(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Bohemian made easy. A practical Bohemian course for English-speaking people"

c> ^ 






f^ 













V 



-0* 






; >o* A° ^<* 






lV 






.^9* -^ ' 



lK 



£" %> 



i/k\^ ^ 






<5i " \^ ^ 







o° v 



^c* 



«*<3* 



\> Q * * 



'» X > /, 



,*% 



A^ 















-o^ 



% 






'%> ^ i^V^ ^ aV *V^a> -%. ^ 






.#. ^ y/. f / ^ <-,$> 








0° 







/ V 









tf> 





^ .& 




* . $~ 




%.** \<^: \«** 

#% 



— 











<i5 Q^ 



V 



G V ** *°> >; 












^ %v 







\ ^C? 



% c >„ > 



^ 















Q*. » * s \> . i * 



v v 










%.<$ 
^ ^ 







V *. " » » / -ix 



%. *7XT^ a* 



*■" 



^^ 




o, ^ 



BOHEMIAN MADE EASY. 



A PRACTICAL BOHEMIAN COURSE 

for English-speaking people. 

ARYOFCC 

By CHABLES JONAS, 

late U.S. Consul at Prague, author of the first Dictionary of the 
Bohemian and English languages. 




&u&Gri\rj£ % twts, is so. 



v^ 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1890, 

by CHARLES JONAS, in the office of the Librarian of 

Congress, at Washington, D, C. 



Lff 



TO THE HONORABLE 



OR OVER CLEVELAND, 



EX-PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES, 



THIS LITTLE WORK IS DEDICATED, 



AS A SLIGHT TOKEN OF PROFOUND 



RESPECT AND ADMIRATION 



BT THE 



A UTHOR. 



Why this book has been written. 



The answer to such a question is simple : because 
there is a demand for it. And whenever there is a demand, 
the supply is sure to come. 

Not a year passes, but numbers apply to divers book- 
sellers and publishers for some handy book to give them a 
practical knowledge of the Bohemian language or to serve as 
a proper introduction to a study thereof. 

Who are the applicants? They are business men, 
clerks, salesmen and travelers, druggists and physicians, 
ministers, teachers and law r yers. They live and follow T their 
vocations in localities where a large fraction of the population 
speaks the Bohemian language; they perceive the advantage 
which a knowledge of Bohemian, or even a slight acquaint- 
ance with that tongue, would give them; and consequently 
they look for a guide. 

Such a guide this little work is designed to furnish. I 
may say that within six or eight years past I have myself read 
hundreds of applications for such a guide from different parts 
of our country and I repeatedly promised to write a book of 
this kind as soon as my other occupations permitted. Now 
I have redeemed that pledge. It has been done, to be sure, 
only in an imperfect manner ; there are defects and shortcom- 
ings, which in a pioneer work of this kind cannot be avoided. 
But I applied myself to the task with the honest intention, 



6 Why this book has been written. 

materially to assist the beginner in his attempt to gain such a 
knowledge of the Bohemian language, as would be of help to 
him in his intercourse with people speaking that language, or 
in his desire to read Bohemian literature ; and I cherish the 
hope, that this present result of my labor will prove really 
helpful to those who will make use of it for that purpose. — 

u Is Bohemian a hard language to learn?" This inquiry 
I have heard more than once. 

I think no language is easy to learn, if a person wants 
to have a perfect command of it ; and Bohemian presents 
about a fair average of the difficulties, which a student of lan- 
guages encounters. But there is no great difficulty in acquir- 
ing a superficial knowledge of any living European tongue, a 
knowledge sufficient for ordinary intercourse in every day life, 
if a person has the will and perseverance to learn it and a fair 
opportunity to use what he learns. Beginners who will take 
up this little book with an earnest purpose, will soon find out 
that Bohemian comes well under this general rule. 

Some years ago I made the acquaintance of a business 
man in a small city of Wisconsin, with whom I conversed 
both in English and Bohemian and whom I noticed to use 
both languages in his general conversation with others appar- 
ently with the same ease and fluency. It was not until some 
time after our first meeting, that I learned the gentleman in 
question was not a Bohemian by birth, but a native American 
of German descent. Had I been told that he was a born Bo- 
hemian, I certainly would have believed it, from the way he 
handled the language, On our next meeting I asked him how 
he succeeded in mastering the Bohemian language so perfectly; 
and he said : u My instructor was the Bohemian, newspaper. 
I commenced by reading communications written by farmers 
in an easy, colloquial style and asking explanations as to 
meaning and pronunciation. In this I persevered, my stock 
of words and phrases grew rapidly, and I was soon enabled to 



The Bohemian language. 7 

understand and to make a rapid progress in conversation. 
Later on I had recourse to the dictionary." 

This tends to show what may be done by patient appli- 
cation and perseverance and it may serve as an encouragement 
to beginners. Of course, the number of persons of other na- 
tionalities who have acquired a sufficient practical knowledge 
of Bohemian to employ it in ordinary intercourse and business, 
is very large; and 1 mention it simply to show, that there is 
no insuperable difficulty in the way, as some persons perhaps 
might imagine. 

And with this little introduction I wish the beginner 
God speed ! 



The Bohemian language. 



The Slavonic family of nations, numbering rather more 
than one hundred and ten millions, is composed of two great 
divisions : 

1. The eastern division, comprising the Russians, Bul- 
garians and Serbo-Croats, under which latter head may also 
be classed the Slovenes; 

2. the western division, comprising the Poles, Bohe- 
mians and the remnant of the Wends in Germany. 

The Bohemian language is closely related to the other 
branches of the Slavonic tongue. It needs only a few weeks 1 
study, for a person having a fflil command of Bohemian, to 
obtain a fair practical knowledge of any other Slavonic idiom. 
Especially is the relationship between Bohemian and Polish so 
close, that they might almost be considered dialects of one and 
the same language. 

The Bohemian language is spoken in Bohemia, Moravia, 
part of Austrian and Prussian Silesia, and also in Upper Hun- 



8 The Bohemians in the United States. 

gary. The Slovak idiom spoken in the last named country is 
simply an earlier form of Bohemian, which latter the Slovaks 
of Hungary used for centuries as their literary or "biblical" 
language; only within the last fifty years have they begun to 
employ their proper dialect largely in literature. But still, the 
language is virtually the same, Bohemians and Slovaks needing 
no interpreters to understand one another, and no dictionaries 
mutually to read their publications. As a matter of fact, the 
two idioms are much nearer than high German and low German. 



The Bohemians in the United States. 



About the year 1848 Bohemian emigration to the 
United States commenced. Its volume has never been so 
large as that of the Irish or German emigration, but it has 
been steady and it will naturally go on for many years to 
come. In all probability, it will continue as long as European 
emigration to this side of the Atlantic ocean in general, and 
it may in the near future assume larger proportions than in 
the past. 

The census of 1870 found 42,000 persons of Bohemian 
birth settled in the United States. In the year 1880 there 
were, according to the census taken in that year, over 85,000. 
But it must be remembered that many of those classified in 
the census tables as born in Austria, are of Bohemian nation- 
ality, especially such as emigrated from the provinces of 
Moravia and Silesia, and not from Bohemia proper. Quite a 
number, also, were by mistake entered under the general 
heading of "Germany", as to the country of their nativity. 

It is safe to say that the number of persons born in 
Europe, whose mother tongue was Bohemian, at the time of 
the official enumeration of 1880 exceeded one hundred thou- 



The Bohemians in the United States. 9 

sand. At this writing they number nearly 200,000, and to- 
gether with the first generation born in this country of Bo- 
hemian parents and speaking the language, in all proba- 
bility somewhere near 500,000. 

Within the last ten or fifteen years quite a heavy stream 
of immigration has set in from Hungary. At first mostly 
employed in Eastern mines and factories, these immigrants 
have in recent years been spreading west and settling on 
lands. These Hungarians are mostly Slovaks. 

The number of Slovaks in the United States at this 
time probably equals about one third that of the Bohemians 
proper; hence the present number of persons in the United 
States speaking the Bohemian Language in both its dialects 
may be computed at six hundred thousand. 

The Bohemians have their homes chiefly in the follow- 
ing states : New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Ohio, 
Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, 
Kansas, S. Dakota, Missouri and Texas. 

In the first five states and also in Missouri they live 
chiefly in the cities, following different trades and working in 
factories. In the other states they are mainly farmers, as a 
rule very industrious and thrifty. Many of them are of course 
engaged in business of all kinds and in the professions. In 
their manners and customs and ways of thought the Bohemi- 
ans strongly resemble the Germans, particularly the South 
Germans, with whom they have been in close contact in the 
old world for over a thousand years. They are industrious 
and saving, sociable and hospitable; their favorite beverage 
at social gatherings and entertainments is beer, and "Bohemi- 
an beer" of different make has in recent years become quite 
popular in this country of ours. Immoderate indulgence in 
their favorite drink may doubtless sometimes be observed 
among them as among others, especially in the large cities; 



10 The Bohemians in the United States. 

but as a rule, they are sober, law-abiding and extremely good- 
natured. 

In religion, Roman Catholicism predominates among 
the Bohemians and they have a large number of churches, 
priests and parish schools in the United States. The Protest- 
ants also have numerous places of worship. Large numbers 
of the Bohemians, however, keep apart from all churches and 
religious denominations. They are liberals, free-thinkers and 
agnostics of different shades of opinion, enjoying the inestim- 
able privilege of every American citizen to follow his con- 
victions and enjoy a full personal freedom, so long as he 
respects the laws and the equal freedom of his fellow-citizens. 

The first Bohemian newspaper on this side of the 
Atlantic was issued thirty, years ago at Racine, Wisconsin, 
the first number appearing on New Year's day 1860. Now 
there are about twenty five or thirty newspapers in that 
language published in the United States, both daily and week- 
ly, besides several in the Slovak dialect. Most of them have 
a good patronage and some have in fact. a surprisingly large 
circulation. Other publications are also quite numerous. The 
Bohemians, and particularly the farmers, are fond of reading, 
eager for information, and above ail they seek political knowl- 
edge, taking the liveliest interest in whatever concerns the 
government, public institutions and laws of their adopted coun- 
try. During the civil war the Bohemians, although at that time 
quite generally classified as Germans, furnished a considerable 
contingent of the defenders of the Union and in Chicago a 
monument will soon be reared by the Bohemians in memory of 
those of their nationality, who cheerfully took up arms and 
gave their lives for the unity and freedom of this great country. *) 



*) The following is a quotation from an extensive article on the Bohemians in 
St. Louis, Mo., "which appeared in the GLOBE-DEMOCRAT of February 16, 1890: 

"In the territory lying between Seventh and Fourteenth streets on the east and 
west-, and oyer and Russell avenues on the north and south, there is a population of 
25,000 souls, all speaking the language of Bohemia, schooling their children in the an- 
cient tongue, keeping up an acquaintance with a rich and varied literature that dates 



The Bohemians in the United States. 11 

back to the ninth century, and for the most part worshiping in the Roman Catholic 
Church, of which Bohemia has been a stanch adherent since the ninth century. A 
thrifty set are these Bohemians, good citizens in all that the term implies, prompt tax- 
payers, fully alive to the requirements of civilization; mingling freely in business 
intercourse with their cousins from other lands, they yet preserve the social 
customs of their native land, and take an overweening pride in the preservation 
of its language and its literature. The Bohemian met up town in business life 
would be casually mistaken for a German, bur a tour through their section of the 

city impresses one with their startling individuality In conversation with S. 

(one of their leading men) I was struck by the ease and' purity of his English diction. 
This is a marked peculiarity of most of the Bohemians. From their own harsh and 
difficult language they switch off into English which betrays but little trace of foreign 
accent." — 

The statement about the Bohemians having been steadfast adherents of the 
Church of Rome may be considered as a serious lapsus c a 1 a m i , because it is 
not borne out by history. The Bohemians were in fact a protestant nation from the 
burning at the stake of their famous reformers John Huss and Jerome of Prague (in 
the years 1415 and 1416) until The period of the Thirty Years' war. which took its start 
in Bohemia. Concerning the allusion to the character of the Bohemian language it may 
be stated as a well known experience, that nearly every language appears "harsh and 
difficult'* to a person who is perfectly ignorant of the same and very rarely hears it 
spoken. Time and again have I heard, on the European continent, the English 
language characterized as "harsh and difficult", whereas in fact, English is a language 
not only full of melody as well as power, but probably the easiest of all European 
tongues to learn. 



P^RT I. 



SECTION 1. 
General observations. 

In the Bohemian language Roman characters are used in writing 
and printing. 

In order to read Bohemian it is first necessary to be well acquainted 
with the sounds, represented by the different letters of the Bohemian al- 
phabet. 

In attempting to read English while giving the letters the customary 
Bohemian sounds, we should find most English words difficult to pro- 
nounce and a large proportion of them simply unpronounceable. 

The same is true if we attempt to read Bohemian while giving the 
letters their English sounds. 

This explains why English-speaking persons, entirely ignorant of 
any language but their own and supposing that the letters of the alphabet 
always retain their English sounds, find so many "jawbreakers" in trying 
to pronounce Bohemian or other foreign words. Foreign persons, ignor- 
ant of English, find themselves "in the same boat", when trying to pro- 
nounce English words, and their difficulty is even much greater on account 
of the complicated character of English orthography. 



SECTION 2. 

Tlie Boliemian alplialbet. 

The alphabet of the Bohemian language consists of 26 letters, the 
same as the English, if accented letters, being simply a modification of 
the original sounds, are not counted; but, counting all the accented letters 
separately, we find 41 letters in the Bohemian alphabet. 



The Alphabet. 



13 



The following table gives the complete alphabet of the Bohemian 
language, with the English equivalents as near as possible. Capital letters 
of course, correspond with the small letters, accented or unaccented. 

THE ALPHABET. 



a 
a 
b 
c 
6 
d 



has the sound 



e 
e 
e 



f 

S 
h 
ch 

i 
i 

J 

k 

1 



of 


in 


done. 


1 a 


in 


arm. 


' b. 






1 ts. 






' ch 


in 


child. 


1 <*; 


it t 


akes tl 



di 



e 
e 

ea 



f. 

9 
h 
ch 



it takes the sound of d' when followed by the 
soft vowels e 9 i or i. 
in the French word diable. 
This mellow sound of d, imperfectly rendered 
by dy, is ordinarily heard in the English ex- 
pressions would you, could you, when rapid- 
ly uttered, so that the terminal d and initial 
y are fused into one sound, 
in end. 

in ere, or at in air. 

in beatitude, or ye in yes; when it occurs di- 
rectly after d, n, t, these letters take the soft 
sound of d' 9 n, t\ and e sounds like e. The 
syllable je ? ye, is an equivalent for e. 

in great; it occurs only in foreign words, 

in ham. 

in German and Dutch, also in Welsh, or x 

in Greek, — somewhat like kh. 



11 i m pin. 

11 i in pique, or ee in seen. 

" y in yes. 

" k in sink, without an aspirate. 



14 



The Alphabet. 



m 
n 

n 

o 
6 
P 
«1 
r 
f 



n in Spanish (canon) or gn in French (cam- 
pagne); imperfectly rendered by ny . 

o in obey. 
6 in lord. 

P- 

q in question; it occurs only in foreign words 

r in rest; it has a sharp, trilling sound. 

rsh (or rs^, as the Imperial Dictionary of the 
English Language has it); it is a sound proper 
to the Bohemian and Polish languages, which 
must be heard in order to be acquired cor- 
rectly; the same may be said of the English 
sound of th, hard and soft. 

s in sink. 

sh. 

t in test; it takes the sound of t? when fol- 
loved by e 9 i or i. 

t in the French word tiens, as commonly pro- 
nounced. This mellow sound of t, imper- 
fectly rendered by ty, is also heard in the 
English expressions wouldn't you, couldn't 
you, when rapidly uttered, so that the termi- 
nal / and initial y are fused into one sound. 



u 


' u 


in 


push. 




' u 


in 


rude, or oo in pool. 


v " " 


' V. 






X 


(( X 


in 


expect. 


y " " " 


1 y 


in 


lynch. 


y " " " 


' i 


in 


pique, or ee in seen. 


z 


" z 


in 


zeal. 


z " " 


1 z 


in 


azure, or s in pleasure. 



Karnes of the letters. 



15 



The beginner must try to master thoroughly the peculiar sound of 
every accented letter in the Bohemian alphabet, before proceeding with 
his lessons. However, it is evident that of all the accented letters only 
four will present a certain difficulty : d\ n, t? and r. The rest are 
simple. Among the plain consonants, the peculiar sound of ell must be 
well practiced; the combination kh gives it only imperfectly. 



SECTION 3. 
Names of tlxo letters. 

The names of the letters of the Bohemian alphabet, though of little 
consequence to the beginner, are given in the following table as near as 
can be. However, the Bohemian sounds of the letters, as explained in the 
foregoing section, must be well kept in mind, in order to name the letters 
correctly. 

For instance : b is called be, to be pronounced like belt, the e 
sounding like e in ere, ai in air, or a in fare, the final h being mute and 
serving only as a lengthening mark. 

Two of lli3 accents {a, a), whenever they occur, signify only a pro 
longation of the sound; the quality of the other accents has been explained 
in the foregoing section. 

In spelling a word, the vowels with a long accent (a, e, i, u, y) are 
called long a, long e 9 etc.; also, a with a comma, e with a comma, and 
so forth; u is called u with a ring. 



The letters named. 



a, a 


a (ah) 


ch 


Jchd 


f 


b 


be 


i, i 


ee (in bee) 


s 


c 


tse 


J 


ye 


s 


6 


clie 


k 


kd 


t 


d 


de 


1 


el 


t 



ersh 



te 
fe 



16 



Bohemian pronunciation. 



<T 




m 


m 


em 


u, u, 


ft 


00 


e, e 




e (eh) 


n 


en 






(in boom) 


e 




iye 


n 


en 


V 




ve 


f 




ef 


o, 6 


6 (oh) 


X 




ix 


S 




ge 


P 


pe 


y,y 


ee or ypsilon 




(like 


g- in go) 


q 


koo 


z 




zet 


h 




hd 


r 


er 


z 




let 



SECTION 1>. 
Bohemian pronunciation. 

After mastering the sounds of the Bohemian letters, the learner may 
be said to have fully conquered Bohemian pronunciation. 

There is in fact only one rule : Pronounce as it is written, sounding 
every letter, — of course, giving the letters their proper Bohemian, and not 
their English sounds. 

The English, French and German written languages abound with 
silent letters; the Bohemian language has practically none, that is, ex- 
tremely few. Such as there are, will be pointed out in the course of the 
following lessons. 

It is a well known rule in English, that there can be no written syl- 
lable without a vowel. In Bohemian we sometimes encounter syllables 
made up of consonants without any vowel. 

. "How in the world can you pronounce that V* 

Not infrequently have we heard such a question from persons, hav- 
ing no idea of any language but their own. 

But it is just as easy to pronounce such syllables in Bohemian, as 
it is in English to give utterance to syllables with a mute vowel. An ex- 
ample will elucidate it: 

Trn means thorn. This word is evidently of the same derivation 
in both languages. 

Now, the Bohemian word trn being composed of three consonants 
and no vowel, how is it pronounced ? 



Rules of Bohemian pronunciation. 17 

In the same way, as the second syllable of the English words bit- 
tern, slattern, where the vowel e is silent. We hear in that second syl- 
lable only the sounds of t-r-n. the sound of the vowel e disappearing en- 
tirely : and this explains exactly the pronunciation of Bohemian words 
of one syllable, or syllables, without a vowel. Syllables with silent vowels 
abound in English as well as in German, — not quite so in French; — and 
they are constantly pronounced with the same ease, as the syllables having 
no vowel sounds in Bohemian. 

It is to be observed that such syllables always contain one of 
the two consonants 1 and r which are sometimes called "half- vowels", 
because in such cases they almost take the place of vowels. In a prolon- 
gation of the sound we hear in Bohemian somewhat indistinctly the vowel 
e before the proper sound of those consonants, as if we wrote and 
partially pronounced : 

t e rn instead of trn (thorn) 

v e lk „ vlk (wolf) 

The number of monosyllabic words without a vowel is not large: 
but syllables consisting of two or three consonants occur quite often. 

For instance : trceti, strciti, means in English to stick oat. topush. 
Each of these words is composed of three syllables : tr-ce-ti, str-ei-ti; 
and the first syllable of each contains only consonants : tr 5 str. 

How are they pronounced 7 

Just like ter and ster in the English words bitter, blister. Xobody 
finds any difficulty in passing over the silent e and saying bittr, blistr. 

Among the Bohemian vowels there are some, which are called soft, 
namely : e, e, i, i; and others (a, o, u, y) which are called hard or 
broad. 

Of the soft vowels the last three, e, i and i, have a softening in- 
fluence upon some preceding consonants, particularly n 9 d, t, which 
they change into the soft sounds of n, d', f ? as noticed in section 1. 

For instance : 

2 



18 Parts of Speech 

sane (sleigh) is pronounced as if spelt sane; 

paiii (mistress, lady) is pronounced as if spelt paiii; 

delo (cannon) sounds like d'elo; 

dilo (work) d'ilo; 

telo (body) t'elo; 

tisk (printing) t'isk; 

This will always be plainly indicated in the pronouncing columns 
of the practical lessons contained in Part II. 

Care must be taken to give every long vowel (a 9 e ? i ? y, 6, li, u) 

its proper long sound, because a shortened sound would often make the 
word unintelligible or change its meaning, the same as in English in 
numerous cases. For instance : 

pata means heel; pata means the fifth (in the feminine gender). 
The only difference is in the length of the vowels. Likewise in English : 
lid and lead have the same vowel sound, the only difference being in its 
length or quantity. — 

We have said all it is necessary to say about Bohemian pronuncia- 
tion and in closing we again enjoin the only rule, which obtains in Bo- 
hemian with very few exceptions : Pronounce as it is written, — giving 
every letter its proper Bohemian sound. 



SECTION 5. 

Parts of speech. 

In Bohemian the parts of speech or classes of words are the same 
as in English, excepting the article. 

In English we have the definite article the and the indefinite article 
a, an. (In French, masculine, feminine, le, la, — un, une ; in German, 
masculine, feminine and neutre, der, die, das, — ein, eine, ein.) 



Gender. 19> 

In Bohemian there is no article, definite 1 or indefinite. In this 
regard, Bohemian agrees with Latin. 

We say in English : the house, the houses, ((house ; in Bohemian 
<lfun. (lomv, diim. 



SECTION 6. 

Gender. 

But, having no article, the Bohemian noun suffers nevertheless 
from the useless infliction of grammatical gender in the same degree as 
the German, Latin and Greek. It has three genders, namely : masculine, 
feminine and neutre. 

The English language has rejected all distinction of gender, at- 
tributing sex to living beings only, which is one of the greatest advan- 
tages the English language has over all other European tongues, ancient 
and modern. 

In the absence of an article in Bohemian, if we want to designate 
the gender of a noun, we use the indicative pronoun this or that, name- 
ly : ten for the masculine, ta for the feminine and to for the neutre 
gender. Hence we say : 



ten dii in 
ta bouda 
to okno 



this (or that) house 
this (or that) hut 
this (or that) window 



In the plural it is ti for living masculine beings : 

ti muzi, these (or those) men; 

ty for inanimate masculine things and for the feminine gender ; ta for 
the neutre : 

ty domy, .these or those houses; 

ty fooudy, these or those huts ; 

ta okna, these or those windows. 



20 Grammatical rules. 

However, in colloquial parlance, ty is heard in the plural regard- 
less of gender. — 

Always remember, that the article has no existence in Bohemian ; 
and that the words ten, ta, to, — ti, ty, ta, when used before a noun, 
are simply indicative pronouns and nothing else. 



SECTION 7. 

Grammatical rules in general. 

Bohemian is one of the highly inflected languages, like German or 
the classic tongues, which is doubtless a disadvantage, to be deplored 
especially from the standpoint of the learner. On account mainly of the 
useless distinction of gender, which permeates the whole structure of the 
Bohemian language, grammatical forms and rules are numerous, forming 
the principal difficulty encountered in the study of the language. 

But to some extent, at least, that difficulty is offset by colloquial 
usage, which largely disregards the artificial distinction of gender in the 
employment of pronouns, adjectives and verbs, as they relate to nouns 
of different gender. This serves to simplify the matter somewhat for the 
learner of Bohemian as commonly spoken. 

In the following lessons we try to imitate the natural method of 
learning a language. We do not teach the child grammatical rules and 
complications before it knows how to speak, We teach it words and 
their connection in phrases, expressing thoughts. 

Consequently we do not intend to cram the beginner at the outset 
with all sorts of grammatical rules. There are not thousands but millions 
of people using the Bohemian language and knowing little of the rules 
-and perplexities of its grammar. The same is true of every other living 
tongue. 

This Course being designed solely for practical purposes, it will be 
• our aim to impart to the learner some practical knowledge of the language 
in the easiest, most natural and most direct way possible. We shall there- 
fore interpolate in the following lessons only such grammatical rules, as 



The Accent. 21 

may appear to be indispensable to facilitate the student's progress and 
which may easily be mastered en passant, or, so to say, by a method of 
e;»sy induction 

A more extended and methodical review of the Bohemian grammar 
will be found in the last part of this book. After acquiring to a certain 
degree a practical knowledge of the language, the learner will find it 
much easier to grapple with the details of its grammar, which in the begin- 
ning wonld servconly to perplex him unnecessarily and to dampen his 
ardor. And when a moderate knowledge of the tongue is attained, the 
progressive student will naturally take a Dictionary of the English and 
Bohemian languages to his aid. which will make further progress rapid 
and pleasing. 

The main difficulty is in the start, as in every other language. It 
requires earnestness of purpose and perseverance. The beginner must 
not allow himself to be discouraged by such initial difficulties, as he is 
sure to meet with ; and whenever the pronunciation of an accented 
Letter or a word, as given in this book, seems to be a stumbling-block, 
we would advise him to ask some neighbor or acquaintance, who speaks 
Bohemian, to pronounce it for him repeatedly, so that his ear may grow T 
accustomed to the sound and the same may become quite familiar to him. 
If he fads to catch it forthwith, let him try again and again, until he 
succeeds. Let him remember, that the thousands of Bohemians who 
learn English find similar difficulties in their way ; and numbers of those r 
who at first felt discouraged, thinking they could never master the 
intricacies of the English tongue, to-day speak and write it tolerably 
well, — many of them with fluency and grace. 



SECTION 8 

r jriie accent. 

In the Bohemian language the accent is always placed upon the first- 
syllable ; consequently its rules, which in English have to be closely 
studied, do not offer an} T difficulty whatever. Only when a noun is pre- 
ceded by a preposition of one syllable, the accent, is transferred and 
placed upon that preposition. 



22 G ra m m a tie a I ru les . 

SECTION 9. 

Ty and vy, — tJwv and you. 

The personal pronoun ty of the second person singular is used in 
Bohemian in family circles, and in addressing familiar or intimate friends 
It expresses endearment, familiarity or close friendship. 

But among the Bohemians in America it is very often improperly 
employed instead of vy (you) in addressing others, which latter word in 
Bohemian has the same general usage as in English. By a curious mistake 
most of the original Bohemian settlers in America, like many of the Ger- 
mans, translated the English you by ty, fancying the meaning to be 
identical and supposing that in English the second person singular is use*d 
in addressing another person, instead of the second person plural, as is 
the proper custom in. Bohemian. But the rule in ordinary discourse is 
almost the same in English as in Bohemian, the second person plural 
(you, vy) being employed in addressing others and always combined with 
a plural verb, there being only a few exceptions in Bohemian as stated 
above. The French language follows exactly the same rule as the Bohe- 
mian ; but in German discourse the third person plural is used in speaking 
to another (f&ify. they).^ 

This explanation, though somewhat lengthy, has been deemed neces- 
sary at the outset. 

• SECTION 10. 

In vulgar language, the sound of the consonant v is often impro- 
perly placed before the initial vowel o 9 so that for instance, in place of 
a pure on, ona, ono (he, she, it) we hear von, vona, vono. It is some- 
thing similar to the vulgar English custom to place the sound of h before 
an initial vowel : H' englishman, It eye-tooth, instead of Englishman, 
eye-tooth. 



PART XI. 



Rules of pronunciation. 25 



Rules of pi^oiviiiiciatioiiL. 



The following rules must constantly be kept in mind : 

1 — The Bohemian pronunciation in the following lessons is always 
given in italics. 

2 — We proceed upon the supposition that section 2, part I. ex- 
plaining the sounds of all the Bohemian letters, and particularly the 
sounds of accented vowels, has been fully digested by the beginner. 

3 — Consequently we do not attempt, in the following lessons, to 
give English equivalents for the long vowels a and e, which are of very 
frequent occurrence, because it would be a useless complication. For the 
long vowels i and y, whose souud is identical, the English ee as heard 
in see?i will have to answer. But it is to be observed that in ordinary 
Bohemian discourse the sound of y is frequently (in fact, nearly always) 
changed into ej, i.e. ey as heard in they, obey. The word syr (cheese), 
for instance, is properly pronounced seer, but commonly seyr. 

4 — The sound of the Bohemian short vowels a, e, o 9 is represented 
by <'/, e, o; but the marked characters a, e. 6 are avoided when their use 
appears to be superfluous. For instance the pronunciation of words like 
tento (this one), pense (pension), ponor (draught of a ship) is sufficiently 
indicated by tento, pense, ponor, to an English-speaking beginner; and 
it would by superfluous to write tento, pense, ponor. 

5 — The short sound of i is given by i, as heard in pin. When 
the long English sound of i (as heard in dine) is to be employed a full- 
face i or I will stand for it, — which however is of rare occurrence. 



26 Part II. 

6 — Short y always retains its short English sound as heard in 
the word lynch, and we use for it in the pronouncing column either i 
or y, as may be more appropriate. The combination ej will commonly 
be represented by ey, which must always be pronounced like ey in they, 
whey, obey. 

7 — The short vowel n is represented by U, but frequently also by 
'oo, where a slight lengthening of the sound is not only admissible, but 
conducive to a clear enunciation. Long u and fi are naturally always 
rendered by oo, as heard in boot. 

8 — The vowel e, when preceded by d, 11, t, changes them into 
*d', fi, £, and has then the sound of a simple e. When it retains its 
proper sound of e, 'we commonly write it ye in the pronouncing column. 
The student must be careful always to sound it like ye in the English 
words yes, yet, yell, and NEVER like the word ye, meaning "you". 
For instance : me, prave, (me, just), mye, prdvye {mye, prdvyg). 

The syllable je is identical in pronunciation with e, and is also 
rendered by ye; for example : jen (only), yen. Je is generally used in 
common discourse as an abbreviation of jest, yest(\s); to guard against 
possible mispronunciation, we will always write it ye. 

9 — The sound of the soft consonants d', fi, t' is represented by the 
combination dy, ay, ty, when practicable, which is rarely the case. 
Whenever this is found impracticable, or when it would only serve to 
obscure instead of facilitating matters, a full-face d', fi, f is used in the 
pronouncing column and the student must try his best to give it the 
proper Bohemian sound. 

Inflexible rule : When the soft vowels e, i, i follow after d, n, t, 
these consonants are softened into d', fi, t', and will be so marked. 

10 — To represent the sound of ell, the combined letters kJi are in- 
variably employed, for want of a better substitute. The sound of f is 
given by rsh. for the same reason.*) 



*) The letter f was unknown in the old Bohemian language and is wisely rejected 
by the Slovaks, who use the letter r in its place. In many cases also, where its use is 
insisted upon by strict and pedantic grammarians, it is avoided by the practical com- 
mon sense of the people. 



R u les of p ro n u n c iatio n . 27 

11 — For the letter c we use eh or tch as heard in chap, wretch; 
for s the English equivalent sh is used; for the Bohemian j, the letter y 
as heard in yonder is made to answer. A final s in Bohemian has always 
the sharp hissing sound and will be marked ss. 

12 — For the sound of z the Imperial Dictionary gives zh as a sub- 
stitute: but we retain the full-face Bohemian z in the pronouncing column, 
as nothing would be gained by such a substitution. It is always pro- 
nounced like z in azure, or s in pleasure. But in some cases, when 
terminating a word or a syllable, the letter z takes the sharper sound of 
■gh and will be so noted. 

The diphthong on. 

This is tlif only diphthong in the Bohemian language, and it must 
always be pronounced like on in dough, or like the word owe, — never 
like ou in pound or ghoul. We shall commonly mark it oil, 

Abbreviations 

will be avoided as much as possible, and their meaning will in every case 
be self-evident. — The letters ///, /", // beside a noun denote gender (mas- 
culine, feminine, neutre). — Sing, means singular number; pi. means 

plural number. 

The Hyphen. 

Syllables without a vowel — but always containing one of the so- 
called •semi-vowels" 1 and r 5 as before observed, — are separated from 
other syllables of the same word by a hyphen, to make their separate 
pronunciation apparent. For instance : brzo (soon), br-zo, — the syl 
lable br being pronounced exactly like bor in the English words labor, 
neighbor. 

However, a silent e will often be interpolated in such syllables, to 
elucidate their pronunciation; for instance: prsi, p e rshee, it rains. 

The apostrophe 

will be used to prevent a collusion of two letters, into which an English- 
speaking beginner might easily be entrapped, and to keep them separate; 
as. for example: mel jsem (I had), pronounced m'yell sent, — and not 
my -ell sem. 



28 



Part II 



LESSON I. 



Ja 


yd 


ty 


ty 


on 


on 



I ona ond she 

thou {improperly you) ono ono it 
he ten, ta, to, ten, to, to, 

ty ty, that or those 
tu ? zde til, zde here 
a, i a, i and 
ano, ne And, ne yes, no 
za zd for ; pill ^00^ half 
na no on 
Ja mam, yd mdm, ) I have or on ma, 
main mdm ) I have got ma 

mam 2 mdm f have I ? ma J 

ty mas, ty mash, ) thou hast or 

mas ma*A ) thou hast got ma 

(improperly : you have) 



this, that 



mas mdsh hast thou? (have you?) 

dollar, m. dollar . dollar 

piil- dollar, m. pool-d. half-a-dollar 

cent, m. tsent cent 

penize, pi. pefieezti money or cash 

hotove hotove cash 



#•# m«, ) he 

?rta ) he 



ona ma, ond md, ) she 

md ) she 



ono ma, ono ma, ) it 
ma md ) it 

licet, m. oo-chet bill, 
dluh, m. tfZtfo^ 

na dluh nd-dlooh on trust. 
n a licet nd-oochet, on trust, 
maso. n. m#s# 



has #r 

has got 

has he ? 

has or 

has got 

has or 

has got 

account 

debt 

on credit 

on credit 

meat 









Lesson 1. 






'29 


chleb, 

chleba 


m. 


Ihleb ) 
khleba \ 


bread 


Pivo, 
vino, 


n. 
n. 


peevo 
veeno 


beer 

wine 


syr. 


m. 


seer 


cheese 


soda, 


f. 


.v odd 


soda 


maslo, 


n, 


maslo 


butter 


voda, 


f. 


rodd 


water 



Note 1. Pronounce ma like ma' a, the vulgar abbreviation of 

Mamma: and main like ma'am, the vulgar abbreviation of Madam; it will 
assist in catching the true sound. 

Note 2. In Bohemian, miti meeSi (to have), is not an auxiliary 
verb as in English, but always an independent verb. 

Note l\. Soda is commonly used as an abbreviation of sodovka, 
soda-water. — In vulgar speech, the expression jo, yd, (from the German 
,/'//) is often heard instead of ano, yes. 

Note 4. The long vowel u, oo, which occurs only at the begin- 
ning of a word or syllable, is often changed into on, oil, and so pro- 
nounced. Hence we frequently hear oocet, oitchet, instead of ricet, oocliet, 
and the like. 

Exercises. 

Ja main penize, I have money. Ty mas dlnh, thou hast (you have) 

Mam penize, I have money. a debt. 

Ty mas penize, thou hast money On ma dlnh, he has a debt, 

(sometimes i7nproperly used for: Jji mam ten ucet, I have the bill. 

you have money. See Section 7, Mam ten licet I have I that hill ? 

Part l) - Mam, I have. 

On ma hotove, lie has the cash. m $ ten UeU hast thou (have 

Ona ma chleba, she lias bread (or you) that bill ? 

th( - bread )- Mam, I have. 

Ona ma dollar, she has a dollar. MA§ dollar ? hast tbou (have you) 

Ona ma cent, she has a cent. a dollar? 

Ja mam ucet, I have the bill. j a mam pu I -dollar, I have half a 

Ja mam dlnh, I have a debt. dollar. 



80 



Part II 



Mate penize I have you money ? 

Ma penize 'I has he money ? 

Ma on ty penize] lias he that money? 

On ma dollar, he has a dollar. 

On nui ten dollar, he has that dollar. 

Ona ma ty penize, she has that 
money. 

Ona ma dlnli, she has a debt. 

Ona ma zde ricet, she has an ac- 
count here. 

Ona ma ten licet, she has that bill. 

Mam ehleba, I have bread. 

A ja mam maso, and I have meat. 

Mas ehleba '{ hast thou (have you) 
bread ? 

Ano, mam; yes, I have. 



Mas maso? hast thou (have you) 

meat ? 

Ne, no. 

Mam ehleba a maso, I have bread 

and meat. 
A ja mam pivo, and I have beer. 
To pivo, that beer (or this beer). 

To pivo a to vino, that beer and 

that wine. 
Chleba za penize ) bread for cash 
a pivo na dluh, i and beer on trust. 
Maso za hotove / meat for cash and 

a vino na licet ' wine on account. 
Ma ten chleb \ has he that bread 

a to m a si .o ? ' and that butter ? 
Chleb i voda, bread and water. 
Maslo a syr, butter and cheese. 



Note 5. Gender of the nouns. It will be observed that the nouns 

dollar ueet chleb 

cent dlnh syr 

are all of the masculine gender, and using the indicative pronoun we say: 
ten dollar, ten cent, etc. 

Nouns terminating in consonants are mostly of the masculine gender. 

The nouns voda, soda, are of the feminine gender: ta voda, 
ta soda. 

Nouns terminating in a are always of the feminine gender. 

But some feminine nouns also terminate in e and in consonants; 
for instance zeme, earth (land, country); kostf, bone; dan, tax. 

The nouns maso, maslo, pivo, vino, are neutre: to maso, to 
maslo, etc. 



Lesson %. 



%* 



Nouns terminating lit o are always of the neutre gender. 

But some neutre nouns have the termination p ? e or i; for in- 
etance pole, field ; doupe, den ; oseni, crop. 

Note G. The noun penize (money) is in the plural: the singular 
peiiiz, peneez, means either "a coin" or "an amount". 



LESSON II. 



My 

vy 

oni 



me 


we 


niaine 


mdmti 


we havt 


'7/ 


you 


mate 


mate 


you hav( 


dm 


they 


maji 


inri-i/ee 


they have 



Note 1. In the third person plural oni Mi (they) is used in the 
masculine gender for animate creatures; ony, tiny (they) in the feminine 
gender, and in the masculine for inanimate things ; ona &n& (they) in 
the neutre gender. 

But in common discourse no such grammatical distinction is made 
and the masculine form oni is employed in all eases. 



papir. m. 


pdpeer 


paper 


plae> 


m. 


plats j 


place or 


pero, n . 


pern 


pen 


mista, 


Si. 


meestd f 


room 


inkoust, m. 


inkoilst 


ink 


stfil, 


m. 


stool 


table 


vuz 9 m. 


vooe 


wagon 


seuo> 


n. 


sen o 


hay 


hie, m. 


bitch 


whip 


obil^ 


U-. 


dbe-lee 


grain? 


pytel, m. 


piffll 


sack 


pot a Ik 


m. 


piddJh 


team 




eas 5 


m. chdss 


time 






taui 


tdm 


there 


dost 




dost 


enough 


jen, jenom, 


yen, yen dm only 


kaMy 




kafaUe 


every one 



vsicluii,. fshikb%% 



32 



Part II 



Exercises. 



My manic papir, we have paper. 
Mate pero 1 have you a pen ? 

Alio, mam; yes, I have. 

Mate inkoust ] have you ink ? 
Mam, I have. 

Mate penize I have you money ? 
Zde mate plac, here you have a place 
Tarn mate misto, there you have a 
place. 

Zde ma kazdy misto, here every 
one has a place. 

Tarn maji vsichni misto, there they 
aJl have a place. 



Zde mate still, here you have a table. 

Maine vuz, we have a wagon. 

On ina bic, he has a whip. 

Ona ma pytel, she lias a sack. 

Maji potall, they have a team. 

Oni maji obili a seno, they have 
grain and hay. 

Maji obili a seno 'I have they grain 
and hay ? 

Maji jen seno, they have only hay. 

Oni maji jenom pytel, they have 
only a sack. 

Maine cas, we have time. 



Note 2. As observed in vsichni (all), when a word commences 

with the letter v followed by another consonant, the initial v takes the 
sharp sound of an f, whenever the facility of pronunciation naturally re- 
quires that modification of the sound. 



LESSON III. 



Kde 
kdy 
kdo 
ted' 
nyni 



gcU 

gdy 

gdo 
teff } 

nym > 



where 


ne 


ne 


no, not 


when 


proc 


proch 


why 


who 


proto ze 


proto ze 


because 




ani 


ani ) 

\ 


no, not one, 


now, 




not even, 


at present 




neither—nor 



n em am nemdm I have not, I 

have not got 
nomas nemdsh thou hast (you 

have) not 
nenia nemd he (she, it) has j nemaji nemdyee they have not 

not 



noma me nemdm e we have not 
nemate nemdtg you have not 



Lesson S. 



83 



Note 1. In the words kde, kdy, kdo tlie hard consonant 
k is pronounced like g* in go, In nemam, nemas, etc.. nem has exactly 

the same sound as in the word nemesis. 

Note 2. Negation is always expressed by the prefix ne. 
Exercises. 
Nem am penize, I have no money 



Nemas penize! hast thou no money"/ 
Nemate penize! have you no money? 
Ne; no. 
Proc nema penize? why has he (she, 

it) no money ? 
Proto ze nemaobili, because he has 

no grain. 
Nemame ucet, we have no account. 
Nemate hotove ! have you no cash? 
Nemate ani dollar! have you not 

even a dollar? 
Nema ani cent ! has he not a cent ? 
Nemam ani dollar, I have not a dollar. 
Nema ani cent, he has not a cent. 
Nemaji ani chleb, ani maslo; they 

have neither bread nor butter. 
Nemaji ehleba, ani maslo, ani syr; 

they have no bread, no butter and 

no cheese. 
Nemame papir, pero, ani inkoust; 

Ave have no paper, no pen and no 

ink. 

Nemate plae ! have you no place ? 

Zde nemame misto, we have no 
place here. 



Tarn nemame misto, we have no 

place there. 



Mas cas ! 
Mate cas ! 
Mate kdy! 
Nemam cas, 
Nem am kdy ? 






hast thou time? 
have you time ? 

T have no time. 



Ted' nemame cas, we have no time 
now. 

Nyni nemaji cas, they have no time 

now. 
Kdy mate cas! when have you time? 
Kdy mamecas! when have we time? 
Nyni; now. 

Kdo ma penize! who has money? 
Kdo ma cas ! who has time ? 

Kde mas penize! where hast thou 

the money ? 
Kde mate penize! where have you 

the money? 
Kdo nema penize! who has no 

money? 
Kdo ma dluh! who has a debt? 
Kde mate dluh ! where have vou a 

debt? 

Proc nemate hotove ! why have you 
not the cash ? 



3 



34 



Part II 



LESSON IT. 



Co 


tsd 


co to 


tsvtd 


neco 


netsd 


nic 


nits 


pranic 


pranits 



what 

what is it (that) 

something 

nothing 

nothing at all 

EXE] 

J& mam n£co, I have something. 
Ja nemam nic. Nemam nic. I have 

nothing. 
J& mam dollar, I have a dollar. 
Nemam ani dollar, I have not even 

a dollar. 
Nem&m pranic, I have nothing at 

all. 
Nem&s nic, thou hast nothing. 
Nem&te nic, you have nothing. 
Oni nemaji nic, they have nothing. 
Co to m&sl what is it thou hast got? 
Mas neco ? hast thou anything ? 
Co to mate? what have you? (what 

is it you have ? what have you got ?) 
Mate neco ? have you anything? 
Cotomaji? what have they got? 
Nemate nic ? have you nothing ? 
Nemate pranic? have you nothing 

at all? 
Tak vy nemate nic, so you have 

nothing. 



moc 
mnoho 


mdts 
mnohd 


t much, many 


tuze 


tooz& 


very; too 


jak 


yak 


how 


tak 


tak 


so 


ISES. 

Pranic nemame, 


we have nothing 



Nic nemam, 



I have nothing. 



at all. 
Pranic nemaji, they have nothing 

at all. 
Ani vino, ani pivo nemaji; they 

have neither wine, nor beer. 
Mam moc, I have much. 

Mame mnoho, we have much. 
Ty nemas moc, thou hast not much. 
Yy nemate moc, you have not much. 
Oni nemaji mnoho, the}^ have not 

much. 
Jak moc? Jak mnoho? how much? 
Tuze moc. Tuze mnoho; very much. 
Ne moc. Ne mnoho; not much. 
Ne tuze moc, not very much. 
Ne tuze mnoho, ,, ,, 
Ne tak tuze moc, not so very much. 
Mas dost? hast thou enough? 

Mate dost? have you enough? 

Ano, mam dost; yes, I have enough. 
Nemam dost, I have not enough. 
To je tuze mnoho, co m&te; that is 

very much, what you have got. 



Lesson 5. 



35 



LESSON y. 



n£kdo negdfi somebody, some one 
nikdo nigdd ^ 



zadny zddnee f 



nobody, no one 



nekde negd^ somewhere, anywhetfe 
nikde mgtU nowhere 
iiikdy mgdi never 



vMy 



eiM 



I 



vMycky v&di-teki*) f 

prace, f. prdts# work 



always, all the time, eve 
co delat 



j stale stale 

1 porad*) porshdd 



1sd flelM 



to do. 



ExEKCISES. 



Mate neco? have you something? Yy liemate nikdy nic, you never 

Mate nekde neco 2 have you got have anything. 

something, anywhere? Mam vzdy (dycky) neco, I always 

Nemame nikde nic, we have got have something. 

nothing, nowhere. Mate vzdycky neco, you always 

Kdo ma neco I who has some- have something. 

thing? Pofad neco mate, you always have 

Zadny nic, nobody (has) anything. something. 

Nikdo uema nic, nobody has any- Ty porad neco mas, thou hast al- 

thing. ways something. 

Nemame zadny nic; nobody (none Stale neco mate, you always have 

of us) has an3'thing. something. 

Nikdo nema tuze moc, nobody has Nenstale neco maji, they always 

too much. have something. 

Nem&m nikde nic, I have not any- Nemam porad nic, I never have 

thing anywhere. anything. 

Ty nomas nikdy nic, thou never Stale nema nic, he never has any- 

hast anything. j thing. 



*) Colloquially dycky, dit-ski; porad, porad. 



36 



Part II 



Porad nemaji nic, they never have 

anything. 
Pro£ nemas nic? why hast thou 

nothing? 
Proc nemate nic ? why have you 

nothing? 
Proc nemate n£co ? why have you 

not something? 
Proto ze nemam, because I have 

not. 
Nema§ dollar? hast thou not a dol- 
lar? 
Nemate penize? have you no money? 
Proc nemate penize? why have you 

no money? 
Ja mam pfil- dollar, I have half-a- 

dollar. 
On ma dollar a pul, he has a dollar 

and a half. 
Nikdy nemam cas, I never have 

time. 



Proc nemate nikdy cas ? why have 

you never time? 
Proto ze mam moc prace, because 

I have much work (much to do). 
Proto ze mam mnoho co delat, be 

cause I have much to do. 
Proto ze mam tuze moc prace, be 

cause I have very much to do. 
Jak moc? Jak mnoho? how much 

(many)? 
Tak moc. Tak mnoho* So much 

(many). 
Tak tuze moc, so very much. 
Proc tak moc ? why so much ? 
Stale tak tuze moc, always so very 

much. 
Zadny nema tak mnoho, nobody 

has so much. 
Ne tuze moc, not too much. 

Co to ? what is that ? 
Nic, nothing. 



Note 1. It will be observed that in Bohemian there is a double 
negation expressed in a negative sentence : 

Ja nemam nic; literally, I have not nothing, (actually, I have nothing). 
Zadny nema nic; nobody has not nothing, (nobody has anything). 
Nemate nikdy nic; you never have not nothing, (you never have anything). 

Note 2. The order of the words in a sentence is much less rigid 
than in English, and may often be changed at pleasure or according to the 
stress we wish to lay upon a certain word, without changing the sense. 
For instance : 

Zadny nema mnoho; mnoho nema ifcadny; 

nema Mdny mnoho. 



Lesson 6. 



37 



This is always one and the same sentence, the words fitting together at 
the pleasure of the speaker. But in English we are rigidly bound to a cer- 
tain order : nobody has much. It would be impossible to transpose the 
words and say : much has nobody; has nobody much. 

Of course, not every Bohemian sentence yields to transposition to 
the same extent, but nearly every one yields more or less. Let us take 
another illustration at random from the foregoing exercises : 

Proto ze mam moc prace, because I have much work (much to do) 
may be expressed as follows, without changing the sense : 

proto ze moc prace mam; 
proto ze prace moc mam; 
proto ze moc mam prace; 
proto ze prace mam moc. 

In the English sentence no transposition is possible. What an im- 
mense help this freedom of transposition is, especially in poetry, will be 
apparent to the student. 









LESSON VI. 








Ja jsem, 
jsem 


yd stim 
s$m 


i 


I am 


ty jsi 


ty si 

si 


t 


thou art 


on jest, 

ona ,, 
ono ,, 


tin yest; 
dnd ,, ; 
ond ,, ; 




on je, 

ona ,, 
ono ,, 


dn yd; 
dnd ,, ; 
dnd ,, ; 


jest, 

9? 


je 

99 

99 


he is 
she is 
it is 


My jsme, 
jsme 


me sm8 
sm& 


\ 


we are 


vy jste 
jste 


vee std 
stt 


i 


you are 


oni (ony, 
jsou 


ona) , 


jsou, dm ( 
soti 


dny, dnd) 


soil, I 




they are 



38 



Part II. 



Note 1. The verb byti, beetii (to be) is the only auxiliary verb 
in the Bohemian language. 

Jsem, jsi, jsme, jste, jsou, as shown above, are pronounced : 
sem, si, sm8, ste, sou. In spelling the initial j is also frequently omitted, 
even by some of the best writers : sem, si, sine, ste, sou. 



dobry, a, e 


dobree 


good 


take, taky 


take also, too; 


spatny, a, e 


shpdtnee 


bad 


ale 


cLW but 


drahy, a, e 


clrahee 


dear 


zde, tu, tady 


zd&, tu, tdde, here, 


laciny, a, e 


latsinee 


cheap 




present; 


cerstvy, a, e 


cherstvee, 


fresh 


teda 


ttidd well then ; 


doma 


doma 


at home 


uz, jiz 


Ush, yeez already 



neni nem (colloquially : irejni, neym), he (she, it) is not 
pravda prdvda true, truth 



Exercises. 



I am here, 
here I am. 
I am here already, 
art thou here? 
am here already. 
Jste uz tady? are you already here? 
Uz jsme tady, we are here already. 
My jsme uz take zde, we are also 

here already. 
Jsou uz zde? are they already here? 



Jsem zde, 
Zde jsem, 
Ja jsem uz zde, 
Jsi zde? 
Uz jsem tu, 



Mame dobry chleb, we have good 

bread. 
Je ten chleba dobry? is this bread 

good? 



Alio, uz jsou tu! Yes, they are here 

already. 
Teda jsou vsichni zde; well, then 

they are all here. 
Proc jsme zde? why are we here? 

(what are we here for?) 
Proc vy jste tu? why are you here? 
A proc on tady je ? and why is he 

present ? 
Proc jsou ty zde? why are those here? 



Ano, je dobry; yes, it is good. 
Ale je drahy, but it is dear. 

My mame chleba doma, we have 
bread at home, 



Lesson 6. 



39 



Je cerstv^ I is it fresh ? 

Ano, ten chleba je cerstvy; yes, that 

bread is fresh. 
Ale proc je tak drahy? but why is 

it so dear? 
Neni draky, it is not dear. 

Jest tuze drahy, it is very dear. 



Yzdyt' (dytf) neni drahy; but it is 

not dear. 
Ale vzdyt' neni drahy; why, it ain't 

dear at all. 
Je laciny, it is cheap. 

Je dost laciny, it is cheap enough. 
Je tnze laciny, it is very cheap. 



Ten syr je dobry, that cheese is good. 
Ta voda je dobra, that water is good. 
Ano, je tuze dobra; yes, it is very 

good. 
Je cerstva, it is fresh. 

To pivo je taky dobre, that beer is 

also good. 
Ano, to je pravda; yes, that is true. 
Je cerstve, it is fresh. 

Ale ta soda neni dobra, but this 

soda-water is not good. 
To vino je spatne, that wine is bad. 
Proc neni to vino take tak dobre % 

why is that wine not just as good? 



My manie dobre vino, we have 

good wine. 
Kde maji dobre pivo? where do 

they have (keep) good beer? 
Zde vsude, here everywhere. 

Je to pravda -% is it true ? 

Ano, to je pravda; yes, that is true. 
! Zde vsude maji dobre pivo, here 
they everywhere have good beer. 
j Ale vino nemaji dobre, but their 
wine is not good {literally: but 
wine they have not good). 
| Proc nemate dobre vino? why 
have you not good wine ? 



Note 2. It will be observed that the termination of the adjectives 
dobry, drahy etc. changes according to gender. 

The masculine gender terminates in y 
the feminine ,, ,, a 



the neutre 

dobry syr (masc), 
dobra voda (fern.), 
dobre pivo (neut.) 



dobree seer, good cheese; 
dobra vdda, good water; 
dobre (eh) pivd, good beer. 



40 



Part II 



The feminine and neutre will always be indicated by placing a, e 
after the masculine adjective, as above. 

In common conversation, however, the masculine termination is 
also used in the neutre gender : dobry pivo; so that practically we hear 
only the two terminations y and a : dobry, dobra. 

Note 3. In ordinary speech the final y of all adjectives in the 
masculine gender is pronounced ey (as in they), and such is in fact the 
prevalent custom in relation to the long letter y, no matter where it 
occurs, as stated in the "Rules of Pronunciation". Hence we hear dobrey, 
drdhey in the masculine gender, instead of dobree, drahee. This is the 
general colloquial usage, by no means confined to the uneducated classes. 
It has sprung up quite naturally because the sound of ey is not only 
easier, but also more euphonious than the sound of ee, in most such 
cases. Listening to the common conversation of Bohemians, the beginner 
will almost constantly hear the long y pronounced ey. 



LESSON TIL 



Rad 


rad glad 


nemiti rad nemeeXli rad, (nemeet 


nerad 


nerad sorry 




rad), to dislike 


radi 


rdtfi ) (the same 


byti rM 


beeibi rad, (beet rad), to 


neradi 


nera&'i S in plural) 




be glad 


miti rM 


meeW rad (meet rad) 


byti nerad beetii nerad (beet nerad), 




to like 




to be sorry 


vzdyt' 


vidit \ but, well, yet 
ial) dyf * 


veliky, 


a, e oelikee } large, 
oelkee i great, big 


dytf (colloqu 


velky 


tak 


tak so, such 


maly, 


& 9 e mdlee small, little 






dlouhy, 


a, £ dloUhee long 


take tak 


I MM tak \ -> ust so > 
i ' just as 


kratky, 


Ay e krdtkee short 


taky tak 


pravy, 


a, e pravee right, genuine 


vsude 


fshude , every . 


falesny, 


a, e faleshnee false 


vsade 


fshikW V 

fshude ) wh,Jre 


piny, 


a, e pl-nee full 


vsndy 


pr&zny, 


a, £ prdinee empty 



Lesson 7. 



41 



i e oh, well 

ze ze that 

ze je ze ye that he (she, it) is 

zase zii-se , 

zas zdss - again 

opet op-yet ^ 



nebo 

jako 

skoro 

tomu 

zadne 

dluzen 



nebd 


or 


yiikd 


as, like 


skord 


almost 


to mil 


of it 


zddnS 


none 


dloozen 


indebted 



Ja jsem rad, 
To sem rad ! 
Tuze rad ! 



I am 

I am so glad ! 

very glad ! 



Exercises. 
Had 



Jsme tomu radi, we are glad of it. 
Tuze jsme tomu radi, we are very 

glad of it. 
Oui jsou tomu iuoe radi, they are 

very glad of it. 
Jsi rad uebo nel art thou glad or not? 
Jste tomu radi? are you glad of it? 
Mate to rad! (speaking to one 

person) do you like it? 
M&te to radi I (speaking to more 

than one person) do you like it ? 
Nemam to rad, I do not like it. 
Nie to uemam rad, I do not like it 

at all. 
Nemaji to radi. Oni to uemaji ra- 
di. They do not like it. 
Jsem rad ze mam penize; I am glad 

(that) I have money. 
Ten dollar je falesuy; that dollar is 

false. 
Neui. je pravy; no. it is genuine. 
Ja mam vzdycky dobre penize, I 

have always good money. 



Mate vuz piny I have you a full 

wagon (is your wagon full)? 
Yuz neni piny, the wagon is not full. 
On je skoro prazny, it is almost 

empty. 
On je rad ze ma prazny viiz; he is 

glad that he has an empty wagon. 
Ja mam dluh, I have a debt. 
Mam jen maly dluh, I have only a 

small debt. 
Ale ty mas (vy mate) velky dluh; 

but thou hast (you have) a big debt. 
Mam take tak velky dluh jako vy; 

I have just as large a debt as you. 

Vzdyf mate penize! but you have 

money! 
I nemam zadne; oh, I have none 

(well, I have none). 
On je \ sude dluzen, he is indebted 

everywhere (he owes everybody). 

Uz zase niame penize, again we 
have (some) mone} 7 . 

Ale vy zas uz nemate penize, but 

you again have no money. 
Ja sem tuze rad, ze mam penize! 

I am very glad that I have money! 



42 



Part II 



On je tnze nerad, ze je dlnzen; he 

is very sorry, that lie is in debt. 
Proc je dlnzen 1 why is he in debt? 
Proto ze nema penize, because he 

has no mone} r . 
Yzdyt' (dytf) on nema skoro zadny 

dlnh; well, he has almost no debt 

(is almost out of debt). 
To je pravda, that is true. 

On neni dlnzen, he is not in debt. 
Mam velky (Huh, nebo maly 2 have 

I a large debt or a small one? 
Tu jest licet, here is the bill. 
To neni dlonhy licet, that is not a 

long bill. 
Je jenom kratky, it is only short. 
Ano, velmi kratky; yes, very short. 
Mate jen tak maly licet^ have you 

only such a small bill ? 
Nemam rad velky licet, I do not 

like to have a large account. 



Je velky dost, it is large enough 
Nemam mnoho, I have not much. 
To je nic, that is nothing. 

To je jako nic, that is like nothing. 
To ze je nic % this you call nothing 

{literally: that this is nothing)? 
Oni jsou radi, ze tarn neni zadny 

(Huh; they are glad, that there 

is not any debt there. 
I je tarn dluh, ale maly; well, there 

is a debt there, but a small one. 
Pravda, jenom maly: true, only a 

small one. 
Ano, tak to je; yes, it is so. 

Ne, tak to neni; no, it is not so. 
Ucet je wravy, the bill is right. 
Ten licet neni pravy, that bill is not 

right. 
Je falesny, it is false, 

A proc ? and why ? 

Proto ze je ! because it is ! 



LESSON Till. 



nejsme 


neysme 


we are not 


nejste 


neysU 


you are not 


nejson 


neysoit 


they are not 



Nejsem neysern I am not 

neni neym he (she, it) is not 

nejsi neysi thou are not 

Note. Always pronounce ney, in the pronouncing column, like 
the English word neigh. 

sam (masc) 



sam 

sama (fern.) s&wia' 
samo (neut.) samo 
samoten (tna, tno) 



alone; him- 
self, herself 
itself 



dnes 

prave 
zrovna 



dnes s 

prav'yg 

zr&mia 



to-day 

just; 
this moment 









Lesson 8. 






43 


otec 


oms 




father 


stryc 


streets, sti 


*eyts 


uncle 


lnatka 


mdtka 




mother 


teta 


teta 




aunt 


bratr 


brd-tr 




brother 


hoch 


hokh 


) 


boy 


sestra 


sest-rd 




sister 


ehlapec 


khldpets 


S 


syn 


syn 




son 


holka 


holkd 


\ 


girl 


dcera 


ts8rd 




daughter 


devce, u. 


tfefche 






docela 


dotsela all, 


quite 










pryc 


pritch away, 


gone 










i 


e 


both. 


. .and 







Exercises. 



Nejsem rad, I am not glad. 

Nejsem tomu rad, I do not like it. 
Nejsi rad ? art thou not glad? 

Nejste rad? (addressing one person;) 

nejste radi? (addressing more than 

one person;) are you not glad? 
Jsem sam, I am alone? 

Docela sam ? all alone? 

Ano, docela samoten; yes, all alone. 
Neni otec doma? is father not at 

home? 
Ne, on neni doma; no, he is not at 

home. 
Neni zadny doma? is nobody at 

home? 
Matka, ani bratr, ani sestra ne- 

jsou doma; neither mother, nor 

brother or sister are at home. 
Kde json ? where are they ? 

Pryc; gone. 

Vsichni jsou pryc ? are they all gone ? 
Ano, vsichni; yes, all of them. 



Je stryc doma? is uncle at home? 
Nebo teta? or aunt? 
Json taky pryc; they are gone, too. 
Ten hoch je tu sam; the boy (this, 

that boy) is here alone. 
Ta holka je pryc; the girl (that girl) 

is gone. 
To devce je doma samotno, that 

girl is at home alone. 
Proc tn neni bratr? why is the 

brother (her brother) not here? 
On neni doma, on je pryc; he is not 

at home, he is gone. 
Dcera neni zde docela samotna, the 

daughter is not here all alone. 
Matka je zde take; the mother (her 

mother) is here, too. 
Je nekdo doma? is somebody at 

home ? 
Neni; no. 
Dnes jsou vsichni pryc, to-day they 

are all gone. 



44 



Part II 



Akdejsou? and where are they? 
Nekde pryfy somewhere away. 
Prave jsem tu sama (fern); I am 
here' just alone. 



Proc jste tu samotna? (fern.) why 
are you here alone ? 

Protoze otec i matka jsou pryfy be- 
cause both father and mother are 
gone. 



LESSON IX. 



By 1 jsem bill sent 
(byla, f. Mild ,, 
bylo, n.) Mllo ,, 



I have 

been; 

I was 



byl jsi Mil si i thou hast 

(abbr.)byl's, m. Mllss < been; 

,-, byla's, f . Mlldss \ thou wast 

he (she, it) 

has been; 

he (she, it) 

was 



byl (a, o) Mil (a, o) 



byli jsnie billy sm# i we have 
(byly, f- "j been; 

byla, n.) 'we were 



byli jste billy , w J you have been; 

' vou were 



you were 



byli{y,a)Mlly(y,cl)\ th ey h *™ h ^-< 
' they were 



Nebyl jsem ne-bill i I have not 
sem -J been; 

' I wa 



was not 



Nebyli jsme ne-Mlly ( we have not 

sm8 -j been; 

' we were not 



etc. 



Kde jsem byH gde i where have I 

sem bill -j been? 

• where was I? 



Kde jsme byli? gcU t where have we 

sm^ billy? < been? 

■ where were we? 



etc. 



Miti, to have: mam, I have; 
mel jsem, 

mela jsem, f . m'yelld sem, 

meli jsme, m'yelli sm#, we have had; we had; 

and so forth, using mel, meli in place of byl, byli. 



sgm - j. I have had; I had; 



Lesson 9. 45 

Note 1. There is in Bohemian no such formal difference between 
the perfect and imperfect tense as in English: I have been; I was. 

Note 2- There is a distinction of gender in the past tense, wjrick 
does not exist in English. I have been, I was, is used in all cases. In 
Bohemian however, when a man speaks, he says: byl jsem, bill s e~m; 
when a woman speaks, she says: byla jsem, billd sem. And this rule 
covers every verb in the language. For instance, a man says : 

jedl jsem, yM'l sem, I ate; I have eaten; 

sedl jsein, stid'l sem, I sat down; I have sat down; 

§el jsein, shell sem, I went; I have gone; 

§il jsem, skill sem, I sewed; I have sewn; 

videljsem, m^ el sem, I saw; I have seen. 
A woman says : 

jedla jsein, yMld stim; sla jsem, shld sem; 

sedlajsem, sMld sem; si la j sem, shilld sem; 

videla jsem, vitfeld sem . 

In the third person of the past tense- we say in English : 
he was, he has been; she was, she has been; it was, it has been. 

In Bohemian we must say : on byl, ona byla, ono bylo, according 
to gender. This rule holds good in the conjugation of every verb. 

For instance : 
Jedl, yed'l, he has eaten; he ate; 
jedla, yedla, she has eaten; she ate; 
jedlo, yedlo, it has eaten; it ate; 

In the plural number the distinction of sex is simply grammatical 
and perfectly useless; in the ordinary spoken language there is none what- 
ever. In grammatical theory 

byli jsme, byli jSte, byli, is masculine; 

byly jsme, byly jste, byly, is feminine; 

byla jsme, byla jste, byla, is neutre. 



sel, shell, he has gone; he went; 
sla, shld, she has gone; she went; 
slo, shlo, it has gone; it went. 



46 



Part II. 



But in the living tongue, or at least in ordinary conversation, we 
hear in all three genders : 

byli jsme, billi sm&; byli jste, billi st8; byli, MM. 

There is no difference of pronunciation between byli and byly; 
and this orthographical distinction as well as the form byla in the third 
person neutre are only maintained by the pedantry of theoretical gramma- 
rians, opposing changes which a living tongue has actually undergone and 
which always tend in the direction of practical simplicity. That artificial 
and useless distinction of gender is found in writing, but not in conver- 
sation. 

Note 3. The form of the second person plural as given above 
(byli jste, billi ste) is of course used when several persons are meant or 
spoken to; but when employing vy, you, in addressing a single person, 
we leave the main verb in the singular, whereas in English it is put in the 
plural, as if several persons were addressed : byl jste, bill sU, you have 
been, you were, (meaning only one person). And so in all Bohemian 
verbs ; for instance : 

jedli jste, yed'M st8, you have eaten, you ate, (meaning several persons); 
jedl jste, yed'l st#, you have eaten, you ate, (meaning one person, ad- 
dressed vy, you). 



Rano rand in the morning 

v poledne fpoledng at noon 

vecer vticher in the evening 

venku venkti outside, 

out of doors 



vcera fcherd yesterday 

vcera vecer fchera vgcher, last even- 
ing; last night 
zima zimd cold 

oba tiba both 



Exercises. 



Byl jsem doma, I was at home. 
Byl jsem stale doma, I have been 
at home all the time. 



Byl jsi doma ? (abbreviated : byl's 
doma]) hast thou been at home? 
wast thou at home? 



Lesson 10. 



47 



Ne, nebyl jsem doma; no, I was 

not at home. 
Ale bratr byl doma, but brother 

was at home. 
Kde jsi byl? (abbreviated: kde's byl? 

gcUss Ml?) where hast thou been? 

where wast thou? 
Kde jste byl? Kde jste byla? (fern.) 

{wlien addressing one person) 

where have you been? where 

were you? 
Byl jsein pryc, I was away. 

Byla jsem pryc (fern.) I was away. 
Byli jsme prave pryc 5 we were 

just gone. 
Byli jsme vsiclmi pryc, we were 

all gone; we have all been away. 
Kde byl otec? where was father? 
Byl venku, he was out of doors. 
A inatka? and mother? 

Matka byla take pryc, mother also 

was gone. 
Oba byli pryc, they were both gone . 
Zadny nebyl doina, nobody was 

at home (literally: nobody was 

not at home). 
Y§ickni byli pryc? all were gone, j 



Rano byli jsme doma a v poledne 

pryc; in the morning we were at 

home and at noon we were gone. 
Byli jste vecer doma ? (addressing 

one person: byl jste vecer doma?) 

Were you at home in the evening? 
Nebyli jsme doma, we were not at 

home. 
Nebyl jsem doma, I was not at home. 
Proc jsi nebyl doma? why wast 

thou not at home? 
Proc jste nebyl doma? why were 

you not at home? 
K do byl doma? who was at home? 
Bratr a sestra byli oba doma, broth 

er and sister were both at home. 
Proc nebyli venku? why were they 

not out of doors? 
Proto ze bylo zima, because it was 

cold. 
Nebylo zima vcera vecer, it was 

not cold last evening. 
Ze nebylo? wasn't it? 

Ba bylo ! oh yes, it was ! 

Ycera bylo zima, yesterday it was 

cold. 
Nebylo tnze, it was not very. 



LESSON X. 



It will doubtless be self-evident to the student, that the past tense 
in the preceding lesson may at pleasure be connected with the personal 
pronoun, as is the rule in English. 



48 



Part II 



(Instead of:) 
byl jsem, I have been 

thou hast been 



'(we can say:) 

ja jsem byl, yd sem bill 

ty jsi byl, ty si bill 
(abbrev. ty's byl, tyss bill) 

he (she, it) has been I on (ona, ono) byl, a, o, tin bill 

my jsme byli, me sm& billy 

vy jste byli, vee ste billy 

oni byli, tint billy 

The sense is not changed thereby, only more emphasis is laid on 
the subject. 

Then again, in the first person of the second form, both singular 
and plural, the auxiliary jsem, jsme is commonly left out. 



byl jsi, 

byl, a, o, 
byli jsme, 
byli jste, 



we have been 

you have been 

he (she, it) has been 



(Instead of:) 



jajsem byl, 
my jsme byli, 
jajsem mel, 
my jsme meli, 
jajsem sel, 
my jsme sli, 



yd sem bill 

me sm8 billy 

yd sem m'yell 

me sm& m'yelli 

yd s&m shell 

me sme shli 



(we say :) 

ja byl, I have been; I was 

my byli, we have been; we were 

ja mel, I have had; I had 

my meli, we have had; we had 

ja sel, I have gone; I went 

my sli, we have gone; we went 



u me 


Ura y8 


by me, 


with me, 


at my 


house (or 


place) 


u tebe 


urns 


by thee, 


with thee, 




at thy 


house 


u neho 
unej 


iffiehd ) 
uney i 


by him, 


with him, 




at his 


house 


u ni 


tivi.ee 


by her, 


with her, 




at her 


house 


u nas 


undss 


by us, 


with us, 




at our 


house 


u vas 


uvdss 


by you, 


with you, 




at your 


house 


u nich 


imikh 


by them, 


with them, 




at their 


house 


rod ice 


roftichg 


parents 


cely den 


ts&lee den j 


ill day 


domu 


dtimil 


home 


az 


dsh 


till, until 


nic nei 


fiits ntish 


nothing 


but 


pak 


pdk 




then 



Lesson 10. 



49 



Exercises. 



Ja byl doma, I was at home. 

Byl jsem doma eely den, I was at 

home all day. 
Byl jsem porad doma, I have been 

at home all the time. 
Byl otec doma? was father at home? 
Alio, byl; yes, he was. 

A kdy byl doma? and when was he 

at home? 
Skoro eely den, nearly all day. 
J a sel donm rano, I went home in 

the morning 
Kdy sestra sla domu? when did 

sister go home? 
Ona sla domu vecer, she went home 

in the evening. 
Nesla domu az vecer, she didn't go 

home till evening. 
Byl stryc doma? was uncle at home? 
Nebyl; he was not. 

Byl's u neho? wast thou at his 

house ? 
Byl jste u neho I were you at his 

house? 
Alio, byl jsem tain; yes, I was there. 
Sestra byla zde, sister was here. 
Byla u me, she was at my house. 
Byla take n v&s? was she also at 

your house? 
Byla tam v poledne, she was there 

at noon. 



Teta u nas nebyla, aunt was not at 

our house. 
Ale jeji liocli tain byl, but her boy 

was there. 
My byli vcera u ni, we were at her 

house yesterday. 
Bodice byli vcera rano doma, our 

parents were at home yesterday 

morning. 
Pak sli prye, then they went away. 
A my jsme sli taky pryc, and we 

went away, too. 
Byl nekdo n nicM was anybody at 

their house? 
Zadny n nicli nebyl, nobody was 

at their house. 
V poled ne nekdo tam byl, ale sel 

pryc; at noon somebody was 

there, but went away. 
Ja niel dnes maso a pivo, I had to 

day meat and beer. 
Sestra mela maso a chleba, sister 

had meat and bread. 
Ten maly liocli nemel nic, that 

little boy had nothing. 
Proc nemel nic 1 why did he have 

nothing? 
Nemeli jsme nic pro neho, we had 

nothing for him. 

Byl zde ten chlapecJ was that boy 

here ? 

4 



50 



Part II 



Byl tu ? he was here. 

Co meH what did he have? 

Nic nemel ; he had nothing. 

Byl zde pofad$ has he been here all 

the time? 
Ano, byl tu stale; yes, he has been 

here all the time. 
Kdy sel pryc2 when did he go away ? 
&el vecer, he went in the evening. 
Sel sam ? did he go alone? 



Docela sam, all alone. 

I Meli jste dnes vino] have you had 

wine to-day? 
! Ne 9 my jsme meli pivo; no, we had 
beer. 
A co oni meli? and what did they 

have? 
Take pivo; beer, also. 

My nemeli nic, we had nothing. 
Ale pranic ! not a thing! 



LESSON XL 



Budu 

budes 
bude 



neb 

nebo 

brzo 

brzy 

lined 

az 

kdyz 



budu 



I 



be 



shall 
will 

btidesh, thou will be 
btidg he (she, it) will be 



budeme btidem%\ 

budem budem I 

budete bUdete 

budou bUdou 



we shall be 

,, will ,, 

you will be 

they will be 



nebudu ngbtidti, I shall (will) not be; etc. 



or 



soon 



neb 

n&bo 

br-zd 

br-ze 

lined presently, right away 

dsh I when 
gdiz ' 



snad 

sotva 

zitra 

zejtra 

letos 



snad 

sotva 

zeetrd 

zeytrd 

letos 



dobre dobrsM 



perhaps 
hardly 

j- to-morrow 

this year 
j well, right, it is 
I well, all right. 



delati tfeld-ti to do 

platiti pldtH-fi to pay 

kupovati kUpovd'XIi to buy; to be 

buying; 



prodavati proddvd-fi to sell; to be 

selling; 
chtiti khUee-tii to want. 



Lesson 11. 



51 



Note 1. English verbs in the infinitive have various endings: 
to do, to pay, to sell, to speak, to converse, to understand, etc. 

Bohemian verbs invariably end in ti. However, in ordinary dis- 
course the final i is nearly always dropped, and very often it is also omit. 
ted in spelling; the preceding t in such cases should indeed be written 
and pronounced f; but it generally retains its common hard, sound: 



delat 


tie! at 


to do 


kupovat 


kupovat 


to buy 


platit 


platit 


to pay 


prodavat 


prodavat 


to sell 



clitit khffeet to want. 

Note 2. Budu, bude§, etc., connected as an auxiliary with the 
infinitive of another verb forms the future tense of this verb : 



bud ii delati 

,, delat 

budes platit 



I shall (will) do 
thou wilt pay 



bude kupovat he will buy 

budeme prodavat we shall (will) buy 
budete clitit you will want 



btidou clltiti they will want. 



Zde jsem, here I am. 

Uz jste till are you here already? 

Je zde taky bratrJ is brother also 
here ? 

Neni, ale bude tu lined; lie is not, 
but he will be here presently. 

To bude dobre, that will be all right, 

Kdy zde bude otec? when will fath- 
er be here ? 

Dnes sotva, hardly to-day. 

Snad zejtra, perhaps to-morrow. 



Mate cerstve*) maslo ? have you 

fresh butter? 
Dnes nemame, to-day we have not. 



Proe tu budel why will he be here? 
Kupovat obili a seno, to buy grain 

and hay. 
Budete mit letos vino] will you have 

wine this year? 
Nebudeme mit zadne vino, we shall 

have no wine. 
Co budou u vas prodavat? what will 

they sell at your place? 
Nebudou nic prodarat, they will 

sell nothing. 

Nemame zadne, we have none. 
Ale budeme mit zejtra, but we shall 
have (some) to-morrow. 



*) See lesson VI. note 2, 



52 



Part II 



Co budete delat dries vecer 1 what 

will you do this evening? 
Nebudu delat nic, I shall do nothing. 
A procS and why? 



Nemam co delat, I have nothing 

to do. 
Az bude zase prace, budu delat; 

when there will be work again, I 
shall work. 





LESSON XII. 




Miti meetii [ 
mit 1 ) meet i 


to have 


chtiti 
chtit i) 


khfeeti ) 

\ to want 

kMeet ) 


chci khtsi 


I want 


chceme 


khtshne we want 


chces khtstish 


thou wantst 


chcete 


khtsete you want 


dice klitse 


he w T ants 


chteji 


kMe-yee they want 


chteljsem 2 ) kMel sem I wanted | chteli jsme kMeli sme we wanted 


budu chtiti 3 ) 
, , chtit 


bilclu kMeeti ) 
kMeet > 


I shall (will) want 


budeme chtiti 
„ chtit 


budgrng kMeet i ) 
kMeet j 


we shall (will) want. 



Note 1. Irregular verbs in the Bohemian language are far less 
numerous than in English. There is not a full dozen of them, whereas 
in English we find nearly two hundred. On the other hand, regular verbs 
have only one conjugation in English, whereas in Bohemian there are 
several conjugations, as we shall see in due time. 

Chtiti and miti are irregular verbs. 



1) See Lesson XI, Note 1. 

2) See Lesson IX. Chtel simply takes the place of byl. 

3) See Lesson XI, Note 2. 



Lesson 12. 



5B 



Od 

pro 

vice 



del 

pro 

veetse 



jeste yesh-t'e !■ 



troclni 

spolu 

dlouho 

uz davno 



na prodej 
novy, a, e 



since, from 

for 

more 

still, more, 

another 

trokhu some, somewhat 

spolu together 

dlouho long 

) already long 

fh cldvno r ( a long time 

already) 

for sale 



( 



nuz 
vidlicka 

jidlo 



nooz knife 

vidlichka fork 

medio \ sometin g t0 eat ; 

' victuals; meal 



jist (jisti) yeest 
krajet (i) krdyet 
mluvit(i) mluvit 



dat (i) 
dejte mi 
kun 



ddt 

deyte me 
kun 



kone*) kone 



nd pvodey 

novee new 

stary, a, e, staree old 

drivi drshee-vee wood 

stavivo stavivo lumber 

miti hlad meeMi Mad to be hungry 

Exehcises 

Mate penize? have you money? 

Mam asi dollar, I have about a dol- 
lar. 

Mc vice? nothing more ? 

Ani cent, not a cent. 

Co s dollaremS what (can you do) 
with a dollar? 

Aha, zde je jeste pul dollaru; ah, 
here is half a dollar more. 

Bude to dost? will that be enough? 

Sotva, hardly. 

Ani to nebude dost, even that will 
not be enough. 

Ja mam hlad (literally: 1 have 
hunger), I am hungry. 



am 

asi 

se, s 

opravdu 

muz 



am 

cissi about 
se 

opravdu 
mooz 



to eat 

to cut 

to speak 

to give 

give me 

horse 

of the horse; 

for the ,, 

not one; not 

even ; neither 

probably 

with 

truly, really 

man 



Clici neco jist, I want something 

to eat. 
Mate nejake jidlo? have you some- 
thing to eat? 
Tu mate maso, here you have 

(some) meat. 
Dejte mi niiz, give me a knife. 

Zde mate niiz a tu je vidlicka; here 

you have a knife and here is a fork. 
Nozem muzete dobre krajet, with 

the knife you can cut well. 
Tu je kuii a viiz, here is a horse 

and a wagon. 
Yy mate zde kone, you have a horse 

here. 



*) The plural of the noun kuii is also kone, kone (the horses). 



54 



Part II 



Ano, jsem tn s konem; yes, I am 

here with the horse. 
To je dobry kiin, that is a good 

horse. 
Tuze dobrf; a take neui na prodej; 

very good; and he is not for sale. 
Mate novy vwi% have you a new 

w agon ? 
I ne; to je stary viiz; o no, that is 

an old wagon. 
Ale jako novy; but (it looks) like a 

new one. 
Opravdu? really? 

Co mate na voze (ve voze)] what 

have you got in the wagon? 
Drivij wood. 

Stavivo, lumber. 

Trochu obili je tain, some grain is 

in there. 
Bndete neco kupovati % will you buy 

something (will you make some 

purchases)? 
Kone pro syna a viiz pro stryce, a 

horse for my son and a wagon for 

my uncle. 



Chci dati synovi dobry potah, I 

want to give my son a good 

team. 
Chtel jsem to uz davno; I wanted 

(to do) it long ago. 
On je zde se strycem, he is here 

with uncle. 
Jsou tn spolu, they are here to- 
gether. 
Jak dlonho jsou tui how long are 

they here? 
Od vecera, since evening. 

A jak davno vy jste tn? and how 

long are you here? 
Od poledne, since noon. 

Tarn ten muz ma kone na prodej, 

that man there has a horse to sell. 
Chcete videt toho {toho) mu£e? do 

you want to see that man . 
Chci mluvit s tim (stim) muzem; I 

want to speak with that man . 
Je na koni, he is on horseback. 
Dobre ze je tu s tim konem; it is 

well he is here with that horse. 
Je to velky kun; it is a big horse. 



Note 2. In the English language the noun remains nearly un- 
changed in all its relations, there being only a slight change in the genitive 
or possessive case: brother, brother's (of the brother); but this form of 
the possessive case is being more and more limited. The relations of one 
person or thing to another are expressed by separate words, called pre- 
positions: of a brother; to a brother; with a brother . 

In Bohemian these relations are expressed by changes in the termi- 
nation of the noun, which process is called declension : bratr, brother; 
— bratra, of a brother; bratru, to a brother; bratrem, with a brother. 



Lesson 12. 



55 



This is a heavy encumbrance which the Bohemian language shares 
with the German and Latin. The declension of the nouns is followed by 
that of the adjectives joined to the nouns, which are subject to correspond- 
ing changes in their terminations. Pronouns also have declensions, and 
these continue to exist even in the English tongue. 

Note 3. The declension of Bohemian nouns varies according to 
their gender and the termination of their nominative; there is, besides, a 
slight variation between animate and inanimate nouns of the masculine 
gender. 

The following table will bring before the student's eyes the differ- 
ent changes of the termination of Bohemian masculine nouns, in the 
singular, omitting the vocative case. A glance over the same now and 
then may assist him to become more rapidly familiar with the different 
endings and their signification in English; but only frequent use in common 
sentences during the further progress of these lessons will make them 
handy to him . 

Inanimate nouns: 

Dollar, vuz doldr, vooz the dollar, the wagon; 

dollaru, vozu dolarii. vozii of the dollar, the dollar's; of the wa- 
gon, the wagon's; (v dollaru, in the 
dollar; ve voze, in the wagon; etc.) 

dollarem, vozem dolarern, vdzem (or s dollarem, s vozem), with the dol- 
lar, with the wagon. 

Animate nouns: 



Syn, 

syna, 

synu, 
ovi, 

synem, 



muz 



syn, 



muze syna, 



muzi 
— ovi 

muzem 



synu, 

synovi, 

synem, 



mooze 

moozi 

moozovi 

moozem 



mooz the son, the man; 

of the son, the son's; of the man, 
the man's; also in the accusative: 
the son, the man); 
( to the son, to the man; (v synu, v 
synovi, in the son; etc.) 

(or se synem, s muzem), with the 
son, with the man. 



i 



56 



Part II. 



Note 4. It will be observed that the letter u in the nominative 
case of a monosyllable changes into o in the inflected cases : 

vuz, the wagon; vozu, -e of the wagon; 

kun, the horse; kone, of the horse; 



11 uz, 



the knife; 



noze 



of the knife; 



Niiz and similar nonns (masculine inanimate and ending in a soft 
consonant) are declined just like muz; only in the dative and locative 
case we cannot use the long form like iiiuzovi, v iniizovi (to the man, in 
the man), but must always employ only the short form: nozi, v nozi, 
nozi, vnozi (to the knife, in the knife); and the accusative agrees with 
the nominative: nuz— nflz. 

Note 5. Prepositions consisting of a single consonant (y 9 s, k, 
simply abbreviations of ve ? se 9 ke 9 — in, with, to) are always joined 
in pronunciation to the succeeding syllable; hence we write: v synu, 
s konem; and pronounce: vsynti (or f si nti), skofiem} in the son, with the 
horse. 

It may hardly be necessary to mention that the locative case does 
not always appear with the preposition v or ve, but employs also differ- 
ent other prepositions. For instance: ve voze, in the wagon; na voze 9 
on the wagon; o voze, about the wagon. 





mitsetW) \ 
muset V 
masifi ' 




LESSON XIII. 


yeeti \ 

yeet i 




Mnseti 




jiti 




miisiti 


must 


, to have to 


go, to come. 


miisiin 


mu seem 




I must 


jdn 


dti 


I go 


musiS 


museesh 




thou must 


jdes 


desJi 


thou goest 


inn si 


mil see 




he must 


jde 


de 


he goes 


musime 


niHseemS 




we must 


jdeme 


deme 


we go 


iiinsite 


museett 




you must 


jdete 


dete 


you go 


miisi 


in usee 


i 


they must 


jdou 


dou 


they go 


nni seji 


miisg-yee 











*) The letter s has the same sharp sound as in must. 



Lesson 13. 



57 



imiset platiti 
biulu miiseti 



musel 
musetjiti 

sel jsem 



to have to pay 

b&dM muset, I shall 

have to; I shall 

be obliged. 

musel jsem mtisellstim I was o- 

bliged 
mttsell he was obliged 
to have to go, to be 
obliged to go 
shell s#m I have gone; 
I went 



sel shell he has gone; 

he went 

pujdu puydu (colloquially 

ptidu) I shall go 

pujdes, pujde, pujdeme, pfijdete, 
pujdon; ptiydesh, pHyde, ptiy- 
deme, puydete, pitydoti; (collo- 
quially: ptidesh, pUde, ptideme, 
pildete, ptidou); 

jdi <Yi go (thou) 

jdete (Yete go (you) 



X ote 1. All Bohemian verbs in the infinitive (as stated in Lesson 
XI, Note 1) end in ti, which becomes a simple t in ordinary discourse : 

delati, to do, to make; platiti, to pay; kupovati, to buy, to be buying; 
prodavati, to sell, to be selling; museti, must, 

Note 2. Leaving out ti and putting 1 in its place (la for the 
feminine, lo for the neutre gendre), we get the past tense of every regular 
verb, using the auxiliary jsem, jsi in the first and second person singular, 
jsme, jste in first and second person plural, and changing 1 into li in 
the plural (feminine ly, neutre la, — of no account in ordinary con- 
versation); in the third person singular and plural no auxiliary is used: 



delal ftelal he made: 

delali ffelali they made; 

delal jsem ftelalsem I made; 
delal jsi tfelal si thou madest; 
delali jsme (Yelali sine we made; 
delali jste ffeldli ste you made; 



platil p la til 

kupoval kUpoval 

prodaval prodaval 

musel mtlsell 



he paid; 
he was buying; 
he was selling; 
he had to; 



he has made; 
they have made; 
I have made; m 

thou hast made; 
we have made; 
you have made; 

he has paid; 
he has been buying; 
he has been selling; 
he was obliged. 



58 



Part IL 



Ho 

veil 

venku 

pry 



hd 
ven 

venku 

pree 



(colloq. prej)£>n 



na&, m. 
nasi, f. 
dobre 
tuze dobre 



him, it; of it; 

I out 

" out of doors 

they say; 

it is said 

our, ours 

of our 

well; right 



ndsh 

nashee 

dobrsM 

tooze dobrshe very well 

cMssne early 



casne 

nejaky, a, e neydkee ) 
(colloq. nakej) ndkey S 
pohromade po-liromdRe \ together 



some 



najednou 
dal 

at' 

po 
do 



spati 
stati 
cekati 
videti 
divati se 



nayednou ' at once 
ddl in, farther 

£x, j let him be, let 
( her be, let it be 
pd after 

do to, before 



zena 
sluzka 
zeine, f. 
snidane, f. 
obed, m. 
vecere, f. 
kost' 5 f. 
kus 9 m. 
odev 9 m. 
oblek, m. 
kabat, m. 
kalhoty, pi. 
vesta, f. 
klobonk, m. 
boty, pi. 
skoda 
hotov, a, o 
ke 



xend woman 

slushkd servant girl 
zemyg land, earth 
sneedahe breakfast 
6b -yed dinner 

vechershg supper 

kost bone 

kuss piece 

oftef clothing 

oblek suit of clothes 



kdbdt 

kdlhoty 

vesta 

klobotlk 

botty 

slikodd 

hotof 

ke 



( oat 

pants 

vest 

hat 

boots 

pity 

ready 

to 



pofteevat se to take a look 


delati tfelatii, fteldt to make 


spati, spat to sleep 


myslim mysleem 


I think 


stdfi, stdt to stand 


konpiti koiipit 


to buy 


chekafi, cliekdt to wait 


knpovati kupdvdt 


to be buying 


vitfeffi, vitfet to see 


prodati prodtit 


to sell 


d'eevdt se to look, to be 


prodavati proddvdt 


to be selling 


looking 







Exercises. 



Musim jit ven. I must go out. 

Piijdu se podivat ven. I shall go and 

look out. 
Je nekdo venku? Is somebody out 

of doors? 



Kdo je venku 2 Who is out of doors? 
Nejaka zena je tain. Some woman 

is there. 
Co cliee ta 2ena? What does that 
woman want? 



Lesson 13. 



59 



dice ndeti deem. She wants to see 
(her) daughter. 

Je to matka nasi sluzky. It is the 
mother of our servant girl. 

At' jde dal. Let her come in. 

Proc nejde dal. 7 Why doesn't she 
come in? 

dice neco jistl Dots she want any- 
thing to eat? 

Dejte zene jist a pit. Give that wo- 
man to eat and to drink. 

Maso na kosti a pivo. Meat on the 
bone and beer. 

Az bude obed. When dinner is 
(shall be) ready. 

Bude zde spati? Will she sleep here? 

J a myslim. I think so . 

Dobre teda. Very well. then. 

Musi spati se sluzkou. She must 
sleep with the servant girl. 



Chci neco koupit. I want to buy 

something. 
Chci si neco koupit. I want to buy 

me something. 
Co si chcete koupit? What do you 

want to buy (yourself)? 
Myslim ze nejaky odev. I think 

(that) some clothing. 



Holka ma nmoho prace. The gir_ 

has much to do. 
Budesotva do veeera*) hotova. She 

will hardly be done before evening. 
Myslim ze bude s praci hotova. I 

think she will be done with the 

work. 
Po veceri neniusi delat tiic. After 

supper she need not do anything. 
Af je vecere brzy hotova. Let sup 

per be soon ready. 
Bude zde ta zenska ke snidani? Will 

that w oman be here to breakfast? 
Myslim ze bude. I think (that) she 

will. 
Budeme miti snidani brzy rano. 

We shall have breakfast soon in 

the morning. 
Ano ? casne rano. Yes, early in the 

morning. 



Kabat, kalhoty, vestu, klobouk. A 

coat, (a pair of) pants, a vest, a hat. 
Snad take boty. Perhaps also (a 

pair of) boots. 
Cely oblek, A whole suit. 

Pravda, bude dobre koupit oblek. 

True, it will be Avell to buy a 

suit. 



Uz jdu. I am going already. 

Jdete taky 2 Are you going, too? 
My taky jdeme. We are going, too. 
Oni Ysichni jdou. They are all going. 



Myslim ze sestra pujde taky. I 

think that sister will go, too. 
Ano 5 pujde s tetou. Yes, she will go 
with auntie. 



*) Do vecera. instead of do veceru. — Ye£er has the same endings in the 
singular as the animate noun syn, excepting -ovi in the dative and locative. 



60 



Part II. 



Pujdeme vsichni pohromade. We 

will all go together. 
Jdi se podivat zdali jsou hotovi. Go 

(thou) and see if they are ready. 
My zde nebudeme stat a cekat. We 

shall not stand here and wait. 



Jdete se tarn zase podivat. Go (you) 

there and see again. 
Uz jdou; tu jsou. They are coming 

already; here they are. 
Pfljdou vsichni najednou. They will 

all go together. 



Ten dum chci prodat. That house 

I want to sell. 
A proc to? And why? 

Je maly; musim ho prodat. It is 

small, I must sell it. 
Myslim ze je trochu maly. I think 

it is somewhat small. 
Ten stary dum byl dost velky. The 

old house was large enough. 



Skoda ze museli sine ho prodat. It 

is a pity we had to sell it. 
Ms novy diun nebude na prodej. 

Our new house will not be for sale. 
Neni dobre prodarat novy dum. It 

is not well to sell (to be selling) 
a new house. 
Budeme mit u domu kus zeme. We 

shall have by (our) house a piece 
of land. 





Note 


3. T 


the 


i vocative 


case, a 


1. 


Zena 


zena, 




zeny 


zeny, 




zenu 


zenti. 




zene 


zene, 




zenou 


zenou, 


2. 


Zeme 


zemye 




zemi 


zemi, 




zemi 


zemee, 


8. 


Kost' 


kost, 




kosti 


kosti, 



kosti koste 



The changes of endings of feminine nouns, excepting 
case, are shown in the following exhibit : 

the woman; 

of the woman; 

the woman, (accusative); 

to the woman, (v zene, in the woman, etc.); 

(or se zenou) with the woman. 

the earth, of the earth; 

to the earth, (v zemi, in the earth, etc ); 

(or se zemi) with the earth. 

the bone; 

of the bone, to the bone, (v kosti f kosti, in the 

bone, etc.); 
(or s kosti skosVee) with the bone. 



Lesson 13. 61 

Nouns ending in e (like ruze rooze, the rose) agree with zeme. 

Nouns ending in ka change the hard consonant k into c ts, 
when the final a changes into e : 

matka. sluzka, mtitka, slushka, the mother, the servant girl 
matee, sluzce, mdtse, sltishtse, to the mother, to the servant girl 

Nouns ending in st% like kostf, are always of the feminine gender. 

Note 4. The verb jiti is irregular. Its future tense is formed 
by the prefix pu 9 and not by the auxiliary budu. The formation of the 
future by means of prefixes occurs quite often, as will be seen hereafter. 

Note 5. The verbs prodavati, kupovati (to be selling, to be 
buying) are in fact reiterative forms of prodati (to sell, to make a sale) 
and koupiti (to buy, to make a purchase). 

Common indefinite verbs, denoting a continuous action, may, as a 
rule, be changed into reiteratives, denoting a repeated action, by insert- 
ing va before the final syllable ti (or the final t) and lengthening the 
preceding vowel, if it be short. For instance: 

delati, to make; delavati, ftelacaXH or ftelamt, to use to make, 

to be in the habit of making; 
platiti, to pay; plativati, platieevat, to use to pay; 
spati, to sleep; spavati, spdvat, to use to sleep; 
jisti, to eat; jidavati, yeeddvat, to use to eat; (irregular verb). 

Note 6. In English, verbs are sometimes formed by prefixes 
joined to other verbs, to vary their signification; for instance: 



to deck — to bedeck 
to grow — to outgrow 



to judge — to prejudge 
to stand — to withstand 



to sell — to undersell 
to turn — to overturn. 



The same rule finds application in Bohemian in a much higher 
degree. Prefixes may be joined to most of the verbs in order to modify 
or change their meaning; and it is astonishing how many new verbs are 
sometimes derived from the original verb by that process. As an example, 
let us take the verb jiti 9 to go : 



62 




Part II 


dojiti, 


do-yeeti, 


to go (get, reach) somewhere; to make an errand; 


najiti, 


nti-yeefi, 


to find; 


nadejiti, 


nade-yeefi, 


to gain, to get ahead, to head oft"; 


obejiti, 


obe-yeeti, 


to go round; 


odejiti, 


ode-yeetH, 


to go away, to leave; 


pojiti, 


po-yeetii, 


to perish, to die; 


podejiti, 


pod#-yeeti, 


to deceive, to cheat; 


prejiti, 


prshe-yeeXli, 


to pass over, to pass by; 



predejiti ? prshH8-yee\!i, to come before, to get ahead, to anticipate; 



pfijiti, prsM-yeeti, 
projiti, pro-yeetH, 
rozejiti se, roze-yeetH s#, 



ujiti, 
vejiti, 
vyjiti, 
zajiti, 
zajiti si, 



u-yeeHi, 
ve-yeetii, 
vy-yeefi, 
za-yeeM, 

zd-yeeti & 



to come; 

to pass through; 

to part, to disperse; 

to escape; 

to go in, to come in; 

to go out, to come out; 

to go down, to set, to pass behind; 

to go out of one's way. 



This shows the immense adaptability of the Bohemian verb, and 
certainly looks somewhat perplexing at first sight; but it is only necessary 
to fix in one's mind the meaning of a dozen of prefixes, which recur in all 
such cases, in order to have a key to the whole system. The same is true 
in English; a knowledge of the signification of the prefixes used in con- 
nection with verbs explains the modified meaning. Verbs formed by 
prefixes are in most cases contained separately in Bohemian dictionaries, 
the same as in English. 

Note 7. An indefinite verb like jiti, to go, denotes a continuous 
action. When a new verb is formed by means of a prefix, it is definite, 
denoting a completed action; dojiti, to go (get, reach) somewhere; 
najitij to find; etc. The present form of these verbs denotes, in fact, a 
future action ; dojdu 9 I shall go or get somewhere; najdu, I shall find. 
Hence it is actually the future tense, there being no present, and the 



Lesson 14. 



63 



auxiliary budu can never be used. Such compound verbs have therefore 
only a past with the auxiliary jsem, and a simple future: 



dosel jsein, 


doshell sem, 


I went (got, 


dojdu, doydu, I shall 


%o (get, reach) 




reached) somewhere; 






somewhere; 


nasel jsem, 


ndshell sem, 
slovd 


I found; 


11 aj du , na 


ydU } 

tep e rf or 


I shall find. 




LESSON XIY. 




SIoyo, n. 


word 


teprv 


dy, not before 


horko, n. 


horkd 


heat; hot 


vedle 


vtidlti beside, next to 


teplo, n. 


teplo warmth; warm 


nebe, n. 


nebti 


heaven, sky 


chladno, n 


khlddnd 


cool 


slunce, n 


. slunts% 


sun 


blato, n. 


bidtd 


mud 


mesic, m. 


mye-seets 


moon, month 


mesto, n. 


myes-to 


city 


pocasi, n. 


pochdssee 


weather 


psenice, f. 


psM-mtsg 


wheat 


znameni, 


n. zndmenee 


sign 


pole, n. 


pol& 


field 


dest', m. 


deshti 


rain 


poupe, n. 


poiipyg 


bud 


stin, m 


steen shade, shadow 


dite, n. 


d'eete 


child 


vitr, m. 


vee-t e r 


wind 


den, m. 


den 


day 


pekny, a, 


e py&k-nee 


nice, fine 


noc, f . 


nots 


night 


jasny, a, 


e y ass- nee 


clear, bright 


tyden, m. 


teeden 


week 


hezky, 


hessky 


nice 


odpoledne 


ddpoledng 


afternoon 


zle 


zle 


bad, badly 


pulnoc ? f. 


poolnots 


midnight 


posud 


posted 


till now, still 


dnes v noci 


dness vnotsi 


to-night 


okolo 


okolo 


about 


zapad slunce zapad sltintsg sunset 


na 


na 


on, in 


cesta, f . 


tsesta 


way, road 


s tim 


sfeem 


with that 


radost 


radost 


pleasure 


za 


zd behind, beyond 


les 


less forest, timber 


zase ? zas 


zdsse, zdss 


again 




vifteem 









sweetHt 


at, on. 


vidiin 


I see 


STititi 


to shine 


prseti 


p e rsh8Vi 


to rain 


sviti 


sweetiee 


shines 


pr£i 


p ershee 


it rains 


uz neni 


itsh neyjiet 


3 is no more 



64 



Part II 



choditi kilobit to walk 

chodim kliofteem I walk 

chodi khoftee he (she, it) walks 



dej mil dey mu give (thou) him 

dejte mu deyte m u give (you) him 



Note 1. Prseti, prset, p e rsheti, p e rshet, to rain; vitr, veet e r; 

e is silent and placed there simply to elucidate the pronunciation. Sec 
Sec. 4, Part I. 

Exercises. 



Ycera byl spatny den. Yesterday 

was a bad day. 
Dues je hezky. To-day is nice. 

Opravdu, je pekne pocasi. Truly, 

it is fine weather. 
Myslim ze bude tak cely den. I 

think it will be so all day. 
Bnde teplo cely den. It will be 

warm all day. 
Odpolednebndehorko. In the after- 
noon it will be hot. 
Had jsem venkn za tepla. I like to 

be out when (it is) warm. 
Y horku nerad jdn do mesta. In the 

heat I do not like to go to town. 
Ja take ne. Neither do I. 



Je nebe jasnel Is the sky clear? 
Bylo, ale nz neni. It was, but is no 

more. 
Vidim na nebi znameni deste. I see 

in the sky a sign of rain. 
Ale slunce jeste sviti. But the sun 

is still shining. 
Po slunce zapadu snad bude prset. 

After sunset perhaps it will rain. 
Je siln^ vitr. There is a strong wind. 



It 



Nebude tak zle s tim horkem. 

won't be so bad with the heat. 
Cesta je pekiui. The road is fine. 
Neni zadne blato. There is no mud. 
Ycera bylo jeste dost blata. Yester- 
day there was still enough mud. 
Nerad chodim v blate. I do not like 

to walk in mud. 
Nas hoch rad chodi blatem. Our 

boy likes to walk through mud. 
To snad kazde dite. Perhaps every 

child (likes that). 
To je radost ditete. That is a child's 

pleasure. 
Ano, to dela radost diteti. Yes, it 

makes pleasure to a child. 



Je skoro chladno ve stinu. It is al- 
most cool in the shade. 

No slunci je posud horko. In the 
sun it is still hot. 

Dues v noci sviti mesic. To night 
the moon shines. 

Teprv o pulnoci. Only at (i. e. not 
before) midnight. 

Ano, okolo pulnoci. Yes, about 
midnight. 



Lesson 14. 



65 



Zde je nas dum. Here is our house. 

Yedle doinu je stodola. Beside the 
house there is a barn. 

Za stodolou mame pole. Behind the 
barn we have a field . 

Na torn poli je pseniee. On that 
field there is wheat. 

Za tim poleui mame kus lesa. Be- 
yond that field we have a piece of 
timber. 

Je to dobry kus lesa. It is a good 
piece of timber. 



Pak je zase kus pole s obilim. Then 
there is again a piece of a grain- 
field {literally: of a field with 
grain). 

Jdete 11a pole. Go to (on) the field. 

Jdi s tim ditetem. Go (thou) with 
the child. 

Dej diteti poupe z ruze. Give (thou) 
the child a rose-bud {literally: a 
bud from the rose). 

Otee je 11a poli. The father is in the 
field. 



Note 2. The following little scheme shows the changes of the 
endings of neutre nouns, which in the nominative always end in 0, e, e or i: 

veslovu, veslovu ) intlieword;(o ■ 

„ sieve, vesldvye\* l0 ™> about 
' the word); 

slovem, slovem, (or se slovem) by 

or with the word. 



slovo, 


sidvd, 


the word; 


slova, 


slova, 


of the word; 


slovu, 


sidv it, 


to the word; 



poupe. 



poupyg, 



poupete, poupyete, of the bud 



the bud; ' poupeti, poitpyetii, to the bud; (v 

poupeti, in the bud; etc.) 

poupeteni, poupyetem (or s poupe - 

tem) with the bud. 



pole, pole, the field; of the field; 

poli, poli, to the field; (v poli, 

in the field; etc.) 



polem, polem, (or s polem) with 

the field. 



znameui, zndmen.ee, the sign; of 

the sign ; (ye zuameui, 

in the sign; etc.); 



ziiameuim, zname-i&em (or se zna- 
menim), with the sign. 



66 



Pari II 



LESSON XT. 



Jeden 


yeden 




one 


muj, m. 


mooy 


my, mine 


jedna, f. 
dva 


ytidna 
dwa 




two 


moji, pi. 
mych, pi. 


moye 
meekh 


my, mine, pi. 
of my 


dve, f . & n. 
tri 
ctyry 
pet 


dwyti 
trshi 
shtiri 
pyet 




three 
four 
five 


mym, pi. 
my mi, pi. 

ty 

k tern 


meem 
meemi 

ty 

ktiem 


to my 
with my 

those 
to those 


sest 


sh8st 




six 


tech 


Ukh 


) of those, from 
> those 


sedm 


sedum 




seven 


z tech 


stek7i 


osm 


osum 




eight 


v tech 


ft'ekh 


in those 


devet 


dev-yet 




nine 


od nas 


od ndss from us, from 


deset 
oba, m. 
obe 9 f. &n 


desset 
obd 

obye 


\ 


ten 
both 


jaky, a, e 
tamhle 


ydkee 
tdmle 


our place 
what, what kind 
there, over there 


par 

nekolik 
mnoho 
mnoho- li 


par ) 
nekolik j 
mnoho 
mnoho -li 


some, a few 

a good deal 
how much 


lined 
a sice 
mozna 
dokonce 


lined right away 
a sitse that is, namely 
mozna perhaps, possibly 
dokontse perhaps even 


kolik 
asi tak 


kolik 
asi tak 




how many 
about 


jeste necoS yesMe 


netso anything 
else? 


tolik 


tolik so many, so much 


nejmin neymeen at least, least of all 


k 9 ke, ku 
i 


k8, kit 
e 




to, unto 
oh! well 


v, ve 


mil, ye 

ve 


J mii, to him 
in 


s, se 


sg 




with 


z, ze 


ze 


from, of 



Mluviti mlumt to speak 

mluvil*) mluml spoke 

utratiti utrdtit to spend 



utratil 
prodati 
prodal 



UtratHl 
proddt 
prodal 



spent 

to sell 

sold 



*) See Lesson XIII, Note 2. 



Lesson 15. 



67 



konpiti 

koupil 

koupiin 

rozuineti 

rozuinel 

rozuinim 

jezditi 

jezdil 

jezdim 

znani 

vim to 
dela 

clovek, m 
pan 
farina, f. 



kotipit to buy 

kotipil bought 

koupeem I shall buy 
roztlmyet to understand 
rozurriyell understood 
roztlmeem understand 
yezfiit to drive, to ride 
yezfiil drove, rode 

yezfieem I drive, I ride 
zndm I know, I am ac- 
quainted 



veem to 
field 

chlo-vyek 
pan 
far ma 



I know it 

makes 

man 

gentleman 

farm 



hospoda, f. 
mouka, f . 
cena, f. 
podpora, f . 
drobne, pi. 
vyber, m. 
tucet, m. 
(loniii 
na venku 
spokojen 
inuzete 

pocitejme 
sto 

vie, vice 
stoji 



hospoda saloon, tavern 
motlkd flour 

tsSnd price, value 

podpora support 

drobne change 

veeb-yer choice 

tUt set dozen 

domtt home 

na venkit in the countiy 
spokoyen satisfied 

moo^eU you can, you 
may 
pocheeteymg let us count 
sto a hundred 

veets, veetse more 

stoyee costs 



Exercises. 



Tady jsme zas. Here we are again. 
Jaky pekny den! What a nice day! 
Mate jeste penize? Have you still 

(some) money? 
I jeste neco mam. Well, I have still 

something. 
Mnoho-li asi mate ? About how 

much have you? 
Ne mnoho. Not much. 

Mam jeste dva dollary. I have still 

two dollars. 
Ja taky mam par dollaru. I also 

have a few dollars. 
Kolik dollaru? How many dollars? 
Asi tak ctyry dollary. About four 

dollars. 



Zadne drobne? No change? 

Mam take par centu. I have also 

a few cents. 
Utratil jsem mnoho. I have spent 

a good deal. 
Jak mnoho asi? About how much? 
Nejniin pet nebo sest dollaru. At 

least five or six dollars. 
Ja take utratil nekolik dollaru. I 

also spent a few dollars. 
Tic nez ja? More than I? 

Mozna asi sedm dollaru. Perhaps 

about seven dollars. 
Nebo dokonce osm. Or perhaps 

even eight. 



68 



Part II 



K dollarum pocitejme cas. To the 

dollars let us count the time. 
Ten ma taky cenu v dollarech. It 

also has a price (value) in dollars. 



Co stoji ten yuz! How much is that 

wagon? (literally: what costs that 

wagon?). 
Sto dollar u. A hundred dollars. 
Za sto dollaru muzete koupit dva 

yozy. For a hundred dollars you 

can buy two wagons. 



Zde je mflj syn. Here is my son. 
Oba moji synove jsou tu. Both my 

sons are here. 
Ano 9 myslim ze jsou. Yes, I think 

(that) they are. 
Jeden z mych synii prave sel ven. 

One of my sons has just gone out. 
Dejte mym synum obed; a sice 

hned. Give (to) my sons a dinner; 

I mean right away. 
Ano 9 dame panum dobry obed. 

Yes, we shall give to the gentle- 
men a good dinner. 



Konpil jsern^ mouku. I bought 

(some) flour. 
Chcete koupit jeste necoS Do you 

want to buy anything else? 
Pujdu a koupim dva noze. I shall 

go and buy two knives. 
Ja pujdu taky a koupim tucet nozu« 

I shall go, too, and buy a dozen 

knives. 



To dela mnoho. That makes much. 
Devet nebo deset dollaru je pryc. 

Nine or ten dollars are gone. 



Dost mozua. Very likely. 

Ja rozumim vozum. I understand 

wagons. 
Je velky rozdil ve vozech. There is 

a great difference in wagons. 
Ja jezdim s vozy uz davno. I drive 

wagons a long time already. 



V synech (mych) mam nyni podpo- 

ru. In my sons I have now a 
support. 

To je dobre. That is well. 

Jsem spokojen se syny. I am satis- 
fied with (my) sons. 

Jsme vsichni na farme. We are all 
on the farm. 

Synove jsou radi na farme. My 
sons like it on the farm. 

Jsme vsichni radi na venku. We 
all like it in the country. 



Ale k nozum take vidlicky. But to 

the knives also forks. 
Tamhle maji velky vyber y nozich. 

Over there they have a large 
choice in knives . 
Ano, vim to; maji tuze dobre noze. 

Yes, I know it ; they have very 
good knives. 
Mate pravdu. You are right (literal- 
ly: you have right). 



Lesson 14. 



69 



Tamlile v liospode jsou tri muzi. 

Over there in the saloon there are 

three men. 
Ziiam ty inuze. I know those men. 
Jeden z tech inuzu je od nas. One 

of those men is from our place. 
Prodal jseni mu kone. I sold (to) 

him a horse. 
Jaky je to clovek? What kind of a 

man is that? 



Je dobry muz. He is a good man. 
Jdete k tern muzuin. Go to those 

men. 
Pujdu; clici mluvit s temi muzi. I 

will go ; I want to speak with those 
men. 
My slim ze ti muzove pujdou brzy 
domu. I think that those men 
will soon go home. 



Note 1. The formation of the plural of masculine inanimate and 
animate nouns, and the changes of their endings in different cases, are seen 
in the following table : 

dollar, dollar, the dollar; vfiz, vooz, the wagon; syn, syn, the son; 

muz, mooz, the man; 

Remark. The long termination ove 
belongs to animate nouns; only in 
poetic language or solemn expres- 
sion does it sometimes appear con- 
nected with inanimates. — 
In the accusative or objective case 
animate nouns have syuy, muze : 
Mam syny zde, I have m}^ sons here ; 
vidim ty muze, I see those men. — 
S dollary, s vozy, se syny, s muzi; 
sdollary, svozy, se syny, smoozi; 
with the dollars, with the wagons, 
with the sons, with the men. 



dollary 


dollary 




the dollars 


vozy 


vozy 




the wagons 


syni 


sym 
synbve 


\ 


the sons 


ove 




muzi 
ove 


moozi 
moozove 




the men; 



dollaru dolldroo 

uv dollar oof 



vozu 

uv 

synu 
— — uv 
muzu 
uv 



vozoo 

— / 

synoo 

— -f 

milzoo 
/ 



!• of the dollars 
j- of the wagons 
j- of the sons 
y of the men 



Remark. Both animate and inani- 
mate nouns use the long termination 
uv, — but never in ordinary dis- 
course and seldom in the spoken 
language generally. 



70 



Part IT. 



dollar um dolldroom to the dollars 
voziim vozoom to the wagons 

v dollarech v dollar ekh in the dollars 
ve yozech v8vdz#ch in the wagons 
v synech vsynek7i in the sons 
v mnzich vmiizeekh in the men. 



synum synoom to the sons 
muzum muzoom to the men; 

Remark. Also with other preposi- 
tions: o dollarech, about the dol- 
lars ; po dollarech, after the dollars 
(or dollar by dollar); etc. 



Note 2. The prepositions k, s, v, z, consisting of a single 
consonant, are simply abbreviations of ke, ku, se, ve, ze, as before ex- 
plained. Their use is almost arbitrary, in cases where they can easily be 
connected and pronounced with the succeeding syllable; hence they are 
nearly always used when the following word begins with a vowel or with 
a consonant followed by a vowel: v obleku, vo-ble-kti, in ihe suit of 
clothes; v dollarech, vdol-la-rekh, in the dollars; v synech, vsy-nekh, in 

the sons; s oblekem, so-ble-kem, with the suit of clothes; s dollarem, 

sdol-ld-rem, with the dollar; s muzem, smoo-zem, with the man; 

k obleku, ko-ble-M, to the suit of clothes; k vozu, kvo-zic, to the 
wagon; etc. 

We can never say v vozu, s synem, k koni (in the wagon, with 
the son, to the horse), because it could not be pronounced; the letter e 
has to be retained and it is ridiculous to leave it out in writing as a silent 
letter, as it can never be silent. We speak and write : ve vozu (or ve voze), 
ve vozti (voze), in the wagon; se synem, se synem, with the son (or with 
my son); ke koni, kekom, to the horse. 

On the other hand, the long form ke, ku, ve, ze may nearly al- 
ways be employed, when the following word begins with a consonant; 
we can say and write ve dollarech, ve synech; but it is not customary. 
The sound of v connects easily with every other consonant without the 
help of an e. However, the short prepositions k, s, z are being limited 
in their use and the proper long form ke, kn, se, ze is employed wher- 
ever practicable. 

Note 3. The letters h, ch, k, r are called hard consonants 
"par excellence". When they occur in a masculine animate noun, or 



Lesson 16. 



n 



in its ultimate syllable, they are changed or softened in the nominative 
plural after the following manner: 



h changes 
ch 


into z 

s 




k 
r 


changes into c 


The following examples will explain 


it: 




soudrnh, soudruh (soudrukh), a comrade; 
lioelu hokh, a boy; 
kluk. klitk, a boy, an urchin; 
bratr, braUr, a brother; 


soudruzi, soiidruzi, comrades; 
hosi, Iw-she, boys; 
kluci, kltitsi, boys, urchins; 
bratri, brdt-rshi, brothers; 



But whenever the long form of the nominative plural (ove) is em- 
ployed, the hard consonant remains unchanged: soudruhove, the com- 
rades; bratrove, the brothers. In the other cases (excepting the vocative, 
which is like the nominative: o soudruzi ! o comrades!) the hard con- 
sonant also retains its place: soudruhu, hochu 9 klukii, bratru, of the 
comrades (boys, brothers); soudriikum, and so forth. 



LESSON XTI. 



Libi se mi 

nesti 
nesou 

pfines 
prinesu 
vede se 
eitam 

rad citam 
sednu 
bavim se 



leebee se me I like it (him, 

her, etc) 

nesti to bring, to yield 

nessoii they bring, they 

yield (or pay) 

prshi-ness bring (thou) 

prshi-nessu I shall bring 

■vede se thrives 

cheetdm I read (i. e. I use 

to read) 

rad cheetdm I like to read 

sednti I sit down 

baveem se I amuse myself 



dejte 

posazim 

povida 

letos 

v loni 

kodne 



dei/te 

posdzeem 

poveedd 

letoss 

vloni 

7todne \ 



(the same as miiolio) ' 



treba 



trshe-bd 



,i 



i treba e trshe-bd 
Yseko druliu v she ho 

krajina, f. Tcrayina 



give, put 
I shall set out 
says 
this year 
last year 
much, many, 
a good deal 
it needs, need- 
ed, necessary 
I don't care 
driihu of all 
kinds 
country 



72 




Pari 


1 II 






soused, m. 


soused 


neighbor 


puda, f. 


poo da 


land, soil 


uzitek, m. 


itzitefc 


profit 


prairie, f . 


prairie 


prairie 


kukurice, 


\. kukurshitse ) 

corn 


bahno, n. 


bahno 


swamp 


korna, f. 


korna 




reznik, m. 


rshez-jieek 


butcher 


brambory, pi. brdmbory potatoes 


kniha, f. 


kniha 


book 


oves, m. 


ovess 


oats 


knihovna, 


f. knihovna 


library 


jecmen, m 


yechmen 


barley 


milovnik, 


m. mttdv-neek 


lover 


sklizen, f. 


sklizen 


crop 


zaliba, f. 


zdlibd 


pleasure 


slad, m. 


sldd 


malt 


ruze, f. 


rooze 


rose 


trh, m. 


t e rh 


market 


pivonka, f. 


pivonka 


piony 


u cesty 


it tsesty 


) by the road 
i near the road 


okno, n. 


ok no 


window 






poklad, m. 


pokldd 


treasure 


samy, a, e 


samee 


nothing but 


kdykoli 


gdi-koli 


whenever 


urodny, a. 


e oo-rodnee fertile 


jeste jeden 


yeshVe yeden 


one more, 


obzvlaste 


ob-zldsTite 


} especially, 
> particularly 






another 


obzvlast' 


ob-zldsht 


pred 


prshed 


before 


zvlastni 


zldsht-nee 


special, 


bez 


bez or bess 


without 






particular 


za 


za beyond, behind 


zpatky 


spdtke 


back 










Exeb 


CISES. 





Zde se mi libi. I like it here. 

Zde je pekna krajina. This is (here 

is) a nice country. 
Kazdy to povida. Everybody says so. 
My mame zde farnin. We have a 

farm here. 
Stryc je nas soused. Uncle is our 

neighbor. 
On ma zde dve fanny. He has two 

farms here. 



Ma velky uzitek z tech farem? Has 

he a large profit from those farms? 
Myslim ze ma. I think (that) he 

has. 
Myslim ze nesou mu hodne. I think 

(that) they yield (i. e. pay) him a 

good deal. 
Y loni mel mnoho sklizne (skliz-ne, 

of the c.) vseho druhu. Last year 

he had a large crop of all kinds. 



Lesson 16. 



Je to tuze lirodna farina. It is a 

very fertile farm. 

Mel nmolio sena, psenice, kukuri- 
ee i brambor. He had a great 
deal of hay, wheat, corn and 
potatoes. 

Letos bude miti take oves, jecmen 
a zito. This year he will also 
have oats, barley and rye. 

Jecmen na slad ma vzdycky (dycky, 
dit-ski) dobry trh. Barley for 
malt has alwa} T s a good market. 



Kniliy jsou poklad. Books are a 

treasure. 
Rad eitam kniliy. I like to read 

books. 
Obzvlaste kdyz jsem doma. Espe 

cially when I am at home. 
Jste teda milovnik knih. You are 

then a lover of books. 
To je pravda. That is true . 

Mate nmoho knili? Have you many 

books? 
Ma knihovna je velika. My library 

is large. 



Mate ruze pred oknem. You have 
roses before the window . 

Maine tarn bodne ruzi. We have 
many roses there . 

K riizim dejte pivonky. To the 
roses put pionies. 



Na farmacb zde jecmen yede se do- 

bre. On the farms here barley 

thrives well. 
Za farmami n cesty je kns spatne 

piidy. Beyond the farms by the 

road there is a piece of bad land. 
Ja myslel, ze je to lirodna prairie. 

I thought (that) it was a fertile 

prairie. 
Neni; je to skoro same babno. It is 

not; it is almost nothing but 

swamp. 



Jake kniby mateS What books 

have you? 
Mam kniliy rseho drnlui. I have 

books of all kinds. 
Sednn ke knibam kdykoli mam eas. 

I sit down to the books whenever 

I have time. 
Teda mate zalibn ve knihacli. Then 

you have (you find) pleasure in 

books. 
Ano, tuze rad bavini se s knibami. 

Yes, I like very much to amuse 

nryself with books. 



Y ruzicb mam zylastni zalibn. In 

roses I have (I take) particular 
pleasure. 
Posazim jeste jeden zabon ruzemi. 

I shall plant another bed with 



74 



Part II 



Byl jsem u f eznika. I was at the 

butcher's. 
Koupil jsem maso od reznika. I 

bought (some) meat from the but- 
cher. 

Tu je to maso. Here is that meat. 

To je sama kost. That is nothing 
but bone. 

Jsou tu nejake kosti. There are 
some bones here. 

Alio, kosti je dost. Yes, there are 
bones enough. 



K tern kostim treba vice masa. To 

the bones (besides the b.) we need 

more meat. 
Na tech kostech neni ho mnoho. On 

these bones there is not much of it. 
Co s kostmi? What (can we do) with 

the bones? 
Nechceme tolik kosti. We do not 

want so many bones. 
Prines maso bez kosti. Bring meat 

without bones. 
Pujdu zpatky a prinesu ho. I shall 

go back and bring it. 



Note 1. The formation of the plural of feminine nouns, and the 
changes of their endings in different cases, are shown in the following table: 

cena, tsena, the price; ruze, rooze, the rose; kost', kost, the bone; 

ceny tseny the prices 



Remark. When two consonants 
terminate the noun in the genitive, 
an e is interpolated: farmy, the 
farms ; far em (instead of farm), of the 
farms; — matky, the mothers; matek 
instead of matk), of the mothers. 



rfize 


TOOZ& 


the roses 


kosti 


kosti 


the bones; 


cen 


tsen 


of the prices 


ruzi 


roozee 


of the roses 


kosti 


kostiee 


of the bones; 



Gemini tstinam to the prices 

riizim roozeem to the roses 

kostem kostem to the bones; 

v cenach ftsg-ndkh in the prices 

v ruzich vroo-zeekh in the roses 

V kostech fkos-ttikh in the bones; 



Remark. Also with other preposi- 
tions: o cenach, about prices; pri 
cenach, at the prices; etc. 



Lesson 17. 



75 



cenami tsendmi with the prices 
riizemi roozemi with the roses 
ko8tmi Jcostmi with the bones. 



Remark. Usually with the proposi- 
tion s (with): s cenami, stse-ndmi; 
s riizemi, sroo-zemi; s kostmi, 
skost-mi. 





vdm 


LESSON XVII. 




Vain 


to you 


bohactvi, n 


. bolidts-tvee richess 


jim 


yim 


to them 


stesti, n. 


slifess-Vi happiness, 


mi, me 


me, my 8 


to me 




luck, good fortune 


moje, me 


7)io ye, me 


mine, my 


moudrost, 


£. moudrost wisdom 


nase 


ndslie 


our, ours 


yaha, f . 


valid weight 


vase 


vdsM 


your, yours 


ponpe, n. 


poupye bud 


s temi 


stemi 


with those 


poupata 


pottpdtd buds 


tolile 


tolile 


this here 


plot, m. 


plot fence 


tarn ty 


tarn ty those over there 


obtiz, f. 


ob-Heez trouble 


tuze 


tooze 


very much 


mylka, f . 


meelkd mistake 


blize 


bleeze 


nearer 


mate pravdu mate prdvdti you are 


nikoli 


nikoli 


no, not at all 




right {literally: you 


kolem 


kolem 


round 




have right;) 


pojd'ine 


poftme 


let us 'go 


neni treba 


neni trsM-bd it is not 


jde 


de 


comes 




necessary 


hled'te 


hled'te 


see, look 


obaleny, a, 


e obdlenee covered 


vidim 


vi&'eem 


I see 


drateny, a, 


e drd-Henee of wire 


vidite 


vifteete 


you see 


hlubok^, a. 


e hlubokee deep, pro- 


znam 


znam 


I know 




found. 


znate 


znate 


you know 


zdravy, a, e zdravee healthy, well, 


pridam 


prshi-ddm 


I shall add 




sound 


reknu 


rshek-nU 


I shall tell 


devce 


Ref-cliV girl 


slyset 


slishet 


to hear 


devcata 


ftef-chdtd girls 


postaci 


postd-chee 


is sufficient 


dobre 


dobrslie well, all right 


roste 


roste 


grows 


slovem 


slovem in a word 



76 



Paft II. 



Exercises. 



Ja vam neco reknu. I will teH"you 

something. 
Bohactvi neni stesti. Riches are not 

happiness. 
To jsou slova moudrosti. These are 

words of wisdom. 
Znate vahu tech slov2 Do you know 

the weight of those words? 
K tern slovum nic vice neni treba. 

To those words nothing more is 

needed. 



Tarn ty ruze uz maji poupata. The 

roses over there already have buds. 
Ano, maji mnoho poupat. Yes, they 

have many buds. 
Letos jsou obaleny poupaty. This 

year they are covered with buds. 
V loni byly skoro bez poupat. Last 

year they were almost without 

buds. 
Pojd'me blize k tern poupatum. Let 

us go nearer to those buds. 
Yidim neco na tech poupatech. I 

see something on the buds. 
To neni nic. That is nothing. 

Mate pravdu; poupata jsou zdrava. 

You are right ; the buds are sound. 
Ano, jsou; yes, they are. 



Hled'te ! 

Ty pole co vidite jsou moje. 

fields you see are mine. 



See ! 
The 



Y tech slovech je hluboka pravda. 

In those words there is a profound 

truth. 
Chcete slyseti vice] Do you want 

to hear more? 
Nikoli; ta slova postaci. Not at all; 

those words suffice. 
Jsem spokojen s temi slovy. I am 

satisfied with those words. 
Slovem: mate pravdu! In a word: 

you are right ! 



Aha, zde je moje devce! Ah, here 

is my girl ! 
Jsou vase devcata zdrava! Are your 

girls well? 
Obe nase devcata jsou zdrava. Both 

our girls are well. 
Prines devceti poupe. Bring (thou) 

to the girl a bud. 
Jsou zde dve devcata. There are 

two girls here . 
Prineste jim nekolik poupat. Bring 

(you to) them some buds. 
Tady jde s temi poupaty. Here he 

comes with the buds. 
Tu je par poupat. Here are some 

buds. 
Dobre. All right. 



Kolem tech poli je novy plot. A 

round those fields there is a new 
fence. 






Lesson 17. 



77 



Je to drateny plot. It is a wire fence. 
K tern polini je dobra cesta. To 

those fields there is a good road. 
Co bude na tech polichl What will 

there be on those fields? 
Na tech policli bude obili a kukuri- 

ce. On those fields there will be 
grain and corn. 



Jste spokojen s temi polemi? Are 

you satisfied with those fields? 
Jsem tuze spokojen. I am very 

much satisfied. 
Ysechno dobre roste na tech polich. 

Everything grows well on those 
fields. 



Co je tohle£ What is this here? 

Nejaka znameni. Some signs. 

To jsou moje znameni. These are 

my signs. 
Ja neco pridarn k tern znamenim. 

I shall add something to those 

signs. 



Neni mylka v tech znamenicM Is 

there no mistake in those signs? 
S temi znamenimi je nekdy obtiz. 

With those signs there is some- 
times trouble. 
Pravda, je nekdy obtiz. True, there 
is sometimes trouble. 



Note. The formation of the plural of neutre nouns, and the 
changes of their endings in different cases, will appear from the following 
table : 



slovo 


slovo 


the word 


pole 


pole 


the field 


poupe 


poupyg 


the bud 


znameiii 


zndmenee 


the sign; 


slova 


slova 


the words 


pole 


pole 


the fields 


poupata 


poupata 


the buds 


ziiaineni 


zndmenee 


the signs; 


slov 


slof 


of the words 


poll 


polee 


of the fields 


poupat 


poitpdt 


of the buds 


znameni 


zndmenee 


of the signs ; 


slovum 


slovoom 


to the words 


polim 


poleem 


to the fields 


poupatuin 


poUpdtoom to the buds 


znameniiu 


zndmeneem to the signs ; 



ye slovech ve slovekh in the words 
T nonnnteohf poUpdtekh in the buds 
v policli fpoleekh in the fields 
ve znamenich ve zndmeneekh in the 

signs; 



Remark. Also with other prepo- 
sitions : o polich, about the fields ; 
na polich, on the fields. 



78 



Part II. 



slovy slovy with the words 

poupaty potcpdty with the buds 
poli (-emi) poli (~#mi) with the fields 
znamenimi zndmeneemi with the 

signs. 



Remark. Also with the preposition 
se, s: se slovy, se sldvy; s poupaty, 
spotipdty; s polemi, spoUmi; se zna- 
menimi, s&zndmeneemi. — Instead of 
polemi, the short forms polmi and 
poli (polmi, polli) are also used. 



LESSON XYIII. 



Mrak, m. mrdk 

mracek,m. mrd-che/c 

zena zend 

mile*), f. meel$ 

hodina*), f . hoftind 

jizda, f. 

k veceru 

za svetla 

tma 

pozde 

dobra ! 



cloud 

little cloud 

wife 

mile 

hour, o'clock 

yeezdd drive, ride 

~kw8cMru toward evening 

id swyet-ld by daylight 

tmd dark, darkness 



poztfe 
dobrd 

krasny, a, e krdssnee 
s nami sndmi 



brzy 
po svem 

jeste 



b er-zy 
po swem 

yeshfle 



late 

very well! 

beautiful 

with us 

soon 

after one's 

business 

still, yet. 



ja pravil yd prdml I said 

jarku yd-rshkU I said, I say 

(like the colloq. "says I '.) 
jeti yetii, yet to drive, to ride 

pojedem poyedem we shall drive, 
we shall ride 
pojed'me poyeftmti let us drive, 
let us ride 
vyjeti ve-yetH, ve-yet to drive 

out, to ride out, to start 
vyjeli jsme ve-yelli sm& we started 
vratime se vrdt'eemg s8 we shall re- 
turn, we shall come back 
vratil mi vrdtil me he returned 
to me (something); 
pfljcene penize puychene peneezS 
the money loaned; 



*) Jedna, dve, tri, ctyry mile, yednd, dwyg, trshi, shtiri meeU, 
one, two, three, four miles; pet mil, pyet mill, five miles; sest mil, 
sMst mill, six miles; and so forth. 

Jedna hodina, yednd hoftind, one hour, one o'clock; dve, tri, 
ctyry hodiny, dwyg, trshi, shtiri hoftiny, two, three, four hours ; two, 
three, four o'clock; pet hodin, py8t hoftin, five hours; five o'clock; sest 
hodin, sh&st hoftin, six hours, six o'clock; — and so forth. 



Lesson 18. 



79 



Exercises. 



Ycera byl krasny den; — nebe bylo 
jasne, — ani mracku nikde. 

Jarkn, zeno! dnes pojedem do me- 

sta. 
Ano, pojed'me! pravila zeiia; — je 

den tak krasny! 
Manie deset mil do mesta. 

Brzy po snidani vyjeli jsme; — by- 
lo prave osm hodin. 

Soused pan Rohan byl s nami. 

Ja pravil: sousede, jak brzy bude- 

me ve meste? 
V deset hodin jsme tarn! pravil 

pan Rohan, 
A byli jsme. 
Je to as dve hodiny jizdy, kdyz 

cesta je dobra. 
Ve meste soused sel kupovat neco 

a my take sli po svein. 

Pujeil jsem mu pet dollaru. 
Jarku, sousede! kdy se vratime? 

Myslim pozde odpoledne, nebo k 
veceruj — to bude dost casu. 

Dobra; vratime se asi v sedm ho- 
din yecer, — jeste za svetla. 

Ale bylo uz tnia, kdyz jsme se vra- 
tili. 



Yesterday was a beautiful day; — 

the sky was clear, — not a cloud 

anywhere. 
I said: wife, to-day we will drive to 

town. 
Yes, let us drive! said (my) wife; — 

the day is so beautiful! 
It is ten miles to town (literally: we 

have ten miles to town). 
Soon after breakfast we drove out 

(we started); — it was just eight 

o'clock. 
(Our) neighbor Mr. Rohan was 

with us. 
I said: neighbor, how soon shall we 

be in the city? 
At ten o'clock we are there ! said 

Mr. Rohan. 
And we were. 
It is about a two hours' ride, when 

the road is good. 
In the city, the neighbor went to buy 

something, and we also went after 

our business. 
I loaned to him five dollars. 
I said: neighbor, when shall we re- 
turn? 
I think late in the afternoon or to- 
wards evening; — that will be 

time enough. 
Very well; we shall return about 

seven o'clock in the evening, — 

still by daylight. 
But it was already dark, when we 

returned. 



80 Part II. 



Soused sel domu a vratil mi pfljce- 
ne penize. 



The neighbor went home and re- 
turned to me the money I loaned 
him. 



Note 1. The noun mracek is a diminutive of mrak. In Eng- 
lish only a few nouns have their proper diminutives; for instance: man, 
manikin; eagle, eaglet; river, rivulet; goose, gosling. 

In Bohemian, diminutives are exceedingly numerous; and very 
often a noun has two, sometimes three diminutives, differing in degree. 
For example: 

diim, m. diim, a house; domek, domek, a small house; domecek, dd- 
mechek, a very small house . 

lioch 9 hokJi, a boy; ho&ik, hosheek, a small boy; hosicek, hoshee- 

ehek, a very small boy. 

ruka ? f. ruka, a hand; rucka, rilchkd, a small hand; rucicka, rU- 
chich-kd, a very small hand. 

oko, n, oko, an eye; ocko, och-ko, a small eye; ocicko, dchich-kti, 
a very small eye. 

Diminutives, however, are often used simply as expressions of fond- 
ness and endearment, apart from any relation of size or degree. 

Note 2. The genitive or possessive case of mracek is mracku, 
not^mraceku. All nouns ending in ek drop the letter e in their de- 
clension. They are all of the masculine gender (as observed in Lesson I, 
Note 5), and the animate have ka, the inanimate ku in the genitive: 

ptacek, ptdchek (colloq. ftdchek), a small bird; ptacka, ptdchkd 
{ftdchkd), a small bird's; 

svatek, swdtek, a holiday; svatku, swdt-kto, a holiday's. 

Note 3. Reflexive verbs in English are followed by reflexive pro- 
nouns; for instance: to forswear one' s self; I forswore myself; he for- 
swore himself; they forswore themselves; etc. 



Lesson 18. 



81 



In Bohemian, the reflexive pronoun is always se, without any 
variation. But many verbs, which are reflexive in Bohemian, are not so 
in English; and vice versa. 

Tratiti se, vrdtiit se (to return, to come back), is a reflexive verb; 
we say : vratini se, vvdteem s#, I shall return ; vratime se, vrdtieeme sg, . 
we shall return; vratite se, vrdfeete se, you will return; vr&ti se, vrdtee ; 
s8, they will return. 

Note 4. In the foregoing exercises, sousede, zeno, are the voca- 
tive cases of soused (neighbor), zena (wife). The noun is put in the 
vocative case, when the person or thing is addressed: o Lord! o heavens! 

In Bohemian, the vocative case in the singular is very often, in the 
plural always like the nominative, as will be seen from the following 
comparison : 



Nomin a ti ve . 




Vocative. 


soused, soused, 


the neighbor 


sousede! 


sousede, o neighbor! 


muz, mooz, 


tm3 man 


muzi! 


moozi, o man ! 


zena, zena, 


the woman 


zeno! 


zeno, o woman! 


kost, f. kost, 


the bone 


kosti! 


kosti, o bone! 


ruze, f. rooze, 


the rose 


ruze! 


rooze, o roseT 


slovo, n. slovo, 


the word 


slovo! 


slovd, o word! 


pole, n. poU, 


the field 


pole! 


pole, o field! 


znaineni, zndmen.ee, 


the sign 


znameni! 


zndmenee, o sign! 


In the plural number, the non 


linative and vocative always agree i 


sousedF), 


soilse^i, 


the neighbors; o neighbors! 


muzi (-ove), 


moozi, 1 


;he men; 


o men! 


zeny, 


%&n'y, 1 


.he women; 


o women! 


kosti, 


kosti, 1 


the bones; 


o bones! 


ruze, 


roozti, 1 


the roses; 


o roses! 


slova, 


slovd, 1 


,he words ; 


o words! 


pole, 


pole, 1 


the fields; 


o fields! 


znameni, 


zndmenee, 1 
tsede, is the p 


the signs; 
roper gram] 


o signs! 


*) Sousede, sot 


natical form, this noun 



forming an exception; but sousedi is the common usage. 



$2 Part IT. 

Note 5. The Latin noun has six cases; the Bohemian noun has 
six cases corresponding perfectly with the Latin, and an additional case 
called "instrumental", because it denotes by whom, with whom or through 
whom (by means of what or through what) something happens or is done: 
muz em, s muzem, by the man, with the man; dollarem, s dollarem, 
with the dollar. 

The nature of the six cases of the Bohemian noun apart from the 
vocative will appear more distinctly by stating the questions to which 
they respond. 

'The nominative case, of course, responds to the question kdo? co? gdd, 
tso; who? what? 

dollar, muz, zena, slovo; the dollar, the man, the woman, the word; — 
dollary, muzi, zeny, slova; the dollars, the men, the women, the words. 

'The genitive or possessive case responds to the question cil ceho] chee, 
cMho; whose ? of what ? 

dollaru, muze, zeny, slova; of the dollar, the man's, the woman's, of 
the word; — dollaru (-uv), muzu (-uv), zen, slov; of the dollars, 
the men's, the women's, of the words. 

'The dative case responds to the question komu? cemu? komti, ch&mti; 
to whom? to what? 

dollaru, muzi, zene, slovu; to the dollar, to the man, to the woman, 
to the word; — dollar urn, muzum, zenam, slovum; to the dollars, to 
the men, to the women, to the words. 

'The accusative or objective case responds to the question koho? co? 
koho, tsd; whom? what? 

dollar, muze, zenu, slovo; the dollar, the man, the woman, 
the word; — dollary, muze, zeny, slova; the dollars, the men, the 
women, the words. 

The locative case responds to the question v kom? v cem? (na kom? na 
cemS — o kom? o cemS), fkom, fchem; in whom? in what? (on 
whom — what? about whom — what?) 
v dollaru, v muzi, v zene, ve slovu (-e); in the dollar, in the man, 



Lesson 19. 



83 



in the woman, in the word; — v dollarech, v muzich, v zenach, ye 

slovech; in the dollars, in the men, in the women, in the words. 

The instrumental case responds to the question kymS cim? — s kym? 
s cim$ keem, cheem, skeem, scheem; by whom? by what? with whom? 
with what ? 

dOllarein, mnzem, zenou, slovem; with the dollar, with the man, 
with the woman, with the word; — dollary, mnzi, zenami, slovy; 
with the dollars, with the men, with the women, with the words. 





pan 


LESSON XIX. 


e bleeskee 




Pan 


Mr. (mister) 


blizky, a, 


near 


pan 


pan 


gentleman 


hodny, a, 


e liodnee 


nice, good 


paiii 


pdnee Mrs. (missis); lady 


jiny, a„ c 


\ ye- nee 


another 


clovek 


chlovygk 


man; one; 


letny, a, ( 


i letnee 


aged 


Karel 


kdrell 


Charles 


bohaty, a 


, e bohdtee 


rich 


Anna 


and 


Anna 


cluidy, a, 


e khitdee 


poor 


Marie 


mariS 


Mary 


poctivy, a 


, e pots-tiivee 


honest 


dcernska 


tserttshkd 


little daughter 


mlady, a, 


e mlddee 


young 


hosik 


hoslieek 


little boy 


cetny, a, 


e chetnee 


numerous 


sonsedka soiisedkd female neighbor 


pilny, a, 


6 pillnee 


industrious 


ydoya 


vdovd 


widow 


poslusny, 


a, e poslushnee obedient 


ydoyec 


v do -vets 


widower 


jeste tri 


yeshte trshi 


} three other 
J three more 


domov, m. 


domof 


home 






rok, m. 


rdk 


year 


usazen 


Ussdzen 


settled 


leta 


letd ) 
let ) 


years*) 


jmenuje se menuye sS is called 


let 


y skutku 


fskut-kU } 
opr audit S 


indeed, in 


naklonnos 


k, f . ndklonost inclination 


opraydu 


fact, really 


nekolik 


nekolik 


several, some, 


ma byt 


ma beet 


ought to be 






a few 


mate rad 


mats rad 


you like 



*) Dve leta, dicyg letd, two years ; tri leta, trshi letd, three years; 
ctyry leta, shtiriletd, four years; pet let, py&tlet, five years; sest let, 
sliest let, six years; sedm let, sedUm let, seven years; and so forth. 



84 



Part II 



Mate to rad? mdtg to rddf do you 

like it? 

mam vzdycky rad 9 mdm dit-skirdd, 

I always like; 

davno, ddvnd, a long time ; 

jak davno ? yak ddvno how long; 



nesklame se, nessklamti s&, will not 
be disappointed 
jednain, yed-ndm, I deal 

jedna, yed-nd, deals 

vas, vdsh, your, yours 

jeji, y&yee, her, hers 



Exercises. 



Tak zde je vas domov! 

Kdo je vas soused? 

Pan Hodan je muj soused. 

On je nas blizky soused. 

Je pan Hodan hodny muz? 

Ano, je hodny muz; a pani Hoda- 

nova je hodna zena. 
Maji deti? 

Maji jednu deerusku. 
Jak se jmenuje? 
Myslim ze jmenuje se Marie; je to 

hodne dite. 
Jiny soused nas je pan Braun. 

Jak davno je zde usazen? 

Je zde usazen asi rok nebo dve 
leta. 

Je pan Braun bohaty? 

Neni; on je chudy clovek. 

Je chudy a tuze poctivy. 

Je letny muz? 

Ne 9 pan Braun je mlady muz a pa- 
ni Braunova je mlada zena. 

Ale rodina je uz cetna. 

Maji nekolik deti. 



So here is your home! 

Who is your neighbor? 

Mr. Hodan is my neighbor. 

He is our near neighbor. 

Is Mr. Hodan a nice man? 

Yes, he is a nice man; and Mrs. 
Hodan is a nice woman. 

Have they children? 

They have one little daughter. 

What is her name? 

I think she is called Mary; she is a 
nice child. 

Another neighbor of ours is Mr. 
Brown. 

How long is he (has he been) set- 
tled here ? 

He has been settled here about a 
year or two (years). 

Is Mr. Brown rich? 

He is not; he is a poor man. 

He is poor and very honest. 

Is he an aged man? 

No; Mr. Brown is a young man, and 
Mrs. Brown is a young woman. 

But the family is already numerous. 

They have several children. 



Lesson 19. 



85 



Karel je asi deset let a pak maji 

jeste tri deti. 
Karel je poslusny a pilny hocli. 

Anna je take poslusna a pilna. 

Je ji asi osm let. 

Dite ma byt poslusne a pilne. 

Ano, ma byt; ale nekdy neni. 

Tdoya Borosova je take nase blizka 

sousedka. 
Jeji bratr, pan Block, je take 

Ydoyec. 



Teda mate rad pana Hodana? (panel 

Jiodana, — accusative). 
Mam yzdycky rad hodneho muze, a 

hodnou zenu take. 
K hod ne mu lnuzi a k hodne zene 

mame yzdy naklonnost. 
A je take pravda, ze yhodnem mn- 

zi a v hodne zene se clorek nikdy 

nesklame. 
S hodnym muzem a hodnou zenou 

kazdy rad jedna. 
Tez rad jednam s hodnym ditetem. 
Pana Brauna hosik je t skutku 

hodne dite. 



Charles is about ten years, and then 
they have three more children. 

Charles is an obedient and indus- 
trious boy. 

A:nna is also obedient and indus- 
trious. 

She is (literally: it is to her) about 
eight years . 

A child should be obedient and in- 
dustrious. 

Yes, it ought to be; but sometimes 
it is not. 

The widow Borosh is also our near 
neighbor. 

Her brother, Mr. Bloch, is also a 
widower. 



So you like Mr. Hodan? 

I always like a nice man, and a nice 
woman too. 

Toward a nice man and a nice wo- 
man we always have an inclination. 

And it is also true, that in a good 
man and in a good woman one is 
never disappointed. 

With a nice man and a nice woman 
everybody likes to deal. 

I also like to deal with a nice child. 

Mr. Brown's little boy is really a 
good child. 



Note 1. In Lesson VI, Note 2, it was explained that the termina- 
tion of adjectives changes according to the gender of the nouns which 
they qualify: 



Part II 



hodny muz, 
hodna zena, 
hodne dite, 



hodnee mooz, a nice man; 
hodnd zena, a nice woman; 
hodne fleet! e, a nice child (in ordinary- 
discourse hodny dite, like the masculine). 



Adjectives, also, are declined and agree in number and case with 
the nouns. The changes of termination in the singular number appear in 
the following table: 

hodnee mooz, a nice man; 

hodne fleet e, a nice child; 



hodny muz, 
hodne dite, 

hodneho muze, 
,, ditete, 



hodneho mooze, 

,, fleet } et#, 



of a nice man, 
of a nice child; 



Remark. The accusative or objective agrees with the possessive in the 
masculine, and with the nominative in the neutre gender: 
vidim hodneho muze, vifleem hodneho mooze, I see a nice man; 
vidim hodne dite, vifleem hodne fleet e, I see a nice child. 



hodnemu muzi, 
,, diteti, 

v hodnem muzi, 
,, ,, diteti, 



hodnemu moozi, to a nice man, 

,, fleet eti, to a nice child; 

vhodnem moozi, in a nice man, 

fleet eti, in a nice child; 

s hodnym muzem, shodneem moozem, with a nice man, 

,, ,, ditetem, ,, fleet etem, with a nice child. 



hodna zena, 
hodne zeny, 
,, zene, 
v , , zene, 
hodnou zenu, 
s hodnou zenou, 



hodnd zena, 
hodne zeny, 
,, zene, 
v „ 

hodnou zenti, 
shod noil zenou, 



a nice woman; 
of a nice woman; 
to a nice woman; 
in a nice woman; 
a nice woman (accusative); 
with a nice woman. 



Lesson 19. 87 

Note 2. In common discourse no distinction whatever is made 
between the masculine and Deutre gender, and the terminal y does not 
change. We hear : 

hodny muz, hodny dite; a nice man, a nice child:, 

hodnyho maze, hodnyho ditete; of a nice man, of a nice child 

hodnymu niuzi, hodnymu diteti; to a nice man, to a nice child 

hodnyho muze, hodny dite; (accusative); a nice man, a nice child 

v hodnyin niuzi, v hodnym diteti; in a nice man, in a nice child 

s hodnym muzeni, s hodnym ditetem; with a nice man, with a nice child. 

In the feminine gender, we hear : hodna zena ? hodnou zenu (accus.), . 
s hodnou zenou; but in the other cases : 

hodny zeny, of a good worn an j; 
hodny zene, to a good woman; 
v hodny zene, in a good woman. 

The ordinary usage of the people evidently rejects all artificial, and 
unnecessary grammatical distinctions, always tending to simplicity; and 
it will be noticed that there is much more consistency in this common 
rule as applied to the declension of adjectives, when we come to treat 
of their plural number. 

Note 3. In Bohemian, the adjective may be placed either before 
or after the noun, according to the speaker's pleasure : 

pan Hodan je hodny muz; ) 

„ , . v , , , f Mr. Hodan is a nice man; 

pan Hodan je muz hodny; ) 

je to letny muz; ) 

y he is (literally, it is) an aged man. 
je to muz letny; ) 

It is usually placed after the noun when the speaker wishes to lajr 
particular stress upon the adjective (hodny, letny) qualifying the noun. 



:88 



Part II 



LESSON XX. 



Sousedstvo, n. soiisedstvo neighbor- 
hood 
cely 9 a 9 e tsellee whole, all 

mily 9 a, e millee pleasant, pleas- 
ing, dear 
prijemno ? f. prshee-yemno agreea- 
ble, pleasant 
nehodnee naughty 

bidlet to live, to reside 
fsM ) everything, 

fshekh-no i all 

fshdk but 

fshdk y$ but there is 
(there are) 
ndd over 

neni nad neni ndd there is nothing 

better than ; 

nothing like ; 

velmi very 

yikh of them 

nam to us 

vdm to you 



nehodny 

bydleti 

vse 

vsechno 

vsak 

vsak je 

nad 



velmi 
jich 
nam 
Tarn 



vejde veydg enters, calls 

rad vejde, rdd veydg, likes to call 

rad promluvi, rdd promliivee, likes 

to talk (to have a chat) 

ma rad md rdd he likes 

ma rada md rddd she likes 

doufam doilfdm I hope 

ba prave ba prdvyg that is so; 

to be sure; 

ba veru ba vygrti certainly; no 

doubt of it; 

v poradku fpo-rshdd-M right; 

all right; 

dobra vule dobrd voolti good will 

na stesti nd shfesti happily, 

fortunately; 

je na to cas, ye nd to chdss, there is 

time for it. 

zene? ^ m *> isn't it so Ms it not? 

* are they not? 



to vis 
to vite 



to veesh 
to veete 



thou knowest 
you know 



Remark. When standing alone and used as a rejoinder, to vis and to 
vite signify vfof co ur se; to be sure. 



Lesson 20. 



89 



Exercises. 



Myslim ze vsichni vasi sousedi jsou 

liodni. 
Pravda; cele sousedstvo je hodne. 

Pak je pf ijemno bydleti zde. 
Opravdu, yelmi prijemno. 
A jake je sousedstvo vase? 

My take iname par hodnych sou- 

sedii. 
Myslini ze je vain to take mile. 

Je nam to tuze mile, 
Clovek rad vejde k hodnym sou- 
seduni. 

Kazdy ma rad hodne sousedy. 
JBa prave; a v hodnych sousedech 

vzdycky (dit-ski) ma podporu. 
Kdyz je na to cas, clovek rad pro- 

mluvi s hodnymi sousedy. 
jfeni nad hodne sousedy! 



Ma zena je zde velmi spokojena. 
Tase sousedky jsou vsechny hodne 9 

ze ne? 
l^ase sousedky jsou hodne. 
To vite, ze mezi hodnymi soused - 

kami je dobra vule. 
Neni nad dobrou vuli v sousedstvu. 

To vite. 

^Kdyz sousedi take maji hodne deti, 
vsechno je v poradku. 



I think that all your neighbors are 

nice. 
True; the whole neighborhood is 

nice. 
Then it is agreeable to live here. 
Truly, very agreeable. 
And what kind is your neighbor- 
hood? 
We also have some nice neighbors 

(i. e. some of the nice neighbors). 
I think (that) it is also agreeable to 

you. 
It is very agreeable to us. 
One likes to call on nice neighbors; 

(literally: one likes to enter to 

nice neighbors). 
Everybody likes good neighbors. 
To be sure; and in good neighbors 

one always has (rinds) a support. 
When there is time for it, one likes 

to have a chat with good neighbors- 
There is nothing like good neighbors ! 



My wife is very much satisfied here. 
Your female neighbors are all nice, 

are they not? 
Our female neighbors are nice. 
You know that among nice female 

neighbors there is good will. 
There is nothing like good will in a 

neighborhood. 
Of course (i. e. you know). 
When the neighbors also have nice 

children, everything is all right. 



90 



Part II 



Maine opravdu mnoho hodnych 
deti v sousedstvu. 

Ysak je take nekolik nehodnych. 

Doufam ze neni jich mnoho. 

Na Stesti neni jich mnoho. 

Je jich jen par; ale je to dost. 

Ba veru. 



We have indeed many nice children 

in the neighborhood (i. e. many 

of the nice children)*). 
But there are also a few naughty 

(ones). 
I hope (that) there are not many of 

them. 
Fortunately there are not many of 

them. 
There are only a few; but it i& 

enough. 
No doubt of it. 



Note 1. In the plural, the masculine gender of an adjective 
changes the terminal y into an i : 

hodnymuz, hodnee mooz, a nice man; hodnimuzi, hodnee moozi, nice men.. 

The feminine gender changes the terminal a into an e : 

hodna zena, hodnd zena, a nice woman; hodne zeny, hodne zeny, nice* 

women. 
The neutre gender changes the terminal e into an a : 

hodne decko, hodne flet-sko, a nice child; hodna decka, hodnd flet-ska,, 

nice children. 

Dite, fleet e, (child,) follows the feminine in the plural: hodne deti, hodne 

fleti, nice children. 

Note 2. Adjectives containing in their last syllable the hard con- 
sonants h, ch, k, r, change these consonants in the plural of the mas- 
culine animate gender into z, s, c, r, in the same manner as stated in 
Lesson XV, Note 3. For example : 



*) Mnoho, malo, par, kolik, nekolik, (many, few, a few, how 
many, some), as well as all numbers after "four" (see foot-notes in Les- 
sods XVIII and XXIX) govern the genitive or possessive case; hence the- 
noun, or pronoun, adjective, which follows them, must always appear in_ 
that case. 



Lesson 20. 91 

dlouhy had, dloiihee had, a long snake; dlouzi hadi, dlouzee ha&'i, long 

snakes ; 

hluchy niuz, hlukhee mooz, a deaf man; hlusi muzi, hlushee moozi, deaf 

men; 

velky hoch, velkee hokh, a big boy; velci hosi, veltsee ho-she, big boys; 

dobry soused, dobree sottsed, a good neighbor; dobri sousedi, dob-rshee 

soUsedii, good neighbors. 

Note 3. The following table presents a complete view of the 
plural number of adjectives ending in y (a, e). 

The nominative and accusative cases : 

hodni muzi (accus. hodne muze), hodnee moozi, (hodne moozS), nice 

men; 
hodne zeny, hodne z8ny, nice women; 

hod mi decka, hodnd (Ketska, nice children. 
The genitive or possessive case : 

hodnych muzu, zen, decek, hodneekh moozoo, zen, tfetsek, of the 

nice men, women, children. 

The locative case : 

o hodnych muzich, zenach, deckach, o hodneekh moozeekh, zendkh, 
ftetskdkh, about the nice men, women, children. 

The instrumental case: 

s hodnymi muzi. zenami, decky, shodneemi moozi, zenami, ftetski, 

with the nice men, women, children. 

Note 4. In common discourse, however, the grammatical dis- 
tinction of gender in the nominative plural of this class of adjectives is 
treated as perfectly useless, which in fact it is. The Bohemian language, 
as it lives in the daily intercourse of millions, employs the masculine 
singular fcrm of the adjective in all three genders of the plural, recogniz- 
ing only one form of declension : 



92 



Part II 



hodny muzi, hodny zeny, hodny deti (or decka); the nice men, women, 

children; 
hodny ch muzu, zen, deti; of the nice men, women, children; 

and so forth. 



LESSON XXI. 



the 
neigh- 
bor's. 



Souseduv, m. soUsedoof ~] 
sousedova, f . soUsedovd 
sousedovo, n. sousedovo 
sousedoyi, pi. sotisedovi 
bratruT 9 m. brdtroof, the brother's 
piny, &, e pl-nee full 

novy, a, e novee new 

falesny, a, e fdleshnee false 

co noveho? tso noveho, what is 
the news? 
noviny, pi. noviny news, news- 
paper 
tiskarna ? f. tiskdrna printing office 
list list paper, sheet, leaf 



Mas, m. Mass 

sloupec, m. sloupets 
sloupce sloup-ts& 

cisti cheestH, cheest 

cteme chteme 

X torn, m. & n. ftdm ) 
v te, f . fte > 

proto proto hence, therefore 
proto ale prece, proto dig prshe-tse, 
in spite of that, notwith- 
standing that 



voice 

column 

columns 

to read 

we read 

in that 



denni dM.ee daily 

tydenni teed^nee weekly 

deiinik, m. de~neek. daily paper 

tydennik, m. teedeneek weekly ,, 
dnesni dnes7i-nee to-day's 

vcerejsi fehereyshee yesterday's 
posledni poslednee last 

volba, f. volbd election 

zprava, f. sprdva advice 

den co den, den tso den, day by day 
co, neco tso, netso something 
brzo hotovi, b e-rzo hotovi, soon done 
prinesl prshi-nessl he brought 
dopadnouti, dopddnoUt, to come 
out, to result 
podivej se, potfeevey s#, look (thou) 
podivejte se 9 pdtfeeveytti se, look 

(you) 
pokazde, poJcazde, every time 
tez tez also 

vefiti, vye-rshitii, vyg-rshit, to be- 
lieve 
nesmite ntismeetti you must not 
pracovati pratsovat to work 
pracuje prdtsUyg works 



Lesson 21. 



93 



Exercises. 



Kdo to byl ? 

To byl souseduv syn. 

Prinesl neco % 

Prinesl nam noviny. 

Sousedovy noviny % 

Ano, sousedovy noviny. 

Json to denni nebo tydenni noviny? 

Je to dennik. 

Jaky je to dennik \ 

Je to Denni Hlas. 

Bratriiv hoch pracuje v te tiskar- 

ne 9 myslim. 
Ano, a sousedova dcera tez. 

Bratrova dcera chce tarn pracovat 

tez. 
A Hodanova Marie take. 



Je to dnesni list % 

Je dnesni; ale souseduv Jan take 

prinesl vcerejsi list. 
Co je novehoS Podivej se do dnesni - 

ho listu. 
Ye dnesnim listu neni mnoho nove- 

ho; — jen neco o posledni volbe. 

Jak dopadla posledni volba? 
Hned to budu cisti. 
Budeme brzy hotovi s dnesnim 
listem. 



Denni listy vzdycky (dit-ski) maji 

neco noveho. 
Pravda, v dennich listech je po- 

kazde co cisti. 



Who was it? 

That was (our) neighbor's son. 

Has he brought something? 

He brought (to) us a newspaper. 

Our neighbor's newspaper? 

Yes, our neighbor's paper. 

Is it a daily or a weekly newspaper?' 

It is a daily. 

What daily is it ? 

It is the Daily Voice. 

My brother's boy works in that 

printing-office, I think. 
Yes, and (our) neighbor's daughter 

also. 
My brother's daughter wants to 

work there also. 
And Mary Hodan too. 



Is it to-day's paper? 

It is to-day's; but (neighbor's) John 

also brought yesterday's paper. 
What is the news? Look (thou) into 

to-day's paper. 
In to-day's paper there is not much 

news; only something about the 

last election. 
How did the last election come out? 
I shall read it right away. 
We shall soon be done with to-day's. 

paper. 



Daily papers always have some- 
thing new. 

To be sure, in daily papers there is 
every time something to read. 



94 



Part II. 



Ale nesmite vzdy veriti dennim 

listum. 
S dennimi listy je to tak : sloupce 

musi byti pine den co den. 
Proto jsou nekdy falesne zpravy v 

dennich listech. 
Proto ale prece radi cterae denni 

listy. 
Cteme nekolik dennich listu (genit. 

case, — "of the daily papers"). 



But you must not always believe 
the daily papers. 

With the daily papers it is so : the 
columns must be full day by day. 

Hence there are sometimes false ad- 
vices in daily papers. 

In spite of that we like to read the 
daily papers. 

We read several daily papers. 



Note 1. Adjectives ending in i, like denni, dnesni, posledni, 

vcerejsi, have the same termination in all genders and both numbers; and 
in the singular of the feminine gender they remain unchanged in all cases; 
in the masculine and neutre gender the genitive case is characterized by 
the termination iho, the dative by imu, the locative and instrumental 
by im 9 — corresponding with eko, emu, em & ym of the main order of 
adjectives. 

In the plural, their declension is the same in all three genders, show- 
ing the termination ich in the genitive and locative, iin in the dative, 
and imi in the instrumental case. 

Note 2. There is also a class of adjectives derived from nouns 
denoting persons or animals, by means of the suffixes uv, ova, ovo, 
according to gender. They are called "possessive adjectives", and their 
sense is rendered in English by the "possessive case" of the noun : 



sonseduv syn, 
sousedova dcera, 
sousedovo dite, 
sousedovi synove, 
sousedovy dcery(deti), 



soUsedoof syn, 
sotisedovd ts&ra, 
sousedovo fleete, 
soicseddvi syndve, 



the neighbor's son; 
the neighbor's daughter; 
the neighbor's child; 
the neighbor's sons; 



sousedovi ts8ry (dW), the neighbor's daughters 

(children). 



From feminine nouns they are derived by the suffixes 
(iny in the plural, in colloquial usage): 



in, ma, ino 



Lesson 21. 



95 



zenin klobouk, zemn klobotik, the woman's (or wife's) bonnet; 
zeniny saty, pi. zeniny shaty, the woman's (or wife's) clothes or dress. 

Grammatically, these adjectives have their own mode of declension; 
but colloquially, they are declined just like adjectives of the main order : 
liodny, a, e. 

Note 3. A few more examples of such possessive adjectives as 
are commonly in use, in connection with nouns of different gender, will 
make the student sufficiently familiar with them: 



OteCj ottts, the father : 
otcuv klobouk, m. 
otcova cepice, f . 
otcovo misto, n. 



otsoof klobotik, 
otsovci ch&pits#, 
dtsovo meestd, 



the father's hat; 
the father's cap; 
the father's place; 



Matka, matka, the mother; 

matciu pokoj, m. mdtchin pokoy, 
matcina stolice, f. matchina stolitsg, 
matcino slovo, n. matching slovo, 



the mother's room; 
the mother's chair; 
the mother's word. 



Sestra 5 sestra, the sister : 

sestfin sal, m. sest-rshin shawl, the sister's shawl; 

sestfina taska, f. sest-rshina tashka, the sister's satchel; 

sestrino piano, n. sest-rshind piano, the sister's piano. 



Hoch, hokh, the boy 

hochuY mic ? m. 
hoehova mapa, f . 
hochovo pero, n. 



hokhoof meech, 
hokhovd mapa, 
hokhovo pero, 



the boy's ball; 
the boy's map; 
the boy's pen; 



Holka, holka, the girl : 

holcin kufr, m. holchin ktiff e r, the girl's trunk; 

holeina postel, f. holchind postell, the girl's bed; 

holcino pradlo, n. holchind prddlo, the girl's linen. 



96 



Part II. 



Remark. It will be noticed that in the derivatives from feminine- 
nouns ending in ka, ra, the hard consonants k, r, change into the soft 
consonants c, r: matka, matcin; sestra, sestrin. 



LESSON XXII. 



Mlady, a, e 

mladsi 

nejmladsi 

stary, a, e 

stars! 

nejstarsi 

bohatsi 

nejbohatsi 

chudsi 

nejchudsi 



mlddee young 

mldd-shee younger 

ney-mldd-shee youngest 



stdree old 

stdr-shee older 

ney-stdr-shee oldest 
bohdt-shee richer 

ney -bohdt-shee richest 
khud-shee poorer 

ney-khud-shee poorest 
nejposlednejsi ney-posled-neys7iee 
last of all, the very last 
jak se jmenujeS yak s& mentiye, 
what is his name ? 
bud' jak bud', bM yak bM, be it 
as it may ; no matter how it is ; 
neni-li pravdaS neym-li prdvdd, 
isn't it so? 
je-li mozna! yelli moznd, is it pos- 
sible ! 
ja myslel, yd mis-lel, I thought 
oni mysli, oni mislee, they think 
bydlite bidleetti you live (reside) 



kram, m. 
ski ad, m. 
zbozi, n. 



pritel, m. prshee-tel friend 

obchod, m. ob-khod business 

obchodnik, m. ob-khdd-neek, mer- 
chant, business man;. 
krdm store 

skidd warehouse 

zbozee 'goods, stock 
of goods; 
zelezny, a 9 e zel&znee, of iron;. 
zelezne zbozi, zelVzne zbozee, hard- 
ware;. 
konkurent, m. concurent, compet- 
itor; 
lidi, lide, U&i, tide, people 

jeden z (ze) ? y&den z {z8) f one of 
jeho y#hd his 

zatim zMeem \ on the contrary 
nd-opdk ) 
mtizi 



naopak 

i»ezi 

pres 

skoupy, a, e skotipee 

stedry, a, e sMedree 

patri pdtrshee 



among 

over, across 

miserly 

liberal 

belongs. 



znamy, a, e zndmee, known; (used as a noun) acquaintance; 
pul leta, poolletd, half a year; zevsech, z$ fshtikh, of all. 



Lesson 22. 



97 



Exercises. 



Jsem rad ze jste to. 

Yy bydlite teda v B .J 

Ano; uz pres rok. 

Ja mam piritele*) v B. 

Je bohaty obchodnik; — ma velik^ 

sklad — a kram piny zbozi 11a 

Washington nlici. 
Jaky ma obchod % 
Zelezne zbozi. (Obekod v zeleznem 

zbozi). 
Jak se jmenuje? 
Jmenuje se Josef Baldwin; — znate 

ho I 
Znam ho; — je bohaty, — ale jeho 

konknrent p. Adams je bohatsi, 

— a pan Fleming je nejbohatsi. 
Bud' jak bud', pan Baldwin patfi 

mezi nejbohatsi obchodniky ve 

meste B. 
Ano, jest jeden z nejbohatsich ob- 

chodniku, — to je pravda. 
Ale neni pravda, ze je skoupy; — 

naopak, — on je tuze stedry. 

Jeho soused pres ulici, pan Wild, 
je take mu j znamy; — myslim ze 
je posud chudy muz. 

Ano, je pry chudsi nez lidi mysli; 

— vsak neni ten nejchudsi ob- 
chodnik ye meste. 



I am glad that you are here. 

You live, then, in B.? 

Yes; already over a year. 

I have a friend in B. 

He is a rich merchant; — he has a 
large warehouse — and a store full 
of goods on Washington street. 

What business has he? 

Hardware. (A hardware business). 

What is his name? 

His name is Joseph Baldwin; — do 
you know him? 

I know him ; — he is rich, — but his 
competitor Mr. Adams is richer,— 
and Mr. Fleming is the richest. 

Be it as it may, Mr. Baldwin be- 
longs among the richest business 
men in the city of B. 

Yes, he is one of the richest mer- 
chants, — that is true. 

But it is not true, that he is miserly; : 
— on the contrary, — he is very 
liberal. 

His neighbor across the street, Mr, 
Wild, is also my acquaintance; — I 
think that he is still a poor man. 

Yes, he is said to be poorer than 
people think ; — but he is not the 
poorest business man in town. 



*) The noun pritel is somewhat irregular in its declension: prite- 
le, prsliee-tele, in the genitive and accusative case (of a friend: a friend); 
priteli, the dative, also the vocative (to a friend; friend!). The p]ural is 
pratele, prsha-teU, the friends; pratel, prshd-tel, of the friends. 



98 



Part II 



Yds Robert je klerkem*), neni-li 

pravda % 
Ano, je**) klerkem uz pul leta. 

My slim ze Robert bude dobry ob- 
chodnik (or dobry m obchodnikem). 

Robert je pilny hoch, — ale Frank 
je pilnejsi, — a Edward je nej- 
pilnejsi ze vsech. 

Neni Frank starsi nez Robert? 

Tie; Robert je starsi a Edward je 
nej starsi. 

Je-li mozna! — Ja myslel, ze Ro- 
bert je mladsi nez Frank, — a 
Frank zatim je nej mladsi. 



Your Robert is a clerk, is he not ? 

Yes, he has been a clerk for half-a- 
year. 

I think that Robert will be a good 
business man. 

Robert is an industrious boy, — but 
Frank is more industrious, — and 
Edward is the most industrious of 
all. 

Is not Frank older than Robert? 

No, Robert is older, and Edward is 
the oldest. 

Is it possible !— I thought that Rob- 
ert was younger than Frank, — 
and Frank, on the contrary, is 
the youngest. 

*) The noun klerk is here used in the instrumental case, answer- 
ing the question cim je? cheem ye, what is he? 

This is a common construction. — We may ask: Co je vas syn? 
what is your son? — The answer would be: On je klerk, he is a clerk. 

We may also ask: Cim je vassyn? (which, in English, is identical 
with the first question ;) the answer would be: On je klerkem, he is a clerk. 
In a similar manner we say in Bohemian, using the instrumental case : 
Jsem farmerem, I am a farmer; 
on je farmerem, he is a farmer; 
on je obchodnikem, he is a merchant; 
je generalem, he is a general; etc. 

**) Je, on je, on jest, he is, the simple present tense of byti, to 
be, is also used in Bohemian for the perfect tense he has been. (See 
Lesson IX, Note 1.) Similarly we say: 

jsem tu rok, I have been here a year; 

ja jsem tu rok, " " " " " 

jsem farmerem deset let, I have been a farmer for ten years; 

jsme doma tyden, we have been at home a week; 

jsme sami pfes rok, we have been alone over a year; etc. 



Lesson 22. 



Mate take deery? 

Mam deer u $ je jeste inladsi nez 

hoch Frank. 
To je nejposlednejsi dite. 
To je ma cela rodina. 



Have you also daughters? 

I have a daughter; she is still youn£ 

er than the boy Frank. 
That is the very last child. 
That is my whole family. 



Note 1. In the English language, the comparative degree of ad- 
jectives is formed either by adding er, or by placing more before them: 
young, younger; industrious, more industrious. 

The superlative degree is formed either by adding est (st), or by 
placing most before the adjective: youngest; most industrious. 

In Bohemian, the comparative degree is formed by adding si or 
ejsi (sometimes ejsi) in place of the final y (a, e): 

mlady, a, e mladee, young; nilad-si, mladsliee, } r ounger; 

pilny, a, e pillnee, industrious; piln-ejsi, pillneysliee, more industrious. 

The superlative degree is always formed \>y prefixing nej, ney, to 
the comparative degree: 



11 ej -mladsi, 
nej-pilnejsi, 



neymlddshee, 
neypillneys7iee, 



youngest ; 

most industrious. 



Note 2. Some adjectives, in Bohemian as well as in English, 
have an irregular comparison. The most common of them are the fol- 
lowing: 



dobry, 


dobree, 


good; 


lepsi, 


lepshee. 


better; 


ziy> 


zlee, 


bad; 


horsi, 


horsliee, 


worse ; 


maly, 


mdlee, 


small; 


men si, 


menshee, 


smaller ; 


velky, 


velkee, 


large; 


vetsi, 


vyetshee, 


larger; 


dlouhy, 


dlouliee, 


long; 


delsi, 


delshee, 


longer; 


vysoky, 


visokee, 


high; 


vyssi, 


vis/tee, 


higher; 


hluboky, 


MUbokee, 


deep; 


hlubsi, 


MUbsliee, 


deeper; 


siroky, 


sliirokee, 


wide ; 


sirsi, 


sliirshee, 


wider ; 


daleky, 


ddlekee, 


far; 


dalsi, 


ddlshee, 


farther; 



100 



Part II 



blizky, bleeskee, near 

hezky, hesskee, pretty, (nice) 

lehky, Wikee, light 

mekky, mygkee, soft 



blizsi, 
hezci, 
lehci, 
mekci, 



blisliee, 
hess-chee, 
Wi-ehee, 
my&k-chee, 



nearer; 

prettier; 

lighter; 

softer. 



The superlative is formed without exception by prefixing nej to 
the comparative. 



LESSON XXIII. 



Jajel, 

cekal, 

pravil, 

vesel, 

psala, 



yd yell, I rode, I went; 
cliekdl, (he) waited; 
pravil, (he) said; 

vgshell went in; 

psala, (she) wrote; 

nevidel jsem, neviftel sem, I did not 

see; 

milujem se, miluyem se, we love 

each other; 

postavim si, postaveem si, I shall 

build for myself; 

at' to stoji, #t' to stoyee, let it cost; 



fka, 



rshkd, 



saying; 



rekl jsem, rshekl sem, I said, I told; 

I have said (told); 

mluvil jsem, mltivil sem, I have 

spoken; I spoke; 

slysel jsem, slishellsem; I have 

heard; I heard; 

sednouti si, sednoutsi, to sit down; 



tazati se, tdzat s8, 



to ask, to in- 
quire ; 



domov, m. domof, a home; 

obydli,fn. obidlee, dwelling; 

svetnice, f. swy#tiiits# ) _ w 
y r room, 

sednice, f. sednitsti ) 
loznice, f. loz-iiitsg, bedroom; 
draha, f. draha, road, railroad; 

po draze, po drdzg, by railroad; 
n&drazi, n. nddrazee, depot; 

pohodli, n. pdhodlee, comfort; 
pohodlny, a, e, pohod e lnee, com- 
fortable; 
svagrova, shwdgrovd, sister-in law; 
ditko, n. fteetko, child, baby; 

nemoc, f. nemots, sickness; 

vselico, fsliellitso, different things; 
dlouho, dlotcho, long, a long time; 
onehdy, on&h-de, the other day; 
zdrav, a, o, zdrdv, well, healthy; 
unaven, a, o, Unaven, tired; 

takoyy, a, e, takovee, such; 

vedle, ve~-dl&, next to; side by side; 



veru, 



vygrti, 



indeed; 



Lesson 23. 



101 



pro, for. 

ndprshed, first, ahead; 



ziistati, zoostat, to stay, to remain; pro, 
svlekni se, svlekni se, undress; napred, 
lehl jsem si, U-hlsem si, I lied down; 

se, sebe, s&, sebe, oneself; myself, thyself, himself, herself, itself; 

ourselves, yourselves, themselves; 
si, sobe, si, soby$, to oneself; to myself, etc. etc. 
sebou, sebou, by or with oneself; etc. etc. 

Exercises. 



Ja jel*) onehdy do Chicago; — 
mam tarn bratra; — chtel jsem lio 
videt, — tez jeho obydli; — on ce- 
kal na me v nadrazi. — Ja pry el 
po draze C. & NW. 

Pravil mi : "Rad te vidim, bra- 
tre! — Cekal jsem tebe; — ukazu 
ti muj domov, — Dame tobe nasi 
nejvetsi loznici. 

Musis zustati u me aspon tyden; 
— tak teda pojd' se muou." 

Rekl jsem mu, ze ja take rad 
ho vidim. — Jsi zdravS tazal jsem 
se ho. 

"Alio, jsem tuze zdrav", pra- 
vil on; "ma zena je take zdrava 



I went the other day to Chicago ; 
— I have a brother there; — I wanted 
to see him, — also his dwelling; — he 
waited for me at the depot. — I came 
by the C. & XW. railroad. 

He said to me: "I am glad to see 
thee, brother! — I have been expect- 
ing thee; — I will show to thee my 
home. — We shall give (to) thee our 
largest bedroom. 

Thou must stay with me (i. e. at 
my house) at least a week; — so, 
then, come with me." 

I told him that I also was glad to 
see him? — Are you well? I asked 
him. 

"Yes, I am very well", said he; 
f *'my wife is also well and the baby 



*) Jeti, yeti (commonly yet), to ride, to go by railroad or other- 
wise. Ja jsem jel, yd sem yell, I rode, I went, — I have gone; ja 
jel, yd yell, is the past tense with the auxiliary jsem left out, as 
explained in Lesson X. The same applies to ja prijel, yd prshi-yell, 
I came (by train or other means of conveyance). From the verb jeti, 
yeti (or yet), to ride, or to go by some conveyance, about as many new 
verbs can be derived by prefixes as from jiti, yeeffi (or yeet) to go. See 
Lesson XIII, Note 6. 



102 



Part II 



a ditko je take zdravo. — Jsme 
spokojeni a milujem se." 

A veru, na nem nevidel jsem 
zadnou nemoc. — Svagrova psala 
pravdu o nem, ze je zdrav. 

Sel jsem s nim. — Za pul hodi- 
ny byli jsme u neho. — Ja sel na- 
pred, on za mnou. — Jeho zena 
tez rada me videla; — ona take 
me cekala. 

Prinesl jsem ji vselico; — neco 
pro ni, neco pro jeji ditko. — Mlu- 
vil jsem s ni dlouho o vselicem, — 
a slysel jsem od ni mnoho nove- 
ho.— Ono bylo skoro vsecko nove 
pro me. 

Myslil jsem si: Majipekny dum 9 

— pohodlny domov. — Tolik sve- 
tnic! — Ja si postavim takovy dum; 

— malou loznici pro sebe a dve ve- 
like loznice pro rodinu. — Posta- 
vim sobe tez vedle pisarnu. 

At' to stoji neco; — postavim to 
pro sebe. — Anebo koupim si pe- 
kny dnm. 

Sedl jsem si na sofa, rka; Jsem 
nnaven! 

u Udelej si pohodli, — svlekni 
se, " — pravil bratr. 
Ja se svlekl a lehl jsem si. 



is well, too. — We are contented and 
we love each other." 

And indeed, on him I didn't see 
any sickness. — Sister-in-law wrote 
the truth about him that he was well . 

I went with him. — In half an hour 
we were at his house . — I went in first, 
he (followed) after me. — His wife 
also was glad to see me; — she also 
expected me. 

I brought to her different things; 
— something for her, something for 
her baby. — I spoke with her long a- 
bout different things, — and I heard 
from her many news. — It was near- 
ly all news to me. 

I thought to myself: They have 
a nice house, — a comfortable home. 
— So many rooms!— I shall build me 
such a house; — a small bedroom for 
myself, and two large bedrooms for 
the family. — I shall build myself 
also next to it an office. 

Let it cost something; — I shall 
build it for myself.— Or, I shall buy 
me a nice house. 

I sat down on the sofa, saying: I 
am tired! 

"Make thyself comfortable, — un- 
dress (thyself)/' — said my brother. 

I undressed and lay (myself) down. 



Note 1. The personal pronouns ja, ty, on (ona, ono), show 

the following variation : 







Lesson 


28. 




103 


Ja, 


yd, 


I; 


ty, 


te, 


thou; 


ine, 


my$, 


me; 


te, tebe, 


n, teU, 


thee ; 


mi, inne, 


me, nine, 


to me; 


ti, tobe, 


Hi, tobyg, 


to thee; 


se union, 


se mnoii, 


with me; 


s tebou, 


st^boil, 


with thee; 


on, ouo, 


on, ono, 


he, it; 


ona, 


ona, 


she; 


ho, 


ho, 


him, it; 


ih ih 


ye, yee, 


her, to her; 


jeho, 


ye~ho, 


his, its; 


jeji, 


yeyee, 


her, hers; 


mu, jeniu, 


nemu, mil 


, yemu, nemil, 
to him, to it; 








y nem, 


vn&m, 


in him, in it; 


vni, 


vnee, 


in her; 


s nim, 


smm, with him, with it; 


sni, 


sfLee, 


with her. 



Note 2. Adjectives sometimes take an indefinite form: 

on je zdrav, dn ye zdrdv, he is well (or healthy); 

onaje zdrava, ona y$ zdrdvd, she is well; 

onoje zdravo, ono ye zdrdvd, it is well; 

but when placed before a noun, the adjective must always have its definite 
form: zdravy muz, zdrdv ee mooz, a healthy man; zdrava zena, zdrdvd 
zena, a healthy woman; zdrave dite, zdrave Reete, a healthy child. 

The following indefinite adjectives are of common occurrence: 

nemocny, 

mrtvy, 

stary, 

mocny, 

znamy, 

vesely, 

pravy, 

bosy, 

Adjectives ending in yy and ny frequently take the indefinite 
form in the nominative case, changing their termination into y and en 
(va, na in the feminine, yo, no in the neutre gender). 



nemocen, 


nemotsen, 


instead of 


mrtev, 


m e rtev, 


(< ft 


star, 


star, 


« 


mocen, 


motsen, 


« 


znam, 


zndm, 


.< 


vesel, 


ve-sell, 


" 


pray, 


prdv, 


" 


bos, 


bos, 


<< 



nemotsnee, 


sick; 


m e rtvee, 


dead; 


st dree, 


old; 


motsnee, 


capable; 


zndmee, 


known; 


vesselee, 


cheerful; 


prdvee, 


just; 


bosee, 


barefoot. 



104 



Part II 



Note 3. As observed in Note 2, Lesson XIII, the past tense of 
regular Bohemian verbs is formed from the infinitive by an 1 in place' of 
the usual termination ti : 



jeti, yeffi or yet, 


to ride; 


jel, 


yell, 


rode; 


cekati, chekat, 


to wait; 


cekal, 


chekdl, 


waited; 


mluviti, mluvit, 


to speak; 


mluvil. 


mluml, 


spoke; 



But some verbs ending in outi show a slight deviation from this 
rule, changing outi into ul, and having besides a short form of the past 
tense, in which the letter 1 is substituted for the whole termination 
nouti, being attached immediately to the stem of the verb : 

lehiiouti, leh-noUW (or leh-nout), to lie down; lehnul, lehl, leh-nUl, 

le-hl, lay down; 
sednouti, sednout, to sit down; sednul, sedl, sednul, sedl, sat down; 
svleknouti, sdlek-nottt, to undress; svleknul v svlekl 9 svleknul, svlekl, un- 
dressed. 
The verb svleknouti has also an irregular form of the infinitive : 
svleci, svU-tsi. In common conversation we hear sliknout, slikl, sle- 
ceny, sleeknoitt, (to undress), sleek!, slechenee (undressed, — as past 
participle and adjective). 



LESSON XXIV. 



At' jde, dti de, let him (her, it) 
come, or go; 
zustanem, zoostdnem, we shall stay; 
z ii stan, zoostdn, stay (thou); 
ukaz, ukdsh, show (thou), let see; 
prijeti, prshi-yet, to come (by rail- 
way, etc); 
prijedem, prshi-ytidem, we shall 
come (by some conveyance); 



to je skoda, to yS shkodct, that is a 

pity; 
pohosteni, n. pohostenee, hospi- 
tality; 
navsteva,f. ndfsht'eva, visit; 
casto, chdsto, often; 
bud'.nebo, bM...nebd, either... or; 
nemam co^ nemim tso, I have no- 
thing (to ); 



Lesson 24. 



105 



libi se mi, leebee se me, I like it 

(him, her); it pleases me; 

bude se jim libit, btid% s# yim leebit, 

they will like it ; it will please them ; 

bude jim mile, bude yim mile, it will 

please them : 

doufam, doufam, I hope; 

T Chicago*), f Chicago, in Chicago. 



prijedou, prshi-yedoti, they will 

come; 
povidal jsem, poveeddlsem, I said; 



slibiti, 

tajiti, 

ukryvati, 

nemuzem, 



sleebit, to promise; 

tdyit, to hide; 

ukreevdt, to cover up, 
to hide, to conceal; 
nemoozem, we can not; 



Exercises. 



My zus anem v Chicago, — pra- 
vil bratr; — pro lias je to dobre 
misto; — ukaz nam lepsi! *- At' ro- 
dina jde sem, — a zustan zde s 
nanii. 

Ja pravil : Vy mate zde pekny 
€omov; — libi se mi u vas; — my- 
k vam, — 



slim ze casto prijedem 



We shall stay in Chicago, — said 
(my) brother; — for us it is a good 
place; — show (to) us abetter one! 
— Let (your) family come here, — 
and stay here with us. 

I said: You have here a nice home ; 
— I like it here (i. e. at your house, 
with you, — u vas); — I think that we 



*) If we insist upon declining Chicago like a Bohemian noun of 
the neutre gender (ending in 0), we should say in the locative case: v Chi- 
cagu, fchicagu. However, this is rather an exception among the Bohe- 
mians in America, names of places of foreign origin being usually left un- 
changed, the same as in English. This may not exactly satisfy unyielding 
grammarians, but it is a rule dictated by common sense, the inflection of 
such proper names being not only useless, but in many cases perfectly ab- 
surd, and often impossible. Hence we say: do Milwaukee, v Milwaukee, 
za Milwaukee (to Milwaukee, in M., beyond M.); do Kewaunee, do 
Spring Yalley, do Dubuque, do Des Moines, etc. To attempt an in 
flection of such names, according to the rules of some declension of Bo- 
hemian nouns, would be an intolerable absurdity. The name of Chicago, 
indeed, yields easily to the Bohemian declension, and hence it is now and 
then declined; the same is true of some other names. There are also a 
few names of places well known throughout the world, which are always 
declined in Bohemian, presenting no difficulty to such a process; such 
are for instance: New York, — v New Yorku, do New Yorku, za New 
Yorkem (in New York, to K Y., beyond N. Y.); Boston, — y Bostonu, 
do Bostonu, za Bostonemj Washington, do Washingtonu; and some 
others. — These names are masculine, by force of their termination. 



106 



Part II. 



bud' ja, nebo jeden z nas. — Ale 
zustati s vami nemuzem. — Nas 
domov je na venku. 

Oni oba pravili: To je skoda! 

Tazal jsem se jieh, kdy prijedou 
k nam na navstevu; — povidal jsem, 
ze dame jim take hezkou svetnici; 

— ze se jim bude libit u nas, — ja- 
ko se nine libi n nich. 

Slibili prijeti na navstevu. — 
Doufam ze pohosteni od nas bnde 
mile jim, jako je mile mne od 
nich. 

Ten den mluvil jsem s nimi dlou- 
ho; — nemam co tajiti pf ed nimi; 

— nemam co ukryvati. — Tak mlu- 
vili jsme, az nebylo uz co mluviti. 



shall often come to you, — either I T 
or one of us. — But to stay with you 
we can not. — Our home is in the 
country. 

They both said: That is a pity! 

I asked them, when they would 
come to us on a visit; — I said, that 
we should give (to) them also a nice 
room; — that they will like it at our 
place (u nas), — as I like it at their 
house (u nich). 

They promised to come on a visit. 
— I hope that hospitality from us 
will be pleasing to them, as it is 
pleasing J:o me from them. 

That day I spoke with them a long 
time; — I have nothing to hide from 
them; — I have nothing to conceal. — 
So we spoke, until there was no- 
thing further to speak about. 

Note. The personal pronouns my, vy, oni (ony f., ona, n.) 

show the following variation, which has already become somewhat fami- 
liar to the student from the preceding lessons : 



my, me, 




we; vy, 


ve, you ; 


nas, nas, 




us; vas, 


vas, you; 


nam, nam, 


to 


us; vam, 


vam, to you; 


s nami, sndmi, 


with 


us; svami, 


svdmi, with you; 


oni, (ony, ona), 


om, (one, ona), they; 




jich, 


yikh, 


of them, 


them; 


jim, 


yim, 


to them; 




je, 


ye, 


them; 




v nich, 


viiik7i, 


in them, (o nich, about them ; od nichy 








from them; etc.) 


s nimi, 


smme, 


with them ; (za 


nimi, behind or after 
them, etc.) 



Lesson 25. 



107 



LESSON XXY. 



Stati, stdX!i (stdt), to stand; to 

cost; 
stoyee, stands; costs; 
stal, stood; cost; 

mluvee, speaks; 

pUychil (colloquially : 
puchil), lent, loaned; 
sndshee s8, agrees; 

smdl se, he laughed; 

podivejse, pofteevey s8, look (thou); 
podivejte se, pofteeveyU se, look 

(you); 
sejde se, seyde se, (he, she, it) will 

meet; 



stoji, 
stal, 
mluvi, 
pfijcil, 

snasi se, 
smal se, 



tisic, m. Viseets, thousand; 

stat, m. stdt, state; 

licta, f. ootstd, respect; 

rozpravka, f.ros-prdfka) talk > c° n " 

^ 7 , w Wersation, 

hovor, m. hovor, J discourse; 

zoubek, m . zoiibefc, 

neco, netso, 

nez, nesh, 

rozen, a, o rozen 

narozen, a, o ndrozen \ 

prave jako, prdvy& ydko, same as; 

nebylaunas, nebilldundss, she was 
not at our house; she 
has not been to see us. 



little tooth; 
some; 
than; 

born 



Exercises. 



Muj bratr je posud mlady; — je 
mladsi nez ja. — Ja jsem o dve leta 
starsi nez on. 

Diim meho bratra stoji teprv rok; 
— stal pet tisic*) dollar u; — sou- 
sed pujcil neco penez memu bra- 
tru. 

On ma rad meho bratra; — on 
mluvi o mem bratr u s lictou. — S 
mym bratrem kazdy se snasi dobfe. 



My brother is still young; — he is 
younger than I. — I am (by) two 
years older than he. 

The house of my brother stands 
only a year; — it cost five thousand 
dollars ; — the neighbor loaned some 
money to my brother. 

He likes my brother; — he speaks 
of my brother with respect. — With 
my brother everybody agrees well. 



*) Jeden tisic, yMen tiseets, one thousand; dva, tri, ctyry tisice, 

dwd, trshi, shtiri fiseetse, two, three, four thousand; pet tisic, pyet th- 
seets, five thousand; sest tisic, shest tiseets, six thousand; and so forth. 



1'08 



Part II 



Moje svagrova je ze statu Indi- 
ana*), — rozena v Terre Haute; — 
ma zena je z Ohio. 

Moji svagrove**) libi se v Chica- 
go tuze; — me zene libi se vice na 
Tenku. 

Rozpravka neb hovor s moji sva- 
grovou jest mily, — velmi mily, — 
prave jako s moji zenou. — Nevim 
kdy sejde se s mou zenou zas; — 
nebyla u nas davno. 

Podivejte se na moje ditko, — 
ma u£ zoubek! — pravila svagrova 
a smala se. — Hosik take smal se 
name. —To je me dobre ditko! 
pravila matka. 



My sister-in-law is from the state 
of Indiana, — born in Terre Haute; 
my wife is from Ohio. 

My sister-in-law likes it in Chica- 
go very much; — my wife likes it 
more in the country. 

A conversation or discourse with 
my sister-in-law is pleasant, — very 
pleasant, — the same as with my wife. 
— I don't know when she will meet 
(with) my wife again; — she has not 
been to see us a long time. 

Look at my baby, — he has already 
a tooth! — said my sister-in-law and 
laughed. — The little boy also smiled 
at me. — That is my good baby! said 
(his) mother. 



Note 1. The so-called possessive pronoun muj, muy (my, mine), 
takes in the feminine gender the form moje, ma, and in the neutre 
gender moje, me. Hence we say: muj bratr, my brother; moje sestra 
or ma sestra, my sister; moje dite or me dite, my child. — The vari- 
ation of this pronoun is shown in the following table : 



muj, m. 


muy; 


moje, 


ma, f . 


moy$, md; 


my, mine 


aneho, 


meho; 


moji, 


me, 


moyee, me; 


of my; 


anemu, 


memu; 


moji, 


me, 


" ; 


to my; 


v mem, 


vmem; 


v moji, 


vme, 


v " v " ; 


in my; 


s mym, 


smeem; 


s moji, 


s mou, 


sfnoyee, smoil, 


with my. 



*) Or Indiany. See foot note in Lesson XXIV. 

**) "" Moji svagrove, me zene, is the dative case, responding to the 
question komuS (to whom?) Komu se libi? to whom is it rjleasing? (whom 
does it please?) — Libi se me svagrove; — libi se me zene; — it pleases 
(to) my sister-in-law; it pleases (to) my wife. 



Lesson 25. 



109? 



The neutre gender moje, me, shows in the other cases the same 
variation as the masculine muj, excepting the accusative (or objective) 
and the vocative case, which are like the nominative: to je me dite, this, 
is my child; vidini me dite, I see my child; 6 me dite! oh my child! 

Note 2. The possessive pronoun tvuj, m., hciiy (tyoje or tva, f., 
twoye, tied; tyoje or tve, n., tice), thy, thine, — agrees in its declension 
perfectly with niiij (moje, ma, me). 

The same is true of the possessive pronoun svuj (svoje, sva, f . ;. 
svoje, sve, n.), sictly (sicoye, sicd, sice), which means "one's own", but 
frequently stands for muj, tvuj, jeho, jeji (my, thy, his, her),, nas, yas, 
jieli (our, your, their). 



Moji lide, moye tide, my folks ; 
puda, f. poodd, ground, soil; 



krov, m. krof, 



roof; 



ylastni, 
st'asteu, 
nazpet, 
specham, 



pribuzuy, a, prshee-biiznee, relative, 
kinsman, relation; 
via st -nee, own; 

shtdsten, happy ; 

ndspytit, back; 

spye-khdm, I hasten, I j 
hurry; ' 

Exercises. 



radsi jsem, rdehi sem, I like better 

to be; 
nejradsi jsem, ney radii sem, I like 
best to be; 
neradjsem, nerdd sem, I do not 
like to be; 
sejdu se, seydu se, I meet; 

kolem sebe, kolem se~be, around me 
(him, her, us, etc.) 



Mi pratele*) v Chicagu vsichni 
radi me yideli; — skoda ze moji 
lide nebyli se mnou. 

>erad jseni pryc od mych lidi; — 
pokazde specham nazpet k mym li- 
dem. 

Rad yidim sve pratele; — rad se 
sejdu se svyiui pribuznymi; — ale 



My friends in Chicago all liked 
(were glad) to see me; — it is a pity 
that my folks were not with me. 

I do not like to be away from my 
folks; — every time I hasten back 
to my folks. 

I like to see my friends; — I like to 
meet (with) my relatives; — but I like 



*) See foot-note in Lesson XXII. 



110 



Part IT. 



radsi jsem doma. — Opravdu, nej- 
radsi jsem doma s mymi lidmi. 

Nej radsi vidim kolem sebe sve 
lidi. — Jsem st'asten se svymi lid- 
mi ve svem vlastnim domove, — na 
sve vlastni piide,— pod svym vlast- 
nim krovem. 



better to be at home. — Truly, I like 
best to be at home with my folks. 

I like best to see around me my 
folks. — I am happy with my folks 
in my own home, — on my own 
ground, — under my own roof. 



Note 2. The plural of muj m., moje or ma f., and moje or 

me n., is as follows : moji, mi, moye, mee, m. 

moje, me, moy$, me, f. 
moje, ma, moy$, ma, n. 

In common discourse moje, me is used in the neutre as well as in 
the feminine gender. In English, we invariably employ my and mine. 

In the plural number the following variation takes place : 
moji, mi; moje me; moyi, mee; moy$, me; — my, mine; 
mych, meekh, of my (od mych, from my; v mych, in my; etc.), of mine; 
mym, meem, to my, to mine; 
smymi, smeeme, with my, with mine; (zamymi, after or behind mine, etc.) 

The plural of tvuj m., tvoje, tva f., tvoje, tve n. (thy, thine) is 
perfectly analogous: tvoji, tvi m., twoyi, twee; tvoje, tve f. & n. 
twoyti, twe (thy, thine); tvych, tweekh, of thine; tvym, tweem, to thine; 
s tvymi, stweemi, with thine. 



LESSON XXYI. 



Z ilk 1 lid, -m. zdklad, foundation; 
koliksvetnic, kolik sioy^t-mts, how 
many rooms; 
kuchyne, f. Mkhine, kitchen 

sklep, m. sklep, cellar 



zahrada, f . zahrddd, garden 

zahradka,f. zdhrddka, small garden 
strom, m. strom, tree 

stromy, pi. stromy, ) 
stromovi, n. stromovee, ! 



trees 







Lesson 26. 




111 


patro, n. 


patro, 


story 


ovoce, n 


ovots8, 


fruit 


studne, f . 


studne, 


well 


ovocne, 


ovotsne, 


fruit -bearing 


cisterna, f. 


tsisternd, 


cistern 


nesou, 


nesoil, 


they bear 


altan, m. 


dltdn, 


bower 


mrva, f. 


m e rvd, 


manure 


plot, m. 


plot, 


fence 


v lete, 


vleUe, 


in summer 


docela, 


dotseld, 


quite 


v ziine, 


vzimyg, 


in winter 


liplne, 


oop tine, 


perfectly 


z jara, 


zyd-rd, 


in the spring 


drive, drshee-vg (or drs 


heef) ) be- 


puda, f. 


poo da, 


land 


prve, p e rv8, 


) fore 


akr, m. 


dk e r, 


acre 


je-lipravda? yelliprdvdd) isn't it 


zbytek, 


m. zby-tek, 


remainder 


ze ne? 


z<? n$ t 


> so? 


je, jest, 


yg, yest, there 


j is, there are; 








pouze, 


pouze, 


only. 






EXEE 


CISES. 







Yds duin je novy, je-li pravda? 
Ano, nas dum je docela novy. 
Zaklad naseko domu je dobry. 

Ten velky lot patri k vasemu do- 
niu, ze lie? 

Ten lot patri k nasemu doinu; — 
je to zbytek akrn pudy co jsme 
ineli drive. 

Co je ve vasem dome? kolik 
svetnic mate? 

Y nasem dome je kuehyne, pet 
svetnic a dobry sklep, — studeny 
v lete, teply v zime. 

Doufam ze jste spokojeni s va- 
sini domem (or se svym domeni). 

Ino, jsme liplne spokojeni s na- 
sini domem. 

Yas dum ma dve patra, ze ne? 

Ne; pouze jedno patro. 



Your house is new, isn't it? 

Yes, our house is quite new. 

The foundation of our house is 
good. 

That large lot belongs to your 
house, does it not? 

That lot belongs to our house; — 
it is a remainder of the acre of land 
(what) we had before. 

What is in your house? how many 
rooms have you? 

In our house there is a kitchen, 
five rooms and a good cellar, — cold 
in summer, warm in winter. 

I hope that you are satisfied with 
your house. 

Yes, we are perfectly satisfied 
with our house. 

Your house has two stories, hasn't 
it? 

No; onty one story. 



112 



Part II. 



Myslim ze mate u vaseho domu 
malou zahradu a za vasim domem 
studni, tez cisternu. 

Ano, nase misto je pekne; — na 
nasi zahrade mame altan; — kolem 
nasi zahrady je vysoky plot. — Je 
to prijemna zahradka. 



Nasi lide maji radi stromovi*). 
— Nase stromy jsou ovocne. — Z ja- 
ra davame**) mrvu k nasi in ovoc- 
nym stromum.— Had sedam**)s na- 
simi lidmi ve stinu nasich stromu. 



I think that you have by your 
house a small garden and back of 
your house a well, also a cistern. 

Yes, our place is nice; — in our 
garden we have a bower; — around 
our garden there is a high fence. — 
It is a pleasant little garden. 



Our folks like trees. — Our trees 
are fruit-bearing. — In the spring 
we put manure to our fruit-trees. 
— I like to sit with our folks in the 
shadow of our trees. 



Note 1. The possessive pronoun nas, (nase, f. and n.) shows 
the following variation : 

(Masculine and neutre gender.) 

nas 9 m. nase ? n. ndsh, nashe, our, (ours); 



naseho, 
nasemu, 
v nasem, 



ndsMJio, of our; our (in the accus. or objective case); 

ndshemU, to our; 

vnashem, in our, (o nasem 9 about our; etc); 



(Feminine gender.) 

nase, nashe, 

ndshi, 



nasi, 
nasi, 



ndshee, 



our, ours; 

our (in the accus. or objective case); 
of our, to our; (y nasi, in our; s nasi, with our; etc.) 



*) Stromovi, stromovee, is a collective noun and means trees 
(stromy) in general. 

**) Dati, ddtii, to give; davati, ddvatH, to give repeatedly, to use 
to give; davame, ddvdm&, we use to give; we are giving. See Lesson XIII, ' 
Note 5. — Sedeti, sefteffi, to sit; sedat'i, seddtii, to sit repeatedly, to 
use to sit; sedam, I use to sit. 



Lesson 21 



113 



{Plural of all genders.) 

nasi, m. nase, f. & n. ndshi, nasM, our, ours; 

nasich, ndshikh, of our; (v nasich, in our; etc.) 

nasim, ndshim, to our; 

s nasiini, sndshimi, with our; (zanasimi, beyond or back of our; etc.) 

Note 2. The pronoun vas (vase, f. and n.) is perfectly analogous 
with nas in its declension. (Instrumental case m. & n. gender singular, 
omitted above : s nasim, s Tasini, sndsheem, svdsheem, with ours, with 
yours.) 

The English words their and theirs are both expressed by jich, — 
in common discourse nearly always jejich; yikh, yeyikh. This is in fact 
the genitive of the personal pronoun oni (ony, ona), they, and natural^ 
remains unchanged. For instance: 

Jieli duin, jicli domy, or jejich dum, jejich doiny; yikh dttrn, domi; 
ytiyikh diim, domi; their house, their houses. 

Ten duni jest jejich, ten dtcm yest yeyikh, that house is theirs. — Ty do- 
my json jejich, ty domi sou yeyikh, those houses are theirs. 



LESSON XXYII. 



The student is already somewhat acquainted with the indicative pro- 
nouns ten, ta, to, this or that; plural: ti, ty, ta, Hi, ty, id, these or 
those (in common discourse ty for all genders). Hence, in a short prac- 
tical review of their variations he will only meet old acquaintances. 



tide } 
litfi i 



people 



Lide, 

lidi, litfi 

staveti, stdvygt, to build 

staveni, stdvefiee, building 

zdeny dum, zftenee dum ) brick 

cihelny dum, tsihelnee dtim ) house 

stfecha ? strsh8-khd, roof 



kuzelna, kuzelnd, bowling-alley; 
zabava, zabavd, amusement; 
bydli, Mdlee, lives ; they live ; 

co bydli, tso bidlee, who lives 
(lit. what lives); 
nic nechybi, nits ngkhibee, nothing 
is wanting; 



114 



Part II 



sindel, shindell, shingle 

ncitelj uchitell, teacher 

pokojny, a, e, pokoynee, quiet 
prazny, a, e, prdznee, vacant 
jiste, yisfe, surely, certainly; 



muze, mooz8, can, may; 

byti za dobre, beetH za dobre, to be 
on good terms; 
na pravo, nd prdvd, to the right ; 
na levo, nd Wvti, to the left. 



Exercises. 



Ten dum je veru pekny; — je to 
zdeny dum. 

Strecha toho domu je ze sindele, 
neni? 

My slim ze je. — Nic nechybi to- 
mu domu; —jest prijemno bydleti 
y torn dome; — s tim domem kazdy 
muze byti spokojen. 



Ta zahrada ma yelkou cenu. — 
T te zahrade je mnoho ovocneho 
stromovi. 

Tu zahradu mam radsi nez park. 
— Mame take kuzelnu v te zahra- 
de, pro nasi (or pro svou) zabavu. 

To misto s tim stavenim a s tou 
zahradou ma vysokou cenu. 



Ti lide co bydli yedle nas, jsou 
pokojni sousede; — zadny z tech li- 
di neni zly; — se vseini temi lidmi 
jsme za dobre. 

Yidel jsem doktora jiti k tern li- 
dem na pravo od nas; — jiste nekdo 
je nemocen. 



That house is indeed nice; — it is 
a brick house. 

The roof of that house is of shin- 
gle (i. e. covered with shingles), is it 
not? 

I think it is. — Nothing is wanting 
to that house; — it is agreeable to 
live in that house; — with that house 
everybody can be satisfied. 



That garden has a large value. — 
In that garden there are many fruit- 
trees. 

That garden I like better than a 
park. — We have also a bowling-alley 
in that garden, for our amusement. 

That place with the building and 
garden has a high value. 



The people who live next to us, 
are quiet neighbors; — nobody (not 
one) of those people is bad;— with all 
those people we are on good terms. 

I saw the doctor go to those peo- 
ple to the right of us; — surely some- 
body is sick. 



Lesson 27. 



115 



Kdo jsou ti lide na levo2 — Na 
levo od nas bydli ueitel, pan Stan- 
ton, se svon (i. e. s jeho) rodinon. 

Ty loty za nami json prazne; — 
ale bndon pry stavet na tech lo- 
tech. 

Kolik tech lotu je? — My slim ze 
je sest tech lotu. 



Who are those people to the left ? 

— To the left of us lives a teacher, 
Mr. Stanton, with his family. 

Those lots back of us are vacant; 

— but, it is said, they will build on 
those lots. 

How many of those lots are there ? 
— I think that there are six of those 
lots. 



Note 1. The variation of the indicative pronouns employed in 
the foregoing is shown to be as follows : 

ten, m. to, n. t$n, td, this, that; 
toho, toho, of this, of that; 

tomu, tomu, to this, to that; 

T torn, /torn, in this, in that; 
(o torn, about that; etc) 
S tim, steem, with this, with 

that; (za tim, beyond that; etc. 

Plural : 
ti, ty, ta, 



ta, f. 


ta, this, that; 


tu, 


tu, this, that (accus. 




or objec. case); 


te, 


te, to this, xo that; v te, in 




that; o te, about that; etc. 


s ton, 


stoic, with this, with that; 




za ton, behind that; etc. 



tech, 

tern, 
s temi, 



these, those ; 

fetch, of those; v tech, 

ftekh, in those; etc. 

fern, to those; 

stemi, with those; 

za temi, behind those; etc. 



These indicative pronouns often occur in a compound form : tento, 
tato, toto, always meaning "this one"; in the plural: tito, tyto, tato, 
"these ones". Their inflection remains the same, with the suffix to at- 
tached to the original pronoun in every case: tolioto, to this one; tomu- 
to, of this one; and so forth. 



116 



Part II 



Note 2. The numeral jeden (f. andn. jedna, jedno), ytiden, 
ygdnd, yMnti, one, — agrees perfectly with ten, (ta, to) in its inflection: 

jeden clovek tarn byl, one man was there ; 

videl jsem jen jednoho (accus. or objective case), I saw only one; 
dal jsem to jednomu z nich {zmkh), I gave it to one of them; 
v jednom z nich se mejlim*), in one of them I am mistaken; 
sel jsem s jednim z nich, I went with one of them. 

Jedna zena je zde, one woman is here; — vidim jednu zenu, I see one 
woman ; — mam to od jedne z nich, I have it from one of 
them (f.); — mlnvil jsem s jednon, I spoke with one (f.). 



LESSON XXYIII. 



Sem, sem, hither, here; 

sam, sam, alone; 

cekate, cliekdU, you expect, you 
await {or you wait); 
necekam, ngchekdm, I do not ex- 
pect; 
ze prijde, ze prshiy-d&, that he will 
{or would) come; 
na ulici, nd ulitsi, on the street; 
ze jsteS z£ ste~? you say you are? 
ze s nikym$ ze smkeem, {literally: 
that with nobody?) you 
say with nobody? 



lek, m. lek, medicine 

lahev, f. lahev, bottle 

v lahvi, vldh-vi, in the bottle 
davka, f . ddfkd, dose 

po davkach, po ddfkdkh, in doses 
nastuzen, nastuzen, having a cold 
jste nastuzen, stendsttizen, you have 

a cold 
nastuzeni, n. ndstitzenee, a cold 
kasel, m. kdsJiell, cough 

dati vinu, ddtH vinti, to charge to 
to blame (for) 
mysliti, mysliti, to think 



*) Mejliti se, myliti se, meylit s#, rneelit s8, to be mistaken; niej- 
lim se, meyleem s8, I am mistaken. — Zmejliti se, zmyliti se, zmeylit sg, 
zmeelit s8, to make a mistake ; zmejlil jsem se, zmeylil sem s8, I made a 
mistake. 



Lesson 28. 



117 



neotevru, neo-tev-7% I shall not 

open; 

jindy, yindy, before; at other 

times ; 

tokle, tohle, this here; 



mazati se, mdzdtii s8, to rub oneself ; 

nzivat, uzeevdt, to take medicine, 

(otherwise: to use); 

mazat se, mdzdt se, to rub one's 

self. 



EXERCISES. 



Myslim ze nekdo jde semj — kdo 
je to? 
Nevim; — koho cekate? 

Necekain nikoho; — dues chci 
by ti sam; — nechci videti nikoho. 

Komu poslal jste to poz\ani2 — 
Nikomu. 

kom myslil jste vcera, ze pri- 
jde? — nikom. 

S kym mluvil jste dnes rano na 
ulicil — S nikym. 

Ze s nikym] — Yy se mejlite. — 
Videl jsem vas stati s nekym na 
ulici. 

Pravda; ale dues necekam ni- 
koho. — Je nekdo zde ? opravdn? 

1 ne; zadny tn neni. — Nevidim 
zadnelio a neoteyru zadnemu. — 
Ja vim, ze dnes neeheete mluvit se 
zadoym. 



I think that somebody is coming 
here ; — who is it ? 

I do not know; — whom do you 
expect? 

I do not expect anybody; — to- 
day I want to be alone; — I do not 
want to see anybody. 

To whom did you send that in- 
vitation? — To nobody. 

Of whom did you think yesterday, 
that he would come? — Of nobody. 

With whom did you speak this 
morning on the street? — Witb no- 
body. 

You say, with nobody? — You are 
mistaken. — I saw you standing with 
somebody on the street. 

That is true; but to-day I do not 
expect anybody. — Is somebody 
here, really? 

O no; nobody is here. — I do not 
see anybody, and I shall not open to 
anybody.— I know that to-day you 
do not want to speak with anybody. 



118 



Part II 



Zde neco mate; — co to jeS 

To je lek. 
Jste nemocen? 
Mam nastuzeni a zly kasel. 
Ze jste nastuzen? — od ceho to 
je* 

Nevim cemn dati vinu. 

K cemu je ten lek? 
Budu ho uzivat po davkach. 
A eo je v torn? — V cem2 — Y te 
male lahvi. — To je liniment, 

Oo s tim budete delate — S cim2 
S tim linimentem. 

Tim se bndu mazat. 

Cim jste se jindy mazalS — Ni- 
cim. 



Here you have something;— what 
is it? 

That is medicine. 

Are you sick? . 

I have a cold and a bad cough. 

You say you have a cold?— what 
is it from ? 

I do not know, to what I should 
charge it. 

What is that medicine for? 

I shall take it in doses. 

And what is in that ? — In what ? — 
In that small bottle. — That is a 
liniment. 

What will }^ou do with that? — 
With what?— With that liniment. 

With that I shall rub myself. 

With what did you rub yourself 
before? — With nothing. 



Note. The student is, by this time, quite familiar with the inter- 
rogative pronouns kdo, co, gdo, tso, (who, what). This lesson is de- 
signed simply to serve as a review of their variation, already shown in 
Note 5, Lesson XVIII. 

Kdo, co 9 gdo, tso, who, what; 

koho, celio, Mho, cheho, whose, whom; of what; od koho, (cello), 

from whom (what); 

komu, cemu, komit, cMmic, to whom, to what; k cemu, kchemic what for; 

v kom, v cem, fkom, fchem, in whom, in what; o kom, o cem, about 

whom (what); etc. 

kym, cim, keem, cheem, by whom, by what; s kym, s cim, with 

whom, with what. 



Lesson 29 



119 



LESSON XXIX. 



Cislo, n. olieesslo, number 

povera, f. povyerd, superstition 
u stolu, tistolu, at (or by) the table 



rokii, 
po roce, 

vsecko, 
nynejsi, 

sousediri, 
spolecne, 



rokii, in the year 

po rotsg, after a year. 

in a year 

fsMtsko, every thing, all 



nyneysliee, 
sousediiee, 
spoledine, 



present 

neighboring 

jointly, 

together 
over 
before, ago 
therefore 



pres, prshes, 

pred, prshed, 

teda, tMci, 

o to vice, o to veetse, so much more 

pouhy, a, e, potlhee, pure, mere 

nest'astny, a, e nesMdstnee, un 

lucky, unfortunate 



zdalo se, zddlo s#, it seemed; 
stehovat se, steliomt se, to move; 
vystehovat se, vy-sfe7iovdt s#, to emi- 
grate; 
prestehovat se, prshe-sfehovdt s#, to 

remove; 
tissaftit se, to settle; 
otiid I from here, 



usadit se, 
odtud, 
odsud, 
odtamtiul, 
kolik je, 



otsild > from there; 

otdmtUd, from there; 

kolik ye, how many 

are; how much is; 

yam je, vdm ye, you are; 

ze je, ze y&, (that) there is, 

(that) there were; 

to pry je, to pree y&, that is said 

to be. 



Jedenact, 


yMendtst, 


eleven 


ctyrycet, 


shtiritset, 


forty 


dvanact, 


dicdndtst, 


twelve 


padesat, 


padgsdt, 


fifty 


trinact, 


trshindtst, 


thirteen 


sedesat, 


shedgsdt, 


sixty 


ctrnact, 


shterndtst 


fourteen 


seduidesat, 


sedumdesdt, 


seventy 


patnact, 


pdtndtst, 


fifteen 


osmdesat, 


osumdesdt, 


eighty 


sestnact, 


shestndtst, 


sixteen 


devadesat, 


devadesat, 


ninety 


sedmnact, 


sedumndtst, 


seventeen 


sto jeden, 


sto yeden, one 


hundred 


osmnact, 


osUmndtst, 


eighteen 






and one 



120 



Part II 



devatenact, devdtgndtst, nineteen 
dvacet, diodtset, twenty 

dvacet jeden, dwatset ytiden, twenty 

one 
dvacet dva, dioxtset dwa, twenty two 
tricet, trshitset, thirty 

trice t jedeu, trshitset y^den, thirty 

one 
tricet dva, trshitset diva, thirty two 



tisic, tiiseets, a thousand 

tisic jedno sto, tiseets yedno sto, 
one thousand one hundred; 
tisic pet set, Viseets py$t set, one 
thousand five hundred; 
dva tisice, dwa tiseetse, two thou- 
sand; 
tri tisice, trshi tiseetse, three thou- 
sand; 
ctyry tisice, shtiri tHseetsg, four 
thousand; 
pet tisic, pyet tiseets, five thou- 
sand; etc. 
tisic osm set devadesat, tiseets ostlm 
set devadesat, one thousand 
eight hundred and ninety; 
milion, million, a million; 

dva miliony, dwa milliony, two mil- 
lions; 
tri miliony, trshi milliony, three 

millions; 



sto dva, std dwa, one hundred 

and two 
sto dvacet, sto dwatset, one hundred 
and twenty 
dve ste, dwyg sVe, two hundred 
tri sta, trshi std, three hundred 
ctyry sta, shtiri std, four hundred 
pet set, pyU set, five hundred; 
sest set, shestsei, six hundred; etc. 



ctyry miliony, shtiri millidny, four 

millions; 
pet milionu, pyet millionoo, five mil- 
lions; 
sest milionu, shest millidnoo, six 
millions; etc. 

Jednotka, yednotkd, a unit; 

dvojka, dwoykd, a two ; the fig- 
ure two; 
trojka, troyka, a three; 

ctyrka, ctverka, shtirka, shtwerka, 

a four; 
petka, pyetkd, a five; 

desitka, d$seel-ka, a ten ; 

dvacitka, dwatseetkd, a twenty; 
tricitka, trshitseetkd, a thirty ; 
ctyry citka, shtiritseetka, a forty; 
padesatka, padesatka, a fifty; etc. 
stovka, stofkd, a hundred; 

tisicovka, Viseetsofkd, a thousand. 



Lesson 29., 



121 



Exercises. 



Kolik je nas u stolid — Je nas 
dvanact. — To je dobre; ja myslel 
ze je nas trinact a to pry je ne- 
sfastne cislo. 



I, to je poulia povera! 



Kolik akru ma rase farma I — 
Sto sedesat akru. — A farina vase- 
ho otce? — Otec ma tri ctyrycitky; 
ja mam o ctyrycet akru vice. 

Moje farma stala o tisic dollaru 
yice, nezli farma otcova. 

Oba mate dob re fanny; — obe 
farmy jsou dobre. — To jsou dve 
pekne farmy. 

Jaka je asi nynejsi cena tech 
dvou farem? — Asi devet tisic dol- 
lar 11. 

Nam dvouni*) take patfi osmde- 
satka lesa v sousediiim townshipu. 

Yam oboum*)* — Auo, nam 
dvouni*) spolecne. 

Kdy jste se tu usadilil 

Otec usadil se tu pred ctyrmi le- 
ty; ~ ja tez; stryc pred dvouma*) 
nebo tremi lety. 



How many are we at the table? — 
There are twelve of us. — That is 
right; I thought there were thirteen 
of us, and that is said to be an un- 
lucky number. 

O, that is a mere superstition. 



How many acres has your farm ? — 
One hundred and sixty acres. — And 
the farm of your father? — Father 
has three forties; I have forty acres 
more. 

My farm cost one thousand dol- 
lars more than my father's farm. 

Both of you have good farms; — 
both farms are good. — Those are 
two nice farms. 

What is about the present price of 
those two farms? — About nine thou- 
sand dollars. 

To us two also belongs an eighty 
of forest in the neighboring town- 
ship. 

To both of you? — Yes, to us two 
jointly. 

When did you settle here? 

Father settled here four years 
ago; — I also; uncle two or three 
years ago. 



*) In ordinary discourse always : dvoum, oboum ? dicoum, oboum, to 
the two, to both; * pred dvouma, pred obouma, prshM dicotima, prshed 
oboumd, before two, before both. — The precise grammatical form is: 
dyema, obema, divy&mci, obygmci; pred dvema, pf ed obema. 



122 



Part II. 



Nam trem zdalo se, ze musime 
by dleti pohromade. 

My vystehovali se z Evropy 2 ) do 
Ameriky^), — usadili se v Ohio, — 
po roce prestehovali jsme se do sta- 
tu Illinois, odtud po dvou nebo 
trech letech do Nebrasky^), a od- 
tud po peti letech do Kansasu. 



To us three it seemed that we 
must live together. 

We emigrated from Europe to A- 
mcrica, — settled in Ohio, — after a 
year we removed to the state of Illi- 
nois, from there after two or three 
years to Nebraska, and from there 
after five years to Kansas. 



Kdy jste narozenS — Roku tisic 
osm set padesat dva. — Teda je 
vam tricet osm let. 

Jak stary je vas otec? — Muj otec 
je pres sedesat; — muj strye je sko- 
ro sedmdesat let star; — je o pet 
let stars! nez muj otec. 

Ja jsem jen o rok starsi nez ma 
sestra a o tf i leta starsi nez muj 
bratr. 



When were you ("are you") born? 
— In the year one thousand eight 
hundred fifty two. — Then you are 
thirty eight years. 

How old is your father? — My 
father is over sixty; — my uncle is 
nearly seventy years old; — he is five 
years older than my father. 

I am only one year older than my 
sister and three years older than my 
brother. 



Note 1. We have seen that the numeral jeden is declined (Note 
2, Lesson XXVII). The same is true of the numerals dva, tri, ctyry 
and oba. The feminine and neutre gender of dva and oba is dve, obe; 
but the inflected cases are the same in all three genders. Ctyry is used in 
the feminine and neutre gender, and in connection with inanimate nouns 
of the masculine gender: ctyry zeny, ctyry deti, ctyry domy (four 
women, four children, four houses); whereas the masculine animate use 
ctyri; for instance: ctyri muzi, ctyri hosi (four men, four boys). Collo" 
quially, however, ctyry is used without any discrimination. 



2) Evropa, Amerika, evropa, amerika; z Evropy do Ameriky, 

zevropy do ameriky, from Europe to America. Nebraska, do Nebrasky, 
to Nebraska. Kansas, do Kansasu, to Kansas. — Evropa, Amerika, 

Nebraska, are feminine, Kansas is masculine, by reason of thuir termina- 
tion. See also foot-note in Lesson XXIY. 



Lesson 29. 123 

The variation of these numerals is set forth in the following expose: 

dva, obam., dre, obe, (f. & n.) died, obd, clwyg, obye, two, both; 

dvou, obon, die oil, oboP., of two, of both; 

dveina, obeina, (colloq. dyouiu, oboum), dicyemd, oby&nd (dicoiim, obotim), 

to two, to both; se dvema, s obema, (se dyonma, 

s obouma) with two, with both; etc. 



tfi, ctyM (ctyry), trslii, shtirshi (shtiri), three, four; 

ti'i, trech; ctyr, ctyrech; trsliee, trshekh; shtir, slitirekh; of three, of 
four; ve trech, ve ctyrech, in three, in four; etc. 
trem, ctyrem, trsliem, shtir em, to three, to four; 

se trenti, se ctyrmi, se trshemi, s8 shtirmi (colloq. se tf ema ? se ctyrnia), 

with three, with four. 

Note 2. The adverbial numerals once, twice, tliree times, four 
times, etc., are formed in Bohemian by adding the suffix krat to the 
cardinal number: jedenkrat, dvakrat, trikrat, ctyrykrat, etc. 

In place of jedenkrat, yMenkrdt (once), the shorter form jednou, 
yednott, is generally emploj^ed: 

Kolikrat jste tain byll how many times have you been there? — 
Jen jednon; only once. 

Kolikrat se to stalo? how many times has it happened? — Myslim 
ze dvakrat; I think (that) twice. 

Note 3. The ordinal numbers are as follows: 



prvni, 


P e rmee, 


first 


sesty, 


shestee, 


sixth 


druky, 


driViee, 


second 


sedniy, 


sedmee, 


seventh 


tireti, 


trsliefee, 


third 


osniy, 


osmee, 


eighth 


ctvrty, 


shiver tee, 


fourth 


devaty, 


devdtee, 


ninth 


paty, 


pdtee, 


fifth 


desaty. 


dessdtee, 


tenth 



124 



Part II. 



From eleven to nineteen they are formed by appending y to the 
cardinal number (corresponding with the English th): jedenacty, y$de- 
ndtstee, eleventh; etc. 

Dvacet, tficet, ctyrycet have dvacaty, tficaty, ctyrycaty, dwdtsd- 
tee, trshitsdtee, slitiritsdtee (twentieth, thirtieth, fourtieth). The rest of 
the tens are regular: padesaty, padesdtee fiftieth), etc. — Sty, stee, one 
hundredth; tisici, tiiseetsee, one thousandth. 



Dvacaty prvni, twenty first; dvacaty druhy, 

Both tens and units take the ordinal form. 



twenty second; etc. 



There is also a distinction of gender, the feminine terminating in a 
and the neutre in e (in place of the masculine y), corresponding exactly 
with the adjectives: dobry, a, e (see Note 2, Lesson YI). 

Hence we say: druhy muz, druha zena, druhe dite, the second 
man, the second woman, the second child. 

The plural form druzi, druhe, druzee, druhe, means "the others". 

Prvni, treti, have the same termination in every gender, like ad- 
jectives ending in i. (See Note 1, Lesson XXI.) 

Ordinal numbers are declined like adjectives of a corresponding 
termination: prvniho muze, of the first man; druheho dne, of the 
second day (or: on the next day); druhe zeny, of the second woman (or 
wife); druheho ditete, of the second child; druhemu, to the second; 
v druhem, in the second; s druhy m, with the second. 

Note 4. The adverbs formed from cardinal numbers by means 
of the suffix fold, denoting multiplication, are in Bohemian called special 
numerals and formed as follows: 



dvoji, dwoyee, twofold 

troji, troyee, threefold 

ctvery, shtwgree, fourfold 



patery, pateree, 
sestery, shesteree, 
sedmery, sedmeree, 



fivefold 

sixfold 

sevenfold; 



and so forth, always appending ery to the cardinal number (in the fem- 
inine gender era, in the neutre ere). 



Lesson 30. 



125 



From these there is derived a distinct class of multiplicative numer- 
als by changing ery into ero and appending nasobny (which in English 
also means fold), only the first three forming an exception: 



dvojnasobiiy, dwoy-ndsobnee, 
trojnasobny, troy-ndsobnee, 
ctveruasobny, shwer-ndsobnee, 
pateronasobny, pdtero-ndsobnee, 



twofold (double); 
threefold (treble) ; 
fourfold (quadruple) ; 
fivefold (quintuple); etc. 



LESSON XXX. 



Ysecek, 



fsMtsek, m. ^ 



all, 



vsecka, fshUskd, f. 
vsecko, vse, fsUtsko, fs he, n . ) ( whole) 
prodej, m. prodtiy, sale 

vy prodej, m. veeprodgy, selling out; 
zasoba, f. zdsobd, stock 

latka, f. Idtkd, stuff 

latka na saty, Idtkd nd shdte, dress- 
goods; 
znamka, f. zndmkd, label 

kupec, m. kupets, buyer, purchaser; 
(kupci, pi. ktiptsi) 
odkupnik, m. odktipneek, customer 
vee, f . vyets, thing, article ; 

vydelek, m. veetfelek, profit 

viile, f. voott, will 

zaklad, m. zdkldd, foundation 

zakladui, zdklddnee, fundamental 
kamen, m. kdmen, stone 

zarmutek, m. zdrmtitek, sorrow 



silny, silnee, strong 

silne, silne, strongly 

silueji, silneyi, more strongly 

nejsiliieji, ney silneyi, most strongly 






nicely 
deep 

deeply 



pekne, pyZkne, 
hluboky, hlubokee, 
hluboko, hluboko 
kluboce, lilubots 
velice, ve~lits8, greatly 

hezky, liesskee, nice, pretty, fine; 
liezky, hesske, nicely, prettily, finely 
cesky, ehesskee, Bohemian 

cesky (adv.), chesske, 
po cesku, po chessku, in Bohemian 
anglicky (adv.), dnglitske, English 
francousky, frdntsoilske, French 
spanelsky, shpdnelske, Spanish 
nenieeky, nemetske, German 

pozde, pozdte, late 

pozdeji, poztfeyi t later 



126 



Part II 



psati, psdtH, psdt, to write 

uciti se, tichtt s8, to learn 

vypradan, a, o, veproddn, a, d, sold 

out 
kladli jsme, kladli sme, we were 

laying; 
polozili jsme, polozili sm&, we laid 



dal jsem, ddl s#m, I gave, I put ; 
rucim (za), rucheem, I warrant; 
dojat, doydt, moved 

trapilo*), trdpild, it grieved 

zbylo*), 2%£#, remained, was left 
zemrel, zemrshel, died 

yal, vdl, blew 



Exercises. 



Meljsem vyprodej. — Miij kram 
je vsecek vyprodan; — vsecka za- 
soba je vyprodana; — prodal jsem 
vsecko zbozi lacino. — Yyprodal 
jsem vsecko za hotove. 

Ze vseho zbozi zbylo jen neco lat- 
ky na saty. 

Ke vsemu zbozi dal jsem ceny; — 
znamky byly Ma vsem. — Jsem ted' 
hotot se vsim. 

Ysichni kupci, doufam, budou 
spokojeni; — vsecky veci byly do- 
bre; — na vsech vecech mel jsem 
jen maly vydelek. 

Ysem svym odkupnikum rucim 
za zbozi; — chci miti se vsemi do- 
brou vuli. 



I had a selling out. — My store is 
all sold out; — the whole stock is 
sold out; — I sold all goods cheap- 
ly. — I sold out every thing for 
cash. 

Of all the goods there only re- 
mained some dress-goods. 

To all the- goods I put (i. e. at- 
tached) prices; — labels were on every 
thing. — I have now done with every- 
thing. 

All the buyers, I hope, will be sa- 
tisfied; — all articles were good; — 
on all articles I had only a small 
profit. 

To all my customers I warrant 
my goods; — I want to have with 
all a good will. 



*) Trapiti, trapiti, (trdpit), to grieve, to trouble, to torment; 
trapil, a, o, (he, she, it) grieved, troubled, etc. 

Zbyti, zbeefli (zbeet), to remain, to be left; 
zbyl, a, o, (he, she, it) remained, was left; 
zbylo, there remained. — See Note 2, Lesson IX. 



Lesson 30. 



127 



Dues je hezky den. — Ano, dues 
je hezky; — sluuce sviti hezky. 

Doufam ze zitra bude take pekn^ 
den a ze stance bude pekne svitit. 

Ycera byl sitay vitr. — Rano vi- 
tr yal sitae, odpoledne jeste alneji 
a nejsitaeji k veeeru. 



Yas dum ma hluboky zaklad. — 
Ano, polozili jsme zaklady hluboko. 

Kdyz jsme kladli zakladni ka- 
men, nas liosik zenirel a byl jsem 
hluboce dojat. 

Byl to veliky zarniutek; — tra- 
pilo nas to yelice. 

Kolik let mu bylo?*) — Bylo mu 
dvauaet let. 

Mluvil anglicky i cesky, — take 
psal po anglicku i po cesku. 

Pozdeji chtel uciti se tez fran- 
cousky, spanelsky i nemecky, — 
aspon cisti a psati trochu. 



To-day is a fine day.— Yes, to-day 
it is nice; — the sun is shining nicely. 

I hope that to-morrow will be also 
a nice day, and that the sun will 
shine nicely. 

Yesterday there was a strong 
wind. — In the morning the wind 
blew strongly, in the afternoon 
more strongly yet, and most strong- 
ly toward evening. 

Your house has a deep foundation. 
— Yes, we laid the foundations deep. 

When we were laying the founda- 
tion stone, our little boy died, and 
I was deeply moved. 

It was a great sorrow; — it grieved 
us greatly. 

How old was he? — He was twelve 
years. 

He spoke English and Bohemian, 
— he also wrote in English and in 
Bohemian. 

Later he wanted to learn also 
French, Spanish and German, — at 
least to read and write a little. . 



Note 1. Grammarians call vsecek (all) an indefinite numeral; it 
also takes the form of vsechen or vsecken (feminine, yseckna, vseckna; 
neutre, vsechno, vseckno). The plural is vsickni, ysecky, vsecka, vsitskni, 
vs7ietski, vsMtskci. In common discourse vsecky or vseci is used in the 
plural in all three genders. 



*) Kolik let mu bylo? (literally: how many years was it to him?), 
the same as: jak byl star i how old was he? Bylo mu, the same as byl, 
he was. 



128 Part II 

This numeral is also declined and presents the following variation 
of form : 

Singular : 

vseho, m. & n. fsMho (vsi, f. fshee) of all (of the whole, of everything); 

vsemu, fshemu, to all; ve vsem, v# fshgm, in all; se vsim, sgfsheem, 

with all. 
Plural : 

vsech, fshVkh, of all; ve vsech, vgfshekh, in all; vsem, fshem, to all; 

se vsemi, s# fsMmi with all. 

Note 2. Adverbs (qualifying verbs) are often derived from ad- 
jectives, qualifying nouns. This rule obtains in Bohemian as well as in 
English. 

Such adverbs are formed in English by adding ly to the adjective : 
strong, strongly; nice, nicely. In Bohemian, the terminal y of the ad- 
jective is changed into an e : 

silny, silne; pekny, pekne. 

In some cases, however, the final y changes into an o> or the final 
syllable ky into ce : hluboky, hluboko, hluboce, deep, deeply; veliky, 
velice, great, greatly. In a few cases the formation of adverbs is wholly 
irregular: dobry, good-, dobre, well. 

Sometimes the long y simply changes into a short y : hezky, 
hezky, nice, nicely. This is generally the case, whem the adjective is 
derived from the name of a nation : anglicky narod, the English nation; 
mluvim anglicky, I speak English; — cesky jazyk, the Bohemian tongue; 
mluvim cesky, I speak Bohemian. In these cases we can also use the 
form: po anglieku, po cesku. 

In common discourse, the distinction between such adjectives and 
adverbs as hezky — hezky, cesky — cesky, etc., is obliterated, their 
pronunciation being the same. 

Note 3. Many adverbs of quality have a comparison, like ad- 
jectives, in order to express various degrees of quality. In regular com- 



Lesson SO. ic)( . 

parison, the second decree is formed by adding ji to the advert. a „H 
the th,rd degree by prefixing nej to the secondare : si J,I Ton! 
tlnej,, more strongly; nejsilneji, most strong Some advert hat 
an. regular comparison, which must be learned and remembered The 
following are mostly in use : 

dobre, doorM, well; lepe, Up*, better; nejlepe, neyUpt, best; 
lip, leep, « ; nejh'p, neyleep, » • 

zle, *#, badly; Mi-e, ImtiU; worse; nejhure, neyAoorsh* worst- 
hur, fow*A, •' ; „ejhuf, neyhoorsh, « ! 

fcnM***, soon; drive, **W, sooner; nejdfive, «**•*«* soonest- 
dm, eft-Mee/ •< ; nejdfiv, neydrsheef, « j , 

dlonho, dMMr, long; dele, A* longer; nejdele, W AST, longest- 
dyl, tied, " ■ nejdyl, neyded, " '■ 

blizko, MeesM, near; blize, M W **, nearer; nejblize, neybleete, nearest- 
bhz, 5tez, " ; nejbliz, »^6fe^, .. ■■■.'■ 

daleko, Ml* far; dal, Ml, farther; nejdal, ^ farthest ; ? 
vysoko, vyrtkt, high; yy§e, .Mtf* higher; nejvyie, ^m/^ highest; 
hlnboko, UtNUf, deep, deeply; Uonb, ftWJ, deeper; nejhlonb, «^«M», 

dCGTDGSt " 

snadno, «*&«, easily; snaz, ,««,, more easily; nejsnaz, neysndz, most 

easily; 
mnoho, rnraM, much; vie, vice, veets, veets* more; nejvic, nejvice, «*- 

veets, neyveets* most; 
male, m«0, little; mene, min, m^ ^ less; nejmene, nejmin, ney- 

mene, neymeen, least; 
draho, draze, ««, **« dear, dearly; draze, **« dearer; nejuraze, 

neydraM, clearest. 



130 



Part II 



LESSON XXXI.*) 



Nesti (or n£sti), to carry, to bear, is a verb denoting a continuous 
action. 

By means of prefixes numerous other verbs are derived from it (see 
Note 6, Lesson XIII), denoting a finite or finished action, or a solitary 
act of that nature : 

pfinesti, prshinesfi, or prshinest, to bring, to fetch; 
prenesti, prsM-nest, to carry over; to transplace; 
nanesti, n&nest, to bring a heap; to pile on; 
odnesti, ddnest, to carry away; to take away; 

donesti, ddnest, to carry to a place; to carry to somebody; 

podnesti, ptfdnest, to carry under; 

prednesti, pr shed-nest, to carry before; (hence: to lay before, to submit, 

to deliver;) 

to carry through; pronesti se, to grow heavy, to 
tire out (said of a burden which is carried); 

rdznest, to carry round; to scatter or spread; to deliver; 

finest, to carry off, to kidnap; (also: to be able to carry); 

vinest, to carry out; 

ziinest, to carry behind, away, i. e. out of sight; (also: to 

enter in a book or list). 

*) We bespeak the student's particular attention for this Lesson, 
designed as a systematic but easy and popular introduction to a complete 
mastery of the Bohemian verb, Which is the most important and the most 
complicated part of the language. To a great extent, this introduction 
will only appear as a review of what has already been learned about the 
verb in the preceding lessons, and hence will be the more readily mastered 
by the student. There being only a few hundred verbs used in the ordina- 
ry intercourse in any language, their acquisition for practical everyday 
purposes is, after all, only a matter of a few weeks' application. 



pronesti, prdnest, 



roznesti, 
unesti, 
vynesti, 
zanesti, 



Lesson 31. 131 

As before observed, the meaning of these derivatives becomes in 
most cases self-evident, when we bear in mind the signification of the 
prefixes, which constantly recur in this process of formation of new verbs: 

do, dd, to; pre, prsM, over; pod, pod, under; 

od, dd, from, off; pfi, prshi, to, by, at; nad, nad, over, up, above; 

na, net, on; pfed, prslied, before; pro, pro, through; 

ve, v#, in; ob, ob ) round, roz, roz, apart, asunder; 



ob, ob ) 

0, o > 



vy, ve, out; o, o ' about; za, za, behind, away, into. 

The prefix za very often denotes a solitary action or sudden mani- 
festation ; for example : 

peti, zpivati, pyffli, speevaHi, to sing; zapeti, zazpivati, zcipyet, zdspee- 

vat, to sing a song; 

zvoniti, zwdn.it, to ring; zazvoniti, zazicdrlit, to give a ring; to pull the 

bell once. 

The prefix u denotes: 1. an action separating a part from the 
whole: seknouti, seknoutH, to make a cut; iiseknouti, UseknoHH, to cut 
off; — 2, a diminutive, momentary, or solitary action: sklebiti se, shkle- 
biHi s& t to frown; — usklebiti se, to make a frown; 3. a progressive destruc- 
tion or disappearance: paliti, palifi, to burn; upaliti, to burn up, 
to burn at the stake; — 4. a completion or canning out of something: 
delati, tfeldfi, to do, to make, to work; udelati, to make or finish some- 
thing; to do a certain act. 

These are the main modifications due to the prefix u, connected 
with verbs; there are, besides, two or three minor or incidental ones, 
which it is not necessary to mention. 



The principal parts of a Bohemian verb, from which the entire con- 
jugation may easily be formed by means of the proper endings, are the 
following: 

The infinitive: nesti, to carry; I the perfect indicative: nesl, carried; 
the present indicative :nesn, I carry; | the imperative: lies, cany (thou). 



132 



Part II 



Nesu, 

neses, 

nese, 

neseme, 

nesete, 

nesou, 



nessti, I carry, 

nessesh, thou carries t, 
ness8, (he, she, it) carries, 
nessemV, we carry, 

nessUV, you carry, 

nessoti, they carry; 



nes, 

at' nese, 
nesme, 
neste, 



ness, 
af : 
nessme, 
nesste, 



nesl*) jsem, nessl sem, I carried, 
nesljsi, nessl si, thou earnest, 
nesl, nessl, he carried, 

neslP*) jsme, nessli sm8, we carried, 
nesli jste, nessli st$, you carried, 
nesli, nessli they carried ; 

carry (thou), 

let him (her, it) carry, 

let us carry, 

carry (you), 



at' nesou, #t' nessott, 



let them carry. 



Note 1. The future tense of nesti is usually not formed by means 
of the auxiliary toyti (to be) in connection with the infinitive: bmlu nesti, 
budes nesti, etc. ; but by means of the prefix po, connected with the 
present tense: ponesu, ponessu, I shall carry; poneses, ponessesh, thou 
wilt carry; and so forth. 

The derivatives mentioned above, formed by means of prefixes, have 
in fact no present, but only a past and a simple future tense; for example: 

prinesti, to bring; prinesl jsem, I brought; prinesu, I shall bring; — 
odnesti, to carry away; odnesl jsem, I carried away; odnesu, I shall 
carry away. (See Notes 4 and 7, Lesson XIII.) 



*) Feminine nesla, nessld; neutre neslo; — see Note 2, Lesson IX. 
— Ja jsem nesl, ja nesl, I carried; ty jsi nesl, ty's nesl, thou carriedst; 
vyjste nesli, you carried. See Lesson X. 

As already mentioned in Note 1, Lesson IX, the distinction between 
the perfect tense, so difficult and puzzling for the student of the English 
language, does not exist in Bohemian. Nesl jsem means both I carried 
and I have carried; it also means I did carry, and 1 was carrying, — 
when the latter relates to a separate action. 

Likewise the present, nesu, means not only I carry, but also: I 
am carrying, I do carry; or, if used interrogatively: nesu? do I carry f 

The same observations apply to all other verbs, there being only 
one form of the present tense, and of the past tense, in Bohemian. 
**) Feminine nesly; neutre nesla; see Note 2, Lesson IX. 



Lesson 31. 



133 



The verbs lezu, I crawl; vezu, I carry; jedu, I ride; kvetu, I 
blossom; rostu, I grow, — and some others, usually form their future in 
the same way as nesu, I carry. Hence we do not say budu lezti, etc; 
but we say : 

polezu, polezti, I shall crawl; povezu, povezti, I shall carry; pojedu, 
poyedu, I shall ride; pokvetu, pokioettl, I shall blossom; porostu, po- 
rostu, I shall grow. 

In the sequel we shall give the principal parts of every verb, from which the stu- 
dent can form the whole conjugation without any difficulty. There being a slight ir- 
regularity in the formation of the present tense from the infinitive in some cases, this 
course will obviate any confusion which might arise therefrom, for a beginner. 



Yezti, 


vgzti, vezt*), 


to carry (in a 
vehicle); 


plesti se, p. se, 


to be mistaken, 
confused; etc.**) 


vezti se 


, vezti se, 


to ride; 


masti, mdsVi, 


to confuse; 


vesti, 


vessti, 


to lead; 


masti se, masti se, 


to be mistaken ; 


lezti, 


I8zfi, to cri 


iwl, to climb; 


mesti, mesti, 


to sweep; 


kvesti, 


kicesti, 


to blossom; 


klasti, klasti, 


to lay; 


cisti, 


c7ieesti, 


to read; 


krasti, krasti, 


to steal; 


rusti, 


roosffl ) 

rosti ) 


to grow; 


pasti, pdsti, 


to herd, to tend, 


rosti, 






to pasture . 


plesti, 


plessti, to twist, to knit; 
to confuse, to mix up; 


pasti se, p. s#, to 


graze, to browse ; 


vezu, 


vezti, I carry 


vezl jsem, 


vezl sem, I carried, 
vez, vez, 


or I have carried; 
carry (thou)***) ; 



*) See Note 1, Lesson XI. 

**) This and many other verbs have a variety of significations, which 
cannot here be explained. We refer the student to the Dictionary of the 
Bohemian and English languages, by Charles Jonas, second edition. 

***) The reflexive form of a verb is conjugated in the same way as the 
ordinary form, with se added: vezu se, I ride; vezl j sem se, I rode; 
povezu se, I shall ride ; vez se, ride (thou) ! 

The student is already well aware that negation is always expressed 
by the prefix ne, which stands for the English do not, does not, did not: 
nevezu, I do not carry; nevezl jsem, I did not carry; nepovezu, I shall 
not carry; nevez! do not carry! 



134 



Part IL 



vedu, vtidti, I lead; 
lezu, lezu, I crawl; 
kvete, kwtitti, it blooms; 
ctu, clitic, I read; 
rostu, rostu, I grow; 
pletu, pletu, I knit; 

matu, matU, I confuse; 

metu, metu, I sweep; 
kladu, klddu, I lay : 
kradu, krddU, I steal; 
pasu, pdsu, I herd ; 



vedl jsem, v#dls#m, lied; ved', veil', lead; 
lezl jsem, Uzl sem, I crawled; lez, Uz, crawl; 
kvetl, kwM, it bloomed; kvetf, kw&t\ bloom; 
cetl jsem, cMtlsem, I read; cti, chtii, read; 
rostljsem, rostl sem, I grew; rosf, rost, grow; 

(pletu se, I get mixed up, etc.); pletl jsem, I knit- 
ted; plet', pleV, knit; 
matl jsem, mail sem, I confused; mat', mat, con- 
fuse; 

metl jsem, metl sem, I swept; met', met, sweep; 

kladljsem, klddl sem, I laid; klad\ kldft, lay; 

kradl jsem, krddl sem, I stole; krad' ? kr ad', steal; 

pasl jsem, pasl sem, I herded; pas, pas, herd. 



Pasak, m. 


pdssdk, 


the cowboy, 


datum, n. 


ddtUm, 


the date 




the herdsman; 


skola, f. 


shkold, 


the school 


dobytek, m 


. dobytek, 


the cattle 


novela, f . 


novella ) 
rdmdn ) 


the novel 


ehoduik, m 


k7iodneek, 


the sidewalk 


roman, m. 




zlodej, m. 


zloftey, 


the thief 


zem, f . 


zem ) 
podWihd ) 


the floor 


cerv, m. 


clierf, 


the worm 


podlaha, f . 




jablon, m. 


ydblon, 


the appletree 


pastva, f. 


pdstwd, 


the pasture 


ptaci, pi. 


ptdtsi, 


the birds 


ruka, f . 


rdkd, 


the hand 


dejepis, m. 


fteyepis, 


the history 


noha, f . 


noha, 


the foot 


cestopis, m 


. tsestopis, 


the book of 


mleko, n. 


mlekd, 


the milk 






travels; 


zeleniny, f . 


pi. zglgniny, the vege- 


stado, m. 


stddd, 


the herd 






tables; 


ovee, n. s. 


& pi. oftse 


the sheep 


zamesti, 


zdmesHi, 


to sweep up; 


sotva, 


sotted, hardly, scarcely; 


docisti, dticheesXH, to finish reading; 


snadnQ,, 


snddnd, 


easily 


muze, 


mooz&, he (she, it) can 


nikam, 


nikam, 


nowhere 


zabavny, d. 


e zdbdvnee, 


entertaining. 



Lesson 31. 



135 



Exercises. 



Co neses? (co to neses?) 

Nesu obed pro otce*). 

Co vezete na trhl — Yezu trochu 

obili. 
Co yeze vas soused] — On veze 

brambory, 
Kam vedete toho chlapce*)? — Ve- 

du ho do skoly, — Ze skoly pove- 

du ho zas domu. 

Nelez na strom! — J A nelezu, — 
Nelezl jsera nikam. — Videl jsem 
te lezti. 

Co to zde leze? — Cervi zde lezou. 

Vsecko kvete. — Stromy uz kvc- 
tou. — Loni nas jablon kyetl 
krdsne; — nevim jak pokvete le- 
tos. 

Co to ctesS — J& ctu zabavnou kni- 
hu; — a co vy ctetel — Dejepis 
Spojenych St&tu**). 



What doest thou carry? (what is it 
thou earnest ?) 

I carry dinner for my father. 

What do you carry to market? — I 
carry some grain. 

What does your neighbor carry? — 
He carries potatoes. 

Where do you lead (or "take") that 
boy? — I lead him to school. — 
From school I shall lead him home 
again. 

Do not climb (on) the tree ! — I do not 
(climb). — I did not climb any- 
where. — I have seen thee climb. 

What is that crawling here? — 
Worms are crawling here. 

Everything blossoms. — The trees 
are blooming already. — Last year 
our appletree blossomed beauti- 
fully; — I don't know how it will 
bloom this year. 

What is it thou readest? — I read an 
entertaining book; — and what do 
you read? — A history of the U- 
nited States. 



*) The rule stated in Note 2, Lesson XVIII, applies also to nouns 
ending in ec (declined like mui&), the vowel e being dropped in the in- 
flected cases: otec, dtets, the father ( or "my father"); otce, 8t8&, of the 
father; pro otce 5 for the father \ oteove> titsdve, the fathers; «•■ chlapec, 
khltipets, the boy; chlapce, khlaptse, of the boy (or "the boy", in the ob- 
jective case). j 

o **) Spojene St&ty, spoy#ne stdty, the United States; Spojenyeh 
St&tu, spoyMeekh stdtoo, of the United States; ve Spojeri^cli Statech, t>£ 

spoygneekh stdtekh, in the United States. 



136 



Part II. 



Vcera cetl jsem roman 
jsem ho docetl; — zitra 
sti nejaky cestopis. 



, — vecer 
budu ci- 



Kdyz je teplo, vsecko roste rychle. 
— Ty zeleniny rostou rychle; — 
po desti porostou jeste rychleji. 

Ja casto se pletu v datum, — Clo- 
vek snadno se plete; — ja take 
casto se matu. 

Zamet' kram. — Zametl jsem ho 
uz; — chodnik zametu hned. 

Ptaci nyni kladou vejce. 

Zlodej krade kde muze. — Zlodej i 

kradou vse. 
Pasak pase stado. — Dobytek se 

pase. — Ovce se pasou. 



Had pasu kravy, 
pastva. 

Biti, beefi, 

piti, peet% 

liti, leeffl, 

siti, seeti 

seti, sefli 

myti, meet% 



kde je dobra 



to beat, to strike; 

? to drink ; 

to pour; 

y to sow, to seed; 
to wash; 



Yesterday I read a novel; — in the 

evening I finished reading it; — 

to-morrow I shall read some book 

of travels. 
When it is warm, everything grows 

fast.— Those vegetables grow fast; 

— after a rain they will grow still 

faster. 
I am often mistaken in the date. — 

One is easily mistaken; — I also 

am frequently mistaken. 
Sweep the store. — 1 have swept it 

already; — the sidewalk I shall 

sweep presently. 
The birds now lay eggs. 
The thief steals where he can. — 

Thieves steal everything. 
The cowboy tends the herd. — The. 

cattle are grazing. — The sheep are 

browsing. 
I like to pasture cows where there 

is a good pasture. 



kryti, kreetH, 
triti, trsheefi, 
priti se, prsheetH 
siti, sheefi, 
ziti, zeeti, 



to cover 

to rub 

to dispute 

to sew 

to live*) 



*) Notes 1 an d.2,, .Lesson XIII, explain that in common dis 
course the final i * of the infinitive is nearly always dropped. Con- 
sequently we hear: beet, instead of beeti; peet, instead of peeti; ,and so 
forth. Myti is often pronounced meyt, kryti — kreyt. (See Note 3, Les- 
son VL) — There is no difference of pronunciation between bit! (to beat), 
and byti (to be), except when the latter is vulgarly pronounced beyt. 



Lesson 31. 137 

biju (or biji), biyu, I beat; bil jsem, bill sem, I beat (have beaten); 

bij, My or be, beat (thou); 

piju (or piji), piyti, I drink; pil jsem, pill sem, I drank; pij, piy 

{or pee), drink; 

MJu or lejuj Myti or leyU, I pour; HI jsem 9 Ul sem, I poured; lij or 

lej, Uy, ley, pour; 
siju or seju, siyil, seyu, I sow; sil jsem, sil sem, I sowed; sej, sey, sow; 
myju*) 5 miyil, I wash; myl jsein 9 mill sem, I washed; myj 9 miy, wash; 
kryju*) 9 kriyit, I cover; kryl jsem ? brill sem, I covered; kryj, &Wy, cover; 
tru*) 9 trti, I rub; trel jsem, trsliell sem, I rubbed; tri ? £r«9^', rub; 

pru se*) ? j9?'# s£, I dispute; pfel jsem se, pr shell sem se, I disputed; pri se, 

pr-s^a s#, dispute; 

siju, slxe-yu, I sew; sil jsem, shil sem, I sewed; sij, shiy (or she), sew; 

ziju, z£##, I live; zil jsem, z^ sem, I lived; zij, z% (or zi), live; 



Note 2. The paradigm of the present indicative of biti would be: 
biju, bijes, bije, bijeme, bijete, bijou (I beat, thou beatest, he beats, 
we beat, you beat, they beat). In the written language, the forms biji 
and biji ibiyi, biyee) are frequently employed in the first person singular 
and third person plural, in place of biju, bijou {biyU, My oil), which are 
always used in conversation. The same is true of the other verbs of this 
class. 



Exercises. 



Proc bijes to dite? — Nebij ho! — 

J & ho nebij u. 
Hodiny**) bijou deset. — Uz bilo 

deset. 



Why do you beat that child? — Do 
not beat him! — I do not beat him. 

The clock strikes ten. — It has al- 
ready struck ten . 

*) Colloquially also uieju, kreju, tru, pru se, meyu, kreyu, trshti, 
prsMi se; mej, krej, mey, krey, (do) wash, (do) cover. 

**) Hodiny (the clock) is a plural noun; the following verb must 
therefore be putin the plural: bijou or biji (they strike). 



138 



Part II. 



Co pijesS — Piju pivo; — co vy pi- 
jeteS — Pijeme vino; — deti pi- 
jou vodu. — Rano vsichni pili 
jsme mleko. 

Lijeme mleko do kavy. 

Sluzka myje zem. — Kryjeme pod- 

lahu kobercem. 
Lil jsem liniment na ruku a tf el 

jsem nohu. 
Seju psenici; — soused sil jecmrn. 

— Sejeme casne. — Co jste vy se- 

\\% — Mc jeste; — budeme siti 

oves. 



What doest thou drink? — I drink 
beer; — what do you drink?— We 
drink wine; — the children drink 
water. — In the morning we all 
drank milk. 

We pour milk in coffee. 

The servant-girl washes the floor. — 
We cover the floor with a carpet. 

I poured the liniment on (my) hand 
and rubbed (my) foot. 

I sow wheat ; — (my) neighbor sowed 
barley. — We sow early. — What 
have you sowed ? — Nothing as 
yet; — we shall sow oats. 



Mote 3. All verbs consisting of a simple root or stem, 
to which the termination ti is directly attached, belong to 
the first conjugation. 

They may be divided in two leading classes, slightly diverging in 
their inflection, but following the same general principle, as shown in the 
preceding two groups of examples; namely, 1. those terminating gener- 
ally in sti, and 2. those terminating generally in iti : 

1. nesti, to carry (nes in the root or stem); — nesu, neses, nese, I carry, 

thou earnest, he carries; neseme, nesete, nesou, we carry, 
you carry, they carry; — nesl jsem, I carried; — nes, carry; 

2. piti, to drink (pi is the root or stem); — piju, pijes, pije, I drink, 

thou drinkest, he drinks; pijeme, pijete, pijou, we drink, you 
drink, they drink ; — pil jsem, I drank; — pij, drink. 

Note 4. A few exceptional verbs of this conjugation, with the 
grammatical termination of ci (but popularly cti) in their infinitive, show 
a slight deviation from the above paradigms. For instance: 



Lesson 32. 



139 



peci, petti, to bake; — peku, peces 9 pece, peceme, pecete, pekou, 

ptikti, pechesh, peche, pechemS, p8ch8t8, pekoti (I bake, thou 
bakest, he bakes, we bake, you bake, they bake); pekl jsem, 
pekl sem, I baked; pec, peek, bake; 

tecij tetsi, to flow; tece, tekou, tekl, tec, tecM, tekoit, tekl, tech (it 
flows, they flow, it flowed, flow). 

But colloquially, the forms pecu, pecou, tecou (I bake, they bake, 
they flow) are used in place of peku, pekou, tekou. 



LESSON XXXII. 



Minouti, minouti, to pass by; — minu, mintt, I pass by; (mines, mine, 
minesh, ming, thou passest by, he passes by; niineme, minete, 
mill on, min&mS, minetg, minou, we, you, they pass by); — 
minul*) jsem, minul sem, I passed by or I have passed by; inin, 
mifi, pass (thou) by. 

hynouti, hynoiifi, to perish (or rather: to be perishing); — hynu, hynu, 
I am perishing; hynul jsem, I was perishing; kyn, hyn, perish. 

zdvihnouti, zdwihnoicM, to pick up, to raise; — zdvilmu, zdicihnu**), I 
shall pick up; I shall raise; zdvihnul jsem (also zdvihl jsem, 

like the first conjugation), zdicihnul sem (zdwihl sem), I picked 
up, I raised; zdvihni, zdicihm, pick up, raise. 

kopnouti, kopnouti, to kick; — kopnu**), I shall kick; kopnul jsem (also 
kopljsem), kopnillsem, I kicked; kopni, kopni, kick. 



Dalka, f. ddlkd, 
planina, f. planina, 



the distance 
the plain 



oseni, n. ossenee, growing crops ; 
takto, takto, in this way; 



*) Feminine minula, mintild; neutre minulo, minulo; — see Note 
2, Lesson IX. 

**) The present tense having a future meaning, zdvilmu, kopnu, is 
in fact the simple future tense of these verbs. See Note 7, Lesson XIII. 



140 

hruska, f. hrtishka, 

jablko, n. ydblko 

sncho, n. sukhd, 



Pan 


5 II. 




the pear 


nez, 


nesh, before ; 


(colloq. yabko), 


hledeti, 


7rfe&'et, to look; 


the apple 


pes, m. 


pess, the dog; psa 9 psd, 


drought (as an 




of the dog, the dog 


adverb: dry); 




(obj. case). 


Exercises. 





Nez hodina mine, budu zde, — pra- 

vil. 
Hodina minula, — dve hodiny mi- 

nuly, — pet hodin minulo (i. e. it 

passed), — den ininul, — a nebyl 

zde. 
Az mineme ten les, budeme videti 

vice. 
Jak brzy miniili jste les? 
Minuli jsme ho za liodinu; — pak 

videli jsme celou planinu. 
Ti lide nas brzy minou*). — Mines 

mnolio lidi (litfee, gen. case). 
Je sueho; — vsecko hyne; — oseni 

hyne^ — zeleniny hynou. 

Bylo sncho a vsecko hynulo. 

Takto vsecko bude hynonti. 

Zdvihni to jablko. — Uz jsem ho 
zdvihnnl (or zdvihl). — Zdvihnnla 
(or zdvihla) jsem dve jablka a 
hrnskn. 



Before an hour passes by, I shall be 

here, — he said. 
An hour passed, — two hours passed, 

— five hours passed, — the day 
passed by, — and he was not 
here. 

When we pass that forest, we shall 

see more. 
How soon did you pass the forest? 
We passed it in an hour; — then 

w T e saw the whole plain. 
Those people will soon pass us. — 

Thou wilt pass many people. 
It is dry; — everything is perishing; 

— the crops are perishing; — the 
vegetables are perishing. 

There was a drought, and every- 
thing was perishing. 

In this way everything will be per- 
ishing. 

Pick up that apple. — I have picked 
it up already. — I picked up 
{fern.) two apples and a pear. 



*) It is self-evident that this present tense of the verb minouti also 
has a future meaning, denoting an action which is expected to take place. 



Lesson 82. 



141 



Zdvihli jsme se a hledeli do dalky. 

— Zdvihni se! — Zdvihnete se! 

— Zdvihnete ruku (plural nice, 
rtitsg), 

Kopni toho psa! — Kopnul jsem ho 
trochu. 



We raised ourselves and looked into 
the distance. — Raise thyself! — 
Raise yourself! — Raise your hand 
(your hands). 

Kick that dog ! — I kicked him a 
little. 



Note 1, The root or stem of the verb miiioiiti is 

miu 9 to which the termination outi is attached. All verbs 
ending in outi belong to the second conjugation. 

Some of the verbs of this class are derived from adjectives, and their 
imperative is always formed like that of zdvihnouti : zdvihni. For ' 
example : 



bled-y 9 

bohat-y, 

chud-y, 

mlad-y, 

star-y, 

slab-y, 

inek-ky 9 

tvrd-y 5 

Yideti, 
sedeti, 
bezeti, 

drzeti, 
mlceti, 
horeti, 
prseti, 



Medee, pale; bled -nouti, blednoiltH, to grow pale; (blednn, I grow 
pale; blednul jsem, I grew pale; bledni, do grow pale); 



hohatee, rich; 

khtidee, poor; 

mlddee, young; 

stdree, old; 

sldbee, weak ; 

myekee, soft ; 
tic er dee, hard; 



bohat-noiiti, 

chud -nonti, 

mlad-nonti, 

star- nou ti, 

slab-nonti, 

mek-nonti, 

tvrd-nouti, 



bohatnouti, 

khUdnouHi, 

mlddnouXti, 

stdrnouXH, 

sldbnoiWi, 

mygknoUtH, 

tic e rd?iouVi, 



to grow rich; 

to grow poor; 
to grow young; 

to grow old ; 

to grow weak; 

to grow soft; 

to grow hard. 



vi&'eHi, 
se&'eti, 
byezeti, 

derzeti, 
m e IcheVi, 
horsheti, 
p ersliVti, 



to see; 

to sit; 

to run, to go 

hurriedly; 

to hold; 

to be silent; 

to burn ; 

to rain; 



slyseti, slislieti, to hear; 

slnseti, slics7ietii, to lit, to become ; 
stydeti se, stitfetiise, to be ashamed; 
nmeti, umyetii, to know; can; 
rozumeti, rozUmytiti, to understand; 
hazeti, 7idzetii, to throw (con- 
tinually); 
porouceti, poroitcheft, to command. 



142 



Part II 



Yidim, veii'eem, I see ; — vidis, vidi, vitfeesh, vi&'ee, thou seest, he 
sees; vidime, vidite, vidi, (colloq. also videji) vitfeemg, vitfeetg, 
vi&'ee, colloq. vifteyee, we (you, they) see; — videl jsem, viiKel 
sem, I saw, or I have seen; viz, see (being an irregular imper.). 

sedim, sefteem, I sit; sedeljsem, sedtel sem, I sat; sed', sit. 
bezim, by&zeem, I run; bezel jsem, byffiel sem, Iran; bez, by&i, run; 
drzim, derzeem,Ihold; drzeljsem, d e rzel sem, I held; dr2, d e ri,ho\d; 
mlcim, m e lcheem, I am silent, mlcel jsem, m e lchel sem, I was silent; 

mlc, m e lch, be silent; 
hori, horshee, it burns; hofel, horshel, burned; hor, Jiorsh, burn; 

prsi, p e rsliee, it rains; prselo, p e rsli$W, it rained; pr§, p e rs7i, rain; 

slysim, slisheem, I hear; slysel jsem, slishel sem; I heard; slys, slish, 

hear; 
slu si, slitshee, it fits ; sluselo, slUsMlld, it fitted. 

stydimse, stitfeem se, I am ashamed; stydel jsem se, stitfel sem *#, I was 

ashamed; styd' se, shame on thee! 
umim, umeem, I know, lean; umeljsein, umy till sem, I knew; 

umej, timyfy, know; 
rozumim, rozUmeem, I understand; rozumeljsem, rozumyttl sem, I un- 
derstood; rozumej, rozumygy, understand; 

hazim, hdzeem, I throw (I am throwing); hazel jsem, hazel sem, I was 

throwing; liazej, hdzey, throw; 

poroucim, poroucheem, I command; poroucel jsem, porouchel sem, I com- 
manded; poroucej, poroitchey, command. 



Vlak, m. vldk, 
oprate, f . pi. opratie. 
povyk, m. ptiviJc, 
jazyk, m. 
pradlo, n. 
§aty, pi. 
k aiiieni, n. 



the train; 

the lines; 

the cry; 

yazik, the tongue; 

prddld, the linen; 

shdty, suit of clothes; 

kamenee, stones (col- 
lectively); 



pevne, pevne, tightly, fast; 

silne, silne, strongly, hard; 

vyborne, veeborUe, very well, ex- 
cellently; 
spinavy, a, e shpindvee, dirty; 

jiny, a, e yinee, other, different; 
zapomnel jsem, zdpom-nel sem, I 

forgot ; 



Lesson 



143 



pfed lini, prsJied teem, before that; 

za n£j, za ney, for him, of him, 

(for it, of it); 



hrati ? hrdti, to play; 

uz ne> tish ne, not any more. 



Yidis neco? 
nic*). 



- Co Yidis % — Nevidim 



Doest thou see something? — What 
doest thou see? — I do not see any- 
thing. 

Do you {or can you) see well? — Yes, 
I can see all. — They see it well. 

We have seen a train; — have you 
seen it too? 

We have not seen it; — the children 
saw it. 

Here we shall see all. — Our friends 
will see us immediately. 

Who sits here? — It is I. — Why doest 
thou sit here? — Run out; — go out 
both (of you). 

You have been sitting all the time; 
— in the evening you will sit again. 

Hold (thou) the horse and keep still. 

— Hold (you) the lines and keep 
still. —Do you hold fast? — We 
hold fast. 

They hear us.— Nobody hears us. — 
That girl has heard us. — They 
have heard us. 

It rains; I hear it. — Do you hear the 
rain ? 

It does not rain yet; but it will rain. 

— Yesterday it rained hard; — be- 
fore that it had not rained for a 
long time. 

*) There is a double negation in Bohemian, similar to the vulgar 
English way of speaking: I don't see nothing. See Note 1, Lesson V. 



Vidite dobfe? — Ano, vidim vsecko. 

— Oni to vidi dobre. 

VidMi jsme vlak; — videli jste ho 

take? 
Nevideli jsme ho; — deti ho videly. 

Zde budeme videti vsecko. — Nasi 

prdtele budou videti n&s lined. 
Kdo tu sediS— To jsem ja. — Proc 

tu sedi§? — Bez ven; — bezte oba 

yen. 
SedMi jste poMd; — vecer budete 

sedeti zas. 
Drz kone a mlc. — Drzte oprate a 

mlcte. — Drzite pevneS — Drzi- 

me pevne. 

Oni nds slysi. — Zadny nas neslysi. 

— Ta holka nas slysela. — Slyse- 
li nas. 

Prsi; slysim to. — Slysite desH 

Neprsi je§te; ale bude prseti. — 
Vcera prselo silne; — pred tim 
neprselo uz davno. 



144 



PaH II 



Ty saty slusi vain vyborne. 

Ten klobouk mi neslusi; stydim se 

za nej. 
Nestyd' se; slusi ti dobre dost. 

Tve pradlo je spinave; nestydis se? 

Styd' se ! 
Umis cesky? — Ano ja umim cesky. 

Umite anglicky 1 — Trocku. 
Umite nemecky % — Urn el jsem do- 
bre; ale zapomnel jsem troehu. 

Umis hrati na piano? — Neumim. 

— Umite zpivati? — Neumim. 

Nase deti umeji cesky a anglicky, 

— a zadny jiny jazyk. 
Rozumeji nemecky % — Nerozume- 

Hazej kameni za plot. — Nehazej 
kameni na cestu. 

Hazejte ty pytle dolu. — Nehazejte 

tak rychle. 
Hazeli jsme drivi na hromadn, — 

a budeme hazeti zas. — Otec to 

porouci. 
Hazeji ti hosi kameni % — Nehaze- 

ji. — Uz nehazeji. 

Uz ddvno nehazeji. 



That suit of clothes fits you very well. 

That hat does not fit me; lama- 
shamed of it. 

Do not be ashamed; it fits thee well 
enough. 

Thy linen is dirty; art thou not a- 
shamed? — Shame on you ! 

Doest thou know Bohemian?— Yes, 
I know Bohemian. 

Do you know English? — A little. 

Do 3^ou know German? — I knew it 
well; but I have forgotten it some- 
what. 

Doest thou know how to play on 
the piano ? — I do not . — Can you 
sing? — I can not. 

Our children know Bohemian and 
English, — and no other tongue. 

Do they understand German? — 
they do not (understand). 

Throw T (thou) the stones behind the 
fence. — Do not throw the stones 
on the road. 

Throw (you) the sacks clown. — 
Don't throw r so fast. 

We have been throwing the wood 
on a heap, — and we shall throw 
again. — Father commands it. 

Are those boys throwing stones? — 
They are not. — They are not 
throwing any more. 

They have not been throwing for a 
long time (i. e. they stopped throw- 
ing long since). 



Lesson S3. 



145 



Note 2. The root or stem of the verb videti is vld, 

to which the termination eti is attached. All verbs ending 
in eti or eti belong to the third conjugation. 

The root of the verb is the usual form of the imperative: bez, run 
(thou); sed', sit; drz, hold; etc. — The third person singular and plural 
of the present tense are alike: vidi, he (she, it) sees; vidi, they see. Bat 
in colloquial usage it commonly takes the longer form: videji, se- 
d&ji (they see, they sit). 

In some cases the imperative is formed 1^ cutting off the terminal 
ti and adding j : umeti, — umej, know, hazeti, — hazej, throw; etc. 
These verbs always use the long form in the third person plural : umi, 
he (she, it) knows; iimeji, timyeyee, they know; — hazeji, hdzeyee, they 
throw. 



LESSON XXXIII. 



Ciniti, 


chimi!i, 


to do 


souditi, soiitfitii, to judge; 


choditi, 


khotfitii, 


to walk; to go 


platiti, plaWtii, to pay; to rule, 






(frequently) 


prevail, be in force; 


mluviti, 


mlttviti, 


to speak, to tell 


svititi, sweetiifi, to shine; 


vefiti, 


vygrsMHi 


to believe 


buditi, btttfiW, to wake; 


uciti, 


uchitii, 


to teach 


blazniti, bldmffii, to fool; to be 


uciti se, 


Hchiti s$ 


to learn (i. e. to 


crazy ; 






teach one's self) 


modliti se, modUHi se, to pray. 



Cinim, cJiineem, I do; — cinis, chinees7i, thou doest; cini, cliiHee, he 
(she, it) does; cininie, cinite, £ini (colloquially also cineji), 
chifieemg, c7iiiieet8, chiuee or chineyee, we, you, they do; — ci- 
nil jsem, chinil sem, I did, or I have done; cin, do (thou); 

ciiite, diinte, do (you); 

ehodim, klwfteem, I walk; chodil jsern, JcJio&'il sem, I walked; chod', walk; 

10 



146 



Paft II 



mluvim, mluveem, I speak; mluvil jsem, mlumlsem, I spoke; mluv, mluf, 

speak; 

verim, vygrsheem, I believe; veriljsem, vy&rs7iil sem, I believed; ver, 

believe; 

ucim, uclieem, I teach; ucil jsem, Uchil sem, I taught; uc, teach; 

ucim se, Uclieem s%> I learn; ucil jsem se, tic7iil sem s&, I learned; uc se, 

learn ; 

soudim, soufteem, I judge; soudil jsem, so Mil sem, I judged; sud', stiff, 

judge; 

platim, plafeem, I pay; platil jsem, platil sem, I paid; platf, pay; 

svitim, siceetieem, I shine (I light); svitil jsem, sweet HI sem, I shined 

(lighted); svitf, shine (light); 

budim, buffeem, I wake; budiljsem, buftil sem, I waked; bud', wake; 

blaznim, bldziieem, I am crazy; blaznil jsem, blaznil sem, I was crazy; 

blazni, bldzm, be crazy; 

modlim se, modleem s#, I pray; modlil jsem se, I prayed; modli se, pray. 



Ucitel*), m 


. uchitel, 


the teacher; 


kresliti, 


kresslitii, 


to draw; 


ucitelka,f. 


uchitelka, 


a female 


zivy, a, e 


zivee, 


living; 






teacher; 


nahlas, 


nahlas, 


aloud; 


2ak, m. 


zdk, 


the scholar; 


pilne, 


pilne, 


diligently; 


soudce, m. 


souts8, 


the judge; 


prave, 


prdvy&, 


rightly; 


zakon, m. 


zakon, 


the law ; 


krive, 


krshivye, 


wrongly ; 


kostel, m. 


kdstel, 


the church; 


podle, 


pddlg, 


according to; 


lampa, f. 


lampa, 


the lamp; 


drive, 


drsheevg, 


formerly. 



*) Ucitel, the teacher; ucitele, uchitelle, of the teacher; uciteli, 
uchitelli, to the teacher; (plural) ucitele, uchitelle, the teachers; — like 
pritel, pfatele (see foot-note on page 97). 



Lesson 33. 



147 



Exercises. 



£in dobre a budes stfasten. 

Co jsi nciniH Neucinil jsein nie. 

— On to ucinil. 
Chlapec chodi do skoly; — obe deti 

ehodi do skoly. 
Chodite casto do mestal — Drive 

chodil jsein tarn casto; — nyni 

tain nee 1 1 od i in. 
Proc nechodite? — Nemam cas. 

Mluv nahlas; ja te neslysim. 
Mlnvil jsi s ucitelemS— Nemluvil; 
ale mlnvil jsem s ucitelkou. 

Yeri ti uciteH — On vzdy mi veri, 
protoze mluvim pravdn. — To 
rad slysim. 

Ucitel uci nas mluviti pravdu. — 
Ucil nas tomn vzdycky. 

Uc se pilne. — Ucte se dobre. — 
Ucme se spolecne. 

Co se ucis*)? — Zemepis. — Co vy 
se ucite? — Kresliti. — Kreslite 
dobre. — Zak kreslil pekne. 

Soudil jsem kf ive. — Vy jste sou- 
dili prave. — Sondce soudil po- 
dle zakona. 



Do good and thou shalt be happy. 

What hast thou done? — I have not 
done anything. — He has done it. 

The boy goes to school; — both 
children go to school. 

Do you often go to town ? — Former- 
ly I went there often;— now I do 
not go there. 

Why do you not go? — I have no 
time. 

Speak loud; I do not hear thee. 

Hast thou spoken with the teacher ? 
-•- I have not (spoken); but I spoke 
with the lady teacher. 

Does the teacher believe you? — He 
always believes me,because I speak 
the truth. — I like to hear that. 

The teacher teaches us to speak the 
truth. — He has taught us that 
always. 

Learn(thou) diligently. — Learn(you) 
well. — Let us learn together. 

What doest thou learn? — Geogra- 
phy. — What is it you learn? — To 
draw. — You draw well. — The 
scholar drew nicely. 

I judged wrong. — You judged 
right. — The judge judged ac- 
cording to law. 



*) ^This is the colloquial expression. In the written language, uciti 
and uciti se govern the dative case, responding to the question cemn 2 
(See page 82.) Hence we should write: eenui se ncisS what doest thou 
learn? cemu ucite? what do you teach? And the answer w T ould be : ze- 
mepisu. 



148 



Part II. 



Zakon plati, vzdy platil amusi v£dy 

platit. 
Budil jsem kazde rano celou ro- 

dinu casne. 
Myslim 2e blaznis. — Ten clovek 

blazni. — Neblazni! — Blaznil 

jsi? — Ba blaznil jsem! 

Mesic je§t6 sviti; svitil celou noc. 

— Ta lampa sviti spatne; vcera 

svitila dobre. 
Modli se! — Modleme se! — Lide 

hi odll se v kostele. — Knez mo- 

dlil se za 2ive*) i za mrtve. • 



The law rules, always ruled, and 

must always rule. 
I waked up every morning the whole 

family early. 
I think that thou art crazy. — That 

man is crazy. — Don't be crazy ! 

Wast thou crazy? — Surely, I was 

crazy ! 
The moon still shines ; it has been shin 

ing all night. — That lamp shines 

badly; yesterday it shined well. 
Pray! — Let us pray! — People pray 

in church. — The priest prayed for 

the living and for the dead. 



Note 1. The root or stem of the verb eiaili is ciii, 

to which the termination iti is attached. All verbs ending 
in iti belong to the fourth conjugation. 

The root of the verb is the common form of the imperative: cin, do; 
chod', walk; mluv, speak; etc. In some cases, however, only the final ti 
is thrown off to form the imperative: blazni, be crazy; modli se, pray. 

Note 2. The verbs bydliti, mysliti, mnsiti (to reside, to think, 
must) are also written bydleti, mysleti, museti, and in popular language 
this form is always employed. This does not materially modify their in- 
flection, as the third and fourth conjugation are essentially almost iden- 
tical. For instance : 



*) Zivy, living; plural: #ivi, in the objective case zive. These dis- 
tinctions, however, disappear in common discourse. This adjective also 
has an indefinite or short form (see Note 2, Lesson XXIII): ziv, a, 0. 
For instance: je posud ziv, he is still living; matka je ziva, the mother is 
living; diteje zivo, the child is living. The expression ziv a zdrav, pro- 
nounced Ufa zdrdf, is frequently heard. 



Lesson 3 A. 



149 



(Third conjugation) 
sedeti, setfeHi, to sit 
sedim 9 setfeem, I sit 

sedeljsem, seftel sent, I sat 

sed' 9 seff, sit (thou) 

budu sedeti, budu sedeti I shall sit 



(Fourth conjugation) 
ciiiiti, chiniffi, to do 
rhiinu chineem, I do 

cinil jsciu, chmil sem, I did 

cm, chifi, do (thou) 

budu ciiiiti, budu ehmffii, I shall do. 



The above three verbs, in colloquial discourse, always take in the 
third person plural tlu form : bydleji, mysleji, niuseji, bidlgyee, misleyee, 
muH&yee (they reside, they think, they must); whereas the proper gram- 
matical form is like the third person sing alar : bydli, mysli, musi. 



LESSON XXXIY. 



Volati, 
behati, 
cekati, 
delati, 



coMXtt, to call; 

bytih&ti, to run (about); 
cheknXH, to wait; 

dV'/tV, to do, to make, to 
work; 
hledati, hl&datii, to seek, to look 

for; 
doilfati, to hope; 



prodati, proddfi, to sell; 

prodavati*), proddvMH, to be s dl- 

ing; 
povidati, poveedafi, to say, to tell; 
trestati, trestati, to punish; 

znati, zndfi, to know; 

ptati se, ptdtH se, to ask, to inquire; 
doufati, doufati, to hope; plovati, ptov&tii, to swim. 

Yolam, voldm, I call; volas, voldsh, thou callest; vola, he (she, it) calls; 
volauie, volate, volaji, voldme, voldtg, voldyee, we, you, they 
call; — volal jseni, voldl sem., I called; volej, voley, call (thou); 
volejte, voley te, call (you); 

behain, bytiham, I run; behal jsem, byehdl sem, I was running; bez, 

byez, run; 
cekam, chekdm, I wait; cekal jsem, chekdl sem, I waited; cekej, chekey, 

wait ; 
delam, tfeldm, I do, I make; delal jsem, (Xeldl sem, I did, I made; delej, 

. fteley, do, make; 

*) Reiterative form of prodati; see Note 5, Lesson XIII. 



150 



Part II 



hledam, hUddm, I seek; liledaljsem, MSdal sem, I sought; hledej, hU- 

dey, seek; 
doufam, doufdm, I hope ; doufal jsem, dotifdl sem, I hoped; doufej, 

doiifey, hope; 

prodam, I shall sell (having a future meaning; see Note 7, Lesson XIV; 

prodal jsem, proddl sem, Isold; prodej, prodey, sell; 

prodavam, I am selling: prodaval jsem, proddvdl sem, I was selling: pro- 

davej, proddvey, sell; 
povidam, poveeddm, I say; povidal jsem, poveeddl sem, I said; povidej, 

poveedey, tell; 
trestam (also tresci, trestsi), I punish; trestal jsem, trestdl sem, I pun- 
ished; trestej, trestey, punish; 
ziiaiii, I know; znal jsem, zndl sem, I knew; znej, zney, know; 
ptam se, I ask; ptal jsem se, ptdl sem s8, I asked; ptej se, ptey s&, ask. 



j- flower 



Kvetina, f. kicygfina 
kvitko, n. kweetko 

kytka, f . Mtkd, bouquet; 

majetek, m. mdyUek, property; 
na presrok, net prshesrok, next year 

pred lety, prslied lety, years ago; 

druzi, drtizee, the others; 

nasi, ndshi, our folks ; 



spatf iti, spatrshiVi, to see (or to 

meet); 
vedeti, vy&tfetH, to know; 

posluSny, a, £ poslUshnee, obedient; 
neposlusny, disobedient; 

tento (f. tato, n. toto), tentd, this 
one, this here. 



Exercises. 



Tolas me? — Koho volas? — Koho 

jsi volal? 
Yolam hocka; kde je? — Beha ven 

ku; vsechny deti behaji venku. 



Yolal jsem te; kde's (abbrev, of 
kde jsi) foyl? 



Doest thou call me? — Whom doest 
thou call ? — Whom didst thou call ? 

I call the boy; where is he? — He is 
running outside (i. e. out of doors); 
— all the children are running out- 
side. 

I called thee; where hast ihou 
been? 



Lesson 34. 



151 



Belial jsem na zahrade; — cekal 
jsem az me budete volati. 

(0 jsi delal 11a zahrade? — Nedelal 
jsem nic; — hledal jsem kvetiny. 

Je tarn mnolio kvetin % — Alio. 
Co druzi delali na zahrade? — Hle- 
dali kvetiny se mnou. 

Hledej pekne kvetiny a delej kyt- 

ky. — Jdete*) oba, ty a Karel, 

a hledejte kvitka. 
Doufam ze na pf esrok bndeme zivi 

a zdravi. — Doufejme! 
Donfal jsem spatriti vas zde. — 

Ysichni doufali sine sejiti se s va- 

mi. 
Prodam svuj majetek. — Prodejte 

ho brzy. — Miij bratr prodal svfij 

majetek lacino. 
Nasi prodali farmu a povidaji ze 

pnjdon do mesta. 

Povidal jsem niu, ze mam diun na 
prodej. — Prodavam vsecko eo 
mam. 

Tento majetek neni na prodej. — 
Kdo to povidal] — Kdo vam to 
povidal] 

Kazdy to povida. — Ysichni to po- 
vidaji, 

Znas mel — Znam te dobre; — znal 
jsem te uz pred lety. 



*) The infinitive is jiti, yeeUji, 



I was running in the garden; — I was 
waiting until you would call me. 

What wast thou doing in the gar- 
den?— I was not doing anything; 
— I was looking for rlowers. 

Are there many flowers there ? — Yes. 

What have the others been doing in 
the garden? — They were looking 
for flowers with me. 

Look for nice flowers, and make bou- 
quets. — Go both of you, — thou 
and Charles, and look for flowers. 

I hope that next year we shall be a- 
live and well. — Let us hope! 

I hoped to see (or meet) you here. — 
We all hoped to meet you. 

I shall sell my property. — Sell it 

soon.— My brother sold his prop- 
erty cheap. 
Our folks have sold the farm, and 

they say that they will go to the 

city. 
I told him that I had a house for 

sale. — I am selling everything 

I have. 
This property is not for sale. — 

Who said so ? — Who told you 

so? 
Everybody says so. — They all 

say so. 
Doest thou know me ? — I know thee 

well; — I knew you already years 

ago. 

to go; see Lesson XIII. 



152 



Part II. 



Kazdy me zna; — vsichni me 

znaji. 
Znate meho otcel ~ Neznam ho, 

— Znal jste mou matku? — Ne- 

znal jsem ji. 
Proc se ptas2 — Ptam se, protoze 

chci vedeti.*) 
Ptate se po me? — Ptal jsem se 

kde bydlite; — povidali mi, ze 

prodaljste svuj dum. — Nepro- 

daljsemhojeste. 
Neptam se co ucitel povidal; ja to 

vim. 
Yedel jsem, ze chlapec je neposlus- 

ny; -- rite ze musel jsem tresta- 

ti ho. 
To vime. — Ysichni vime, ze tres- 

tal jste ho casto. 



Everybody knows me; — they all 
know me. 

Do you know my father? — I do not 
know him. — Did you know my 
mother? — I did not know her. 

Why doest thou ask ?— I ask because 
I want to know. 

Do you ask for me ? — I asked where 
you lived; — they told me that you 
had sold your house. — I have not 
sold it yet. 

I do not ask what the teacher said; 
I know it. 

I know that the boy was disobedi- 
ent; — you know that I was oblig- 
ed to punish him. 

We know that. — We all know that 
you punished him often. 



Note 1. The root or stem of the verb volati is vol, 

to which the termination ati is attached. Verbs ending in 

ati belong to the fifth conjugation. 

Note 2. Some verbs ending in ati form their present like the 
verbs of the first conjugation ending in iti, (biti, to beat; biju, bijes, 
bije, etc.); for example: 

hrati, hrdtii, to play: hraju*), hrajes, hraje, hrdyu, hrdyesh, hrayg, 
I play, thou playest, he plays; hrajeme, hrajete, hrajou**) hra- 
yem$, hrdyete, hrdyoti, we, you, they play; — hraljsem, hrdl 
sem, I played; hraj, hrdy, play. 



*) Vedeti (to know) is one of the thoroughly irregular verbs: vim, 
vis, vi, veem, veesh, vee, I know, thou knowest, he (she, it) knows; vime, 
vite, vedi, veem8, veete, vyetfee, we, you, they know; — vedeljsem, vyffiel 
sem, I knew; vez, vyfa, know thou; vezte, vy&zte, know you. 

**) Hraji, hraji, I play, they play) are considered the pure gram- 
matical forms of the first person singular and third person plural; but 
hraju, hrajou, are exclusively used in the popular language. 



Lesson 34. 153 

However, this verb also follows the rule of the fifth conjugation in 
the present tense: hram, hras, lira; hrame, hrtite, hraji (I play, thou 
playest, he plays; we, you, they play). 

A few verbs modify the letter a in the present tense: 

hrati, IirshdW, to warn, — hreju (orhreji) hrejes, kreje; lirejeme, hie- 

jete, hrejou (or lireji); I warm, thou warmest, he warms; etc. 

— hraljsem, hrshdl sem, I warmed; hrej, hrshey, warm; 
prati, prshdibi, to wish; — preju (or preji), I wish; phil jsem, I wished; 

prej, wish; 
smati se, smati s&, to laugh; — smeju se (orsmeji se), smyeyic se, I laugh; 

smal jsem se, smdl sem s$, I laughed; smej se, smyeyse, laugh. 

Note 3. There are some verbs essentially belonging to this con- 
jugation, which show a considerable deviation in ihe present tense and 
imperative. The following are most frequently met with: 

brati, to take; — beru, beres, bere, bereme, berete, berou, herti, beresh, 

here, bereme, bere~(8, berou (I take, thou takest, etc); bral jsem 9 

bral sem, I took; ber, take; 
prati, to wash; — peril, peril, I wash; praljsem, pra% sem, I washed; 

per, wash; 
psati, to write; — pisu, peeshu, I write; psal jsem, p sal sem,, I wrote; 

pis, pish, write; 

kazati, to preach (or to command); — kazu, kdzu, I preach; kazal jsem, 
I preached; kaz, preach; 

tazati se, to ask; — tazu se, tdzu s&, I ask; tazal jsem se, tdzal sem se, 
I asked: taz se, ask; 

plakati, to weep; — placu, pldcliU (but also plakam) I weep; plakal jsem, 

pldMl sem, I wept; plac, plach, weep; 
skakati, to jump;— skacu, skdchu (but also skakam), I jump; skakal 

jsem, skakal sera, I was jumping; skakej, skdkey, jump: 
stonati, to be sick: — stunu, stooOu (but also stonam, stdndm), I am sick; 

stunes, stoonesh, thou art sick; stune, stoone, he is sick, etc.; 

stonej, stdney, be sick. 



154 



Part II. 



LESSON XXXY. 



Milovati, milovdfi, to love; 

dekovati, tfekdvatti, to thank; 

litovati, Utdvatii, to be sorry, to 

regret; 
jineiiovati, menovati, to name, to 

call 
to be called 
to be buying 



jmenovati se, m . se 
kupovati, ktipdvafi, 



pracovati, pvdtsovdXli, to work; 
radovati se, rdddvdtH se, to rejoice; 
opakovati, opakovati, to repeat; 
pamatovati, pam&tdvtitii, to remem- 
ber; 
podporovati, podporovati, to sup- 
port, to assist; 
ztravovati, strdvovdti, to board. 



Miluju (or miluji*) miluyu, I love; milujes, milUyesh, thoulovcst; milu- 
je, miluy e, he (she, it) loves; milujeme, milujete, milujou (or 
miluji*) miluy erne, miluy ete, miluy oil, we, you, they love; — 
miloval jsem, miloval sem, I loved; miluj, miluy, love; milujte, 
miluyte, love (you); 

dekuju (or dekuji), (I'ekuyu, I thank; dekoval jsem, tfekovdl sem, I thank- 
ed; dekuj, ftektiy, thank; 

lituju (or lituji), Utuyu, I regret; litoval jsem, litoval sem, I regretted; 
lituj, Mttiy, regret; 

jmenuju (or jmenuji), menuyii, I name; jmenoval jsem, menovdl sem, I 
named; jmeuuj, menuy, name; 

jmenuju se, menuyii se, I am called; jmenoval jsem se, menovdl sem se, 
I was called; jmenuj se, menuy se, call yourself; 

kupuju (or kupuji), kupuyti, I am buying; kupoval jsem, kUpovdlsem, 
I was buying; kupuj, kupuy, buy (or rather: keep buying); 



*) Miluju, milujou (I love, they love) is always used in ordinary 
conversation; miluji, miluji, miluyi, miluy ee (I love,' they love) prevails 
in the written language, being considered the proper grammatical form. 
This applies to all verbs of this conjugation: dekuju, dekujou, or dekuji, 
dekuji (I thank, they thank); lituju, litujou, or lituji, lituji (I regret, 
they regret); etc. 



Lesson 35. 



155 



pracuju (or pracuji), prdtsuyU, I work; pracoval jsein, prdtsovdl sem, I 
worked; pracuj, prdtsuy, work; 

raduju se (or raduji se), rdduyti s&, I rejoice; radoval jsem se, rddoml 
semse, I rejoiced; raduj se, rdduy s%, rejoice; 

opakuju (or opakuji), opdkuyu, I repeat; opakoval jsem, tipdkovdl sem> 
I repeated; opakuj, opdktiy, repeat; 

pamatuju (or pamatuji), pdmdtuyu, I remember; painatoval jsem, pdmd- 
tovdl sem, I remembered; pamatuj, pdmdttiy, remember; 

podporuju (or podporuji), podporuyu, I support; podporoval jsem, pod- 
pordml sem, I suported; podporuj, podporuy, support; 

zaluju (or zaluji), zdluyu, I complain; zaloval jsem, Mldvdl sem, I com- 
plained; zaluj, Mffiy, complain. 



Biili*)m. booh, God; 

blizni**) m. bleeznee, the fellow man, 
(neighbor); 
kral, krdl, the king; 

kralovna, krdlovnd, the queen; 
zebrak, m. zebrak, the beggar; 
kamarad,m. kdmdrdd, the comrade; 
objevitel, m. obye-vitel, the discov- 
erer; 
svet, m. swyet, the world; 

zeme, f . zemye, the country ; the 

earth; 
vlast, f. vldst, one's country; 
davati, ddvdfi, to give, to offer; 
zivot, m. zivot, life; 

yalka, f. vdlkd, war; 



osud, m. osud, fate; 

vychovani, n. vykhovdnee, education; 

dil, m. tfeel, a part; 

vydelek, m. veeftelek, earnings, wa- 
ges, profit; 

ktery, a, e ktevee or keree, which, 
what, who; 



vespolek, j a 



vespolek, 

' one another; 

nazpamet, naspdmyet, by heart; 

z pameti, spdmyetii, from memory; 

svobodny, a, e sioobodnee, free; 

single ; 

Rimane, rshimdne, the Romans; 

Yaclav, vdtsldv, Venceslaus, 

Wencel. 



*) Buh, Boha, Bohu, s Bohem (booh, bohd, bolm, sbohem), God, 
of God (God's), to God, with God. 

**) Nouns having the termination of adjectives are declined like ad- 
jectives of the corresponding termination. Hence we decline: blizni, — 
blizniho, of (our) fellow man or neighbor; bliznimu, to (our) neighbor; 
S bliznim, with (our) neighbor. See Note 1, Lesson XXI. 



156 



Part 11 



Exercises. 



Miluj blizniho sveho*). — Milujte 

se vespolek. 
Milujes rodice sve? — Miluj u je 

velmi. 
Matka miluje sve dite. — Deti mi- 

luji matku svou. 
Washington miloval svou vlas . — 

llimane milovali valku. 
Co kupujesl — Kupuji obili. — Co 

kupoval jsi onelidy'g — Kupoval 

jsem par koni. 

Kdo kupoval tento dim? — Nasi 

kupovali ten duin; — davali za 

nej dva tisice. 
dices neeo jistiS — Neclici nic, 

dekuju. 
Dal jsem zebraku pet centu a on 

dekoval mi. 
Dekuj me Bohu, ze jsme zdravi. — 

Dekuj svemu osudn, ze jsi rozen 

ve svobodne zemi. 
Dekuj te rodicum za dobre vyclio- 

vani. 
Lituju ze musim pryc. — Litoval 

jsem, ze musiljsem odejith— Zu- 

stan zde, povidali vsielmi 9 nebo 

budes litovati. 



Love thy neighbor. — Love (you) 
one another. 

Doest thou love thy parents? — I 
love them greatly. 

The mother loves her child. — The 
children love their mother. 

Washington loved his country. — 
The Romans loved war. 

What art thou buying? — I am buy- 
ing grain. — What wert thou buy- 
ing the other day?— I was buying 
a pair of horses. 

Who has been buying this house? — 
Our folks va ere buying that house; 
— they offered for it two thousand. 

Doest thou want something to eat ? — 
I do not want anything, thank you. 

I gave (to) the beggar live cents and 
he thanked me. 

Let us thank God that we are healthy. 
— Thank thy fate that thou wast 
born in a free country. 

Thank (your) parents for a good 
education. 

I am sorry that I must (go) away. — 
I was sorry that I had to leave. — 
Stay here, they all said, or thou 
wilt be sorry. 



*) This is the objective case, responding to koho2 whom? It agrees 
with the possessive case; see Remark on page 86. 



Less 07i 



15? 



Jak se jmenujesS — Jmenuju se 
Vaclav Zeman. — A jak vy se 
jmenujete? — Ja se jmenuju 
Stauek. — Jmenuj mi pet dilu 
sveta. 

Jak se jmeiioval objevitel Ameriky % 

— Kristof Kolumbus. 

Jak se jmeiioval kral, ktery ho 
podporovaU — Ferdinand, — A 
kralovna % — Isabella. 

Pracuj pilne a budes radovati se 
nad vydelkem. 

Rad pracujesS — Alio, ale muj ka- 
marad nerad pracuje; — on po- 
i-ad zaluje, ze musi praeovati. 

Pracovali jsme cely den. 

Ucitel zaloval mi, ze jsi neposlus- 
ny; — opakuju, zemusisbytipo- 
slusny; — pamatuj si to! 

Pamatuj co se ucis; — painatu- 
jes si to^ — Pamatuj u to dobre; 

— ueini se to nazpamet. 
Pamatujme na cliude; — podpo- 

rujme je. — Pamatuj te ze zivot 
jest kratky. 



What is thy name? — My name is 
WencelZeman. — And what is your 
name? — My name is Stanek. — 
Name (to me) the five parts of the 
world. 

What was the name of the discoverer 
of America? — Christopher Co- 
lumbus. 

What was the name of the king who 
assisted him? — Ferdinand. — And 
of the queen ? — Isabella. 

Work diligently, and thou wilt re- 
joice over (thy) earnings. 

Doest thou like to work? — Yes; but 
my comrade does not like to work ; 
— he always complains that he 
must work. 

We worked (or have been working) 
all day. 

The teacher complained to me that 
thou art disobedient; — I repeat 
that thou must be obedient; — re- 
member that ! 

Remember what thou learnest; — 
doest thou remember it? — I re- 
member it well ;-I learn it by heart. 

Let us remember the poor; — let us 
support them. — Remember (you) 
that life is short. 



Note, The root or stem of the verb milovati is niil, 

to which the termination ova* I is attached. Verbs ending in 
ovati (when this termination is attached to the root) belong 
to the sixth conjugation. 



158 



Part II 



LESSON XXXVI. 



(Jsl) 


bych 


bikh 


(ty) 


bys 


bis 


(on) 


by 


bi 



I should 

thou wouldst 

he would 

(my) bychom bikhdm ) wQ ghould 

,, bysme bisme ) 
(vy) byste bistti you would 
(oni) by bi they would 

Byl*) bych bill bikh I should be 
by 1 bys bill bis thou wouldst be 

byl by bill bi he would be; 

etc. 



Byl bych byl, 
byl bych byval 
byl bys byval, 



) I should have 

' been; 

thou wouldst have 

been; etc. 



Nesl bych, 
minul bych, 
videl bych, 
cinil bych, 
volal bych, 



nessl bikh, I should 

(or "would") carry; 

minul bikh, I should 



vitfel bikh, I should 

see 

cMT\il bikh, I should 

do 

volal bikh, I should 

call 

miloval bych, mildvalbikh, I should 

love 



Abych (ja) abikh that I should 
abys (ty) obis that thou shouldst 
aby (on) dbi that he should; etc. 

Kdybych gdibikh if I should 

kdybys gdibis if thou wouldst 

kdyby gclibi if he would (or 

simply "if"). 

Abych byl abikh bill that I should be 

abys byl abis bill that thou 

shouldst be 

aby byl dbi bill that he should be ; etc. 



Kdybych byl, 
kdybys byl, 
kdyby byl, 



if I were, 

if thou wert, 

if he were; etc. 



nesli bychom (or bysme), nessli bi- 
khdm, we should (or "would")carry 

minuli bychom, miniili bikhom, we 
should pass 

videli bychom, m(Sdi bikhdm, we 

should see 

cinili bychom, chimli bikhdm, we 

should do 

volali bychom, vdlali bikhdm, we 

should call 

milovali bychom, mildvali bikhdm, 

we should love. 



*) In the feminine gender byla bych, byla bys, byla by; third 
person neutre: bylo by, it would be. See Lesson IX. 



Lesson 



159 



Byl bych nesl, I should have carried ; 
byl by eh minul, I should have passed; 
byl bych videl, I should have seen; 



byl bych einil, I should have done; 
byl bych volal, I should have called; 
byl bych miloval, I should have 

loved. 



Kdyby, gdibi, if 

kterykoli, ktereekoli, whichever, any 
kdoz (same as kdo), gdoz, who 

ci, cili, cJii, chilli, or 

rici, v sheet si, to say, to tell 

rekni, rsMkm, say, tell (thou) 

reknete, rs7iekiiet8, sa3 T , tell (you) 
tezky, a, e teshkee, heav} , hard 



knfr, m. 
kosik, m. 
list, m. 
yodopad, m. 
krajina, f. 



kuff e r, 

kosheek, 

list, 

vodopdd, 

krayina, 



pocasi, n. p deltas see, 



the trunk 

the basket 

the letter 

a waterfall 

a section of 

country 

the weather 



stekati, 



shtiekaffi, to bark. 



Exercises. 

I would carry that trunk, if it were 

not so heavy. 
I should have carried that trunk, if 

3 t ou had wanted it. 
We should carry the basket, and you 

would carry the sack. 
Wouldst thou read that book? — I 

would like to read it, if I had it. 
We should like to read to-day's 

newspaper. 
What newspaper would } t ou like to 

read? — Any newspaper. 
We should have read that letter, but 

it was too long. 
I should drink beer, if I had it. — 

Would you drink tea? — I would 

not drink anything. 

*) Speaking to one person and using the second person plural: yy, 
you; speaking to several persons, we should say: pili byste (would 3 t ou 
drink). 



Nesl bych ten knfr, kdyby nebyl 

tak tezky. 
Byl bych nesl ten knfr, kdybyste 

byli chteli. 
My bysme nesli kosik a vy byste 

nesli pytel. 
Cetl bys tn knihii? — Cetl bych ji 

rad, kdybych ji mel. 
My bychoni (or my bysme) radi cetli 

dnesni noyiny. 
Ktere noyiny byste radi cetli I — 

Kterekoliv. 
Byli bychoni (or byli bysme) cetli 

ten list, ale byl tnze dlonhy. 
Pil bych pivo, kdybych ho mel, — 

Pil byste*) caj* — Nepil bych nic. 



160 



Part II 



Kdyby bylo pekne, sil bych psenici. 
Kdyby pes stekal, kopnul bych ho. 
Yidel bych rad vodopad Niagaru. 
Na ceste do Iowy videli bysme reku 

Mississippi. 
Kdybyste pfijeli k nam, videli by 

ste hezkou krajimi. 
Kdybych vedel, jake pocasi bude, 

rekl bych vam. 
Chodil bych k tobe, kdybys chtel. 



On by chodil k vam casto. — Proc 
by nechodil? — Jen at' chodi! 

Veril bys tomnS — Yefil byste 

ze nemam cas2 — Neveril bych 

to**). — 
Yerili by nam? — Myslim ze verili 

by vam to. 
Prodal bych rad muj obchod. — 

Tezko byste prodal nyni. 
Litoval bych, kdybyste prodal ten 

obchod. — Ja bych nelitoval nic. 



Je cas, abych sel. 
aby sel. 



Rekni mn 



Chci abys piisel brzy. — Chci aby- 

ste odesli. 
Chcete abych to koupil? 



If it were nice*), I should sow wheat 
If the dog barked, I should kick him. 
I should like to soe thc-Niag-ara Falls. 
On (our) way to Iowa we should see 

the river Mississippi. 
If you would come to us, you would 

see a nice countiy. 
If I knew what kind of weather it 

will be, I should tell you. 
I should come to thee (i. e/'come to 

to see thee often"), if thou wouldst 

wish it. 
He would come to you often. — Why 

should he not come? — Do let him 

come ! 
Wouldst thou believe it? — Would 

you believe that I have no time? 

— I should not believe it. 
Would they believe us? — I think that 

they would believe you (it). 
I would like to sell my business. — 

You would find it hard to sell now. 
I should be sorry, if you would sell 

that business. — I should not be 

sorry at all. 
It is time that I should go. — Tell him 

to go, or to come (i. e. tell him that 

he should go). 
I want thee to come soon. — I want 

you to leave. 
Do you want me to buy that? 



*) That is, "if the weather were nice". 

**) Yeiiti to (accus. case), veriti tomu (dative case); both are used 
with equal propriety. 



Lesson 36. 



161 



Kdybys byl zde byval, byl bys videl 

vselico. 
Kdybycb tarn byl, bylo by dobre.— 

Kdybyeli tarn byl byval, byl byeli 

rad. * 

^ote 1. The English conjunctions if, whether, used to intro- 
duce a conditional sentence, are expressed in Bohemian by the suffix li, 



If thou hadst been here, thou wouldst 
have seen different things. 

If I were there, it would be well. — If 
I had been there, I should be glad. 



or by jestli, 

Jsem-li, 
jestli jsem, 

zdali jsem, 

byl-lijsem, 



zdali, pakli, yestli, zdali, pdkli : 

jsme-li, 
jestli jsme, 
zdali jsme, 



sem-li \ if I am, 
yestli sem I whether I 
zdali sem ) am; 



bill-li sem "(if I 
jestli jsem byl, yestli sem bill I ^ as ' 
zdali jsem byl, zdali sem bill t have 
pakli jsem byl, pdkli sem bill J been. 



budu-li, 

jestli budu, yestli 



nessii-li 



nesu-li, 

jest-li nesu, yestli nessti 



budu li ) i 
stli budu S 



v 



f I shall 
be; etc. 



if I carry; 



smg-li \ if 



yestli sme 
zdali sm& 



we are, 
whether 
we are ; 



byli-li jsme, billi-U sm&~) if we 

jestli jsmebyli, yestli smebilli I w f ere ' 
zdali jsme byli, zdali smebilli j llave 
pakli jsme byli, pdkli smebilli J been ; 

budeme - li, budem^-li ) if W( j 

jestli budeme, yestli biulemt j" be; e tc. 

if I 



nesl-li jsem, nessl-li sem ) 
}e$t\\ isemnesl, yestli sem nes si I ried 



Arci (ze), 


art si I of course, 
ofshem i to be sure; 


smeti, 


smy&tii, 


ovsem (ze). 






nikam, 


nikdm, nowhere; 


smim-li, 


smeemli, 


nikdo jiny, 


mgdo yinee, no one else; 


vite-li, 


veeteli, 


ani my, 


dm me, not even we, 


slibiti, 


sleebiti, 




neither we ; 


povedeti, 


povy&tfefi 


zac je, 


zdch y#, what is it worth ; 


povez, 


povyez, 


zac jsou, 


zdch sou, what are they 


utratiti, 


titrafHHi, 




worth; 


vziti si, 


vzeeti si, 


mouka, f . 


motikd, the flour; 






tuna, f. 


tUnd, a ton; 


vezmu si, 


vezmu si, 


prijeti, 


prshiye^i, to arrive (by 
some conveyance); 







to be allowed, 

to dare 

if I may 

if you know 

to promise 

to tell 

tell (thou) 

to spend 

to take (to 

one's self); 

I shall take 

(to myself). 

li 



162 



Part II. 



Note 2. The pronoun si has the same meaning as sobe, sobyg* 
"to one's self", "for one's self". It often accompanies verbs, denoting 
the closest relation between the subject and its predicate, somewhat after 
the manner of reflexive verbs (connected with se, the same as sebe, one's 
self). For instance : 

Yziti means simply "to take"; vziti si means "to take to one's 
self", — to take for one's own use or exclusive possession. — Yziti kytku, 
to take a flower; vziti si kytku, to take (and keep for one's self) a flower. 
— Yziti si zenu, to take to one's self a wife; vzal si zenu, he took unto 
himself a wife. 

Yezmi si penize, take (to thyself) money, or the money; vezmete 
si piva, take (yourself) some beer; vezmeme si vina, let us take (ourselves) 
some wine. 

Koupim klobouk, I shall buy a hat; koupim si klobouk, I shall buy 
(myself) a hat, — I shall buy me a hat; kup si klobouk, buy (thyself) a hat. 

Dej udelat obraz (dfy uftelctt obraz), let (thou) a picture be made; 
order a picture to be made; dej si udelat obraz, let a picture be made for 
thyself. — Dejte udelat saty, have a suit of clothes made; dejte si udelat 
saty, have a suit of clothes made for yourself. 

Note 3. The finite verb vziti (to take) has only a past and future 
tense, — the continuous verb brati (to take) supplying the present: beru, 
I take. See Note 3 on page 153. 

Yzaljsem, vzaljsi, vzal, I took, thou tookest, hee took; vezmu, 
vezmes, vezme, 1 shall take, thou wilt take, he will take; vezmi, vezmete, 
take (thou, you). 

In common discourse we often hear vemu, vemes, veme, vemii, ve- 
niesh, v8m&, in place of vezmu, vezmes, vezme; and vem, vemte, v$m, 
vVmte, in place of vezmi, vezmete. 



Exercises. 



Ptate se, jsem-li radl — Ovsem 2e 

jsem rad. 
Ptaljsem se, jsou-linasizde.— Ar- 

ci ze jsou, — pravil pan Hronek. 



You ask if I am glad ? — Of course 

I am glad. 
I asked if our folks were here. — Of 

course they are, — said Mr. Hro 

nek. 



Lesson 36. 



163 



Rad bych vedel, jestli sestra pri- 

jela. 
Rada bych vedela(f), zdali bratr 

pfijel. 
Rad bych slysel, je-li miij syn ziv 

nebo mrtev. 
Co myslite, bude prset? — Kdoz vi, 

bude-li prset cili nebude. 

Myslite-li ze bude prset, nepujdu 
11 i ka in. 

Chci vedet ma-li penize; — nema- 
li, at' odejde. 

Dam-li mu penize, utrati je. — Da- 
me -li mu dollar, bude spokojen. 

— Date-li mi neco, budu rad. 

Podivam se, zdali je otec doma. — 

Povez mi pak, je-li doma uebo 

neui. 
Povezte mi, mnsim-li jiti domu 

nebo lie, — At' povi ti, musis-li 

jiti do skoly. 
Povezte mi, smim-li vziti si ruzi. 

— Smis; ale nikdo jiny nesmi. 
Yezmi si tn kytku- — Ja nesmim. 

Proc nesmis^ — Nesmis-li ty, ne- 
smim j a. 
Nesmi-li nikdo, nesmime ani my. 

Neviin smime-li, nebo nesmime. 

To nesinis delat! — Jestli nesmim, 

teda nebudu. 
Otec slibil mi dollar, budu-li liod- 



I should like to knew, if sister has 
arrived. 

I should like to know if brother has 
arrived. 

I should like to hear whether my 
son is alive or dead. 

What do you think, will it rain ? — 
Who knows if it will rain or not. 

If you think that it will rain, I shall 
not go anywhere. 

I want to know if he has money; — 
if he has not, let him go away. 

If I give him money, he spends it. — 
If we give him a dollar, he will be 
satisfied. — If you give me some- 
thing, I shall be glad. 

I shall see if father is at home. — Tell 
me then if he is at home or not. 

Tell me whether I must go home or 

not. — Let him tell thee, whether 

thou must go to school. 
Tell me if I may take a rose. — Thou 

mayest; but nobody else may. 
Take that flower. — I dare not (I 

must not). 
Why must thou not? — If thou must 

not, I must not. 
If nobody is allowed, then we too 

are not allowed. 
I don't know whether we may or 

not. 
Thou must not do that! — If I must 

not, than I shall not. 
Father promised me a dollar if I am 

(i. e. shall be) good. 



164 



Part II 



Jestli ti ho slibil, da ti ho. 

Povezte mi, vite-li zac je tuna se- 
lla. — Yite-li pak, zac jsou pra- 
sata* 

Znate-li pak me] — Vite-li*) pak, 
ze jsetn zde davno] 



If he has promised it (to thee), he 

will give it to thee. 
Tell me if you know what is a ton of 

hay worth. — Do you know what 

hogs are worth? 
Do you know me? — Do you know 

that I have heen here a longtime? 



Note 4. The present participle being varies in Bohemian accord- 
ing to gender and number: 
jsa, sd, m. — jsouc, soUts, f. and n. — jsouce, xouUe< pi. of all three genders. 

The past, hewing been, is rendered thus: 

byv, bif, m. — byvsi, bifslii, f. and n. — byvse, bifsM, pi. of all three 

genders. 

The following models will amply suffice for the verbs of all conjuga- 
tions : 

nesa nessd, m. 
nesouc nessouts, f. & n. 
nesouce nessoutse, pi. 

pije piye, m. 

pijic piyeets, f. & n. 
pijice piyeetse, pi. 

miliije milluye, m. 
milnjic milluyeets, f. & n. 
milnjice millUyeetse, pi. 

sedev, seflef, having sat; volav, volaf, having called; etc. 



carry in g 


sede 


setfe, m. 


sitting 


" 


sedic, 


selects, f . & n. 


" 


" 


sedice 


setfeetse, pi. 


" 


drinking 


volaje 


volaye, m. 


calling 


" 


volajic 


volayeets, f. & n. 


" 


i ( 


volajice 


volayeetse, pi. 


" 


loving 


Piv 


pif, m. having drank 


" 


pivsi 


pifshi, f. & n. 


" 


" 


pivse 


pif she, pi. 


" 



*) We may ask, for instance : vite zac je monkal "do you know 
what flour is worth?" But if we ask : vite-li pak zac je monkaJ or zdali 
pak vite, zac je moiika? there is a peculiar emphasis in the question, as if 
we say in English : "I wonder if you know what flour is worth?" — Zna- 
te me? "do you know me?" Znate-li pak me? or zdali pak me znate? 
"I wonder if you know me!" 



Lesson 37. 165 

Videti, "to see", is irregular, forming its partic. like nesti : villa m., vi- 

(louc ■ f. & n., vidouce, pi. (vida, redouts, vidoiltse), seeing. 

These participles occur in the written language and sometimes in 
solemn discourse, but are never used in ordinary conversation. Expressions 
may be greatly shortened and made incisive by their use; for instance : 

"As lie was going away from here, lie fell down", — may be trans- 
lated into Bohemian: Jda odsud, upadl. In common discourse, however, 
people would say : Kdyz sel odsud, upadl (or upadnuL*) 

A verbal adjective is formed in Bohemian by adding an i to the pres- 
ent participle (f. and n.): jsouci, sotttsee, being; nesouci, nessoiltsee, car- 
rying; pijici, piyeetsee, drinking; volajici, wldyeetsee, calling; inilujici, 
milliiyeetsee, loving. — They are rarely employed in common conversa- 
tion, but frequently in writing: 

Muz nesouci kufr minul me; a man carrying a trunk passed me. — 
Rodice milujici sve deti jsou starostlivi o ne; parents loving their 
children are anxious about them. 



LESSON XXXYXI. 



The passive verb. In English the "past participle" is also the 
passive participle, employed to form the "passive voice" or passive verb- 
phrases : I am carried; I a- as carried; I shall be carried. 

In Bohemian there is a special ''passive participle", ending in n (na 
in the feminine, no is the neutre gender, — ni, ny, na in the plural), by 
svhich the passive voice of transitive verbs is formed : 
Jsem nesen, sem nessen (neseiia, nessenaf., neseno, nesseno n.), lam 

carried; jsme neseni, y ? a ? sme nesseni, we are carried; 
byl jsem nesen, bill sera nessen, I was carried; 

biidn nesen, bndu nessen, I shall be carried. 

*) Padnouti, padnoiffii, to fall; upadnouti, Upadnouti, to fall down, 

As repeatedly stated in preceding lessons, the colloquial usage drops the 
final i of the infinitive, and the letter t has its ordinary hard sound: p&d- 

iiout, upddnout. 



166 Part II. 



Jsem viden, sem viiXen, I am seen; 
jsem ucen, sem Uchen, I am taught ; 



jsem volan, semvoldn, I am called; 
jsem milovan, sem millovdn, I am 

loved. 

The passive participle of verbs of the first conjugation ending in iti, 
and of verbs of the second conjugation (ending in outi) terminates in it 
and ut; for instance, — biti, minoiiti (to beat, to pass): 
Jsem bit, sem bit, I am beat (whipped or punished); byl jsem bit, I was 

beat; budu bit, i shall be beat ; 

jsem minut, sem minut, I am passed; byl jsem miniit, 1 was passed; 

budu minut, I shall be passed. 

The imperative of the passive voice is expressed in Bohemian by at', 
which is already familiar to the student as an equivalent of the English "let": 
At' jsem nesen, a, o, aH sem ness&n, let me be carried; 

at' jsem bit, a, o, <W sem bit, let me be whipped; 

at' jsem volan, a, o, at sem volan, let me be called; 

af jsem milovan, a, o, dV sem milovan, let me be loved. 

In English the past or passive participle is often used as an adjective; 
for example : "An invited guest." 

In Bohemian every passive participle may be changed into an ad- 
jective by adding y (and changing a into a in the feminine, o into e in 
the neutre gender). For instance : 



nesen, a, o : neseny, a, e, carried 
bit, a, o : bity, a, e, beaten 

minut, a, o : minuty, a, e, passed 



viden, a, o : videny, a, e, seen 
volan, a, o : volany, a, e, called 
milovan, a, o: milovany, a,e, loved, 



beloved. 

In the termination an, ana, ano the long vowel a is shortened 
when the participle changes into an adjective : 

VOlan m., volana f VOlano, n. I called (a8 past participle and adjective). 
volany m. volana f. volane, n. ' 

Potential forms. 

The potential mood employing the auxiliary may is formed in Bo- 
hemian by means of the verb moci, motsi (commonly mocti, vulgarly 
moct, mdtst), which has an irregular inflection ; 



Lesson 37. 



167 



Mohu, mohu, I may 

muzes, moozesh, tbou mayest 

liiuze, mooze, lie (she, it) may 

mohl, (a, o) by eh, mo hi, (a, o) bikh, 

I might 
mohl bys, mold bis, thou mightest 
inolil by, mold bi, he might 



miizeiiie, 

muzete, 

mohou, 



moozeme, 
mooze t^, 
mohou, 



we may 

you may 

they may; 



molili, (y, a) bychom (or bysme), 

moldi bisme, we might 
molili byste, m. biste, you might 
molili by, m. hi, they might. 

Mohu byti nesen, I may be carried mohl bycli byti nesen, I might he 

carried 



mohu byti bit, I may ba whipped 
in oh u byti videii, I may he seen 



mohl bych byti bit, I might he 

whipped 
mohl bych byti viden, I might he 

seen 

mohu byti inilovaii, I maybe loved mohl bych byti milovan, I might be 

. loved. 
Mohl jsem byti nesen, mold sem beeVi nessen, I might have been carried; 
mohl jsem byti bit, mdld sem beeHi bit, I might have been whipped. 

Otherwise moci has the meaning of "can" or "to be able": 



I can do it 



i cannot do it; 



Mohu to udelati; — neinohu to u- 

delati; 
mohl jsem to udelati;— nemohl I could do it (or: I could have clone it); 

jsem to udelati; — I could not do it; 

budu moci to udelati; — nebudu I shall be able to do it; — I shall not 

moci to udelati. he able to do it; 

Muzete prijitH— Xemuzeme prijiti. Can you come] — We cannot come. 
Mohou choditH — Nemohou choditL 1 Can they walk ? —They cannot walk. 
In common discourse mohu (I can), and mohou (they can) are dis- 
placed by muzu and muzou, moozu, moozou, making the present tense 
consistent, if not regular. 

Reiterative foem. 
The English reiterative form of "used to" is rendered in Bohemian: 
1. — By reiterative verbs derived from simple verbs as explained in Note 



168 



Part II. 



5, Lesson XIII ; for instance: liniti means "to play"; hravati means 
"to play often", to use to play ; 



hral jsem tarn; hraval jsem tarn; 
— hrali tain; hravali tain. 



I played there; I used to play there; 
— they played there; they used to 
play there. 

2. — By verbs having in themselves a reiterative meaning; for instance : 
prichazeti, prshikhdzeti, means "to come often" (also 'to be coming"); 
dochazeti, dokhdzeVi, means "to go often somewhere", to make frequent 
calls, (also "to be on the decline"); 



on prichazi k nam; on prichazel k 
nam; — my dochazeli k nemu; 
budeme dochazeti k nemu. 



he often comes to us; he used to 
come to us; — we used to go to 
him; we shall often go to him. 



LESSON XXXYIII. 



English participles may be used substantively, or changed into 
nouns; for instance : 

speaking, — the speaking; sitting, — the sitting; calling, — the calling. 

In Bohemian, nouns are derived from verbs in two different ways, 
illustrated by the following examples : 



biti, beeti, 




to beat; — 


biti, 




bffiee, 


the beating 


piti, peetii, 




to drink; — 


Piti, 




piVee, 


the drinking 


siti, sheetii, 




to sew; — 


siti, 




shifee, 


the sewing 


ziti, zeeti, 




to live; — 


ziti, 




zitee, 


the living; 


bod-nouti, bodnott 


t% 


to stab; — 


bod-nuti, 


bod nut ee, 


the stabbing, 














a stab 


hyn-outi, hinoittH 


tob 


e perishing ;- 


- hyn 


■uti 9 


hiniffiee, 


the perishing 



kop-nouti, kopnoiiVi, to kick; — kop-nuti, kopnitfee, the kicking, a kick; 



Lesson 38. 169 



nes-ti, mssti, to carry; — nes-eni, nessenee, the carrying; 

pas-ti, pdsti, to herd; — pas -eni, pdssenee, the herding^ 

vid-eti, vitfefli, to see; — vid-eni, vitfefiee, the seeing; the vision; 

slys-eti, slisheti, to hear; — slys-eni, slishenee, the hearing; 

mluv-iti, mlUmffi, to speak; — mlnv-eiii, mMv8nee, the speaking; 

vol-ati, voltiffl, to call; — vol-ani, voMnee, the calling or call, 

milov-ati, milovati, to love; — milov-ani, milovdnee, the loving. 

The simple rules of derivation are apparent from the above list. 

1. Verbs terminating in iti (forming a subdivision of the first con- 
jugation; Xote 3, p. 138;) are changed into nouns by a simple transfer of 
the long i : piti, to drink, — pitl, the drinking. 

2. Verbs ending in out! (which belong to the second conjugation) 
become nouns by a change of this termination into uti : bodnonti, to 
stab, (bodun, I shall stab), — bodnuti, the stabbing, or "a stab". 

3. Verbs ending in eti, eti 9 iti (which form the third and fourth 
conjugations) become nouns by changing their termination into eni or 
eni : videti, to see, — videni, the seeing, or "the vision"; mluviti, to 
speak, — mluveni, the speaking. 

4. Verbs ending in ati (which form the fifth and sixth conjuga- 
tions) become nouns by changing that termination into aui : volati, to 
call, — volani, the calling, or "the call". 

When the long vowel a occurs in the root of a simple verb, it is 
shortened in the process of deriving a noun : 

pas-ti, pdssM, to herd (or "to pasture"); pas-eni, pdssenee, the herding; 
psa-ti, psdtii, to write; psa-ni, psdnee, the writing. 

In some cases the derivation of nouns from verbs of the first con- 
jugation is somewhat irregular, the same as the formation of the tenses; 
for instance : 



170 Part II 

cisti 9 dieesVi, to read; (ctu, ctes, cte. chtu, chtesh, cht$, I read, thou 
readest, lie reads); — cte-ni, chtenee, the reading; 

plesti, plestii, to twist; (pletu, pletes, plete, I twist, thou twistest, he 
twists); — plete-ni ? jrteteiiee, the twisting; 

klasti, kldsti, to lay; (kladu, klades, klade, I lay, thoulayest, he lays); 
— klade-ni 9 klacUnee, the laying; 

masti ? mdsW, to confuse (to mix up); mate, he confuses; — mateni, 
mdtenee, the confusion or mixing up; 

mesti, mesty, to sweep; mete, he sweeps; — meteni, metenee, the sweeping; 

vesti, vesstii, to lead; rede, he leads; — vedeni, ved&iie3, the leading. 



LESSON XXXIX. 



Verbs classified. 

1. — As before observed (in Lesson XXXI) nesti, "to carry" or "to 
be carrying", is a verb denoting a continuous action. 

2. — By means cf prefixes other verbs are derived therefrom, which 
denote a limited or finished action and are called finite verbs; for 
example : 

donesti, donessHi, to carry somewhere or to somebody ; 
prinesti, prshinessXii, to bring, to fetch. 

3. — Many continuous verbs have a corresponding form denoting 
a repeated or reiterated action; for instance : 



nesti, nessti, to carry 

vezti, vezM, to carry (in a vehicle) 



nositi, nosmli, to carry repeatedly; 
voziti, vozitii, 

voditi, voffifi, to lead repeatedly; 
citati, cheetdfi, to read repeatedly; 
pasati, passafi, to herd repeatedly; 
litati, leetatH, to fly repeatedly; 
jezditi, yezftWi, to ride repeatedly. 
There are, besides, reiterative verbs derived in the manner explained 
in Note 5, page 61, and denoting so to say a customary action; for instance; 



vesti, 


vesstii, 


to lead 


cisti, 


cheessti, 


to read 


pasti, 


2ids&X!i, 


to herd 


leteti, 


lefm, 


to fly 


jeti, 


yefi, 


to ride 



Lesson 39. 



171 



no%i'\9L'i\^nosseevati,to use to carry ; 
vozi-va-ti, vozeevdHi, to use to carry, 

yodi-va-ti, votfeevati, to use to lead, 
cita-ya-ti, c7ieetdvaf!i, to use to read, 
pasa-va-ti ? pas$az>atV,to use to herd, 
lita-va-ti ? leetdvafU, to use to fly, 
jezdi-va-ti 9 2/6Z(T^#tV',to use to ride. 

4. — Certain verbs denote an action which is simply momentary. 
As a rule they terminate in iti, belonging to the fourth conjugation. For 
instance : skociti ? skochiMi, to jump, to leap, — that is, to make a jump 
or leap. 

From these are derived finite verbs in the same manner as from con- 
tinuous verbs (1.), namely by prefixes. For instance : 



nositi, 


to carry repeatedly, 


voziti, 


to carry repeatedly (in a 




vehicle), 


voditi, 


to lead repeatedly, 


citati, 


to read repeatedly, 


pasati, 


to herd repeatedly, 


litati, 


to fly repeatedly, 


jezditi, 


to ride repeatedly; 



zakrociti, wkrdchffii, to step between, to in- 
terfere ; 



vy skociti 9 v iskdchiW, 

z astr eliti, zastrs h el lit i, 

vystrciti, vist e rchiti f 

vypustiti, viptisfiti, 

zachytiti, ztikhitiitii, to catch up, to snatch; 

pochybiti, pdkhibiffl, to commit an error. 



to jump out or up; 

to shoot dead; 

to push out; 

to let out; 



krociti, to make a step, 

skociti, to jump, 

streliti, to shoot (once), 

strciti, to push, 

pustiti, to let go, 

chytiti, to catch, 

chybiti, to err, 

Note 1. Such is the general classification of Bohemian verbs in re- 
gard to the duration of the action or process they denote. But for practi- 
cal purposes it is sufficient to distinguish two great classes of verbs, namely : 

1. Continuous verbs, denoting a continued or repeated action. 
This class comprises the simple verbs of all conjugations except some end- 
ing in outi and iti. For instance: nesti, to carry; plouti, to float; videti, 
to see; ciniti, to do; volati, to call; milovati, to love. 

2. Finite verbs, denoting a finished or momentary action or pro- 
cess. This class comprises many verbs of the second and fourth conjuga. 



172 



Part II 



tions, ending in oiri and iti; for instance: minouti, to pass; bodnouti, to 
stab; skociti, to leap; streliti, to shoot (to discharge a shot). 

Most of the verbs derived from others by prefixes also belong to this 
class; for example: vyskociti, to jump up; doiiesti, to carry somewhere;; 
pominouti, to pass over; uvideti, to catch a sight; uciniti, to do a certain 
act; zavolati, to call out or up; pomilovati, to fondle a little. 

The finite verbs have in fact only a past and a future tense, and no 
present, because their present form denotes & future action: 



donesn 9 I shall carry somewhere; 
minu, I shall pass ; 
udehim, I shall make; 
zavolam, I shall call; 
pomiluju (or pomilnji) 1 shall fondle ; 



uvidim, I shall see; 
ucinim, I shall do; 
skocim, I shall jump; 
vyskoeim, I shall jump np; 
strelim, 1 shall shoot. 



LESSON XL. 



Every language has peculiar ways or modes of expression, which 
cannot be taken literally, or translated closely into another language. They 
are called idiomatic expressions or idioms. Many of them are of frequent 
occurrence in ordinary intercourse. 

The student will naturally desire to know the Bohemian equivalents 
of such English expressions as are in constant use in common conversa- 
tion. He will find most of them in the following list, the English ex- 
pression always preceding the Bohemian, in order to facilitate their study. 
The beginner should often peruse these phrases until he has a perfect com- 
mand of them, or — to use an English idiom — until "he has them at his 
fingers' ends/' 



All along, 
all over, 
all is over, 
all in all, 
all one, 
all the same, 



venkoncem, 

vsude, 

je po vsem, 

vubec, 

vse jedno, 



veskrze, 



venkontsem, vesJcerze; 

vshucle; 

ye pofshem; 

voobets; 

fsM yedno; 



Lesson 4-0. 



178 



all the time, 
all the better, 
all hollow, 
all of a sudden, 
along-side, 
as far as I can, 
as far as possible, 
as far as I am concerned 
as far as that is con- 
cerned, 
at an}^ rate, 
at all events, 
at last, 
at length, 
at once, 
all at once, 
at large, 

Be it as it may, 

be perfectly easy, 
by and by, 
b}^ the bye, 
by the way, 
by day, 
by night, 
by the day, 
by the week, 
by the piece, 
hj all means, 

Call for me, 

can it be possible ? 

can't do it ! 



stale, porad, 

tim lip, 

na dobro, 

najednou, z nenadani, 

vedle, 

pokiid moliu, 

poknd inozua, 

co se me tyce, 

co se toho tyee, 

| bud' jak bud', 

y konecne, 

(■ lined, najednou, 
vubec, celkem. 



bud' jak bud'; at' je 

jakkoli; 
bud'te bez starosti, 
hnedle, znenahla, 

j minio to, 

\ apropos, 
za due, 
v noci, 
na den, 
na tyden, 
od kusu, 
na vsechen spusob, 



stavte se pro me, 
je-li mozna? 
nejde to ! 



stale, porshdd; 

teem leep; 

na dobro; 

ndyedno u, znendddTii ; 

vtdle; 

pokiid moliti; 

pokiid moznd; 

tso se my 8 teeche; 

tso se toho teeche; 

buff yak bu(Y; 

konechne; 

lined, ndyednou; 
voobets, tselkem. 

buff yak bud 1 ; at ye 

ydkkoli; 
buttle bestdrosti; 
hnedle, znenahla; 
mimo to, 
dpropo; 
zd dne; 
vnotsi; 
na den; 
nd teeden; 
od kiisU; 
nd fsMkhen spoosob. 

stdfte se pro mye; 
yelli mofaid f 
neyde to ! 



174 



Part II 



come on, 
come along, 
come and see us, 



Don't you hear? 
don't you see ? 
don't you know it? 
don't mention it ! 
dear me ! 
day and night, 
day by day, 
do as you please, 
drop me a Hue, 

Excuse me ! 

every now and then, 

Farewell ! 

Good-bye ! 

get up ! 

get out ! 

get ready ! 

give me a rest ! 

go ahead ! 

go on ! 

Help yourself ! 

here and there, 

hurry up ! 

he is good at it ! 



[pojdM pojd'te! 
pfijd'te nas navstivit. 



coz neslysite? 
coz nevidite? 
coz to nevite? 
to nestoji za rec, 
o jemine ! 
ve dne v noci, 
den co den, 
delejte jak myslite, 
piste mi par radek, 



odpnst'te ! 
kazdon chvili, 

j- s bohem!— na zdar ! 

zhiirn !— vstante ! 
ven !— pojd'te ven ! 
pripravte se ! 
dejte mi pokoj ! 



(■ jen dal ! 



posluzte si ! vemte si ! 

racte ! 
sem tarn, 
honem ! 
on to umi ! on to zna ! 



poytf, poyfttg*); 

prshifttS nds ndfshVee- 
vit. 



tsdsh neslisheetti? 

tstish ntivifteetS? 

tsosh to ngveetg f 

td nestoyee za rsh&ch; 

o y timing ! 

v& dn$ vnotsi; 

den tsd den; 

(I'&leyte yak misleetti; 

pislitt me par rshddek. 

odpustti! 
kdzdou khweeli; 

sbohem ! — na zdar ! 

zhoorii ! — fstaHtg! 
ven ! — pofttti ven ! 
prsliipraftti sg ! 
deytti me pokoy ! 

yen dal! 



posluslitti si ! vemtti si ! 

rdclitti! 
sem tarn, 
hdnem ! 
on to umee ! on to zna! 



*) Colloquially pd&', poftte, (thou, you) come on. — I pojd'te i 
i poftte ush! come on, now! do come along! 



Lesson Jf.0. 



175 



he is good for nothing; 

he is on the lookout ; 

he is well off; 

he means no harm; 

he took a hint ; 

he keeps out of sight; 

he has a head of his 

owe ; 
how do you do ? 
how are you ? 

I am glad of it ! 

I bet, — I guess, 

I don't care; 

I have a mind, 

I made up my mind, 

I can't afford it; 

I can't stand it {mean- 
ing: I hate it); 

I can do without it; 

I have taken a fancy 
to it; 

I have no hand in it; 

I had some words with 
him; 

I had rather 

I would sooner 

I am no match for him ; 

I am very anxious ; 

I am sorry for it ; 

I will make him do it ; 



neni k nicemu; 

on cilia; 

on se ma dobre; 

on to zle nemysli; 

dovtipil se; 

on se strani; 

on ma ylastni lilavn; 



J-jak se mate? 



to me tesi ! 

vsadim se, — myslini, 

nedbani ; to je mi jedno ; 

hodlam, 

odhodlal jsem se, 

nejsem s to; 

neinohn to vystat (vy- 

stati); 
mohn byt bez tolio; 
zalibilo se mi to; 

nemam s tim co delat; 
mei jsem s nini hadku; 

fradeji bych 

ja s neho nejsem; 
mam starost;*) — tnze 

rad bych**) 
lituju toho; 
ja ho donntim; 



neyni knichemU; 

on cheehd; 

on s8 md dtibrshe; 

on td zl8 nSmislee; 

doft'eepil se~; 

dn se strafiee; 

on md vldstnee 7ilavti; 

yak s8 mat 8? 



td mye t$shee ! 
fsaiXeem s&, — misleem, 
nedbdm; to ytimi yedno 
hodlam, 

odhodlal sent se, 
neysem std; 
nemohtc td vistdt; 

mo hit beet bes tdho; 
zdleebilo se mi to; 

nemam sfeem tso (Veldt; 
my 811 sem snim hddku; 

raftgy bikh 

yd sfieho neysem; 
mam stdrost; — . tooze 

rdd bikh; 
lituyu tdhd; 
yd 7id ddnU^eem; 



*) When it means an anxiety, care or suspense about something. 
**) When it means an impatience to do or to know something. 



176 



Part 11. 



I will see you paid; 

I am in no hurry; 

I must be ofY; 

I think much of him ; 

if you please; 

indeed; 

it is all o^er; 

it is of no use; 



it is none of your busi- 

nes; 
it is your turn; 
it is a bargain; 
it is a pity; 
it grew into a habit; 
it wears well (of a dress 

or stuff) ; 

Keep still ! 
keep in line ! 

Let it go; — let go ! 
let me alone; 
let me in; 
let me know; 
look here;- 
look out ! 

Mind you; 

No doubt; — no matter; 
no matter how it is; 
no matter who it is; 
never mind; 



postaram se o vas plat; 

nemam na spech; 

mnsim pryc; 

ja si ho moc vazim; 

prosim; — racte; 

opravdn; — skiitecne; 

je po vsem; 

neni to nic platne 
{meaning: it will do 
no good); — neni to 
k nicemu {meaning: 
it is of no service); 

vam po torn nic neni; 

ted' je na vas; 
zustane pri torn; 
to je skoda; 
stalo se zvykem; 
dobre se nese; 



Tieho!— Bud'tezticha! 
do rady! 

neclite to byt; — pust'te! 
nechte me; 
pust'te me tarn; 
dejte mi vedet; 
hled'te; 
pozor ! 

pamatujte; 

zajiste; — nic nedela; 
at 7 je to jakkoli; 
af je to kdokoli; 
nic nedela; — co na 
torn; 



postaram s8 o rash plat; 
nemdm nd spyekh; 
mtiseem prieh; 
yd si ho mots vdzeem; 
proseem; — rdchte: 
oprdrdU; — skiitechn&; 
y& pofshem; 
neyni to nits platne; — 
neyni to knichemu; 



ram po torn nits neyni; 

ted' ye na vdss; 
zoostdne prshitom; 
to ye sJiJcodd; 

stalo se zicikem; 
dobrshe se nessg; 

tiklw!— bMHV sfikM! 
do rsliddy! 

nekhte to beet ; — paste! 

nekhte mye; 

pustti mye tarn; 

deyte me vyetfgt; 

Med?t8; 

pozor! 

pdmdtuyte; 

zdyiste; — nits ne&'eld; 
at y# to ydckoli; 
af ye to gdokoli; 
nits n&N&ld; — tsti nd 
torn; 



Lesson 40. 



177 



not yet; — not at all; 

now and then; 
now we are even ; 

Of course; 
on a sudden; 
on purpose; 
on the contrary; 
on the wing; 
once for all; 
one by one; 

Piece by piece; 
plenty time ! 
Send me word; 
served him right ! 

Take care ! 

the more the better; 

the other day; 

the time is up; 

that's it ! — that will 
do; 

that's right ! 

that is out of my way; 

they like to show off; 

to be short about it; 

to be sure ! 

to call and see, (to pay 
a visit); 

to find fault; 

to get rid (of some- 
thing); 

to give a blowing; 

to come about; 

to no purpose; 



jeste ne,— dokonce ne; 

casein, — chvileini; 
ted' jsme kvit; 

ovsem;— to serozumi; 

iiahle;— z neiiadani; 

schvalne; — liaschval. 

naopak; 

v letu; 

jeduou na vzdy; 

po jednom; — jeden za 

druhym; 
po*kusii; 
dost casu! 
zkazte mi; 
dobre tak ! 

pozor! — dejte pozor! 

elm vie tim lip; 

onehdy; 

cas prosel; 

to je to! — to je dost; 

to dostaci; 
to je dobre! 
to je mi z ruky; 
radi se ukazuji; 
kratce receno; 
zajiste! 
navstivit; 

vytykat; 
zbavit se (ceko); 

vymluvit, 
stati se, 
zbytecne, 



yeslitV n$; — ddkontsg 

n%; 
cJidssem; — khweelemi , 
ted? sm8 kwit; 

ofshem; — to sgroztimee; 

ndhW; — zn&naddm; * 

skhiodlitf; — ndskhwdl; 

naopak; 

vletu; 

yednoit na vzdy; 

po y&dnom; — ytiden zd 

drulieem; 
po ktisti; 
dost cliassU! 
skashte me; 
dobrsM tak! 

pozor! — deytti pozor! 

clieem veets teem leep; 

onShdy; 

clidss proshell; 

to yS to; — to yS dost; 

td dostdchee; 
to ye~ dobrsM! 
to y# me z rtiky; 
rdfti s$ ukazityee; 
krdtsg rs-McMnd; 
zayiste! 
ndfsMeevit; 

vyteekat; 

zbavit s&; 

vymlUvit; 
stdHi se; 
zbyt8chiig; 



178 



Part II 



Well?— Very well, 
well to do, well off; 
what of that? — what 

does it matter? 
what is the matter? 

what is the question? 

what is the matter with 

you? 
what next? 
what will become of 

us? 
we had better go; 
we had better go and 

see; 

You are right; 

you are wrong, 

you are mistaken; 

you are late; 

you are safe; 

you are gone up ! 

you are welcome to it; 

year by year; 

you must not find fault ; 

you ought to be glad; 

— you ought to be 

gone; 



nuze2 — dobre; 

zamozny, 

co na torn? co z tohoS 

co se deje? (i. e. what 

is happening?) 
oc se jedna? oc bezi! 

co je vam2 

co dale? 

co z nas bude % co se s 

nami stane % 
abysme radeji sli; 
abysme se radeji podi- 
vali (i. e. sli podivati); 



mate pravdu; 
tmejlite se; 

jdete pozde; 
jste v torn dobre; 
s vami je konec ! 
vemte si to; — pfeju 

vam to; 
rok co rok; 
nesmite delat vycitky; 
mel byste byt (or byti) 

rad;— mel byste byt 

pryc; 



ntizd? — ddbrslid; 

zdmoznee; 

tso na torn? tso stdhb? 

tsd sd &dyd? 

dch sd yednd? — dch byd- 

zee? 
tsd yd vam? 

tso date? 

tso zndss bitdd ? tsd sd 

sndmi stand? 
abysme raftdy slili; 
dbysmd sd rdtfey po- 

tfeevali; 

mdtd prdvdit; 
meyleetd sd; 

ddte poz&'e; 
stdftom dobrshd; 
svdmi ye kdnets ! 
vemtd si td; — prshdyil 

vam to; 
rok tso rok; 
nesmeetd ftdlat veechitky 
m'yett bystd beet rad; — 

m'yell bystd beet 

prich. 






i>^irr iri. 



Bohemian Conversation. 



Note 1. In the following conversations we shall invariably ob- 
serve the common rule of politeness, which requires the use of the person- 
al pronoun vy (you) in addressing another person. Hence all verbs em- 
ployed in the same will appear in the second person plural (for instance: 
jste, mate, (you are, you have), and not in the second person singular j si*), 
mas, (thou art, thou hast), which is properly confined to familiar or very 
intimate intercourse, as fully set forth in Section 9, Part I; otherwise the 
use of the second person singular (ty, thou) is out of place and in fact 
vulgar, although freely indulged in by some ill-informed or ill-bred persons 
among the Bohemians in America. 

Throughout these conversations we give the Bohemian pronuncia- 
tion in full**). It is true that the student, having advanced so far, may be 
supposed to be able to pronounce every word and to read Bohemian with- 
out difficulty; but the pronouncing column will nevertheless continue 
to be an aid, especially welcome in such cases as may appear to be some- 
what obscure or doubtful. 



*) In common discourse we frequently hear ty jses, ty s8sh, in place 
oftyjsi. — Tyjsesvelky, ty s8sh velkee, thou art tall. — Jses rad (in- 
stead of jsi rad)? sesh rddf art thou glad? — Jses zdrav? sesh zdrdff (f . 
jses zdravaS steh zdrdvdf) art thou well? — Jses notovS %%%h htitof? (f. 
jses hotova? s#sh hdtova?) art thou ready? 

**) The rules given in Sections 2 and 4, Part I, are supposed to have 
been thoroughly digested and practiced by the student, as well as the forty 
introductory lessons contained in Part II. Unless that is done, it will 
be useless and disappointing to proceed with this eminently practical part 
of our Bohemian Course. 



180 



Part III. 



In regard to the pronunciation of Bohemian infinitives (for instance: 
miti ? to have; ciniti, to do; delati, to make) we again remind the student 
of the explanation given in Note 1, Lesson XI. In the pronouncing col- 
umn of these conversations we shall as a rule follow the colloquial custom 
of dropping the final i, to simplify matters and to present the sentences 
as they are generally heard in actual intercourse. 

The student will always hear in mind that Bohemian orthography 
and pronunciation are on the whole governed by the rule which appears to 
be the ideal of many would-be reformers of English orthography, namely: 

A sound for every letter and a letter for every sound, and no silent 
tetters. — 

In regard to capital letters the rules in Bohemian are the same as in 
English, excepting that adjectives derived from names of nations or coun- 
tries are not written with a capital letter; for example: English, Bohemian, 
European, anglicky, ce?ky, evropsky (dnglitskee, chesskee, evropskee). 



Bolierriiaxi and. Englisli. 

CE8TIJSA a ANGLlC 1 INA. 



The Bohemian lan- 
guage ; — the Bohemi- 
an tongue. 

Do you know Bohemi- 
an? — do you speak 
Bohemian? 

Yes, I speak Bohemian 
well. 

Do you speak English? 

Perfectly ; — a little; — 
not much. 

Do you understand 
English?— I do. 



Ceska rec; 
jazyk. 



cesky 



Umite cesky? — mlu- 
vite cesky? 

Ano 9 mluvim cesky 

dobre. 
Mluvite anglicky? 
Dokonale; — trochw; 

— ne mnoho. 
Rozumite anglicky? — 

Rozumim. 



chesskd rsMcli;- 
kee ydzyk. 



timeetg ehesskef — mlu- 
veetg ehesskef 

and, mlUveem ehesske 

ddbrsh&. 
mluveetti anglitskef 
dokondlti; — trokhu 1 ; — 

118 mndhd. 
roztimeetg anglitskef — 

rozitmeem. 



Bohemian and English. 



181 



In America everybody 
has to know English. 

I am learning English. 

Do you learn Bohemi- 
an? 

I want to learn Bohe- 
mian. 

I want to know (i.e. to 
acquire) Bohemian. 

I wonlcl like to learn 
Bohemian. 

I would like to know 
Bohemian. 

I must learn (i. e. ac- 
quire) Bohemian. 

Yes, do learn Bohemian 

I am learning Bohemi- 
an. 

How long have you 
been learning**) Bo- 
hemian? 

I have been learning 
Bohemian since last 
year. 

How long did you learn 
English? 

I learned (or: I was 
learning) English one 
year. 



Y Americe kazdy ma u 

meti*) anglicky. 
Uciin se anglicky. 
Ucite se ceskyS 

Chci se uciti cesky. 

Chci umeti cesky. 

Had bych ucil se ces- 
ky. 
Kad bych umel cesky. 

Musim se nauciti ces- 
ky. 

Alio, naucte se cesky. 
Ucim se cesky. 

Jak dlouho ucite se 
cesky 1 

Ucim se cesky od lon- 
ska. 

Jak dlouho ucil jste se 

anglickyS 
Ucil jsem se anglicky 

rok. 



vdmeritse kazdee ma ti- 

myet dnglitske. 
■Ucheem s& dnglitske. 
uclieelti s8 chesslcef 

khtsi se tidbit chesske. 

khtsi timyet chesske. 

rdd bikh uchil s8 chess- 
ke. 

rdd bikh umyell chess- 
ke. 

mtiseem s% ndtichit 
chesske. 

dno, nduchte s8 chesske 

ucheem se chesske. 

yak d.loiihd ticheete se 
chesske? 

ucheem se chesske od 
lonska. 

yak dlotiho uchil st% se 

dnglitske f 
tichil sem se dnglitske 

rdk. 



*) Miti (to have) often in connection with another verb signifies 
obligation or necessity, the same as in English: Mam umeti, I have to 
know, I am obliged or expected to know; mam jiti, I have to go; — ma 
umeti, he has to know; kazdy ma umeti, everybody has to know. 

**) The present tense in Bohemian is also used for the English per- 
fect tense: (jak dlouho) ucite se, — (how long) have you been learning. 
$ee second foot-note on page 98, 



182 



Part III. 



I learned (i. e. acquir- 
ed) English in one 
year. 

To learn English is not 
difficult. 

Neither is Bohemian. 

How soon shall I learn 
Bohemian? 

If you will be {or if you 
are) diligent, you will 
learn it soon. 

About how soon? 

In a few months. 

I have been learning 
Bohemian only two 
months, and already 
I know a good deal. 

I am getting along well. 

Already I understand 
nearly all. 

It is not difficult; — it 
is easy. 

Only plenty of exercise ! 
then you make good 
progress. 

Do you understand Bo- 
hemian ? 

I understand a little. 

I understand already a 
good deal. 

I understand already 
nearly all. 

Do you understand 
German ? 



Naucil jsem se angli- 
cky za rok. 

Nauciti se anglicky ne- 

ni tezke\ 
Cesky take ne. 
Jak brzo naucim se 

cesky? 
Budete-li pilny, na- 

ucite se brzo. 

Jak brzo asiS 
Za par mesicu. 
Ucim se cesky teprv 

dva mesiee, a uz u- 

mim hezky. 

Jde to dobre.*) 

Uz rozumim skoro vse- 

cko. 
Neni to tezke; — je to 

lehke. 
Jen hodne cviku! pak 

to jde*)! 

Rozumite cesky] 

Rozumim trochu. 
Rozumim uz hodne. 

Rozumim uz hnedle 

vsecko. 
Rozumite nemecky? 



naUchil sem s8 dnglitske 
za rok. 

ndUchit s8 dnglitske 

neyni V8shke. 
chesske take n$. 
yak b*rzo nducheem s$ 

chesske? 
budtite-li pilnee, ndti- 

cheeW stiberzo. 

yak b e rzd dsif 
za par mygseetsoo. 
ticheem s% chesske tep e rf 

dwd myeseetsg, a Ush 

umeem hesske. 

d# td dobrshg. 

ush rozumeem skord 

fshetsko. 
neym to Vfehke; — ye 

td lehke. 
yen hodnd tswiku! pak 

td dd! 

rozumeete chesske? 

rozumeem trokhu. 
rozitmeem Ush hodnd. 

rozumeem ush hnedld 

fshdtsko. 
rozUmeetd nemetske? 



*) Jde to dobre; literally: it goes well. Pak to jde: then it goes. 



Bohemian and English. 



183 



I do not. — I understand 
a little bit. 

Do }^ou know (how) to 
write Bohemian? 

Not yet; but I shall 
learn (it). 

I shall know (it) soon. 

I must know both to 
read and to write Bo- 
hemian. 

You will learn that 
easily. 

I expect to learn it in 
half a year. 

Why does not John 
learn English? 

He is going to learn; — 
he must learn it well. 

When will he com- 
mence to learn? 

Shortly. 

My neighbor's boy 
speaks English per- 
fectly and under- 
stands also Latin. 

Annie is learning to 
read and write Bohe- 
mian. 

Have you a Bohemian 
newspaper? — lend 
me it. 

Lend me a Bohemian 
book. 

What book? — Any 
book. 



Nerozumiin. — Rozu- 

niiin neco malo. 
Umite psati po cesku? 

Jeste ne; ale budu se 

uciti. 
Budu umeti brzo. 
Musim umeti cisti i 

psati po cesku. 

To se naucite snadno. 

Hodlam se to nauciti 

za pul leta. 
Proc se Jan neuci an- 

glicky* 
On se bude uciti ;— mu 

si se nauciti dobre. 
Kdy se zacne uciti I 

Co nevidet. 

Souseduv hoch mluvi 
anglicky dokonale a 
rozumi take latin- 
sky. 

Anna uci se cesky cisti 
a psati. 

Mate ceske noviny? — 
piijctemi je. 

Pujcte mi ceskou kni 

hu. 
JakouS — Jakoukoli. 



neroziimeem. — rozti- 

meem n^tso malo. 
timeete psdt po chesskiif 

yeshW n%; dU budU sS 

tichit. 
bUdit Umyet b e rzo. 
museem umyet cheest i 

psdt po chesskU. 

to s8 naticheetg snadno. 

hodlam s8 to ndUchit za 
pool leta. 

proch s& ydn n&tichee 
dnglitskef 

on se bud& tichit; — mil- 
see senduchii dobrsM. 

gdy s8 zdchn8 Uchitf 

tso nevitf&t. 
sousedoof hokh mluvee 

dnglitske dokonale d 

rozUmee take Idtin- 

ske. 
and uchee s8 chesske 

cheest a psdt. 

mdt& chesske noviny? — 
puchte me ye. 

pUchteme chesskou kni- 

hu. 
ydlcoti? — ydkoUkoli. 



184 



Part III. 



This is Bohemian, is it 

not? 
What is it in English? 

— Tell me it in En- 
glish. 

How is it in English? 

I don't know how to 
pronounce it. 

How is it in Bohemian? 

How do you call it in 
Bohemian? — how in 
English? 

Speak Bohemian; — 
speak Bohemian with 
me; — speak only Bo- 
hemian. 

Speak as you wish. 

Do you like to speak 
Bohemian? — Why 
do you not speak 
English? 

Because I cannot; — be- 
cause I know it only 
a little. — Do speak; 
you will get along. 

Speak English or Bo- 
hemian, as you please ; 

— I understand both; 
You speak Bohemian 

very well. 
Speak slowly, that I 
may understand you.*) 



Tohle je cesky, neni? 

Co je to po anglicku? 
— Povezte mi to po 
anglicku. 

Jak je to po anglicku? 

Nevim jak to vyslovi- 
ti. 

Jak jo topo cesku? 

Jak se to jmenuje ces- 
ky? — jak anglicky? 

Mluvte cesky;— mluv- 
te se mnou cesky; — 
mluvte jenom cesky. 

Mluvte jak chcete. 
Mluvite rad cesky? — 

Proc nemluvite an- 

glicky? 

Protoze neumim; — 
protoze umim jen 
malo. — Jen mluvte, 
pujde to. 

Mluvte anglicky nebo 
cesky, jak chcete; — 
rozumim oboji. 

Vy mluvite cesky tuze 
dobre. 

Mluvte pomalu, abych 
vam rozumel. 



tohle yd chesske, neym? 

tso yd td pd anglitskuf 

— Povydztd me td po 
dnglitskii, 

yak yd td po anglitskit? 
ndveem yak td visldvit. 

yak yd td po chesskUf 
yak sd to menityd chess- 
kef — y&k anglitskef 

mluftd chesske; — mluf- 
td se mnott chesske; — 
mluftd ydnom chess- 
ke. 

mluftd yak khtsdtd. 

mlttveetd rad chesske? 

— proch ndmlUveetd 
anglitskef 

protozd neumeem; — 
protoze umeem yen 
malo. — yen mluftd, 
pudd td. 

mlitfte dnglitske nebo 
chesske, yak khtsetd; 

— rozUmeem oboyee. 
ve mluveete chesske tooze 

dobrshd. 
mlufte pomalu, abikh 
vam rozitmyell. 



*) Abych, abys, aby, that I should, that thou shouldst, that he 
should (see Lesson XXXVI), also signifies : "that I may, that thou may est, 
that he (she, it) may". Hence we translate : abych rozumel, that I may 
understand; — abych rozumel vam, or abych vam rozumel, "that I may 
understand you". 

Concerning the freedom of transposition of words in Bohemian sen- 
tences see Note_2, Lesson VL 



Bohemian and English, 



185 



Did you understand 
me ? — I did not; re- 
peat it slowly. 

Do not speak so fast; 
I should not under- 
stand you. 

Do you know what I 
said?— could you un- 
derstand? 

I could understand a 
little;— now I under 
stood well. 

When you don't under- 
stand, tell me; — I 
want to teach you. 

I am glad of that; — if 
you will teach me, I 
shall soon know. 

In a quarter of a year 
I shall understand all. 

Do I pronounce it 
right? — did I pro- 
nounce it right? 

You have a good pro- 
nunciation; — you 
pronounce every- 
thing right. 

That was not right; see 
here; — I will pro- 
nounce it slowly. 

Is that right? 

Once again ! 

That's it ; — now it was 
right; first-rate. 

Very well ! — you make 
quick progress. 



Rozumel jste mi!— Ne- 

rozumel; opakujte 

to pomalu. 
Nemluvte tak rychle; 

ja bych vain nerozu- 

mel. 
Vite co jsem povidal 'I 

— porozumel jste I 

Porozumel jsem tros- 
ku;— ted' jsem rozu- 
mel dobre. 

Kdyz nerozumite, re- 
knete mi; — ja ehei 
vas ueiti. 

To jsem rad; -budete- 
li me ueiti, budu br- 
zo umeti. 

Za ctvrt leta budu vse- 
mu rozumeti. 

V) slovuju to dobre] — 
vyslovil jsem to do- 
bre? 

Mate dobrou vyslov- 
nost; — vyslovujete 
vsecko dobre. 

To nebylo dobre; dej- 
te pozor; — ja to vy- 
slovim pomalu. 

Je to dobre % 

Jeste jednou ! 

Tak; — ted' to bylo do- 
bre; tuze dobre. 

Yyborne! — delate ry- 
chly pokrok. 



rozumyell ste me? — nti- 
rozumydl; — opdkuyte 
to pomalu. 

nemlufte tak rikhle; yd 
bikh vdm nerozUmyell. 

veete tso sem poveeddl? 
— porozumyell ste? 

porozUmyell sem trosh- 
ku; — teft sem rozu- 
myell dobrshe. 

gdiz nerozumeete, rshek- 
Tiete me; — yd khtsi 
vas tlchit. 

to sem rad; — biideie li 
my 8 tlchit, budub e rzo 
umyet. 

zd shtw e rt leta budu 
fshemu rozUmyet. 

msloouyu to dobrshe? — 
vislovil sem to do- 
brshe ? 

mate dobrou veeslov- 
nost ; — vislovuyete 
fshetsko dobrshe. 

to nebillo dobrshe; dey- 
te pozor ; — yd to vi- 
sloveem pomalu. 

ye to dobrshe ? 

yeshte yednou ! 

tak; — #<F to billo do- 
brshe; tooze dobrshe. 

veebornef — delate rikh- 
lee pokrok. 



186 



Part III 



I wish I had more op- 
portunity to speak 
Bohemian. 



Rad bych mel vice pri- 
lezitosti mluviti ce- 
sky. 

Vocabulary. 



rdd bikh m'yell veets8 
prsheelezitosty mluvit 
chesske. 



SloYO, n. slovo, the word 

slovnik, m. slovneek, the dictionary 

slovnicek, m.*) slovneechek, the vo- 
cabulary 

vysloviti, vislovit, to pronounce 

vyslovim, visloveem, I shall pro- 
nounce 

vyslovovati, vislovovat, to be pro- 
nouncing; 

vyslovuju (or vyslovuji), vislovuyu, 
I am pronouncing; 

vyslovnost, f. veeslovnost, the pro- 
nunciation; 

cesthia, f. chssMina, the Bohemian 
language ; 

anglicina, f . anglichina, the English 
language; 

pokrok, m. pokrok, progress; 

prilezitost, f. prsheelezitost, oppor- 
tunity; 

rad byeh mel, rdd bikh m'yell, I 
wish I had (or : I would like 
to have); 

hezky, hesske, ) 

hodne, hodS*. \ a Z° od deal; 

neco malo, netso malo, a little bit; 



uciti se 9 tichit se, to learn, to be 

learning; 
neuciti se ? neuchit s8, not to learn; 
nauciti se, nduchit s#, to learn or 

acquire (something); 
rozumeti, rozUmyet, to understand; 
rozumim, rozumeem, I understand 
porozumeti, porozumyet, to under- 
stand; or "to catch the meaning"; 
zacnouti, zdchnoUt, ) to begin, to 
zaciti ? zacheet, f commence; 
zacne, zdcline, will commence; 
pujciti, puycMHi, (colloquially: pit- 

chit), to lend; 
pujcte mi, ptichU me, lend me; 
povezte mi, po-vyezte me, tell me. 
jak se jmenuje, yak s8menuy8, how 

is — he, she, it — called. 
tezky, a, e, feshkee, difficult, hard; 
rychly, a, e, rikhlee ) 
ryclile, adv. rikhtt \ ±ast; 
pomalu, pomdlu, slowly; 
hnedle, Jmedle, nearly, (also "soon", 

"quick"); 
co nevidet, tso nSviiXet, in no time, 

shortly; 



*) Slovnicek is simply a diminutive of slovnik, meaning 
or short dictionary". See Note 1, Lesson XVIII. 



'a little 



Greetings and compliments. 



187 



trosku, (same as trocku), troshkU, 

a little; 
snadny, it, e, snddnee, easy. 
snadno, snadno, easily; 



dokonaly, a, e, dokondlee, perfect. 
dokonale,*) dokonale, perfectly; 
vyborny, a, e veebornee { 
vyborne, sl&v . veebornfr ) nrst_rate - 



Greetings and coixxpliixxents. 

POZDBAVY A POKLONY. 



Good morning, Sir ! 
(gentlemen, — Mad- 
am, — Miss, — ladies). 

Good afternoon, Mr. 

Brown ! 
Good evening, Mrs. 

Brown ! 
My compliments! 
Good night, doctor! 

Good bye ! — Farewell ! 
Farewell ! 



Dobre jitro**), pane! 
(panove, — panicko, 
— slecno, —damy). 

Dobre odpoledne, pane 

Branne!***) 
Dobry vecer, pani 

Braunova ! 
Ma licta ! 
Dobrou noc, pane dok- 

tore^)! 
S bokem !— Na zdar ! 
Mejte se dobre ! 



dobre ye-tro, pane! {pa- 
nose, — pamcliko, — 
slechno, — damy, — 
slechny). 

dobre odpoledne, pane 
Browne! 

dobree vedier, pani 
Brownovd! 

ma ootstd! 

dobrou nots, pane dok- 
tore! 

sbohem! — nd zdar! 

myey-te se dobrshe! 



*) See Note 2, Lesson XXX, about the derivation of adverbs from 
adjectives. In this case, as well as in some others, the final y changes into 
a simple e: dokonaly, — dokonale. 

Mostly it changes into an e: vyborny, — vyborne ; and sometimes 
into an o: snadny, — snadno. This, however, is rather optional, as we 
may equally say: snadne, snadne, (easily). 

**) In common conversation very often abbreviated: dobrytro ! 
dobritro ! 

***) It is proper to use the vocative case in addressing a person; but 
in ordinary discourse the proper name is generally left in the nominative: 
dobre jitro, pane Brann ! 

4) We cannot say in English "Mr. doctor", two titles in this case 
being incompatible; but it is customary in Bohemian to say: pane dokto- 
re, pane professore, or (in common parlance) pane doktor, pane pro- 
fessor, — leaving the title in the nominative case. "Mr. editor" , — pane 
redaktore, pane redaktore, — is an analogous expression in English. 



188 



Part III. 



Good luck to you! 
I wish you gooo) luck ! 
I wish you Godspeed! 
A happy journey! 
A happy return! 
To drink one's health. 
Your health ! 

How do you do? How 

are you? 
How are you getting 

along? 
Very well, thank you. 
How is everything 

with you? 
Tolerably well. 
How is your health? 
Are you well ? Are you 

in good health? 
I am pretty well, thank 

you. 
I am all right. 
I feel very well. 
I am perfectly well. 
And how are you? 
I am also well, thank 

you. 
You are looking well. 
I am very well; I can- 
not complain. 
How is your wife (your 

lady)? 
She is well, thank you. 
How is your family? 
They are all well. 



Na zdar vain ! 
y Preju vain stesti ! 

St'astnou cestu ! 
St'astuy navrat ! 
Piti na zdravi. 
Na vase zdravi ! 



Jak se mate? 

Jak se vain vede? 

Tuze dohre, dekuju. 
Jak se vede? 

Projde to.— Ujde to, 
Jak vam zdravi slouzi? 
Jste zdravi 

Je mi dost dobre, de- 
kujii. 
Mam se hezky. 
Je mi tuze dofore. 
Jsem docela zdrav. 
A jak vy se mate? 
Taky dobre, dekuju. 

Yypadate dobre. 
Mam se vyborne; ne- 

mohu stezovat. 
Jak se ma vase zena 

(vase pan!)? 
Dobre, dekuju. 
Jak se ma vase rodina? 
Jsou vsichni zdravi. 



na zdar vam! 
prsheyu vam shttisffl/ 

sMdstnou ts&sttif 
sMdstnee navrat ! 
peefli na zdrdvee. 
net vdshe zdrdvee! 



yak s8 mdt8? 

yak se vam ved# t 

tooze dtibrsM, tfekiiyu, 

yak sevtide? 



proyde to. — tiyd8 td. 
yak vam zdrdvee slouzeef 
ste zdrdff 

ye me dost dobrshe, (Ve- 

kuyu. 
mam se liesske. 
ye me tooze dobrshe. 
sem dotsUd zdrdf. 
a yak ve se mate? 
take dobrshe, Rektiyu. 

vipdddte dobrsM. 
mam seveeborfie; nemti- 

hii stezovat. 
yak se ma vdshe! zena 

{pom)? 
dobrshe, ftektiyti. 
yak s8ma vdsh$ro$indt 
soil fshikhm zdravi. 



Greetings and compliments. 



189 



I am glad of it. 

I am glad to hear it. 

That is right. 

I am very glad to see 
you (or : to meet you). 

I have not seen you for 
a long time. 

I would like to see you 
often. 



To me tesi. 

To rad slysim. 

To je dobre. 

Jsem tuze rad ze vas 

vidim. 
Nevidel jsem vas nz 

davno. 
Rad bych videl vas ea- 

sto. 



to mytitesliee. 

to rad slislieem. 

to ye dobrshe. 

sem tooz& rad ze vdss 
vWeem. 

neviftel sem vdss Ush 
davno. 

rad bikh vitfel vdss 
chdssto. 



My regards! 

Greet him (her, them)! 
— Give him my re- 
gards. 

Give(him, etc.) my best 
regards ! 

My best regards! 

Give my regards to all ! 

Remember me to your 
wife. — My best re- 
spects to your wife. 

My best regards to your 
wife! 

My compliments to 
your sister! 

Good bye! 

My best respects! 



Ze pozdraviiju! 
Pozdravujte ho (ji, 
je)! 

Yyf id'te me pozdrave- 

ni. 
Pekne pozdraveni! 
Pozdravujte ode nine 

vsecky! 
Mou lictn vasi choti! 



Pekne pozdraveni 

inanzelce! 
Mou poklonu vasi se- 

stfe! 
Poroucini se! 
Pekne poruceni! 



z# pozdrdvuyu! 
pozdrdvUyte ho {ye, 

yW 

virsliiftte me pozdrdve- 

ni*) 
pyekne pozdraveni! 
pozdrdvuyte ode mye 

fshetske! 
mo-it ootstu vdsliee klio- 

tif 

pyekne pozdraveni 

mdnzeltse! 
mou poklonu vdsliee se- 

strshe! 
poroUcheem se/ 
pyekne porUclieni! 



*) Nouns ending in ni are neutre (see znameni, Note 2, Lesson XIV). 
The final i has the long sound of ee. But in common discourse the length 
of the sound is immaterial and it is usually shortened; hence we represent 
it in these conversations by a simple m, instead of nee. 



190 



Part III. 



Vocabulary. 

Panbiih (i. e. Pan Bull) pdnbooh, 

the Lord God; 
jitro, n. (same as rano), yitrd, the 

morning; 
pozdrav, m. pozdrdf ) greet- 

pozdraveni, n. pozdraveni, ) ing; 
\}OZ(\r&Yiti,pozdravit,to greet (once); 
pozdravovati, pozd? i avovat, to greet; 

to send greetings; 



poklona, f. pbklond, compliment, 
bow; 

licta, f. ootsta, respect; 

navrat, m. ndvrat, return; 

zdravij n. zdrdvee, health; 

chotf, m. &f. Mot', the spouse, hus- 
band or wife; 

stezovati. stezovdt, to complain; 

vypadatij mpdddt, to look. 



Give me a call. — Call 

and see me. 
Call at my house. 
Call at my store. 

Call at my office. 

Did you call at my 

place? 
I called at your house, 

but nobody was at 

home. 
Call again. 

And when ? — Any time. 
When will you be at 

home. 
To-morrow surely. 
When will you call and 

see me? 



A call. 

NAVSTEVA. 
Navstivte me.— Prijd'- 

te ke me. 
Priid'te ke me domu. 
Prijd'te ke me do kra- 

mu. 
Pf ijd'te do me pisarny. 

Byl jste u me! 

Byl jsem u vas, ale 
zadny nebyl doma. 

Prijd'te zas. 

1 kdy2-Kdykoli. 

Kdy budete doma! 

Zejtra**) jiste. 
Kdy me navstivite! 



ndfsJiHiftS rny8. — 
Pr shift -te*) kg my 8. 

prshiftte M mye domu . 

prshiftte ke my 8 do krd 
mil. 

prshiftte do me peesdr- 
ny. 

bill ste u my 8? 

bill sent U vdss, ale zdd- 
nee nebill domd. 

prshifttg zdss. 
a gdy f — gdykoli. 
gdy btid8te domd f 

zeytrd yistie. 

gdy mye nafshMveet8? 



morning. 



*) Colloquially this is still more condensed and sounds like prshi-te. 
**) Zejtra or zitra (to-mo$row), derived from zjitra, zajitra, next 



A" call. 



191 



I shall give you a call 
to-morrow or day af- 
ter to-morrow. 

Yes, do call; I shall be 
expecting you. 

Somebody is knocking. 

— Some one rings. 
Go and see who that 

is. 
Go and open the door. 
It is some gentleman, 

— some stranger. 
It is Mr. Arbes. 
Let him come in. 
Come in! — Walk in! 
Come in, if you please. 
Sit down. 

Take a seat, if you 
please. 

Please take a seat. 

Here is a seat. 

Stay with us to dinner. 

Excuse me, I cannot; 
I have no time. 

Are you in a hurry? 

Yes, I am in a hurry. 

Where do you hurry? 

I have an appointment 
with Mr. Coleman. 

Don't be in such a hur- 
ry; wait a little. 

Indeed I cannot; I shall 
soon call again. 

Do so, if you please! 

Please, come again. 



Navstivim vas zejtra 
nebo pozejtri. 

Ado, navstivte; budu 

vas ocekavat. 
Nekdo klepa. — Nekdo 

zvoni. 
Jdete se podivat kdo to 

je. 
Jdete otevriti. 
Je to nejaky pan,— ne- 

jaky cizinec. 
Je to pan Arbes. 
At? vejde! 
Dale ! 

Yejdete, prosim! 
Sednete si. 
Posad'te se, prosiin. 

Racte se posaditi. 
Tady je zidle. 
Zustante u nas na obed. 
Odpust'te, nemohu ; 

nemam cas. 
M&te na specM 
Ano, mam na specli. 
Kam speeliate? 
Mam schuzi s panem 

Kolmanem. 
Nespechejte tak; poc- 

kejte trosku. 
Opravdu nemohu; pri- 

jdu brzo zas. 
Prosim, prijd'te! 
Racte prijiti zas. 



nafs7itiiveem vdss zey- 
trd nebo pozeytrshee. 

and, ndfshVifte; budU 
vdss ocliekdvdt. 

TLegdo klepd. — negdo 
zwonee. 

ftete se poReevdt gdo to 
ye. 

d'ete otevr sheet. 

y% to neydkee pan, — ne- 
ydkee tsizinets. 

y8 to pan Arbes. 

at veydS ! 

dale ! 

vey$et%, pro seem ! 

sednete si. 

posaftte s#, proseem. 

racht8 se posdftit. 

tady ye zidle. 

zoostanteu nds naoby8d 

odpuste, nemohti; ne- 
mam chdss. 

mate na spyVkh? 

and, mam na spy8kh. 

kdm spy8khdle? 

mam skhoozi spdnem 
Kolmanem. 

nespyekheyte tdk; poch- 
keyte trosliku. 

oprdvdU nemohu ; 

prshiydu b e rzo zdss. 

proseem, prshiftte! 

rdchte prshiyeet zdss. 



192 



Part III. 



Drop in, when you 

have time. 
I will come here as 

soon as 1 have time. 
Good day! 



zdskdcht8 sem, gdyfr ma- 
te chdss. 

prshiydU sem, ydkmilti 
btidii meet chdss. 

poroucheem s%! 



Navsteva, i. ndfshtevd, a call, a visit ; 
navstiviti, ndfshteevit, to visit; 
ocekavati, ochekdvdt, to await; 
zaskociti 9 zdskochit, to drop in; 
porouceti, poroUchet, to command; 
porouceti se, poroUchet se, to take 

leave; 
poroucim se, poroucheem s&, good 

day! 
sednouti si, sednoilt si j to sit down, 
pOSaditise, posd&Ht s8 f totakeaplace; 



Zaskocte sem, kdyz 

mate cas. 
Prijdu sem, jakmile 

budu mit cas. 
Poroucim se! 

Vocabulary. 

cizinec, m. tsizinets, a stranger; 

spech, m. spygkh, the hurry; 

scMze, f. skhoozg, meeting, ap- 
pointment; 

zidle, 1 zidle, the chair; 

klepati, klepdt, to knock; 

zvoniti, zwomt, to ring; 

otevriti, otevr sheet, to open; 

odpnstiti, odpusfit, to excuse, to 
forgive. 



Day and night. 
I worked all day. 
I did not sleep all night. 
I work day and night. 
We sat up late at night. 

He came late at night 
and wanted a night's 
lodging. 

The day was clear; the 
night was dark . 

To-day, — yesterday. 

This morning, — this 
noon, — this evening, 
— this midnight. 



Time. 

GAS. 
Den a noc. 

Pracoval jsem cely den. 
Nespal jsem celou noc. 
Delam ve dne v noci. 
Sedeli jsme dlouho do 

noci. 
Prisel pozde na noc a 

chtel nocleh. 

Denbyljasny; noc by- 
la tmava. 

Dnes, — vcera. 

Dues rano, — dnes v 
poledne, — dnes ve- 
cer,— dnes o piilnoci. 



den a nots. 

prdtsovdlsem tseleeden. 
nespdl sem tseloit nots. 
tfeldm ve dn8 vnotsi. 
sefteli sm8 dlouho do 

notsi. 
prshishell pozNe nd 

nots a kht el notsWi. 

den bill ydsnee; nots Mi- 
ld tmava. 

dness, — fcherd. 

dness rdno, — dness fpo- 
ledn8, — dness vecher, 
— dness o poolnotsi. 



Time. 



193 



This foreuoon it rained 
— this afternoon it 
was fine. 

Until evening; — until 
morning. 

In broad daylight. 

To-night he will come 
home. — To-night he 
came home. 

He came last night, — 
last evening, — early 
in the morning, — late 
in the evening, — 
about midnight. 

Evening before last; — 
night before last. 

When was it? — Last 
night. 

When did it happen? — 
Night before last. 

When shall I take that 
medicine? 

In the morning, at noon 
and at bed-time. 

Yesterday was a holi- 
day. — Day before 
yesterday there was 
a fire. 

To-morrow I shall 
leave ;— day after to- 
morrow I shall be in 
St. Louis. 



Nocleh, notsleh, a night's lodging; 

svatek, sicdtek, a holiday; 

stati se, stdt s&, to happen, to occur; 



Dnes dopoledne prselo ; 
— dues odpoledne by- 
lo hezky. 

Az do veeera; — az do 
rami. 

Za bileho due. 

Dnes v noci prijde do- 
mu. — Dues v noci 
prisel domn. 

Prisel minulon noc, — 
vcera vecer, — cas- 
ne rano, — pozde ve- 
cer, — kolein pul- 
noci. 

Predminuly vecer; — 
predminulou noc. 

Kdy to bylo* — Dnes 
v noci. 

Kdy se to stalo]— Vce- 
ra v noci. 

Kdy main nzivatil 



dness dopoledne p e rshel- 
ld; — dness odpoled- 
ne billo lies sky. 

ash do vechera; — ash 
do rand . 

za beeleho due. 

dness vnotsi prshide do- 
mit. — dness vnotsi 
pr shi- shell domtl. 

prshi-sh ell min illo U nots 
— fcherd vecher, — 
chassne rano, — pozfte 
vecher, — kolem pool- 
notsi. 

prshM-minillee vecher ;- 
prsh8d-minulou nots. 

gdy to billo f — dness 
vnotsi. 

gdy 8# to staid? — fche- 
rd vnotsi. 

gdy mam uzeevdtf 



Rano, v poledne ana 


rano, f poledne d nd 


noc. 


nots. 


Vcera byl svatek. — 


fcherd bill swdtek. — 


Predevcirem hofe- 


prsMde-f cheer em ho- 


lo. 


rshelo. 


Zejtra odjedu; — po- 


zeytrd odyedu; — po- 


zejtri budu v St. 


zeytrshee budu v Si. 


Louis. 


Louis. 



Vocabulary. 

stalo se, stdlo se, it happened; 
stane se, stdne se, it will happen; 
stane-li se, stdne-li se, if it happens; 

13 



194 



Part lit 



jasny, a e, ydssnee, bright, clear; 
tmavy, a, e, tmdvee, dark; 
minuly, a, e, minulee, past, last; 
predminuly, pr shed- minulee, before 

last; 
This week I am in good 

health; — last week 

I was sick. 
The last two weeks I 

was on the road (i. e. 

traveling). 
Next week I shall again 

leave. 
Next week I expect my 

brother. 
In two weeks I shall get 

money; — in five 

weeks I shall be in 

Europe. 
In how many weeks 

will you return ? — I 

shall return in about 

a month. 
In how many months 

shall I see you? — In 

two months; — in five 

months. 
When shall we meet a- 



odjeti, odyet, to leave (by some con- 
veyance); 

uzivati, tizeevat, to take medicine; 
(also "to enjoy"). 



gain? — In a quarter 



Tento tyden jsem 
zdrav ;- minuly tyden 
byl jsem nemocen. 

Posledni dve nedele 
byl jsem na cestach. 

S nedele zase odjedu. 

Budouci tyden cekam 
bratra. 

Za dve nedele dostanu 
penize; — za pet ne- 
del budu v Evrope. 

Za kolik nedel se vra- 
titeS — Yratim se 
asi za mesic. 



Za kolik mesicu vas 
uvidim? — za dva 
inesice;— za pet me- 
sicu. 

Kdy se sejdeme zas2 
— Za ctvrt leta, *) za 



tento teedgn sem zdrdf; 

— minHlee teed8n bill 

sem ngmotsen. 
posledfi.ee dwyg ng&'elg 

bill sem na tsestdkh. 

sne&'ele zassti ody8dti. 

budotitsee teed$n clielcdm 
bratra. 

za dwye neflfelti dostdnil 
peneeze; — za pygt 
neftel bitdil v&vropy&. 

za kolik nedel s& vrd- 

Meete? — vrdt'eem se 
asi za mytiseets. 

za kolik myeseetsoo vdss 
uvi&'eem? — za dwa 
myeseets8; — za pyU 
myeseetsoo. 

gdy s8 seydemg zdssf — 
za shtw e rt leta, — za 



*) Ordinarily leto, n. means "summer"; but the noun rok, m. (the 
year) has in the plural leta, let: dve leta, two years or "two summers"; pet 
let, five years or "five summers"; etc. See Lesson XIX, and foot-note on 
page 83. 

The same is true of fractions: ctvrt leta, shtw e rt leta, a quarter qf a 
year; pul leta, pool leta, half a year; tri ctvrti leta, trshi shtto e rti leta, 
"three quarters of a year. 

However, we may also say: dva roky, two years; pet roku, five yea 
etc. Likewise: ctvrt roku, pul roku, tri ctvrti roku. 



- 



Time. 



195 



of a year, — in half a 

year, — in a year. 
I shall be here within a 

year. 
My son has been gone 

five years ; — he writes 

to me once a year 

(once in a year, — 

once yearly). 
In how many years do 

you expect him? 
In three years, — in six 

years. 
I think he will arrive 

shortly, — speedily, 

— before long. 
In a short time we shall 

see him. — In a short 

while we shall be to- 
gether. 
It is a week since I was 

in New York. 
It is scarcely two weeks 

since father was here. 
It will soon be a year 

since I was in the old 

country. 
It is very near two years 

since I sold the farm. 

This day a year (or: a 
year ago to-day) Otto 
was here ; — four years 
ago to-day we were 
together at San Fran- 
cisco. 



piil leta, — za rok. 

Budu zde do dne do 
roka. 

Syu je pryc pet let; — 
pise mi jednou do ro- 
ka (or Jednou za rok, 
—jednou rocne). 

Za kolik let ho ceka- 

te* 
Za tri leta, — za sest 

let, 
Myslim ze pfijede za 

kratko, — v kratko- 

sti, — za nedlouho. 
Za kratky cas ho uvi- 

dime. — Za kratkou 

dobu budemepohro- 

made. 
Je tomu tyden co jsem 

byl v New Yorkiu 
Je tomu sotva dve ne- 

nele, co zde byl otec. 
Bude tomu brzo rok, 

co jsem byl ve stare 

vlasti. 
Budou tomu lmedle dve 

leta, co jsem prodal 

farmu. 
Dnes rok byl zde Otto; 

— dnes ctyry leta 

byli jsme spolu v San 

Franciscu. 



pool let a, 



za rok. 



bUdti zde do dne do 
roka. 

syn ye ' prich pytit let;— 
peeshe me yednoU do 
roka (or: yednoU za 
rok, — yednou roch- 
nV). 

za kolik let ho chekdtg? 

za trshi let a, — za sliest 
let. 

misleem %e prshiyMe za 
kratko, — fkrdtkosfi, 

— za nedlouho. 

za krdtkee chdss ho vvi- 

(i'eemg. — za krdtkoU 

dobti budeme pbhro- 

ma&'e. 
ye to mil tee den tso sem 

bill v New Yorktt. 
yg tomU sotioa dwyene- 

d'ele tso zde bill otets. 
bude to mil b e rzo rok, 

tso sem bill ve stare 

vlasti. 
budou tomUhnedledioye 

leta, tso sem prodtil 

farmu. 
dness rok bill zde Otto; 

— dness shtiry leta 
billi sme spolU fsan- 
franciscU. 



196 



Part III. 



To-morrow it will be a 
year since Mary left; 
— two years ago yes- 
terday mother died. 

The other week our 
folks were here. 

It is scarcely a week 
since they left; — it is 
just a month since 
they arrived. 

It will shortly be a 
month since it hap- 
pened. 

It is not long since; — 
it was a short time 
since; — it was the 
other day. 

How long is it since 
you have been here? 

Day before yesterday 
it was a year. — It 
was half a year (last) 
Sunday. — It will be 
four months on Mon- 
day. — It will be eight 
months on Tuesday. 

When was ^-Wednes- 
day a week ; — two 
weeks ago on Thurs- 
day; — a week ago 
last Friday; — three 
weeks ago last Satur- 
day. 



Zejtra bude rok co Ma- 
ry odjela; — vcera 
dve leta matka ze- 
mrela. 

Oiien tyden byli tu 
nasi. 

Je tomu sotva tyden co 
odjeli;— je tomu zro- 
vna mesic, co prije- 
li. 

Hnedle bude mesic co 
se to stalo. 



Je to nedavno; 
to nedavno; - 
to onehdy. 



bylo 
bylo 



co 



Jak davno tomu 
jste tu % 

Prede vcirem minul 
rok. — Minulo pul 
leta v nedeli. — Bu- 
dou ctyry mesiee t 
pondeli.— Bude osm 
mesicu v utery. 

Kdy to bylo?— Ye stre- 
du tyden; — ve ctvr- 
tek dve nedele; — v 
patek minul tyden; 
— v sobotu minuly 
tri nedele. 



zeytrd bu<L8 rok tso Ma- 
ry od-yelld; — fchti- 
rd dwy8 leta matka 
zemrshelld. 

onen teed$n billi til nd- 



y8 tdmii sotwd teed&n 
tso od-yelli; — y& tomU 
zrovnd myeseets tsd 
prshi-yelli. 

hnedl& btide myeseets 
tso se td stalo. 

ye to nedavno; — billo to 
nedavno; — billo td 
dnehdy. 

yak davno tomu tso 

ste tit f 

pr she de f cheer em minill 
rok. — minulo pool U- 
td vnefteli. — bildoii 
shtiry myeseetsefpon- 
Nelee. — bilde osiXm 
myeseetsoo vooteree. 

gdy td billo?— v8 strslie- 
dti leed8n; — ve shtw e r- 
tek divyd netfele; — 
fpdtek minul teeddn; 
fsobdtit minitly trshi 
nedele. 



Time. 



197 



Before a year passes 
we shall be one an- 
other's (i. e. man and 
wife). 

Before two years pass 
away, all will be over. 

Will it be long? — It 
won't be long. 

Will it last long? -- It 
won't last long. 

It takes long. — It took 
long. — It didn't take 
long. — O yes, it did ! 

How soon will it be? — 
It will be right away. 
— It is done already. 



Nedele, nefteW, Sunday 
pondeli, ponftelee, Monday 
utery, ooteree, Tuesday 
streda, strshedd, Wednesday 
ctvrtek, shw e rtek, Thursday 
patek, pdtek, Friday 
sobota, sobotd, Saturday 
nedavno 9 neddvno, not long since 
jak davno, yak ddvno, how long 

since 
co 9 tso, since 

sotva, sotvd, scarcely, hardly 
tmdouci, b&doUtsee ) futme> ngxt 
pristi, prsheesh-tee > 
dostati ? dostdt, to get, to receive; 



Nez miue rok budeme 
svoji. 

Nez minou dve leta, 

bude po vsem. 
Bude to dloulio? — Ne- 

bude to dloulio. 
Bude to dloulio trvatH 

— Nebude to dloulio 

trvati. 
To trva dloulio. — Tr- 

valo to dloulio.— Ne- 

trvalo to dloulio. — 

Ba trvalo I 
Jak brzo to bude*- 

Bude to hued. — Uz 

je to. 

Vocabulary. 

za kratko, 



nesh minti rok, 

sicoyi. 



budeme 



nesh minou clwye leta, 

bude po fshem. 
bude to dloulio f — nebu- 

d& to dlotlho. 
bude to dloUhd Uvvdt? 

— nebude to dlouho 

t e rvdt. 
to t e ?*vd dlouho. — t e rva- 

lo to dloUlw. — neter- 

vdlo to dlouho. — bet 

Uvvalo! 
yak b e rzd to bude? — bU- 

de to lined. — ush ye 

to. 



shortly, 

Hn a short 
I 



time; 



zd krdtko 1 
v kratkosti, f kratkosti 
za nedlouho, zd nedlou- 
hd 
za kratky cas, zd krdt-. 
kee cliass 
za kratkou dobu, zd I 
kratkou dobu J 
denue, dene, daily 
tydue, teedne, weekly 
niesicne, myeseechne, monthly 
rocue, roclme, yearly. 
na cestach, na tsestdkh, (literally : 
"on the roads"), traveling; 
stara vlast, stdrd vldst, the old 
country, 



198 



Part III. 



Tlxe lioxxr*. 

HODINA. 



Have you a watch? — 

— I have. 
Does it go right?— It is 

too slow (i. e. it goes 

late);— it loses;— it is 

(it goes) too fast. 
It is a few minutes too 

late. — It is five min • 

utes too fast. 
It stopped (literally: it 

stands). 
It is not wound up. — 

It was not wound up. 
Wind up the watch,— 

the clock. 
Is that clock right (lit. 

"does it go right")? — 

I think it is. 
What o'clock is it (or: 

what time is it)? — 

How late is it? 
Don't you know what 

o'clock it is?— I don't 

know. 
See what o'clock it is .— 

I will see (or look). 
It is one o'clock. — 

It is a quarter past 

one. 



hodinky? 



Mate 
Mam. 

Jdou*) dobre? — 
pozde;— pozdi 
jdou napred. 



Jdou 

se; — 



Jsou o par minut po- 

zadu. — Jsou o pet 

minut napred. 
Stoji. — Zustaly sta- 

ti. 
Nejsou natazeny. — 

Nebyly natazeny. 
Natahnete hodinky, — 

hodiny. 
Jdou ty hodiny dobfeS 

My slim zejdou. 



Kolikje hodin? 
je pozde] 



Jak 



Nevite kolik je hodin? 
Nevim. 



matt hoftinky? — mam. 

dou dobrsh&f — doit 
poztfe; — poztfee u8; 

— doit ndprshed. 

Soti o par mintit poza- 
dti. — Sou o py&t 
minUt ndprshed. 

stoyee. — zoostdly stdt. 

neysoil natazeny. — n#- 

billy natazeny. 
ndtdhnetg hoffiiiJcy, — 

Jioftiny. 
doit ty hotfiny dobrsMf 

— mysleem ze doti. 

kolik y& hoftin? — yak 
y% pozfte? 

neveetg kolik y8 hofiin? 

— neveem. 



Podivejte se kolik je 

hodin.— Podivam se. 
Je jedna hodina. — Je 

ctvrt na dve (or na 

druhou). 

*) Hodinky (the watch) and hodiny (the clock) are plural nouns; 
consequently the succeeding verb must appear in the plural form: jdou, 
jsou (they go, they are). Tnis has already been pointed out in a foot-note 
on page 137. — Hodina, hodinka, in the singular, means: "the hour'*, 
"the small hour". 



potfeeveytg s& kolik y8 
hotfin.—potfeevdm s8 

ye yedna hoNind. — y8 
shiw e rt na dwyg (na 
druhou). 



The hour. 



199 



It is half past one. — It 
is a quarter to two. 

It is two o'clock. — Is 
it so late already? — 
Yes, it is two (o'clock) 
already. 

It is past two o'clock — 
It is rive minutes to 
three. — It is very 
near three o'clock. 

It is past three. — It 
wants ten minutes to 
four. 

At what o'clock shall 
we go?— We shall go 
at a quarter pastf our. 

That is too soon; we 
shall wait till half past 
four. Very well, then. 

We shall go at five 
o'clock. — All right. 

We started at five 
o'clock in the after- 
noon. 

Did you come in time] 
— Didn't you come 
late? 

It was time enough; 
there was no hurry. 

We came there a few 
minutes after six. 

We arrived there be 
fore seven, — after 
seven, — early in the 



Je pul drulie. — Jsou 
tri ctvrte na dve (or 
na druliou). 

Jsou dye hodiny. — 
Uz je tak pozde? — 
Ano, uz jsou dve. 

Jsou dve hodiny pryc- 

— Je pet m hint do 
tfeeli — Jsou lnie- 
dle tri hodiny. 

Jsou tri pryc.— Chybi 

deset mi nut do cty- 

rech. 
V kolik liodin pfijde- 

mel — Piijdeme ve 

ctvrt na pet. 
To je tuze brzo; poc- 

kame do pul pate.— 

Tak teda. 
Pujdenie v pet hodiu. 

— Treba. 

Tysli jsme o pate lio- 
diue odpoledne. 

Prisli jste v easl — Ne- 
pi-isli jste pozde] 

Bylo dost casu; nebyl 

zadny spech. 
Prisli jsme tarn par 

minut po seste. 
Dosli jsme tarn pred 

sedmou,— po sedme, 

— s yecera, — pozde 



ye pool druhe.- sou trshi 

shtw e rHe na dwye(?id 

drtihoii). 
soil dicyehoftiny. — fish 

ye ink pozftef — and, 

itsJi sou dwyg. 

soil dicyehoftiny prich- 

— y& py$t mintit do 
trshekh. — soil hne- 
dle trshi ho ft in y. 

sou trshi prich. — khibee 

deset minut do shty- 

rekh. 
f kolik ho ft in pfiydemef 

— ptiydeme veshtw e rt 

na pyet. 
to ye tooze b^rzo; poch- 

kdme do pool pate. — 

tak teda. 
puydeme fpyet ho ft in. 

— trsh&bti. 

vishli sm$ o pate ho ft i 
fie odpoledne. 

prshishli ste fchdss? — 

neprshishli ste poz- 

fte? 
billd dost chdssU; nebill 

zddnee spyekh. 
prshishli sme tarn par 

minut po sMste. 
doshli sme tarn prshed 

sedmou, — po sedme, 

— svecherd, — pozfte 



200 



Part III 



evening, — late in the 
evening, — at mid- 
night. 

We got there in an 
hour, — in an hour 
and a half, — in two 
hours-, — in five hours. 

We were here just at 
twelve o'clock. 

We were here exactly 
at noon. 

I must be there between 
one and two; — be- 
tween two and three; 

— between four and 
five. 

We must be there be- 
fore evening, — early 
in the evening, — to- 
wards evening. 

The clock strikes. 
Hear how many (what 

o'clock) it strikes. 
It strikes twelve. 
Did you hear the clock 

strike? 
How many (i. e. what 

o'clock) did it striked 
It struck one;-it struck 

two ; — it struck three ; 

— it struck five;— it 
struck six. 



vecer, — o pulnoci. 



Dosli jsme tarn za ho- 
diiui, — za puldruhe 
hodiny, — zadveho- 
diny,— za pet liodin. 

Byli jsme tu zrovna ve 
dvanact hodin. 

Byli jsme tu navlas v 
poledne. 

Musim tarn byti mezi 
jednou a druhou; — 
mezi druhou a treti; 
—mezi ctvrtou apa- 
tou. 

Musime tarn byti pf ed 
vecerem, — brzo s 
vecera, — na vecer. 



Hodiny bijou*) 
Slyste kolik bijou! 

Bijou dvanact. 
Slysel jste hodiny bitil 

Kolik bilo* 

Bila jedna;— bily dve; 
— bily tri; — bilo 
pet; — bilo sest. 



v&cher, — o poolnotsi. 



doshli sme lam za hoiVi- 
nu, — za pooldrithe ho- 
ftiny, — za dwytihofti- 
n V> — zapytt ho&Hn. 

billi sm& tit zrovna v# 
dwdndtst hoftin. 

billi smetu ndvldss fpo- 
ledng. 

museem tarn beet mezi 
yednoti a drithoit; — 
mezi drithoit a trsM- 
tee, — m#zi shtw e r- 
toti a pdtou. 

museem8tam beet pr shed 
vecherem., — b e rzo 
8w8chera, — na vech- 
er. 

hoftiny biyou. 
slisht8 kolik biyou! 

biyou dtodndtst. 
slishell st&ho&'iny beet? 

kolik Mild? 

billet yednd; — billy 
dwyg; — billy trshi; 
— billo pytit; — Mild 
shest. 



*) Bijou or biji (they strike), 
page 137. 



See Note 2, and also foot-note on 



Age and date. 



201 



It has just struck half 
past six. 

It has already struck 
seven. 

It is soon going to strike 
eight. 

I shall wait till half 
past eight. 

I shall wait till nine. 

Let us wait till ten. 

Wait till midnight, or 
until morning. 

I shall wait gladly. 

I do not like to wait. 

Waiting is not agreable. 

I do not like long wait- 
ing. 



Prave bilo pul sedme. 
Uz odbilo sedm. 
Hnedle bude biti osm. 

Budu eekati do pul 
derate. 

Pockaui do deviti. 

Pockejme do desiti. 

Pockejte do pfilnoci, 
nebo do rana. 

Rad poekam. 

Nerad cekam. 

Cekani neni mile. 

Nemam rad dlouhe ce- 
kani. 

VOCABULARY. 



prdvye billo pool sedme. 
Ush odbillo sedum. 
hnedle bude beet ostlm. 

budu chekdt do pool de- 
bate. 

pochkdm do deveeti. 

pochkeyme do desseefl. 

pochkeyte do poolnotsi, 
nebo do rand. 

rad pochkam, 

nerdd chekdm. 

chekdm neym mile. 

nemam rad dlouhe che- 
kdm . 



Hodina, f. hotfina, the hour; 
liodinka, f. hoftinka, the small hour; 
hodiny, pi. hoftiny, the clock; 
hodinky, pi. hotfinky, the watch; 
lek 9 m. lek, the medicine; 
spech, m. spyekh, the hurry; 
cekani, n. chekdm, the waiting; 
napred, ndprshed, ahead, before; 



natahnouti, ndtaJuiout, to wind up; 
natazeny, ndtdzeny, woundup; 
cekati, chekdt, to wait, to be wait- 
ing; 
cekani, chekdm, I am waiting; 
pockati, pochkdt, to wait; 
pockam, pochkam, I shall wait; 
pozadu, pozadii, behind. 



How old are you? 

I am twenty years. 
I am over twenty. 



Age and date. 
VEK a DATUM. 

Jak jste star] Kolik 

je yam let I 
Je mi dvacet let. — Je 

mi pfes dvacet. 



yak ste star? kolik ye 

vdm let ? 
ye me chcdtset let. — ye 

me prshes dicdtset. 



202 



Part III. 



I shall soon be twenty 

live years. 
I am nearly thirty 

years. 
I am already thirty five 

years. 
I was forty years in 

January. 
You are still young. 
I shall be fifty years in 

February. — I am 

getting old. 
That is not a great age. 
You look young. 
You don't look so old. 
You look well for your 

age. 
When were you born? 

What year? — In what 
year? 

I was born in the year 
1840. — I was born in 
May in the year 1850. 



I was born in the 
month of June 1862. 



The first of August is 
my birth-day. 



Bude mi brzo dvacet 

pet let. 
Jc mi malein tficet 

let. 
Uz je mi tricet pet let. 

Bylo mi ctyrycet let v 

lednu. 
Jste jeste mlady. 
Bude mi padesat let v 

linoru. — Starnu. 

To neni velke stari. 
Yypadate mlady. 
Nevypadate tak stary. 
Yypadate dobfe na 

svuj vek. 
Kdy jste*) narozen?— 

Kdy jste se narodil? 
Ktery rok 2 — Y kte- 

rem roce ? 
Jsem narozen roku 

1840. — Jsemrozen 

v maji leta 1850. 



Narodil jsem se v me- 
sici eervnu 1862. 



Prvniho srpna je mflj 
den narozeni. 



^ btidg me berzd dwdtset 

pyU let. 
y8 mi mdlem tr shit set 

let. 
tish y8 me trshitset pyU 

let. 
billo me shtiritset let 

vlednti. 
stg yeshte mlddee. 
budg me pddgsdt let voo- 

norti. — starnu. 

to neyfki velke stdrshee. 

vypaddte mlddee. 

ne~vypaddtt tak stdree. 

vypaddte dobrshe na 
svuy vy8k. 

gdy st% narozSn? gdy 
ste se ndro&Hl? 

ktfrree rtik? — fkUrem 
rotst? 

sent narozen rokti M- 
seets ostim set shtiri- 
tset. — sem roztin v md- 
yi leta Hiseets ostim 
set padfedt. 

ndroffil sem se vmy8- 
seetsi chervnu Hiseets 
ostim set sMdesdt 
dwd. 

p e rvnee7w s e rpnd yg 
mtiy den narozeni. 



*) In Bohemian the passive participle rozen or narozen is used in 
connection with the present tense : kdy jste rozen ? kdy jste narozen ? 

"when are you born"? 



Age and date. 



203 



How old is that child? 

It is ten days. — It is 
two weeks (old). 

It is a month (old). — It 
is two months. — It is 
live months. 

It is one year (old). — 
It is two years (old). 
— It is five years (old). 

It will be a year in Sep- 
tember. — It will soon 
be three years. 

It is going on two 
years (it is in its sec 
ond year). — It is 
going on five years. 

How old is that girl? 

She will be four years 
at Christmas. — She 
will be five years at 
Easter. — She will 
soon be six years. 

What day of the month 
is it? — what date is it? 

To-day is the first, — the 
second, — the fifth. 

What day of the month 
is (i. e. will be) to- 
morrow ? 

To-morrow is ("will 
be") the third, — the 
tenth, — the twen- 
tieth. 

What date was yes- 
terday? 



Jak stare je to dite? 
Je niu deset dni. — 

Jsou mu dve uedele. 
Je mu mesic. — Jsou 

mu dva mesice. — 

Je mu pet mesicii. 
Je mu rok. — Jsou mu 

dve leta. — Je mu pet 

let, 
Bude mu rok v zari.— 

Budou mu brzo tfi 

leta. 
Jde mu na druhy rok. 

Jde mu na paty rok. 



Jak stara je ta liolka.* 
Budou ji ctyry leta o 
vaiiocieli. — Bude ji 
pet let o velkouo- 
cicli.— Bude ji hue- 
die sest let. 



jake 



Kolikateho je2 

je datum 2 
Dues je prvuiho, dru- 

heho, — pateho. 
Kolikateho bude zej- 

tra* 

Zejtrabude tretiho,— 
desateho,— d vacate - 
ho. 

Kolikateho bylo vce- 
ra2 



yak stare ye to tfeetie ? 
y% mu deset dnee . — sou 

mil divyg nffiele. 
y8 mil myeseets. — sou 

mil dwd myeseetse. — 

ye m it pyet myeseetsoo. 
y$ mil rok. — soil mil 

dwye leta. — ye rati 

pyU let. 
bude mil rok vzdrshee. 

— budou mii b^rzo 

trshi leta. 
de mii na driihee rok. — 

de mil na pdtee rok. 



yak stara ye ta Jiolkdf 
budou yee shtiry leta o 
vdnotseekh. — btide yee 
pyet let o velkonot- 
seekh. — biide yee line 
die shest let. 

kolikateho ye? — yake 

ye datum? 
dness ye p e rvnee7io, — 

druheho ,— pateho '. 
kolikateho bude zeytrd? 



zeytrd bude trsheteehd, 
— dessdteho, — dwd- 
tsdteho. 

kolikateho billo fchera? 



204 



Part III. 



Yesterday was the 
twenty-first. 

What day of the month 
will be next Sunday? 
- The twenty-second. 

On what day of the 
month was Frank 
here ? — He was here 
on the fifteenth and 
he will come again 
on the twenty-fifth. 

This month?— Yes; he 
will stay here until 
the last. 

On the first I shall re- 
ceive new goods. 

When will Mr. Danesh 
pay (his) bill? — Be- 
fore the last. — On the 
first of next month. 

When will the agent 
arrive? — About the 
ninth. 

When will the time run 
out? When will it 
be due? — About the 
fifteenth. 

That is, about the mid- 
dle of the month. — 
I shall pay towards 
the end of the month. 

Next month I expect 
to be gone. — Before 
two months pass a- 
way, I shall be back. 



Ycera bylo dvacateho 

prvniho. 
Kolikateho bude v ne- 

deli? — Dvacateho 

druheho. 
Kolikateho byl zde 

Frank?- Byl zde pat- 

nacteho a prijde zas 

na dvacateho pate- 

ho. 

Tento mesic? — Ano; 

zfistane tu do posled- 

niho. 
Na prvniho dostanu 

nove zbozi. 
Kdy pan Danes zapla- 

ti licet?— Do posled- 

niho. — Na prvniho 

budouci mesic. 

Kdy prijede agent? — 
A si devateho. 

Kdy vyjde cas? Kdy vy- 
padne Ihuta? — Ko- 
lem patnacteho. 

Teda v polou mesice.— 
Zaplatim ke konci 
mesice. 

Na drnhy mesic hod- 
lam byti pryc. - Nez 
uplynou dva mesice, 
budn nazpet. 



fcherd billd dwatsdtehd 
p e rvneeho. 

kolikateho btidti \mefte- 
lif — dwatsdtehd dru- 
heho. 

kolikateho bill zd8 
Frank?— bill zde pdt- 
ndtsteho a prshide 
zdss na dtcdtsdtehd 
pdteho. 

tento mygseets? — dno; 

zoostdng til doposled- 

neeJw. 
na p e rvneehd dostanU 

nove zbozee. 
gdy pan Danesh zdpld- 

tee oochetf — do po- 

sledneehd. — ndperv- 

neehd bicdoutsee my% 

seets. 
gdy prshiytidti dkentf — 

dsi d$vdtehd. 

gdy veede chdssf gdy 
vypadng Ihootaf — ko- 
lem pdtndtstehd. 

tMd f polou myeseetse. - 
zaplatieem k8 kontsi 
myeseetse. 

na druhee myeseets hod- 
lam beet prich. — nesh 
Uplinou died my&- 
seetsti, bUdit ndspy&t, 



Age and date. 



205 



We shall expect you 
some time in Octo- 
ber; — or in the be- 
ginning of Novem- 
ber;— at latest before 
the first of December. 

The fourth of July is a 
national holiday, — 
the day of independ- 
ence. 

Thanksgiving day is u- 
sually in November. 

On new-year's day; — 
before New-year's; — 
after New-year's. 



the age 



Vek, m. vygk 

stari, n. stdrshee 

starnouti, stdrnout, to grow old; 

naroditi se, n&roftit s8, to be born; 

narozeni, n. ncirozem, the birth; 

pocatek,m. pochdtek, the beginning; 

lhfita, f . Uioota, the given time, the 

term; 
vanoce 9 pi. vdnotsg, Christmas; 
velkonoce, pi. velkpnotse, Easter; 
svatodusni svatky, pi., swdtoduslin.ee 

stcdtky, Whitsuntide; 



Budeme vas eekati ne- 
kdy y rijnu; — nebo 
poeatkem listopadu; 
— nejdyl do prvnilio 
prosince. 

Ctvrty cervenec jest 
naroJni syatek, — 
den neodyislosti. 

Den dikuyzdani byya 

v listopadu. 
Na novy rok; — do no- 
velio roku; — po 110- 
vem roce. 

Vocabulary. 

yypadati, 



I biidemS vdss cheMt He- 
gel y frslieeynu; — ne- 
bo pochdtkem listopa- 
du; — neydeel do p e rc- 
\\eelio prosintse. 

slttic e rtee chervfrnets 
yest ndrodme swdtek, 
— den neodvislosti. 

den (i'eekuuzddTLee beevd 

■vlistopddu. 
nu aovee rok;— do nove- 

Jio roku; — po nocem 

rotse. 



ypddat ) to look, to ap- 
vyhlizeti, vyMeezet > pear; 
vyjiti, viyeet, to go out, to run out; 
uplynoiiti, uplynoitt, to pass away; 
zaplatiti, zapltifflt, to pay up; 
nekdy, negdy, sometimes; 
y polou 9 fpolou, in the middle; 



back 



nazpet, ndspyU ) 
zpatky, spdtky S 
neodyislost, f . nSodrislost, the inde- 
pendence. 



Leden, Ud8n, January 
linor, oonor, February 
brezen, brshfaSn, March 
duben, dUben ) April 
april, april S 



kveten, kwyeten Kj ay 
maj, may > 

ceryen, cherven, June 
ceryenec^ chervenets, July 
srpen, s e rpen, August 



206 



Part III. 



zari, zdrshee, September 
rijen, rsheeyen, October 



listopad, listopdd, November 
prosinec, prosinets, December. 



How is the weather? 

It is line; — it is beau- 
tiful weather. 

It is clearing up; — it is 
a fine morning; — it 
will be a nice day. 

The heaven is clear. — 
The sun shines, — 
warms (i. e. makes it 
warm), — burns. 

In the sun it is hot. 

It is warm; — it will be 
hot; — there will be a 
great heat to-day. 

Yesterday there was a 
great heat. 

How does the thermom- 
eter stand? — Eighty 
five in the shade. 

The thermometer is 
rising, — is falling. 

"What a heat ! — I am per- 
spiring; let us go into 
the shade ; — I feel hot. 

What wind is it ?— East 
wind, — West wind, 
South wind, — North 
wind. 

I think there will be a 



Tlie weather. 
P0CA8I 

Jake je pocasi? 

Je pekne; — je krasne 
pocasi. 

Yybira se; — je kras- 
ne rano;— bude pek- 
ny den. 

Nebe je iasne.— Slun- 
ce sviti — hreje — 
pali. 

Na slunci je horko. 

Je teplo; — bude hor- 
ko; — bude dnes vel- 
ke parno. 

Ycera bylo silne ve- 
dro. 

Jak stoji teplomer? — 
Osmdesat pet ve sti- 
nu. 

Teplomer stoupa, — 
klesa. 

To je horko!— J a se po 
tim;pojd'me do chlad- 
ku. — Je mi horko. 

Jaky je vitr? — Yy- 
chodni, — zapadni, 
jizni, — severni. 

Myslim ze bude zmena 



ydke y% pdchdseef 

y&pyekne; — yg kr (iss- 
ue pochdsee. 

vybeerd se; — ye krdss- 
ne rd nd;~b ud& py8k- 
nee den. 

nebe y8 yasne. — sluntse 
sweet' ee, — hrsh$y& y — 
pdlee. 

net sluntsi yg horkd. 
yg tepid; — btidg horko; 

— btidg dness velke 
parno. 

fchera billo silne v&drd. 

yak stoyee teplomygr? 

— osumdessdt py8t v& 
sVeenu. 

teplomy&r stotipd,— kl&- 

sd. 
td yg horko/ — yd s8po- 

Heem;poiRmedd khldd- 

ku; — ye me horkd. 
ydkee yS veet e rf — vee- 

khodnee, — zdpddnee, 

— yizfiee, — s^vernee. 

misleem ze bUd$ zmyg- 



The Weather. 



207 



change in the weath- 
er; — the wind chang- 
es. — Now it blows 
from the East. 

Very likely there will 
be a change. 

It is dry; we need rain; 
—I wish it would rain ! 
—There is a great deal 
of dust. 

Is it going to rain? — It 
looks like it; it is get- 
ting cloudy. 

It is cloudy; — the sky 
is clouded; — the sky 
is overcast; — it is 
damp. 

Do 3'ou see those dense, 
black clouds?— They 
bring rain, — a heavy 
rain. 

I think a rainstorm is 
coming, — a heavy 
rainstorm. 

The weather is bad; — 
the weather is nasty; 

— it is wet and mud- 
dy. 

It is very nasty out of 
doors; — it is rainy; 

— too much rain! 

It sprinkles;— it rains a 
little; — it rains; — it 
pours;— how muddy 
it will be ! 



pocasi;— vitr se me- 
ni. — Ted' vane od 
vychodu. 

Dost niozna, ze bnde 

zmena* 
Je sucho; potrebujeme 

destf. — Kez by jen 

prselo! — Je inoc 

prachu. 
Bude prset ? — Vypa- 

d& to tak; mraci se. 

Je zamraceno;— je pod 
mrakeni;— obloha je 
zatazena; — je vlh- 
ko. $ 

Yidite ty liuste, cerne 
mraky ? — Z toho 
bude destf, — hodny 
dest'. 

Myslim ze bude lijak, 
— silny lijak. 



Je spatne pocasi; — je 
skareda povetrnost; 

— je mokro a blati- 
vo. 

Je tain osklive;— je de- 
stivo; — inn olio de- 
ste! 

Krape; — poprchava; 

— prsi; lije se; — 
to bude blata! 



na pochasee; — veet e r 
s8 myenee.— t&tf vdn& 
od veekhodil. 

dost moznd ze btidg 

zmy&nd. 
ye s tikh o; potrsheb Uy$- 

me des7it\— kez be yen 

p e rshello! — yg mots 

prdkhu. 
bitde p e rsMtt— vypddd 

to tak; mrdchee s&. 

yS zdmrdchenti;-y8pod 
mrdkem; — obWid yg 
zatazena;— y8v e lhko. 

ve&'eete ty husste, cher- 
ne mraky f _ stolid 
bitde desM, — hodnee 
desht\ 

misleem ze bud& liydk, 
— silnee liydk. 

ye shpdtne pochasee; — 
ye shkdredd povyet e r- 
nost;—y$ mokro. 

y8 tarn oshklivyg; — ye 

des7itiivo; — mnoho 

deshUe! 
krdpe; — pop e rkhdtd;— 

p e rshee;— liyg se;—to 

bude blata! 



208 



Part III 



It rains in torrents.— It 
has ceased to rain al- 
ready. 

That was a heavy rain- 
storm,— a cloudburst; 
—it rained in torrents. 

— It caused a flood. 
It is calm,— no wind,— 

not a leaf is stirring. 

— It is sultry; the air 
is heavy. 

The wind rises; — it is 
windy; — it blows 
hard; — there is a 
strong wind. 
A storm is brewing; — 
there will be a hurri- 
cane; — a cyclone is 
coming. 
A thunderstorm is com- 
ing. — It lightens. — 
Now there was a flash 
of lightning. — What 
flashes of lightning! 
Do you hear the thun- 
der? — Yes, it thun- 
ders ;the thunder rolls 
from afar;— a thun- 
derstorm is coming. 
The thunder roars; — 
the lightning has 
struck ;— it has struck 
somewhere! — the 
lightning set fire. 
This is a terrible storm, 



Prsi jen se lije. — Uz 
prestalo prseti. 

To byl prival, — pru- 
trz mracen; - prselo 
jen se lilo. — Byla z 
toho povoden. 

Je ticho, — bez vetru, 

— ani se list nehybe. 

— Je dusno ; vzdueh 
je tezky. 

Dela se vitr; — je vetr 
no; — fouka hodne; 

— je silny vitr. 

Bude z toho boure; — 
bude vichrice; — ey- 
klon se blizi. 

Tahne bourka. — Bly- 
ska se. — Ted' se za 
blesklo. — To je bly 
skani! 

Slysite hrimatH— Ino, 
hrima — hrom huci 
z daleka; — bourka 
se blizi. 

Hrom buraci; — hrom 
uhodil; — nekde u- 
hodilo! — blesk za- 
palil. 

To je hrozna boure, — 



p e rshee yen s& liyti. _ 
itsh prshestdlo p e r- 
shet. 

to bill prsheeval, — proo- 
t e rsh mrach&n;— p e r- 
shello yen s8 lillo. — 
bud8 stolid povoden. 

yetiikho,— b$z vyglrii,— 
am s8 list neheebg. — 
ye dtissno; vzdtikh yg 
Vethkee. 

field se veet e r;~ y% vye- 
Urno ;—foitkd Jiodne; 
~y% silnee veet e r. 

btid& stoho botirshti; — 
btcde mkh-rshitsg; — 
tsiklon s8 bleeiee. 

tahnti boitrsh-ka blee- 

skd s8.—teft s8 zdbles- 
klo.—td yg bleeskdm! 



slisheete lirsheemdtf — 
dno, hrsheemd;-hrom 
hilcJiee zddlekd;—boU- 
rshkd s& bleezee. 

hrom burdtsee; — hrom 
tiho&Hl; — iiegdg tiho- 
fiild!— blesk zdpdlil. 



to y8 hrtiznd botirsM,— 



The Weather. 



209 



— an awful thunder- 
storm.— The crashing 
of thunder is inces- 
sant. — Flash after 
flash, one thunder- 
clap after the other. 

That was a thunder-clap 
— a thunderbolt from 
a clear sky. 

It hails. — This is a big 
hailstorm. 

It will destroy the crops 
—the hail will destroy 
everything. — The 
hail-storm destroyed 
the crops ;-hailstones 
of an enormous size 
were falling. 

It is foggy;— this morn- 
ing there was a thick 
fog. 

Dew is falling; — there 
is a heavy dew. 

There is a hoary frost, 
— a gray frost. 

It is cold; —it is chilly; 

— it is frosty. 

I feel cold;— lam freez- 
ing; — a cold wind is 
blowing. 

I want to warm my- 
self. — Are you cold? 
Warm yourself. — It 
is warm here, — al- 
most too warm. 



strasne hromobiti.— 
Hrom bije neustale. 
— Blesk za bleskem, 
rana za ranou. 



To by la hrom ova ra- 
na; — uliodilo z cista 
jasna. 

Padaji kroupy. — To 
je silne krupobiti. 

Potluce; — kroupy 
vsecko znici. — Po- 
tlouklo; — padaly 
kroupy ohromne ve- 
likosti. 



Jest lnlhavo;— ranoby 
la husta mlha. 

Pada rosa; — je silna 

rosa. 
Je jinovatka, — sedy 

inraz, 
Je zima;-je sichravo; 

— je mrazivo. 
Je mi zima; — mrazi 

me;- fouka stude- 

ny vitr. 
Chci se ohrati. — Je 

vain zima2— Ohrejte 

se. — Zde je teplo, — 

az moc teplo. 



strdshne hromobitee. 
—hrom biyg nSustdle. 
— blesk za bleskem, 
rdna za rdnoU. 



to bill/1 hromovd rand; 
—tihoftilo schistd yd- 
snd. 

pdddyee kroitpy.— to y& 
silne krilpobiVee. 

potluche ;-kroUpy fshet- 
sko znichee. — potloU- 
klo; — padaly kro Upy 
ohromne velikostii. 



yest m e lhdvo;—rdno Mi- 
ld hUsstd melhd. 

pddd rossd; — ye silna 

rossd. 
ye yinovdtkd, — shedee 

mrdz. 
yg zimd;—ye sikhrdvo; 

ye mrazivo. 
ye mi zima; — mrdzee 

my^;— fouka stiid&nee 

veet e r. 
hlit hi s8 ohrshdt. — y% 

vdm zimdf ohrsheyte 

ng.—zdg ye~ tepid,— dnh 

motn tepid. 

U 



210 



Part III. 



It is going to snow; — 
it snows;— it is snow- 
ing. 

What a snow-storm! — 
a great snow-storm. 

A great deal of snow 
fell;— there are snow- 
drifts. 

How many degrees is 
it?— It is twenty be- 
low zero;— a severe 
cold. 

The ice is thick; we 
can skate. 

It will grow warmer;— 
it is growing warmer ; 
—the wind is shifting ; 
— it blows from the 
South. 

The ice breaks; — the 
snow thaws and the 
ice melts;— there is a 
big thaw. 

In the spring the weath- 
er is mild; — in the 
summer it is usually 
hot; — in the fall it is 
cool; —in the winter 
it is cold and it freez- 
es. 

Wisconsin has a hard 
winter; — Louisiana 
has a mild winter. — 
In Texas the winter 
is short and the sum- 
mer long. 



Bude padati snih; — 
pada snih;— snezi. 

To je vanice! — velka 

metelice. 
Napadlo mnoho snehu; 

— jsou zaveje. 

Kolik je stupnii] — Je 
dvacet pod nulou; — 
kruta zima. 

Ledjesilny; muzeme 
se klouzati. 

Ono se otepli;— oteplu- 
je se; — vitr se obra- 
ci; — vane od jihu. 



Led puka; — snih taje 
a led se rozpousti;— 
je hodna obleva. 

Z jara je mirne poca- 
si; — v lete byva 
horko; — na podzim 
je chladno; — v zime 
je zima a mrzne. 



Wisconsin ma tuhon 
zimu; — Louisiana 
ma mirnou zimu. — 
V Texasu je kratka 
zima a dlouhe leto. 



btide' pdddt sneeh;— pa- 
da sneeh;— snezee. 

to y& vdnitsg/ — velka 

metellitsti. 
napadlo mnoho sn.e7iil; 

— soil zdvygyg. 

kolik y$ stUpnoof — y& 
dwdtset pod nillloil;— 
krtitd zima. 

led y8 silnee; moozem8 

se klouzdt. 
ono s8 oteplee;— oteplu- 

ye s%; — veet*r s8 o- 

bratsee; — vdn8 od 

yeehti. 

led puka; — sneeh tdyS 
a led s8 rospoushtee; 
yg hodna obltod. 

zydrd y% meeme pochd- 
see; — vleVe beevd 
horko; — na podzim 
y& khlddnd;— vzimyg 
y8 zima a m e rzn&. 



Wisconsin ma tuhoii zi 
mil; — louisiana ma 
meernoil zimti. — f te- 
xasu y$ krdtkd zima 
a dlouhe leto. 



The Weather. 



211 



The summer season is 

warm, — the winter 

season is cold. 
In the winter days are 

short and nights are 

long. 
The day shortens;— the 

day lengthens. 
The night shortens. 



Letni pocasi je teple, 
— zimni pocasi je 
stndene. 

Y zime json kratke 
dni a dlouhe noci. 

Den se krati; — dne 

pribyva. 
Noc se krati; (noci u- 

byva). 

Vocabulary. 



letnee poch&see y8 teple, 
— zimnee pochdsee y& 
stiidgne. 

vzimy& soil kratke dm 
a dlouhe notsi. 

den s8 krdfee; — dn& 



nots s8 krdfee; {notsi u- 
beevd). 



the 
y weath- 



Pocasi, n. pochdsee 

povetrnost, f. povy8t e rnost f 

pocasi, n. ) thegeason; 

doba, f. ddbti) 

nebe 9 n. n#b#, the heaven 

obloha, f. obWia, the sky 

stin,m. steen, the shade, the shadow 

chladek,m. khlddek, the shady place 

prach, m. prakh, the dust 

blato, n blato, the mud 

list, m. list, the leaf 

velikost, f. velikost, the greatness 

k^z by, I would that. . . ; would to 

heaven that . . . ; I wish it 

would. . . ; 



Yitr, m. veet e r, the wind 
vichrice, f. vikh-rshitsg, the gale, 

the hurricane ; 
foukati, foukdt ) 
vanouti, vanotit 1 



to blow 



vychod, m. veekhtid, the east 
zapad, m. zdpdd, the west 

jih, m. yeeh [the south 

poledne, n. poledng j 
sever, steer l thenorth 

pulnoc, poolnots » 
jiho-vychod, m. the south-east 
severovychod, m. the north-east 
jihozapad, m. the south-west 
severozapad, m. the north-west 
vyehodni, veekhodiiee, eastern 
zapadni, zdpddnee, western 
jtini,je4nee > southern 
poled ni, poledfLee ) 
several, severnee, U orthern 

pulnocni, poohiochnee > 



boure, f. botirsh8, the storm 
kourka, f. boiirshkd, the thunder- 
storm ; 
hrimati, hrsheemdt, to thunder 
hrimani, n. hrsheemdnee, the thun- 
dering 



212 



Part III. 



hrom, m. lirom, the thunder 
bromovd rana, a peal or crash of 

thunder; 
hromobiti, n. hrdmobitiee, peals of 

thunder; 
buraceti, burdtset, to roar, to crash 
blyskati se, bleeskdt se, to lighten 

Best', m. desht, the rain 

lijak, m. Uydh ) the rainstorm, 

prival, m.prsheeval > the heavy 

shower; 
prutrz mracen, prooVrslirnrdMn, 

the cloud-burst; 
povodeii, f. povodefi, the flood 
mrak, m. rnrdk \ the c i ou a 

mracno, n. mrdchno ) 
mraciti se, mrdcMt se, to grow 

cloudy; 
krapati, krdpat Uosprin- 

poprch&vati,^ *rkhdvtit S kle ; 
prseti, p e rs7iet, to rain 
liti se, leet *#(colloq. Uytsti), to pour 
prestati, prsMstdt, to stop. 

Kroupy, pi. kroupy, the hail 
krupobiti, n. krtipobffiee, the hail- 
storm ; 

Yybirati se, vybeerat s&, to clear up 
meniti se, myS-mt *#, to change 
paliti, p&lit, to burn 
pribyvati, prshibeevdt, to increase, 
to lengthen; 



blyskani, n. bleeskdfiee, the lightning 
blesk, the flash or stroke of light- 
ning; the thunderbolt; 
zablesklo se, zdblesklo se, there was 

a flash of lightning; 
uboditi, uhoftit, to strike 
zapaliti, zdpdlit, to set fire. 

potlouci, potloutsi, to knock down, 

to destroy; 
zniciti, michit, to annihilate 
mlha, f. m e lM, the fog 
mlbavo, mHhdvo, foggy 
rosa, f • rossd, the dew 
jinovatka, f . ye-novdtkd, hoary frost 
snih, m. sneeli, the snow 
snehu, sneJm, of the snow; 
sneziti, snezit, to snow 
metelice, f . metelitse ) tbe snow-storm, 
vanice, f. vdfiitsV > the blizzard; 
zaveje, pi. f. &toy8y8, snow-drifts 
led, m. led, the ice 
naledi, n. ndletfee, glazed frost 
mr&z, m. wiras, the frost 
mrznouti, rn erznotit, to freeze 
t&ti, tdti, to thaw 
tani, n. tdnee ) a thaw 
a ) 



obleva, o&WM 



decrease, t< 



ubyvati, Ubeemt, to 

shorten; 
potiti se, pot'^ *#, to sweat. 
Cerny, a, e chernee, black 
busty, a, £ Msstee, thick, dense; 



Health and sickness. 



213 



skaredy, a, e shkdvMee, nasty, ugly; 
niirny, a 9 e meernee, mild 
ohromuy, a ? e dhromnee, enormous, 

terrible ; 
strach, m. strakh, fear 
strasny, a, e strdshnee, fearful 
hruza 5 f. hrooza, horror, terror; 
lirozny, a ? e hroznee, horrible; 

shocking. 

Blativo (adv.)*), bldfivo, muddy 

destivo, deshffivo, rainy 

mokro, mokro, wet 

vlliko, v e lhko, damp 

sucho, sitkho, dry 

teplo, tepid, warm 

liorko, horko, hot 



parno, porno, very hot 
(lusno, ditssno, close, stifling; 
zima,em« > ld 

studeno, sliidSno > 
chladno, khlddno, cool 
sichravo, sikhrdvo, chilly- 
mrazivOj mrdzivo, frosty, freezing 
cold. 

Teplomer, m. teplomyer, the ther- 
mometer 
stupeu, m. stupen, a degree 
uula, f. nuld, zero 
nad nulou, ndd ntilou, above zero 
pod nulou, below zero; 
stoupati, stoilpat, to rise; 
klesatij klessdt, to go down. 



Healtli aixd. sickness. 

Z DM AVI a NEMOC. 



I hope you are well. 
Only middling;— I am 

so so. 
You do not look so well 

as (you did) lately. 
Do you think so? — 

Well, you are right; 

— I do not look well. 



Doufam ze jste zdrav. 
Jen tak prostredne; — 

jen tak tak. 
Nevypadate tak dobre 

jako nedavno. 
Myslite? — Ba mate 

pravdu ;— neyypadam 

dobre. 



doufam ze ste zdrdf. 
yen tak prostrsMdne; — 

yen tak tak. 
nevypaddte tak dobrshe 

ydko nedavno. 
misleete ? — ba mate 

pravdu;— nevypdddm 

dobrshe. 



*) The adjectives are : blativy (a, e), destivy, mokry, etc. 

Je tarn blativo, it is muddy out of doors; — blativy chodnik (m.), a 
muddy sidewalk; blativa cesta (f.), a muddy road; blative pole (n.), a 
muddy field. 

Je destivo, it is rainy ; — destivy den, a rainy day. 



214 



Part III. 



I think I look bad (bad- 
ly): — I look worse. 

no! you do not look 
badly. 

Don't I ?— I guess I do ! 

Listen to me (i.e. let me 
tell you): you look 
better than you did 
the other day. 

O, be still! — you flat- 
ter me. 

You look bad (badly);— 
I do not like your 
looks. 

What is the matter with 
you?— is anything the 
matter with you ? 

Do you not feel well? — 
what is the matter? — 
what ails you? 

Nothing ails me ;— noth- 
ing is the matter with 
me. 

Why do you look so bad 
(badly)? — That's 
nothing! 

You deny it (i. e. con- 
ceal it). — Don't deny 
it! 

1 deny nothing; - why 
should I deny? 

If anything is the mat- 
ter with you, tell me! 



Myslim ze vypadam 
spatne; — vypadam 
huh 

ne! nevypadate zle. 

Ze ne?— Myslim ze ano! 

Dejte si fici: vypada- 

te lepe nez onehdy. 



I dejte pokoj! — vy mi 



pochlebiijete! 



Yyhlizite spatne;— ne- 
libite se mi. 



Co je vam? 
vam neco? 



chybi 



Neni vam dobre? — co 
vam chybi? — co vas 
boli? 

Mc mi neni; — nic mi 
nechybi- 

Procvypadatetak spa 
tne? — To nic neni! 

Yy zapirate. — Neza- 
pirejte! 

Nic nezapiram;— proc 

bych zapiral? 
Je-li vam neco, fek- 

nete! 



misleem ze vypadam 
shpatne; — vypadam 
hoorsh. 

ndf ndvypdddtti zlg. 

ze n%?— misleem ze and/ 
deytg si rsheetsi : vypd- 

ddtd Up8 nesh dntih- 

dy. 

E deytg pokoy! — vy me 
pdkhUbuyetd. 

vyhleezeetg shpatne; — 
ndleebeetg s8 me. 



tsd yd vam? 

vam netsd ? 



khibee 



neyni vam ddbrsM ? — 
tsd vam khibee? — tsd 
vdss bolee ? 

nits me neyni; — nits 
me ndkhibee. 

pro eh vypdddtd tdk 
shpatne? — td nits 
neyni ! 

vy zdpeerdtd. — ndzapee- 
reytd. 

nits ndzapeerdm;-proch 
bikh zdpeeral ? 

vam netsd, rshdk- 

netdf 



Health and sickness. 



215 



Tell me what is the mat- 
ter with you? — does 
anything ail } 7 ou ? — 
tell me if anything 
ails you. 

If anything were the 
matter with me, I 
should say so. 

There is something the 
matter with you! 

You don't feel well; — 
I see it by your looks ! 

You are right; I am 
not well. 

What is the matter with 
you?— I do not know 
what ails me ; — I do 
not feel quite well. 

I am not so well as usu- 
al.— A little time ago 
I felt better. 

To-day I feel bad (bad- 
ly) ;— I was taken sick . 

I feel badly. 

Are you sick ? 

Yes, I am sick; I do not 

feel well;— I feel bad 

(badly). 
I hear that Edward is 

sick. 
He has been taken sick; 

— he has fallen sick; 

—he is very sick;— he 



Povezte co je vam? — 
boli vas neco % — po- 
vezte chybi-li vam 
neco. 

Kdyby mi neco bylo, 
f ekl bych to. 



Yam neco je! — Yam 

neco ehybi! 
Yam neni dobfe; — vi- 

dim to na vas! 
Matepravdu; neni mi 

dobre. 
Co je vam? — Nevim 

co mi je; — necitim 

se docela dobfe. 

Nejsem tak zdrav jak 
obycejne. — Jeste ne 
davno bylo mi lip. 

Dnes je mi spatne; — 
pf islo mi nanic. 

Je mi nanic. — Je mi 
zle. 

Jste nemocen? 

Ano, jsem nemocen;— 
neni mi dobfe; — je 
mi zle. 

Slysim, ze Edward je 
nemocen. 

Roznemohl se;— upadl 
do nemoci; — je sil- 
ne nemocenj — je 



povytizW tso y$ vam? — 
bolee vdss netso?—pd- 
vyfate khibeeli vdm 

netso? 

gdyby me netso billo, 
rsMkH bikh to. 



vdm netso ye! — vam 

netsd kliibee! 
vdm neyni dobrshe; — 

vifteem to na vdss ! 
mdt$ prdvdu; neym me 

dobrsM. 
tso ye vdm? — neveem tsd 

me ye; — n8tseeteem 

se dotselld dobvsM. 

neysem tak zdrdf yak 
obicheyne. — YesMe 
ntiddvnd billo me leep. 

dness y8 me shpatne; — 
prshishlo me nanits. 

ye me nanits. — y& me 
zlM. 

st8 nemots8n ? 

and, sem ntimotstin; — 
neyni me dobrsM; — 
y8 me zl%. 

slisheem %e Edward y8 
nemots8n. 

rozn8moh e l s%; — Upa- 
d?l do ntimotsi; — ye 
silne n&nots&n; — y# 



216 



Part III. 



has been sick a long 
time. 

What is the matter with 
him ?— what happen- 
ed to him ? 

He caught a cold ; — he 
has a bad cold. 

Anthony is also sickly: 
— but to-day he al- 
ready feels better. 

I was long in poor 
health;— I was ailing 
seriously. 

What was the matter 
with you?— Indeed I 
do not know what 
ailed me. 

I had no appetite, — I 
had no sleep,— I had 
a feeling of weariness. 

— But it all passed 
away. 

Take care of yourself; 

— be careful of your 
health! 

Health is above every- 
thing; it is the great- 
est treasure. 

An unhealthy man is 
unhappy. 

What is the matter with 
you? are you sick? — 
you are not sick, are 
you? 

Only a little; it is not 



dlouho nemocen. 



Co mu je2 
staM 



co se mu 



Nastudil se; — ma sil- 
ne nastuzeni. 

Anton je take chura- 
vyj — ale dnes uz je 
mu lepe. 

J a dlouho churavel;— 
povazlive jsem chu- 
ravel, 

Co vam bylo? — Ani 
nevim co mi bylo. 



Nemel jsem chut' k ji- 
dlu 5 — nemel jsem 
spani, — citil jsem 
unayenost. — Ale 
minulo to. 

Dejte na sebe pozor; 

- bud'te opatrny na 
zdravi! 

Zdravi je nade vsecko; 

je to nejvetsi po- 

klad. 
Clovek nezdravy je ne- 

st'astny. 

Co je vam? stunete? 

— snad nestunete? 



Jen tak trochu; neni 



dlouho nemotsdn. 

tso mti ye ? — tsd sd mu 
stalo? 

nastudil sd; — ma silne 
ndstUzem. 

ant on yd take khuravee; 
— aid dness itsh yd 
mu lepe. nog ? 

yd dloUho khitrdvyell; 
povdzlivye sem khit- 
rdvyell. 

tso vam Mllo? — ani nd- 
veem tso me billo. 



nemyell sem khitV k-yee- 
dlu, — nemyell sem 
spam, — tseeVil sem 
undvenost. — did mi- 
ntilo to. 

deyte na sebe pozor; 
— btifftd opdt e rnee na 
zdrdvee. 

zdrdvee ye nade fslie- 
tsko; yd to neyvydt- 
shee pdkldd. 

chlovydk ndzdrdvee yd 
neshtidssnee. 

tso yd vam? stoonete? — 
snad nestoorietd? 



yen tak trokhii; neyni 



Health and sickness. 



217 



bad. — I have a pain 
in the bowels. 
That will pass away; — 
it will stop of itself. 

— I hope so. 

Do you have it often ?— 
Quite often; — it 
comes upon me from 
time to time. 

What do you do against 
it? — Nothing; I lie 
down and remain 
quiet. 

That is the best medi- 
cine. — I think so. — 
That helps. 

It always helps me; — 
nothing else helps 
me. 

At least it gives relief. 

— Yes, I feel instant 
relief. 

It relieves instantly; — 
it is good for relief. 



to zle. — Main bole - 

ni. 
To zase prejde; — to 

prestane samo. - 

Doufam. 
Mivate to casto? — Dost 

casto; — prickazi to 

na me ob cas. 

Co delate proti tomu I 
— Nic; lelmii si a 
jsem tise. 

To je nejlepsi lek. — 

Ja my slim. — To po- 

malia. 
To mi vzdycky pomiize ; 

uic jinelio mi nepo- 

maha. 
A spoil to ulehci. — A- 

110, lined se mi n- 

lelici. 
Hued se ulevi; — je to 

dobre pro ulevu, (pro 

nlehceni). 
Vocabulary. 



to zle. — mam bolehi. 

to zdss prsheydg; — to 

prshestdne samo. — 

doufam. 
meevdte to ehdssto? — 

dost ehdssto; — prshi- 

klidzee to na mye ob 

chdss. 
tso N elate proti to mil? 

— nits; lehnu si a 

sem tishe. 

td ye neylepshee lek. — 
yd misleem. — to po- 
mdlid. 

to mi vzditsky (ditske) 
pomooze; — nits yine- 
lio me nepomdhd. 

dsspon to uleh-chee. — 
and, lined se me uleh- 
chee. 

lined se illevee; — ye to 
dobre pro oolevu (pro 
Tileh- client). 



Nastnditi se, ndstMHt 
a cold; 

nastuzeni, n. nastuzeni, a cold; 

chnraveti, khurdvyU, to sicken, to 
be sickly; 

ehuravy a, e khilrdvee, sickly, in- 
disposed; 

churavost, f. khurdvost, sickliness, 
indisposition; 



to catch poniahati, porndhdt, to help; 



it helps 



pomaha, pomdhd \ 
pomiize, pomooze S 
iiepomaha ) it does not help; 
nepomuze > 

pochlebovati, pokhlebovdt, to flatter 
zapirati, zdpeerdt, to deny 
eititi, tseeVit, to feel 
citim, tseeteem, I feel 



218 



Part III. 



mivati (reit. form of miti, to have; 

see page 108;) meevdti, to 

use to have; 
prichazeti, prshikhdzet, to use to 

come ; 
prestati, prs7iestdt, to stop; 
ulehciti, Uleh-cMt K orelieve 
uleviti, ulemt ) 

ulehceni, n. uleh-cliem ) re ij e f 
uleva, f. ooleva ) 



Chut', f. khitf, the taste, the appe- 
tite;*) 

chut' k jidlu, khuf k-yeedlu, appe- 
tite for food; 

spani, n. spdnee, the sleep; 

lek, m. lek, ) the medicine 

medicina, f. meditsind S 

poklad, m. poklad, the treasure; 

pokoj, m. pokoy, peace, rest; 

dejte pokoj ! deyte pokoy ! give me 
a rest! keep still! 

ob cas, ob chdss, from time to time; 



necitim, netseeteem, I do not feel; 
boleti, bolet, to ache, to ail; 
boleni, n. bottm, pain (especially in 

the bowels, belly-ache); 
je mi nauic, ye me ndmts, I feel sick 
neco mi chybi, netso me khibee, 

something ails me; there 

is something the matter 

with me. 



I zdravy, a, e zdrdvee, healthy, well, 
sound; 
nezdravy, a, e nezdravee, unhealthy, 

unwell, unsound; 
opatrny, a, e opat e rnee, careful 
obycejny, a, e obicheynee, usual, 

common; 
obycejne, obieheyne, usually, com- 
monly; 
povazlive, povdzlivye, seriously 
prostredue, prostrshed ne, middling 
ticho, n. Vik7id, silence, quiet, calm; 
tise, fishe, quietly, calmly. 



Tlio lixxixxaix Tbein^. 

LID SKY TVOR. 



Telo, n. field, the body; 
telesuy, a, e tielessnee, bodily; 
lid, m. oo d, the member, the limb; 
kost, f. the bone; 



kostra, f . kostrd, the skeleton ; 
kostnaty, a, e kostndtee, bony; 
morek, m. (the marrow; 

spik, m. shpik, > 



*) Chut' means also 
I have a mind to go there; 



'a desire or inclination": mam chut' jiti tarn, 
- mam chut' vyhnati ho, I have a mind to 
chase him (or: to turn him out); — mam chut' rici mil to, I have a mind 
to tell him so; — mam chut' do prace, I have a desire to work, or a taste 
for work; I feel like working; — pracuju s chuti, I work with a will; etc. 



The human being 



219 



• the skin 



kuze, f . kooz&, ) 1 
pletf, f. pW, ) 
pokozka, f. pokozka, the cuticle 
blana, f. bland, the membrane 
maso, n. mas so, the flesh 
masity, a, e massitee, fleshy 
tlusty. a, e tlUstee, fat 
hubeny, a, e hubSnee, lean, thin; 
sval, m. svdl, the muscle 
svalnaty, a ? e sodlndtee, muscular 
slachy, pi. shlakhy, the sinews 
zlaza, f. zldzd, the gland 

tuk, m. tm, ) thefat 

sadlo, m. sddlo, > 

nerv, m. »er/, L henerve 

civa ? f. chivd, j 

nervovy, a, e nervovee, ) uervous 

civni, chivnee, > 

ceva, f . &#»#, the vessel 

zila, zeeld, the vein 

Hlava, f. hldvd, the head 

lebka, f. lebkd, the skull 

tenieno 9 n. tem^no, the crown or 

top of the head; 
tylo, n. teeld, the back of the head; 
kuze na hlave, kooze nd 7ildvy&) the 
skalp, m. skdlp J scalp 

mozek, m. mdzek, the brain 
spanek, m. spdnek, the xemple 
^nkj, V l. spdnky ) the eg 

skrane, pi. skrdne > 

Oko ? n. oko, the eye 

oci ? pi. ochi, the eyes 

ocmdulek, ochnee doolek, the socket 



hlavni zila, Iddvrieez. \ the 
srdecni zila, s e rdeehiiee z. > artery 
tepna, f. tepnd, the pulse 
z ilka, f . zilka, a small vein ; 
zilnaty, a, e zilndtee, sinewy 
krevj f • fcr#f, the blood 
kreTnaty ? a 9 e krevndtee,full blooded 
chudokrevny, a, e kJiMokr#v?iee, 

bloodless, anaemic 
krvavy, a, e k e rvdvee, bloody 
vlas, vldss K hehairon the head 
vlasy, pi. > 

chllip, khlup ) the ha . r on the bQdy 

chlnpy, pi. ' 

vlasaty, a, e vldsdtee | | iairy 
chlupaty, a, e M lupdtee j 
vnitfnosti, vnitrsh-nosfi, viscera; 

' r inside, inwardly; 

?ne ? vne > 

ze\Mitr, zevTiitrsh \ outside? outwardly . 

zevne, se^ne J 

celo, n. chello, the forehead 

tvar, f. ^^[ the C heek 

lice 9 n. ^6^e j 

tvaf, f. tair«A t theface 

ohlicefom. oblichey > 
licni kost 9 leetsnee kost, the cheek- 
bone 
celistj f . chellist, the jaw-bone 
brada 9 f. brddd, the chin 
laloch, m. lalokh, double chin 
dulek, m. doolek. the dimple 
vrasky 9 pl. m. vrdssky, the wrinkles. 

ocnijablko, ochnee ydb e lko, the eye- 
ball 
kontek, m. koutek, the corner 



220 



Part III. 



rohovka 9 f. rohofkd, the cornea 
duhovka 9 f . duJwfJm, the iris 
zfitelnice 9 f. zrsJieetelnitse, the pupil 
klapka, f. kldpkd, the eyelid 

Ucho 9 n. ukho, the ear 
usi 9 pi. usJii, the ears 

Nos 9 n. noss, the nose 
spickanosu, sJipichkdnossu, the tip 
of the nose. 

r 

Usta 9 pi. oosla, the mouth 
pysk, m. pish ) Ae Up 
ret, m. ret > 



Zub 9 



the 



the 



zuby 9 pi. ziib, zuby, 
tooth, the teeth 

predni zuby 9 prshed-nee zuby, 
fore-teeth 

zadni zuby 9 zddnee zuby, the back- 
teeth 

spicak 9 m. sJipicJidky, the canines 

Vousy 9 pi. fousy, the beard 

licousy 9 pi. UtsoUsy, the whiskers 

Hrdlo 9 n. her did, the throat 

krk 9 m. k e rk, the neck 

hrtan, m. h e rtdn ) ,, , 

> [• the larynx 

chrtan 9 m. hrshtdn > 

hrdelnice 9 f. h e rdell-nitse, the jugu- 
lar vein; 

Trup 9 m. £r up, the trunk 
hrud' 9 f. JiruiX, the chest 
prsa 9 pi. p e rsd, the breast 
£ebro, n. zebrd, the rib 



I i*asy 9 pi. rslidssy, the eyelashes 
brvy, pi. bervy l theeyebrows 
oboei 9 n. obochee J 



konec ucha 9 konets tiklid, the tip of 

the ear; 
lalocek 9 m. Idlochek, the lobe 

cliripe, pi. kJirsJiee-pye~\ tbe 
nosove dirky 9 pl. nosso- \ nostrils 

ve (PeerJcy J 



pysky, pi 
rty 9 pi. 



the lips 



stolicka 9 f. stolichkd, the molar 
koren zubu 9 korshen ztibu, the root 

of the tooth; 
dasen 9 f. ddssen, the gum 
dasne 9 pi. ddssfie, the gums 
patro 9 n. pdtro, the roof of the mouth 
jazyk, m. ydzyk, the tongue. 

kniry 9 pi. kfieery, the moustaches 
plnovous 9 m. p e lnb foils, the full beard 
prudusnice, f. proodushnitse, the 

windpipe 
mandle, pi. mdndlg, the tonsils, the 

almonds; 
ohryzek 9 m. oJiryzek, Adam's apple. 

klicni kost 9 f. MeecJvn.ee kosf, the 

collar-bone 
prsni kost 9 f. p e rsnee kost, the 

breast-bone 



The human being. 



221 



zada, pi. mda, the back 

zadek, m. zadek, the back part, the 

backside; 
predek, m.prshedek, the fore-part, 

the front; 
hfbet, m. hrshbet ) the backbone, 
pater, i. pater sh > the spine; 

Zivot, m. zicot^ the abdomen 
briclio, n. brshikho, the belly 
pupek, m. pitpek, the navel 
bok, m. bok, the hip 
slabina, f. sUbbina, the side 
kfiz, krslteez, the small of the back; 
zadnice, f. zddmUe, the seat, the 

bottom; 
pulky, pi. f. poolky, ^ the 
zadni tvaf e, pi. f . zddnee i buttocks 

tvdrshe 

Ruka, f. riikci, the hand 

nice, pi. riitsg, the hands; v rukou, 

vrtikoit, in the hands; na 

rukou, ndr., on the hands 
raine, n. rdmye » thearm 
paze, n. pa%e > 
dolni cast paze, dolnee chdst paze, 

the fore -arm 
horni cast paze, 7iornee chdst p., the 

upper arm 
rameno, n. rameno ) the shoulder or 
pazdi, n. pdz(S.ee • top of the arm; 
podpazdi, n. podpdMH, the armpit 
loket, m. loket, the elbow 
prehyb, m. prs7i8hib, the wrist 
pest, f . pyest, the fist 



zlata zila, f . zlata zeeld, the spinal 

cord ; 
piece, sing. & pi. pletse, the shoulder 
lopatka, f . lopdtkd, the shoulder-blade 
obratel, m . obrdtel, vertebra 
obratle, pi. obrdtle, vertebrae. 

rif, f . rshit, the anus 
polilavi, n.po/rfdvee, the sex 
pohlavni ud, m. pohldvnee ood, the 

sexual parts 
muzsky lid, m. muskee ood, the penis 
zalupa, f. zdlttpd, the fore-skin 
varle, (pi. varlata), vartt, the tes- 
ticle 
rodidla, pi. roftidla, the genitals. 



kloub, m. kloub, the joint 
dlaii, f . dldn, the palm 
prst, m. p e rst, the finger 
palec, m. pdlets, the thumb 
malik, m. mdleek, the little finger 
ukazovak, ukazovdk, the forefinger 
prostredni prst, prostrs7iedneep e rst, 

the middle finger 
clanekprstu, m. chldnek p e rstu, the 

phalange 
spicka prstu, f. shpichkd p e rstU, 

the tip of the finger; 
nehet, m. nehet, the nail 
nehty, pi. nehty, the nails 
kotnik, m. kotneek, the knuckle 
kloub, m. kloub, the joint. 



222 



PaH III. 



Noha, f. ndhd, the leg, the foot; 
nohy, pi. nohy, the legs, the feet; 
chodidlo, n. khoftidld, the foot 
tlapa, f. tldpd, the sole of the foot: 
stehno, n. stehno, the thigh 
stehenni kost, f . st$M\\ee kost, the 

thigh-bone 
lmat, m. Undt, the shin 
lytko, n. leetkd, the calf of the leg; 
koleno, n. koUnd, the knee 
prehyb kolena, m. prshehyb koUnd, 

the knee-joint 

Srdce, n. s e rds8, the heart 
osrdi, n. oss e rftee, the pericardium 
komora, f . komord, the ventricle 
plice, pi. pleetse, the lungs 
jatra, pi. ydtra, the liver 
slezina, f. slezind, the spleen 
ledvina, f . ledvind, the kidney 
mechyr, m. myZkheersh, the bladder 
zluc, f. zlitch, the gall, the bile; 



Ustroji, n. oostroyee, organism, con- 
stitution ; 

dychati, deekhdt, to breathe 

dychani, n. deekhdm, breathing, res- 
piration ; 

dychaci ustroji, deekhdtsee oostroyee, 
respiratory organs; 

dech, m. d$kh, the breath; 

lehky dech, lehkee dekh, easy breath- 
ing; 

tezky dech, Veshkee dtikli, heavy 
breathing; 

dechnuti, n. dgkhntitee, one breath 



pata, f . paid, the heel 

prsty u nohy, pi. p e rsty it ntihy, 
the toes 

palec u nohy, m. pdlets # ndJiy, the 
big toe; 

malik u nohy, m. mdleek it ntihy, 
the little toe; 

kotnik, m. kotneek, the ankle 

plosko-nohy, ploskti-ntihee, flat-foot- 
ed; 

kolo-nohy, kolo-ndhee, bow-legged. 

zlucni mechyr, m. iMclmee m., the 

gall-bladder 
zaludek, m. zdlildek, the stomach 
strevo, n. strshfod, the intestine, the 

gut; 
streva, pi. strsMvd, the bowels 
tenka stf eva, the lesser intestines 
tlusta stfeva, tlustd s. the larger in- 
testines; 
konecnik,m. konechneek, the rectum. 



vydechnouti, vydgkhnotit, to draw 
breath; 

vydechnouti ze sebe, v. z8 s8b&, to 
exhale, to force out the 
breath; 

vdechnouti do sebe, vd&khnoUt dd 
8&b8, to inhale; 

oddechnouti si, odtikhnoiit si, to 
breathe easily, to feel re- 
lief; 

traviti, trdvit ) to digest, to con- 

ztraviti, strdvit S sume; 

zazivati, zdzeevdt, to digest 



The human being. 



22B 



trdveni, n. trdveni ) digestion 

zazivani, n. zti&eevdm > 

zazivaci listroji, zuzeevritsee oostro- 
yee, digestive apparatus; 

moc, m. mdch, the urine 

moceni, n. mdche^ni, urination 

niocili, mdchit, to urinate 

stolice, f . stolitsg, stool, evacuation; 

miti stolici, meet stolitsi, to go to 
stool; to have open bo^i els; 

vykal, veekdl, the excrement, the 
discharge; 

lejno, a.leynd i the dung 

trus, in. irilss ' 

obeli krve, m. <;/>//</> k e rv#, circula- 
tion of the blood; 

krvaceti, k e rvdt8et, to Meed 

krvaceni, n. k e rvdt86iii, the bleeding 

inesiciie, n. my&seechni, the men- 
struation 

plod, m. pftft?, the fruit 

ploditi, plo&Ht, to bear (fruit etc.); 
to beget; 

Duch, m. dtikh, the spirit; the mind 
or intellect; 

duse, f. dtish#, the soul 

ducliovni, dukhovnee ) spiritual, 

dusevni, dUsMvnee 'intellectual; 

mysl, f. missl, the mind 

dfimysl, m. doomissl ) %he inteRect 

schop, m. sM#p ) 

rozum, m. rozum, the reason, the 
understanding; 

zdravy rozum, zdrdvee roztim, com- 
mon sense; 

soudnost, f. soudnost, the judgment 



plozeni, n. plozem, the bearing, the 
begetting; 

porod, m. the childbirth 

poroditi, pordtfit, to be delivered; 

pracovati ku porodu, prdtsovdt kit 
porddil, to be in labor; 

sestinedeli,n. shZsVuietfelee, lying-in 

scstinedtMka, i shteHinetfelkti, a 
woman in childbed; 

je tehotmi, y# Hehdtnd, she is with 
child; 

ceka se do kouta, chekd s# dd kotita, 
she expects to be confined; 

je V koilto, ytifkotitie \ she is confined, 

slehla, sWhlti ) (in childbed); 

pokoutc, pd koiffie, after childbirth, 
after confinement; 

obcovanf, n. obtsdvdfii, the inter- 
course 

obcovati, obtxovdt, to have inter- 
course; 

pohlavni obcovani, poMlvnee o. 

telesne obcovani, telessne o. 

sexual intercourse. 



smysl, smissl, the sense 

zrak, m. zrdk, the sight 

sluch, m. slukh, the hearing 

chut', f. khiffi, the taste 

cich, cit, m. chikh, tsii, the smell, 

the feeling; 
Inn at, m. hmdt, the touch 
pamet, f. pamygt, the memory 
smyslny, a, e smisslnee, sensual 
smyslnost, f. smisslnost, sensuality 
nesmysl, m. ngsmissl, nonsense 
nesmyslny, a, e n$smisslnee, sense- 
less, nonsensical. 



224 



Part III. 



A sound body, — a 

sound mind. 
A sound mind in a 

sound body. 
I have sound limbs, — 

and that is a great 

gift. 
The bone is hollow and 

contains marrow. 
That man is lean but 

muscular. 
That lady has excitable 

nerves . 
Young blood — hot 

blood. 
The pulse beats slowly, 

— beats fast. 
The pulse is normal, — 

regular, — irregular. 

The beating of the 
heart and the beating 
of the pulse agree. 

Every little vein in the 
body contains blood. 

Fair hair and blue eyes 
prevail in the north, 
— dark hair and 
black eyes in the 
south . 

Long hair, short wit, — 
says an old proverb . 

The European race has 
a white skin, the Af- 



Zdrave telo, — zdravy 

duch. 
Zdravy duch ve zdra- 

vem tele- 
Mam zdrave My, — a 

to jest veliky dar. 

Kost je duta a obsahu- 

je morek. 
Ten clovek je liubeny, 

ale svalnaty. 
Ta dama ma popudlive 

nervy. 
Mlada krev — horka 

krev. 
Tepna bije pomalu, — 

bije prudce. 
Tepna je normal™, — 

pravidelna, — nepra- 

videlna. 
Tlukot srdce a biti tep- 

ny se shodujou (or 

shoduji). 
Kazda zilka v tele ob- 

sahuje krev. 
Plavy vlas a modre o- 

ci panuji (or panu- 

jou) na severu, — 

tmavy vlas a cerne 

oci na jihu. 
Dlouhe vlasy, kratky 

rozum, pravi stare 

prislovi. 
Flemeno evropsk^ ma 

bilou plet', plemeno 



zdrave Held, — zdrdvee 

dtikh. 
zdravee dtikh v8 zdrd- 

vem tiel8. 
mam zdrave oody, — a 

to yest vUikee dar. 

kost ye diltd a obsahuyg 

morek . 
ten chlovyek yehtib8nee, 

ale svalndtee . 
ta ddmd ma popudlive 

nervy . 
mlada kref — horka 

kref. 
tepna biyg pomalU, — 

biye prtidsti. 
tepna ye normdlfiee, — 

prdvidelnd, — n&pr ti- 
nt delnd. 
tltikot s e rdsg a bitee tep- 

ny s& s-hodtiyoti. 

kazdd zilka f$el8 obsd- 

htiye kref. 
pldvee vlas a modre ochi 

ptinicyee nd s$v8ru, — 

tmtivee vldss a clieme 

belli na yeehil . 

dlotihe vlasy, krdtkee 
rozicm, — pravee sta- 
re prsheesldvee. 

pl8mend gvropske md 
beeloit plet\ pltimend 



The human being 



225 



rican race a black 
skin. 

Youth has a smooth 
face, — old age makes 
wrinkles. 

A high forehead, a keen 
eye, long moustach- 
es, — such was the 
young man . 

The eyes are the organ 
of sight, the ears (are 
the organ of) hear- 
ing; — the nose is the 
organ of smell. 

Young girls usually 
have coral lips. 

Babies have chubby 
cheeks . 

You still have a full set 
of teeth (literally : "all 
the teeth"). 

I have all (my) front 
teeth, but a few mo- 
lars are wanting; — I 
had them pulled. 

Why did yon have them 
pulled? — Because 
they ached me; they 
were decayed. 

A decayed tooth always 
aches; — it is best to 
pull it out. 

The pulling of teeth is 
a painful operation, 



africke cernou. 

Mladi ma hladke lice, 
— stari dela vrasky. 

Yysoke celo, bystre o- 
ko, dlouhe kniry, — 
takovy byl rnladik. 

Oci jsou organ zraku, 
usi sluclui; — nos je 
nastroj ciclm. 



Mlade divky miraji ko- 

ralove rty. 
Decka maji boubelate 

tvare. 



Yy jeste mate vsechny 
zuby. 

Mam vsecliny predni 
zuby, ale p&r stoli- 
cek mi chybi; — dal 
jsem je vytrhnouti. 

Proe jste je dal trhatiS 
— Proto ze me bo- 
lely; byly vyzrane. 

Yyzrany zub vzdycky 
boli; nejlip ho vytr- 
hnouti, 

Trhani zubu jebolest- 
na operace, — ob- 



afritske ehernoit. 

mldftee ma hladke leetsS, 
— siarsheefteld vrdss- 
Jcy. 

visdke ehelld, bistre oko, 
dloiihe kneery, — tdko- 
vee bill midweek . 

dchi soil organ zrakti, 
tishi slUkhU; — noss 
y8 ndstroy chikhti. 



mlade fteefky meevayee 

koralove rti . 
(Petska mdyee boUbellate 

tvdrshti. 

vy yesMe mat8 fsMkh 
ny ztiby. 

mam fsMkhny prshM- 
nee ztiby; aW par sto- 
lichek me khibee; — 
dal sem y8vyt e rhnotit 

pro eh ste y8 dal tfrhat? 
— proto ze my% bold- 
ly; billi vizrane. 

vyzranee zttb ditsky bo- 
lee; — neyleep ho vy- 
frhnout. 

t rhdneezUboo y8bolest- 
nd operats^—obzldsM 

15 



226 



Part 111. 



- especially when the 
tooth has a big root. 
Children lose the milk- 
teeth;— they fall out 
of themselves. 
With the teeth we bite; 
hence they are of a 
very hard substance. 
The teeth are set (liter, 
"sit") in the jaw-bone 
The windpipe carries 
the air into the lungs, 
where the blood is 
oxydized. 
The ribs inclose the tho- 
racic cavity. — There 
are true ribs and false 
ribs. 
The spinal column is 
composed of links, 
which we call verte- 
brae. 
Burdens are most easily 
carried (i. e. "we car- 
ry") on shoulders. 
The hand is an exceed- 
ingly important 
member. — The hand 
has live fingers. 
The negroes usually 

have strong arms. 
Whoever walks a great 
deal, must have sound 
legs. 
The stubbing of the big 
toe causes pain. 



zvlast? ma-li zub vel- 

ky kofen. 
Deti ztraci mlecne zu- 

hy> — vypadaji sa- 

my. 
Zuby kousame; proto 

jsou z velmi tvrde 

latky. 
Zuby sedi v celisti. 



Prudusnice vede 
vzduch do plic, kde 
krev se okyslici. 

Zebra zaviraji hrudni 
dutinu. — Jsou pra- 
va zebra a falesna 
zebra. 

Pater sklada se ze clan- 
ku, ktere nazyvame 
obratle. 

Bremen a nosime nej- 
snaze na plecich. 

Ruka jest lid nesmir- 
ne dulezity.— Iluka 
ma pet prstu. 

Negrove mivaji silne 
paze. 

Kdo chodi inn olio pes- 
ky, musi miti zdra- 
ve nohy. 

Zakopnuti palce u no- 
hy dela bolest. 



md-li ztib velkee kor- 
shtin. 

fieti strdtsee mlechne 
zUby; — vypadayee 
sdmy. 

zUby kotisamg; proto 
soil zvellmi tv e rde lat- 
ky. 

zUby sWeefchtilisti. 

proodtishnitsti ved& 
vzdtikh do plits, gdS 
kref s8 okyslichee. 

zebra zcweerayee hrtid- 
nee difflinti. — soil 
pram zebra a fdlesh- 
nd zebra. 

pater sh sklada s8 z8 
chldnkoo, ktere na- 
zeevdm& obratlg. 

brshgmena noseeme~ ney- 
sndz& na pletseekh . 

rukd yest ood ntismeer- 
ne dooUzitee. — rtika 
ma pyU p e rstoo . 

nggrove meevayee silne 
paz8. 

gdo khofiee mndhd 
py&shky, mtisee meet 
zdrdve nohy . 

zakopnuilee paltsgii no- 
hy field bolest. 



The human being. 



227 



The digestive appara- 
tus is a vital organ. 

Food is digested in the 
stomach and in the 
bowels. 



Zazivaci ustroji jest zi- 

votni organ. 
Pokrin ztravi se v za- 

ludku a ve strevach. 

Vocabulary. 



zazeevdtsee oos 
yest zivotnee organ. 

pok e r?n strdvee s& v zd- 
Itidkti a v& strsM- 
vdkh . 



Dar, m. dar, the gift 

tlukot, m. tlukot, the beating 

kyslik, m. Ms sleek, oxygen 

okysliciti, okisslichit, to oxygenate 

dusik, m. dtlsseek, nitrogen 

vzduch, m. vzdukh, the air 

pokrm, m. pok e rm, the food 

organ, m. ) , 

, , \ , . f the organ 

nastroj, m. nastroy ) 

clanek, m. c7ddnek,the link 

neger, m. neg e r, the negro 

mladi, n. mldflee, youth 

mladik, m. mldtfeek, the young man 

divka, f . (Veefka, the girl 

latka,f. Idtka, the material, the stuff; 

zilka, f. zilka, a small vein; 

plet', f. the skin 

prislovi, n.prsheeslovee, the proverb 

plemeno, n. pl&mZno [ 

, , v , , v f the race 

pleine, n. plemyt ) 

bremeno, n. brshemeno, the burden 

duty, a, e dutee, hollow 

prudky, a, e prudkee, fast 

prudce, adv. pritdse, fast, rapidly; 

popudlivy, a, e popudlivee, excitable 

normalni, normdlnee, normal 

pravidelny, pravidelnee, regular 

pravy, a, e prdvee, true, right; 

falesny, a, e fdleshnee, false 



plavy, a, e pldvee, fair, blonde; 
koralovy, a, e koralovee, coral (adj.) 
boubelaty, a, e boubUatee, chubby 
bolestny, a, e bolestnee, painful 
vyzrany, a, e vyzrdnee, decayed 
dulezity, a, e dooUzitee, important 
takovy, a, e takovee, such 
nesmirne, ngsmeerjie, exceedingly 
pesky, py&shky, on foot 
obsaliovati, obsahovat, to contain 
panovati, panovat, to reign, to pre- 
vail; 
shodovati se, shodovat s8, to agree 
chybeti, khibyU, to be wanting; 
trhati, t e rhdt, to pull, to tear; 
trhani, n. t e r7idnee, the pulling 
vytrlinout, vyt e rhnoitt, to pull out; 
padati, pdddt, to fall 
vypadati, vy padat Uo fall out; 
vypadnouti, vypddnout > 
kousati, kotisdt, to bite 
nazyvati, nazeevat, to call (by a name) 
skladati se (ze), skldddt s&, to be 

composed (of); 
zavirati, zdveerdt, to inclose (also 

"to shut"); 
zakopnouti, zdkopnotit, to stub; 
zakopnuti, n. zdkopntiHee, the stub- 
bing . 



228 



Part III. 



Disease and cur*e. 
NEMOC aLEGENL 

sickness, illness ; 



rozstonati se 9 rostondt s8, 



Nenioc, n&mots, 
disease; 

lehka nemoc, lehka n. light disease; 

tezka neinoc, tezkd n. acute or dan- 
gerous disease; 

neinocen, cna, cno ngmotsen ) sick, 

neniecny, a. e*) nemotsnee r iU,dis- 

) eased 

tezce lieinocen, Heshtsti n. very sick, 

dangerously sick; 

byti nemoccn, beet ngmotsgn ) to be 

stonati, stondt ) sick ; 

roznemoci se, roznemotsi s8 ) to fall 

. sick; to 

" betaken 

sick; 

choroba, f. khtiroba, ailment, affec- 
tion ; 

chorobny, a, e khorobnee, ailing, 
affected ; 

marod, (coloq.) mdrod, ailing, sickly; 

maroditi, mdroftit, to be ailing; 

neduli, m. nedUh ) ailment, affec- 

neduzivost, f . nedu- [ tion, infirm- 
zivost, l' 1 **' border; 

neduzivy, a, e nMuzivee, ailing, in- 
firm; 

neduzivec, m. neduzivets, ) sickly or 

maroda. m. mar odd r infirm 
) person; 

mrz&k, m. m e rzdk, cripple 

zmrzaciti, zm e rzdchit, to cripple 



zmrzacen, a, o**)zmerzdchen ( cr i p _ 
zmrzaceny, a, e zm e rzdch8nee\ pied 
zmrzacenost, f. zm e rzdch8nost, the 

crippled condition ; 
rana, f. rand, the wound 



to wound 



raniti, rami 

poranitl, poramt 

raneny, a ? e rdnenee, wounded 

poraneni, n.pordfienee ) the wound- 

uraz, m. oordz f in &> a nurt 

) or injury; 

ubliziti, ubleezit ) to hurt, 

uskoditi, usJikoftit > to injure; 

uhoditi, iihotfit, to strike, to hurt 

by striking; 
pohmozditi, pohmoMit, to bruise; 
polimozdeni, n. pohmoMenee, the 

bruising, a bruise; 
uskripnonti, UskrsheepnoUt, to jam, 

to squeeze; 
nskfipnuti, n. ilskrsheepnitVee, a 

contusion by squeezing; 
riznouti, rsheeznout, to cut 
riznuti, n. rsheeznufee ) a cut . 
rez, m. rsMz S 
pichnouti, peekhnotit ) to stab, to 

bodnouti, bodnotit fierce, to prick; 
kousnouti, kousnotit, to bite 
kousnuti, n. kousnuVee, a bite. 



See 



*) Nemocny is the definite, nemocen the indefinite adjective. 
Note 2 on page 103. 

**) Zmrzacen is the passive participle (see Lesson XXXVII), from 
which the adjective zmrzaceny is derived. 



Disease and cure. 



229 



Lekar, m. Ukarsh, the physician 
doktor, m. doktor, the doctor 
lekarstvi, n. Ukarsh- stwee, the med- 
ical profession; 
lekarsky, lekarshskee, medical 
porodui lekar, porodfiee Ukarsh, the 

accoucheur 
l>orodniMba,i>. bdba ) ^ midwife 



babicka, bdbichka 



S 



ranhojic, m. ranhoyicli, the surgeon 
z u bni lekar, zubnee Ukarsh, the 

dentist 
vyleciti, vylechit, \ 
vyhojiti, vyhdyit V to cure, to heal 
nzdraviti, tizdrdvit » 
vyleceni, vyhojeni, uzdraveni, the 

cure 
nzdraviti se, tizdrdvit s# \ to cret 
pozdraviti s^pozdrdvit sg I well, 
vystonati se, vystondt se J to recover; 
umriti, umrsheet, \ 
zemfiti, zemrsheet V to die 
skonati, skondt ) 



Bolest, f . bolest ) the pain, 
boleni, n. boleni > the ache; 
boleni bricha, b. brshikhd, belly-ache 
kolika, f . kolikd, the colic 
mam boleni, I have a pain in the 
bowels or stomach; 
boleni hlavy, b. hldvy, head- ache 
M zubii, b. zilbu, tooth-ache 
bolest v ziyote, b. vzivot'e, pain in 
the abdomen; 
,, y kfizi, b. fkrshee-zi, pain in 
the small of the back ; 



nmirati, umeerdt, to be dying; 

vypustiti dncha, vyptistHtdtik7ia, to 
breathe one's last; 

smrt, f. sm e rt, the death 

nali hi smrt, ndhld s., sudden death 

prohlednonti, prohlednout \ to exam . 

proskoiunati, proskoumat I ine, to 

yysetHti, vyshetrshit ) pro e ' 

raditi se, ratfit se, to consult 

predepsati, prshedepsdt, to prescribe 

dieta, de-atd \ 

mirnost v jidle, v the diet 

meernost v-yeedle) 

schazeti, skhdzei ) to be 

cliradnonti, khrshadnoUt ) sinking; 

sbirati se, sbeerdt s&, to be recover- 
ing; 

liiibnonti, hiibnotit, to lose flesh; 

tloiistnoiiti, tloustnotit, to gain flesh; 

sJabnouti, sldbnotit, to grow weak; 

siliti, seelit, to gain strength; 

slabost, f. slabost, weakness 

sila, f. seeld, strength. 



bolest v zadech, b. vzdd&kh, pain in 
the back; 
,, vnoze (v nohou), b. vnoze (v- 
nohoii), pain in the leg, or 
foot (in the legs, or feet); 
,, y nice (v rukou), b. vriltsg (v- 
rilkoil), pain in the hand, 
or arm (in the hands, or 
arms); 
bolest u srdce, b. us e rdse, pain in 
the heart-region ; 
, , uvnitr, b . uvnitr sh, pain inside 



230 



Part III 



bolestny, a, e bolestnee, painful 

bolavy, a, e boldvee, sore 

bolak, m. the sore 

boule, f. bouW, a boil, a bump; 

vred, m, vrslitid, ulcer 

krtice, pi. k e rVits8, scrofula 

rak, m. rdk, cancer 

otok, m. dtok, a swelling; 

otekly, a, e otgklee, swelled, swollen 

oteci, otetsi, to swell 

horky, a, e horkee, hot 

horkost, f . ) the heat, the f e- 

rozpalenost, f. > ver,thefeverishness 

Zapal, m.s#aZ I juflammation 

zanet, m. zdnet ) 

zapaleny, a, e zdpdlenee ) inflamed 

zaniceny, a. e zdneetsenee) 

zapal plic, sa^^ p^'te, inflammation 
of the lungs; 

zapal mozku, z. mozkM, inflamma- 
tion of the brain; 
,, mozkove blany, z. mozkove 
Many, meningitis; 

zapal strev, z. strshef, inflamma- 
tion of the bowels; 

zapal pobrisnice, z. pobrshishnitse, 
peritonitis; 
,, pohrudnice, z. pohrtidmtsti, 
pleurisy; 

souchote, pi. soilkhoVe \ 

ubytfc, pi. oo^e to™. 

tnberku\e,plMberkiUt ) 

ochroma, dkhromU / paralysis 

ochrnuti, dfch e mittiee > 

mrtvice, f. m e rtvits8, apoplexy 

za.sk rt, m. zdshk e rl, diphtheria 



rozpalen, a ? o rospdlen, feverish; 
horecka, f. horechkd \ thety- 

horka nemoc, Jiorkd ngmots > phus 
hlavnicka, f. hldvmchkd ' fever ; 
zimnice, f. zimmtse, the ague 
zluta zimnice, zlUtd z. the yellow- 
fever; 
mraziti, mrdzit, to chill 
mrazeni ? n. rnrdzeni, a chill, a shiver 
mrazime, mrdzee mye, I feel a chill; 
tf asti se zimou, trshdst se zimoit, to 
shiver with cold. 

krup, m. kricp, the croup 

psotnik, m. psottneek, the fits 

spala, m.spdia ( themeasles 

sarlat, m. shdrldt > 

osutiny, pi. osstifony, the chicken- 
pox 

nestovice, pi. neshtovitse, the small- 
pox 

ockovati, ochkovdt, to vaccinate 

ockovani, ochkovdni, vaccination 

ockovany, a, e ochkovdnee, vacci- 
nated 

vyraz, m. veerdz, eruption 

vyrazeny, a, e vyrdzenee, full of 
eruption; 

kozninemoc, f.koziiee ngmots, skin- 
desease; 

lisej, m. lishey, the lichen 

mol 9 m. the ringworm 

svrab, m. the itch 

svrbeti, sv^rbyet, to itch 

strup, m. ntriip, the scab, the scurf; 

strupovity, a, e striipdvitee, scabby 



Desease and cure. 



231 



hostec, m. hostets ) heumatism 

revma, n. revmd » 

hostecny, hostechnee \ rheu- 

revmaticky ,revmatitskee ' m atic 

srdecni vada, f. s e rdech\\ee mda, 
heart-desease; 

vodnatelnost, f. vodndtellnost, drop- 
sy; 

vodnatelny, a, e vodndtellnee, drop- 
sical 

zaduch, m. zddukh, asthma 

zaduslivy,a,e zddtishlivee, asthmatic 
kasel, m. kdxhell, the cough 
modry kasel, modreek., the whoop- 
ing cough 
kaslati, kdshldt, to cough 
vyhazovati, vyhdzovdt, to throw up; 

daviti, davit ) . 

' [ to vomit 

bliti, Meet ) 

daveui, n. ddvehi ) ., ... 

' y the vomiting; 

bliti, n. blitee ' 

Zlomiti, zlomit ) tQ break 

ziamati, zldmdt > 

zlomeny, a, e zlomfrnee, broken 

zlamanina, f . zldmaTLina ) a broken 

zloinenina, f . zlom S fracture ; 

pukla kost, f. ptikld kost, a cracked 
bone; 

vymknouti, vymknout, to dislocate; 

vymknouti kloub, v. kloitb, to sprain 
a joint; 

vymkiiuti, n. vymknufee, a disloca- 
tion, a sprain; 

srovnati kost, srovndt kost, to set a 
bone; 



indi- 

stion 



krece, pi. krshe n M, cramps 
mdloba, f. faintness, fainting fit; 
mdly, a, e mdlee, faint; 
omdleti, omdlet, to faint, to swoon; 
omdlevani, n. omdlemni, fainting- 
fits, swooning. 
nezazivnost, f . nezazivnost \ 
spatne traveni, n. shpdtne [ ™ 

trdveui * 

zazivny, a, e zdzivnee, digestible 
nezazivny, nezdzivnee, indigestible 
retry, pi. vyitry .. ndfl , tu . 
iiadouvaui,n.>i'Mtfwmin > leuce: 
nady ma sii, n . nddeemdm ' 
nadmiity, a 9 e nddmMee, flatulent 
behavka, f. byehdfka ) the 
prujeni, m. prooyem ) diarrhea 
zastava, f. zdstdm \ stoppage in 
tezka stolice, teshkd I ^Xation, 

stolltse, ) costivene^s; 

liplavice, f. oopldvitse, dysentery. 

dati do desek, ddt do dessek, to splint 
obvazatiranu, obvdzdtrdnu, to dress 

a wound; 
obvazek, m. obvdzek, a dressing, a 

bandage; 
priitrz, m. proot e rsh, the rupture 
prutrzni pas, m. the truss 
hrb, m. h e rb, a hump, a hunch; 
hrbac, h e rbdch, a humpback; 
hrbaty, a, e h p rbatee, humpbacked; 
kulhati, kulhdt, to walk lamely; 
kulhavy, a, e kiilhavee L ame 
chromy, a, e klivomee ) 
dopadati, dopdddt, to halt, 



232 



Part III. 



It is said that Mr. Ha- 

nush is sick. 
Is lie laid up ? — Yes, he 

took to his bed. 
Is he very sick? — I 

think it is serious. 

Call a physician. — Send 

for a doctor. 
We have sent for him. 

— The doctor has 
been here already. 

When was Mr. Hanush 
taken sick? — Yester- 
day morning; all at 
once he felt a chill, 
then he felt feverish. 

What is the trouble?— 
What disease has he? 

I think it is inflamma- 
tion of the lungs. 

That would be danger- 
ous. — What does the 
physician say? 

The doctor thinks that 
he has inflammation 
of the lungs. 

Then I pity him. 

How is Mr. Swoboda 

to-day? is he better? 

Always the same thing; 

— no better, no 
worse; — there is no 
change. 



Pan Harms je pry ne- 

mocen. 
LezH — Ano ? ulehnul. 

Je mu tuze zle? — My- 

slim ze je to pov&z- 

live. 
Zavolejte lekafe. — Po- 

slete pro doktora. 
Poslali jsme pro nej. 

— Doktor uz tu byl. 

Kdy se pan Hanus roz 
stonall — Ycera ra- 
no; z nenadani do- 
stal mrazeni, pak 
horkost. 

Co je mu?— Nac se roz- 
stonal? 

Myslim ze na zanet 
plic. 

To by bylo nebezpec- 
ne. — Co povida le- 
kaH 

Doktor mysli ze ma 
zapal plic. 

To ho lituju. 



Jak je panu Svobodovi 
dues? Je mu lip? 

Porad stejne; — ani 
lip, ani hur; — nic 
se to nemeni. 



pan hdniish y& prey n&- 

motstin. 
lezeef — and, itl^hniil. 

ye mil tooze zlef — mis- 

leem ze y% to povdzli- 

ve. 
zdvoleyte lekdrsM. — pd 

shlete pro doktora. 
poslali sme pro fiey. — 

doktor icsh tit bill. 

gdy se pan h. rostondlf 

— fchera rdno; zne- 
ndddni dostal mrdzg- 
ni, pak horkost. 

tso ye mii? — ndch s& 

rostondlf 
misleem ze na zanet 

plits. 
to bi billo nebespechne. 

— tso poveedd le- 
karsh f 

doktor mislee ze md za- 
pal plits. 

to ho UtityU. 

yak ye panic swoboddvi 
dness? y& miileepf 

p or shad steyne; — dm 
leep, ani hoorsh; — 
nits s& to nemy^nee. 



Disease and cure. 



233 



It does not grow worse , 

— it doesn't grow 
better. 

What disease has he? — 
What is his disease? 
—What ails him? 

The physician himself 
doesn't know yet; — 
until it develops *) — 
It is not known what 
will come of it. 

I hope it will not be so 
bad. 

I hope he will recover. 

— Perhaps he will 
soon get well. 

I don't know if he will 
get over it. — Who 
knows if he will get 
well. 

He is well along in 
years already. 

Well, he needs good 
nursing. — Give him 
the best care possible. 

We nurse him faith- 
fully. — We tend him 
as best we can. 

Yes, tend him as well 



Nehorsi se to, 
lepsi se to. 



ne- 



Co ma za iiemoc'2 — Ja- 
kou ma nemoc? - 
Nac stiuie I 

Lekar sam nevi jeste; 

— az jak se to uka- 
ze. — Nevi se co z 
toho bude. 

Doufam ze nebude to 

tak zle, 
Doufam ze z toho vy- 

jde. — Snad se brzo 

uzdravi. 
Nevim vyjde-li z toho. 

— Kdoz vi jestli z 
toho vyjde. 

Uz je v letech. 

Inu, potfebuje dobre 
osetreni.— Dejte mu 
vsemoznou peci. 

Osetrujeme ho pilne. 

— Slouzime mu co 
nejlip muzeme. 

Alio, sluzte mu co 



nehorshee se to — ne- 
lepshee se to. 

(so met za nemotsf — 
yakou ma ntimots? — 
nacli stoonef 

lekar sh sdm nevee yesh- 
He; — ash yak se to 
ickdze. — nevee se tso 
stoho bude. 

doufam ze nebUde to 

tak zle. 
doufam ze stoho veed8. 

— sndd se berzo it- 

zdrdvee. 
neveem veedeli stoho. — 

gdoz vee yestli stoho 

veede. 

ush ye vletekh. 

inu, potrshtibuye dobre 
oshetrsheni.-deyte mil 
fshemohiou pechi. 

oshetrshuyeme ho pil- 
ne. — slouzeeme mu tso 
neyleep moozeme. 

and, slushte mil tso 



*) Az jak se to ukaze, — until it shows itself or develops, — is in 
fact an elliptical sentence, meaning: "We must icait, until it develops". 

Sentences of this character are frequently used; for instance : 

Az jak bude, "until (we see) how it will be;" — "(it depends upon) 
how it will be". 

Az jak to dopadue, "until (we see) how it will come out" ; — (it de- 
pends upon) how it will come out". 



234 



Part III. 



as you can. — Nurse 
him in every possible 
manner. 

We are with him day 
and night. 

Has the doctor pre- 
scribed for him? — 
Yes, he wrote a pre- 
scription. 

Have you sent to the 
drug-store?— We sent 
there right away. — 
The druggist pre- 
pared it immediately. 

The patient takes his 
medicine regularly. 

I hope to God that he 
will get well. 

I hope hat he will soon 
be on his legs. 

I fear that he will soon 
be "on the board" (i. 
e. dead). 

I am afraid that nothing 
will help him. 

I fear that he will die. 

Is it true that Mr. Alesh 

died? 
I am sorry to say it is 

true. 
When did he die? - He 

died at midnight. — 

He died toward 

morning. 



mozna. — Obsluzte 
ho se vsim. 

Jsme u nej ve dne v 

noci. 
Predepsal mu dokior? 

— Ano, napsal re- 

cept. 

Poslali jste do lekar- 
ny2 — Poslali jsme 
tarn lined. — Lekar- 
nik to pripravil oka- 
mzite. 

Pacient uziva pravi- 
delne. 

Da bull ze se pozdra- 
vi. 

Doufam ze bude brzo 
na nohou. 

Bojim se ze bude brzo 
na prkne. 

Bojim se ze nic mu ne- 

pomuze*). 
Obavam se ze umre. 

Je to prayda, ze pan 

Ales umreH 
Bohuzel, je to pray da. 

Kdy zenireH — Skonal 
o pfilnoci. — Skonal 
k rami. 



moznd. — obslushtti hd 
sgfsheem. 

smgti ney v8 dn&vnotsi. 

prshedfrpsal mu doktorf 

— dno, napsal rU- 
sept. 

poslali ste do Ukdrnyf 

— poslali sm& tdm 
hn&d. — lekdrmk to 
prshipravil okdmzi- 

pdtsient itzeevd pravi- 

delfie. 
da booh ze se pozdra- 

vee. 
doufam ze btid& b e rzo 

na nohou. 
boyeem se ze btidtib e rzd 

na p e rkfLe. 

boyeem s# ze nits mil ng- 

pomooze. 
obdvdm se ze umrshS. 

ye to prdvdd ze pan A- 

lesh Umrshellf 
bohitzel, y& to prdvddf 

gdy zemr shell? f — sko- 
nal o poolnotsi. — 
skonal krdnit. 



*) See Note 1 on page 36, about double negation, 



Desease and cure. 



235 



What did he die of? — 
Of inflammation of 
the lungs. 

Very few get over that, 
— at his age. 

Indeed very few! — 
There was no help f 01 
him. — The doctor 
said so right off. 

He said: There is no 
help for him; — the 
desease has been neg- 
lected. 

He neglected it. — He 
sent for the doctor 
too late. 

He should have sent for 
the doctor sooner. — 
When the doctor 
came, it was too late. 

A desease must not be 
neglected. 

Old Mrs. Hoshek died 
this morning. 

She died suddenly, — 
of heart desease. 

She was taken sick and 
in half an hour it was 
all over with her. 

That was a sudden 
death. 

It is better than to suf- 
fer long. 

Preserve us from long 
suffering! 



Nac umreK— Na zapa- 
leni plic. 

Z toho malo kdo vy- 
jde, — v jeho veku. 

Ba malo kdo!— Nebylo 
inn zadne pomoei.— 
Doktor povidal to 
lined. 

Pravil: Neni mu po- 
moei;— nemocje za- 
nedbana. 

Zanedbal to. — Poslal 
pro doktora pozde. 

Mel poslati pro dokto- 
ra drive. — Kdyz dok 
tor prisel, bylo poz- 
de. 

Nemoc nesmi se zane- 
dbati. 

Star a pani Hoskova 
skonala dnes rano. 

Zemrela liable, — na 
srdecni vadu. 

Prislo ji zle a za pul 
hodiny bylo po ni. 

To byla nahla smrt. 

Je to lepsi nez trapiti 

se dlouho. 
Jen ne dlouhe trape- 

ni! 



ntich umr shell? — na 
zdpdlem pliis. 

stoho malo gdo veede, 
— vyeho vyeku. 

Ba malo gdo! — nebillo 
mu zadne pomotsi. — 
doctor poveeddl to 
lined. 

pravil : neyni mu po- 
motsi; — nemots ye 
zdnedbdnd. 

zanedbal to. — postal 
pro doctord pozfle. 

my ell po slat pro docto- 
rd dr sheer e. — gdyz 
doctor prshi shell, blllo 
pozfte. 

nemots nesmee se zot- 
nedbat. 

stdrd pom hoshkovd 
skonala ' dness rano. 

zemrshella ndhle, — na 
s e rdechnee vadit. 

prshishlo yee zle a za 
pool hoftiny billo po 
ni. 

to billet ndhld sm e rt. 

ye to lepshee nesh trd r 

pit se dloUho. 
yen ne dlotihe trdpeni. 



236 



Part III. 



Chronic consumption 
is a slow disease; — 
acute consumption 
has a quick run. 

Drowning is a cruel 
death; — so is strang- 
ling. — Hanging is an 
easy death, if the neck 
is broken. 

A. took his own life; — 
he committed suicide 

He drowned himself ; — 
he hanged himself.— 
he poisoned himself; 

— he shot himself; — 
he cut his throat; — 
he thrust a knife into 
his breast. 

And why did he do it? 

— Most likely he was 



Chronicke souchotiny 
jsou zdlouhava ne- 
moc;-akutni soucho- 
te maji rychly bell. 

Utopeni je tezka smrt; 
uduseni taky. — 0- 
beseni je lehka 
smrt, zlomi-li se 
vaz. 

A. vzal si zivot;— spa- 
chal samovrazdu. 

Utopil se; — obesil se; 
otravil se; — zastre- 
lil se; — podrezal si 
krk; — vrazil si nuz 
do prsou. 



A proc to udelaH — 
Nejspis byl sileny. 



insane. 

Vocabulary. 

the male 
J patient; 
\ the female 
pacientka 9 f. pdtsientkd i patient; 
lekarna, f . lekdrnd ) the drug store, 
apatyka, f. dpdtikd > the pharmacy; 



khronitske sotikhotmy 
soil zdloUhdvd nemots; 

— dkittnee soiikhote 
mdyee rykhlee by eh . 

titopem yeteshkd sm e rt; 

— Udusheni take. — 
obyesheni y& lehka 

smert, zlomee-U s8 

vdz. 
A. vzal si zivot; — spd- 

khdl samovrazdu. 
utopil s%; — obyesil se; 

— otravil s%; — zd- 
strshUil s%; — pod- 
rshezdl si k e rk; — 
vrazil si nooz do p e r- 
soti. 

a pro eh to tifteldl? — 
neyspeesh bill sheele- 
nee. 



Nemocny, m. nemots nee 
pacient, m.patsient 



lekarnik, m. lekdrnik ) the druggist, 

7 u u , > the 

&\)&ty\Lar,m. apatikarsh ) apothecary ; 

horkost, f. horkost, the fever heat; 

mrazeni, n. mrdz^hi, the chill; 

predpis, m. prshUpis\ the prescrip- 
11 Vtion, receipt, 

recept, m. retsept ) the recipe. 

predepsati, prshgd8psdt,tQ prescribe 



pripraviti, prshiprdvit, to prepare; 
pece, f . peehe, the care 
pecovati (o) ? pechovdt, to care (for); 
osetreni, n. oshetrshem, the nursing 
osetrovati, oshStrsJwvdt, to nurse, 

to tend; 

Slouziti, sloilzit \ to serve, to wait 

obslouziti, obslouzit ) on, to tend; 
potrebovati, potrshebovdt, to want, 

to need; 
bati se, bat se, to fear 
obavati se, obdvdt s&, to apprehend 
trapiti se, trdpit s#, to suffer 



Drugs and medicines. 



237 



trapeni, n. trapeni, the suffering 
zanedbati, zdnedbdt, to neglect 
zanedban, a, o, neglected 
meniti se, my8n.it s#, to change 
neineni se, nemyenee s#, it does not 

change; 
horsiti se, horshit se, to grow worse 
nehorsi se, nehorshee s#, it does not 

grow worse ; 
ukazati, ukdzdt, to show 
nkaze se, ukdze se, it will show it- 
self; 



vyjiti z tolio, ve-yeet stoho, to come 

out of it; 
nebezpeci, n. nebespeehee, the danger 
nebezpecny, a, e ngbespeclinee, dan- 
gerous 
okamzik, m. okamzik, the moment 
inalokdo, mdlogdo, very few people 
bohnzel, bohuzell, alas; I am sorry 

to say; 
vaz, m. vdz, the back of the head; 
the neck. 



Drugs ana medicines. 
LECIVA a LEKY. 



Mira, f. meerd, the measure 

a aha, f . valid, the weight 

mefiti, my 8r shit, to measure 

vaziti, vdzit, to weigh 

michati, meekhdt, to mix 

YKOStth Proseet ) to garble 

pf ebrati, prsMbrdt > 

libra, f . libra, a pound 

unce, f . tints&, an ounce 

lot, m. (about half an ounce); 

kvintlik, m. quintleek, (about i of 

an ounce); 
gran, m. a grain 
lzice, f . Izeetsg or zeetse, a spoon, a 

spoonful; 

Prasek, m. prdshek, a powder 
,, na zuby, p. nd zuby, tooth-p. ; 
,, sumivy, p. shumivee, Seidlitz- 
powder; 
,, persky, Persian powder; 



lzicka, f . Izeechkd or zeechkd, a small 
spoon; a small spoonful; 

kavova lzicka, f. a coffee or tea 
spoonful; 

cajovy salek, m. chayovee shdlek, a 
tea-cup ; 

sklenice, f . sklenitse, a glass 

vinna sklenice, f . wine-glass 

hrstka, f . h e rstkd ) a hand 

prekonsle, f.prshehotishU j ful 

spetka, f . shpetkd, a pinch 

kapka, f . kdpkd, a drop 

kapky, pi. kdpky, drops 

netksq}ek)Pyetkdpek, five drops ;etc 

dayka, f . ddfkd, a dose. 

prasky, pi. prdshky, powders 
pilnlka, f . pillulkd, a pill 
pilulky, pi. pills 
kasicka, f . kdshichkd, a poultice 
testicko, n. Hestichko, a paste 



Part III. 



mazani, n. mazdni, an ointment 

mast', f . mast, salve 

lektvar, m. confection 

tinktura 9 f . tinctoord, tincture 

flastr, m. fldst e r ) n , 

9 J • >• plaster 

naplast 9 m. naplast j 

fizikator 9 m. vesicatory 

olej 9 m. oley, oil 

extrakt 9 m. extract 

vystrelek 5 m . veestrshelek, spirit 



semeno 9 n. semend 



seed 



seminko 9 n. semeenko j 
list 9 m. list, leaf 
listi 9 n. listee, leaves 
koren 9 m. korshen, root 
korinek, m. korsheenek, little root 
bobule 9 f • bobule, bulb 
kura 9 f . koord, bark, peel 
st'ava 9 f . shtidvd, juice 
bylina, f. billind, herb 
lekarska bylina 9 Ukarshskd b., me- 
dicinal herb; 
odvar 9 m. decoction 
nalev, m. mftf h nfusion 
yymok 9 m. veemok ' 

Aloe 9 n. &I08, aloes 
anjelika 9 f. dnyellicd, angelica 
anyz 9 m. dneez, anise 
arabska guma, f . gum arabic 
arnika 9 prha 9 f. arnica 

Baldrian (odolen,kozlik) 9 m. water 

avens; 
balsam 9 balzam 9 m. bdlshdm, bdl- 

zdm, balsam 
bavlna 9 f. bdc e lnd, cotton 



roztok, m. rostok, solution 
davidlo, n. emetic 
pocist'ovadlo 9 n. poehisVovadlo, pur- 
gative 
lehky 9 a 9 e lehkee, light, soft, easy 
prudky 9 a 9 e prudkee, drastic 
projimavy 9 a 9 e proyeemdvee, laxative 
silici 9 seelitsee, tonic 
silivka 9 f. silifkd, a tonic 
pro spani, pro spani, soporific 
narkoticky, narkotiskee \ narcotic 
oniannijici 9 omdmuyeetsee S 
mocohnavy, mochohndvee, diuretic 
pijavka, f . piydfkd, a leech 
pijavky, pi. piydfky, leeches 
bank a, f . cupping-glass 
prijemny, a 9 e prshee-yemnee, agree- 
able, pleasant; 
odporny, a, e odporme^^^ 
osklivy 9 a 9 e oshklivee j 
osklivost 9 f. oshklivost, nausea 
kyselina 9 kissellind, acid 
kyslicnik 9 kisslichrveek, oxide 
siran 9 m.seerdn, sulphate. 



bedrnik, m. bed e rnik, pimpernel 
bezovy kvet 9 m. bezovee kvy&t, elder 

flowers; 
beloba 9 f . byelobd, white lead; 
bilkovina 9 f. beelkovina, albumen 
blin 9 m. bleen, henbane 
bobko-tresne 9 f . cherry-laurel 
bolehlav, m bolehldv, hemlock 
bozi trava (recke seno) 9 fenugreek 

seed 






Drugs and medicines. 



239 



brain bofik (svinsky ehleha, svin- 
sky ofech), sow -bread; 
broskvove listi, n. peach-leav< s; 
brut ii ak obecny, m. bo ram 
bi'iza, f. brsheezd, birch, (bi tula alba); 

Celik, m. tsellik, golden -rod 

cesmina (lesni kopriva), f. holly 
cink, in. teink, zink 
citron, in. tsitron, Lemoo 
citronova kiira, f. lemon peel 
citronova stava, t lemon juice 
cukr, m. tsuh'T, sugar 
cukr hroznovy, glucose 
cnkr nilecny, ts. mlichnee, sugar of 

milk; 
cukr oloveny, ts . olovy#nee, sugar of 

lead. 

Davicny kanien, m. ddvichnee hd- 
men, tartar emetic; 

debet, m. dgliM, tar 

divizna, f. ffiviznti, mullein 

dobra mysl, f . see marjanka; 

draft krev, f . dr&chee k?*#f, dragon's 
blood; 

draslik, m. (kalium, n.), drdssleek, 
potassium 

draslo, n . see salajka; 

drevo mysi, n . drshevd mishee, bit- 
ter-sweet 

dfevo sladke, liquorice 

drin, m. dr sheen, dogwood 

dristal, m. barberry 

drnayec,m . d e rndvets, wall-pellitory 

drozdi, see kvasnice; 

dubinky, pi. nutgall, galls; 



durman, m (panenske jablko picli- 

hive), stramonium seed; 
(luvik. m. ditsseek, nitrogen 
dnsicnan olovnaty, nitrate of lead. 

Ether, m. Her, ether 
enforbinm, eitforbiitm, euforbia. 

Fenikl, m. fennel 
fialka, f. fi&lkti, violet 
flk, in. f( < !,. fig 

fosfor, m. phosporus. 

(idoulovc semeno, m. quince seed; 
granatovo jablko, Q. pomegranate 
gnma arabska, f. gum arabic 
" elasticka, f. gum elastic 

llehnanek, m.hershmdnek, chamo- 
mile 
horcice, t horchitsti, mustard 
horcc, m. horshets, gentian 
houba, f. hotibti, sponge 
houby, pi. mushrooms, 
hfebicek, m. rxhSbeechek, cloves 
huleviiik, m. hedge-mustard 

Chinin, m. khinin, quinine 
china, f. ) cinchona, Pe- 

chinnik pravy, m. ) ruvian bark; 
chlorove v&pno, n. khlorove vdpno, 

chloride of lime; 
chmel, m. khmell, hops. 

Ibis (proskurnik), m. ibish, marsh- 
mellow 

Jalovec, m. ytdlovets, juniper 
jaternik, m. ydternik, liverwort 



240 



Part III. 



Jed, yed, ) ison 

utrejch, utreykh > 

jeleni roh ? yellenee roll, hartshorn 

" luj 9 y. looy, hart's tallow 
jerab 9 m. yerslidb, mountain ash; 
jetelice, f. (janovec, m.) broom tops 
jod, m. yod, iodine. 

Kafr, m kdf e r, camphor 

kalamin, m. calamine 

kalanka, f. pinkroot 

kamenec, m. kamenets, alum 

kampeska, f. kdmpes7ikd, logwood 

kastoreum, n. castor 

kastan, m. kdshtdn, horse-chestnut; 

kaucuk, m. India rubber; 

klejt, (kyslicnik olovnaty) m. kleyt, 
oxide of lead; 

klejicha bulvata, butterfly weed 

k min , m. kmeen, caraway seed; 

kniin vodni, k. vodnee, water-hem- 
lock (fine-leaved); 

konitrud, m. hedge-hyssop 

k 01 1 <ipi 9 n. konopee, hemp 

konopi indicke, k.inditske, Indian 
hemp; 

konopny extract, m. extract of hemp 

kopytnik tupolisty, m. asarum Eu- 
ropaeum; 

kopr, m. kop e r, dill 

koralka, f. see palenka; 

korek, m. cork 

korenhadi, m. 7cor87i&n 7i(M?ee,b\stort 
" maliny, blackberry root; 
" omami, elicampane 
u omejovy, aconite root; 



kosatec, m. kossatets, blue flag, iris 

versicolor; 
kozinec, m. kozinets, tragacanth 
kozlik odolen, m. valerian 
kozokvet ? m. queen's root; 
kren 9 m. krs7ien, horse radish 
krevnice, f. 7crevnitse, bloodroot 
krida, f. krs7ieedd, chalk 
kroupy, pi. Icrotipy, pearl barley; 
krticnik, m. k^tHc7ineek, figwort 
krusinka, krushinka, dyer's weed, 

genista; 
krusicek, (pampalik), m. marigold 
kura dubova, f . koord dtibovd, black- 
oak bark; 
" divoke tresne, wild cherry bark 
fc ' vrbova, k . v e rbdvd, willow bark ; 
" jilmova, k. yilmovd, elm bark; 
" cervenejilmy 9 slippery elm bark 
kvasnice, pi. kwassnitse, yeast 
kvet, m. 7cwyet, flowers 
kvetel, f . kwytitell, common toad flax 
kyprej, m. kiprey, loosestrife 
kyslik, m. kissleek, oxygen 
kyselina, f. kisselind, acid 
" citronova, citric acid 
" karbolova, carbolic acid; 
" sanytrova, nitric acid; 
" sol mi, muriatic acid; 
" vinova, tartaric acid. 

Lep na ptaky, m. bird-lime 

lenty&ek, m. mastic 

levandule, f. lavender 

lih 9 m. Iee7i, alcohol 

lilek cerveny, see drevo mysi; 

Limonka, f . marsh rosemary; 



Drugs and medicines. 



241 



listi bobkove, n. laurel leaves; 
lomiknat, m. common groundsel: 
lopuch, (horky lnpen) m. burdock 
liYj, m. looy, tallow; 

„ jeleni, hart's tallow; 

,, skopovy, mutton suet 
lzicnik, m. Izichmk, common scur- 
vy-grass ; 
lek proti hlistdm, vermifuge. 

Mak, m. poppy-seed 

mandle horke, pi. man die hor alike, 

bitter almonds; 

„ sladke, sweet almonds; 

marena, f. m&rshina, madder 

uiarjanka v f. mdrydnkd, common 
marjoram; 

inata, (marulka) f. catnep 

mata peprna, f. peppermint 

mata kaderava, pennyroyal 

med, m. honey 

med', f. myeft. copper 

medokvet, m. rnedokiryet, marsh 
trefoil, buckbean; 

medvediee obecua, medvyeftitse o- 
betsnd, bearberry leaves; 

mejli, n. (mis\}\\\fyf .) mey lee, mistle- 
toe 

melasa, f. molasses 

mleko, n. milk 

mlekovy punc, milk-punch, toddy; 

momsova st'ava, mulberry juice; 

mouka bila, f. moukd beeld, wheat 
flour; 
,, cerna 9 m. chernd, rye flour; 
,, oyesna, m. oveaand, oatmeal; 



mrkev, f. m e rkef, carrot seed; 
mydlo, n. ?needlo. soap 

,5 mazave, soft soap 

„ amygdalinove, amj^gdaline 
soap; 

,5 mandlove 9 almond oil soap; 
myrha, f. myrrh 

Nahac, m. see ociin; 
namel, m. ergot 
naprstnik cerveny, m. foxglove 
narcis kadef avy, m . daffodil 
natrznik, m . tormentil 
netik, m. see zensky ylas; 
netykalka, f. touch-me-not 
nove koreni, n. nove korahem, all- 
spice; 
nickaminek, see skalice; 
natrium, see sodik. 

Ocet 9 m. otset, vinegar 

ociin 9 m. otsoon, colchicum seed; 

odolen, m. valerian 

olej, m. oley, oil 
5 5 bavlneny, cotton-seecl oil 
,, z bergamotek, oil of bergamot 
,, citronoyy, lemon oil 
,, dymianovy, oil of thyme, oil of 

origanum; 
?9 horcicny, oil of mustard 
5 5 hermankovy, chamomile oil 
5 5 jantarovy, oil of amber 
5 5 kafrovy, camphor oil 
,, kokosovy, cocoa-nut oil 
,, koprovy, oil of dill 
5 5 krotonovy, croton oil 
5 5 lneny, flaxseed oil 

16 



Ml 



Part lit 



olej mandlovy, almond oil 
„ olivovy, \ 

, , dreveny >• olive oil 

,f brabancovy > 
,, ricinovy, castor oil 
,, riizovy, oil of roses 
,, sesamovy, benne oil 
,, skoricovy, cinnamon oil 
,, terpentinovy, oil of turpentine 
,, z volske nohy, neats-foot oil 
olovo, n. olovo, lead 
orech, m. orsMkh, nut 
,, muskatovy, nutmeg 
orlicek, m. orleechek, columbine 
osladic, m. osldftich, male fern 
ozanka, f. (gamandr), germander. 

P&lenka obycejna, f. whisky 

, , vinna (francouska), brandy 
pampeliska (smetanka), f . dandelion 
paprika, f. red pepper, cayenne p. 
pekelny kaminek, m. lapis infer- 

nalis; 
pelynek, m. wormwood 
peltram, m. pellitory 
pepr, m. pgprsh, black pepper 
petruzel, f. parsley root 
pijavky, pi. f.piydfky, leeches 
pizmo, n. peezmd, musk 
plavun, f. lycopodium 
plicnik, m. plitsnik, Iceland moss; 
plo§ticnik, m. black snakeroot. ci- 

micifuga; 
pomoranc, m. pomordnch, orange 
pomorancovy kv&t, orange flowers; 
pomorancovd kura, orange peel; 



popel z kosti, m. popell skosVi, bone 

ash; 
posed, m. white bryony 
potas (draslo), see salajka; 
potmeclnitf, f . 
psi vino cervene, n. ) 
prote£, f. cudweed, life-everlasting; 
pryskyrice, f. pry skir shit s8, resin, 



[• bittersweet 



pryskyrky, see spanelske mouchy; 

psi rmen, m . mayweed 

pukavec (vlci mak), m. piiktivets, 

red-poppy petals; 
puskvorec, m. pUshkworets, sweet 

flag; 

Rauta, f. rdtitd, rue 

rebarbora, f. rebarbdrd, rhubarb 

rozinky, pi. f. raisins 

rozmarina, f. rosemary 

rozrazil, m. speedwell 

rtut', f. rtiffi, mercury 

rulik zlomooiy, m. deadly night- 
shade, belladonna root; 

rum myrtovy, m. bay -rum 

rumelka, f. cinnabar 

rfl^e stolista, f. hundred-leaved 
rose. 

Sadec, m. sddets, eupatorium, thor- 

oughwort ; 
S&dlo, n. lard 
salajka, f. sdlaykd, potash 
salmiak, m. sal ammoniac 
sanytr, m. 8dnyt e r, saltpeter 
semeno lnene, n. flaxseed, linseed; 
,, tykvove, pumpkin seed; 



Drugs and medicines. 



248 



seminko citvarove, European worm- 
seed ; 
senes, m. purging cassia; 
senesove listi, n. senna leaves; 
seno recke, n. send rshStske, fenu- 
greek ; 
sesamove listi, n. benne leaf; 
sira, f. seerd, sulphur, brimstone; 
siran, m. seerdn, sulphate 
siran draselnaty, sulphate of potash 
siran med'naty, sulphate of copper; 
sirob, m. sirup 
skalice bila, f. skdllitsg beeld, white 

vitriol; 
skila, f. squile 
skorice, f. skorshitsg, cinnamon 

" bila, canella 
sladka vrbka, f. bittersweet 
sliz, m. sleez, common mallow 
smola, f. pitch 

sodik, m. (natrium), n. sodium 
soda sucha, f. (suchy natron, ky- 
slicnik sodnaty), dry soda, 
protoxide of sodium; 
soda zirava, (natron ziravy, hydrat 
sodnaty), caustic soda, hy- 
drate of soda; 
sporys, m. see zeleznik; 
starcek, m . see lomihnat; 
siil kuchynska, f. soolk., common 
salt; 
" hofka, ((xlauberova), Glauber's 

salt, Epsom salt; 
" morska, bay salt; 
" kristalova, nitrate salt; 
surik, m. red oxide of lead; 
svlacec, m. svldchets, scammony. 



Safran, m. shdfrdn, saffron 
salvej, m. shalvyey, sage 
sipek, m. sheepek, dog-rose, hip; 
sisak, m. shishdk, scullcap 
skrob, m. shkrob, starch 
skrobovina americka, f arrow-root 
skumpa jedovata, f. poison-oak 
spanelske niouchy, pi. f. Spanish 

flies, cantharides; 
spargl, m. shpargl, asparagus 
st'ovik, m. sMovik, sorrel 
svestky, pi. f. shioestky, primes. 

Tabak, m. tdbrtk, tobacco 
tavola, f hardhack 
terpen tyn, m. terperUeen, turpentine 
tinktura arnikova, f. tincture of 

arnica: 
tis, m. common European yew tree; 
tojest, f. dog's-bane 
tolije, f. tolliye, parnassia palustris; 
tomel virginsky, persimmon 
tran jaterni, m. cod-liver oil; 
trnka, f . t e rnkd, wild plum tree; 
trojpecka, f . troypetskd, fever root 
tremdava, f. dictamnus, bastard 

dittany ; 
trezalka, f. St. John's wort; 
tuk velrybi, m. spermaceti 
turan, m. fleabane, erigeron. 

Uhel dreveny, m. charcoal 

libel zvireci, animal charcoal; bone- 
black; 

uhlik, m. uTileek, carbon 

uhlicitan horecnaty, m. carbonate 
of magnesia; 



244 



Part III. 



uhlicitan sodnaty, carbonate of soda 
nzanka, f . hound's tongue. 

Yanilka, f . vanilla 

vapno, n. lime; quicklime; 

vapno chlorove, chloride of lime ; 

vapno karbolove, carbolate of lime; 

vavrin, m. laurel tree; 

vejce, n. veytse, egg 

bilek, m. beelek, the white 

zloutek, m. zloittek, the yelk 

vinny kamen, m. cream of tartar; 

vino bile, n. veend beele, white wine 
" cervene, v. chervene, red wine, 

virginska hadovka, f. Virginia 
snakeroot 

vitod, m. veetod, bitter polygala; 

vlast'ovicnik, m. vldshtomchwk, ce- 
landine 

vodacista,f .voda chisstd, pure water 

voda miner&lni, mineral water 

koupel, f. ^^^Hbath 

lazen, f. lazen » 

vodicka, f. vo&Hchka, wash, lotion; 

vodicka naoci, v. naochi, eye-wash 

vosk bily, m. white wax 

vosk zluty, yellow wax 



44 

44 



vranioko, n. vranee oko, parisquad- 

rifolia; 
vratic, m. vrdtiich, tansy 
vystrelek, m. veestrshgllek, spirit 

pizmovy, spirit of musk; 

terpentinovy, spirit of 

turpentine; 
vyzi kli, n. vizeeklee, isinglass. 

Z&zvor, m. ginger 

zazvor divoky, wild ginger 

zemezluc, f. zemygzlucti, common 
centaury; 

zerav, m . zerdf, arbor vitae ; 

zimostraz, m. box plant; 

zmijovec, m. zmeeydvets, skunk cab- 
bage; 

zabnik, m. zabnik, water-plantain 
zebricek, m. zebrsheechek, yarrow 
zeleznice lysa, s. snake-head, turtle- 
head; 
zeleznik, m. zeleznik, vervain 
zensky vlas, m. maidenhair 
zinc volska, f . tMcIi volska, ox-gall 
zlutidlo, n. turmeric 
ztutodfev, m. prickly-ash. 



I 



like domestic 

fort. 
We have a comfortable 

home on tenth street. 
We have a hall, five 

rooms and a kitchen 



At liome. 

DOM A. 
com- I Miluju dom&ci polio- 






dli. 
MAme pohodlny domov 

na desate ulici. 
M a iiki sin, pet pokojfi 

a kuchyn dole, a 



millityU domdtsee po- 

hodlee. 
mdm8 pohod^lnee dd- 

niof na dtisate Ulitsi. 
mdm% seen, py&t pokd- 

yoo a kUkhin ddU, 



At home. 



245 



downstairs, and four 
bedrooms upstairs. 

The stairs have a rail- 
ing. 

We have new furni- 
ture, — tables, chairs, 
sofas and beds. 

The writing-desk and 
library stand in the 
front room. 

The windows have 
both shutters aud 
curtains. 

On the walls there are 
pictures in frames. 

Our clothes-press is 
very handy. 

The fuel we keep down 
cellar. — Hard and 
soft water is in the 
house . 

We have a good stove 
and the chimney does 
not smoke. 

It is time to eat. — The 

meal is ready. 
The table is spread; — 

everything is on the 

table: dishes, plates, 

forks, knives. 
Come and eat; — sit 

down by the table. 
Hand (thou) me that 

chair. — Hand (you) 

me the soup ; I shall 

deal it out. 



ctyry loznice naho- 
re. 
Schody maji zabradli. 

Manie novy nabytek, — 

stoly, zidle, pohov- 

ky a postele. 
Psaci stul a knihovna 

stoji v predni svetni- 

ci. 
Okiia maji okenice i 

zaslony* 

Na stenach jsou obra- 

zy v rainech. 
Nase satnice je tiize 

prirucna. 
Palivo maine ve skle- 

pe. — Tvrda i mek- 

ka voda je v dome. 

Maine dobre kamna a 
komm nekouri. 



Je cas k jidlu. — Jidlo 

je hotovo. 
Je prostf eno; - vsecko 

je na stole: misy, 

talire, vidlicky, no- 

ze. 
Pojd'te jisti;— sednete 

ke stolu. 
Podej mi tu sesli. — 

Podejte mi polivku; 

ja rozdam. 



a shtiri loznitsg nd- 

horshe. 
skhody mayee zdbrad- 

lee. 
mdmg novee ridbytek, — 

stolly, zidU, pohofky 

dpostelle. 
psdtsee stool a knihovna 

stoyee fp r shednee 

swygtnitsi. 
oknd mdyee okenitse e 

zaslony. 

nd stendkh soit obrazy 
vrdmekh. 

ndshe shdtnitse yg toozg 
prsheeruchnd,. 

palivo mdrng ve sklepye. 
— to e rdd e mygkd vo- 
da yg vdomye. 

mdmg dobre kdmnd a 
komeen nekourshee. 

ye chdss k-yeedlit. — 

yeedlo ye hotdvd. 
yg prostrshgno . — fshg- 

tsko ye nd stolle: mee- 

sy, tdleershg, vidlich 

ky, noze. 
podHg yeest; — sedfietg 

k^ stolltl. 
podgy me til sessli. 

podgy tg me poleefkti} 

yd rozddm, 



246 



Part III. 



Is it not salt enough? 

— Here is the salt; 
take some more salt. 

The meat is cut; — I 
shall cut up the roast 
into pieces. 

Help yourself; — here 
is roast goose, — here 
is fried chicken. 

Take a piece of bread. 

Do you eat pastry ? — 

Sometimes. 
Do you want a cup of 

coffee? — or a cup of 

tea? 
Is the coffee sweet e- 

nough? — Here is su- 
gar. 
After a meal a cigar 

tastes well. 
Will you smoke?- Here 

are cigars; light one. 

hand me the matches. 

— There in the cor- 
ner is a spittoon. 

It is growing dark. — 
It is dark. — Make a 
light. 

Here is a candle-stick 
and a candle. — Light 
the lamp;— light the 
gas. 



Neni dost slana?— Zde 
je sul; prisolte si. 

Maso je nakrajeno; — 

rozdelim peceni na 

porce. 
Posluzte si; — zde je 

pecena husa, — zde 

smazene kure. 
Yemte si kousek chle- 

1m. 
Jite peeivo? — Nekdy. 

Chcete salek kavy % — 
anebo salek cajeS 

Je kava dost sladka?— 
Zde je cukr. 

Po jidle chutna dout- 

nik. 
Budete kouritiS — Tu 

jsou cigara; zapalte 

si. 
Podejte mi sirky. — 

Tarn v koute je pli- 

vatko. 



Stmiva se. — Je tma. — 
Udelejte svetlo. 

Zde je svicen a svicka. 
— Rozzete lampu; — 
rozzete plyn. 



neym dost sldndf — zdS 
ye sool; prshisolte si. 

mdsso y& nakrdy&no; — 
rozfteleem pecheni na 
portse. 

poslushtti si; — zd$ y& 
pgchend htissd, — zde 
smazene kurshe. 

vemte si kousek khlebd . 

yeete pechivof negdy. 

khtseU shdlek kavy? — 
anebo shdlek chayg? 

ye kava dost slddkdt — 
zd8 ye tstik?r. 

po yeedl& khutnd dotlt- 

Hik. 
budete koilrshitf — tti 

soil tsigard; zapalte 

si. 
podeytti me seerky. — 

tarn fkoilUe yd pli- 

vdtkd. 

stmeevd s&. — ye tma. — 
ufteleyte sicygtlo. 

zde y8 sweets8n a sweech- 
kd. — rozet& lampil; 
— rozet$ plyn. 



At home. 



247 



It is growing chilly, 

isn't it ? — Make a 

fire. 
There is a fir*? already 

in the stove. 
It is late; - let us go to 

sleep. 
It is time to go to bed. 
Is the bed made?— The 

beds are made for all. 
I shall lie down on the 

sofa. — Do as you 

please. 
Undress; — take off 

your clothes; — pull 

off your boots; here 

is the boot-jack. 
Sleep well. — Good 

night! 

It is time to get up. — 
Our folks are up. 

Wencel is still sleeping; 
— wake him up, or 
he will oversleep. 

How did you sleep? — 
I slept well. 

Didn't that noise wake 
you up? — I slept 
fast; nothing disturb- 
ed me. 

I had a bad night; — 
I could not fall asleep 
very long; — I only 
fell asleep towards 
morning. 



Dela se chladno, je-li 
pravda I - Zatopte. 

Uz je ohen v kamnech. 

Je pozde; — pojd'me 

spat. 
Je cas jiti do postele. 
Je ustlanoS— Je ustla 

no pro vsechny. 
Ja si lehnu na sofa. — 

Jak chcete. 

Odstrojte se; — svlek- 
nete se; — zujte se, 
— tu je zouvak. 

Spete dobre.— Dobrou 



nod 



Nasi 



Je cas vstati. 

jsou zhuru. 
Yaelav posud spi; — 

zbud'te ho, sice za- 

spi. 
Jak jste spal? — Spal 

jsem dobf e. 
Nebudil vas ten hlukS 

— Spal jsem tvrde; 

— nic me nebudilo. 

Ja niel zlou noc; — 
nemohl jsem usnou- 
ti dlouho; — usnul 
jsem teprve k rami. 



fteld se khlddno, yelli 
prdvddf — zatopte. 

Ush y8 ohen fkdmnekh . 

ye poztfe; — poRmti 

spat, 
yechdss yeet do p osteite, 
ye Ustldnof — ye ustld- 

no pro fshtikhny. 
yd si lehnti na sofa. — 

yak khtsetg. 

odstroyte s£; — svlekne- 
te s8; — ztcyte s8; — 
tit ye zoitvdk. 

spyeteddbrshe. — dobrou 
nots. 

yg chdss fstdt. — ndshi 

soil zhooru. 
vdtsldv postid spee; — 

zbii&'tg ho, sits8 zd- 

spee. 
yak stg spal? — spal 

sem ddbrsM. 
nebU^il vdss ten hMkf 

— spal sem tv e rfte; 

nits my& n$bd$ilo. 

yd my 811 zlotl nots; — 
n&moh e l sem itsnout 
dlouho; — Usnul sem 
tep e rve krdnU , 



248 



Part III 



Henry says he never i> Jindrich povida ze ani 

shut his eyes (i.e. had 
no sleep at all). 



oka nezamhouHl. 



I yindrshikh poveedd ze 
ani oka nezdmoU- 
rshil. 



Vocabulary. 



Siii, f . seen-, the hall 

schody, pi. m. skhody, the stairs 

zabradli, n. the railing 

stena, f . stena, the wall 

satnice, f. shathitse, the clothes 
press; 

kumbal, ni. kumbdl, the closet 

kout, m. kotit, the corner 

okenice, f . okeuitse, the blind 

zaslona, f . zaslona, the curtain 

domaci, domdtsee, domestic 

nabytek, m. the furniture 

stoly, m. stilly \ tabks 

tabule, f.tdbitle > 

psaci stui, psdtsee stool, the writing- 
desk 

zidle, f . zidle ) ,, , . , . 

' r the chair or chairs ; 

sesle, f . sessle ) 



Vro^>triti^prostrsheet,to set the table; 

niisa, f . meesa, the dish 

talir, m. taleersh, the plate 

salek, m. shalek, the cup 

sul, sool, the salt 

slany, a, e sldnee, salt, salted; 

prisoliti, prshi-solit, to put in some 

more salt; 
sladky, a ? e slddkee, sweet 



P0h0Tka,f.^A«/feK) thel 

sofa, n. sofa ) 

obraz, m. obraz, the picture 

ram, m . the frame 

Palivo, n . pdllivo, the fuel 

kamna, pi. kamna, the stove 

komin, m. komeen, the chimney 

kouriti, kottrshit, to smoke 

ohen, m. ohevi, the fire; 

svicen, m. sweetsen, the candlestick 

svicka, f . sioeechka, the candle 

plyn, m. the gas 

rozziti, rozeet, to make a light ; 

zapaliti, zdpdlit, to light 

sirka, f. seer kit; a match 

cigaro, n. tsigdro ) a cigar 

doutnik, m . dotitnik ) 

plivatko, n.pUvdtko) pitt0Qn 

plivnik, m. plivnik > 



nakrajeti, ndkrdyet, to cut in pieces; 
rozdeliti, roztfelit, to divide 
rozdati, rozddt, to deal out; 
pecivo, n.pechivo, the pastry 
peceny, a, e p8chenee, roasted 
smazeny, a, e smazenee, fried 
linsa, f . hiissd, goose 
kure, n. kilrsM, chicken. 



Buying and selling. 



249 



Stmivati se, stmeevdt sti, to grow 

dark ; 
odstrojiti se, odstroyit s#, to undress 
zouti se 9 zotit se, to pull off one's 

boots; 
zoirvak, m zouvdk, the boot- jack 
iistlati, tistl&t, to make the bed; 
usuouti, ttsnoiltj to fall asleep; 
zaspati, zdspat, to oversleep 
buditi, btitfit, to wake, to disturb: 



zbuditi, zbutfit, to wake up, to call; 

YStati, fstdt, to get up; 

zhfiru, zhooriL up; 

nahore, ntihorshe, up stairs; 

dole, tfflJe, down stairs; 

tvrde, fe«rff« | fast 

pevne, pe»ne > 

llluk, m. ///>U\ noise 

je-li pravdal ydliprWcddf isn't it so \ 



Bixying and soiling. 

KG CPE A PRO BE J. 



How much is this? — 
What is the price of 
it!— How much does 
it cost? 

What do you sell it for? 

What do you want for 
it?— What do you ask 
for it? — How much 
shall I give you for it ? 

What is the price? 

A dollar and ten cents . 

— A dollar and a 
quarter . 

Two dollars and a half. 

— Two and a half 
dollars . 

Five dollars sixty cents 

It costs a little over six 

dollars . 
Is it worth that much ? 



Zac je to. ? — Co to sto- 
ji? — Co to kostnjel 



Po cem to proda vate I 
Co za to chcete! — Co 
za to zadatel — Co 
vam za to dam I 

Jaka je cena? 
Dollar deset ceivtii, — 
Dollar a ctvrt. 

Dva dollary a pul. — 
Pul tretilio dollaru. 

Pet dollaru sedesat 

cent 11. 
Stoji to ueco pres sest 

dollaru. 
Stoji to za to 2 



zach ye to? — tso to 
stoyeef — tso to kosh- 
tUyef 

po chem to proddvdte? 
tso za to khtsete? — tso 

za to zdddte? — tso 
mm za to dam? 

i/dkd ye tsend? 
dollar desset sentoo. — 
dollar a shtw e rt. 

dwa dollary a pool. — 
pool trsheteeho dolla- 
ru . 

pyet dolldroo shedessdt 
sentoo. 

sioyee to netso prshes 
sliest dolldroo. 

stoyee to zd to? 



250 



Part III. 



I think it is; — why 
should it not be? 

It seems to me too 
much. — I think it is 
dear. 



That is too much. — 
That is too dear. — I 
won't give so much. 

That is too much; — will 
you take off some- 
thing? 

You must take off 
something. 

I shall not take off any- 
thing. — I cannot take 
off anything. 

We have a fixed price. 

— We sell at a fixed 
price. 

It is cheap. — It is low- 
priced . 

I shall get it cheaper 
elsewhere. 

You will not get it 
cheaper anywhere . 

I will try it. — I don't 
want to haggle. — I 
don't like to haggle 
over the price. 

That is the lowest price ; 

— it cannot be any 
cheaper. 



Myslim ze stoji;— proc 

by nestaloS 
Mne se to zda moc. — 

Myslim ze je to dra- 

he. 



To je moc. ™ To je 
drahe. — Tolik ue- 
dam. 

To je tuze mnoho; — 
slevite neco2 

Neco musite sleviti. 

Nesleviin nic. — Ne- 
molm sleviti nic. 

Mame pevnou cenu. — 
Prodavame za pev- 
nou cenu. 

Je to lacine, — Je to 
levne. 

Dostanu tolevneji jin- 
de. 

Nedostanete to levneji 
nikde. 

Zkusim to. — Nechei 
smlouvati. — Nerad 
smlouvam. 

To je nejnizsi cena; — 
nemuze byti lacinej- 

si. 



misleem ze stoyee; — 
proch be nesidlo? 

mye s8 td zda mots. — 
misleem ze y8 td dra- 
he. 



to yd mots. — to yedra 
he. — tolik neddm. 

to yd tooze mnohd; — 

sleveete netsof 

netsd museetd slevit. 

nesleveemnits. — ndmo- 
hu slevit nits. 

mame pevnoti tsenti. — 
prodavame za pevnoit 
tsenu. 

ye to latsine. — ye to 
levne. 

dostanu to levney yindd. 

nedostanete to levney 

nigdd. 
skuseem td. — ndkhtsi 

srnlouvdt. — nerad 

smlouvam. 

td ye" neynishee tsend; 
— ndmooze beet latsi- 
nei/shee. 



Buying and selling. 



251 



What do you wish? — 

What is your pleas- 
ure? 
What cau I do for you? 
Have you satchels for 

sale? — I want to buy 

a satchel. 
I would like to get a 

nice traveling bag. 
We have a stock of 

them. — We have a 

large choice. 
Show me some. — I 

wish to see them. 
This is the best kind we 

have. — The}^ are 

good. 
This one is nice. — This 

will suit you. 
How much is it? — 

What is the price ? 
Four dollars and a half. 

— That is the regular 
price. 

That is alittle too much . 

— don't you think so ? 
I do not think so. 
I will give four dollars 

for it .-- Will you sell 

it for that? 
I cannot. — I cannot 

take off anything. 
The price is fixed. 
Then I will not buy it. 

— Do as you please; 



Co si prejeteJ — Co 
racte I 

Cini moliii slouzitii 
Mate tasky na prodej I 
— Chci koupit taskn. 

Rail bych nejakou pek 

nou kabelu. 
Maine je na sklade. — 

Maine velky vyber. 

Ukazte mi nektcre, — 

Podivaiii se na ne. 
Tohle je nejlepsi druh 

co niame. — Ty jsou 

dobre. 
Table je pekna. — Ta 

se vain hodi. 
Zac jeJ — Co stoji! 

Ctyry dollary a piil.— 

To je pravidelna ce- 

na. 
To je trocku moc; — 

nemyslite. ? 
Nemyslim. 
Dam za ni ctyry dolla 

ry. — Date ji za to 2 

Nemohu. — Nemoliu 

nic sleviti. 
Cena je pevna. 
Teda ji nekonpim, — 

Jakvam libo. — Ne- 



tso si prsheyetef — tso 
rcichte? 

cheem raohfi slouzitf 
md te ids Itky na p ro dey ? 

— k,it si koupit tds/i- 

kti. 

rdd bikh \\dkou pyek- 

nou kubellii. 
■mum 8 ye uu skluiYe. — 

mume velkee veebyer. 

ukuslite me nektere.-po- 
tfeevdm se na he. 

tohle ye neylepshee druh 
tso mdme. — ty sou 
dobre. 

tuhle ye pyeknd. — Id 
se turn hoftee. 

zdch ye? — tso stoyee? 

shtiry dollary a pool. — 
to ye pracidelnd tse- 
nd. 

to ye trokhu mots; — 
nemisleete? 

nemisleem. 

dam m hi shtiry dolla- 
ry — date ye za to? 

nemohu. — nemohu hits 

s lev it. 
tsend ye pevna. 
teda ye nekotipeem. — 

yak vdm leebo '.— ney- 



252 



Part III. 



— it is not dear at that 
price . 

You will not get it else- 
where . — They have 
not got them else- 
where. 

They are not to be had 
elsewhere. — Only I 
alone have them for 
sale. 

Theyhavenot got these 
goods on hand any- 
where . 

I keep honest goods on 
hand. 

Small profits, quick 
sales — that is my 
motto. 

Small but frequent pro- 
fits. 

Have you some pocket- 
books? 

We have a large stock. 
— What kind do you 
wish, — expensive? — 
cheap? 

What is the price of 
these? — How much 
are they? — How do 
you sell them? 

A dollar apiece. -They 
are good and lasting. 

Those are dearer; a dol- 
lar and a half. 



ni draha za tu cenu. 

Jinde ji nedostanete. — 
Jinde je nemaji. 



Nejsou jinde k dostani. 
— Jenom ja je mam 
n a prodej. 

Nemaji to zbozi 11a 
sklade nikde. 

Ja drzim poctive zbo- 
zi. 

Maly zisk, rychly pro 
dej,— to je me keslo. 

Maly vydelek, ale ca- 

sty. 



Mate nejake tobolky J 

Maine velkou zasobu. 
— Jake chcete, — 
drahe'2 — lacinel 

Zac jsou ty hie] — Po 
cem j sou£ — Po cem 
je prodavateS 

Po dollar u kus.— Jsou 
dobre a trvanlive. 

Tarn ty jsou drazsi; po 
dollar u a pul. 



m drdhd za til tsentt 

yindeye nedostdnUti '. — 
yinde y8 nemdyee. 



neysoU yindZ gdostdfii . 
— yenom yd y& mam 
nd prodey. 

nemdyee to zbozee nd 
skldtfe mgdg. 

yd d e rzeem potstiive zbo- 
zee. 

mdlee zisk, rykhlee pro- 
dey, — to ye me hessld . 

mdlee veetfelek al& chdss- 
tee. 

mdt&jidke tobolkyf 

mdme velkoil zdsobti. — 
ydke klitsete, — drd- 
hef — Idtsinef 

zdch soti ty litis? — pti 
chem soil? — po diem 
ye proddvdtti? 

po dollar it kuss. — soti 
dobre a tervdnlive. 

tarn ty sou drdsliee; po 
dollar it a pool. 



Hulling and selling. 



253 



They are somewhat 
better. 

I will take one; — wrap 
it up for me. 

Here is the money : give 
me back. 

There is fifty cents com- 
ing to you. — Here is 
half a dollar back. 

I should like to bii} T a 
few tons of coal; but 
I have no money. 

I will take it on credit; 
— will you trust me? 

I do not trust anybody; 
— I sell only for cash. 

I give no credit. — I 
want cash. 

I want to have no bad 
debts. 

I need money. — I am 
raking up money to 
buy goods ; — I do not 
want to borrow. 

For cash one buys 
cheap. 

How is business? — So 
so; — tolerably good. 

Have the goods a ready 
sale? — I have a good 
sale, but a small prof- 
it. 



Jsou trochu lepsi. 

Yezmo si jednu;— za- 
balte mi ji. 

Tu jsou penize; dejte 
mi zpatky. 

PHjde vain padesat cen- 
to.— Zde je puldol- 
1 laru zpatky. 



Had bych koupil par 
tun ulili; alenemam 
penize. 

Yezinu ho na dluli; — 
pock ate mi I 

Neeekam zadneinu; — 
prodavam jen za ho- 
tove. 

Nedavamkredit.- Chci 
hotove. 

^echci miti zadne spat- 
ne dluhy. 

Potrebuju penize. — 
Shanim penize na 
zbozi; nechcise dlu- 
ziti. 

Za hotove koupi se la- 
cino. 



Jak jde obckod?— Tak 
tak; — projde to. 

Jde zbozi na odbyt % — 
Mam dobry odbyt, 
ale maly zisk. 



sou trokhu lepshee 

vezmu si yednit; — z%- 

bdlte me ye. 
tit soil pnxeeze; deyte me 

spdtky. 
prsheedti vam pddessdt 

sentoo. — zde ye poo! 
dolluru spdtky. 

rod bikh koupil par tun 
uJilee; al% n&mdm pe- 
neeze. 

vezmu ho nti dlooh; — 
pochkdtg met 

ntichekam zddnemu; — 
proddvdm yen za ho- 
tove. 

n&ddvdm credit. — khtsi 
hotove. 

nekhtsi meet zadne 
shpdtne dloohy. 

potrshebuyu -peneezti. — 
shdheem peneeze na 
zbozee; — n&khtsi se 
dluzit. 

za hotove koupees£ldtsi- 

710. 

yak d& obkhodf — tak 
tak; — proyde to. 

de zbozee na odbyt? — 
mam dobree odbyt, ti- 
le mdlee zisk. 



254 



Part III. 



I often sell at a loss. — 
I have a loss on my 
sales. 

That is bad. — Have 
you a large stock? 

I have still many goods 
on hand; — I expect 
again fresh goods; — 
they are on the way. 

I was in New York to 
make purchases. 

Did you make a good 
bargain? — I am satis- 
fied. 



Prodavam casto se sko- 

dou. — Mam na torn 

ztratu. 
To je zle. — Mate vel- 

kou zasobu 2 
Mam jeste hodne zbo- 

zi; — cekam zase 

cerstve zbozi;— je uz 

na ceste. 
Byl jsem vNew Yorku 

nakupovat. 
Koupil jste dobre? — 

Jsem spokojen. 

Vocabulary. 



prodavam chdssto s& 

shkodoU. — mam na 

torn strdtu. 
to y8 zle. — mate velkoU 

zasobtil 1 
mam yeshte hodne zbo- 

zee; — cJiekdm zass 

cherstve zbozee; — ye 

ush na tseste. 
bill sem vnew-yorkii, na 

kUpovdt. 
koupil sU dtibrshe? — 

sem spokoyen. 



Na sklade 9 nti sklatfe, on hand; 
odbyt, m. sale (of goods); 
zisk, m. profit 
skoda, f. shkodd 1 logg 
ztrata, f. strata ) 
taska, f. tdshkd \ satchel, 
kabela, f . kdbelld S traveling bag; 
tobolka, f . tobolkd, pocket book; 
heslo, n. hesslo, motto 
pevny, a 9 e pevnee, fast, fixed; 
trvati, t e rvat, to last 
trvanlivy, a, e t e rvdnlivee, lasting. 

Stoji to, stoyee to, it costs, it is worth; 
kostuje, kos/duye, it costs 
dostati, dostdt, to get 
dost ami, dostdnu, I shall get; 



dostanete, dostdnetg, you will get; 
je k dostani, ye gdbstdm, is to be 

got; is to be had; 
drzeti, d e rzet, to keep 
hoditi se 9 lioftit s#, to suit; to fit; 
sleviti, slemt, to take off; 
smlouvati, smloiival, to haggle; to 

bargain; 
slouziti, slouzit, to serve 
digitise, dlMitst / toborrow 
vydluziti se, vydlifzit s8 ) 
pockati, pochkdt, to wait, to trust; 
necekam, nechekdm, I do not wait; 

I do not trust; 
nakupovati, ndktipovdt, to make 

purchases; 
zabaliti, zdbdlit, to wrap up. 



hi a grocery store. 



255 



In a grocery store. 
U GROCERISTY. 



I want some groceries. ! 

Please, command; — we 
have fresh goods of 
all kinds. 

Give me a pound of 
coffee, two pounds 
of sugar and a pack- 
age of chicory. 

Anything else? 

Five pounds of rice, 
half a dozen of lem- 
ons and some spices. 

How do you sell eggs ? 

Twenty cents a dozen. 

Give me two dozen of 
eggs, three quarts of 
kerosene and a pint 
of sirup. 

How do you sell kero- 
sene by the gallon? 

I will take a bottle of 
mustard, a pound of 
raisins, a pound and 
a half of dried apples. 

Besides, I want four 
ounces of pepper. 

Send me a sack of flour 
and five pounds of 
barley. 

I want the best kind of 
flour, — patent flour. 



Chci nejake grocerie. 
Poroncejte; — niame 

cerstve zbozi vseho 

driilni. 
Dejte mi libra kavy, 

dve libry cukru a 

paklicek cikorie. 

Jeste neco ? 

Pet liber ryze, pnl tu- 

ctu citronu a nejake 

koreui. 
Zac prodavate vejcel 
Dvacet centii tucet. 
Dejte mi dva tuety va- 

jec, tfi kvarty pe- 

troleje a pint siro- 

bn. 
Zac prodavate petro- 

lej na gallony I 
Yezmn si lahev horci- 

cc 9 librn rozinek, 

pfildrnhe libry kri- 

zal. 
Jeste chci ctyry mice 

pepre. 
Poslete mi pytel inou- 

ky a pet liber krnp. 

Chci nejlepsi druh 
monky, — patentni 

moukii. 



khtsi ndke grocerie. 
poroticheyte; — mdme 

"Jierstve zbozee fshe- 

ho driVtii. 
deyU me libru kdvy, 

dwyti libry tsukru a 

pdkleeehek tsikorie. 

yeshtie netsoP 

pyet liber reyze, pool 
tutstu tsitronoo a Ha- 
ke korshem . 

zach prodavate veytsti? 

dwdtset sentoo tilt set. 

deyte me died ttctsty vci- 
yets, trshi quarty p8- 
troleye a pint siro- 
bti. 

zach prodavate petroley 
na gallony f 

vezmtl si lahev horchit- 
se, librii rozinek, 
p o ol d r it h e libry 
krsheezal. 

yeshtie khtsi shtiry tin- 
tse peprshe. 

poshlete~ mi pytel mouky 
a pyU liber krUp . 

khtsi neylepshee drtlh 
mouky, — pdte7ifn.ee 
moukii. 



256 



Part III. 



A bushel of potatoes 1 Busl bramboni a pek 



and a peck of onions. 
Give me five cents 
worth of cinnamon, 
five cents worth of 
mace and ten cents 
worth of ginger. 



cibule. 
Pejte mi za pet centn 
skorice, za pet cen- 
tu kvetu a za deset 
centu zazvoru. 

Vocabulary. 



bUshelbrdmboroo a peck 
tsibtilft. 

deyte me za pygt sentoo 
skorshitsg, za pyU 
sentoo kwyetu a za 
desset sentoo zdzvorti. 



Note. Many articles sold in 
heading "Drugs and medicines". 

Cukr kouskovy, tsilk e r kouskovee, 
crushed sugar; 
9 , zrnkovy, ts. zernkovee, granu- 
lated sugar; 
,, utlueeny, ts. utluchenee, pul- 
verized sugar; 
„ hnedy, ts. Imedee, brown sug- 
ar; 

kava prazena, kdvd prdzend, roast- 
ed coffee; 
,, mleta, k. mletd, ground coffee 

koreni, n. korshem, spice 

nove koreni, allspice 

kvet, m. kwyet, mace 

dymiau, m. thyme 

safran, m. shdfrdn, Spanish saffron 

rozinky, pi. f. raisins 

drobne rozinky, currants 

krizaly, pi. f. krsheezdly, dried ap- 
ples; 

susene svestky, pi. f. susMne shwest- 
ky, prunes 

cibule, f. tsibulg, onions 

cesnek, m. chessnek, garlic 



groceries are to be found under the 

zazvor lonpauy, bleached ginger- 
root; 

zazvor neloupany, unbleached gin- 
ger- root; 

prasek na peceni, prdshek nd p%~ 
chem, baking powder; 

kvasnice, pi. kwassmtsg / veagt . 

drozdi, n. droMee > 

suche kvasnice, dry yeast; 

lisovane kv., compressed yeast; 

salajka, f. sdldykd, saleratus 

praci soda, f. prdtsee soda, washing 
soda; 

kornout, m. kornout, paper cornet; 

paklik, m. pdkleek, package; 

paklicek, m. pdkleecliek, small pack- 
age; 

balik, m. bdleek, bundle, parcel; 

zabaliti, zdbdlit [to pack up 

zapakovati, zdpdkovdt ' 

zavazati, zdvdzdt, to tie up; 

svazati, svdzat, to bind or tie to- 



gether. 






Garments. 



257 



Dry goods have a ready 
sale. 

I intend to start a dry 
goods store. 

My brother has a cloth- 
ing store. 

He emplo} T s many tai- 
lors. 

The tailor makes {liter. 
sews) clothes. 

Thread and needle, 
scissors and shears, 
a thimble, a sad-iron 
and a press-board are 
his tools- 

Nowadays much sew- 
ing is done on the 
machine. 

The sewing machine is 
a useful invention. 

It is an American in- 
vention. 

I need a suit of clothes. 
— I want a new suit. 

Take my measure . 

The cutter takes meas- 
ure and cuts the cloth 

What sort of stuff do 
you want? 

Show me your patterns 

This wears well. 



Garni exit ;s. 

OBEV. 

Loketni zbozi jde ry- 

chle n a odbyt. 
Hodlain zaloziti striz- 

ni kram. 
Miij bratr ma odevni 

kram. 
Z a in e s t n a v a nnioho 

krejcich. 
Krejci sije saty. 

Nit a jehla, nuzky a 
velke nuzky, napr- 
stek, cihlicka a ko- 
za jsou jeho nastro- 
je. 

Dues muoho sije se na 
stroji. 

Sici stroj jest uzitecny 

vynalez. 
Jest to americky vyna 

lez. 

Potrebuju oblek. — 
Chci novy oblek. 

Yemte mi mini. 

Krajec bere mini a na 
kraji sukno. 

Jakou latkii clicetel 

Ukazte mi sve vzory. 
Tohle se dobre nese. 



loketnee zbozee dSrikhU 

na odbyt. 
hodldm zdlozit strshiz- 

nee kram. 
muy brat e r md oiYevfiee 

kram. 
zamyestndvd mnoJw 

kreycheekh. 
kreychee she-ye shdty. 

nit a yehld, nooshky a 

' velke noosliky, nap e r- 

stek, tsihlichkd a ko- 

za soft ye ho ndstroyg. 

dness mnolio she-ye se 

nd stroyi. 

shitsee stroy yest ilzi- 
technee vynalez. 

yest to dmeritskee vyna- 
lez. 

\ potrshebtiyit oblek. — 
klitsi novee oblek. 

vemU me meerii . 

krdyech bere meerii a 
ndkrdyee sttkno. 

ydkoil Mtkii khtsetef 

ukdshte me sve vzory 
tohle se ddbrshe nessS. 



258 



Part III. 



How will you have your 
coat made(i .e. sewed) ? 

After the present fash- 
ion. 

Try your coat on. 

It pinches me under the 
arms — It is too tight. 

It is too wide round the 
waist. — It makes 
folds. 

The skirts are long e- 
nough. — It has pock- 
ets behind and breast- 
pockets. 

Make me a pair of pao ts 

Get it done pretty soon ; 
— take a good stuff. 

Do you want lining in 
your pants? 

I do not want any lin- 
ing. — Without lin- 
ing. 



Ka bat ;, m. kdbdt, the coat 
frak, m. frdk, a dress-coat 
svrchnik, m. sv e rk7inik, an over 

coat 
zimnik, m . zimnik, a greatcoat 
plasty m. pldshti, a cloak 



Jak chcete miti kabat 

usity* 
Die nynejsi mody. 

Zkuste vas kabat. 
Svira pod pazema. — 

Je tuze tesny. 
Je tuze volny v puli.— 

dela faldy. 

Sosy jsou dost dlouhe. 
— Ma kapsy v zadu 
a kapsy na prsou. 

Udelejte mi par kalhot 

Zhotovte je liezky br- 
zo; — vemte dobrou 
latku. 

Chcete podsivku do 
kalhot % 

Nechci zadnou podsiv- 
ku. — Bez podsiv- 

Vocabulary. 

kazajka, f. 



yak khtsetti meet kabat 

Ushiteef 
dU nyjieyshee mody. 

sktistg vdsh kdbdt . 
sweerd pod pazema. — 

ye toozti tessnee. 
y$ toozg volnee fpooli. 

— field faldy. 

sliossy soti dost dloiihe. 

— ma kdpsy vzddii a 
kdpsy nd p ^rsoti. 

ufieleyUme par kalhot. 

zhotofU y% hesskee b «r- 
zo\ — vemtg dtibroti 
Mtkti. 

khtsetg podshifkU dd 
kalhot f 

nekhlsi Mdnoti pod- 
shifkU. — b&s pod- 
shifky. 



pants, trousers; 



kalhoty, pi 
spodky, pi. 

nohavice, f. nohdvilsS, leg of the 

pants; 
vesta, f . vesta, the vest 



kdzdykd, the jacket 
bun da, f . btindd, the sack-coat 
limec, m. leemets, the collar 
laple, f. laplg, the lapel 
rukav, m. rtikdf the sleeve 
sos, m. slidss, the skirt 
sev, m. sh&f, the seam 
styeh, m.shtikh j. astitch 
steh, m. stth > 

podsivka, f. podshifkd, the lining 
zaplata, f. zdpldtd, the patch 



Garments. 



259 



kapsa, f . kapsa, the pocket 
knoflik, m. knofleek, the button 
knoflikova dirka, the button-hole . 

Pradlo, n. linen, underclothing; 

kosile, f . koshille, the shirt 

spodni kosile, spodneek., the under- 
shirt 

podvlecky, pi. ) %he drawerg 

spodni kalhoty * 

piincochy, pi. f. pitnchokhy, the 
stockings, the socks; 

podvazky, pi. podvdsky, the garters 

Handy, pi. f. shandy } the 

sle, pi. f • shle i suspenders 

satek, m. shdtek, kerchief 

s. na krk, sh. nd k^rk, neckerchief 

s. do kapsy, sh. do kapsy, pocket 
handkerchief; 

masle na krk, mashle nd k e rk, a 
necktie. 

Sukno, n. sukno, cloth, broadcloth; 
samet, m . sdmmet, velvet 
plis, m. plish, plush 
atlas, m. atldss, satin 
hedvabi, n. hedvdbee, silk 
platno, n. linen 

kartoun, m. kartotin, cotton, print; 
sniira, f. slmoord, cord 
civka, f. tsifkd, a spool 
klubko, n . klubko, a ball 
pradynko, n. prshddeenko, a skein 
hruba nit, f. hr-Ubd T\it, a coarse 

thread; 
tenka nit, a fine thread; 



hrubd jehla, f. h. ytihld, a coarse 
needle; 

tenka jehla, a fine needle; 

stepovaci jehla, sJitepovdtsee y8hld, 
darning needle; 

drat (na pleteni), m. knitting nee- 
dle; 

strihati, strshihdt, to cut with a pair 
of scissors; 

zehliti, zehlit, to iron. 

Klobouk, m. kloboiik, the hat 
zensky klobouk, a bonnet, a lady's 

hat ; 
cepec, m. ch&pets, the hood 
cepice, f. chgpitse, the cap 
cilindr, m. tsilind e r, a beaver, a 

silk hat; 
nizky klobouk, fieeskee kloboiik, a 

low hat. 

Svadlena, f. shvadlena, a needle- 
woman 

sicka, f . shichkd, a sewing-girl 

modistka, f . a milliner 

mo&mzbozi,modnee zbozee, millinery 

saty, pi. shdty, a dress 

zivot, m. zivot, the waist, the bust; 

snerovacka, f. shnerovdchkd, the 
corset, the bodice; 

spodnicka, f . spodmchkd, the petti- 
coat 

kosile (zenska), koshille, the chemise 

karnyr, m. kawneer, a flounce 

karnyrek, m. a ruffle 

pentle, f . pentle, a ribbon 

masle, f . mashlti, a sash 



260 



Part III. 



maslicka, f. mdshUclikd, a bow 

klicka, f. kliclikd, a loop 

krajky, pi. krdyky, lace 

obruba, f . obrtiba, hem, border; 

pinta, f. pintd, belt 

zavoj, m. zdvoy \ 

flor, m. floor, I the veil 

rouska, f. roUsJikd, ) 

cerny flor, chernee floor, crape 



tyl, m. teel, mosquito bar; 
pera na klobouk, pi. plumes 
perka, pi. tips 
rukavicky, ]A.f.rtikdvich-l 

ky, ("gloves 
rukavice, pi i. rtikavitsti, 
par rukavic, par rUkdmts, a pair of 

gloves; 
stucel, m. shtittsell, a muff. 



Slxo eixialtlng. 

OBUVmCTVL 



Obuv, f. obtiv, footgear 

obimifk, oMIdit* j. shoem aker 
svec, shwets J 
obuvnicky kram, obtiv- 

fiitskee krdm ) ' 30 °t and 
sevcovsky kram, shef |" shoe store; 

tsofskee k. 
bota, (pi. boty), f. bottd. boot 

streYic, (pi. strevice), m. slitrshV- 

veets, shoe 
par bot, a pair of boots; 
par strevicu, a pair of shoes; 
botky (zenske), pi. gaiters 
pantofle, pi. panto fl%, slippers 
svrchni strevice, sic e rkhnee strshg- 

vits&, overshoes. 

1 1 oli iik a, f. holeenkd, leg of a boot; 
podesev, m . podtehef, the sole 



kramflek, m.> thehee] 
podpatek, m. > 

nart, m. the vamp 

praska, f . prshasskd, the buckle 

kanice, f . kanitsti, shoe-lace, shoe- 
string; 

floky, pi. pegs 

nejtky, pi. neytky, brass nails 

sroubek, m. shroUbek, a screw 

lastyng, m. serge 

dratev, f. drdtef, waxed thread; 

poteh, m. pot eh, strap 

knejp, m. knfyp, knife 

kladivo, n. kldtfivo, hammer 

kopyto, n. kopytd, last 

stipce 9 shXIiptsg, a pair of pincers; 

nddobi Sevcovske, n . nddobee shef- 
tsofske, findings 

kuzcs f . Jcoo&tiy leather. 



Diverse trades. 



261 



Diverse trades. 
R0ZL1CNA BEMESLA. 



Barvif 9 barveersh, dyer 
barvir doniii, house painter 
bednar, bedndrsh, cooper 
cihlaf, tsihldrsh, brickmaker 
cukrar, tsukrdrsh, confectioner 
calounik, chdloumk, upholsterer 
doutnikaf , dotitmkdrsh, cigar-maker 
dlazdic, dlaMich, paver 
formaf, formdrsh, moulder 
hodinar, lioftiiidrsh, watchmaker 
havir, hdveersh, miner 
kamenik, kdmemk, stone-cutter 
kleiiipir, klempeersh, tinner 
knihar, kmhdrsli, bookbinder 
klobouciiik, klobouchmk, hatter 
kolar, koldrsh, wagon- maker 
kotlaf, kotldrsh, boiler- maker 
kovar, kovdrsh, blacksmith 
kozeluh, kozeluh, tanner 
kozesnik, kozeshmk, furrier 
krejci, kreychee, tailor 
kufraf, kilfrdrsh, trunk-maker 
lakyrnik, lakeermk, laquerer 
litec, litets, founder 
malif, mdleersh, painter 
mydlaf, mydldrsh, soap-maker 
mlyiiar, mlyndrsh, miller 
nateracj ndtieraeh, painter 
obuvnik, (svec), obUvnik, (sheets), 

shoemaker 
pekar, pekarsh, baker 
plynovodnik, gas fitter 
puskar, pushkarsh, gunsmith 
reznik ? rsMznik, butcher 



rybar, rybdrsh, fisherman 

rytec, rytets, engraver 

sazec 9 sdzech, typesetter 

sedlar, sedldrsh, saddler 

sekernik, sekerfiik, millwright 

sladek, brewer 

socliar, sokharsh, sculptor 

stavitel, builder 

strojnik, stroymk, machinist 

tesar, tessarsli, carpenter 

tiskar, tiisskarsh, printer 

tkadlec, kddlets, weaver 

truhl&r, (stolar), truhldrsh, cabinet- 
maker 

zahradnik, zdhrddmk, gardner 

zamecnikj zdmechmk, locksmith 

zednik, zednik, stone-mason, brick- 
layer; 

zlatuik, zlatnik, goldsmith. 

Barvirstvi, n. barveershsUoee, the 
dyer's trade; 

bednarstvi, n. bedndrshsticee, the 
cooper's trade; 

doiitnikarstvi, doutmkdrstwee, cigar- 
making; 

krejeovstvi, kreychofstwee) the tailor's 

krejeovina, kreychowind \ loring; 

SevCOVStvi ? sheftsof- s the shoemak- 

sticee, y er's trade, 
SevCOvilia, shSftsovintl ) shoemaking: 

sazecstrij sdzechshoee, type-setting; 
etc, 



262 



Part III. 



I want to go on a farm . 
Do you want to be a 

farmer? 
Yes; I want to buy 

land. 
What is land worth in 

this neighborhood? 
What are improved 

farms worth ? 
Fifty to sixty dollars an 

acre, and over. 
How is the soil?— The 

soil is good, fertile. 
Good land all over. 
What is the character 

(or ' 'lay ' ')of the land ? 
The land is level, (flat, 

broken, hilly). 
The land is loamy, — 

sandy. 
Black loam, — mixed 

with sand. 
Gravel at the bottom, — 

in some places clay. 
Rich land;--poor land. 

That land is bad — 
swampy; — it has no 
drainage. 

That land looks poor. 
— Everything grows 
here; — but it wants 
manuring. 



On tlxe farm. 

NA FABME. 

Chci na farmu. 
Chcete byti farmeremS 

Ano; chci koupiti po- 

zemek. 
Co stoji pozemky v torn 

to okoli? 
Co stoji vzdelane far- 

my2 
Padesat az sedesatdol- 

laru akr, i vice. 
Jaka je pudaS — PMa 

•je dobra, lirodna. 
Sam a dobra zem. 
Jaka je poloha? 

Piidajerovna, (plocha, 

lomena, kopcita). 
Zem je hlinita, — pis- 

cita. 
Cerna hlina,— smicha- 

na s piskem. 
Sterk vespod,— nekde 

jil (maziiik). 
Boli ata puda; — chuda 

puda. 
Ten pozemek je spat- 

ny, -- bahnity; — 

nema odpad. 
Ta puda vypada hube- 

na. — Yseehno zde 

roste; — ale musi se 

hnojiti. 



khtsi ndfarmit. 
khtsetg beet farmer em? 

and; khtsi kotlpit poze- 
mek. 

tso stoyee pozemky ft om- 
to okoleef 

tso stoyee vzdelane far - 
my? 

pddessdt ash shMessdt 
dolldroo dk e r, e veetse. 

ydkd y 8 poodd? — poodd 
ye dobra, oorodnd . 

sdmd dobra zem. 

ydkd ye polohd? 

poodd yerovnd,{plokhd, 

lomend, kopchitd). 
zem ye hlimtd, — pees- 

chitd . 
ehernd hleend, — smee- 

khdnd speeskem. 
sMerk vespod, — \\egde 

yeel (mdziiik) . 
bojidtd poodd; — khiidd 

poodd. 
ten pozemek ye shpdtnee 

— bdhmtee,; — nemd 

odpad. 
ta pooda vypddd htibe- 

nd. — fshekhno zd$ 

rosttf; — dl$ mtisee s8 

hnoyit. 



On the farm. 



How will the harvest 
be? — good? — bad? 

How does grain look?— 
Grain shows a good 
stand.— Wheat stools 
out thickly. 

Rye is in bloom. — Bar- 
ley is heading. 

Wheat has lodged;- the 
rainstorm laid it flat. 

It has a good ear; — the 
berries are plump. 

Corn is poor; — early 
corn looks better 
than late corn. 

Have you a great deal 
of corn? — We have 
twenty acres of it. 

We planted it towards 
the end of May. — I 
think it will pick up. 

Our neighbor planted 
corn in the sod. — 
How does it grow ? — 
Poorly. 

How is the pasture ? — 
Poor. 

Everything is parched 
up. — Hay will be 
short. 

Do you raise a great 
deal of stock? 

About fifty head. 

What do you feed (to 
your stock)? 



Jaka bude lirodaS— do 
bra? — spatna? 

Jak stoji obili2— Obili 
stoji dobre. — Pse- 
nice nasazuje huste. 

Zito je ve kvetu.— Jec- 

men V) meta . 
Psenice lehla; — ten 

lijak ji polozil. 
Ma dobry klas;— zrno 

je jadrne. 
Kukurice je spatna; — 

ranna korna je lepsi 

nez pozdni. 
Mate inn oho korny i — 

Maine ji dvacet a 

kni. 
Sazeli jsme ji ke konci 

inaje. — Ja myslim 

ze se sebere. 
Soused sazel kornn do 

drnu. — Jak rosteS 

— Mizerne. 



Jaka je pastvaS — Hn- 

bena. 
Ysecko je vyprahle. — 

Sena bude malo. 

Chovate mnoho dobyt- 

ka? 
Asi padesat kusiu 
Cim krmite ? 



\ ydkdbUde oorodti? — do- 
brd? — slipdtndf 
yak stoyee obileef — o- 
bilee stoyee dobrshe. 

— 2)shenitse ndssdzU- 
ye hUsstie. 

zito ye ve kwyetu. — 
yeehmen vymetd. 

psMnitse lehld;— ten li- 
ydk ye polozil. 

ma dobree kldss; — z e r- 
no ye ydd e rne. 

kUkUrshitse ye slipdtnd , 

— rdnd korna ye lep- 
shee nesh pozdnee. 

mate mnoho korny f — 
mdme ye diodtsel ti- 
ter oo. 

sdze\lli sme ye ke kontsi 
mdye. — yd misleem 
ze se sebere. 

soused sazel kornu do 
d e mu. — yak rostef 

— mtzerne. 

ydkd ye pdstvd? — hu- 

bend. 
fshetsko ye vyprahle. — 

senna bude malo. 

khovdte mnoho dobyt- 

kdf 
dssi padessdt kttssoo. 
cheem k e rmeet$ t 



264 



Part III. 



What do you feed your 
stock upon? 

What do you feed to 
your horses. 

Do you fatten your 
stock for the butcher 
(liter, "for meat")? 

Last year I fattened fif- 
teen head of beef- 
steers. 

I feed many hogs for 
the market. 

I have a stock farm not 
far from here . 

There is a creek on it ; 
— but now it is al- 
most dry. 

This is a dry year (a 
dry season) ; — there is 
no moisture (no rain). 

A wet year (wet season) 
is better. 

There is a great deal of 
insects this year. 

Grasshoppers we never 
had; — neither did we 
have chinch bugs. 

Farming implements 
cost a great deal. 

At present we have ma- 
chines for everything 

Farming is improving. 



Co davate dobytku zra- 
Cim krmite kone? 



Krmite 
maso$ 



dobytek na 



Loni vykrmil jsem 

patnact volu na ma- 

so. 
Krinim nmolio prasat 

pro trh. 
Mam dobytci farmu 

nedaleko odtud. 
Je na ni potok; — ale 

ted' je skoro suchy. 



Je suchy rok; 
vlaky. 



neni 



Mokry rok je lepsi. 
Je sila hmyzu letos. 

Kobylky nikdy jsine 

nemeli; — polni ste- 

nice take ne. 
Rolnicke uaradi stoji 

mnoho. 
Ted' maine stroje na 

vsecko. 
Rolnictvi se zvelebuje. 



tso ddcite ddbytkU zrdtf 
eheem k^rmeete konef 



k e rmeete 
masso f 



dobytek na 



loni vyk*rmil sem pat- 
ndtst voloo na masso. 

k e rmeem mnoho prdssdt 

pro t e rh. 
mam dobitchee farmil 

nedaleko otud. 
ye na nee potok; — cd& 

teft ye skoro stikhee. 

ye stikhee rok; — neyni 
vldhy. 

mokree rok y8 lepshee. 
ye seeld hmizu letoss. 

kobylky \\igdy sme n%- 

myUli ;—poll\\ee shXie- 

nitsti take n&. 
rolnitske ndrshaftee sto- 

yee mnoho. 
££d' mdm& stroy& na 

fsMtsko. 
rolnitsticee se zvettbiiy&. 



Vocabulary. 
Note. From the preceding lessons the student is familiar with a 
great many words and phrases relating to agriculture. To repeat the same 
in the following vocabulary would be a waste of space. 



On the Farm. 



265 



Dolina, f . doUind ) bottomland 
lipad, m. oopdd > 
vysiiia, f. veeshina, upland 
svah. m . svah, slope 
strafi, f. 8trd% bluff 
rokle, f. rockW, ravine, gully; 
mez, f. mfa, boundary, line; 
pesina, f. pytshind |_ path 
stezka, f. steskd > 
lavka, f. Idfkd, footbridge 
mostek, m. mostek ) mie bridge 
mfistek, m. moostek > 
kan a 1, m. kdndl, culvert 
strouha, f. stroiihd, ditch 
breh, m. brsMh, bank 
hraz (braze), f. hrdz, dam. 

Orati, ordt, to plow 
vlaceti, vldchet, to harrow 
preorati, prsheordt, to backset 
privlaeeti, prshivldchet, to scour 
orac, m. orach, plowman 
brazda, f brazda, furrow 
kolej, f . kolley, rut 
lmojiti. lino y it, to manure 



Trava ? f . &•<£«#, grass 

plevel, m. pltivell, weeds 

pleti, i>^£, to weed 

koukol, koukol, cockle 

jetel, m. yetell, clover 

pohanka, f. pohdnkd, buckwheat 

proso 9 n. prossd, millet 



to plant 



■ to cut 



Land and harvest. 

Puda a zen. 

buojivo, n. hnoyivo, j m 

bmij, m. hnooy Lung; 

uirva, f. m e rvd ) 

zaseti, zdsset, to sow, to seed (with); 

zaseto, zdsseto, sown, seeded; 

sazeti, sdzet, 

zasazeti, zdssdzet, 

zasazeuo, planted 

ziti, zeet, ) , 

' . v t to reap, to mow ; 
poziti, pozeet ' 

, sekati, sekdt 
posekati, posekdt 

i skliditi, sklitfiX, to harvest 
slama, f. sldmd, straw 

| snop, m. sndp, sheaf 
vazati, vdz&i, to bind 
stoh 9 m. stoh, stack 
stohovati, stohovdt, to stack 
kupa sena, kupd senna, hay-stack 
kupka sena, kupka s., hay-rick 
voziti, cozit I to haul, 
svazeti, svdzet i to carry; 
drolitise, drolitse, to shed, to shell; 
zraly, a, e zrdlee, ripe 
prezraly, a, eprshezralee, over-ripe. 
Plants . 

Rostliny. 

hracb, m. hrdkh, pease 
boby, boby ) beang 
fazole, fdzole > . 
cocka, f. chochkd, lentils 
repa, f. rshepd ) g 
ripa, f. rsheepd, ) 
repa pro dobytek, rutabaga 



266 



Part III. 



vodnatka, f. turnips 

ker, m. kersh, shrub 

zivy plot, zivee plot, hedge 

liaj, m. lidy, grove 

lioustina, f. houshtind, thicket, 

copse; 
chrasti, n. khrdsti, brushwood, 

uudergrowth; 



parez, m. par sites, stump 

klada, f. klddd, trunk 

vetev, f. vyetef, branch, bough; 

yetvicka, f. vyetviehka, twig 

ratolest, f . spring 

kaceti stromy, ^^0 tofeU (trees) - 

porazeti ,, pordzet) 



Teams and domestic animals. 
Potah a domaci zvirata. 



Potah, m. potah, a team 
par koni, par kouee, a pair of horses 
par yolu, par voloo, a yoke of oxen 
par mladycli volu, a pair of steers; 
na koni, na koni, on horseback; 
jeti na koni, yet nd koni, to ride a 

horse ; 
jeti s konma, yet skonma, to drive 

horses ; 
zaprahnonti, zap r shah notit, to har- 
ness; 
nvazati, uvdzdt, to hitch 
naklad, m. ndklad, the load 
nakladati, ndkldddt, to load 
skladati, skldddt, to unload 
uvaznonti, uvdznout, to get fast, to 

stick fast; 
splasiti se, spVxsliit se, to run away 
lekati se, lek&t s$, to shy 
zarazlivy kufi, zardzlivee koon, a 

balky horse; 
zly kuii, zlee koon, a vicious horse; 
klus, m. kltiss, trot 
krok, m. pace 
kriniti, k e rmit, to feed 
napojiti, ndpoyit, to water. 



Klisna, f. klissnd ! brood mare; 
hrebice, f . tirsMbitse ) 
hrebna, hrshebnd, with foal; 
bribe, n. hrsheebye, foal 
hrebecek, m. hrshebechek, colt 
lirebicka, f. hrshebichkd, fill 
encati, tsutsdt, to suckle 
cncak, m. tstitsdk, a suckling 
hrehee, m.hrsMbets, j. stallioil 
hengst, m. hengst > 

Krava, f . krdvd, cow^ 

dojnice, f . doynitse, milch cow; 

jalovice, f. ydllovitse, heifer 

tele, n. telle, calf 

bulik, m. bulleek, bull calf; 

jalovieka, f . ydllovichkd, heifer calf 

rocni, rochnee, yearling 

stelna, stellnd, with calf; 

jalova, ydllovd, farrow 

pometati, pometdt, to slink, to slip 

the calf; 
behati se, by8hdts8, to be bulling; 

to want the bull; 
byk, m.beek U^ 
bejk, beyk S 



On the farm. 



267 



Ovee, f • oftsS, sheep 

bahiiice, f. bdhmtse, ewe 

beran, m. herd?*,, ram, buck; 

jeline, n. yelme, lamb 

bakneni, n. bahnem, lambing season 

vlna, f. v e lnd, wool 

strihani, n. strsheehdm, shearing. 

Prase, n. prdsse ) [g} hQg , 

vepi*, m. veprsh ) 

kanec, m. kdnets, boar 

svine, f . siceene, sow 

sele, n. sellti } sucking 

podsvince, n. podswincM > pig. 

Mezek, m. mezek, mule 
osel, m. os ell, donkey 
koza, f. kozd, goat, she-goat; 
kozel, m. kdzell, he -goat 
kuzle, n. koozle, kid 
pes, m. pess, dog 
euba, f. ehuba, bitch 
stene, n. s7ifehe, whelp 

Tools and 
Nastroje 
Vuz, m. vooz, wagon 
kolo, kollo, wheel 

kolecko, n. kolleehko, wheelbarrow 
raf, m. tire 
liaboj, m. ndboy, hub 
naprava, f. ndprtiva, axletree 
spice, f. shpitse, spokes 
voj, f. voy, pole 
vojky, voyky, shafts 
hamoyak, m. hamovdk, brake 
pera, pi. n. perd, springs 
sedadlo, n . sedddld, seat 



kocka, f . koehkd, cat 
kocour, m. kotsour, tom-cat. 

Driibez, f. droobesh, poultry 
slepice, f. slepitse, hen, chicken; 
kvocna, f. kwochnd, clucking hen; 
kure, n. koorshe, chick, young 

chicken ; 
kohout, m. kohoiit, rooster 
kachna, f. kdkhnd \ , , 
kaeena, kdehend, S 
kacer, m, kacher, drake 
busa, f. hussd, goose 
liouser, m. liotisser, gander 
housata, pi. hotissdtd, goslings 
kroeaii, m. krotsdn, turkey-cock 
krftta, f. krootd, turkey-hen 
pav, m. pdf, peacock 
pavice, f. pdvitse, peahen 
luiizdo, n. hiieezdo, nest 
nesti yejce, nest veytse, to lay eggs ; 
lihnouti se, leehnout se, to hatch. 

MACHINES, 
a stroje. 

ksir, m. ksheer, harness 

oprat', f. opraf, line 

sedlo, n. sedlo, saddle 

uzda, f oozdd, bridle 

ohlavka, f. ohldfka, halter 

popruh, m. popruh, girt 

cabraka, f. chabraka, horse-cloth 

tremen, m. trshemen, stirrup 

hrebilce, hrshe-beeltse, curry-comb 

bic, m. bitch, whip 

biciste, n. bitchishte, whip-stick. 



268 



Part III. 



Sane, pi. sane, sleigh 

sanice ? f. sdmtse, runner, (also: 
sleighing); 

korba 9 f . korbd, cutter 

rezacka, f . rshezdchkd, straw-cutter, 
feed- cutter; 

rezanka, f. rshezanka, chopped 
straw; 

brany, pi. harrow, drag; 

valec, iri. valets, roller 

pluli, m. plooh, plow 

radlice, f. rddlitse, plowshare 

klece ? pi. kleche, handles 

krajadlo, n . krdyddlo, coulter 

retez, m. rs7iefez, chain 

pospechy, pi. pospyek7ty \ culty- 

podryvac, m. podreevach S vator 

kosa, f. kossd, scythe 

motyka, f. hoe 

spicata motyka, shpichdtd m., pick- 
axe 

rye, f. reech, spade 

lopata, f . lopata, shovel 

hrabe, pi. 7irdbye, rake 

hrabati, hrtibat, to rake 

podavky, pi. poddfky, hayfork 

vidle, pi. vidle, pitchfork 

sekyra, f. sekyrd, axe 

sekyrka, f. hatchet 



pi!a, f. pillti ) aw 

pilka, pillkd ) 

rucni Y>ilksL,rtichnee 2nllka,ha,iid saw 

nebozez, m. bore, auger; 

Mlatidlo, mlafidlo ) threshing 
m\sitiGkSL^ / mldf!ic7ika > machine 

inlatiti, mldHit, to thresh 
mlaceni, n. mldtseni, threshing 
mlatic, m. mldUich, thresher 
fofr 5 m. fof e r, fanning mill; 
secka 9 f. seclikd, grain-drill 
zaci stroj 9 m. zdtsee stroy, mower 
sekaci stroj, sekdtsee stroy, reaper 
samovazac, m. sdmovdzdeh, self- 
binder 
ram, m. frame 
syto, n. seeto, sieve 
resetOj n. rsheshetd, screen 
remen, m . rshemen ) ^ ^ 
pruh, m. prooh > 
tyc, f. tich, rod 
panty, pi. m. parity, hinges 
zuby, pi. m. zilby ) cogg 
palce, palts8 ' 
zlabek, m. zldbek, spout 
mlynekj m . mleynek, mill 
loupac (na kukufici), m. lotlpdch, 

corn-sheller; 
loupati, loitpat, to shell. 



F^tfcT IV. 



Bolxoixiian grammar. 



1. ORTHOGRAPHY. 

Section 1. — The full Bohemian alphabet, as given in the first Part, 
contains the following vowels : a, a, — e, e, e, — i, i, y, y, — o, 6, — 
n, li, u. 

The other letters are consonants. There is only one diphthong: ou 9 ou. 
When on occurs in a compound word, ending one and beginning the next 
syllable, it is not a diphthong and must be divided : pouziti (po-uziti), 
pd-iizit, to use, to make use off; samoiik (samo-uk), samo-itk, a self- 
educated man. 

An accute accent (or comma) over a vowel marks a long sound: kain, 
kam, where to; kamen, Teamen, a stone. 

A ring over the vowel u (u) is also a prolongation mark : sup, stip, 
a hawk; sul 9 sool, the salt. 

When a word begins with a long u, the accute accent is used: lirok, 
oorok, the interest. In such cases the vowel li may be and frequently is 
changed into the diphthong on: ourok, otirok. 

The accented vowel e has always the short sound of ye: svet, swyet, 
the world. 

The vowels a, o, u, y, are called hard; the vowels e, e, i, are cal- 
led soft . 

Section 2. — The consonants are divided into three classes : 

hard consonants, — h, ch, k, r, d, n, t; 
soft consonants, — c, c, d', j, n, r 9 g, t\ z; 
neutral consonants, — b* f, 1, in, p, s, v, z. 



270 



Part IV. 



After the hard consonants the hard vowel y is always used : 



liyniij hinnti, I am perishing; 
cbyba, f. khibd, a mistake, a fault; 
kyt, m. kit, putty 
ryba, f . ribd, a fish 



vMyt', dytf, dim, but, to be sure; 
nyncko (nyni), ninchkd, now, at 

present; 
tykev, f. tikef, a pumpkin. 



When the sound is long, an accented y is used : hybati, heebtit, to 
move; tichy (a, e) 9 tHkhee, quiet; ryti, reet, to spade, to dig, to root; 
dym, m. deem, smoke; tyrati, teerdt, to misuse, to torment. 

In such cases the vowel y is usually changed into ej (ey), in com 
mon pronunciation : hejbati, heybdt; tichej, mikliey; rejti, rtyt; dejm, 
deym; tejrati, teyrdt. 

Words derived from foreign languages, also foreign names, make 
an exception, their original spelling being retained : historie, historie, 
history; Amerika, Riga, etc. 

The soft consonants are always followed by the soft vowel i (or i, 
when the sound is long) : 



cit, m. tsit, the feeling 

cin, m. chin, the deed 

divoky*% tfivofcee, wild 

jisty, yistee, certain 

nic ? nits, nothing 

rimsa, f . r shims a, a cornice 

sikovny, shikovnee, smart, clever; 

tisk, m. tHsk, the printing 

zivot, m. zivot, the life 



cil 9 m. tseel, the goal 

cislo, n. cheesslo, the number 

dil, m . tfeel, a part 

jisti, yeest, to eat 

hniti, hneet, to rot 

rici, rsheetsi, to say 

siti, sheet, to sew 

tize, f . mee%#, the weight 

zila ? f. zeeld, the vein. 



The neutral vowels are followed by the soft i or i, with the follow- 
ing exceptions : 
b : aby, by, that; byeb, bys, etc, that I, that thou, etc.; bylina, f. the 

plant; bystry, quick, sharp; byti, to be; kobyla, the mare; oby- 

cej, m. the custom. 
1 : lysy 9 bald; lysina, f. bald spot, or white spot; lyko, n. the bast; 

lyska, f . the coot; mlyn, m. the mill; oplyvati, to abound; pely- 



*) The soft consonants &\ fi 9 t' lose their accent, when followed 
by i, i or e, and are written simply d, n ? t. See Part I, section 2. 



Bohemian grammar 271 

nek, m. the wormwood; plyn, m. the gas; plyiiouti, to glide; 

plytvati, to waste; polykati, to swallow; slyseti, to hear; vzly- 

kati, to sob . 
m : hmyz, m. the insects; my, we; mydlo, n. the soap; myliti, to mis- 
lead, to confuse; inyliti se, to mistake; oinyl, m. a mistake; my si, 

f. the mind; mysliti, to think; mys, f. the mouse; myti, to wash; 

smycec, m. the fiddle-stick; smykati, to drag; zamykati, to lock up, 
n : nyni, now. 
p: kopyto, n. the hoof; netopyr, m. the bat; pycha, f. the pride; py- 

kati, to regret; pyl, m. the pollen; pyr, m. the quick-grass; pysk, 

the lip; pytel, the sack; trpytiti, to glitter; zpytovati, to search, 

to inquire. 
s: osyka, f. the aspen; osypky, pi. tbe measles; posylati, to send; sy- 

ceti, to hiss; sychravy, chilly; syn, m. the son; sypati, to pour; 

sypka, f. the granary, the bin; syr, m. the cheese; syrovy, raw; 

syrup, the syrup; sysel, m. the gopher; syt, nasyceii, full, satiated. 
v: povyk, m. the noise; vy, you; vydra, f. the otter; vyheii, f. the forge; 

vykyr, m. the dormer-window; vyr, m. the horn-owl; vysoky, high; 

vyti, tohowl; vyza, the sturgeon; zyyk, the habit; zvykati, to chew. 
z: brzy, soon; jazyk, the tongue; nazyvati, to call, to name. 

Section 3. — As in English, the spelling makes sometimes a great 
difference of meaning, though the pronunciation may be identical. For 
instance : 

byti, beeti or beet (colloquially b#yt), biti, beeHi or beet, to beat 

to be 
myti, meeHi or meet (colloq. meyt), 

to wash 
iny, me, we 
vy, ve, you 

vyr, veer, (colloq. veyr), the horn- owl 
vyti, veetH or veet (colloq. veyt), to 

howl 

Section 4. — The Bohemian verb shows a distinction of gender in 
the past tense*) . In the plural, there is only an orthographical distinction 

*) See Note 2, Lesson IX. 



miti, meeti or meet, to have 



mi, me, to me 



vi, vee, he knows 

vir, veer, the whirl- wind 

viti, veeffi or veet, to wind. 



272 



Part IV. 



between the masculine and feminine gender, the latter always terminating 
in y. For instance : 



masculine 

byli jsme, we were 

byli, they were 

meli jsme, we had 

meli, they had 

muzi meli, the men had; 

hosi videli, the boys saw; 



feminine 

byly jsme, we were 

byly, they were 

mely jsme, we had 

mely, they had 

zeny mely, the women had 

liolky videly, the girls saw. 



The same is true of verbs relating to inanimate nouns of the mascu- 
line gender, or names of lifeless things : stromy vyrostly, the trees grew 
up; domy shorely, the houses burned down. 

Section 5. — The generalrule of Bohemian spelling is : A sound 
for every letter and a letter for every sound, and no silent letters*). From 
this rule there are but few exceptions. In some words the initial letter j 
is silent : 



jdu, du, I go 
jsem, sem, I am 
jsme, sme, we are 



jmeno, n. mend, the name 
jmenovati, menovat, to name 
jmeni, n. my em, the property. 



The letter d is also silent in a few cases: dcera, tsera, the daughter, 
srdce, n. s^rtsS, the heart. 

In some cases the letters k, s, t, v, z, z modify their sound in order 
to facilitate pronunciation: 



kdo, who, — gdo 

kdy, when, — gdy 

s bohem, farewell, — zbtiliem 

kletba, f . the curse, — kledbd 



v peci, in the oven, — fpetsi; 

bez penez, without money, — Ms 

penez; 
zpivati, to sing, — speevat. 



Section 6. — The prepositions s and z (se, ze) are governed by the 
following rule : 

When the tendency is from above downwards s or se is used: spadl 
s okna, s nebe, se stromu, spadl solcnd, snebe, se stromti, — he fell from 
the window, from heaven, from the tree. 



*) See Part III, Note 1. 



Bohemian grammar. 273 

When the tendency is from below upwards, or from the inside to the 
outside, z or ze is emploj^ed : vylezu ze stiidne, I shall crawl up from the 
well; vyndal jseni penize z kapsy, (skapsy), I took the money from my 
pocket, or out of my pocket; vyskociin z okna veil, I shall jump out of the 
window. 

Section 7. — It is a vulgar English custom to place the sound of h 
before initial vowels : heye (eye), Hengland (England). In Bohemian a 
similar vulgar custom obtains, namely that of placing the letter v before 
an initial o. We hear, for instance : 



von, instead of on (he) 


vokiio, 


instead of okno 


(window) 


vona, " " ona (she) 


voko, 


" oko, 


(eye) 


vono, " " 0110 (it) 


vosel. 


" osel, 


(ass). 



This vulgarity must be carefully avoided in writing as well as 
speaking. On the other hand, when the letter v belongs to the root of the 
word, care must be taken not to omit the same : 

Yoda, water; vojak, soldier; vosk, wax; voskovati, to wax. 

Section 8. — In writing, words have often to be divided in sylla- 
bles. The principal rules to be observed are the following : 

a) A consonant standing between two vowels belongs to the next syl- 
lable : o-ba, both; o-ko, the eye; kla-da, the log. 

b) A consonant succeeding the letter 1 or r also belongs to the next 
syllable : vl-na, v e lnft, the wool; hr-dlo ? h e rdlo, the throat. 

c) Two vowels, if they do not form the diphthong on, are always 
divided : Ma-ri-e, mariS. 

d) Compound words are divided according to their component parts: 
bez-hlavy (bez-hla-vy), headless; roz-licny (roz-lic-uy) ? different; oka- 
mzik, the twinkling of an eye; a moment. 

Other rules are less important and are sometimes sinned against 
even by the best writers. 

Section 9. — The use of capital letters follows the same rules as in 
English, excepting that adjectives derived from the names of countries or 
nations do not, in Bohemian, commence with a capital letter (aiiglicky 9 
English; cesky, Bohemian; etc.); neither does the personal pronoun ja 
(I) use a capital letter. 

18 



274 



Part IV. 



2. ETYMOLOGY. 

Section 1. — The Bohemian language has seven cases, the nature 
of which is sufficiently explained in Note 5, on page 82. 

Section 2. — The declension of Bohemian nouns differs in regard 
to gender, and also in regard to termination. 

Nouns of the masculine gender, moreover, form two classes : (a) 
names of living creatures, or animate nouns; (b) names of lifeless beings, 
or inanimate nouns. 

According to this division there is also a slight difference in their 
declension. 

Declension of masculine nouns. 

Section 3. — The first declension of nouns of the masculine gender 
is fully shown by the following examples*): 

Animate Inanimate 

Singular number. 



nominative 

genitive 

dative 

accusative 

vocative 

locative 

instrumental 



syn, the son 
syn -a, of the son; 
syn-u, -ovi, to the son 
syn-a, the son 
syn-e**), son ! 
syn-u, -ovi, (in) the son 
syn-em, with the son; 



strom, the tree 
strom -u, of the tree; 
strom-u, to the tree; 
strom, the tree 
strom -e, tree ! 
strom-u, (in) the tree; 
strom -em, with the tree. 



Plural number. 

strom -y***), the trees 
strom-u, -uv, of the trees; 
strom- um, to the trees; 
strom-y, the trees 

strom-y***), trees ! 
strom-ech, (in) the trees; 
strom-y, with the trees. 

*) Compare Xote 3, on page 55; also Note 1, on page 69. 

**) In this particular case the common usage is synu ! o son ! Sy- 

nu muj, o my son ! 
***) It has also the long termination ove, when used as an animate noun, 

especially in poetic language: stromove se klonili, the trees bowed. 

— stromove, promluvte ! o trees, speak out ! 



nom. 


syn-i, -ove, the sons 


gen. 


syn-u, -uv, of the sons; 


dat. 


syn-um, to the sons; 


ace. 


syn-y, the sons 


voc. 


syn-i, -ove, sons ! 


loc. 


syn-ech, (in) the sons; 


inst. 


syn-y, with the sons; 



Bohemian grammar. 



275 



The first masculine declension (ten syn, ten strom) comprises nouns 
ending in hard or neutral consonants. 

Section 4. — The second declension of nouns of the masculine 
gender is presented in full by the following examples: 

Animate Inanimate 

Singular. 

I mec, the sword 

mec-e 9 of the sword; 



nom. muz, the man 

gen. muz-e, of the man; 

dat. muz-i, -ovi, to the man; 

ace. muz-e, the man 

voc. muz-i, man! 

loc. • mu2-i, (in) the man; 

inst. inuz-em, with the man; 

nom. muz-i, -ove, the men 

gen. muz-u, -iiv, of the men; 

dat. muz-iim, to the men; 

ace. muz-e, the men 

voc. inuz-i, -ore, men ! 

loc. niuz-ich, (in) the men; 

inst. muz-i, with the men; 



mec-i, to the sword; 
mec, the sword 
mec-i, sword ! 
mec-i, (in) the sword; 
mec«em, with the sword. 

Plural. 

mec-e*), the swords 
mec-u, -uv 9 of the swords; 
inec-iim, to the swords;' 
mec-e, the swords 
mec-e*), swords ! 
mec-ick, (in) the swords; 
mec-i, with the swords. 



The second masculine declension (ten muz, ten mec) comprises nouns 
ending in soft consonants or in el (for inst. ucitel, the teacher). 

Section 5 . — Nouns of the first declension, terminating in h, ch, 
k, r, change these hard consonants into z, s, c, r, in the nominative case 
of the plural number, as explained in Note 3 on page 70, to which we refer. 

Section 6. — Nouns of the first declension ending in ek eliminate 
the vowel e in the inflected cases, as stated in Note 2 on page 80. For 
instance : 

S^edek, swyedek, the witness; svedka, swyedka (not svedeka), of the wit- 
ness; svedku or svedkovi, to the witness; etc. — (Plural:) svedci or sved- 
kove, the witnesses; svedku, of the witnesses; svedkum, to the witnes- 
ses; etc. 



*) It may also have the long termination (mecove), when used as an ani- 
mate noun, especially in solemn or poetical language. 



276 Part IV. 

The same is true of nouns ending et and en. The nouns loket (the 
yard, or the elbow) and den (the day) follow in their declension the exam- 
ple of mec: 

loket, the yard; lokte, of the yard; lokti, to the yard; etc. 
den, the day; dne, of the day; dni, to the day; etc. 

In the plural, den is quite irregular: dni or dnove, the days; dni or 
dniiv, of the days; dnum, to the days; dni or dny (accus.), the days; 
dnech, (in) the days; dnemi or dny, with the days. 

Section 7. — The vowel u, when it occurs in the nominative, 
changes into o in the inflected cases : kun, the horse; kone, of the hors^; 
koni (or konovi), to the horse; etc. — See Note 4 on page 56. 

Section 8. — Nouns ending in el are mostly declined like muz or 
mec; for instance : ucitel, the teacher; ucitele, of the teacher; uciteli, 
(-ovi), to the teacher; etc. 

Pf itel (the friend) has in the nominative plural pratele (the friends); 
in the genitive pratel, of the friends. — 

The word penize (the money) is a plural noun: penez, of the 
money; penezfim, to the money; v penezich, in the money; penezi, with 
the money. 

Declension of feminine nouns. 

Section 9. — The first declension of nouns of the feminine gender 
(ta zena) is shown by the following example*) : 





Singular 


Plural 


nom. 


zen-a, 


the woman 


zen»y, the women 


gen. 


zen-y, 


of the woman 


zen, of the women 


dat. 


zen-e, 


to the woman 


zen-am, to the women 


ace. 


zen-n, 


the woman 


zen-y, the women 


voc. 


zen-o, 


woman! 


zen-y, women! 


loc. 


zen-e, 


(in) the woman 


zen-ach, (in) the women 


inst. 


zen-ou. 


with the woman 


zen -ami, with the women 



All nouns of the feminine gender ending in a belong to this declen- 
sion. 

Section 10. — There are some masculine nouns terminating in a, 
which follow this declension in the singular, excepting the dative and lo- 
cative cases, which have the long masculine form. For instance: vevod-a, 
the duke; v£vod-y, of the duke; vevod-ovi, to the duke; etc. 

*) Compare Note 3 on page 60. 






Bohemian grammar. 



277 



In the plural number, such nouns follow the first masculine declen- 
sion: vevod-ove, the dukes; ve>od-fiv, of the dukes; vevod-um, to the 
dukes; etc. (See "plural" of first declension of masculine nouns.) — Some 
masculines ending in a take in the nominative plural always the short form 
i or e; for instance: basista, the basso; basisti (or basiste), the bassoes. 
SECTION 11. — Nouns of the feminine gender ending in e, belong 
to the second declension (ta zeme), which is as follows*) : 

Plural 
zem-e, the earths 
zem-i, of the earths 
zem-im, to the earths 
zem-e, the earths 
zem-e, earths ! 
zem-ich, (in) the earths 
zem-emi, with the earths. 
Section 12* — Nouns of the feminine gender ending in a consonant 
(ta dan), belong to the third declension, which lias two branches showing 
a slight divergence at least in the written language, if not always in com- 
mon discourse; hence we subjoin two examples : 

singular 







Singular 


nam. 


zem-e, 


the earth 


gen. 


zem-e, 


of the earth 


d«t. 


zem-i. 


to the earth 


ace. 


zem-i, 


the earth 


voc. 


zem-e, 


earth! 


J or. 


zem-i, 


in the eartli 


iltxt. 


zem-i, 


with the earth 



notn. 


kosf, 


the bone 


dan, 


the tax 


gen. 


kost-i. 


of the bone 


dan-e, 


of the tax 


dat. 


kost-i, 


to the bone 


dan-i, 


to the tax 


(ICC . 


kost, 


the bone 


dan, 


the tax 


VOC. 


kost-i, 


bone ! 


dan-i, 


tax ! 


loc. 


kost i, 


(in) the bone 


dan-i, 


(in) the tax 


in st. 


kost-i, 


with the bone 

Pki 


dan-i, 

ral 


with the tax. 


now,. 


kost-i, 


the bones 


dan-e, 


the taxes 


gen. 


kost-i, 


of the bones 


dan-i, 


of the taxes 


(hit. 


kost-em, to the bones 


dan-im, 


, to the taxes 


acc. 


kost-i, 


the bones 


dan-e, 


the taxes 


voc. 


kost-i, 


bones ! 


dan-e, 


taxes ! 


loc. 


kost-ech, (in) the bones 


dan-ich 


, (in) the taxes 


inst. 


kost -mi 


, with the bones 


dan-emi, with the taxes 



*) Compare Note 3 on page ' 



278 



PaH IV. 



Nouns terminating in en drop the vowel e in the inflected cases; for 
instance : lazen, the bath; lazne, of the bath; lazni, to the bath; etc. 

Declension of neutral nouns. 
Section 13. — The first declension comprises nouns of the neutral 
gender ending in o {to slovo). They are declined as follows*): 





Singular 




Plural 


nom. 


slov-o, the word 


slov-a ? 


the words 


gen. 


slov-a, of the word 


slov, 


of the words 


dat. 


slov-u, to the word 


slov-um, 


to the words 


aoe. 


slov-o, the word 


slov-a, 


the words 


voc. 


slov-o, word ! 


slov-a 9 


words ! 


loc. 


slov-e, (-11) (in) the word 


slov-ech, 


(-ich), (in) the words 


inst. 


slov-em 9 with the word 


slov-y, 


with the words 



Section 14. — The second neutral declension embraces nouns end- 
ing in e and e (to pole, to poupe). It has two branches, differing some- 
what in their inflected endings, as will be seen from the subjoined two 
examples**). 





Sing 


alar. 


nom. 


pol-e, the field 


poup-e, the bud 


gen. 


pol-e, of the field 


poup-ete, of the bud 


dat. 


pol-i ? to the field 


poup-eti, to the bud 


ace. 


pol-e, the field 


poup-e, the bud 


voc. 


pol-e, field ! 


poup-e, bud ! 


loc. 


pol-i, (in) the field 


poup-eti ? (in) the bud 


inst. 


pol-em ? with the field 

Plu 


poup-etem, with the bud. 

ral. 


nom. 


pol-e, the fields 


poup-ata, the buds 


gen. 


pol-i, of the fields 


poup-at, of the buds 


dat. 


pol-im, to the fields 


poup-atum, to the buds 


ace. 


pol-e, fields 


poup-ata, the buds 


voc. 


pol-e, fields ! 


poup-ata, buds ! 


loc. 


pol-ich ? (in) the fields 


poup-atech, (in) the buds 


inst. 


pol-i, with the fields 


poup-aty, with the buds. 



*) Compare Note 2 on page 65. 
**) Compare NoteJ2 on page 65. 



Bohemian grammar. 



279 



The following Douns are declined like poupe: hrabe, the count, 
(hrab-ete, of the count; hrabata, the counts); knize, the prince; pachole, 
the little boy; devce, the girl; ynouce, the grandchild; — zvire, the ani- 
mal; dobytce, the beast; bribe, the foal; jeline, the lamb; kote, the kit- 
ten; kuzle, the kid; kace, the duckling; kure, the chick; hade, the young 
snake; house, the gosling; tele, the calf; — doupe, the den; koste, the 
broom; vole, the crop (the craw). 

The nouns bremeno, the burden; rameno, the arm or upper arm; 
semeno, the seed; temeno, the crown of the head, — and some others, 
have also a short form: brime, rame, sime, teme. The declension of 
these shortened nouns deviates somewhat from the above examples of the 
second neutral declension, for which reason a full paradigm is subjoined: 

Plural 

sem-ena, the seeds 
sem-en, of the seeds 
sem-enum, to the seeds 
sem-ena, the seeds 
sem-ena, seeds ! 
seni-enech, (in) the seeds 
sem-eny, with the seeds. 

Section 15. — The third declension of neutral nouns is character- 
ized by the terminal i : 





Singular 


/torn. 


sim-e, the seed 


gen. 


sem-ene, of the seed 


dot. 


sem-eni, to the seed 


ace. 


sim-e, the seed 


DOC. 


sim-e, seed ! 


loc. 


sem-eni, (in) the seed 


inst. 


sem-enem, with the seed 



710771 . 

gen, 
dat. 
ace. 
voc. 
loc. 
inst. 



Singular 

znamen-i, the sign 
znamen-i, to the sign 

■i, to the sign 

■i, the sign 

■i, sign! 
znamen-i, (in) the sign 
znamen-im, with the sign 
This declension embraces also: 



znamen 
znamen 
znamen 



Plural 

znamen-i, the signs 

znamen-i, of the signs 

znamen-im, to the signs 

znamen-i, the signs 

znamen-i, signs ! 

znamen -ich, (in) the signs 

znamen -imi, with the signs. 

1. Feminine nouns terminating in 



i, like: pani, the mistress or lady; bibli, (also bible), the bible; but these 
nouns retain the terminal i in the instrumental of the singular number : 
s pani, with the lady. — 2. Some 7nasculine nouns ending in i: rukojmi, 
the surety. 



280 



Part IV. 



nom. 


oc-i 9 the eyes 


gen. 


oc-i 9 of the eyes 


dat . 


oc-im ? to the eyes 


ace. 


oc-i, the eyes 


voc. 


oc-i, eyes ! 


loc. 


oc-ich 9 (in) the eyes 



ruc-e, 


noh-y 


prs-a, 


ruk-ou, 


noh-ou 


prs-ou 


ruk-ain, 


noh-am 


prs-um 


ruc-e, 


noh-y 


prs-a 


ruc-e, 


noh-y 


prs-a 


ruk-ou, 


noh-ou 


prs-ou 


ruk-ama, 


ii oh -am a 


prs-oma. 



Section 16. — There is a dual number in Bohemian, limited in the 
modern language to the names of parts of the human body, which appear 
in pairs : oci, the eyes; usi, the ears; ruce, the hands; nohy, the feet; 
prsa, the breasts; ramena, the arms; kolena, the knees. They are de- 
clined in the dual number as follows : 

us-i, 
us-i, 
us-im, 
us-i, 
us-i, 
us-ich, 
inst. oc-ima 9 with the eyes us-ima, 

Declension of adjectives. 

Section 17. — There are two leading classes of adjectives : definite 
and indefinite. 

Definite adjectives present two subdivisions: 1. adjectives with a 
changing termination, according to gender : dobr-y (muz), dobr-a (zena), 
dobr-e (dite), — the good man, the good woman, the good child; 2. ad- 
jectives with the same termination in all three genders : dnesn-i (vitr) 
dnesni (zima), dnesni (parno), — to-day's wind, to-day's cold, to-day's 
heat.*) 

Indefinite adjectives are either derived from definite adjectives, being 
only a different form of the same ; for instance : zdravy, zdrava, zdrave, 
healthy or well (definite); zdrav, zdrava, zdravo (indefinite)**) ; 

Or they are so-called possessive adjectives, derived from nouns : 

(otec, the father) otc-uv, otc-ova, otc-ovo, the father's; (matka, the 
mother) mate-in, matc-ina, matc-ino, the mother's***). 

Section 18. — Definite adjectives with a changing termination are 
declined in the following manner****) : 

*) Compare Note 1 on page 85, and Note 1 on page 94. 

**) Compare Note 2 on page 103. 

***) Compare Notes 2 and 3, on pp. 94, 95. 

****) Compare Note 1, on page 85. 



Bohemian grammar. 



281 



masculine 



dobr-y muz, a good man; 
dobr-eho muze, of a good man 
dobr-emu muzi, to a good man 
dobr-eho muze, a good man; 
dobr-y muzi, good man ! 
dobr-eiu muzi, (in) a good man 
nst. dobr-ym muzem, with a good 

man 



gen. 
dat. 
ace. 
voc. 
loc. 



Singular. 

feminine 

dobr-a zena; 
dobr-e zeny; 
dobr-e zene; 
dobr-ou zenu, 
dobr-a zeno ! 
dobr-e zene; 
dobr-ou zenou; 



neutre 

dobr-e ditko 
dobr-eho ditka 
dobr-emu ditku 
dobr-e ditko 
dobr-e ditko! 
dobr-em ditku 
dobr-ym ditkem. 



Plural. 



dobr-e zeny 
dobr-ych zen 



dobr-a ditka 
dobr-ych ditek 
dobr-ym zemim dobr-ym ditkam 
dobr-e zeny dobr-a ditka 

dobr-e zeny dobr-a ditka 

dobr-ych zeinick dobr-ych ditkack 
dobr-ymi zenaini dobr-} r mi ditkami. 



ch, k 9 r ? are ckanged in the 



nom. dobf-i muzi, good men 

gen. dobr-ych muzu, of good men 

dat. dobr-ym muzum, to good men 

ace. dobr-e muze, good men 

voc. dobr-i muzi, good men ! 

loc. dobr-ych muzich, (in) good m . 

inst. dobr-ymi muzi, with good men 

Note 1. The hard consonats h 
nominative plural of the masculine gender into the soft consonants z, 
s 9 C 5 r 9 when the adjective qualities an animate noun : dobry muz, — do- 
bri muzi; velky hoch, — velci hosi. The terminations cky and sky change 
into cti and sti: uemecky (sing.) — nemecti (plur.); cesky (sing.) — cesti 
(plur.). 

In common discourse, however, this rule is neglected. 

Note 2. When the adjective qualities a masculine inanimate noun, 
it agrees in the nominative and accusative plural with the feminine gender: 
dobre stromy, good trees; and the accusative singular is like the nomina- 
tive : dobry strom. 

Section 19. — Definite adjectives, having the same termination (i) 
in all genders and both numbers, are declined in the following manner*): 



Compare Note 1, page 94. 



282 




Part 

Singular 


IV. 


Plural 




masculine 


feminine 


neutre 


all three genders 


nom. 


dnesn-i 


dnesn-i 


dnesn-i 


dnesn-i 


gen. 


dnesn-iho 


dnesn-i 


dnesn-iho 


dnesn-ich 


dat. 


dnesn-imu 


dnesn-i 


dnesn-imu 


dnesn-im 


ace. 


dnesn-iho 


dnesn-i 


dnesn-i 


dnesn-i 


voc. 


dnesn-i 


dnesn-i 


dnesn-i 


dnesn-i 


loe. 


dnesn-im 


dnesn-i 


dnesn-im 


dnesn-ich 


inst. 


dnesn-im 


dnesn-i 


dnesn-im 


dnesn-imi 



j^ote. When the adjective qualifies a masculine inanimate noun, 
the accusative singular is like the nominative. We say: cekani dnesniho 
hosta, I wait for to-day's guest; but: "cekam dnesni list" 9 I wait for to- 
day's paper. 

Section 20. — Indefinite adjectives like zdrav (from zdravy)? vesel 
(from vesely), etc. *) are now used only in the nominative and accusative 
cases. Possessive adjectives have the following declension: 

Singular 



feminine 
bratr-ova 
bratr-ovy 
bratr-ove 
bratr-ovn 
bratr-ova ! 
bratr-ove 
bratr-ovou 



masculine 
nom. bratr-uv, my brother's 
gen. bratr-ova, of my brother's 
dat. bratr-ovu, to my brother's 
ace. bratr-ova 9 my brother's 
voc. bratr-uv! brother's ! 
loc. bratr-ovn (ove) in my brother's 
inst. bratr-ovym, with my brother's 

Plural 
(Only three cases differ, the other four being identical, 
sation there is no difference at all.) 

brother's bratr-ovy 

bratr-ovych 
bratr-ovy in 
bratr-ovy 
bratr-ovy ! 
bratr-ovych 
bratr-ovymi 

*) See Note 2, page 103. 



neutre 
bratr-ovo 
bratr-ova 
bratr-ovu 
bratr-ovo 
bratr-ovo ! 
bratr-ovu 
bratr-ovym. 



nom . 


bratr-ovi. 


gen. 




dat. 




ace. 


bratr-ovy 


voc. 


bratr-ovi ! 


loc. 




inst. 





In conver- 



bratr-ova 



bratr-ova 
bratr-ova ! 






Bohemian grammar. 



283 



Notel. — When the possessive adjective qualifies a masculine 
inanimate noun, the accusative singular is like the nominative: vidim 
bratruv dum, "I see my brother's house"; and the nominative and voca- 
tive plural have a final y, like the feminine gender : bratrovy domy, "my 
brother's houses". 

Note 2. — The adjective pane is not inflected : leta Pane 1890, 
in the year of our Lord 1890; — ebram Pane, the Lord's house; — vecere 
Pane, the Lord's supper; - dum pane Hodanuv, Mr. Hodan's house. 

Note 3. — Possessive adjectives formed from feminine nouns and 
having the termination in (fem. ina, neut. ino)*), are declined like those 
formed from masculine nouns : bratruv, bratrova, bratrovo. 

In their formation hard consonants are softened down in the usual 
manner : mat-ka, the mother; mat-ein (matcina, matcino), the mother's. 
Comparison of adjectives. 
Section 21. — The comparison of adjectives is fully explained in 
Notes 1 and 2, Lesson XXII. The termination ky changes into ci, in the 
second and third degree : bezky, nice; hezci, nicer; nejhezci, nicest. 
Declension of pronouns. 
Section 22. — Personal pronouns .*) 
Singular. 

she 



nom. 


ja, I 


ty, thou 


on, he; ono, it 


ona, 


gen. 


me (nine) of me 


te (tebe) 


jeho (ho) 


ji 


dat. 


mi (mne) to me 


ti (tobe) 


jemn (mu) 


ji 


ace. 


me (mne) me 


te (tebe) 


jeho (ho, jej); je, it 


ji 


loc. 


mne, in me 


tobe 


nein 


ni 


inst. 


mnou, with me 


tebou 

Plural 


nim (jim) 


ni (J 


nom. 


my, we 


vy, you 


oni, (fem. ony; neut. 


ona) 


gen. 


nas, of us 


vas 


jich 




dat 


nam, to us 


vam 


jim 




ace. 


nas, us 


vas 


je 




loc. 


nas, (in) us 


vas 


nich 




inst. 


nami (with) us 


vami 


nimi (jimi) 





*) See Note 3, page 95. 

*) Compare Note 1 on page 102, and Note on page 106. 



284 




Part IV. 










Section 23 


. — Possessive pronouns .*) 








Singular. 








masculine feminine 


neutre 


masc. fern. 


neut. 


nom 


muj ma (moje) 


me (moje) 


nas nase 


nase 


gen. 


meho me (moji) 


meho 


naseho nasi 


naseho 


dat. 


memu me (moji) 


memu 


nasemu nasi 


nasemu 


ace. 


meho mou (moji) 
(inan. muj) 


me (moje) 


naseho nasi 
(inan. nas) 


nase 


voc. 


muj ma (moje) 


me (moje) 


nas nase 


nase 


loc. 


mem me (moji) 


mem 


nasem nasi 


nasem 


inst. 


mym mou (moji) 


mym 

Plural. 


nasim nasi 


nasim. 




(Cases showing no difference of gender 


ire left in blank.) 


nom. 


moji (moje) me (moje) 


ma (moje) 


nasi (nase) nase nase 


gen. 


mych 




nasich 




dat. 


mym 




nasim 




ace. 


me (moje) me (moje) 


ma (moje) 


nase 




voc. 


moji (moje) me (moje) 


ma (moje) 


nasi (nase) na 


se nase 


loc. 


mych 




nasich 




inst . 


mymi 




nasimi 






Section 24. 


— Indicative pron 


ouns .**) 






Singular 




Plun 


ii 








masc. fern. 


neut. 


masc. fern 


neut. 






nom. 


ten ta 


to 


ti ty 


ta 


kdo 


CO 


gen . 


toho te 


toho 


tech 




kolio 


ceho 


dat. 


tomu te 


tomu 


tern 




komu 


cemu 


ace. 


toho (ten) tu 


to 


ty ty 


ta 


koho 


CO 


loc. 


torn te 


torn 


tech 




kom 


cem 


inst. 


tim tou 


tim 


temi 




kym 


cim 




Suction 25. — The relative pr 


onouns kter 1 


V (fern, k 


tera, nc 


mt. kte- 



re) and jeiiz (fern. & neut. jez), are translated by which or that. 

The pronoun ktery, a, e is declined like the definite adjective do- 
bry, a, e; the pronoun jenz is declined as follows : 

*) Compare Lessons XXV and XXVI. 

**) Compare Note 1 on page 115, and Note 5 on page 82. 



Bohemian grammar. 



285 







Singular 




Plural 




masc . 


fern. 


neut. 


of all three genders. 


nom. 


jenz 


jez 


jez 


jiz (masc), jez (f . & n. 


gen. 


jelioz 


jiz 


jelioz 


jichz 


dot. 


jemuz 


jiz 


jemuz 


jimz 


ace. 


jelioz (jejz) 


jiz 


jez 


jez 


loc. 


(v) neinz 


(v) niz (v) uemz 


(v) nieliz 


inst. 


jimz 


m 


jimz 
NUMERALS. 


jiiniz 



Section 26. — The cardinal numeral jeden (fern, jedna, neut. jed- 
110) is declined like ten (ta 9 to) :*) 







Singular 




Plural 




masc. 


fern. 


neut. 


of cdl three genders 


nom. 


jeden 


jedn-a 


jedn-o 


jedn-i, -y, -a 


gen. 


jedii-oho 


jedn-e 


jedn-oho 


jedn-ech 


dat. 


jedn-omu 


jedn-e 


jedn-omu 


jedn-em 


ace. 


jedn-oho 
(inan. jeden) 


jedu-u 


jedu-o 


jedn-y, -y, -a 


loc. 


jedn-om 


jedn-e 


jedn-om 


jedn-ech 


inst. 


jedn-im 


jedu-ou 


jedn-im 


jedn-emi 



The declension of dva (fern. & neut. dye), tri, ctyri (fern. & neut. 
ctyry) is sufficiently explained in Kote 1, page 122. 

The numerals pet, sest, sedm until devadesat deret (five till ninety 
nine) take in all cases an i, except the accusative and vocative, which are 
like the nominative. For instance : pet muzu, five men; peti muzu, of 
five men (or "of the five men"); peti muzuni, to five men; v peti niuzich, 
in five men; s peti niuzi, with five men. 

In the nominative and accusative they are always fol- 
lowed by the genitive case of the noun: pet nuizu (or mu- 
zAv), five men; sest liolek, six girls; sedm deti, seven 
children. 



*) See Note 2 on page 116. 



286 Part IV. 

Numerals like twenty one, twenty two, twenty three, and so forth, 
may be rendered in Bohemian in two ways : 1. — dvacet jeden, dvacet dva, 
dvacet tri, etc.,*) in which case both parts are inflected : dvaceti dvou, 
of twenty two; dvaceti dvema, to twenty two; etc. 

2. — jeden- a- dvacet, dva-a-dvacet, tri-a-dvacet, etc., one and 
twenty, two and twenty, three and twenty; etc., but usually written together: 
jedenadvacet, dvaadvacet. In this case only the second part is inflected : 
jedenadvaceti, of twenty one, to twenty one; s jedenadvaceti, with twen- 
ty one. 

Sto (one hundred) is declined like the neutre noun slovo, excepting 
that in connection with dve (two) it retains the dual number in the nomi- 
native and accusative : sto, sta, stu, etc. (a hundred, of a hundred, to a 
hundred); dve ste, two hundred; dvou set, of two hundred; dvema stum, 
to two hundred; o dvou stech, about two hundred; s dvema sty, with two 
hundred. 

Tisic (one thousand) is declined like the masc. noun mec : tisicc, 
of a thousand; tisici, to a thousand; s tisicem, with a thousand. 

Section 27. — Ordinal numerals, prvni or prvy, druhy, treti, etc; 
(first, second, third,) are declined like adjectives of a corresponding termi- 
nation, i. e. like dobry, a, e or dnesni.**) 

The same rule obtains in relation to the special and multiplicative 
numerals : dvoji, troji, etc. (twofold, threefold); dvojnasabny, trojnasob- 
ny, etc. (double, treble). 

The neutral form of special numerals : ctvero, patero, desatero, 
etc., is declined like the neutre noun slovo; for instance : desatero prika- 
zani, the ten commandments; desatera prikazani, of the ten command- 
ments; v desateru prikazani, in the ten commandments; etc. 

The names of numbers : jeduotka (the figure one), dvojka (the fig- 
ure two), trojka (the figure three), etc., are declined like the fern, nouns 
ending in a : zena. 

Section 28. — The indefinite numeral vsechen (also vsecek or vse- 
cken)***), all, has the following declension : 



*) See page 120. 

**) See Note 3 on page 124. 

***) See Note 1 on page 127. 



Bohemian grammar. 



287 











Sin^ 


?ular. 










masculine 




feminine 




neutre 


nom. 


& VOC. 


vsechen 






vsechna 




vsechno 


gen. 




vseho 






vsi 




vseho 


dat. 




vsenm 






vsi 




vsemn 


ace. 




vseho 

(in an. vsechen) 




vsechnu 




vsechno 


loc. 




vsem 






vsi 




vsem 


inst. 




' vsim 




Pli 


vsi 

iral. 




vsim 


nom. 


& voc. 


masc. 


vsichni 




gen. 


vsecli ^ 


in all 




[masc 


. inan.) 
fern. 


vsecliny 
vsecliny 




dat. 

loc. (ve) 


vsem 1 
vsecli r 


three 






neut. 


vsechna 




inst. 


vsemi j 


genders. 


ace, 


masc. 


& fern.. 


vsecliny 




ace. neut. vsechna 





The indefinite numeral veskery, a, e has the same meaning as vse- 
chen, na 9 no (all), and is declined like adjectives of the same termination 
(dobry, a, e). 

VERBS. 

Section 29. — 1. The verb is said to be subjective, when the 
action or condition is strictly confined to the subject : sedim, I am sitting; 
beham, I am running; rule kvete, the rose is blooming. 

2. It is called objective, when the action relates to another per- 
son or thing : slunce zahriva zemi, the sun is warming the earth; ucitel 
ch\Alil zdka, the teacher praised the scholar; duvernj v Boha! trust in God! 

The objective verb is transitive or intransitive. 

The transitive verb is accompanied by the accusative case without 
any preposition : ucitel chvdli zaka, the teacher is praising the scholar; 
matka vede deem, the mother is leading her daughter. 

The intransitive verb is accompanied by the accusative case with a 
preposition : duveruj v Boha; or by some other case with or without a 
preposition : lakomec oazi po bohatstvi, the miser craves for riches; zdk po- 
slouclid ncitele, the scholar obeys his teacher. 

3 . A verb is called reflexive, when the action reverts to the sub- 
ject. Such verbs are accompanied by the reflexive pronoun se: Modli se! 



288 Part IV. 

pray! Chlapec se stroji, the boy is dressing (himself). Radujeme se z toho, 
we are rejoicing over it. 

But sometimes the pronoun se expresses the passive mood, and not 
a reflected action : maso se ji 9 the flesh is eaten; jablka se cesaji, the ap- 
ples are being picked; pole se ora, the field is being plowed. 

4. Impersonal verbs express an action or condition regardless 
of the person or thing, from which it proceeds : prsi, it rains, it is rain- 
ing; rozedniva se, it dawns, (the day is breaking). 

Section 30. — The classification of the Bohemian verbs in regard in 
to the character of the action is fully explained in Lesson XXXIX. 

Tense-inflection shows a difference in the time of the action or con- 
dition. There are three tenses : 

1. The present tense (pritomny cas): pisu, I write, I am writing; 
pes steka, the dog barks, the dog is barking. 

2. The past tense (minuly cas): psal jsem, I wrote, I was writing; 
pes stekalj the dog barked, the dog was barking. 

The past tense may be continuous, when a continued past action is 
expressed: sel jsem, I went, I was going; or finite, when a finished ac- 
tion is expressed : prisel jsern, I came. 

3. The future tense (budoucicas): budu psati, I shall write, I shall 
be writing; pes bude stekati, the dog will bark, the dog will be barking. 

The future tense may also be either continuous: budu psati; or finite, 
when a completed future action is to be expressed: napisu, I shall write out. 

The Bohemian verb, like the English, has an indicative mood: mlu- 
vim, I speak; a subjunctive or conditional mood : mluvil bych, I should 
speak; and an imperative mood: mluv! speak! 

Section 31. — There is only one auxiliary verb in Bohemian: byti, 
to be. — But certain verbs are used in connection with other verbs, to 
make a complete assertion or declaration; for instance : musiti, must; 
smiti, may, dare; moci, can; raciti 9 please; etc. We say : musim jiti, I 
must go; smim mluviti^ may I speak? racte vejiti! please to come in! 

Section 32. — The Bohemian verb has six conjugations, fully illus- 
trated in Lessons XXXI — XXXV incl. 

The auxiliary verb byti, aiding in the formation of the past and fu- 
ture tenses, is conjugated thus : 



Bohemian grammar. 289 

Present: jsem, jsi, jest; jsme, jste, jsou. 
Imperative: bud', bud'me, bud'te. 
Past participle: byl, by la, bylo; byli, byly, byla. 
Subjunctive: byck, bys, by; bychoin (bysme), byste, by. 
Future: budu, budes, bude; budeme, budete, budou. 
Present trans gressive*) : jsa, jsouc, jsouc; jsouce; (being). 
Past transg.: byv, byvsi, byvsi; byvse; (having been). 
Future transg. : Inula, budouc, budouc; budouce; (to be, expecting to be). 

*) This participial construction occurs only in the written language; 
it is explained in Note 4, page 164. 

Section 33. — Table of the six conjugations. 



19 



290 








Part IV. 








I. 

Termination ti directly attached to the i 


oot. 


11 
Term, -out 


III 
Termin. 


Person 


neVti 

to carry 


pi-ti 

to drink 


tri ti 

to rub 


pec i*) 

to bake 


min-outi 

to pass 


hled-Sti 

to look, to 
look after 


rC 15 


1 


nes-u 


pij-u (-i) 


tr-u 


pek-u 


min-u 


hled-im 


O 

O 

B 

CD 


Pi 

.2 


2 


nes-es 


pij-es 


tf-es 


pec-es 


min-es 


hled-is 


3 


nes-e 


pij-e 


tr-e 


pec-e 


min-e 


hled-i 


53 




1 


nes-eme 


pi j -erne 


tf-eme 


pec-eme 


min-eme 


hled-ime 


#r 3 


OS 

3 


2 


nes-ete 


pij-ete 


tr-ete 


pec-ete 


min-ete 


hled-ite 


1— 1 


Ph 


3 


nes-ou 


pij-ou (i) 


tr-ou 


pek-ou 


min-ou 


hled-i 




£ 




2 


nes 
nes-me 


Pi] 
pij-me 


tfi 
tr-eme 


pec 
pec-me 


min 
min-me 


hied 


S3 


£ 


1 


hied me 


a 


Ph 


2 


nes-te 


pij-te 


tr-ete 


pec-te 


miii-te 


hled-te 







masc. 


nes-1 


pi-1 


tfe-1 


pek-1 


minu-1 


hled-el 


a 


Pi 


fern. 


nes-la 


pi-la 


tre-la 


pek-la 


minu-la 


hled-ela 




X 


neut. 


nes-lo 


pi-lo 


tfe-lo 


pek-lo 


minu-lo 


hled-elo 






masc. 


nes-li 


pi-li 


tfe-li 


pek-li 


minu-li 


hled-eli 





pj 


fern. 


nes-ly 


piiy 


tre-ly 


pek-ly 


minu-ly 


hled-ely 


^ 


Ph 


neut. 


nes-la 


pi-la 


tre-la 


pek-la 


minu-la 


hled-ela 







masc. 


nes-en 


pi-t 


tre-n 


pec-en 


minu-t 


hlede-n 





_Pj 


fern. 


nes-ena 


pi-ta 


tre-na 


pec-ena 


minu-ta 


hlede-na 


Ph 


X 


neut. 


nes-eno 


pi-to 


tre-no 


pec-eno 


minu-to 


hlede-no 


O 




masc. 


nes-eni 


pi-ti 


tfe-ni 


pec-eni 


minu-ti 


hlede-ni 


"uQ 





fern. 


nes-eny 


pi-ty 


tfe-ny 


pec-eny 


minu-ty 


hlede-ny 


c3 


HH 


neut. 


nes-ena 


pi-ta 


tre-na 


pec-ena 


minu-ta 


hlede-na 


> 


bfl 


masc. 


nes-a 


pij-e 


tr-a 


pek-a 


min-a 


hied e 


Pi 02 


fern. 


nos-ouc 


pij-ic 


tr-ouc 


pek-ouc 


min-ouc 


hled-ic 


CO I* 

Ph Pj 




s 


neut. 

m. f. 

n. 


nes-ouc 
nes-ouce 


pij-fc 
pij-ice 


tr-ouc 
tr-ou 


pek-ouc 
pek-ouce 


min-ouc 
min-ouce 


hled-ic 
hled-ice 


<D 




masc. 


nes 


pi-v 


tf e v 


pek 


min-uv 


hlede-v 


^j CO 


fl 


fern. 


nes-si 


pi-vsi 


tfe-vsi 


pek-si 


min-uvsi 


hlede-vsi 


DQ g 




neut. 


nes-si 


pi-vsi 


tre-vsi 


pek-si 


min-uvsi 


hlede-vsi 




M 

£ 


m.f. 
n. 


nes-se 


pi-vse 


tre-vse 


pek-se 


min uvse 


hlede-vse 



*) Popularly pecti, originally pekti. 



Bohemian grammar. 



291 



III 

-6ti or -eti 


IV. 
Termin. -iti 




V 
Termin. -ati 




VI 
Termin. -ovati 


liaz-eti 

to throw 


cin-ili 

to do 


vo ati 
to call 


maz ati 

to rub 


hn-ati 

to drive 


mil-ovati 

to love 


haz-im 


cin-im 


vol am 


maz-u (-i) 


zen-u 


rniluj-u (-i) 


haz-is 


cin-is 


vol -as 


maz-es 


zen-es 


miluj -es 


haz-f 


cin-i 


vol-a 


maz-e 


zen-e 


miluj-e 


haz-fme 


cin-ime 


vol-ame 


maz-eme 


zen-eme 


miluj-eme 


haz-ite 


cin-ite 


vol-ate 


maz-ete 


7en-ete 


miluj-ete 


haz-eji 


cin-i 


vol-a ji 


maz ou(-i) 


zen-ou 


milui-ou (-1) 


hazej 


cin 


volej 


maz 


zefi 


miluj 


htizej-me 


eih-me 


vole j -me 


maz-me 


zeh-me 


miluj-me 


hazej-te 


cin-te 


volej -te 


maz-te 


Zeii-te 


miluj -te 



hdze-1 
hdze-la 

haze-lo 

haze-li 
hdze-ly 

haze-la 



cini-1 

cini-la 

eini-lo 

cini-li 
cini-ly 
cini-la 



vola-1 

vola-la 
vola-lo 

vola-li 

vola-ly 

vola-la 



maza-1 

maza-la 

maza-lo 

maza li 

maza-ly 

maza-la 



hna-1 
hna-la 

hna-lo 

hna-li 
hna-ly 
hna-la 



milova-1 

milova-la 

milova-lo 

milova-li 
milova-ly 
milova-la 



haze-n 
haze-na 

haze-no 

haze-ni 
haze-njr 
haze-na 



cine-n 

cine-na 

cine-no 

cine-ni 

cine-ny 

cine-na 



vohi-n 

vohi-na 

vohi-no 

vola-ni 
vola-ny 
vola-na 



maza-n 

mazaVna 

maza-no 

maza-ni 

maza-ny 

maza-na 



hna-n 

hna-na 

hna-no 

hnd-ni 
hnd,-ny 
hna-na 



milova-n 

milova-na 

milova-no 

milova-ni 
milovaVny 
milova-na 



hdze-je 
haze-jic 
haze-jic 

haze- j ice 



cm-e 

cin-ic 

cin-ic 

cin -ice 



vola-je 

vola-jic 

vola-jic 

vola-jice 



maz-e 

maz-ic 

maz-ic 

maz-ice 



zen-a 

zen-ouc 

zen-ouc 

zen-ouce 



miluj-e 
miiuj-ic 
miluj -ic 

miluj -ice 



haze-v 

haze-vsi 

haze-vsi 



Mze- 



vse 



cmi-v 

cini-vsi 

cini-vsi 

cini-vse 



vola-v 

vola-vsi 

vola-vsi 

vola-vse 



maza-v 

maza-vsi 

maza-vsi 

maza-vse 



hna-v 

hna-vsi 

hna-vsi 

hna-vse 



milova-v 

milova-'vsi 

milova-vsi 

milova-vse. 



292 . Part IV. 

Section 34. — Irregular verbs. 

Jeti, to ride, to drive -—present, jedu, jedes, jede, jedeme, jedete, jedou; 

imper. jed', -me ? -te; active parti c. jel 9 -a, -o; passive partic. jet, 

-a, -o; pres. transg. jeH-a, -one, -ouce; supine, jet (to ride); 
jiti, to go;— pres. jdu, jdes, jde, jdeme, jdete, jdou; imper. jdi, jde-me, 

jde-te; act. part, sel, sla, slo; pres. transg. jda, jdouc, -ce; sup. 

jit (to go); 
chtiti, to want; — pres. chci, chces, chce, chceme, chcete, chteji; imper. 

chtej, chtej-me, -te; ac*. part. chtel, -a, -o; pres. transg. chtej-e, 

-ic, -ice; past, transg. chtev, -si, -se; sup. chtet (to want); 
miti, to have; — pres. mam, mas, ma, mame, mate, maji; imper. mej, 

mej-me, mej-te; act. part, mel, -a, -o; pres. transg. maj-e, -ic, 

-ice; past, transg. mev, -si, -se; 
spati, to sleep; —pres. spim, spis, spi, spime, spite, spi; imper. spi, 

spe-me, -te; act. part, spal, -a, -o; pres. transg. spe, spic, spice; 

past, transg. spav, -si, -se; sup. spat (to sleep); 
stati se, to happen, to become; — stanu se, stanes se, stane se, stan-eme, 

-ete, -ou se; imper. stan se, -me, -te se; act. part, stal, -a, -o se; 

pres. transg. stav, -si, -se se; (stavd se, it happens, is impersonal); 
videti, to see; — vidim, vidis, vidi, vidime, vidite, vidi; imper. viz, -me, 

-te; act. part, videl, -a, -o; passive part, viden, -a, -o; present 

transg. vid-a, -one, -ouce. 

Section 35 . — The derivation and comparison of adverbs is ex 
plained in Notes 2 and 3, on page 128. 

Prepositions govern or require particular cases. 
The genitive case, responding to the question ci? kolioS cehoF), is 
governed by the following prepositions, and adverbs used as prepositions: 

krom I aside from, 
krome > except; 

round, 
around; 



bez, without 
die j according to; 
podle ' next to ; 
vedle, next to, along- 
side of; 



do, to, till, until; 

od, from 

u, at, by; 

z, ze, from, out of; 



kolem 
okolo 
vukol 



*) See Note 5, page 82. In the genitive case the question koho? 
whosel was inadvertently omitted. 






Bohemian grammar. 



293 



vne, outside of; daleko, far 

vnitf, inside of; strami, about 

blizko, uear iiize, lower 

The dative case (responding to the question komii] cemu2)is govern- 
ed by the following: 



vyse, higher 
prostred, amidst 
misto, instead of. 



k 

ke 

ku 



to, for; 



proti, against 

k y Alitor the sake of; 



naproti, towards, a- 
gainst, opposite; 
vstric, towards. 



The accusative case (responding to the question kolioS co2) is gov- 
erned by the following: 



miino, besides, past; 
ob ? over 



pro, for 

pres, over, across; 



skrze, through. 



The locative case (responding to the question v kom? v ceinS o kom$ 
o ceml etc.) is always governed by the preposition pfi 9 by, at; and in most 
instances by the following prepositions: 



v \ h 



0, about, on; 

na 9 on, upon, for; 



po 9 after, by, during. 



The preposition v or ve ? when it occurs before a word beginning 
with the letter v ? is often changed into u; for instance : u velikem poctu 
(instead of ve velikem poctu), in a large number, or "in large numbers." 

The above five prepositions often require the accusative case; for ex- 
ample : na potupu, for disgrace, i. e. "in order to disgrace or dishonor"; 
boji se o zivot, he fears for his life . 

The prepositions niezi, between, among; nad ? over, above; pod, 
under, below; pred ? before, — govern either the accusative or the instru- 
mental case : pAjdu niezi lidi, I shall go among people; byl jsem mezi 
lidmi, I was among people. 

The preposition s, se governs the genitive case, when it means from, 
off: spadl s vozu, se stromu, he fell from the wagon, from the tree; and 
it governs the instrumental case, when it means with: pojd' se mnou, come 
w T ith me; sli jsme za nim, we went after him, we followed him. 



294 



Part IV. 



Za governs the genitive case, when it means during, in: za casu 
Wasliiiigtona, in the time of Washington; — it governs the accusative case, 
when it means for: koupil jsem to za dollar,, I bought it for a dollar; — 
and it governs the instrumental case, when translated by behind, after: 
pojd' za mnou, come behind me; prijdu za tebou, I will come after thee. 

In rare instances it requires the accusative case : nejsem s to poslou- 
ziti yam, I cannot (I am not able to) accommodate you. 



CONTENTS, 



Page 

Why this book has been written 5 

The Bohemian language 7 

The Bohemians in the United States 8 

Part I. 

General observations 12 

The Bohemian alphabet 12 

Names of the letters 15 

Bohemian pronunciation 16 

Parts of speech 18 

Gender 19 

Grammatical rules in general 20 

The accent 21 

"Ty" and "vy" 22 

Part II. Rules of pronunciation 25 

Lesson I / 28 

Lesson XL > 172 

Part III. Bohemian convers'ation 179 

Bohemian and English 180 

Greetings and compliments 187 

A call 190 

Time 192 

The hour 198 

Age and date 201 

The weather 206 

Health and sickness 213 

The human being 218 

Disease and cure 228 

Drugs and medicines 237 

At home 244 

Buying and selling 249 

In a grocery store , 255 

Garments — 257 

Shoemaking 260 

Diverse trades 261 

On the farm 262 

Part IV. Bohemian grammar 

Orthography 269 

Etymology 274 



SLAVIE a RODINA. 

Slavie, casopis narodnf a politicky. Nejstarsi, nejoblibenejsi a nejroz- 
sifenejsi casopis cesky v Americe. List ryze narodnf, v politice rovny 
a nezdvisly, fedrujici vzdy zdsady jedine te strany politicke, kteraz zemi 
a veskeremu obyvatelstvu, najme pak vsemu lidu pracovnemu bez vymin- 
ky, na ten cas jest nejprospesnejsi. 

v Rodina, zdbavnik "Slavie", prinasi vybor nejlepsich romanu cizoja- 
zycn^ch i ceskych a povidky i romany do roka v Rodine vysle maji samy 
o sobe ninohondsobnou cenu pfedplatneho. Romany v Rodine vychazejf- 
ci jsou veskrz dobre, mravne uSlechUujfcf . Hledime, aby se ceske mladezi 
pomoci zabavy dostalo toho, ceho se ji nedostatkem ceskeho skolstvi ne- 
dostalo. 



ii 



r Novy Tlumac Americky od Karla Jonase. Zadna publikace ceska v teto 
zemi nebyla pfijata od obecenstva s takovym vdekem a uznanim a zadne se 
nedostalo rozsireni tak rychleho a velikeho, jako Tlumaci, knize ku snadne- 
mu a rychlemu priuceni se jazyku anglickSmu, bez jehoz znalosti nikdo se zde valneho 
pokroku nedodela. Cena $1.50 i se zasylkou a prodava se jedine za hotove. 

od Karla Jonase. Druhe rozmnozene a opraverje vy- 
dani. Postupna kniha ucebna po Tlumaci a nezbytna 
u ) pro kazdeho ku zdokonaleni se v jazyku anglickem. 
Pro pocatecnika ku rychlemu seznameni se s nejobecnejsi, kazdodenni mluvou postaei 
Tlumac; povrchni znalec angliciny musi pak k ruce miti Slovnik, aby se v jazyku zdo- 
konalil. Cena $1.50. Jenom za hotove. — Slovnik anglicko-cesky vyjde u Slavie tiskem 
pozdeji. 



mi cesko-angiicky 



encke 



anat 1 neznaloi 



od Karla Jonase. Sbirfea zakonu a vykladu pravnich, pro osad- 
niky cesko-americke zvlaste uzitecnyeh. Alespon povrchni zna- 
lost zdejsich zakonu nutna jest kazdemu obcanu americkemu, 
st zakonu nikoho pfed skodou neuchrani. Sbirka tato obsahuje toliko za- 
kony nejnutnejsi, ve vsech statech stejne platne a zvlaste dulezity zakon homstedni se 
vsemi doplnky. "Pravo farmerske" 1 a smlouva rakousko-americka jsou spisu pfidany. 
Cena 75c. Jen za hotove. 



)' oio M1110 TiVf\ IflfflnnTlfl Dle roz licnych pramenu sestavil Karel Jonas. Kni- 
j fli ifli \u, Mi i Mi ha tato pojednava o vnitfnich i zevnitfnich nemo- 

iiUJUUJ immuj pu 1UJ11I1U1UJ. C ech koni a vseho dobytka hospodaf skeho. Obsa- 
huje navod o koupi koni, dodatek o domacich pomuckach pro vselike nehody, a recep- 
ty na rozlicne leky v jazyku ceskem i anglickem. Prospela jiz stum ceskych farmeru 
a na zadne farme nemela by chybeti. Cena 65c. Jen za hotove. 

Napsal Charles Nordhoff. Se svolenim spisovatele 
a nakladatelii prelozil Gustav B. Reisl. Znati po- 
liticke zafizeni zeme v niz zijeme a prospivati 
chceme, jest jednou z nejpfednejsich povinnosti kazdeho pfistehovalce. Az do nedav- 
na nebylo spisu, z nehoz by nove pfichozi takove znamosti mohl nabyti. Nedostatku 
tomu odpomohl pan Reisl pfekladem tohoto vytecneho dila Nordho^ova, jez se u Ame 
rikanu ceni co nejvyse. Cena pouze 50c. i se zasylkou. Jen za hotove. 



n 



F^Mlxlaslty postou a zasylky penez lb\xd!tez 

adresovany proste : «SlaviO)) ? Racine, AVis. 



w 




r = ^^ 
























o ^P- 









^ 




^ 
"^c? 



^ a g v " <r'*<T;<.s ^ , 




^°- 



<&" o Q , &+ & 9^ - 



S? 




- «$? ^ * 







oC-.:^^>^>^--::/^^^ <*-«; 




V- ^ 6 Deacidified using the Bookkeeper process. 
7 Neutralizing agent: Magnes.um Ox,de 
P- <? Trsatment Date: Feb. 2007 



lF 



,^ ^. 



# PreservationTechnologies 

111 Thomson Park Dnve 
Cranberry Township. PA 16066 

(724)779-2111 




*Sj d» -4 \U 



>V*o/%/°*^^. 







v^ 



W . \& ;'g \^ : ) 






-0 






N ^ 






r* 



;- / °- Aw/-' 









£ - 




* 



^^ :/mA° %^ :MfA^ % 



<& 













■ c\ 



•>;'«< 




kEn