 
scenery was employed with a sky-drop and, 
in place of the natural proscenium, there were 
canvas "tormentors" on which were painted 
Aztec idols and glyphographs. The abandon- 
ment of natural scenery for artificial was not 
considered a success ; it was too great a con- 
cession to the conventions of the commercial 
theatre, and since that time the unembellished 
stage only has been used. 

[53] 



77/ c B o h e m i a n J i n k 



The synopsis of the play, written by Mr. Rob- 
ertson, is as follows : 

This dramatic episode lias been built upon the history 
of the conquest of Montezuma by Cortez, and upon the 
accepted accounts of the sacrificial rites which prevailed 
at that period in the land of the Aztecs. With these 
lias been interwoven the tradition that foretold the 
coming of a conqueror from beyond the Eastern seas. 

The entire play is pregnant with this portent. Priests 
chant it. and the Astrologer tells it. Montezuma, finally 
convinced of its truth, calls to his captains and chiefs 
for a suitable sacrifice to appease the wrath and pro- 
pitiate the favor of the God of War. the mighty Mexitli. 
Two chiefs offer, but are refused. Then a youth, glo ■■. - 
ing with patriotic ardor, steps forward and offers not 
only bis life, but shows that bis sacrifice will break with 
grief the heart of a young girl, to whom be has 
wedded for a month, and "whose faith-filled eyes behold 
in him a god." He is accepted; stretched upon the 
jasper stone: bis heart cut out and given to the god. 
and the New Light kindled upon his bleeding brea-t. 
Just as the sacrifice has been completed, the unfamiliar 
thunder of Cortez' cannon is heard, followed by bis ap- 
pearance on the scene. 

Arbitrary reasons have made it necessary to con- 
dense within the narrow compass of one day events 
that were months in happening. 

The play opens with a hymn to the rising sun, 
sung by priests, a summons by a crier, and a 
chorus hailing the approach of Montezuma. The 



54] 



vS y n o p s c s — M ontezuma 

scene is laid on the top of a teocalli or Aztec 
pyramid, and to this enters the king and his 
retinue dazzlingly accoutered ; some of the chiefs 
and warriors are naked save for necklaces, 
girdles, and other ornaments of barbaric design. 
They wear splendid feather head-dresses. Monte- 
zuma gives audience to an astrologer who voices 
a warning in the following words : 

King, I have come from where the mighty loom 

Of midnight weaves the starry silver strands 

Into the fabric of a fate that few 

Have knowledge to unravel or reveal. 

A hundred times and more hath yonder sun 

Soared from the sombre midnight to the morn 

And blotted from the jeweled page of night 

The starry charactry wherein are writ 

The secrets fate doth in the future hide. 

A hundred times my straining eyes have seen 

The stars flash forth a hint of hidden things, 

But ere I grasped the secret, it was dead 

Within the dawning of another day. 

Last night I saw the belted giant climb 

Into the blazing canopy above 

And with his sword touch Teocalli's towers ; 

Then, in the mystic moment, I became 

As one, half blind, feels from his clouded eyes 

The scales that veiled his vision fall away, 

And reads aright at last the tale of truth. 

As from the glamouring gloom I turned my gaze 

To scan the charted records of the skies, 

[55] 



77/ c B oh c in ia n J in ks 

My finger fell upon the fateful spot 

And there I read great Montezuma's doom. 

Montezuma replies to this, interpreting the 
"belted giant" to be Ouitzacoatl, the traditional 
chief of old whose return had been prophesied 
for centuries. The astrologer convinces him of 
his error, and impresses him with the importance 
of conciliating the War God instantly with a 
sacrifice. The king appeals to his chieftains ; 
two of them offer themselves as sacrifices, but 
are refused ; then the youth, Malric. offers him- 
self in the following address : 

! was an acolyte when thou wast priest 

In proud Cholula's temple long ago. 

My prayers have mingled in the past with thine. 

And by their memory now in mercy lend 

A listening ear to my imperfect plea. 

King, I am one on whom a woman's lips 

Were never laid until they came to bless 

Me in the sacred bridal bed of love. 

One month hath barely passed since 1 was wed 

Unto a virgin bride, and earth became 

To us a garden where the gods bestowed 

Their best to bless ami crown us with content. 

Still in the springtide of our love we live ; 

No cloud has cast a shadow o'er the shrine 

Wherein we kneel, and where her faith-filled eyes 

Behold in me a god. Still her white soul 

Glows in the censer of a loyal heart 

[56j 



vS y nop se s — M ontezu m a 

And woos me with its fragrant altar flame. 

Ah, it were nothing now to lay aside 

Honor and life, glory and gold and all 

Men prize the most, if it conld build for thee 

A bulwark 'gainst the swelling surge that sweeps 

Hither to send us with thee to our doom. 

The sacrifice Mexitli calls for now, 

Must be the purest and most precious gem 

Of all the hoarded treasures man loves best. 

If to the flaying Toplitzin to-day 

My flesh is flung, then over it will roll 

The requiem of a young wife's breaking heart ; 

And it may be the god will deem mine own 

A richer gift, since — like a chalice filled 

With priceless wine — I break it at his feet, 

And with the shattered offering to him pour 

The pure libation of a woman's love. 

Malric is accepted; the High Priest gives him 
a benediction, after which all retire. A musical 
interlude occurs here followed by the entrance of 
a procession conducting Malric to the sacrifice. 
He takes leave of life and of his bride in a lyrical 
passage. When his final moment is at hand, 
Malric dashes from him the garlands in which he 
had been wreathed, shatters his lyre, and, tearing 
his tunic from his shoulders, stands naked before 
the priests. He is stretched upon the sacrificial 
stone ; the toplitzin performs his blood)- office ; 
the victim's heart is placed in the gaping jaws 

[57] 



T he B oli c m i a n J i n k s 

of a colossal statue of Mexitli; a fire is kindled 
upon his breast; and the choral hymn to the New 
Light is sung by priests and people. This is fol- 
lowed by the appearance of a breathless messen- 
ger who announces the coming of the foe. 
Montezuma, realizing his destruction is imminent, 
utters the cry of the vanquished in his last words. 
As he is speaking, Cortez and his soldiers, pre- 
ceded by a Spanish priest who holds aloft a 
cross, enter upon the scene. The final lines of 
the play, spoken by Montezuma, are as follows : 

What flag is that which flouts me from the height 
Of yonder mountain side? What flames are these 
That cloud with crimson the unsullied sky 
Till clear Tezcoco seems to turn to blood? 
What shriek is that? Say, does the Eagle feel 
The Serpent's fangs at last? Then must I fall. 
The sacred symbol now confirms the stars 
And power and pride must yield to destiny. 

It will be noted that the play of Montezuma is 
in no way related to the grove. In this respect 
it differs from the other grove-plays with which 
it has less in common than with the dramas that 
we are accustomed to see in city theatres. The 
Care motive is vaguely suggested in the person 
of the pagan king. 

[58] 



S y nop s c s — T he Hamad r y a d s 

THE HAMADRYADS 

A Masque of Apollo 

(1904) 

by Will Irwin 

Music by W. J. McCoy 

T. Wilson Shiels, Sire 



The Sire's Announcement 

Kind, lenient lover of Bohemia : on one sweet night 
our feathered friend and Master demands your pres- 
ence. Obey for your heart's sake. Yet, the appeasable 
bird requests your good fellowship for the full period 
wherein we live and commune with his mighty trees. 
Grant this for his heart's sake. On this .summer night 
you shall witness the second coming of Apollo, aeons 
ago the god of streaming sunlight, the repeller of ills, 
and the Lord Protector of our Grove, now the willing 
servant of a higher power, at whose command he will 
slay foul Meledon, the God of Care, bringing joy to the 
Spirits of the Trees, the gentle Hamadryads, and to us 
content. Great Cronos gave a mighty strength to every 
trunk of our Titan Grove, and to become that strength 
he endowed each with a man's masterful soul to better 
battle with the winds and Care. Yet were they gentle 
All this in the poesy of Trwin and the music of McCoy. 
With due solemnity shall hurtful Care to ashes be re- 
duced, and you shall listen with profound reverence to 

[59] 



T h c B o li c in i a n J i n k s 

the benediction of your most beloved High Priest, who 
in turn will honor John McNaught by laying on him 
his command to tell us of our future happy time. 

Shiels, Sire. 
The Cast 

The Poet Mr. IT. McD. Spencer 

First Hamadryad Mr. Charles K. Field 

Second Hamadryad Mr. Henry A. Melvin 

Third Hamadryad Dr. J. Wilson Shiels 

Fourth Hamadryad Mr. C. K. Bonestell 

Fifth Hamadryad Mr. H. J. Maginnity 

Sixth Hamadryad Mr. Charles S. Aiken 

Herald of the Hamadryads Mr. Clarence Wendell 
Meledon, God of Care Mr. Richard H. Hotaling 
A Naiad Mr. William H. Smith. Jr. 

Apollo Mr. H. McD. Spencer 

First Angel Mr. T. Vail Bakewell 

Second Angel Mr. Frank P. Deering 

Young Hamadryads, Dancers, the Hosts 
of Apollo, Chorus of Angels. 

The argument in Mr. Irwin's foreword to The 
Hamadryads follows : 

The scene is laid in this grove, and the time is mid- 
summer night of that year when the Greater Bear stood 
by the constellation Bootes ; or, as mortals measure time, 
about the season when a people of white countenance 
and tawny hair first came over the great mountains. 

[60] 



^ y n apse s — T he Ha m a d r y a d s 

In that time the grove stood unsullied and unshorn. 
Not yet had mortals begun the war in which so many 
a mighty trunk that had conquered the winds a cycle 
long fell to ruin and gave back its soul, its* gentle 
hamadryad, to the Essence of Things. Since then, 
through patronage of Lord Apollo and mercy of the 
New Power, mortals of kinder sort have stayed the 
slaughter and restored these vales to their unseen 
ministers. 

Here tell we how it came that Cronos set men spirits 
to this grove ; how Lord Apollo loves these glades, and 
how he was driven therefrom, leaving the gentle wood- 
folk in imprisonment and hard distress ; how Meledon, 
spirit of Care, vilest of the old divinities, being refused 
dwelling in Limbo, cheerless home of the conquered 
gods, and in Hell, came to plague the fairest vale of 
earth ; how the New Power, being supplicated, sent 
deliverance ; and how Apollo, the far-darter, slew Care, 
bringing joy to the woodfolk and beauty to the sons of 
men. 

And to him who, filled with the later lore of righteous- 
ness, knows not the ancient lore of beauty, here tell we 
of hamadryads. Spirits they were of brightness and 
joy, dwelling in the trees. Of like substance to the 
immortals, yet were they mortal, for each was born and 
died with the tree its habitation. All the gods they 
reverenced, but especially Apollo, who held tutelage of 
groves, and the wild wood-god, Pan. In Hellas and 
Ausonian land they were woman-spirits, but in these 
groves men ; and of these shall our tale relate. 

[61] 



The Bohemian Jinks 

At the beginning of Mr. Irwin's masque 
occured the awakening of the trees. On a stage 
shrouded in darkness whence the foul Meledon 
had just vanished, a single tree is seen to glow- 
faintly with a pale greenish light. This grows 
in intensity while the orchestra plays the 
Illumination Music, until, after the space of 
two minutes or so, the trunk of the tree seems 
to give forth light. Now from its bole the 
hand slowly followed by the arm, and, finally, 
by the leaf-clad figure of a wood-spirit, 
emerges. The orchestra announces the 
Hamadryad motive which the spirit echoes 
with the cry, "Hola-to-ho !" A second tree has 
been slowly illumined and from it comes the 
Second Hamadryad followed by the Third and 
Fourth, each from his own tree, and all cry 
in unison to their fellows in the forest. The 
trees on the hillside come to life until, finally, 
the whole slope is as brilliant as day, and the 
hamadryads that seem to spring from the earth 
come leaping down the trails, pausing now and 
then to beckon and call to their companions. 
Their green garments, slashed to resemble 
foliage, tremble with their every movement as 
they gather in the center of the stage and lift 

[62] 



S v nopse s — T he Ha m a d r y a d s 

a great chorus based on the Hamadryad 
motive. 

One of the hamadryads presently relates how 
men-spirits came to inhabit this grove. His 
narrative follows : 

In the beginning Cronos made the earth, 

Poured out the lordly seas and lit the heavens; 

And unto every creature of his hand 

He set a guardian god ; the silent stars, 

Forever swinging in their luminous curves, 

Harbored men-spirits, terrible in war 

And kingly in their councils ; and the winds — 

The warrior-winds that battle with the stars — 

They, too, were men, shaggy and hoar and fierce. 

All these he made ; then looked upon the groves. 

He saw the linden and the sceptral pine ; 

He saw the willow dancing with a breeze 

That tossed her tumbled leaves in wantonness. 

"Now loose the nymphs," he cried, "the merry nymphs!'' 

And into every burgher of the wood 

There came a woman-spirit ; white their breasts, 

Wanton their snowy thighs and soft their lips 

With amorous murmurs to a summer moon. 

It was a winter night when he beheld 
This grove inanimate ; the winds were mad, 
The rain was wild for battle, and the trees 
Fought as the Titans fought with angry Zeus, 
Bent all their mighty thews in unison 
And hurtled back the javelins of the blast. 



77/ c B oli e in ici n 3 in ks 

Yea, all that angry night th' embittered gales 

Threw their grim frontlets upon hough and branch, 

And staggered hack in muttering retreat. 

But, lo ! when shepherd Morning leashed the winds, 

Gathered his star-Hocks from the heavens and "glanced 

His jeweled crook upon the dripping ferns, 

The Titan grove stood straight and unafraid. 

\\'ear_\', but all victorious, bare of leaf, 

But not one trunk lay fallen. Then the god 

Laughed loud; his mighty laughter shook the hills, 

"Women for these?" he cried, and then again. 

"Women for these? Nay, godlings, these be men! 

Give me men-spirits, stalwart, masterful. 

Let women animate the laughing linden, 

The careless willow and the slender pine; 

But these be men !" 

And at the g< id's c< immand, 
Out of the dark, primordial soul of things. 
Where sleeps the essence of the little gods 
And mortals unconceived, our fathers came. 
Stalwart, but gentle: foemen to the winds. 
But lovers of the bracken and the fern 
And every living thing that in this grove 
Drinks sustenance from the brown breasts of earth. 

The nmst ancient spirit of the trees then 
tells how Lord Apollo made of this grove his 
favorite resting place. This is followed by a 
dance of young hamadryads after which still 

[64] 



S v n o p s c s — T h c H a m a d r y ads 

another spirit tells how fell the gods and how the 
Xew Power triumphed. He ends thus : 

Xo more, no more 
Shall ocean break to jewels on the feet 
Of foam-born Aphrodite. Ah, no more 
Shall herald Hermes bend his sea-bright wings. 
Stilled is Apollo's lay. The gods are gone. 
And where the meadows blossomed at their tread. 
And Lesbic maidens, robed with innocence. 
Their garlands on the living marble twined, 
Men lift a broken form upon a cross. 
For Hellas hath forgot, and only we 
Keep their sweet semblance in loved memory. 

Meledon, whose baleful presence is ever hover- 
ing near, appears to taunt and harass the hama- 
dryads and unwittingly tells them that Apollo, 
whom they thought dead, dwells in Limbo. The 
Xaiad, issuing from a stream that suddenly flows 
from the hillside, comes as a messenger from 
the nether world to announce that Apollo has 
submitted to the Xew Power. The oldest hama- 
dryad supplicates the hidden God, whereupon an 
angel appears and sings : 

He hath heard ! He hath heard ! Our God shall bring 

deliverance ! 
For the seas are glad with His countenance, 
And the hills in His might rejoice, 
And the flowers in their beauty do His will, 

[65] 



The Bohemian Jinks 

And the rivers sing at His voice, 

And the forests gladden the wilderness 

By the grace of His glorious word, 

Who hath answered the prayer of the simple folk 

That called in praise of their Lord — 

He hath answered the prayer of the simple folk 

That called on their mighty Lord. 

Deliverance! Deliverance! He grants deliverance ! 

A chorus of angels is now heard singing: 

For He is mighty! For He is gracious! For He is 

merciful ! 
The Lord, Our God is merciful ! 

Meledon enters and defies the angels when 
at the highest point on the hillside, Apollo sud- 
denly appears. His body is nude; front his 
shoulders hang a chlamys of cloth-of-gold ; on his 
head is a crown of golden rays ; and in his hand 
a golden bow. Far below him stands Meledon 
hurling defiance at heaven. Apollo plucks a dart 
from his shining quiver : he twangs his bow and 
a bolt of light flashes down the hillside, felling 
Meledon among the hamadryads freed and joy- 
ful. The forest is illumined by the presence of 
the God of Day, and Apollo descends the hill 
majestically while the hamadryads sing a chorus 
of welcome and of triumph which brings the play 
to a close. 

[66] 



S ynopse s — Q uest of the G or go n 

THE QUEST OF THE GORGON 

A Musical Drama 

(1905) 

by Newton J. Tharp 

Music by Theodor Vogt 

Newton J. Tharp, Sire 



The Sire's Announcement 

Bohemians : 

For your brief respite from the ways of toil 

At tasks depressing to your better selves ; 

Old Nature hath, these twelve moons past, devised 

Her woodland forms in splendor and profusion. 

With hands of wondrous cunning she hath wrought 

Within the hallowed precincts of our grove, 

Till now the ferns and new-sprung quiv'ring leaves. 

Do laugh enticements sweet as ne'er before. 

The forest harps, so deften smote by wafts 

Of scented air, await to lure thee — dreamwise — 

By their matchless strains to isles of fairy form. 

Where Care dwells not, and the hour-glass needs no 

turning. 
The deep, star-studded sky — seen through weird 
And quaintly fashioned lace of limb and leaf — 
Invites thee to enjoy the quiet mood, 

[671 



T h c B o h c m i a n J i n k s 

Or hours replete with contemplation mild. 

And Nature doth avow from out the vast, 

Wherein do lie her moods in mighty keep, that: — 

To those with cars she will sing — 

To those with hearts she will speak — 

For those wdth eyes she'll paint the sky 

With purest azure tone, the trees 

With softest green ; and hill-tops golden smite 

With magic brush at morn and eve. 

In tune with all this lavish forest spread, a play has 
been devised upon an olden tale, and on the night of 
August twelfth, among the towering trees will be un- 
folded "The Quest of the Gorgon." A theme, around 
which our good Bohemian Vogt has wreathed be- 
witching, soul-ensnaring music, quite as Care-destroy- 
ing as wall be the arm of the mighty Perseus when he 
has tracked the demon to her noisome lair. 

Tharp, Sire. 

The Cast 

Perseus Dr. J. Wilson Shiels 

Sibyl Mr. Richard M. Hotaling 

Dionysus Mr. L. A. Larsen 

Silenus Mr. William B. Hopkins 

Pan Mr. William H. Smith. Jr. 

Hades Mr. Amedee Joullin 

Hermes Mr. George De Long 

Athene Mr. Edgar D. Peixotto 

Gsea Mr. Frank P. Deering 

A Mortal Mr. Thomas Rickard 



[68] 



S v 11 o psc s — Q uest of the Gorgon 

Choruses 

Sileni Mortals 

Satyrs Musae 

Sylvans Priests 

Maenads Victims 

A synopsis of The Quest of the Gorgon which 
appeared in the programme and was written by 
Mr. Tharp runs thus : 

The drama is based upon the mythological con- 
ception of Gaea (the Earth) and Phoebus- Apollo 
( Light ) being the agencies through which all the 
visible manifestations of Nature are carried on ; 
Dionysus in his broader significance as God of 
Moisture, growing vegetation, flowers and vines, bring- 
ing good to mankind ; and the Gorgon as a personifica- 
tion of evil and corroding Care, ever present, ever 
watchful, eager to snatch away from mortals the 
morsels of joy given them by Dionysus and other 
gods. 

A free use is also made of the myths of Perseus and 
the Sibyls, and other mythological lore. 

The time is in the dim Homeric past. The action is 
divided into five episodes, during the first four of which 
the scene is in Delphi. Apollo's oracle, where opens 
the cavern with its prophetic-dealing vapors, and where 
stood the omphalos — Earth's navel — the sacred stone 
that marked her exact center. The fifth episode occurs 
before the cave of the Gorgon. 

Episode 1 — The ancient Delphian sibyl tells how she 

[69] 



77/ e B o h e m ia n J in ks 

acquired her long life and the gift of prophecy. She 
Ik ilds converse with Gsea regarding the slaying of the 
Gorgon. 

Episode 2 — Dionysus appears in his Autumn festival 
to render homage to Gaea and Phcebus, with propitiatory 
ceremony. 

Episode 3 — Perseus appears, tells Dionysus .and his 
throng that his reason for visiting the oracle is to be 
advised of the way to the Gorgon and how to slay 
her. Dionysus tries to turn him from his task by point- 
ing out its seeming hopelessness, asks him to join on 
his march to the lands of the mortals, and assist him 
in his work of teaching them the growing of fruits 
and vines as being the surest way of giving them 
happiness. Perseus refuses, saying that there can he 
no real happiness while the Gorgon lives. 

Episode 4 — -The sibyl being assured of the fitness of 
Perseus to attempt the death of the Gorgon, agrees to 
use her power and call the gods to his assistance. This 
she does with the result that Perseus is sent on his 
way with the helmet of Hades, which will render him 
invisible at will, the winged sandals of Hermes, and 
the shield of Athene. 

Between the above episode and the last, there is a 
choral number in the form of the Greek parabasis. 
This gives an opportunity to change the indications of 
the scene without the use of a curtain. 

Episode 5 — The slaying of the Gorgon by Perseus. 

The musical numbers composed by Mr. Vbgt 
for The Quest of the Gorgon comprised: 

1. Introduction ; 2. Dionysian Revel, Scene and 

[70] 




GEORGE STERLING, JACK LONDON, AND THE AUTHOR AT IKi.MI 



# 



S y nop s c s — Q ues t of the Gorgon 

ensemble, Dionysus, Silenus, and Chorus ; 3. Dance 
of the Sylvans, Satyrs, Maenads, and Sileni ; 4. Scene 
and ensemble, Entrance of Perseus ; 5. Orizon to the 
Sibyl, Solo and Chorus ; 6. Invocation to Hades, 
Melodramatic, scenes and ensemble ; 7. Invocation to 
Hermes, Melodramatic, scenes and ensemble ; 8. In- 
vocation to Athene, Scenes and ensemble ; 9. Scene and 
ensemble, Athene, Perseus, and Chorus; 10. Parabasis. 
Greek Hymn; 11. Chorus of Victims; 12. Death of 
Gorgon and Finale. 

The first scene opens with a colloquy between 
the sibyl and Ga?a which is in part as follows : 

SIBYL. 

This day, my last! 

Now Thanatos around me locks his chains, 
And Charon beckons from the Stygian shore. 
A thousand years have gone since I, cast forth 
On Life's capacious lap, lay waiting for 
The thread the Fates had spun to guide me on 
Through mortal way. A thousand years ! 
So many dawns have passed before my ken. 
That as I see them each from Memory's book 
Unfold, they seem as all the leaves of Autumn 
In endless stream from here to chaos' realm. 

Of near all burdens have I found men surcease, 
Save one, weightiest and darkest of them all. 
Rut e'en this day, though well my last, 
Shall I the foul corroding thing encompass. 
Gsa ! Gsea ! (Strikes the Omphalos.) 

[711 



The B oil c in i a n Jinks 

GjEA. 

Who calls? 

Who dares arouse me from my mighty dreams? 

SIBYL. 
Gaea ! Gaea ! 

Not once before, in all my years, 
Hath she my summons answered. 
'Tis I, Pythoness, eldest of thy children — 
Save these tall and mighty trees that stood, 
As now in solemn majesty, when first 
I walked these groves — 
Gaea ! Gaea ! Primal prophetess ! 

( Strikes the Omphalos again.) 
From out the wisdom, horded in thy vast 
Mysterious depths, spell me the secret way 
By which I may all men the Gorgon rid 
Before my hours are numbered. 

GMK. 

All things I give but all to me return ; 
Some would mount the clouds, and ride 
The azure fields of Heaven ; 
Some, me defy, and plant themselves as rock — 
But e'en as thou this day shalt surely do, 
They all to me return ! return ! return ! 

The Dionysian Revel in the Second Episode 
of 77/ e Quest of the Gorgon was sumptuously 
costumed and rich in picturesque qualities. The 
play as a whole was in the spirit of the satyric 
drama, Silenus and his ribald followers intro- 

[72] 



Synopses — The Owl and Care 

during a not unwelcome touch of humor which 
the authors of other grove-plays have not ven- 
tured. 

THE OWL AXD CARE 

( 1906 ) 

A Spectacle 

by Charles K. Field 

Music by Humphrey J. Stewart 

Charles K. Field, Sire. 

In 1906 the Bohemian encampment took place 
three months after the great disaster in San 
Francisco. The club had suffered severe losses 
as had many of the members. The club-house 
in San Francisco had been destroyed together 
with the greater part of its contents, including 
a library said to have been the finest club library 
in America. The Bohemians were also very 
much scattered. Nevertheless, undaunted by re- 
verses, the club held its encampment, although 
not in its usual lavish manner, and instead of a 
grove-play, the ceremony of the Cremation of 
Care was expanded and was preceded by a short 
scene on the hillside stage. The whole affair 
was in the nature of a defiance of Care who had 

[73] 



The Bohemian Jinks 

so recently and so heavily laid his hand on the 
whole of this Western community. The text was 
written by Mr. Charles K. Field who called the 
production The Owl and Care, A Spectacle. For 
the first time in many years an orchestra was 
omitted, the music for the occasion being fur- 
nished by a band. Part of the music was 
especially composed by Dr. H. J. Stewart. 



Hill-man 
Tree-man 
River-man 
First Bohemian 
Second Bohemian 
Third Bohemian 
Care 

Voice of Care 
High Priest 
x\ssistant Priest 
The Dead Tree 
The Living Tree 
Love 



The Cast 

Mr. C. K. Bonestell 

Mr. Charles K. Field 

Mr. William H. Smith, Jr. 

Mr. Charles J. Dickman 

Mr. Robert C. Berkeley 

Mr. Frank P. Deering 

Mr. Chester B. Fernald 

Dr. J. Wilson Shiels 

Mr. George T. Bromley 

Mr. Frederic W. Hall 

Dr. J. Wilson Shiels 

Mr. Richard M. Hotaling 

Master Ramond White 



In the first part, which took place on the hill- 
side, a Tree-man, a Hill-man, and a River-man, 
stricken with fear, are shown flying from a fell 
monster whose terrible voice is heard through the 



[74] 




DAI BUTSU— BUDDHA JINKS (1892) 



Synopses — The Owl and Care 

forest while the earth trembles with his approach- 
ing" footsteps. Three Bohemians appear who 
have come from their ruined city to seek rest 
and solace in the woods. They are in colloquy 
with the three nature spirits when the voice of 
Care ( for such the monster is ) is heard again. 
The Bohemians bid him begone, but the voice 
thunders from the hill : 

What power shall banish me? Back with me then 
to your city of dust and ashes, ye men of a hopeless 
task, for be ye sure that wheresoever men gather there 
am I among them always ! 

Care enters in the form of a giant on the upper 
hill. "I am disease and death," he cries. The 
Bohemians invoke the Owl, which appears from 
the darkness on the hill. Care wails again, "I am 
disease and death;" a flame bursts from the owl, 
and the monster falls dead. A march is played 
which the chorus sings, and a procession of 
figures wearing black robes with the hoods drawn 
and carrying torches march down the hillside 
which is illuminated while the Hill-man, Tree- 
man, and River-man dance around the effigy of 
the Owl. 

The procession leaves the theatre, led by the 
band, and followed by the members. All proceed 
to the place of cremation. Here the Assisting 

[75] 



T h c B o Ji c in i a n J i n k s 



Priest addresses his followers, but he is inter- 
rupted by the terrihle laugh of Care coming from 
a dead tree nearby. The priest pauses and the 
voice is heard from the dead tree, an enormous 
gaunt and gray shaft rising to the height of over 
a hundred feet. Leafless branches from which 
hang tattered moss project from the upper trunk. 
It is bathed in light turning its gray barkless sur- 
face into a ghastly whiteness. The voice is now 
heard in ominous intonation issuing from the 
tree. It says : 

Bohemians ! Children of sorrow, foolishly gay, 

Hearken to me ; 
Yesterday, now and to-morrow, I am the sign of decay, 

I am the Dead Tree ; 
Token and symbol of grief, 

Tendril I have not nor leaf, 
I am the form of despair, 

And through my voice speaks the immortal spirit 
of Care. 

When the Voice of the Dead Tree ceases a red 
light is seen illuminating a singularly beautiful 
living tree a little distance away. It is plumed 
with masses of green foliage. From it the voice 
of the Living Tree is heard. It says that the 
Dead Tree had lied and adds : 

Lo, they may burn me with fire, 

They may blacken and scar me with flame, 

[76] 



Synopses — The Ozul and Care 

Yet in the magical Spring I put forth my unconquer- 
able green ! 

you have chosen Love, and all you have lost 
shall return ! 
Blessed are ye, Bohemians, for among you the spirit 

of Brotherhood bideth, 
Call on his name through the forest ! 
He will kindle the pyre from your altar. 
He will gladden your feast with his beauty, 
And Care shall be banished forever ! 
I am the Living Tree, 
Love speaks through me. 
And Love is supreme ! 

The chorus sings an invocation to Love. Love 
appears near the Living Tree and sings : 
High Priest of Bohemia. 
Brothers all, behold me. 
I am Love ! 

Out from the deepest dark of the wood, 
See me rosily springing, 
So out of evil comes good. 
Out of men's burdens brotherhood. 
And out of sorrow singing : 
So from the blackest hour 
Blossoms the morn ; 
Up from the ashes of Care, 
Wet with the tears of despair, 
Up out of gloom like a flower, 
Lo, I am born ! 

Though Care may burn to embers 
The dress of vain desires, 

[77] 



77/ c />' oh c in ia n J in ks 

The heart that Love remembers 

[s proof against his fires; 
Behold, his power I destroy; 

Love lights the way to joy. 

The chorus follows with: 

True hearts together meeting. 

Love hears our call, 
Care's empery is fleeting. 
Love conquers all. 

While the chorus is singing. Love runs with 
his torch to the High Priest who lights it ; Love 
then applies the flame to the pyre. When the 
chorus ends Love blows upon his horn : the 
forest is illuminated with red and figures in gay 
robes run in and join in the dance around the 
blazing funeral pile. 



THE TRIUMPH OF BOHEMIA 

A Forest Play 

( 190/ ) 

by George Sterling 

Music by Edward F. Schneider 

George Sterling. Sire 



The Sire's Announcement 

THE OWL 
Hoo Hoo! Hoo Hoo ! ! Hoo Hoo!!! 

[78] 



Synopses — Triumph of Bohemia 

TRUE BOHEMIAN 

Majestic Bird, 
My reverential ears await thy word. 

THE OWL 
Hear then ! I bear from forest aisles untrod 
The summer message of the Laughter-God. 

TRUE BOHEMIAN 

A moment — till mine empty glass I fill 

Now, Bird, declare his autocratic will. 

THE OWL 
Mark well : when thou hast seen, in calm July, 
Its twenty-seventh morning light the sky. 
To his eternal Grove thy way must wend. 
That all his forest rites thou mayst attend. 
For glad, he hath bespoken, as of yore, 
A sylvan parable to teach his lore — ■ 
Telling his joy in care-forsaking men 
And their triumphal minstrelsy. So when 
The jealous and usurping moon that night 
Shall dim or drown the southern stars in light. 
He will come forth in greeting, and his voice 
Will counsel thee when reeds and chords rejoice; 
For Music, early to his service won, 
Grants him that night her well-beloved son. 
Our Edward Schneider, whose consummate art 
Hath found the exalting secrets of her heart. 
Then, when his love permitted: thee to share 
His ancient victory o'er ancient Care, 
His pontiff, Riley Hardin, shall arise 
And spread conclusive pageants for thine eyes — 

[79] 



The B ohe m i a n J i n k s 

A jovial man, whose very words have weight 
In crematory Mysteries, of late. 
Wherefore, O True Bohemian, attend, 
Lest ahsence or forgetfulness offend. 
E'en now Bohemia plans (O joyful task!) 
The light and music of his woodland masque. 

George Sterling, Sire. 

The Cast 
First Tree-Spirit Mr. Chas. von Neumayer 

Second Tree-Spirit Dr. Philip M. Jones 

Third Tree-Spirit Mr. Mackenzie Gordon 

First Woodman Mr. Frank Mathien 

Second Woodman Mr. Courtney Ford 

Spirit of the North-Wind Mr. Allan Dunn 

Spirit of the South-Wind Mr. Porter Garnett 
Spirit of the West-Wind Mr. Emerson Warfield 
Spirit of the East-Wind Mr. Jesse Olney 

Spirit of Time Mr. Edgar D. Peixotto 

Spirit of Fire Mr. Win. H. Smith, Jr. 

Spirit of Bohemia Mr. TT. McD. Spencer 

Mammon, Spirit of Care Dr. J. Wilson Shieis 

Gnomes: Masters Gordon Thurston, Robert 
Starett, Leroy Browne, Virgil Lyon. 

Wood-Spirits, Saplings, Woodmen, and Bo- 
hemians. 

Time: A Midsummer Night. 

Place : A Virgin Forest of Redwoods. 

[80] 




THE ILLUMINATION— FAUST JINKS (1897) 



S v nop s e s — T r i n in pJi of B oh c m i a 

The Chorus 

Messrs. E. D. Crandall (Chorus Master) 
G. Purlenky, J. P. Jones, Frecl Chase, M. L. R. 
Oksen, Geo. S. Johnson, R. I. Lynas, T. V. 
Bakewell, Frank Onslow, P. J. Mohr, W. A. 
Mitchell, Carl E. Anderson, T. L. Bolton. G. S. 
Mariner, E. H. McCandlish, C. W. Brock, 
R. I. Bentley Jr., T. G. Elliot, Walter Burck- 
halter, E. L. Taylor, P. D. Gaskill. G. D. Rey- 
nolds. E. W. Roland. Chas. Oliver. A. G. D. 
Kerrell. J. de P. Teller, C. E. Engvick, J. R. 
Hamilton, H. L. Perry, John McEwing, Chas. 
Dukes, W. F. Keene, C. J. Evans. B. M. Stich, 
C. Ff. Van Orden, M. McCurrie, E. E. Jones. 

The action and incidents of The Triumph of 
Bohemia were unfolded in this wise: 

The scene is a forest glade at the foot of a 
wooded hillside in moonlight. The tree-spirits 
are discovered sleeping. They toss in their 
slumber and appear perturbed. In the orches- 
tra, music suggestive of the woodland calm 
is played by way of prelude. During the 
closing measures of this overture the First 
Tree-Spirit awakes slowly and half arises, lie 
is obsessed with a sense of impending danger 
and, going about among the sleeping spirits, 
he rouses them with words expressive of alarm. 

[81] 



The B ohe m i a n J i n k s 

Inspirited by their leaders they sing a chorus 
of defiance to the powers of earth and air. 
This ended, the First Tree-Spirit speaks : 

Brothers, your souls arc wise, your hearts are strong — 

Too strong to fear this menace of the night, 

This formless peril of the traitorous dark. 

Tho' such appear, we straight with baffling mirth 

Shall drive it hence, with arrowy laughter pierce 

Its futile mail. Let happiness be arms, 

And merriment our refuge and our shield — 

The merriment of leaves that shake for joy, 

The merriment of brooks and rippling grass. 

Ye Saplings, dance in maddest mockery 

Of any hostile power that haunts the night ! 

Dance! for the winds compel your boughs in life! 

Dance ! for the fallen leaf must dance in death ! 

Here follows the Dance of the Saplings which 
lasts for several minutes. It is suddenly in- 
terrupted by the North-YVind motive in the 
orchestra (indicative of the cruel, cold, and 
rugged nature of the north-wind) followed by 
the appearance of the Spirit of the North- 
Wind. He is clad in garments of white fash- 
ioned to resemble icicles as are his hair and 
beard. On his head he wears a five-pointed 
crown, and on his breast shines a silver star. 
He carries a two-handed white sword and as 
he dashes at full speed down the inclined trail. 

[82] 



S y 11 o ps c s — T r i u in p Ji of B o he m i a 

his silken drapery floats out behind him like 
a great white cloud. He threatens the tree- 
spirits with death, but, encouraged by their 
leaders, they defy him, and the Saplings mo- 
mentarily abashed, resume their dance. Once 
more the North-Wind hurls his threats but, 
as the spirits are still defiant, he calls his allies 
to his aid. The first to appear is the Spirit of 
the South-Wind, preceded by his motive in 
the orchestra, rather morbid and malignant. 
The spirit of the South-Wind is garbed in 
yellow, on his breast a green snake, and he 
carries a golden sword with a wavy blade, his 
burnoose and cloak of yellow silk stream be- 
hind him as he flashes on the upper stage. He 
adds his threats to those of the North-Wind, 
but the tree-spirits still stand firm. The 
North-Wind now summons successively the 
Spirit of the West-Wind — who is bare- 
breasted, with wind-tossed locks and beard, 
and wears a blue cloak and carries a cutlass — 
the gray-clad figure of the Spirit of the East- 
Wind, and the Spirit of Time. Bearing his 
scythe this spirit enters slowly while the or- 
chestra plays Time motive which portrays 
him as sombre in character with a tinge of the 
grotesque as though he were aware of his 

[83] 



T Ii c B o Ji c in i a n J i n k s 

ultimate victory over all things. The tree- 
spirits remain unawed and the North-Wind 

finally cries : 

Then, foolish Trees, one whom ye know too well 
Shall war with you. Wherefore do thou appear, 
O spirit and essential soul of Fire ! 

The Fire motive is played in the orchestra, 
intended in its opening measures to express the 
flickering of flames. At the highest point on 
the hillside, which hitherto has been shrouded 
in darkness, the Spirit of Fire appears in a 
burst of flame; the music changes to a rapid 
succession of interwoven scales ; a jet of flames 
is seen to issue from the helmet of the Spirit 
of Fire ; and the next instant he is bounding 
down the hillside. In his hand he carries a 
torch in the form of a scourge from which in- 
termittent flames fly upward. Flames issue 
from his helmet again and again and leap from 
the earth along his path. His course lies in an 
almost straight line down the steep hillside. 
and in eight seconds he has reached a station 
just above the point where the Spirits of the 
Winds and Time are gathered. Flis costume is 
a mingling of orange and red tongues of flame. 
a gorget and short corslet of golden scale 

[84] 




WOODMEN— "THE TRH'MI'II OF BOHEMIA" (1907) 



Synopses — Triumph of B oh e mi a 

armor, golden sandals, and a helmet-like crown 
of polished metal fashioned in spicated rays re- 
sembling flames. With fierce flames pouring 
from his helmet and from his torch, he cries: 

I come, whose hunger never yet had glut ! 

SPIRIT OF THE NORTH-WIND 
Greeting, thou changeless terror that dost walk 
By noon-day and by night ! Behold thy prey ! 

SPIRIT OF FIRE 
(Coining down to the Spirits of the Winds and Time.) 
Madness and furious blood untamable 
Do mix in me, till merciless I rage. 
Before the vision of astonished men 
I rear my flaming throne, and glare thereon, 
Waking their tears, that cannot quench mine ire. 
Hearing their groans, that soon my laughters fierce 
Do drown; till, rushing onward from their fields 
I grasp all swords of elemental pow'r 
And drive my harnessed whirlwinds o'er the world — 
Resistless tempests quickened by my wrath. 

The Spirit of the North-Wind then calls 
upon the cloudy panoplies of heaven and dark- 
ness falls. The Spirits of the Winds, Time, 
and Fire advance upon the tree-spirits, Fire 
leading the way, fanned into violence by the 
cloaks of the Winds. The tree-spirits make 
ready to repel the assault, armed with 

[85] 



77/ c B oil e m ia n J in ks 

branches. The stage is darkened as they rush 
upon one another, and the conflict is repre- 
sented chiefly by the music, augmented by 
thunder and lightning and the howling of the 
wind. As this comes to a close the stage gradu- 
ally becomes bright with moonlight and the tree- 
spirits are seen grouped in the centre, their 
enemies having disappeared. The music that 
accompanies the conflict merges into the Victory 
Chorus, which the tree-spirits sing. Their re- 
joicing is hardly over when the sound of a dis- 
tant horn is heard from the direction of the 
hill. The orchestra plays a slow march and a 
band of woodmen appears in the distance on 
the hillside. They are rudely clad in furs and 
carry broadaxes, mauls and torches. As they 
approach they begin to sing the Care Song and 
the tree-spirits, frightened by a peril more real 
than any that has yet threatened them, 
stealthily withdraw. The woodmen, being of 
a mind to camp in the glade and, therein, to 
pursue their vocation, make ready to build a 
shelter. They grasp their axes and turn 
toward a tree, but are arrested by the hooting 
of an owl. They gaze up the hillside where a 
great white owl may be seen flying in a spiral 
course toward them. It finally alights on the 

[86] 



Synopses — Triumph of Bohemia 

lower hillside at the back of the stage and 
vanishes. At the point where the owl disap- 
peared the Spirit of Bohemia, a naked youth, is 
seen. He carries in his hand a wand of gold 
surmounted by the figure of an owl. The 
woodmen fall back in astonishment. Bohemia 
calls for his forest children and the tree-spirits 
appear. One of them sings in recitative an 
aria invoking the aid of Bohemia against the 
threatened depredations of the woodmen. 
Bohemia arraigns the foresters for their lust to 
destroy, and bids them leave the grove. They 
repent their purposed sacrilege and yield alle- 
giance to Bohemia whereupon he summons 
the Spirit of Fire. Once more Fire appears on 
the high hillside in a glow of colored light. 
Slowly and majestically he descends, still sur- 
rounded by the colored glow. His approach 
this time occupies two full minutes instead of 
eight seconds as in the first instance. During 
this time no word is spoken; the orchestra 
plays the first and slower part of the Fire 
motive. Fire declares his service to Bohemia 
in a speech beginning : 

O Master, I shall light the ritual 

And, splendid-robed, make bright the temple aisles. 

[87] 



The Bohemia n J in k s 

The Spirits of the Winds and Time also 
swear fealty to Bohemia who prophesies years 
of happiness for his new priests and for their 

sons to be, 
Heirs to the light and love of future years, 

when a prolonged and terrible laugh is heard 
issuing from the earth. The Care motive is 
heard in the orchestra ; the doors of a cavern 
in the hillside open ; a golden light streams 
forth and Mammon appears. He commands 
the woodmen to return to his service, but, 
faithful to their vows and secure in the protec- 
tion of Bohemia and his allies, they scorn the 
words of the God of Gold. He then seeks to 
tempt them with promises of power, opulence, 
and bliss. They demand surety, whereupon 
Mammon strikes the earth with his sceptre, 
and the door of the cave from which he entered 
opens again, disclosing the interior bathed in a 
golden light. From the cave come four grey- 
bearded gnomes, bearing heavy bags, from 
which they scatter handfuls of gold at the feet 
of the woodmen. 

MAMMON 
Take these as tokens of the bliss to be 
And hasten with me to my city lights. 

[88] 




BEHIND THE SCENES: MECHANISM EUR THE FLIGHT OF THE OWL- 
TRIUMPH OF BOHEMIA" C 1907) 



Synopses — Triumph of Bohemia 

The woodmen stand uncertain, and gaze 
alternately upon Mammon and the Spirit of 
Bohemia. 

MAMMON 

Imagine now the pleasures that await! 

The wild wine singing madly in your veins! 

The white, permissive breasts ! My splendid domes ! 

And ease unbroken in my marble courts ! 

That heavy ore shall make my livery light. 

And purchase for you each his dearest wish. 

SPIRIT OF BOHEMIA 
Nay, Mammon ! for one thing it cannot buy. 

MAMMON 
What, then,' cannot it buy? 

SPIRIT OF BOHEMIA 

A happy heart ! 

FIRST WOODMAN 
Is that the secret of thy worship, then, 
Bohemia? Is happiness thy gift? 

SPIRIT OF BOHEMIA 
For lasting happiness we turn our eyes 
To one alone, and she surrounds you now — 
Great Nature, refuge of the weary heart, 
And only balm to breasts that have been bruised ! 
She hath cool hands for every fevered brow, 
And gentlest silence for the troubled soul. 

[89] 



The Bohemian Jinks 

Her counsels are most wise. She healeth well, 

I laving such ministry as calm and sleep, 

She is most faithful. Other friends may fail, 

But seek ye her in any quiet place, 

And smiling, she will rise and give to you 

Her kiss, nor tell you any woeful tale. 

Entreat her, and she will deny you not ; 

Abandon her, and she will not pursue. 

By gold ye shall not win her, nor by toil, 

Nor ever at her side beholding walk 

Save in that old simplicity of heart 

Her primal lovers brought. So must ye come 

As children, little children that believe, 

Nor ever doubt her beauty and her faith, 

Nor deem her tenderness can change or die 

And I, my forest priests, am kin to her : 
More happiness hath any day of mine 
Than Mammon holds in heavy-hearted years. 
I do not proffer lives of craven ease, 
Nor tempt your hearts with vampire luxuries 
And scarlet-cinctured sins. The gifts I grant 
Are man's high heritage — clean toil and sleep, 
Beauty, and all her voices in your souls, 
And loving friends, and honorable days. 

The woodmen kneel before Bohemia ami 
their leader says : 

O glad Bohemia, 
Be thou the master of our happy hearts ! 

Mammon rushes down the hillside and chal- 
lenges Bohemia to mortal combat. Bohemia 

[90] 



Synopse s — T r i u m ph of B o hernia 

calls upon the unseen power and the great owl 
that heralded the coming of Bohemia sweeps 
down the hill. Mammon hears the rush of its 
wings, turns, and dies at its touch, the owl 
simultaneously disappearing. The Spirit of 
Bohemia, together with the leaders of the 
wood-spirits and woodmen and the Spirits of 
Fire, Time, and the Winds mount the lower 
hillside and gather about the body of Mam- 
mon. Bohemia stands with his foot on the 
prostrate form and speaks : 

See, betraying Death 
Hath changed that visage, and proclaims to all 
That where high Mammon stood and shook his mace, 
There, masked in undisclosing gold, stood Care ! 
But come, O friends, and hale his body hence. 
Thou, Fire, shalt have thine utmost will of him, 
Till ye, O Winds, make merry with his dust 

Now, two white-robed figures appear at the 
highest point on the hill, and, with a blast 
from golden trumpets, sound the Bohemian 
motive. This begins the triumphal march and 
a procession of Bohemians in robes of red, 
white and black, carrying torches and led by 
two trumpeters, descend the hillside. Two 
bearers carry a bier covered with a pall. As 
the procession reaches the point where the 

[91] 



77/r Bohemian Jinks 

body of Mammon lies, the march merges into 

the final chorus, which is sung by the tree- 
spirits and woodmen. During the closing 
measures the hillside is brilliantly illuminated 
and the procession forms for the Cremation of 
Care. 



THE SONS OF BALDUR 
A Forest Music-Drama 

(1908) 

by Herman Scheffauer 

Music by Arthur Weiss 

Herman Scheffauer, Sire 



The Sire's Announcement 

From ruts and rounds of brazen-footed toil 
Where souls flag heavily in howling marts 
And peace is price of time, from counters gilt 
As much with blood as sweat of bartering 
And shocks endured when bruising Traffic binds 
Your bodies to his maddened chariot-spokes, 
From launching of new ships of enterprise 
And arduous travail fixed in many spheres. 
Unto the pure, thrice-sainted Grove your Sire 

[92] 



Synopses — Triumph of Bohemia 

Now calls you straightly. Hearken and attend. 

There gifted mimes shall show how Loki's hate, 

Part of the web of fate the Norns had spun, 

Wrought woe in Baldur's holy forest-fanes 

Whither with all his sore-spent men of battle 

Halmar the Stalwart to the wassail's cheer 

And worship of the god had marched from war. 

What fear and clamor falls upon the feast, 

What terrors light the heavens with doom when crawls 

The horrent Nidhugg o'er the burning world, 

And how by mighty Baldur's lance the Scourge 

Falls slaughtered in the moment of his power, 

All this shall you behold. The magic wand 

Of Weiss hath spelt a potent harmony 

Of stormy tubes of thunder and soft reeds; 

The Skald of our Norse fathers shall you hear 

Chant nobly in these new-won, Western glades, 

And glimpse the frail, white beauty of the Elves. 

Yet lost were all the striving of our song 

And the sweet passion of the strings, unless 

In this our play the image you behold 

Of our own selves, our rare, high brotherhood, 

Our fealty to the worthy and the fair 

And the old quest for healing grace that dwells 

In Nature solely. We are Baldur's Sons. 

Men of the Westland, come ! but seek not here 

Bare ribaldry nor clownish mummer-tricks, 

For not by these are freed the thralls of Time. 

Come with such singing in your souls as draws 

Some holy pilgrimage to ancient shrines, — 

[93] 



The Bohemian Jinks 

So may your hearts be holpen is our prayer 
And lessoned in the truth that brighter grows 
Brother to brother binding, year to year. 

Scheffauer, Sire. 



The Cast 

Urd, Norn of the Past Mr. Edgar I). Peixotto 
Verdandi, Norn of the Present 

Mr. Newton J. Thar]) 
Skuld, Norn of the Future Dr. Philip M. Jones 
Baldur, the God of Summer and of Good 

Mr. Charles J. Dickman 
Loki. the God of Evil Mr. Charles K. Field 
Plalmar, Chief of the Men of the Westland 

Mr. FT. McDonald Spencer 
Hilding, a Scald Mr. Mackenzie Gordon 

Soothsayer Mr. Roy Folger 

A Wounded Warrior Mr. T. Vail Bakewell 



First Warrior 
Second Warrior 
Third Warrior 
Fourth Warrior 
Fifth Warrior 
Sixth Warrior 
Seventh Warrior 
A Peasant 
Hilding's boy 



Mr. Allan Dunn 

Mr. Henry A. Melvin 

Mr. E. H. McCandlish 

Dr. H. B. Carlton 

Mr. Frank P. Deering 

Mr. Emerson Warfield 

Mr. Robert Newell 

Mr. Charles G. Norris 



[94] 



Synopses — The Sons of Baldur 

Warriors, Thralls, White Elves, Black Elves, 
Voices of Valkyries. 

The Chorus 

Messrs. E. D. Crandall ( Chorus Master), C. E. 
Anderson, T. L. Bolton, F. L. Button, Dr. H. P. 
Carlton, P. S. Carlton, G. E. Engvick, P. D. 
Gaskill, G. S. Johnson, J. P. Jones, E. II. 
McCandlish, Paul J. Mohr, N. L. R. Oksen, C. H. 
Oliver, Dr. P. M. Wuillemin, Harris Allen, R. L. 
Countryman, G. W. Ellis, E. C. Little, A. M. 
Smith, Austin W. Sperry, W. H. Ham, F. E. 
Wilkins, Paul Otey, W. A. Mitchell, Robt. I. 
Lynas, R. B. Heath, John de P. Teller, Chas. A. 
Smith, R. E. Fisher, E. L. Taylor, Roy Smith, 
F. S. Chase, T. G. Elliott. C. J. Evans, W. F. 
Keene, A. G. D. Kerrell, Wm. Knowles, L. A. 
Larsen, A. F. Lawton, Matthew McCurrie, John 
McEwing, F. S. Mitchell, W. P. Neilson, Geo. 
Purlenky, Guy D. Reynolds, Eugene W. Roland, 
Benj. Romaine, Dr. B. M. Stich, J. R. Harry. 
E. M. Moore, W. H. Walkinshaw, E. E. Jones, 
( )scar Franck, Mark White. 

Mr. Scheffauer, the author and sire of the 
grove-play for 1908, has furnished a synopsis of 
his drama which is here given in a slightly 
condensed form. 

[95] 



The Bohemia n J i n k s 

The scene opens mystically upon a region in 
the Land of Midgard. It is night, the moon 
faintly reveals the giant trees, the three Norns, 
or Norse Fates, are descried seated atop three 
great boulders whose faces are graven with 
runes. Preparations have been made for a feast, 
a rude table and great chair are visible. The 
trunks of the trees are decorated with skulls of 
horses and oxen, spears, shields, and skins. The 
Norns, in slow and fatalistic utterance, discourse 
of the past, present, and future, and the fate of 
men. The lines of Urd are as follows : 

From the bourne of mist and gloom, 

I come who command the Past. 
Life and the Fruit of the Womb 

Of Woman is mine at last. 
Nor ever the gods shall mend 

The mould in which Fate is cast ; 
I devour Beginning and End — 

I am Urd, old Urd, the Past. 

Verdandi, the Present, and Skuld, the Future, 
likewise speak and all three disappear in a flash 
of lightning which heralds the approach of Loki, 
the crafty Spirit of Evil, inflamed with wrath 
against men and their devotion to Baldur. Loki 
typifies, in some degree the spirit of Mammon, 
the arch enemy of Bohemian tradition. He is 

[96] 



Synopses — The Sons of Baldur 

red and naked with a huge serpent about his 
neck, and emerges from a rock which splits 
asunder. After a speech full of malignity, he 
throws the seed and instrument of evil in the 
shape of gold against the base of a tree and 
vanishes. 

The First Warrior enters. He bids the thralls 
light the fires and prepare the feast. His horn 
blasts are answered from afar, and the March of 
the Warriors is heard as they approach chanting 
their battle hymn : 

We come from the gory 

Deathfield of the battle! 
Glory to Odin Valfadur on high ! 

To red Thor be glory, 

Whose hammer blows rattle 
Breaking the helms when he storms 
through the sky. 

Valhalla ! Valhalla ! 

To red Thor be glory. 

Whose hammer blows rattle 
Breaking the helms when he storms 
through the sky. 

The warriors returning from battle are to 
typify the Bohemians themselves come from the 
struggles and cares of every-day life. Halmar. 
the Stalwart, is their chieftain. He welcomes 

[97] 



77/ c I! o h c in id n J i n ks 

them, embodying in his words the ideals of the 
Bohemians : 

Now the golden gage is ours 
Since we have wrested from the snare- of Death 
Life and the right to life. Wherefore may Peace 
Sheathe our worn brands and Plenty hide with us. 
Plenty and Joy and brotherly content. 
Here, ever when the twelve-month's pageants pass 
And Summer and the midnight Summer moon 
Gleam goldenmost, haste we from fields of strife, 
From the red service of the thunderous Thor, 
Homage to yield to Odin's gentler son — 
Bright Baldur, God of Good and Happiness. 

A venerable soothsayer speaks of the Ashtree 
of Life, of the Norns and of Xidhugg, the enemy 
of man, the horrid dragon in league with Loki, 
and invokes the blessing of Baldur. 

The feast begins and a picturesque scene is 
made by the wassailing warriors. One of their 
number, slightly intoxicated, sings musingly of 
wine and drinking, the chorus supporting him. 
He is followed by one who expresses the desire 
for Woman and sings in a softer, more sensuous 
strain. During the singing a wounded warrior 
attracts the attention of Halmar who bids the 
carousing cease and the warriors to drink — "not 
unto the living, drink unto the dead, and to the 

[98] 




THE SUNDAY Ml IRNING CONCERT (1907 



Synopse s — T he So n s of Bald u r 

dying!" The wounded warrior, draining his 
horn, sings the Death Song, two stanzas of which 
follow : 

Mid brands that were flashing. 

Mid helms that were cleft, 
My red blade went crashing — 

Behold what is left! 
By Thor and his thunder, 

His battle-car's roll — 
O, sword sprung asunder, 

Skoal to thee ! Skoal ! 

The flesh and the fishes, 

The mead and the wine 
Give you joy! but the dishes 

Of gods shall be mine. 
The battle did break me, 

So Earth hath her dole, 
O, death-maids, come take me ! 

Skoal to you ! Skoal ! 

He falls dead. Flashes are seen in the heavens 
and the calls of the Valkyries are heard. The 
warriors mourn over their comrade, and Halmar 
and the soothsayer speak movingly of death. 

Soon after this episode the warriors find Loki's 
gold, a quarrel ensues, and a spectacular combat 
with swords takes place. Halmar parts the 
fighters and mourns that the sanctity of the 

[99] 



77/(7 Bohemian Jinks 

grove should have been disturbed. The convivial 
warrior, deep in his cups, sings mockingly to the 
fighters — "good wine is more than gold." 

Enters presently a boy announcing I Hiding, 
the skald, and the soothsayer points out to the 
warriors the value and significance of the skald 
to the tribe, after which Hilding enters. He is 
given greeting and drink and sings. 

A strange trouble as of some impending 
danger soon after makes itself felt, and a few 
of the leading warriors peer anxiously into the 
depths of the woods. The finer soul of Hilding 
is keenly conscious of this boding sense of peril, 
and he voices his alarm in the line : 

Hark! all Alfheim runs and screams. 

Faint twinkling lights and the fluttering robes 
of the White Elves in flight are seen in the 
foliage. Their wails are heard as they flee. The 
Might of these gentle spirits, the guardians of the 
grove, portends ill for all. Immediately after 
the Black Elves and trolls are heard pursuing 
the White Elves. The trolls are spirits subject 
to Loki. A warrior calls attention to the dull red 
glow which becomes visible in the Western skies. 
All are in doubt as to the meaning of this, but 
the soothsayer confounds them by declaring it to 

[100] 



Synopses — The Sons of Baldur 

be Ragnaroc, the Twilight of the Gods. The men 
groan and the glare glows brighter. Halmar 
exclaims in accents of resignation : 

On the hoar mountain-side by thunder carved, 
Slope to the fjord black where seadiawks nest, 
I read in youth the runes that cannot lie — 
And true it is that Ragnaroc hath come. 

After a colloquy between Halmar and the 
First Warrior, the glow constantly growing 
more vivid and fierce, the voice of a peasant is 
heard crying from the woods and a few moments 
later he rushes in, terror-stricken, and announces 
the approach of some dread monster. Halmar 
asks him which monster and the peasant replies : 

Nidhugg ! From out the smoking sea he rose 
And lay upon the strand and shook his scales, 
And bellowed like a bull. Three leagues his length 
Rolled armed with claw and crest. Then heard I call 
The voice of Loki from the burning sward 
That redly flamed, while all the sea burned green — 
"Nidhugg, art here?" and thrice the dragon groaned — 
"Aye, father, at thy call thy son hath come." 

Halmar cries out in joy that it is not Ragnaroc, 
and bids his men, "arouse and arm 'gainst Loki 
and his son." At this moment, the figure of Loki 
appears half way up the hill, surrounded by the 

[1011 



The B oh c m i a n J ink s 

hellish glare of red. He exults over the wretched 
men and curses them in fiercest accents. Halmar 
defies him, and he and his comrades seek to re- 
assure them. The men, cowed by Loki, still call 
011 Baldur. At Halmar's behest, Hilding, the 
skald, sings a prayer to the god. 

Now, amidst the increasing glare of the fire, 
the crash cf toppling trees is heard as the dragon 
makes his way through the woods. As the prayer 
ends, and the flames leap up among the trees, 
the monster is seen crawling down the hillside, 
belching white mist and fire. He appears and 
disappears on the winding path in his descent. 
When the dragon has almost reached the level 
ground the shining form of Baldur. armed with 
two long silver spears, appears on a crag. The 
dragon spouting fire at the god, is slain. Baldur 
smiles upon his sons. The red glow dies down as 
the dragon perishes and a great golden glow 
begins to break about Baldur. Now a mighty 
paean of praise is lifted by the chorus. As the 
music and the light mount in a spectacular 
climax, the lights of the Y\ bite Elves are seen 
returning in joyous dance. As the final hymn 
ends, Baldur vanishes. The head of Xidhugg, 
which had been severed by the swords of 
warriors, is placed in a litter and borne in a 

[102] 




•»*!SF. 1H 



Synopses — The Sons of Bald it r 

triumphal procession to be cremated as Care 
which is supposed to have been embodied in him. 

Here Mr. Scheffauer's synopsis of his play 
ends. 

Mr. Frank Mathieu, the stage master for The 
Sons of Balditr and the conductor of its rehear- 
sals, is a man of considerable experience both in 
amateur and professional theatricals who has, 
also, a fine sense of the subtleties of the poetic 
drama and of interpretive reading which are 
matters of the greatest aesthetic importance in 
the grove-plays. 



103 



V — Conclusion 



While on the literary side of these grove- 
plays there is an interesting quality of fresh- 
ness curiously associated with classical tradi- 
tion, the originality of treatment displayed in 
the text is matched with an equal originality 
in other phases of the entertainment. This i.-> 
brought about, as has been pointed out before, 
largely by the physical characteristics of the 
setting. In this theatre, for which "God 
Almighty was our stage carpenter," as a cer- 
tain member of the club once said, expediency 
as well as experience has been a great teacher. 
For example, the Bohemians have learned 
much about light effects. In some of the pro- 
ductions footlights have been omitted by men 
who never heard of Mr. Gordon Craig. With 
a background of natural foliage that drinks 
light, the effect of diffused light from open 
reflectors and of concentrated light from lenses 
differs wholly from their effect upon the or- 
dinary objective planes. This applies, also, to 
the effect of colored lights one with another 
and upon the vegetation. The light plot, care- 



[104] 



Conclusion 



fully devised in advance, is carried out with a 
single rehearsal on Friday night. 

The Mechanical Factor 

In the matter of properties, commercial 
methods, after being thoroughly tested, have 
been found inadequate to the peculiar condi- 
tions. In the Bohemian grove, the frankness 
of Xature undefiled demands frankness in such 
accessories as it may be necessary to introduce 
on the stage. Papier mache, tinsel, and other 
materials of the professional property men are 
used sparingly or not at all. It is by artists in 
the club that the properties for the grove-plays 
are usually designed and sometimes executed as 
well. Mr. George Lyon has displayed a rare- 
faculty in such matters. The costumes are, also 
frequently designed by artist members, and 
mechanical devices to meet particular require- 
ments are contrived by the men who direct the 
productions. Of these may be mentioned such 
appliances as the arrangement of canvas and 
bark that enabled the wood-spirits in The Hama- 
dryads to emerge from the cores of what ap- 
peared to be solid trees ; the luminous shaft of 
Apollo in the same production ; or those by means 
of which in The TriumpJi of Bohemia the Spirit 

[1051 



77/ c B oh c 111 ia n J in ks 

of Fire emitted from his helmet and from his 
torch, at will, a hurst of flame ; those by which 
flames were made to leap from the ground at his 
footfalls; and, finally, those by which an owl was 
made to fly three times across the stage and, 
swooping down in a half circle, to alight at a 
particular spot, all with a semblance of life that 
was beyond criticism. 

The tactics of the professional stage man- 
ager, unless he be of an adaptable nature, are 
more of a hinderance than a help in the 
Bohemian grove. In fact traditions of every 
kind are overthrown in this unique forest 
theatre which demands a new stage craft, a 
new technic and throws the old methods — from 
"cross stage to right" to "exit L. U. E." — out 
of court. 

Acting and Interpretation 

It is proper to class among the remarkable 
things that have been brought about by these 
essays of the Bohemian Club an admirable inter- 
pretive quality in the acting of some of the prin- 
cipals in the grove-plays. Amateurs who, 
through lack of experience or on account of tem- 
peramental tendencies, are disposed to ignore the 
advice of Hamlet in his instructions to the players 
as much as the majority of Hamlets, are subdued 

[106] 



Conclusion 



into commendable repression by the influence of 
poetry realized in its setting. Methods that ap- 
peal little to the average spectator and which, for 
that reason, are the more to be extolled, are 
gradually finding expression in the acting of 
Bohemian players who wot not of "cantalation" 
nor of Mr. Yeats's experiments, and to whom 
Nietzsche's canons of the stage are as foreign as 
pfaffians. In rendering some of the verse that 
has been written for the Bohemian grove thev 
have displayed a simplicity, a verecundia that has 
helped the poetry and the play to be remembered 
as can never be the case when the over-emphasis 
of the moment stirs the superficial emotions leav- 
ing the deeper ones untouched. 

At the time when the creative impulses that 
stir in the soil of this far Western country with 
its smiling Italian skies and with the atmosphere 
of the youth of the world ; a land hospitable to 
the seeds v of art which, even amid the weeds of 
provincialism and the worms of bourgeois 
bigotry and ignorance, give promise of blossoms 
with something of the fineness and rarity of old- 
world flowers — one cannot but speculate upon 
the destiny of this interesting exotic, the Bo- 
hemian Club grove-play. Has it said all that it 
has to say? Is the spell of The Hamadryads, the 

[1071 



77/ c Boh c m ia n J in ks 

sustained charm of The Triumph of Bohemia to 
be reached again or surpassed? Will the balance- 
between the various factors — the dramatic, the 
musical, and the spectacular — be maintained, or 
will the zeal of the actor, of the musician, or of 
the artist — tend, by forcing an over-emphasis 
upon one of these factors, to formulate a new 
type or cause a reversion to an old one? Should 
either of these things occur the grove-plays will 
undoubtedly lose the distinction that they now 
have and become mere reflections of other forms 
of stage presentation. 

As yet neither professionalism nor publicity 
has contaminated the grove performances. The 
only persons that see the productions are the 
members and the holders of visitors' cards | to 
which only non-residents of California are en- 
titled). Other than these, a few special guests, 
and the employees of the club, no one has ever 
seen the performance of a grove-play except, of 
course, the inevitable intruder who comes usually 
under the cover of darkness. This is mentioned 
because of the fact that a performance given for 
the benefit of a limited number, and for which 
tickets cannot be purchased at any price, has a 
direct psychological bearing upon the character 
of the thing produced. Thus the man who writes 

[108] 



C o ii c I u s i o n 

a play, or who composes music for the Bohemian 
Club, does it first for the club and second for the 
pleasure of his own group of friends in the club. 
It is performed and, although the text is printed 
in the programme, it is not published ; the world 
never sees it. 

Plays put forth in this way, with no thought of 
the world's praise, may truthfully be said to be 
produced in the amateur spirit ; it may, indeed, 
be called the amateur spirit in its highest 
expression excepting, perhaps, certain forms of 
anonymity. It was this amateur spirit that gave 
birth to the early jinks; it was in the amateur 
spirit that they have developed through the years 
to their present scope and importance ; and it is in 
the amateur spirit only that they can be held up 
to their highest standards. 

Since 1903 it has been the practice of the 
club to give a single public concert in the citv 
each year shortly after the midsummer en- 
campment. At these affairs excerpts from the 
score of the grove-play are performed and 
certain illustrative passages from the book are 
read. 

Tendencies 

Various tendencies have from time to time 
shown themselves. For example, repetitions of 

[109] 



The B oh c in ian J i n k s 

the plays both in the grove and in the city have 
been urged ; the admission of women to the club 

festivals has been discussed as has their partici- 
pation in the performances ; special presentations 
to which women might be invited have been pro- 
posed. It is this complex condition, together 
with the necessarily limited number of poets and 
musicians capable of upholding the best tradi- 
tions of the club, that makes the future of these 
festivals so much a matter of uncertainty. 

The greatest danger, as before suggested, is 
that they will degenerate into more or less com- 
monplace drama or opera. Like water that has 
been carried to a height it will sink to its own 
level the moment the force that has driven it 
upward is withdrawn. So with the grove-play : 
having its origin in the drama it has been swept, 
one might say, by "the supreme interference of 
beauty," in a series of concatenated creative im- 
pulses into what is as much entitled to the name 
of a new art form as the Wagnerian music- 
drama. It remains to be seen whether or not it 
will revert to the parent stock and be lost as a 
distinct genre. 

Ideally it should be poetic not only in treat- 
ment but in conception ; the musical element 
should not be melodramatic, but conceived in the 

[110] 



C o n c 1 it s i o 11 



same poetic spirit ; and the whole interpreted dis- 
creetly by action and spectacle. 

With these qualities the Bohemian grove-play 
gives to those who react to its spirit, who sense 
it in its relation to its environment, and who 
register its implications, — an impression of what 
can be likened to nothing so fitly as to a mys- 
terious, inspiring, and unforgettable dream. 



Ill 



APPENDIX 



APPENDIX 



Chronological List of Jinks (1872-1908) 

The following list has been compiled chiefly 
from the club records which are by no means 
complete. Care has been taken to verify doubt- 
ful points by personal interviews with members 
and by correspondence. It is hoped that, by 
these precautions, errors and omissions have 
been reduced to a minimum. It is too much to 
expect, however, that no mistake has crept in. 
and should any member detect such he will 
confer a favor upon the writer by communicat- 
ing with him. 

The title, "Musical Sire," used in this 
table, was selected because the more specific 
title. "Musical Director," might be misleading. 
Members in charge of the music at the various 
entertainments of the club may do no more 
than arrange a programme and play accom- 
paniments, or they may compose the music for 
a grove-plav and conduct tbe orchestra. 

Only jinks, or entertainments presided over by 
a sire are here listed. Such affairs as the dinner 

[1151 



A p p c 11 di x 

to Tomasso Salvini, the reception to Sir I lenry 
Irving, etc., although partaking of the character 
of jinks are omitted. Accounts of these enter- 
tainments will he found in The Annals of The 
Bohemian Club, by Captain Robert Howe 
Fletcher. The list follows : 

1872 

Nov. 30 — Tom Moore and Offenbach — Sire, Daniel 

O'Connell. 
Dec. 28 — Christinas Jinks — Sire. James F. Bowman. 

1873 

Feb. 22 — Tom Hood — Sire, Frank G. Xewlands. 

March 29 — William Makepeace Thakeray — Sire, Thomas 
Newcomb. 

April 27 — William Shakespeare — Sire, Harry Edwards. 

May 31 — Hebrew and German Poets — Sire, Paul 
Neumann. 

June 28 — A Tennyson Night — Sire, James F. Bowman. 

j u l y 26— The Wits of the State— Sire. W. H. Rhodes. 

Aug. 25 — Charles Dickens — Sire, Joseph C. Ford. 

Sept. 27 — The Poets That Have Sung of the Sea — 
Sire, George T. Bromley. 

Oct. 25 — In Memoriam of Byron — Sire, R. Beverly 
Cole. 

Nov. 29— The Poets That Have Sung of the Battle- 
field—Sire, W. H. L. Barnes. 

Dec. 27— Christmas Jinks: Dr. Watts— Sire. J. G. 
Eastman. 

1874 

Jan. 31 — Walter Scott — Sire, E. D. Wheeler. 

[116] 



Chr o nolo g ical L ist o f J i n k s 

Feb. 28— Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes— Sire, C. T. 

Deane. 
March 28 — Henry Wadsworth Longfellow — Sire, James 

F. Bowman. 
May 30 — Unknown Authors — Sire, A. S. Bender. 
June 27 — Social Low Jinks — Low Jinks Committee : 

George T. Bromley, D. P. Belknap, 

Joseph C. Ford. 
July 25— The Ballad Writers— Sire, Samuel C. Os- 

bourne. 
Aug. 29 — The Minnesongs of Germany — Sire, Barton 

Hill. 
Sept. 26 — James Fennimore Cooper — Sire, John Clare 

Cremony. 
Oct. 28 — Ladies' High Jinks — Jinks Committee. 
Nov. 28 — Epigrams — Sire, John W. Dwinell. 
Dec. 30 — Santa Ulula — Sire, Thomas Newcomb; 

Musical Sire, Harry O. Hunt. 

1875 

Jan. 30 — Robert Burns — Sire, Smyth Clark. 

Feb 27 — Poets, Orators, and Wits of Old Ireland — 
Sire, Stuart M. Taylor ; Musical Sire, 
Joseph Maguire. 

April 3 — A Bowl of Punch — Sire, Harry Edwards. 

May 5 — Ladies' Reception — Sire, Joseph C. Ford ; 
Musical Sire, John Trehane. 

May 29 — Songs of the Bacchanals and Buccaneers — 
Sire, Daniel O'Connell. 

June 26 — Women Poets — Sire, William Harney ; Mu- 
sical Sire, J. E. Tippett. 

[117] 



Appendix 

July 31— The World Which We Inhabit From a Bo- 
hemian Point of View — Sires, George 
T. Bromley and C. W. Lightner; Musi- 
cal Sire, E. Louis Goold, Jr. 

Aug. 28 — Music — Sire, Stephen W. Leach ; Musical 
Sire, Alfred Kelleher. 

Oct. 26 — Ladies' Music Reception — Sire, Stephen W. 
Leach. 

Nov. 27— Dean Swift— Sire, R. K. Nuttall. 

Dec. 22 — "A Merry Christmas," a Farce — Sire, Virgil 
Williams. 

1876 

Jan. 29 — A Bohemian Lobscouse — Sire, George T. 

Bromley; Musical Sire, Joseph Magiiire. 
Feb. 26 — Unknown Subjects — Unknown Sires. 
April 1— Oliver Goldsmith— Sire, D. P. Belknap. 
April 26 — Ladies' High Jinks: Women Who Have 

Written — Sire. Lauren E. Crane; Musi- 
cal Sire, Henry C. Ruhl. 
May 27 — Representative Men of the Period — Sire, H. 

H. Behr; Musical Sire, William P. 

Edwards. 
June 24 — Trish Wit and Humor — Sire. Jennings S. 

Cox ; Musical Sire, George T. Evans. 
July 29 — Doctors — Sire, Benjamin R. Swan ; Musical 

Sire, Stephen W. Leach. 
Aug. 26 — Pastimes and Merrymakings — Sire. Andrew 

McFarland Davis ; Musical Sire. E. 

Louis Goold. Jr. 

[118] 



Chronological List of Jinks 

Oct. 1 — Nathaniel Hawthorn and William Vincent 
Wallace — Sire, Charles A. Low; Musical 
Sire, George J. Gee. 

Oct. 28— Old Jokes, etc.— Sire, Daniel O'Connell ; 
Musical Sire, Harry O. Hunt. 

Nov. 25 — George D. Prentice's Poetry and Para- 
graphs — Sire, Hugh M. Burke; Musical 
Sire, Samuel D. Mayer. 

Dec. 2-1 — Christmas Jinks : Something Different — 
Sires, H. H. Behr and George T. 
Bromley ; Musical Sire, Harry O. Hunt. 

Feb. 24 — Xo subject — Sire, George T. Bromley. 

1877 

April 4— William W. Story— Sire, E. D. Wheeler; 
Sires, Stephen W. Leach and George J. 
Gee. 

April 29 — William Shakespeare — Sire, Harry Edward- ; 
Musical Sire, Stephen W. Leach. 

May 12 — Judicial Jinks — Sire, Frank M. Pixley. 

May 26 — English Music — Sire, Stephen W. Leach ; 
Musical Sire, George J. Gee. 

June 30 — An Ideal Bohemia — Fred M. Somers; Musi- 
cal Sire, George J. Gee. 

Sept. 1 — Heroism — Sire, George T. Bromley; Musi- 
cal Sire, Stephen W. Leach. 

Sept. 29 — Commercial High Jinks — Sire, E. L. G. 
Steele ; Musical Sire, H. M. Bosworth. 

Oct. 27 — Wolfgang Goethe and Friedrich Schiller — 
Sire, Stuart M. Taylor ; Musical Sire, 
Stephen W. Leach. 

[119] 



A ppen dix 

Dec. 1 — Dreams — Sire, Barbour T. Lathrop ; Musical 
Sires, Stephen W. Leach and George J. 
Gee. 

Dec. 29 — Christmas Jinks : Feast of Reason and Flow 
of Soul — Sire, Harry Edwards. 

1878 

Jan. 26 — London Literary Celebrities — Sire, Franklin 
Philp ; Musical Sire, George J. Gee. 

Feb. 23 — Charles Lamb — Sire, Caspar Schenck ; Musi- 
cal Sire, George J. Gee. 

March 30— Nothing— Sire, Walter G Holmes. 

April 27— Artemus Ward— Sire, A. D. Bradley; Musi- 
cal Sire, George J. Gee. 

May 31 — Ladies' High Jinks : Sweethearts and Wives 
— Sire, Charles Warren Stoddard ; Musi- 
cal Sire, George J. Gee. 

June 29— FIRST MIDSUMMER J INKS 

Harry Edwards, Sire 

July 27 — Free and Easy, or Pipe and Tobacco Har- 
monic Meeting — Jinks Committee. 

Aug. 31 — The Pyramids — Sire, J. C. Williamson. 

Oct. 5 — Socrates — Sire, Henry X. Clement; Musical 
Sire, Henry Heyman. 

Nov. 2 — Gourmandise — Sire, Alexander G. Hawes ; 
Musical Sire, J. E. Tippett. 

Nov. 30 — Thanksgiving Jinks — Sire, William W. Mor- 
row. 

Dec. 28 — Christmas Jinks — Sire, R. C. Rogers ; Musi- 
cal Sire, Stephen W. Leach. 

[120] 



Chronolo g ical L ist o f J i 11 k s 



1879 

March 1 — Fine Arts — Sire, John H. Boalt ; Musical 

Sire, J. E. Tippett. 
March 29 — Wit, Wisdom, and Wickedness — Sire, Lucius 

H. Foote ; Musical Sire, E. Louis Goold, 

Jr. 
May 3 — Nursery Rhymes — Sire, J. King Goodrich ; 

Musical Sire, Oscar Herold. 
May 28 — Ladies' High Jinks: Bric-a-Brac — Sire, 

Frank L. Unger ; Musical Sire, George 

J. Gee. 

June 28— SECOND MIDSUMMER JINKS 
As You Like It 
Hugh M. Burke, Sire 
Walter G. Holmes, Musical Sire 

Sept. 6 — Spirits — Sire, Clay M. Greene ; Musical Sire, 
Charles M. Dungan. 

Nov. 1 — Go-as-you-please High Jinks — Sire, Charles 
A. Low : Musical Sire, Henry Heyman. 

Nov. 29 — Thanksgiving Jinks — Sire, A. M. Wilder ; 
Musical Sire, David W. Loring. 

Dec. 27 — Christmas Jinks — Sire, R. C. Rogers ; Musi- 
cal Sire, Stephen W. Leach. 

1880 

Feb. 7— On the Flying Jib-Boom — Sire, Robert 1 1 ewe 
Fletcher ; Musical Sire, George J. Gee. 

March 27 — The Army and Navy — Sire, T. H. F. Rob- 
ertson ; Musical Sire, Henry Heyman. 



121] 



A ppen dix 

May 29— The World, the Flesh, and the Devil— Sire. 

Edward Field; Musical Sire, David W. 

C. Nesfield. 
June 26 — Bahies' High Jinks — Sire, Paid Neumann. 

July 24— THIRD MIDSUMMER JINKS 

W. H. L. Barnes, Sire 

Aug. 28 — Ladies' High Jinks : Home, Sweet Home — 

Sire, Raoul Martinez. 
Nov. 6 — Truth — Sire. H. K. Moore; Musical Sire. II. 

M. Bosworth. 
Dec. 4 — The Devil — Sire. Harry J. Brady; Musical 

Sire, Stephen W. Leach : Low Jinks — ■ 

Sire. Samuel C. Osbourne. 
Dec. 30 — Christmas Jinks: Illusions — Sire. John H. 

Boalt; Musical Sire, Harry O. Hunt. 

1881 

Jan. 29 — Ignorance — Sire, Maxmilian Taubles. 

Feb. 26— Old and New— Sire. Irving M. Scott: Mu- 
sical Sire, Louis Schmidt. 

April 1 — Water — Sire, D. P. Belknap; Musical Sire. 
Stephen W. Leach. 

May 28 — Waltonian Jinks — Sire. Charles Josselyn ; 
Musical Sire, J. E. Tippett. 

June [?]— FOURTH MIDSUMMER JIXKS 
James F. Bowman, Sire 
Frank L. Unger. Musical Sire 

Oct. 1 — Journalistic High Jinks — Sire. M. G. Upton, 
Musical Sire, Henry C. Ruhl. 

[122] . 



Chronological List of J i n k s 

Oct. 29 — Frauds — Sire, Walter Turnbull ; Musical 
Sire. J. E. Tippett. 

Nov. 26 — The Elysian Fields — Sire, Peter Robertson ; 
Musical Sire, E. W. Reuling. 

Dec. 28 — Christmas Jinks : The Absent — Sire, Alex- 
ander G. Hawes ; Musical Sires, Stephen 
W. Leach and Raoul Martinez. 

1882 

Feb. 1 — Ladies' High Jinks: That Club — Sire, Hugh 
M. Burke ; Musical Sire, E. Louis Goold, 
Jr. 

Fel). 25 — Auld Lang Syne — Sire. Clay M. Greene ; 
Musical Sire, H. M. Bosworth. 

April 1 — Bachelors — Sire, Leonard Chenery; Musical 
Sire, Charles B. Stone. 

May 6 — A Jinks Without a Name — Sire, John How- 
son. 

May 27 — Gossip — Sire, Crittenden Thornton ; Musical 
Sire, Charles A. Low. 

June 24 — Night — Sire, Horace G. Piatt ; Musical Sire, 
David W. Loring. 

July 29— FIFTH MIDSUMMER JINKS 

Joys That Wf.'ye Tasted 
George T. Bromley, Sire 
Stephen W. Leach, Musical Sire 

Sept 30 — Dogs — Sire, George Chismore ;. Musical Sire. 

Charles A. Low. 
Nov. 25 — Our Old Mistresses — Sire. Daniel O'Connell ; 

Musical Sire, Joseph D. Redding. 

[123] 



Append ix 

Dec. 30 — Christmas Jinks: Love — Sire, Paul Neu- 
mann ; Musical Sire, E. Louis Goold, Jr. 

1883 

March 3 — Clubs — Sire. Clarence R. Greathouse; Musi- 
cal Sire, Benjamin Clark. 

April 4— Ladies' High Jinks: What Shall We Do 
Willi Our Wives?— Sire. Harry J. YV. 
Dam ; Musical Sire, J. A. Darling. 

May 5 — Anniversary Jinks : The Old Curiosity Shop 
— Sire, George T. Bromley: Musical 
Sire, Stephen W. Leach. 

June 23— SIXTH MIDSUMMER JIXKS 

Paul Neumann, Sire 

Sept. 1 — Newspaper Jinks — Sire, Barbour T. La- 
throp ; Musical Sire. Charles B. Stone. 
Low Jinks : Journalism in Its True 
Aspects — Sire, Joseph D. Redding. 

Sept. 29 — Sleep — Sire, W. E. Brown : Musical Sire, 
Samuel D. Mayer. 

Dec. 29 — Christmas Jinks — Sire, W. H. L. Barnes; 
Musical Sire, Stephen W. Leach. 

1884 

March 1 — Truth — Sire, Hugh M. Burke ; Musical Sire, 

Harry O. Hunt. 
June 28 — Cranks — Sire, Andrew McEarland Davis: 

Musical Sire. David W. Loring. 

[124] 



Chronological List o f J i n k s 

Aug. 9— SEVENTH MIDSUMMER JINKS 

Stuart M. Taylor, Sire 

Nov. 29 — Thanksgiving Jinks — Sire, Stephen W. 

Leach. 
Dec. 27 — Christmas Jinks — Sire, Stuart M. Taylor ; 

Musical Sire, Stephen W. Leach. 

1885 

Feh. 28 — Notoriety — Sire, E. G. Peters ; Musical Sire, 
S. Freidenrich. 

April 7 — Ladies' High Jinks: The Muses — Sire, 
Joseph D. Redding; Musical Sire, Ste- 
phen W. Leach. 

July 25— EIGHTH MIDSUMMER JINKS 
Andrew McFarland Davis, Sire 

Stephen W. Leach, Musical Sire 

Nov. 28 — Thanksgiving Jinks : Memories — Sire, E. F. 

Preston ; Musical Sire. Samuel D. 

Mayer. 
Dec. 26 — Christmas Jinks — Sire, Benjamin R. Swan; 

Musical Sire, Stephen W. Leach. 

1886 

May 22— Utopia— Sire. James D. Phelan; Musical 
Sire. Henry Heyman. 

July 17— XIXTH MIDSUMMER JINKS 

George Chi smoke. Sire 
Stephen- W. Leach, Musical Sire 

LOW J INKS 

Clay M. Greene, Sire 
[125] 



Appendix 



Aug. 28 — The Drama — Sire-, Clay M. Greene; Musical 

Sire, Stephen W. Leach. 
Nov. 27 — Thanksgiving Jinks: Is Life Worth Living? 

— Sire, Robert Howe Fletcher. 
Dec. 31 — Christinas Jinks — Sire, George Chismore. 

1887 

March 19 — Musical Jinks — Sire, Henry Ilcyman. Low 
Jinks — Sire, Joseph D. Redding. 

July 23— TENTH MIDSUMMER JINKS 

Peter Robertson, Sire. 

Oct. 8 — Vanity Fair — Sire, George W. Nagle. 

Dec. 30 — Christmas Jinks — Sire, Benjamin R. Swan; 

Musical Sires, Henry Heyman, H. J. 

Stewart, and Stephen W. Leach. 

1888 

Aug. 18— ELEVENTH MIDSUMMER JINKS 
The Convention 
James D. Phelan, Sire 
H. J. Stewart, Musical Sire 

Dec. 29 — Christmas Jinks: Castles in the Clouds — 
Sire, George T. Bromley ; Musical Sire, 
J. H. Rosewald. 

1889 

May 18— First Born Jinks— Sire. W. 1 1. L. Barnes; 
Musical Sire, H. J. Stewart. Low Jinks: 
The Influence of Fun on the Unman 
Family — Sire. George T. Bromley. 

[126] 



Chronological List of J i n k s 

July 27— TWELFTH MIDSUMMER JINKS 
The Praises of Pan 
Daniel O'Connell, Sire 
H. J. Stewart, Musical Sire 

Nov. 2 — The Wooing of the Muses — Sire, John La- 

throp. 
Dec. 28 — Christmas Jinks : Our Ancestors — Sire, 

Peter Robertson; Musical Sire, H. J. 

Stewart. 

1890 

March 29— Things We Do Not Understand— Sire, M. 
H. Myrick. Low Jinks : Things in 
General — Sire, George T. Bromley. 

July 26— THIRTEENTH MIDSUMMER JINKS 
E. B. Pomroy, Sire 
H. S. Stewart, Musical Sire 

Nov. 1 — Don Quixote — Sire, E. L. G. Steele ; Musical 
Sire, J. H. Rosewald. Low Jinks — Sire, 
Alfred Bouvier. 

Dec. 27 — Christmas Jinks — Sire, J. M. McDonald. 

1891 

Feb. 28— High Jinks— Sire, Solly H. Walter. Low 
Jinks — Sire, J. Denis Arnold. 

July 18— FOURTEENTH MIDSUMMER JINKS 
J. Denis Arnold, Sire 

Low Jinks 
George T. Bromley, Sire 

[127] 



Appendi x 



Oct. 10— Ins and Outs— Sire, Horace G. Piatt; Musi- 
cal Sire, J. K. Rosewald. 

Dec. 26 — Christmas Jinks — Sire, James D. Phelatl. 
Low Jinks: Shy Shy, or the Emperor's 

Sister ( farce I. 

1892 

Sept. 3— FIFTEENTH MIDSUMMER JINKS 

The Festival of the Leaves 

(Buddha Jinks) 

Fred M. Somers, Sire 

H. J. Stewart, Musical Sire 

Dec. 31 — Christmas Jinks: The Discovery of Bohemia 
— Sire, Albert Gerberding; Musical Sire. 
J. H. Rosewald. Low Jinks — Snj, 
George E. P. Hall. 

1893 

March 25 — Clients vs. Lawyers — Sire, Jere Lynch ; Mu- 
sical Sire, Henry Heyman. Low Jinks — 
Sire, Gaston M. Ashe. 

Aug. 5— SIXTEENTH MIDSUMMER JINKS 
The Sacrifice in the Forest 
(Druid Jinks) 
Joseph D. Redding, Sire 

Low Jinks 
Donald de V. Graham and Louis Sloss, Sires. 

Dec. 30 — Christmas Jinks : St. Nicholas — Sire. Albert 
Gerberding; Musical Sire, J. H. Rose- 
wald. Low Jinks — Sire, Willard Barton. 

[128] 



Chronologi c a I L i s t of Jin k s 

1894 

May 12 — Ye Olden Colonial Days — Sire, William 
Greer Harrison; Musical Sire, H. J. 
Stewart. Low Jinks : Ye Fakirs Faked 
— Sire, William G. Stafford. 

Aug. 18— SEVENTEENTH MIDSUMMER JINKS 
A Gypsy Camp 
Peter Robertson, Sire 
H. J. S t ewakt, Musical Sire 

Low Jinks 

Picnic of the Tralaloo Club 

James M. Hamilton, Sire 

H. J. Stewart, Musical Sire 

Dec. 29 — Christmas Jinks — Sire, Horace G. Piatt. 
Musical Sire, H. J. Stewart. Low 
Jinks — Sire, Charles Josselyn. 

1895 

Feb. 28— The Divinity of Art— Sire, Solly H. Walter; 

Musical Sire, J. H. Rosewald. 
May 30— Misfits— Sire, William Center. 

Aug. 3— EIGHTEENTH MIDSUMMER JINKS 
Vanderlynn Stow, Sire 
H. J. Stewart, Musical Sire 
Low Jinks 
Albert Gerberding, Sire 
Joseph D. Redding, Musical Sire 
Nov. 2— Trilby Jinks— Sire, Donald de V. Graham ; 
Musical Sire, H. J. Stewart. 

[129] 



Appendix 

Dec. 28 — Christmas Jinks — Sire, George T. Bromley; 
Musical Sire, Henry Heyman. Low- 
Jinks — Sire, Henry W. Dimond. 

1896 

May 23 — Problems — Sire, Julius Rosenstirn. Low 
Jinks : The Devil Up to Date — Sire, 
Hugo Toland. 

Aug. 22— NINETEENTH MIDSUMMER JINKS 
Shakespeare Jinks 
Albert Gerberding, Sire 

Low Jinks 

A. C. Hellman, Sire 

Theodor Vogt, Musical Sire 

Oct. 31 — United Service Jinks — Sire, Sydney A. Clo- 
man; Musical Sire, H. J. Stewart. Low 
Jinks — Sire, Thomas F. Ruhm; Musical 
Sire, H. J. Stewart. 

Dec. 20 — Christmas Jinks — Sire, George Chismore ; 
Musical Sire, H. J. Stewart. Low Jinks : 
"The Christmas Nightmare," by Gelett 
Burgess — Sire, H. J. Stewart. 

1897 

May 29— The Staff of Life— Sire, George H. Powers ; 
.Musical Sire. Samuel D. Mayer. Low- 
Jinks — Sire, George T. Bromley. 

julv 24— TWENTIETH MIDSUMMER JINKS 
Faust Jinks 
H. J. Stewart, Sire 

[130] 



Chronological List of J i n k s 

Low Jinks 
Charles J. Dickman, Sire 
H. J. Stewart, Musical Sire 

Dec. 18 — Christmas Jinks — Sire, William Sproule ; 
Musical Sire, H. J. Stewart. Low Jinks : 
The Second Born — Sire, M. A. Newell ; 
Musical Sire, H. J. Stewart. 

1898 

July 23— TWENTY-FIRST MIDSUMMER JINKS 
Days of Long Ago 
Donald de V. Graham, Sire 
H. J. Stewart, Musical Sire 

Low Jinks 

Fun in the Asylum 

Henry Dimond, Sire 

Oct. 22— The Weather— Sire, Josiah R. Howell ; Mu- 
sical Sire, H. J. Stewart. Low Jinks : 
Minstrelsy — Sire.Thomas Rickard ; Mu- 
sical Sire, H. J. Stewart. 

Dec. 17 — Christmas Jinks — Sire, James A. Thompson; 
Musical Sire, Wallace A. Sabin. Low 
Jinks : "A Bunch of Bananas" — Sire, J. 
C. Wilson. 

1899 

April 1 — The True Bohemia — Sire, Clay M. Greene; 
Musical Sire, H. J. Stewart. Low 
Jinks : Fools — Sire, Louis Sloss. 

[1311 



Appendix 



July 22— TWENTY-SECOND MIDSUMMER 

J INKS 

Rip Van Winkle Jinks 

Robert Howe Fletcher, Sire 

James Graham, Musical Sire 

Low Jinks 

La Vie de Boheme 

James H. Graham, Sire 

Dec. 23 — Christmas Jinks — Sire, Vanderlynn Stow ; 
Musical Sire, Wallace A. Sabin. Low 

Jinks— Sire, A. M. Newell. 

1900 

Aug. 11— TWENTY-THIRD MIDSUMMER JINKS 

Albert Gerberding, Sire 

Low Jinks 

J. C. Wilson, Sire 

Oct. 13 — The Grape : Its Juices, Uses, and Ahuses — 

Sire, William Sproule. 
Dec. 23 — Christmas Jinks — Sire, Vanderlynn Stow ; 

Musical Sire, Wallace A. Sabin. 

1901 

May 15 — Others — Sire, Frank P. Deering. 

Aug. 3— TWENTY-FOURTH MIDSUMMER 

JINKS 
The Enigma of Life 
J. Denis Arnold, Sire 

[132] 



Chronological List of Jin k s 

Low Jinks 
Charles B. Sloan, Sire 
Nov. 2 — Ships That Pass in the Night — Sire, Edgar 

D. Peixotto. 
Dec. 28 — Christmas Jinks — Sire, Frank P. Deering. 
Low Jinks : On the Klondyke — Sire, 
Edgar Mizner. 

1902 

Aug. 16— TWENTY-FIFTH MIDSUMMER JINKS 

First Grove- Play 

The Max ix the Forest 

by Charles K. Field 

Music by Joseph D. Redding 

Richard M. Hotalixg, Sire 

Joseph D. Redding, Musical Director 

Low Jixks 

Orrin Peck, Sire 

H. J. Stewart. Musical Sire 

Dec. 27 — Christmas Jinks — Sire, Frank P. Deering. 
Low Jinks : "Christmas in Hell", by 
Gelett Burgess — Sire, Gelett Burgess; 
Musical Sire, W. J. McCoy. 

1903 

Aug. 3— TWENTY-SIXTH MIDSUMMER JIXKS 
Second Grove-Play 
Montezuma 

by Louis Robertson 

H331 



A p pen d i x 

Music by 1 1. J. Stewart 

Louis Robertson, Sire 

H. J. Stewart, .Musical Director 

Low Jinks 

Mazuma 

by Porter Garnctt 

Music by W. J. McCoy 

Porter Garnett, Sire 
W. J. McCoy. Musical Director 

Oct. 21 — Bret Harte Jinks — Sire. C. S. Aiken; Musical 
Sire, H. J. Stewart. 

Dec. 19 — Christmas Jinks — Sire, James D. Phelan ; 
Musical Sire, H. J. Stewart. Low Jinks : 
Abe Hur. by Will Irwin— Sire, Will 
Irwin; Musical Director, Wallace A 



Sabin. 



1904 



May 7 — High Jinks : Faculty Night — Sire, Benjamin 
Ide Wheeler; Musical Sire, Burhank 
Somers. Low Jinks : "Ralph Roister 
Doister" (circa 1534-41) by Nicholas 
Udall. 

Aug. 20— TWENTY-SEVENTH MIDSUMMER 

JINKS 

Third Grove-Play 

The Hamadryads; A Masque of Apollo 

by Will Irwin 

Music by W. J. McCoy 

J. Wilson Shiels. Sire 

[134] 



Chronological List of J i n k s 

W*. J. McCoy, Musical Director 

Low Jinks 

The Inimitable Itinerants 

by Ernest Simpson 

Ernest Simpson, Sire 

Paul Steindorff, Musical Director. 

Oct. 29 — Wanderers in Bohemia — Jinks Committee ; 
Musical Sire, H. J. Stewart. 

Dec. 11 — Christmas Jinks — Sire, James D. Phelan ; 
Musical Sire, Edward F. Schneider. 
Low Jinks : "Who'll Buy My Lavender" 
(Pantomime), by Chester Bailey Fern- 
aid, music by Theodor Vogt — Sire, 
Chester Bailey Fernald ; Musical Direc- 
tor, Theodor Vogt. 

1905 

Aug. 12— TWENTY-EIGHTH MIDSUMMER 

J INKS 

Fourth Grove-Play 

The Quest of the Gorgon 

by Newton J. Tharp 

Music by Theodor Vogt 

Newton J. Tharp, Sire 

Theodor Vogt, Musical Director 

Low Jinks 

Sybil and the Gorgonzola 

Russell J. Cool, Sire 

H. J. Stewart, Musical Director 

[135] 



Appendix 

Dec. 23 — Christmas Jinks — Sire, Willard Barton; Mu- 
sical Sire, Wallace A. Sabin. Low Jinks. 
"Seventeen Years After" (Pantomime), 
by Chester Bailey Fernald ; Music by 11. 
J. Stewart — Sire, Chester Bailey Fern- 
ald; Musical Director, H. J. Stewart. 

1906 

Aug. 4— TWENTY-NINTH MIDSUMMER 

JINKS 

Fifth Grove-Play 

By Charles K. Field 

Music by H. J. Stewart 

Charles K. Field, Sire 

H. J. Stewart, Musical Director 

Dec. 22 — Christmas Jinks — "The Conquest of the 
Philistines," by Porter Garnett. Music 
by Wallace A. Sabin — Sire, Frederic 
W. Hall. Musical Director, Wallace A. 
Sabin. 

1907 

April 27 — Redivivus Jinks— "Hartmann & Son," by J. 
Wilson Shiels, and "Salome," a Travesty. 
by Allan Dunn — Sire, Allan Dunn. 
Musical Sire, Emil Bruguiere. 

July 27~ THIRTIETH MIDSUMMER JINKS 
Sixth Grove-Play 
The Triumph of Bohemia 
By George Sterling 

[136] 



Chronolo g ical L ist of J i n k s 

Music by Edward F. Schneider 

George Sterling, Sire 

Edward F. Schneider, Musical Director 

Cremation of Care 

By A. R. Hardin 

Music by Theodor Vogt 

Nov. 23 — Neophyte Jinks : "The Triumph of Booze," 
by Charles G. Xorris — Sire, Charles G. 
Xorris. Musical Sire, Arthur Weiss. 

1908 

Jan. 4 — Christmas Jinks : Sire, Frederic W. Hall. 

Musical Sire, W. J. McCoy. Low 

Jinks : Juvenile Jinks — Sire, Charles B. 

Sloan. Musical Sire, H. J. Stewart. 
May 13— Days of '49 Jinks— Sire, Charles S. Aiken. 

Musical Sire, H. J. Stewart. 

Aug. 8— THIRTY-FIRST MIDSUMMER JINKS 

Seventh Grove-Play 

The Sons of Baldur 

By Herman Scheffauer 

Musk: by Arthur Weiss 

Herman Scheffauer, Sire 

Arthur Weiss, Musical Director 



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