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Full text of "The Bombay Land Revenue Manual"

TIGHT BINDING BOOK 

Text problem book 



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m<OU 166635 >m 



THE BOMBAY 

LAND REVENUE MANUAL 

CONTAINING 

The Bombay Land Revenue Code 

(Bombay Act No V of 1879) 

WITH 

ALL AMENDMENTS, EXPLANATORY NOTES, EXHAUSTIVE 
ANNOTATIONS AND GOVERNMENT RESOLU- 
TIONS UPTO DATE AND FULL INDEX 

AND 

The Revised Rules thereunder 

WITH 
Explanatory notes and corrected upto 1st June 1934:, 

TOGETHER WITH 

(Hh* > At-'l* reJu'!n<) fo Kerctmr niafttrx and A /,/>/ <>/' 

Cmirt fcr, x 



BT 

D. G. KHANDEK A 

LAW PUBLISHER, FOONA 



1 



THIRD EDITION 



All Rights reserved 



Prkifcd and published by B. Q. KHANDEKA.R at hia LAW PRnrnwo 
1317, Kasba Poth, Poona Oitv 
FOONA.. 



1934. 



Price Rs. 5 



CONTENTS 



1. The Bombay Land Revenue Code (Bom. Act V of 1819) and 

the Rales thereunder. 

2. The Revenue Jurisdiction Act (X of 1876). 

3. The Survey Settlement Act (I of 1865) 

4. The Revenue Recovery Act (I of 1890) 

5. The Irrigation Act (Bom. Act VII of 1879) 

6. The Suits for Lands Act (XVI of 1838) 

7. The Bhagdari and Narwadari Act (Bom. Act V of 1862) 

8. The Gujarat Talukdars Act (Bom. Act VI of 1888) 

9. The Broach and Kaira Incumbered Estates Act (XIV of 1877) 

10. The Broach and Kaira Incumbered Estates Act (XXI of 1881) 

11. The Ahmedabad Talukdars Act (Bom. Act VI of 1863) 

12. The Khoti Settlement Act (Bom. Act I of 1880) 



THE LAND BEYENtfE CODE, 1879 

CONTENTS 



SEOEION 

CHAPTER I. 
PRELIMINARY. 

1. Short Title, Local extent. 

2. (Repealed). 

3. Interpretation Section 
Revenue officer, Survey officer, 
Land, Estate, Survey Number, 
Sub-division of a survey num- 
ber, Chavdi, Building-site, 
Boundary-mark, To hold land, 
land holder, holder, Holding, 
Superior holder, Inferior 
holder, Tenant, Landlord, 
Occupant, Occupancy, To oc- 
cupy land, Occupation, Alien- 
ated, Village, Revenue year, 
year, Joint holders, joint-occu- 
pants, Land records, Certified 
copy, Certified extract. 

CHAPTER II. 

CONSTITUTION AND POWERS OF 
REVENUE OFFICERS. 

4. Chief controlling authority 
in revenue-matters. 

Extent of territories under the 
Commissioners. 
The territories under a Com- 
missioner to be a division. 

5. Appointments and duties of 
Commissioners. 

6. Assistants to Commissioners 

7. Division to be divided into 
districts. 

A district to consist of talukas 
comprising such mahals and 
villages as Government may 
direct. 

8. Collector of the district. 

9. Assistant and Deputy Col- 
lectors; 

to be subordinate to the Col- 
lector. 

10. Their duties and powers. 

11. Collector of the district in 
case of temporary vacancy. 

12* The Mamalatdar; his appoint- 
ment. 
His duties and powers. 



SECTION 

13. The Mahalkari; 

his duties and powers. 

14. Mamlatdar or Mahalkari 
may depute subordinates to 
perform certain of his duties. 

15. Mamlatdar or Mahalkari in 
case of temporary vacancy. 

16. Stipendiary Patel and Village 
Accountant to be appointed 
where no hereditary Patel or 
Village-Accountant exists. 
Saving the rights of holders 
of alienated villages. 

17. Village-Accountant to keep 
such records as he may be re- 
quired to keep by Collector: 
and to prepare public writings 

18. Survey Officers; 

their duties and powers. 

19. Combination of offices. 

20. Certain officers' appointments 
to be notified. 

Acting appointments. 

21. Establishments. 
23. Seals. 

CHAPTER III. 
OF THE SECURITY TO BE FURNISHED 

BY CERTAIN REVENUE OFFICERS 

AND THE LIABILITY OF PRINCIPALS 

AND SURETIES. 

23. Governor in Council to direct 
what officers shall furnish 
security, and to what amount. 

24. Fresh or additional security. 

25. Demands for money, papers, 
etc., to be made known in 
writing to the person concerned 
Who may be arrested and con- 
fined in jail if he fail to pro- 
duce them. 

Provided that no person shall 
be kept in confinement for 
more than a month* 

26. Public moneys may also be re- 
covered us arrears of revenue; 
and search warrant may be 
issued for recovery of papers 
or property. 



ii 



SECTION 

Persons in possession ofpub- 
lic moneys, etc v bound to give 
them np. 

27. Surety to be liable in the same 
manner as principal. 
Extent of liability. 
Sureties not liable to impri- 
sonment, if penalty be paid. 

28. An officer or surety in jail 
may, by furnishing certain se- 
curity, obtain his release. 

J49. Liability of surety not affect- 
ed by death of principal or by 
his taking a different appoint- 
ment. 

Liability of heirs of deceased 
officer. 

80. How surety may withdraw 
from further liability. 
CHAPTER IV. 

OF OBBTAIN ACTS PROHIBITED 

TO REVENUE OFFICERS AND OF 
THEIR PUNISHMENT FOR 
MINOONDTJOT. 

31. Prohibited acts- 
Not to trade. 

Not to purchase at public sale. 
Not to oe concerned in the re- 
venue. 

Not to make private use of 
public money or property. 
Not to make or receive undue 
exactions or presents. 

32. Power of fining, reducing, 
suspending, and dismissing in 
whom to vest. 

A revenue officer whose mon- 
thly salary exceeds Rs. 260 
to be fined, etc., only by order 
of the Governor in Council. 
83. All such orders to be made in 
writing. 

34. Fine not to exceed two 
months' pay; how recovered. 

35. Appeals. 

36. An officer's liability to crimi- 
nal prosecution not affected by 
this Act. 

Officer may be suspended du- 
ring trial, and subsequently 
suspended, reduced, or dis- 
jDiseed. 



SECTION 



CHAPTER V. 



OF LAND AND LAND REVENUE. 
31. All public roads, etc. and all 
lands which are not the pro- 
perty of others, belong to 
Government. 

38. Lands ma) 7 be assigned for 
special purposes, and when 
assigned, shall not be otherwise 
used without sanction of the 
Collector. 

39. Regulation of use of pastu- 
rage. 

40. Concession of Government 
rights to trees in case of settle- 
ments completed before the 
passing of this Act. 

Ditto, in case of settlements 
completed after the passing of 
this Act. 

Ditto in case of land taken up 
after completion of settlement. 

41. Government trees and forests. 

42. Road-side trees. 

43. Recovery of value of trees, 
etc., nnauthorizedly appropri- 
ated. 

44. Regulation of supply of fire- 
wood and timber for domestic 
or other purposes. 

45. All land liable to pay revenue 
unless specially exempted. 
And special exemption may in 
case oi necessity oe overruled 
for a time. 

46. Liability of all alluvial lands 
to land revenue. 

47. Assessment of land revenue 
in cases of diluvion. 

48. Manner of assessment and 
alteration of assessment. 
Prohibition of use of land for 
certain purposes. 

49. Commuted assessment of land 
indirectly taxed to the State; 
and of land liable to occasion- 
al assessment. 

50. Superior holder may recover 
commuted assessment from 
Inferior holder. 

51. Excess of assessment may be 



CONTENTS 



SECTION SECTION 



laid on land inadequately 
assessed held with it. 

52. Assessment by whom to be 
fixed. 70. 
Proviso, 

53. Register of alienated lands. 

54. /Settlement of assessment to 

be made with the holder di- 71. 
rectly from Government. 72. 

55. Rates for the use of water. 

56. Land revenue to be a para- 73. 
mount charge on the land. 

57. Forefeited holdings may be 73A 
taken possession of and other- 

wise disposed. 74. 

58. Receipts. 75. 

59. Penalty for failure to grant 76. 
receipts. 

CHAPTER VI. 
OF THE GRANT, USB AND RBLIN- 

giJISHMKNT OF UlJALIlENATD LAND 

60. Written permission of Mam- 
latdar or Mahalkari required 
previous to taking up un- 
occupied land. 

Penalties for unauthorized 
occupation of land. 

Unoccupied land may be 
granted on conditions. 

Grant of alluvial land vest- 
ing in Government. 

Temporary right to alluvial 
lands of small extent. 

Uses to which occupant of 
land for purposes of agricul- 
ture may put his land. 
Procedure if occupant wishes 
to apply his land to any other 
purpose. 81 . 

Fine to be levied for such use 82. 
in addition to special assess- 
ment. 

66. Penalty for so using land 
without permission. 

Tenant responsible to occu- 
pant in damages. 83. 

67. Permission may be granted 
on terms. 

68. Occupant's rights are con- 
ditional. 

Proviso. 84. 

69. Reservation of right of Gov - 



61. 

62. 
63. 
64. 



6,1 



ernmenfc to mines and mineral 

products. 

Proviso. 

Occupancy when not liable to 
process of Civil Court; the 
Court to give effect to Collec- 
tor's certificate. 

(Repealed). 

Intestate occupancy or hold- 
ing to be sold. 

Occupancy to be transfer- 
able and heritable. 
. Power to restrict right of 
transfer. 

Relinquishment. 



77. 

78. 

79. 

79A 

80. 



Relinquishment of land des- 
cribed in paragraph 1 of sec- 
tion 49. 

Relinquishment of land de- 
scribed in section 51. 
Right of way to relinquished 
land. 

Saving of operation of sec- 
tion 74 in certain cases. 
(Repealed) 

. Summary eviction of per- 
son unauthorizedly occupying 
land. 

To prevent forfeiture of occu- 
pancy, certain persons other 
than the occupant may pay 
the land revenue. 
Collector may assist such per- 
sons in recovering the revenue 
from other parties liable 
therefor. 
Proviso. 
(Repealed) 

Governor in Council empow- 
ered to suspend operation of 
section 60 or 74. 

CHAPTER VII. 
OF SUPERIOR AND INFERIOR 

HOLDERS. 

Amount of rent payable by 
tenant. 

Duration of tenancy. 
Presumption as to tenure. 
Saving clause. 

Annual tenancy terminates 
on the 31st March. 



OONTBNTS 
SBOTION 



Three moatha' notice of termi- 
nation of tenancy to be given 
by landlord to tenant, or vice 



84At Order granting suspensions 
or remissions to inferior 
holders. 

Bach order not to be question- 
ed in any Court. 
Consequences following on 
such order. 

Crop-share fixed by custom or 
agreement. 

Meaning of assessment. 
Bind excluded. 

85. Recovery of superior holders' 
dues. 

86. Superior holders entitled to 
assistance in recovery of dues 
from inferior holders, etc. 
But application must be made 
Within the revenue year or 
within the year of tenancy. 

87. The Collector how to proceed 
on such application being 
made. 

Assistance may be refused or 

granted to a limited extent 

only. 

Civil suit not to be barred. 

88. Commissioner may, by com- 
missions, confer certain pow- 
ers on holders of alienated 
lands. 

&9. Form of such commission. 

90. Reference must be made by 
holder of commission to the 
Collector in certain cases. 

91. When compulsory process 
shall cease. 

Penalty for continuing com- 
pulsory process. 

92. Tower under commission to 
extend to current and pre- 
vious year's arrears. 

93* Holder of commission not to 
enforce any unusual or exces- 
sive demand. 
?ena|ty ,for so doing. 

M. But holder of commission 
may eitabligb his right to en- 
hanced wit in Civil Court. 

94A. Becovig; ** revenue demand 



of dues Of Certain superior 
holders for specified period. 

CHAPTER VIII. 
OF SURVEYS, ASSESSMENTS AND 
SETTLEMENTS OF LAND REVENUE. 

95. Revenue survey may be intro- 
duced by Governor in Council 
into any part of Presidency. 
Control of revenue survey. 

96. Survey officer may require, 
by general notice or by sum- 
mons, suitable service from 
holders of land, etc. 

97. Assistance to be given by 
holders and others in the 
measurement or classification 
of lands. 

98. Survey numbers not to be of 
less than a certain extent. 
Exception. 

99. (Repealed.) 

100. Officer in charge of a survey 
to fix assessments. 

Regard to be had ta proviso 

to section 52. 

Proviso. 

101. The assessment so made may 
be on land, or on means of 
irrigation, etc. 

102. Assessments so made not le- 
viable without the sanction of 
Government. 

But may be fixed, with or 
without modification, by the 
Governor in Council for a term 
of years. 

103. Introduction of settlements. 

104. Excess assessment not to be 
levied in the year in which a 
survey settlement is intro- 
duced ; 

nor in the following year if 
the number is resigned that 
year. 

105. The fixing of assessment under 
section 102 limited to ordinary 
land revenue. 

106. Government may direct a fresh 
survey and revision of assess- 
ment. 

107. Conditions Applicable to revi- 
sions of assessment, 



SEOTIOV 

108. Preparation of statistical and 

fiscal rdoords- 
109, 110. (Repeated.) 

111. Revenue management of vil- 
lages or estates not belonging 
to Government that may be 
temporarily nnder Government 
management. 

112. Maintenance of existing set- 
tlements of land revenue. 

113. Partition. 

114. Partition of certain estates by 
the Collector on application 
by co-sharers. 

115. (Repealed.) 

116. Division of survey numbers 
into new survey numbers. 

117. Bombay Act V of 1862 not 
affected. 

117A.Division of survey numbers 

into sub-divisions. 
117B. Provisions applicable on re- 

linquishment or forfeiture of 

a sub-division 

'CHAPTER IX. 
THE SETTLEMENT OF BOUNDARIES 

AND THE CONSTRUCTION AND 

MAINTENANCE OF BOUNDARY 

MARkS. 

118. Determination of village- 
boundaries 

Village boundaries may be 
settled by agreement 
Procedure in case of disagree- 
ment or dispute 

119. Determination of field boun- 
daries 

120. Settlement of boundary dis- 
puts by arbition 

When award may be remitted 
for re-consideration 
If arbitration fail, survey offi- 
cer to settle dispute 

121. Effect of the settlement of a 
boundary 

122. Construction and repair of 
bonndary-marks of survey 
numbers and vilages 
Requisition on landholders to 
erect or repair boundary marks 
A general notification to be 
good and sufficient notice of 
requisition 



SECTION 

: I)fes(ffipfeioB Of boundary marks 

123. Responsibility for the mainte- 
nance of boundary-marks 

124. Collector to have charge of 
bonndary-marks after intro- 
duction of the survey settle- 
ment 

126. Penalty for injuring boundary* 
marks 

CHAPTER X. 

OF LANDS WITHIN THE SITES OF 
VILLAGES, TOWNS AND CITIES. 

126. Limits of sit?s of villages, 
towns and cities how to be 
fixed. 

127. Act XI of 1852 and Bombay 
Acts II and VII of 1863 how 
far applicable to lands in 
such sites. 

128. Existing exemption when 
to be continued in case of 
certain lands in towns and 
cities in which Bombay Act 
IV of 1868 has been in opera- 
tion. 

129. Right to exemption to be 
determined by the Collector. 

130. Occupancy price payable, in 
addition to assessment in cer- 
tain cases. 

131. Survey of lands in such sites 
how to be conducted. 
Proviso. 

132. In certain cases a survey- 
fee to be charged. 

133. Sanad to be granted without 
extra charge. 

Proviso. 

134. Assessment of lands hither, 
to used for purpose of agricul- 
ture only used for other pur- 
poses 

l'.5\ (Repealed). 

CHAPTER X-A. 
OF THE RECORD OF RIGHTS 

T.55A. Exemption from provi- 
sions of this chapter. 

1 35B. The record of rights* 

135C. Acquisition of rights to be 
reported. 

135D. Register of mutations and 
register of disputed cases. 



V* 

SECTION 



CONTENTS 

SECTION 



Entries in register of Muta- 
tions how to be certified. 
Tenancies. 

135E. Obligation to famish in- 
formation. 

135F. Penalty for neglect to afford 
information 

135G. Requisition of assistance 
in preparation of maps. 

135H. Certified copy of record to 
be annexed to plaint or appli- 
cation. 

1351. Refusal of assistance under 
section 87. 

135J. Presumption of correctness 
of entries in record of rights 
and register of mutations. 

135K. Certified copies. 

185L. Bar of suits and exclusion 
of Chapter XIII. 
Appeal 

CHAPTER XI 

OF THE REALIZATION OF THE 

LAND REVENUE AND OTHER 

REVENUE DEMANDS 

136. Liability for land revenue 

137. Claims of Government to 
have precedence over all 
others. 

138. The liability of the crop for 

the revenue of the land 

139. Land revenue may be levied 

at any time during the re- 
venue year 

140. Removal of crop which has 
been sold, etc., may be pre- 
vented until revenue paid 

141. In order to secure the land 
revenue the Collector may 
prevent the reaping of the 
crop, or 

the removal thereof, or 
place watchmen over it 

142. Collector's orders under last 
section how to be made 
known 

Penalty for disobedience of 
order 

143. Reaping, etc., not to be un- 

duly deferred 

Crop when to be released. 

144. Temporary attachment and 



managemens of a village or 
share of a village 
Powers of manager, and dis- 
posal of surplus profits 

145. Precautionary measures to 
be relinquished on security 
being furnished 

146. Government to determine 
the dates, etc., on which 
land revenue shall be pay- 
payable 

147. Arrear. 
Defaulters. 

148. Liabilities incurred by de- 
fault 

149. Certified account to be evi- 
dence as to arrears 
Collectors may realize each 
other's demands 

150. Process for recovery of 
arrrears 

151. Revenue demands of former 
years how recoverable 
Proviso 

152. When notice of demand may 
issue 

153. The occupancy or alienated 
holding for which arrear is 
due may be forfeited 
Proviso 

154. Distraint and sale of defaul- 
ter's moveable property 

By whom to be made 

155. Sale of defaulter's immove- 

able property 

156. Exemption from distraint 

and sale 

157. Arrest and detention of 

defaulter 

Imprisonment in Civil Jail 
Defaulters not to be detain- 
ed in custody longer than 
debtors may be detained by 
the Civil Court 

158. Power of arrest by whom to 

be exersised 

150. Power to attach defaulter's 
village, and take it under 
management 

100. Lands of such village to re- 
vert free of incumbrances 
Powers of manager 



SECTION 



CONTENTS 

SECTION 



vii 



161. 
162. 

163. 
164. 

165. 

166. 
167. 



168. 
169. 
170. 



171. 

172. 
173. 

174. 

175. 
170. 

177. 
178. 

179. 
180. 

181. 
18S. 



Application of surplus pro- 
fits 

Restoration of village so 

attached 

Disposal of surplus receipts 

Village, etc., to vest in Gov- 
ernment, if not redeemed 
within twelve years 

But all processes to be 
stayed on security being 
given 

Or on amount demanded 
being paid under protest 

Procedure in affecting sales 
Proclamation of sales. 

Notification of sales 

Sale by whom to be made 
Time when sale may be 
made 
Postponement of sale 

Sale of perishable articles 

When sale may be stayed 

Sales of moveable property 
when liable to confirma- 
tion 

Mode of payment for move- 
able property when sale is 
concluded at once 

Ditto when sale is subject 

to confirmation 

Deposit by purchaser in 

case of sale of immoveable 

property 

Purchase-money when to be 
paid 

Effect of default 

Liability of purchaser for 
loss by re-sale 

Notification before re-sale 

Application to set aside 
sale 

Order confirming or setting 
aside sale 

Refund of deposit or pur- 
chase-money when sale set 
aside 

On confirmation of sale pur- 
chaser to be put in pos- 
session 
Certificate of purchase 

Bar of suit against certified 
purchasers. 



183. 



184. 



185. 



186 



187. 



Application of proceeds of 
sale. 

Expenses of sale how cal- 
culated 

Surplus not to be paid to 
creditors, except under 
order of Court 
Certified purchaser liable 
only for land revenue sub- 
sequently due 

Claims to attached move- 
able property how to be 
disposed of 

What moneys leviable under 
the provisions of this 
Chapter 

Sureties liable as revenue- 
defaulters 

On resumption of a farm 
no payments made to con- 
tractor in advance to be 
admitted 

The recovery of free grants 
as arrears of revenue in 
case of misuse 
CHAPTER XII 

PROCKDURl OF REVBNUB OFFICERS 

188. Subordination of 
officers 

Power to summon persons 
to give evidence and pro- 
duce documents. 
Summons to be in writing, 
signed and sealed ; 
how to be served. 
Service in district other 
than that of issuer. 
Mode of serving notices. 
Notice not void for error 
Procedure for procuring at- 
tendence of witnesses. 
Mode of taking evidence in 
informal inquiries. 
Taking evidence given in 
English. 

Translation to be on record 
Writing and explanation of 
decisions. 

Summary inquiries how to 
be conducted. 

Formal and summary in- 
quiries to be deemed judi- 
cial proceedings. 



revenue 



189. 



190. 



191. 
192. 



193 



194 
195 



196. 



till 

SECTION 



OGStKBNfS 



tad 

Notice to parties 
.107. Ordinary inquiries how to 

ba conducted 

108. Copies and translations, 
, etc., how to be obtained 

199. Arrest of a defaulter to be 

made upon a warrant. 

200. Power of revenue officer to 
enter upon any lands or pre- 
mises for purposes of mea- 
surement, etc. 

Proviso. 

201. The governor in Council to 
determine the language of a 
district. 

202. Collector how to proceed in 
order to evict any person 
wrongfully in possession of 

< land 

CHAPTER XIII. 
APPEALS AND REVISION 

203. Appeal to lie from any order 
passed by revenue officer to 
ms superior 

204. Appeal when to lie to the 
Governor in Council 

205* Periods within which ap- 
peals must be brought. 

206. Admission of appeal after 
period of limitation 



SECTION 

.207. Provision where last day 
for appeal falls on a Sunday 
or a aoliday. 

208. Copy of order to accompany 
petition of appeal. 

209. Powers of appellate autho- 
rity. 

210. Power to suspend execution 
of order of subordinate officers 

211. Power of the Governor in 
Council and of certain reve- 
nue officers to call for and 
examine records and proceed- 
ings of subordinate officers 
And to pass orders thereupon 

212. Rules as to decisions or orders 
expressly made final 

CHAPTER XIV. 
MISCELLANEOUS. 

213. Maps and land records open 
to inspection 

Extracts and copies shall be 
given 

214. Rules 

215. Penalty for breach of rules 

216. Chapters VIII to X how far 
applicable to alienated vil- 
lages 

217. Holders of land in alienated 

villages 

218. Construction of ihis Act 
SCHEDULES 



LAND REVENUE CODE, 1879 
HISTORICAL RECORD 



Year. 


No. of 
Kegs, 
and 

Acts 


Name of Regulations 
and Acts. 


How affected. 






Bombay Regulations. 






1827 


IV 


Divil Courts (Law to be ob- 
served) 


Hep. in part (locally), Bom. 


ActV of 
1879 


1827 


XVI 


Collectors of Land Revenue. 


Residue rep. (locally), 


do. 


1827 


XVII 


Land Revenue, 


do. 


do. 


1830 


V 


Revenue Commissioner 


do. 


do. 


1831 


XV 


Falsification of Records 


do. 


do. 


1832 


II 


Farmers of Land Revenue... 


do. 


do. 


1833 


V 


Bereditary Officers 


do. 


do. 






Imperial Acts 






1838 


XVIII 


Sureties, Bombay 


Rep. (locally), Bom, Act V 


of 1879." 


1842 


XIII 


Revenue, Bombay 


Residue rep. (locally) 


do. 


1842 


XVII 


Revenue Commissioners, 
Bombay. 


do. 


do. 


1846 


III 


Boundary marks, Bombay.,. 


do. 


do. 


1850 


XII 


Public Accountants 7 Defaults 


Rep. in part (locally in Bombay), Bom. 
Act V of 1879. 


1862 


XI 


Titles to Rent-free Estates 
Bombay 


Application declared, Bom, 
1879, S. 127. 


At V of 


1852 


XXI 


Deputy Collectors, Bombay 


Residue rep. (locally), Bom. Act V of 
1879 






Bombay Acts. 






1863 


11 


Exemptions from L*nd Re- 
Vonue in territories sub- 
ject to Act XI of 1852. 


Application declared, Bom. 
1879, S. 127. 


ActV of 



Tax BOMBAY LAND REVENUE Ooi> 
HISTORICAL RECORD (Concluded) 



Year. 


Ho. of 
Begs, 
and 
Acts. 


Name of Regulations 
and Acts 


How affected. 


1863 


VII 


Exemptions from Land Be- 


Application declared, Bom. Act V of 






venae in territories not 


1879 S. 127. 






subject to Act XI of 1852. 




1865 


1 


Bombay Survey and Settle- 


Bep. locally (except Ss. 37, 38), Bom. 






ment Act. 


Act V. 1879. 


1868 


I 


)eputy and Assistant Col- 


Residue rep. (locally) Bom, Act V of 






lectors. 


1879. 


1868 


IV 


The Act for Oity Surveys 


do. do. 






and amendment of Bombay 








Purvey and Settlement Act* 




1875 


1 


iurvey and Settlement 


Rep (locally), Bom. Act V of 1879. 






(amending Bom. Act I of 








1865), 




1879 


V 


lombay Land Revenue Code. 


Hep. in part, Bom. Act III of 1886. 








., and Am., Act XVI O f 18i)5. 








Bom. Act VI of 1901. 








(locally), Bom. Act I 1 of 








1880,8. 39. 








Bom. Act VI of 1888 Ss, 3, 








and 33 as Am , Bom. 








Act II of 1905. 








Am., Bom. Act VII of 1879 S. 2. 








IV of 1886. 








I of 1910. 








,, IV of 1913. 








Sa. 3 (1), 88, 43, 52, 80, 187, 214. 








heading above 8. 40 Sch. B ( Am., 








S. 144 rep. in part, Bom. Act IV of 








1905. 








Rep. (in Ooorg), Reg. I of 1899. 








3. 85 and part of S. 58 declared not 








to be in force in the Panch Mahals, 








Act VII of 1886. 








Am., Bom. Act XI of 1912. 








VII of 19 14. 








, II of 191 9. 








, I of 1920. 








, III of 1921. 








, V of 1930. 








, ., Ill of 1982. 



THE 

Bombay Land Revenue Code, 1879 

Bom. Act No. V of 1879 [a]. 

[17th My 1879 
( As Amended and modified upto 1st June 19S3 ) 

An Aot to consolidate and amend the law relating to 

Revenue offloers, and the Land Revenue in the 

Presidency of Bombay. 

WHEREAS it is expedient to consolidate and amend the law 
Preamble. relating to Revenue officers, and to the assess- 

ment and recovery of Land Revenue, and to 
other matters connected with the Land Revenue Administration ; it 
is hereby enacted as follows : 

CHAPTER I 
PBEUMINABY 

.1- U>] (1) This Act may be cited as "The Bombay Land 
Short title. Revenue Code, 1879." 

8s. 68, 72, 73, 74, 99 cl. (6), 104, para. 2, 109, 110, 112. 150, cl. (6), and 153 
of Bom. Act V of 1879 do not apply to any village in the district of Ratnagiri or 
the district of Kolaba to which the Ktati Settlement Act, 1880, extends ; and 
as. 103, 11*, 119, 123, 136, 150 cl. (/), and 162 of the Act are subject to modi- 
fication when applied to any such village (see Bom. Act I of 1880, as. I and 89). 

The rales and orders under sections 213 and 214 do not apply to Khoti and 
Talukdari villages. Rules 7 to 10 inclusive, 21 cl. (2), 23, 25 to 27 inclusive, 38 
and 70 shall not apply to Sind. 

Ss. 38 to 40, 44, 60 to 67, 76, 82, 85, 109, 110, 116, 127 to 136, 163, 216 and 
217 (all inclusive) of Bom. Act V of 1879 do not apply to any estate in the dis- 
tricts of Ahmedabad, Kaira, Broach or Panch Mahals to which the Gujerat 
Talukdars' Act, 1888, extends ; and ss. 3 cl. (1), 46,54, 79Acl. (a), 88, 89,94, 111, 
113, 147, 150 cl. (/), 160, 162, 214 of the Act, and the words "occupant," "regis- 
tered occupant" and "occupancy" throughout the Act, are subject to modification 
when applied to any such estate (see Bom. Act VI of 1888, ss. 1 and 33). 

NOTE. All sub-titles, printed over sections or groups of sections in the Act, 
were repealed by Bom. Act IV of 1913, s. 84. 

[a] Sec. 8 5 and the last 15 words of b. 58 are not in force in the Panch 
Mahals (see Act Vfl of 1885, s. 2). 

[b] Sub-section (1) of s. 1 was originally the first paragraph of s. 1. It was 
pumbered as sub-section (1) of s. 1 by Bom. Act IV of 1913, s. 4 (l)t 



2 THE BOMBAY LAND REVENUE CODE. 

[a] (2) Save as otherwise provided by Chapter XA, this 
Extent. Act extends to the whole of the Presidency 

of Bombay, except the City of Bombay, Aden 
and the Scheduled District of the Mehwassi Chiefs' villages as 
defined in the Scheduled Districts Act, 1874. 

[b] (3) Provided that Chapter III also extends to the City 
of Bombay, subject to the modification that the expression ' Re- 
venue-officer' 1 means every officer of any rank whatsoever appoint- 
ed under section 5 or 6 of the Bombay City Land Revenue Act, 
1876, and employed in or about the business of the land revenue in 
the City of Bombay, or of the surveys, assessment, accounts or re- 
cords connected therewith, instead of as defined in clause (1) of 
section 3 of this Act. 

extension The provisions of this Code have been made applicable to the 
Akalkot and Jath States (B. G. G., 1879, Pt. I. p. 966) and to the Dis- 
tricts in Sind(G. B. B. D. No. 4956 B, dated 30th June 1904). 

Construction of Statute. This Code is a taxing enactment, and mast 
be construed strictly in favour of the subject (Secretary of State v. Laldas, 12 Bom. 
L. B. 16, s c. 34 Bom. 239). 

" Scheduled Districts." The following are the Scheduled Districts in 
the Bombay Presidency : 

1. The Province of Sind. 

2. Aden, 

3. The villages belonging to the following Mehwasi Chiefs: 

1. The Parvi of Kathi 4. Walvi of Gaohalli. 

2. The Parvi of Nal 5. Wassawa of Ohikhli. 

3. The Parvi of Singpur 6. The Parvi of Nawalpur. 
Notes. There is nothing in this Code which entitles a person, who gets a 

sanad at the city survey on his ex parts application, to turn out a person in pos- 
session of the land, unless he shows that he haa a better title (Trimbak v. Damu, 27 
Bom. L. B. 656). 

The proceeds of all fees levied under this Act for permission to remove sand 
or to quarry are to be credited to the Local Fund constituted by the Bombay Local 
Boards Act, 1923 (Bom. Act VI of 1923) s. 75. 

2. Repealed by Bom. Act IV of 1913, s. 5. 

*3. In this Act, unless there be some- 
Interpretation clause, thing repugnant in the subject or con- 
text : 

[a] This sub-section was substituted for paragraph 2 of section 1 by Bom. 
Act IV of 19J3,s.4(2). 

[b] This sub-section was substituted by Bom. Act IV of 1913. s. 4 (3), for 
the paragraph 3, added by Bom. Act I of 1910, First Schedule, Part II, Serial 
No. 2. 

*NOTE The clauses in section 3 of the Act were renumbered consecutively 
by Bom. Act IV of 1913, s, 6 (A), 



1 ] PRELIMINARY 9 

(1) "revenue officer" means every officer of any rank whatso- 
ever appointed under any of the provisions 
revenue officer;" of this Act, and employed in or about the 
business of the land revenue or of the surveys, 
assessment, accounts or records connected therewith [a] and for 
the purposes of sections 25 and 26 includes a village-officer ap- 
pointed or officiating under any of the provisions of the Bombay 
Hereditary Offices Act or the Matadars Act, 1887 [a]; 

Note. This section is subject to modification when applied to any estate 
in the districts of Ahmedabad, Kaira, Broach or Panch Mahals to which the 
Gujerat Talukdars' Act extends (Vide Bom Act VI of 1838, ss. 1 and 33). 

Revenue Officers. Watandar village officers are not Revenue officers 
under sub-section (1) of this section. If a watan lapses, then Government succeed 
to the watan and the officer appointed by them wmld be a watandar for the pur- 
pose of ss. 85 and 94 A. But when a watan is commutted, it has not yet been 
decided that the analogy holds. Talatis are executive and not ministerial officers 
for the purpose of 0. 8. R. 459 (a) (G. R No. 7268 of 1918). 

A Forest officer is not a revenue officer and does not become one merely by 
being placed under a revenue officer for purposes of control ( Narayan v. Secretary 
of State, 20 Bom 803). 

The District Inspector of Land Records is a revenue officer and can issue 
summonses for evidence or documents, but the Superintendent is a survey officer : 
supervising tapedars in Sind are survey officers, but Circle Inspectors are not. 
The District Inspector of Land Records his power to order measurement on the 
application of parties and to levy feas for it. Both Superintendent of Land Records 
and District Inspector of Land Records can levy fees U'ider s. 135-F (Anderson's 
L. R. Rules, ed. of 1930, p. 8). 

(2) "survey officer" means an officer 

"survey officer-," appointed under, or in the manner provided 

by, section 18 [/;] ; 

f3) {Definition of" Collector^ \ Jlepeakd by Bom. Act IV of 
1913, s. 6 (ai 

(4) "'and" includes benefits to arise out of land, and things 

attached to the earth, or permanently fasten- 
" land >" ed to anything attached to the earth, and also 

shares in, or charges on, the revenue or rent 
of villages, or other defined portions of territory ; 

(5) ''estate" means any interest in lands and the aggregate of 

such interests vested in a person or aggregate 
"estate;" p ers ons capable of holding the atne ; 



[ a a] These words were added by Bom. Act IV of 1905, 1st Sch. 
[b] Words repealed by Bom. Act III of 1886 are omitted. 



4 THE BOMBAY LAND REVENUE OODE [ OSAP. f 

(6) "survey number" means a portion of land of which the 

area and assessment fa] are separately enter- 
"swvey number;" e( ^ un( j er an indicative number in the [6] 
land records [6] [c] ; 

(7) [d] "sub-division of a survey number'* means a portion 

of a survey number of which the area and 
"sub-division of a sur- assessment are separately entered in the land 

vey number ;" records under an indicative number subordi- 

nate to that of the survey number of which it 

is a portion [d] ; 

(8) [0] "chavdi" means, in any village in which there is no 

chavdi, such place as the Collector may direct 
<v,havdi; " 8 k a |i k e Deemed to be the chavdi for the pur- 

poses of this Act ; 

Chaydi. In Sind 'Ohavdi' includes a Tapedar's Dera. 

(9) "building site" means a portion of land held for building 

purposes, whether any building be actually 
"building site;" erected thereupon or not, and includes the 

open ground or court-yard enclosed by, or 
adjacent to, any building erected thereupon ; 

( 10) "boundary-mark* ' means any erection, whether of earth, 

stone or other material, and also any hedge, 

"boundary-mark-," r^j Unp l 0u ghed ridgo, Or [/*] strip of. graund, 
or other object whether natural or artificial, set up, employed or 
specified by a survey officer, or other revenue officer having autho- 
rity in that behalf, in order to designate the boundary of any divi- 
sion of land ; 

(11) [g\ "to hold land/' or to be a ' Hand-holder" or "holder" 

of land means to be lawfully in possession of 
"to hold land" "land- l an d whether such possession is actual or 
holder' 1 "holder;" not .' ^ 

"Bolder." The term "holder" as defined in this clause, is wide enough to 
include even a tenant who has entered into possession under an occupant. Mere 
user by rice lands tenants of adjoining waste land with the leave and permission 
of Inamdar does not make them holders of warkas lands (Nanabhai v. Collector of 
Kai a, 34 Bom. 686). 

fa] This word wasTubatituted by Bom. AcT^Tv^T 1913, s. 6 (6), for the 
words "other particulars." 

[J 6j These words were substituted by Bom. Act IV of 1913, s. 6 (6), for the 
words "survey records." 

[e\ Words repealed by Bom. Act IV of 1913, s 6 (5), are omitted. 

[d] This definition was substituted for the definition of "recognised share 
of a survey number" by Bom. Act IV of 1913, s. 6 (c). 

\\ This definition was added by Bom. Act IV of 1913 s. 6 (d). 

[f-J\ These words were substituted for the original word by Bom. Act VI of 
1901,8.2. 

\g] This definition was substituted for the original definitions of "holder" 
or "landholder" and "holding" by Bom, Act IV of 1V13, s. 6 (*). 



gjso, 2 j PBELIMINA&Y 5 

The rights oi tenants of rice lands over adjoining waste land of their superior 
holder are, by custom in theThana District, confined to the use of portions of the 
waste for obtaining the manure without which the rice lands could not be culti- 
vated or the assessment on the rice land earned and paid (Vasudo r. Govind, 36 
Bom. 315). 

Before a person can claim the benefit of a. 217 post, he must be shown to be 
a "holder" within the meaning of this sub-clause (Ibid). 

[a] (12) "holding" means a portion of 

"holding;" lan( j heW by a holder . 

[6] (13) "superior holder" means a landholder entitled to 
receive rent or land revenue from other land- 
superior holder ; holders (hereinafter called inferior holders"), 
whether he is accountable or not for such rent 
or land-revenue, or any part thereof, to Government : provided 
that where land has been granted free of rent or land revenue, sub- 
ject to the right of resumption in certain specified contingencies, by 
a Jagirdar, Inamdar or other such holder of alienated land whose 
name is authorizedly entered as such in the land records, such 
Jagirdar, Inamdar or holder shall, with reference to the grantee, be 
deemed to be the superior holder of land so granted by him and 
the grantee shall, with reference to the grantor, be deemed to be the 
inferior holder of such land and for the purposes of section 8 of the 
Bombay Local Funds Act, 1869, shall, notwithstanding anything 
hereinafter contained in the definition of the word "tenant," be 
deemed to be the tenant of such grantor. 

Note Cf. section 98 of the Bom, Local Boards Act (Bom. Act VI of 
1923). 

"Superior holder. "We have had under consideration the case of Inam- 
dars, Jagirdar s and other holders from Government of alienated lands who have 
themselves made grants of portions of their lands for the maintenance of cadets and 
other similar purposes. These grants are made subject to resumption in certain 
contingencies, such as failure of lineal male heirs, and if they are made free of 
liability to pay rent or land revenue, the grantors have been held not to be the 
superior holders of such lands (vide Gordhanlal v. Darbar Shri Surajmalji, 6 Bom. 
604). As the grantors have a reversionary interest in the land, it is desirable 
that the grantors should be included within the definition of superior holders 
(Report of the Select Committee). 

An inamdar receiving rent or land revenue from cultivators in his inam 
village is a superior holder not accountable to Government for the same. A knot 
receiving assessment from a dharekari is a superior holder accountable to Govern- 
ment for the same. A village accountant receiving assessment from a cultivator 
is accountable to Government for the same but cannot be said to be a superior 

[a] This definition was substituted for the original definitions of "holder" 
or "landholder" and "holding" by Bom Act IV of 1913, s. 6 (*). 

[b] This definition was substituted for the original definitions of "superior 
holder" and "inferior holder" by Bom. Act IV of 1913, s* 6 (/). 



6 THE BOMBAY LAND BBVFNUB CODE [ 

holder, because he is not a holder and has no interest in the land of which he col- 
lects the assessment (DandoJtar's Law of Land Tenures, Vol I, pp. 4243). 

Where it appeared that defendants were liable to pay the assessment and local 
fond to the plaintiff, who held a sanad under the ttuma ary Settlement Act, J6t3, 
the lower Court came to the conclusion that the relationship of landlord and 
tenant was not created between the parties, it was held that the plaintiff wab a 
superior holder within the meaning of this s^b-clause and that the defendants were 
in law the tenants of the plaintiff, whatever the nature of their holding might have 
been (Surshangi Naran, 2 Bom. L. B. 855). 

The Talukadari Settlement Officer may, with reference to a person holding 
lands under a lease from him, be deemed to be a "superior holder" within the 
meaning of this clause (Secretary of State for India v. Gordhandas Mohanlal, 33 
Bom. L. E. 815). 

"Superior holder" and "inferior holder. " The expression 

"superior holder" is wider including the expression landlord. The terms superior 
holder, and inferior holder have reference only to payment of rent or land revenue, 
whereas the terms landlord and tenant have reference only to the origin of the 
right to hold. A tenant has to pay to his landlord and is thus an inferior holder. 
In addition to this fact he derives his right to hold from the man whom he pays 
or from his predecessor. Every tenant is an inferior holder, but every inferior 
bolder is not necessarily a tenant [Dandekar's Law of Land Tenures, Vol. I p. 43). 

[a] (14) "tenant" means a lessee, whether holding under an 
"tenant " instrument or under an oral agreement, and 

7 includes a mortgagee of a tenant's rights 'with 

possession ; but does not include a lessee 
holding directly under Government ; 

"landlord " ^ ^^ "landlord" means a lessor 5 

[b] (16) "occupant" means a holder in actual possession of 
t< , . . unalienated land, other than a tenant : pro- 

occupan ; vided that where the holder in actual posses- 

sion is a tenant, the landlord or superior land- 
lord, as the case may be, shall be deemed to be the occupant ; 

Difference between "holder" and "occupant".- 'Holder' eigni- 

fies a person holding any land alienated or unalienated, whereas 'occupant' means a 
holder of unalienated land. 

[6] (17) "occupancy' 1 means a portion of 

-occupancy- l an d held by an occupant ; P 

Occupancy. The term "occupancy" is subject to modification when ap- 
plied to any estate in the districts of Ahmedabad, Kaira, Broach and Panch 
Mahals to which the Gujarat Talukdars* Act, 1888, extends (See Bom. Act VI oi 
1888, as. 1 and 83). ^ 

[a] These definitions were substituted for~the original Definitions by Bom. Ad 
IV of 1913, 8. 6 (/) and (g). 

[b] These definitions were substituted for clauses (16), (17) and (18) by Bom 
Act IV of 1913,8 6 (h). 



$ ] PBELIMINABY 7 

L a ] f 18J "to occupy laud" means to pos- 
to occupy land 5" fiegg or ^ ke p0fise6sio ^ o| land . 



41 occupation-," (jg) "occupation" means possession ; 

(20) "alienated" means transferred in so far as the rights of 
Government to payment of the rent or land 
"alienated; revenue are concerned, wholly or partially, 

to the ownership of any person ; 

"Alienated". Though the grant of a land to an inamdar was of the entire 
property in the soil, still the lands were 'alienated' within the meaning of thi* 
sub-clause, and the defendants were entered in the settlement register as khatadars 
and who cultivated the lands and paid to the plaintiff only a sum equivalent to 
the annual assessment; were entitled to the rights of occupants in unalienated 
villages by virtue of s. 217 post (Dadoo 9. Dinkar, 43 Bom 77). 

u (21) "village" includes a town or city 

"village; ftn( j ft jj ^ j and belonging to a village, town 

or city ; 

(22) the words "revenue year" or "year" 
"revenue year,- -year- meftn ^ period j^ ftnd exdusive of? fa 

thirty-first July of one calendar year until, 
and inclusive of, the thirty-first July in the next calendar year ; 

(23) [Definition of "section." ]- Repealed by Bom. Act Hi of 
1886, Sch. B. 

(24) [Definition of "this chapter"] Repealed by Bom. Act III 
oj 1886, Sch. B. 

[b] (25) the term "joint holders" or "joint occupants" means 

"holders or occupants who hold land as co- 

"Joint holders/' "Joint sharers, whether as co-sharers in a family un- 

occupants;" divided according to Hindu law or otherwise, 

and whose shares are not divided by metes 

and bounds ; and where land is held by joint holders or joint 

occupants, ''holder" or "occupant," as the case may be, means all 

of the joint holders or joint occupants ; 

Occupants. Vide note under s. 3 (17) supra. 

[b] (26) "land records" means records 
" land records;" maintained under the provisions of, or for 

the purposes of, this Act ; 

[6] (27) "certified copy" or "certified extract" means a copy 
or extract, as the case may be, certified in 
"Certified copy." the manner prescribed by section 76 of the 

Indian Evidence Act, 1872 ; 

[ a a] These definitions were substituted for clauses (16,) (17) and (18) by 
Bom. Act IV of 19 18, B* 6 (h). 

[I] These definitions were added by Bom. Act. IV of 1913 a. 6 (/). 



8 THE BOMBAY LAND REVENUE CODE [ OHA*. II 

Section 76 of the Indian Evidence Aot . Certified copy 
Every public officer having the custody of a public document, which any person 
has a right to inspect, shall give that person, on demand a copy of it on payment of 
the legal fees therefor, together with a certificate written at tbo foot of such copy 
that it is a true copy of such document or part thereof, as the case may be, and 
such certificate shall be dated and subscribed by such officer with his name and his 
official title ; and shall be sealed whenever such officer is authorised by law to 
make use of a seal; a nd such copies so certified shall be called certified copies (Me 
sec. 76 of the Evidence Act). 

[a] (23) In Siad the word "Mukhtyarkar" shall be deemed 
to be substituted for the word "Mamlatdar'' wherever it occurs in 
this Act. 

[a] This definition was added by Bom, Act IV of 1913, s. 6 (j). 

CHAPTER II. 

CONSTITUTION AND POWERS OF REVENUE-OFFICERS. 

4. The ch ! ef controlling authority in all 



vested in the Commissioner, subject to the 
Governor in Conncil. 
There shall be one or more Commissioners as the Governor in 

Council, subject to the orders of the Govern- 

Extent of territories ment f j d d j rect d th (J overnor 

under the Oommis- . ~ i i n M i j. -^ 

sioners, m Council shall prescribe what territories are 

to be under the control of each, whether 
generally or for any specific purpose, and may from time to time 
alter the limits of such territories, all orders made on this behalf 
being duly notified. 



The territories under each Commissioner 
in* n i ui T rn 

division. s " a " * orm > and be called, a division [a], 



and for the purposes of this Act the territories comprised 
in the Province of Sind shall be deemed to form a division and the 
Commissioner in Sind shall be deemed to be the Commissioner of 
that division [6]. 

"Whether generally or for any specific purpose." These words 
were inserted with the object of enabling one Revenue Commissioner to undertake 
certain special duties within the territorial limits of another (Report of the Select 
Committee). 

Commissioners.- There are three Divisional Commissioners, at present 
besides the Commissioner in Sind, each in charge of a division, there being three 
divisions in the Presidency proper. These divisions are (1) the Northern Divi- 

[aj Words repealed by Aot XVI of 1895 are omitted. 
[bb These words were added by Bom. Act IV of 1913, i 7, 



SJBCII. 4*7 ] CONSTITUTION AND POWJBBS 

sion, (2) The Central Division; and (3) The Southern Division. These divisions 
comprise the districts as under : 

N. D. 0. D. 8. D. 

Ahmedabad Ahmednagar Belgaon. 

Broach East Ehandesh Bijapur. 

Kaira West Kbandesh Dharwar 

Fanch Mahals Nasik Kanara 

Surat Poona Kolaba 

Thana Satara Batnagiri. 
Bholapur, 

The Districts in Sind are :-(!) Karachi, (2) Dadu, (3) Hyderabad, 
(4) Sukkur, (5) Larkana, (6) Nawabsbah, (7) Thar Parkar and (8) Upper Sind 
Frontier. 

5. The Commissioners shall be appointed by the Governor in 
Council, and shall exercise the powers and 
"_ discharge the duties conferred and imposed 
on a Commissioner under this Act, or under 
any other law for the time being in force, 
and so far as is consistent therewith all such other powers or duties 
of appeal, superintendence and control within their respective 
divisions, and over the officers subordinate to them as may from 
time to time be prescribed by Government. 

*6. "Each Commissioner shall have such number of assistants 

as the Governor in Council may from time to 

Assistants to Oommis- time sanction, their appointment being made 

810ner8 - by the Governor in Council. Assistants so 

appointed shall perform such duties as the 

Commissioners, to whom they are respectively subordinate, may 

from time to time direct. 

Assistants to Commissioners. There are two Assistants to each 
Divisional Commissioner one in charge of the English branch and the other in 
charge of the Vernacular branch of the office. 

7. Each division, under the control of the Commissioner, 

shall be divided into such [a] districts with 

Division to be divided suc h limits as may from time to time be 

into districts. prescribed by a duly published order of the 

Governor in Council. 

A district to consist And each such district shall consist of 
of talukas comprising guch /, u i u k as aa( j eac h taluka shall consiit 

Ss as m Gotnr e nt V y of such [a] mahals and villages, as may from 
direct. time to time be prescribed in a duly published 

order of the Governor in Council, (b) _ 

[a\ Words repealed by Bom. Act IV of 1913, s. 8, are omitted. 
[b] Words repealed b/ Bony Act XVI of 1895, are omitted. 



10 



THE BOMBAY LAND REVENUE CODE 



The number of Mahals, The Mahals in 
lows : 

N. D. 0. D. 



[CHAP. H 

Division are as fol* 
S,D. 



Mod as a 
Gogha 
Halol 


i Ahmedabad 
Panch 


Bhadgaon 
Edlabad 
Farola 


East 
Khandesb 


Ohandgaon > 
Murgod \ 
Bilgi 


Belgaum 
"Rijapnr 


Jhalod 
Hansot 


5 Mahals 
...Broach 


Navapur 


West 
Khandesh 


Mandargi > 
tfargand $ 


Dharwar 


Valod 


Surat 






Bhatkal "j 




Mokhada 
Umbargaon 


I Thana 


Mulsi 
Ambegaon 


... Poona 


Supa v 
Mucdgod J 


Kanara 






Dhond j 


Uran 1 








Khadala ] 


Khalapur V 


Kolaba 






Malcompeth ^...Satara 


Nagothana J 








Shirala j 


Ghihagar 


Ratnasriri 



Mandangad 
[Vide Sathe's L. R. Code, 4th ed., p. 13.] 

8. The Governor in Council shall appoint in each district ar 

officer who shall be the Collector [a] and whc 

Collector of the Dis- s h a n be subordinate to the Commissioner of 

*' his division and may exercise, throughout his 

district, all the powers and discharge all the 

duties, conferred and imposed on a Collector or an Assistant 01 

Deputy Collector by this Act, or any other law for the time being 

in force, and in all matters not specially provided for by law 

shall act according to the instructions of Government. 

y. The Governor in Council may appoint to each district so 

many Assistant Collectors and so many Deputy 

Assistant and Deputy Collectors as may be deem expedient ; the 

Collectors. Assistants shall be called "First, "Second," 

"Supernumerary, &c., as may be expressed in 

the order of their appointment. 

All such Assistant and Deputy Collector! 

To be subordinate to and all osher officers employed in the land re- 
Collector. venue administration of the district shall be 

subordinate to the Collector. 

Personal Assistants. The Collectors of Poona, Satara and Thana are 
each given a personal Assistant (G. ft N\ 7018, dated 3rd October 1903, R. D. 
quoted in Sathe's Land Revenue Code, 4th ed., p. 14). 

Superintendent, Mahableshwar, to be Deputy Collector: 

The Superintendent of Mahablesh war, in tha Satara Oolleotorato, is appointed a 
Deputy Collector under the provisions of Act XX of 18 V2 and invested with the 
powers exercised by a Mamlatdar under Bombay Act V of 1864 (now Act II of 
7906) B. G. (?., 1811 Pt. 7, jo, 424}. 

10. Subject to the general orders of Government, a Collector 
may place any of his assistants or deputies in 

Their duties and powers, charge of the revenue administration of one 
or more of the talukas in his district, or may 

himwlf retain charge thereof* 

ft\ Words repealed by Act XVI of 1895 are omitted. 



SBOB. 8-10 ] OONSUXUTXON AND POWERS OF REvamJE-OmoEBs 11 

Any Assistant or Deputy Collector thus placed in charge shall, 
subject to the provisions of Chapter XIII [a], perform a 1 ! the duties 
and exercise all the powers conferred upon a Collector [6j by this 
Act or any other law at the time being in force, so far as regards the 
taluka or talukas in his charge. 

Provided that the Collector may, whenever he may deem fit, 
direct any such Assistant or Deputy not to perform certain duties 
or exercise certain powers, and may reserve the same to himself or 
assign them to any other Assistant or Deputy Subordinate to him. 

To such Assistant or Deputy Collector as it may not be possi- 
ble or expedient to place in charge of talukas the Collector shall, 
under the general orders of Government, assign such pacticular 
duties and powers as he may from time to time see fit. 

u Any other law at the time being in force." ihese words are 

not limited to laws relating to land revenue, but include all acts of the Government 
of Bombay in which a contrary intention does not appear (Entry No. 15 of 
G-. B. No. 5941, dated 26th August 1902, quoted in Sathe's Land Revenue Code 
4th ed. p. 14). The language of a section in an enactment, if plain and unambi- 
guous, must be construed in its natural sense. The words "or any other law at 
the time being in force" in this section should not be restricted to laws or acts 
ejusdem jeneris to the Code but include in the Mamlatdars Courts Act (Kesha* 
v. Jayram, 36 Bom. 123). 

Powers Of Collector. While the Laud Revenue Oode gives all execu- 
tive powers in the first place to the Collector (who signs sanads for most aliena- 
tions, it reserves a few to the Commissioner. The Collector fixes irrigation rates 
under s. 55 within the maximum sanctioned by Government. The Collector hears 
appeals from Survey Officers below grade of Superintendent of Survey under 
s 37 (2), and read with section 203, this also gives him appellate power in respect 
of section 50 A of the District Municipal Act. The Collector can make reduc- 
tions for diluvion, and may postpone instalments but only with the Commissioner's 
sanction. He may transfer Government land to other Departments and make all 
assignments under s. 38 of Act IV of 1905. 

While the Collector cannot sanction the employment of permanent establish- 
ment (section 21) he can make all appointments to sanctioned posts on the district 
staff, except Mamlatdars and Head Accountants : and he may in certain cases create 
and fill temporary appointments. The most important of these cases is in respect 
of the staff of Circle Inspectors, peons and labourers for partition and sub-divi- 
sion measurement work, and for repairing boundary marks when the cost is irre- 
coverable from the parties. 

The Collector can write off amounts of irrecoverable revenue of all kinds not 
exceeding Rs. 100 in each case without reference to higher authority, and the 
Commissioner provided no defect of system or procedure requiring Government 
orders is disclosed and there has been no serious negligence which might require 
disciplinary action can write off without limit irrecoverable dues for boundary 
mark repairs (sections 122-23) and all kinds of revenue and tagai without limit 

la) Words repealed by Bom. Act III of 18 S 6 are omitted. "~ 

\b\ Words repealed by Act XVI of 1895 are omitted, 



1 2 THE BOMBAY LAND REVENUE CODE. [0&AJP, Q 

and irrecoverable value of stores or public money ap to a limit of Rg. 500 and; 
unserviceable dead-stock to any amount, sending an annual statement to the AC- 
CO an tan t General. The last power was extended to the Collector by G. E. No. 5941 
of 1902. 

Generally speaking all powers of the Collector under the Land Revenue Code 
or any other law are also exercised under 3. 10 by the Assistant or Deputy Ool" 
lector in respect of the talukas in his charge. But the Collector may always re- 
berve any power he thinks fit. In particular, Government have dir ected that 
powers under Rules 81 and 82 should not ordinarily be delegated. There should be 
no "unnecessary" reservation. The power of arrest is to be exercised only when 
specially delegated. The Assistant or Deputy has certain powers of executing 
contracts and leases under Home Department Kesolation 7119-11 of 2 7-U-29 and 
sanads for tree planting in open sites in villages. He may fine watani village 
revenue officers and (in Ahmedabad) appoints, punishes, and dismisses mu khis and 
police patels (subject to the control of the District Magistra te) in talukdari 
villages. 

The Collector will delegate by name the power to write off irr ecoverable re- 
venne upto Rs. 25 (G. R. No. 6042 of 3-4-1923). 

To a Supernumerary or Personal Assistant, powers must be specifically dele- 
gated (G. R. No. 5941 of 1902 (Anderson's L. R. Rules, ed. of 1930, ppA-5). 

The powers conferred upon the Collector under the Bom. Irrigation Act are 
to be exercised by an Assistant Collector according to this section (Naivazali Shah 
Pir Ali Gohar Shah v. Rustomali Shah, 14 S. L. R. 53). 

11, If the Collector is disabled from performing his duties, or 

for any reason vacates his office or le'aves* his 
Collector of the dis- district or dies his Assistant of highest rank 
trict m case of tempo. '. . j. . , n , & , 

rary vacancy. present in the district shall, unless other pro- 

vision has been made by Government, succeed 
temporarily to his office, and shall be held to be Collector [a] 
under this Act until the Cjllector resumes charge of his district, or 
until the Governor in Council appoints a successor to the foimer 
Collector and such successor takes charge of his appointment. 

An officer whose principal office ia different from that of an 
Assistant Collector, and who is an Assistant Collector for special 
purposes only, shall not be deemed to ba an Assistant for the pur- 
poses of this section. 

Notes. In Sind the Collector temporarily succeeded is called a Mukhtyarkar. 

The powers and duties of a Collector m\y not be conferred by a Collector on 
any Assistant or Deputy Collector who has not passed the Depart mental Exami- 
nation according to the higher standard. This order does not refer to Deputy 
Collectors appointed before the issue of the Government order of the 10th April 
1869, directing Deputy Collectors to undergo Departmental Examinations (B. G t 
G. 1868, Pt. I, p. 1196). 

12. The chief officer entrusted with the local revenue ad- 

ministration of a taluka shall be called a 

The Mamlatdar ; his Mamlatdar. He shall be appointed by the 

appointment. Comm'sfeioner of the division in which his 

taluka is situated. 
[a] Words repealed by Act XVI of 1895 are omitted, 



BEOS. 11-12] CONSTITUTION ANU POWERS op RBvENUis-OFFicEits 18 

His duties and powers shall be such as may be expressly im- 
posed or conferred upon him by this Act, or 
His duties and powers, by any other law for the time being in force, 
or as may be imposed upon, or delegated to, 
him by the Collector under the general or special orders of Govern- 
ment [a]. 

Delegation of powers to Mamlatdar. The code provides that 

the Mamlatdar should exercise such powers as the Collector may delegate to him. 
But these delegations must be made "under the general or special orders of 
Government" and also they must be made in all cases by name and not merely in 
virtue of the office held. Therefore, it is desirable that a printed form should be 
used by every Collector as follows : 

To Mr. A. B. 

''Whereas you have been appointed to be (or to do duty temporarily a) 
Mamlatdar (Mahalkari) of you are hereby authorized during the tenure of that 
office to exercise the following powers : 

(Here print the powers below detailed,) The Collector should strike out 
whatever powers reelect to reserve). 

Collector of The powers which may be delegated are these 



Section 


Extent of power 


Authority 


25,26 


All 


R. 5295 (9)-ll. 


32 and Watan A ct -- 


To fine hereditary or stipendiary 


B. 2116 and 4100- 




village rcvenur officcre. 


83, 1953-93, 5891- 






03, 5595-08. 


42, 43, 70 


All 


R. 4347, (17)-02. 


48 (4), 61 (6), 79A. 


To sign eviction notices approved by 


R. 5295 (85)-il. 


and 202 


the As3istant or Deputy. 




80, 86 


All. [Mukhtyarkars in 8ind included. 


R. 2598 and 6024- 




K. 8048 (l)-08.j 


83, 9901-06. 


90 


To sanction sale of moveables in alie- 


B. 5295(47>13. 




nated villages. 




91 


To accept security from defaulting in- 


Under this order. 




ferior holders. 




117B 


All 


Under this order. 


135F 


Up to a limit of Rs. 15 


R. 76239-4-24 & 






13-4-24. 


135H (3) 


All 


Under this orfar. 


141-143, 145 


All 


R. 8046-08, 7773- 






13. 


148 


All 


R. 7176-12. 


149 


To issue certificates direct to other 


R. 5295 (71)-11. 




Mamlatdars (apparently in the same 






or other districts of the Presidency). 




152 


To issue notices and remit notice fees 


R. 5295 (78)-lL 




levied by mistah. 





[a] Words repealed by Act XVI of 1895 are omitted. 



14 



THE BOMBAY LAND REVENUE CODE 



UHAP. 



Section 


Extent of power. 


Authority. 


153, proviso (a) 


To issue notices threatening forfeiture 


R. 5295 (74)-ll. 


154 


To distrain and sell moveables in un- 


R. 5954-91. 




alienated villages. 




156 


To determine what property is exempt 


R. 4347 (17)-02. 


185,166(3) 


All, in respect of such sale} as he has 


R. <5295 (78-9)-ll. 




himself power to make. 




181 


Do put in possession and give certi- 


{. "295 (80)-11. 




ficate. 




186 


All 


R. 8785-89. 


190(3) 


All 


R. 5295 (83-84)-! 1. 


L. R. Rules 






Bale 41 (and sec. 


All (eksali sales) 


R. 5295 (36)-ll. 


68) 






Rule 58 


Permit tree cutting in wa tan land ... 


R. 5295(22)-!!. 


80 (and sec. 65) ... 


To specially selected Mamlatdars 


R. 8459-08, 5295- 






(32)-! 1, 


37, 42, 64, (5, 66 


Co confirm sale at any auction when the 


R. 3520-12. 


(and sec. 170). 


Collector has previously fixed (Bule 
128) an upset price which is realized 






'For powers as to auctions; see Chap- 






ter XVIII.) 




Revised Bale 81 (and 


To 




Sec. 65) 


All Mamlatdars and Mahalkari*. To 


R. No. 6*06/28 




grant permission to use land for 


of 11-11-31. 




N. A. purposes in Class 11 villages 






subject to the conditions laid down 






by the Collector. 




18, 19, 133, 61 and 


To 




202 


Hnzur Mamlatdar of Surat and 


G. R,, R. D., 




and. Broach 


No. 8587/28 






dated 14-4-32 




Ahmedabad 


G. R., R. D. 






No. 8587/28 






dated 5-7-32. 




Dhulia, Jalgaon, Nasik and Bijapur 


G. B. R. D., 






No. 8587/28 






dated 30-8-32. 




To 






Huzur Mamlatdar of Ahmedabad 


G. R. B. D., 


L. B. Bale 51 (2) ... 




No. 8587/28 






dated 5-7-32. 




Bijapur 


G. B., R. D., 






No. 8587/28 






dated 30-8-32. 


18, 19, 133, 61 and 


To 




202 


Huzur Mamlatdar of Thaua 


G. R. B. D., 






No. 8587/28 






dated 1-10-32. 



BEOS. 12-lft] OoNBTITtmON AND toWEES OP REVENUE-OtfFICEBS 15 

Under other laws and rnlea powers hfcve been given to Mamlatdars : 

(1) to enter the heirs of Summary Settlement (Glass 11 unstarred) Inams ; 

(2) to appoint, give leave and determine heirs of inferior village servants 
(F. 595-07) 5 

(3) to permit catting of trees in unco mm u ted service lands [R. 5295 
(22) 11. 

IX. In issuing his delegation order to the Mamlatdar the Collector can 
reserve any power he thinks fit, which will then bo exercised only by the 
Prant Officer. 

[Vide Anderson's Bombay Land Revenue Rules (1021), 1st ed. of 1930, pp. 0-8.] 

Chitnises to Collectors and Head clerks to Collectors 

are graded with Mamlatdars (G. R. No. 8881, dated 23rd December 1891, R. D., 
and Q. R. No. 249, F.D., dated 26th March 1929). See also JoglekaSs Supplement 
to his Land Revenue Code, pp. 10-11. 

13. Whenever it may appear necessary to the Governor in 

Council, ihe Collector may [a] appoint to a 
The Mahalkari; taluka one or more Mahalkaris [a] ; and, 

subject to the orders of Government and of 
the Commissioner, the Collector may [b] assign to a Mahalkari [/>] 
within his local limits such of the duties and powers of a Mamlatdar 

as he may from time to time see fit, and may 
his duties and powers. a l so from time to time direct whether the 

Mahalkari's immediate superior shall, for the 
purpos3s.of section 203 (V], be deemed to be the Mamlatdar or the 
Assistant or Deputy Collector, or the Collector in charge of the 
taluka ; [d] when a defined portion of a taluka is placed in charge 
of a Mahalkari, such portion shall be called a mahal. [rf] 

Delegation Of power to Mahalkari. In delegating to a Mahal- 
kari, the Collector will probably reserve more powers, and he will aho specify 
whether the Mahalkari is to be considered the immediate subordinate of the Main- 
latdar or of the Assistant Collector for tho purposes of section 203 (appeals, etc.). 
The Collector can also appoint a Mahalkari and assign certain powers to him 
without specifying the local limits of his mahal (R. 0824-14), but the necessity of 
such appointment shall be reported to Government (sec 13). In such a case he 
will be practically a Deputy Mamlatdar within the taluka, exercising such power 
as may be given to him; and he will not be "below the rank of an Aval Karkun" 
for the purposes of the Record of Rights. (6). 

Survey Mamlatdars are appointed by the Commissioner of Survey (R. 113- 
16) ; but their powers are those of revenue officers under Chapter XA (Record of 
Bights), not oi survey officers under sec. 18. 



[aa] These words were substituted by Bom. Act IV of 1913, s. 9 (1), for 
the words "appoint a Mahalkari to be in charge of a defined portion of a taluka." 

[bb] These words were substituted by Bom. Act IV of 1913, s. 9 (1), for 
the words 4 'assign to him." 

[e\ Words repealed by Bom. Act 111 of 1886 are omitted. 

These words were added by Bom* Act IV of 1923, s. 9 (1), 



16 THE BOMIUY LAND REVENUE CODE [ OHA*. II 

A Mahalkari may perform the clerical work of preparing the Irrigation Re- 
cord of Eights, but cannot be appointed a Oanal Officer under s. 76 (1) of the 
Irrigation Act, Bom. Act VI of 1879 (Vide G. B. No. 7418 of 1918). 

An Extra Aval Karkun is frequently treated as such a Mahalkari. He has 
power to try Assistance (sec. 86) (R. 8616-91) and Possessory suits (under section 
3 of the Mamlatdars' Courts Act) (B. 72-00, 8269-06). 

The powers of a Mamlatdar's First or Aval Karkun are regulated by sec. 14. 
He has been specially given power to sign notices of demand under sec. 162 and 
may remit the fees if wrongly charged [B. 5295 (72) and (73-11] and to receive 
rajinamas under sec. 74 (R. 1743-89,7428-05). He can also levy fees up to a 
maximum of Bs. 15 in each case under sec 135 (F) (B. 7623-9-4-24 and 13-4-24). 
An Aval Karkun can exercise in the absence of the Mamlatdar any powers speci- 
fically given by the rules (7 ) to Mamlatdars [see Rules 54, 67-69, 74 (2), 96, 
108 and 188]. A substitute appointed under sec. 1 5 can DOW exercise powers 
under the Mamlatdars' Courtis Act by sec. 3 as amended by Act 31 of 1906 (I. 
L. R. 25 Bom 318, 36 Bom. 277), B. 8507-07 gave the Aval Karkun power to 
try rent suits up to a 11 1 it of Bs. 50 : which is now raised to Bs. 100 by Bs 
208-21. [N] The Collector may also delegate the power to selected Treasury 
Head Kirkune. B. (L 0.) 54122-9-23. 

"Powers of Collector under section 154, Land Revenue Code, can be delegated 
to an Extra Aval Karkun either by name or by designation An Extra Aval 
Karkun is not a Mamlatdar or a MahUki ri within the meaning of section 12 or 
section 13 of the Land Revenue Code. The powers of a Collector under section 
156 cannot be delegated to Mm." (B. 6315-28 of 17th November 1930). (Ander- 
son's L. R. Rules, ed. of 1930, p. 8). 

Superior Of Mahalkari. Assistant or DepLty Collector in charge of 
the talukas was declared to be the immediate superior of the Mahalkari (G.R.R.D. 
No. 4258, dated 1st May 1906). 

14. It shall be competent to a Mamlatdar or Mahalkari, subject 

to such general orders as may from time to 

Mamlatdar or Mahal- time be passed by the Commissioner or by 

kari may depute sub- ^e Collector, to employ any of his subordi- 

cen 6 o 9 f his" dSS nate. to perform and portion of his minis- 

terial duties : provided that all acts and orders 

of his subordinates when so employed shall be liable to revision and 

confirmation by such Mamlatdar or Mahalkari [a]. 

15. If a Mamlatdar or Mahalkari is disabled from performing 

his duties, or for any reason vacates his office, 
Mamlatdar or Mahal- Qr kaves hifi taluka Or ma k alj or dieSj such 

rary^aca^cy? temp " subordinate as may be designated by orders 
to be issued from time to time on this behalf 
by the Collector shall succeed temporarily to the said Mamlatdar's 
or Mahalkari's office and shall be held to be the Mamlatdar or 
Mahalkari under this Act until the Mamlatdar or Mahalkari re- 
sumes charge of his taluka or naahal, or until such time as a sue- 
cessor is duly appointed and takes charge oi his appointment. 

[a] Words r^ealodl>y~Act~XVI of 1895 and Bom. Act IV oi 1913, B. 9 (2) 
0re omitted. 



BIOS. 14-18 J CONSTITUTION AND POW^BS OF REyjsNUE-OmcEBi 17 



Head Karkun taking temporary charge of offloe of Mamlat- 

dar. A Karkun taking temporary charge of the office during the absence of the 
Mamlatdar on casual leave ia nob a revenue officer ordinarily exercising the powers 
of a Mamlatdar. He is an officer exercising on an extraordinary occasion some 
such powers under this section (Ningapa v. Dodapa, 21 Bom. 558). 

Substitute designated under this seotion not competent to 

exercise powers Of Mamlatdar. A substitute designated under this sec. 
tion can now exercise the powejs conferred by the Mamlatdars Act, 1876, as 
amended by Bom. Act II of 1906, on a Mamlatdar to whose office hehaa tempo- 
rarily succeeded (Deorao v. Narayandas, 25 Bom. 318, F. B ). See also 36 Bom, 

277. 

16. In villages where no hereditary Patel or Village Account- 

Sti endiar Patel and aDt ex * sts > ifc sha ^ ^e lawful for the Collector, 
Village 11 Accountant*^ under the general orders of Government ^ and 
be appointed where no of the Commissioner, to appoint a stipen- 
hereditary Patel or diary Patel or a Village Accountant who shall 
Village-Accou n t a n t perform respectively all the duties of here- 
6X19 8t ditary Patels or Village Accountants as herein- 

after prescribed in this Act or in any other 
law for the time being in force, and shall hold their situations under 
the rules in force with regard to subordinate revenue-officers. 

Nothing in this section shall be held to affect any subsisting 

. . rights of holders of alienated villages or 

ho?dTo g f e l r d vif- other. .in respect of the appointment of Patels 

Iag e8 . and Village Accountants in any alienated or 

other villages. 

17. Subject to the general orders of Government and of the 

Commissioner, the Collector shall prescribe 
Village Accountant to f rom time to time what registers, accounts 



the Collector 5 Accountant [a]. 

It shall be the duty of the Village Accountant to prepare, 

whenever called upon by the Patel of his 

and to prepare public village, or by any superior Revenue or Police 

wrifcin S 8 ' officer of the taluka or district to do so, all 

writings connected with the concerns of the 

village which are required either for the use of Government or the 

public, such as notices, reports of inquests, and depositions and 

examinations in criminal matters. 

18. For the purposes of Chapters VIII, IX and X [6] the 

Governor in Council may appoint such officers 

Survey Officers : A9 ma y f rom time to time appear necessary. 

Such officers shall be designated "Commis- 

\a\ Words repealed by Act XVI of 1895 are omitted. 
f.M Words repealed by Bom. Act III of 1886 are omitted, 



18 THE BOMBAY LAND REVENUE OODK. [Oiup. II 

sioner of Survey," "Superintendent of Survey," "Survey Settle- 
ment Officers" and "Assistant" or otherwise as may seem requisite, 
and shall be subordinated the one to the other in such order as the 
Governor in Council may direct. 

Subject to the orders of the Governor in Council, the officers 
so appointed are vested with the cognizance of 
their duties and powers. a u matters connected with survey and settle- 
ment, and shall exercise all such powers and 
perform all such duties as may be prescribed by this or any other 
law for the time being in force. 

19. It shall be lawful for the Governor in Council to appoint 

one and the same person, being otherwise 

Combination of offices, competent according to law, to any two or 

more of the offices provided for in this 

chapter, or to confer upon an officer of one denomination all or any 

of the powers or duties of any other officer or officers within 

certain local limits or otherwise as may seem expedient. 

Note. The Mamlatdar of Poona City ia authorised to exercise the powers of 
a Mamlatdar in the Haveli Taluka of the Poona District for the purposes of as. 
86 and 87 of the Oode (B. GL G-. 1898, Pt. I, p. 1058). 

Certain officers' ap- 20. The appointment of all officers 

pointments to be noti- mentioned in sections 4 to 13 and 18 and 19 
fled * shall be duly notified. 

Any officer appointed to act temporarily for any such officer 

shall exercise the same powers and perform 

Acting appointments, the same duties as might be performed or 

exercised by the officer for whom he is so 

appointed to act. 

21. Subject to rules [a] made under section 214, the ap- 
pointment of all members of the establish- 
Establishmcnts. ments of the undermentioned officers shall, 

unless otherwise directed by Government, be 
made by those officers respectively, viz: 
the Commissioners, 
the Collectors, 

the Commissioner of Survey, 
the Superintendent of Survey, 
the Survey Settlement Officer. 

The appointment of all members of the establishments of all 
other officers mentioned in the foregoing sections of this chapter 
shall be made in their respective departments by the Collector and 
the Superintendent of Survey : provided that it shall be lawful for 
them to delegate such portion of this power as they may deem fit 
to any subordinate officer, but subject to the retention of a right of 
revision at any time of the appointments that may be made by such 
subordinate officers. 

ff] Words repealed by Bom. Act IV of 19 1 3, s. 10 ; are omitted, 



SBOS. 19-J3 ] OoNaniUTioN AND POWERS OF REVENUE-OFFICERS 10 

Note. From 1907 the functions of the Survey Department have been en- 
trusted to the Settlement Commissioner who is also the Director of Land Re- 
cords. The Land Records Staff of the Director consists of three Superinten- 
dents, one for each Division, a District Inspector or Survey Mamlatdar for each 
District and a staff of Circle Inspectors (vide para. 12 of Government Selection 
No. OO XXVII, new series (Sathe's Land Revenue Code, 4th ed., p. 20). 

22. The Governor in Council shall from time to time by 
notification prescribe what revenue officers 
shall use a seal, and what size and descrip- 
tion of seal shall be used by each of such 
officers, [a]. 

SEALS TO BE USED BY RKVENUE OFFICERS 

(1) The officers mentioned bolow shall hive and u?o seals, ris : 

(1) Commissioners of Divisions, aad the Ojnarssionor in Sind : 

(2) Deputy Commissioners in Sind ; 

(3) Collectors ; 

(4) Assistant Collectors ; 

(5) Deputy Collectors (including Treasury Officers of the Deputy Collectors 

Grade), and Superintendents of Land Records and Agriculture ; 

(6) Mamlatdar 3 ; 

(7) Mahalkaris ; 

(8) Mukhtyarkars (Sind) ; 

(9) Huzur Treasurers (Central Division), (S, D.) and (N. D.); 

(10) City Survey Officers (N. D.) ; 

(11) Magistrate of Bandra invested with pawers under Act III of 1876 

(now Act II of 1906); 

(12) District Inspectors of Land Records and Agriculture in the Northern, 

Central and Southsrn Divisions ; 

(13) Assistants in charge, Head Quarters Offices, Agricultural Depart- 
ment, Dharwar and Poona, and in the Northern Division when ap- 
pointed ; and 

(2) that the seals shall be circular and of the following dimensions and 

material : 

(a) Silver seals of which the diameter should be 1| inches for the officers 
named at serial numbers (1) to (3) hereinbefore mentioned ; 

(b) Saals of brass, capper or guninebal (whichever may be the most dura- 
ble material) of which the diameter should be IA inches for the 
officers named at serial numbers (4) and (5) hereinbefore mentioned ; 

(o) Seals of brass, copper or gunmetal (whichever may be the most dura- 
ble material) of which the diameter should be one inch only for the 
officers named at serial numbers (6) to (13) hereinbefore mentioned; 
and 

(3) that pending the preparation of the abovementioned seals, the seals 

hitherto used shall continue to be used by such of the officers herein, 
before mentioned as have used them. (B. G. G. 1896, pt. I, pp. 1161, 
1340 \lUd. 9 1897, p. 820). 

fa] Words repealed by Bom. Act III of 1886 are omitted, 



20 THE BOMBAY LAND REVENUE CODE [ OHAP. Ill 

Metal seals. ^. suggestion was made thfct for the purposes of s. 22, metal 
seals may be used for merely sealing purposes, . e., when wax is to be impressed, 
and for all other purposes rubber seals may be used. The present practice of 
using metal seals for all purposes should continue (G. B. No. 4764-24, dated 23- 
12-192) quoted in Joglekar's Supplement No. 2 to his Land Revem* Code, p. 2), 

CHAPTER III 

OF THE SECURITY TO BE FURNISHED BY CERTAIN REVENUE OFFICERS 

AND THE LIABILITY OF PRINCIPALS AND SURETIES 
23. It shall be lawful for government to direct that such re- 
venue officers as it deems fit shall, previously 
wtaTSSrlwi d Tr- to ent " Q S "Ron their office, furnish security 
nish security, and to to suc " amount as (jovernment may in each 
what amount. case deem expedient, either by deposit of 

Government-paper duly endorsed, accom- 
panied by a power to sell, or in the form contained in Schedule 
B. [a]. 

The amount for which such security shall be furnished may 
be varied, from time to time, by order of Government, which shall 
also determine the number of sureties to be required when security 
is taken in the form of Schedule B. 

Security. The revenue officers hereinbelow mentioned shall previously 
to entering upon their office furnish security, according to this section, to the 
following amounts : 

3* 

1. Head Accountants ... ... ... ... 6,000 

2. Mamlatdars ... ... ... ... 6,000 

3. First Karkuns to Mamlatdars ... ... ... 3,000 

4. Special Head Karkuns for payment of Military pensions... 1,000 
6. Treasury Nagdi Karkuns (to Mamlatdars and Mihalkaris). 500 

6. Mahalkari with Treasury ... ... ... 3,000 

7. First Karkun to Mahalkari with treasury ... ... 1.000 

8. Shroff Karkuns to Mahalkari of Kohistan and Keti Bandar 1,000 

9. Mahalkari without treasury ... ... ... 600 

10. Treasurer at Poona ... ... ... 80,000 

11. Treasurer at Kanara, Kolaba and Ratnagiri ... 20,000 

12. All other Treasurers ... ... ... 40,000 

13. First Karkuns to Treasurers of Kanara, Kolaba and 

Batnagiri ... ... ... ... i >00 o 

14. All other First Karkuns to Treasurers ... % .. 2,000 

15. Second Karkun to Poona Treasurer ... ... 2,000 

16. Karkuns other than any of the foregoing employed in 

Huzur Mamlatdars' or Mahalknri's offices on shroffs 

work... ... ... ... ... 1,000 

17* Karkuns for payment of Military pensions... ... 500 

18. Supervising Tapedars in Bind ... ... ... 1,000 

[a] Words repealed by Bom. Act III of 1886 are 



20. 2j &ECUBlTt TO fcE *'XJBNIb&D BY JUvENUE-OFtflCEfc &i 

Rs. 

19 Tapedars in Sind ... ... ... ... 1,000 

20. Stipendiary Patels 01 Village Accountants appointed 
under sec. 16, and Japtidars appointed by the Collector 

to manage attached Khoti villages ... ... 200 

21. Karkuns or Clerks who write the registers of copying, 
comparing, search and inspection fees and of bhatta and 
permanent advances and take charge of moneys depoeited 

for those purposes in Revenue Courts ... ... 200 

22. Head-quarter Assistants in Survey Offices ... ... 200 

23. Accountant in the office of the Commissioner in Sind ... 1,000 

24. City Maintenance Surveyors ,.. ... ... 200 

Provided that in the case of the officers specified in Nos. 3 and 16 the amount 

of security to be furnished may be raised by the Commissioner to such amount not 
exceeding five thousand rupees as he thinks fit : and in No. 20, he may exempt in 
special cases, c. g., Khoti villages. 

"One Government servant should not be allowed to stand as surety for another 
for the purposes of section 23, Land Revenue Code. 77 (R. 6064-28 of 1st Novem- 
ber 1930). 

After the issue of Resolution No. 4418 of 1916 all powers of Government 
under sec. 23 are delegated to the Commissioner in Sind under Act V of 1868. 

"In Sind a Government servant serving in one d epartment should be permit- 
ted to stand surety for a Government servant serving in another department, pro- 
vided, in the case of Hindus, that they are not members of the same joint family. 

2. Retired Government servants and servants of local bodies should not be 
debarred from standing sureties for Government servants/ 7 

(G. R., R. D. No. 6084-28 of 2-12-31). 

Security to be furnished be for e entering on appointment. When any person is 
appointed to any office specified in the Order, whatever may be the probable dura- 
tion of his tenure thereof, he shall, before entering thereon, furnish security to the 
amount specified or to such smaller amount as the co Hector may, in the particular 
case, deem reasonable and sufficient. 

Number of sureties. Where he executes a bond, the number of sureties shall 
be ono or more, at his option, if the amount of feecnrity does not exceed one 
thousand rupees; and otherwise shall be not less than two. 

Duties of heads oj offices in respect of securities. (1) Heads of offices in which 
any officer required to furnish security is serving will be held responsible for seeing 
that the necessary security is duly furnished, and that it is good and sufficient both 
at the time it is first furnished and thereafter, until it is no longer required. 

(2) For this purpose heads of offices shall carefully scrutinize the security and 
satisfy themselves as to its sufficiency both when it is first offered and also once a 
year after it has been accepted, and if they deem it insufficient, shall require the 
officer concerned to furnish additional or fresh security. 

(3; Care must be taken that no one person is accepted as surety on behalf of 
a disproportionately large number of officers, whether such officers belong to the 
same office or department or not. 

(4) No Karkun should ordinarily have in his custody more than the amount 
for which he has given security; surplus should be placed in the treasury. 

A tegister of securities to le lijt ly Cclhcttr. -(') 1 be Collector shall keep a 
register of all eccnrities j unit IK 1} ml iffcu ii> big difctikt in accordance 5?itt 



** THE BOMBAY LAND REVENUE OoDE [ OHAJP. Ill 

Order 13 for scrutiny by the Commissioner daring his tour, and shall submit an- 
nually to the Commissioner, on 1st October, a certificate that all such securities are 
good and sufficient, 

(3) This register shall contain such particulars ai the Commissioner may 
from time to time direct. A column must be added in all cases in which to record 
immediately on receipt of notices of withdrawal (sec. 39) of a surety, 

(3) For the purposes of sec. 31 (2) an annual declaration of all landed pro- 
perty is required from all officers Anderson's L. R. Code Rules, 1921 (1st ed. of 
1930, pp. 8-12). 

24. The Collector or the Superintendent of Survey may, at 

any time after security has beon given by a 
Fresh or additional revenue officer subordinate to him, if it 
security. appear to him that the security taken is un- 

satisfactory, or if the officer is transferred 
to an office for which larger security is require?, or for other suf- 
ficient reason, demand fresh or additional security and in case of 
the officer failing to give such security within one monto after its 
being required of him may suspend or dismiss him : provided 
always that no greater security shill be demanded than is required 
by the orders of Government under the last preceding section. 

25. The Collector or the Superintendent of Survey or any 

other officer deputed by the Collector or 
Demands for money, Superintendent of Survey for this purpose 

K'i^rhingrS: <t alli " al1 case8 in W* ^ may have a 
person concerned. claim on any revenue omcer or on any person 

formerly employed as such in his department 
or district for public money or papers or otlnr Government pro- 
perty, by writing under his official seal, if ho use one, and signa- 
ture, require the money, or the particular papers or property detain- 
ed, to be delivered either immediately to the person bearing the 
said writing, or to such person on such date and at such place as 
the writing may specify. 

If the officer or other person aforesaid shall not discharge the 

money, or deliver up the papers or property 
Who may be arrested directed, he may cause him to be appre- 
and confined in mil if , , , \ J , , - .^i 

he fail to produce them, hended and may send him with a warrant, in 

the form of Schedule C, to ba confined in the 
civil jail till he discharges the sums or delivers up the papers or 
property demanded from him : 

Provided that no person shall be detained in confinement by 
virtue of any sucn warrant for a longer 
L.init to Confinement. perio( j than Qne ca l endar m0nth . 

Revenue Officers. For the purposes of ss. 25 and 26 only village 
officers are revenue officers. Vide sec. 3 (1). 

Officers issuing warrants under ss. 25 and 26 For form of 
warrant, see Schedule 0. Mamlatdars aud Mahalkaris are entitled to issue 
warrants under ss, 25 and 26, 



Sacs. 24-27J SfcctaiTY TO BE rtjBNifeHED BY BEVENUE-OFFICEBS 



23 

26. The Collector of his own motion, if the officer or other 
person is or was serving in his department 
and di . strict > and U P OD the application of the 
arrears of revenue ; Superintendent of Survey, if *uch officer or 
person is or was serving in the survey de- 
partment in his district, may also take proceedings to recover any 
public moneys due by him in the same manner and subject to the 
same rules as are laid down in this Act for the recovery of arrears 
of land revenue from defaulters, and, for the purpose of recovering 
, , public papers or other property appertaining 

4be1d7o r e n - to Government may issue a search warrant 
covery of papers or anc * exercise all such powers with lespect 
property. thereto as maybe lawfully exercised by a 

Magistrate under the provisions of Chapter 
VII of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1872.* 

It shall be the duty of all persons in possession of such public 
moneys, papers or other property appertain- 
Persons m possession ing to Government to make over the same 
of public moneys^ &i\, & . . , . ~ n , 

bound to give them forthwith to the Collector, and every person 
up. knowing where any such property is con- 

cealed shall be bound to give information of 
the same to the Collector. 

i7. * The surety or sureties of such officer or other person as 
is aforesaid, who may enter into a bond, in 

Surety to be liable in tfa f o g chedu l e fi, shall be liable to be 
tne same manner as ^ *. . . . ,,' -, n i 

principal. proceeded against jointly and severally in the 

same manner as his or their principal is liable 

to be proceeded against, in case of default, and notwithstanding 
such principal may be so proceeded against : 

provided always that in any case of failure to discharge ro 

make good any sum of money due to Govern- 

Extent of liability. ment Qr to pr0( juce any property of Govern- 

ment of ascertained value no greater sum 

than is sufficient to cover any loss or damage which the Govern- 

ment may actually sustain by the default of the principal, shall be 

recovered from the surety or sureties as the amount which may be 

due from such surety or sureties under the terms of the security- 

bond executed by him or them : 

And provided also that the said surety or sureties shall in no 

case be liable to imprisonment in default of 

^ Sureties not liable to pr0( j u cino; public papers or property, if he or 

nPa?r P they pay into the Government treasury the 

whole or such part of the penalty named in 

the bond as may be demanded, 

* See now Act V of 1898. 



24 THE BOMBAY LAND REVENUE CODE, 1879 [ OHAP. IV 

28. If an officer or other person as aforesaid, or his surety or 
A sureties against whom a demand is made, 

intaVm^byfarS ^11 give sufficient security in the form of 
ing certain security, ob- schedule D, the Collector shall cause such 
tain his release. officer or surety if in custody to be liberated, 

and countermand the sale of any property 
that may have been attached, and restore it to the owner. 

29. The liability of the surety or sureties shall not be affected 

by the death of a principal, or by his appoint- 
Liability of surety men ^ t a situation different from that which 

not affected by death fae hel( j hen ^ fe d executed, but 

of principal or by his . .. . . . ' 

taking a different ap- s " a " continue so long as the principal occu- 
pointment. pies any situation in which security is re- 

quired under section 23, and until his bond is 
cancelled. 

The heirs of a deceased officer shall be liable by suit in the 

Civil Court for any claims which Govern- 

Liability ot heirs of ment may have against the deceased, in the 

deceased officer. game way as the y WOU 1 ( J b Q 0r s i m ilar claims 

made by an individual. 
30. Any surety, whether under a separate or joint bond, may 

withdraw from his suretyship at any time on 
SS? SShSt "i ftating in writing, to the officer to whom 

e D0nc * bas been given, that he desires so to 

withdraw ; and his responsibility under the 
bond shall cease after sixty days from the date on which he gives 
such writing as to all demands upon his principal concerning 
moneys, papers or other property for which his principal may be- 
come chargeable after the expiration of such period of sixty days> 
but shall not cease as to any demands for wnich his principal may 
have become liable before the expiration of such period, even 
though the facts establishing such liability may not be discovered 
till afterwards. 



CHAPTER IV 

OF CEBTAIN ACTS PROHIBITED TO REVENUE-OFFICERS, AND OF THEIR 

PUNISHMENT FOR MISCONDUCT 

31. No revenue officer shall, except with the express permis- 
_, ..... sion of Government, or of the Collector, or 

Prohibited acts. Superintendent of Survery to whom he is 

subordinate, 

(1) engage in trade, or be in any way concerned, directly or 
. , indirectly, either as principal or agent, in 

5 any commercial transaction whatever 5 



SEOB. 28-31 ] Acrs PROHIBITED TO REVENTJE-OJFFICEBS 25 

(2) purchase or bid, either in person or by agent, or in his 

own name or in the name of another, or 
not to purchase at jointly or in shares with others, for any pro- 
public sale-, perty w k ic k mayj un( j er the p rov i s } ons 

this Act or of any other law for the time be- 
ing in force, be sold by order of any revenue or judicial authority in 
the district in which such officer is at the time employed; 

(3) hold directly or indirectly any farm or be in any way 

concerned on his private account in the col- 
not to bo concerned in lection of payment of revenue of any kind in 
the revenue} the district in which he is at the time em- 

ployed ; 
and no revenue officer shall 

(4) derive either for himself or for any other individual any 

profit or advantage beyond his lawful salary 

nsfof pubUc 8 mo^t Or emolument ^ ? V" m0 <f f f 
property , P er ty wlt " the collection or charge of which he 

is entrusted or connected ; or 

(5J demand or receive under the colour or by the exercise of 
his authority as such revenue officer, or by 

not to make or receive f grati fi cat i on or otherwise, Or knowiog- 

undue exactions or pro- , J *? , , J , -, 

SontS r ly permit any other person to demand or 

receive on his behalf, any sum or any con- 
sideration whatever over anl above what he is legally entitled to 
demand or receive under the provisions of this Act or of any Other 
law for the time being in force. 

Talatisnot to act as money lenders. Talatis detected to be engaged 
as money-lenders in their villages should at one-o ba dUmis33d (Gr, K. No. 4120, 
dated 15th August 187S). 

Stipendiary village accountants not to hold land other 

than hereditary. Clauses (1) and (2) of this section should be construed 
strictly in the case of stipendiary village accountants and permission should not be 
given to them to engage in money-lending or to purchase landa at public sales. 
Clause (3), if strictly enforced, would prohibit them from holding any lands pay- 
ing revenue to Government. But there is no objection to the holding of hereditary 
lands by stipendiary village accountants or absolutely to their holding of lands 
purchased otherwise than at a public sale. Ihis section requires that every revenue 
officer who holds land paying revenue to Government in the district in which he is 
employed should obtain permission to continue to hoM it, and the Collector can 
give or withhold permission according to the merits of each case, taking care that 
his orders are not unduly harsh. If the Collector considers that the position of a 
talati as a holder of land in his own village taluka or district conflicts, in any case 
with the proper performance of his duty as a village accountant, he can have him 
transferred (Q. B, No, 5635, dated 31st July 1883). 



88 THE BOMBAY LAND REVENUE CODE, 1879 [OHAP. IV 

82, Subject to rules [a\ made under section 214, all revenue- 
officers may be fined, reduced, suspended or 
Power of fining, reduc- dismissed for any such offence as is described 

Sn7t b |h a om d t in the last P recedin S section ' <* for ^7 breach 
ves t. of departmental rules Or discipline, or for 

carelessness, unfitness, neglect of duty or other 
misconduct;, by the authority by whom such officer is appointed; or 
by any authority superior to such authority ; and this power may 
be delegated by such first-mentioned authority, in whole or in part, 
to any subordinate officer on the same condition that the power of 
appointment may be delegated under section 21 : 

Provided that, excepting Mamlatdars, no 

rvenue fficer ' wh se m0nthl y 8ala T ^cecd" 
250, to be fined, R S 250, shall be fined, suspended, reduced, or 
&c., only by order of dismissed except by order of the Governor in 

the Governor in Ooun- Council, 
cil. 

Mamlatdars empowered to fine village officers'. The Collector 

may, under this section, delegate to a Mamlatdar the power of fining village 
officers (stipendiary as well as hereditary) subject to a right of revision and subject 
to any limitation, laid down by law or rule which the Collector may think fit to 
impose. There is no objection to the power being so delegated in any district in 
which the Collector thinks it expedient to adopt this course (G. R. No. 2116, 
dated 13th March 1883, and G. R. No. 4100, dated 30th May 1883). This last 
G. R. was obviously intended to apply to reveuue officers only, and not to override 
in any way the provisions of the Village Police Act VIII of 1867, section 9 of 
which expressly limits tin power of fining Police Patils to First Class Magistrgtes. 
If the resolution in question has been construed anywhere as empowering Mam- 
latdars to fine Patils for neglect of their Police duties, the practice is incorrect and 
should be discontinued (G. R. No. 1953, dated 15th March 1893). 

Mahalkaris empowered to fine village officers. Collectors 

are authorized to delegate to any Mahalkari in his district the power to fine 
hereditary village officers in sums not exceeding Ra. 2 subject to the conditions in 
the order (G. H. No. 5891, dated 23rd August, quoted in Sathe'a Land Revenue 
Code, 4th Ed , p. 31). 

Maximum period of suspension from office for misconduct. 

The maximum period for which suspension from office should be awardable a3 a 
specific punishment under this section thoald be fised at six months (G. R. No, 
9881, dated 19th December 1884). 

33. When any revenue officer passes an order for fining, 
reducing, suspending, or dismissing any sub- 
All such orders to be ordinate officer, he shall record such order 
made m writing. or cause the same to be recorded, together 

with the reasons therefor, in writing under 
his signature in the language of the district or in English. 

[a] Words repealci by Bom. Act IV of 1913, s. 10, are omitted. 



SEOS. 32-86 ] AOTS PBOHIBITED TO EEVENTJE-OPHOEBS 27 

34. No fine inflicted under the foregoing provisions shall in 

any case exceed the amount of two months' 

Fine not to exceed pay O f the office held by the offender at the 

two months pay ; time Qf the commigsion of 



All fines inflicted under this chapter may be recovered from 

the officer's pay or, if necessary, may be 

now recovered. realized in the same way as arrears of land- 

revenue are recoverable under this Act. 
35. If the Collector or Superintendent of Survey, whether of 
his own motion or on appeal from a subordi- 
Appeals. nate officer's order, pass an order for fining, 

reducing, suspending or dismissing any 
revenue-officer subordinate to him whose monthly salary does 
not exceed thirty-five rupees, or 

it any authority superior to the Collector or Superintendent 
of Survey psss any such order against a revenue officer whose 
monthly salary does not exceed ninety-nine rupees, no appeal shall 
lie against such order, except and provided always that at least 
one appeal shall lie against every order made, of his own motion, 
by any authority other th*n G overnment, for dismissing an officer 
whose monthly salary exceed s thirty-five rupees. 

And no appeal shall lie against any order for inflicting a fine 
not exceeding one rupee. 

Modification Of Order. No order passed by the Collector of the 
nature referred to in cl. (1) of this section should be reveried, modified or in- 
terfered with by the Commissioner. Tho object is to preclude all appeals to tho 
Commissioner when the subordinate involved gets Rs. 35orless.lt is subject to 
revision by Government (Modik's Land System a>id Viallje Administration). 

A . ....... 36. Nothing in this chapter shall affect 

to ^i 8 p any officer's liability to a criminal prosecu- 

tion not affected by tlon * or an y offence with which he may be 

this Act. charged. 

Any officer subjected to such prosecution may be suspended 

pending the trial, and at its close may, upon 

Officer may be suspend- a consideration of the circumstances brought 

le^ltS to light during^its course, be suspended,**- 

ed, reduced or dismiss- duced, OF dismissed by any competent autho- 

ed t rity, whether he have been found guilty oir 

not, 



28 TBS BOMBAY LAND BEVBNTJE CODE 1879 [ OHAP. V 

CHAPTER V. 

OF LAUD AND LAND-BEVENUE 

37. [a] (1) All public roads, lanes and paths, the bridges, 
ditches, dikes and fences, on, or beside, the 
All public roads, &3., sai ne, the bed of the sea and of harbours and 
l lan p d rop W eX a o7 creek8 bel 7 high-water mark, and of rivers, 
others, belong to Gov- streams, nalas, lakes and tanks, and all canals, 
ernment. and water-courses, and all standing and flow- 

ing water, and all lands, wherever situated, 
which are not the property of individuals or of aggregates of per- 
sons legally capable of holding property, and except in so far as 
any rights of such persons may be established in or over the same, 
and except as may be otherwise provided in any law for the time 
beinc; in force, are and are hereby declared to be, with all rights in 
or over the same, or appertaining thereto, the property of Govern- 
ment; and it shall be lawful for the Collector, subject to the orders 
of the Commissioner, to dispose of them in such manner as he may 
deem fit, or as may be authorized by general rules sanctioned by 
Government, subject always to the rights of way, and all other 
rights of the public or of individuals legally subsisting. 

Explanation. In this secrion "high-water mark" means the 
highest point reached by ordinary spring-tides at any season of 
the year. 

[/>] (2) ^ here any property or any right in or over any pro- 
perty is claimed by or on behalf of Government or by any person as 
against Government, it shall be lawful for the Collector or a survey 
officer, after formal enquiry of wh ; ch due notice has been given, to 
pass an order deciding the claim. 

[b] (3) Any suit instituted in any Civil Court after the ex- 
piration of one year from the date of any order passed [c] under 
sub-section (1) or sub-section (2), or, if one or more appeals have 
been made against such order within the period of limitation, then 
from the date of any order passed by the final appellate authority, 
as determined according to section 204, shall be dismissed (al- 
though limitation has not been set up as a defence) if the suit is 
brought to set aside such order or if the relief claimed is in- 
consistent with such order, provided that in the case of an order 
under sub-section (2) the plaintiff has had due notice of such 
order. 

[6] (4J Any person shall be deemed to have had due notice 
of an enquiry or order under this sectition if notice thereof has 
been given in accordance with rules made iu this behalf by the 
Governor in Council. 

[a] This was originally s. 37.lt was numbered sub-section (1) of section 37 
by Bom. Act. XI of 1912 s. 1. 

[b] These sub-sections were added by Bom. Act XI of 1012 s. 1. 

[c] Words repealed by Bom. Act II of 1919, second Schedule are omitted. 



SBO. 3? ] OF L^ND AND 

Public highway. This section does not authorize the Government to 
obstruct or divert a public highway (Ardeshir v. Almai, 63 Bom. 187). 

Streets. Under s. 50 (2) of the Bombay District Municipal Act, 1901, 
streets vest in municipalities; i t e., the ownership of the soil does not so vest, bat 
the surface and so much of the sub-soil as may be necessary for the purpose of 
the street does vest, the municipality being in the position of a trustee (G, K. 
No. 2640, dated 7th March 1924). 

Beds of rivers. The sovereign's rights are as great under the Hindu 
and Mahomedan laws as under the English. The property in the beds of navig- 
able rivers as in the seashore and the bottom of the sea is reckoned amongst the 
jura regalia of the crown (G. E. No, 1004, dated 10-3-1877 quoted in Joglekar's 
Land Revenue Code, p. 57). 

Village Sites (QaVthan). According to the custom of the country 
the proprietary right in all village sites vests in Government unless it has been 
unmistakably published (G. Bs. No3. 4239, dated 24th July 1873 and 5292, dated 
22nd September 1873 quoted in Joglekar's Land Revenue Code, p. 57). 

Waste lands. Waste lands belong to the state and a permanent private 
right cannot be implied from the levy of a rate on a casual and desultory use of 
the soil (G. R. No. 2493, dated 4-5-1881, quoted inJoglekar's Land Revenue 
Code, p. 58). 

Suit to recover possession of land Limitation. Lands form- 
ing part of a river-bed were leased by the Collector for cultivation to defendant 
No. 2 The plaintiff who owned lands on the bank of the river laid claim to the 
lands in dispute, but his claim was negatived by the Collector under this section 
on July 16, 1912. The plaintiff appealed against the Collector's order, the last 
appeal having been decided on July 16 ; 1913. The plaintiff sued, on April 6, 
1914, to recover possession of the lands. Held, that the suit was barred under 
Art. 14 of the Limitation Act, 1908, inasmuch as the Collector's order having 
been passed before this section was amended by Act XI of 1912, time began to 
run from the date of the order and not from the final order in appeal (Chhotubhai 
c. Secretary of State, 22 Bom. L. R. 146). 

Khots liave right to cultivate land left dry in a river 

adjoining their land. Where the Khots of a village claimed a right to 
occupy and cultivate land left dry in the river bed, as far as the middle of the bed 
opposite their Khoti village, it was held that they were entitled to this right, and 
this section was not a bar to such a right (Secretary of State v. Wasudeo, 31 Bom. 
456). 

Collector's action, Where the Coll ector, acting under the povisioLS of 
this section, purports to deal with land which is prima facia the property of an 
individual who has been in peaceable occupation thereof and not of Government, 
and passes an order with reference thereto, he is not dealing with that land In his 
official capacity, but is acting ultra vires (Malkajeppa t;. Secretary of State, 36 
Bom. 325). 

Collector's power. The Collector acts ultra vires if he interferes with 
private land; his powers extend only to ownerless land (Secretary of State v. Mush- 
tak Singh, 1 S. L. R. 109). 

Title Of Government. This section does nob confer title on Govern- 
ment and there is no presumption of title in favour of Government even as to 
village sites (Sultan Muhammad v, Secretary of State, (8 S. L, R. 331). 



W THE BOMBAY LAND RavBHtiE OODB, 1879 [ ***' IV 

Government ownership of road ways. Government is the 

owner of the land forming roadways through the village site of a bhagdari village. 
All the land of the village site of a bhagdari is not the property of the bhagdars. 
The bhagdari tenure is a particular system of collecting the Government revenue* 
A bhagdar can have only those village fields and the portion or the village site as 
are assigned to him by the Government. He cannot claim the proprietorship of 
each lands as he is liable to pay rent or assessment to the Government for these 
landfl (Umar Annaji Miyajiv. Sec etary of State for India, 37 Bom. 87). 

Sub-Sections (2) and (3). In its original form section 37 only pro- 
vided for the disposal by the Collector of Government property, and did not 
provide for any enquiry where there was a dispute as to whether property belong- 
ed to Government or not. This is now provided for in the new sub-sec. (2). In 
the new sub-section (3) the provisions oi s. 135 (which is now repealed) are in- 
cluded in an amplified form so as to cover all descriptions of property on which 
orders may be passed under sub-section (1) or (2). This extension is necessitated 
by the uncertainty whether the period of limitation prescribed in Art. 14 of the 
first Schedule of the Limitation Act applies to cases not covered by the original 
section 135 (Statement of Objects and Reasons). 

Appeal. An appeal against an order passed by a Collector under sub- 
section (2) of this section cannot necessarily be instituted before a suit is filed in a 
Civil Court, 

38. Subject to the general orders o Government, it shall be 
lawful for survey officers whilst survey ope- 

Landsmaybeaesign- rations are proceeding under Chapter VIII 
ed for special purposes, r n , r . . r \* ^ ,, 
and Mi and at any other time for the [6] Collec- 

tor, to set apart lands the property of Govern- 
ment and not in the lawful occupation of any person or aggregate 
of persons, in unalienated villages or unalie- 
when assigned shall not nated portions of villages, for free pasturage 

be otherwise used with- for tfae vi jj cattl for foregt reserves or 

out sanction of the Col- j. i i i i 

lecto^ for any other public or municipal purpose ; 

and lands assigned specially for any such pur- 
pose shall not be otherwise [c] used without the sanction of the 
[6] Collector; and in the disposal of land under section 37 due re- 
gard shall be had to all such special assignments. 

Notes. This section gives the Collector the power of setting apart lands for 
public purposes ; but the arrangements by which that power is to be exercised by 
Survey Officers, while survey operations are proceeding, is not thereby disturbed 
(Select Committee's Report). 

Sees. 38 to 40 (both inclusive) do not apply to any estate in the districts of 
Ahmedabad, Kaira, Broach, or Panch Mahals to which the Gujarat Takkdars' 
Act, 1888, extends (See Bom. Act VI of 1888, ss, 1 and 33), 

[a] Words repealed by Act III of 1883 are omitted. 

[b] " Collector" was substituted for "Commissioner" by Bom. Act IV of 1905, 
First Schedule. 

[c] Thia word was substituted by Bom. Act IV of 1913, s. 11, for the ori- 
ginal words "appropriated or assigned ". 



SJECS. 38-40 ] OF LA.ND AND LAND-REVENUE. 31 

"Land Set apart for any purpose" is not confined to land set apart 
under this section. Land which has from tima immemorial beeu used as aJ public 
road, is none the less set apart for that purp03e, though this may hive taken place 
years before survey operations took place under Chapter VII of the Code (Pranlal 
v. Secretary of State, P. J. 1897, p. 366). 

Municipalities can permit lands assigned as air spaces to be used for temporary 
purposes with the approval of the Collector or the local revenue officer in charge of 
the city survey. Half the proceeds derived from such uee should be paid to Govern- 
ment (G. R. No. 125-24, dated 7-2-1925, quoted in Joy Mar' t Supplement No. 2 
to his Land Reuenue Code, p. 6). 

39. The right of grazing on free pasturage lands shal* 

extend only to the cattle of the village or 

Regulation of use of villages to which such lands belong or have 

pas urage. ^ eea agg jg ne( j^ an( j g ^ a u ^ e re g u l a ted by rules 

to be from time time, either generally or in 
any particular instance, prescribed by the Collector with the sanction 
of the Commissioner. The Collector's decision in any case of dis- 
pute as to the said right of grazing shall be conclusive. 

"Village cattle." -The phrase "village cattle*' does not include the cattle 
of any roving grazier who may choose to squat for a few months on the public 
ground of a village (Collector ofThana v, Bal Patcl, 2 Bom. 110). 

40. t In villages, or portions of villages, of which the original 

survey settlement has been completed before 

Concession of Govern- the passing of this Act, the right of Govern- 
r 8 foaints ee c 8 om- ment to all trees in unalienated land except 
ploted before the pass- trees reserved by Grovernment, or by any 
ing of this Act. survey officer, whether by express order made 

at, or about, the time of such settlement, or 

nnderany rule, or general order in force at tlie time of such settle- 
ment, or by notification made and published at, or at any time 
after, such settlement, shall be deemed to have been conceded to the 
occupant. But in the case of settlements completed before the 
passing of Bombay Act I of 1865 [a] this provision shall not apply 
to teak, black- wood or sandal -wood trees. The right of Govern- 
ment to such trees shall not be deemed to have been conceded, 
except by clear and express words to that effect. 

In the case of villages or portions of villages of which the 

original survey settlement shall be completed 

Ditto, in case of settle. a f te r the passing of this Act, the right of 

ments completed after ~ r j. A n ^ r * J? i j 

the passing of this Act. Government to all trees in unahenated land 
shall be deemed to be conceded to the occu- 
pant of such land, except in so far as any such rights may be 
reserved by Government, or by any survey officer on behalf of 

[a] Bom. Act I. of 1865 (except sections 37 and 38) is repealed by s. 2 of 
this Act, which has been repealed by Bom. Act IV of 1913, s. 2. 
5 



32 THE BOMBAY LAND REVENUE CODE, 18? 9 [ CHAP. IV 

Government, either expressly at or about the time o such settle- 
ment, or generally by notification made and published at any time 
previous to the completion of the survey settlement of the district 
in which such village or portion of a village is situate. 

When permission to occupy land has been, or shall hereafter 
TV,. . . , _ be, granted after the completion of the sur- 

tE^JZt^Si ^y sHttlenient of the village or portion of 
tion of settlement. a village in which such land is situate, the 

said permission shall be deemed to include 
the concession of the right of Government to all trees growing on 
that land, which may not have been, or which shall not hereafter 
be, expressly reserved at the time of granting such permission, or 
which may not have been reserved, under any of the foregoing pro- 
visions of this section, at or about the time of the original survey 
settlement of the said village or portion of a village. 

Trees. Trees belong always to the landlord, not to the tenant. But a 
permanent tenant, the origin of whose tenancy is lost into antiquity, is entitled to 
the trees. For tenant's rights to the produce of trees, see 80 All. 134 and 38 
Bom. 716). 

"Trees reserved," 

The accused were occupants of a Survey Number in a village in which tho 
first survey settlement was introduced in 1865, and the revised settlement in 1889. 
Considerable time after the settlements, sandal- wood trees grew on . the land. 
Those trees .having been cut and removed by the accused, without the permission 
of Government, the accused were convicted of a breach of Rule 2 framed by Bom- 
bay Government under e. 75 cl. (c) of the Forest Act and punished under s. 76 of 
the Act. Held, reversing the convictions and sentences, that under this section 
the right of Government was confined to reserved trees existing at the date of tho 
settlement and that all subsequent growth belongs to the occupant (Emperor v. 
Yellappa, 45 Bom. 110). 

Forest rights. In Bombay forest rights are discussed in G. B. No. 2493, 
dated 4th June 1881. Dunlop'g (Kdaba and Ratnagiri) and Karri's (Kanara) 
proclamations are discussed in 8 Bom. H. 0. 2 and 3 Bom. 728. 

41. The right to all trees specially reserved under the pro- 
vision of the last preceding section, and to 
Governmeat trees and all trees, brushwood, jungle or other natural 
or product growing on land set apart for forest 

reserves under section 32 of Bombay Act I 
of 1365 [a] or section 38 of this Act, and to all trees, brushwood, 
jungle or other natural product, wherever growing, except in so 
far as the same may be the property of individuals or of aggre- 
gates of Individuals capable of holding property, vests in Govern- 
ment ; and such trees, brushwood, jungle or other natural product 
shall be preserved or disposed of in such manner as Government 
may from time to time direct. 

[aj Bom. 1 of 1865 (except as. 37 and 38) is repealed by s. 2 of this Act, 
which has been repealed by Bom. Act IV of 1913, 8. 5, 



SEOS. 41-43 ] OF LAND AND LAND-REVENUE S3 

"Or Other natural product," These words were added with the 
view of protecting existing rights of Government to such products as lao, honey, 
gum, resin, catacha, etc. (Proceedings of the Legislative Council). 

TrrOS in Pa til Inam land No Civil Court can try suits against Gov- 
ernment for trees in Patil Inam land (P. J,, 1893, p. 186). 

Note. The provisions in ss. 40 and 41 relating to trees on occupancies are 
based upon the principle that trees standing or growing on occupancies do not be* 
long to occupants, but belong to Government. The provisions refer to two classes 
of trees reserved, and not reserved, and declare that occupants have no manner 
of right to the trees reserved by Government. 

[a] 42. All road-side trees which have been planted and 
reared by, or under the orders of, or at the ex- 
Road-side trees. pense ^ Government, and all trees which have 

been planted and reared at the expense of 
Local Funds by the side of any road, which vests in Government, 
vest in Government [a]. But in the event of such trees dying, or 
being blown down, or being cut down by order of the Collector, 
the timber shall become the property of the holder of the land in 
which they were growing ; and the usufruct, including the lop- 
pings of such trees, shall also vest in the said holder : provided 
that the trees shall not be lopped except under the orders of the 
Collector. 

M 

43. Any person who shall unauthorizedly fell and appro- 
priate any tree or any portion thereof or re 
JrK u 6 ho! oveM from hi. holding, [c] any other 
rizedly appropriated. natural ^ product [c] whether of the like 
description or not [c] which is the property 
of Government, shall be liable to Government for the value thereof, 
which shall be recoverable from him as an arrear of land revenue, 
in addition to any penalty to which he may be liable under the 
provisions of this Act for the occupation of the land or otherwise ; 
and notwithstanding any criminal proceedings which may be in- 
stituted against him in respect of his said appropriation of Gov- 
vernment property. 

The decision of the Collector as to the value of any such tree, 
or portion thereof, or other natural product, shall be conclusive. 

"Any Other natural product." This expression does not include 
excavated stones (Afadhavdas v. Secretary of State } 6 Bom. L. B. 1117). 



[a a] This was substituted by Bom. Act IV of 1913, s. 12 (a), for the 
original paragraph. 

[b] The last two paragraphs repealed by Bom. A.ct IV of 1913, s. 12 (b), are 
omitted. 

These words were inserted by Bom. Act IV of 1905, First Schedule, 



** THE BOMBAY LAND REVETOH CODE, 1879 [ OHAP, IV 

44. In villages or lands in which the rights of Government 

Begulation of supply t0 $* * ha . been . ^erved under sec. 40 
of fire-wood and timber 8ub J ect tc > certain privileges of the villagers 
for domestic or other cr of certain classes or persons to cut 
purposes. fire-wood or timber for domestic or other 

purposes, and in lands which have been set 
apart under section 38 for forast reserves subject to such privileges, 
and in^ all other cases in which such privileges exist in respect of 
any alienated land, the exercise of the said privileges shall bo re- 
gulated by rules to be from time to time, either generally or in 
any particular instance, prescribed by the Collector or by such 
other officer as Government may direct. In any case of dispute as 
to the mode or time of exercising any such privileges the decision 
of the Collector or of such other officer shall be conclusive. 

NotO. AB to the local repeal of this section, see note 3 on p. 1, supra. 

The offence of unauthorized cutting of trees in Government 
waste land, and of reserved trees in occupied lands, can be tried under section 76 
of the Forest Act. The ruling of Koya Mavji (Or. Rg. 49, dated 6th October 
1896) is no bar to such a prosecution (G. B. No 3394, dated 26th May 1903, 
quoted in Sath's Land Revenue Code, 4fch Ed., p. 47). 

45. All land, whether applied to agricultural or other pur- 
. , , v , . poses, and wherever situate, is liable to the 

remits l%l W""t o ** enue * Government 
ally exempted. according to the rules hereinafter enacted 

except such as may be wholly exempted 
under the provisions o any special contract with Government or 
any law tor the time being in force. 

But nothing in this Act shall be deemed to affect the power of 

. _ . _ the Legislature to direct the levy of revenue 

ttaHLTff T5 n * U If* nder whatever title they may be 

necessity be overruled held whenever and so long as the exigencies 

for a time. of the State may render such levy necessary. 

Assessment of revenue. Strict proof must be given of any right set 
up in derogation of tha inherent right of the sovereign to assess the land at his 
discretion ; and the facts that the lands in question were waste lands reclaimed 
from the sea which the inhabitants were invited to cultivate, or that a very small 
rent has been paid for many years, do not show that the Government has forfeited 
its right to enhance the assessment in respect of such lands (Shapurji 9. The 
Colkctor of Bombay, 9 Bom. 488). 

Hf on-agricultural land. Non-agricultural land whether the Sarkari or 
occupied Kharabo, which has not been assessed and which is excluded from settle- 
ment guarantee, is liable to be assessed from the first year, in which the occupation 
was officially discovered (G. B. No. 7058, dated 26th September 1923, quoted in 
Joglekar'a Supplement No. 2, p. 7). 



SBC*. 44-46 ] Op LAND AND LAND REVENUE 85 

46. All alluvial lands, newly-formed islands, or abandon- 
ed river-beds which vest, under any law for 
Liability of alluvial t k e time being in force in any hoMer of 
lands to land revenue. alienated land, shall be subject in respect of 
liability to the payment of land-revenue to 
the same privileges, conditions or restrictions as are applicable to 
the original holding in virtue of which such lands, islands or river- 
beds so vest in the said holder, but no revenue shall be leviable in 
respect of any such lands, islands, or river-beds until or unless the 
area of the same exceeds half an acre and also exceeds one-tenth of 
the area of the said original holding. 

Notes. This section is subject to modification when applied to any estate 
in the districts of Ihmedabad, Kaira, Broach or Panch Mahals to which the 
Gujarat Talukdara' Act, 1888, extends (Fide Bom. Act VI of 1888, as, 1 and 33). 

This section and the following section treat of alluvion and diluvion formed 
on alienated lands, while those formed on Government land are treated in sa. 63 
and 64. 

Alluvion and Diluvion. The subject of alluvion is one of the moat 
difficult in the law of land. The references in ss. 37, 46 and 53 to 'any law for 
the time being in force' are vague ; since so far as is known, there is no such 
law in force behind the Land Revenue Oode except in the case-law or judge-made 
law based upon the common law and natural equity, and some special Municipal 
and Fort Tr,ust enactments outside Bombay Island. Alluvion must, according to 
these ruling3.be interpreted to mean strictly graduil, slow, and imperceptible \im- 
perceptible day by day as it occurs but of couree perceptible enough in the long run 
(Halsbury's Laws of England, Vol. 28, p. 362) accretion by deposit of fresh soil 
by water upon existing riparian land (Justinian and 3 Beng. L. E. p. 525, 187jO). 
Band blown by the wind or a mass of shingle suddenly flung up after a storm, or 
new land left bare by a receding sea or a diverted river is not alluvion but derelict 
land. Nor would the deposits in a river-bed which raise their surfaces above the 
hot-weather water-level be treated as alluvion in respect of a holding terminating 
on the upper edge of the steep bank of a river high above the deposit ; there is no 
physical connection bet ween them, to which the term 'accretion' would be applic- 
able (Narendra v. Achhaibar, 28 All. 647 j see also 27 All. 655). 

(This condition of gradual change does not attach to diluvion). The fact that 
a riparian holder (or even, semble, a third person) by artifice assisted the alluvion 
to form does not affect the law. The persons to whom an alluvial strip of frontage 
had been granted were evicted in favour of the riparian hissedars (G.E. No. J2383 
of 1919). Nor does the fact that it forms in situ of previous diluvion (for which 
assessment was reduced) affect the title of present riparian holders (G. E. No. 
744 of 1919). The existence of a public foot-path along the old estate boundary or 
anything else which puts a limit to the riparian owner's proporty would prevent 
the deposit of fresh soil from being an accretion, and so from being alluvial at all 
(Anderson's Land Revenue Rules, 1921, 1st ed. of 1930. pp. 69-70). 

The riparian holder is not obliged to accept possession and pay assessment or 
judi for*any accretion, alluvial or not, unless he wishes. If it is unprofitable, he 
can decline ; though he would then run the risk of the land being allotted to some 
other person. In the case of alluvion there is a limit (in the case of unalienated 



36 THE BOMBA.Y Lim> REVENUE OODB, 1879 [ OHAP. IV 

land) of one acre to his right of free enjoyomt ; and no limit of his right of occu- 
pation of alluvion subject to the payment of revenue. Conversely this seems to 
imply no title to exemption from revenue whoa the extension is not alluvial. In 
the case of an alienated riparian holding, it has first to be decided whether the 
alluvion or abandoned shore or river bed, or new island, does vest legally in the 
Inamdar. It has been held (7 Born. L. R. 872) not so to vest unless his original 
grant had covered the area now reformed or reappeared (since such grants are con- 
strued stmtly against the grantee). Again G. R. No. 744 of 1919 rejects the view 
that the alluvion formed in place of old diluvion, on the site of an inam grant, be- 
comes Inam : but no reasons are given and the order has not been confirmed by any 
legal decision. This section does not confer any proprietary ri^hb on the Inamdar, 
but simply refers us to the general hw. New islands not "formed on any bank or 
shore" and other alluvion not proved to voat in an laaoaiar would fall under s. 
63 .......... The Code gives no power to frame rules for alluvion, but 

only for diluvion, and does nob deal with the proprietary right bu" only with 
the liability to pay land revenue (or quit rent and salami, if alienated). This 
section cannot apply to Khoti or Talukdari villages, because land held by Knots 
andTalnkdars is not alienated. It might apply to Kadi in or Phut Inam lands in 
such villages (Ibid.). 

47. Every holder of land paying revenue in respect thereof 

shall be entitled, subject to such rules as may 

Assessment of land be from time to time made in this behalf by 

revenue in cases of duu- . ~ ~ ., , , J f 

v i ODt the bovernor in Council, to a decrease of 

assessment if any portion thereof, not being 
less than half an acre in extent, [a] is lost by diluvion. 
[6] * * * * 

[c] 48. ( 1) The land revenue leviable on any land under 

the provisions of this Act shall be assessed, 

Manner of assessment cr 8 h a ll be deemed to have been assessed, as 

and alteration of assess- ^. , .,, - A . ' - 

men k the case may be, with reference to the use of 

the land 

(a) for the purpose of agriculture, 
Prohibition of use of ^ f th purp0se of building, and 

land for certain pur- ) / r r r i. 

p 08es . (c) for a purpose other than agriculture 

or building, 

(2) Where land assessed for use for any purpose is used for 
any other purpose, the assessment fixed under the provisions of 
this Act upon such land shall, notwithstanding that the term for 
which such assessment may have been fixed has not expired, be 
liable to be altered and fixed at a different rate by such autho- 
rity and subject to such rules as the Governor in Council may 
prescribe in this behalf. 

() Where land held free of assessment on condition of being 
used for any purpose is used at any time for any other purpose, it 
shall be liable to assessment. 



[ a\ Words repealed by ISo-ja Ace. IV of 1913, s. 13, are omitted. * 
[b\ The para., repealed by Bom. Act IV of 1913, s. 13, is omitted. 
[c] Ihis section was substituted by Bom. Act IV^of 1913, s. 14, for the oru 
ginal section. 



SECS. 47-48] OF LAND AND LAND REVENUE S7 

(4) The Collector or a survey officer may, subject to any 
rules made in this behalf under section 214, prohibit the use for 
certain purposes of any unalienated land liable to the payment of 
land revenue, and may summarily evict any holder who uses or 
attempts to use the same for any such prohibited purpose. 

Construction and scope. This section provides only for an altered 
assessment and not an additional assessment. Where, therefore, the raiyat's agri- 
cultural assessment in virtue of the grant of a village is given to the grantee, the 
altered aasementin respect of the lands converted from agricultural to building site 
(i. e. t the building assessment) also goes to the grantee (Bomanji v. Secretary of 
State, 63 Bom. 30, P. 0.). 

"Used." The substitution of the word "used" for the word "appropriated*' 
was in accordance with the ruling reported in 3i Bom. 2 39 (Secretary of State v. 
Laldas). 

"Used for any purpose." Under cl (3) of this section where mahara 
held land rent-free of assessment for maharki service and used it for non-agricul- 
tural purposes, it was held that they could not be assessed (G. Rs. Nos. 31012 and 
5115 of 1891). Evidently "used for any purpose" is not the same as "assessed 
for a use." They could still apply the profits to remunerate their service as mahars* 
But this would Dot debar action if pot kharab of class (b) in alienated land were 
diverted from the use for which it was held free (G. R. No. 3909 of 1916). 

Non-applioation of L. R. Rules in khoti, or talukdari 

Villages nor to Thana WOOd lands. The Land Revenue Rules do not 
apply in Khoti or Talukdari villages, nor to Thana wood lards which are not 
held under settlement, but are forest lands. 

Agricultural and non-agriOUltural Use Farm buildings (mean- 
ing the residence of a cultivator or his tenants, and his barns and cattle sheda 
etc. (41 Bom. 609) or even of a landlord for the purpose of cultivating or super- 
vising the cultivation of his land, water-lifts and granaries and all that is in- 
separable from cultivation) are agricultural uses. < Agriculture' means the plough- 
ing, sowing, tilling and reaping of some crop or produced/or profit. Letting a few 
trees or flowers grow for pleasure is not agriculture. There are some (market) 
gardens in which roses, etc., can be seen cultivated for the market, wliich is cer- 
tainly agriculture. A dairy farm was held to be agricultural in G. R. No. 7307 of 
1917. Storing manure is an agricultural purpose (G. R. No. 7702 of 1899). 
But a Co-operative dairy is non-agricultural. Oane crushing and Gul boiliDg 
are essantial to cane cultivation and are not non-agricultural uses (Anderson's 
L,R. Rules, pp. 78-79). 

Land owned by or transferred or assigned to a Municipality for one purpose 
but then leased to non-agricultural uses (such as houses or Cinema Halls) ia liable 
to assessment (Ibid). 

Extra assessment. Plain tiff converted his land from agricultural to 
non-agricultural uses by establishing a brick kiln in 1872. He was called upon 
by the Collector to pay this time the assessment as fine for the conversion under 
s. 35 of Bombay Act I of 1865. Plaintiff, thereupon, erected gome huts 
on the land. At the revision of survty which took place in 1889 the land 
was assessed as agricultural. Sometime between 1897 and 1901, plaintiff erected 



4$ THE BOMBAY LAND REVENUE CODE, 1879 [ CHAP. IV 

a substantial building on the land. In 1 012 the Collector levied building fine 
from the plaintiff. Held, that though the levy of additional assessment under 
s. 35 of Bombay Act I of 1865 might have protected the plaintiff against its en- 
hancement before the Revision Survey of 1889, still this section rendered him 
liable to pay extra assessment for the conversion in use which took plaoe after the 
date of the Revision Survey of 1889 (Muhammad, Bhai v. The Secretary of State 
for India, 42 Bom. 126). 

Altered assessment when leviable. An occupant is not liable to 

pay altered assessment for his land so long as it is used for the performance of an 
operation necessary to put the crop of that land into any ordinry marketable 
form 5 for anything beyond it, altered assessment h leviable (G. U No. 5321, 
dated 14-12-1922, quoted in Joghkar's Supplement No. 2, p. 7). 

Co-Operative Housing Societies, In the case of Oo-operative 
Housing Societies, "general utility" roads, t. e., all thoroughfares in the strict 
meaning of the term should be exempted from non-agricultural a93e3sment, while 
roads within private compounds are liable to assessment (Ibid, p 8.) 

49. \V hen it has been customary to levy any special or extra 

cess, fine, or tax, however designated, from 
Commuted assessment ho j der of j an j which tho h nominally 

?J?he slaSr wholly or partially exempt from the payment 

of land revenue, has by the exaction of such 
cess, fine or tax been indirectly taxed to the State, 

or when any land ordinarily, or under certain circumstances, 

wholly or partially exempt from assessment, 

and of land liable to i s subject occasionally, or under particular 

occasional assessment. circumstances, to the payment of assessment, 

or of any cess or tax however designated, 
the said assessment, cess, fine, or tax maybe commuted into an 
annual assessment on the land to be paid under all circumstances, 
but such commuted assessment thall not exceed such amount as the 
Commissioner shall deem to be a fair equivalent of the assessment, 
cess, fine or tax for which it is substituted, and shall not be in ex- 
cess of the assessment to which the land would be ordinarily sub- 
ject, if no right to exemption existed in respect thereof. 

50. Whenever any such cess, fine or tax hitherto payable by 

an inferior holder shall be made leviable 
Superibr holder may f rom the superior holder, it shall be lawful 

recover commuted as- , r . i i i , r \ 

Bessment from inferior for such superior holder to recover from suca 
holder. inferior holder the amount of the commuted 

assessment fixed in lieu of such cess, fine or 

tax, 

51. When it has been customary to levy a larger revenue 

under the name of "veto" or any other desig- 
Excees oi assessment ua ti on upon any portion of land than such 
** "S2a P0ion would ordinarily be liable to in con- 
with ' it. sideration of other land being held with it 

which is wholly or partially exempt from 



49-53 J OF LAND AND LAND-REVENUE. 30 

payment of revenue, the excess of revenue payable on the said 
portion of land may be charged upon the land hitherto held wholly 
or partially exempt. 

Veta and Ohali tenures. The tenures in Gujarat are called veta , 
while those in the Karnatic Districts are called chali. 

[a] 52. On all lands which are not wholly exempt from the 
payment of land revenue, and [b] on which 
Assessment by whom the assessment has not been fixed under the 
to be fixed. provisions of section 102 or 106, the assess- 

ment of the amount to be paid as land re- 
venue shall, subject to rules [c] made in this behalf under sec- 
tion 214, be fixed at the discretion of the Collector, for such period 
as he may [c] be authorized to prescribe, and the amounts due 
according to such assessment shall be levied on all such lands : 

Provided that in the case of lands partially exempt f>om land- 
revenue, or the liability of which to payment of land-revenue is 
subject to special conditions or restrictions, respect shall be had in 
the fixing of the assessment and the levy of the revenue to all 
rights legally subsisting, according to the nature of the said 
rights [rf]. 

Note. This section gives authority to the Collector to assess unoccupied 
and unallocated lands which were within the operation of an order under s. 95, 
but which were left unassesaed at the settlement (Statement of Objects and Reasons). 

The effect Of this Section is to give the Collector the discretion to fix 
the assessment ; and the effect of s. 217 of the Code is to render the occupants in 
alienated villages subject to a settlement like the occupants in unalienated 
villages. But neither section takes away any legal right which an occupancy 
tenant may have acquired independently of his bare status as an occupancy tenant 
liable to pay the land-revenne according to survey rates (Laxman r. Govind, 28 
Bom. 74, at p. 80). 

53. A Register shall be kept by the Collector in such form 
as may from time to time be prescribed by 
Register of alienated the Governor in Council of all lands, the alie- 
lands - nation of which has been established or recog- 

nized under the provisions of any law for the 
time being in force ; and, when it shall be shown to the satisfac- 
tion of the Collector that any sanad granted in relation to any such 
alienated land has been permanently lost or destroyed, he may, 
subject to the rules and the payment of the fees prescribed by the 
Governor in Council under section 213, grant to any person whom 

fa] This section was substituted by Bom. Act VI of 1901, s. 4, for the ori- 
ginal section. 

[b j "And" was substituted for "or" by Bom. Act IV of i 905, lat Sch. 

[c] Words repealed by Bom. Act IV of 1913, s. 15, aie omitted. 

[d\ The validity of past assessments purporting to have been fixed under 
s. 52 is saved by Bom. Act VJ of 1901, s. 5. 

6 



40 THB UOMUAY LAND UKVENUE OODB, 1879 

he may deem entitled to the same a certified extract from the said 
Register, which shall be endorsed by the Collector, to the effect 
that it has been issued in lieu of the sanad said to have been lost 
or destroyed, and shall be deemed to be as valid a proof of title as 
the said sanad. 

54. The settlement of the assessment of each portion of land, 
. , or survey number, to the land revenue, shall 

toT aS8e be 



the holder directly from 136, is primarily responsible to Government 

Government. for the same, [a] 

Note. This section is subject to modification when applied to any estate 
in the districts of Ahmedabad, Kaira, Broach or Panch Mahals to which the 
Gujarat Talukdars' Act, 1888, extends (See Bom. Act VI of 1888,88. 1 and 33). 

55. The Governor in Council may authorize the Collector or 

the officer in charge of a survey, or such 

Kates for the use of ot her officer as he deems fit, to fix such rates 

wa er * as he may from time to time deem fit to 

sanction, for the use, by landholders and 

other persons, of water, the right to which vests in Government, 

[b] and in respect of which no rate is leviable under the Bombay 

Irrigation Act, 1879 [&]. Such rates shall be liable to revision at 

such periods as Government shall from time to time determine, and 

shall be recoverable as land- revenue. 

Notes. This is a new law authorizing the imposition; and the recovering* as 
land-revenue, of rates for the use of water the right ta which vests in Government 
or which has been made available by Government works {Report of the Select Com- 
mittee). 

This section does not permit the Collector to levy a penalty, but he can levy 
the minimum rate sanctioned by Government. 

"Such Other Officer as he deems fit." These words were intro- 
duced to enable Government to entrust the duty of assessing water to a canal officer 
or to any other special officer {Proceedings of the Bombay Legislative Council for 
1877). 

Maximum water rates for Thana, Kolaba, Dharwar and 

Belgium, Maximum water rates have been sanctioned for the following 
districts : 

District Bate per acre. 

Rs. 

Thana 5 

Kolaba 5 

Dharwar 8 



Notifications Sind. In exercise of the powers given by this section, 
the Governor in Council authorizes the Commissioner in Sind to fix rates for the 

| a] The paragraph repealed by Bom. Act IV of 1913, section 16, is omitttd. 
| & />j These words and figures were substituted for the original words by 
Bom. Act VII of 1879. s. 2. 



Sssos. 54-56] OF LAND AKD LAND REVENUE 41 

use, by landholders and others, of water the right to which vests in Government, 
for the cultivation of rice on any land not assessed and entered in the Survey Re- 
gisters as rice land. 

2. The amount of such rate shall be sabjeot to the appro? il of Government 
and shall, after sanction, bs notified in the office of the Mukhtyarkar of the 
taluka in which the land, on account of which the rate is levied, is situated. 

3. Any person desiring to grow rice in land not assessed as rice lands shall 
make an application in writing to the Mukhtyarkar or other officer duly autho- 
rized to receive such application, for permission to make use of the supply of 
water needful for growing rice, stating if he requires it for one year only or per- 
manently ; and if any person cultivates rioe in such land without such permission* 
he shall be charged with double the ra*:e ha would otherwise have been required to 
pay had he applied for and obtained permission. 

4. All persons who now hold or miy hereaftor apply to take uplands assess- 
ed and recorded in the Survey Registers as rice lands shall, as soon as possible 
after the publication of these Rules or on application to take up such lands, be 
tendered a list of such rice lauds then being or about to ba in their occupation, and 
rice shall not be grown on any number not included in such lists except on pay- 
ment of the extra rate (B. G. G., 1881, Pt I, p. 396). 

All Collectors in the Presidency, other than Collectors in the Province of 
Bind, are authorized to fix such rates as he miy frooa time to time deem fit to 
sanction for the use, by landholders and other persons, of water within the limits 
of their respective districts, in all cases in which the right to such water vests in 
Government, and no rate in respect thereof is leviable uuder the Bombay Irri- 
gation Act, 1879 (B. G. G., 1896, PL. I, p. 583). 

5G. Arrears of land revenue due on account of land by any 
land-holder shall he a paramount charge on 
pa ^ bold i *"<! every part thereof, failure in 

the land. payment of which shall make the occupancy 

or alienated holding, together with all rights 
of the occupant or holder over all trees, crop^, buildings and thing* 
attached to the land or permanently fastened to anything attached 
to the land, liable to forfeiture, whereupon the Collector may levy 
all sums in arrear by sale of the occupancy or alienated holding, 
[a] or may otherwise dispose of suuh occupancy or alienated hold- 
ing under rules [b] made in this behalf under section 214, [c] and 
such occupancy or alienated holding when disposed of, whether by 
sale as aforesaid, or by restoration to the defaulter, or by transfer 
to another person or otherwise howsoever, shall, unless the Collector 
otherwise directs, be deemed to be freed from all tenures, rights, 
insumbranees and equities theretofore created in favour of any 
person other than Government in respect of such occupancy or 
holding, [c] 

[a] Words repealed by Bom A-st VI of 1901, section 0, are omitted. 

[I] Words repealed by Bom. Act. IV of 19.3, ss. 17 aud 18 are omitted. 

[c c\ These words were added by Bom. Act VI of 1901, s. G. 



42 THE BOMBAY LAOT REVENUE CODE, 1879 [ OHAP. V 

Notes. This section is amended as to make ifc clear that an occupant 
to whom forfeited land has been restored oj transferred otherwise than by 
sale, will have the same rights as if he had purchased it (Report of the Select Com- 
mittee). 

"OpOUpant" "Occupancy." The terms 'occupant' and 'occupancy' 
are subject to modification when applied to any estate in the districts of Ahmeda- 
bad, Kaira, Broach or Panch Mahals to which the Gujarat Talukdars* Act, 1888, 
extends (Vide Bom. Act VI of 1888, ss. 1 and 33). 

Retrospective effect.- This section as amended by Bom. Act VI of 
1901, has restrospective effect and empowers the Collector to transfer a forfeited 
occupancy freed from all liens, whether such occupancy was validly forfeited 
under the code prior to tho Amending Act or was forfeited in compliance with 
the provisions of s. 153 as amended by Bom. Act VI of 1901 (Gagandas v. Yusif, 
8. S. L. R. 233). 

Applicability Of this Section. This section does not apply where 
there has been no forfeiture under s. 153 (Chitta Bhulla v. Bai Janmri, 40 
Bom. 486)- 

Go-owners Grant of fallow forfeited land. A grant of fallow 

forfeited land to one of several c9-o\vners is a grant so him personally, especially 
where it is granted to him on restricted tenure, unless it is proved that he 
availed himself of his position as co-owner gand gained an advantage in deroga- 
tion of the rights of others (Abdul RMmanv. Haji Mahomed, A. I. R. 1929, 
Sind, 212). 

Mortgagor's right to redeem. The plaintiff's grandfather mort- 
gaged his lands in 1872 and placed the mortgagee in possession. There was de- 
fault in payment of assessment, as the result of which the prope rty was forfeited 
by Government under this section as it stood before its amendment in 1901. Gov- 
ernment re-sold the property to the mortgagee in 1884, and transferred its khata 
from the name of the mortgigor to that of the mortgagee. In 1921, the plaintiff 
sued to redeem the mortgage. Held, that the right to redeem was lost owing to 
the forfeiture of the laud under the original section ; and that before the plaintiff 
could succeed he mist show thit the forfeiture and the revenue sale were due to 
the default of the mortgagee in not paying the assessment and that the income 
of the land was sufficient to pay the assessment or that in so me way the mort- 
gagor had put the mortgagee in funds wherewith to pay the assessment (Abdul 
Rehman v. "Vinayak, 29 Bom L. R 1056). 

Forfeiture Of Ocoupanoy. Where an occupancy forfeited under this 
section has been disposed of by the Collector undar ss. 32 end 62 of the HJes 
under s 214 (old rules), to a person signing a kabulyat in form B, the Collector 
cannot subsequently order the occupancy to be taken from that person and restore 
it to the occupant b2f ore forfeiture (Dharma v. Bolamiya, 36 Bom. 91). 

Re-grant if free from inoumbranoes. Where a land vests in the 

originl tenure-holder under a new tenure created by this section as amended by 
Act VI of 1901, the laud vestel freefroTi ail incumb ranees and from all previous 
equities The fact that default in the payment of revenue was made is immaterial 
(Vedu Shivlal v. Kalu, 37 Bom. 692). 

Arrears Of assessment. Forfeiture ordinarily implies the loss of a 
legal right by reason of some breach of obligation. When arrears of assessment 



SBOB. 53-58 ] OP LAND AND LAND-REVENUE 43 

are levied by sale, then this section, in pursuance of an obvious policy, empowers 
the Collector to sell "freed from all tenures, incumbrancea and rights created by 

the occupant or any of the predecessors in- title or in any wise subsisting as 

against ?uch occupant/' Should the Collector otherwise dispose of the occupancy, 
this section affords no such protection ; and the legil relations must be determined 
by reference to the ordinary law. So judged, the effects of a forfeiture and subse- 
quent acquisition of the forfeited property are subject to the control of equities 
arising out of the conduit of the parties (Amolak Banechand c. Dhondi Khindu 
Bhosale, 30 Bom. 466). See also Balkrishm a. Madhavrao, 5 Bon. 73). 

Grant tO one 00-Owner. Where after amendment of this section, pro- 
perty is granted personally to one of several co owners in the absence of circum- 
stances contrary, it must be deemed to have beea granted to him individually. If 
another co-owner wishes to take advantage of a. 90 of the Trusts Act, he must 
allege and prove that the former by availing himself of the position of a co- 
owner, had gained an advan'age in derogition of the rights of other co-owners 
(Uttamchand Mangkirmal v. Salamjtrai Khubchand, A I. R. 1931 Sind 27). 

57. It fhall be lawful for the Collector, in the event of the 

forfeiture of a holding through any default 

Forfeited holdings may payment or other failure occasioning such 

be taken possession of . } ,f , ,, , . & "^ 

and otherwise disposed forfeiture under the last section or any law 
of. for the time being in force, to take imme- 

diate possession of [a] such holding and to 
dispose of the same by placing it in the possession of the purchaser 
or other person entitled to hold it accord 1 ' ng to the provisions of 
this Act or any other law for the time being in force. 

[b] 58. (I) Every Revenue officer and e?ery hereditary 
patel and every hereditary village accountant 
Keceipts. receiving payment of land-revenue shall give 

a written receipt for the same. 

(2) Every superior holder of an alienated village or of an 
alienated share of a village who is entitled to recover direct from 
an inferior holder any sum due on account of rent or land revenue 
shall give to auch inferior holder a written receipt for the same. 

(3) Every hereditary patel and hereditary accountant who 
receives, in behalf of a superior holder of an alienated village or of 
an alienated share of a village, any rent or land-revenue from an 
inferior holder shall give to such inferior holder a written receipt 
for the same. Such receipt shall be a full discharge to such in- 
ferior holder for such rent or hnd-revetiue as against such 
superior holder. A c )py of reaeipt shill in every ctse be sent to 
the superior holder by such patel or accountant. 



[a] The words repealed by Bom. Act IV of 1913, s. 17 are omitted. 
[b\ This was sub3tituted by Bom, \ct I of of 1910, 1st Ssh., Part II, serial 
No, 8, lor the original section, 



44 THE BOMBAY LAND BKVEITOE CODE, 1879 [ CHAP. VI 

Hereditary officers to grant receipts-. The provisions of sections 

68 and 59 should be made applicable to Hereditary officer* (G. R. No. 5430; 
dated 14th October 1880, quoted in Qathe's Land Revenue Code , 4th ed., p 70). 

The revenu 3 should ba paid to the Patil in the presence 

Of the Kulkarni, and when the former is absent, tha K-i Ikarni might receive 
it (G. B. No. 3S45, dated 19th M*y 1833, quoted in &tthe's Land Revenue Code, 
4th ed, p. 70). 

Receipts exempt from stamp duty. 

Every receipt given under this section is exempt from stamp duty; bat receipts 
given not only by Dunaldars bat als ) by any Inxnaiir t:> tho villaga officers for 
auma paid by auoh officers to the Dmildar or laanlar oa account of laud- 
revenue collections must be stamped, when the SITU, in reap act of which the 
receipt is given, exceeds R*. 20 (G. R R D, No 2641, dated 27th March 1884, 
quoted in Sathe's Land Revenue Code, 4th ed , p. 70). 

Village accountant bound to give receipt. 

The village accountant receiving a payment of land-revenue is bound to 
tender a receipt for the same in some form, and if a receipt book is not produced 
by a rayat, the accountant has no choice bat to prepare aud tender it to the rayat 
on a separate p iper (G. R. NX 3661, dated 7th Miy 1881). 

59. Any person convicted of a breach of the provisions of the 

last preceding section after summary inquiry 

Penalty for failure to before the Collector shall be liable to a fine 

grant receipts. n0fc exC3ec [j n g three times the amount receiv- 

ed for which a receipt was not duly granted, 

and one-half of the fine miy, at the discretion of the Collector, be 
paid to the informer, if any. Such inquiry may at any time be 
instituted by the Collector of his own motion without any com- 
plaint being preferred to him. 

CHAPTER VI 

OP TUB Q-ftANT, USE AtfD RliLINaUISHMEfff OF UNALIJCNATED L.A.5O) [a] 

60. Any person desirous of taking up 

Written permission of unoccupied land which has not been alienat- 
Mamlatdar or Mahalkari d t previously to entering upon occu- 
required previous to . 1 j *u *. c 

taking up unoccupied P atlon obtuned the permission in writing of 
land. the M-imlatdar or Mahalkari. 

Of the occupation of alienated land and the rights of occupants. 

Note. Sections 60 to 67 (both inclusive) do not ap ply to any estate in the 
districts of Ahuedabid, Kaira, Broich or Panch Mihals to which the Gujarat 
Talukdard' Act, 1888, extends (ISee Bom. Act VI of 1888, sa. 1 and 33). 

Xha sale Of unocsupiei lands held by Mimlatdars under a. 62 and 
permission to occupy such Had* given under this aection are within the scope of 
B. 211 as proceedings which the Commissioner has justification to call for and 
revise and to pasa such orders therein as he deema fit and no suit would He against 
Government on account of that officer exercising his legal powers u nder that 
section (Parapa u. The Secretary of State, P J. 1891, p. 



[a] This heading was substituted by Bom. Act IV of 19H, 8. 19 for the 
original heading which was aa follows : 



SEC 69-611 OF THE GB^NT, USE, & RELINQUISHMENT OF ONALIBNATED LAND 45 

[a] 61. Any person who shall unauthorizedly enter upon 
occupation of any land set apart for any 

wtES? 8 occupation *P ecial PP<>**> or an / unoccupied land which 
of land. k ft8 not been alienated, and any person who 

uses or occupies any such land to the use or 
qpcupation of which by reason of any of the provisions of this Act 
he is not entitled or has ceased to be entitled shall, [a] 

if the land which he unauthorizedly occupies forms part of an 
assessed survey number, pay the assessment of the entire number 
for the whole period of his [b] unauthorized occupation, and 

if the land so occupied by him has not been assessed, such 
amount of assessment as would be leviable for the said period in 
the same villaga on the same extent of similar land [c] used for [c] 
the same purpose ; 

and shall also be liable, at the discretion of the Collector, to a 
fine not exceeding five rupees, or a sum equal to ten times the 
amount of assessment payable by him for one year, if such sum be 
in excess of five rupees, if he have taken up the land for purposes 
of cultivation, and not exceeding such limit as may be fixed in 
rules made in this behalf under section 214, if he have [d] used it 
for [d] any non-agricultural purpose. 

The .Collector's decision as to the amount of assessment pay* 
able for the land unauthorizedly occupied shall be conclusive, and 
in determining its amount occupation for [0] a portion [e] of a 
year shall be counted as for a whole year. 

The person unauthorizedly occupying any such land may be 
summarily evicted by the Collector, and any crop [ /] raised on the 
land shall be liable to forfeiture, and any building or other con- 
struction [/] erected thereon shall also, if not removed by him 
after such written notice as the Collector may deem reasonable, be 
liable to ferfeiture, [g] or to summary removal, [^j 

Forfeitures under this section shall be adjudged by the Col- 
lector, and any property so forfeited shall be disposed of as the Col- 
lector may direct [g] and the cost of the removal of any encroach- 
ment under this section shall be recoverable as an arrear of land 
revenue, [g] 

[a a] This paragraph was substituted for the original paragraph by Bom* 
Act III of 1921, 8.2 (n). 

[b] The word "unauthorized" was inserted by Bom. Act III of 1921, s. 2 (b). 

[c c] These words were substituted by Bom. Act IV of 1913, s. 20, for the 
original words "appropriated to". 

[dd\ These words were substituted by Bom. Act IV of 1913, s. 20, for the 
original words "appropriated to". 

[e e] These words were substituted for the original words by Bom. Act 
XVI of 1895, Second Schedule. 

[ff] Words repealed by Bom. Act IV of 1901, s. 7, are omitted. 

(99} These words were added by Bom, Act II of 1919, First Schedule. 



THE BOMBAY LAND BBVJBNUE Coins, 1879 [ OHA*. VI 

. Tills section corresponds to sections 33 and 39 of Bombay Act I of 
1865. It has been constructed so as to make penal the previsions and remedies 
common to the two cases of occupation witlnut permission and occupation of lands 
set apart for a special purpose. This section provides distinctly for (1) the levy 
of assessment, (2) fine of five rapeea or ten times the assessment, (3) eviction, and 
(4) forfeiture of crop The introduction of the panalty of fine up to a fixed 
amount as an alternative from fine by a multiplied assessment is made to meet 
cases in which the extent of the unauthorized occupation is trifling, but fche 
occupation itself mischievous, as for instance, when a landholder ploughs up and 
incorporates in his field the strip of land dividing him from his neighbours 
(Report of the Select Committee). 

Object Of amending para (I), The object of amending paragraph I 
is to make it clear that this section applies to a case where a person having been 
lawfully in occupation of land authorized!? continues to hold over. 

Application Of this Section. This section applies only to roads which 
are the property of Government in unalienated villages or unalienated portions of 
villages and not to roads of alienated villages unless the right of Government, to 
the ownership of such roads has been reserved (G R. No. 3130, dated 12-11-1920). 

Effect Of this Section. This section has no rastrospective effect, *. e , 
its provisions cannot be enforced in respect of anything dono before the Oode be- 
came law on the 17th July 1879 (G. R. No. 6202, dated 1st September 1890). 

Application of this section to cases of unauthorized occu- 
pation which commenced subsequent to this Act. The use of 

the word "shall" in the first clause of this section does not restrict the application 
of this section to cases of unauthorized occupation which began subsequent to this 
Act coming into force. Although the assessment may not be leviable for a period 
anterior to the date of the enactment, an occupation is a continuous act (Pranlal 
p. Secretary of State, P. J. 1897, p. 366). 

This section applies only to unauthorized occupation of any land (a) set apart 
for any special purpose, and (&) any unoccupied hnd which has not been alienated 
(G. E. No. 3837, dated 3rd June 1890). 

Encroachment on Inam Guroharan land. This section is not ap- 
plicable to alienated villages or lands. The inamdar's proper remedy in such a 
case as that of encroachment on giroharan in a surveyed alienated village is a suit 
in the Civil Court (G. R. No. 5205, dated 25th July 1885). 

This section applies only to lands the property of Govern- 
ment in alienated Villages. The plaintiffs, who were the inamdars of 
certain land, sued for a declaration of their ownership in and of their right to 
cultivate two plots of land which (they alleged) formed part of their inam. It 
was contended for the defendants as to these two plots of land that the plaintiffs 
had no right to cultivate them, as they had been nude a part of a village site, and 
on that understanding they had not been numbered at the survey in 1863, and had 
been exempted from assessment for twenty years. It was held by the lower 
Appellate Court that this section applied. Held, that this section did not apply. 
This section relates back to s. 38 and both refer only to lands the property of 
Government in unalienated villages or unalienated portions of villages. They do 
not empower the Government to confiscate any land belonging to an inamdar and 
to consider it on the persona living in his villages (Vinayakrao r. Secretary of State, 
23 Bom. 39). 



Siio. 61-63] OF TBS (JJ-BANT, USE & RILIKQXJISBMENT OF UNAUENATKD LAN!) 4? 

Encroachment on public road. Under s, 37 ante all public roads 
being the property of Government, it must be taken that the public road encroach- 
ed upon by the accused is in the possession of tha Local Government officers on 
behalf of the Government. Hence a person who encroaches on such a road is 
guilty of criminal trespass, if the encroachment is made with such intent as id con- 
templated in s. 441 of the Penal Code (Fakirgavda, Or. Eg. 49 of 1888). 

Quarrying" Without permission. The fine levied under this section 
for unauthorized occupation of land by quarrying it need not, on the one hand, bo 
confined to the bare area of the pits nor, on the other, can it be extended to the 
entire area of the survey number. Occupation in the sense of the amount of area 
which has deteriorated for purposes of cultivation or for quarrying is the area 
contemplated by the Code as being occupied (Sulleman v, Secretary of State, 30 Born. 
L,. R. 431). 

[a] 62.* It shall be lawful for the Collector subject to such 
rules as may from time to time be made by 
the G0 vernor in Council in this behalf, to 
tions. require the payment of a price ror unahenat- 

ed land or to sell the same by auction, and to 

annex such conditions to the grant as he may deem fit, before per- 
mission to occupy is given under section 60. The price (if any) 
paid for such land shall include the price of the Government right 
to all trees not specifically reserved under the provisions of section 
40, and shall be recoverable as an arrear of land revenue. 

Note. Even the Collector cannot in the first instance require the grantee to 
pay a certain amount of occupancy price against the will of thj grantee and with- 
out giving him the option to vacate the hnd and much less can the Commissioner 
pass such an order when the land had been granted to the plaintiff free from the 
occupancy price and assessment (Anant Krishniji P. Secretary of State, 55 Bom. 
165). 

Co-Operative Societies. Land may be granted free of ooeupanoy price 
to co-operative societies when a public purpose is to bo fulfilled (G. R. No. 
2249-24, dated 21st April 192 5, quoted in Joglekar's Supplement No. 2, p. 13). 

[a] 63.* When it appears to the Collector that any alluvial 

land, which vests under any law for the time 

Grant of alluvial land being in force in Government, may with due 

vesting in Government, regard to the interests of the public revenue 

be disposed of, he shall offer the same to the 

occupant (if any) o the bank or shore on which such alluvial land 

has formed. 

The price of the land so offered shall not exceed three times 
the annual assessment thereof. 

[*] As to the local repeal of sections 62 and 63, see paragraph 3 of notes 
on p. 1, supra. 

[a a] Sections 62 and 63 were substituted by Bom, Act IV of 1913, 89. 21 
and 22 respectively, for the original sections. 

7 



48 UHE SOMBAY LAND itavENtrB CODE, 18? 9 [ CHAP. Vl 

I the said occupant shall refuse the offer, the Collector may 
dispose of the land without any restrictions as to the price to be 
asked. 

For the purposes of this section, notwithstanding anything 
contained in tection 3, if the bank or shore has been mortgaged 
with possession, the mortgagor shall be deemed to be the occupant 
thereof. 

Notes. This section provides for the disposal of the occupancy of such allu- 
vial or water-forsaken lands as under the provisions of the Code (s. 37) vests in 
Government. The object of this section is to secure to the neighbouring land- 
holder, in consideration of the river frontage he would otherwise lose, right to 
purchase the occupancy of the new land at a price not exceeding three times its 
annual assessment (Report of the Select Committee). 

A suit by the plaintiffs for a declaration that the order by the Collector 
disposing of the occupancy to the eeoond defendant was null and void and for 
possession of the land, on the ground that the plaintiffs being the owners of the 
adjacent land and the grant being of alluvial land the grant should have been made 
to the plaintiff* under this section is governed by Art. 120 of the Limitation Act 
and not art. 144. Because assuming the land to bo alluvial, the plaintiffs cannot 
get an order for recovery of possession. All that they can get is a declaration 
that the case fell within this section and an injunction to restrain the Collector 
from dealing with the land in derogation of the plaintiff's rights (Damodar 
Narayctnv. Secretary of State, 55 Bom. 447). 

64.* When alluvial land forim on any bank r shore, 
Tern orar ri ht ^ occu P ant > if an 7? of such bank Or 

alluvSuands "f small fihore sha11 be enti t led to the temporary use 
extent. [0] thereof, unless or until the area of the 

same exceeds [b] one [4] acre. When the 
area of the alluvial land exceeds the said extent, it shall be at the 
disposal of the Collector, subject to the provisions of the last pre- 
ceeding section. 

[*] 

Non-riparian owner Right to water. The plaintiff who owned 

non-riparian lands, used from times immemorial to irrigate his lands by river- 
water which he took through the paddy fields belonging to defendants. The 
water did not flow in a definite channel but spread over the whole of the defend- 
ant's lands till it overflowed into the plantiff's lands. Ihe defendants having 
obstructed the passage of water through their lands, the plaintiff sued to establish 
bia right to the enjoyment of the river water. Held, that the plaintiff having 
acquired the right and enjoyed it from time immemorial was not prevented from 
enforcing it by any provision of the Easements Act by virtue of s. 2 (c) of the Act 
(Janardhan v. Raoji, 20 Bom. L. E. 398. s. c. 42 Bom. 288). 

* As to the local repeal of s. 64 see para. 3 of notes on page 1 supra t 

[a a 1 Words and paragraph repealed by Bom. Act IV of 1913, s. 23, 
are omitted. 

[flftj This word was substituted by Bom. Act IV of 1913, . 23, lor the 
original words "half an." 

[9] The second paragraph was repealed by Ibid. 



SEO 64-65] OFTsaftaiNr, UaE & RELtNau^sMBNT OF UNALIEHITED LIND 49 
A suit to recover possession of lands forming a river bed 

leased by the Collector is barred, if brought after a year of the date of 
the order of the Collector under s. 37 ante by which the Collector refused to en- 
tertain the plaint. Prior to the Boai. Act Xft of 1912 the starting point of 
limitation is the date of the order (Chhotu^hai v. Secretary of State, 22 Bom L. B. 
146). 

65. An occupant of land [a] assessed or held for the purpose 
of agriculture [a] is entitled by himself, his 
pa^ft^tr ^: servants, >t en a nt 8/ agents or other legal re- 
poses of agriculture presentatives, to erect farm buildings, con- 
may put his land. struct wells or tanks, or make any other im- 
provements thereon for the better cultivation 
of the land, or its more onvenient [/>] use for the purpose afore- 
said, [ft] 

But, if any occupant [c] wishes to use 

Procedure if occupant h j 8 holding or any part thereof fo Qther 

wishes to apply hia land r ^ . ~ 7 .\ , . . J 1f 

to any other purple. purpose [c] the Collector's permission shall 

in the first place be applied for by the [</] 

occupant. 

[e] The Collector, on receipt of such application, 

(a) shall send to the applicant a written acknowledgment of 
its receipt, and 

(b) may, after due enquiry, cither grant or refuse the per- 
mission applied for : 

Provided that, where the Collector fails to inform the appli- 
cant of his decision on the application within a period of three 
months, the permission applied for shall ba deemed to have been 
granted ; such period shall, if the Collector sends a written 
acknowledgment within seven days from the date of receipt of 
the application, be reckoned from the date of the acknowledgment, 
but in any other case it shall be reckoned from the date of receipt 
of the application, [e] 

Unless the Collector shall in particular instances otherwise 
direct, no such application shall be recognized except it be made by 
the [d] occupant. 

[a-a] These words were substituted by Bom. Act IV of 1913. s. 24 (a), for 
the original words "appropriated for the purposes of agriculture." 

[-] These words were substituted by Bom. ^ct IV of 1913, 9. 24 (a), for 
the original words "occupation for the purposes aforesaid." 

[c-c] These words were substituted by Bom. Act IV of 1913, 9. 24 (a), for 
the original words "wishes to appropriate his holding or any part thereof to any 
other purpose." 

[d] The word "registered" was repealed by Bom. Act IV of 1913, s. 24 (b). 

le-ej This was sub3tituted by Bom, Act I of 1910, Schedule I, Part H 
Serial No f 4 for the original para. 



50 THE BOMBAY LAND REVENUE CODE, 1879 [ OHAP. VI 

When any such land is thus [a] permitted to be used for any 

_. ,,.,, purpose unconnected with agriculture [a], it 

suc^ein^En^o " be lawful for the Collector, subject to 

special assessment. the general orders of Government, to require 

the payment of a fine in addition to any new 

assessment which may be leviable under the provisions of 

section 48. 

Oooupant. The term "occupant" is subject to modification when applied 
;o any estate in the districts of Ahmedabad, Kaira, Broach or Panch Mahals to 
which the Gujarat Talukdars Act, 1888, exteuds (Vide Bom. Act VI of 1888, 
38. 1 and 33\ 

Collector's permission must be express. This section confers 

unregistered occupants who have applied to the Collector for permission to ap- 
propriate land for certain purposes, the privilege of acting as if the application 
tiad been granted within three months after acknowledgment of its receipt, if no 
inswer to that application has been received by the applicant. 

This section does not require the Collector to grant the application within 
any stated period, but only limits his power to refuse in case he has given no 
answer within three months, he shall ba deemed to have granted the appli- 
cation (G. R. No. 5893, dated 20th July 1892). 

Petitions under this section should be received and dis- 
posed Of by Collectors only, and this duty should not be delegated to 
Assistant or Dapuby Ojlbctora or Mamlatdara (G. R. No. 5893, dated 20th 
July 18 92). 

" Farm building S." Buildings erected for the storage of agricultural 
implements or for sheltering cattle used in the cultivation of the land as well as 
bouses occupied by occupants who themselves cultivate the survey number on which 
,hey stand, or by tenants who do the same or by servants of such occupants or 
;enants who are actually employed in the cultivation of the same land are held to 
>efarm buildings (B. G. G. 1911, Pt. VII, p. 195X 

Long possession and user without assessment in 1907 the 

District Collector ordered the Mamlatdar to cause the building and the wood to 
)o removed forthwith from a graveyard of which plaintiffs had been in possession 
for 50 years without assessment and the order was confirmed on appeal by the 
Commissioner in April 1909. On the 22nd February 1910 the plaintiffs sued the 
Secretary of State for a declaration that they were the owners of the land, for a 
jancellation of the order and for a permanent injunction. Held, that as the land 
n dispute was not ussd for the purpose of agriculture, neither this section nor 
i. 66 infra applied to the case and that in view of the long and undisturbed posses* 
jion of the plaintiffs, the order of eviction was ultra vires (Rasulkhan v. Secretary 
>f State, 39 Bom. 494). 

Application to the Collector for permission to use land for any other 
purpose other than agriculture is required to be made by the occupant. The Col- 
lector's permission cannot be "presumed" in any such case on the strength of 
in arrangement made by the applicant with that officer in a similar case in respect 
)f another land (G. B. No. 2310, dated 19-4-1928). 

[a-fl] These words were substituted by Bom Act IV of 1913, s. 24 (a; for 
he original words "appropriated to any purpose unconnected with agriculture," 



SEC. 66-66] Op THE GIUHI, Us & RBLINQUISHMEKT OP UNALIBKATED LAND 51 
Payment of fine anl assessment. It does not follow, from this 

section, that the payment of fine and assessment is a preliminary condition with- 
out which no agricultural land can ba appropriated for the building purposes. It 
is clear that thU Code contemplates appropriation both with and without permis- 
sion, the fines in tho one case being lirger than in the other (Bhujabalappa v. Col- 
lector of Dharwar, 1 Bom. L. B. 454). 

Procedure Under this sejtio n the Collector, on receiving an application, 
must first send a written acknawlodgonnt of its receipt, and, secondly, may, after 
due inquiry, either grant or refuse the permission applied for, provided that where 
the Collector fails to inform tha applicant of his decision on tho application within 
a perioi of threo months the pormlsnon appliel for shall be deemed to have been 
granted; such period shall, if tha Collector sends a written acknowledment within 
seven days from the date of the receipt of the application, be recknoncd from tho 
date of the adunwledgment, but in any :>thjf oisc it shall bj reckoned fr^m the 
date of receipt of tho application (Shivp thing o. Secretary of State, 26 Bom. 
L. R. 371). 

66. If any such land be so [a] used without the permission of 
the Collector beiug first obtained, or before 

Penalty for so miiig fcfa of rn the p3riod pres cribed by 

land without permis- r />/ m L *. i *. 

9 ^ on * section 65 [6], the occipant ana any tenant, or 

othor person holding under or through him, 
shall be liable to be summarily evicted by the Collector from the 
land so [a} used and from the entire field or survey number of 
which it may f >rm a pirt, and the [c] occupant shall also be liable 
to pay, in addition to the new assessment which may be leviable 
under the provisions of section 48 for the period during which 
the said Und has been so [a] used, such fine as the Collector may, 
subject to the general orders of Government, direct. 

Any [ti] tenant of any occupant or any other person holding 
under or through an occupant, who shall with- 
Tenant responsible to out the [c] occupant's consent 0] use any 
occupant in damages. such land for [e] any such purpose, and 
thereby render the said (V] occupant liable 
to the penalties aforesaid, shall be responsible to the said [c] oc- 
cupant in damages. 

Note. This section supplies an instance of resumption on account of appro- 
priating agricultural land to other purposes without the permission of the Col- 
lector. 

[a\ This wjrd was substituted by B >m. Ait IV of 1913, a. 25 (a) for the 
original word "appropriated." 

[i b] These words ware substituted by Boin. Act I of 1910, Schedule I Part 
II, Serial No. 6, for the original words. 

[e] The word "registered" was, repealed by Bom. Act IV of 1913, s. 25(J;. 

[d\ The words "co-occupant or any' 1 wero repealed by Bom. Act IV of 1913, 
s. 23 (b), 

[e] These words wore substituted by Bom. Act IV of 1913, a. 25 (a) for tho 
original words "appropriate any such land to," 



W THE BOMBAY LAND REVENUE OOD, 1879 [ OHAP. VI 

Occupant. Vide note with regard to the term "occupant" under the 
preceding section. 

Building of residential house on portion of land. Where 

a portion of land held for purples oi agriculture is used, without the permission 
of the Collector, for any purple other than that of agriculture, e. g., for build- 
ing a residential house on" it, the fine leviable for such user, under this section is 
to be calculated with reference to too actual area built upon and not to the area of 
the entire holding. Section 148 post has no application to such a case (Secretary 
of State v. Abdul Husen, 29 Bom. L. H. 1350). 

Period runs from the date of acknowledgment. -in order 

that a person can appropriate a land to a non-agricultural purpose without incur- 
ring the ponalty of the fine provided by this section, it is necessary that he must 
wait for three mouths from the date of thj acknowledgment of the application re- 
quired to bo given by the Collector by g. 65. It is no defence to ptead that the 
Collector, though he received the application, omitted to send an acknowledgment 
(Naivak Purushutam v Secretary oj State, 1 Bom. L. R. 669). 

Maximum fine levied under this section. Any fine imposed by 

the Collector under this section shall be fixed by him at his discretion, but (sub- 
ject to rule 101) shall not exceed the following rates, namely : 

(1) In a village placed for the purpose of altered aesessment under rule 
81 in- 
Class I ... Us. 1,250 ") per acre of the land actually used 

tl ... Jf 750 I for any purpose unconnected 

III ... 500 f with agriculture aid at the 

IV ... 250 | same rate in proportion for 

V ... 100 } any fraction of an acre. 

(2) In villages falling under rule 82 the same rates shall be charged as for 
class 1 (Vide rule 100). 

But now that fine is only levied as a penalty for not getting permission and 
thereby evading the Collector's control over industrial and building uses the 
severity of the fine should apparently depend on the degree of harm done and the 
bad example set and not upon the fiscal considerations adduced in Re3olulion 5206 
of 1897 (Anderson's L. R. Rules, 1921, 1st ed. of 1930, p. 94). 

[a] 67. Nothing in the last two preceding sections shall 

prevent the granting of the permission afore- 

Peimission may be ga id [] on suc k terms [c] or conditions [c] 

granted on terms. as may be [<| prescribed by the Collector, 

subject to any rules made in th is behalf by 

the Governor in Council, [d] 

[a] As to the local repeal of fection 67, see para. 3 of notes on p. 1 supra. 

[b] The words "in special cases" were repealed by Bom. Act IV of 1913, 
8,26. 

[cc] These words were inserted in section 67 by Bom, Act VI of 1931 

8.8(1). 

[dd] These words were substituted by Bom. Act IV of 1913, 8, 26, for the 
original worda "agreed on bet ween Government and the registered nccapaqt." 



fines 67-68J OF THE GBANT, UBE & HELiNaui8HMBNT op UNALIEHATED LAND 53 

68. An occupant is entitled to the use and occupation of his 
land for the period, if any, to which his [aj 
Occupant's rights are tenure is limited, or if the period is un- 
conditional, limited, or a survey settlement has been ex- 
tended to the land, in perpetuity conditionally 
on the payment of the amounts due on account of the land revenue 
for the same, according to the provisions of this Act, or of any 
rules made under this Act, or of any other law, for the time 
being in force, and on the fulfilment of any other terms [b] or con 
ditions [6] lawfully annexed to his [a] tenure. 

[c] Provided that nothing in this or any other section shall 

make it, or shall be deemed ever to have made 

Proviso. it, unlawful for the Collector at any time to 

grant permission to any person to occupy 

any unalienateJ unoccupied land, for such period and on such con- 
ditions as he may, subject to [d] rules made by the Governor in 
Council in this behalf [df], prescribe, and in any such case the 
occupancy shall, whether a survey settlement has been extended to 
the land or not, be held only for the period and subject to the 
conditions so prescribed. 

Notes The proviso enables the Collector to allow lands to be taken up on 
short leases and special terms which may include a restriction of transferability, 
whether by private contract or by attachment and sale under the orders of a Oivil 
Court, notwithstanding that a survey settlement may have been xtended to those 
lands, while s. 73A provides for the lands into which a Survey Settlement has not 
been introduced (Statement of Objects and Reasons of Bill No. IV of 1901). 

Tnis section does not apply to any village io the district of Ritnagiri or 
the district of KoUba to wh'uh tho *ioti 3>ttlau3at 4ct, 1880, extends (B)m. 
Act I of 1880, ss. 1 and 39). 

Occupant. Vide note under the heading ''occupant" under s. 05 supra. 

Oooupanoy, grant of, subject to prohibition of alienation. 

Where a grant of occupancy was mide to the plaintiff subject to restrictions 
prohibiting alienation and a few years afterwards, he made an application for 
transfer of the ocoapincy to the 2nd defendant, held, that the application amount- 
ed at most to an attempt to transfer which WAS never carried into effect, that 
there was no alienation and no breach of the conditions of the grant, that tho 
order of tho District Deputy Collector for summarily evicting the plaintiff was a 
nullity and that the Officer cannot be said to have acted in his official capacity 
(Dhanji Jairam r. Secretary of State for India, 45 Bom. 920). 



[a] This word was substituted for the original word "occupancy" by Bom. 
Act IV of 1913, 9.27. 

[b b\ These words were inserted in section 68 by Bom. Act VI of 1901, 
.8(1). 

[c] This proviso to section G8 was added by Bom. Act VI of 1901, s. 8 (2). 

[d-_dj These words were substituted by Bom, Act IV of 1913, s. 27, for the 
original words "the orders of Government*" 



THE BOMBAY LAND BE^EKUJB CODE, 1879 I CBA* VI 

69. The right of Government to mines 
and mineral products in all unalienated land 
and mineral products. ls and is hereby declared to be expressly 
reserved: 

Provided that nothing in this section shall be deemed to affect 
any subsisting rights of any occupant [a] of 
Proviso. suc h ] an( j j n respect of such mines or 

mineral products. 

Occupant. Vide note under the heading "occupant" under s. 65 supra. 

Object of this section. The object of this section is to reserve the 
rights of Government to all mines, mineral products and buried treasures with 
full liberty to work, and search for the same, paying to the occupant only com- 
pensation for surface damage as estimated by the Collector (Report of the Select 
Committee). 

Mines and mineral products. In construing the words "mines" and 
"mineral products" regard must be had to the fact that they occur in a statute as 
things reserved. Similarly regard must be fcj the purpose for which the occu- 
pancy is granted. The word 'mino' ia derived from a Latin word of the lower 
ages, minare, signifying ducere, to load. It is a subterranean cavity or passage, 
especially a pit or excavation in the earth, from which metallic ores or other 
mineral substances are taken by digging. It is distinguished from the pits from 
which stones only are taken, and which are callei quarries. The tertn minerals 
includes everything except the vegetable surface, or everything except tho mere 
surface, which is used for agricultural purposes. 

Sanctioned rates per 100 oubio feet (not applicable to G. I. P., 
B. B. and 0. 1 , or N. W. E. -R. 844-87) 

(All as measured on delivery, unless otherwise stated.) 

Us. As. Ts. 

(i) Building stone by cubic measure in the actual 

building ... ... ... 1 

(ii) Surplus stone removed from quarry but not con- 
sumed (125 0. ft. reckoned as 100.) ... 1 
(iii) Bullast, or concrete ... ... ... 8 

(iv) Special stone used for pitching ; measured as 

arranged by the Collector ... ... 4 

(v) Kankar from cultivated land ... ... 8 

(vi) Sand ... ... ... ... 2 

(vii) Surface boulder stones ... ... 2 

(viii) Kankar in unassessed waste ... ... 4 

(ix) Muram or white earth ... ... 2 

(G. B. B, D. No. 196-B, dated 14th February 1931, cited in Modak's 
Bombay Land System and Village Administration.) 

' [a] Words repealed Ly Bern. Akt IV of 1903, 8. 28 (a) are omitted. 



SEC. 69-72] OF THE OBINT, UBE & RELINQUISHKENT op UNALIEKATED LAND 65 

70 [a] In any case where [b] an occupancy [b] is not trans- 

ferable without the previous sanction of the 

Occupancy when not Collector, and such sanction has not been 



effect to Collector's Oer made or [rfj ordered by a Uml Court [a] or 
tificate. on which the Court's decree or order is 

founded, 

(a) such occupancy [e] shall not be liable to the process of 
any Court, and such transfer shall be null and void, and 

(b) the Court, on receipt of a certificate under the hand and 
seal of the Collector, to the effect that any such occupancy [e] is 
not transferable without his previous sanction and that such sanc- 
tion has not been granted, shall remove any attachment or other 
process placed on, or set aside any sale of, or affecting, such occu- 
pancy. [e] 

Occupancy. The term occupancy is subject to modification when applied 
to any estate in the districts of Ahmedabad, Kaira, Broach or Panch Mahals to 
which the Gujarat Talukdars' Act, 1888, extends (Vide Bom. Act VI of 1888, 
as. 1 and 83). 

71. Repealed by Bom. Ad IV of 1913, s. 29. 

72. If an occupant who is either a Hindu, a Mahomedan or 

a Buddhist dies intestate and without known 
Intestate occupancy or heirs, the Collector shall dispose of his occu- 
holding to be sold. pftncy by Sftle> su bject to the provisions of 

this Act, or of any other law at the time in force for the sale of 
forfeited occupancies in realization of the land revenue, and the 
law at the time in force concerning property left by Hindus, 
Mahomedans or Buddhists dying intestate and without known 
heirs, shall not be deemed to apply to the said occupancy but only to 
the proceeds of such sale after deducting all arrears of land revenue 
due by the deceased to Government and all expenses of the said 
sale. 

Note. This section does not apply to any village in the districts of Ratna- 
giri and Kolaba to which the Khoti Set tit moot Act, 1880, extends (Bom. Act I 
of 1880, as. 1 and 39). 

Occupant. ir ide note under the heading "occupant' r under s. 65 supra. 

Non-applioability of this section to alienated holdings. 

The word 'occupant' cannot be held to include a holder of alienated land, and 
the Collector should not, therefore, attempt to take action under this section in 
the case of alienated holdings (G. B. No 3812, dated 13th May 1885). 

[a] Words repealed by Bom. Act IV of 1913, g. 28 (a) are omitted. 

[b-b\ These words were substituted for the original words "the occupancy 
or interest of the occupant in the land" by Bom. Act IV of 1 913, 8. 28 (b). 

[c-c] These words were substituted for the original words "the transfer" by 
Bom. Act IV of 1913, s. 28 (b). 

[d d] These words were substituted for the original words "ordered by the 
Court" by Bom. Act IV of 1913, s. 28 (b). 

[] Words repealed by Bom. Act IV of 1913, s, 28 (c) ; are omitted. 

3 



56 TEE JSowBAY LAND HEVFNUB CODE, 1879 [ OHAP. VI 

Entry of name in Collector's books Proof of title. 

The Collector's book is kept for purposes of revenue, not for purposes of 
title, and the fact of a person's namo being entered in the Collector's book as 
occupant of land does not necessarily of itself establish that person's title, or 
defeat the title of any other person (Fat ma t>. Darayasaheb, 10 Bom. 187). See 
also Collector of Poona v. Bhavanrao, 10 Bom. 192 ; Sanyapa v. Bhimanyotvda, 10 
Bom. 194 and Bhagoji v. Bapuji, 13 Bom. 75. 

[a] 73. [6] An occupancy [&] shall, subject to the provi- 

sions contained in section 56, and to any 

tran3TandXr conditions lawfully annexed to the [c] tenure, 

able. anc * save as otherwise prescribed by law, be 

deemed an heritable and transferable pro- 

perty. 

Note. Vid* the first note under the preceding section. 

Occupancy. The term "occupancy" is subject to modification when 
applied to any estate in the districts of Ahmedabad, Knira, Broach or Panch 
Mahals to which the Gujarat Talukdars' Act, 1888, extends (Fide Bom. Act VI of 
1888, as. 1 and 33). 

[d] 73-A ( 1) Notwithstanding anything in the foregoing sec- 
tion, in any tract or village to which Gov- 
. eminent may, by notification published be- 

fore the introduction therein of an original 
survey settlement under section 103, declare 
the provisions of this section applicable, [e] ( ccuf arcies fhall not 
after the date of such Notification be transferable without the pre- 
vious sanction of the Collector. 

( 2) Government may, by Notification in the Bombay Govern- 
ment Gazette, from time to time exempt any part of such tract or 
village or any person or class of persons frcm the operation of this 
section. 

Occupancies* Vide note under the heading "occupancy" under the pre- 
ceding section. 

Amendment Aot VI Of 1901. The Amending Act VI of 1901 by 
adding this section makes it competent to Government to publish a declaration 
that the occupancy or interest of the occupant shall nob, after the declaration, be 
transferable without the previous sanction of the Collector. But this can only 
be in a tract or village in which the original survey s:ttlement might be intro- 
duced after the passing of Bom. Act VI of 1901 and by a notification published be- 
fore the introduction of the original survey settlement. The Amending Act of 



[a\ This section was substituted for the original section 73 by J$om. Act 
VI of 1901,8. 10. 

[6-w-JJ These words were substituted for the original words "the right of 
occupancy" by Bom. Act IV of 1913, s. 30. 

[cj This word was substituted for the original word "occupancy" by Bom- 
Act IV of 1913, s. 30. 

[d] Section 73 A was inserted by Bom Act VI of 1C01, s. II. 

[0] This word was substituted for the original words "the occupancy or 
i&tereet of the occupant in the land" by Botn. Act IV of 1913, s. 31. 



SEOS. 73-73AjOF THE GILAHT, USB & BELINCITJISHMENT OF UNAMENATEB IANB 57 

1901 does not effect the right of transfer existing ia occupants before the Act 
came into force. 

Scope. The prohibition contained in this section is not confined to a n 
absolute and out and oat transfer of an occupancy, but that it includes the trans- 
fer of an interest in the occupancy without the sanction of the Collector. A 
mortgage, therefore, of a share in land, held on restricted tenure, without the 
sanction of the Collector, is void and conveys no right to the mortgagee (Dharam- 
das Thawerdas v. Sorabji, A. I. R. 1930, Bind 75). 

Note. Collectors should generally permit members of agricultural Co- 
operative Societies holding lands on restricted tenure to alienate them to those 
societies. When such land passes into the possession of a society by default of its 
debtor member, it should ba sold by auction on restricted tenure only with the. 
sanction of the Collector, and that such lands should pass into the possession of a 
person who can hold land on restricted tenure in the district (G. R. No. A-501 9 
dated 23-1 1-1 921, quoted in Joglekar's Supplement No. 2 to his Land Revenue 
Code, p. 18). 

Effect of granting sanction under this section. The effect of 

the sanction of Collector under this section is only to authoriz3 a particular trans- 
fer of the land and not to remove the character of restricted tenure impressed upon 
the land so as to render it transferable at will (Ismiil Khan Afir Azam Khan t>. 
Official Receiver, A. I. R. 1928, Sind 63). 

Occupant's powers Of transfer. According to the terms of this 
section as it stood before tho amendment of 1013 thi occupant is not prohibited 
from transferring tho tro 3 aparl fro.n tho land with)nt the pr-vious sanction 
of the Collector. But a transfer of the houses with the land thereunder (and 
stones and earth) includes tho whole interest of the occupant in tho land upon 
which the ho isea stand, and sujk a transfer without sanction is prohibited by this 
section (Bapu Vithnl Rajput v. Secretary ofState r 56 Born. 278, s.c. 34 Bom. L. 
R. 780). 

Notification declaring this section applicable to oertain 
villages, 

Clause (1) of this section has been declared applicable to the following 
villages in the District of West Khandesh. 

(a) 79 villages in Nandurbar Taluka, and 

66 villages in Navapur Feta of Khandeah diitrict (Notification 
No. 1116A). 

(5)17 villages in Shirpur in do. do. (Notification No. Ill 6B. 
(c)42 villages in Taloda in do. do. (Notification No. 11160). 
(d) 11 villages in Shahada in do. do. (Notification No. 1116D) 

(B. G. G. 1902, Pt I, p. 298.) 

All Brahmins and Banias (Wanis) holding lands in the villages of the Bhirpur 
Taluka of the West Khandesh District (to which the provisions of this section > 
sub-section 1, were declared to be applicable by Government Notification^ B. D No* 
1116B, dated 18th February 1002 (B. G G. 1902, Pt. I, p. 290) are exempted 
from the operation of this section (B. G. G, 1908, Pt. I, p 1897). 

Marwadis, Kshatrias, Parbhus, Kayasthas, Bohris and Parsia are exempted 
from the operation of el. (1) of this section in the 17 villages of the Shir pur fcnlnka 
mentioned in G. N. No. 1116B quoted above (G, B. B. D. No. 3875, dated 22nd 
April 1909). 



W THE BOMBAY LAND EEVEHUB CODE, 1870 f OHAP. VI 

[a] 74. The occupant may relinquish his land, that is, resign 

it in favour of Government, but subject to 

Relinquishment. any r {^B, tenures, incumbrances or equities 

lawfully subsisting in favour of any person 

(other than Government or the occupant), by giving notice in 

writing to the Mamlatdar or Mahalkari before the 31st March 

in any year or before such other date as may from time to time be 

prescribed in this behalf by the Governor in Council, and such 

relinquishment shall have effect from the close of the current year: 

Provided that no portion of land which is less in extent than 
a whole survey number or sub-division of a survey number may 
be relinquished, [a] 

Occupant. Vide Dote under the heading 'occupant" under a. 65 supra. 

Notices exempted from registration. Notices, given under this 

flection or section 76 of this Code, of relinquishment of occupancy by occupants or 
of alienated land by holders of such land, are exempted from registration (Vide 
8. 90 (1) (*) of the Indian Registration Aot (XVI of 1908). 

Tenant remaining in occupation after passing rajinama, 

The first and second defendants were sub-tenants of the third defendant, who 
had certain land which wa9 part of the inatn village of D. In 1883 the third de- 
fendant executed a Hajinama in the folio wing term?, which he gave to the receiver 
who had been appointed by the Court to manage the village :~-"Up to the present 
time my father and I have been cultivating the land, but the land belongs to the 
Inamdar. I have no title over it, and the Inawlar can give it for cultivation to 
any one he pleases.' ' Shortly after the date of this Rajinama the Inamdar gave 
the land to the plaintiff, who now sued to obtain it from the d efendants who had 
remained in possession. Held, that the plaintiff was entitled to the land. The 
Rajinama operated as a relinquishment of the tenancy by defendant No. 3 under 
this section. Held, also, that the plaintiff was entitled to sue in ejectment, although 
he had not been put in possession of the land (Rhutia a. Ambo, 13 Bom. 291). 

Ba]inama. Among alienated villages, this section applied only to those 
brought tinder a Survey Settlement. The Rajinama can be pro sented only to the 
Mamlatdar, unless the inamdar has a commission under a. 88 (0) (G. Ks. Nog. 
8439, 5730 and 7045 of 1881 and 959 of 1882). Rajinam as may also be executed 
before a Forest Settlement Officer (G. R. No. 1708 of 1886) and then transmitted 
to the Mamlatdar and before Aval Karknns when the Mtmlat dar is absent (G. R. 
Nos. 1743 of 1889 and 7428 of 1905). 

Rajinama and Kabulyat Rajinama ia the notice of relinquishment 
given by the registered occupant. It is to ba given to the Mamlatdar and Mahal, 
kari and when the Mamlatdar is absent from his head-quart ers, it should be given 
to the Aval karkun. The person in whose favour a holding is relinquished should 
signify his acceptance by a written agreement with the revenue officers The 
written acceptance is called 'Kabulayat.' 

[a -a] Tois section was substituted by Bom. Act IV of 1913, e. 32, for th e 
original section. 



SKO. 74] OF THE GBINT, USE & RELIBWTKHICEHT op UNAMBHITKD IAND 50 
Execution of rajinama and Kabuliyat. No legal presumption 

arises from the passing of a rajinarna and kabalyat that a transfer of ownership 
is intended to be effected and that, accordingly, it operates, just as if it was a sale. 
It does not necessarily by itself amount to a transfer of the property (Rachappa 
Chanbasappa v. Ningappa, 49 Bom. 847). 

Rajinamas and kabuliyats Registration if necessary. 

A mortgagor agreed to abandon his equity of redemption and also executed a 
rajinama in favour of the Mamlatdar under this section and the mort- 
gngee executed a kabiliyat Held t(ut the rajinama combined with the kabuliyat 
did not transfer the title of the mortgagor to the mortgageo as a transfer of the 
equity of a redemption must be registered under s . 54 of the Transfer of Property 
Act (Sikharam v. Ramchandra, 18 Bom L. K. 980 (note). But it was heldin the 
case of Narso v. Nagava (42 Bom. 359) that rajinamaa and kabuliyats, though in 
themselves documents of transfer, are fairly conclusi ve evidence that a transfer 
has in fact been made and as between the mortgagor and mortgagee extinguish 
the equity of redemption without the necessity of registration. An inamdar can 
receive notices of relinquishments under this section on ly where the survey settle- 
ment has been introduced or when the powers under a. 85 post have been given to 
him. These notices are exempt from registration under s. 90 of the Registration 
A;t (Shidraj Bhojraj Desai r. Dary Saniram ^fali f 45 Bom 898). 

A Rajinama by a Khatedar of un alienated lands, subject to 

this section, abandoning Ma rights to another, subject to the payment of revenue, 
need not be registered under s 00 of the Registration Act (Motihhaiv. DesaMai, 
41 Bom, 170). 

The execution of a rajinama and a kabuliyat does not by itself 

amount to a transfer of property. Tao transfer can be rebutted by evidence re- 
garding the manner in which the parties concerne d dealt with the property. Each 
case, however, must nejeasarily depjnd apDa its own facts (Chandanmalv. Bhuskar, 
22 Bom. L. R. 140). 

RelinC[UishmentS. Relinquishments by a Government department may 
bo accepted even when third parties assert rights over such land The rights 
should be settled under as, 37 (2) and 79A, cases in which eviction is proposed 
being reported for tha orders of Government (G. R. B. D. No. 2104 of 1909). 
See also Andarson'e L. R. Rules, 1st ed. of 1930, p. 73. 

Note. The plaintiffs held plots in a talukdari estate free of rent and free 
also of assessment aud local fund Ib appeared, however, that the talukdars of the 
estate paid assessment and local fund for the whole estate to Government in the 
form oljama. The talukdar having relinquished the said plots iu favour of the 
Government, it was held that the Government could recover the local fuud aud the 
cess from the plaintiffs (Xathuram v. Secretary of State 32 Bom. L. K. 907.) 

Notice-Exemption. The notice, given under this section, of relinquish- 
ment of occupancy by an occupant does not require Court fee (Government of 
India's Notification No. 4650 at p. 807-, B. G. G. of 19ih September 1889), nor 
stamp duty (B. G. G., p. 1384 of 28th July 1909) and is exempt from registration 
(sec. 90 (e), Act XVI of 1908). It must also be written by a village Accountant 
without fee. 



60 THE BOMBAY LAND RavEHtrB CODE, 1879 [ CHAP. VI 

All notices under this section shall be kept in the records of the village 
accountant until the expiry of one year after the end of the year in which 
they were given and afterwards in the record? of the Mamlatdar for at least 12 
years. Entry will at once be made in the diary of mutations and certified ia duo 
course. This will ensure sufficient record (Anderson's L. R. Mannual, p. 73). 

75. Repealed by Bom. Act IV of 1913, sec/ion 33 (1). 

76. The provisions of [a] the last 



1 of section 49. Q holders of alienated land : provided that, 



(a) it shall not be lawful to relinquish, as aforesaid, any 
portion of any land held wholly or partially exempt under the 
circumstances described in the first paragraph of section 49 until 
the commuted assessment payable in respect of such portion of 
land has been determined under the provisions of the said section ; 
and that 

(&) if any person relinquish land on which, under the cir- 
cumstances described in section 51, a larger 

Relinqmshment of reyenue U leyied than Ould Ordinar il y be 
land described in sec- , . t, iiji i n L i j ^ 

t i 0n 51 . leviable on such land, he shall be deemed to 

have relinquished also the land held with it 
which is wholly or partially exempt from payment of revenue. 

Wot P. This section does n^t apply to any estate in the dutri<;ts of Ah:neda- 
bncl, Kaira, Uroach or 1'anch Mahals to which the Gujarat Talukdura "'Act, 1838, 
extends (Soe Bom. Act VJ of 1888, ss. 1 and 33). 

77. If any person relinquishes land, the way to which lies 

through other land which he retains, the 

Right of way to re- right of way through the land so retained 

linquished land. 8hall continue to the f uture fo\fa of the 

land relinquished. 

Saving of operation 7g Nothing in [6] section 74 [ft] shall 

of section 74 in certain ~ , o L j L J 

cases. affect 

[c] the validity of the terms or conditions of any lease or 
other express instrument under which land is, Or may hereafter 
bo, held from Government. 

79. Repealed by Bom. Act IV of 1913, s. 35. 

[d] 79A. Any person unauthorizedly 

pes Or wrongfully in possession of, any 

occupying land. land 

[ a a ] These words were substituted for the original words the two last sec- 
tions" by Bom. Act IV of 1913, s. 33 (2). 

\bb\ Ihese words were substituted for the original words "sections 75 and 
76" by Bom. Act. IV of 1913, e. 34. 

[c] Clause (a) and the letter "5" repealed by Bom. Act IV of 19 13, s, 31, 
are omitted. 

[d j Section 79A was inserted by Bom. Act VI of 1901, s. 12. 



SEO, 75-70] OF TBGBANT, UBB & REUKauisBMBNT OF UNALIENATKD LAND 61 

[a] (a) to the use or occupation of which by reason of any 
of the provisions of this Act he is not entitled or has ceased to be 
entitled or 

(b) [b] which is not transferable without previous sanction 
under section 73A or by virtue of any condition lawfully [c] an- 
nexed to the tenure [c] under the pro visions of section 62, 67 or 
68, may be summarily evicted by the Collector. 

Note. This section is subject to modification when applied to any estate in 
the districts of Ahmedabad, Kaira, Broach or Panch Mahals to which the Gujarat 
Talukdars' Act, 1888, extends (See Bom. Act VI of 1888, SB. 1 and 33). 

Clause (a). Object of amendment. The object of amending cl. (a) 
by Bom. \ct III of 1921 is to provide for the eviction not only of a person whose 
right to occupancy has ceased under the provisions of this Act, but also of a 
person whose right to occupancy has ceased under the rules or any condition of an 
agreement. 

Scope Of this section. This section refers to unauthorized occupation or 
wrongful possession of land. The question is whether the person was in wrongful 
occupation of land at the date of notice (Bha iji Ishawardas Shah v. Talukdari 
Settlement Officer, 22 Bom. L. R. 906). 

Possession under decree of Civil Court. The powers given to the 
Collector by this section can bo exercised only in cases of wrongful possession. It 
does not extend to cases where possession is obtained under the decree of a Civil 
Court. The Collector has, for the exercise of the power, to form his own opinion 
and decide whether in any particular case the possession is wrongful*, but there is 
no provision in the Code which gives finality to the Collector's order of eviction 
so as to exclude the jurisdiction of a Civil Ornrt to decide that the person evicted 
by that order was in rightful occupation (The Talukdari Settlement Officer v. Umia- 
shankar, 35 Bom. 72). 

Notice of suit. The Collector, holding the powers of the Talukdaii Settle- 
ment Officer and acting under this section served upon the plaintiff a notice asking* 
him to vacate certain land which he was declared to have held illegally without any 
right. The plaintiff was also warned that, if he did not comply with the notice, 
steps would be taken to evict him. The plaintiff sued for an injunction to restrain 
the Collector from taking possession summarily of the land. No notice of suit 
required by s 80 of 0. P. Code, 1908, was given. He!d, that the declaration and 
the notice were distinct acts on the part of the Collector done by him in hia 
official capacity, and, therefore, a notice to the Collector by the plaintiff was neces- 
sary under s. 80 of the 0. P. Code as a condition precedent to th maintenance of 
the suit (Talukdari Settlement Officer r. Bhaijibhai, M Bom. L. R 577). 



(a) This clause was substituted for the original clause by Bom. Act III of 
1921,8. 3. 

[i] This word was substituted for the original words "of which the occu- 
panoy right" by Bom. Act IV of 1918, s. 36. 

[c -c] These words were substituted for the original words "annexed to the 
occupancy" by Bom. Act IV of 1913, 0. 36. 



62 TUB BOMBAY LAND KEVENUHJ CODE, 1870 I CHAP VI 

Summary eviction under this section can only be from 
Talukdari lands. 

The powers of the Talukdari Settlement Officer under this section, read with- 
s. 33 (2), cl. (cc) of the Gujarat Talukdars' Act, 1888, to evict a person summa- 
rily, extends only to estate held on Talukdari tenure nd not to all property of 
any kind of the individual Talukdar (Shankarbhai v. Raisinyji, 19 Bom. L.R. 855). 

Interference Of Collector. Under this section supplemented by s. 33 
(2), cl. (cc) of the Gujarat Talukdars' Act, the Gollector cm interfere only where 
the occupation is wrongful or in contravention of the provisions of the Act 
(Talukdari Settlement Officer v Rikhavdas, 15 Bom. L. K. 378). 

8f'. In order to prevent the forfeiture of an occupancy under 

the provisions of section 56 or of any other 

To prevent forfeiture ] aw f or the time being in force through 

pLorTh^thaT'S non-payment by the [J occupant of the 

occupant may pay the lan d revenue due on account thereof, it shall 

land revenue. * be lawful for any [b] person interested [6] to 

pay on behalf of such [ a ] occupant all sums 

due on account of land revenue, and [c] the Collector shall on due 

tender thereof [c] receive the same. And in any such case the 

Collector may [ d ] under section 86 [V] 

Collector may assist gi ve to the person who has paid the land 

such persons in recover- revenue a3 aforesaid (>] aid tor the recovery 

ing the revenue from r . r V i i . r i i i 

other parties liable of aa 7 portion of such land revenue [e] which 
therefor. he may consider to be properly payable by 

other persons [a] : 

Provided tlat nothing authorized or done under the provi- 
sions of this section shall affect the rights of 
I>rOTi80< the parties interested as the same may be 

established in any guit between such parties 
in a Court of competent jurisdiction. 

Occupancy. Vide note under the heading "occupancy" under s. 73. 

Payment of land revenue by Khatedar creates no charge. 

An unsolicited expenditure in r aspect of the property of another, even if made for 
the purpose of its preservation, gives no lien over the property, outside maratimo 
law. Hence, a payment of land revenue by a person of property belonging to 

[a-a] Words repealed by Bom. Act IV of 1913, s. 37, are omitted. 

[6-6] These words were substituted for the original words "co-occupant, 
tenant, mortgagee or other person interested in the continuance of the occupancy,' 7 
by Pom. Act IV of 1913, s. 37 (a). 

[e-c] These words were substituted for the original words by Bom. Act IV 
of 1905, First Schedule. 

[d-<JJ These words were inserted by Bom. Act IV of 1913, s. 37 (b) 

[e-e\ These words were substituted for the original words "such aid for the 
recovery of the proportional amounts" by Bom. Act IV of 1913, s. 37 (c). 



80-83] OF SUKEIOB AND INFEEIOK UGLDKBS 68 

another bat included in his khata, does not oreate any charge over the property 
(Shivrao 0. Pttndaltt, 26 Bom. 437). 

81 . Repealed by Bom. Ad IV of 1913, s. 38. 
* A . n .. 82. It shall be lawful for the Governor 

Governor in Council /^ Ml vr ^ & i T- 
empowered to 8 u8 F ened ln Oounci l b 7 Notification in the Bombay 
operation of section 60 Government Gazette from time to time : 

or 74. 

(a) to suspend the operation of section 60 or 74, or of both 
within any prescribed local area, either generally, or in respect of 
cultivators or occupants of a particular class or classes, and 

(b) to cancel any such notification. 

During the period for which any notification under the above 
clause (a) is in force within any local area, such rules shall be 
substituted for the provisions of which the operation is suspended 
as the Commissioner shall from time to time direct. 

CAHPTER VII 

OF SUPERIOR AND INFERIOR HOLDERS. 

83. A person placed, as tenant, in possession of land by 

another, or, in that capacity, holding, taking 

Amount rf rent pay- or retaining possession of land perinissively 

able by tenant. frQm Qr by su fj enmce Q an0ther) shall be 

regarded as holding the same at the rent, or 
for the services agreed upon between them ; or in the absence of 
satisfactory evidence of such agreement, at the rent payable or ser- 
vices renderable by the usage of the locality, or, if there be no such 
agreement or usage, shall be presumed to hold at such rent as, having 
regard to all of the circumstances of the case, shall be just and re- 
sonable. 

And where, by reason of the antiquity of a tenancy, no satis- 
_ .. . factory evidence of its commencement is forth- 

Daration of tenancy. C0miog) ftnd there ^ nQt any ^ evidence of 

the period of its intended duration, if any, 
agreed upon betwec-n the landlord and tenant, or those under whom 
they respectively claim title, or any usage of the locality as to dura- 
tion of such tenancy, it shall, as against the immediate landlord of 
the tenant, be presumed to be co-extensive with the duration of the 
tenure of such landlord and of those who derive title under him. 
And where there is no satisfactory evidence of the capacity 
in which a person in possession of land in 
Presumption as to respect of which he renders service or pays 
* rent to the landlord, receives, holds or re- 

tains possession of the same, it shall be pre- 
sumed that he is in possession as tenant. 
9 



ft* T*B BOMBA.Y LAND ftavKiroii Ooca, W0 [ OHA*. VH 



Nothing contained in this section shall affect the right of the 

landlord (if he have the same either by virtue 

Saving clause, of a g reement) ugagQ or otherwise,), to enhance 

the rent payable, or services renderable by the 
tenant, or to evict the tenant for non-payment of the rent or non- 
rendition of the services, either respectively originally fixed or 
duly enhanced as aforesaid. 

"Shall as against the immediate landlord ...... of suoh land- 

lord.' ' The words "shall as against the immediate landlord of the tenant he 
presumed to be co-extensive with the duration of the tenure of such landlord" 
have a prospective and not a retrospective effect. Ihey mean that it shall be 
presumed that the tenancy is to last as long as the landlord's tenure may endare, 
but not necessarily that it was in existence when such tenure commenced. The 
mere fact, therefore, that the tenancy has come into existence since the beginning 
of the landlord's tenure does not prevent the application of this section in cases in 
which owing to the antiquity of a tenancy no satisfactory evidence of its com- 
mencement is forthcoming (Han v. Tuka^am, P. J. 1893, p. 3:3). 

This section determines nature of tenancy. Where Survey 

Settlement under Act I of 1865 is introduced, this section, and not section 68, 
applies in determining the nature of tenancy (Kbandsrao v. Baslinga, P. J. 1889. 

p. ly). 

This section creates no new right; it simply insists on the Courts 

adopting a better method of ascertaining whether in fact the right exists (Nahan- 
chandv Modi Kekhushru, 31 Bom. 183). 

Tenancy from year tO year -Where the plaintiff suod in ejectment, 
and the defendant sets up a right as a permanent tenant, it WAS held, that the set- 
ting up of this right was a repudiation of the landlord's title, and absolved him 
from the obligation which would have devolved on him of giving to the defendant 
a notice to quit if the defendant had set up a tenancy from year to year (Baba v. 
Vishwanath Joshi, 8 Bom. 228;. 

Burden of proof of annual tenancy. The presumption is that a 

tenant is an annual tenant and the onus is on him to prove that he is something 
more if he sets up permanent tenancy j in the absence of any document, he must 
prove antiquity of his tenure. If he succeeds, the burden is shifted to the land- 
lord to prove the intended duration by agreement or usage In the absence of 
any proof, it is presumed that the tenancy is co-extensive with the tenure of the 
landlord (Maneldal t% Bai Amba, 45 Bom. 350). 

Tenancy forty years Old. This section does not apply to a tenancy 
which commenced about forty years ago, but it applies to a tenancy with respect 
to rbich there is no satisfactory evidence to show the commencement as well aa 
the terms of the tenancy (Lakshmanv. Vithu, 18 Bom. 22). 

Tenancy not more than forty years old. This bection is applic- 

able only when the evidence as to the commancement and duration of the tenancy 
is not forthcoming by reason of its antiquity, which, in the case of a tenancy at 
most only forty years old, there is no reason for presuming, will be the case 
(Kalidas t>, Bhaiji 16 Bom. 646;. 



SEC. 83 ] Op SUPERIOB AND IflFEBIOR HOLDERS 65 

Tenancy hundred years Old Where the origin of the tenancy was 
not known, but it appeared that the tenants had been in possession for nearly a 
hundred years prior to the suit and throughout this long period there was no 
demand for enhancement or attempt to eject the tenant, it was held, that under 
those circumstances the tenant was entitled to the presumption under sub -section 
(2) of this section and that they were not liable to be ejected (Mansukh 9. 
Trikambhai, 31 Bom. L. R. 1279). 

Prepetual tenancy. The plaintiff's predecessor-in-title acquired the 
lands in dispute in A, D 17 V> 0. The defendants were in possession as tenants. 
They proved their possession so far back as 1812. But it did not appear that 
they were put in possession first in that year. There wad no evidence either of 
the commencement or of the duration of their tenancy. Held t that under this 
section, the defendant's tenancy should be presumed to be perpetual and that it 
lay on the plaintiff to prove the contrary (Daulata v. Sakhctram, 14 Bom. 392). 

Where the terms of a lease did not appear to create a perpetual tenancy, there 
being no circumstances in the evidence from which the Court onght to infer that 
the intention of the parties was to create such a tenancy, it was held, that the 
lease was not a propetual lease (Ramibaisaheh Patwardhan v. Balaji,l Bom. 701). 
See also Ganyalai v. Kalapa, 9 Bom. 419, and Gangadhar v. Mhadu, P. J. 1889, 
p. 321. 

Ancient tenancy. Where a particular year is indicated as that in 
which the tenancy began, the case is excluded from those in which a presumption 
can be drawn under this section (Ramch'indra v. Dattu, 27 Bom. L. R 1258). 

Antiquity Of tenancy. It is the tenant, who alleges that he is a per- 
manent tenant, who in the first instance has to prove that, and if he has got no 
document which gives him a right on the land as a permanent tenant, the pre- 
sumption 13 that he ia an annual tenant. But if ho can show that he has been ou 
the land so long that the commencement of his tenancy cannot be ascertained, then 
the presumption under p\ra. 2 of this section arhi-3. Even although it is proved 
that the origin of the tenancy was of a later date than the lessor's tenure, still 
tho presumption would ariso provide'! that tho actual date of the origin was not 
known. Para. 2 of this section has only to do with the point of time at which the 
tenancy commences. There is not a word in this section with regard to tho actual 
terms of the tenancy. The paragraph has only to do with duration. When the 
presumption arises, then the Court must hold that tho tenancy is co-extensive 
with tho duration of the Jebsor's tenure. That means that the tenant cannot be 
turned out as long as the landlord's tenure continues. But there is no presump- 
tion as to what the terms of the tenancy arc, that is to say, with regard to rent 
and other matters (Sidhinath v. Chiko, 23 Bom. L. R. 533). 

In order to create the presumption, contemplated in this section, it is not 
necessary that the tenancy should have existed for a stated number of years, and 
as it is not possible to lay down any one rule, and each case is to be decided ac- 
cording to the facts found to exist, the presumption can arise "whenever by reason 
of the antiquity of a tenancy, no satisfactory evidence of its commencement is 
forthcoming" (Narayan v. Itfiyhnvtndracharya, 2 Bom. L, R. 281). 

Under this section a tenancy cannot be presumed to be co-extensive with the 
duration of the tenure of the landlord, even though its commencement cannot be 



W THB BOMBAY LAND SEVENTHS Oora, 1879 [OHAP. VII 

traced to a particular year, provided it can be traced back to a defininte period, 
*. y,, from If 30 to 1860 (Narayc.n i>. Pandurang, 24 Bom. L. R. 881). 

To claim 4he benefit of the preumption created by tlis section it is not suffi- 
cient that there should be no satisfactory evidence of the commencement of the 
tenancy, but the absence of that satisfactory evidence mast be by reason of the 
antiquity to the tenancy (Vishwanath v. Tatya, 6 Bom. L. R. 615). 

The saving clause of this section seems to con emplate that though the com- 
mencement and duration of the tenancy may be lost in the obscurity of antiquity; 
still there may be vested in the landlord a right by agreement to enhance rent 
and evict for its non-payment. Permanency of tenure is not inconsistent with the 
absence of fixity in rent. The permanency of the tenancy and the fixfcy of the rent 
are distinct, and the latter may be the subject of agreemant without touching the 
former (Raghunath r. Lakshman, 2 Bom. L. R. 93). 

There is no/ need for a person who sets up a permanent tenancy to rely upon 
a grant ; for the second para, of this section expressly provides that when by 
reason -of the antiquity of a tenancy there is no evidence of its commencemant or 
its duration, it shall be treated as co -extensive with the duration of the landlord's 
interest in the property. It lie^ on tin pirties, who wish to rebut the presump- 
tion arising from the antiquity of a tenancy, to establish first, that there is no 
evidence of the period of its intended duration and secondly, that there is no 
usage of the locality as to the duration of such tenancy "Whore a tenant and his 
ancestors had cultivated the land as far as memory could go and paid the same 
amount of rent to his landlord and were in possession all along, the mere fact that 
he executed a rent note for ona year ia 1882 does not rebut the presumption of the 
permanency of the tenancy which arose from its antiquity (Rama Ranchhod v. 
Bayad Abdul Rahim, 22 Bom. L. R. 1214). 

Some time between 1700 and 1850 the defendants became tenants under the 
plaintinffa. Regulation XVI of 1827 made the watan lands inalienable for the 
first time. In 1888 the defendants executed a rent nota to the plaintiff, by wWch 
he agreed to vacate the land whenever called upon by the pUintiff to do so. So no 
of the tenants had been in occupation all along, but some others had boon out of 
possession for some time and regained possession only on the execution of the 
rent note?. Held, that in the case of the tenants who wore in unbroken posses- 
sion, the execution of the rent note did not .rebut the possession of permanency of 
the tenancy which arose from its tenancy , in the case of the other tenants, ttair 
possession had been broken and the origin of their present tenancies being trace- 
able to the rent notes of a known date, the presumption under this section did not 
arise (Ramchandra v. Adveppa, 34 Born. L. R. 1131). 2 Bom. L. R. 93 and 22 
Bom. L. R. 1214 were followed in this case. 

Permanent tenancy. This section does not apply to a tenancy which, 
though very old, can be shown to have originated in a specified year (Qhikko v. 
Shidnath, 21 Bom. L. R. 226). 

Permanent tenant. The position of a permanent tenant under this 
section ia not affected in any way by the prohibition contained in the Bhagdari 
Act against alienation (Ibid). 

A permanent tenant who has planted trees on his land has the right of cut- 
ting down and making use of them. This principle has found legislative sanc- 
tion in s. 108, cl. (A), of the Transfer of Property Act, 1882 (Sitabai t>. Shambhn, 
38 Bom. 716). 



SBO. 831 OF STJPKRIOE AND INFERIOR HOLDERS $7 

Where there is no satisfactory evidence of the commencement of a tenancy it 
is presumed to be permanent under this section, bat the tenant is not a Mi rasi 
tenant. The landlord has the right by usage, agreement or otherwise to enhance 
the rent in the case of a permanent tenant ( ir yasacharyn v. "Vishnu, 44 Bom 566). 
The mere fact that tenancy has commenced subsequently to the commencement 
of the landlord's tenure does not prevent the application of cl, (1) of this section, 
in cases where, by reason of the antiquity of tha tenvacy, no satisfactory evidence 
of its commencement is forthcoming (Ramchandra v. Anant, 18 Bom 433). 

Where it is proved that a tenant has been in occupation of certain land for so 
long that one cannot ascertain the commencement of the tenancy the mere fact that 
during the currency of his holding he has signed a kabulyat which jpurports to be 
in terms of an agreement for an annual tenancy, may not be sufficient to displace 
the advantage ho has obtained from his long holding, if he continues in possession 
for ininy years after he had signed the kibulyat, on the same rent. Each case 
however, must stand entirely on its own facts. First of all, a tenant claiming to 
hold as a permanent tenant must establish the facts which would entitle him to the 
presumption of this section. But it can bo rebuttjd by the landlord by the produc- 
tion of a kabulyat. The effect of the kabulyat can, however, be destroyed by fur- 
ther evidence on the part of a tenant. The fact of the sigaing of the kabulyat as 
merely an isolated instance in the midst of a long holding at the same rent, will 
not necessarily prevent the tenant from succeeding (Vijbhukhandas v. Ishvardas, 2o 
Bom L. R. 431). 

The fact that the commencement of a tenancy cannot be determined coupled 
with ttie presumption of continuation of the tenancy and coupled also with the 
f ict that a permanent building hds been erected on the land as far back as memory 
can go, raises a strong presumption that the tenancy is permanent (Rukmini v. 
Rfiyaji, 48 Bom. 541). 

Under the last paragraph of this section if a tenant proves that he has fixity 
of tenure he is entitled to fixity of rent, unless tha landlord can prove either by 
agreement, usage or otherwise that he has a right to enhance the rent. "When 
it Las been proved that he has such a right, thun the question of the extent of the 
enhancement must be left to the Court as the final arbiter (Giriappa r. Govindrao, 
27 Bom. L. R. 1331). 

Jn the case of permanent tenants, under this section, the court allowed the 
ordinary landlord to enhance rent to the extent of three times the assessment. 
"Where a permanent tenant improves the demised land by growing fruit trees, and 
the assessment 011 the land is consequently increased, the landlord is entitled to get 
rent based on the assessment but he cannot claim in addition rent for the fruit 
trees (Ganagaram v. Ganesh, 21 Bom. L R. 1340). 

There is nothing in the Bhagdari Act to prevent a permanent tenant of a 
Bhagdar from alienating tho fruit of the trees on the laud of which he is a tenant, 
in the same way as he could alienate the crops or grass npon such land. The 
position of a tenant of a Bhagdari land who is presumed to be a permanent 
tenant under this section is not affected in any way by the prohibition contained 
in the Bhagdari Act against alienation (Nahanchand v. Kekhushru, 9 Bom 
L.R. 60j 8.0. 31 Bom. 188). 

A person who is in possession of watan lands as a tenant of the watandar 
cannot acquire a right by adverse possession to fixity of rent. Even if a per- 



W TM BOMBIY IAND REVENUE OODB, 1879 [ OHA*. VII 

maaeut tenant can acquire a right of fixity of rent as against the immediate 
holder of the watan by adverse pos369eion ; it will not prevail against next 
holder (Vishnu v, Tukaram, 49 Bom. 526). 

The plaintiff was in possession of certain vania land, for which ho paid a 
fixed quit-rent or salami of Rs. 5 per year. He relied on title deeds the earliest 
of which was dated 1835 A D., and described the lanl as pasaita. His father pur- 
ch>sed the land in 1876. In 1885, the defendent landlord tried unsuccessfully in 
the Mamlatdar's Court to raise tha rent. HJ gave in 1892 a notice to quit which 
was desregarded by the plaintiff. However, in the yoars 1895, 1893 and 1898, the 
plaintiff passed rent-notes for the land in suit as well as for an adjoining plot of 
land, agreeing^ to p%y Rs. 5 as rent and to give up possession at ths end of the 
cultivating season. These rent-notes were held to have been passed under a mis- 
apprehension that they related only to the adjoining lan'l The plaintiff hiving 
sued for a declaration of his right to hold the Hud pertinently at a fixed stl&Tii 
of Rs. 5 a year, it was held (1) that the plaintiff was a permanent tenant at a fixed 
quit rent or salami of Rs. 5 a yeir ; (2) that the defendant was not at liberty to 
enhance the rent in absence of proof that he was entitled to do so by agreement, 
usage or otherwise. The onus of proving such a right to enhince tha rent lies on 
the landlord unless there are special circumstancaa to fch> contrary. Tha rulings 
of the Bombay High Oouit recognizing the usage under which a landlord can 
enhance the rent of a miraai tenant have no application to wanta land in Gajarat 
(Juvansinyji v. Doh Chhala, 27 Bom. L.R. 8UO). 

The plaintiffs, who were landlords, gave notice to defendants, who were 
tenants of agricultural lauds, on February 5, 1916 ; calling upon them to pay en- 
hanced rent or else to quit possession within ten days Th3 defendants^raisud tha 
plea that they were permanent tenants and claimel that they were in p3sso3sion 
ever since the foundation of the village in 1655 A. D. Their names as tenants 
appeared in plaintiff's books from 1876, and in the earlier books though thoir 
names were not mentioned specifically, yet coupled with other evidence they showod 
that as far back as 1848 the defdiidiub's ancestors \vjro cultivating tho lands. The" 
plaintiffs having sued in ejectment, it was hild (1) thit under the circumstances tho 
defendants were to ba treated as permanent tenants by virtue of the presumption 
arising under this section; (2) that the notice to quit was bad as contravening fcho 
provisions of e. 84;*>s/j and (3) thib the plaintiffs had failed to make out a case 
for enhancement of rent (Amarwnyji v. Ranchhod, 27 Bom. L, R. 267). 

Where a tenancy 13 shown to have originated at soma tim;> bjtween 1758 ajid 
1857, a presumption can arise, under this section, that the tenancy is permanent. 
The period of a century is too long and indefinite a period to constitute satis- 
factory evidence of the commencement of a tenancy within the meaning of this 
section ( Shripadbhat v, Ramz, 29 Boin L. R. 274). 

In a suit for ejectment the defendants pleaded they wore permanent tenants, 
It was found that another person was the tenant in 1758, but there was no evi- 
dence as to who was in possession between 1758 and 1860. The defendants provol 
their tenancy from 1860. Held, that the plaintiffs failed to prove the comnmce- 
ment of the tenancy. There was neither any evidence of the period of the intended 
duration of the tenancy, if any, agreed upon between the landlord and tha tenant 
nor any evidence of any usage of the locality as to the duration of suoh ienaacy. 
So the presumption of permanent tenancy arose in favour of the defendants unlor 
this section (Janardan Narayan t>. Lakshman Mahadto, 33 Bom, L, R. 551) 



BEO. 85 ] Otf StfttB&ioR AND INFERIOR flot&iaa* 6$ 

The period of 150 years is too long and indefinite to constitute satisfactory 
evidence of the commencement of the tenancy within the meaning of this ' section 
(Kamchandra v. kdiveppa, 34 Bom. L. R. 1131). 

In this case 29 Bom. L. R. 274 and S3 Bom. L, R 551 were followed. 

When the finding of both the lower Oonrts is that defendant's ancestors were 
in possession of the land many years baforo 1863 wh->n the Bombay Rygulation 
XVI of 1827 was applied to Satara District and when watan lands were not made 
inalienable in Satara District, the statutory presumption of a permanent tenancy 
under this section can be raised (Gcvind Vithu v. Vith^l Laxtnan, 33 Bom L. R, 
210). 

The possession of the tenant was traced back up to 1864. The tenant mort- 
gaged the holding and the mortgagees who subsequently brought the holding to sale 
and purchased it were never entered as permanent taniuts, Hild, that under the 
law as then it stood, there was no prohibition of transfer of ordinary tenancy, ao 
the mere fact that the landlord permitted the mortgage and the sale does not 
lead to an inference of permanent tenancy and with regard to this soitnn it was 
difficult to say that in the case of cultivation in 1863 the antiquity was so great 
as to make the commencement of the tenancy difficult and obscure (Vyinkatesh 
Bhivram v. Krishna Bal Qhavan, 33 Bom. L R. 613). 

Permanent tenants and tenants-at-will. Tenants -at-wiii do 

not deprive the Inamdar of his possession, but "permanent" or occupancy tenants 
do. The distiction between "permanent tenants" and Houanta-at will" is often 
hard to draw when not written by written leases (18 Bom. 433 and 17 Bom. 475), 
but the sutil&rs of Kurla are admitted to be permanent. 

Grantee of Royal share of revenue or of soil. 

A grant to an inamdar may bo eithor of the Royal share of rev^nuo, or of 
the soil ; but ordinarily it is of tho former description. The burden rests on the 
Inamdar to show that he is an alienee of the soil (Raiya v. Balknshna, 29 Bom. 
415). 

Right Of inamdar to enhance rent. Mirasdara in a villlage cannot 
always claim to hold at a fixed ront. An inamdar can enhance thAr rjnU with- 
in the limit of custom (Vishwamth Bh\kij\ v. Dhondappa, 17 Bom. 475). 

Right of landlord to evict on tenant's denying his title. 

A tenant repudiating the title under which he entered, becomes liable to imme- 
diate eviction at the option of the landlord ( Vishnv v. Balaji, 12 Bom. 352). 

Suit by tenant to recover possession claiming as full 

Owner. A plaintiff sued to recover possession of certain fields, etc., alleging 
that he was a permanent tenant of the defendant, having purchased the right of 
occupancy from previous occupants of the land. Tue lower Court held that the 
plaintiff's vendors were merely yearly tenants and not permanent tenants, but 
that the sale of thoir right to the plaintiff wag valid, and that the plaintiff had 
been wrongfully disposses sed by the defendant, no notice to quit having been 
given. Held, the plaintiff could not recover ; for his plaint and the conduct of 
his case amounted to a denial of his landlord's (defendant's) title. In his suit 
the plaintiff claims to be full owner, and he could not afterwards claim to be 
restured to possession on the ground that he was a yearly tenant entitled to 
notice to ^uit, which was not given (Lalu Gayal v. Bai Motan Bibi, 17 Bom. 
631). 



70 THE BOMBAT LAND REVENUE CODE, 1879 [OHAP. VII 

84. An annual tenancy shall, in the absence of proof to the 
contrary, be presumed to run from the end 
JE on""? sm of one cultivating season to the end of the 
March. next - The cultivating season may be pre- 

sumed to end on the 31st March. 

An annual tenancy shall [a] in the absence of any special 
agreement in writing to the contrary [a] re- 
Three months' notice quire for its termination a notice given in 
Iftti'givint; writing by the landlord to the tenant, or by 
landlord to tenant, or tlae tenant to the landlord, at least three 
vice versa. months before the end of the year of tenancy 

at the end of which it is intimated that the 
tenancy is to cease. Such notice may be in the form of Schedule 
E, or to the like effect, 

The object of this secaion is to define the nature of contract of tenancy ; 
bnt the landlord's right of forfeiture arising from denial of his title is no part 
of the contract of tenancy, but is a right which the law implies in all cases from 
the relationship of landlord and tenant. If the Legislature had intended to ex- 
clude the right of forfeiture in cases of annual tenancies, thare would have been 
express provision to that effect (Venkaji v. Lakshman, 20 Bom. 354). 

Annual tenancy, determination of. Au annual tenancy to which 

this Code applies, cannot be determined without a notice in writing by the landlord 
(or by the tenant) (Ochhavlal v. Gopal, 32 Bom. 78). 

The notice under this section ought to be of 3 months. 

One of 17th March 1887 to enhance the assessment for the year 1887-1888 ia 
insufficient (Bahiru v. Vinayak, P. J. 1892, p. 298). 

Necessity Of notice to quit. Where, in the case of agricultural land, 
the tenant entered into an agreement with the landlord that he would pay the 
amount of the annual rent every year as long as the landlord would keep the 
wadi (oart) with him, and would givo back tho samo when the landlord would 
demand it, Held, that the contract between the parties took the case out of this 
section, and that, as tho rent would not be payable uatil the end of the year, the 
landlord might put an end to the tenancy and demand the land at the end of any 
year without giving any previous notice of any particular period, but he could 
not demand immediate possession in the middle of a year (Bzlkrishnt v. Jashi, 19 
Bom. 150). An adverse possession of a khoti land of an occupancy tenant 
extinguishes the right of the occ'ipaacy tenuit to actual possession but not right 
to relinquish his occupancy right to the kuoti who, after du3 notice under this 
section, is entitled to eject the person in possession (Vishnu r. Rabla } 45 Bom. 
1001). 

When notice tO quit iS not necessary Where the tenants agwd 
by their Kabuliat to give up the land in Kartik and where no subsequent tenancy 
was created either by agreement or by acceptance of rent, held, that no notice to 
quit was requisite, that this section did not apply and that the plaintiff was en- 
titled to recover the land immediately after Kartik (Dattatraya v. Likshman, P J* 
1894, p. 218). An annual tenancy, under this section, is determined by the tenant's 
disclaimer of the landlord's title even where the Transfer of Property Act does 
not apply; and no notice to quit is necessary to determine the tenancy (Vidya- 
vardhak Sangh 00. v. Ayyvppa, 49 Bom. 842). 

[a a| These words were inserted by Bom. Act VII of 1914, s. 2. """ 



BEGS. 84-84A.] OF BUPEBIOR AND INFERIOR HOLDERS H 

Notice Year Of cultivation. Where a notice determining a tenancy 
was given in June and recited that the yeu of cultivation W3iild terminate in 
October, bat the only document that was filed indicated that the year ended in 
May, it was held that tha notice did not terminate ths teainay (Ichhtfal . Anjibai, 
30 Bom. L. B. 1602). 

Ten days' notice IS invalid. The words of the particular notice given 
by the plaintiffs were: '<You are hereby given notice that within ten days from 
the date of receipt hereof you should pay over to us reut of ths list yeir and you 
should givo in writing a Kabalayat to pay rent for the lands you cultivate, failing 
which you should hand over to us the lands which you cultivate, and in default 
steps will be taken against you to take over possession from you or obtain any 
other remedy according to law.' 7 Held, that it cannot be implied that the notice to 
quit was to quit at the termination of the cultivating season and that it did not 
comply with this eection. Held, further, that though the form of notice referred to 
in this section was not imperative, it still indicates the class of notica which the 
Indian Legislature had in mind, and that notice would be very much what would 
be required under English law and the notice in the present case was not a valid 
notice to quit (Amarsangji Indrasanyji r. RanchJwd Jethabhai, 27 Bom, L.B. 267). 

* 81 A. (1) Whenever from any cause the payment of the 

whole or any part of the land revenue payable 

Order granting sus- to G overnmen t by a superior holder in respect 

TirrUar. 810119 of any land is suspended or remitted, the Col- 

lector, acting under the general or special 

orders of Government, may suspend or remit, as the case may be, 

the payment to such superior holder of the rent or land revenue of 

such land by the inferior holder or holders to an amount which 

(a) in the case of land in respect of which full assessment is 
payable to Government, shall not exceed double the amount of the 
land revenue of which the payment by such superior holder has 
been suspended or remitted by Government, and 

(b) in the case of land in respect of which land revenue less 
than the. full assessmnt is payable to Government, shall not exceed 
double the amount which, in the opinion of the^ Collector, would 
have been suspended or remitted by Government in favour of the 
superior holder if the full assessment had been payable to Govern- 
ment in respect of such land. 

(2) In the case of land in respect of which no land revenue is 
payable to Government by a superior holder, whenever from any 
cause the payment of the whole or any part of the land revenue pay- 
able to Government in respect of any other land in the same ne''gh- 
bourhood has been suspended orremUted, the Collector, acting under 
the general or special orders of Government, may suspend or remit, 
as the case may be, the payment to such superior holder of the rent 
or land revenue of the first-mentioned land by the inferior holder 
or holders to an amount which shall not exceed double the amount 



* This section was inserted by Bom. Act VII of 1914, 8. 3. 
10 



J50MBAY LiAND KBrETT|l UODB, J/W [ UHAP. VIA 

which, in the opinion of the Collector, would have been suspended 
or remitted by Government in favour of the superior holder if the 
full assessment had been payable to Government in respect of such 
land. 



Such order not to be (g) An order pa3ged d gub-iectlOU 

questioned in any Oonrt (l) Qr ^ mb ^ {(m (J) AM U0t be 

questioned in any court. 

(4) If the superior holder collects any rent or land revenue of 

which the payment has been remitted, or be* 

n^'Tf 10 ^ llow " fore the expiration of the period of suspension 
ing on such order. ^^ ftny rent or ^ revenue rf ^ ^ 

payment has been suspended in favour of an 
inferior holder or holders, the whole of the land revenue remitted 
or suspended in favour of such superior holder shall, without pre- 
judice to the rights of the inferior holder or holders to recover the 
rent or land revenue so collected, become immediately payable by 
the superior holder. 

(5) No application for assistance under sections 86 and S7 
shall be entertained, no suit shall lie, and in decree of a Civil 
Court shall be executed, for the recovery by a superior holder of 
any rent or land revenue of which the payment has been remitted, 
or during the period of suspension of any rent or land revenue of 
which the payment has been suspended in favour of an inferior 
holder or holders; but, where the payment of rent or land revenue 
by an inferior holder or holders has been suspended, the period 
during which the suspension has continued shall be excluded from 
the period of limitation prescribed for a suit for the recovery of 
such rent or land revenue. 

(6) Nothing in this section shall make it unlawful for the 

superior holder to take the crop-share fixed 
OMfc !l P ;f a ^ e J^^ by ^ Cu8tom or agreement in respect of any 

caste* or agreement land OQ wh j ch ^ . g ^^ . Q ^ op 

part in the form of a share of the crop. 

(7) Explanation 

In respect of land which has not been assessed under the pro- 

^ . , visions of Chapter VIII or under any survey 

Meamng of assessment. settlement confirmed by section 112, the 

term assessment, for the purposes of this sec- 

tion, includes the rent or land-revenue payable by custom or by 

the usage of the locality. 

Sind excluded. (8) Nothing in this section shall apply 

to any land situated in the Province of Sind. 

Object of tixis section The object of this lection is to secure for 

tenants and other inferior holders a share in the concessions granted by Gtofern- 

ment under the rales for the suspension and remission of Land Revenue. The 

chief difficnlty experienced in carrying out tbe pojicy of liberal attspensions and 



8 ECS, 84A,*85] Or SUPERIOE AND INFBBIOB HOLDERS 73 

remissions is that, though Government may grant a remission or suspension to 
the superior holder, the latter can recover the whole of the rent or land-revenue, 
at once from the inferior holders. This section will now remedy this defect in the 
Act (Statement of Objects and Reasons). 

[a] 85. (1) Every superior holder of an alienated village 

or of an alienated share of a village, in which 

Recovery of superior there are a hereditary patel and a hereditary 

holder s dues. village accountant, shall receive his dues on 

account of rent or land -re venue from the 

inferior holders through such patel and accountant. 

(2) Where such patel and accountant fail to recover in behalf 
of such superior holder any sum due and payable to him on account 
of rent or land-revenue, such superior holder shall, with the pre- 
vious consent of the Collector, be entitled to recover his duei 
direct from the inferior holders. 

(3) Where any such patel or accountant has recovered any 
sum in beha ] f of such superior holder and fails to account to him 
for the same, the Collector shall, on written application from the 
superior holder, recover such sum from such patel or accountant as 
an arrear of land revenue. 

(4) VVhere any such superior holder demands or receives any 
rent or lapd revenue from any inferior holder otherwise than 
through such patel or accountant, he shall, on conviction in a 
summary enquiry before the Collector, be liable to a fine not 
exceeding three times the amount of the sum so demanded or 
received. 

Note, This section does not apply t, any estate in the districts of Ahmeda- 
bad, Kaira, Broach or Panch Mahals to which the Gujarat Talukdirs' Act, 1888, 
extends (Bee Bom. Act VI of 1888, SB 1 and 33). 

Applicability to Sheri lands in alienated Villages This sec- 
tion does not apply to the lands held as Sheri bjp at* Inamdar (G. R. No. 1425, 
lated 5-2 1913, cited in Modak'a Bombay Land System and Village Ad minis tra 
lion.) 

Suit by superior holders to recover dues from inferior 

holders. This section does not bar the jurisdiction of Oivil Courts to try suits 
by superior holders to recover the arrears of their duea from inferior holders 
(Vuhvamth v. Kondaji, 42 Born. 49). 

Enhancement Of rent. A grant to an inamdar may be either of the 
Royal share of Revenue, or of the oil ; but ordinarily it IB of the former descrip- 
tion. The burden rests on the inamdar to show that he is an alienee of the soil. 
Where an ioamdar ia an alienee only of the land revenue, then his relations to- 
wards those who hold land within the area of the Inam grant, vary according to 
certain well-recognized conditions, [f the holding was created prior to the grant 
of the Inam, then the inamdar as such can only claim land-revenue or assessment 

|/ij Tnia section was substituted by Bom. Act I of 1910, 1st Sch., Part 1I ? 
eerial No, 6 for tite original section, 



? 4 THE BOMBAY LA.HD EUvawais OOD, 1879 [ OHAP. VII 

for he has no interest in the soil, in respect of which rent wonld be paid. If the 
holding is later in its origin than the inam grant, the inamdar even if only a 
grantee of revenue, would be entitled to place tenants in possession of the sheri 
lands, not by virtue of any interest in the soil, bat as being entitled to make the 
most he can oat of them by way of revenue. The difference between the two 
classes of holdings is obvious 5 in the la*t, direct contractual relations would be 
established between the inamdar and the holder. It these contractual relations are 
defined by an express contract of which there is evidence, then the rights of the 
parties must be determined by that ooruract. If no such contract can be proved 
then the Court must have recourse to the criteria prescribed by law for determin- 
ing their rights (Rajya 0. Balkrishna, 29 Bom. 415). 

Usage Of locality-Tests. In oases where enhancement of rent by an 
Inamdar is sought to be sanctioned by usage, the test is, whether there has beeu 
any and what enhancement according to the usage of the locality in respect of 
land of the same description held on the same tenure (Ibid). 

Talati appointed to be Kulkarni not a hereditary village 

aOOOUntant. A talati appointed t:> be a Kalkarni of a commuted inam village 
is not a hereditary village accountant for the purposes of this section (G. R. 
No. 6550, dated 10-1-1923, quoted in Joglekar's Supplement No. 2, p 19). 

86. Superior holders shall, upon written application to the 
. . ., Collector, be entitled to assistance, by the 

W&r,"b use of precautionary and other measures, for 
recovery of dues from the recovery of rent or land-revenue payable 
inferior holders, &c. to them by inferior holders, or by co-sharers 
in their holdings under the same rules, except 
that contained in section 137, snd in the same manner as prescribed 
in Chapter XI [a] for the realization of land -re venue by Govern- 
ment: 

Pr vided that su <>h application be made 
- within the revenue year or within the year 
venue year or within ot tenancy in which the said rent or land- 
the year of tenancy. revenue became payable 

Applications may bo S6nt by post. A n application by a superior 
holder for assistance for the recovery of rent under this section is not liable to re- 
jection if sent by post ,Gt B. No. 5027) dated 12t': November 1890, quoted iu 
Sathe's Land Revenue Code, 4fch ed v p. 162). 

Suit tO recover enhanced rent.Seca. 86 and 87 do not make it 
compulsory on the inamdur, or his assignee, to ask for the assistance of the OolW- 
tor to recover enhanced rent from the tenants. If the inamdar, or his assignee, 
had made a demand on the tenants for the enhanced rent through the hereditary 
patel, or village accountant, as required by s. 85, and they had refused, he would 
have at once become entitled to his ordinary civil remedy (Govindrao t>. Balu, 1ft 
Bom. 586). 

Inamdar 's remedy for arrears of rent. Inamdars can only ob- 
tain a money decree for arrears of assessment in the Civil Oourt, Belief by for- 

[a] Words repealed by Bom, Act ill of 1886 are omitted. 



SBCS 85-871 OP SUPEBIOB ANO INFBBIOB HOLDERS 75 

feiture and sale of the tenants' lands must be had, if at all, through the Collector 
under this section (Ratanji 9. SMaram, P J 1884, p. 68), 

Suit by Inamdar for arrears of assessment. in a suit by a* 

Inamdar for arrears of asaes 3019:1 fc from kuatelara, there is no necessity to pro- 
duce a certificate under s. 4 of the Pension* Act (XXEII of 1891). He is not en- 
titled to charge on the lands of, but only to a money decree ag ainst, the occupant* ; 
hence, no personal decree can be passed agains t an oetupantin respect of assess- 
ment for the years previous to hh coming on the holding (Vinauak v. Lakshman, 
28 Boro. 92). 

Suit for declaration Of rights -Injunction Where the Re- 
venue authorities proceed nuder this section to assist a superior holder ty recover 
his dues from an inferior holder and the latter, havin; exhiu-a ed his rights of 
appeal under this Code files a suit for for declaration of bis right, the Court in 
which the suit is ponding shall not grant an injunction to restrain the procedure 
uuder this section (Karimdino t>. Ali Akbar, 2 8. D. 572). 

Municipality deemed to be a superior holder. A Municipality 

U deemed to be a superior holder within the maaniag of this and the following 
section (Vide s. 166 of the Bom District Municipal Act (III of 1901). 

[a] 87, (1) On application being made under section 86 to 
the Collector, he shall cause a written notice 

there f < be * er . ved " the * holder 
tion being made. or co-sharer fixing a day for inquiry into the 

care. 

[a] <2) On the day so fixed he shall hold a summary inquiry, 
and shall pass an order for rendering assistance to the superior 
holder for the recovery of such amount, if any, of rent or land re- 
venue as appears to him upon the evidence before him to be law- 
fully due. 

[a] (3) But, if it appears to the Collector that the question at 

A . , issue between the parties is of a complicated 

tJST^Z^ or difficult nature, he may in his discretion 

limited exteut only either refuse the assistance asked for, or, if 

the land to which the dispute relates has 

been assessed under the provisions of Chapter VI II. ..[6] or any 

survey settlement confirmed by section 1 12 grant assistance to the 

extent only for the assessment so fixed upon the said land. 

[a] (4) Nothing in this section shall prevent either party from 

having recourse to the Civil Courts to recover 

Civil suit not to be f r0 m the other such amount as he may deem 

barred * to be still due to him, or to have been levied 

from him in excess of what was due, as the 

case may be. 

[c] (5) One appeal only shall lie from any order passed under 
this section, 

[a] These sub-sections were originally paragraphs of section 87. They were 
numbered as sub-sections by Bom. Act IV of 1913, s. 39. 

[b] Words repealed by iiom. Act 111 of 188G are omitted. 

-)<?] Tnia sub-auction was addec} by Bom. Act IV" of 1 91 3, a. 39, 



7 * THE BOMBAY Luro KivBurtfis CODS, 1879 (OHA*. Vlf 

Mamlatdar's order does not bar Civil suit. A mamlatdar'g 

order under this section does not preclude the pubie* f om hiving recourse to the 
Civil Court, if dissatisfied with it (Oawsh v. Mehta, 8 Bom. 188). 

Collector's power tO refuse assistance. Paragraph 1 of this sec- 
tion leaves the Collector no discretion as to wlthh olding assistance for the re- 
covery of rent or land revenue which after a sumnary enquiry he finds to be law 
fully due. The truth is that in these enquiries under this section the Collector 
exercises in a summary way the jurisdiction of a Civil Court, and like those Courts 
be has no authority to go behind the liability and listen to appeals ad misericor- 
dium. Even should he do so, the 4th paragraph of this section enables the land' 
lord to go to the Civil Court to recover from hU tenant such ami a nt as the Col- 
lector disallows, and the object of the Collector would thus be frustrated Even 
when the question at issue is of a complicated or difficult nature, cl. 2 of this 
section assumes that there can be no such question about the survey assessment 
(G, Us. Nos. 8402, dated 25th October 1884, an 1 1 839, dated 14th February 1885) 

The power given to the Collector, in the 3rd pa ragraph of this section, of re- 
fusing assistance to a superior holder for the recovery of dues from his infer io r 
holders when the questi>n at is*ue between ttu pirties appears to him to be of a 
complicated or difficult nature, is a discretional power ; and the ordinary rule in 
appeals is not to interfere with the exercise ,by subordinate authorities, of their 
lawful discretion. Bat thie rule is subject to the qualification that it is the duty of 
the appellate authority to see that the subordinate exercises a sound discretion 
(G. R. No. 168, dated 8th January 1884). 

Rates Of bhatta tO Witnesses The rates of Ihatta to witnesses as 
fixed by the High Court from time tJ time are applicable in the case of enquiries 
made under the provisions of this Code, and the orders r egarding bhatta issued 
in G. R No. 880, dated 20th March 1888, are not binding (G. O. No. $610, dated 
28-2-1920 quoted in Joglekar'a Supplement No. 2, p. 20). 

Appointment of temporary clerks for assistance suits. 

Collectors caii appoint temporary clerks for assistance tuir e when required, with 
the approval of Government, subject to the condition that the expenditure thereof 
is recovered from the process fees (G R So. 251 5-3 i, date 1 29 -1-! 925, quoted 
in Joglekar's Supplement No. 2). 

Lawyers Government officers may allow representation by Liwyers, 
whenever suoha course is likely to ha helpful, in appeals under the 

(1) Land Bevenue Code. 

(2) Ike Income Tax Act, 

(3) Tie Watan Act and other similar matters (B G. G., 2920, Pt. V, p. &V 

8^. It shall be lawful for the Commissioner at any time 
to issue a comm ission to any holder of alie- 
Oumnussioner may, by nated lands, conferring upon him all or any 
of ^ f o u ow i ag powers in respect of the 
lands, specified in such commission ( namely J: 



. S7-&9 j 0* Su^BBIOB AND llfFEBIOE Hot*DEB 77 

(a) to demand security for the payment of the land-revenue 
or rent due to him, and if the same be not furnished, to take such 
precautions as the Collector is authorised to take under sections 
141 to 143 ; 

(b) to attach the property of persons making default in the 
payment of such land revenue or rent, as aforesaid ; 

(c) to fix from time to time the times at which, and the in- 
stalments in which, the land-revenue or rent due to him shall be 
payable ; 

(d) to exercise the powers of a Collector under sections 65 
and 66 ; 

(e) to receive notices of relinquishment under section 74, and 
to determine the date up to which such notices shall be received as 
in that section provided ; 

( /' ) to take measures for the maintenance and repair of 
boundary-marks in the manner provided for survey officers in sec- 
tion 122 : 

Provided that the powers contemplated in clauses (c) to ( /) 
shall be conferred only on holders of lands to which a survey settle- 
ment has been extended under the provisions of section 216. 

XTote*. This section is subject to modification when applied to any estate iti 
the districts of Ahmedabad, Kaira, Broach or Panch Mahals to which the Gujarat 
Takkdar's Act, 1888, extends (Bom. Act VI of 1888, as. 1 and 33). 

Conferring of powers on Inamdar. There \* no objection to the 

powers contemplated in els. (a) and (b) of this section being conferred upon an 
Inamdar at once, bat, none of the powers mentioned in els. (c) tj ( / } can be con- 
ferred nntil a survey settlement has been extended to his village under s. 216 of 
the Code (Pub the proviso to this section). 

The grant Of commission under this section to a sharakatdar ia not 
necessary, when he is a mere rent-charge holder (G. O. No, 76, dated 10-1-21 
quoted in Joglekar's Supplement No. 2). 

89. Every such commission shall be in the form of Schedule 
F, and shall be liable to be withdrawn at the 
Form of each com- pleasure of [a] the Commissioner [a] ; and a 
mi88lon - commission may, if the [6] Commissioner 

see fit be issued to one or more agents of a 
holder of alienated lands as well as to the holder in person. 
V\fa the first note undor the preceding section. 



[a-n] These words were substituted for tbe original word 'Government" by 
Bom. Act IV O f 1913, s. 40 (2). 

[b] This word was substituted for the original \vordd "Governor iu Council 
by Bom. Act IT of 1913, a. 40 (). 



78 THE BOKBlir JLiAWD RBVWftfB OotoB, 1879 [ OHAJP, VU 

90. If the holder of any such commission attach a defaulter's 
property, he shall make an immediate report 

5ttC ? ? *5 e doll ? ctor o " having done so. Should 

sion to the Collector in e demand on account or which the attaca- 
certain oases. ment has been made, appear to the Collector, 

after such inquiry as he may deem fit to 
make, to be just, he shall give orders for the sale of the property, 
and the sale shall be conducted agreeably to the provisions of sec- 
tions 165 to 186. 

But if the holder of the commission is invested, under Regula- 
tion Xillof 1830, with civil jurisdiction and with power to exe- 
cute his own or his agent's decrees, the sale shall be conducted by 
him and not by the Collector and his subordinates. 

When compulsory pro- 91. All compulsory process shall cease : 

cess* shall cease 

on the defaulter's paying or tendering the amount demanded 
of him under protest, or 

on his furnishing either to the holder of the commission or 
his agent or agents, or to the Collector, satisfactory security in the 
form of Schedule D, or to similar effect. 

And any holder of any such commission as aforesaid, by him- 
self or his agents, proceeding with any com- 

Penalty for coDtma. pu l 80ry procegg after pa y ment made, Or ten- 
infi compulsory pro- *, JP j * \ r i 

cess. dered as aforesaid, or after the furnishing of 

such security as aforesaid or after tender 
thereof, shall be liable on conviction in a summary inquiry before 
the Collector, to a penalty not exceeding three times the amount of 
the revenue sought to be recovered by such compulsory process. 

92. The power conferred by any such 

' P 7o*l***tto m *~ commission shall extend to the enforcement 
Jent airipreviouB yoar'g f tlie payment of the revenue or rent of the 
arrears. current year and of the year next immediately 

preceding, but not to that of former years. 

93. The holder of any such commission shall not enforce a 

demand for revenue or rent in excess of 

Holder of u"*^ 11 what any inferior holder has paid, previ- 

usual or 60 e^ssiV d e T ously to the date of such demand, or of 

rnand. what he may have contracted in writing to 

pay. In the event of a dispute the Collector 

shall hold a summary inquiry and decide what is just, and the 
holder of a commission shall not enforce a demand for more than 
what is so decided to be just. 

The person against whom any demand shall have been enforc- 
ed in excess of the amount of which payment 
Penalty for so doing. is i aw f u n y eo foreable shall be entitled to re- 
cover, on conviction of the holder of the com- 



SBCB. 8U-94AJ Op SopBBiofc AND INFERIOR SOLDERS 19 

mission in u summary inquiry before the Collector, three times the 
amount of any such excessive demand by way of damages, and the 
sum so due by the holder of the commission shall be leviable from 
him as an arrear of land revenue. 

94. Nothing in the last section shall be deemed to prevent a 
B holder of alienated land from instituting a 

mission may e 8 tablhh 8uit in m * Courfc of competent jurisdiction 
bis right to enhanced tor ttie purpose of establishing his claim to 
rent in civil Oonrt. re-assess the lands or re-settle the revenue of 
any inferior holder paying less than the full 
sum to payment of which he d^ema him to be justly liable, or from 
levying the sum ascertained t > be due in accordance with the decree 
in any such suit in the manner hereinbefore mentioned* 

Note. This section is subject to modification when applied to any estate 
in the districts of Ahmedabad, Kaira, Broach or Panch Mahals to which the 
Gujarat Talukdars' Act, 1888, extends (Vid* Bom. Act VI of 1888, as. 1 and 33). 
(a) 94 A (1) The superior holder of an alienated village or 
of an alienated share of a village, in which 
Recovery as revenue there are a hereditary patel and a hereditary 

f 



npe ho, 

for specified period. settlement has teen extended under section 
216, may by application ia writing to the 
Assistant. or Deputy Collector in charge of the taluka request that 
the rent or land revenue due to such superior holder may during a 
period named in the application be recovered as a revenue demand. 

(2) The Collector may in his discretion sanction the applica- 
tion for a period not exceeding that named by the applicant, and 
in such case the following provisions shall apply : 

(a) Any rent or land-revenue that accrues or has accrued due 
to the superior holder during tbe sanctioned period or a period of 
six years previous thereto shall, to an extent not exceeding the 
assessment fixed on the land, be recoverable under the orders of the 
revenue authorities as a revenue demand during the sanctioned 
period. 

(b) Where any proportion of the land-revenue that accrues or 
has accrued due to Government in respect of unalienated land in 
the same neighbourhood during the said sanctioned or previous 
period has been suspended or remitted by proper authority, the 
Collector may suspend or remit an equal or lesser proportion of the 
rent or land -revenue that accrues or fcias accrued due to the superior 
holder, during the corresponding period. Any such suspension or 
remission shall, notwithstanding anything in the Bombay Revenue 
Jurisdiction Act, 1876, be binding upon the superior holder in any 
subsequent proceedings in any Civil Court between the superior 

ia"\ This aaction waa inserted bv Bom. Act IV of 1913. 8. 41. 



80 THE Boafcu* IUHD EKV^NUB CODB, 1879 [ ORAP. Via 

and inferior holders or their legal representatives, and any proceed- 
ings pending at the date of such suspension or remission shall abate 
to the exteut of any claim that may ba iaonsistent therewith; and 
no Civil Court shall entertain any suit against the Secretary of 
State or Government in respect of any such suspension or remis- 
sion, 

(c) Where any such suspension or remission has been granted 
to an inferior holder, the land-revenue (if any) payable by the 
superior holder shall be suspended or remitted, as the case may be, 
to a proportionate extent. 

(d) The balance of any sum recovered under clause (a) shall 
be paid to the superior holdar after deduction of the costs, i any, 
of recovery and of any sum lawfully chargeable upon the sum re- 
covered. 

CHAPTER VIII. 

OF SURVEYS, ASSESSMENT* AND SETTLEMENTS OP LAND REVENUE []. 

[a] This title was substituted for the original title by Bom. Act IV of 1913 
s.42. 

Note. The provisions of this Chapter do not apply to the maintenance of 
the Eeoord of Bight (Raghwendra v. Secretary of State, 28 Bom. L R. 559). 

95. It shall be lawful for the Governor in Council, whenever 

it may seem expedient, to direct the survey 

Revenue survey may any l an( J i n any part fa Q Presidency, 

lt r n e c d i, b L?o7ny " ith a <V ** settlement of the land- 
part of Presidency. revenue, and to the record and preservation 

of rights connected therewith, or for any 
other similar purpose and such survey shall be called a revenue 
survey. Such survey may extend to the lands of any village, town, 
or city generally, or to such land only as the Governor in Council 
may direct; and subject to the orders of the Governor in Council 
it shall be lawful for the officers conducting any such survey to 
except from the survey settlement any land to which it may not 
seem expedient that such settlement should be applied. 

The control of every such revenue survey 
Control of revenue shall vest in and be exercised by the Gover- 
iurve y- nor in Council 

96. It shall be lawful for the survey officer deputed to con- 

duct or take part in any such survey, to 
Survey Officer may require by general notice or by summons, the 

S e o5V:! ttendaQ <! e o h l de . to* nd of all 
suitable service from persons interested therein, in person, or by 
holders of laud, etc. legally constituted agent duly instructed and 
able to answer all material questions, and the 
pretence of taluka and village officers, who in their several stations 
and capacities are legally, or by usage, bound to perform service in 



95^100 ] 0* SuBvEva, ETC. OF LiJto RJEVENTTE 81 

virtue of their respective offices and to require from them such 
assistance in the operations of the survey and such service in con- 
nection therewith, as may not be inconsistent with the position of 
the individual so called on, 

97. It shall be lawful for the survey officer to call upon all 

holders of land and other persons interested 
by fideTand o^tn ^ t0 p f ",' * measurement or classi- 

the meaauremont o r " catum of tbe \W tO which the survey ex- 
<'hs9ification of lands, tends by furnishing flAg-holders ; and in 
the event of a necessity for employing hired 
labour for this or other similar object, incidental to survey opera- 
tions, it shall be lawful to assess the cost thereof, with all con- 
tingent expenses on the lands surveyed, for collection as a revenue 
demand. 

98. Except as hereinafter provided, no survey number com- 
, A prising Jand used for purposes of agriculture 

TemSn S .ly *ll be made of W exten! than a 
extent minimum to be fixed from time to time for 

the several classes of land in each district by 
the Commissioner of Survey, with the sanction of Government. A 
record of the minima so fixed shall be kept in the Mamlatdar's 
office in each taluka, and shall be open to the inspection of the pub- 
lic at reasonable times. 

These provisions shall not apply to survey numbers which 

have already been made of less extent thap 
. fche rainima 80 fixed> or which may i^ so 

made under the authority of the Commis- 
siouer of Survey given either generally or in any particular in- 
stance in this behalf ; and any survey number separately recognized 
in the [a] land records [a] shall be deemed to have been autho- 
rizedly made whatever be its extent. 

99. Repealed by Bom. Act IV of 19tt, s- 44. 

1 00. Subject to rules [6] made in this behalf under section 

214, the officer in charge of a survey shall 

Officer in charge of a have authority to fix the assessment for land- 

survey to 6* aseeesment* rev enue at his discretion on all lands within 

the local operation of an order made under 
section 95 not wholly exempt from land revenue, and the amounts 
due according to such assessment shall, subject to the provisions of 
section 102, be levied on all such lands. 

In fixing such assessment, regard shall 

Regard to be had to be had to the requirements of the proviso to 
proviso to 9ection 52. 8ect ion 52. 



\a 



v ./I These words were substituted for the original words "survey records" 
by Bom. Act IV of 1913, s. 43. 

[5] Words repealed by Bom Act IV of 1918, s 45, are omitted. 



*8 THE BOMBAY LAND REVENUE CODE, 1879 [CHAP. VIII 

But nothing in this section shall be deemed to prevent the 

. survey officer aforesaid from determining and 

Provl80t registering the proper full assessment on lands 

wholly exempt from payment of land-revenue 

or on lands especially excepted under section 95 from the survey 

settlement, or from dividing all such lands to which the survey 

extends into survey numbers. 

101. The power to assess under the preceding section shall, 

in the case of lands used for purposes of agri- 

m^e'mayToriand or culture a l ne > indude P 0wer t0 . assess, 
on means of irrigation, whether directly on the land, or in the form 
&o. of a rate or cess upon the means of irrigation 

in respect of which no rate is levied [a] under 
section 55 [A] or under the Bombay Irrigation Act, 1879 [6J, or in 
any. other manner whatsover that may be sanctioned by 
Government. 

102. The assessment fixed by the officer in charge of a survey 

shall not be levied without the sanction of 
Government. It shall be lawful for the GOV- 
sanction of Government eri *or Council to declare such assessments, 
Bat may be fixed, with with any modifications which he may deem 
or without modification, necessary, fixed for a term of years not ex- 

by the Governor in cee di n g thirty in the case of lands used for 
OouQCil for a term of , 6 J f . . . ., 

year8 . the purposes of agriculture alone, and not ex- 

ceeding ninety-nine in the case of all other 
lands. 

Note This section empowers the Governor-in-Council to fix the assessment 
for a term of years not exceeding thirty in the case of lands used for the purposes 
of agriculture alone, and not exceeding thirty-nine in the case of all other land*. 
When the amount of the assessment id thin fixed under a settlement for a number 
of yaars, the occupant can hold the land at the fixed as sesame at till the expiry of 
the period. 

[c] 103. When the levy of the assessment fixed under sections 
100 and 101 upon any land has been sane- 
Introduction of settle- tioncd under section 102, and notice of the 
ments ' same has been given in accordance with rules 

made by the Governor in Council in this be- 
half, the settlement shall be deemed to have been introduced with 
respect to the lands of which the assessments have been sanctioned. 

Note This section is subject to modification when applied to any village 
in the districts of of Eatnagiri and Kolaba to which the Khoti Settlement Act, 
1880, extends (Vifa Bom. Act I of 1880, ss, 1 and 39). 

fa] "levied" was substituted for "leviable" by Bom, Act VII of 1879, s. 2. 
[W] These words were inserted by Bom, Act VII of 1879, 8. 2. 

[c] This section was substituted by Bom. Act IV of 1918, s. 46, for the 
original section. 



BEOS 101*105] OF SUFVBYB. BTO. o* LAKD REVENUE 83 

Conditions for starting resettlement. Two conditions are laid 

down under this section to validate the introduction of a survey settlement, first 
the sanction under 9. 102 and second, the notice in accordance with the rales made 
by the Governor in Council. The departmental orders such as the one requiring 
fresh notice when the Government raises the rates proposed by the Settlement 
Officer have not the force of legislative settlement and their non-observacce does 
not invalidate the survey settlement. Gavaramsnt by its depirtanutal rules may 
make changes as to the collection of the revenue but tin Government resolutions 
which are not consistent with the Oode hive not the force of hw (Ewperor v. Ifore- 
shwar Janardhan, 30 Bom L. R. 1255). 

104. In the year in the course of which a survey settlement, 

whether original or revised, may be intro- 

ttSS ^ und f the lt preceding section, the 

in which a Survey Set- difference between the old and new assess- 

tlement is introduced ; ment of all lands on which the latter may be 

in excess of the former shall be remitted, and 

the revised assessment shall be levied only from the next following 

year. 

In the year next following that in which any [a] original or [a] 
revised survey settlement has been introduced, 
^fJl?Z y occupant who may be dissatisfied with 
resigned that year. e increased rate imposed by such new assess- 

* ment on anv of the survey numbers [b] or 
sub-divisions of survey numbers [6] held by him shall, on resign- 
ing such number [6] or sub-division [6] in the manner prescribed 
by [c] section 74 [c] on or before the 51st March, receive a remis- 
sion of the increase so imposed. 

jf ote The second para, of this section does not apply to any village in the 
districts of lUtnagiri and Kolaba to which th3 Khoti Settlement Act extends 
(Bom. Act I of 1880, &?. 1 and 39).' 

Occupant. The term 'occupant 7 is subject to modification when applied to 
any estate in the district of Ahmedabad, Kaira, Broach or Panoh Mahals to 
which the Gujarat Talukdars' Act, 1888, extends (Vide Bom. Act VI of 1888, ss. 
1 and 33). 

105. The fixing of the assessment under the provisions of 
section 102 shall be strictly limited to the 

j?js? Aim rrr of * ordi r y , i nd r enue ; and 

limited to ordinary shall not operate as a bar to the levy of any 

land-revenue. cess which it shall be lawful for the Governor 

in Council to impose under the provisions of 

[-a] These words were inserted by Act XVI of 1895. 
[b-b] These words were inserted by Bom IV of 1913, s. 47, . 
[c-cj These words and figures were substituted for the original words aud 
figures "sections 74 and 76" by Bom. Act IV of 1913, a. 47, 



84 THK BOMBAY LAND REVEKUI: CODE, 1879 [ CHAP. VIII 

any law for the time being in force for purposes of local improve- 
ment, such as school?, village, and district roads, bridges, tanks, 
wells, accommodation for travellers, and the like, or of any rate for 
the use of water which may be imposed under the provisions of 
section 55 [a] or of the Bombay Irrigation Act, 1879. [a] 

106. It shall be lawful for the Governor in Council to direct, 

at any time, a fresh revenue survey or any 

Government may opera tion subsidiary thereto, but noenchance- 

direct a fresh survey . * 4.111^1 / j. xii ii. 

and revision of assess- ncent of assessment shall take effect till the 

ment. expiration of the period previously fixed 

under the provisions of section 10;'. 

[b] Provided that when a general classification of the soil of 
any area has been made a second time, or when any original classi- 
fication of any area has been approved by the Governor in Council 
as final, no such classification shall be again made with a view to 
the revision of the assessment of such area. 

Principles of revision. The revision of the settlement will depend en- 
tirely on changes in prices, including such local changes as result from improve- 
ment of communications and shifting of markets, although all indications of an in- 
crease or decrease in material wealth and general prosperity will be a guide as t o 
suitability of the old assessment (G. B. No. 7494, dated 12th October 1897. quoted 
in Sathe's Land-Revenue Code, 4th Ed , p. 198). 

[c]107. In revising assessments of land-revenue regard shall 
be had to the value of land and , in the case of 

Conditions applicable |ftnd d for tfc purposes of agr i cu lture, to 
to revisions of assess- . e i i 

the profits of agriculture : 



Provided that if any improvement has been effected in any 
land during the currency of any previous settlement made under 
this Act, or under Bombay Act 1 of 1865, [d] by or at the cost of 
the holder thereof, the increase in the value of such land or in the 
profit of cultivating the same, due to the said improvement, shall 
n< t be taken into account in fixing the revised assessment thereof. 

"Value of land 7 '. The term "value of land" does not refer to the intrin- 
sic richness or quality of land. The vernacular equivalent of tl value" is not 
'magdur" but "khnmat," t, ., price (Joglekar's Supplement No. 2 to his Land 
Revenue Code, p. 24). 

[a-a] These words were added by Bom. Act VII of 1879, s. 2. 

[b] This proviso was substituted for the original clause by Bom. Act IV of 
188 1*, s. 1. 

\c\ This section was substituted for the original section 107 by Bom. Act IV 
of 1886, s. 2. 

[d] Bom. Act I of 1865 (except sections 37 and 38) is repealed by section 2 
of this Act which has been repealed by Bom, Act IV of 1913, P. 5. 



BJEOI, 106-111 ] Of SURVEYS, ICTO. OF 

108. It shall be the duty of the survey officer, on the occasion 
of making or revising a settlement of land- 
e" wvenue, to prepare a register, to be called 
"the settlement Register," showing the area 
and assessment of each survey number, [a] 

with any other particulars that may be prescribed [a] and other 
records, in accordance with such orders as may from time to time 
be made on this behalf by Government. 

Records. The records to be prepared by the Survey Officers for future 
administration are (I) the village map, (2) the settlement register, and (3) the 
detailed record of each holding (botkhat) (G. R. No 4084, dated 2nd November 
1868, quoted in Sathe's Land-Revenue Code, 4th ed. p 204). 

Entry in the survey Settlement Officer's record, finality of. 
The Settlement Officer's record fixing the amount of rent payable to a Knot in 
respect of lands in the Kboti village, though prepared in the form of statement 
published at p. 584 of the "General Rules of the Revenue Department" (e'l.of 1893) 
and labelled "botkhat/' cannot be treated as a Survey Register under this section 
(Vaidkhant. Sakhya, 20 Bom. 729). 

The decision of a survey officer determining: the tenure 

on which a survey number is held is nob fiuil under the Khoti Act (Bom. Act I 
of 1880 and it can be reversed or modified by a competent Court (Antaji p. Antaji 
21 Bom. 4*0). 

109, 110. Repealed by Bom. Act IV of 1913, s. 49. 

111. In the event of any alienated village or estate, coining 
under the temporary management of Govern- 
Keveuue managemanfc ment officers, it shall be lawful for the Col- 
SiwSSgVSS 1^ ^ let out the lands thereof, at rates 
eminent that may be determined by means of a survey settlement 
temporarily under Gov- or at such other fixed rates as he may deem 
ernment management. to be reasonable, and [l>] to grant unoccupied 
lands on lease [b] and otherwise to conduct 
the revenue management thereof under the rule* for the manage- 
ment of unalieaated lands, so far as such rules may be applicable, 
and for so long ai the said village or estate shall be under the 
management of Government officers : provided, however, that any 
written agreements relating to the land, made by the superior 
holder of such village or estate, shall not be affected by any pro* 
ceedings under this section in so far as they shall not operate to 
the detriment of the lawful claims of Government on the land. 

Note. This section is subject to modification when applied to any estate in 
the districts of Ahmedabad, Kiira, Broach or Panch Mihals to which the Gujarat 
Talnkdars' Act, 1888, extends (Vide Bom. Act VI of 1888, ss. 1 and 33). 

[a-fl] These words were substituted for the original words 'together with the 
name of the registered occupant of such survey number 77 by Bom. Act IV of 1913 
s. 48. 

[ft b\ These words were substituted for the original words "fco sell the occn 
pancy of unoccupied lands by auction" by Bom. IV of 1913, i. 60, 



8* THE BOMBAY LIXD REVENUE CODE, 1879 [Oiur. VJll 

Powers of Talukdari Settlement Officer. A Government Officer 

in the temporary management of a talukdar's estate has, under 9. 33 of the 
Gujrat Talukdars* Act, the same powers which ths Collector has in an alienated 
village, to recover arrears of revenue inclusive of rent (Jinnbhai v. The Collector, 
28 Bom. L. R. 417). 

112. Existing survey settlements of land-revenue made, 
^ . . . . approved and confirmed under the authority 

Maintenance of exist- c \^ n n *i i n L j 

ing settlements of land * t " e Governor l & Council shall be, and are 
revenue. hereby declared to be, in force subject to the 

provisions of this Act. 

[a] 113. Expenses properly incurred in making partition of 

estates paying revenue to Government shall 

Partition. b e recoverable as a revenue demand in such 

proportions as the Collector may think fit 

from the sharers at whose request the partition is made, or from 

the persons interested in the partition. 

Note. Vide the first note under s. Ill supra. 

Scale Of Bhatta (Allowance). The scale, according to which daily 
allowance is to be allowed to persons entrusted with the partition, actually on tour 
is as follows : 

RS.A. *. 

(a) A Government servant of tita first grade ... 6 8 

(b) A Government servant of the second grade on pay 

(i) Up to Rs. 250 ... ... ... 240 

(is*) Above Rs. 250 up to Rs. 300 ... ... 2 12 

(m) Above Rs. 300 up to Rs. 350 ... ... 3 2 

(to) Above Rs. 350 up to Rs. 400 ... ... 3 8 

(9) Above Rs. 400 up to Rs. 450 ... ... 400 

(vi) Above Rs. 450 up to Rs. 750 ... ... 4 8 

(c) A Government servant of the third grade on pay 

(t) Up to Rs. 50 ... ... ... 080 

(it) Above Rs. 50 up to Rs. 75 ... ... 12 

(m) Above Rs. 7 5 up to Rs. 100 ... ... 1 

(to) Above Rs. 100 up to Rs. 125 ... ... 1 4 

(9) Above Rs. 125 up to Rs. 150 ... ... 1 8 

(w) Above Rs. 150 up to Rs. 175 ... ... 1 12 

(vij) Above Rs. 175 up to R3. 199 ... ... 2 

(d) A Government servant of the fourth grade ... 3 

( Bombay Civil Services Mules Manual, 1932, p. 129). 

Deoree for partition not properly executed if a portion of 

the decree is not properly executed by fche Collector, the re-adjustment of the orders 
can be ordered (Ramchandra v, Krishnuji, 40 Bom. 118). 

OiVil Court cannot reopen partition. When the Collector, acting 
nnder s. 54 of the Civil Procedure Code, 1908, once effects a partition, it is not 
competent to the Civil Court to entertain any application seeking to reopen the 
partition (BMmangatda v Hanmant, 20 iiom. L R. 411 s. c. 42 Bom. 689). 

[a] This section was substituted by Bom. Act IV of 1913, 8. 51, for the 
original section. 



BEOB. 112-llYA J OF SUHVEW, ETC. or LiND lUvEtftfU #7 

114. Whenever any one or more co-shares in a khoti estate, 

into which a revenue survey has been Intro- 

Partition of certain fluced, [a] or in a talukdari estate [a], con- 

ITn^nS^^K / sent to a partition of the said estate, it shall 

on application by CD- . , f ^ . ~ n . ' , 

sharers. be lawful for the Collector, or for any other 

officer duly empowered by him in this behalf, 
[&] to divide the said estate into shares according to the respective 
rights of the co-sharers, and to allot such shares to the co-sharers: 

Provided that no such partition shall be made, unless : 

(a) all the co-sharers are agreed as to the extent of their 
respective rights in estate, and 

(6) the assessment of the share or shares of the sharer or 
sharers consenting to such partition exceeds one-half of the assess- 
ment of the entire estate. 

In such cases the expenses of partition shall be recovered [c] 
as a revenue demand [c] from all the co-sharers in the estate 
divided. 

115. Repealed by Bam. Act TV of 19 13, s. 53. 

[</] 116. When any portion of cultivable land is permitted to 

be used under the provisions of section 65 or 

nuSSTnto^e^r 67 * ? non- a gricultural purpose or when 

vey numbers. an 7 portion ot land is specially assigned 

under section 38, or when any assessment is 

altered or levied on any portion of land under sub-section ( 2) or 
sub-section (3 ) of section 48, such portion may, with the sanction 
of the Collector, be made into a separate number at any time not- 
withstanding the provisions of section 98. 

Note. This section does not apply to any estate in the districts of 
Ahmedabad, Kaira, Broach or Paueh Mahahala to which tho Gojarat Talukdars' 
Act, 1888, extends (Vide Bom. Act VI of 1888, ss. 1 and 33). 

117. Nothing in section [e] 116 shall 

Bombay Act V of a ff ec t the provisions of Bombay Act V of 
1862 not affected. 1862. 

[/] U7A. (1) Survey numbers may from time to time and 
at any time be divided into so many sub- 



u 

8 i uua% quisition of rights in land or for any other 

reason. 



[a ol These words are repealed in the districts of Ahmedabad, Kaira, 
Broach and the Panch Mahals by Bom. Act. VI of 1888 7 s. 3. 

(b) Words repealed by Bom. Act IV of 1913, s. 52, are omitted. 

[c c] These words were substituted for the original words Bunder rule (S ) 
of the last preceding section" by Bora. Act IV of 1913, s. 52. 

[d\ This section was substituted by Bom. Act IV of 1013, s. 54, for the 
original section, 

[e\ Words repealed by Bom. Act IV of 1913, s. 55, are omitted. 

I/] Tills section was inserted by Bom. Act IV of 1913 ; 3. 56, 



88 THE BOMBAY LAND REVENUE OODB, 18?9 [CHAP. iX 

(2) The division o survey numbers into sub-divisions and 
the fixing of the assessment of the sub-divisions shall be carried 
out and from time to time revised in accordance with rules made 
by the Governor in Council in this behalf : 

Provided that the total amount of the asssessment of any sur- 
vey number or sub-division shall not be enhanced during any term 
for which such assessment may have been fixed under section 102, 
unles such assessment is liable to alteration under section 48. 

(3) The area and assessment of such sub-divisions shall be 
entered in such land records as the Governor in Council may pre- 
scribe in this behalf. 

[a] 117B. If any sub-division of a survey number is relirr- 

quiahed under section 74 or is forfeited for 

on^Ih Cab or Default in payment of land revenue, the Ool- 

forfeiture of a sub divi- lecfcor 8 " a ^ otter 8UC sub-division at suck 

aion. price as he may consider it to be worth to the 

occupants of the other sub-divisions of the 

same survey number in such order aa in his discretion he may think 

fit ; in the event of all such occupants refusing the same, it shall be 

disposed of as the Collector shall deem fit : 

Provided that until the said sub-division shall be occupied or 
until the entire survey number shall be relinquished, whichever 
event may first occur, the assessment of the said sub-division shall 
be levied from the occupants of the other sub-divisions of the sur- 
vey number in proportion to the amount of assessment due from 
such occupants on account of their sub-divisions. 

For the purposes o this section notwithstanding anything con- 
tained in section 3, if any of the other sub-divisions have been 
mortgaged with possession, the mortgagors shall be deemed to be 
the occupants thereof. 

Occupant. The term * occupant' is subject to modification when applied to 
any estate in the districts of Ahmedabad, Kaira, Broach and Panch Mahals to 
which the Gujarat Talukdars' Act, 1888, extends (Vide Bom, Act VI of 1888, as. 1 
and 33;. 

CHAPTER IX 

THE SETTLEMENT OP BOUNDARIES AND THE CONSTRUCTION AND 
^ MAINTENANCE OF BOUNDARY-MARKS 

118. Tho boundaries of villages situated in British territory 
shall be fixed* and all disputes relating there- 
Determination of vil- to shall be determined by survey officers, or 
Inge boundaries, by ^ ^ Q1C O fg cerg as may ^ nominated by 

Government for the purpose, who shall be 
guided by the following rules : 

[a] This section was inserted by Bom Act IV of 1913, 8. 56. 



SBOI. 117B-118] THE SETTLEMENT OF BOUNDARIES Ac., 89 

"Rule L When the patels and other village officers of any two 
__, . . or more adjoining villages, and, in the ease 

.alttuJb^r of - fenated village the holder thereof or 
m , mfc . ' his duly constituted agent, shall voluntarily 

agree to any given line of boundary as the 
boundary common to their respective villages, the officer determin- 
ing the boundary shall require the said parties to execute an agree- 
ment to that effect, and shall then mark off the boundary in the 
manner agreed upon. And any village boundary fixed in this 
manner shall be held to be finally settled, unless it shall appear 
to the said officer that the agreement has been obtained by fraud, 
intimidation, or any other illegal means. 

Rule 2. If the patels and other village officers, and, in the 
case of an alienated village, the holder there- 
Procedure in case of O f O r his duly constituted agent, do not 
disagreement or di 8 pute. a g ree to g x the boundaries of their respective 
villages, in the manner prescribed in the 

preceding rule, or if it shall appear to the said officer that the 
agreement has been obtained by fraud, intimidation, or any other 
illegal means, or if there be any pending dispute, the said officer 
shall make a survey and plan of the ground in dispute, exhibiting 
the land claimed by the contending parties, and all particulars 
relating thereto, and shall hold a formal inquiry into the claims of 
tUe said parties, and thereafter make an award in the case. If 
cither of the villages concerned be alienated, an award made by a 
survey officer shall, unless the officer making it be the Superin- 
tendent of Survey, be subject to his confirmation, and an award 
made by any other officer shall be subject to confirmation by such 
other officer as Government may nominate for the purpose. 

Note. This section id subject to modification when applied to any village 
in the districts of Ratnagiri nnd Kolaba to which the Khoti Settlement Act 
extends (fiVfr Bom Act I of 1880, 99. 1 and 30). 

The jurisdiction Of a Civil Oourt is not ousted by s. 4 (g) of Act X 
of 1876, in caso of a dispute as to the position of the boundary line between two 
survey numbers aa laid down by the survey authorities, the defendant alleging 
that the boundary marks were changed, the plaintiffs alleging that they are in 
their right direction (Bala t>. Nant, P. <T. 1898, p. 41). 

(/OUrt has no power to flX boundaries. When the assistance of 
the Court, id sought for the purpose of ascertaining the boundaries, which the 
plaintiff himself is unable to point out by reason of some confusion in them, and 
to recover possession, when thoao boundaries have been ascertained by the Court, 
it was held, that the Oourt has no power to fix the boundaries of legal estates, 
unless some equity ia superinduced by the act of the parties as some particular 
circumstance of fraud or confusion (Kavasji v* Hormusji, 29 Bom, 73). 



M THE BOM.UAF LAJ> U.EV.RNUK COUE, 1879 [ OHAP. IX 

119. If, at the time of a survey, the boundary of a field or 

holding be undisputed, and its correctness be 

Determination of field affirmed by the village officers then present, 

boundaries, ;t may be j ai( j down ag pointe( j out by the 

holder or person in occupation, and, if dis- 
puted, or if the said holder or person in occupation he not present, 
it shall be fixed by the survey officer according to the [a] land 
record [a] and according to occupation as ascertained from the 
village officers and the holders of adjoining laads, or on such other 
evidence or information as the survey officer may be able to 
procure. 

If any dispute arise concerning the boundary of a field or 
holding which has not been surveyed, or if at any time [/>J after 
the completion of a survey [/>] a dispute arise concerning the 
boundary of any survey number, [cj or sub-division of a survey 
number, [r] it shall be determined by the Collector, who shall be 
guided [d] by the land records [d] if they afford satisfactory evi- 
dence of the boundary previously fixed, and if not, by such other 
evidence as he may be able to procure. 

Notes. Vide the first note under the preceding section. 
Sections 119, 120 and 121 of tbe Oode are primarily meant for the purposes 
of the Survey Settlement of the boundary marks as between the Government on 
the one hand and the occnpancy tenants on the other ( Kanhailal v. Ismaitthai, 
28 Bom, L. R. 1498). 

What IS 'dispute. 'The word 'dispute' in the second part of this 
section means a dispute between two neighbouring owners and not a dispute bet- 
ween the Collector and the owner. Where a dispute arose between the plaintiff 
and the Collector as to whether the formor had cnt the trees from the Government 
land in front of his land and in the course of that dispute the Collector suo motu 
wont into the question of boundary between the land of the plaintiff and that of his 
neighbour and later on ordered the correction of ths revenue records on the baaU 
r A the enquiry, and the plaintiff sutaequeuly sued for ths declaration of his title to 
certain strip of land which he had been ordered to give up by the Collector, it was 
held that there was no snch dispute as is necessary for the application of this 
section and that the question of the plaintiff's title to the land could be gone into 
in the later suit (Malkarjumppa v. Anandrao, 53 Bom. 76G). 

120. 1 the several parties concerned in a boundary dispute 

agree to submit the settlement thereof to an 
dary 6 di^uitea by arbil arbitrati n committee, and make application 
tration. " t( > that effect in writing, the officer whose 

duty it would otherwise be to determine the 

\a-a\ These words were substituted for the original words "Village records" 
by Bom. Act IV of 1913, s. 57. 

|i-$] These words were sub9tituted for the original words "after the survey 
records have been handed over to the Collector" by Bom. Act IV of 1913, s, 57. 

[c-c] There words were inserted by Bom. Act IV of 1 913, s. 57. 

[d-d | These words were substituted for the original words ''in the case of 
survey numbers by the survey records" by Bom Act IV of 1913, s. 57. 



SECS, 119-121] THE SBTTLEMENT OF BOUNDARIES &c. 91 

boundary shall require the said parties to nominate a committee of 
not leas than three persons, within a specified time, and if within a 
period to be fixed by the said officer the committee so nominated 
or a majority of the members thereof arrive at a derision, such 
decision, when confirmed by the said officer, or if the said officer he 
a survey officer lower in rank than u Superintendent of S'irvey, by 
the Superintendent of Survey, shall be final : 

Provided that the said officer, or the Superintendent of Survey, 
shall have power to remit the award, or any 
o the matters referred to arbitration, to the 
reconsideration ot the same committee., for 
any of the causes set forth in paragraph 
14 of the Second Schedule to the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908. 
If the committee appointed in the manner aforesaid fail to 
effect a settlement of the dispute within the 

If arbitration fail, u spec ifi ed it sha H be the duty of the offi- 
survey officer to settle - r j i i < i -i <Z 

depute. cer a f resaic j unless he or, if the said officer 

is a survey officer lower in rank than a 
Superintendent of Survey, the Superintendent of Survey, see fit to 
extend the time, to settle the same as otherwise provided in this 
Act. 
Para. 14 of the 2nd Schedule to the Code of Civil Procedure.- 

The Court may remit the award or any mattjr referred to arbitration to ttre re- 
consideration of the same arbitrator or umpire, upon such terms as it thinks fit: 

(a) when the award has left uudetermiaed any of the matters referred to 
arbitration, or where it determines any matter not referred to arbitration, unless 
such matter can be separated without affecting tho determination of the matters 
referred ; 

(b) where tho aw.:rd is so indefinite as to be incapable of execution ; 

(r) where an objection to the legality of the award is apparent upon the face 
of it. 

Effect of the settle- W 12L [ Th * wttlement of a boundary 
ment of a boundary. under any of the foregoing provisions of this 
chapter saall be determinative : 

(a) of the proper position of the boundary line or boundary 
marks, and 

(/)) of the rights of the landholders on either side of the boun- 
dary fixed in respect of the land adjudged to appertain, cr not to 
appertain, to their respective holdings. 

[b] ('2) Where a boundary has been so fixed, the Collector 
may at any time summarily evict any landholder who is wrongfully 
in possession of any land which has been adjudged in the settlement 
of a boundary not to appertain to his holding or to the holding of 
any person through or under whom he claims. 

[a) This section was numbered eub-section (I; of this section by Bom Act IV 
of 1913, a. 59. 

[1] This pub-section was added by Bom. Act IV of 1913, s. 59. 



92 THE BOMBAY LAND REVENUE CODE, 1879 [ OHAP. IX 

^Determinative." When there is a settlement of boundaries under 8.119, 
the word determinative' in this section maaiH conclusive a? to the legal rights of 
the adjoining holders (Lakshman v. Nar.iyan, P. J. 1890, p. 11). 

Settlement of boundary dispute by Collector. This section 

must be read along with sections 119 and 120 of this Code. It is only when a 
boundary dispute arise between tbe owners o$ adjoining lands, and the Collector is 
caltei upon to determine the dispute, that his determination becomes final under 
this section so as to oust the jurisdiction of the Oivi! Court (Lafahman v. Antaji, 
25 Bom. 312). 

Decisions of revenue ofHoers as to boundaries are final. 

In 1887 a dispute arose between plaintiffs and dcfeulant as to boundaries of cer- 
tain land, being survey Nos. 88 and 87, of which the plaintiffs and the defendant 
were respectively occupants under Government. In 1879 the boundaries were fixed 
by a revenue officer under the orders of the Collector and the pie^e of land in dis- 
pute was found to belong to the plaintiffs as oocupinta of Surrey No. 88. Sub- 
sequently the defendant having encroached upon it and dispossessed the plaintiffs the 
present suit was filed. The Court of first instance awarded plaintiffs' cliioa, hold- 
ing that the decision by the revenue officer was conclusive as to the bound iry. The 
defendant applied, and the lower Appellate Court reversed the lower Court's decree. 
On appeal by the plaintiffs to the High Court, held, that under the provisions of 
this section the decision of the Collector as to boundaries was conclusive and that 
the plaintiffs were entitled to possession (Bai . Valji, 10 Bom 456). 

Jurisdiction Of Civil Court. This section presents no bar to the 
cognizance of a suit by a Civil Court, to reconsider an order passed by a Survey 
Officer as to the site of some of the lands which does not involve any question of 
boundary line between two villages (Narsangji v. Bai Achrat, 26 Bom. L.B. 1264). 
The Civil Court has jurisdiction to entertain a suit foraettlemant of bDundiries of 
fields, where subsequent to the filing of the suit the boundaries hive bean deter- 
mined by revenue officers (Kanhailal v. hmailbhai, 28 Bom L.R. 1498). 

The settlement of a boundary by the Collector under this section d:>e* no 
more than establish where the boundary line lies, and the owners of the rosnec- 
tive survey numbers are prima facij entitled to their property according to the 
boundary lines. But the Collector's decision does not prevent one of the disputing 
parties from filing a suit in the Civil Court on the ground that ho ha3 acquired a 
portion of his neighbour's survey number by adverse possession (Bhaga Mo/i'/t t>. 
Dorabji Sorabji, 43 Bom. 67). 

Boundaries fixed by the Collector. The fixing of boundaries, by 
the Collector, of survey numbers under this section, has the same effect merely of 
nbowing what lands belong to the persona in whose names the survey numbers are 
registered. It does not affect the right of any one of those persons to show in a 
Civil Court that he has acquired a title by adverse possession against a registered 
occupant (NLanak v. Narayan, 22 Bom. Li B. 114, foot-note). 

Settlement Of boundary. It is the duty of the enquiry officer, unier 
this section, to settle the boundary between the lands of adjoining Louse owners, 
which can ordinarily be by means of a line drawn on a pUn, and that line, accord- 
ing to the provisions of this section, is determinative of the right* of the land- 
holders on either side of the boundary so fixed. But it is not determinative of 
any rights which the holder of one number can claim to exercise over thd laud be- 



Sacs 121-122 J SE-ITLFMENT OF BOUNDARIES &c 93 

longing to the holder of the adjoining number. This soctien does not give jurisdic- 
tion to the enquiry officer to decide, e g>, that a broad strip of land lying between 
two numbers is common to both the adjoining owners. This section applies to 
agricultural lands as also to the survey of land in a town (Gantsh v. Ramchandra, 
*3 Bom. L. B. 1209) 

It shall be lawful for any survey officer, authorized by a 
Superintendent of Survey, or Settlement offi- 
:; *" W -Pecifj or cause to be constructed, 
of survey numbers and Iald out, maintained or repaired [/ij, bound- 
villages, ary-inurks of villages or survey numbers [/>] 
or sub-divisions of survey numbers [A] 

whether cultivated or uncultivated, and to assess all charges in- 
curred thereby on the holders or other* having an interest therein. 
Such officer may require landholders to construct, [(/] lay out, 
maintain [c] or repair their boundary-marks, 
Requisition on land fa notification which shall be posted in the 
holder* to erect or re- / ,. . , ,. , \ .,. 

pair boundary-marks chavdi or other public place in the village, to 
which the lands under survey belong, direct- 
ing the holders of survey numbers [b] or sab-divisions (7/J, to con- 
struct, [c] lay out, maintain [c] or repair, within a specified time, 
the boundary-marks of their respective survey numbers [a] or sub- 
divisions [a] and on their failure to comply with the requisition so 
made, the survey officer shall then construct [<?], lay out [c] or re- 
pair them and assess all charges incurred thereby as hereicbefore 
provided. 

A general notification, issued in the manner aforesaid, shall 

be held to be good and sufficient notice to 

A general notification , d having any interest in 

to be good and euffici- J \ r , n .- 7 1 ... r -, 

ent notice of requisition j survey numbers [a] or sub-divisions [a] 
within the limits of the lands to which the 
survey extends. 

[d] The boundary-marks shall be of such description, and 

shall be constructed, laid out, maintained or 

[Description of bound- repaired in such manner and shall be of such 

ary marks. dimensions and materials as may, subject to 

rules [ e ] made in this behalf under section 

214, be determined by the Superintendent of purvey, according to 

the requirements of soil and climate. 

Note Unless unploughed boundary strips are declared as boundary marks 
by the Survey Officer or the Collector, the landholders will not bo responsible to 

|fl ) These words were substituted for the original words by Bom. Act VI 
of 1901 s. 14 (1). 

[b 6] There words were inserted by Bom. A.ot IV of 1913, s. 60 (a). 

[c-c] These words were inserted by Bom. Act VI of 1901, s. 14 (2). 

[d] This paragraph was substituted for the original paragraph by Bom Act 
Viol 1901,8. 14 (3). 

[ c ] Words repealed by Bom. Act IV of 1913, s. 60, (b) arc omitted. 



W TUB BotoAV LAMD RKVEHUIS OoDlfi, 1879 [ OHAf. IX 

maintain or keep such marks in good repair (G, R. No. L. 0. 1831, dated 11-9- 
1925 quoted in Joglckar's Supplement No. 2 to his Land Revenue Oode, p. 26). 

123. Evc j ry landholder shall be responsible for the mainten- 

ance and good repair of the boundary-marks 
iJSSftftS^U of his holding, and for any charges reason- 
ary marks. ft blj incurred on account ot the same by the 

revenue officers in cases of alteration, removal 
or disrepair. It shall be the duty of the village officers and ser- 
vants to prevent the destruction or unauthorized alteration of the 
village boundary-insrks. 

Notes. This section is subject to modification when applied to any village 
in the Districts of Ratnagiri and Kolaba to which the Khoti Settlement Act 
extends (Vide Bom Act. I of 1880, bs. 1 and 9). 

The charges shall be levied under the provisions of this Oode relating to 
realization of land-revenue (See s. 187 post) 

124. When the survey settlement shall have been introduced 

into a district, the charge of the boundary- 
Collector to havo marks shall devolve on the Collector, and it 
charge of boundary- shall be h j s dut to take measures f or t h e ir 
marks after introduc- r -, . J . r -, . 

tion of the Survey Set- M construction, laying out [a], mamten- 
tlement. ance and repair, and for this purpose the 

powers conferred on survey officers by sec- 
tion 122 shall vest in him. 

Ifote Sections 122-124 relating to boundary marks apply to aft talukdari 
villages in which the duty of keeping boundary marks in order devolves on land- 
lords (talukdara.) If they fail they are liable to make good reasonable expenses 
incurred by Revenue Officers in repairing or replacing these marks. But a Col- 
lector as such is not a Revenue Officer for the purpose of section 124 in a taluk- 
dari village as a survey settlement is not introduced in a talukdari village. The 
Collectors of Ahmedabad, Kaira, Panch Mahals and Broach have aciordingly been 
appointed Superintendents of Survey for all talukdari villages in their districts 
for the purpose of enabling them to act under ss 122 and I 23 (G.R. No. 7642-*2 1, 
dated 24-4-1928). 

125. Any person convicted after a summary inquiry before 

the Collector, or before a survey officer, Mam- 
Penalty for injuriug latdar or Mahalfcari, of wilfully erasing, re- 
boundary marks. moving or injuring a boundary-mark, shall 
be liable to a fine not exceeding fifty rupees 
for each n ark so erased, removed or injured. 

One-half of every fine imposed under this section may be 
awarded by the officer imposing it to the informer, if any, and the 
Other half shall be chargeable with the cost of restoring the mark. 
Boundaries and boundary-marks Jurisdiction. Boundaries 

and boundary marks are dealt with in Chap. IX, and penalties for injuring boun- 
dary-marks, are specially provided by this section, wiiich gives no jurisdiction 
to Magistrates (trap pa, 13 Bom. 291). 

[oj These words were inserted by Bom. Act YI of 1901, s. 16. 



Sacs 126*128 ] OF LANDS WITHIN THE SITES ov VILLAGES, &o. 05 

CHAPTER X 

OP LANDS WITHIN THE SITES OF VILLAGES, TOWNS AND CITIES, 
. It shall be lawful for the Collector, or for a survey 
officer, acting under the general or special 
Yi fownf'anl Orderfl of Government, to determine what 

cities how to be fixed. lands are included within the site of any 
village, town, or city, and to fix, and from 
time to time to time to vary the limits of the same, respect being 
had to all subsisting rights of landholders. 

"Site." The expression "site" occurring in this section meang "gaothan" and 

not the total periphery of all the village land (G. O. No. 1684, dated 27th June 

1921, quoted in Joglekar's Supplement No. 2, to his Land Revenue Oode, p. 26). 

127. Act XI of 1852 and Bombay Acts II and VII of 1863, 

shall be deemed t<> be applicable, and to have 

Vlf of 1863 1 how a far a * wa y a been applicable, in the territories to 

applicable to lands in which they ^respectively extend, to all lands 

such sites. within the limits of the site of any town or 

city in which an inquiry into titles has been 

made under the provisions of Bombay Act IV of 1868 [aj which 
have been hitherto ordinarily used for agricultural purposes only ; 
but the provisions of the said Acts shall not be deemed applicable 
to any other lands within the limits of the site of any such town or 
city. 

Notefs. Sees. 127 to 136 (both inclusive) do not apply to any e3tate in the 
districts of Ahmed abad, Kaira, Broach or Panch Mahals to which the Gujarat 
Talukdars' Act extends (See Bom. Act VI of 1885, ss. 1 and 33). 

Act XI of 1852 goes by the name of Titles to Rent-Free Lands Act, Bora- 
bay Act No. II of 1863, by the name of Exemptions from land-revenue in terri- 
tories subject to A ct 2T[ of 185*2 and Bom. Act VII of 186:3, Exemptions from 
land-revenue in teritories not subject to Act XI of 1852. 

[/?] 128. The existing exemption from payment of land-re- 
venue of lands other than lands which have 
Existing exemption hitherto been ordinarily used for purposes of 
when to be continued a g r i cu i lure only, situate within the sites of 
in case of certain lauds ^ j * u*u x. 

in towns and cities in towus and cities in which an inquiry into 
which Bom. Act IV of titles has been made under the provisions of 
1^68 has been in opera- Bombay Act LV of 186 S, [b] shall be con- 
tion - tinued ; 

1st. If such lands are situated in any town or city where there 
has been in former years a survey which Government recognize for 
the purpose of this section, and are shown in the maps or other re- 
cords of such survey as being held wholly or partially exempt from 
the payment of land-revenue ; 

[aj Bom. Act IV of 1868 is repealed by section 2 of this Act, which has been 
repealed by Bom. Aot IV of 1913, s. 5. 

[b-b] Aa to the local repeal of section 128, see para. 3 of foot-note [a] on p, 
1, supra. 
13 



M THK BOMBAY LAito RavMtJE CODE, 1670 [ OHA*. X 

2nd. if such lands have been held wholly or partially exempt 
from the payment of land revenue for a period of not less than five 
years before the application of Bombay Act 1 of 1865, [a] or IV of 
18o8 [A] to such town or city ; 

3rd if such lands, for whatever period held, have been held 
wholly or partially exempt from payment of land revenue under a 
deed uf grant or of confirmation issued by an officer whom Govern- 
ment recognize as having been competent to issue such deed. 

M 129- (1) Claims to exemption under 

the Ia8t P recedin S section shal1 be Determined 
Collector. by the Collector after a summary inquiry, 

and his decision' shall be final. 

[d] (2) Any suit instituted in a Civil Court to set aside any 
order passed by the Collector under sub-section (1), in respect of 
any land situate within the site of a village, town or city, shall be 
dismissed (although limitation has not been set up as a defence) 
i it has not been instituted within one year from the date of the 
order. 



fc] 130. In towns and cities to which section 128 applies, 
the holders of any lands other than lauds 
Occupancy price pay- w hich have hitherto been used for purposes 

, id b I "Li: o W? only which have been an- 
cases. authorizedly occupied for a period commenc- 

ing less than two years before Bombay Act I 
of 1865 [a] or IV of 1868 [ I ] was applied to the town or city in 
which the said lands are situate, shall be liable to pay [e] a price 
for the said lands [e] in addition to the land revenue assessed 
thereupon. 

The said [/"Iprice shall be determined according to the pro- 
visions of section 62. 

[a] Bom. Act I of 1865 (except sections 37 and 38) is repealed by 0. 2 of this 
Act, which has been repealed by Bom. Act IV 1913, B. 5. 

[b] Bom. Act IV of 1868 is repealed by section 2 of this Act, which has 
been repealed by Bom. Act IV of 1913, s. 5. 

[c] As to the local repeal of sections 129 to 181, see para. 3 of foot-note [a] 
on p. 1, supra. 

[d-dj This sab-section was added by Bom. Act XI of 1912, s. 2, which also 
enacted that the original section 129 should be numbered sub-section (1) oi 
section 129. 

[e-a] These words were snbstitoted for the original words "the price of the 
occupancy of the said lands" by Bom. Act IV of 1913, 0. 61. 

\f] This word was fubstituttd for the original words "occupancy price" b; 
Bom, Act IV of 1913, e. 61. 



BEOS. 129*133] OF LINDS WITHCH THE Srisa OP VILLAGES, &o. 07 

131. If the Governor in Council shall at any time deem it 

expedient to direct a survey of the lands 

Survey of lands in Qther than A uge( j opdinar il y f or fa pUN 
suflh sites how to be f . . , ... , J ,, ., r * 

conducted. P ses * agriculture only within the site of 

any village, town, or city, under the provi- 
sions of section 95, or a fresh survey thereof under the provisions 
of section 106, such survey shall be conducted, and all its opera- 
tions shall be regulated, according to the provisions o Chapters 
VIII and IX of this Act : Provided that nothing contained in 
Proviso. sections 96, 97, 101, (a] 104, or 118 thereof 

shall be considered applicable to any such 
survey in any town or city containing more than two thousand 
inhabitants. 

[ft) 132. When a survey is extended under the provisions of 

the last preceding section to the site of any 

Tn certain cases a toWQ or cit conta ining more than two thou- 

survey-feetobe cbarg- gand inhabi J tant8f each ho l der O f a building- 
site shall ba liable to the payment of a survey 
fee to be assessed by the Collector under such rules as may be 
prescribed in this behalf from time to time by Government, pro- 
vided that the said fee shall in no case exceed fcj ten rupees for 
each building site or any portion thereof held separately [t'J. The 
said survey-fee shall be payable within six months from the date 
of a public notice to be given in this behalf by the Collector after 
the completion of the survey of the site of the town or city, or of 
such part thereof as the notice shall refer to. 

M 

0) 133. Every holder of a building-site as aforesaid shall be 

entitled, after payment of the said survey-fee, 

Sanad to be granted to receive From the Collector without extra 

without extra charge. charge one or more sanads, in the form of 

Schedule H, f/J or to the like effect [/'] 

specifying by plan and description the extent and conditions of his 

holding : 

Provided that if such holder do not apply for such nanad or 
P rov i 80 . sanads at the time of payment of the survey- 

fee or thereafter within six months from the 

[a] Figures repealed by Bom. Act IV of 1013, 9. 62, are omitted. 

[rtJAstothe local repeal of section 132, see para. 3 of foot-note [a] on 
p 1, supta. 

[c<*\ These words were substituted for the original words "rupees five for 
eaoh survey number" by Bom. IV of 1913, s. OS ]a] 

[d] The third paragraph of section 132 repealed by Bom. Act IV of 1913, 
s. 63 (#), is omitted. 

[e\ As to the local repeal of section IS; 1 ), see para. 3 of foot-note [a] on p. 1, 
supra* 

[/-/] Those words were inserted by Bom. Act IV of 1913, s. 64. 



W THE BOMBAY LAHD KKVJBNUJI CODE, 1B79 (OHAF. X 

date of the public notice issued by the Collector under the last pre- 
ceding section, the Collector may require him to pay an additional 
fee not exceeding one rupee for each sanad. 

Every such sanad shall be executed on behalf of the Secretary 
of State for India in C3uncil by such officer as may from time to 
time be lawfully empowered to execute the same. 

Sanad, a document Of title- An entry in the Collector's books that 
a certain person is the occupant and liable to pay revenue does not afford much 
evidence of title. A sanad given under this section, after due enquiry, in the form 
in Schedule H, ia itself a document of title (Ulawappa v. Gadigewa, 21 Bom. 
L. B. 948). 

Inferior and superior holders entitled to get sanads Both 

inferior as well as superior holders are entitled to get sanads in respect of building 
sites in city surveyed areas provided the requisite survey fees are paid. Sanads 
in the form appended to G. R. No, 2307-24, dated 8th June 1925, should there- 
lore be granted, on application (and not otherwise), to the tenants of all munici- 
palities. The same form should be used with suitable modifications in the case of 
other tenants (G. Bs. Nos. 2307-24, dated 8-5-1925, 10-8-1926 and 6-5-1929). 
[a] 134. If auy land within the site of any village, town, or 

city, hitherto ordinarily used for agricultural 
Assessment of land? purposes only, with respect to which a sum- 
hitherto used for pur- r r A xi ^ i v j i. *. r\ 
pose of agriculture only mar y settlement has been made between Gov- 
used for other purposes, ernment and the holder under the provisions 

of any law for the time being in force, be f6j 
used for [6] any other purposes, it shall be liable to payment of 
one-eighth of the rate fixed for unalienated land used for similar 
purposes in the same locality, in addition to the quit-rent payable 
under the terms of such summary settlement. 

Applioati on Of the Section. In the absence of a specific condition 
precluding the levy of non-agricultural assessment, the summary settlement 
sanads, which must be read with section 45, do not debar Government from using 
this section. The section applies to all lands which have been summarily settled 
and are within the site of any village, town or city at the time when such lands 
are converted to non-agricultural use. The section is not applicable to a summary 
settled piece of land which is used for non-agricultural purposes while it is out- 
side the gaothan and is subsequently included in the gaothan area under section 
126 (G.R No L. 0. 3686, dated 7-1-1931 and G, M. No. L. 0. 3686-B, dated 
3-8-1931, quoted in Correction Slips to Joglekar's Land Revenue Code). 

Judi OP quit rent. Under this section judi or quit rent cannot be in- 
creased in respect of those inam lands settled under the Summary Settlement Act, 
which are not affected by the provisions of section 127 (G. E. No. 4 GOO, dated 
3-5-1922). 

135. Repealed by Bom. Act XI of 1912, s. 3. 

[a] As to the local repeal of section 134, see para. 3 of foot-note [a] on p. I, 
supra. 

I WJ These words were substituted for the original words "appropriated to" 
by Bom. Act IV of 1913 ; s, 65. 



Saw. 134-135 B] OF THE REOOBD OF RIGHTS 99 

[a] CHAPTER X-A. 

OF THE RECORD OF RIGHTS 

Note Chapter X-A. applies also to alienated villages* Government is, there- 
fore, entitled to maintain the Record of Rights in alienated villages without the 
consent of the Inamdar (Raghiwndra v. Secretary of Stat ,-, 28 Bom. L. R 559). 

135A. The Governor in Council m^y, by notification in the 

Bombay Government Gazette, direct that this 

Exemption from pro- chapter, or any specified provisions thereof, 

vi8ions of this chapter. sha ]l n0t be in f orce ia any 8p8C ified local 

area, or with reference to any lands or any 
class o villages or lands, or generally. 

135B. (I) A record of rights shall be maintained in every 
The record of rights, village and such record shall include the fol- 
lowing particulars : 

(a) the names of all persons (other than tenants) who are 
holders, occupants, owners or mortgagees o the land or assignees 
of the rent or revenue thereof ; 

(6) the nature and extent of the respective interests of such 
persons and the conditions or liabilities (if any) attaching thereto; 

(c) the rent or revenue (if any) payable by or to any of such 
persons ; 

(d) such other particulars as the Governor in Council may 
prescribe by rules made in this behalf. 

(2) Provided that the said particulars shall be entered in the 
record of rights with respect to parpetual tenancies, aid aho with 
respect to tenancies of any other classes to which the Governor in 
Council may, by notification in the Bombay Government Gazette, 
direct that the provision? of this section shall apply in any local 
area or generally. 

The Record of Rights Its Origin. The subject of the Record of 
Bights was first mooted by the Government of India in their letter 2770-369, 
dated 6-12-97 and it was intended purely for Settlement purposes. In April 1898 
orders to make experiments were received. The first draft was prepared by fcttr 
J. W. P. Muir Mackenzie, and the experiments were carried out in 1899 by 
Messrs. A. B. Forde, F. B. Young, H, B. Sathe. The first Act was passed in 
1903 (IV of 1903% but this was repealed and incorporated in the Land Revenue 
Code of 1913. Ihe Record has now also becom9 the basis of the accounts of liabi- 
lity to pay land revenue : and abo of the audit of alienations of land revenue. 
The first Act extended to all lands except those excluded by G. Rs. Nos. 263 and 
3653 of 1904. It was extended to all Bharakati villages in G.R. No. 2568 of 1909, 
and to surveyed inam villages, even if the period of settlement has expired, except 
tbose in Ratnagiri by G. R No. 288 of 1913. All revenue survey numbers or 
parts thereof used for non-agricultural purposes within municipal limits are 
brought under the Act by G.R. No. 11581 of 1913 and agricultural lands in vari- 

[a] This chapter was inserted by Bom. Act IV of 1913, a, 66. 



100 THE BOMBAY LAND REVEKUE CODE, 1879 [ OSAP. X-A 

OUB Municipalities by several notifications. AH whole vanta villagees, and vanta 
blocks in Government villages, were excluded by GK R. No. 5668 of 1911. Bab in 
Broach and Kaira those summarily settled are now decided not to be "Talukdari 
Estates" and, therefore, come under the Resord of Eights Act (G. R. No. 3180 of 
1920). There is a special form for Kolaba khoti villages and some modifications 
for bhagdari and narvadari villages. It has not been applied to tiiukdari villages 
where the Settlement Register, which is s sort of Record of Rights, is prepared ; 
and not applied to Ratnagiri khoti villages (G R. 399 of 1919). It was extended 
to the surveyed cities of Ahmednagar, Barsi, Gadag and Godhra (G,R. No. 684 of 
1916) without any obligation upon the Municipality and to all other city-sur- 
veyed areas by G. R. 6108 of 1917, except those cities surveyed lous; a~o, which 
were in need of revision survey before the Aot can be applied (Ahmedabad City 
proper, Surat, Broach, Rander, Bulsar, Habli, Dharwar, Bijapur aud cities in 
8ind). These cities have now been resarveyed. In pursuance of that policy cl. 5 
of G.R. 263 of 190 4 is amended : whenever a village, town or city site is sur. 
veyed under sec. 131, Chapter X- A is applied and sec. 135B is applied to all 
tenancies for 21 years and upwards : no register of tenancies is separately main- 
tained (G. R. 13565 of 1918) (Anderson's L. R. Rules, &d, of 1930, p. 9G). 

Introduction of Record of Rights in Inam villages.- The 

Record of Rights can be introduced in any inam village whether it ia surveyed or 
not, without the consent of the Inamdar (H. 0. R. Dharwar Suit No. 54 of 1922 
and First Appeal No. 350 of 1924, quoted in Joglekar's Supplement No. 2, p. 29). 
Application Of the Section. Section 135 B (2) refers to tenancies 
existing at the time of introduction of the Record of Rights. 

135C. Any person acquiring, by succession, survivorship, in- 
heritance, partition, purchase, mortgage, gift, 
Acquisition of rights lease or otherwise, any right as holder, occu- 
to be reported. pant< Owner5 mortgagee, landlord or tenant of 

the land, or assignee of the rent or revenue 

thereof, shall report orally or in writing his acquisition of such 
right to the village accountant within three months from the date 
of such acquisition, and the said village accountant shall at once 
give a written acknowledment of the receipt of such report to the 
person making it : 

Provided that where the person acquiring the right is a minor 
or otherwise is disqualified, his guardian or other person having 
charge of his property shall make the report to the village account- 
ant : 

provided further that any person acquiring a right by virtue 
of a registered document shall be exempted from the obligation to 
report to the village accountant. 

EMpLanndion L The rights mentioned above include a mort 
<*age without possession, but do not include an easement or a charge 
not amounting to a mortgage of the kind specified in section 100 
of the Transfer of Propery Act, 1882. 

Explanation IL A person in whose favour a mortgage is dis- 
charged or extinguished, or lease determines, acquires a right within 
the meaning of this section* 



Sad. Id50~l&5i>] OF THfc ttBcoBb OF &IGH?S 101 

Sections 135-0 and 135-D apply to new tenancies which come into being 
after the introduction of the Record of Eights. In b oth eases the tenencies to be 
entered in the Record of Bights must either be perpetual or notified under s. 135-B 
(2). Tenancies which are not perpetual or not ao notified should be entered in 
the Register of tenancies as prescribed in No. 113 of the Land Revenue Rules 
(G. R. No. L. 0. 2865, dated 18-7-1931, quoted in Correction Slips to Joglekar's 
Land Revenue Code). 

Report-Court fee Stamp. A report under this section regarding the 
acquisitioD of a right is not liable to court fee stamp under the Oourt Fees Act 
(G. R. No. 5366-28, dated 80-8 -19 80, quoted in Correction Slips to Joglekar's 
Land Revenue Code). 

135D. (1) The village accountant shall enter in a register 
of mutations every report made to him under 
section 135-C and shall also make an entry 
cases. therein respecting the acquisition or any right 

of the kind mentioned in [a] the first para- 
graph [a] of section 135-C which he has reason to believe to have 
taken place and of which a report has not been made to him under 
the said section. 

(2) Whenever a village accountant makes an entry in the 
register of mutations he shall at the same time post up a com* 
plete copy of the entry in a conspicuous place in the chavdi, 
and shall give written intimation to all persons appearing from the 
record of r.ights or register of mutations to be interested in the 
mutation, and to any other person whom he has reason to believe to 
be interested therein. 

(3; Should aay objection to an entry made under sub-section 
( I) in the register of mutations be made either orally or in writing 
to the village accountant, it shall be the duty of the village account- 
ant to enter the particulars of the objection in a register of disputed 
cases. 

(4) Orders disposing of objections entered iu the register of 
disputed cases shall be recorded in the register of mutations by 
such officers and in such manner as may be prescribed by rules 
made by the Governor in Council in this behalf. 

(b) The transfer of entries from the register of mutations to 
the record of rights shall be effected subject to such rules as may 
be made by the Governor in Council in this behalf : provided that 
an entry in the register of mutations shall not be transferred to the 
record of rights until such entry has been duly certified. 

(6) Entries in the register of mutations shall be tested and if 
found correct, or after correction as the case 
7? f *f be certified by a revenue officer 
certified. f raok n * l wer * n fc ^ at f a Mamlatdar s 

first karkun. 



[a-rij Those words were substituted for the original word and figure "sub- 
jection (1)" by Bom. Act of II 1019, First Schedule, 



101 fas dojCBi* LA*D ftsvastJE CODE, 1879 [ OHAP. X-A 

(7) The provisions of this section shall apply in respect of 

perpetual tenancies and also in respect of any 

Tenancies. tenancies mentioned in a notification under 

sub-section (2) of section 135B, but the pro- 

visions of this section shall not apply in respect of other tenancies, 

which shall be entered in a register of tenancies in such manner and 

under such procedure as the Governor in Council may prescribe by 

rules made in this behalf. 

A Mamlatdar holding an enquiry relating to record of 

rights under Chapter XII of this Code is a revenue Court under 8. 195 (1) (c) 
of the Or. P. 0. (Emperor v. Narayan, 39 Bom. 310). 

ChaVdi. Where there is no Ohavdi in a village, the Collector should for 
purposes of section 135-D (2), direct under s. 3 (8) what place should be doomed 
to beachavdi(G. N. No. 5055-B-28, dated 24-7-1930, quoted in Correction 
Slips to Joglekar's Land Revenue Code). 

135E. ( 1) Any person whose rights, interests or liabilities 

are required to be, or have been entered in 

Obligation to furnish an y record or register under this chapter shall 

information. be bound, on the requisition of any revenue 

officer or village accountant engaged in com- 

piling or revising the record or register, to furnish or produce for 

his inspection, within one month from the date of such requisition, 

all such information or documents needed for the correct compila- 

tion or revision thereof as may be within his knowledge or in his 

possession or power. 

(2) A revenue officer or village accountant to whom any in- 
formation is furnished or before whom any document is produced 
in accordance with a requisition under sub-section (1) shall at once 
give a written acknowledgment thereof to the person furnishing or 
producing the same and shall endorse on any such document a note 
under his signature, stating the fact of its production and the date 
thereof. 

135F. Any person neglecting to make the report required by 

section 13bC, or furnish the information or 

Penalty for neglect to produce the documents required by section 

afford information. 135E within the prescribed period shall be 

liable, at the discretion of the Collector, to be 

charged a fee not exceeding twenty-five rupees, which shall be 

leviable as an arrear of land-revenue. 

Note. Mamlatdar's Head Karkuns and Extra Head Karkuns and District 
Inspectors of Land records are authorized to levy fees upto a miximum of Its. 1 5 
in each case (G. R. No. 7628, dated 9th April 1924, and 13th April 1924; 
quoted in Joglekar's Supplement No. 2, p, 30). 



_ . . 

behalf by th Governor in Council 



BEO. 136B-135H J OF THE REOOBDS OF RIGHTS. 103 

(a) any revenue officer or village accountant may for the 
purpose of preparing or revising any map or plan required for or 
in connection with any record or register under this chapter exer- 
cise any of the powers of a survey officer under sections 96 and 97, 
except the power of assessing the cost of hired labour under section 
97, and 

(6) any revenue officer of a rank not lower than that of an 
Assistant or Deputy Collector or of a survey officer may assess the 
cost of the preparation or revision of such map or plan aad all con- 
tingent expenses, including the ost of clerical l*b><ir an 1 supervi- 
sion, on the lands to which such mips OP plans rotate, and such 
costs shall be recoverable as a revenue demanl. 

135H. (1) The plaintiff or applicant in every suit or appUc*tion 

as hereinafter defined relating to land situat- 

Certiiied copy of re- e d in anv area to which this chapter applies 

cord to be annexed to . ,. * , . l .. T r 

plaint or application. s " a ^ annex to the plaint or application a 

certified copy of any entry in the reord of 

rights, register of mutations or register of tenancies relavant to 
such land. 

(2) If the plaintiff or applicant fills 8 > to d > for any cause 
which the Court or conciliator deems sufficient, he shall produce 
such certified copy within a reasonable tim^ to be fixed by the 
Court or conciliator, and if such certifie i copy is not so annexed or 
produced 'the plaint or application shall be rejecte.l, but the rejec- 
tion thereof shall not of its own force preclude the presentation of a 
fresh plaint in respect of the same cause of action or of a fresh 
application in respect of the same subject-matter, with a certified 
copy annexed. 

(3) After the disposal of any case in which a certified copy of 
any such entry has been recorded, the C >urt shall communicate to 
the Collector any error appearing in such entry and any alceration 
therein that may be required by reason of the decree or order, and 
a copy of such communication shall be kept with the record. The 
Collector shall in such case cause the entry to be corrected in accord- 
ance with the decree or decision of the Court, so far as it adjudi- 
cates upon any right required to be entered in the record of rights, 
register of inutatious or register of tenancies. The provisions of 
this sab-section shall apply also to an appellate or revisional Court: 
provided that, in the case of an appellate or revisional decree or 
order passed by the High Court or the Court of the Judicial Com- 
missioner of Sind, the communication shall be made by the Court 
from which the appeal lay or the record was called for. 

(4) In this section 

(a) "suit" means a suit to which the provisions of the Code of 
Civil Procedure, 1908, or of the Mamlatdars' Courts ; Act, 1906, 
apply ; 

fb) "application" mean an application- 
14 



104 THE BOMBAY LAUD REVENUE OODB, 18? 9 [ OHAP. 4 

(t) for the execution of a decree or order in a suit; 

(ii) for the filing of an agreement stating a case for the opi- 
nion of the Court under the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 ; 

(Hi) for the filing of an agreement to refer to arbitration 
under paragraph 17 of the Second Schedule to the said (/ode ; 

(it)) for the filing of an award under paragraph SO of the 
said Schedule ; 

(v) to a conciliator under section 39 of the Dekkhan Agricul- 
turists' Relief Act, 1879 ; 

(vi) of any other kind to which the Governor in Council may, 
by notification in the Bombay Government Gazette^ direct that this 
section shall apply 5 

(c) an application shall be deemed to relate to land if the 
decree or other matter, with respect to which the application is 
made, relates to land ; 

(d) a suit, decree or other matter relating to land shall, with- 
out prejudice to the generality of the expression, be deemed to in- 
clude a suit> decree or other matter relating to the rent or tenancy 
Of land. 

Copy Hot attached tO plaint. Where, in a suit relating to land, tbc 
plaintiff omits 10 annex to his plaint a certified copy of the entry in the Record 
of Rights, as provided in this section, bat the Court passes a decree, it is not 
open to the Appellate Court to reject the plaint in appaal merely on the ground 
of the omission ; hat it should give an opportunity to the plaintiff to produce the 
entry within a fixed time (Giri/abai v. Hemraj, 45 Bom. 1339). 

Where in a suit relating to land, the extract from the Record of Rights re- 
quired by this section is not produced in the trial Court, and in the Court of 
appeal the point about absence of the extract is uot presssed in arguments, it is 
not proper to reject the suit only on that ground, but the Court can well exercise 
its discretion in allowing the extract to be put in in appeal. Where the extract 
from the Record of Rights is once so put in, no application for review of judg- 
ment based on the ground of the absence of the extract can be entertained (Ganexh 
9. Wthal, 23 Bom L, R. 745 ; s. c. 46 Bom, 345). 

Certified copies of entries and their extracts exempt from 

Court fee Stamps. Certified copies of entries in Record of Rights and ap- 
plications for such copies when required in filing in Court under this section are 
exempt from Court fee stamps. Certified copies of extracts from entries in Re- 
cord of Bights when attached to applications for the execution of Civil Court 
decrees are also exempt from Court Fee Stamps (G. N. No. 590, dated 16-9-1921 
quoted in Correction Slips to Joglekar's Land Revenue Oode). 

1351. Notwithstanding anything in section 87, the Collector 

shall refuse assistance to any superior holder 

Refusal of assistance under the said section, if his claim to such 

under section 87. assistance is not supported by an entry or 

entries duly made in the record of rights, 

register of mutations or register of tenancies* 



1851-186] OF THE REALIZATION OF LAND REVENUE, ETC. 105 

135 J. An entry Jn the record of rights and a certified entry 
o , in the register of mutations shall be preBum- 

irrts^mption of correct- j *. ^ u * i xi *. j 

ness of entries in re- ed fco be true . ontil the contrary is proved or 
cord-of rights and re- a ne ^ entry is lawfully substituted therefor. 
gister of mutations. 

Retrospective effect. This section is not retrospective with respect 
to the entries for the purpose of determining the right? of the parties which were 
till after 1913 innocuous (Hathinmj v Kuber Jetha, 44 Bom. 214). 

Entries in record Of rights. -Under this section entries in the re- 
cord of rights shall be presumed to be correct, and, in the absence of any other 
evidence, a Civil Court is obliged to be guided by any facts so entered in the re- 
cord of rights (Anandibai 9 Narain> 17 Bom L R, 49). 

135K. Application for certified copies of entries in the re- 
cord of rights, the register of mutations and 
Certified copies. the reg ; 8ter O f tenancies may be made to, and 

such copies may be given by, the village ac- 
countant, Mihalkari or Mamlatdar. 

Application for copy of entry exempt from Court fee 

Stamp. Applications made to village officers for copies of entries in the Record 
of Rights are exempt from Court fee Stamps (Gr. N. No. 590, dated 16-9-1921, 
quoted in Correction Slips to Joglekar's Land Revenue Code). 

185L. (1) No suit shall lie against the Secretary of State or 
Government or any officer of Government in 
Bar of suits and exolu- respect of a claim to have an entry made in 
sion of Chapter XIII. any record ()f reg i 8ter t h at J B maintained un- 
der this chapter, or to have any such entry 

omitted or amended, and the provisions of Chapter XIII shall not 
apply to any decision or order under this chapter. 

(2) The correctness of the entries in the record of rights and 

register of mutations shall be inquired into 

A PP eal - and the particulars thereof revised, by such 

Revenue officers and in such manner and to 

such extent and subject to such appeal as the Governor in Council 

may from time to time by rules prescribe in this behalf. 

CHAPTER XI 

OP Tiia REALIZATION OF THE LAND REVENUE AND OTHER REVKNUE 

DEMANDS 

[a] 136. (1) In the case of unalienated land the occupant, 
and in the case of alienated land the superior 
Liability for land re- holder, shall be primarily liable to Govern- 
venue - ment for the payment of the land-revenue, 

including all arrears of land-revenue, due in 
respect of the land. Joint occupants and joint holders who are pri- 
marily liable under this section shall be jointly and severally liable. 

[a\ This section was substituted for the original section by Bom. Act IV of 
1913, g>, 67. 



106 THE BOMBAY LAJTO REVENUE CODE, 1879 [OHAP. 3TI 

(2) In case of default by any person who is primarily liable 
under this section, the land revenue, including arrears as aforesaid, 
shall be recoverable from any person in posssession o the land : 

provided that where such person is a tenant, the amount re- 
coverable from him shall not exceed the demands of the year in 
which the recovery is made : 

provided further that, when land-revenue is recovered under 
this section from any person who is not primarily liable for the 
sati,e, sucn person shall be allowed credit for any payments which 
he may have duly made to the person who is primarily liable, and 
shall be entitled to ciedit, for the amount recovered from him, in 
account with the person wh ) is primarily liable. 

Note. This section i: subject to modification when applied to auy village 
in the District^ of Ratnagiri and Kolaba to which the Khoti Settlement Act ex- 
tends (Vide Bom. Act I of 1880, ss. 1 and 39). 

Occupant. The term 'occupant' is subject to modification when applied to 
any estate in the Districts of Ahmedabad, Kaira, Broach or Panch Mahals to 
which the Gajarat Talokdars' Act extends (Vtd9 Bom. Act VI of 1883, as. 1 and 
33). 

137. The claim of Government to any moneys recoverable 

under the provisions of this chapter shall 

^%ZZZ hav ? P rec <t nce over ' f her debt ' demand ' 

all others. or claim whatsoever, whether in respect of 

mortgage, judgment decree, execution, or 

attachment, or otherwise h >wsoever, against any land or the holder 
thereof. 

Sale for recovery of abka^i revenue This section in no way 

extends the right of f rf jituro and sale to taoso lanis of the defaulter in respect 
of which no land revenue U duo. Although arrears of abkiri licence fees are re- 
coverable as land revenue und^r s. 34 of thj 4bkiri Ab, arrea-s of abkuri revenue 
are n^t due upon tiny specific Ian I owned by the abkari renter. Hence a sale by 
G-overnment of the land of th-3 renter for recovery of abkari revenue is a sale 
subject to any prior mortgtge on the land (Ahmed Fdaji EH mail v. Parmanand 
Menghraj, 267 8 L. B. 390). In this case 7 Mad. 434, 28 Mad 420, 25 Mad 572 
and 26 Mad. 230 were followed. 

138. In all cases the land-revenue for the current year of 

land used for agricultural purposes, if not 
The liability of the otherwise discharged, shall be recoverable, in 

crop for the revenue of lf & . ' , . c ,1 

the land. preference to all other claims, from the crop 

of the land subject to the same. 
Recovery of land revenue how to be credited. Land revenu e 

recovered bafore the date of the first instalment should be credited against the 
arrears of past years, if any. Revenue recovered on or after the date of the first 
instalment, should be credited against the demand of the current year and the 
balance, if any, against t^e arrears of previous years (G-. 11. No. 5387-28, dated 
1 6-3-1932, quoted in Correction Slips to Joglekar's Land Revenue Code). 



SEOB, 137-141 1 OP THE REALIZATION OF LAND BKEDNUE, ETC. 107 

1B9. The land-revenue shall be leviable on or at any time 
after the first day of the revenue year for 

bJw ar"*ime which ifc is due but ' e **Pt ^ precaution- 
during the revenue ap y measures are deemed necessary under the 
year. provisions of sections 140 to 144, payment 

will be required only on the dates to be fixed 
under the provisions hereinafter contained. 

[a] 140. When the crop of any land or any portion of the 
same is sold, mortgaged or otherwise disposed 

h rciotr;:s <v heth K? r ' by , order of , a Civ . H <*>* 

be prevented until re- other P" bllc authority or by private agree- 
venue paid. ment, the Collector may prevent its being re- 

moved from the land until the demands for 
the current year in respect of the said land have bee~i paid, whether 
the date fixed for the payment of the same under the provisions 
hereinafter contained, has yet arrived or not. 

But in no case shall a crop or any portion of the same, which 
has been sold, mortgaged or otherwise disposed of, be detained on 
account of more than the demands of the year in which the deten- 
tion is made. 

The powers contained in this section and the following 

do not authorise the detention of anything but the crops of the land or the seizure 
of the crop or any other goods after removal from the land* (Gangaram v. Dinkar 
37 Bom. 642). 

141. It shall be lawful for the Collector, 

k5^ra - order to secure the payment of the land- 
tor may prevent the revenue by enforcement of the hen of Govern- 

reaping of the crop, or ment On the crop 

(a) to require that the crop growing on any land liable to the 
payment of land-revenue shall not be reaped until a notice in 
writing has first been given to himself or to some other officer to 
b3 named by him, in this behalf, and such notice has been returned 
endorsed with an acknowledgment of its receipt ; 

(/>) to direct that no such crop shall be removed from the 
laud on which it has been reaped, or from 
tho removal thereof, or aD y pl ace i n which it may have been deposit- 
ed, without the written permission of himself 
or of some other officer as aforesaid ; 

(c) to cause watchmen to be placed over any such crop to pre- 
vent the unlawful reaping or removal of the 
place watchmen over it. game, and to realize the amount required for 
the remuneration of the said watchmen, at 
such rate not exceeding the rate of pay received by the peons on his 
establishment as he may deem fit, as an arrear of land revenue due 
in respect of the land to which such crop belongs. 

[a] This section was substituted for the original section by 
of IVM3, s.68. 



1 08 THK BOMBUT LVND RBVJSSUB CODE, 1879 [ CHAP. XI 

142. The Collector's orders under either clause (a) or clause 
n .. , , , (b) of the last preceding section may be issued 

aJfcSEtoS:^ g ne "% *<> !* lwUe o land paying 
be made known. revenue to Government in a village or to in- 

dividual holders merely. 

If the order be general, it shall be made known by public pro- 
clamation to be made by beat of drum in the village and by affixing 
a copy of the order in the cbavdi or some other public buildiag in 
the village. If it be to individual holders, a notice thereof shall be 
served on each holder concerned. 

Any person who shall disobey any such order after the same 

has been so proclaimed, or a notice thereof has 

Penalty for dis- been served upon him, or who shall, within 

obedience of order. tfae ^j^ of the IndiaQ p eQal C()de? abet 

the disobedience of any such order, shall be 
liable, on conviction after a summary inquiry by the Collector, to 
a fine not exceeding double the amount of the land revenue due on 
the land to which the crop belongs in respect of which the offence 
is committed. 

Removal of crops, though removal prohibited, does not 

become theft. If a person removes his wheat, the removal of which is prohi- 
bited and over which watchmen have been placed under t. 141, ha cannot be con- 
victed of theffc under a. 379 of the Penal 0>de, but cau ba dealt with -under this 
section (Daya Karson, I Bom. L R. 515). 

Fine under this section is no arrear of land revenue of any 

OCOUpanoy A fine imposed on a person under thia section for disobedience of 
an order passed under section 141 is not an arrear of land revenue in respect of 
any occupancy, and therefore forfeiture of the offender's land under s. 153 for 
recovery of the fine is not lawful. The ruling quoted in 15 Bom. 67 under a. 1H7 
/wsjdoes not apply fo such a fine (Gr. R N-J. 5 >OS-28, dib3d 31-10-1950 quoted 
in Correction Slips to Joglekar's Land Revenue Code). 

143. The Collector shall not defer the reaping o crop, nor 

prolong its deposit unduly, so as to damage 
Reaping, &c, not to the produce ; and if within two months after 

be unduly deferred. the crQp hag faeen deposited the reveuue due 

has not been discharged, he shall either release 
the crop and proceed to realize the revenue in any other manner 

authorized by this chapfter or take such portion 
Crop when to be releas- thereof as he may deem fit, for sale under 
e ' the provisions of this chapter applicable to 

sales of moveable property in realization ot 
the revenue due and of all legal cose, and release the rest. 

144. If o tying to disputes amongst the sharers, or for other 

cause, the Collector shall deem that there is 

Temporaiy atttaeh- reason to apprehend that the land revenue 

ST^irKTS Wable in reject of any holding consisting 

a village. of * n entire village or of a share of a village 

will not be paid as it falls due, he may cause 



&508, 142-147 ] Off THE &LIAfcATl05 OF liAND ttEVBNUE, SJT<5. 100 

the village or share of a village to be attached and taken under the 
management of himself or any agent whom he appoints for that 
purpose. 

The provisions of section 160 shall apply to any village or 
share of a village so attached, and all surplus 

Powers of manager, fit tfa j d attached beyond the COSt 

and disposal of surplus * v ^ u *. j ^ i j 

profits. f 8UC k attachment and management, includ- 

ing the payments of the land revenue and the 
cost of the introduction of a revenue survey, if the same be intro- 
duced under the provisions of section 111, shall be kept in deposit 
for the eventaal benefit of the person or persons entitled to the 
same, or paid to the said person or persons from time to time as the 
Collector [a] may direct. 

Grant of village lands rent free by Talukdar. Plaintiff held 

rent free land from the talnkdar of the village, who paid the Government assess- 
ment for the village in a fixed lump sum. The village was attached by the Go" 
vernment for non-payment of the jama by the talakar under this section. Held> 
that the Government had the right to levy the assessment on the lauds of the 
plaintiff to tile village, for, the grant of lands rent free by the talukdar did not 
affect tho right of the Government to assess the lands (Tulla v. The Collector 
Kaira, 43 Bom. 6. 

145. The precautionary measures authorized by the last five 

sections shall be relinquished if the person 

Precautionary mea- primarily responsible for the payment of 

r^^JittS reveuue or any person who would be respon- 

furnished. sible tor the sarno if default were made by 

the person primarily responsible shall pay the 

costs, if any, lawfully incurred by the Collector up to the time of 
such relinquishment, and shall furnish security satisfactory to the 
Collector for the payment of the revenue, at the time at which, or 
in the instalments, if any, in which it is payable under the provi- 
sions hereinafter contained. 

146. Land revenue, except when it is recovered under the 

provisions of the foregoing sections ] 40 to 

Government to deter- 14^ gfcall be payable at such times in such 

V\tT tevenu n e instalments to such persons and at such places 

shall be payable. as ma 7 from time to time be determined by 

the orders of Government. 

147. Any sum not so paid becomes 

Arrear. thereupon an arrear of land revenue, and the 

persons responsible for it, whether under the 
Defaulter. provisions of section 136 or of any other sec- 

tion, become defaulters. 

Note. This section is subject to modification when applied to any estate 
in the districts of Ahmedabad, Kaira, Broach or Panch Mahals to which the 
Gujarat Talukdar's Act, 1888, extends (Kufo Bom. Act VI of 1888. ss. 1 and 33). 

\a\ "Words rep cakd by Bom. Aci IV of 1806, Second Schedule, are omitted, 



119 THE BOMBAY LAND REV^UB CODE, 1879 [ OHAP. XI 

[a] 148. If any instalments o land revenue be not fully paid 
within the prescribed time, it shall be lawful 

by defaoH 168 '"^"^ ? 0r the Collector *> ^pose as a penalty or as 
interest such charge on such instalments, and 
on the arrears, if any, of former years, as may 
be authorized according to a scale to be fixed from time to time 
under the orders of the Governor in Council, and further to proceed 
to levy at once the entire balance of land revenue due by the de- 
faulter for the current year : 

Provided that no such charge shall be imposed on any instal- 
ment, the payment of which has been suspended by order of 
Government, in respect of the period during which the payment 
remained suspended. 

Applicability . This section applies only in case of default of the pay- 
ment of land revenue within the prescribed time and not for default of rent. The 
fact that the Talukdari Settlement Officer was during the period of his manage- 
ment vested with certain powers of the Collector under this Code did not ipso 
facto or necessarily make rent land revenue and the imposition of the penalty was 
invalid (Secretary of State -. Gordhandas Mohanlal, 32 Bom. L. B. 815). 

Maximum penalty. A maximum penalty not exceeding \ of the 
amount of land revenue over-due should be fixed and resort had to the provisions 
of this section in the case of the rayat who is known to be able to pay bat wil- 
fully delays to do so. The penalty imposed may be remitted if the officer impos- 
ing it afterwards finds that tbe rayat was not able to pay puncually (Q-. R. 
No. 6485, dated 27th March l883 ; quoted in Sathe's Land Revenue Oode 4th 
ed., p. 243). 

Interest Or penalty under this section should be levied only in cases 
of proved contumacy (G. K. No. 194, dated 9th January 18^4). 

149. A statement of account, certified by the Collector or by 
an Assistant or Deputy Collector, shall, for 

Certified account to Ae pur p 08 e 8 of this chapter, be conclusive 
be evidence as to . , r r r , . A v /. i 

arrears, evidence ot the existence of the arrear of the 

amount of land revenue due, and of the per- 
son who is the defaulter. 

On receipt of such certified statement, it shall be lawful for 

the Collector of one district to proceed to re- 

Collectors may realize cover the demands of the Collector of any 

each other's demands. other district under the provisions of this 

chapter as if the demand arose in his own 

district. 

A similar statement of account certified by the Collector of 
Bombay may be proceeded upon as if certified by the Collector of 
a district under this Act 

150. An arrear of land revenue may be 
Process for recovery recovered by the following processes : 
of arrears. 

[a] This section was substituted for the original section by Bom. Act IV of 
1913, 8, 69. 



148-152 ] OF THE RELIAZATION OP LAND &BVENUE, fere. ill 

(a) by serving a written notice of demand on the defaulter 
under section 1*2 ; 

(b) by forfeiture of the occcapancy or alienated holding in 
respect of which the arrear is doe under section 153 ; 

f c) by distraint and 8<*le of the defaulter's moveable property 
under section 154 ; 

(ejh by sale of the defaulter's immoveable property under sec- 
tion 155 ; 

(e) bv arrest and imprisonment of the defaulter under sections 
157 and 158; 

(/) in the case of alienated holding consisting of entire 
villages, or shares of villages, by attachment of the said villages 
or shares of villages under sections 15i) to 163. 

Notes- 01 \b) of this section does not apply to any village in the districts 
of Ratnagiri. and K >laba to which the Khoti Settlement Act extends (Vide Bom. 
Aot I of 1880, ss. 1 and 39). 

This section is subject to modification when applied to any estate in the dis- 
tricts of Ahinedibad. Kiira, Broach or Panch Mahah to which tho Gujarat Taluk- 
dars' Act, 1888, extends (Vide Bom. Act VI of 1888, as. I and 33). 

heoOVery Of arrears Of land-revenue ^n arrear of land-re- 
venue maybe recovered by the several processes rncutiouel in this section. With 
iega r d to tho process of sale of the default jr'a i nouveaole property other than the 
land on which the arrear is due, it should be noted that the sale is subject to all 
inmimbrances, or tenures or ajienatiocs effected by the occupant before the aale. 
The sale is just like the sale in execution of a money decree of a judgment- 
debtor ? s immoveable property and the purchaser acquires only wh\t the occnpmt 
could have honestly disposed of on the date of the sale. la this ci->e the rights of 
iucumbrancers are not touched (Sea Venkatesh v Uka! Pai, 15 Bom. 67). The 
surplus after deducting the expense* of ths sale and the arrears due shall ba paid 
to the occupant whose property is th'is sold, as required by j. 183 post. 

151. The said processes may be employed for the recovery 

of an ears of former years as well as of the 

Revenue demands of current year but the preferences gi^en by 

former years how re- . 10* JIOL.II 1^1 * 

eoverable. sections 137 and Io8 shall apply only to 

demands for the current year : 

Provided that any process commenced in the current year shall 
be entitled to the said perferences, notwith- 
standing that it may not be fully executed 
within that year. 

152. A notice of demand may be issued 

When notice of de- on or after the day following that on which 
mand may issue. the arreaf accrue8 , 

The Commissioner may from time to time frame rules for the 
issue of such notices, and with the sanction of the Governor in 
Council shall fix the costs recoverable from the defaulter as an 
15 



11* TriB BoMfiAt tiAfrto RfcvEKTJB OoDrt, 1879 [ OHi*. XI 

arrear of revenue, and direct by what officer such notices shall be 
issued. 

Not6S .Fees of notice under this section, the costs of arrest under sec. 158 
and expenses of sale under s. 183 leviable under the existing rules are doubled 
(G B. tfo. 7828, dated, 25-6-1923, quoted in Joglekar's Supplement No 2, p. 31). 

F'-es are levied even when the notice is unserved (G. Bs. Nos. 954 of 1896, 
an I 1> 94 of 1898). 

Inamdara, even if commissioned, cannot charge notice fees (G-. B. No. 2901 of 
1886). 

Notice Of demand When OOmpluSOry .--The issue of a notice un- 
der this section is not compulsory before any other kind of coercive process is 
undertaken (G. N. No. 6557, dated 16-1-1931). 

Notice Of demand When to be served. A notice of demand under 
this section may be served through the postal agency. But since practical diffi- 
culty is likely to arise if a notice sent by registered post is refused, the issue of 
a registered notice in such cases should bo supplemented by the procedure pre- 
scribed in section 191 of the Oode oi affixing a copy of the notice to some con- 
spicuous place on tha land to whioh the notice refers (G. B, No. 5638-28, dated 
16-9-1930, quoted in Correction Slips to Joglekar's Land Bevenue Oode). 

Form of notice Of demand. For form of notice of demand to be 
issued under this section, see p, 153 of Anderson's L. B. Bules. 

153. The Collector may declare the occcupancy or alienated 
holding in respect of which an arrear of 

The occupancy or alie- l an d-revenue is due, to be forfeited to Gov- 
nated holding for which -, n ' , . ,. A , 

arrear is due may be ernment, and sell or otherwise dispose of the 

forfeited. same under the provisions of sections 56 and 

57, and credit the proceeds, if any, to the de- 
faulter's account 

[a] Provided that the Collector shall not 
Proviso. declare any such occupancy or alienated hold- 

ing to be forfeited 

(a) unless previously thereto he shall have issued a proclama- 
tion and written notices of the intended declaration in the manner 
prescribed by sections 165 and 166 for sales of immoveable pro- 
perty, and 

(b) until after the expiration of at least fifteen days from the 
latest date on which any of the said notices shall have been affixed 
as required by section 166. 

Note. This section does not apply to any village in the districts of Batna- 
giri and Kolaba to which the Knot! Settlement Act extends (Bom. Act I of 1880 
8s. 1 and 39). 

Proviso. This proviso provides against the possibility of an occupancy or 
alienated holding being declared forfeited and disposed of without the fact coming 
to the knowledge of persons who might otherwise avail themselves of the remedies 
against forfeiture contained in ss. 80 and 81 (Select Committee's Report). 

(a] This proviso was added by Bono. Act VI of 1901, a. 16. 



Sac* J 58 -154] OP THE REALIZATION or LAND REVENUE, ETC. 113 

Occupancy or alienated holding- cannot be alienated for 

recovery Of arrears Of local fund cess. Although local fond cess U re- 
coverable as an arrear of land revenue, it is not land revenue which is due in 
respect of an occupancy or alienated holding. Therefore an occupancy or alienated 
holding cannot be forfeited for recovery of arrears of local fund cess (G. R. 
No. 5673-28, dated 28 -8-1 9 30 quoted in Correction Slips to Joglekar's Land 
Revenne Code), 

Mere sale does not extinguish inoumbranoes. It cannot be 

assumed that the Collector has declared under this section the holding to be for- 
feited from the mere fact that that would be the legal consequence of failure 
to pay assessment. If there has been no forefeiture, a mere sale does not extin- 
guish existing incnmbrances (Gotind v Bhiwa, P. J. i895, p 70). 

When Order Of forfeiture is illegal When a talukdari village is 
attached under s. 159 of the Code for arrears of land-revenue, so long as the 
attachment subsists, an order of forfeiture, under this section, is illegal (Samaldas 
v. Secretary of State, 16 Bom. 455). 

Forfeiture not followed by Sale. A declaration of forfeiture 
under this section of the interests of a lessee holding under a permanent lease not 
followed by a sale, but by an order transferring possession of the holding to the 
lessor under s. 57, has not the effect of defeating prior incumbrauces created by the 
lessee in favour of third persona (Nuray.in v. Piirshvttam, 22 Bom, 309). 

When a registered occupant's tenancy is forfeited under s. 56 ante, and that 
forfeiture is not followed by sale of the occupancy (the Collector allowing the per- 
son actually in possession to be registered as occupant on his paying up all arrears 
of Government revenue due on the land), the lease by which the person actually in 
possession was holding from the former registered occupant is not destroyed by 
the forfeiture and the lessee is still under liability to his landlord (Ganparshibai v. 
Timmaya, 24 Bom. 34). 

Declaration of forfeiture before sale, A sale of a holding for 

default of payment of assessment is not invalid, although prior to the sale there 
has been no declaration of forfeiture by the Collector. The declaration is not so 
essentially a necessary preliminary of a sale that without it the sale ia illegal and 
invalid. The fact that a sale has taken place is primajacie evidence that forfei- 
ture had been declared (Ganpnli v. Gangaram, 21 Bom. 381), 

_. . , . . 154. The Collector may also cause the 

d movable Defaulter's moveable property to be destrain- 

property. e( * an d sold. 

Such distraints shall be made by such officers or class of 

officers as the Commissioner under the orders 

By whom to be made. of Government may from time to time direct. 

Distraints may be made by Taluka karkuns, Kulkarnis, 

TalatlS and PatelS, provided that they should be executed only by persons 
able to read and write. In special cases, however, the Collectors and their assist- 
ants may direct the warrant to any person whom they may consider competent to 
execute it (G. B. No, 7858, dated 23rd December 1881, quoted in Bathe's Land 
lievenne Code, 4th ed., p. 



lw Era BOMBAJT LAND RBVBNUB CODE, 1879 [ CHAP. XI 

Delegation to Mamlatdars and Mahalkaris of the power to 

distraint. The Collectors mar delegate the powers exercised by them under 
this section, to Mam la t da r 3 and Mahalkaris (G. R. No. 5954, dated 31st August 
1891, quoted in Bathe's Land Kevenue Code, tth ed., p. 254). 

Defaulter's Property. This section will apply only if the distrained 
property is the moveable property of the defaulter and the onus is on the officer 
who effects a seizure to prove it (Gavgaram v. Dinkar, 37 Bom. 592). 

Distraint Of Chattels hOW effected. A seizure for distraint of 
chattels may be either actual or constructive. It is not necessary that the goods 
must be actually touched or handled (Emperor v . Lnltu Waghvi, 43 Bom. 550). 

Seizure Of account books An attachment of account books by an 
officer acting under this section is illegal, and the officer is liable to damages for 
doing qo (Daluchand t>. GulaM* 18 Bom. L R. 323). 

Cash and notes Under thU section cash and particularly currency notes 
(being moveable property and liable to sale) may be distrained and sold (Emperor 
9. Gulabrni, 83 I. 0. 899). So also ornaments (18 Bom L. R 323). 

155. The Collector nnv alo cause the right, title and inter- 

est of the defaulter in any immoveable pro- 
Sale of defaulter's im- pprty other th*n the land on which the arrear 
moveable property. - dljfl to be ^^ 

Defaulter's immoveable property. The immoveable property of a 
defaulter which is put up for sale under the Land Revenue Code is not. attached 
in execution and cannot, therefore, be transferred to a Oo-operative .Society for 
the recovery of it-? dues under section 59 (2) ot the Bombay Oo-operativa 
Societies Act, 1925. A Oooparative Society should in such cases offer an ade- 
quate bid and purchase the right, fctle and interest of the duf mltur in the property. 
In special cases, however, in order to set an eximple, the Collector may in the ab- 
sence of outside bidders transfer the rig':t, title and interest of thu defaulter in 
immoveable property to co-operative society on a purely nominal bi(* (G-. Rs. 
Nos. 4373-28, dated 23-4-1930, 8-12-1930 and 13-2-1932 quoted in Correction 
Blip* to Joglekar's Land Revenue Code). 

156. All such property as is by the Civil Procedure Code 

exempted from attach oieht or sale in execu- 

Exemntiona from dis- tion < a decree, shall also be exempt from 

trabt and sale. distraint or sale, under either o the last two 

preceding sections. 

The Collector's decision as to what uropsrty is so entitled to 
exemption, shall be conclusive. 

Exemption The proviso to Section 60 (1) of the Civil Procedure Oodo 
(Act V of 1908) exempts the following articles from attchmeut or sale : 

(a) the necessary wearing apparel, cooking vessels, beds and bei ling of the 
judgment-debtor, his wife and children, and such personal ornaments as, in accord- 
ance with religious usage, cannot be parted with by any woman ; 

(b) tools of artizans, and, where the jndguent-debtor is an agriculturist, his 
implements of husbandry and such cattle and seed-grain as may, in the opinion of 
the Court, he accessory to enable him to earn his livelihood, as such, and such 
portion of agricultural produce or of any class of agricultural produce as may 



Sacs. 155456 Or IHE REALIZATION OF LAND REVENUE, &o. 115 

have been declared to be free from liability under the provisions of the next fol- 
lowing section (re special exemption by Government orders) j 

(c) houses and other buildings (with the materials ani the sites thereof and 
the land immediately appurtenant thereto and necessary for their enjoyment) be- 
longing to an agriculturist and occupied by him ; 

(d) books of account ; 

() a mere right to sue for damages ; 

( f) any right of personal service ; 

(g) stipends and gratuities allowed to pensioners of the Government, or pay- 
able out of any service family pension fund notified in the Gazette of India by the 
Governor General in Council in this behalf, and political pensions ; 

(h) allowances (being less than salary) of any public officer or of any servant 
of a railway company or local authority while absent from duty ; 

(t) the salary or allowances equal to salary of any such public officer or ser- 
vant as is referred to in clause (A), while on duty, to the extent of 

(t) the whole of th: salary, where the salary does not exceed forty rupees 
monthly ; 

() forty rupees monthly, where the salary exceeds forty rupees and does 
not exceed eighty rupees monthly ; and 

(n't) one moiety of the salary in any other case ; 

(/ ) the piy and allowances of persons to whom the Indian Articles of War 
(V of 1869) apply ,- 

(/c) all compulsory deposits and other sums in or derived from any fund to 
which the Provident Funds Act (iXof 1807), for the time being applies in so far 
as they are declared hy the said Act not to be liible to attachment ; 

(/) the wage? of labourers and domestic servants whether payable in money 
or in kind : 

(OT) an expectancy of succession by survivorship or other merely contingent 
or possible right or interest ; 

(n) a right to future maintenance ; 

(o) any allowance declared by any law passed under the Indian Councils 
Acts, 1861 and 1892, to be exempt frcoi liability to attachment or sale in execu- 
tion of a decree ; and 

(/>) where the judgment-debtor is a person :iable for the payment of land- 
revenue, any moveable property which, under any law for the time being applic- 
able to him, is exempt from sale for the recovery of an arrear of such revenue. 

Explanation. The particulars mentioned in clauses, (g), (A), ({), (/), (/) and 
(0) are exempt from attachment or ?alo whether before or after they are actually 
payable . 

(2) Nothing in section 60 shall be deemed 

to exempt houses and other buildings (with themateri&ls and the sites there- 
of and the lands immediately appurtenant thereto and necessary for their enjoy- 
ment) from attachment or sale in execution of decrees for rent of any such house 
bnilding site or land. 

Agricultural produce not exempted from attachment 

Under C. P. Code No kind of agricultural produce has been exempted from 
attachment under section 61 of the Oivil Procedure Code. 

Exemption Irom attachment and sale of houses and build- 
ings Occupied by agriculturists. The expression "materials of houses 



11$ THE BOMBAY LAND REVENUE CODE, 1879 [OHAF XI 

and other buildings belonging to, and occupied by, agriculturists" used in a. 266, 
cl. (c) (now s. 60 (c) of tbe new Oode of 1908) of the Civil Procedure Code, is 
intended to exempt from attachment and sale the house dwelt in by an agricul- 
turist as such and the farm buildings appended to such dwelling (Radhokrishna e. 
Bahant, 7 Bom. 530). 

157. At any time after an arrear becomes due, the defaulter 
A f A A i * ma y ke Crested and detained in custody for 

of defadte a r etentlon ten days in the office of the Collector or of a 
Mamlatdar or Mahalkari, unless the revenue 
due together with the penalty or interest and 

the costs of arrest and of notice of demand, if any, have issued and 

the cost of his subsistence during detention, is sooner paid. 

If, on the expiry of ten days the amount due by the defaulter 
T . , . . .. is not paid, then, or if the Collector deem fit 

j^r 8 on any earlier day, he may be sent by the 

Collector with a warrant, in the form of Sche- 
dule C, for imprison ment in the civil jail of 

the district : 

Provided that no defaulter shall be detain- 
Defaulters not to be e( j i n imprisonment for a longer period than 

SC^nMito^ the time liraited b y la * in the case o the 

be detained by the Civil execution of a decree of a Civil Court for a 
Court. debt equal in amount to the arrear 6f revenue 

due by such defaulter. 

Govt's priority over pledgee's rights. S. was indebted to the 

Govt. on account of unpaid instalments of a foreign liquor licence, but the stock 
of wines was already pledged to P. Bank. Held, that Govt. had priority over P. 
Bank as pledgee. This section was applicable to this case although the priority 
of Govt. as flta ted in this section is over any claim against any land or holder 
thereof (People's Bank of Northern India t>, Shahani Brothers, A. I. R. 1930 
Sind 185). 

Period Of detention. Every person detained in the civil prison in 
execution of a decree shall be so detained: (a) Where the decree is for the pay- 
ment of a sum of money exceeding fifty rupees, for a period of six months, and 
(I) in any other case, for a period of six weeks (Civil Procedure Oode (Act V of 
1908), s. 58 (1)). 

Agriculturist debtor when arrested and detained under 

this Section. An agriculturist debtor against whom action is being taken 
under s. 59 (1) (6) of the Co-operative Societies Act may be arrested and detained 
nndei this section. He cannot claim protection under s. 21 of the D. A. R. Act 
(G-. R. No. 8281-28, dated 18-1-1931 quoted in Correction Slips to Joglekar's 
Land Revenue Oode). 

158. The Commissioner may, with the sanction of the Gov- 

ernor in Council, from time to time, declare 

Power of arrest by fa wfaftt O ff^ n or Q \ Mn officers, the 
whom to be exercised. Q{ ^^ C0nferre( j by secti(m m mfty 



8x08. 157-461 ] OF IBB REALIZATION o* JdAtit) REKDNUE, ETC. 117 

be exercised, and also fix the costs of arrest and the amount of 
subsistence-money to be paid by Government to any defaulter under 
detention or imprisonment. 

159. If the holding, in respect of which an arrear is due, 

consists of an entire village, or of a share of 

J " to ,iSagt Si a villa g e > "* the "^r of an y o the other 

take it under manage- processes before specified is deemed inexpedi- 
ment. ent, the Collector may, with the previous 

sanction of the Commissioner, cause such 
village or share of a village to be attached and taken under the 
management of himself or any agent whom he appoints for that 
purpose. 

160. The lands of any village or share of a village so attached 

shall revert to Government unaffected by the 
tol:f f re 8 e UC o5ir. cts of the superior holder or of an y> of the 
brances. sharers, or by any charges or liabilities sub- 

sisting against such lands, or against such 
superior holder or sharers as are. interested therein, so far as the 
public revenue is concerned, but without prejudice in other respects 
to the rights of individuals ; 

and the Collector or the agent so appointed shall be entitled to 

Powers of manager. manage the lands attached, and to receive all 

rents and profits accruing therefrom to the 

exclusion of the superior holder or any of the sharers thereof, until 

the Collector restores the said superior holder to the management 

thereof. 

Note. This section is subject to modification when applied to any estate in 
the districts of Ahmedabad, Kaira, Broach or Panch Mahals to which the Gujarat 
Talukdars' Act, 1888, extends (Vide Bom. Act VI of 1888, ss. 1 and 33). 

Colieotor not to demand more (Local Fund) in addition to 
stipulated rent. 

The plaintiffs were tenants of the Thakor of G. The Collector undertook the 
management of his estate and had, under s. 144 of this Code, attached the village 
G. Held, that the plaintiffs as tenants of the Thakor were liable to pay the Col- 
lector the stipulated rent only and that this section does not entitle him to de- 
mand more (Collector of dhmsdabad p. T&osan, P. J. 1892, p. 323). 

Right of Khot to sue for possession of Khoti Nisbat lands.- 

A Watandar Khot is entitled to institute a suit for possession of his Khoti Kig- 
bat lands which are alienated by the tenant without obtaining his consent, although 
the Khot'A lands have been attached by Government under this Oode (Purushottam 
r. Qanpati, 50 Bom. 306). 

161. All surplus profits of the lands attached, beyond the 
cost of such attachment and management in- 

of "" cludiD u g the p;yr nt o the current " 

and the cost of the introduction of a revenue 
survey, if the same be introduced under the 



ft$ Tate BOMBAY LAWD REVENTTE CODE, 1879 [OHAP. XI 

provisions of section 111 [a] shall be applied in defray ing the said 
arrear. 

162. The village or share of a village so attached shall be 
. released from attachment, and the manage- 

so aSSK n aent thereof sha11 be ^stored to the superior 

holder on the said superior holder's making 
an application to the Collector for that pur- 
pose at any time within twelve years from the first of August next 
after the attachment : 

if at the time that such application is made it shall appear that 
the arrear has been liquidated ; 

or if the said superior holder shall be willing to pay the 
balance, if any, still due by him, and shall do so within such period 
as the Collector may prescribe in that behalf. 

The Collector shall make over to the superior holder the sur- 
plus receipts, if any, which have accrued in 

f SUrplU8 t ! ie y ear in whicli his ^Plication for restora- 
tion of the village or share of a village is 
made after defraying all arrears and costs ; 

but such surplus receipts, if any, of previous years shall be at the 

disposal of Government. 

Notes. Vide note 1 under s. 160. 

This section is subject to modification when applied to any village in tho dis- 
tricts of Eatnagiri and Kolaba to which the Khoti Settlement Act extends (Vide 
Bom. Act I of i880. as. 1 and 39). 

Khot's right to profits for one year when Khoti village 
under Government attachment. The position of a Khot, in the Tillages 

to which the Bombay Khoti Act (I of 1880) has been extended, is that of a 
superior holder, and in the event of attachment of his village his rights in respect 
oi Khoti profits, on his resuming the management of the village, would be regulated 
by el (1) of this section. Under this section the village, or share of a village so 
attached, shall be released from attachment, and the management thereof shall be 
restored to the superior holder on the said superior holder's making an application 
to the Collector for that purpose at any time within twelve years from 1st August 
next after the attachment. The Collector shall make over to the superior holder 
the surplus receipts, if any, which have accrued in the year in which his applica- 
tion for restoration of the village, or share of a village, is made, after defraying 
all arrears and costs-, but such surplus receipts, if any, of previous years shall be 
at the disposal of Government. But this rule does not hold good where the village 
attached is one in the Kolaba district to which the Khoti Settlement Ace (I of 
1880) has not been extended, unless the Knots therein are Sanadi or Vatandar 
Khots (Bhikaji t>. Nizam, 8 Bom. 525). 

[<*] Words repealed by Bom. Act III of 1886, are omitted. 



SEOS. 162-165 1 OF MB REALIZATION OF LAND BBBDKUI, ETC. 110 

163. If no application be made for the restoration of a vil- 

lage or portion of a village so attached with- 
Village &c., to vest \ n fa e 8a i<j period of twelve years, or if, after 

**!; * *PPlf "V *- ^ *. the superior 
years. holder shall fail to pay the balance, if any, 

still due by him within the period prescribed 
by the Collector in this behalf, the said village or portion of a vil- 
lage shall thenceforward vest in Government free from all incum- 
brances created by the superior holder or any of the sharers or any 
of his or their predecessor s-in- title, or in any wise subsisting as 
against such superior holder or any of the sharers, but without 
prejudice to the rights of the [aj persons in actual possession of 
the land [aj. 

Note* This section does not extend to the estate in (he districts of 
Ahmedabad, Kaira, Broach or Panch Mahals to which the Gujarat Talnkdars' Act, 
1888, extends (See Bom. Act VI of 1888, as. 1 and 33). 

164. Any defaulter detained in custody, or imprisoned, shall 

forthwith be set at liberty, and the execution 

be stay'ei TZuriS f m * P rOCe88 fihall > at ? time > be fiU y ed > 

being given , oa *ke defaulter's giving before the Collector 

or other person nominated by him for the 
purpose, or if the defaulter is in jail, before the officer in charge of 
such jail, security in the form of Schedule D, satisfactory to the 
Collector,' or to such other person or officer. 

And any person against whom proceedings are taken under 

this cbapter may pay the amount claimed 

or on amount demand. un( j er protefit to the officer taking guch pro . 
ed being paid under j 3 i_ ^x? j 

protest ceedings, and upon such payment the proceed- 

ings shall be stayed. 

165. When any sale of either moveable or immoveable pro- 

perty is ordered under the provisions of this 
Procedure in effecting chapter, the Collector shall issue a proclama- 
8ales * tion, in the vernacular language of the dis- 

trict, of the intended sale, specifying the time 
and place of sale, and in the case of moveable property whether the 
sale is subject to confirmation or not, and, when land paying 
revenue to Government is to be sold, the revenue assessed upon it, 
together with any other particulars he may think necessary. 

Such proclamation shall be made by beat of drum at the head 

quarters of the taluka, and in the village in 

Proclamation of sales, which the immoveable property is situate, if 

the sale be of immoveable property ; if the 

sale be of moveable property the proclamation shall be made in the 



[a-a] These words were substituted for the original words "a/itual occupants 
of the aoil" by Bom. Act IV of 191 8, s. 70, 
16 



THE BOMBAY LAKD KBVENUE UODK, 1879 [O^Av. XI 



village in which such property was seized, and in such other places 
as the Collector may direct. 

166. A written notice of the intended sale of immoveable 

property, and of the time and place thereof, 

Notification of sales, shall be affixed in each of the following places, 

viz., the office of the Collector of the district, 

the office of Mamlatdar or Mahalkari of the taluka or mahal in 

which the immoveable property is situate, the chavdi or some other 

public building in the village in which it is situate, and the de- 

faulter's dwelling place. 

In the case of moveable property, the written notice shall be 
affixed in the Matnlatdar's or Mahalkari's office, and in the chavdi 
or some other public building in the village in which such property 
was. seized. 

The Collector may also cause notice of any sale whether of 
moveable or immoveable property to be published in any other 
manner that he may deem fit. 

Sale by whom to be 167. Sales shall be made by auction by 

f such persons as the Collector may direct. 

No such sale shall take place on a Sunday or other general 

holiday recognized by Government,. nor until 

Time when sale may a f te r the expiration of at least thirty days in 

' the case of immoveable property, or seven 

days in the case of moveable property, from 

the latest date on which any of the said notices shall have been 

affixed as required by the last preceding section. 

. ... The sale mav from time to time be post- 

Po 8 fcpon em ent of eale. ' * 



163. Nothing in the last three sections applies to the sale of 

perishable articles. Such articles shall be 

Sale of perishable arti- so ld by auction with the least possible delay, 

c *" in accordance with such orders as may from 

time to time be made by the Collector either 

generally or specially in that behalf. 

169. If the defaulter, or any person on his behalf, pay the 

arrear in respect of which the property is to 

W.hen sale may be be sold and all other charges legally due by 

8 ay him nt any time before the day fixed for the 

sale to the person appointed under section 146 

to receive payment of the land revenue due, or to the officer ap- 

pointed to conduct the sale or if he furnish security under section 

164, the sale shall be stayed. 

Date up to whioh defaulters may pay arrears __ Under this 

section a defaulter is only at liberty to pay the arrears in respect of which tbe 



BBCS. 166*174 Of THE KEAUZAXIO* OF LAOT> REVENTJI, dfec. 191 

land is to be sold at any time before the day fixed for the sale, The arrears paid 
after the day fixed for the sale should be refunded to the defaulter (GK H. No. 
6130, dated 20th November 1880, quoted in Sathe'a Land-Revenue Code, 4th ed., 
p. 212). 

1 70. Sales of perishable articles shall be at once finally con- 
. . , . eluded by the officer conducting such sales. 
y% wbTtablo Pr to' AH other sales of moveable property shall be 
confirmation. finally concluded by the officer conducting 

such sales, or shall be subject to confirmation, 
as may be directed in orders to be made by the Collector either 
generally or specially in that behalf. In the case of sales made 
subject to confirmation, the Collector shall direct by whom such 
sales may be confirmed. 

171. When the sale is finally concluded by the officer con- 
_. _ . _ ducting the same, the price of every lot shall 

JS5." 7rT;S; ^ paid for at the time of sale, or as soon 
when sale i* concluded after as the said officer shall direct, and in 
at once. default of such payment the property shall 

forthwith be again put up and sold. On 
payment of the purchase-money the officer holding the sale shall 
grant a receipt for the same, and the sale shall become absolute as 
against all persons whomsoever. 

172. When the sale is subject to confirmation, the party who 

is declared to be the purchaser shall be re- 

JySTw 1 uired to de Pf ***topj. twenty-five 
sale is subject to con- P er centum on the amount of his bid, and in 
firmation. default of such deposit the property shall 

forthwith be again put up and said. The 
full amount of puchase-money shall be paid by the purchaser be- 
fore sunset of the day after he is informed of the sale having been 
confirmed, or, if the said day be a Sunday or other authorized 
holiday, then before sunset of the first office day after such day. 
On payment of such full amount of the purchase-money, the pur- 
chaser shall be granted a receipt for the same, and the sale shill be- 
come absolute as against all persons whomsover. 

Moveable property. This section applies to moveable property only 
(Qoeind v. Bhiwa, P. J. 1895, p. 70). 

173. In all cases of sale of imraoveable property, the party 

who is declared to be the purchaser shall be 

Deposit by purchaser requ i re( j to deposit immediately twenty-five 

r/e^epr^erty ^ P centum on the amount of his bid, and in 

default of such deposit the property shall 
forthwith be again put up and sold. 

174. The full amount of purchase-money shall be paid by 

the purchaser before sunset of the fifteenth 
Purchase money when day from that on which the sale of the un- 
to be paid, moveable property took place, or, if the said 



151* THB BOXBA.Y LAND RTOHTUS Com, 197 9 [ OflAF XI 

fifteenth day be a Sunday or other authorized holiday, then before 
sunset of the first office day after such fifteenth day. 

How to calculate fifteen da^s When is the deposit to be 

paid. The period of 15 days for the payment of the balance of purchase-money 
should be counted from the date of the conclusion of the sale by the Mamlatdar. 
The payment of a deposit of twenty-five per cent, to the Karkun before the con- 
clusion of the sale IB an irregularity (G. R. No. 80 9, dated 4th February 1898, 
quoted in Bathe's Land Revenue Code, 4th ed., p. 264). 

175. In default of payment within the prescribed period of 

the full amount of purchase-money, whether 
Effect of default, of movea bl e or immoveable property, the de- 

posit, after defraying thereout the expenses 
of the sale, shall b e forefeited to Government, and the property 
shall be re-sold, and the defaulting purchaser shall forfeit all claim 
to the property or to any part of the sum for which it may be sub- 
sequently sold. 

176. If the proceeds of the sale, which is eventually made, 

be less than the price bid by such defaulting 
Liability of purchaser purchaser, the difference shall be recoverable 
for loss by re-sale. f rom him by the Collector as an arrear of land 
revenue. 

177. Every re -sale of property in default of payment of the 

purchase-money, or after postponement of 
Notification before re- the first sale, shall, except when such re-sale 
Bale - takes place forthwith, be made after the issue 

of a fresh notice in the manner prescribed for 
original sales. 

178. At any time within thirty days from the date of the sale 

of immoveable property application may be 
asit P saJe? * "* made to the Collector to set aside the sale on 
the ground of some material irregularity, or 
mistake, or fraud, in publishing or conduct- 
ing it ; 

but except as is otherwise provided in the next following sec- 
tion, no sale shall be set aside on the ground of any such irregu- 
larity, or mistake unless the applicant proves to the satisfaction of 
the Collector that he has sustained substantial injury by reason 
thereof. 

If the application be allowed, the Collector shall set aside the 
sale, and direct a fresh one. 

179. On the expiration of thirty days from the date of the 

sale, if no such application as is mentioned in 

Order confirming or . the last Fading section has been made, or 

jetting aside sale. 8tlc ^ application has been made and rejected, 

the Collector shall make an order confirming 



SBW. 176-152 ] OP Tffss RELIAZATION OF LAND REVENUE, ETC. its- 

the sale : provided that, if he shall have reason to think that the 
ale ought to be set aside notwithstanding that no such application 
has been made, or on grounds other than those alleged in any ap- 
plication which has been made and rejected, he may, after recording 
his reasons in writing, set aside the sale. 

180. Whenever the sale of any property is not confirmed, or 
. , . , . t is set aside, the purchaser shall be entitled to 

pnSsteT 8 when <* b * hi d *P<** <* purchase^ 

sale set aside. money, as the case may be. 

181. After a sale of any occupancy or alienated holding has 
- - been confirmed, in manner aforesaid, the 

a ale n pu"h^ot pu! Collator shall put the person declared to be 

in possession. the purchaser into possession of the land [a] 

and shall cause his name to be entered in the 

[b] land records [b] as occupant or holder in lieu of that of the 

defaulter, and shall grant him a certificate to 
Certificate of purchase. tfae effect ^ he hfts purcha8ed Ae c] ] and 

to which the certificate refers. 

Occupancy: The term 'occupancy' is subject to modification when appli- 
ed to any estate in the Districts of Ahmedabad, Kaira, Broach or Panch Mahals 
to which the Gujarat Talukdars' Act extends (see Bom. Act VI of 1888, ss. 1 
and 33). 

Certificate of sale. Certificate of sale granted by the Civil Courts as 
well as those granted by the Revenue Officers are liable to stamp duty under Art. 
16, 8ch. 1, of the Stamp Act (G.R. No. 3009, dated 15th June 1880, quoted in 
Sathe's L. R. Code, 4th ed., p. 267). 

Every Revenue Officer granting a certificate of sale to the purchaser of im- 
moveable property sold by public auction shall send a copy of the certificate to 
the registering officer within the local limits of whose jurisdiction the whole or 
any part of the property comprised in the certificate is situate, and such officer 
shall file tfce copy in his Book No. 1 (See sec. 89 (4) of the Registration Act, 
XVI of 1908). 

182. The certificate shall state the name of the person de- 

clared at the time of sale to be the actual 

" * 8nd "7 8uit b^ in Civil 
urt against the certified purchaser on the 
ground that the purchase was made on behalf 
of another person not the certified purchaser, though by agreement 
the name of the certified purchaser was used, shall be dismissed. 



[aj Wo ids repealed by Bom. Act IV of 1913, s. 71, are omitted. 

[bb] 1 hese words were substituted for the original words "revenue records" 
by Bom. Act IV of im, s. 71. 

fcj This word was tnbbtituted for the words ''occupancy or alienated bold- 
ing" by Bom. Act IV of 1913, s. 71, 



1*4 Tan BOICBAV LAND RKVBNUB CODE, 1879 [ CHAP. XI 

Bar of suit against certified purchaser. The provisions of this 

section and s. 317 (nows. 66) of the Civil Procedure Oode are to be construed 
strictly, and they do not bar a suit where the plaintiff, although originally a 
benamidar, came honestly into possession (Ragho . Yishnv, 5 Bom. L.R. 329). 

183. When any sale of inoveable property under this chapter 
. has become absolute, and when any sale of 

ceAf ST Pr " immoveable property has been confirmed, the 
proceeds of the sale shall be applied to de- 
fraying the expenses of the sale and to the 
payment of any arrears due by the defaulter at the date of the 
confirmation of such sale, aad recoverable as an arrear of land 
revenue, 

and the surplus (if any) shall be paid to the person whose pro- 
perty has been sold. 

.The expenses of the sale shall be estimated at such rates and 
according to such rules as may from time to 

^wff* h W time be sanctioned by the Commissioner under 

calculated. , , f ~ J 

the orders of Government. 

1 84. The said surplus shall not, except under an order of 
Surplus not to be paid a Civil Court, be payable to any creditor of 

to creditors, except un- the person whose property has been sold, 
der order of Oonrt. 

Claims Of Creditors. After the arrears have been recovered' from the 
sale-proceeds under s. 183, the excess, if any, must be treated a 3 a 8 urn to the de- 
faulter's credit and is claimable by his creditors (GvR. No. 5,730, dated 27th Octo- 
ber 1879, quoted in Bathe's Land Revenue Oode, 4th ed., p 269), 

[a] 185. Notwithstanding anything in section 136, the 
. . person named in the certificate of title as 

Certified purchaser purchaBer ghaU not be HaUe f or } and revenue 
liable only lor land re- *, - A i i i . i 

venae subsequently due. dae * n respect of the land for any period 

previous to the date of the sale. 

186. If any claim shall be set up by a third person to move- 
able property attached under the provisions of 
Claims to attached thig chapter the Collector shall admit or reject 
moveable property how i i f i , ? 

to be disposed of . his claim on a summary inquiry held after 

reasonable notice. If the claim be admitted 
wholly or partly, the property shall be dealt with accordingly. 
Except, in so far as it is admitted, the property shall be sold and 
the title of the purchaser shall be good (or all purposes, aud the 
proceeds shall be disposable as hereinbefore directed. 

Delegation of powers to Mamlatdars and Mahalkaris, Th< 
Collectors are authorized to delegate the powers exercised by them under this 
section to Mamlatdars and Mahalkaries when the adoption of such a coarse may 
appear to them desirable (Gr.R. No. 8785, dated 1 9th November 1882, quoted in 
Sabhe'ft Land Revenue Oode, 4th ed., p. 270), 

[a] This section was substituted for the original section by B:>m. Act IV of 
1913; I. 72, 



8X00.188 -1&7 J OF tHiffi ftjSAUZA'jKO* OF IiAND RZVENUU, fed, 



187. All sums due on account of land revenue, all quit-rents, 
. . nazaranas, succession duties, transfer duties 
TbTpr:;i: d forfeitures, and .11 ce.se., profits from 

o! this chapter. land, emoluments, fees, charges, penalties, 
fines, and costs payable or leviable under this 
Act or under any Act or Regulation hereby repealed, or under iany 
Act for the time being in force relating to land revenue ; 

and all moneys due by any contractor for the farm of customs- 
duties, or of any other duty, or tax, or of any other item of 
revenue whatsoever and all specific pecuniary penalties to which 
any such contractor renders hi-nself liable under the terms of his 
agreement ; 

and also all sums declared by this or by any other Act or 
Regulation at the time being in force [a] or by any contract with 
the Secretary of State for India in Council [a] to be leviable as an 
assessment, or as a revenue demand, or as an arrear of land revenue; 

shall be levied under the foregoing provisions of this chapter 
[b] and all the foregoing provisions of this chapter shall, so far as 
may be, be applicable thereto [&]. 

W 

And all persons who may have become sureties under any of 

the provisions of this Act or of any Act or 

Subtle* liable as Regulation hereby repealed, or for any such 

revenue defaulters contractor as aforesaid for any sum of 

money shall on failure to pay the amount or 

any portion thereof for which they may have become liable under 

the terms of their security-bond, be liable to be proceeded against 

under the provisions of this chapter as revenue-defaulters [d] and 

all the foregoing provisions of this chapter shall, so far as may be, 

be applicable to such persons [d]. 

And in the event of the resumption of 

Ou resumption of a any suc h f arm as j 9 aforesaid, no person shall 
tr c o n Xrtn m be entitled to credit for any payment, which 
vance to be admitted. & e H*ay have made to the contractor in antici- 
pation- 

[0] And any person who has received from Government a 

free grant of money for any agricultural pur- 

The recovery of free pose, subject to the proviso that he shall re- 

?e"te a9 in arr cr ol ^nd the same on failure to observe any of 

misuse. the conditions of the grant, shall, on failure 

to observe any such condition and to repay 

[a-a] These words were inserted by Bom. Act IV" of 1905, First ScJ^uieT ~ 
[b-b] These were added by Bom. Act IV of 1913, s. 73 (1). 
[c] The words inserted by Bom Act I of 1920, s. 2, hare been repealed br 
Bom. Act VII of 1925, Schedule. ^peaiea oy 

[d-d 1 These words added by Bom. Act IV of 1918, s. 73 (2). 

[e] This paragraph was- added by Bom; Act IV of 1913, B. 73 (3), 



116 T*x BrtdU* IIAHD RKTBHUE CODE, 1*79 [ CHAP. XH 

the aaid um to Government, be liable to be proceeded against under 
feke provisions of this chapter as a revenue-defaulter ; and all the 
foregoing provisions of this chapter shall, so far as may be, be ap- 
plicable to such person. 

The effect Of this Section is to moke the provisions of as. 153 and 
66, and also those of 9. 155, applicable to sales for the recovery of charges assess- 
ed under s. 122 in connection with boundary marks. Such charges may be re- 
covered either by forfeiture or the occupancy in respect of which the arrear is due , 
pr by sale of the defaulter's immoveable property other than the land on which 
fehe arrear is due. In the former case the land is freed from all incnmbranoes 
created by the occupant. In the latter case the rights of incumbrances are not 
touched (Venkatosh . Mhal Pai, 15 Bom. 67). 

CHAPTER XIL 

PBOCEDUE OF REVENUE OFFICERS. 

188. In all official acts and proceedings a revenue officer shall, 

in the absence of any express provision of law 

Subordination of re- to the contrary, be subject as to the place, 

venue officers. t j mej an( j mftnner o f performing his duties to 

the direction and control of the officer to 
whom he is subordinate. 

189. Every revenue officer not lower in rank than a Mamlat- 

dar's first karkun, or an Assistant Superin- 
Power to summon tendent of Survey, in their respective depart- 
persone to give evidence ^ t_ n r r r 

and produce documents. m ts " have power to summon any 
person whose attendance he considers neces- 
sary either to be examined as a party or to give evidence as a wit- 
ness, or to produce documents for the purposes of any inquiry 
which such officer is legally empowered to make. A summons to 
produce documents may be for the production of certain specified 
documents, or for the production of all documents of a certain de- 
scription in the possession of the person summoned. 

All persons so summoned shall be bound to attend, either in 
parson or by an authorized agent, as such officer may direct : pro- 
vided that exemptions under [aj sections 132 and 133 of the Code 
of Civil Procedure, 1908 [a] shall be applicable to requisitions for 
attendance under this section ; 

and all persons so summoned shall be bound to state the truth 
upon any subject respecting which they are examined or make 
statements, 

and to produce such documents and other things as may be 
required. 

This section does not empower a Manila tdar to summon 
any person to attend before a Deputy Collector who is making 

(a-a| These words were substituted for the original words "sections 640 and 
641 of the Code of OivU Procedure" by Bom, Act IV of 1911, . 74, 



-102] JBooiGtotJttE OF REVENUE OFFIOBES 12? 

enquiries about the appointment of a patel for an inara village. A. failure to 
attend in obedience to such a summons is not an offence under 3 174 of the 
Penal Code (Queen-Empress v. Vidya Dhar, Or, Eg. 52 of 1889). 

190. Every summons shall be in writing, in duplicate, and 
shall state the purpose for which it is issued, 

wiSTV-, 1 "^ an * ??" Je iged by the officer taring it 
sealed ; and if he have a seal shall also bear his seal : 

and shall be served by tendering or delivering a copy of it to 
the person summoned, or, if he cannot be 

how to be served. found> by ftffixing a copy o } t to gome ^^ 

spicuous part of his usual residence. 

If his usual residence be in another district, the summons may 

. . ,. be sent by post to the Collector of that dis- 

othe e r m Tha n ln f i trict, who 9 hall cause it to be served in ac- 

issuer. cordance with the preceding clause of this 

section. 

191, Every notice under this Act, unless it is otherwise ex- 

pressly provided, shall be served either by 

Mode of serving tendering or delivering a copy thereof to the 

notlce8 ' person on whom it is to be served or to his 

agent, if he have any ; 

or by affixing a copy thereof to some conspicuous place on 
the land, if any, to which such notice refers. 

No such notice shall be deemed void on account of any error 
in the name or designation of any person re- 
Notice not void ferred to therein, unless when such error has 

produced substantial injustice. 

In any formal or summary inquiry if any party desires 
the attendance of witnesses, he shall follow 
L'rf the procedore prescribed by the [a] Code o 
witnesses. Civil Procedure, 1^08, for parties applying 

for summons for witnesses- [a] 
Procedure for procuring attendance of witnesses. Tha pro- 

cedure for parties applying for summonses for witnesses is given in Order XVI 
of the Code of Civil Procedure (Act V of 1908), which runs thus : 

"1. At any time after the suit is instituted, the parties may obtain, on ap- 
plication to the Court or to snob jfficer as it appoints in this behalf, summonses 
to persons whose attendance is required to give evidence. 

2. The party applying for a summons shall, before the su-nann* is granted 
and within a period to be fixed, pay into Court such a sum of money as appears to 
the Oourt to be sufficient to defray the travelling and other expenses of the person 
summoned in passing to and from the Oonrt in which he is required to attend, 
and for one day's attendance. 

[a-aj These words were substituted for the original words "Code of Civil 
Procedure, section 160" by Bom Act IV of 1913, s, 75. 
17 



or error * 



BoilBAt LAUD REVERE OODE, 1879 [ Ciur. Ill 

3, The earn so paid into Court shall be tendered to the person summoned, 
at the time of serving the summons, if it can be served personally. 

5. Every summons for the attendance of a person to give evidence shall 
specify the time and place at which he is required te attend. 

9. Service shall in all cases be made a sufficient time before the time specified 
iu the summons for the attendance of the person summoned, to allow him a reason- 
able time for preparation and for travelling to the place at which his attendanca 
is required." 

For other particulars, see Order XVI of the 0. P. Oode. 

Oflfloer holding summary enquiry to be deemed a Civil 

Court. The officer or any authority holding a summary enquiry under the 
provisions of this Oode is a Oivil Oourt for the purposes of such enquiry, and 
such Court nuy direct by whom the costs of party are to be piid whether by him- 
self o by any other party to the enquiry and whether in whole or in what part 
or proportion*. Such costs cxn be levied under th<j provision* of Chapter XI 
pf the Oode (G. R. No. 4*68, dated lOch Jaly U82, quoted in bathe's Land- 
Kevenue Code, 4th ed., p. 276). 

193. In all formal inquiries the evidence shall be taken down 
u , , f .. . in frM iu writing, in the language in ordi- 
dent Tin 2Sf * y uw m the district, by, or in the presence 
quires, and hearing and under the personal superin- 

tendence and direction of, the officer making 
the investigation or inquiry, and shall be signed by him. 

In cases in which the evidence is not taken down in full in 
writing by the officer making the inquiry, he shall, as the examina- 
tion of each witness proceeds, make a memorandum of the substance 
of what such witness deposes ; and such memorandum shall be 
written and signed by such officer with his own hand, and shall 
form part of the record. 

If such officer is prevented from making a memorandum as 
above required, he shall record the reason of his inability to do so. 

When the evidence is given in English, such officer may take 
m ,. . , . it down in that language with his own hand, 
**3%JSSZ authenticated translation of the same 
to be on record. in e language in ordinary use in the dis- 

trict shall be made and shall form part of the 
record. 

194. Every decision, after a formal inquiry, shall be written 

by the officer passing the same in his own 
Writing and explana- hand-writing, and shall contain a full state- 
tion of decisions. ment of the grounds on which it is passed. 

195. In summary inquiries the presiding officer shall himself, 

as any such inquiry proceeds, record a minute 
Summary inquiries how of the proceedings in his own hand in Eng- 
to be conducted. Ugh Qr j n h j g i an ^ uage o| tfae distr j ct> e _ 

bracing the material averments made by the 



103-108 ] PBOOBDUBE OF RKvairaE OFPIOWU Ml 

parties interested, the material parts of the evidence, the decision 
and the reasons for the same : 

Provided that it shall at any time be lawful for such officer to 
conduct an inquiry directed by this Act to be summary under all, 
or any, of the rules applicable to a formal inquiry, if he deem fit. 

196. A formal or summary inquiry under this Act shall be 

deemed to bo a * judicial proceeding" within 
Formal and summary th meaning O f se ctions 193, 219 and 228 of 
inquiries to be deemed ,TT^ T/-IT 11 /* * 

judicial proceedings, l ^ e Indian Penal Code, and the office of any 
authority holding a formal or summary in- 
quiry shall be deemed a Civil Court for the purposes of such in- 
quiry. 

Every hearing and decision, whether in a 

Hearing and decisions, formal or summary inquiry, shall be in public, 
Notice to parties. and the part i es or t k e j r authorized agents 

shall have due notice to attend. 

197. An inquiry which this Act does not require to be either 

formal or summary, or which any revenue 
Ordinary inquiries how officer may on any occasion, deem to be neces- 

to be conducted. ^ tQ make? ; n ^ execat ioQ of hlS lawf ui 

duties, shall be conducted according to such 
rules applicable thereto, whether general or special, as may have 
been prescribed by the Governor in Council, or an authority 
superior to the officer conducting such inquiry, and, except in so 
far as controlled by such rules, according to the discretion of the 
officer in such way as may seem best calculated for the ascertain- 
ment of all essential facts and the furtherance of the public good. 

Absence Of judicial proceeding. Where the entry in the revenue 
registers was dne to a misunderstanding of a certain order, it was held that the 
cause of the errer being of the same nature with ''oversight" falling within the 
description of errors in s. 109 of tie Code, tUe reottficitiou of the .Register BO as 
to bring it in accord with thj order made after hearing both the parties was not 
contrary to natural justice It was a case in which the Bjrenue officer concerned 
was authorized under this section to dispense with any judicial or quasi-judicial 
inquiry (Vasudto v. (rovind, 36 Bom. 315). 

Mamlatdar Revenue (JOUrt. A Mamlatdar holding an enquiry re- 
Jating to Record of Bights, under Chap XII of this Code, is a revenue Court with- 
iu the meaning of s. 196 (1) (c) of the Criminal Procedure Code (Emperor 9. 
Narayan, 16 Bom. L. B. 678). 

198. In all cases in which a formal or summary inquiry is 

made, authenticated copies and translations 

Copies and transfe- of ( ] ec j s j orj8 orders, and the reasons therefor, 

SwiS' 1 t0 "d of exhibits, shall be furnished to the 

parties, and original documents used as eri- 

dence shall be restored to the persons who produced them or to 

persons claiming under them on due application being made for the 



1*0 



THE BOMBAY LAND REVENUE OODK, 1879 



same, subject to such charges for copying, etc., as may, from time 
to time, be authorized by Government. 

Scale Of OOpying 1 fees. The following is the statement showing the 
rales for copying fees :- 



No. of village 
form. 


Description oi form. 


Rate of copying fee. 


I 


Land and Assessment Register. 


One anna per entry of a survey 






number or pot-number. 


III 


Register of alienated land. 


One anna per entry. 


V1IIA 


Kbatas of holding. 


One anna per Khata having 5 






survey numbers or less and one 






and half anna for Khata of 






more than 5 survey numbers. 


vnie 


Annual Khatas of dues and re- 


One anna for each Khata. 




coveries. ; 


IX 


Day and Receipt book. 


One anna for eaeh entry in the 






day book. 


XI 


Trial balance sheet. 


One anna per entry. 


XII 


Register of crops and tenancies. 


Do. 


xm 


Birth and death register. 


Do. 


XIV 


Oattle census. 


Do. 



(G. R. No. 10809, dated 6th September 1917, quoted in Joglekar'a 
Revenne Code, p. 527). 

199. 



Laud 



Arrest of a defaulter 
to be made upon a 
warrant. 



200. 



Power of revenue 
officer to .enter upon any 
lands or premises for 
purposes of measure- 
ment, etc. 



Whenever it is provided by this Act that a de- 
faulter, or any other person may be arrested, 
such arrest shall be made upon a warrant 
issued, by any officer competent to direct such 
person's arrest. 

It shall be lawful for any revenue officer at any time, 
and from time to time, to enter, when neces- 
sary, for the purooses of measurement, fixing, 
or inspecting boundaries, classification of soil 
or assessment, or for any other purpose con- 
nected with the lawful exercise of his office 
under the provisions of this Act, or of any 
other law for the time being }Q force relating to land revenue, any 
lands or premises, whether belonging to Government or to private 
individuals, and whether fully assessed to the land revenue or parti- 
ally or wholly exempt from the same : Provided always that no 
building used as a human dwelling shall be 
proyiBO - entered, unless with the consent of the occu- 

pier thereof, without a notice having been 
erved at the said building not less than seven days before such 
entry ; and provided also that, in the cues of buildings of all de- 
scriptions, due regard shall be paid to the social and religious pre- 
judices of the occupiers. 



BBOS. 199-202] APPBALI AND BEvxaaioif 1$1 

Governor in Oonncil * 



overnor n Oonncil ri fr , 

to determine the lang- dare whafc shall > or the Purposes of this Act, 
uage of a district. p 8 deemed to be the language in ordinary use 

in any district. 

o ., , . . 202. Whenever it is provided by this 

JKrSri, 10 ^ or by any other Act for the' tioae beiJg ia 
any person wrongfully force, that the Collector may or shall evict 
in possession of land. any person, wrongfully in possession of land 
such eviction shall be made in the following 
manner, viz : 

by serving a notice on the person or persons in possession re- 
quiring them within such time as may appear reasonable after re- 
ceipt of the said notice to vacate the land, and, 

if such notice is not obeyed, by removing or deputing a subordi- 
nate to remove any person who may refuse to vacate the same 
and, 9 

if the officer removing any such person shall be resisted or ob- 
structed by any person, the Collector shall hold a summary inquiry 
into the facts of the case, and if satisfied that the resistance or ob- 
struction was without any just cause, and that such resistance and 
obstruction still continue, may, without prejudice to any proceed- 
ings to which such parson may be liable under any law for the 
time being in force for the punishment of such resistance or ob- 
struction, issue a warrant tor the arrest of the said person, and on 
his appearance commit him to close custody in the office of the Col- 
lector or of any Mamlatdar or Mahalkari, or send him with a 
warrant, in the form of Schedule I, for imprisonment in the civil 
jail of the district for such period n >t exceeding thiry days, as may 
be necessary to prevent the contiaumce of such obstruction or resist- 
ance. 

Pasaita land Settled as Pateli. The right to hold Pasaita land rent 
free was allowed so long as the services of patehhip were rendered by the same 
person but the only effect of the creation of the office of patelship was to take 
away exemption to pay rent and not to put an end to tha right of possession. So 
long as he paid the assessment to the Government, the Government have no right 
to evict him (Bhavan Morcrr v. Secretary of State, 45 Bom. 894). 

Mortgagee's eviction by Talukdari Settlement officer. 

A portion of the Talukdari estate was granted by the original Talukdar to a 
cadet of his family as jwai. The grantee mortgaged one of such lands with pos- 
session to the plaintiff's father on April 10, 1889. In 1891, the mortgagor died 
and in 1895 the mortgagee died ; but the land mortgaged remained all along in 
mortgagee's possession. In November 1907, the Talukdari Settlement Officer 
sent a notice to the plaintiff under this section calling upon him to vacate the 
land in question ; and evicted him under a 79-1 ante as amended by a. 33 of 
the Gujarat Talukdars' Aot. The plaintiff sued to recover possession of the land- 
Held, that the plaintiff was entitled to succeed ; for he had been in adverse pos. 
session claiming title as an inoumbranoer for more than twelve years since the 



1 31 THE BOMBA* LAUD Bamrcui OODC, 1879 [ OHAP. lilt 

death of the mortgagor (Talukdan Setthatont Officer p, Rikfatdat, 15 Bom. L, B. 
378). 

CHAPTER XI LI 
APPEALS AND REVISION 

203. In the absence of any express provision of this Act, or 
A al to H f ^ an ^ * aw ^ or ^ e ^ me ^ m S * n f rce to tl> e 

anyonler passed b* COn . tr . ar y> an a PP eal sha11 lie from an 7 
revenue officer to his decision or order passed by a revenue 
superior. officer under this Act, or any other law for 

the time being in force, to that officer's im- 
mediate superior, whether such decision or order may itself have 
been passed on appeal fro n a subordinate officer's decision or order 
or not. 

Appeal. This Chapter does not apply to appeals under the Becord of 
Bights. Applications for compassionate allowances from discharged Revenue Offi- 
cers are treated as "appeals" (G. B. No. 4997 of 1908). 

In dealing with Civil Court Darkhasts, the Collector is not subject to appeals 
to, or revision by the Commissioner, but only by the Court. The Collector can- 
not set aside a darkhast sale, but can confirm or refuse to confirm it (G. B. No. 
2172 of 1915). 

Decision Or Order. A notice of demand by a Mamlatdar to pay 
assessment is not a 'decision or order' within the meaning of this section or the fol- 
lowing section (Nathuram v. Secretary of St-ite, 46 Bom. 811). 

Order Of Collector. An order made by the Collector under section 23 
of the Bom. Irrigation Act falls within the purview of this section and an appeal 
against such order lies to the Commissioner iu ttind (Secretary of State c. Jtram- 
das 7 6S. L B.241). 

Orders passed by Collector in execution Proceedings trans- 
ferred to him under s. 3-0, (!. P. C- Under thU section the Bevenue 
Commissioner or the Government are- vested with the appellate power in respect 
of orders passed by Collector in execution proceedings transferred to him under 
s. 320 of the 0. F. Code, 1882 (.l/rt/ir/Wj?' v . Thakurdas, 7 Bom. L R. 682). 

Pleaders allowed to appear in proceedings nnder this Sec- 
tion. Government officers may allow representation by la wers, whenever such 
a course is likely to be helpful in appoal under tbis Code (B. G. G. 1920, Pt. V , 
p. 23). 

Invalid Order Of forfeiture. If the order of forfeiture is valid, dia. 
possession is merely ancillary to the order and no suit for possession without ap- 
pealiag against that order is maintainable having regard to s. 11. Where, how- 
ever, the order of forteitnre is invalid, the plaintiff is not bound to appeal there- 
from and his suit for possession after he is dispossessed in pursuance of that order 
is maintainable (Awint Krisknaji 0. Secretary of Sta*e, 53 Bom. 165). 

Commissioner's powers. Sees. 203 and 211 empower a Oommis- 
gioner to take action in appeal or revision as regards any orders passed l>y a 
Collector; who under s. 8 performs all his duties in subordination to the Com mi a- 



] AfrrKAta AKD ftuvisiok 19* 

sioner of the Division (Q. B. P. W. D. 83 W. I. 934, dated 20th June 1897, 
quoted in Bathe's L, B. Code, 4th ed., p, 282). 

204. An appeal shall He to the Governor in Council from any 

decision or order passed by a Commissioner or 
b y Survey Commissioner, except in the ca.e 
of any decision or order passed by such officer 
on appeal from a decision or order itself re- 
corded in appeal by any officer subordinate to him. 

205. No appeal shall be brought after the expiration of sixty 

days if the decision or order complained of 

Periods within which h ave Deen pa^rf by an officer inferior in rank 

appeals mast be brought ^ ft ^^^ or a Superintendent of Survey 

in their respective departments ; nor after the 
expiration of ninety days in any other case. 

ID computing the above periods, the time required to preoare 
a copy of the decision or order appealed against shall be excluded. 

206. Any appeal under this chapter may be admitted after 
A , . . . , the period of limitation prescribed therefor, 

tf pS" o S- " hen the *PP elIant *<*** *e officer or the 
ti on> Governor in Council to whom he appeals, that 

he had sufficient cause for not presenting the 
appeal within such period. 

No appeal shall lie against an order passed under this section 
admitting an appeal. 

207. Whenever the last day of any period provided in this 
. . , . chapter for the presentation of an appeal falls 

a a f rip^/all, 1 ^ a S nda y. * kolufc, -cognized by 
a Sunday or a holiday. Government, the day next following the close 

OL the holiday shall be deemed to be such last 

day. 

208. Every petition of appeal shall be 

Copy of order to acoom- accompanied by the decision or order appeal- 
puny petition of appeal ed again8t or by an authenticated copy of the 

same. 
209. The appellate authority may [1J [for reasons to be 

recorded in writing [l] either annul, reverse, 

Powers of appellate modify or confirm the decision or order of 

authority. ^ subordinate officer appealed against, or he 

may direct the subordinate officer to make 
&uch further investigation or to take such additional evidence as he 
may think necessary, or he may himself take such additional evi- 
dence. 

[2 > [Provided that it shall not be necessary for the appellate 
authority to record reasons in writing 

fl I These words were inserted by Bom. Act III of 1935, B. 2. (1) " 

[2] This proTieo was added by Bom Act III of 1082, , 2. (9) 



. Xlll 

fa) when an appeal is dismissed summarily, or 

(A) when the decision or order appealed from is itself a deci- 
sion or order recorded in appeal, or 

(cj when an appeal is made to the Governor in Council under 
section 204.] 

Note. In the interest of justice it is quite essential that when an appeal 
under the Land Revenue Code is decided, reasons for the decision should be given 
by the appellate authority* Under the Code it U not obligatory upon the appellate 
authority to give reasons for any decision in the appeal (Statement of Objects and 
Reasons). 

210. In any case in which an appeal 
. the appellate authority may, pending 
ordinate officer. decision of the appeal, direct the execution of 

the decision or order of the subordinate 
officer to be suspended. 

211. The Governor in Council and any revenue officer, not 

inferior in rank to [a] an Assistant or Deputy 

Power of the Gover- Collector [a] or a Superintendent of Survey, 

nor in Council and of - their respect 5 ve departments, may call for 

certain revenue officers , . r jj . . ' . J . 

to call for and examine and examine the record of any inquiry or the 

records and proceedings proceedings of any subordinate revenue officer, 

of subordinate officers ; for the purpose of satisfying himself as to the 

legality or propriety of any decision or order 

passed, and as to the regularity of the proceedings of such officer. 

The following officers may in the same manner call for and 
examine the proceedings of any officer subordinate to them in any 
matter in which neither a formal nor a summary inquiry has been 
held, namely \jb] a Mamlatdar, a Mahalkari, an [c] Assistant 
Superintendent of Survey, and an Assistant Settlement Officer. 

If, in any case, it shall appear to the Governor in Council, or 

to such officer aforesaid, that any decision or 

and to pass orders order or proceedings so called for should be 

thereupon. modified, annulled or reversed, he may pass 

such order thereon as he deems fit : 

[d] Provided that an Assistant of Deputy Collector shall not 
himself pass such order in any matter in which a formal inquiry 
has been held, but shall submit the record with his opinion to the 
Collector, who shall pass such order thereon as he may deem fit. 

[a-a] These words were substituted for the original word "Collector" by 
Bom. Act IV of 1913, s. 76 (a). 

[b] Words repealed by Bom. Act IV.;of 1913, s. 76 (ft), are omitted, 
[c| "An" was substituted for "and" by Act XVI of 1895. 



Soope. There is no time limit within which the Commiwioner mtut 
modify, annul or wer-e the order of the Collector. Thit section, however, 
entitles the Commissioner to pass an order which is a modification, annulment or 
reversal of the Collector's order and does not entitle him to make an entirely new 
order which the Collector himself could not have made. Where originally the 
Collector made an order granting certain landa to plaintiff free from occupancy 
price and assessment, a subsequent order by the Commissioner directing to pay the 
occupancy price and assessment without giving the plaintiff an option of 
vacating the land is no modification of the original order but a new order which 
he has no power to pass (Anant Krishwji v Secretary of State, 55 Bom. 165). 

"Finality." The reference to duality' in this section refers to 'finality* 
under this Code, for there are no words excluding the juriadio ion of the Civil 
Courts in the sections of the Act framed to that end (Dattutraya c. Secretary of 
State, 31 Bom. U R. 1235). 

Limitation. No period of limitation is prescribed for the exercise o* 
revisional powers (Ibid). 

ReVisiOnal jurisdiction Of Collector. Where a lease of certain 
sheri lands had expired in 1913 and in pursuance of a Government Resolution the 
Deputy Collector held an enquiry and ordered that the tenants should get an occu- 
pancy tenure on paying a certain assessment, bub the said order was reversed by 
the Collector on revision after three yeirs, it was held, in a suit questioning the 
validity of the order, that the Collector had the power to interfere at any time and 
that his order was valid in law. Hdd, also, that rights held under the tenant 
were also extinguished by reason of the Collector's order (Ibid). 

Revision by Commissioner under this section .The sale of 

unoccupied lands held by Mamlatdars under s. 62, and permission to occupy such 
lands gived under s. 60 are within the scope of this section aa proceedings which 
the Commissioner has jurisdiction to call for and revise and to pass such orders 
thereon as he deems fit, and no suit would lie against Government on account of 
that officer exercising his legal powers under the section (Par apt v. The Secretary 
of State, P. J. 1891, p. 30). 

212. Wherever in this Act it is declar- 



orer e 

made final. expression shall bo deemed to mean taat no 

appeal lies from such decision or order. 

The Governor in Council alone shall be competent to modify, 
annul, or reverse any such decision or order under the provisions 
of the last preceding section. 

CHAPTER XIV 
MISCELLANEOUS. 

213. Subject to such rules and the payment of such fees as 
the Governor in Council may from time to 
J* V" JtopE ti?e prescribe in this behalf, all n..p and 
tion. Extracts and [] land records [a] shall be open to the 
copies shall be given. inspection of the public at reasonable hours. 

i a-ol These words were substituted for the original words "survey record* 
and 1J village accounts and land registers" by Bom* Act IV of 1913, s. 77. 



ISA THE BoMhAJr LAKD UJBYEKUE^OOOK, 1879 [ OnA*, XIV 

and certified extracts from [a] the same [a] or certified copies 
thereof shall be given to all persons applying for the L same. 

Land records. The term 'Land records' is defined in a. 8 (26). Ordi- 
nary correspondence being an interchange of views between Government Officers ^ 
and Specially such correspondence and opinions aa are referred to in s. 139 (6), 
and the barnishis or registers of such correspondence are not land records as there 
defined, and copies thereof are veiy rarely given under rule 139. Survey records 
and vaccination records are included bat not the Records of the Alienation Office. 
Petitions of parties would not be documents maintained under the provisions of 
or for the purposes of the Act (Sec. 3) (-6), nor are tiuy records of the proceed- 
ings of any public officer, and, therefore, fall entirely into the optional class 
(Anderson). 

Survey records. Survey records are open to inspection and copies are 
available under this sostion ( Aludomal v. Ali, 58. L. R. 49). 

(b) 214. (1) The Governor in Council may, by notification 

published in the Bombay Government Gazette, 
Bules - make rules not inconsistent with the provi- 

sions of this Act, to carry out the purposes 
and objects thereof and for the guidance of all persons in matters 
connected with the enforcement of this Act or in cases not express- 
ly provided for therein. 

(2) In particular, and without prejudice to the generality of 
the foregoing power, such rules may be made 

(a) regulating the appointment of revenue officers 'and the 
exercise by them of their powers and duties ; 

(b/ regulating the assessment of land to tha land revenue and 
the alteration and revision of such assessment and the recovery of 
land revenue ; 

(c) prescribing the notice to be given in the case of enquiries 
and orders under section 37 ; 

(d) prescribing the purposes for which unalienated land liable 
to trie payment of land-revenue may or may not be used, and 
regulating the grant of permission to use agricultural land for non- 
agricultural purposes ; 

(e) regulating the disposal of land and other property vesting 
in Government ; 

( f) regulating the disposal of forfeited land ; 

[(/) prescribing the terms and conditions on which, and the 
periods for which, unoccupied unalienated land may be granted ; 

(h) fixing the maximum amount of fine leviable under 
section 61; 

[a-a\ These words were substituted for the original words "such maps, re 
gisters and accounts" by Bom. Act IV of 1913, s. 77. 

[b\ This section was substituted for the original section by Bom. Act IV oi 
3, s, 78, 



SEOI. 114-216] MiaoELLANEoui 137 

(i) regulating the conduct of surveys and settlements of land- 
revenue, and prescribing the notice to be given under section 103 
before the introduction of a settlement ; 

(j) regulating the division of survey numbers into sub-divi- 
sions and the fixing of the assessment of sub-divisions under sec- 
tion 117A; 

(k) regulating the construction, laying out, maintenance and 
repair of boundary-marks ; 

(/) regulating tha compilation, maintenance and revision of the 
record of rights and the registers of mutations, disputed cases and 
tenancies and prescribing the forms in which they are to be com- 
piled and the officers by whom the said records and registers are to 
be tested and revised ; 

(m) regulating the exercise by village accjuntant* and revenue 
officers of the powers of a survey oScer and the assessment of costs 
and expenses under section 135G ; 

(n) prescribing the mode, form and manner in which appeals 
under Chapter Xlil shall be drawn up and presented ; 

(0} prescribing the records, registers, accounts, maps and plans 
to be maintained for the purposes of this Act and the manner and 
forms in -which they shall be prepared and maintained. 

(3) The power to make rules under this section shall be sub- 
ject to the condition of previous publication. 

[a] 215. It shall be lawful for the Governor in Council, in 

making any rule under section 214, to pre- 

Penalty for breach of scribe that any person committing a breach of 

rale8 ' the same shall on conviction by a Magistrate 

be punished with imprisonment for a term 

not exceeding one month or with fine not exceeding five hundred 

rupees, or with both, in addition to any other consequences that 

would ensue from such breach. 

[b] 216 (I) The provisions of Chapters 
Chapters VIII to x yill to X shall be applicable to 

how far applicable to rr 

alienated villages. 

(a) all unlienated lands situated within the limits of an alie- 
nated village ; 

(b) unalienated shares of villages of which a definite share 
defined by metes and bounds is alienated ; 

[a] This section was substituted for the original section by Bom. Act IV of 
1913, s. 78. 

[5] This section was substituted for the original section by Bom, Aet XV of 
1929, a,*. 



W THE BOMBAY LAND RJSVJSJIUE CODE, 1879 ( GHAP. XIV 

(c) alienated villages the holders o( which are entitled to a 
certain amount of the revenue, but of which the excess above such 
amount belongs to Government. 

(2) Save as is otherwise provided in section 111 and in this 
section, no provision of the said Chapters shall be applied to any 
other alienated village except for the purposes of fixing its bounda- 
ries and of determining any disputes relating thereto, unless the 
extension of the provision is authorised by the Commissioner acting 
on the writtten application of the sole holder, or, if there be more 
than one holder, of the holder or holders representing in the 
aggregate not less than one-half of the total interests in the village 
in respect of its alienated revenue. If any share of the village is 
unalienated the prescribed proportion of one-half shall be reckoned 
as if the village were wholly alienated, Government being consi- 
dered as the holder in respect of the unalienated share. 

(3) In any case in which action under sub-section (2) is taken 
lawfully by the Commissioner on the application of some only of 
the holders of the village, any covenant or agreement relative to the 
extension of the said Chapters or incidental thereto, entered into by 
such holders shall also be binding on the remaining holders of the 
village in respect of their shares in the revenue of the village as if 
such covenant or agreement had been entered into by them. 

(4) All survey settlements heretofore introduced in alienated 
villages shall be valid as if they had been introduced in accordance 
with the provisions of this seation. 

Note This section doe? not extend to the estate io the districts of Ahinjda- 
bad, Kaira, Broach or Panch Mahals io which the Gujarat Talukdars' Act, 1888, 
extends ( Vide Bom Act VI of 188*. as. 1 and 33). 

Prior suit to recover the mamool rates. Where the plaintiff 

inamdar got a decree for the mamool rates for the years 1888-1890 in the year 
1892 against the defendant's knots and where Survey Settlement was introduced 
in the village in 18*5-1*86 and where he filed a suit in 1917 for thoae does for the 
years 191ft and 1916, it was held, that though the proper construction to be placed 
on this section was not strictly speaking r*is judicuta, still on the principle of 
9ta*e decisis the previous construction should be adhered to (Sitaram a. Lax man, 
45 Bom. 1260). 

Nature Of Unalienated Village lands. -Land* in an unalienated 
village, granted by Government for rent wholly or partially free, do not fall with* 
in this section (tiitarum 0. Tukaram, 45 Bom. 994). 

Revenue Settlement, extension Of An application under this sec- 
tion lor the extension of revenue settlement to an alienated village cm be made by 
a holder who is entrusted with the full powers of the managmement of the same, 
even jbhpugh he does not potstss the whole of tbe lands belonging to the village 
(Gopikabai 9. Lamman, 2 Bom. L. R. 236;. 



SBC. 217] MiaoxiLANxoTra 

217. When a survey settlement has been introduced under 
the provisions of the last section or of any 
Holders of land in alie- i aw or t h e time being in force, into an alie- 
nated villages. Qated vi ,, age) the hoHerg Q( ft 



such settlement extends shall have the same 
rights and be affected by the same responsibilities in respect of the 
lands in their occupation as [a] holders of land [a] in unalienated 
villages have, or are affected by, under the provisions of this Act, 
and all the provisions of this Ac r relating to [a] holders of land in 
unalienated villages [a\ \b] shall be applicable, so far as may be, 
to them. 

Note. Vide the first note under the preceding 3ection. 

Scope Of this SectiOU. This section embraces not only registered oc- 
cupants of land la unalienated villages but also the holders of lands in alienated 
villages with the same rights and responsibilities in respect of those lands. The 
words in this section *<ao far as may be" do not limit the plain meaning of the first 
part (Nanabhai 9. Collector of Kaira, 34 Bom. 686). 

Retrospective effect. As the amendment does not say that it should 
apply only to villages settled after 1913, it docs not save any rights acquired 
prior to 1913, In other words, the amendment has retrospective effect, 

Right of inamdar to enhance rent. An inamdar, to whom the 

Government has granted all its rights in the soil in a village as well as its other 
pecuniary interests is entitled even after a Survey Settlement had been introduced 
to raise the rents of the permanent tenants oven when such permanent tenancies 
commenced before the alienation (Pandu Bala Jagtap r. Ramchandra, 42 Bom. 112; 
s. c. 20 Bom. L. R. 16). 

An inamdar though he is a grantee of the soil and not merely of the Royal 
share of the revenue, is not at liberty after the introduction of the Survey Settle- 
ment into his village to enhance the rent of his mirasdar tenant beyond the amount 
of the land-revenue dues. A kadim inamdar who is a grantee by akadim grant of 
the soil of a small part of the village, and who has consented to or acquiesced in 
the introduction of the Survey Settlement into the village is equally precluded by 
this section, from enhancing the rent of the inirasdar tenant beyond the amount of 
the land-revenue dues (Pandu p. Ramchandra, 22 Bom. L. R. 665). 

Contractual rights. The provisions of this section do not affect con- 
tractual rights arising before the introduction of the survey. In alienated villages, 
it is competent to Government to eater into contractual relationship with tenants 
or occupants. They might acquire fixity of tenure and fixity of rent. In an ancient 
village, where the alienee has entered i nto a contract with his tenants granting 
not only fixity of tenure but also fixity of rent, the provisions of this section do 
not enable such alienee to avoid his contractual liability and enforce against hie 
permanent tenants the payment of assessment levied on occupancy land (Saryaprao 
Oanpatrao 0. Sidhanath, 27 Bom, L. R 64.')). 

[a-a] These words were substituted for the original word "occupants" by 
Bom. Act IV of 1913, s. 80 (a). 

[b] Words repealed by Bom. Act IV of 1913, 3 . 80 (6) are omitted 



140 TKB BOMBAY LAND REVENUE CODE, 1870 [CbUp. XIV 

Permanent tenant Liability to pay enhanoed rent. A per- 
son holding lands in an alienated village a3 a parounent tenant under s. 83 ante 
becomes, on the introduction of tha survey settlement into the village, entitled to 
the rights and affected with the responsibilities of a holder in an alienated village, 
by virtue of this section. He remains whit he ever was, a tenant, and does not 
become an occupant. He is liable, therefore, to pay enhanced rent to hie landlord 
(Kondi Ramjiv. Vithalrao, 50 Bom. 155). 

Survey Settlement. Suivey Settlement was extended to an alienated 
village on the application of the inamdar under Bombay Act (I of 1863). The 
period of the settlement expired in 1888 and the inamdar recovered from 1895 
higher assessment than that allowed under the Survey Settlement. The Commis- 
sioner objected in 1910 and the inamdar sued to establish his right to charge 
higher assessment. Held, that the inamdar had no such right since this section 
applied, when a survey Settlement had been introduced into an alienated village 
with the consent of the alienee under Bombay Act (I of 1865) and when the period 
of the Settlement had expired after the Code oam3 into force (Dhondo Vasudev v. 
The Secretary of State, 44 Bom. 110). 

Holder. Before a person can claim the benefit of this section, he must be 
shown to be a "holder" within the meaning of s. 8 (11) of tbis Code (Vasudeo v. 
Grind, 14 Bom. L. R. 124). 

Kadim HakS. 'Kadim Hak^ are grants made prior to the grant of a 
village in favour of an Inamdar and independently of him (Secretary of State v. 
Indoorai, 28 Bom. L. B. 1308). 

218, Nothing in this Act, which applies in terms to una?ie- 
nated land or to the holders of unalienated 
Construction of this i an d only, shall be deemed to affect alienated 
land, or the rights of holders of alienated 
laud or of Government in respect of any such land, and no pre- 
iumption shall be deemed to arise either in favour, or to the pre- 
judice, of any holder of alienated land from any provision of tbis 
Act in terms relating to unalienated laud oaly. 



SCHEDULE A 

Repealed by Bom. Act IV of 1913, section 81 

SCHEDULE B 

FORM OF BOND TO BE BE QUIRED UKDER SECTION 23 

WHEREAS 1, 
inhabitant of 

have been appointed to the office of 

and have been called upon to furnish security under the piovisions of section 23 
of tbe Land-Revenue Code for the doe discharge of the trusts of the said 
office, or of any other office to which I may be hereafter appointed, and for the 
due account of all moneys, papers and other property which shall come into my 
possession or control by reason of any sach office, I hereby bind myself to 
pay to the Secretary of State for India in Council, the amount of any loss or de- 
falcation in my accounts, and to deliver up any papers or other property within 
such time, and to such person a? shall be demanded by the person at the head of 
tbe office to which I belong, such demand to be in writing and to be left at my 
office or place of residence, and in case of my making default therein I bind my* 
self to forfeit to the Secretary of State for India in Council the sum of 
Rupees' 

[a] Provided always that nothing herein contained nor the security hereby 
given shall be deemed to limit my liability in respect of the matters aforesaid to 
the forfeiture of the said sum of rupees only, and that should that sum be 

insufficient to recoup the Secretary of State for India in Council in full for any 
loss or damage sustained by him in respect of tbe matters aforesaid I agree to pay 
to him on demand such further sum as shall be deemed by the person at the head 
of the said office necessary in addition to the said sum to cover such loss or 
damage aa aforesaid. 

Bated 

(Signature). 
FOBM OF SECURITY TO BE SUBJOINED TO THE BOND or THE PBINOIPAL 

Wx 
hereby declare ourselves sureties for the abovesaid 

that he shall do and perform all that be has 

above undertaken to do and perform, and in case of hia making default therein we 
hereby bind ourselves to forfeit to the Secretary of State for India in Oonucil [6] 
the Bum of rupees, in which tbe abovesaid has 

bound himself, or such smaller [b] sum as shall be deemed sufficient by the 
to cover any loss or damage which the Government may sustain by reason of each 
default. 

Dated 
_ ^ (Signature). 

[a] Thift proviso was added by Bom. Act IV of 1^0 5, First Schedule. 

f W] Tbeee words were substituted for the original word "such" bv Bom 
Act IV of 19106, First Schedule. 7 



fins BOMBAY LAUD &*rB*tTE CODE, 167 d 

SCHEDULE 

OF WABBANT TO BE ISSUKD BY THE COLLECTOR UNDEB 
SBOTXOK 25 OB 167 

Seal 
To 

THE OFFICES IN CHARGE o# LH CIVIL JAIL AT 

WHEBIAB A. B. of was on the day of 187 

ordered by to (here state the substance of the demand made) ; and 

wnereas the said A B. has neglected to comply with the said order, and it has, 
therefore, been directed, under the provisions of section of the Bombay Land 
Revenue Code, that he be imprisoned in the Civil Jail until he obey the said order 
or until he obtain his discharge under the provisions of section 25 or 28 (or w- 
fton 157 or 164 as the ease may be) of the said Cide ; yon are hereby required to 
receive the said A. B. into the Jail under your charge and to carry the aforesaid 
order into execution according to law. 

Dated this day of 187 

( Signature of Collector)). 



SCHEDULE D 

FORM OF BOND TO BE BBQUIRBD UNDER SECTION 28 OR 164 
WHEREAS I, 
have been ordered by 

to (here state the nature of the demand) and whereas I dispute the right oi the said 
to make the said order, I hereby bind myself to file a suit within 
fifteen days from the date of this bond in the District Court of to 

contest the justice of the demand, and do agree that in the event of a decree being 
passed against me I will fulfil the same and will pay all amounts including coats 
and interests, that may be due by me, or that if I fail to institute a suit as afore- 
said, I will, when required, pay the above-mentioned amount of Rupees (or 
will deliver up the above-mentioned papers or property, (as the ease may be), and 
in the case of my making default therein, I hereby bind myself to forfeit to the 
Secretery of State for India in Council the sum of Rupees 

Dated 

(Signature) 



FORM OF SECURITY TO BE SUBJOINED TO THE BOND OF THE PRINCIPAL 

WE 
hereby declare ourselves securities for the above said 

that he shall do and perform all that he has above under- 
taken to do and perform, and in case of his making default therein we hereby bind 
ourelve0 to forfeit to the Secretary of State for India in Council the sum of 
Rupees. 

Dated 

(Signature) 

SCHEDULE E 
( See section 84 ) 

I FORM OF NOTICE to BE GIVEN BY LANDLORD TO TENANT TO QUIT 
To 

A.B: 

I do hereby give yon notice that I do intend to enter upon, and take possession 
Of tbe land (here gitt thi detcription) which you now hold M tenant under me, and 



SCHEDULES ua 

you are, therefore, required to quit and deliver np possession of the same at the 
end of this current year, terminating on the of 187 . 

(Signed) 0. D. 
Dated this day of 187 



II, FORM OF NOTICE TO BE GIVEN BY TENANT TO LANDLORD OP HIS 

INTENTION TO QUIT 

To 

O.D. 

I do hereby give you notice that I shall quit and deliver up to you, at the end 
of this current year terminating on the of 

187 , the land ( here give the Ascription ) which I hold 
from you 

(Signed) A, B. 
Dated this day of 187 

SCHEDULE F 

FOBM OF COMMISSION TO BE ISSUED TO A HOLDER OF ALIHNVTED LANDS 
OF VILLAGES OR His AGENT, UNDER SECTION 89 

Seal 

The [a] Commissioner, by virtue of the powers vested in him by the Bombay 
Land Revenue Code, is pleased to confer on you Jagirdar, $*c., or Agent, $*c, ; an 
the case may fo), power to in (or in respect of) the villages and 

lands specified in this Commission, in the manner prescribed in (or in section 
of) the said Code. 

The villages and lands over which the power thus conferred upon you extends 
are as follows : 

(Here enter the description) 

The within delegated power is vested in you during the pleasure and subject 
to the recall of the [a] Commissioner. 

(Signed). 

SCHEDULE H [b] 

( See section 133 ) 

FORM OF BANAD FOR BUILDING SITES 

( Royal Arms ) 
To 

THE SECRETARY OF STATE IN COUNCIL. 

WHEREAS His Excellency the Governor of Bombay in Council, with a view 
to the settlement of the land revenue, and the record and preservation of pro- 
prietary and other rights connected with the soil has under the provisions of the 
Bombay Land Revenue Code, directed a survey of the lands within the 

of and ordered the necessary inquiries con- 

nected therewith to be made, this sanad is issued under section 133 of the said 
Code to the effect that 

There is a certain plot of ground occupied by you in the 
division of the of register No. in 



[a-a] This word was substituted for the original words '-Governor in Council 
of Bombay" by Bom. Act IV of 1913, e. 82, 
[b] There if no Schedule G. 



144 THE BOMBAY LAND RIVMTOB CODE, 1879 

the map marked sheet No. and facing towards the 

the road leading from to , containing 

abfttt square yards, and of the following shape and about the 

following dimensions :- 

You are hereby confirmed in U] the said occupancy ]a] exempt from all land 
revenue (or subject to the payment of Rupees per annum to the land 

revenue). 

The terms of yonr tenure are such that your occupancy is both transferable 
and heritable, and will be continued by the British Government, without any ob- 
jection or question as to title, to whatsoever shall from time to time be itl lawful 
colder (subject only to the condition of the payment annually of the above laid 
revenue according to the provisions of the Bombay Land Revenue Code or of any 
other law for the time being in force, and to the liability to have the said rate of 
assessment revised at the expiration of a term of years reckoned from 

the and thereafter at successive periods of years 

in perpetuity, and to ihe necessity for compliance with the provisions of the law 
from time to time in force as to the time and manner of payment of the said 
assessment, and to the liability of forfeiture of the said occupancy and of all rights 
and interests connected therewith in case of your failure to pay the said assess- 
ment as required by law). 

This sanad is executed on behalf of the Secretary of State for India in Council 
by order of the Governor in Council of Bombay, by and under the hand and seal 
of this day of one thousand eight hundred 

and A. D. 

(Signed). 

SCHEDULE I 
FORM OF WARRANT TO BE ISSUED BY THK COLLECTOR UNDBK SECTION 202 

Seal 
To 

THE OFFIOEB IN OHAHGI OF THE CIVIL JAIL AT 

WHBBXAS A. B. of has resisted (or obstructed) 0. B. in 

removing E. F. (or himseif, that is, the said A B) from 

certain land in the village of in the taluka, and 

whereas it is necessary, in order to prevent the continuance of such obstruction (or 
resistance), to commit the said A. B. to close custody ; You are hereby required 
under the provisions of section 202 oi the Bombay Land Revenue Code to receive 
the said A. B. into the Jail under your ^charge, and there to keep him in safe 
custody for days. 

Bated this day of 187 

(Signature of Collector). 



[a-oj These words were substituted for the original words "the occupancy of 
the above described ground" by Bom. Act IV of 1913, s. 88. 



The Land Revenue Rules, 1921 

(As corrected upto 1st July 1933 ) 
Secretariat, Port, Bombay, 26th January 1921 

No. B>-205. In exercise of the powers conferred by sections '213 
and 214 of the Bombay Land Revenue Code, 1870 (Bombay V of 1879), 
and of all other powers enabling him in this behalf, and in'supersession 
of Government Notifications in the Revenue Department No. 7368 
dated the 6th December 1881, No. 8356 dated the 27th November 1003, 
No. 5223 dated the 28th June 1905, and No. 5641 dated the 5th June 
1907, and all notifications [1] amending 1 the same, the Governor in 
Council is pleased to make the following rules : 

CHAFFER 1. 

INTRODUCTORY. 

1. Short title and extent of application. These rules may be called 
the Land Revenue Rules(L92i). Rules 7 to 10 inclusive, 21 clause (2), 23, 
25 to 27 inclusive, 38 and 70 shall not apply to Sind. 

A.Kh<,ti 

(i) To tl:e khoti lands in Itatmyiri, to which Act I of . 880 (the Khotl Settle- 
ment Act) applies, "no Rule hereafter made shall be applicable, unless it is ex- 
pressly directed in such Rule, or in some subsequent Rule, that it shall be applicable" 
[sea 40 (d)]. Of the present Rules those which are not applicable are 15-16; 20-23; 
30-33,41-53; 73-74; 84; 02-98; 103-117; 119-127; 134-115. All the rest of the 
Rules are applied. Rules 72 (b) and 133 apply with the modifications. But rules 
31-57 must be applied to Government lands, which do not include gaothan in 
which pardi lands are to bo assessed (R 983-96, 7068-13), within the Khoti 
village limits. 

(ii) In Ratnagiri, the Khot is not the owner of any waste land. But he has 
a right of cultivating 

(a) all assessed waste lands, 

(1)) unassessed unoccupied lands (I. L. R. 31 Bjm, 4^6). 
which are in his village. 

BTaMdari. 

(i) Under sections 1 and 33 of the Gujarat Talukdars Act VI of 1888 certain 
sections of the Code do not apply to Talukdari villages. Consequently the Rales 
arising from those sections can have no application. These Chapters of the 
Rules are: 

Those relating to City Survey (in Chap. 11119); alluvion (X); the disposal 
of land (VII) and assignments for public purposes (XI); grazing (IX); fines for 
unauthorized uses and occupations (XIV); rights to trees (VIII); the Record of 
Rights (XV); permissions and altered assessments for N. A uses (XIII and XIV); 
and all the special leases, agreements, and sanads, which are in use where land is 
disposed of by Government; the new inalienable tenure and the law as to collec- 
tions through village officers are also inapplicable. 

1 Thcso Rules do not all apply in Khoti and Talukdari villages. 



z THE BOMBAY JJA*D REVENUE CODE, 1879 

Bat Talukdari Want as (chiefly in Broach and Kaira) summarily settled as 
Personal Inams under Act VII of 1863 are no longer treated as Talukdari estates 
at all. 

(ti) The Code has been applied in certain Native States, presumably in virtue 
of a decree of the Ruler, . g., ia Akalkot (P. 5728-79), Jath (P. 5730-79). When 
a new set of rules is finally confirmed, it is desirable that any State adopting them 
should notify the fact and republish the rules with the modifications approved by 
the State administration. 

2. Interpretation. In these rules, unless there is anything re- 
pugnant in the subject or context, 

(a) "Chapter" and "Section" mean a chapter and a section of that 
Code. 

(4) "Maralatdar" includes Mahalkari and ( in Sind ) "Mukhtyar- 
kar." 

(<?) "Public Document" has the same meaning as in section 74 of 
the Indian Evidence Act I of 1874. 

(d) "Chavdi" in Sind includes a Tapedar's Dera. 

CHAPTER II. 
(Administrative Orders only.) 

CHAPTER III. 
REVENUE SURVEYS 
Survey and assessment of agricultural land. 

3. Survey numbers and sub-divisions. (1) Every holding not less 
in area than the minimum fixed under section 98 shall be separately 
measured, classified, assessed and defined by boundary marks, and 
entered in the land records as a survey number. 

(2) Every holding of which the area is less than such minimum 
shall be separately measured, classified, and assessed and entered in 
the land records as a sub-division of that survey number in which it is 
directed to be comprised ; it may also be separately demarcated if the 
Commissioner of Survey so directs, provided that the said Commission- 
er may require the persons interested in such holding to prepay the 
costs, or such portion of the costs as he thinks fit, of so defining the 
holding. 

4. Record of measurements. All measurements shall be recorded 
in a book or embodied in a plane table map kept in such form as shall 
be prepcribed by the Commissioner of Survey for each survey. The 
said books or maps shall be preserved as a record of the survey. 

5. Test of measurements. The original measurements ftiade by 
the subordinate survey officers employed for the purpose shall be test- 
ed by the officers in charge of measuring establishments in such man- 
ner and to such extent as the Commissioner of Survey shall deem 
sufficient. 

6. Village maps. Village maps shall be prepared under the orders 
of the Commissioner of Survey showing each survey number and its 
boundary marks. 



RULES 8 

7. Classification of Land. For the purposes of assessment all 
land shall be classed with respect to its productive qualities. The 
number of classes and their relative value reckoned in annas shall be 
fixed under the orders of the Commissioner of Survey with reference 
to the circumstances of the different tracts of country to which the 
survey extends and to the nature of the cultivation. 

8. Field-books. Every classer shall keep a field-book and record 
therein the particulars of his classification of each survey number 
and sub-division and the reasons which led him to place it in the 
particular class to which in his estimation it should be deemed to 
belong. Such field-books shall be preserved as permanent records of 
the survey. 

9. Test of classification. A test of the original classification 
made by the subordinate officers employed for this purpose shall be 
taken by the officers in charge of classing establishments, in such man- 
ner and to such extent as may be directed by the Commissioner of 
Survey. 

JO. Assessment. When rates of assessment have been sanctioned 
by Government, the assessment to be imposed on each survey number 
or sub-division shall be determined according to the relative classifi- 
cation value of the land comprised therein. 

10-A. All agricultural assessments (or judi) shall be calculated 
out to the nearest pie at the rate (per acre or otherwise) sanctioned 
upon the area chargeable and rounded off in the following manner : 

When the assessment (or Judi) 

(a) does not exceed one rupee the nearest half anna shall be taken 
neglecting 3 pies and under and counting 4 pies and 5 pies as pies, 
in case of all districts, except the Konkan and below-ghat talukasof 
Kanara, where the nearest 3 pies shall be charged. For example, in 
the Thana, Kolaba, Ratnagiri districts and the below-ghat talukas of 
Kanara 

an assessment of Re. 0-10-4 shall be taken as Re. 0-10-3 ; 
an assessment of Re. 0-10-5 shall be taken as Re. 0-10-6 ; 
an assessment of Re. 0-0-2 shall be taken as Re. 0-0-3. 

Elsewhere 

an assessment of Re. 0-8-3 shall be taken as Re. 0-8-0 ; 
an assessment of Re. 0-9-4 shall be taken as Re. 0-9-G. 

(b) exceeds one tupee 

the nearest anna shall be taken in all cases, neglecting 6 pies 
and under and counting 7 to 11 pies as one anna, for example an 
assessment of Rs. 1-3-G shall be taken as Rs. 1-3-0 ; 

an assessment of Rs. 1-3-7 shall be taken as Rs. 1-4-0: 

Provided that 

(I) when the calculation results in the sum total of the new 
assessments (or Judi) of all sub-divisions of a survey number being 
greater or less than the whole assessment (or Judi) of that number, 
the difference shall be equitably distributed over the sub-divisions by 
deduction or addition in the largest shares, so as to make the total 
equal to the assessment (or Judi) on the survey number ; 



t THE BOMBAY LAND REVENUE CODE, 1879. 

(2) Subject to proviso (1), the assessment of a sub-division shall 
in no case be'lees than a pie and every fraction of a pie shall be con- 
sidered as one pie, the addition being counterbalanced by deduction 
in the assessment of any of the other sub-divisions of the same survey 
number in an equitable manner. 

(3) No new assessment (or Judi) on a survey number or sub- 
division of a survey number shall be less than 3 pies in the Thana, 
Kolaba and Batnagiri Districts and in the below-ghat talukas of the 
Kanara District, or less than 6 pies elsewhere, but this provision shall 
be subject to the condition that the total of the assessments of all the 
sub-divisions of a survey number shall not exceed the assessment (or 
Judi) of that survey number. Where this condition cannot be fulfilled, 
any assessment of less than 3 pies or 6 pies, as the case may be, may 
be retained subject to proviso (2). 

Note. This rale does not apply to Sind which has another but equivalent 
method. 

11. Amalgamation (1) Any survey number or sub-division of a 
survey number may be amalgamated with any other coterminous survey 
number with the sanction of the Collector and upon the application of 
the holder, whenever all the parcels of land proposed for amalgama- 
tion are held by the same holder upon the same tenure. 

(2) Any sub-division may be amalgamated without prior sanction 
with any coterminous sub-division of the same survey number held by 
the same holder upon the same tenure. 

(3) When such amalgamation is effected, the two or more por- 
tions of land shall become one entry in the land records, bearing the 
same distinguishing number as the first in series of the amalgamated 
numbers. Any boundary marks placed between the amalgamated 
holdings shall be removed : and the village map corrected accordingly. 

12. Application of rules 3 to 11. (1) Rales 3 to 11, unless other- 
wise directed by Government, shall be observed in the conduct of reve- 
nue surveys of lands used, or which may be used, for the purposes of 
agriculture. 

(2) Form and details. Matters of detail not provided for in the 
foregoing rules shall be determined in each survey in accordance with 
such general or special orders as the Commissioner of Survey, acting 
under the general control of Government, may, from time' to time, 
issue* 

Survey and assessment of non-agricultural land. 

13. Non-agricultural land not to be classified in accordance with 
foregoing rules. (1) Laod of any of the kinds specified in sub-rule (2) 

shall be measured and mapped in accordance with rules 3 to in- 
clusive, but shall not be classified or assessed in accordance with rules 
7 to 10. 

(2) The lands referred to in sub-rule (1) are the following : 

(a) occupied unalienated lands, which are situated within an area 
in which a survey under rules 3 to 11 is in progress and which are 
used for any non-agricultural purposes ; 

(b) unoccupied unalienated lands, situated withio any such area, 
which are deemed to be likely to be more in demand for building or 
industrial purposes than for agriculture ; and 

(c) all lands to which a survey is extended under section 131. 



RULES 5 

14. Assessment of non-agricultural land. The Collector on receipt 
of a schedule of the lands referred to in rule 13 (2) shall assess them 
at the same rates and for the same period as if he were altering an 
agricultural assessment under whichever of Rules SI to 85 has been 
applied to the locality. 

Provided that land wholly or partially exempt from assessment 
under the proviso to section 52 or under section 128 or otherwise shall 
not, so far as it is so exempt, be assessed. 

And also provided that land held under unexpired leases shall be- 
come liable to the rate of assessment in force for the locality only 
upon the expiry of those leases. 

14-A (1) All non-agricultural assessments, rents and fines levi- 
able under rules 43, 47, 49, 51, 8083, 92, 93, and 99103 shall be 
calculated out to the nearest pie at the rate (per acre or otherwise) 
sanctioned upon the area chargeable : but any sum so calculated that- 

(i) is less than two annas, shall be raised to 2 annas ; 

(ii) exceeds two annas, and is not an exact multiple of two annas, 
shall be rounded off, upwards or downwards, and when equidistant 
upwards, to the nearest multiple of two annas e. ^/,, 

an assessment (fine or rent) of one anna and 3 pies will be charg- 
ed as two annas ; 

an assessment (fine or rent) of 2 annas and 11 pies will be charg- 
ed as two annas ; 

an assessment (fine or rent) of 3 annas will be charged as four 
annas ; 

an assessment (fine or rent) of Rs. 8-9-5 will be charged as Rs. 
8-10-0 ; 

an assessment (fine or rent) of Rs. 8-10-7 will be charged as Rs. 
8-10-0 ; 

an assessment (fine or rent) of Rs. 8-11-0 will be charged as Rs. 
8-12-0. 

15. Maintenance of records. -For all lands which have in the past 
been surveyed or assessed, or which shall be hereafter surveyed or set- 
tied under the provisions of the Code and these rules, it shall be the 
duty of the Director of Land Records 

(1) to cause to be corrected any arithmetical or clerical error 
whenever discovered ; 

(2) to cause to ba incorporated punctually in the land records all 
changes in boundaries, areas, tenures and assessments either of survey 
numbers or of their sub-divisions which are made under orders of 
competent authority as defined in the Code and these rules or any 
other Act : 

Provided that where the assessment of any survey number has 
been fixed by a declaration under section 102, such assessment shall 
not be raised upon the discovery of any mistake in classification until 
the term of such declaration expires. 

If ote. Rule 15 which embodies existing practice also partly replaces old 
sees. 109, 110, which are in part also superseded by the Record of Eights. 

16. Detailed instructions and forms shall be drawn up and 
maintained by the Director of Land Records, subject to the orders and 



6 THE BOMBAY LAND REVENUE CODE, 1879 

approval of Government from time to time for the proper carrying out 
of Bole 15. 

Introduction of settlements of land revenue. 

17. Notifications of Settlements and of period of guarantee. 
(1) Where the assessments have received the sanction of Government 
under section 102, a notification shall be published in the district 
or portion of the district to which the Settlement extends in form 
A, if such district or portion of the district is situate in the Bom- 
bay Presidency excluding Sind or in form A A, if it is situate in 
Sind, as the case may be, and when the Governor in Council has, 
under section 102, declared such assessments, with any modifications 
which he may deem necessary, fixed for a term of years, such declara- 
tion shall be notified in the official Gazette. 

(2) Where a Settlement is introduced into a part of a taluka of 
which part has been already settled the guarantee will be restricted to 
the unepired portion of the period for which the assessments in the 
already settled part of the taluka were fixed. 

Note. When the term of a settlement expires, but no action is taken, that 
settlement continues Integrally, and cannot be applied to some lands and not to 
others (B. 784 92, 1397-12); and this holds good for Inam villages also (I. L. R. 
44 Bom. 110). 

18. No* ice of sanction and announcement of assessments. (1) The 
notice required by section 103 shall be given by beat of drum in the 
village for which the assessments have been sanctioned and a written 
notice shall be posted in the chavdi or some other public place in the 
village. 

(2) Such notice shall be given by or under the orders of the officer 
in charge of the survey, referred to in section 100, or the Collector. 

(3) Persons affected by the assessments who do not attend at the 
time and place specified in the notice shall be subject to the same 
liabilities as if they had attended. 

Survey Fees in Towns and Cities. 

19. Survey fees in towns and cities. (1) Where a survey is extend- 
ed to the site of a town or city, the survey fees payable under section 
132 shall ordinarily be so fixed that the total sum payable in respect 
of such site shall cover the cost of the survey and preparation of the 
Record of Rights thereof. 

(2) In fixing the fees for each building site or aoy portion thereof 
held separately the Collector shall have regard to the provision of sub- 
rule (1) and to the position, value (or rental), and area of such build- 
ing site or portion thereof, but such fee shall not exceed ten rupees. 

CHAPTER IV. 
SUB-DIVISION OF SURVEY NUMBERS. 

20. Notices to be issued. Before field operations a notice shall be 
issued by the Maralatdar and posted in the village chavdi and pro- 
claimed by beat of drum, stating that the sub-divisions of survey num- 
bers in the village are about to be measured according as they have 
been divided by the holders, and daily notices shall be given as far as 
possible specifying the numbers or parts of numbers which are to be 
measured next day and warning landholders to be present. 



Notes. This is a process oarred out by the Land Records Department. 
Partitions made by the Collector under Civil Court deoree cannot be revised 
by that Oonrt (11 Bom. 662; 15 Bom. 627). 

21. Boundaries to be laid down. (I) When there is no dispute 
the boundary of each sub-division shall be laid down according to the 
statements of the holders. 

(2) Where there is any dispute, the boundary to which the dispute 
relates shall be measured and mapped in accordance with the claims 
of both disputants, and the dispute entered in the register of disputed 
cases. After the dispute has been settled under sections 37 and 
119-120, or Rule 108 as the case may be, the map shall be corrected 
accordingly and the areas finally entered into the land records, 

22. Fees. The fees to be recovered for making subdivisions in 
cases to which section 135G (4) applies shall, unless Government in 
any case otherwise direct, be such as will cover the entire cost of mea- 
suring, assessing and mapping the subdivision; they shall be assessed 
by the Collector. 

23. Assessment. The proportionate assessment of subdivisions to 
the land revenue settled upon the survey number shall be calculated 
subject to the proviso to section 117 A (2) according to the relative 
classification value of the several parts of the survey number as direct- 
ed in rule 10. Detailed instructions shall be prescribed by the Com- 
missioner of Survey subject to the approval of Government, and may 
provide for the rounding off' of fractions of annas. 

CHAPTER V. 
BOUNDARY MARKS. 

24. Details of boundary marks to be famished by the Survey Depart- 
ment to the Collector. On the introduction of a Survey settlement, the 
Superintendent of Sarvey shall furnish the Collector with a map 
and statements showing the position and description of the boun- 
dary marks erected or prescribed by or under the orders of the 
Commissioner of Survey. It shall be the duty of the Director of Land 
Records to amend these maps in accordance with any subsequent 
alteration of boundaries, in a revision surveyor in the subdivision 
of a survey number or on any other authorised occasion. 

Notes. But when an Inam village is surveyed otherwise than under the L. 
K, 0. and no survey settlement is introduced L. R. 0. 123-24 cannot be applied, R. 
3613-88. But in Talukdari villages (including Udhad Jamabandi) when survey- 
ed under section 4 of the Gujarat Talukdars Act, B. M. can be maintained by 
appointing the Collector a Superintendent of Survey for the purposes of Sec. 122. 
(R. 7642-2024-4-28). 

These rules apply to surveyed alienated villages where the landholders have 
the same responsibility as occupants &nd the Collector has the full obligations 
imposed by sec. 124 (R. 7169-09) (Anderson). 

25. The following boundary marks are authorized : 
Continuous marks 

(1) A boundary strip. 

(2) Sarbandhs or hedges and other permanent continuous struc* 
tares, such as walla. 



9 HB BOMBAY LAND REVENUE CODE, 1870 

Discontinuous marks 

(3) Conical earthen mounds or cairns (buruz) of loose stones. 

(4) Pillars of cut stone, or brick or rubble-stone masonry. 

(5) Prismatic or rectangular earthen mounds. 

(6) Roughly dressed long stones. 

(7) Any other marks found suitable for special localities and 
sanctioned by the Collector or Survey Officer, such as teak posts in the 
marine marshes on the Gujarat coasts. 

26. Maintenance of boundary strips. (1) Boundary strips or ridges 
shall not be ploughed up or otherwise injured by cultivation. 

(2) The minimum width of boundary strips shall be as follows : 

(a) in dry crop lands ... ... 1^- feet. 

(b) in rice and garden lands ... ... 9 inches. 

(c) On the frontier lines between British India and Baroda 
State; 3 ft. (on the British side of the exact pillar-to-pillar demarca- 
tion line). 

This strip shall also be kept free from tree-growth, any young 
plant being destroyed at inspection time. 

Provided that 

(i) where the boundaries of such lands are well defined by banks, 
hedges, or the like, the actual width of the strip covered by such 
bank, hedge, or the like, shall be sufficient for the purpose of 
this rule ; 

(') where the boundary of a survey number also forms the 
boundary of a native or Foreign State, the minimum width prescribed 
above shall be maintained for the portion of the boundary strip on 
the British side ; and 

(lit) where village boundaries have been defined at the time of 
survey by double lines of boundary marks, the whole of the inter- 
mediate strip shall be maintained as a boundary strip. 

27. What boundary marks to be considered out of repair and how to 
be repaired. The following boundary marks shall be considered put 
of repair and shall be repaired in the manner prescribed for each kind 
as follows: 

(a) A continuous mark (strip, sarbandh, hedge, etc.), if it deviates 
more than three feet from the true straight line of the boundary. 
Mode of repair either the deviation shall be rectified or the continu- 
ous mark not being a boundary strip must be replaced or supplement- 
ed by discontinuous marks. 

(b) Any conical mound or cairn less than 2i feet in height and 
6 feet in diameter at the base. Mode of repair raise it to 3 feet in 
height and 6 feet in width at the base. 

(c) Any rectangular mound less than 2 feet high, or less than 
5 feet long and 4 feet wide at the base. Mode of repair the mound 
shall be raised to full dimensions, that is, 2' feet high, 6 feet long and 
5 feet wide at the base. 

(rf) Any mound, conical or rectangular, within 4 feet of which 
earth has been dug for repairs, when such excavation has affected tin 
stability of the mark or allows water to lodge. Mode of repair 
the excavation shall be filled up. 



() Any pillar (i) less than 1 foot square or 2\ feet in depth, 
(ii) broken down, or (iii) rising less than 4 or more than 9 inches 
clear above the adjacent ground level. Mode of repair (i) replace by 
one of proper dimensions, (ii) rebuild, (iii) raise the pillar or clear 
away or make up the ground. 

(/) Any stone less than 2 feet long and 6 inches thick. Mode 
of repair a stone of proper size shall be substituted. 

(g) Any stone out of the ground, or buried less than two-thirds 
of its length and loose. Mode of repair the stone shall be replaced or 
fixed firmly. 

(ft) Any mark considerably out of proper position or so repaired 
or erected as to indicate a materially incorrect line of boundary. 
Mode of repair the mark shall be correctly placed. 

(1) Any mark overgrown or surrounded by vegetation of any 
kind so as not to be easily visible. Mode of repair the vegetation 
shall be cleared away until the mark is easily visible. 

(j ) Any sarbandh, or continuous embankment less than 2 feet 
high and 4 feet wide at the bottom. Mode of repair the sarbandh 
shall be made full 2 feet high and 4 feet wide at the bottom through- 
out, unless the occupant prefers the substitution of authorized dis- 
continuous marks. 

(/:) Any hedge or other continuous mark which by reason of want 
of continuity or disrepair fails to define the boundary. Mode of 
repair the necessary renewals shall be made or ether authorised 
marks substituted. 

( / ) "Any boundary strip or ridge which has been ploughed up or 
otherwise obliterated or the dimensions of which are less than those 
prescribed by Rule 26. Mode of repair the landholder shall be order- 
ed to restore the strip or ridge within a prescribed period by leaving 
it unploughed and undisturbed ; on his failure to comply he may be 
prosecuted under section 125. 

(m) Missing marks. Mode of repair new marks shall be erected. 

Proviso as to marks liable to injury from Jlooding. Provided that 
in any case where a boundary mark cannot, owing to Hooding of a 
nala, or river, the breaking away of the bank, or other causes, be 
kept in repair, another kind of authorised mark may be substituted. 
Where even that is impracticable the direction of the boundary must 
be fixed by a pair of discontinuous marks erected at an adequate dis- 
tance back from the abandoned position ; either both on the same 
side, or one on each opposite side thereof. 

28. Determination of responsibility for maintenance. (1) The res- 
ponsibility of the several landholders for boundary marks on a com- 
mon boundary lies on the holder of the survey number which is 
numerically lowest. 

(2) Sub-rule (1) is subject to the proviso that when any survey 
number is unoccupied or assigned for public or Government purposes 
the responsibility for repair of the marks on its periphery will pass 
to the landholder on the other side of the boundary. Repairs will be 
made at Government expenses only when the marks in disrepair 
lie between survey numbers each of which has no holder except 
Government. 

L.B.-2 



14 THE BOMBAY LAND REVENUE CODE, 1870 

(3) Within each survey number the holder or holders of each 
sub-division are responsible for the marks if any have been prescribed 
on the periphery of that sub-division to the same extent as they would 
be responsible if 'sub-division ' were read instead of 'survey number 7 
in sub-rules (1) and (2). 

(4) A mark which is on the common boundary of two or more 
villages must be repaired by the holder of the land in the village which 
is under restoration when the marks are found out of repair. 



CHAPTER VI. 

ENQUIRIES UNDER SECTION 37. 

20. Notice of enquiry. (I) (a) Before an enquiry under section 37 
a written notice in form B of the proposed enquiry and of the time 
and place and subject-matter thereof shall be affixed not less than ten 
days before the enquiry at the chavdi or some other public place in 
the village in which the property is situate ; and in a conspicuous 
position upon the property with respect to which the inquiry will 
be held. 

(J) A copy of the notice shall also be served not less than ten 
days before the enquiry on all persons who are known or believed to 
have made any claim to the subject-matter of the enquiry, and every 
such notice shall be served in the manner provided in section 190 for 
the service of a summons. 

Notice of decision (2) (a) : Written notice in form C of any 
order passed under section 37, specifying briefly the subject-matter, 
contents and date of the Older passed, shall be served in the manner 
specified in clause (6) of sub-rule (1) upon the persons referred to in 
that clause. 

(b) Such written notice shall also be affixed in the places speci- 
fied in clause (a) of sub-rule (1). 

Notes. (i) The minimum legal notice is 10 days : this still leaves upon the 
officer holding the enquiry an obligation to give longer notice, and to allow ad- 
journments, when the case is complicated and cannot be adequately presented in so 
ehort a time 

(it) The notice must also take the form of a summons since the Enquiry 
officer cannot hold an enquiry without also debiring the attendance of parties and 
witnesses. 80 he baa intrinsically power to summon these (sec. 189). 



CHAPTER VII. 

THE DISPOSAL of LAND VESTING IN GOVERNMENT, AND 

EXEMPTION FOHM LAND REVENUE. 

30. (a) The right of Government to mines and mineral products 
Which is reserved by section 69 shall not be disposed of without the 
sanction of Government, and in all grants of land the right to mines 
and mineral products and full liberty of access for the purpose of 
working and searching for the same shall be deemed to be reserved 
unless Government direct to the contrary and unless such right and 
liberty are expressly granted, 



11 

(i) No land situate within port limits shall be disposed of with- 
out the written concurrence of the Collector of Salt Revenue and with- 
out the reservation as to the tree-growth provided for in Rule 58 (d). 

(c) In all grants and disposals of land the right of occupation and 
use only subject to the provisions of the Code shall be granted : and 
not the proprietary right of Government in the soil itself. 

31. Land may not be granted free of land revenue without the 
sanction of Government except as hereinafter provided. 

Gifts of the possession and the revenue. 

3 4 J. Limits of revenue-free grants for different purposes. (1) Land 
may be given free of price and free of revenue, whether in perpetuity 
or for a terra, for any purpose hereinbelow mentioned by the authori- 
ties and to the extent specified in this table ; 



Purpose 


Estimated revenue -free value. 


(1) For sites for the constuction at the cost 


By the 


By the 


By the 


of Local or Municipal Funds, of 




Governor 


Commis- 


Collector 


(a) Schools, or Colleges 




in Council 


sioner. 




(b) Hospitals, 


1 






(c) Dispensaries and 










(d) other public works 


j. 10,000 


5,0000 


250 


from which no profit is 


;j 






expected to. be derived. 


] 






(2) For sites for the cons traction at 


the 1,000 


500 


50 


cost of other than Local or Municipal funds, 






of any of the works referred to in item 


0) 






above and for religious uso. 










(3) To any private individual for Ser- 








vices 










to be performed or already rendered to 


the 


1,000 


... 


... 


Stats 










to be performed to the community 


... 


500 


... 


... 



Proviso as to land near railway stations. Provided that the land in 
the neighbourhood of railway stations shall not be granted for dharoia- 
shalas under head (2) in the'table unless when erected they are to be 
in the charge of the Local Board or Municipality concerned. 

(2) Such gifts shall ordinarily be made in form D. 

33. (1) When it is clear that such a sale is preferable to any 
other course on grounds of obvious convenience to Government no less 
than to the parties concerned : 

(a) any land wherever situate, of which the estimated revenue-free 
value does not exceed one hundred rupees, and 

(b) with the previous sanction of Government, any land included in 
a village site of which the estimated revenue-free value does not exceed 
five hundred rupees 

may be sold revenue-free by the Collector to a private person for a 
private purpose, 



14 THE BOMBAY LAND REVENUE CODE, 1879 

Grant of land for agricultural purposes. 

37. Survey numbers how to be disposed of.(\) Any unoccupied 
survey number not assigned for any special purpose may, at the Col- 
lector's discretion, be granted for agricultural purposes to such person 
as the Collector deems fit, either upon payment of a price fixed by the 
Collector, or without charge, or may be put up to public auction and 
sold subject to his confirmation to the highest bidder. 

(2) In the case of such grants an agreement in form F shall 
ordinarily be taken from the person intending to become the occupant. 

(3) When the land is granted on inilienable tenure the clause 
specified in form I shall be added to the agreement. 

*(4) When the land is granted on impartible tenure an agree- 
ment in Form F (1), and, when it is also granted on inalienable 
tenure, an agreement in Form I (1), shall ordinarily be taken from 
the person intending to become the occupant. 

* (01. (4) was added by R. 4702/24 111 of 12-3-1931.) 

(5) The declaration below the agreement shall be subscribed by 
at least one respectable witness and by the patel and village accoun- 
tant of the village in which the land is situate. 

Note* The meaning of the rale (which is literally capable of the above in- 
terpretation, but must be interpreted consistently with the Code) is that 

(a) ordinarily the occupancy of land will be offered at public auction ; 

(I)} some plots, such as strips between fields and roads, abandoned roads, 
alluvion, etc., can only be usefully taken up by one person who might refuse *to 
bid at all (if there were persons who wished to obstruct him) or might get. it for 
practically nothing (for want of competition) if an auction were held. In such 
cases the Collector fixes a fair price such as might be got at auction if circum- 
stances permitted open competition. 

38. Survey number not already assessed to be assessed before it is 
disposedof. Where any survey number disposed of under rule 37 has 
not already been assessed, it shall be assessed by the Collector (after 
reference to the Superintendent of Land Records) at the rates placed 
on similar soils in the same or neighbouring villages; and the asess- 
ment so fixed shall hold good for the period for which the current Settle- 
ment for the village in which the land is situated has been guaranteed, 
and shall be liable thereafter to revision at every general settlement of 
the said village. 

39. Where survey numbers may be given at reduced assessment. 
Where it appears that the bringing of any survey number under cultiva- 
tion or its reclamation for other purposes will be attended with large 
expense, or where for other special reasons it seems desirable, it shall 
be lawful for the Collector (with the previous sanction of the Commis- 
sioner, in cases where the assessment on the land included in the total 
grant exceeds one hundred rupees) to grant the survey number revenue 
free or at a reduced assessment for a certain term, or revenue-free for 
a certain term and at a reduced assessment for a further term, and to 
annex such special conditions as the outlay or other reasons aforesaid 
may seem to him to warrant, and to cancel the grant or levy full 
assessment on breach of these conditions. 



ETTLES 16 

Explanation. Assessment on the land means fche assessment fixed at the settle- 
ment or, where no such assessment has been fixed, the assessment determined in 
accordance with the procedure prescribed in Rule 38 (G. R. No. 745-28 of 7-2-29). 

Provided that, on the expiry of the said term or terras, the survey 
number shall be liable to full assessment under the rules then in force 
for lands to which a settlement for agricultural use has been extended 
or which are assessed for other uses. 

(2) Form Gl may generally be used in cases under this rule. 

40. Grants of salt-marsh lands for reclamations. Salt land or land 
occasionally overflowed by salt-water, which is not required or likely 
to be required for salt manufacture, may, after consultation with the 
Commissioner of Salt, be leased for purposes of reclamation by the 
Collector, subject to the confirmation of the Commissioner, on the fol- 
lowing maximum terms, and with such modifications in particular 
cases as may be deemed fit : 

(a) no rent shall be charged for the first ten years ; 
(5) rent at the rate of four annas per acre shall be levied for the 
next twenty years on the whole area leased, whether reclaimed or not; 

(c) after the expiry of 30 years the lease shall be continued in the 
case of re-claimed lands at the rate at which they would be assessed to 
land revenue from time to time if they were subjected to survey settle- 
ment; and in the case of unreclaimed lands, if any, at the average rate 
of the reclaimed lands (Notification No. 372-B. of 17th April 1923); 

(d) any portion of the land used for public roads shall be exempt 
from the payment of rent ; 

(e) if the reclamation is not carried on with due diligence within 
two years, or if half the area is not reclaimed so as to be in a state fit 
for use for agricultural purposes at the end often years, and the whole 
at the end of twenty years, or if any land once reclaimed as aforesaid 
is not maintained in a state fit for use for agricultural purposes, the 
lease shall be liable to cancellation at the: discretion of the Collector ; 

Provided that the lessee shall be at liberty during the first ten 
years to relinquish any area which he cannot reclaim. 

(/) if the land reclaimed is used for any non-agricultural purpose, 
its rent shall be liable to be revised according to the rates under 
whichever of rules 81 to 85 has been applied to the locality notwith- 
standing that any of periods specified above may not have expired ; 

(g) Form G2 may generally be used in cases under this rule. 

41. Landin beds of river. Land situated in the bed of a river 
and not included in a survey number shall, save as otherwise provided 
in sections 46 and 64, ordinarily be leased annually by auction to the 
highest bidder for the term of one year or such further period as the 
Collector thinks fit. The accepted bid shall be deemed to be the land 
revenue chargeable on such land. But in Sind the Collector may 
grant it for cultivation to those holders who have lost land by erosion. 

Note. Bed does not include shore or bank. (G. R. No. 4551 of 1885). 
Grant of land for non-agricultural purposes. 

42. Disposal of land for building and other purposes. Unoccupied 
land required or suitable for building sites or other non-agricultural 
mimnnA sVia.ll nrdirtftrilv bfi sold after heinff laid nnfc in snit,ahlf> nlots 



16 THE BOMBAY LAN!) REVENUE CODE, 1870 

by auction to the highest bidder whenever the Collector is of opinion 
that there is a demand for land for any such purpose; but the Collector 
may, in his discretion, dispose of such land by private arrangement, 
either upon payment of a price fixed by him, or without charge, as he 
deems fit. 

Note, No waste land near Hallway stations should ba disposed of for build- 
ing sites and no permission should be given under sec. 65 for such use without 
concurrence of the Bailway. If there is any difference of opinion, the Commis- 
sioner will decide it (G. B. No. 4606 of 1899). 

^ 43. Conditions of grants or building. (1) Save in special cases in 
which the Collector with the sanction of Government otherwise 
directs, or in localities falling under rule 44, land for building sites 
shall be granted in accordance with the following provisions : 

(a) The land shall be granted in perpetuity subject to the provi- 
sions of the first paragraph of section 68, and shall be transferable. 

(b) Where the land has already been assessed for agriculture, the 
assessment shall be altered under whichever of rules 81 to 85 has been 
applied to the locality. 

(c) Where the land has not been assessed the Collector shall fix 
the assessment in accordance with the principles laid down for altera- 
tion of assessment in rules $1 to 86 and the provisions of the said 
rules shall, as far as may be, apply. 

(d) All such assessments shall be fixed for the period specified in 
Rule 87 (a) and may be commuted when they do not exceed one rupee 
in accordance with the provisions of rule 88. 

(2) In the case of such grants an agreement in form F or form H, 
as the Collector may deem fit, shall ordinarily be taken from the per- 
son intending lo become the occupant, and in the case of land in deve- 
lopment schemes undertaken by Government in the Bombay Suburban 
District an agreement shall be taken in form HH. 

(3) When the land is granted on inalienable tenure, the clause 
specified in form I shall be added to the agreement. 

(4) The declaration below the agreement shall be subscribed by 
at least one respectable witness and by the patel and village accoun- 
tant of the village in which the land is situate. 

Note. This provision relates only to the terms of the tenure, and does not 
in any way authorize free grants or charitably reduced assessments which fall 
under rules 32-35. 

43- A. Terms on which land intended for future building sites may 
be temporarily disposed of . Unoccupied lands which are eventually in- 
tended for building sites within the Bombay Suburban District or any 
other area, to which Government may by notification in the Bombay 
Governmenf Gazette, extend this rule but of which the immediate dis- 
posal for the said purpose appears to the Collector to be undesirable, 
may be let under written leases in a form approved by Government 
for short terms not exceeding in any case seven years at a ground rent 
equal to double the standard rate of non-agricultural assessment in 
force in the locality, or at a ground rent which may in special cases 
r localities be fixed with the sanction of the Commissioner. 



1? 

44. In hill stations. In hill stations and such other localities as 
Government may direct land shall not be granted for building except 
on such conditions as are considered desirable regarding the style of 
building, the period for construction and the observance of municipal 
or sanitary regulations. Such conditions should be embodied in the 
instrument (Form H). 

45. Establishment of entirely newullage 'te. Where an entirely 
new village sice is established, or an addition is made to an existing 
site, the disposal of the lots therein shall be made under such of the 
rules 42, 43 or 44 as may be applicable. 

46. Substitution of a new village site for an old one. Where a new 
village site is established, in lieu of a former one which it is deter- 
mined for any reason to abandon, ao agreement shall be taken in form 
J, from each occupant before he is permitted under section 60 to enter 
into the occupation of any lot. 

47. Conditions of grant of land for non-agricultural purposes other 
than building sites and alteration of assessment. Where unoccupied 
land is granted for non agricultural purposes other than building sites, 
the Collector shall annex such conditions to the grant as may be 
directed by Government or, in the absence of any order of Government, 
may annex such conditions thereto as he thinks fit, subject to the con- 
trol of the Commissioner; and where the land lias already been 
assessed for the purpose of agriculture, the assessment of such land 
shall, in the absence of any order of Government to the contrary, be 
altered in accordance with the provisions of rules 81 to 85. Where it 
has not been assessed, its assessment shall be fixed by the Collector, 
as far as may be in accordance with the principles laid down for al- 
teration of assessment in the said rules. 

Special rules for certain city surveyed areas. 

48. Special rules for the sites of Ahmedabad, Broach, Surat, Ran- 
der, Bulsar and Godhr a ) and certain other places. Except as may be 
otherwise specially directed by Government, nothing in rules 37 to 
47, both inclusive, shall be applicable to the grant of any lands to 
which a City Survey has been extended under Bombay Act IV of 1868 
or under section 131 and which do not vest in the municipality, with- 
in the sites of the towns and cites of Ahmedabad (inclusive of its 
suburbs of Saraspur, Dariapur Cajipor, Rajpur Hirpur, Asarwa, 
Kochrab, Chhadavad, Changispur and Paldi), Broach, Surat, Rander, 
Bulsar, Godhra, Igatpuri, Bandra-Danda and Ahrnednagar, Tando 
Adam (Nawabshah) (R. 7080 B/24-27th November 1U26.; or of any 
other town or city to which Government may by notification in the 
official Gazette extend this rule : and nothing in rules 81 to 85 shall 
apply to any agricultural land lying within the same sites, but to 
which a City Survey cannot by law extend. 

The granting of such lands for building sites, and the granting 
of permission to use such lands (when assessed for agricultural use) 
fcr non-agricultural purposes, shall be regulated by the following 
rules 49 to 52. 

Encroachment on a public road. The accused encroached on a part 
of a public road and enclosed it in his own field with an embankment and culti- 
yuted it j 4^w^s thereupon convicted of an offence under this rule and sentenced 



18 THE BOMBAY LAND fitivwra CODE, 18 7 

to pay a fine under rule 111 cl.(2) (a). Held, that as the land encroached npoii 
by the accused did not fall under the prohibition contained in this rule, the con- 
Tictton was illegal (Queen- Empress v. Yadu, 1 Bom. L. E. 161). 

49. Disposal of strips of land adjacent to existing building sites. 
Whenever the holder of a building site desires to acquire any small 
strip of ground belonging to Government which is adjacent to his 
site and which could not reasonably be disposed of by the Collector 
as a separate site, the Collector may, if he thinks fit and notwith- 
standing anything to the contrary contained in rule 33, sell such 
strip to the said holder on the same tenure on which he holds the 
said site, and on payment of ground rent or assessment at the same 
rate, if any. 

50. Mode in which other lands may be disposed of. (1) Any un- 
occupied land to which rule 49 does not apply and which is not 
assigned for special purposes may be granted to such person as the 
Collector deems fit either for purposes of agriculture only or for other 
purposes. 

(2) Lands to be ordinarily sold by auction. Any such land shall 
ordinarily be sold by auction to the highest bidder ; but the Collec- 
tor may in his discretion sell the same by private agreement. 

51. Terms on which building sites may be disposed of. (1) Un- 
occupied land shall be granted for building sites and permission under 
section 65 to use for non-agricultural purposes lands occupied and 
assessed for agriculture shall be given by an instrument in a form 
approved by Government, for terms expiring on the date fixed in this 
behalf by Government for each city or town, at a rent or altered 
assessment, as the case may be, of two pies per square yard per annum, 
or such other rate as Government may prescribe for any particular 
site or portion thereof. 

(2) (a) Terms on which land intended for future building sites may 
be temporarily disposed of. Unoccupied lands which are eventually 
intended for building sites, but of which the immediate disposal for 
the said purpose appears to the Collector to be undesirable, may be 
let under written leases in a form approved by Government for short 
terms not exceeding in any case seven years at a ground rent of not 
less than one anna per square yard per annum. 

(b) Unoccupied lands under clause (a) shall ordinarily, subject 
to the provisions of the said clause, be let by auction to the highest 
bidder; but the Collector may in his discretion let any such land by 
private agreement (G. R. R. D , No. 5189/28 dated 13-1-33). 

52. Terms on which lands may be disposed of for agricultural pur- 
poses only. Unoccupied lands may be leased for purposes of agricul- 
ture for terms of one year. An agreement in form F, with such modi- 
fication as may be necessary, shall be taken from every person who is 
to become an occupant of land under this rule, and the provisions of 
sub-rules (2) to (4), inclusive, of rule 37 shall be applicable to every 
agreement so taken. 

53. Unoccupied building sites, etc., within municipal limits to be dis- 
tinguished from lands forming part of public streets (1) In municipal 
districts, building sites and plots of open ground, which have not been 
dedicated to public use or already transferred to the 



RULES 10 

are hereby declared to be specially reserved by Government within the 
meaning of sub-section (2) of section 50 of the Bombay District Muni- 
cipal Act, 1901. 

This reservation does not apply to small pieces of ground lying 
between the houses and the road-way in an irregular street or road of 
varying width, which should be recognized as forming jsart of the 
street and vesting in the municipality unless private individuals have 
rights thereto. But separate vacant sites between houses do not vest 
in the municipality even though they are unenclosed unless they have 
been transferred to the municipality by Government. 

BOTH FOR AGRICULTURAL AND NON- AGRICULTURAL GRANTS. 

54. Form of written permission to occupy under section 60. The 
permission in writing to be given by a Mamlatdar under section 60 to 
enable an intending occupant to enter upon occupation shall be in 
form K, or Form KK. 

Exceptional cases. 

55. Disposal of land to which foregoing rules are inapplicable. 
Unalienated land to which none of the foregoing rules is applicable 
and concerning which no other rules have been framed by Government, 
shall be disposed of in such manner for such period and subject to 
such special conditions, if any, as the Collector, subject to the control 
of the Commissioner, deems fit. 

56. Special forms. The forms appended to these rules shall be 
used where applicable, but where a grant is made on special terms 
and none of such forms is suitable and a special form has not been 
sanctioned, the orders of Government shall be obtained regarding the 
form to be used* 

57. Records. The document evidencing a grant shall be drawn 
in duplicate and one copy, which shall bo retained by the Government 
officer concerned or by Government, shall be signed by the grantee, 



CHAPTER VIII. 

TREES AND FOREST RIGHTS. 

58. General reservations. The extent to which the right of Gov- 
ernment to trees is generally conceded to occupants under the third 
paragraph of section 40 shall be specified in the notification issued 
under rule 17. The said general concession will ordinarily extend to 
all trees, except the following : 

(a) all road-side trees planted by or under the orders of Govern- 
ment ; 

(b) teak, blackwood, and sandalwood ; 

(c) trees, the produce of which has hitherto been disposed of by 
Government : 

Provided that whenever any land is disposed of after the first in- 
troduction of a settlement of land revenue, such trees shall also be 
disposed of under section 62 ; 

(d) any trees specially reserved in the terms of the grant of 
the land. 

59. Special reservations* Trees in groves, trees round temples or 
plaoee of encampment declared to be such by the Collector, and trees 



86 THE BOMBAY LAND RIVENTJE CODE, 1879 

other than teak, blackwood or sandalwood, which for any reason 
are of special value or utitity shall be specially reserved at 
the settlement and entries to that effect made in the settlement 
records. 

60. Disposal of trees on occupied lands. (1) Subject to the provi- 
sions of rule 63 the disposal of trees on land occupied or being given 
out for occupation shall be regulated by the following sub-rules : 

(2) Of the trees to which the rights of Government are reserved, 
such number or kinds as Government may from time to time direct 
will be at the disposal of the Forest Department. Lists shall be kept 
of all occupied numbers, over the trees in which the Forest Depart- 
ment has any control or lien ; the clearing of these numbers by the 
Forest Department shall be arranged in concert with the Collector, 
and ever}' number when cleared shall be recorded as exempt from all 
interference in the future on the part of the Forest Department. la 
districts, where there is no Forest Officer, these functions will be 
discharged by the Collector alone. 

(3) All other reserved trees shall be in charge of the Collector 
who may dispose of the same or of their produce as he may deem fit, 
subject to the general rules for the disposal of Government property. 

(4) In talukas in which the demarcation of forests has been com- 
pleted, wheo any unoccupied land containing jungle or valuable trees 
which have not been included in any forest reserve is granted to any 
person for cultivation, the Collector may offer the trees, or such of the 
trees as he may see fit, to the occupant. If such person agrees to par- 
chase the same, the value shall be recovered from him by the Collector 
and credited as land revenue. If the occupant refuses to buy under 
this sub-rule or sub-rule (3) then the Forest Department should clear 
the land of trees. 

(5) In talukas in which the demarcation of forest reserves has 
not been completed, the Collector miy, if lie thinks fit, consult the 
Conservator of Forests before any land containing jungle or valuable 
trees is granted ; and if any such land is granted to any person the 
provisions of sub-rule (4) shall apply ; in no case shall land be grant- 
ed which is likely to be required for forests. 

(6) In Sind the clearance of reserved trees under sub-rule (1), and 
of trees not accepted by the new occupant under sub-rulte (4) shall be 
effected by the Collector. 

Note. In 22 Bom. L. B. 884, it is held that 'trees reseved' means trees 
existing at the time of the settlement ; not trees which may afterwards grow. 
See too Rule 62. This is almost certainly the contrary of the intention of the law. 

When such trees are sold by Forest Department, it takes the credit. 

61. Whenever the right to unreserved trees in any land is at 
the disposal of Government simultaneously with such land all such 
trees shall invariably be disposed of to the same person who acquires 
the holding and not to any other person. 

62. When the right of Government to the trees in a holding has 
been once disposed of to the occupant, or when all the reserved trees 
have been once cut and removed either 

(#) at the grant of the land, or 



RULES &1 

(4) after such grant, or 

(c) in Sind, at any time before such grant, or 

(d) elsewhere than in Sind, within five years before such grant, 
Government will have no further claim to trees which may afterwards 
grow in the holding, or which may spring up from the old roots or 
stumps, so long as the land continues in occupation. 

63. Exception of reserved trei& in varkas and beta lands in certain 
districts from rules 60-62. (1) Nothing in rules 60 to 62 inclusive shall 
be deemed to apply to varkas lands in the districts of Thana, Kolaba 
and Ratnagiri, and beta lands in the district of Kanara, or to any 
land in the Dindori Taluka or the Peth Taluka of the Na&ik District 
or to any land on the banks of streams and nalas in the Godhra 
Taluka of the Panch Mahals District, or to any riverside jarabul trees 
growing in occupied lands on the banks of the rivers Mula, Pravara, 
Mhais and Mhalungi in the Parner, Rahuri, Sangaranfcr and Akola 
Talukas of the Ahmednagar District ; or (pending the completion of 
the acquisition of all occupied lands within the sanctioned demarca-, 
tion limits of the forest in the Haveli, Purandhar and Junnar Talukas 
and the Ambegaon Petha of Poona District) to any teak trees in such 
unalienated land. 

(2) In the said lands the trees on which the rights of Government 
are reserved shall be available for cuttings to be made from time to 
time by or under the orders of the Forest Department, in consultation 
with the Collector. 

(3) The sale of any such tree or of the timber thereof will confer 
no right tb the after-growth from the root or stump of the tree FO cut. 
The reservation of the rights of Government over the trees will extend 
to all such after-growth also. 



CHAPTER IX. 
DISPOSAL OF GRAZING AND MINOR PRODUCTS OF LAND. 

64. Sale of produce of Government frees. (I) The produce of trees 
belonging to Government may be sold by auction annually or for a 
period of years. 

(2) Where any such trees are sold under section 41, the sale shall 
be by auction or otherwise as the Collector may direct. 

65. Grazing and other similar produce to be ordinarily disposed of 
by sale for periods not exceeding Jive years. (I) The grazing or other 
produce 01 all unoccupied land vesting in Government whether a sur- 
vey settlement extends to such land or not, and whether the same is 
assessed or not and of all land specially reserved for grass or for 
grazing (except land assigned to villages for free pasturage), may be 
sold by public auction or otherwise, as the Collector deems fit, year by 
year, or for any term not exceeding five years, either field by field or in 
tracts, and at such time as the Collector shall determine. 

Provided that the purchasers' rights over such land shall entirely 
cease on the dates respectively fixed in the following table, unless, 
under special circumstances, the Collector deems it necessary to alter 
the time so fixed J-- 



THE BOMBAY LAUD REVENUE CODE, 1879 



Oollectorates 


Waste assessed 
Dry- crop Land. 

> 


Waste assessed 
Bice Land. 


Reserved Kurans 
and unasseased 
Waste. 


AH in Sind 
Thana 
Dharwar 
All others 


Slst July 
3}et March 
Slst March 
31st March 


Slst July 
Slst March 
Slst December .. 
Slst March 


Slst July. 
31st December. 
1st May. 
1st May, 



66. Disposal of earth, stone, etc., by the Collector. (I) The Col- 
lector may, at his discretion, sell by public auction or otherwise dis- 
pose of the right to remove earth, stone, kankar, sand, rmiram, or 
any other material which is the property of Government for such 
period .and in such quantities and on such terms as he thinks fit : 

Provided that such sale or other disposal shall be made subject to 
the privileges conceded by rules 67 to 70 inclusive. 

(2) The rate charged by the Collector under this rule, when the 
right in question is not put up for sale by public auction, may be 
either a lump sum, or so much per cubic foot of excavation, or in 
the case of a Railway Company requiring land for excavating ballast, 
so much per mile of the railway line for which ballast is obtained, 
or otherwise as the Collector thinks fit. 

Note. It i& important to note that in occupied lands charges for quarrying* 
etc , are levied not as ' Stone ind Mineral and Sand fees from Government land" 
hut are altered assessments under L. R. 0. sections 48 and 65. Such altered assess- 
ment is not assigned to or to be paid to the Local Boards (II. 10424/17 ; R. 5i28/- 
22). Bee rule 82 IV. 

67. Removal of earth, stone, etc,, by villagers for their own use witti- 
out fee with permission of the revenue patel. (1) With the previous per- 
mission in writing of the revenue patel, or where there is no such 
patel of the Mamlatdar or (in Sind) of the Tapedar, but without pay- 
ment of fees (a) any potter or maker of bricks or tiles may, for the 
purposes of his trade, (b) any person may, for his domestic ot agri- 
cultural purposes, remove earth, stone, kankar, sand, muram or 
other material from the bed of the sea or from the beds of creeks, 
rivers and nalas or from any unassessed waste land not assigned 
for special purposes within the limits of the village in which he 
resides or in which the land for the benefit of which the materials 
are required is situated. 

(2) Nothing in this rule applies to any case falling under rule 69, 
and where it appears to the revenue patel or Tapedar that any case in 
which application is made to him under this rule falls under rule 
69 he shall refer the application to the Mamlatdar for orders. 

68. With the previous permission in writing of the Mamlatdar 
but without payment of fee, any person may, for the purpose of build- 
ing a well, remove stone from any of the sources specified in sub-rule 
(1) of rule 67 if those sources are within the limits of the taluka in 
which he resides. 

69. Excavation. (1) In any case where excavation of the soil 
is likely to damge or destroy any valuable building or any land 



for any special or public purpose or any boundary mark, 
the previous sanction of the Mamlatdar to any such removal shall be 
required and he shall refuse permission to the extent necessary to 
prevent such damage or destruction. 

(2) Ports. No patel or Mamlatdar may permit any removal 
under rule 67 or 68 from land within port limits, or on the banks or 
shore of any port, without the written concurrence of the Collector of 
Salt Revenue, and under %uch conditions, if any, as he may impose. 

(b) Bricks, etc. In any case where it appears to the Mamlatdar 
that the trade carried on by any potter or maker of bricks or tiles is 
sufficiently extensive and lucrative to render such a charge fair and 
equitable, he may grant permission only on payment of fees at such 
rates as may be prescribed by the Collector in this behalf under 
rule 66. 

(4) In such cases or localities as he thinks fit, the Collector may 
prohibit the Mamlatdar, the Tapedar or the revenue patel from giving 
permission without obtaining his previous sanction ; and in any such 
case all applications for permission shall be referred to the Mamlatdar 
for the Collector's order. 

(5) Where the revenue patel or Tapedar refuses permission when 
the same is applied for under rule 67 or does not refer the application 
to the Mamlatdar under sub-rule ( 4 ) ao appeal shall lie to the 
Mamlatdar. 

70. Removal of earth, etc., from village (an/ts. Any person may, 
with! he sanction of the revenue patel, take free of all charge from 
village tanks as much earth, stone, kankar, sand, muram or other 
material as he requires : provided that no stones shall be removed 
that may have fallen from the banks of built tanks, and that no ex- 
cavation shall be made within 10 cubits of the foot of the embankment 
of any such tank. 



CHAPTER 1X-A. 

DISPOSAL OF WATER VESTING IN GOVERNMENT. 

70-A. No person shall without the previous permission of the 
Collector in writing make use of any water of a river, stream or nala 
which is the property of Government, for the purpose of irrigating by a 
budki or a pumping plant land other than that subject to the existing 
nala-chad. 

'0-B. The Collector may grant permission for the use of the 
water of a river, stream or nala which is the property of Government 
and for which no water-rate is levied under the Bombay Irrigation 
Act, 1879, for the purpose of irrigating by a budki or a pumping plant 
land other than that subject to the existing nala-chad, on payment of 
such water-rate as he may deem fit, but not exceeding the rate per 
annum per acre which may have been fixed for the locality by Govern- 
ment for occasional irrigation by Pats under section 55 of the Bombay 
Land Revenue Code, or where no such special rate has been fixed, 
the maximum Patasthal rate sanctioned in the current settlement for 
the group in which the village in which the land in question is situate 
may have been included. Provided that in precarious tracts irrigation 



$4 THE BOMBAY LAMB REVENUE CODE, 1879 

by budkit or pumping plant shall be exempt from the water-rate lev!-* 
able under this rule. 

70-C. Any person who, without the previous written permission 
of the Collector, makes use of any water of a river, stream or nala 
which is the property of Government and for which no water-rate is 
levied under the Bombay Irrigation Act, 1879, for the purpose of irri- 
gating by a budki or a pumping plant land other than that subject to 
the existing nala-chad, shall be liable to pay such water-rate as the 
Collector may deem fit, but not exceeding Rs. 50 per annum per acre 
of land so irrigated. 

70-D. The water-rates payable under rules 70-B and 70-C shall 
be recoverable as arrears of land revenue. 

Explanation. J?OT purposes of rules 70-A, 78-B and 70-0 'ludW includes a 
di' or any similar appliance for raising water. 



CHAPTER X. 

ALLUVION AND DILUVION 

71. Holders of land with shifting boundaries may occupy vp to sue A 
boundaries. When a holding is bounded on any side by the bank or 
shore of a river, creek or nala or of the sea, the holder will be per- 
mitted, subject to the provisions contained in sections 46, 47, 63 and 
64, to occupy and use the land up to such bank or shore, notwith- 
standing that its position may shift from time to time. 

Note. The subject of alluvion is one of the most difficult in the Jaw of .land. 
The references in sees. 37, 46 and 63 to "any law for the time being in force" 
are vague since so far as is known there is no such law in force behind the L. B. 
0. except in the case-law or judge-made law bassed upon the common law and 
natural equity, and some special Municipal and Fort Trust enactments outside 
Bombay Island. Alluvion must, according to these rulings . be interpreted to mean 
strictly gradual, slow, and imperceptible [imperceptible day by day as it occurs but 
of course perceptible enough in the long run ^Halsbury's Laws of England, Vol 28, 
p. 362)] accretion by deposit of fresh soil by water upon existing riparian land 
(Jnstinan and 3 Bengal L. B , p. 525, 1870.) Sand blown by the wind or a mass 
of shingle suddenly flung up after a storm, or new land left bare by a receding sea 
or a diverted river is not alluvion but derelict land. Nor would the deposits in a 
river bed which raise their surfaces above the hot weather water-level be treated as 
alluvion in respect of a holding terminating on the upper edge of the steep bank of 
a river high above the deposit ; there is no physical connexion between them, to 
which the term 'accretion' would be applicable. L. R. 27 All. 655, 28 All. 647. 

KaMayatdar (including Sanadi) Knots have a right only to assessed un- 
occupied land (and they pay revenue for it). Therefore they can have no rights 
to alluvion, except that which forms on Khoti Khasgi lands. In such villages 
therefore sees. 47, (3 and 64 all apply. 

It would deem that both classes of Kolaba Knots are entitled to remission 
on account of dilavion. 

72. The Collector to .dispose of claims under section 47. (a) Claims 
to decrease of assessment on account of diluvion under section 4.7 
shall bs disposed of by the Collector. 



16 

(b) It shall be the duty of the village officers to ascertain and to 
record the increases due to diluvion and losses due to diluvion in every 
holding subject to such changes. They shall also report to the Mam- 
latdar for orders when the area of any newly formed alluvial land or 
island, or of any abandoned river bed*, or land lost by diluvion exceeds 
the limits prescribed in sections 46, 47 and 61. 

Note. In Khoti villages, read "Village Accountant or Japtidar, or Circle 
Inspector if there be none (K. 3451-08) and "Japtidar or Band Karkun" in 
Talukdari and omit reference to sections 46-47 (R. 2180-F.-29-3-22), For Alluvion 
increasing forest land, see G, R, 5080-2417-7-26.) 

CHAPTER XL 
ASSIGNMENT OF LAND FOB SPECIAL PURPOSES. 

7;i. Cattle stands and dhotis' and potters' grounds. (I) Gurcharatt 
(gairan) or grazing ground for cattle, burial and burning grounds, 
spots near villages on which the village cattle stand, and lands for 
the use of village dhobis and potters, and for other recognised public 
needs may be assigned by the Collector for these purposes respectively, 
according to the reasonable requirements of the villagers without 
charge : and he may for sufficient reasons at any time revoke such 
assignment. 

(2) Orders under this rule shall bo passed in writing and recorded. 

(0 Land so assigned remains public property ; there is no disposal of posses- 
sion or proprietary right under sec. 37 (G .ft. 555-01). There is therefore no limit 
of value (G.' R. 83 17-99). Grams of sites for idgih, temple^ or extensions of Tillage 
sites are not assignments bat disposals (G. R. 9424-06). Instances of public or 
Municipal purposes are land for rab-catting, public latrines. 

Municipalities may retain half the income derived from tho strictly temporary 
use of such land subject to the approval of the Uollector or Oily Survey Officer ; 
the other half will be credited toGjvernment (G. R. 125-247-2-25). 

(u) Such assignments do not include transfers to other departments which 
must be sanctioned by Government. 

() The annual statement of sich assignments was discontinued ( G. B. 
11506-11). 

(10) 'Gairan' may be transferred to 'Burial ground' without Government 
sanction (G. E 3317-99, 5701 01); and Government can modify any gairan assign- 
ment (G. R. 3181.88). 

(v) When any expenditure on provision of burial grounds is required, then it 
devolves upon the local bodies (G. R. 4953-00). But after acquisition, the land 
would be assigned under sec. 38, and not as L B. property. 

luamdara cannot enclose free pasture or other such assigned land ( Tish^anath 
tJ. Madhwji, 1879). 

CHAPTER XII. 

RKLINQUISBMENTS. 

74. Endorsement as to identify required below rajinamas.-~-'l) Every 
notice given under section 14 shall be io Form L and the declaration 
below the notice shall be subscribed by two respectable witnesses. 



M THK BOMBAY LAND REVDNUK CODE, 

(2) The Mamlatdar who receives any such notice will be held 
responsible for exercising due care in ascertaining the identity of the 
person who has signed the same, notwithstanding that such notice 
has been duly endorsed as hereinbefore required. 

Note- All notices received under aeo. 74 shall ba kept in the records of the 
tillage accountant until the expiry of one year after tbo end of the year in which 
they were given and afterwards in the records of the Mamlatdar for at least 12 
year*. Entry will at once be made in the Diary of Mutations and certified in due 
comse : this will ensure resoffioient record (Anderson). 

CHAPTER XIIL 

REBTBICTIONS ON USB OF LAND. 

76. Cultivation ofunarable land in survey number when prohibited. 
H) Imnd included as unarable (pot kkarab) in a survey number assessed 
for purposes of agriculture only is of two kinds: 

(a) that which is classed as unfit for agriculture at the time of 
survey including the farm buildings or threshing-floors of the holder ; 

(fa that which is not assessed because it is reserved or assigned 
for public purposes ; or because it is occupied by a road or recognized 
footpath, or by a tank or stream u&ed by persons other than the holder 
for irrigation or for drinking or domestic purposes, or used for a 
burial or burning ground by any community, or by the public ; or 
because it is assigned for village potteries. 

(2) Class (a) may be brought under cultivation at any time by the 
holder and no additional assessment shall be charged therefor. 

The cultivation of class (6) is hereby prohibited under section 48, 
sub-section V 4): 

Provided that this prohibition shall not apply in the case of a 
tank or stream when such tank or stream is used for irrigation only 
and waters only land which is in the sole occupation of the holder, or 
when the privilege of cultivating the dry bed of the tank or stream has 
been specially conceded to the holder. 

76. Use of land for the manufacture of salt prohibited except on 
certain conditions. (I) No occupant of unalienated land shall use the 
same or any part thereof for the manufacture of salt without the pre- 
vious permission in writing, first of the Collector of salt Revenue and 
then of the Collector of the district. 

(2) The Collector of the district may, in any case where such per- 
mission is granted, either 

(a) require the occupant to relinquish his rights of occupation, 
and to enter into an agreement that such land shall be placed at the 
disposal of the Salt Department, subject to a lease in fovour of the 
applicant on such terms as the Deputy Commissioner of Salt Revenue 
under the general orders of Government may require; or 

(b) permit the use applied for without requiring the occupant to 
relinquish his rights of occupation on the following conditions : 

(t) that the occupant shall pay such fine as the Collector may deem 
proper, not exceeding ooe-t^nth of the amount which would be leviable 
Under section 66 in a case or unauthorized use, and 



BULBS VI 

(it) that the occupant shall execute an agreement that he will pay 
in lieu of the existing assessment and Local Fund cess, such amount 
or rate as may be imposed by the license to be granted by the Deputy 
Commissioner of Salt Revenue in accordance with the general and 
special orders of Government, and shall also in respect of the land 
used conform to all the conditions of such license ; and 

(m) that whenever the Deputy Commissioner of Salt Revenue 
declares that the land, or any part thereof, is not used or hae ceased 
to be used for the manufacture of salt, such land shall forthwith be- 
come liable to the survey assessment which was chargeable upon it 
immediately before it was permitced to be used for the manufacture 
of salt. 

77. Removal of earth, stone, etc., prohibited, if injurious to cultivation 
and for purposes of trade, etc. Save as provided in section 65 and rule 
76, no occupant of land assessed or held for purposes of agriculture 
only, and no person claiming under or acting by authority of any such 
occupant, shall excavate or remove earth, stone other than loose sur- 
face stones, kankar, sand, muram or any other material of the soil 
thereof, or make any other use of fche land so as, in the opinion of 
the Collector, thereby to destroy or materially injure the land for cul- 
tivation or for purposes of trade or profit, or any other purpose 
except his own domestic or agricultural purposes. 

78. Removal of earth, stone, etc ,from building site prohibited except 
on certain conditions. No holder of Ian 1 assessed or held as a building 
site, or lease-holder of a building site in a hill station, and no person 
claiming under any such holder or lease-holder, shall, subject to any 
special provision in the conditions annexed to his holding under sec- 
tion 6*J, section 67 or otherwise, or prescribed by his lease, excavate or 
r.emove for any purpose whatever earth, stone other than loose surface 
stones, kankar, sand, inuram or any other material of the soil thereof, 
except with the previous permission in writing of the Collector, and 
in accordance with such terms (including the payment of fees for any 
such excavation or removal) as the Collector in each case thinks fit to 
prescribe. 

79. Excavation of unalienated land within site of village, town or 
city prohibited except for certain purposes. (1) No unalienated land 
within the site of any city, town or village shall be excavated without 
the previous written permission of the Collector, for any purpose 
except the laying of foundations for buildings, the sinking of wells 
and the making of grain-pits. 

(2) When permission is granted by the Collector to excavate any 
such land as aforesaid for any purpose other than those above men- 
tioned, such excavation shall not oe made otherwise than in accord- 
ance with such terms (including the payment of fees for any such 
excavation) as the Collector in each case thinks fit to prescribe. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

THE USB OF LAND FOR ANY PURPOSE OTHER THAN THAT FOR 
WHICH IT HiS BBBN A8SBSSBD. 

Alteration of assessment in the case of unalienated lands. 
80, Alteration of assessment when land assessed or Mdfor agricul- 
tural purposes is used for non-agricultural purpose*. When unalienated 



If THE BOMBAY LARD RSVENTTE GOBI:, 1170 

lajnd Assessed o { r held for purposes of agriculture only is sabsequsntly- 
u,ied for apy purpose unconnected with agriculture, the assessment 
upon the land so used shall (except in the cases provided for in rule 
5v or 76 and except as otherwise directed by Goverhment) be altered 
under sub-section (2) of section 48 and such alteration shall be made 
by the Collector in accordance with the following rules. 

8 1 . Ordinary rates of altered assessment. Ordinary rates of altered 
assessment. (1) For the purpose of determining generally the rate of 
altered assessment leviable, each Commissioner shall, from time to 
time, by notification published in the official Gazette, divide the vil- 
lages, towns and cities in each district in his division (to which a 
standard rate under Rule 82 has not been extended) into two classes. 

(2) The assessment shall then be fixed by the Collector at his 
discretion, subject to the general or special orders of Government at a 
sum per square yard within the following limits : 

Maximum For Class I land 2 pies. 
For Class II ]and 1 pie. 
Minimum* The agricultural assessment. 

In fixing the rate within the above limits due regard shall be had 
to the general level of the value of lands in the locality used for non- 
agricultural purposes. 

u Provided that the altered assessment of plots "f land not buil fc 
upon in Development Department Schemes shall be limited to a maxi- 
mum rate of Re. 1 per 250 square yards or part thereof.": 

(3) " The Collector with the previous sanction of the Commis- 
sioner which shall only be given for special reasons to be recorded in 
writing, may levy on any land altered assessment at a rate higher 
than the maximum fixed under Sub-rule (2) in respect of any village, 
town or city in which such land is situated, in cases where the land 
is either situated in an exceptionally favourable position, or where it 
is used temporarily for a non-agricultural purpose, or where the pur- 
pose for which it is used is of a special kind. Such higher rate shall 
not however exceed 50 per cent, of the estimated annual rental value 
of the land when put to non- agricultural use in question." 

(G R. R D., No. 1390-23 of 29th March 1932.) 

82. Special rate* of altered assessment in certain areas* In any 
area in which, or account of there being a keen demand for building 
sites or for any other special purpose. Government may, by notifica- 
tion in the official Gazette, direct that this rule shall be applied, the 
rate of altered assessment shall be determined in accordance with the 
following provisions and not under rule 81 : 

I. The altered assessment shall ordinarily be a percentage on the 
full market value of the land as a building site. 

II. In cases where this rule is applied on account of there being a 
demand for building sites, the market value of the land shall be estimat- 
ed as far as possible on the basis of actual sales of unoccupied land for 
building purposes in the locality. In cases where this rule is applied 
on account of the demand being for other special purposes, the market 
value shall be estimated as far as possible, on the basis of actual sales 
of unoccupied land of whic^ the value is enhanced by the existence of 
the special demand. 



RULES 9 

III. Government shall determine what percentage shall be charg- 
ed io any locality to which this rule is applied, and the standard rates 
of altered assessment shall be calculated thereupon and shall be levied 
in place of the current rate of assessment. At intervals often years 
or, in particular localities, at such shorter intervals as Government 
may direct, the rates shall be revised with the sanction of Government. 
Until the rates are so revised, the old rates shall remain in force. The 
rates sanctioned from time to time shall be published in the official 
gazette. A public notice shall be given one year before any revised 
rate comes into force. 

IV. A rate differing from the standard rate of altered assessment 
in any locality shall not be levied without special reasons which shall 
be recorded : provided that the Collector, with the previous sanction 
of the Commissioner, may levy a higher rate in the case of land situat- 
ed in an exceptionally favourable position. 

V. Deleted (Q. R. 1890-28 of 1-2-30). 

VI. The rates of altered assessment leviable on lands in the 
Bombay Suburban Division, to which this rule applies, shall however 
be reduced to such extent as Government may specify by a notification 
in the official (lazette. 

82-A. Notwithstanding anything in rules 81 and 8\i in any area 
to which Government may by notification in the official Gazette direct 
that this rule shall be applied an additional rate of Rs. 2\- for every 
lakh of bricks manufactured in any one year shall be levied in addi- 
tion to the annual assussment of Rs. 40 per acre on land used for the 
manufacture of brick : Provided that where exact accounts of manu- 
facture are not available, the Collector ehall be at liberty to fix the 
number according to the known capacity of the kiln, and his [decision 
shall be final. 

Note This new rale 82-A finally sanctioned in R. 5812 of 0-11-25 assesses 
land not according to its value or area or profits or other consideration recognis- 
ed in the Oode bnt at an arbitrary "Royalty" no doubt r Highly proportionate to 
profit. It is framed under section 214 (d) (Regulating permission ID use) and is 
considered by R. L A. to be coverel by the law. 

83. (Cancelled by G. R 1890-28 of 20th Aug. 1520.) 

$4. Grant of permission in hill stations, etc. In hill stations and 
such other localities as Government my direct, permission shall not 
be granted under section 65 except oo such conditions as are consider- 
ed desirable regarding the style of building, the period for construc- 
tion and the observance of municipal or sanitary regulations. Such 
conditions shall be embodied in the Sanad. 

85. Assessment leviable on compounds ; reduced in certain cases 
Altered assessment shall ordinarily be levied upon the whole of the 
land within the compound of a building and not merely upon the land 
covered with building. 

80. Levy of altered assessment when to begin. (a) The altered 
assessment shall ordinarily be levied from the first day of the revenue 
year next succeeding the revenue year in which permission to use the 
land for non-agricultural purposes was given, provided that (1) where 
the use is temporary the Collector may in his discretion levy it from 
the first day on which or the commencement of the year in which the 
non-agricultural use begins* 



M THE BOMBAY LAMB REVENUE CODE, 1870 

(2) In the case of building sites held by Co-operative Housing 
Societies which are not built upon, no altered assessment shall be levi- 
ed for the three years subsequent to the date on which possession of 
the land was taken or the building permission granted, whichever was 
later ; And on the expiry of that period, altered assessment shall be 
levied with effect from the first day of the next revenue year at half 
the rate current in the locality, unless for special reasons which shall 
be specified in writing the Collector considers it desirable that the full 
exemption from altered assessment should be continued fora further 
period or periods. In all cases, the full altered assessment payable in 
the locality shall be levied as soon as a plot is built upon." 
(G. R., R. D., No. 620 28, dated 14-10-32.) 

(4) Where no permission was given the altered assessment levied 
for non-agricultural use shall always be levied from the first day of 
the revenue year in which the use commenced. (Notification G. R. 9113- 
24 3rd January 1928). 

87. Revision of al'ered assessment. (a) Revision of altered assess- 
ment. The peroid for which the altered assessment is to be fixed shall 
ordinarily be 30 years from the date prescribed in the sanad except in 
the Bombay Suburban District where, on account of its special condi- 
tions the period shall ordinarily be fifty years. On the expiry of this 
or any other period mentioned in the sanad, and at such further inter- 
vals as may be from time to time directed by Government in this behalf, 
the assessment fixed shall be liable to revision in accordance with the 
Code and the rules and orders for the time being in force thereunder. 

(b) When land used for non-agricultural purposes is assessed 
under the provisions of rules 81 to 85, a sanad shall be granted in the 
Form M if the land is used for building purposes, in form Nl if the 
land is used temporarily for a non-agricultural purpose other than 
building and in Form N in all other cases. 

88. Commuting altered assessment* In cases where the altered 
assessment is fixed under rule 87 the assessment, if not exceeding one 
rupee, instead of being rendered annually, may, with the consent of 
the Collector, be commuted by the occupant for a lump payment of its 
present value, for the residual term for which that assessment is fixed, 
at a rate of interest not more than half per cent, above the market 
rate at the time of commutation upon public securities the interest on 
which is lial.le to income-tax; and a note of such payment or commuta- 
tion shall be made in or at the foot of the sanad granted in respect of 
the land under Rule 87 (b) on the expiry of the period for which 
it has been commuted the assessment, whether revised or not, shall 
again be leviable unless it is again commuted under this rule. 

Note* The commutation is permissive and is to be restricted to cases where 
the annual xeveune is so small as not to be worth annual collection(G. R. 4578-18) 
Such cases mast be so rare that commutations will practically not be allowed. 

89. Maps showing altered assessment. (1) Each Collector shall 
permanently maintain in his office and from time to time as required 
renew a map of his district upon which it shall be clearly shown by 
distinct colours, or otherwise as may be convenient, under which of 
the foregoing rules and classes all the land of the district falls. 

(2) When an area is very small, or when its limits intersect a 
village in an intricate way, insects on a larger scale or a supplement- 
ary file of village maps shall be provided. 



(&) Whenever any area is brought undtr a different class or rate 
by a fresh order, the map shall be corrected and the authority for the 
change noted over the Collector's signature on the map. 

(4) Each Maralatdar shall similarly maintain a map of his taluka 
with similar supplements which shall be similarly corrected and en- 
dorsed by the Collector at each change. 

(5) These maps shall be open to public inspection free of charge 
during all office hours, 

"PO. Levy of rate when land assessed for a purpose other than build- 
ing is used for building. (1) When any holding which has been assessed 
or is held for non-agricultural purposes other than building, is with 
the Collector's permission, used for residential building, the Collector 
shall levy the rate of assessment imposed on land used for such pur- 
pose in the locality. " 

(2) In such cases the holder shall be given a new sunad in the form 
prescribed from time to time under rule 87 (b). 

91. Re-imposition of agricultural assessment. (]) When any hold- 
ing, which has been assessed or of which the assessment has been 
altered for any non-agricultural use, is used for agriculture only, the 
Collector may on the application of the holder, remove the non-agricul- 
tural assessment and impose either the old agricultural assessment, if 
any, and if the settlement period has not expired ; or may impose in 
other cases a new agricultural assessment equivalent to that imposed 
on other similar agricultural lands in the vicinity. 

(2) Such agricultural assessments shall be subject to the same con* 
ditions as to periodical revision and the same rules and provisions of 
law as if they had been imposed at the ordinary revenue settlement of 
the village in which land is situated. 

Provided that if the holder has paid any lump sum as commuted 
assessment for any period, he shall not be entitled to any refund or to 
any change in the conditions of his lease or agreement until the period 
for which the commutation has been paid expires. 

ALTERATION OF ASSESSMBMT IN SURVEYED AND SETTLED 
ALIENATED VILLAGES. 

92. Application of rule* ; certain poivers of Collector to be exercised 
by holder with commission. When laud assessed for purposes of agricul- 
ture only is subsequently used for any purpose unconnected with 
agriculture, the assessment upon the land so used shall, unless other- 
wise directed by Government, be altered under sub-section (2) of sec- 
tion 48 by the Collector in accordance with rules 81 to 87 inclusive : 

Provided that the powers of the Collector under those rules, other 
than the power of estimating the full market value and fixin^ stan- 
dard rates of assessment, shall be exercised by the holder or hofders of 
the alienated village in respect of land specified in a commission con- 
ferring the powers of a Collector under section 65 or 66 upon such 
holder or holders under section 88 (rf). 

93. Fines. For the purposes of determining the amounts of the 
fines leviable under section 66, rules 99 to 102 shall be applied : 

Provided that the powers of the Collector under section 65 or 66 
respectively shall be exercised in accordance with the provisions of 



S2 THE BOMBAY LJLKD RBVENUE CODE, 1879 

rules 99 to 102 by the holder or holders of the alienated village in 
respect of land specified in a commission conferring the powers of a 
Collector under section 65 or 66 respectively upon such holder or 
holders under section 88 (d). 

94. Applications how to be dealt uitk. (\) When the Collector 
receives an application under section 65 for permission to use for any 
other purpose land assessed for purposes of agriculture only, he shall 
forthwith forward to the holder or holders of the alienated village in 
which the land is situated a copy of the application and shall as soon 
as possible thereafter also forward to such holder or holders a letter 
showing the altered assessment leviable upon use of the land for such 
other purpose and requesting such holder or holders to intimate with- 
in one month of the date of the letter whether the application should 
be granted or refused. 

('^) If such holder or holders intimate that the application should 
be granted it shall be granted accordingly ; but if such holder or any 
of such holders intimate that the appliation should be refused or do 
not make any intimation within the time specified, the application 
shall be refused. 

95. Procedure when information of use for non-agricultural purpose* 
ie ieceived> (1) When the Collector receives information that any 
inferior holder of land assessed for purposes of agriculture only has 
rendered himself liable to any of the penalties specified in section 66 
the Collector shall address to the holder or holders of the alienated 
village a letter communicating the information and the liabilities of 
the holder of the said land and showing the altered assessment or fine 
or both leviable and requesting the holder or holders of the alienated 
village to intimate within such time as the Collector considers reason- 
able whether the liabilities should or should not be enforced. 

(2) If such holder or holders intimate that the liabilities should 
be enforced, they shall be enforced accordingly; but if such holder or 
any of such holders intimate that the liabilities should not be enforc- 
ed or do not make any intimation within the time specified or within 
such further time as may specially be granted, they shall not be 
enforced. 

" (3) Provided that the Collector shall not pass any such orders 
in respect of land specified in a commission conferring* the powers of 
a Collector under section 66 upon the holder or holders of the alienated 
village under section 88 (d) but shall forthwith communicate the in- 
formation for the orders of such holder or holders of the alienated 
village; and also provide that any such information may be received 
and acted upon by such holder or holders of the alienated village 
direct." 

(GK R., R. D., 1890-28 of 15th May 1931) 

96. Communication of orders and levy of assessment. (1) The Col- 
lector, or the holder or holders of the alienated village, as the case 
may be, shall communicate any orders passed by him or them under 
these rules to the Mamlatdar, who shall communicate such orders to 
the applicant or holder of the land concerned and shall direct the vil- 
lage officers to levy any altered assessment or fine so ordered. 

(2) Such altered assessment or fine shall be levied in the same 
manner as other land revenue and shall be paid wholly to the holder 



Of holders of the alienated village when such holder or holders are 
entitled to the whole land revenue of the village or proportionately to 
their shares when such holder or holders are entitled to a proportion 
only cf the land revenue in accordance with the conditions under 
wiiich they hold the alienated village. 

97. Kadim and sheri land exempted.--1$Qi\iito% in rules 92 to 95 shall 
be deemed to apply to lands which are alienated lands apart from the 
alienation of the village in which they are situated, nor alienated land 
in the possession of and occupied in person by the holder or holders of 
the alienated village. 

Note Tenants-at-will do not deprive the Inamdar of his possession 5 but 
"permanent" or occupancy tenants do. The distinction betweea permanent tenants 
and tenants-at-will is often hard to draw, when not de6ned by written leases 
(I. L. B. 17 Bom. 475, 29 Bom. 415), but the "sutidars" of Kurla are admitted 
to be permanent. 

98. Meaning of " holder " of alienated village. For the purposes 
of rules 92 to 97 the holder or holders of any alienated village shall be 
taken to mean the actual holder or holders or in cases of doubt the 
person or persons whose name or names is or are registered as sucb in 
the register kept under section 53. 

PERMISSION FOK NON-AGKICULTUKAL USE AND FINES IN 
CASES OF UNAUTHORIZED USE. 

99. No fine ordinarily to be imposed under section 65. No fine 
shall ordinarily be imposed under section 65, that is to say, where 
land assessed or held for purposes of agriculture is used for any pur- 
pose unconnected with agriculture with the permission of the Collector. 

100. Maximum fine leviable wider section 66. - -Any fine imposed by 
the Collector under section 66 shall be fixed by him at his discretion 
subject to rule 101 and shall not exceed ten times the altered assess- 
ment imposed under this Chapter. 77 

(G. R., B. D., 1890-28 of 15th May 1931). 

"10 1 . Maximum fine leviable for unauthorised use for building^ brick 
making ete. -When the material of the soil of any occupied land is 
employed for bricks or tiles or pottery or for any other non-agricul- 
tural purposes, without the permission of the Collector b ing first 
obtained and the value of the land is thereby adversely affected, a fine 
may be levied at a rate not exceeding double the rate prescribed in 
rule 100." 

(G. R., B. D M 1890-28 of loth May 1931). 

102. Sacing of special cases dealt with by .Government. Notwith- 
standing anything contained in rules 99 to lol, tin Collector may, in 
^uch cases as Government deem exceptional or unuaual, impose a fine. 
whether under section 65 or under section 66, at such rate as may be 
fixed by Government in that behalf. 

Note. No ex'ra high maximum may be generally prescribed lor certain 
areas ; bat an individual order in each case is necessary (G-. it. 1881-1)7). 

103. Limit of fine under section 61. ~~ The limit of fine to be levied 
under section 61, when land is anauthorizedly occupied and use4 for 

L. B 5* 



34 THE BOMBAY LAND BBTENUE CODE, 1370 



eon: 9tT3 jo femora* 9t[^ ejqnop oq 
th*t would be leviable under section 63 and rale 100 if the same land 
being in lawful occupation had been used by the holder for the same 
purpose without the permission of the Collector : 

" Provided that a fine up to Us. 100 may be levied in any such case 
irrespective of the area of the land involved.' 7 

(G. R., B. D., 1890-28 of 15th May 1931). 



CHAPTER XV. 

RECOKD OF RIGHTS. 

104. The record of rights and mutations, the Index of lands and 
the register of disputed cases shall be kept in forms 0, P,and Q respec- 
tively ; provided that in sites surveyed under section 13 1, these forms 
may *be modified by tbe Director of Land Records to suit the require- 
ments of cities, the record of rights being termed the "Property Regis- 
ter." After the original preparation of the Record, all later entries 
altering or transferring those rights are termed " mutations. " 

Notes. The method of writing the record has been changed. The rales have 
therefore been modified as per GK R. 352-28 of 10-4-29. 

Toe subject of the Record of Rights was first mooted by the Government of 
India in their letter 2770-369 dated ' -12-97 and it was intended purely for Settle- 
ment purposes In April 1898 orders to make experiments were received. The 
first draft waa prepared by Sir J. W. P. Muir Mackenzie, and the experiments 
were carried out in 1899 by Messrs. A. B. Fforde, F. B. Young, H. B. Sathe. 
The first \ct was passed in 1 903 (IV of 1903) but this was repealed and incor- 
p<roated in tbe L, R. 0. of 1913. The Record has now also become the basis of 
i he accounts of liability to pay land revenue : and also of the audit of alienations 
of land revenue. 

105. (i) When the record of rights is first introduced in any vil- 
lage, as soon as the preparation has begun, the vilage accountant shall 
cause notice thereof to be given by beat of drum and shall post up a 
written notice in the chavdi. He shall also write at the head of the 
record a certificate that such notice was duly given. 

(2) Prior to the preparation of the fair copy of the record of rights, 
the villag e accountant shall prepare a rough copy of the record in the 
form of an Index of Lands with all rights noted against each parcel. 
Until the fair copy is prepared, such rough copy shall be used as and 
be deemed to be the register of mutations, and the provisions of the 
Code and of these rules which apply to the said register shall apply so 
far as may be to such rough copy, and the provisions of rule 111 respect- 
ing the introduction of the re. written copy of the index shall apply 
so far as may be to the introduction of this first fair copy of the record. 

Note Tbe assistance of all Tillage servants is of course required ( G. B. 
950-1902), 



BTTLII 85 

106. (1) Every mutation shall be posted in the Diary by the 
village accountant and examined by the Circle Inspector and shall be 
read out and explained by the latter to all persons present. 

(2) The Circle Inspector shall initial all entries so examined. 

(3) If any person adversely affected admits an entry to be correct 
the Circle Inspector shall note the admission. 

(4) If any interested person disputes the correctness of an entry, 
the Circle Inspector shall not erase but shall correct any errors admit- 
ted by all parties either by bracketing the errors and' inserting the 
correct entries by interlineation or side note or by an entirely fresh 
entry in either case authenticated by his signature : if the error is 
not admitted, he shall enter the dispute in the Register of Disputed 
Cases (form Q), and it shall be disposed of under rule 108. 

Dispute. The dispute must be between holders ; a claim against Govern- 
ment maat be decided under sec. 37 and the result recorded : it cannot be dealt, 
with under this Chapter. 

107. (1) The entries in the Diary of mutations shall be further 
tested and revised, by a revenue officer not lower in rank than a 
Mamlatdar's First Karkun. 

(2) Any entry found by such officer to be correct shall be certified 
by him. 

(3) Any entry found to be incorrect shall, if no dispute is brought 
to his notice, be corrected as in rule 10G (4) and certified by him : 
such correction shall be a new mutation for the purpose of section 
135D(2). 

(4) Where such officer finds that there is a dispute regarding any 
entry examined by him, he shall enter the dispute in the register of 
disputed oases and the dispute shall be disposed of under rule 108. 
Such officer shall, wherever possible, himself dispose of the dispute 
tinder the said rule forthwith. 

(;">) One appeal only shall lie against any entry certified under 
sub-rule (3) or corrected under sub-rule (3) otherwise than by the 
Collector himself, to the same authority to which an appeal lies in a 
case decided under rule 108. 

Correction. The correction may possibly be made without the knowledge 
of the opponent or some interested third party. This provision secures notice to 
them also. 

Appeal. There is o appeal against Collector's order. Ohap. XIII, of the L. 
B. 0., as to appeals and revision does not apply to the Records of Bights. There- 
fore papers cannot be called for or proceedings revised otherwise than as provided 
in this chapter, that is to say, otherwise than daring inspection and test in the 
village. If a party presents an appeal this can be decided by taking evidence, etcl 
or on local enquiry by the Appellate Officer. When a party makes a formal appea 
no entry in the Dispute Register is needed, if not already made; as the appellate 
decision can be posted direct to the Mutation Register (V. F. VII) and will oper- 
ate as a decision of the dispute. (Andw&an), 

108. (1) Disputes entered in the register of disputed cases shall 
ordinarily be disposed of by the Mamlatdar's First Karkun or by the 
Mamlatdar, but may be disposed of by the District Inspector of Land 



THE BOMBAY AJANB EKTEKUB CODE, 1879 



Records or by any revenue officer of superior rauk to that of First 
Karkun. 

(2) The enquiry shall ordinarily be made in the village in which 
the land is situate or where the interested parties reside. 

(3) The officer making the enquiry shall record his order dispos- 
ing of the dispute in the said register, and shall then make such eutry 
in the Diary of mutations as may be necessary. 

(4) Such officer sball certify the entry in the diary of mutations 
to be correct. 

(5) An appeal against an order under thid rule shall, if the order 
has been passed by the Mamlatdar's first karkun, the Mamlatdar, the 
District Idspector or a revenue officer of lower rank than that of a 
Deputy Collector, lie to the Sub-Divisional Officer or an officer ap- 
pointed by Government in this:behalf, and if the order has been passed 
by the Sub-Divisional Officer, the Superintendent of Land Records or 
by a Revenue Officer of not lower rank than that of a Deputy Collector, 
to the Coll ctor ; and must be presented within 60 days from the day 
the appellant first knew it had been made The decision of the appel- 
late authority shall be final. There ^hall be no appeal against the 
order of the Collector and no second appeal in any case. 

(6) If the appellate order coufirms the previous decision, it should 
\>e noted in the remarks column, against the confirmed entry. If it 
alters it, the change shall be entered as a fresh, but not disputable, 
mutation. 

109. Entries in the Diary of mutations shall ordinarily be trans- 
ferred to the Index of lands as soon as certified. 

I'O. The index of lands shall be re-written incorporating all 
mutations recorded up to the date prescribed by the sub divisional 
officer whenever that officer, in view of the number of entries in the 
Diary of mutations, shall so direct. 

111. (1) When the re-written Index of land is reported to be 
complete, the Collector or sub-divisional officer shall fix a date for its 
inspection and shall cause notice thereof to be given calling upon all 
persons interested to appear on such date at a specified place in or in 
the immediate vicinity of the village concerned, and notifying that 
any such person may before such date inspect the Index on application. 

(2) On the date at the place appointed, the Collector or subdivi- 
sional officer shall compare the new copy with the old Index and the 
diary of mutations, cause such portions thereof to be read out as any 
of the persons present may desire to hear, read and make any correc- 
tion that may be necessary. 

(3) Such officer shall then sign tho new Index and subscribe 
below it a certificate that the entries therein have been duly tested 
and found correct. 

112. Where a revenue officer or a village accountant issues any 
summons or notice under section U55E (I) OP G, he shall follow the 
provisions of section J90 or 191 as the case maybe. 

113. Record of such tenancies as are not perpetual or notified 
under section 135B (2) shall be kept in form R. The enties therein 
shall be tested by the Circle Inspector when he examines the crops. 
and by other officers of higher rank. When any error is discovered 
by any of these inspecting officers, they may correct it and initial the 



RTJLEB 37 

corrected entry. The register will be compiled every ten years, but 
there will be no notification. When any dispute as to such tenancies 
is found to exist, a note of the fact may be [made in the register, but 
no entry will be made in the register of disputed cases, nor ;will any 
revenue officer decide the dispute. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

RECOVERY OF LAND REVENUE. 

114. Land revenue where and to whom to be paid. All payments of 
land revenue shall be made to the officers of the village in which such 
revenue is due : provided that, with the sanction of the Collector, 
such payment may in special cases be made into a Government Trea- 
sury within the district to which the payment appertains. 

Notes. For collection of inamdars' rents directly as Government dues, see 
sec. 94A. When there is no watandar kulkarni, or when the watandar has com- 
mated (G. R. 8 7 33-1 6), this power cannot be used. Inamdara mast stamp the 
receipts they give to occupants or to the kulkarni for sums exceeding Ks. 20, 
(G. R, 2641-84); but not receipts given to their tenants on " sheri " lands. 

Payment is ordinarily to be made to the patel in the presence of 
the accountant. 

115 Except in Sind, Ratnagiri, Kolaba, Kanara and Thana, 
Collectors shall, with the sanction of the Commissioner, classify the 
villages in their districts into the following three classes : 

Class I : kharif villages in ghat districts and elsewhere where ifc 
is necessary that the revenue be secured specially early ; 

Class 11 : kliarif villages in Gujarat and elsewhere where no such 
special provision is necessary ; 

Class III : rabi villages generally. 

11(5. Dates on which agricultural revenue to be paid. (1) The land 
revenue payable in respect of lands assessed lor purposes of agricul- 
tme only shall be paid in equal or nearly equal instalments on the 
following dates : 

(a) in Sind for kharif cultivation the 15th February and the 
15th April, and for rabi cultivation the 15th Mav and the 15th June 
(Notification 6961-24 ,lnly 1927). 

(b) in Thana district the 1st January and the 16th February ; 

(c) and in villages classed under rule 115 in 
Class I, on the 5th December and the 5th January ; 
Class II, on the 5th January and the 5th March ; 

Class III, and the whole of the District of Ratnagiri, Kanara and 
Kolaba the 5th February and the 5th April : 

(?) Provided that 

(e) in any district or in any part of a district where the dates 
above specified are found unsuitable, the Collector may, with the 
sanction of the Commissioner, fix such other dates as he may deem 
expedient according to the circumstances of the season and* of the 
villages concerned and the character of the crops generlly sown therein; 



SI THE BOMBAY LAND RHTENUE CODE, 1879 

(ii) Where the annual amount of the revenue is five rupees or 
under, it shall be payable in a lump sum at the date of the first 
instalment ; 

(Hi) if the person from whom the year's revenue is due so wishes, 
he may in any case pay the whole amount at once instead of by 
instalments. 

117. Other land revenue. Land revenue, other than that due 
upon agricultural land, shall ordinarily be paid in one instalment, at 
the time of the first instalment of agricultural land revenue or on such 
other date as the Collector thinks fit in any case to prescribe ; but in 
special cases the Collector may in his discretion allow the payment to 
be made in two or more instalments on dates which shall be fixed 
by him. 

118. Form of notice of demand. The notice of demand to be issued 
uoder section 152 shall be in form S. 

119. Duties of village officers. (a) It shall be the duty of the 
village officers to warn landholders verbally from time to time of the 
dates on which their instalments are due, and to use their influence in 
securing prompt payment without resort to notices of demand or other 
compulsory processes. 

(b) Village officers shall report to the Mamlatdar the names of 
landholders who, they have reason to believe, will not punctually pay 
their instalments, in order that precautionary measures under sections 
140-145 may be, when necessary, adopted in time : and shall immediate- 
ly report any case where the produce of any land on which the assess- 
ment has not been paid is attached by a Civil Court. 

Restriction upon distraint. For restrsctions upon distraints; BOG BW 
60(1), Civil Procedure Code, V of 1908. There is no form of did train t order 
(G. B, 9401-83 and 1302-89). Dwelling houses may not ba broken open (G. B. 
No. 9982 of 1884). It is under consideration whether Civil Courts should he 
required to notify the Collector when they attach crops (G. B. No. 9188 Of 1916). 

Notes. Whenever the consolidated demand is ordered to be half- suspended 
or half remitted, the division shall be so made that no fraction less than a whole 
anna shall be taken in the portion to ba suspended or remitted. 

Whenever an amount is suspended, the suspension shall always be condi- 
tional upon the payment of the amount which is not suspended. When, for in- 
stance, half the revenue is suspended, but any revenue-payer defaults in respect of 
any remaining nnsnspended revenue the suspension shall be cancelled so that the 
suspended amount also becomes due for the current year. 



CHAPTER XVII. 
DISPOSAL OF FORFEITED LAND. 

120. Restoration or grant on inalienable tenure. Where the Col- 
lector thinks it advisable that the holding of a defaulter should, after 
forfeiture, be either restored to the defaulter or given out with or with- 
out any occupancy price to any other person, subject to the condition 
that he shall not transfer it in any way to another person without the 
previous sanction in writing of the Collector, the Collector, after hav- 
ing declared such holding to be forfeited to Government, raay, without 



tttritti ** 

having resort to any of the other means provided in the Code for the 
recovery of an arrear of land revenue, restore, or give it out (as the 
case may be) accordingly, and shall take an agreement in form T. 

Notes. Land cannot be forfeited for arrears of Lo^al Fond Oess (G, B. No, 
5673-28 of 28th August 1930). 

Sale expenses are levied even if arrears are piid on tha day of sale (G. Jtt. 
9482-92, 5304-94). A certificate of sale mast always be given (G. R. 3009-80) 
and sent to the Sub-Registrar (sec. 89 (4), Act XVI of 1908). The form is disusa. 
ed in G. B. 6023 83-, and it must be tampd (Art. 16, Sch. I, Stamp Act), and the 
purchaser must execute a kabnlayat (G. B. 2600-83). 

Where Bule 120 is not applied, resort should not be had to forfeiture of land 
unless it appears to the Collector that the arrear cannot be readily recovered by 
any of the other means provided in Chapter XI of the Code. 

121. Partial forfeiture. Where the land in respect of which an 
arrear is due consists of two or more survey numbers or of two or more 
sub-divisions of survey numbers or of two or more estates separately 
assessed, and the Collector is of opinion that the whole amount of such 
arrear could be realized by the sale of less than all of such survey 
numbers, portion or estates, he shall restrict forfeiture to such one or 
more survey numbers or the sub-divisions as prove sufficient to realise 
the arrears. 

122. Deleted, as it merely repeated sec. Ill B ('). 

123. Disposal of forfeited land otherwise than by sale in certain 
cases. Forfeited land shall not be put up for gale in the fpllwing 
cases, but shall be disposed of in the manner hereinafter prescribed for 
the particular case under which it falls, namely : 

(a) Where the Collector thinks that, owiog to general agricultural 
depression or to the want of demand for such land, or to a combination 
of the neighbouring land-holders, or for any other special cause, there 
will be no bidders at the sale, or that the highest amount bid 
will be considerably below the reasonable value, he shall cause the 
land to be entered in the land records as unoccupied. 

(4) Where the Collector finds that the land is likely to be required 
either immediately or within a reasonable time, for any of the pur- 
poses described in section 38, he shall take steps at once to assign it 
for such purpose. 

(<?) In the case of a forfeited alienated holding, where the Collec- 
tor considers it expedient to allow the land to continue in the 
possession of its actual holder or tenant, as an occupant of unalienated 
land, annulling the alienation, he shall pass orders accordingly for its 
continuance. 

(d) In the case of an inferior holding forfeited on account of an 
arrear of rent or land revenue due to a superior holder, for the recovery 
oi which assistance is being rendered under sections 86 and 87, the 
Collector may in his discretion transfer the holding to the superior 
holder thereof, subject to such tenures, rights, incumbrances or equi- 
ties (if any) as he may direct under section 56. 

(e) In any other case, where the Collector considers it is expedienl 
that the disposal of a forfeited holding should be otherwise than ty 
rfale, and obtains the sanction of Government thereto, he shall dispose 
of it in accordance with the particular orders for its disposal passe( 
or sanctioned by Government. 



49 TBS BOMBAY LAUD RSHDNDE CODE, 1879 

Note. It may be inexpedient to lose the tenant, even if the superior holder 
be bankrupt. 

124. Forfeited land to be sold for recovery of arrears in other cases. - 
In cases not falling under rule IfcO, 121, 122 or 123, forfeited land shall, 
subject to the provisions of rule 126, be put up for sale for recovery of 
the arrears due. 

125. Mules and orders applieaHe to mles of forfeited land. (1) 
Every sule of forfeited land shall be made subject to the same rules as 
are applicable to the sale of unoccupied unalienated land so far as the 
same are consistent with the provisions of Chapter XL 

(2) The Collector should ordinarily set aside the sale under section 
179, if in his opinion 

(a) the bidding at such sale has not been bona fide; or 

(b) there has been collusion to recover the holding without pay- 
ment in full of the arrears and charges due to Government or the su- 
perior holder; or 

(c) there has been some material irregularity or mistake or fraud, 
in publishing or conducting such sale, which is likely to have aflfected 
the amount of the highest bid or otherwise to have caused substantial 
injury to any person. 

Notes. The purchaser of forfeited laud, like purchasers of unoccupied Iand 7 
passes an agreement in Form F or H (with or without Form I) or if in Hill Sta- 
tions, or certain Municipal areas, or for certain kinds of leasehold land then 0. E, 
0-F, 0-G, 0-H or O-I as may be applicable. 

No permission to occupy ( Form K ) is needed since sec. 181 requires the 
Collector to put him in possession; but a sale-certificate should be issued on im- 
pressed stamp paper : so printed form is provided (Anderson). 

126. Restoration of forfeited land. (1) It shall be the discretion 
of the Collector to restore any forfeited land at any time previous to 
any sale or other disposal under these rules on payment of the arrear 
in respect of which the forfeiture was incurred together with all costs 
and charges lawfully due by the defaulter, or on security being given 
to his satisfaction for the payment of the said arrear, costs and charge 
within a reasonable period: 

Provided that no forfeited alienated holding, which is not held 
for service, shall be restored as alienated land without the previous 
sanction of 

(a) The Commissioner if it is assessed at more than Rs. 20; 

(4) Government if it is assessed at more than Rs. 5u. 

(2) Where in the case of a forfeited alienated land held for ser- 
vice by a watandar the Collector is satisfied that the failure to pay the 
land revenue due thereupon arose solely from the inability of the de- 
faulter to meet the demand, he may deduct from the forfeited land a 
portion of which the price would be likely to equal the amount of 
the arrear recoverable, and deal with such portion in accordance with 
such of rules 122 to 1^5 as are applicable, and restore the remainder 
of the forfeited land to the defaulter, or may restore the entire for- 
feited land to the defaulter, and either remit the arrear of land reve- 
nue due, or m*ke such arrangements for its being paid in the future as 
he thinks fit. 



fttftSB & 

CHAPTER XVIII. 

BALKS. 

1<J7. Auction sales under rule 42 uhere to be held. Auctions held 
under rules 37 (1), 41, 42 and 50 (2) shall ordinarily be conducted in 
the town or village in which the land is situated. 

Note. It is of course desirable that most other auctions should similarly be 
conducted near the property to be sold. Sometimes, however, for some contracts 
and farms there is better bidding at the taluk* head-quarters than at a distant 
village. 

128. Upset price may be fixed. Where any land or other property 
is sold by public auction, an upset price shall, if the. Collector thinks 
fit, be placed thereon. 

129. Sales how to be conducted. -(1) Every eale by auction, 
under these rules, or in pursuance of any of the provisions of the Code, 
shall be conducted, so far as may be, in accordance with sections ib5 f 
166, 170 to 177 both inclusive and 180. The proclamation and written 
notice of sale required to be issued under sections lOo and 166 shall be 
in one of the forms U or W, with such modifications, if any, as may be 
necessary : 

(2) Provided that, in conducting thefollwing sales, namely : 

(a) sales of the right of grazing and of the right to take or cut 
grass in waste lands, 

(*) sales of the right to take the fruit of specified Government trees 
for a specified period, and 

(c) sales of dead-wood, 

the procedure shall be in accordance with such orders as may from 
time to time be made by the Collector either generally or in a partir 
cular case instead of the procedure prescribed in sections 16f> and 166. 

Notes. Wfcen a bidder at an auction defaults in fulfilling his contract, he 
can be sused for damages, if any are provable (Gr. K. 3*3-12), in add ition to any 
other forfeitures provided by the Code. 

After forfeiture there could be no other claim to which the footnotes in Form 
U could apply. 

CHAPTER XIX. 
APPEALS. 

130. Form and contents.* (1) Every appeal shall be made io the 
form of a petition addressed to the authority to whom an appeal lies, 
and shall be drawn up in concise, intelligible and respectful language; 
and shall bear the signature or mark of the appellant or of his duly 
authorized agent. 

(2) The petition should give the following particulars : 

the name, father's name, occupation and place of residence or 
address of the appellant ; 

the name and address of the writer of the petition. 

(3) The petition should also contain a brief and unexaggerated 
statement of the facts on which the appellant reliea in support of MB 

L..R. 6. 



& THE BOKfcAY AJAKfr &X1&HUK OODE, If 79 

appeal and the grounds of the appellant's objection to the order or 
decision appealed against. 

Notes Ihis chapter does not apply to appeal* under the Record of Bights 
(See rale 108, etc). 

Applications for compassionate allowances from discharged Revenue officers 
are treated as -appeals" (G. R, No. 4907-08). 

131. Presentation. (!) Appeals may either be presented to the 
authority to whom an appeal lies in person or be forwarded to him 
by post. 

(2) Where an appeal is sent by post, fche postage on the cover 
containing it mast invariably be fully prepaid. 

Note. In dealing wit to Oiyil Court dark basts, the Collector is not subject 
to appeals to or revision by the Commissioner, but only by the Court. The Col- 
lector cannot set aside adarkhast sale, but can only confirm or refuse to confirm it. 

1'3 1 . Rejection of appeals without enquiry into their merits . 1 ua tt en - 
tion in any material respect to the requirements of rule 130 or 131 will 
render an appeal liable to be rejected without enquiry into its merits. 



CHAPTER XX. 
PENALTIES. 

133. Breaches of the rules how punishable. Breaches of rules here- 
under mentioned shall be punishable on conviction before a Magistrate 
as follows : 

(I) Whoever commits a breach of rules 67, 68, 69, 70 or 78, by 
excavating or removing earth, stone, kankar, sand, mnram or any 
other material of the soil without due authority : 
with imprisonment which may extend to one month, or with fine 
which may extend to five hundred rupees, 

(5J) Whoever commits a breach of rules 75, 76, 77 or 79, by using 
or excavating land in a prohibited manner, or for a prohibited pur- 
pose, without the due authority : 
with fine which may extend to five hundred rupees. 

(3) Breach of any of rules 67, 70, 72 (4), 119 (a), 119 (*), 134 or 
135 committed by a village officer or city surveyor 

(a) by taking or levying any fees for preparing any document or 
copy or extract of any document which he is bound by any such rule to 
prepare without charge, or 

(6) by charging any fee (i) for granting any permission or inspec- 
tion which he is authorized by any such rule to grant, or (w) for mak- 
ing any search for records, for which no fee can lawfully be charged, 

(c) by refusing without reasonable cause an inspection of land 
records which he is required by any such rule to permit : 

with imprisonment which may extend to one month, or 
with fine which may extend to five hundered rupees, 

(d) by refusing or neglecting to prepare any document or copy or 
extract of any document, or to sign or to certify the same, in the 
irifcriner prescribed by any such role, or 



(e) by neglecting to make any report or to perform any duty which 
he is required by any such rule to make or to perform : 
with fine which may extend to five hundred rupees. 

Notes.- 'Magistrate' means any Magistrate (G. JR. 8103-83; H. 0. Baling 
46-16, 11,93). 

Fines are recovered as arrears of land revenue under sec, 187 (not by the 
ordinary police procedure) (Q, B, 4697-85), 



OH AFTER XXI. 

CERTAIN" DOCUMENTS TO BK PREPARED FREE OF CHARGS. 

134. Villa ye accountants to prepare certain documents without charge 
when so desired. (1) It shall be the duty of every village accountant, 
if so requested by any occupant, or by any person about to become an 
occupant, of land in his village, to prepare any agreement that may be 
necessary under either rules 37, 43, 46 or i^O without fee or charge of 
any kind, and any notice of relinquishment under section 74. 

(2) A village accountant who prepares any such agreement or 
notice shall affix his signature beneath the words "written by " on the 
lower left-hand corner of such agreement or notice. 



CHAPTER XXII. 

Corns, INSPECTION AND SEARCHES. 

7. Inspection. 

135. Certain documents to be open to inspection. Documents, maps, 
registers, accounts and records, the right or inspection of which is pro- 
vided for in section 01 of the Indian Registration Act ( XVI of 1908 ) 
and in section 213 and all public documents which any person has, un- 
der the provisions of any law for the time being in f rce, a right to 
inspect, shall be open to inspection in the office of the officer in charge 
of the same during the usual office hours every day, except Sundays 
and public holidays, on payment of the fee hereinafter prescribed in 
this behalf : and not otherwise. 

Provided that no fee shall be charged for inspection ( with the 
permission of the Officer in charge ) of the Enquiry Proceedings or re- 
gister or Property Register of a City Survey by a Municipal Official 
for municipal purposes ( Notification R. 5^28/24 13-12-^7 ). 

Provided further that no fee shall be charged for the inspection 
of village records by an officer or a member of any Co-operative Socie- 
ty for the business of the Society ( Notification 248/28-3-10-28. ) 

Notes These rales do not apply to Bombay City ( see rules in R. 2374*14 
under sec, 40, Bombay City Land Revenue Act of 1876 ) or to Oi?il or Criminal 
Courts ( see High Court Circulars ). For copies from the records of the Registrar 
of Co-operative Societies, see B. 3047-14. For Hegiat ration Department Records, 
see Notification B. 7368-81. 

The documents referred to in sec. 213 are " all maps and land records". 

These are defined In see. 8 (56). 

Persons suing w forma pavpris cannot have free copies (G, R. No. 3098 of 78). 



44 THE BOMBAY LAND BBVDNUB OODK, 1879 

//. Extract* and eopies. 

136. Uncertified copies. -(I) No uncertified copy or extract shall be 
obtainable of or from any documents other than those prescribed in 
rule 135, nor otherwise than under this rule. 

(2) Any person may himself or by an agent make a copy of any pub- 
lic document or of any portion of any public document of which he 
has duly obtained inspection, but no copy so made Khali be certified 
by any public officer. 

Notes. Local Boards should be supplied free of charge with copies of, or 
information from, public documents provided that copies from preliminary survey 
records shall only be given with the sanction of the Collector. 

The form of ibis certificate is prescribed by sec. 76 of the Evidence Act, 

137. Village accountants to grant certified copies of certain records.- 

(1) So long as the originals are in their charge, all village account- 
ants, and in the cities surveyed under section 131 all City Surveyors. 
shall themselves receive and grant applications for certified copies of 
any serial number (entry) in the record of rights, register of mutations 
(Property Register) or of tenancies, or of a map of a survey number or 
sub- ai vision thereof. 

(2) The Collector may, in his discretion in respect of his whole dis- 
trict or any part thereof, "also empower village accountants to receive 
and grant applications for certified copies of village forms Nos. 
(old) 1, 3, 5, 6, 9, 11, 13, 14 and 18; (new) Nos. I, III, VII XII com- 
bined, VI1I-A and B, IX, XI, XII, XIV and XV, and of orders for 
levying miscellaneous land revenue. 

(3) Such copies shall after comparison with the original bo certi- 
fied by the accountant as true, and giveo to the applicants direct 
within ten days from their application. 

XfOte The period is determined by the orders in the A, B. 0. D. lists of 
Records. 

138. Mamlatdars generally to grant certfiied copies of village paper & - 
Except as provided in rule 137 every application for a certified copy 
of any public document in the charge of a village accountant shall be 
made to the Mamlatdar to whom he is subordinate, who shall cause 
the copy to be prepared, compared with the original, and signed in 
token of correctness by the village accountant. The copy shall then be 
certified and made over to the applicant by the Mamlatdar. 

139. Officer in charge of document generally to grant edified copy. 
In all other cases the officer in charge of any public document describ- 
ed in rule 135 shall, and in the case of any public document or por- 
tion thereof other than those described in rule 135 may, cause to be 
prepared and give certified copies of the same or of any portion there- 
of under his own signature to any person applying for such copy on 
payment of the fees hereinafter prescribed : 

Provided that (a) no copy shall be granted of any record, map or 
plan which has been printed or lithographed and published under the 
authority of Government and is on sale; but small extracts of not more 
than five fields or plots may be granted under rule 142 (6); 

(4) that no copy of auy document is to he given in any case in 
w^ich the grant vould be prejudicial to the public interest. 



45 

Notes. (i) Petitions of parties would not be documents maintained under 
the provisions of or for the purposes of the Act (sec 3 (#)), nor are they records 
of the proceedings of any public officer, and therefore fall entirely into the option- 
al class. 

(it) When an original document is filed in a case nnder the Code, including 
cash allowance cases and general revenue matters ( R. 2071-8 ) concerning private 
pa i ties only, and the parties then apply for its return, a certified copy should be 
retained on the record, unless (G. B. 4492-08} the period of appeal or revision has 
already expired. This rule was extended to Mamlatdars' Courts ( J. 3394-81 ) and 
to Watan Proceedings (G. B. 148-86}. No court -fee is leviable on such applications 
(B. G. G., Part I , P. 3t8 of 1887). The originals of Government Records should 
therefore always he brought back (Anderson). 

140. Receipt to be endorsed on copy. On every certified copy or ex- 
tract granted under these rules and delivered otherwise than through 
the agency of the value payable post there shall be endorsed by the 
officer who receives the fee for the same a receipt in the following form:- 

Received Rs. a. , as fee for this certified copy. 

Dated of 19 . 

(Signed) A. B. 
///. Searches. 

141. Search fees when to be charged. When an application is 
made for an inspection or copy of any public document or of any por- 
tion of a public document and such application does not distinctly 
describe the number, date and nature of the document required ; or if 
the description given in such application is incorrect, and it shall in 
consequence be necessary for the officer in charge of the document to 
search his records in order to find it, a fee, at the rate hereinafter pre- 
scribed, shall be payable by the applicant for such search whether the 
inspection or copy for which he applies, on examination of the said 
document by the said officer, be granted or not. 

rv.Fees. 

142. Fee*. The following fees shall be levied in cash under these 
rules : 

(1) For an inspection granted Twelve annas an hour for each 
under Rule 135 for each day on applicant subject to a minimum 
which inspection is made. of Rs. 1-8-0, to be paid in 

advance. 

(JJ) For every certified copy of a 
public document not falling under 
Articles 3, 4 and ft of this table 

(a) if (he original be in English, Nine pies, 
for even '<?.*> words or fraction of r jft 
words : 

(J) if the original be in the ver- Nine pies, 
nacular, for every 3 * words or frac- 
tion of 33 words ; 



4* 



THE BOMBAY Live 



OODB, 1879 



(c) (i) tot examining or com- Nine pies, 
paring 100 words or fraction of 100 
words, whether the original be in 
English or the vernacular : 

(ii) for comparing copies of maps One-fourth 
etc., under Articles (5), (6) and (7) 
out of the copy fee there will be 
credited as comparing fee : 

(d) if the original be in a tabular 
form, whether in English or the 
vernacular : 



Twice the rates, respectively, 
named in clauses (a) and (6). 



(e) if the copy be given on a 
printed form, for every sheet or 
page of forms used : 



Three piesjt?/u the fees at the 
rates herein prescribed for the 
manuscript additions made on 
the form. 



(f) For each form of extract of Two annas, 
a City Property Register : 

(g) When no printed form is sup- Six pies, 
plied or available, for each sheet 

of foolscap paper used in preparing 
the copy other than that of a map 
or plan under Articles (5), (6) 
and (7) : 

(3) For every certified extract 
from a register of alienations grant- 
ed under section 53 : 



One anna for every rupee of the 
amount of alienated revenud, or 
if the sanad lost or destroyed 
had been granted under Bombay 
Act IV of 1868 or under section 
133, a sum equal to one-half of 
the survey fee which the holder 
of the building bite included in 
tha sanad would be liable to pay 
under section 132 if not exempted 
by the second paragraph of that 
section. Povided that the fee 
shall in no case exceed Us. 10 or 
be less than 8 annas. 



(4) For every certified copy of a One anna, 
serial number (or entry) in the 
record of rights, register of muta- 
tions, or register of tenancies, 
and for every Holding Sheet in V. 
F. VI1I-A (including the printed 
form), and in villages to which rule 
137 (2) applies for every certified 
copy of each entry in the forms 
named, or for each khata in V. F. 
VIII-B : provided that there shall 
be no charge for correcting the 
Holding Sheet at any time during 
the 5 years for whicu it is current. 



(4- A) (i) For every certified copy 
of the tabular annewari statement 
of a village with the annewari 
decision worked oat therein ... Five annas. 

(w) For every certified copy of the 
decision of the Collector or Mam- 
latdar not embodying such a form, 
or of the opinion of the village 
committee as to the anna valuation Two annas. 

(5) For every certified copy of a Two annas, 
map of a survey number or* sub- 
division of a survey number or of 

any (uncoloured)map of any immov- 
able property prepared under clause 
(a) of section 135 G, 

or of an entry in a City Property 
Register ; 

(6) Subject to proviso (a) to rule Eight annas. 
139 for every other certified copy of 

a map of a survey number or of a 
subdivision or of a field or of any 
ordinary, (uncoloured) map or plan 
of any immovable property, or ex- 
tract of City Survey map, for each 
field or plot : 

(7) For every certified copy of a 
map or plan or of any portion of a 
map or plan not falling under 
Article (5) or (6) of this table : 



(8) For every search 



Such fee not exceeding fifteen 
rupees, and not less than one 
rupee, as the officer who certifies 
the copy shall determine : provided 
that no fee exceeding Rs. 5 shall 
be charged by any officer subor- 
dinate to a Collector except with the 
permission of the Collector, or by 
an Officer of the Land Records De- 
partment except with the permission 
of the Superintendent of Land Re- 
cords, to whom he is subordinate. 

One rupee for each year of which 
the records are searched. 



(9) For every authenticated trans- 
lation of orders, and the reasons 
therefor, and of exhibits in formal 
or summary inquiries under the 
Code .-- 

(a) for the first 100 or fraction of Eight annas. 
100 words : 

(6) for every subsequent 100 or Four annas, 
fraction of 100 words 

Provided that 



(a) when any fee is required to be recovered through the agency of 
the value payable post, postage and postal commission shall be levied 



M THE BOMBAY LAUD feriTOUB CODE, 

in addition, and when the total amount of fee together with: pos- 
tage and commission includes a fraction of an anna a whole anna shall 
be levied in place of the fraction : 

() any revenue officer shall be entitled to receive free o f any 
charge a certified copy of the final order recorded in his own case 
under section 33. 

Notes. The copies or certified extracts from the Record of Rights required 
to be produced in Oivil Courts [sec. 135 H (4)] are free of court -fee stamps ( G. oi 
I. Notfn. F. & 0. 4368 8. R. 20-7-03). But this exemption does not extend tc 
copies produced in Assistance Suits under sec, 86, which are not Oivil Suits ( B. 
6507-18). 

Translators may keep three-fourths of the fee, if the work is done out oi 
Office hours (G. B. 3101-83). 

The V. P. commission and postage may be paid by affixing service stamps ii 
they are recovered, but it is more convenient to use ordinary stamps. 

142. (4). While recovering copying and comparing fees, any amount 
less than six pies shall be remitted, and six pies or more" shall be 
rounded to the extent of whole anna. 

143. Fees how to be paid. Every fee payable in accordance with 
the foregoing table shall either be paid in advance or recovered in 
pursuance of a specific request through the agency of the value payable 
post. 

Note. Fees held in deposit mast be keptf in a separate box under seal of the 
Heeord Karkum in the Treasury if there is one : or in the Presidency Town, in 
a secure place provided with a Police Guard: or, in Sind, in charge of a Muashi who 
bas given security ( G, B 4305 08 ). 

V. Miscellaneous. 

144. Applications how to be made.T&vwy application under rules 
135 to 143 must be made in writing, and except in the case of an ap- 
plication for inspection made to a village accountant, must be duly 
stamped. The application may contain a request that the copy, extract, 
or translation be forwarded by value payable post (unregistered book 
packet ) to any post Office which is also a Money Order Office. 

145. Stamp duty or court-fee payable in addition. Nothing in these 
rules affects the provisions of the Stamp Act (II of 1899) or Court Fees 
Act (VII of 1S7U). The stamp duty or court-fee with which an appli- 
cation, copy or extract made or furnished under these rules may be 
chargeable is in addition to the fees prescribed herein and care is to 
be taten that the requirements of the Stamp Act and Court Fees Act 
are properly fulfilled in respect of every such application, copy or 
extract. 

Note. Applications for the return of documents (or of certified copies) are 
free of 0. F- stamps (B. O. G. 1-368-1887). But if the period of appeal is not ex- 
pired, copies may be retained at applicant's expense (G. H. 4492-98). 

FORM A ( Rule 17 ). 

NOTIFICATION OF SETTLEMENT 

IOR THE BOMBAY PRBSIDBNOY EXCLUDING SIND. 

( Notice under sections 102 and 103, Land Revenue Code, 1879 ) 

For Revised Settlements. 

(if or original settlements and reviled settlements when tile basis of oJassifica- 
tee not* below. ) 



Whereas the Governor of Bombay in Council has been pleased to 
sanction, under section 102 of the Bombay Land Revenue Code, 1879, 
the levy of assessments for the revised Settlement, which have been 
fixed under the provisions of sections 100 and 101 of the said Code in 
the case of such lands as are now actually used for the purposes of agri- 
culture alone and in the case of unoccupied cultivable lands ( but ex- 
cepting lands classed as/wrt kharab ) within the village of 
of the taluka it is hereby declared under section 

102 of the said Code that the said assessments calculated as noted be- 
low shall henceforth be leviable in accordance therewith and shall be 
fixed for a term qf years from to 

Class of land. Approximate increase or decrease in the 

rupee of existing assessment, 
annas pies 

Dry-crop 

Rice, etc. 

2. Notice of the same is hereby given under section 102 of the 
said Code to all holders of land in respect of which the assessments 
have been sanctioned [ approved ]. 

3. By this notice the Revised Settlement shall be deemed to have 
been introduced in the aforesaid village. 

4. But in the case of land which may hereafter be brought under 
irrigation by the use of water the right to which vests in Government 
or which is supplied from works constructed and maintained by, or at 
the instance of, Government, or in the case of land which may be sup- 
plied with an increased amount of water from works constructed, repair- 
ed or improved at the cost of the State, Government reserve the right 
of imposing an extra cess or rate, or of increasing any existing rate, 
for the use of water supplied or increased by such means, whether, 
under the provisions of the Bombay Irrigation Act, 1879, or otherwise. 

5. In addition to the fixed assessment, a cess not exceeding such 
rate as may be allowed by law will be levied under the Bombay Local 
Fund Act, 1869, or other law for the time being in force, for the pur- 
pose of providing funds for expenditure on objects of local public 
utility and improvement. 

6*. The reservations respecting the right of Government to trees 
as made by any general notification at the time of, or after the Survey- 
Settlement and reproduced in the margin, or as 
made by any express order at the time of Sur- 
vey Settlement and recorded in the Settlement 
Records, are hereby continued. All other rights 
over trees are conceded to occupants* 

Not* 1. In cases of original settlements the following changes sboold be made 
in the above form : 

(1) Substitute "original" for ''revised" occurring in line 3 of paragraph 1 and 
in line 1 of paragraph 3. 

(2) After the word "assessments" in line 7 of paragraph 1 add "as shown in 
the accompanying Akirband" and omit "as noted below." 

(3) For the words "Approximate increase or decrease in the rupee of existing 
asseesments" in paragraph 1 substitute "Maximum Bates. 

Rs. as. " 

(4) Substitute the following for paragraph 6: 

"6. The right of Government to trees standing in lands which are now 
oecnpied is hereby conceded to the occupants thereof subject to tto wiwraJ 



THE BOMBAY LAKD BEVENUB OODB, 1879 



tfons entered ito the margin and the special exceptions inscribed in the Settlement 
Beeords." 

M>& _ i n Ca8ei of wised settlements in which the classification basis is 
altered the following changes should be nude in the above form : 

(1) Afar the word "assessments" in line 7 of paragraph 1 add "as shown in the 
accompanying Akarband" and omit "calculated as noted below." 

(2) For th words "approximate increase or decrease in the rupee o! existing 
assessment" in paragraph 1 tubstitut* "Maximum Bates. 

Bs, as. 
Note 3. This form was finally confirmed in G. B. No. 3012 of 1920. 

"FORM AA (Rule 17). 

NOTIFICATION OF SETTLEMENT FOR SIND. 

(Notice under sections 102 and 10$ of the Bombay Land Revenue 

Code, 181%). 
For Revised Settlements. 

Whereas the Governor in Council has been pleased to sanction, 
under section 102 of the Bombay Land Revenue Code, 1879, the levy of 
assessments for the revised settlement in the case of such lands as are 
bow actually used for the purpose of agriculture alone and in the case 
of unoccupied cultivable lands within the village of in the 

. Talukaofthe District. Now, it 

is hereby declared under section 102 of the said Code that the said 
assessments as noted below shall hereafter be leviable in accordance 
therewith and shall be fixed for a term of years 

commencing with the revenue year and ending with the 

revenue year. 



Olass of cultivation. 



Sanctioned rates per acre. 



Flow i Lift. 



Combined 

Flow 
and Lift 



Bice 

Sugarcane 

Cotton 

Tobacco 

Other Kharif 

Babi Wheat 

Rfibi Oil-seeds 

Leguminous crops (Kharif or Babi) 

Huris 

Gardens 

Watered Dubari 

Unwatered Dnbari 

Adhawa 

Bftrani 

Odftmtion on riW side of bond 



Bs. a. Bs. a. 



Bs.a. 



Ritas 51 

2. Notice of the same is hereby given under section 102 of the 
said Code to all holders of land in respect of which the assessments, 
have been sanctioned. 

3. By this notice the revised settlement shall be deemed to have 
been introduced in the aforesaid village. " 

(G. B., B, D., No. 557-B. dated 5-7-32) 



FOBM B [Bale 29 (1)]. 
A FOBM OF NOTICK UNDER SECTION 37 (2), AHD SUMMONS 

SECTIONS 189-190. 

To 

A. B. 

Whereas (here describe the property or right in or over any property) 
is claimed by Government (or by 0. D. against Government) notice is 
hereby given that an enquiry will be held by me in order to decide the 
said claim. 

You are hereby required to attend before me either in person or by 

a duly authorized agent at o'clock of the noon (at 

the site in dispute or) at my office (camp at in the 

taluka) on the day of 19 at which 

time and place an enquiry into the same claim will be made* 

And you are hereby required to produce before me at the above- 
named time and place any documents or evidence you may wish to be 
heard. 

If you fail to attend in person or by a duly authorized agent in 
pursuance of this notice the abovementioned claim will be decided in 
your absence and you will not afterwards be entitled to be heard with 
respect thereto, except io an appeal filed within 60 days or in a suit 
civil if filed within one year from the date of my decision. 

Dated this day of 19 

(Signed) 

Designation of Officer. 



FOBM C [Bule 29 (2). 

Whereas in accordance with a notice duly issued and served under 
rule 29 (1) of the Land Bevenue Bules an enquiry was held by me on 

and an order 
was passed on 

Notice is hereby given to all persons concerned and to (here specify 
tke person to whom this notice is directed) that my decision and order is 
that : (here summarise tke order and define the property or right to which 
it relates)* 

You are not entitled to be heard by me in respect thereof. After 
my decision has been communicated to you, there remain only two 
ways by which yon can get it altered if you are dissatisfied with it, 
namely : 

(i) You must within 60 dayi of the date of my decision appeal to 
(specify the proper appellate authority), and again to the next 'higher 
revenue authority, or 



6 THE BOMBAI UAND REVEKUB CODE, 1870 

(tt) within one year from the date of my decision you my (without 
recourse to the appeals above detailed) and notwithstanding anything 
contained in section 11 of the Bombay Revenue Jurisdiction Act, 1876, 
file a suit in the proper Civil Court 

A suit filed more than a year from the date of my decision or from the 
date of the decision of the last of the appeals if you make them cannot 
be entertained by any Court. 

Dated this day of 19 

(Signed) 

Survey Officer, 

or 
Collector. 



FORM D ( Rule 32 ). 

FORMS Of SANAD FOR RBVBNUE-FREE GRANTS OF LAND FOR KELIGJOUS, 

CHABITABLK OR EDUCATIONAL EDIFICES OR INSTITUTIONS, 

(SANCTIONED BY G. R. 7010 of 1905). 

( To be used where the land is granted by Government. ) 

To 

A.B. 

Whereas Government have been pleased to grant revenue-free to 
you, A. B., the possession of the below-mentioned piece of land situat- 
ed in the village of in the taluka 
for the purpose of 
(namely) 

All that piece of land bounded on the North by 
on the South oy , on the East by 

, and on the West by , and measuring 

from North to South , and from East 

to West , comprising square 

in superficial area, be the same more or less, and bearing No. 
in the Land Records. 

It is hereby declared that the said land shall be continued 

for rerm ot yeara^ ree ^ a ^ claim on the part of Government for rent 

or land revenue to whoever shall from time to time be the lawful hold- 
er or manager of the said , [ (a) on the condition that 
neither the said land nor any building erected thereupon shall at any 
time, without the express consent of Government, be diverted either 
temporarily or permanently to any other than the aforesaid purpose, 
and that no change or modification shall be made of such purpose, and 
that in the invent of any such unauthorized diversion, change or modi- 
fication being made, the said land shall thereupon, in addition to the 
assessment to which it becomes liable under section 48 of the Bombay 
Land Revenue Code, 1879, become liable to such fine as may be fixed 
in this behalf by the Collector under the provisions of section 66 of the 
laid Coda, or other corresponding law for the time being in force relat- 
ing to the recover; of land revenue, as if the land, having been assedfe- 
04 .for purposes of agriculture only, had been unauthomediy used for 
*ny purpose unconnected with agriculture (a) ] and in any such event 
s aforesaid, or in the event of the land being notified by Govern- 



BULBS IS 

ment for acquisition under Act I of 1894, it shall be lawful for Govern- 
ment, on causing six months' previous notice in writing to be given to 
the said holder or manager, to take one of the two following 
courses (namely), either 

(1) to require that the said land be vacated and delivered up to 
.Government free of all claims or incnmbrances of any person what- 
soever, 

or (2) to resume and take possession of the said land and any 
buildings erected or works executed thereon, free of all claims and 
incumbrances of any person whatsoever, on payment of compensation 
not exceeding the following amount, namely: 

(a) the amount (if any) paid to Government for this grant, and 
(4) the cost or value at the time of resumption, whichever is the 
less, of any buildings or other works authorizedly erected or execnt* 
ed on the said land by the said grantee. 

This grant is made subject to the reservation of the right of the 
Secretary of State for India in Council to all mines and mineral pro- 
ducts and of full liberty of access for the purpose of working and 
searching for the same, with all reasonable conveniences. 

This sanad is executed on behalf of the Secretary of State for 
India in Council by order of His Excellency the Governor of Bombay 
in Council, by the Collector of this day of 

19 



Seal of 

the 
Collector 



(Signed) 



Collector. 



**If there be any farther conditions, add here the words " and subject to the 
following farther special conditions, namely: " 

The Commissioners suggest a farther condition: ' 

" that an open space shall be kept free from any building whatever, as mark* 
ed on the plan hereto appended as land not to be built upon. " 



FORM E (Rule 35). 

( To be used where the land is not granted by Government. ) 
To 

A.B. 

Whereas, in consideration of your having built ( or undertaken to 
build, as the case may be )* on the 

piece of land hereinafter described, which is your property, Govern- 
ment have been pleased, at your request, to exempt the said piece of 
land from liability to rent or land revenue. 

It is hereby declared that the said land shall be continued! r * Yer - 
J ior * term 

free of all claim on the part of Government for rent or land 



of years 



The nature of tte building and the extent ot the poJWic interest in it should be 
clearly set forth, as for instance a tempi* with a Dbarmaihala attached, to? the 
use of the Digambar Jain community.;" 




II THE BOMBAY LAXD RIVEMUE OODS, 1879 

revenue to whoever shall from time to time be the lawful holder or 
manager of tfce said , [Insert "(a) . . . (a)" as in Form D.J 

[If there be any further special conditions, here add : "and subject to 
the following further special conditions, namely": ] 

The piece of land herein referred to is situated in the village of 

in the taluka, 

and is bounded on the North by 

, on the South by , on the East by 

and on the West by , and 

comprises about square in superficial 

area, be the same more or less, and bears No. in the 

Land Records. 

This sanad is executed on behalf of the Secretary of State for 
India in Council by order of His Excellency the Governor of Bombay in 
Council, by the Collector of , this day of 

19 

(Signed) 

Collector. 



FORM F (Rules 37, 43 and 52). 

FOBM OF AGREEMENT* TO BE PASSED BY PERSONS INTENDING TO 
BECOME OCCUPANTS, 

To the Mamlatdar of 

I, A. B., inhabitant of in the 

taluka, hereby accept the right of the occupation of the land comprised 
in Survey No. (or of the building site 

hereinbelow described, or otherwise as the case may be), in the village 
of in the taluka,* and I pray that my 

name be entered in the Government records as the occupant of the 
said land. 

The said land has been granted to me subject to the provisions of 
the Bombay Land Revenue Code, 1879, and of rules in force there- 
under, in perpetuityt, from the day of 
19 ; J and I undertake to pay the land revenue from time to time 
lawfully due in respect of the said land (or I undertake, whenever Gov- 
ernment shall see fit to discontinue the exemption of the said land 
from payment of land revenue, to pay such revenue as may be lawfully 
imposed 

* This agreement is (so far a? it is application) exempt from Oonrt fee; item 
0-24 of Notification of the Govt. of India, 4650, 10.9.89. It ;isalo exempt from 
stampduty, item A-9 of Notification of the Govt. of India 3616-Exc., 16.7.09 
B. 8022, 17.8. 

fWhen not granted in perpetuity delete the words and insert "until the 
day of 19 X 

* ^When land is gold for a fixed period free of land revenue the agreement 
should end here, and the second endorsement may be omitted, 



itotfci ** 

thereupon under the orders of Government of otherwise as the case 
may be). 

Dated the day of 19 at 

Written by (Signed) A. B. 

We declare that A. B.> who has signed this agreement, is to our 
personal knowledge the person he represents himself to be, and that he 
has affixed his signature hereto in our presence. 

(Signed) C. D. 
JE.F. 

We declare that to the best of our knowledge and from the best 
information we have been able, after careful inquiry, to obtain the 
person who has passed this agreement is a fit person to be accepted by 
Government as responsible for the punctual payment of the land 
revenue from time to time due on the above land 



(Signed) G. H. Patei. 
/. J., Village Accountant. 



"FORM F-l Rule 37 (4) 

FORM OF AGREEMENT TO BB PASSED BY PEBSONS IVT1NDIKG To 
B100ME OCCUPANTS OF LAND ON IMPARTIBLE TENUBE. 

To the Mamlatdar of 

I, A. B., inhabitant of in the 

taluka, hereby accept the right of occupation of the land comprised in 
survey No. in the village of in 

the taluka and I pray that my name be 

entered in the Government records as the occupant of the said land. 

The said land has been granted to me in perpetuity from the day 
of 19 , subject to (1) the provisions of the Bombay Land 

Revenue Code, 1879, and of the rules in force thereunder and to (2) the 
further condition that I, my heirs, assigns and legal representatives 
shall not at any time by partition, inheritance, lease, mortgage or 
otherwise howsoever transfer the said land except as a whole or allow 
any portion of it to be cultivated, used, or occupied by any other per- 
son so as to divide it. 

If I fail to perform any of the aforesaid conditions I shall be liable 
without prejudice to any other penalties that I may incur under the 
said Code, and the rules made thereunder, to have the said land sum- 
marily forfeited by the Collector, aod I shall not be entitled to claim 
compensation for anything done or executed by me in respect of the 
said land. 

*And I undertake to pay the land revenue from time to time law- 
fully due in respect of the said laud (or I undertake, whenever Govern- 
ment shall see fit to discontinue the exemption of the said land from 

* When land is sold for a fixed period free of land revenue the agreement 
should end here, and the second endorsement may be omitted. 

(G. R. 4702-f4-IU of 12.3-1981). 

In Bind the Collector b empowered to allow division of survey number if in 
Vie* of any special circumstances, he considers it necessary to do so, 
(G. R. 4703-24 III of 8-8-198*). 



5 I THE BOMBAY LAMB REVENUE CODE, 1879 

payment of land revenue to pay such revenue a$ may be lawfully impos* 
ed thereon under the orders of Government or otherwise, as the ease 
may be). 

Dated the day of 19 

Written by 

(Signed) A. B. 

We declare that A. B. who has signed this agreement is to our 
personal knowledge the person he represents himself to be, and that he 
nfte affixed his signature hereto in our presence. 

(Signed) C. D, 
( )E.F. 

We declare that, to the best of our knowledge and from the best 
information which we have been able after careful enquiry to obtain, 
the person who has passed this agreement is a fit person to be accepted 
by Government as responsible for the punctual payment of the land 
*r* M r. A from time to time on the above land. 

(Signed) G. H. 

Patel. 
I.J., 
Village Accountant. " 



FORM G-l (Rule 39) (as amended by G. 1151411) 

RECLAMATION LEASE. 
Form of lease to be granted to an occupant who takto up land on 

special terms. 

This is to certify that, with the previous sanction of the Commis- 
sioner (in Sind, or as the case may be), of has been 
granted the right of occupation of survey No. 

in the village of- in the taluka for a term of 

years from the day of 19 , subject to 

the payment of land revenue as follows (viz.}: 

(a) for the first years, A D. 19 to 19 , nil; 

(6) for the next years, A. D. 19 to 19 , a reduced assess- 

ment of Ra. 

The reason for the grant of the said land on the favourable terms 
aforesaid is that the lessee has undertaken, at his own expense, within 
-a period of from the day of 19 , 

to carry out to the satisfaction of the following 

work, whereby the cultivation of the said survey No. will be improved 
(or rendered feasible or otherwise as the case may be), viz.: 

( Here describe as accurately as possible the work to be executed ) 
The conditions on which this lease is granted are: 

(1) That the lessee shall completely execute the work aforesaid to 
the satisfaction of the said within the period above 
mentioned; 

(2) that he shall keep the said work when executed in ^ood order 
$nd repairs to the sati efacti^ji of the said until the expiry 
of this lease? 



&ULX0 67 

(3) It shall notf be lawful to the lessee to partition, bequeath, alie- 
nate, asign, mortgage or otherwise charge or encumber any portion 
of the said land less than the area hereby fixed by the Collector as 
the economic holding, nor shall any such portion of the said land be 
liable to seizure, requestration, attachment, sale or partition by pro- 
cess of a Court: 

(4) that if the lessee shall fail th perform any of the aforesaid con- 
ditions he shall be liable, notwithstanding anything hereinbefore writ- 
ten, to pay the full assessment of the land comprised in this lease 
amounting to Rs. , for the year or years during which such 
failure shall take place and it shall be open to the Collector either to 
cancel the remaining portion of the lease and re-enter upon the land, 
or to levy full assessment from the lessee for every subsequent year of 
the term of this lease; 

(5) that provided the lease shall not have previously determined 
under the last preceding condition, the lessee shall be entitled, on the 
expiry of this lease, to retain th occupation of the land herein compris- 
ed, subject to the payment of the full assessment from time to time fix- 
ed thereupon under the law and rules in force in this behalf, on his 
executing an agreement in the form prescribed for persons who intend 
to become occupants. 

This lease is executed on behalf of the Secretary of State for India 
in Council, by order of Government of Bombay in Council, by the 
Collector of and under hie seal of office, this day of 

19 

(Signed) 

Collector. 

I the aforesaid lessee do hereby accept this 

lease in the terms and conditions therein mentioned* 

Signed by 

lessee. 

in the presence of 

Note, Form G-I is prineed as amended by Draft Notification No. 4703-24, 
dated 1st June 1933. 



FORM G-2 (Rule 40). 
RECLAMATION LEASE. 
THIS INDENTURE made the 

day of 19 BETWEEN THE SECRETARY OF STATE FOR 

INDIA IN COUNCIL ( hereinafter called the Lessor ) of the one part 
and inhabitant of hereinafter called the lessee of the other part 
WITNBSBETH that the Lessor doth hereby lease unto the Lessee all the 
Salt Marsh Lands situated in the village of in the 

Registration Sub-district of and in the 

talnka the Survey Numbers, 

Area and Boundaries of which are set forth in Schedule A hereunder 
written which said Lands were late in the occupation of 
and are now in the occupation of 



W THE BOMBAY LANJJ BBVJ&NOIS CODE, 187'J 

and are delineated in the Plan attached hereto and signed by the Collec- 
tor of (hereinafter referred to as the Collector) TO HOLD the 
said Lands unto the Lessee for the term of 999 years from the 

day of 19 , paying during the said 

term unto the Lessor for the said lands save such portion as may be 
appropriated for Public Roads which portion shall be exempt from 
payment^the yearly Rents following that is to say for the first ten years 
of the said term the rent of One Pie if demanded and for the next 20 
years, ttf*., from the day of 

19 , till the day of 19 

a yearly sum equal to Four annas per Acre in such Instalments on such 
Dates and to euch Person as may be from time to time prescribed and 
designated by the Collector and for such Period if any as shall inter- 
vene beeween the day of 

19 , and the date of the first settlement of Assessment hereinafter 
provided for the yearly sum hereinbefore lastly reserved payable in the 
manner hereinbefore mentioned AND from and after the first settlement 
of assessment hereinafter provided for such sum of Land Revenue as 
under the Laws or Rules having the force of Law for the time being 
in force in respect of Lands held under Government by ordinary Occu- 
pants shall from time to time be found to be payable AND the Lessee 
hereby covenants ad agrees with the Lessor in manner following that 
is to say FIBST that the Lessee shall at his own expense and with due 
diligence completely reclaim the lands hereby leased so as to be in a 
state fit for use Cor agricultural purposes AND shall so reclaim at least 
one-half of the said lands within ten years and the whole thereof within 
twenty years from the day of 19 , respectively 

and shall maintain such Reclamation during the residue of the term 
hereby granted AND shall not until the whole of the said Lands sh'all 
have been completely reclaimed and rendered cultivable assignd or under- 
let the said Lands or any portion thereof or charge or receive any Tax 
or .Fee for Cattle-grazing npon any portion thereof and that the lessee 
shall not at any time partion, bequeath, alienate, assign, mortgage or 
otherwise charge or encumber or allow to be cultivated, used or occu- 
pied by any other person, any portion of the said Land less than the 
Area hereby fixed by the Co'lector as an economic holding in respect 
of the said lands, nor shall any such portion of the said land be liable 
to seizure, requestration, attachment, sale or partition by process of a 
Court. PROVIDED that if any Officer of Government duly empowered in 
this behalf by the Government of Bombay 

shall certify in writing that any portion of the said Lands is unre- 
claimable such portion shall be excluded from the operations of the 
covenants hereinbefore contained. Provided further that the lessees 
shall be at liberty during the first ten years to relinquish any portion 
of the said lands which he cannot reclaim : and such portion shall 
thereupon be excluded from the operation of the covenants herein 
contained (R. 372-B-nth April 1923) SECOND that the Lessee shall at 
his own expense (a) keep open the several Roads mentioned and 
described in Schedule B hereunder written and delineated in the Plan 
hereunto annexed (b) provide and keep in good order to the satisfac- 

* The portion in brackets was inserted as per Draft Notification No. 4702-24, 
dated 1st June 1933 which would be taken into consideration on or after 1st 
Augoat 1938, 



Rtrtfis 59 

tlon of the Collector such water-ways in and along the Lands hereby 
leased as may from time to time be required by the Collector (c) erect 
such new Boundary-marks upon the said Lands as may from time to 
time be required by the Collector and maintain and keep in good 
repair to the satisfaction of the Collector all such new Boundary- 
marks as well as all those at present existing thereon, THIRD that the 
said Lessee shall pay the rents hereinbefore respectively reserved at 
the times and in manner hereinbefore provided for payment of the 
same respectively and that whenever any Instalment of the said Rents 
respectively shall be in arrear, it shall be recoverable from the Lessee 
as an arrear of Land Revenue under the provisions of the Law for the 
time being in force in that behalf AND the Lessee shall also pay all 
Rates, Taxes and other Outgoings (if any) which shall at any time 
during the continuance of this Lease be payable in respect of the said 
Premises or any part thereof FOURTH that from and after the 

day of 19 the Lands hereby leased shall be liable to 

be from time to time surveyed and assessed to the Land Revenue 
under the Laws or Rules having the force of Law for the time being 
in force in respect of Lands held under Government by ordinary occu- 
pants and thenceforward during the residue of the term hereby grant- 
ed the Lessee shall hold the said Lands subject to all the provisions 
of such Laws and Rules and subject also to such of .he Covenants and 
Provisions of this Lease as shall then be capable of continuing effect 
PROVIDED ALWAYS AND IT is HEREBY AGREED that if and whenever there 
shall be a breach by the Lessee of any Covenant, Condition or provi- 
sion herein contained the Lessor may re-enter upon the said Lands or 
upon part thereof in the name of the whole and thereupon this Lease 
shall determine AND that in case default shall be made in reclaiming 
the half or the whole of the Lands within the periods respectively 
hereinbefore prescribed in that behalf the Lessor may re-enter upon 
the said Lands and determine this Lease under the power in that be- 
half hereinbefore contained AND that if in the opinion of the Collector 
(whoe decision shall be final) the reclamation is not carried on with 
due diligence during the two years ending on the day of 

19 the Lessor may on or after the said day re-enter 
upon the said Lands and determine this Lease under the power in that 
behalf hereinbefore contained AND that notwithstanding anything here- 
inbefore contained if at any time any portion of the said Lands (other 
than such portion as may be appropriated for Public Roads) is after 
being reclaimed used for any purpose unconnected with agriculture, 
such portiou shall be liable to such assessment or altered assessment 
as may be leviable under the Law or Rules having the force of Law 
for the time being in force in respect of land which is held for agricul- 
tural purposes and subsequently used for purposes unconnected with 
agriculture and such assessment or altered assessment shall be leviable 
notwithstanding that any of the periods hereinbefore specified shall 
not have elapsed AND that the right of the said Lessor to all Mines and 
Mineral Proaucts and of full liberty of access for the purpose of work- 
ing and searching for the same with all reasonable conveniences shall 
be reserved. 

AND IT is LASTLY AGREED that the word "Lessor" in this Lease 
shall mean the Lessor and his Successors and Assigns and the word 
''Lessee" shall mean the Lessee and his Legal Repmentatves. 



THE BOMBAY 



CODE, 1879 



WHKRBOF 

B*|., Collector of , has, by order of the Governor of 

Bombay in Council, hereunto set his hand and affixed his official seal 
on behalf of the said Secretary of State in Council, and the Lessee has 
hereunto B6t his hand the day and year first above written. 

Schedule A above referred to : 



Schedule B ahve referred to : 



Signed by the above name 



in the presence of 



Seal of the 
Collector. 



Signed by the above named 



in the presence of 



FORM H (Bale 43). 

ALTERNATIVE FORM OF AGREEMENT TO BB PASSED BY PERSONS 
INTENDING TO BEOOKB OCCUPANTS, IF THE OOLIEOTOR SO BEQUTRE8. 

Agreement. 

to 

the llamiatdar of , ,,_,,* 

I, A, B,, of in the said taluka, agree on behalf of 

myself and my assigns to occupy the land specified in the Schedule 



BULB* 61 

appended hereto on the conditions stated below, and I pray that my 
name may be entered in the land records as occupant of the said land. 

Conditions. 

1. I will pay the land revenue from time to time lawfully due in 
respect of the eaid land, to wit : as assessment the sum of Rs. 

(being at the rate of per ) for the period of 

years commencing on , and thereafter I will pay 

such assessment for such further periods as may from time to time be 
fixed by lawful authority. 

2. Within the period of two years from the date hereof or within 
such further period as may be fixed by lawful authority, I will erect 
on the said land one or more buildings of a permanent character. 

3. I will keep as an open space, free from any buildings what- 
ever, the piece of land marked on the plan appended hereto as the land 
not to be built upon. 

4. The provisions of the Bombay Land Revenue Code, 1879, and 
all rules and orders for the time being in force thereunder, shall apply 
to my occupation of the said land, so far as the same may be applic- 
able and not inconsistent with these conditions. 

5. Subject to the foregoing conditions I shall be entitled to occupy 
the said land in perpetuity, but ifl contravene any of foregoing con- 
ditions the Collector may declare the said land forfeited to Govern- 
ment and may dispose of the same in any way he may deena fit, free 
from any claim by me or by any person holding through or under me* 

The Schedule* 

Dated the day of 19 

Written by Signed. 

[Declaration, if necessary.] 

Then follows the Plan. 

Note. This agreement is exempt from Ooart-fee under item (24) of the 
Notification of the Government of India, 4650 10-9-89. 

It is also exempt from the payment of stamp duly, under item A-9 of Noti- 
fication of Government of India, No. 3616-Exc v 16-7-09. 

FORM HH. 

Form of agreement to be passed by persons intending to become 
occupants of land included in a development scheme or in other special 
cases (tide Rule 43) 

AOBEKMENT. 

The Special Mamalatdar, 

-- taluka Bomb *y Suburban District, 



I, AB, of gree on behalf of myself and 

my heirs, executors, administrators and assigns to occupy the land 
specified in the schedule appended hereto (hereinafter referred to as the 
said land) on the conditions stated below, and I pray that my name 
may be entered in the land records as occupant of the said land : 

Conditions. 

(1) I will pay the land revenue from time to time lawfully due in 
respect of the said land to wit : as assessment the sum of Rs. (being 



6 Tn BOMBAY LAND EETDNUE CODE, 1679 

at the rate of per or at each lower rate as is leviable 

under the rules for the time being in force and applicable to such land) 
for the period of years commencing on 

and thereafter, I will pay such assessment for such further periods as 
may from time to time be fixed by lawful authority. 

(2) Use. I will use the said land only for building purposes of 
the nature specified in condition (3) of this agreement. 

(3) Building. I will erect and complete on the said land* of 
a substantial and permanent description ; I will in regard thereto 
duly comply in every respect with the building regulations contained 
in clauses , etc., of the second schedule hereto ;f (and I will not 
use, or permit the use of, any of the buildings erected or to be erected 
on the said land as a shop, or carry on in any of the said buildings 
any trade or business, other than ). 

J(4) Reservation of margin. If at any future date the Collector 
shall give me notice in writing that a strip from the margin of the 
Raid land not more than feet in depth is required by Govern- 

ment for the purposes of a road, I will, at the expiration of one month 
after the receipt of such notice, quietly surrender and hand over pos- 
session of such atrip to the Collector in consideration of receving from 
Government in exchange and as full compensation therefor a sum 
equivalent to ( ) times the assessment proportionately 

payable upon the strip so surrendered. 

Provided that, where the materials of any gate, wall, pavement or 
other such authorised erection or construction on such strip cannot in 
the opinion of the Collector be removed without appreciable loss, such 
further compensation on this account shall be paid to me as the Col- 
lector may deem fit. 

(5) Liability of rates. I will pay all taxes, rates and cesses levi- 
able in respect of the said land. 

(6) Penalty clause. The Collector may, without prejudice to any 
other penalty to which I may be liable under the provisions of the 
Bombay Land Revenue Code, 1879 (hereinafter referred to as "the said 
Code"), direct the removal or alteration of any building or structure 
erected or used contrary to the provisions of this agreement within 
a time prescribed in that behalf by the Collector, and on such 
removal or alteration not being carried out within the prescribed 
period, may cause the same to be carried out and may recover the cost 
of carrying out the same from me as an arrear of land revenue. 

(7) Code provisions applicable. The provisions of the said Code and 
all rules and orders for the sirae being in force thereunder shall apply, 
to my occupation of the said land, so far as the same may be applic- 
able and not inconsistent with the conditions of this agreement. 

(8) Subject to the foregoing conditions I shall be entitled to occupy 
the said land in perpetuity, but if I contravene any of the foregoing 
conditions, the Collector may declare the said land forfeited to Gov- 
ernment and may dispose of the same in any way he may deem fit, free 
from any claim by me or by any person holding through or under me. 

* Here insert description of the buildings such as a "residential bungalow and 
outhouses: 7 

| To be scored oat in areas where business premises are permitted, 
t To be omitted where not required. 



RtJLBl 



MAP. 
Schedule. 



Length and Breadth 


Total Super- 
ficial area 


Boundaries 


Remarks 


North to 
South 


East to 
West 


North 


South , East 


West 



















Schedule II. 

( The number of the conditions which are applicable should be en- 
tered in condition 3 of the grant; and special conditions should be in- 
serted in continuation.) 

1. Buildings may be erected only within the area marked on the 
map annexed and the remaining area of the said land shall be left as 
an open space. 

2. Three-quarters of the said land shall be left open to the sky. 

3. No latrine, cesspool or stables shall be constructed on the said 
land in any place which shall not have been approved for such purpose 
by the Collector or an officer authorised by him. 

4. No building shall be erected in the said land with more than a 
ground floor and one upper storey. 

5. The building erected on the said land shall be used for residen- 
tial purposes only. 

6. No building erected on the said land shall be used as a factory 
or as a place for carrying on an offensive trade. 

7. The grant shall be subject to the following special conditions:- 

() 

(6) etc., etc. 

Dated the day of at 

(Signed) A. B. 

We declare that AB, who has signed this agreement, is to our per- 
sonal knowledge the person he represents himself to be, and that he 
has affixed his signature hereto, in our presence. 

(Signed) E. F. 
G. H. 
N. /?. 1. This document need not be registered. 

2. This document it exempt from stamp duty. 



4 THE BOMBAY LAUD REVENUB CODE, 1879 

FORM I [Rules 37 (3) and 43 (3)]. 
CLAUSE FOB INALIENABLE TENURE ADDITIONAL TO FORMS 

F AND H OB OTHEB AGREEMENTS. 

In cases where the land is granted subject to the condition that 
the occupant shall not transfer it in any way to another person without 
the sanction of the Collector, the following clause should be added in 
the agreement to be taken from him: 

" The said land has been granted to me subject to the condition to 
which I hereby assent, namely, that I, my heirs, executors, administra- 
tors and approved assigns may not at any time lease, mortgage, sell, 
or otherwise howsoever encumber the said land or any portion thereof 
without the previous sanction in writing of the Collector. " 
"FORM II [Rule 37 (4)] 

FORM OF AGREEMENT TO BE PASSED BY PERSONS INTENDING TO 
BECOME OCCUPANTS OF LAND ON THE INALIENABLE TENURE. 

To the Mamlatdar of 

I, A. B., inhabitant of in the 

talnka, liereby accept the right of occupation of the land comprised in 
survey No. or of the building site hereinafter described or other- 

wise, as the case may be ), in the village of in the taluka, 

and I pray that my name be entered in the Government records as the 
occupant of the said land. 

The said land has been granted to me in perpetuity from the 
'day of 19 subject to the conditions hereinbelow 

mentioned and to the provisions of the Bombay Land Revenue Code, 
1879, and of the rules in force thereunder; 

* And I undertake to pay the land revenue from time to time law- 
fully due in respect of the said land (or I undertake, whenever Govern- 
ment shall see nt to discontinue the exemption of the said land from 
payment of land revenue, to pay such revenue, as may be lawfully im- 
posed thereon under the orders of Government or otherwise, as the case 
may be). 

The said land has been granted to me subject also to the further 
condition to which 1 hereby assent, namely, I, my heirs, assigns and 
legal representatives shall not at any time 

(1) partition the said land; 

or 

(2) lease, mortgage or otherwise howsoever encumber the said land 
or any portion thereof without the previous sanction of the Collector, 
which snail not be given except in respect of the whole land. 

If I fail to perform any of ths aforesaid conditions I shall be liable 
without prejudice to any other penalties that 1 may incur under the 
said Code, and the rules made thereunder, to have the said land sum- 
marily forfeited by the Collector, and I shall not be entitled to claim 
compensation for anything done or executed by me in respect of the 
said land. 

Dated the day of 19 

at 

Written by 
^ (Signed) A. B. 

* When land is told for a filed period free of land revenue this paragraph 
bould end here, and the taooad endorsement may be omitted. 



In Sind the Collector is empowered to allow division of a survey 
No. if in view of any special circumstances, he considers it necessary to 
do so. 

We declare that A. B. who has signed this agreement is to oar 
personal knowledge the person he represents himself to be, and that he 
has affixed his signature hereto in our presence. 

(Signed) C. D. 

( " )E.F. 

We declare that, to the best of our knowledge and from the best 
information which we have been able after careful enquiry to obtain, 
the person who has passed this agreement is a fit person to be accepted 
by Government as responsible for the punctual payment of the land 
revenue from time to time due on the above land. 

(Signed) G. H., 
Patel. 
I.J., 

Village Accountant. 
( G. R. No. 4702/24. Ill of 12-3-1931 ). 



FORM J (Rule 46). 

FORM OF AGREEMENT* FOB EXCHANGE TO BB EXECUTED BY 
VILL.AQEBS KBMOVING TO A NEW VILLAGE-SITE. 

Agreement executed the day of 19 by A. J5. 

resident of io the taluka : 

Whereas Government have been pleased to sanction a change be- 
ing made in the position of the site 01 the village of in the registra- 
tion sub-district of , and in pursuance of such 
sanction the following plot of ground has been allotted to me in the 
new site in exchange for the ground held by me in the old site, namely, 
the piece of land bounded as follows, that is to say on the North by 

, on the South by , on the East by , on 

the West by , measuring in 

length from North to South, and in length from East 

to West, and comprising about square in 

superficial area and bearing No. in the Land Records. 

I do hereby agree, in consideration of the allotment to me of the 
new piece of land aforesaid, as follows, namely : 

(1) That all my right, title and interest io any land whatsoever, 
situate within the old site of the said village, shall be deemed to be, 
and is hereby, surrendered to Government, together with the trees 
standing thereon and all rights over or other benefits arising out of or 
enjoyed by me in respect of the said land : 

(2) That I shall hold the piece of land aforesaid in the new site 
from the date of this agreement on the same terms and with the -same 
rights and subject to the same liabilities as would apply to my tenure 

*The stamp duty for this agreement is rednoed to four annas ; item 10 of 
Notification of the Government of India, 36lft-Exc., 16-7-09; G, B 7317-OV, 
I R. ft. 



tiAHD 

of the ground held by me in the old site, if I continued to be the 
holder thereof, f 

ID witness whereof I have hereto set my hand the day and year afore- 
said. 

Written by (Signed) A. B. 

Signed and delivered by in our presence. 



FORM K (Rule 54). 

OF WRITTEN PERMISSION TO OOOUPY LAND TO BE GIVEN 
BY A MAMLATDAB UNDER SKOTIFN 60. 

Permission is hereby given to A. J5., inhabitant of in the 

taluka, to occupy Survey No. (or the 

building-site hereinbelow described or otherwise as the case may be) in 
the village of in the taluka, 

in accordance with the Sanad granted (or, upon the conditions 

sanctioned by the Collector in his order No* dated ) 

Dated the day of 19 at 



Seal 



(Signed) 



Mamlatdar. 



Form KK (Rule 64 Bombay Suburban). 

Permission is hereby given to you AB, inhabitant of , to 

occupy the building site hereinbelow described in the 

village of in the taluka in 

accordance with the conditions sanctioned by the Collector and accept- 
ed by you in the agreement dated the day of 19 
subject to which this permission is given. 

Description of Land. 

Plot No. in the Suburban Scheme No. 

Dated the day of 19 , 

at 

(Signed) 

Mamlatdar, 



FORM L (Rule 74). 
FORM OF* NOTICE OF RELINQUISHMENT. 
To the Mamlatdar of 

/, A. B., inhabitant of in the taluka, 

(the Boiler** ') of Survey No. (or sub-division 

f In omitting a clause reserving the right to impose land revenue if hereafter 
thought fit, Government nevertheless do actually reserve that right ( G. Rs. Not. 
and 10096-85 see Note 27 to Rule 14). 
*No Court-fee is chargeable, tub Court- feee Act, Til ci 1876, t alien 19 (2J) 




Butur 6f 

No. ) or the building-site hereinbelow described 

(or otherwise as the case may be}, in the village of in the 

taluka, hereby give notice under section 74 of the Bombay Land Reve- 
nue Code, 1879, that it is my intention to relinquish and 1 hereby do 
relinquish the said Survey No. (or building-site, etc.) at the end of the 
current year,f subject to any rights, tenures, incumbrances or equities 
lawfully subsisting in favour of any person (other than Government or 



.1 _ 

thc holder > 

Dated this day of 19 at 

Written by 

(Signed) 4. B, 

FORM M. 

Form of sanad in cases where the assessment on land 
appropriated to building purposes is altered 

under section 48. 

WHEREAS appplication has been made to the Collector of 
(hereinafter referred to as the Collector which expression shall include 
any officer whom the Collector shall appoint to exercise and perform 
his powers and duties under this grant ) under section 65 of the Bom* 
. bay Land Revenue Code, 1879 ( hereinafter referred to as " the said 
Code " which expression shall where the context so admits include 
the rules and orders thereunder ) by inhabitant of 

b**ing the registered occupant of Survey No. 
in the village of in the 

taluka hereinafter referred to as " the applicant " which expression 
shall where the context so admits include his heirs, executors, admini- 
strators and assigns ) for permission to use for building purposes the 
plot of land (hereinafter referred to as the " said plot " ) described in 
the first schedule hereto and indicated by the letters on the 

site plan annexed hereto, forming part of Survey No. and measur- 

ing be the same a little more or ISSB. 

When used under rule 51 for land already occupied for agricultural 
purposes within certain surveyed cities the period for which the assess- 
ment is leviable will be ordered to coincide with the expiry of 99 years' 
period running in that city. (G. R. No. 9508-2423-8-27.) 

Now this is to certify that permission to use for building purposes 
the said plot is hereby granted subject to the provisions of the said 
Code, and on the following conditions, namely: 

(1) Assessment. The applicant in lieu of the assessment hereto- 

fore leviable in respect of the said plot shall pay to Government on the 

day of in each year an annual assessment of Rupees 

(Rs. ) during the thirty (30) years commencing 

on the day of 19 , or in composition therefor 

a lamp sum of Rupees ( Rs, ) being 

twenty times the said annual assessment; and on the expiry of the said 

period of thirty years, such revised assessment as may from time to 

time be fixed by the Collector under the said Code. 

fTbcie notices moat be given before the 3 1st March, or inch other date ae 
prescribe under sec, 74 for each district. 



*t THE BOMBAY Lura BrffeiroB OODB, 1879 

^ " Provided that where the applicant is a Co-operative Housing 
Society, it shall be entitled to such exemption from the payment of 
altered assessment in whole or in part as is permissible under proviso 
(2) to clause (a) of rule 88. " 
( This Proviso was added by G.|B., R. D., no. 620-38, dated 14-10-32 ). 

(2) Use. The applicant shall use the said plot only for building 
purposes of the nature specified in condition (8) of this sanad. 

(3) Building Time Limit. The applicant shall within three ( 3 ) 
years from the date hereof, erect and complete on the said plot* 

of a substantial and permanent description, and shall in regard there- 
to duly comply in every respect with the building regulations contained 
in clauses etc., of the second schedule hereto. 

14 From the date of permission " has been suggested by one 
Commissioner: but there ought not to be any material difference and 
the " permission " can only date from its formal expression in the 
Sanad. Government did not accept the suggestion. (R. 1432-24-3-1-25). 

(4){ Reservation of M at gin. If the Collector shall give the appli- 
cant 'notice in writing that a strip of land from the margin of the said 
plot not more than feet in depth, is required by Government for 

the purposes of a road, the applicant shall, at the expiration of one 
month after the receipt of such notice, quietly surrender and hand over 
possession of such strip of land to the Collector in consideration of re* 
ceiving from Government in exchange and as full compensation there- 
for a sum equivalent to ( ) times the assessment pro- 
portionately payable upon the strip so surrendered. 

An agreement ?ct*fcdl before 1913 was by compromise modified and recast in 
G. R. No. 99559-2-24. 

Provided that, where the materials of any gate, wall, pavement or 
other such authorized erection or construction on such portion cannot 
in the opinion of the Collector be removed without appreciable loss, 
such further compensation on this account shall be paid to the appli- 
cant as the Collector may deem fit. 

(5) Liability for Rates. The applicant shall pay all taxes, rates 
and cesses leviable on the said land. 

(6) Penalty clause. The Collector may, without prejudice to any 
other penalty to which the applicant may be liable under the provi- 
sions of the said Code, direct the removal or alteration of any building 
or structure erected or used contrary to the provisions of this grant 
within a time prescribed in that behalf by the Collector, and on such 
removal or alteration not being carried out within the prescribed peri- 
od, may cause the same to be carried out and may recover the cost 
of carrying out the same from the applicant as an arrear of land reve- 
nue. 

(7) Code provisions applicable. Save as herein provided, the grant 
shall be subject to the provisions of the *aid Code. 

(8) Execution.lthe applicant shall bear all costs incurred in the 
preparation, execution, stamping and registration of these presents. 

Here insert; description of the buildings such at " a residential bungalow and 
ont-honset. " 

| Omit this condition il not required, And set Note 1. 



Jtouw 



Schedule L 



Length and Breadth 


Total 
Super- 
ficial 
area 


forming 
(part of) 
Survey 
No or 
Hisia No. 


* 
Boundaries 


J3 


North to 
South 


East to 
West 


North 


South East 


Weet 


















| 




















i 

































Schedule II. 

(The numbers of the conditions which are applicable should be 
entered in condition 3 of the grant : and special conditions should be 
inserted in continuation). 

1. The applicant may build on the area marked on the 
map annexed and shall leave the remaining area of the said plot as 
an open space. 

2. of the said plot shall be let open to the sky. 

3. Any latrine, cesspool or stables constructed on the said plot 
nhall, if any place shall have been set apart in the map annexed for 
such purpose be constructed in such place and not elsewhere* 

4. No building shall be erected in the said plot more than 
feet in height. 

5. The building erected on the said plot shall be used for resi- 
dential purposes only. 

G. No building erected on the said plot shall be used as a shop 
or a factory or as a place for carrying on an offensive trade. 

7. The grant shall be subject to the following special conditions:- 

() 

(b) etc., etc. 

IN WITHESS WHEREOF the Collector of has hereunto set 

his hand and the seal of his office on hehalf of the Secretary of State 
for India in Council; and the applicant has also hereunto set his hand 
this day the of 19 

(Signature of applicant). 

(Signatures and designations of witnessses). 
Signature of Collector). 

(Signatures ami designations of witnesses). 
(Seal of Collector). 



Wft THE BOMBAT LIKD RMTEMOE OODB, 1879 

We declare that A.B., who has signed this notice, is, to our per- 
sonal knowledge, the person he represents himself to be, and that he 
has affixed his signature hereto in our presence. 

(Signed) E. F. 
G.H. 

N. B.l. This document need not be registered [sec. 90 (1) (d), Act XVI 
of 1908] unless condition 4 is retained [sec. 17 (1) (b) ibid], 

2. This document is exempt from stamp duty (Rule 7, G. oi I. 
Notio. 3616-Exc.-16-7-09) unless condition 4 is retained when it 
should be stamped under Article 55 of Schedule 1 to Act II of 
1899. See also R. 7431*23. Form was sanctioned iu G. R. 1291-20 



FORM N [Rule 87 (*) ]. 

Form of Sanad in cases where the assessment on land appropriated to 
non-agricultural purposes other than building is altered under section 48. 

WHBUBAS the land hereinafter described by measurement and by 
the boundaries specified in the schedule (and delineated in the map 
hereto appended) and forming (part of) Survey No. in <ihe village 
of in the taluka of , 

entered in the name of and at present held by , resident 

of , has been hitherto assessed for purposes of 

agriculture at the rate of ; AND WBIBRKAS the said land 

has been used for a non-agricultural purpose, to wit for (describe pur- 
pose ) (but not for building) and such assessment has thereby 
become liable under section 48 of the Bombay Land Revenue Code, 
1879, to be altered and fixed at a different rate : 

Now this is to certify that under the provisions of the said Code, 

and rules in force thereunder the assessment of the amount to be paid 

annually as land-revenue on the said land has been fixed: for a term of 

" years from the day of 19 , 

at the sum of Rs. (figures) [Rupees 

(uords)] payable in each year of the said term in 

one instalment due on* in each year. 

On the expiry of the said term, and at such further intervals as 
may be from time to time directed by Government in this behalf, the 
assessment aforesaid will be liable to revision in accordance with the 
said Code and the rales and orders for the time being in force there- 
under. 



* Here insert the usual date of the Land Revenue first instalment or such 
other date as the Collector may fix (Role 116). 



li 



Schedule hereinbefore referred to. 



Length and 
Breadtth 


Total 
super- 
ficial area 


Forming 
(part of) 
Survey No. 
orHissaNo. 


Boundaries 


s 


North to 
Sooth 


East to 

West 


North 


South 


East 


West 












































i 
















i 




i 







In witness whereof the Collector has hereto set 
seal of his office this day of 



Seal 



his hand and 
19 



Collector. 



the 



jVbfo.~In such Banads also the Collector has full power to impose conditions, 
which will he inserted after the sthedule. 



" FORMNI [ Rule 87 (*) ] 

Form of Sanad in cases where the assessment on land temporarily 

appropriated to non-agricultural purposes other than building is 

altered under section 48. 

Whereas the land hereinafter described by measurement and by 
the boundaries specified in the schedule ( and delineated in the map 
hereto appended ) and forming (part of) Survey No. in the village 
of in the taluka of entered in the name of, and at pre- 

sent held by , resident of , has been hitherto 

assessed for purposes of agriculture, at the rate of ; and where- 

as the said land has been used for a non-agricultural purpose, to wit for 

(^5ribT^piIFpSio< but not for a permanent building) and such assessment 
has thereby become liable under section 48 of the Bombay Land Reve* 
nue Code, 1879, to be altered and fixed at a different rate: 

Now this is to certify that under the provisions of the said Code 
and rules in force thereunder, the assessment of the amount to be paid 
as land-revenue on the said land, has been fixed for a term of 
from the day of 19 , at the sum of 

Rs. (figures) [ Rupees (words)] 

payable in one instalment on 

On the expiry of the said term the assessment aforesaid will be 
liable to revision in accordance with the said Code and the rules and 
orders for the time being in force thereunder, 



v* THE BOMBAY LAUD REVENUE CODE, 1879 

In case of a breach of liny of the conditions of this Sanad the Collec- 
tor may, without prejudice to any other penalty to which the holder 
of the said land may be liable under the provisions of the said Code, 
direct the removal or alteration of any structure erected or used contra- 
ry to the provisions of this Sanad within a time precribed in that be- 
half by the Collector, and on such removal or alteration not being 
carried out within the prescribed period, may cause the same to be 
carried out and may recover the cost of carrying out the same from the 
holder as an arrear of land revenue: 

Schedule hereinbefore referred to. 



Length and 
Breadth 


Total 
super- 
ficial 
area 


Forming 
(part o*) 
Survey No. 
or hissa No. 


Boundaries 


> 

M 


North to 
South 


Bast to 
West 


North 


South 


East 


West 


* 












1; 





In witness whereof the Collector has hereto, set his hand and the 
seal of his office this day of 19 . 



Seal* 



Collector. 



Collector has full power to impose any conditions he thinks fit. 
$och conditions will be inserted after the schedule for the erection of tempoary 
structures." 



FORM (Rule 104 and Rule 11B). 
RBOOBD or RIGHTS. 

. , A double-page form with sufficiently wide columns for (or cards in 
V. JP* YII-XII ruled to contain) the following particulars i 

1. Serial Number. 

2. Survey Number (if inam> the kiod of inam). 

3. Area* 

4. Ordinary or Special Aeecssmeat and Judi. 



5. Sub-division Number. 

6. Area. 

7. Assessment. 

8. Judi or Special or Non-agricultural Assessment payable. 

9. Occupant of Khalsa Land or Holder of Alienated Land. 

10. Nature and origin of Title. 

11. Other rights or encumbrances with names of rigW/~holder or 
encumbrancer. 

12. References to Mutation Diary, Form P 

13. Remarks. 

FORM P (Rule 104). 

Mutation Register. 
A single page form with columns showing the following particulars : 



Serial 
No. of entry 



Nature of right 



;8arrey and anti-diyision 
Noa. affected 



Initial! or ramarki 
by testing offioera 



EORM Q (Rules 104 and 108). 
Register of Disputed Cases. 





Number 


Survey No. 


Date of 


Particulars of 


Orders of 


Serial 
No. 


iu Form 
O. or P. 


and Hisba No. 
(or part). 


receipt of 
objection 


dispute with names 


Mamlatdar or 
Collector 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 















L. K. 0, 10. 



TEX BOMBAY LAND BIVEHUB CODE, 1879 

FORM B ( Bale 113 ). 
Now Combined with V. F. XII ( Form 6 ) in card form. 



FOBM 8 ( Bale 118 ). 
NOTICE TO A DEFAULTER. 
To A B residing at 

Yoa are hereby required to take notice that the sum of Bs. a. p. 
due by you on the as the* instalment 

of land revenue on the land held by you, of which full details can be 
obtained from the village Accountant ( or otherwise as the case may 
be ), in the village of in the taluka of 

has not been paid, and that, unless it is paid within ten days from the 
date of this notice together with the sum of annas, being 

the fee chargeable for this notice, complusory proceedings will be taken 
according to law for the recovery of the whole of the revenue still due 
by you on the said land, together with an additional penalty not exceed- 
ing one-fourth of the said arrears under section ;148 of the Land 
Bevenue Code. 

Dated the day of 19 

(Signed) Mainlatdar ( or Aval Karkun ) t 

FOBM T ( Bule 120 ). 

FOBM OP AGREEMENT TO BE PASSED WHEN FORFEITED LAND 
IS RESTORED ON NEW TENURE. 

Agreement. 
To 

The Mamlatdar of 

I, A. ., inhabitant of in the Taluka 

hereby accept the right of occupation of the land comprised in Survey 
Number in the village of in the 

Taluka and I pray that my name may be entered 

in the Government records as the occupant of the said land. 

The said land which has been forfeited for arrears of land revenue 
has been regranted to me subject to the provisions of the Bombay Land 
Bevenue Code, 1879, and of the Bules in force thereunder in perpetuity! 
from the day of 19 ; and I undertake to 

pay the land revenue from time to time lawfully due in respect of the 
said land. 

The said land has been regranted to me after forfeiture, subject to 
the condition to which I hereby assent in consideration of the regrant, 
namely, that I, my heirs, executors, administrators and approved 
assigns may not at any time lease, mortgage, sell or otherwise how- 
soever encumber the said land or any portion thereof without the previ- 
ous sanction in writing of the Collector. 

Dated the day of 19 at 

Written by 

(Signed) A B. 

* " First " or << Second ", as the oaie may bo. 
J Authorised by Q. B. No. 2469-88; 9268-11. 

f When not granted in perpetuity delete the word and insert " until the 
day of 19 ." 



Rtruw ?5 

We declare that A. B., who has signed this agreement, is to our 
personal knowledge, the person he represents himself to be, and that 
ne has affixed his signature hereto in our presence. 

(Signed) C. D. 
E.F. 

We declare that to the best of our knowledge and from the best 
information we have been able, after careful inquiry, to obtain, the 
person who has passed this agreement is a fit person to be accepted by 
Government as responsible for the punctual payment of the land reve- 
nue from time to time due on the above land. 

(Signed) Q. H. Patel, 

7. /., Village- Accountant. 

FORM U (Rule 129). 

(Standard form R.M.20) 

FOBM OF PROCLAMATION AND WRITTEN NOTICE OF SALE OF ATTACHID 

PROPERTY. 

(Under Section 165, L. R. C.) 

Whereas the property of hereinunder specified has been attach- 
ed on account of the Government assessment Rs. due by the said 
; and whereas it is necessary to recover the said amount by sale 
of the said property, together with all lawful charges and expenses 
resulting from the said attachment and sale : 

Notice is hereby given that on the day of 19 at 
o'clock A. x. A. B. the Mamlatdar of ( or 

other person appointed ) will, at in taluka in 

this district, sell by auction to the highest bidder and upon such condi- 
tions as to upset price and other conditions as are set out in the sub- 
joined Schedule of Conditions of Sale, the right, title and interest of 
the said in the property hereinunder specified, and every power 

of disposing of the same or any of them or of the profits arising there- 
from which the said may now consistently with the law exer- 
cise for his own benefit. 

Movable Property. 

( This table only should ba omitted when the form is to be used 
under rules for the execution of decrees.) 



1 


2 


3 


! 5 


6 


Lot No. 


lumber and descr- 


Where 


Where now 


When to be 


Whether the sale 




iption of articles 


attached 


placed 


viewed 


is subject to con- 
firmation or not 













Tsx fioKBAY LAKD RIVENTTE OODH, 
Immovable Property. 



1 


2 


3 


4 


6 


678 


9 




Description of 
Lot including 
local situation 


Survey 
number, 
munici- 


Government 
Revenue in- 
cluding any 


Present 


(Here enter 
any other 


(This column 
should be used for 
particulars which 


Lot supposed or est- 
Ko . | imated rent or 


pal num. 
bar and 


Local Cess 

and any 


occu- 
pant 


particulars 
the Colle- 


the Collector may 
see fit to enter 


1 annual value, 


other 


other known 




ctor may 


under the rules for 




and if leased, for 


cadastral 


fiscal charge 




see fit) 


the execution of 


| how long, on 


designa- 


resting on 






Civil Court 




what terms and 


tion 


the Lot. 






decrees) 




to whom 



























N. B. No guarantee is given of the title of the said or of the validity 

of any of the right charges or interests claimed by third parties, 

(Signed) 

Collector. 

A printed schedule setting forth the conditions of sale according 
to the Code and Bales shall be appended. 

FORM W (Rule 129). 

FORM or PROCLAMATION AND WRITTEH NOTIOB OF SALE OF RIGHT 
OF OCCUPATION OF UNOCCUPIED LAND. 

Notice is hereby given that the right of occupation of the under- 
mentioned unoccupied land, situate in the village of in 
the taluka will be put up to public auction at on the day 
of 10 , at or after o'clock A. M. 

p. M. 

The written (or printed) conditions of sale signed by *[may be 
seen on application during office hours, on any office day before tho 
day of the auction, to the Mamlatdar of or, at the time of the auc- 
tion, to the officer who conducts the same] and intending bidders are 
warned that they should ascertain the said conditions before bidding, 

*[or are subjoined to this Proclamation' 7 ]. 
Description of the Land. 

Here give a full description of the land, viz., the Survey Number 
or Numbers, if it has been surveyed, if not, its boundaries; the class of 
land, t. a., whether it is dry-crop land, garden land, or a building-site, 
etc., the area of the land, adding "be the same more or less"; the 
assessment, if any, at present payable for the land, and the term for 
which that assessment has been fixed. 
(Signed) 

Dated the day ? Collector (or other competent officer). 

of 19 5 



RULES 

under sub-section (l)of s.2l4of L-R. ode 

Regulating entry into any premises by any officer 
empowered under a. 164 of this Code for the dis- 
traint of moveable property of a defaulter. 

(Vide G. R. R. D. No. 4112, dated Kih November 1930). 

No. 4112. In exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (l)of 
section 214 of the Bombay Land Revenue Code, 187* (Bom. Vof 1879), 
the Governor in Council is pleased to make the following rules regu- 
lating entry into any premises by any officer empowered under section 
154 of the said Code for the distraint of moveable property of a 
defaulter : 

1. Service of notice. Where an officer in exercise of his power 
of distraint under section 154 of the Bombay Land Revenue Code, 
1879, intends to enter any building used as a human dwelling, the 
notice required by the proviso to section 200 shall be served by pre- 
sentation to the defaulter or to any adult male member of his family 
present in the building, or failing either of the aforesaid methods, by 
being affixed to any prominent part of the building. 

2. Breaking open doors* An officer in exercise of the aforesaid 
power of distraint may break open, at any time between sunrise and 
sunset, the gate of any private street or any outer or inner door or 
window of any permises, if he has reasonable grounds for believing 
that such street or premises contain any property liable to distraint 
as aforesaid, and if after notifying his authority and purpose and 
duly demanding admittance, he cannot otherwise obtain admittance; 

Provided that such officer shall not enter, or break open a door 
or window of any apartment in the actual occupation of a woman 
who according to custom does not appear in public, until he has given 
notice to such woman that she is at liberty to withdraw and has 
given her every reasonable facility for withdrawing, 

3. Forcing open of receptacle. An officer in exercise of the afore- 
said power of distraint may break open any closed receptacle found 
on any permises entered in exercise of the said power, if he cannot 
otherwise, after demand duly made from the persons, if any, occupy- 
ing the said premises to open the receptacle, obtain inspection of the 
contents of the same. 

4. Value of property distrained. The estimated sale-proceed|B of 
the property distrained shall be as nearly as possible equal to the 
amount in respect of which the defaulter has made default. 

5. Inventory. An officer on distraining any property from any 
permises shall make an inventory thereof; and shall supply a copy of 
the inventory to the defaulter, or to any adult male member of his 
family present ; if neither the defaulter nor any such member is 
present, the officer shall affix a copy of the inventory to a prominent 
part of the premises from which distraint has been made. 



A List of Applications 

UNDER THE 

LAND REVENUE CODE 

Requiring Court fee stamps. 



Description of Applications. 



Proper fee 



1 . Appeals 

(1) against imposition of fine under section 61, L.R.O., for 
unauthorized occupation of Government land ... 

(2) against imposition of fine for unauthorised conversion of 
land for non-agricultural purposes ... 

(3) against the order of the Deputy Collector 

(4) against refusal or grant of permanent, punjsala or eksali 
land ... ... ... ... ... 

(5) again s t refusal of fasuli remission and suspension 

(6) against notice of demand, distraint, auction of moveable 
and immoveables, notice of forfeiture 

(7) against the order re : precautionary measure ... 

(8) against the imposition of fine under s, 148, L.R.O. 

(9) regarding grant of copies 
(10) against levy of land revenue 

2. Assessment 

application for commutation of altered assessment 

3. Assistance suits 

(1) application for assistance under section 86, L.R.O. 
when the amount claimed is lees than Rs. 50. ... 
when the amount claimed is Rs. 50 or more ... 

(2) process fee for every notice or summons in assistance cases 

4. Boundaries 

(1) application for fixing boundaries of building plots 

(2) applicaton for demarcation of boundaries of survey 
numbers 

f>. Bricks 

application for removing earth from Govt. land for brick 
manufacture 

6. Burial grounds 

application for burial ground 

7. Charitable and pub'ic purposes - 

application for free grant of stone, sand, earth and 
stones for charitable and other purposes 

8. Commission 

application for grant of commission under section 88, 
L.R.O ., 



Rs. As. 



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8 

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2 

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Description oi Applications. 



Proper fct 



9. 



(1) application for copies 

(2) application for true copies and sketches from Oity Survey 
record ... 

(3) certified copies for every 360 words or fraction of 360 
words ... 

10, Decrees 

application in decree after agreement... 

11. Dispute- 

(1) application in connection with dispute over landed pro- 
perty 

(2) petition regarding dispute over produce and payment of 
land revenue 

(3) petition regarding dispute on pattadari and jagirdari 

(4) application for dispute of karia ... 

}2. Farm building 

application for permission to erect farm building 

18. Fishery rights 

application for grant of fishery rights of Be venue Dbands 

14. Forfeiture 

application claiming over property forfeited by Revenue 
Officers ... 

16. Fuel 

(1) application to cut fuel 

(2) application for fuel for kilns 

(3) application for transit pass for removing or carrying fuel 

16. Huri 

Application for Huri grants 

17 Hari or an agent 

application to appoint a hari or an agent 

18i Ijazatnama 

application for grant of Bubkari or Ijazatnama 

19. Kiln 

(1 ) application for permission to burn a kiln 

(2) application for burning a brick kiln ... 

(3) petition for fuel for kiln 

(4) petition for grant of kiln ... 

(5) application for conversion of land for kiln purposes 



Bs. As. 

2 

8 
8 

















Description of Applications. 



Proper fee 



20. 



application for excavation of khada ... 



Rs. As. 

8 



21. Lands 

(1) application for exchange of laud 

(2) application for leasing out land 

(3) application for transfer or conversion of building sites 

to agricultural land and vice versa ... 

(4) application for permission to lease, transfer or sell land 
granted on restricted tenure 

(5) application for reservation of track out of occupied or 
unoccupied land ... 

(6) application for temporary occupation of Government 
land for non-agricultural purposes ... 

(7) application for grant of Government land for non-agri- 

cultural purposes ... 

(8) application for jeservation of land for public or special 
purposes 

(9) application for exchange of land on restricted tenure 
or to become a partner in the same ... 

(10) application for conversion of land other than non-agri- 
cultural purposes .. 

(11) application for transfer of land from one deh to the other. 

22. Land Revenue 

(1) application for postponement of the date of payment of 
Laud Revenue 

(2) application from co-oco upant to pay Land Revenue to 
save the forfeiture of Ka bull Survey number ... 

(3) appeal against the levy of Land Revenue 

23. Partition 

application for partition 

24. Pasturage 

application for farming of pasturage rights 

25. Postponement 

1. Application for postponement of auction sale in execu- 
tion of Civil decrees 

Note. The applications for postponement of Land Revenue, 
Tacavi, Hakabo are exempt. 

26. Quarry 

application for granting permission to quarry stones ., 

27. Rebate 

J. application for rebate 

2. application for grant of rebate of karia clearance 

28. Restricted tenure 

application for removal of restricted tenure conditions . 

























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Description of Applications. 



Proper fee 



29. Restriction 

1. application for removal of restriction 

2. application for removal of rice restriction ... 

8. application for removal or imposition of restriction 
against extension or grant of land on Government 
canal 

30. Rotation 

application for rotation 



51. Sale 



Site 



application to sot aside sale... 



application for new village site 
application for building site 



33. Sub-division 

application for sub-division of a survey number 

34. Wadharvaras 

application for wadharvaras 

35. Wtll 

application for sinking of a well in Government land ... 

RECORD OF RIGHTS. 

1. Application regarding disputes between Inamdare and 
tenants 

2. Application regarding disputes about tenancy, easements 
in Bayali land 

3. Application regarding disputes about inheritance, posses- 
sion and other rights ... 

4. Application regarding acquisition of a right by succession, 

survivorship, inheritance, partition, purchase, mortgage, 
gift, lease or otherwise 

5. Appeals against decisions passed in serial Nos. 1 to 4 above.. 

6. Appeals against imposition of fine under s, 135 (F) L.B.O.... 

7. Appeals regarding City survey matters 

8. Applications for grant of copies from the Records of Rights. 



Ha, As. 

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trite 

Bombay Revenue Jurisdiction Act 

ACT No. X OF 1876 

(.Is amended by Ad* XVI of 1811, XV of 1880, XII of 189 1, IV 
of 1894: XIV of 1895 and Bom. Act XXI of 1929). 

[28th March 1876 

An Act to limit the jurisdiction of the Civil Courts through- 
out the Bombay Presidency in matters relating to the Land- 
revenue, and for other purposes. 

WIIEHKAS in certain psrts of the Prcsidenay of Bombay, the 
jurisdiction of the Civil Courts in matters 
' connected with the land-revenue is more ex- 

tensive that it is in the rest of the said Presidency ; 

And whereas it is expedient that the jurisdiction of all 
the Civil Courts in the said Presidency should be limited in manner 
hereinafter appearing ; 

And whereas it is also expedient to amend the Bombay Civil 
Courts Act, section 32, and to revive certain provisions of the [1] 
thirteenth section of Regulation XVII of 1827 of the Bombay Code, 
which was repealed by the Land Improvement Act, 1871 ; [2] 

[1J Section 17 of this Act which revised a. 13 of Boin. Rog, 17 of 1827 was 
repealed by Act XV of 1880, except in scheduled districts to which the Bombay 
Land Revenue Code, 1879 (Bom. Act :> of 1879) does not extend. 

[2] The portion repealed by the Repealing and Amending Act IV of 1894 is 
omitted. 

It is hereby enacted as follows : 

1. This Act may be called <k The Bombay 
Short title. Revenue Jurisdiction Act, 1876 :" 

So much of section four as relates to claims to set aside, on 

the ground of irregularity, mistake or any 

Commencement. other groun( } except fraud, sales for arrears 

of land revenue, shall come into force on such* day as the Governor 

General in Council directs in that behalf by notification in the 

Gazette of India. The rest of this Act shall come into force on the 

passing thereof. 

And it shall extend to all the territories for the time being 
under the Government of the Governor of 
*' xteDt ' Bombay in Council, but not so as to affect 

Theloth September 1881 G. N. 188~Y, Pt.l, s. 92. 



2 THE BOMBAY REVENUE JURISDICTION ACT 

(a) any suit regarding tin assessment of revenue on land 
situated in the Collectorate of Bombay, or the collection of such 
revenue 5 

(b) any of the provisions of Bombay Acts V of 1862 and VI 
of 1862, or of Act XXI of 1881, or of Act XXIII of 1871 ; 

[a] . * * ' * * 

[a] Clause (c) was repealed ly th c Repealing and, Amending Act XVI^of I8'..\ 

2. [ Repeal of enactments ] Rep. Act XII of 1891. 

T . 3. In this Act, unless there be something 

Interpretation clause. repugnant in the sub j ect or con text, 

"Land" includes the sites of villages, towns and cities : it 

also includes trees, growing crops and grass, 

" J fruit upon, and juice in, trees, rights-of-way, 

ferries, fiisheries and all other benefits to arise out of land, and 

things attached to the earth, or permanently fastened to things 

attached to the earth : 

"Land-revenue" means all sums and payments, in money or 

in kind, received or claimable by or on behalf 

"Land-rownne of Government from any person on account of 

any land held by or vested in him, and any cess or rate authorized 

by Government under the provisions of any law for the time 

being in force : 

"Revenue officer" means any officer employed in or about the 
., business of the land-revenue, or of the sur- 
ovcuuc otficer." vejs, assessment, accounts or records connected 
therewith. 

4. Subject to the exceptions hereinafter appearing, no Civil 

Court shall exercise "jurisdiction as to any of 

Bar of certain salts. thfl following mafcters . J _ 

(a) claims against Government relating to any property apper- 
taining to the office of any hereditary officer appointed or recognized 
under Bombay Act No. Ill of 1874, or any other law for the time 
being in force, or of any other village-officer or servant, or 

claims to perform the duties of any such officer or servant, 
or in respect of any injury caused by exclusion from such office 
or service, or 

suits to set aside or avoid any order under the same Act or any 
other law relating to the same subject for the time being in force 
passed by Government or any officer duly authorized in that 
behalf, or 

claims against Government relating to lands held under treaty, 
or to lands granted or held as saranjam or on other political tenure, 
or to lands declared by Government or any officer duly authorized 
in that behalf to be held for service ; 



THE BOMBAY REVENUE JURISDICTION ACT 8 

Scope. So far as a plaintiff's claim to perform the duties of any office or 
claim for the cancellation of the watan register is concerned, the words of this 
section arc wide enough to preclude the Civil Courts from entertaining such claim. 
A suit, however, for a declaration that the plaintiffs are the nearest heirs of the 
deceased representative watandar is not barred by this section (ffanmantv Secretary 
of State, 54 Bom, 126, s. c. 32 Bom. L. E. 155). 

Where a person in possession of vatan lands under a miras lease or mortgage 
from the owner continues in adverse possession of the land after death of the owner 
for the statutory period, he is still liable to be ousted under the Hereditary Offices 
Act, and so he is at most entitled only to an injunction restraining the owners from 
taking proceedings other than under the Hereditary Offices Act to recover posses- 
sion. An order which, though purporting to bo passed under the Hereditary Offices 
Act, is not authori/ed hy the Act, does not come within the purview of this Act 
(Jlfaaanchand v. Vithalrao, 37 Bora. 37). 

Suit to recover Saranjam lands. A suit to recover back possession 
of land, the Saranjam rights in which have been resumed by Government, is not 
barred by this section (Gunirao v. Secretary of State, 41 Bom. 408). 

"Claims to perform duties of Hereditary officer/' The plaintiff 
who was a Deshpando, an Hereditary District Officer, claimed against Government 
to perform the duties of a Deshpande'd office Held, that such suits were excluded 
from the jurisdiction of the Civil Courts ( Narayan v Secretary of State, P. J. 
1897, p. 42.")). 

'Claims relating to property of village officer." When it has 
been decided that a particular land is service inam land, the Civil Court, under this 
clause, ceases to have jurisdiction over the plaintiff's claim against Government in 
respect of th3 trees growing thereon, as such claims related to property appear- 
taining to the ollice of a village officer (Dj soitza Devino v Sycrjfary of State for India/ 
18 Bom. 319), 

" Claims in respect of injury ?1 A.suit in respect of any injury caused 
by exclusion from office or sorvico is barred by the 2nd paragraph of cl. () of 
this section. Having regard to tho wording of the clauses of this section, the bar 
therein provided is not limited to suits against Government (Naro v. Mahadeo, 
12 Bom. 014). 

"Treaty. "-The word 'treaty' in this clause ought not to be broadly inter- 
preted. The word -treaty' must, seeing that it is not defined in this Act, receive 
its generally accepted meaning, viz , that it is au agreement between two or more in- 
dependent sovereign powers of State (Kalabhaiv. The Secretary of State for India, 
29 Bom 19). 

"Claims to lands held on political tenure." A suit in a Civil 

Court against Government to recover possession of inam lands together with arrears 
of the amals is barred both under this section and s. 4 of the Pensions Act (XEIC of 
1871). It was barred under Reg. XXJX of 1827. These Acts, though not re- 
trospective in their operation, still do not create rights to relief against the Gov- 
ernment where none subsisted before (SMvram v. Secretary of State Jor India, 1 1 
Bom. 222). 

Commutation Of watan. Where a Collector orders commutation of 
yatan services at tho instance of the widow of the last vatandar, but without 



4 THE BOMBAY REVENUE JURISDICTION 

observing the procedure prescribed by s. 7 3 of the Bom. Hereditary Offices Act, 1874, 
the order passed is ultra vires of him ; and a suit to set it aside can be entertained 
by a Oivil Court notwithstanding the provisions of cl (a) of this section (Bhikaji 
v. Secretary of State, 27 Bom. L. R, 463). 

Suit for declaration. A suit for a declaration that the plaintiffs are 
hereditary Vatandar Kulkarnis, and that they are entitled to be Vatandar and en- 
titled to the Vahivat of the Vatau hereditarily, is barred by the provisions of clause 
(a) of this section (Damodar v. Collector of Na*ik, 44 Bom 261). 

Suit for share in emoluments of watan.-- Neither Act ill of 1874 

nor this Act contains any provision excluding the jurisdiction of Oivil Courts in a 
suit brought to establish a share in the emoluments of a watan which has ceased to 
be a service watan (Moheyodin v. Chhotibibi, o Bom, 578). 

Suit for damages. A suit, in respect of any injury caused by exclusion 
front office or service, claiming damages by reason of a breach of an agreement be- 
tween the co-sharers, is barred by para. (2) of cl (a) of this section (Naro v. Maha- 
deo, 12 Bom. 614). 

This section applies to all suits, and not to suits against Government only 
(Ibid.). 

Maintainability of suit as against Government.- Where an 

order was passed by the Government under s. 36 of the Watan Act recognizing the 
claim of a certain person to succeed a deceased representative watandar, it was 
held that a suit against Government to have the resolution of the Government set 
aside is barred under this section (ffanmant v. Secretary of State , 54 Bom. 125, s. c. 
32 Bom. L. E. 155). 

Suit against Government. So far as the plaintiffs seek to have their 
own right to officiate declared, the Civil Court has no jurisdiction since the passing 
of the Bom Hereditary Offices Act, 1874 ; but that Act did not take away the 
jurisdiction of Civil Courts to determine who were wataudars. The discretion of 
the Collector only came into play when it is determined if one is a watandar ; so far 
as the plaintiffs ask for a declaration that defendant is not entitled to ba on the list 
of watandars, the Civil Courts have jurisdiction (Yellappa v The Secretary of State, 
P. J. 1888, p. 224). 

Where an order is passed by revenue officers that a person is not a Vatandar 

a suit to obtain a declaration from a Oivil Court that the decision is bad, is barred 

under the 3rd paragraph of cl. (a) of this section. If suoh a suit seeks relief against 

Government relating to vatan land, it falls also within the first paragraph of cl. (a) 

(Baslingappagouda v. Secretary of State, 28 Bom. L. K 60 1). 

A party against whom an order cx-parte is made by revenue authorities is en- 
titled to have the matter fully heard after arguments on both sides. An order so 
passed on further hearing is not an order passed in revision, but an order properly 
made after hearing both the parties, one of whom had not bjen heard on the pre- 
vious occasion (Ibid). 

Jurisdiction Of Oivil Courts The Civil Court has no jurisdiction to 
set aside orders made under ss. 11, 11 A and 9 (2) of the Bombay Hereditary Offices 
Act (Ibid.). 

Under para. 2 of cl. (a) of this section the jurisdiction of a Civil Court is 
excluded in a suit by a DeshpatK'o, an hereditary district officer, claiming against 



THE BUHBAT REVENUE JURISDICTION ACT 5 

Government the right to perform the duties of a Deshpande's office. The meaning 
of the words "claims to perform the duties of any such officer or servant" is to be 
taken from the preceding sentence (Narayan v. Secretary of State, P. t J. 1894, 
p. 450). 

A Civil Court has no jurisdiction to entertain a suit brought by Mahars for 
a declaration that they arc entitled to a share in the Maharki Vatan and for an 
injunction restraining the defendants from obstructing them in the enjoyment of 
the said share (BMva v Vithya, 25 Bom. 186). 

Under this section a Civil Court has no jurisdiction to entertain a suit for a de- 
claration that the plaintiffs are watandar patils and kulkarnis of the village, and for 
cancellation of the watan register. Th-3 words of this section in question are wide 
enough to preclude the Civil Courts from entertaining any claim to the watau 
offices in oppposition to the claim of the hereditary officers appointed or recognised 
under the Bom. Hereditary Offices Act, 1874, and also any claim for the cancella- 
tion of the watau register (Laxmanrao v Shriniwas, 51 Bom. 830, P. C.). 

The jurisdiction of the Civil Courts to entertain tha chi'n for a refuud of tbd 
contribution levied under the Bom. Hereditary OJfices Act, 1874, is not barred 
by this section (Ibid). 

The Mamlatdar passed a decree in plaintiff's favour in an assessinoat suit for 
rent. In the course of the execution proceedings under that decree, the plaintiff 
got attached a buffalo belonging to tha defendant. On this, the petitioner applied 
to the Mamlatdar to raise the attachment oa the ground that the buffalo had been 
pledged to him and the same was ordered. Plaintiff's case was that the alleged 
pledge was a fraud and she sued for damages. HM, that the suit was intended for 
the rehearing of the decision of the Mamlatdar as to whether the buffalo was 
pledged to the applicant and was not a bona fidt suit for damages for a fraud 
practised on the court and that consequently it was not maintainable (Sadashiv v. 
Radkibai, SlJBoin. L R 504). 

It is competent to a Civil Court to grant a declaration that the plaintiffs are 
Watandars of a Maharki Watan (Raoji v- Dagdu, 4 1 Bom 23 ; s. e. 18 Bom. 
L. E. 83<J). 

Where Government have resolved that a certain person should bj recognized 
as a representative watandar of a watau, a suit brought against Government to set 
aside the Government Resolution is barrel unler this section (Flanmint v. Secretary 
of State, 54 Bom. 125 j s. c. 32 Bom. L. R. 155). " 

Cognizance of Civil Court. A suit by the Malnr Vatandars to restrain 
the villagers of their village from delivering the carcasses of dead animals and pay- 
ing baluta to the mangs, is not cogniziblo by a Civil Oourfc, having regard to s. 18 
of the Bom. Hereditary Offices Act, 1874 (Mahadu v A'rifhna, 47 Bom. 95). 

A suit to obtain a declaration thit the Plaintiff, baing of thj eldest family, is 
the nearer heir to the late Vutandar than the defendant, is cogai/ ible by the Civil 
Court (Shanfar v Dattatraya, 17 Bom L. R. 725). 

Cl. (a) ultra vires The plaintiff, a watandar patil, was. under orders of 
Government, dismissed from bis office, and his life-interest in Patilki watan was 
forfeited. He sued the Secretary of State for a doclar ition that th j ordor of 
Government was illegal and did not legally effect forfeiture within the moaning of 



3 Ti BOMBAY REVENUE Jutomortoi* 

a, 61 ol the Bom. Hereditary Offices Act, and for possession of. the lands. The 
lower Court dismissed the suit on the ground that is wa* barred by para. (1) of 
ft}, (a) of this section. The plaintiff appealed contending that para (l)ofcl. (a) 
was ultra vires of the Government of India : Held, that para. (I) of cl. (a) was not 
ultra vires of the Government of India, inasmuch as a claim like the plaintiffs 
could not have been brought in the ordinary Oivil Courts against the East India 
Company by virtue of the preamble to Act XI of J852 (Rachanyauda v Secretary of 
State, 21 Bom. L. R. 1155). 

"Claims to land held for service.'' This clause bars the jurisdiction of 
the Civil Courts to entertain suits against Government regarding land of which the 
plaintiff is put into occupation by Government free from exemption of the reward 
of his service. The plaintiff cannot escape from the bar by contending that his 
xjlaim is for the possession of land, while the property that appertains to his office 
is not the land but the revenue arising from the land (Appaji v. Secretary of State, . 
28 Bom. 435). 

Land held io Saranjam Suit against Government. The Inatu 
Commissioner decided in 1858, under the provisions of Act Xt of i852, that cer- 
tain estate was Saranjam and not sarva luain. On the death of its holder I', in 
1890, Government resumed the property on the grouud that it was Saranjam and 
granted it to V, one of the grandsons of P. The plaintiff, another grandson of P, 
sued tha Secretary of State for ludia and V, for a declaration of title to and for 
possession of the property, alleging that it was Serva Inam and that it was not 
competent to Government to resnma and regrant it to any ono it liked. Held, (1) 
that the decision of tha Inam Commissioner was, by virtue of the provisions of r. 2 
of Sch. A of Act XI of 1852, final as regards interests concerned in the decision 5 
(2) that the title to and continuance of the estate must be determined under Soh. 13. 
r. 10 of the Act under such rules as Government might find it necessary to issao 
from time to time ; (3) that in accordance with those rules the estate was on P's 
death resumed by Government who re- granted it to V 5 (i) that the suit having been 
one against Government relating to land hold as Suranjam, was excluded from thj 
jurisdiction of the Oivil Court by tha provisions of sub-section () of this section 
(Ramrao v. The Secretary of State, 11 Bom. L. R 1333) 

Mahar Vatan. The plaintiffs, who were residing in a village, sought for 
an injunction to prevent the skius of their dead animals boing taken away by 
defendants who were Village Mihars aud claimed the right of taking away the 
skins as Vatandars. The lower Courts held that the suit was barred by s. 18 of the 
Hereditary Offices Act, 1874, and sub-section (a) of this section, Tha plaintiffs 
having appealed, it was held, (I) that the question, whether there was or was not a 
Mahar Vatan as contended for, was within the jurisdiction of the Civil Court ; 
(2) that iho plaintiffs would be entitled to injunction unless the Mahars should 
succeed in showing that there was an hereditary office as alleged by them (Savin v. 
Suntya 20 Bom. L. B. 99,5). 

Alienation. Where, on an application by a Vatandar to declare that a 
particular alienation is null and void, the Collector refuses to make an order that 
the alienation is null and void, it is open to the party aggrieved to file a suit in a 
Oltll Court against the alienee t respect of the alienation (Dattatraya v. Tukaram^ 
t k B. 376). 



THB BOMBAY RBVBKUB JUMBDIOZIOH ^\or 7 

(A) objections 

to the amount or incidence of any assessment of land-revenue 
authorized by Government, or 

to the mode of assessment, or to the principle on which such 
assessment is fixed, or 

to the validity or effect of the notification of survey or settle- 
ment, or of any notiiic.ttiou determining the period of settlement; 

Obj< c i ;ns An objection to conic with cither of the two heads 1 and 3 of 
1 (b) of Uii= section iiiu?l bj an objection whbh rciohjs ttan directly, i e , an 
ob/'ctioi) t<> thjtn /))>' ,se which :iJ.iiit- thj hi'oilky to piy Irri I revoima ou thj part 
of iho objector bat quirnJi wih Us amount or incidence or tiu validity and effect 
of the noUfiouiion of survey sjUL ujut a-> by thimnilvis objectionable, not because 
fOjnj oilier right aft'jcts thjin or mik-js them inapplicable to his particular case. 
Objections in cl (h) ino.y be raised by a suit or in defeucj to a suit 1 ; but in which- 
i\vr way they arc raised they must bj of the particular nature described in cl. (ft). 
Whoro thuy fall outride thit class, thuy can be raised in defence as well MS by a 
suit (Laknhiiman v. Govind ; (roviitd v. L<iks human, ^8 Pom. 74) 

k - Objection to amount land-revenue." 

In a suit by an inomdar of a village against a Knot to recover rent in kind 
(according to the market rate at the time of payment), the defendant (Knot) oon- 
teuded that he was only liable to pay cash assessment as fixed by the survey made 
by th ; British Government, which was at a lower rate than he hod previously paid 
and that the Civil Court had no jurisdiction to entertain the suit under this clause. 
Hold, that as there was no objection by either party to the amount or incidence o! 
assessment of laud-revenue fixed by Government; and the question being whether the 
Khot was liable to pay to the inamdar maktns or assessment, the suit was not taken 
away from the cognizance of a Civil Court by this clause (Ganyadhar v. Morbhat, 18 
Bom. 525). 

Jurisdiction of Civil Court. Wnero water-rate is levkd under s. 4 of 
the Irrigation Act, the question whether the Civil Courts have jurisdiction in view 
of el. (b) of this section, in a suit for the determination of the legality or otherwise 
of such levy, depends upon whether the incideuce of the rate is authorized by the 
provisions of s. 48 of the Irrigation Act. Under it, the condition precedent to 
levying the rate is not the fact ascertained by evidence whether the water in dispute 
has percolated from the canal, but the opinion of the Canal Officer that it has so 
percolated, he and not the Civil Court being mide the Judge of such percolation for 
the purposes of the Act. Such water-rate falls within the denomination of laud- 
revenue (BalnMnt v. Secretary of State, 22 Bom 377). 

(c) claims connected with or arising out of any proceedings for 
the realization of land-revenue or the rendering of assistance, by Gov- 
ernment or any officer duly authorized in that behalf, to superior 
holders or occupants for the recovery of their dues from inferior 
holders or tenants ; 

claims to set aside, on a account of irregularity, mistake or any 
other ground except fraud, sales for arrears of land-revenue ; 



&EVENUE tTuBISDICTIOK A.0t 

" Claims connected with proceedings for realization of 
land-revenue." 

The plaintiff sued to redeem certain laud mortgaged by him to the first 
defendant. The second defendant claimed the land as owner, alleging that the mort- 
gagee had failed to pay the assessment on the land to the Native Chief to whom it 
was due. The latter had accordingly sold it by public auction to realise the assess- 
ment, and he (defendant No. 2) had bought it. The Court of first instance rejected 
the plaintiffs claim on the ground that the suit could not be entertained by a Civil 
Court under the provisions of this Act and the Lind iteveuue Codo On appjal tUo 
District Court reversed the decree and remanded the case for trial on th-3 merits 
Hold, confirming the order of the District Court, that Government having rendered no 
assistance in the proceedings for the realization of the revenue by tho Native Chief 
on whom ihe defendant roliel, tho jurisdiction of the Civil Court wis not taken awiy 
by '--I. (c) of this section (jfahadti v. Lakshman, 17 Bo:n 08"). 

Claim to set aside sale for arrears of land -revenue/' 

i'laintiff was the owner of a certain vil'agj Defendiut No. 3 w s tiu witan- 
dar Kulkarci of the village. He enjoyul for the performance of bis duties souu 
inam lands, and a cash allowance of B# o paid annually by the iu:iindir. In 1884. 
defendant No. 3 h'tvirjg failed to perform the service in person or by deputy tho 
Collector appointed defendant N<. 2 to act as Knlkirni. Defendant No 2 officiated 
from 20th November 1884 to 4th December 18SG. Ou the application of DofeiU- 
ant No. 2, the Collector increased his remuneration according to the scale fixed for 
Government villages known as the Wingate scale, and ordered plaintiff to pay tho 
increased remuneration, s') as to make up the amount due under that scale. Ou 
26th September 1890, the Collector recovered the sum of && 171 from the plaintiff 
by attachment of his property. The plaintiff thereupon sued tho Secretary* of 
State for India in Council to recover this amount as being illegally levied. Tho 
defendant pleaded that the Collector, having determined the amount of Defendant 
No. 2>s remuneration under 8. 17 of the Hereditary Offices Act, 1874, the plaintiff 
had no cause of action against him, and that tho suit was barred under this clause. 
Held, that as the cash payment made by the plaintiff to the vatandar was certain, 
and not of a fluctuating or indeterminate character, the Collector had no power to 
increase the remuneration of the officiator under s. 17 of the Hereditary Offices Act, 
and that the suit was not barred by this clause (Anantacharya v. Secretary of State f 10 
Bom. 581). 

An order made by a Collector removing A's lands from his Khata, and 
transferring them to JVs Khata, on the ground that A had allowed the assessment 
thereof to fall into arrears and that B had paid the assessment, does not by itself 
amount to forftiture of A's interest in the lands. A suit by A to recover such land 
from B being simply a suit between private parties for the purpose of establishing 
a private right, this clause does not bar the jurisdiction of the Civil Court (Bhau 
v. Han, 20 Bom. 747). 

" Proceeding for the realization of land-revenue." 

A suit for a declaration that an order of forfeiture under s. 153 of the Bombay 
Land Revenue Code passed after an attachment issued under s 150 of the same 
Code was illegal is not barred by this clause, as the order of forfeiture is not a 
proceeding for the realisation of land-revenue (Samaldas v. Secretary of State, 16 
Bom. 455), 



BOMBAY REVENUE JURISDICTION A.OT 9 

Land-revenue does not include abkari revenue. 

The plaintiff sued to reoover from tha defendant, a farmer of Abkari duties on 
the manufacture of spirits, under s. 60 of Bom, Beg. XXf of 1827, a sum of money 
alleged to have been illegally levied by him as a tax or rent in respect of certain 
cocoanut trees tapped by the plaintiff. Held, that the Civil Courts have jurisdiction 
to entertain such a suit. If the claim be held to be one in respect of land-revenue, it 
faDs within the exception contained in cl. (c) of s. 5. If it is not, this section has 
no application (Narayan v. Sakharam, 9 Bom. 462). 

Right Of Government tO sell land. Whenever the land-revenue 
is in arrears, Government is entitled to sell the land and to realize its due, who- 
ever is the defaulter (Balkrishna v. Madhavrao, 5 Bom. 73). 

Suit to set aside sale on ground other than fraud. This 

clause excepts from the jurisdiction of the Civil Courts claims to set aside, on 
account of irregularity, mistake or any other ground except iraud, sales for 
arrears oi land-revenue. Itus doubtful whether the exception of fraud in this 
clause fe confined to fraud on the part of officers conducting sale for arrears of land 
revenue (Ibid.). 

Suit tO Set aside Collector's Order. The predecessor-tn-titlc of de- 
fendants Nos. 2 to 8 alienated his vatan land to the plaintiff. After the death of the 
alienor, the defendants applied to the Collector to take proceedings for the protection 
of the vatan. On October 5, 1904, the Collector made a declaration, under s. 11 of 
the Vatan Act, that the alienation was null and void. The Collector did nob sum- 
marily resume possession of the laud but decided to assess it at a full rent On 
July 6, 1 908, the Collector held further proceedings nnd assessed the land at a 
rental of Bs. 75 per annum. On March 15, 1915, the Collector ordered to forfeit 
the land as the plaintiff had not paid the full amount of arrears of rent then duo. 
The plaintiff sued for a declaration that the order of forfeiture made by the Collec- 
tor was invalid. He contended that the rent was due from July 6, 1 908, when the 
assessment was fixed ; and thoro were, therefore, no arrears of rent due Held, that 
the plaintiff's suit was barred by cl. (c) of this section (Dhondi v Secretary of State, 
25 Bom. L. B 785). 

Wrongful attachment. The defendant who was a Mamlatdar of 
Khanapur, in the Satara District, attached aome pieces of jag^eiy which were 
being taken in five carts on a public road by the plaintiff's sou from the fields of D, 
who owed arrears of land-revenue to Government and had to satisfy two decrees in 
assistance cases. The defendant was not invested, by the Collector of Satara Dis- 
trict, with the powers contained in s. HO of the Land-Bevenue Code. The plaintiff 
filed a suit against the defendant to recover damages for wrongful attachment. The 
lower Court dismissed the suit on the ground that it was barred by s. 4 (c) of this 
Act ; and that as the defendant acted bonajide and was authorized under s. 154 of 
the Land Revenue Code to distrain the property, the suit was barred by s. 6 of this 
Act. On appeal it was held, that s. 4 (c) was not a bar to the suit, in which thoro 
was a claim arising out of the alleged illegality of the proceedings taken for the 
realization of the land- revenue. The proceedings mentioned in s 4 (c) must be in 
their inception legal (Ganyaram . Dinkar, 15 Bom. L. B. 665). 
2 



10 feu BOMBAY BEVBHUK JuniSDionoHr ACT 

(d) claims against Government 

(1) to be entered in the revenue survey or settlement records 
or village papers as liable for the land-revenue, or as 
superior holder, inferior holder, occupant or tenant, or 

(2) to have any entry made in any record of a revenue sur- 
vey or settlement, or 

(3) to have any such entry either omitted or amended ; 

(e) the distribution of land or allotment of land-revenue on 
partition of any estate under Bombay Act IV of 1868, or any other 
law for the time being in force ; 

( /") claims against Government 

to hold land wholly or partially free from payment of land- 
revenue, or to receive payments charged on or payable out of the 
land-revenue, or to set aside any cess or rate authorized by Govern- 
ment under the provisions of any law for the time being in focce, or 
respecting the occupation of waste or vacant land belonging to 
Government 5 

Claim to hold lands free from payment of Government 

revenue. The effect of the amendment of this section by A?t XVI of 1877 is 
that Civil Courts mentioned in the Districts annexed to the amending Act are not 
prevented from exercising their jurisdiction over claims against Government to hold 
lands wholly or partially free from payment of land-revenue (Kalabhai v. The Secre- 
tary of State for India, 29 Bom. 19). 

< Claims respecting: occupation of waste land." The fact 'that 

the tenants of the neighbouring lands have cut the grass on the disputed land for 
the rab of their rice cultivation and have taken the produce of the tree standing 
thereon would not change the character of the land which was always treated as un- 
assessed waste land (Shridhar v. The Secretary of State, P J. for 1893, p. 248). 

Right of Government over waste lands. While the Courts may 

have jurisdiction to declare that the villagers of a specified village are entitled to 
rights of free pasturage over Government waste lands within the limits of their 
village, still they can go no further and enjoin the Collector to pursue any particular 
course in connection with thom,while he is acting bom fide in pursuance of the powers 
which the provisions of the statute confer upon him. The claim being against Gov- 
ernment respecting the occupation of the waste land belonging to Government, the 
Oiyil Courts are precluded from entertaining it under cl. (/) of this section. A 
qiestion relating to the discontinuous occupation of village wastes by the village 
cattle IB as much a question of land-revenue as one relating to the permanent occupa- 
tion of them or a portion of them by an individual (Trimbak v Secretary of State, 21 
Bom. 684). 

(g) claims regarding boundaries fixed under Bombay Act No. I 
of 1865, or any other law for the time being in force, or to set 
aside any order passed by a competent officer under any such law 
with regard to boundary-marks : 

Provided that if any person claim to hold land wholly or 
partially exempt from payment of land-re- 
venue uader- 



THE BOMBAY REVENUE JURISDICTION ACT 11 

The jurisdiction Of a Civil Court is not ousted by this clause, in case 
of a dispute as to the position of the boundary line between two survey numbers as 
laid down by the survey authorities, the defendant alleging that the boundary 
marks were changed, the plaintiff alleging that they are in their right direction 
(Bala v. Nana. P. J. 1898, p. 41). 

Adverse possession Of Survey numbers. The Collector's deci- 
sion as to the fixation of boundaries, under sec. 121 of the Land-Revenue Code, 
1879, does not prevent one of the disputing parties filing a suit in the Civil Court on 
the ground that he has acquired a portion of his neighbour's survey number by adverse 
possession (Bhaga v Dorabji, 43 Bom. 67). 

Proviso contains no exceptions in respect of holdings unaccompanied by pro- 
prietary right in the soil and there -is no saving clause which would suggest that 
such a claim to such holdings might fall within the purview of the Pensions Act. 
The right of an alienee of the revenue to sue for disturbance of his possession by a 
stranger or by Government is clearly recognized by the proviso, and the only condi- 
tion required is that the claim should bo under an enactment, instrument, sanad, 
written grant or judgment such as is described in tho proviso (Bafoant v. The Secre- 
tary of State for India, 29 Bom. 480). 

A person claiming the benefit of the proviso must prove that there was a 
written grant by the British Government, and it cannot be presumed that a 
written grant of some kind must have been made simply because a grant is not denied 
(The Secretary of State v. Dalpatbhai, P. J. for 1893, p. 168) 

The effect of the proviso is that where an occupancy tenant holding under 
Government is called upon to pay land revenue according to the survey rates, it is 
open to him to resist the clHim of Government in a Civil Court on the ground that 
he holds under a written grant or an enactment, &c v which prevents Government 
from claiming more than can be recovered under the grant or enactment, &c. 
(Laksuman v. Gwind, 28 Bom 26). 

(K) any enactment for the time being in force expressly 
creating an exemption not before existing in favour of an individual 
or of any class of persons, or expressly confirming such an exemp- 
tion on the ground of its being shown in a public record, or of its 
having existed for a specified term of years, or 

Note. Clauses (A), (i), (;) and (K) stand independent of one another ; the 
source of title, referred to in each, stands apart from the rest, and each clause is 
connected only with that portion of the proviso which precedes clause f h) (Kalabhai 
v. The Secretary of State for India, 29 Bom. 19). 

(i) an instrument or sanad given by or by order of the Gover- 
nor of Bombay in Council under Bombay Act No. II of 1863, sec- 
tion I, clause first, or Bombay Act No. 7 of 1863, section 2, clause 
first, or 

( j ) any other written grant by the British Government ex- 
pressly creating or confirming such exemption, or 

"Any otjier written grant/' The phrase "any other written grant" 
in this clause means any written grant other than that which falls within els. (h) 
and {) of this section (Kalalhai v. Secretary of State, 29 Bom. 19). 



12 THB BOMBAY REVENUE JURISDICTION ACT 

bach exemption. These words obviously refer to the exemption men- 
tioned in that portion. 

() a judgment by a Court of law, or an adjudication duly 
passed by a competent officer under Bombay Regulation XVII of 
1827, chapter A, or under Act No. XI of 1852, which declares the 
particular property in dispute to be exempt ; 

such claim shall be cognizable in the Civil Courts. 

"Competent officer." These words, as used in this clause, included the 
Governor in Council, who is one of the authorities upon whom judicial powers were 
conferred by Act XI of 1852 (Janardanrao v. Secretary of State, 13 Bom. 442). 

Khatib in am. Lands assigned to a Khatib inam were enjoyed rent-free 
by the grantee and continued to him on the same terms by the Inam Commissioner 
in 1856 under Act XI of 1852. Plaintiff, an alienee from a Khatib, enjoyed them 
similarly from 1864 to 1910 and claimed to have performed the Khatib service. 
In 1 91 1 the Commissioner resumed tho land* by levying full assessment on them. 
Plaintiff sued for a declaration that he was the full owner of the lands of the 
Khatibgari right appertaining to them, field, that the plaintiffs claim to hold the 
land wholly or partially free from payment of land revenue under an adjudication 
order passed by a competent officer under Act X of IS 52 was cognizable in the 
Civil Courts under proviso (k) to this section (Fakrodin Saheb v. Secretary of State, 
22 Bom. L. E. 1166). 

Land exempted from land-revenue. Lands appurtenant to Kaji 
Yatan were continued by the Inam Commissioner in 1852 as sarva inam to a 
predecea so r-in- title of the plaintiff. Plaintiff, an alienee from a Kaji, held the lands 
free of assessment, though the service of the Kaji continued lo be performed by the 
descendants of the Kaji. The Collector ordered in 914 full assessment to bo 
levied for the lands in question and in case of non-payment lands to be forfeited. 
Plaintiff sued for a declaration that the Collector's order was illegal and idtra vires. 
Held, that cognizance of the suit by the Civil Court was not birred under s 4 ()(!) 
of this Act, for the suit fell within proviso (k) (Ufahamadsaheb v. Secretary of 
State, 21 Bom. L, R. 1159). 

lllustratiotis to (h). 

(1) It is enacted that, in the event of the proprietary right in 
lands, the property of Government, being transferred to individuals, 
they shall be permitted to hold the lands for ever at the assessment 
at which they are transferred. The proprietary right in certain land 
is transferred to A at an assessment of Rs. 100. An exemption from 
higher assessment not before existing is expressly created in favour 
of A by enactment, and he may seek relief in the Civil Court against 
over-assessment. 

(2) It is enacted that when a specific limit to assessment has 
been established and preserved, the assessment shall not exceed such 
specific limit. A is the owner of land worth Rs. 100 for assess- 
ment. He claims to be assessed at Rs. 50 only on the strength of 
a course of dealing wilh him and his predecessors under which his 
land has not been more highly assessed* There is no exemption 



THE BOMBAY REVENUE JUBISDXOTION ACT 13 

not before existing created by enactment, and A's claim is not 
cognizable in a Civil Court. 

(3) It is enacted that land-revenue shall not be leviable from 
any land held and entered in the land -registers as exempt. A claims 
to hold certain land as exempt on the ground that it has been so 
held by him, and is so entered in the land-register. This is an 
exemption expressly confirmed by enactment on the ground of its 
being shown in a public record, and A's claim is cognizable in a 
Civil Court. 

(4) It is enacted that the Collector shall confirm existing 
exemptions of all lands shown in certain maps to be exempt. A 
claims exemption alleging that his land is shown in the maps to be 
exempt. A's claim is cogniz ible in a Civil Court. 

(5) It is enacted that assessment shall be fixed with reference 
to certain con side, ations, and not with reference to others. This is 
not an enactment creating an exemption in favour of any indivi- 
dual or class, and no objection to an assessment under such an 
enactment is cognizable in a Civil Court. 

Saving of certain 5. Nothing in section 4 shall be held to 

suits. prevent the Civil Courts from entertaining 

the following suits : 

(a) Suits against Government to contest the amount claimed, 
or paid under protest, or recovered, as land-revenue, on the ground 
that such amount is in excess of the amount authorized in that 
behalf by Government, or that such amount had, previous to such 
claim, payment or recovery, been satisfied, in whole or in part, or 
that the plaintiff, or the person whom he represents, is not the per- 
son liable for such amount ; 

(/>) suits between private parties for the purpose of establish- 
ing any private right, although it may be affected by any entry in 
any record of a revenue survey or settlement or in any village 
papers ; 

A suit between private parties relating to inam land for the purpose 
of establishing a private right falls \vithin cl. (b) of this section (Mootoo v. Tri- 
wvtl>i,P.J.for 1881 p. 19 J). 

(c) suits between superior holders or occupants and inferior 
holders or tenants regarding the dues claimed or recovered from 
the latter ; 

and nothing in section J, clause ((/), shall bs held to prevent 
the Civil Courts from entertaining suits, other than suits against 
Government, for possession of any land being a whole survey 
number or a recognized share of a survey number 



14 THE BOMBAY REVENUE JURISDICTION ACT 

* and nothing in section 4 shall be held to prevent the Civil 
Courts in the district mentioned in the second schedule hereto annex- 
ed from exercising such jurisdiction as, according to the terms of 
any law in force on the twenty-eighth day of March 1876, they could 
have exercised over claims against Government 

(a) relating to any property appertaining to the office of any 
hereditary officer appointed or recognized under Bombay Act No. Ill 
of 1874 or any other law for the time being in force, or of any other 
village-officer or servant ; 

(b) to hold land wholly or partially free from payment of land- 
revenue ; 

(e) to receive payments charged on, or payable out of, the land- 
revenue. 

* This para, was added by the Bombay Revenue Jurisdiction (Amendment) 
Act, 1877 (16 of 1877). 

6. Revenue officers shall not be liable to be sued for damages 
in any Civil Court for any act bona fide done, 

or ordere / to be d . e > b y the * as such in P* 

suance of the provisions of any law for the 

time being in force. 
If any Revenue officer absconds or does not attend when called 
on by his official superior, and if the Collector of the District pro- 
ceeds against him or his sureties for public money, papers or pro- 
perty according to the provisions of any law for the time being in 
force, such Collector shall not be liable to pay damages or costs in 
any suit brought against him by such officer or sureties although 
it appears that a part only, or no part whatever, of the sum 
demanded was due from the officer so absconding or failing to attend, 
or that he was not in possession of the papers or property demanded 
of him. 

Act not done in pursuance of law. 

The defendant who was a Mamhtdar of Khanapur in the Satara District, 
attached some pieces of jaggery which were being taken in five carts on a public 
road by the plaintiff's son from the fields of D, who owed arrears of land revenue 
to Government and had to satisfy two decrees in assistance cases. The defendant 
was not invested, by the Collector of Satara District, with the powers contained in 
s. 140 of the Land Revenue Code. The plaintiff filed a suit against the defendant to 
recover damages for wrongful attachment. The lower Court dismissed the suit on the 
ground that as the defendant acted bonajido and was authorized under s. 154 of the 
Land Revenue Code to distrain the property the euit was barred by this section. On 
appeal, it was held that the defendant was not entitled to claim protection under this 
section which required that the act complained of should have been done bona fid* in 
pursuance of the provisions of any law, as he was not invested by the Collector of 
the District with powers contained in s. 140 of the Land Revenue Code and it was 
not i roved that he believed the property distrained to be that of the defaulter, aa 
required under s. 154 of the I^od Revenue Code (Gangaram v. Din far 15 Bom 
L. R. 665), 



THE BOMBA.Y BKVBMUK JUBISDIOJPION ACT 15 

7. Nothing in any law for the time being in force which 
. . L authorizes the punishment departmentally of 



T LveZ any Revenue oficer for any offence or breach 
officers no bar to Civil duty, or which sanctions his prosecution 
remedies. criminally for such offence or breach, shall be 

held to bar any remedy which may be had in 
the Civil Court against such officer. 

8-10. [Suits against Revenue officers; appeals from their proceed- 
ings; power for Local Government to call for record."] Rep. Act XV of 
1880. 

11. No Civil Court shall entertain any suit against Government 
on account of any act or omission of any 

tain? "i? laTS Revenue fficer UnlC8S the P laintiff 



pla L 

has exhausted right of that, previously to bringing his suit, he has 
appeal. presented all such appeals allowed by the law 

for the time being in force as, within the 
period of limitation allowed for bringing such suit, it was possible 
to present. 

This section requires only presentation of appeal and 
not waiting for the reply. 

This section doe* not require that a plaintiff should wait till he receives a reply 
to his appeal from Government. It is enough that he has presented an appeal 
otherwise his suit might become time-barred before he receives the reply (Abaji v. 
Secretary of State for India, P. J. for 1896, p. 686 ; 8. c. 22 Bom. 579). 

" Act. " Under section 62 of the Land Revenue Code, the Collector ordered 
certain Government land to be sold. Held, that passing this order is an " act " 
within the meaning of this section (Natha v. The Secretary of State, P. J. for 18 96 
p. 341). 

Forest Officer is not a Revenue Officer. This section only applies 
to an act or omission of a revenue officer, and only in cases where the law allows 
an appeal. A" Forest Officer is not a Revenue Officer. This Act must bo constru- 
ed strictly. No right of appeal can be given except by express words (Narayan v. 
Secretary of State, 20 Borm. 803). 

The bar of jurisdiction contained in this section does not apply to cases in 
which a Collector moves under s. 81 of the Forest Act (VII of 1878) to recover, at 
the request of a Forest Officer, the price of cut-timber sold by the latter under s. 81 
of the Forest Act (Haribhai v. Secretary of State, 20 Bom. 714). 

"All such appeals. 7 ' This expression means appeals in respect of the "act 
or omission/ 7 Hence the bar created by this clause does not apply where the act or 
omission concerned is not an order or decision in respect of which there is a right 
of appeal under the Land Revenue Code (Sakharam v. Collector of Ratnagiri, 28 
Bom. 382). 

"Appeal allowed by law.'' The words "appeal allowed by law" do not 
mean "an appeal within the time allowed by law/' They refer to the appeals which 
the law prescribes, and have no reference to the limitation in point of time, which 
the law may impose upon the bringing of such appeals (Ranchhod v. Secretary of State, 
22 Bom. 563). 



16 TEX BOMBAY &KVENTJE JURISDICTION ACT 

Application to Commissioner is appeal allowed by law. 

Where the plaintiffs had obtained a decree declaring that the Government had not 
the right to enhance the land revenue on their village, and the Collector pending an 
appeal from snch decree, took measures to levy such enhanced assessment, it was 
hild that though the plaintiffs might have obtained an injunction against the Col- 
lector by motion either in the Oourt which had passed the decree, or in the High 
Court, that did not prevent the plaintiff from bringing an independent suit for 
that purpose, and that this section did not apply. Even assuming, that 
an application to set aside a Collector's order made to the Revenue Commissioner 
would be an "appeal allowed by law" within the meaning of this section, the present 
case was not within Bombay Regulation V of 1830, inasmuch as cl 4 (1; of that 
Regulation would have excluded his intervention, as the claim to exemption from 
liability to enhancement of revenue had already been the subject of judicial investi- 
gation, and was still sub-judice in the High Court (The Government of Bombay v. 
Bhimabhai, P. J. for 1879, p 351). 

Practice Procedure. Under this Act, in a suit to which this Act 
applies, the Court, before taking evidence on the merits, should requije the 
plaintiff to prove first of all that he has, previously to bringing the suit, pre- 
sented all such appeals allowed by the law for the time being in force as within 
the period of limitation allowed for bringing such suit it was possible to prevent 
(Ranchhod v. Secretary of State, 22 Bom. 173). 

No appeal to revenue authority. Where a plaintiff files a suit for 
the reversal of an order of the Collector directing him to remove an encroach- 
ment on a public road and for an injunction, his omission to file an appeal from 
the Collector's order to the Revenue Commissioner or Government bars the suit 
under this section (Dayal Khushal v. Secretary of State, 22 Bom. L R 1089):* 

Suit tO Set aside Collector's Order. The plaintiff's land was for- 
feited on the 6th May 1911 ; after which he applied first to the Collector and tbeu 
to the Commissioner to set aside the order. Eventually he filed a suit on 1 4th 
October 1915 for a declaration that the proceedings hold by the revenue authorities 
in respect of the forfeiture were illegal and ultra vires. Held, that the suit was 
barred by limitation since if the plaintiff wished to have a decision of the Oourt 
upon the legality or illegality of the order of forfeiture, he was bound to put his 
plaint on the file within one year of the date of the order (Ganesh v. Secretary of 
State, 44 Bom. 451). 

Suit to set aside notice of demand to pay assessment. 

The plaintiffs, who held their land free of rent, were all of a sudden served by the 
Mamlatdar with a notice of demand to pay assessment. No order of the Collector 
was forthcoming. The plaintiffs having filed a suit for a declaration that they 
were entitled to hold their land rent free, the Secretary of State contended that the 
suit was barred under this section. Held, that this section did not apply to thu 
case, since the notice of demand by the Mamlatdar could not be treated as an order 
or decision within the meaning of ss. 203 and 204 of the Bombay Land- Revenue 
Code (Nathuram v. Secretary of State, 46 Bom. 811). 

Suit for injunction. The Collector of Surat ordered the plaintiff, on the 
6th February 1917, to remove an encroachment on a public road. No appeal was 
made to tbe Revenue Commissioner or to Government. On the 2 1st April, the 



THE BOMBAY REVENUE JURISDICTION Acr 17 

Collector intimated to the plaintiff that unless h* filed a suit, the encroachment 
would be removed. On the 27th April, 1917, the present suit was filed for a re- 
versal of the order and for an injunction to restrain the defendant from carrying 
out the order. Held, that no appeal from the Collector's order having been made 
either before the suit was filed or afterwards, the suit was barred by the provisions 
of this section (Dayal v. Secretary of State, 22 Bom. L. E. 1089). 

12- If, in the trial or investigation of any suit, claim or ob- 
jection, which, but for the passing of this Act r 

to STiSSfcTS! M 1 ? t p have b u een tri . ed or investigated by a 
cision of the High ^ lv " Court, there arises any question on which 
Court. the Governor General in Council or the Local 

Government desires to have the decision of 
the High Court, the Governor-General in Council or the Local 
Government, as the case may be, may cause a statement of the ques- 
tion to be prepared, and may refer such question for the decision of 
the High Court of Judicature at Bombay. 

The said High Court shall fix an early day for the hearing of 
the question referred, and cause notice of such day to be placed in 
the Court house. 

The parties to tin case may appear and be heard in the High 
Court in person or by their advocates or pleaders. 

The High Court, when it has heard and considered the case ? 
shall send a copy of its decision, with the reasons therefor, under the 
seal of the Court, to the Government oy which the reference was 
made, and subject to any appeal which may be presented to Her 
Majesty in Council, the case shall be disposed of conformably to 
such decision. 

Tf the High Court considers that any such statement is im- 
perfectly framed, the High Court may return it for amendment. 

The costs (if any) consequent on any such reference shall be 
dealt with as the High Court in each case directs. 

Reference by Government to Higli Court. Under this section 
Government can refer a question for the decision of the High Court, when investi- 
gating any claim or objection which before 1876 may have been excluded from the 
cognizance of a Civil Court (Vasudev Harihar Pandit, In re, 23 Bom. L. R. 161 ; 
a. c. Bom. 45 463). 

This section gives the High Court absolute power not only to deal with costs 
by directing as to who should pay them, but also by giving directions as to how 
those costs should be ascertained (Jagannath Vasudeo Pandit In re, 23 Bom. L. E. 
189 5 s. c. 45 Bom. 1177). 

The British Government granted by a Sanad in 1818 some villages in the talu- 
kas of Chikodi and Manowlee in Inam Dharmadaya from generation to generation 
to a predecessor of the respondent. Thereafter the Government ceded those talukas 
to the Maharaja of Kolhapur subject to the grant. In 1821, the Maharaja granted 
some more villages in the said talnkas to the same grantee. In 1827, the two 

3 



18 THE BOMBAY REVENUE JUEISDIOKON ACT 

talukas came to be handed back to the British Government by the Maharaja of 
Kolhapur under a treaty which confirmed the grant. In about 1864 the Govern- 
meat made a summary settlement of the village with the grantee's son. The widow 
of a descendant of the grantee made an adoption which was upheld by the Privy 
Council in 1 91 4. The Maharaja took up the position that the adoption was invalid 
in absence of his consent ; and that as the lands were held under treaty or on poli- 
tical tenure they were excluded from the settlement by s. 1 (2) of the Summary 
Settlement Act. Held, that the claim of the Maharaja was excluded from the juris- 
diction of the Civil Courts under s. 4 supra and that, therefore, the Government were 
entitled to make a reference to the High Court under this section (Maharaja oj 
Kolhapur v Bala Maharaj, 48 Bom 1, 50 I. A. 308). 

"In eaoh case.." These words in the last paragraph of this section imply 
the jurisdiction of the High Court to give special directions in each case (Ibid ). 

13. If in any suit instituted, or in any 
ucouuuo JA appeal presented in a Civil Court, the Judge 
juris^ction^^o^^laigh doubts whether he is precluded by this Act 
Court. from taking cognizance of the suit or appeal, 

he may refer the matter to the High Court. 

The High Court may order the Judge making the reference, 
either to proceed with the case or to return the plaint. 

The order of the High Court on any such reference shall be sub- 
ject to appeal to Her Majesty in Council, and save as aforesaid, 
shall be final. 

14 Every reference under section twelve or section thirteen 

shall be heard by a Bench consisting of such 

Composition of Bench. Qumber of J udge8 n0t less than three , as the 

Chief Justice from time to time directs. 

15. For section thirty-two of the Bombay Civil Courts Act, 

No. XIV of 1869, the following shall be sub- 

3^r^mb*"Sl sauted (namely) : " No Subordinate Judge 

Courts Act. r Court of Small Causes shall receive or 

register a suit in which the Government or 

any officer of Government in his official capacity is a party, but in 

every such case such Judge or Court shall refer the plaintiff to the 

District Judge, in whose Court alone (subject to the provisions of 

section nineteen) such suit shall be instituted. 

* 16. Whenever any suit is brought in any Court of a Sub- 
. , ordinate judge of the first class against Gov- 

Privileges of Govern. ernment or against any Revenue Officer, and 
ment in suits defended . n ' => , * , , , , * v 

by it. the Government undertakes the defence there- 

of, it shall be lawful for the Government, by 
certificate signed by a Secretary thereto, to require that the trial of 

* This section was substituted for the original section by Bom. Act XXI of 
1929, s. 2. 



THE BOMBAY REVENUE JURISDICTION ACT 19 

any such suit shall have precedence over the trial of any other suit 
or other civil proceeding then pending in the Court of the first class 
subordinate judge, or, if the suit is transferred, in the Court of the 
District Judge; and the Court shall give effect to every such 
requirement. 

The privilege conferred on Government by this section shall, 
mutatis mutandis, apply to any appeal or special appeal against any 
decree in any such suit as is described in this section. 

17. [First clause. Revival of section 13 of Bom. Reg. XVII of 
1827.] Repealed by Act XV of 1880; but the repeal does not operate in 
any scheduled district unless and until the Bombay Land Revenue Code 
(Bom. Act V of 1879) has been extended to such district. 

[Second clause. Operation of Bom. Reg. X VII of 1827 in sites of 
villages and towns.] Rep. Act XV of 1880. 

[Third clause. Recovery of certain advances made by Loc,al Govern- 
ment. ] Rep. Act XV of 1880. 

SCHEDULE 

[ENACTMENTS REPEALED] 

Repealed by Act XII of 1891 

THE SECOND SCHEDULE [1] 

The district of Ahmedabad. 

The district of Kaira, exclusive of the Fanob Mahals. 

The district of Broach. 

The district of Surat, exclusive of the lapsed State of Mandvi, as described in 
the schedule annexed to [2] Act X of 1848. 

The district of Thana. 

The district of Kolaba, exclusive of the lapsed State of Kolaba mentioned in 
[2] Act VIII of 1853. 

The district of Katnagiri. 

The district of Kanara. 

[1] This schedule was added bj the Bombay Revenue Jurisdiction (Amend- 
ment) Act 1877 [16 of 1877J. It is referred to in s. 5. 

[2) Acts 10 of 1848 and 8 of 1853 were repealed by the Repealing and 
Amending Act, 1891, 12 of 1891. 



Survey Settlement Act 

BOMBAY ACT No. I OF 1865. 

[ 21st January 1865. 

An Ac* to provide for the survey, demarcation, assessment 
and administration of lands held under Government, in the dis- 
tricts belonging to the Bombay Presidency, and for the registra- 
tion of the rights and interests of the occupants of the same. 

Tremble. Rep. locally by Horn. Act V of 1879. 

1 to 36. [Rep. locally by Bom. Ad V of 1819}. 

37 [aj Whenever, in the Ratnagiri collectorate and in the 

Raigarh, Kajpuri and Sanksi taluqas of the 

w JiT? * S r n pel ? i for Tanft collectorate, the survey-settlement is 

which settlement guo- . . -j i . MI 1 * i i i i 

ranteed may be granted introduced into villages or estates held by 
to Khots in Katiiagiri Khots, it shall be competent for the Superinten- 
and in certain taluqns of dent or Survey or Settlement-officer, with the 
the Tana collectorate sanction of the Governor in Council to grant 
the Khot a lease for the full period for which the settlement may 
b< guaranteed, in place of the annual agreements under which such 
villages have hitherto been held, and, further, the provisions of [/*] 
section 36 in respect to the right of permanent occupancy at the ex- 
piration of a settlement-lease shall hold good in regard to those villages 
or estates. 

[] Ss. 37 and 38 of Bom. Actl of 1865 are repealed so far as they apply to 
any village in the Ratnagiri or tbe Kolaba District to which the Khoti Settlement 
Act, 1880 ( Bom. Act I of 1880 ) extends or is extended see 8. 2 of the latter 
Act. 

[A] 8. 36 was repealed ( locally ) by the Bombay Laud-revenue Code, 1879 
( Horn. Act V of 3879). 

38. It shall also be competent to such officer, with the sanction 
of the Governor in Council, to fix the demands 
Power to fix demands o f the Khut on the tenant at the time o the 
of KJQOt on tenant at , P i , . 1^1. 

UmeofSurvty general survey ot a district, ana the terms 

thus fixed shall hold good for the period for 
which the settlement muy be sanctioned. 

Hut this limitation of demand on the tenant shall not confer on 

Proviso hi |n an )' ri ght of transfer by sale, mortgage or 

otherwise, where such did not exist before, and 

shall not affect the right of the Khot to the reversion of all lands 

resigned by his tenant during the currency of the general lease. 

Suit to recover rent at ma mull rates. The plaintiff who was thp 
Idol of a village in the Kolata District took a leaee of the khoti rigtks from Gov- 



SURVEY SETTLEMENT ACT. 

eminent in 1869. From 1864 to 1892 the original survey settlement remained in 
force In 1902 the revised settlement was introduced but tbo demands of the kbot 
were not fixed under this section upto 1914. The plaintiff passed annual kabulyats 
to Government and continued to levy rates at the settlement rates. In 1 923 the 
plaintiff having riled a suit to recover from the defendant, a khoti tenant of bib 
rent at the mamuli rates for the years S. 1839-1844, it was held that the plaintiff 
was entitled to recover at the mamuli rates. In the absence of any exercise of their 
power under this section or evidence of intention to continue the rates of the ex- 
pired settlement and the amount of the old rent being in law expressly enforced for 
the period of the old settlement and not enforced after the revised settlement the 
plaintiff cannot be prevented from falling back on his rights under the mamuli 
wihiutat (Abdul Rahim v. Pandu Sadhu, 32 Bom L. R. 176 ). 

An order of (he settlement-officer under this section, fixing the 
demand of the Khot on the tenant, could not bind the ryots to the land against their 
will. It was not intended to reduce them from the position of free tenants to 
adscriptiylebae (Naraynn v. Babu, P. J. 8879, 213). 

Fixing and sanctioning, distinction between. There is a distinc- 
tion between "fixing" a period within which a sanctioned settlement is to be continu- 
ed and "sanctioning" a settlement which simply accepts the rates proposed by the 
settlement Officer. So where a settlement has been sanctioned and a period fixed, 
the Khot is to levy rents at the sanctioned rate till the period comes to an end and 
even after it; if no new settlement is introduced, the settlement must be deemed 
to continue. Secretary of State v. Sada&kiv, 36 Bom. 290 ). 

39-51. Repealed loccdly by Bom. Art V of 1879. 



me 

Revenue Recovery Act 

ACT No. X OF 1890. 

[14th February 1890. 
An Act to make better provision for recovering certain 

public demands. 

WHBBBAS it is expedient to make better provision for recover- 
ing Certain public demands ; It is hereby enacted as follows : 

1* (1) This Act may be called the Re- 
Title, extent and com- venue Recovery Act, 1890. 
mencement. 

f 2) It extends to the whole of British India, and British 
Baluchistan ; and 

(3) It shall come into force at once. 

. 2. In this Act, unless there is something 

Definitions. repugnant in the subject or context, 

(1) " district" includes a presidency-town; 

(2) "Collector" means the chief officer in charge of the land- 
revenue administration of a district ; and 

(3) " defaulter" means a person from whom an arrear of land* 
revenue or a sum recoverable as an arrear of land-revenue, is due, 
and includes a person who is responsible as surety for the payment 
of any such arrear or sum. 

3. (1) Where an arrear of land-revenue, or a sum recover- 

able as an arrear of land-revenue, is payable 

*7 1C to a Collector fc y defaulter bei "g or havin 

of process in other dis- property in a disdnct other than that in which 
triots than those in the arrear accrued or the sum is payable, the 
which they became Collector may send to the Collector of that 
payable. other district a certificate in the form as 

nearly as may be of the schedule, stating 

(a) the name of the defaulter and such other particulars as 

may be necessary for his identification, and 

(b) the amount payable by him and the account on which it 

is due. 

(2) The certificate shall be signed by the Collector making it, 
and, save as otherwise provided by this Act, shall be conclusive 
proof of the matters therein stated. 

(8) The Collector of the other district shall, on receiving the 
certificate, proceed to recover the amount stated therein as if it 
were an arrear of land-revenue which had accrued in his own 
district, 

4. (1) When proceedings are taken against a person under the 

last foregoing section for the recovery of an 
Remedy available to amount stated in a certificate, that person may, 

ST 011 Snt SJe/- if he denies his liabilit y to P*y the amount 
ed oSta^Mt 1 fongobg for an ? P art ^reof and pays the same urder 
notion. protest made in writing at the time of pay- 



9 THE REVENUE BBOOVEBY ACT 

ment and signed by him or his agent, institute a suit for the re- 
payment of the amount or the part thereof so paid. 

(2) A suit under sub-secetion (I) must be instituted in a Civil 
Court having jurisdiction in the !<>cal area in which the office of the 
Collector who made the certificate is situate, and the suit shall be 
determined in accordance with the law in force at the place where 
the arrear accrued or the liability for the payment o f the sum arose. 

(3) In the suit the plaintiff may, notwithstanding anything in 
the last foregoing section, but subject to the law in force at the place 
aforesaid, give evidence with respect to any matter stated in the 
certificate. 

5. Where any sum is recoversble as an arrear of land-revimue 

by any public officer other than a Collector 
Recovery by Collectors or by any local authority, the Collector of the 

J;r 8 rS dis f ct in . wM* the oft* of tl^ offle or 
other public officers or authority is situate shall, on the request of 
by local authorities. the officer or authority* proceed to recover the 
sum as if it were an arrear of land-revenue which had accrued in 
his own district, and may send a certificate of the amount to be re- 
covered to the Collector of another district under the foregoing 
provisions of this Act, as if the sum were payable to himself. 

6. (1) When the CDllector of a district receives a certificate 

under this Act, he may issue a proclamation 
Property liable to prohibiting the transfer or charging of any 
sale under this Act. i mmov eable property belonging to the de- 
faulter in the district. 

(2) The Collector may at any time, by order in writing, 
withdraw the proclamation, and it shall be deemed to be with- 
drawn when either the amount stated in the certificate has been 
recovered or the property has been sold for the recovery of that 
amount. 

(3) Any private alienation of the property or of any interest 
of the defaulter therein, whether by sale, gift, mortgage or other- 
wise, made after the issue of the proclamation and before the with* 
drawal thereof, shall be void as against the Government and any 
person who may purchase the property at a sale held for the re- 
covery of the amount stated in the certificate. 

(4j Subject to the foregoing provisions of this section, when 
proceedings are taken against any immoveable property under this 
Act for the recovery of an amount stated in certificate, the interest! 
of the defaulter alone therein shall be so proceeded against, and no 
incumbrances created, grants made or contracts entered into by him 
in good faith shall be rendered invalid by reason only of proceed- 
ings being taken against those interests. 



THK RKTKNtTE RaoOVMT 

(5j A. proclamation under this section shall be made by beak 

of drum or other customary method and by the posting of a copy 

thereof on a conspicuous place in or near the property to which it 

relates. 

Saying of local laws ? Nothing in the foregoing sections 

relating to revenue. shall be construed 

(a) to impair any security provided by, or affect the provi- 
sions of, any other enactment for the time being in force for the 
recovory of land-revenue or of sums recoverable as arrears of land- 
revenue, or 

(b) to authorize the arrest of any person for the recovery of 
any tax payable to the corporation, commissioner, committee, board, 
council or person having authority over a municipality under any 
enactment for the time being in force* 

8. When this Act has been applied to any local area which is 

under the administration of the Governor- 

iZ& 1i $at General in Council, but which i. not part of 

demands arising beyond -British India, an arrear of land-revenue accru- 

British India. ing in that local area, or a sum recoverable as 

an arrear of land revenue and payable to a 

Collector or other public officer or to a local authority in that local 

area, may be recovered under this Act in British India. 

THE SCHEDULE 

OEBimOATE. 

Set section 3, svb-uction (/).) 
From 

The Collector of 
To 

The Collector of 

Dated the of 18 

The sum of Rs. is payable o 

account of by 

, son of , resident 

of , who is bettered (to be 

* ) (to have property consisting 

ol at ) in your 

district. 

Subject to the provisions of the Revenue Recovery Act, 1890, the said snmig 
recoverable by you as if it were an arrear of land-revenue which had accrued in 
your own district, and you are hereby desired so to recover it and to remit it to 
my office at 

A.B. 



The Bombay Irrigation Act, 1870. 

BOM. ACT No. VII OF 1879. 

[ 2nd October, 1879. 

(As amended ty Bom. Acts III of 1880, 11 1 of 1886, XVI of 1895, 

I of 1910, II of 1914 and X V of 1933). 
An Act to provide for Irrigation in the Bombay Presidency. 

WHEREAS it is necesarry to make provision for the construction, 

maintenance and regulation of canals, for the 

Flu;uilblL> ' supply of water therefrom and for the levy of 

rates for water so supplied, in the Bombay Presidency ; It is enacted 

as follows : 

PART I 

PRELIMINAIU. 

1. This Act may be called the Bombay 
shorttllle> Irrigation Act, 1879. ' 

It extends to the whole oi the Presidency of 
Local cxtuut. Bombay, except the City of Bombay. 



Construction Of Statutes. ytatate^ which encroach on the rights of 
the subjects, whether as regards person or property, oinat receive a strict con- 
struction (Secretary of State v. tialwml, 5 Bon. L, B 7l*0 } 2H Bom. 105). 

2. In section 55 of the Bombay Land Revenue Code, 1879, for 
the words "or which has been made available 

of^oft^nd'i^nul hl consequence of the construction, improve- 
Code, i87t>, amenvieci tuent or repair of any irrigational or other work 

by, or at the instance of, Government/' the 
words "and in respect of which no rate us leviable under the Bombay 
Irrigation Act, 1879" shall be substituted ; 

and in section 101 of the said Code, for the word "leviable" the 
word "levied" shall be substituted, and the words "or under the Bom- 
bay Irrigation Act, 1879," shall be inserted after the figures "55"; 

and to section 105 of the said Code, the words "or of the Bombay 
Irrigation Act, 1879" shall be added, 

3. In this Act, unless there be something 

Interpretation clause. repugliant in the subject Or COOteXt,- 

(1) "Canal" includes 

(a) all canals, channels, pipes, and reservoirs constructed, main- 
tained or controlled by Government for the supply or storage of 
water ; 

(b) all works, embankments, structures and supply and escape 
channels connected with such canals, channels, pipes or reservoirs 
and all roads constructed for the purpose of facilitating the construc- 
tion or maintenance of such canals, channels, pipes oi reservoirs; 

(c) all water-courses, drainage-works and flood embankments as 
hereinafter respectively defined 5 



$ THE BOMBAY IBBIGITION ACT, 

(d) anv part of a river, stream, lake, natural collection of watef 
or natural drainage, channel, to which the Governor in Council may 
apply the provisions of section 5, or of which the water has been 
applied or used before the passing of this Act for the purpose of any 
existing canal ; 

(e) or land belonging to Government which is situate on a bank 
of ajoy canal an hereinbefore defined, and which has been appropriat- 
ed' under the orders of Government for the purposes of such canal ; 

(2) '-water-course" means any channel or pipe not maintained at 
the cost of Government, which is supplied with water fiom a canal, 
and includes ail subsidiary works connected with any such channel or 
pipe, except the sluice or outlet through which water is supplied from 
a canal to sui-h channel or pipe ; 

(3) " diainage work" means any work in connection with a 
system of irrigation or reclamation made or improved by the Govern- 
ment for the purpose of the drainage of the country, whether under 
the provisions of section 15 or otherwise, and includes escape chan- 
nels from a canal, dams, weirs embankments, sluices, groins and 
other works connected therewith, but does not include works for 
their removal of sewage from towns ; 

(4) ''flood embankment" means any embankment constructed or 
maintained by Government in connection with any system of irriga- 
tion or reclamation-works for the protection of lands from inundation 
or which may be declared by the Governor in Council to be maintained 
in connection with any such system, and includes all groins, spurs, 
dams and other protective works connected with such embankments : 

i5, "Collector" [a] includes any officer appointed by the Governor 
in Council to exercise all or any of the powers of a Collector under 
this Act ; 

(6) KJanal officer" means any officer lawfully appointed or in- 
vested v ith powers under section 4 ; 

(7) "Owner" includes every person having a joint interest in the 
ownership of the thing specified; and all rights and obligations which 
attach to un owner under the provisions of this Act shall attach jointly 
and severally to every person having such joint interest in the owner- 
ship. 

4. Government or, subject to such orders as may from time to 
time be passed by Government, any officer of 
offll P r ntment f Canal Government whom the Governor in Council em- 
powers in this behalf may 

(a) appoint such officers with such designations and assign to 
them respectively such powers and duties, under this Act, as Govern- 
ment or such officer may deem fit ; 

(6) invest an) Government officer, in any department, either 
personally or in right of his office, or any other person, with such 
powers, and impose upon him such duties, under this Act, as Govern- 
ment or such officer may deem fit ; 

Provided that any assignment of, or investment with, powers or 
duties made under this section may at any time 
Provi8 - be cancelled or varied by the authority who 

made it. 

I a] Words repealed by Boin. Act III of 18tftJ, Schedule B. are omitted. 



Tas BOUBAT IRRKUTIOX ACT, 1870 3 

PART II. 

OF THB CdNSTBUCTlON AND MAINTENANCE OF CANALS 

Application of Water for purposes of Canals 

6. Whenever it appears expedient to the Governor in Council 

Notification when water tlm t the w a t fcer of any river or stream flowing in 

supply to be -applied for a natural channel, or of any lake or any other 

purposes of Canal. natural collection of still water, should he appli- 

ed or used by the Government or for the purpose 

of any existing or projected canal, the Governor in Council may by 
notification in the Bombay Government Gazette declare, that the said 
water will be so applied or used after a day to be named in the said 
notification, not being earlier than three months from the date 
thereof. 



Vote. A natural stream, though its flow of water be in part derived by 
percolation from a oanal, is not a canal until the Ghvernor in Council ha, applied 
to it the provisions of this section (Secretary of State v Balwant, 5 Boin, L. ft. 
790, 28 L'om. 105 ). * 

Poivers of entry on Land, etc. 

6. At any time after the day so named, any Canal-officer duly 
Powers of Canal officers em P were <* in this behalf may enter on any land 

for purposes of so applying remove any obstruction, close any channel and 

water-supply. ' do any other thing necessary for such applica- 

tion or use of the said water, and for such pur- 

pose may take with him, or depute or employ, such subordinates and 
other persons as he deems fit. 

7. Whenever it shall be necessary to make any enquiry or exa- 
Kntr for en uir mination in connection with a projected canal, 

i enquiry. or with the maintenance of an existing canal, 

any Canal-officer duly erapowered^n this behalf, and any person act- 
ing under the general or special order of anv such canal-Officer, 
may 

(tf) enter upon such land and as he may think necessary for the 
purpose, and 

(b) exercise all powers and do all things in respect of such land 
as he might exercise and do if the Government had issued a notifica- 
tion under the provisions of section 4 of the Land Acquisition Act, 
1894, [a] to the effect that land in that locality is likely to be needed 
for a public purpose, and 

(c) set up and maintain water-gauges and do all other things 
necessary for the prosecution of such enquiry and examination. 

8. Any Canal-officer duly empowered in this behalf and any 
Power to ioapeot and P erson acting under the general or special order 

regulate water supply. of any such Canal-officer, may enter upon any 
land, building or water-course, on account of 
which any water-rate is chargeable for the purpose of inspecting or 
regulating the use of the water supplied, or of measuring the land 
irrigated thereby or chargeable with a water-rate, and of doing all 
things necessary for the proper regulation and management of the 
canal from which such water is supplied. 

Note. This section only empowers a oanal officer to enter on any land, etc., 
and in no way defines what he may do for the proper regulation and management 
of the oanal (Secretary ofBtatt 9. Balvanc, 5 Bom. L. B. 790 ; a c. 28 Bom. 105). 

[a | The reference to Act X of 1870 is altered in accordance with Act I of 
1894, 1. 2. 



* THE BOMBAY IRBIGATION ACT, 1879 

9. In case of any accident being apprehended or happening to a 
tt A , canal, anv tCanal-officer dnlv empowered in 

Irower to enter for re- i.i_' i i i/ i * .. i i.i_ 

pairs, and to prevent this behalf, and any person acting under the 

accidents. general or special order of any such Canal-officer, 

may enter upon any land adjacent to such canal, 

and may take trees and other materials, and execute all works which 
maybe necessary for the purpose of preventing such accident or re- 
pairing any damage done. 

10. When a Canal-officer or other person proposes, under the 

provisions of anv of the three last preceding sec- 
buUdTgt e!c. eCUpi0r f tions, to enter 'into any building or enclosed 

conrt or garden attachched to a dwelling-house, 

not supplied with water from a canal, and not adjacen t to a iiood em- 
bankment, he shall previously give to the occupier of such building, 
court or garden such reasonable notice as the urgency of the case may 
allpw. 

Canal Crossings. 

11. Suitable means of crossing canals shall be provided at such 

places as the Governor in Council [a] or any 
Means of crossing canals Commissioner if empowered by Government in 
!?ruot e ioS r t V d dlina^to this behalf [a] thinks necessary for the reason- 
be avoided. able convenience of the inhabitants of the ad- 

jacent lands ; and suitable bridges, culverts or 
other works shall be constructed to prevent the drainage of the adja- 
jent land being obstructed by any canal. 

Removal of Obstructions to Drainage 

12. Whenever if appears to the Govenor in Council that injury 

to the public health, or public convenience, or to 

Government may prohi. ary canal or to' any land for which irrigation 

M^ f Wei*c w'^n '> * ^ available, has arisen or may 

certain HmtB, arise from the obstruction of any river, stream 

or natural drainage-course, the Governor in 

Council may by notification published in the Bombay Government 
Gazette, prohibit, within limits to be defined in such notification, the 
formation of any such obstruction, or may, within such limits order 
the removal or other modification of such obstruction. 

Thereupon so much of the said river, stream or natural drainage- 
channel, as is comprised within such limits, shall be held to be a 
drainage-work as defined in section 3. 

13. Any Canal-officer duly empowered in this behalf may, after 
_, . . such publication, issue an order to any person 

order^perl^LZ^ causing or having control over any such obstruc - 
obstraction. tion to remove or modify the same within a time 

to be fixed in such order. 

14. If, within the time so fixed, such person does not comply 

with the order, the Canal-officer may cause the 
obstruction to be removed or modified; and if the 
person to whom the order was issued does not, 
when called upon, pay the expenses of such removal or modification, 

[a] The words were inserted by Bam. A f 't of 1910, Schedule I, Part II, 
Serial No, 11. 



THE BOMMBAY IRRIGATION ACT, 1870 8 

such expenses shall be recoverable by the Collector an an arrear of 
land revenue. 

Construction of Drainnage-works. 

15. Whenever it appears to the Governor in Council that any 

drainage-work is necessary for the public health 

when drainage -works or f or the improvement of the proper cultivation 

^"5FZZr& iig*fo of .* la " d ' or tha / Protection from 

carried out. iloods or other accumulations of water, or from 

erosion by a river, is required for any land, the 

Governor in Council may cause a scheme for such work to be drawn 
up and carried into execution, 

and the person authorized by the Governor in Council to draw up 
and execute such scheme may exercise in connection therewith the 
powers conferred on Canal-officers by sections 7, 8 and 9, and shall be 
liable to the obligations imposed upon Canal officers by sections 10 
and 34. 

PART III 

OF WATER~COI;KSKS 
Construction of new* watercourses 

l(>. Any person may, with the permission 

water^u^'ly priv^ f a Odnal of '* cer dul 3' empowered to grant such 
arrangement. permission, construct a new water-course if he 

has obtained the consent of the holder of the 
land required thefor. 

17. Any person desiring to construct a new water-course, but 
being unable or unwilling to construct it under a 
private arrangement with the holder of the land 



on i.y Canai-offl.^r re ^ n j rtl( j f or t } ie saraC| ma y apply, in writing, to 
now w:l "'' <>onrsi>> n ny Canal-officer duly empowered to receive such 

applicat ioiH, slating 

(1) that he is ready to defrax all the expenses necessary for ac- 
quiring- the land and constructing such water-course ; 

(-2) that he desires the said Canal-officer, in his behalf and at his 
cost to do all thrngs necessary for constructing such water-course. 

is. If the ('anal-officer considers the con- 

Procedure when Canal- structioii of such water-course expedient, he 
officer oonsideis oonatruo. |j the applicant to deposit any part 

tioaofwatcr-oou^expe- of he expe l nse aach F J fficer ma v consider neces- 

sary, 

and, upon such deposit being made, shall cause enquiry to be 
made into the most suitable alignment for the said water-course, 

and shall mark out the land which, in his opion, it will be neces- 
sary to occupy for the construction thereof, 

and shall forthwith publish a notification in every village through 
which the water-course is proposed to be taken, that so much of such 
land as is situated within such village has been so marked out, 

and shall send a copy of such notification to the Collector of every 
district in which such land in situated, for publication on such land. . 



THE BOMBAY IRRIGATION ACT, 1879 

The said notification shall also call upon any person who wishes 
to share in the ownership of such water-course 
T to make his application [ that respect to the 
Canal-officer within thirty days of the publica- 
tion of such notification. 

If any such applicant appears, and his application is admitted, 

_. ... , . , he shall be liable to pav his share in the con- 

w]S^*btoto?*^ Btruction of such watercourse, and in the cost 

otcost, of acquiring the land for the same, and shall be 

an owner of such water-course when constructed. 

19. On receipt of copy of such notification the Collector shall 

~ proceed to acquire such land under the provi- 

Collector to acquire laud. ^ Qf fche ^^ Acqnigition Act> 1894| [a ] as 

if a declaration had been issued by the Govern- 
ment for the acquisition thereof under section tf of that Act, and as if 
the Government had thereupon directed the Collector to take order 
for the acquisition of such land under section 7 of the said Act, and 
(if necessary) as if the Government had issued orders for summary pos- 
session being taken under section 17 of the said Act. 

20. On being put in possession of the land, the Canal-officer 

shall construct the required water-course ; and 
c ' on its completion shall give to the owner notice 

thereof, and of any sura payable by him on ac- 
count of the cost of acquiring the land 'and constructing the water- 
course. On such norice being given, such sum shall be due from the 
owner to the Canal-officer. On receipt of payment in full of all ex- 
penses incurred, the Canal-officer shall make over possession of such 
water-course to such owners. 

Rights and obligations of Owners of Water-Courses 

21. Every owner of a water-course shall bo 

Obligations of owners of 1^,1 
Water-courses. bound 

(a) to construct and maintain all works necessary for the passage 
across such water-course, of canals, water-courses, drainage channels 
and public roads existing at the time of its construction, and of the 
drainage intercepted by it, and for affording proper communications 
across it for the convenience of the occupants of neighbouring lands ; 

(b) to maintain such water-course in a fit stite of repair for the 
conveyance of water ; 

(?) to allow the use of it to others or to admit other persons as 
joint owners thereof OD such terms as may be prescribed under the 
provisions of section 23; 

and every owner of a water-course and 
na every person duly authorised under the provi- 
sions hereinafter contained to use a water-course 
shall be entitled 

(d) to have a supply of water by such water-course, at such rates 
and on such terms, as may from time to time be prescribed under 

[a] The reference to Act X of 1870 is alltered in accordance with Act I of 
1894, 8i 2. 



i?HK &OMOAY IRBIOAIIOH AOT, 1879 ? 

section 44 and by the rules made by the Governor in Council under 
section 70 : 

Provided always that any owner of a water-course and, subject 
to the terms of any" agreement between the parties, or to any condi- 
tion imposed under section 23, any such person as aforesaid may at 
any time, by giving three months 7 previous notice in writing in this 
behalf to a Canal-offifier duly empowered to receive such notices, 
resign his interest in such water-course. 

22. Any person desiring to have a supply of water through a 

water-course of which he is not an owner may 
ith Wner make tt l )nvate arrangement with the owner for 
permitting the conveyance of water thereby, or 
may apply to a Canal-officer duly empowered to receive such applica- 
tions for authority to use such water-course or to be declared a joint 
owner thereof. 

Scope. This section speaks merely of a supply of water and there U no 
valid reason for restricting these words to the case of a first supply of water, 
which a person may desire to have, or which may be authorised under s. 28 j but 
where the special statutory powers given by tin Act have been exercised without 
complying witb the statutory requirements as to serving notice and hearing objec- 
tions, the order is one p*33ed without jurisdiction ani U ultra vires (62 1.0. 225). 

23. On receipt of any such application, the Canal-officer shall 

serve a notice on the owner to show cause why 

Canai-officer after enquiry such authority should not be granted, or such 
may authorise supply. ^ ec i ara ti n should not be made, and, if no ob- 
frnt* jection be raised, or if any objection be raised 

and be found insufficient or invalid, shall, sub- 
ject to the approval of the Collector, either authorize the applicant to 
use the water-course, or.declare him to be a joint owner thereof on 
such conditions as to the payment of compensation or rent or other- 
wise as may appear to him equitable. 

Order of Collector. An order made by a Collector under this section 
falls within the purview of 8. 203 of the Bom. Land Revenue Code and is tbe 
order of the Collector though it is a confirmation of an order of a Canal-officr. 
An appeal from such an order lies to the Commissioner, and unltl presentation of 
the appeal, suit to set aside the order is incompetent (Stcrrtnry of State 9. Jeram- 
da* Khatomal, 6 8. L. K. 241). 

24. No land acquired under this Part for a 

Use of Una acquired wa ter-course shall be used for any other pur- 
f""^ 8 r nr pose without the previous consent of a Canal- 
officer duly empowered to grant such permission. 
2r>. If any owner of a water-course ails to fulfil any obligation 
imposed upon him by clause (a) or (b) of section 
If owner fails to execute 21, any Canal-officer duly empowered in this 
work or to repair water- behalf may require him by notice, to execute the 
SSSe^i^ By necessary work or repair within a period, to be 

prescribed in such notice, of not less than fifteen 
days, and, in the event of failure, may execute the same on his behalf, 
and, except as hereinafter provided in this section, all expenses in- 
curred in the execution of such work or repair shall be a sum due by 
such owner to Government. 



THE BOMBAY IBBIOATXON ACT, 1879 

Every person other than an owner who uses any water-course in 
respect of which any repair has been executed by 
couopa,: * Canal-officer under this section shall, in the 
penses of repair. absence ofany agreement between the parties or 

of any condition imposed under section 23 at the 
time such person was authorized to use such water-course to the 
contrary, be liable to pay to Government such ^proportion of the ex- 
penses incurred in the execution of such repairs as shall be determin- 
ed by the said Canal-officer. 

Settlement of Disputes concerning Water-courses. 

26. Whenever a dispute arises between two or more persons in 
regard to their mutual rights or liabilities in 
Settlement of disputes reepect of the use, construction or maintenance 



abUito o- of a water-course, or among joint owners of a 
t crested in water-course- water-course, as to their respective shares 01 me 
expense of constructing or maintaining such 
water-course, or as to the aYaount severally contributed by them to- 
wards such expense, or as to failure on the part of any owner to 
contribute his share, 

any person interested in the matter of such dispute may apply, in 
writing, to any Canal-officer duly empowered to receive such applica- 
tions, stating the matter in dispute. 

Such officer shall thereupon give notice to the other persons in- 
terested that, on a day to be named in such notice, lie will proceed to 
enquire into the said matter, 

and if all the persons interested consent, in writing, to his being 
arbitrator, he may pass his order thereon ; 

failing such consent, he shall transfer the matter to the Collector, 
who shall enquire into and pass his order thereon. 

Any order passed by the Collector under this section shall remain 
in force until set aside bv a deecree of a Civil Court. 



PART IV 

OF THE SUPPLY OF WATER 
Applications for supply 

27. Every person desiring to have a supply of water from a canal 

..,.., .. , shall submit a written application to that effect 
water do he supplied on L n f ^ i ^.02 ji r i ^ 

written application. to a kanal-omcer duly empowered to receive 

such applications, in such form as shall from 
time to time be prescribed by Government in this behalf. 

If the application be for a supply of water to be used for purpose 

t , t other than those ol irrigation, the Canal-officer 

pifed for" purposes other ma >\ w ^^ the sanction of Government, give per- 

t>b an those of irrigation. mission for water to be taken for such purposes 

under such special conditions and restrictions as 

to the limitation, control and measurement of the supply as he shall 

be empowered by Government to impose in each case. 



THJ BOMBAY IRBIGATION ACT, 1879 V 

Provisions as to supply 
28. The supply of water to any water-coarse 

supply? 1 ' t0 St P Water or fco an ? P erson who is entitled to such supply 
shall not be stopped except 

(a] whenever and so l l )ng as it is necessasy to stop such supply 
for the purpose of executing any work ordered by competent autho- 
rity; 

(6) whenever and so long as any w&ter-^ourse by which such sup- 
ply is received is not maintained in such repair as to prevent tne 
wasteful escape of water therefrom ; 

(c) whenever and so long as it is necessary to do so in order to 
supply in rotation the legitimate demands of other persons entitled to 
water ; 

(d) whenever and so long as it miy 1)3 necessary to do so in order 
to prevent the wantage or misuse of water ; 

(e) within periods fixed from time to time by a Canal-officer duly 
empowered in this behalf, of which due notice shall be given. 

XVote. Thie section contemplates the snpaly of watjr (I) to a water-coarse, 
and () to a person. It does nob deal with the supply of water to any person 
entitled to snch supply, which means entitled under the Act to such a supply 
(Secretary of State v* B'llwant, 5 Bjm. L R. 7^0,3. c. 28 B >m, 105). 

29. When canal-water is supplied for the irrigation of one or 

more crops only, the permission to use such 

Duration of supply. wafcer sUal j | )(J ^ IQ confcinU3 only unbil gQch 

crop or crops shall come to maturity, and to apply only to such crop 
or crops. 

30. Every agreement for the supply of canal-water to any land, 

building or other immoveable property shall be 

Agreements for supply transferable therewith, and shall be presumed to 

^;r y 'r"t W 'oi- ^ * transferred whenever a transferor 

which supply given; guchlaml, building or other immoveable pro- 

perty takes place. 

No person entitled to the use of an) work or land appertaining to 
any canal, anJ, except in the case of any such 

Kight u> use oC \vatur not agreement as aforesaid, no person entitled to 
S" ab ^?, m "t se the water of any canal, shall sell or sub-let, 
Cauai-ofik'cr. or otherwise transier, his right to such use with- 

out the permission of a Canal-officer duly en> 
powered to grant such permission. 

PART V 

OF THK AWARD OF COMPENSATION 
Compensation when claimable 

31. Compensation may be awarded in respect of any substantial 

damage caused by the exercise of any of the 



powers conferred by this Act, which is capable 
tial damage, of being ascertained and estimated at the time 

of awarding such compension ; 



10 THE BOMBAY IRRIGUIOH ACT; 

Provided that no compensation shall be so 

Exceptions. awarded in respect of any damage arising from 

(a) deterioration of climate, or 

(4) stoppage of navigation, or the means of rafting timber or of 
watering cattle, or 

(e) stoppage or diminution of any supply of water inconsequence 
of the exercise of tne power conferred by section 5, if no use have been 
made of such supply within the five years next before the date of the 
issue of the notification under section 37, or 

(d) failure or stoppage of the water in a canal, whon such failure 
oj stoppage is due to 

(1) any cause beyond the control of Government, 

(2) the execution of any repairs, alterations or additions to the 
canal, or 

(3) any measures considered necessary by any Canal-officer duly 
empowered in this behalf for regulating the proper flow of water in 
the canal, or for maintaining the established course of irrigation ; 

but any person who suffers loss from any stoppage or diminution 
. . of his water-supply due to any of the causes 

when m auowabfe water "*" named in clause (^) of this section shall be en- 
titled to such remission of the water-rate pay- 
able by him as may be authorized by the Governor in Council. 

Scope. The section does not bar any salt for compensation for deficiency 
of water due to G-ovt. Engineer's action against tha Secretary of State (Gangaram 
9. Secretary ofBtate, 58 1. 0. 7C9) (Siiid). 

32. No claim for compensation under this Act shall be entertain- 

ed after the expiration of twelve months from 
Limitation of Claim.. the time w hen the damage complained ofcom- 
menced,unless the Collector is satiseftd that the claimant had sufficient 
Cause for not making the claim within such period. 

33. [ Repealed by Act X VI of 1895. ] 

Summary Decisions. 

34. In every case of entry upon any land or building under sec- 

tion 6, section 7, section 8 or section 9, the 
SSW^ol'uS: Canal-officer or person making the entry shall 
etc. ascertain and record the extent of the damage, 

if any, caused by the entry, or in the execution 
of any work, to any crop, tree, building or other property, 

and within one month from the date of such entry compensation 
shall be tendered by a Canal-officer duly empowered in this behalf to 
the landholder or owner of the property damaged. 

If such tender is not accepted, the Canal-officer shall forthwith 
refer the matter to the Collector for the purpose of making enquiry as 
to the amount of compensation and deciding the same. 

35. If the supply of water to any land irrigated from a canal be 

interrupted otherwise than in the manner de- 
Bribed in clause (rf) of faction, 81. the holder 
of such land may present a petition for compensa- 
tion to the Collector for any loss arising from 



Tn BOMBAY IBBIOATION ACT, 1970 tl 

such interruption, and the Collector, after consulting the Canal-officer, 
shall award to the petitioner reasonable compensation for such loss. 

Jurisdiction Of Civil Court. A Civil Court has no jurisdiction to 
entertain a claim to recover compensation from Government for failure by the 
Irrigation Department to supply water for his crops when the claim baa already 
been decided by the Collector under this section (Vishnu v Secretary of State, 46 
Bom. 738). 

36. The decision of the Collector under either of the last two 

preceding sections as to the amount of compen- 
Deciaum as to amount 8a tion to be awarded, or, if in any rule framed 

dih^^wo 11 ^^ under 8ection 70 > u 'h Vision shall be declared 

conclusive. to be appealable, then the decision of the autho- 

rity to whom the appeal lies, shall be conclusive. 

Formal Adjudications. 

37. As soon as practicable after the issue of a notification under 

section 5, the Collector shall cause public notice 



oer to be given at convenient places, etating that 
cases. the Government intend to apply or use the water 

as aforesaid and that claims for compensation 
may be made before him. 

A copy of sections 31 and 32 shall be annexed to every such notice. 

38. All claims for compensation under this Act, other than 
_. . , _ claims of the nature provided for in sections 34 

toCoZ*or and ? 5 > must ! )e made before the Collector of the 

district in which such claim arises. 

Soope This section does not bar any suit for compensation for deScienoy. 
of water due to Government Engineer's action against the Secretary of State 
(Gangaram v. Secretary of State t 58 I. 0. 769 (Sind). 

39. The Oollector shall enquire into every such claim and deter- 

mine the amount of compensation, if any, which 

Collector to ho gnuta! should in hi s opinion be given to the claimant; 

AonSw"Act mo Lanri and Actions 11, 12, 14, 15, 18 to 23 (inclusive), 

Acquisition Act, 1870. 



ftl ^ 5 g of fche Lftnd 

Acquisition Act, 1810 (a) shall apply to such enquiries: 

Provided that instead of the last clause of the said section 26, the 
following shall be read : 

"The provisions of this section and of sections 31 and 40 of the 
Bombay Irrigation Act, 1879, shall be read to every assessor in a 
language which he understands before he gives his opinion as to the 
amount of compensation to be awarded. " 

40. In determining the amount of compensation under the last 
preceding section, regard shall be had to the 
Diminution in market, diminution in the market-value, at the time of 
awarding comnensation, of the property in 
respect of which compensation IB claimed ; 

[a] Act X of 1870 has been repaaled by Act I of 1894, but see saving in 
i. S (8) ol the latter Act. 



13 THE BOMBAY IBBIGATION ACT, 1870 

and where such market-value is not ascertainable, the amount 
shall be reckoned at twelve times the amount of the diminution of the 
annual net profits of such property, caused by the exercise of the 
powers conferred by this Act. 

41. All sums of money payable for compensation awarded under 
^ .. . . section 39. shall become due three months after 

Compaction when due. the daim for ^ compengation was made . 

and simple interest at the rate of six per centum per annum shall 

. be allowed on any such sum remaining unpaid 

rei ' after the said three months, except when the 

tion-payment of such sum is caused by the neglect or refusal of the 

claimant to apply for or receive the same. 

Abatements of Land-revenue and rent. 

42. If the compensation is awarded under section 39 no account 
A , . of a stoppage or diminution of supply of water 

demand onlnterrupllon of to an y land paying revenue to Government, and 
water-supply. the amount of the revenue payable on account of 

such land has been fixed with reference to the 
water-advantages appertaining thereto, the holder of the said land 
shall be entitled to an abatement of the amount of revenue payable to 
such extent as shall be determined by the Collector. 

43. Every inferior holder of any land in respect of which such 
- .. . . . . c . compensation has been paid shall, if he receives 

Abatement or inferior r , ,, ., L ,. \ j.**.i j A 

holder's rent on interrup- no part of the said compensation, be entitled to 
tion of water supply. an abatement oft he rent previously payable by 

him to the superior holder thereof in proportion 
to the reduced value of the holding ; 

but, if a water-supply which increases the value of the holding is 
_ . . . . . . afterwards restored to the said land otherwise 

ho?d\rTrent en on rTstom- than at the cost of the inferior holder, the supe- 
tion of water-suppiy. rior holder shall be entitled to enhance the rent 

in proportion to such increased value : provided 
that the enhanced rent shall not in any case exceed the rent payable 
by the inferior holder before the abatement, unless the superior holder 
shall, independently of the provisions of this section, be entitled so to 
enhance the previous rent, 



PART VI. 
OF WATER-RATES. 
Supply Rates. 

44. Such rates shall be leviable for canal-water supplied for 
- . purposes of irrigation, or for any other purpose, 

to^pp^^^r as shall from time to time be determined by the 
Governor in Council. 

If, owing to the construction of a new canal or to the improvement 

p j j f .or extension of an existing canal, the amount or 

whiST "existing ^Ser- duration of any water supply, in respect of which 

supply is improved, eifrher no revenue or a fixed amount of revenue 

has hitherto been paid to Govt. is increased, 



THE BOMBAY IBBIGATION Aor, 1870 II 

rates shall be leviable under this section in respect of the increased 
water- supply only. 

The said rates shall be payable by the person on whose application 
the supply was granted, or by any person who uses the water so 
supplied. 

Occasional Rates. 

45. If water supplied through a water- 
using wal y r n^MS" <" ^ used in an authorized manner, and if 

ly cannot be identified. the person by whose act. or neglect such use has 
occurred cannot be identified, the person or all 

the persons on whose land such water has flowed, if such land has 
derived benefit therefrom, 

or, if no land has derived benefit therefrom, the person, or all the 
persons chargeable in respect of the water supplied through such 
water-course, 

shall be liable, or jointly liable, as the case may be, for the 
charges which shall be made for such use under the rules prescribed 
by the Governor in Council under section 70. 

46. If water supplied through a water-course be suffered to run 
to waste, and if, after enquiry, the person 

ruMto l wMter hGI1 WatPf through whose act or neglect such water was 
suffered to run to waste cannot be discovered, 

the person or all the persons chargeable in respect of the water 
supplied through such water-course shall be liable or jointly liable, 
as the case may be, for the charges which shall be made in respect of 
Mie water so wasted, under the rule prescribed by the Governor in - 
Council under section 70. 

All questions arising under this and the last preceding section 
shall, subject to the provisions of section 07, be decided by a Canal- 
officer duly empowered in this behalf. 

47. All charges for the unauthorized use or 

J& pfnX* '"' '" for waste of water may be recovered, as water- 
rates in addition to any penalties incurred on 
aocount of such use or waste. 

Percolation and Leakage-rates. 

48. If it shall appear to a Canal-officer duly empowered to enforce 

the provisions of this section, that any cultivat- 

r^^iSiSt ed !< within two hundred yards of any canal 

water rate. receives, by percolation or leakage from such 

canal, an advantage equivalent to that which 

would be given by a direct supply of canal-water for irrigation, 

or that any cultivated hnd, whenever situate, derives by a surface 
flow, or by means of a well sunk within two hundred yards of any 
canal after the admission of water into such canal, a supply of water 
which has percolated or leaked from such canal, 

he may charge on such land a water-rate not exceeding that which 
would ordinarily have been charged for a similar direct supply to 
land similarly cultivated. 



14 In BOMBAY IBBIOAIIOH ACT, 

For the purposes of this *Act, land charged under this section shall 
be deemed to be land irrigated from a canal. 

49 to 56. [ Reaped by Bom. Act III of 1880. ] 

Recovery of Water-rates and other Dues in Arrears. 

57, Every water-rate leviable under this Act shall be payable in 

. such instalments and on such dates and to such 
officers as shall from time to time be determined 
^ under the orders of the Governor in CouncilJJ 
or of any Commissioner empowered by Government in this behalf [0J- 

Any such rate, or instalment of the same, which is not paid on the 
dav when it becomes due, and any sum due to 
* or to * Canal officer, whether on 
behalf of Government or of any oth^r person, 
under Part III [a] which is not paid when demanded, shall be re- 
coverable according to the law and under the rules for the time being 
in force for the recovery of arrears of land-revenue. 

Rent payable to the owner of a water-course-bj a person authoriz- 
ed to use such water-course shall be payable in 
Rent due to owners of g uo h instalments and on such dates as the Canal- 
o'v^buT arret 7f officer duly empowered to act under section 23 
land-revenue. shall direct, and may be recovered on benaiioi 

the owner according to the law and rules afore- 
said : Provided always that no more shall at any time be payable to 
the owner than is actually recovered from the said person. 

PART VII 

OF OBTAINING LIBOUB FOR CANALS ON EMERGENCIES 

58. Whenever it appears to a Canal-officer duly empowered to 

act under this section, that unless some work or 
lJ^"^!S pair is .immediately executed, such serious 
urgently required, damage will happen to any canal as to cause 

sudden and extensive public injury, 

or, that unless nome clearance of a canal or othor work which is 
necessary in order to maintain the established course of irrigation is 
immediately executed, serious pulic loss will occur, 

and that the labourers necessary for the proper execution of such 
repair, clearance or work cannot be obained in the ordinary manner 
within the time that can be allowed for the execution of the same so as 
to prevent such injury or loss, 

the said officer may, by order under his hand, direct that the pro- 
visions of this section shall be put into operation for the execution of 
such repair, clearance or work ; and thereupon every able-bodied per- 
gon who resides or holds land in the vicinity of the locality where 
such repair, clearance or work has to b* executed, and whose name 
appears in the list hereinafter mentioned, shall, if required to do so 
by such officer or by any person authorized by him in this behalf, be 
bound to assist in the execution of such repair, clearance or work by 

[a] These words were added by the Bombay Reapealing and Amending Act 
ilfcW (Bow. Act I o! 1910), Schedule 1, Part, II, Serial No. 12. 

[*j ?iie words "of this At" repealed by Jthe Bombay General Clauses ^ot, 
1886 (Bom. Act III of 1886), Schedule B, are omitted. 



BOMBAY tsRiomoN Aoff, 

labouring thereat as such officer or any person authorized by him in 
his behalf may direct. 

All persons so labouring shall be entitled to payment at rates 
which shall not be less than the highest rates for the time being paid 
in the neighbourhood for similar labour. 

59. Subject to such rules as may from time to time be prescribed 
List of bo under section 10 in this behalf, the Collector 

a urers. shall prepare a list of the persons liable to be 

required to assist as aforesaid, and :uay from time to time add to or 
alter such list or any part thereof. 

60. All orders made under section 5^ shall be immediately re- 
_ ported to the Collector for the information of the 

Ca?a e i P omcer? ade by Commissioner of the Division, and likewise to 
the Chief Engineer for Irrigation, for the infor- 
mation of Government. 

PART VIII. 
OF PENALTIES. 
fll. Whoever voluntarily and without pro- 

pcr aut hority- 

(1) damages, alters, enlarges or obstructs any canal ; 

(2) interferes with, or increases or diminishes the supply of water 
in or the flow of water from, through, over or under any canal, or by 
any means raises or lowers the level of the water in any canal ; 

(3) corrupts or fouls the water of any canals so as to render it 
less fit for the purposes for which it is ordinarily used ; 

(4) destroys, defaces or moves any land or level mark or water- 
gauge fixed by the authority of a public servant ; 

(5) destroys, tampers with, or removes any apparatus, or part of 
any apparatus, for controlling, regulating or measuring the flow of 
water in any canal ; 

(6) passes, or causes animals or vehicles to pass, in or across any 
of the works, banks or channels of a canal contrary to rules made 
under section 70, after he has been desired to desist therefrom ; 

(7) causes or knowingly and wilfully permits cattle to graze upon 
any canal or flood-embankment, or tethers or causes or knowingly 
and wilfully permits cattle to be tethered, upon any such canal or 
embankment, or roots up any grass or other vegetation growing on 
any such canal or embankment, or removes, cuts or in any way injures, 
or causes to be removed, cut or otherwise injured, any tree, bush, grass 
or hedge intended for the protection of such canal or embankment ; 

(8) neglects without reasonable cause, to assist or to continue to 
assist in the execution of any repair, clearance or work, when lawfully 
bound so to do under section 58 ; 

(9) violates any rules made under section 70 for breach whereof 
the Governor in Council shall, in such rules, direct that a penalty may 
be incurred ; 

and whoever 



A.OT, 

(10) being responsible for the maintenance of a water-course, of 
using a water-course, neglects to take proper percautions for the pre- 
vention of waste of the water thereof, or interferes with the autho- 
rized distribution of the water thereform, or uses such water in an un- 
authorized manner or prevents or interferes with the lawful use of 
such water course by any person authorized to use the same or declar- 
ed to be a joint owner thereof under section 23 ; 

shall when such act shall not amount to the offence of committing 
mischief within the meaning of the Indian Penal Code, on conviction 
before a magistrate, be punished for each such offence with fine which 
may extend to fifty rupees, or with imprisonment [a] for a term which 
may extend to one month, or with both. 



8Ubi " 



Whoever without proper authority- 



(1) pierces or cuts through, or attempts to pierce or cut through, 
or otherwise to damage, destroy or endanger the stability of any canal; 

(2) opens, shuts or obstructs, or attempts to open, shut or obstruct, 
any sluice in any canal ; 

(3) makes any dam or obstruction for the purpose of diverting or 
opposing the current of a river or canal on the bank whereof there is 
a flood-embankment, or refuses or neglects to remove any such dam or 
obstruction when lawfully required so to do ; 

shall, when such act shall not amount to the offence of commit- 
ting mischief within the meaning of the Indian Penal Code, on convic- 
tion before a Magistrate of the first or second class, be punished for 
each such offence with fine which may extend to two hundred rupees, , 
or with imprisonment for a term which may extend to six months, 
or with both. 

63. Whenever any person is convicted under either of the Jast 

two preceding sections, the convicting Magis- 

movef U and n damage it fcrate raa J order that he sha ! 1 remove the obstruc- 
paired. tion or repair the damage in respect of which 

the conviction is held within a period to be fixed 
in such order. If such person neglects or refuses to obey such order 
within the period so fixed, any Canal-officer duly empowered in this 
behalf may remove such obstruction or repair such damage, and the 
cost of such removal or repair, as certified by the said officer, shall 
be leviable from such person by the Collector as an arrear of land- 
revenue. 

64. Any person in charge, or employed upon, any canal may 

remove from the lands or buildings belonging 

Persons employed on thereto, or may take into custody without a 

LTcStody*^ ffender8 warrant, and take forthwith before a Magistrate 

or to the nearest Police station, to be dealt with 
according to law, any person who within his view 

(1) wilfully damages, obstructs or fouls any canal, or 

(2) without proper authority interferes with the supply or flow of 
water, in or from any canal, or in any river or stream, so as to en- 
danger, damage, make dangerous or render less useful any canal. 

[a] Words repealed by Bom. Act III of 1886, Schedule B ; are omitted. 



It 

65. Nothing herein contained shall prevent any person from 
being prosecuted under any other law for any 
act or omission made punishable by this Act : 
provided that no person shall be punished twice 
in respect of one and the same act or omission. 

66 Whenever any person is fined for an offence under this Act, 
the Court which imposes such fine, or which 



r , 

fine, or a sentence of which such line forms part, 
may direct that the whole or any part of such fine may be t>aid by way 
of award to any person who gave information leading to tne detection 
of such offence or to the conviction of the offender. 

If the fine be awarded by a Court whose decision is subject to 
appeal or revision, the amount awarded shall not be paid until the 
period prescribed for presentation of the appeal has elapsed, or, if an 
appeal be presented, till after the decision of the appeal. 



PART IX. 

MISCELLANEOUS 

H7. Every order passed by a Canal-officer under sections 13, 18, 
25, 30, 45, 40 and 48 shall be appealable to the 

uudcT P Act. agaia8t rder8 Collector : provided that the appeal be present- 
ed within thirty days of the date on which the 

order appealed against was communicated to the appellant. 

All orders and proceedings of a Collector under this Act shall be 
subject to the supervision and control of the Commissioner. [<t] 

fiffect. This section does not amount to an express provision to the con * 
trary aaid in a. 203 of the Bombiy Land Revenue Ooie [Secretary of State 0, 
Jeramdas, 6 S. L. B. 241 ). 

68. Any officer empowered under this Act to conduct any enquiry 

A , may exercise all such powers connected with the 

exfrnhfewlSr summoning and examining of witnesses and the 

production of documents as are conferred on 

Civil Courts by the Code of Civil Procedure [6] ; and every such en- 
quiry shall be deemed a judicial proceeding. 

(>9. Service of any notice under this Act shall be made by deliver- 
ing or tendering a copy thereof signed by the 
service of notice,. officer therein mentioned. Whenever it may be 

practicable, the service of the notice shall be made on the person 
therein named. When such person cannot be found, the service may 
be made on any adult male member of his family residing with him ; 
and, if no such adnlt male member can be found, tne notice may be 
served by fixing the copy on the outer door of the house in which 
person therein named ordinarily dwells or carries on business ; and, 
if such person has no ordinary place of residence within the district, 
service Of any notice may be made by sending copy of such notice by 
post in a registered cover addressed to such person at his usual place 
of residence. 



[aj Words repealed by Bom. Act ill of 1*80, Schedule B are omitted. 
\b\ This reference should now be read as applying to Act V of lV09 ( 



BOMBAY lEftlGitlON A6*, 1 8? 

70. The Governor in Council may from time 

and cails ***** to time make rales nofc inconsistent with this 
Act to regulate the following matters : 

(a) the proceedings of any officer who, under any provision of 
this Act, is required or empowered to take action in any matter ; 

(b) the cases in which, the. officers to whom and the conditions 
subject to which orders and decisions given under any provision of 
this Act, and not expressly provided for as regards appeal, shall be 
appealable ; 

(c) the person by whom, the time, place or manner at or in which, 
anything for the doing of which provision is made in this Act, shall 
be done ; 

(d) the amount of any charge to be made under this Act ; 

(e) and generally to carry out the provisions of this Act. 

The Governor in Council may, from time to time, alter or cancel 
any rules so made. 

Such rules, alterations and cancelments shall 
rubiication of rules. be pub i ished in the Bombay Government Gazette, 

and shall thereupon have the force of law. 

71. Nothing in this Act shall be deemed 

Saving of municipal water t o apply to any canal, channel, reservoir, lake 
or other collection of water vesting in any muni- 
cipality. 



PART X la] 

OF SECOND-CLASS IRRIGATION WORKS 
. , 72. This Part shall apply to Second-class 

Application^ this Part. Irrigation Workg only . 

?3. (1) The Governor in Council may pub- 
H*h a notification in the Bombay Government 
Gazette 

(a) declaring that it is proposed to constitute any canal, channel, 
stream, river, pipe or reservoir, natural or artificial, or any part there- 
of, whether constructed, maintained or controlled by Government or 
not, which is actually used or required for the purposes of irrigation, 
a Second-class Irrigation Work ; 

(d) fixing a period of not less than four months from the date of 
publication of such notification in the Bombay Government Gazette 
for the submission of objections to such proposal. 

Provided that no artificial reservoir or water-course supplied from 
such reservoir which is actually used for the purposes of irrigation by 
a single irrigator shall be included in such notification except either 
with the consent of such irrigator,or if in the opinion of the Governor 
in Council such inclusion is necessary in the putic interests, then with- 
out such consent but subject to the payment, after the issue of the 
declaration mentioned in sub-section (3), to such irrigator of such 

[a] This Fart wai inserted by Bom. Act II of 1914, fee. *, 



Tn BOMBAY IBBNUTION ACT, 18 / 15 

compensation for his rights as may be settled in accordance with the 
provisions of section 79. 

(2) After the publication of such notification in the Bombay Gov* 
ernment Gazette it shall also be published by the Collector as soon as 
practicable in the language of the district at the MamUtdar's Office 
of the talnka in which the work is situated and in every town and 
village which in the opinion of the Collector is likely to be affected 
by such notification. 

(3) After considering such objections as may have been received 
within the period fixed as aforesaid the Governor in Council may, by 
notification in the Bombay Government ^Gazette, declare such canal, 
channel, stream, river, pipe or reservoir or any part thereof to be a 
Second-class Irrigation Work. 

74. When a notification has been issued under sub-section (3) of 

section 73 the Collector shall publish in the 
language of the district at the Mamlatdar's 
Office of the taluka in which the work is situat- 
ed, and in every town and village which in his opinion is likely to 
be affected by such declaration, a proclamation 

(a; specifying, as nearly as possible, the source of supply, situa- 
tion and limits of the Second-olass Irrigation Work notified under 
sub-section (3) of section 73; 

(^) stating that this Part applies to the work so notified from the 
date of the notification published under sub-section (3) of section 
73; and 

(c) fixing a period of not less than three months from the date of 
such proclamation, and requiring every person claiming any right in 
the work so notified either to present to the Collector within such- 
period a written notice specifying, or to appear before him and state, 
the nature of such right. 

75. (I) A Second-class Irrigation Work shall be deemed to be a 

canal within the meaning of sub-section (1) of 
"fction 8 and to soch work the following sec- 
tions and Parts only shall, so far as may be, 
apply, namely : 

Sections, 3, 4, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 
24, 28, 30, Part V, Part VIII, except sub-section (8) of section 61, and 
Part IX. 

(2) The aforesaid sections and Parts shall, for the purposes of 
this Part, be subject to the following modifications, namely : 
(i) In section 16 before the word 'any' prefix the words 
'Subject to any rights recorded in the Record-of-rights prepared 
or revised as hereinafter provided'. 

(ii) In section 17 before the word 'any' prefix the words Subject 
as aforesaid'. 

(iii) lo section 21 for clause (rf), the following shall be substitut- 
ed, namely : 

(rf) To have a supply of water on such terms as may be pre- 
scribed in the Record -of-rights prepared or revised as hereinafter 
provide^' 



W Tftfc BCO&AY iBfclOAf 1021 ACT, 

<iv) To section 22 the following proviso shall b 

'Provided that no such private arrangement shall .atfect anj^ 
rights to water recorded in the Record-of-rights prepared or revised 
a* hereinafter provided/ 

(v> In section 30 for the words 'every agreement for* th words 
'all rights to' shall b mibstiitufced and in the same section after the 
word 'property' the words 'which have been recorded in the Record-ofr- 
rights prepared or revised as hereinafter provided' shall be inserted. 
Paragraph 2 of the same section shall be omitted. 

(vi) In Part V, section 31, proviso clause (c) and the last para- 
graph shall be omitted. 

(vii> In Part V, section 34, the words Section 0, section 7' shall 
be omitted. 

fviii) In Part IX, section 67, after the figures '48' the words 'and 
PArt X' shall be inserted. 

76. (1) As soon as possible after the expiry of the period fixed 
bv the Collector under section 74, clause (tf), a 
Record " of " Canal-officer duly empowered in this behalf, who 
shall be a Revenue officer not below the rank of 
a Mamlatdar, shall enquire into and settle claims to any right in the 
Second-class Irrigation Work, and shall record the extent of such 
risrht and draw up in the form from time to time prescribed by the 
Governor in Council an Irrigation Record -of-rts:hts so far as the same 
may be ascertainable from the records of Government and the evi 4 - 
dence of any person likely to be acquainted with the same and any 
other documentary or oral evidence which the parties concerned or 
their witnesses may produce. 

(2; Such Record-of-rights shall contain the following matters: 

(^ the nature of the Second-class Irrigation Work and any work 
subsidiary thereto, 

(b) the lands irrigable therefrom, 

(c) the custom or rule of irrigation, 

(rf) the rights to water and the conditions on which such rights 
are enjoyed, and 

(e) such other matters as the Governor in Council may by rales 
prescribe in this behalf, 

77. (1) For the purposes of the inquiries under section 76 such 

Canal-officer may enter, by himself or any officer 
Powers of Canal-officer, authorised by him for the purpose, upon any 
land adjacent to any such work, and may survey, demarcate and make 
a map of the same. 

(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in section 76 where no 
sufficient evidence is forthcoming as to all or any of the matters Speci- 
fied in that section such Canal-officer shall, so far as may 'be, settle 
and record the aforesaid matters in such manner as he may deem fit. 

78. The Recoid-of-rights prepared under section 76 may be revised 
*** * t> A . from time to time by a Canal-officer duly em- 

EjHiion of Record^!. powered {n thftt behalf> who shall be ^ B emue . 

officer not below the rank of a Mamlatdar. ' 



THI BOKBAY IftBtGlllON AOT, 1B70 5t 

79. Wherd the Canal-officer who has prepared or revised any 
n . .. .... Record-of-rights under this Part finds that, 

Oo*mutattoaoe nghts. having dne r 6 egard to the maint enance or ma- 
nagement of the Second-class Irrigation Work, any ri^ht contained in 
the Record-of-rights cannot continue to be exercised to the extent 
recorded, he shall (subject to such rules as the Governor in Council 
may from time to time prescribe in this behalf) commute such right 
wholly or in part, either by the piyment to the holder of such right 
of a sum of money in lieu thereof, or I y the grant of land, or in such 
other manner as he may think fit ; and he shall revise the Record-of- 
rights accordingly. 

80. In the event of Government undertaking at their own cost 

any work whereby the supply of water in any 
Power oi Government Second-class Irrigition Work is increased be- 

ito?lnSnr.upSy e . r " ^ nd the am Unfc f 8UCh ^P^ &t " Ume Of 

preparing or revising the Record-of-rights under 

this Part the Governor in Council may, without prejudice to any rights 
so recorded, direct that the right to such surplus water shall vest in 
Government and shall be applied as Government may deem fit and the 
Record-of-rights shall be revised in accordance with such direction. 

81. When any Record-of-rights has been prepared or revised 

under this Part it shall be published in the Ian- 
[ ReCOr<1 " S Uft S e of th ? district at the Mamlatdar's Office of 

the taluka in which the work is situated and in 
every town and village which in die opinion of the Collector is affect- 
ed by such Record-of-rights. 

82. An entry in any RecorJ-of-rights prepared or revised under 

this Part shall be relevant as evidence in any 

Entries in the Keconi- dispute as to the matters recorded, and shall be 

evince. * be releVa ' lt US presumed to be true until the contrary is proved 

or a new entry is lawfully substituted therefor : 

Provided that no such entry shall be so construed as to ILuit any 

of the powers conferred on the Governor in Council by this Part. 

83. (1) In any suit or proceeding in which an entry made in any 

Record-of-rights prepared or revised under this 
Collector. * Part is directl y or "directly called in question, 

the Court shall, before the final settlement of 
issues, give notice of the suit or proceeding to the Collector, and if 
moved to do so by the Collector, shall make the Secretary of State for 
India in Council a party to the same. 

(2) Save as provided in sub-section (1) no suit shall lie against 

Government in respect of anything done by the 
ment it8 agftin8t Q ^ nn ' pollector, Canal-officer or any other person act* 
m n * ing under the orders of Government in the exer- 

cise of any power by this Part conferred on such Collector, Canal- 
officer or other person or on Government, 

(3) Any suit or proceeding in which an entry made in any Re- 

cord-of-rights prepared or revised under this 

Period of limitation. p a rt is directly or indirectly called in question 

shall be dismissed although limitation has not been set up as a defence 

if it has not been instituted within one year from the date of the? 

publication under section 81 of the Record-of-rights containing the 



19 Til BOMBAY iBBiontON A or, 1879 

said entry, or, if one or more appeals have been made against any 
order of a Canal-officer with reference to any entry in suah Record-oi- 
rights, then from the date of any order passed by the final appellate 
authority, as determined according to this Part. 

84. In every Second-class Irrigation Work the following repairs 



shall be performed by the persons on whom the 

Ut 



obligation to perform them is imposed by the 
next following section, that is to say : 

(1) The filling up of gullies, ruts and holes especially at the back 
of revetments, and all petty repairs of a like nature essential for the 
safety of bunds, of tanks, channel-banks or other portions of the said 
Second-class Irrigation Work. 

(2) The prevention of the growth on such work of prickly pear, 
young trees and other vegetation endangering the safety or conceal- 
ing the condition of such work. 

(3) The preservation of such bushes and grasses as have been 
planted for the protection of the interior water slopes of such work. 

(4) The clearance of silt from sluices, supply and distributing 
channels. 

(5) The clearance of waste weirs and waste channels. 

85. The obligation to perform the repairs prescribed by the last 

preceding section shall, with reference to any 
incidence of ! obligation. i an d irrigated from uch work, be deemed to be 
imposed jointly and severally, in the case of unalienated land, on the 
occupants of the land, and, in the case of all other land, qn the 
holders of the land, as defined in either case in the Bombay Land- 
revenue Code, 1879. 

86. If any person on whom any obligation is imposed with re- 

. ference to any Second-class Irrigation Work by 
? of ^ e Provisions of this Part, fails to fulfil 
the obligation so imposed, or if any person 
infringes any right recorded in the Record-of rights prepared or 
revised as hereinbefore provided, the Canal-officer may require him 
by notice to fulfil such obligation or to desist from infringing such 
right within a period to be prescribed in the notice of not less than 
fifteen days, and in the event of failure may take such steps as may be 
necessary for the discharge of the said obligation, or the enforcement 
of the said right, and the amount of any expense so incurred shall be a 
sum due to Government and recoverable as an arrear of land revenue* 

87. It shall be the duty of the Patel of any village within the 

limits of which any Second-class Inigation 
Work or portion of such work is situated to 
report to the Mamlatdar without unnecessary de- 

lay any failure or neglect to carry out any of the repairs specified in 

section 84. 

88. No suit, prosecution or other legal proceeding shall be 

maintained against any public servant or person 
ot^pS Bt $^ appointed under this part in respect oF any- 
from legal proceedings. tiding in good faith done or purporting to be 

dttne under the provisions thereof or the rales 
made thereunder. 



Tn BOMBAY IBBIOATION Act, 1S79 18 

89. The Governor in Council may, from to time by notification 
p in the Bombay Government Gazette and after 

ower o make ru es. previous publication, make rules as to all or any 
of the following matters 

(i) The manner of framing and revising the Record-of-right. 

O't) the proceedings of any officer who under the provisions of 
this Part is required to take action in any matter ; 

(m) and generally to carry out the provisions of this Part. 

"PART XT 

SPECIAL PROVISIONS FOB CURTAIN LANDS IRRIGABLE BY 
THE LLOYD BARRAGE CANALS 

90. This Part shall apply, in the Erst instance, to lands irrigable 
A .. .. ...... by the Lloyd Barrage Canals only. The Govern- 

Apphoation of tins Parf, Qr j n Council may% j rom to time ; by notification 

in the Bombay Government Gazette, extend this 
part to lands irrigable by such other canals in Sind as may, from time 
to time, be improved or re-modelled for the raore efficient distribution 
of water therefrom : 

Provided, however, that no such notification may be published 
until the said notification together with the scheme in respect of such 
lands has been laid on the Council table and approved by the Council 
on a motion made by Government. 

Provided further that if and when this part is extended to such 
lands, the cost of reconstructing water-courses shall oot be charged 
on lands watered within the 20 years immediately preceding the date 
of such notification by canals in lower Sind outsi'de the zone command- 
ed by the Lloyd Barrage Canals. 

Commentary. 

This section incorporates the principle accepted in the Council that these 
provisions should apply in the first instance to lands irrigable by the Lloyd Bar- 
rage Oanals only. 

91. (1) Whenever it appears to any Canal-officer not inferior in 

rank to an Executive Engineer that it is exp - 
dient to change the source of water-supply of 
any land for the more efficient distribution of 
water, he shall serve a notice on the holder or holders of the land 
and, if he proposes to transfer the source of water-supply of the land 
to any existing water-course, on the owner or owners of such water- 
course also, calling upon them to state in writing their objections, if 
any, as to the source or alignment or construction of the proposed 
water-course. 

(2) (i) If no objection is raised within thirty days from the date 
of service of the notice, the Canal-officer may change the source of 
water-supply of the land in such manner as he thinks expedient. 

(ii) If any objections are received within the said period of thirty 
days, the Canal-officer shall give the holder or holders of [1] "the 
land and the owner or owners of the water course" [1] a reasonable 
opportunity of being heard and may, if the said objections are settled, 
proceed to change the source of water-supply accordingly. 

[ /}-[!] These words were substituted for the original words "land con- 
cerned" 67 the Bombay Irrigation (Amendment) Act (iV of 1938), i, 3, 



tt Tfia S*XBJL* IRBKU-IION Aor, li? 4 

(m) If no settlement in respect of tne said objections be arrived 
at between the Canal-officer ani the holder or holders of [a] the land 
and the owner or owners of the watercourse [a] the Canal-officer shall 
forthwith refer the matter to the Collector whose decision subject to 
any orders that may be passed in revision by the Commissioner, shall 
be final and conclusive as regards the alignment and construction of 
the proposed water-course and shall not be called in question in any 
Civil Court. 

(3) Repealed by the Bom. Irrigation (Amendment) Act, XV of 1933, 
3. 2 (2). 

Commentary 

Sub-section (I) provides that the Canal-officer who exercises powers under 
this section should not interfere in rank to an Executive Engineer, 

Bub-section (2) deals with the procedure to be adopted after objections have 
been called for under sub-section (1). 

92. (I; If it shall appear to any Canal-officer not inferior 
in rank to an Executive Engineer that 
Construction of new new water-courses should be constructed for the 
"todiridto "to irrigation of any land in place of any existing 
m$nt of cost thereof . water courses or of any existing sources of 

water supply, it shall be lawful for him to con- 
struct such water-courses as he thinks necessary : 

Provided that befoce a Canal-officer constructs a water-course 
under the provisions of this sub-section, the provisions of the last 
preceding section relating to notice, objections, reference and revision 
shall, so far as may be, apply as if such water-course were a water- 
course to be constructed under the said section : 

Provided that if the holder or holders of such land agree to con- 
struct such water-courses at his or their own cost to the satisfac- 
tipn of the Canal-officer within a specified period, the said officer 
shall give the said holder or holders an option of so constructing the 

CIA r-k A 



same. 



(2) In the event of the holder or holders of any land failing to 
construct any such water-course under the option given to such holder 
or holders in the proviso to sub-section (1) either to the satisfaction 
of the Canal-officer or within the period specified, the Canal-officer 
may .construct or reconstruct the same in whole or in part, as he 
thinks necessary. 

(3) The Canal-officer shall, on completion of any such water- 
course as is referred to in sub-section (I) or (2), give to the holder or 
holders of land concerned notice thereof, and shall make over posses- 
session of the water-course to the said holder or holders. 

4. (<*) Cost* of construction of new water courses in local areas. 
It shall be competent to the Canal-officer to fix the boundaries of 
local areas which are irrigated by one canal system, and within 
w&ich water-courses have been or are to be constructed in whole or 
in part under the provisions of sub-section (1) or (^), and to determine 
th$ cost or estimated cost, as the case may be, of such water courses, 

[aj These words were ittbatitatex for the original words "land concerned" by 
the JJomfeay Irrigation (Amendment) Aet (XV of 1993), s. 2. 



THE BOMBAY IRBIGITIOW AOT, 1870 -J5 

and the sums to be recovered from all holders of lands irrigated or to 
be irrigated within such areas as their share of the cost thereof. The 
estimated cost of such water-courses to be constructed within a local 
v area shall be determined by the Canal-officer on the basis of the ac- 
tual cost of such water-courses constructed within the local area be- 
fore the 30th day of September 1933. 

Explanation* For the purposes of this sub-section a canal sys- 
tem means a caoal taking off direct from the river Indus, except in 
the case of the Nasrat Branch, Jararao, Thar and Hiral Canals each 
of which shall be deemed to be a canal system. 

(b) Distribution of costs of construction over irrigated lands. When 
the Canal- officer has determined the cost of the construction of water- 
courses in any local area in accordance with the provisions of clause 
(a), he shall distrtibute such cost proportionately over the lands 
irrigated or to be irrigated and nhall declare the amount payable on 
account of such cost in respect of the land constituting each survey 
number as defined in the Bombay Land Revenue Code, J879, and the 
amount so determined shall be deemed a charge upon such land and 
shall be payable in the manner hereafter prohibited, by the holder 
for the time being of such land and no such survey number shall be 
sub-divided so long as th'3 amount so determined with interest re- 
mains unpaid : 

Provided that in distributing such cost in acccordance with the 
provisions of this clause land belonging to Government on the 1st day 
of August 1931 shall be assessed to such cost at twice the rate of 
occupied land. 

Provided further that when the holder or holders of land have 
constructed a part only of a water-course under the option given by 
the proviso to sub-section (1) and the Canal-officer has constructed 
the remaining part of such water-course there shall be credited to such 
holder or holders the cost of the construction of the part constructed 
by them, such cost being based upon and proportionate to the cost of 
the construction of water-courses by the Canal-officer within the local 
area as determined by the Canal-officer in accordance with the pro- 
visions of clause (a). 

(c) The Canal-officer after determining and declaring the sum 
payable by each holder of land on account of the cost of construting or 
reconstructing a water-course in accordance with the provisions 
of clause (a) or () shall give notice thereof to such nolder or 
holders of the land concerned, with, an intimation that the sum pay- 
able on account of such cost has become due from the date on which 
possession of the water-course was made over to such holder or hold- 
ers and that, if so desired, such holder or holders shall be permitted 
to pay the sum due in twenty equal instalments payable either annu- 
ally or at such lesser instalments as may be convenient to such holder 
or holders together with interest at such rate as may be fixed by Gov- 
ernment but not exceeding the rate payable by Government on its 
own borrowings on the date on which the said sum became payable as 
aforesaid. 

(d) In the event of any default in payment of any sum due under 
clause (c) by the holder or holders, the sum payable shall be recover- 
able under section 57. 



6 Tint BOMBAY lafimnoii ACT, 1879 

(5) The holder or holders of land to whom possession of a water- 
course is given in accordance with the provisions of sub-section (3) 
shall be the owner or owners of such water-course. 

(6) Any person aggrieved by an order of a Canal-officer under 
sub-section (4) as to the apportionment of the cost of construction of 
a water-course may present a petition to the Collector requesting him 
to revise that order, and the Collector after such inquiry as he ; thinks 
necessary and after giving the persons concerned a reasonable oppor- 
tunity of being heard may pass such orders as he thinks fit. The 
orders passed by the Collector shall, subject to revision by the Com- 
missioner, be final and conclusive unless modified by a Civil Court of 
competent jurisdiction. 

(7) If after the construction of any water-course under the provi- 
sions of this section the Canal-officer finds that any further altera- 
tions in the alignment or construction of the said water-course are 
necessary, it shall be lawful for him with the previous sanction of the 
Collector to carry out such alterations at the expense of Govern- 
ment. 

Explanation. For the purposes of this section 'the cost of con- 
structing a water course' shall include the cost of aligning the water- 
course and of such preliminary operations as are necessary for such 
alignment, but shall not include more than two-thirds of the cost of 
main rectangulation and sub-rectangulation. 

Note. Section 92 is printed as amended by Bom. Act XV of 1933, s. 8. 

93. The provisions of sections 91 and 92 
except the proviso to sub-section (1) of section 
92 shall be deemed to have come into operation 
and to have had effect from the 1st June 1926 : 

Provided that anything done by the Canal-officer under the said 
provisions between the 1st June 1926 and the date of the coming into 
operation of the Bombay Irrigation (Amendment) Act, 1931, shall 
not be invalid merely on the ground that any procedure laid down in 
the said provisions have not been followed. 

Provided further that no compensation shall be payable for the 
stoppage of the supply of water to any water-course or to any person 
who was entitled to such supply if such stoppage was due to any ac- 
tion of the Canal-officer in changing or transferring the source of 
water-supply under the provisions of section 91 during the period 
aforesaid. 



THE 

Suits for Lands Act 



ACT No. XVI of 1838. 

[2%rd July 1838]. 

1. First. In the territories subject to the Presidency of Bombay, 

all suits in regard to tenures, and tne nature and 

Huita to be brought in extent of the interest and advantage which in 

court* D0t Revcm ' e ' virtue thereof should be enjoyed by the parties 

concerned, and all suits in which the right to 

possession of land is claimed, shall be brought in the Courts of Adalat 
and the Courts subordinate thereto, and not in the Courts of Revenue. 

Second. Repealed by Bombiy Act III of 1876. 
Third. Repealed by Bombay Act II of 1866. 

2. If a suit be presented in the Court of a Judge or Collector, which 

such Judge or Collector shall not deem within his 

Procedure on suit being jurisdiction the party presenting such suit shall 

abtog ta "5. ' referred by the Court in which it may be fir 8 t 

tion. presented to that in which, in the opinion or 

such Court, the jurisdiction lies, and the latter 

Court shall, in the event of its doubting its jurisdiction in the case, 
refer the question of jurisdiction to the Sadar Diwani Adalat, whose 
decision on the point shall be final. 

3. If a suit be presented in any Court subordinate to the Court 

of a Judge or Collector, which suit such subordi- 
And in subordinate nate Court shall not deem to be within its juris- 
Court so doubting. diction, such subordinate Court shall submit the 

case to the Judge's or Collector's Court to which such subordinate 
Court is subordinate ; and if the superior Court to which the case is so 
submitted shall be of opinion that such subordinate Court has jurisdic- 
tion in the case, such superior Court shall direct such subordinate 
Court to proceed with the case ; and if such superior Court shall be of 
opinion that such subordinate Court has not jurisiction in the case, 
such superior Court shall proceed in the manner ^directed in the last 
preceding section. 

4. Whenever a, Court of Adalat or a Revenue Court shall have entered 

on its file, under this Act, a suit in which it has 

Transfer of suit entered not jurisdiction, it shall be competent to the 

in Couit not having jwi8- g a( j ar i)i va ni Adalat, either on a reference from 

' the Judge or Collector (as the case may be), or 

on application from the parties, to direct that the suit be transferred, 

with all the proceedings which may have taken place therein up to the 

period of transfer, to the Court possessing jurisdiction, which shall 

proceed therewith as if the suit had been originally filed in that Court. 

* Act XVI of 1838 has been declared to apply to the whole of the Bombay 
Presidency, lexcept the Scheduled Districts, by the Laws Local Kxtent Act 
(XV of 1874), a. 5. 



THE Suns FOB LA.NDS ACT. 

5. When any Court trying an appeal finds that the action wfcs 
originally brougnt and decided in a Revenue 
Court, of Court, when it ought to have been brought and 

? lll Stt de( d * d in a Oourt of Adalat > or a (Jourt 8Ul ?- 

Court. ordinate thereto, or that the action was origi- 

nally brought and decided in a Court of 
Adalat or a court subordinate thereto, when it ought to have been 
brought and decided in a Revenue Court, the Court trying the appeal 
shall, instead of quashing the whole proceedings, annul only the decree, 
and refer the suit to be tried in the Court to which the jurisdiction 
properly belongs, and the Court trying any such case referred under 
the foregoing section shall take further pleadings, exhibits, and evi- 
dence only if it deem such necessary, and shall pass a new decree. 



tHE 

Bhagdari and Narwadari Tenures Act 

BOMB A V ACT No. V OF 1862 

[ 24th April, 1862 

An Act for the preservation of the Bhagdari and 
Narwadari Tenures 

WHEREAS it has been found that the permanence of the tenures 

known as the Bhagdari and Narwadari tenures, 

Ireamble. which have existed from time immemorial in 

certain parts of the Presidency of Bombay, is endangered by the 

increasing practice of attachment and sale by civil process of 

the homesteads and building sites ("gabhan") appertaining or 

appendant to the constituted bhags or the recognized sub-divisions 

or such bhags or shares, in bhagdari or narwadari villages ; 

and whereas it is desirable to prevent the alienation, assign- 
ment, mortgaging, charging or incumbering of any portion of any 
bhag or share in any bhagdari or narwadari village other than a 
recognized sub-division of such bhag or share, or the alienation, 
assignment, mortgaging, charging or incumbering of any homestead, 
building site (gabhan), or premises appurtenant or appendant to 
any such bhag or share, or recognized sub-division separately or 
apart from such bhag or share or recognized sub- division ; 

It is, therefore, enacted as follows : 

1. No portion of a bhag or share in any bhagdari or narwa- 
dari village other than a recognized sub- 
No portion of bhag division cf such bhag or share shall [lj* * be 
LiTmi r e\o r be nf urWe l^ble to seizure, sequestration, attachment or 
to seizure, etc., by pro- 8ft l e ty ^ e process of any Civil Court, and no 
cees of Oivil Court. process of such Court shall be enforced so as 
to cause the dismemberment from any such 
bhag or share or recognized sub-division thereof, of any homestead, 
building site (gabhan) or premises appurtenant or appendant to such 
bhag or share, or recognized sub-division thereof. 

Objeot Of this Aot. The principal object of this Act is to prevent the 
further dismemberment of bhaga or shares in bhagdari villages ; it renders nail 
and void any future alienation of any portion of a bhag, other than a recognized 
sab-division, bat it does not invalidate previous alienations (Bhxi*ha*kar 9. Col- 
etcr offaira, 6 Bom. 77). 

[1] The words "from and after the passing of this Act" were repealed by 
the Bepealing Act, 1873 (XII of 1873). 



2 THE BHA&DABI AHD KA&WADABI $ JSNTJBES ACT, 



A 'bhiag' means not only a subdivision bat an aliquot share of a village' 
subject to an aliquot portion of the total land-tax imposed on it, aad not any 
sfb-division by partition or otherwise. When, therefore, certain oo-ihirers 
partitioned a bhag between them before the passing of this Act, each share did 
not thereby become a separato bhag so as to enable tha proprietor thereof to alie- 
nate it as a whole after the passing of this Act (Gulam Narotam Secretary of 
State j 8 Bom. 596). R, on whom certain land forming part of a bhag had devolved 
by marriage and inheritance before this Act came into force alienated it to the 
plaintiff after this Act came into force. Held, following the above case, that the 
alienation being after thia Act came into force, fell within its operation (AaAim 9. 
BaiGulab, P. J. 1890, p. 5). 

This section does not prohibit the sale of an unascertained share of an un- 
divided bhag. The object and intention of this Act is to prevent a pky&ical dis- 
memberment of a bhag, or recognized sub-division thereof, and not a mere in- 
crease in the number of persons who may from time to time be owners of the bhag 
(Bai Kucarbai v. Bhagwan Ichcharam, 13 Bom. 203). 

Tills seotion does not bar the right of action. A Civil Court 

would not be bound to make a decree though it might anticipate that this section 
would stand in the way of the execution of the decree. After a decree has been 
passed against a portion of a bhag, the Collector might recognize such portion 
as a division of the bhag, if assured that justice required that the decree should 
be executed (Ibid.) 

Sale of portion of bhag in execution of a decree. The ap- 

pellant was the mortgagee of a portion of a bhag under a mortgage, dated 1880, 
and in a suit brought upon the mortgage obtained a decree for a sale of the mort- 
gaged property. An attachment was issued, and an order for sale was made. 
Thereupon the Collector applied under s. 2, to set aside the attachment and order 
for sale. Held, distinguishing 1 Bom. 581 cited above, that the mortgage of a 
portion of a bhag was unlawful under e. 3, and a process having been issued for 
the sale of such portion, the Collector was entitled to have it quashed (Narkheram 
v. Collector of Broach, 22 Bom. 737). 

NarWa land. Where the proprietor of a recognized sub-division of a 
Narwa land separates a portion of the land for building purposes and the separation 
has been recognized by the Collector, such separation in no way derogates from 
the constitution of the Narwa homestead, and the separated portions become re- 
cognized sub-divisions of the Narwa (Bai Samju 9. Lallubhai, 27 Bom. 958 ) 

Bhagdari tenure. There is nothing in this Act which debars a Civil 
Court from making a decree for the partition of narwadar land among the bhag- 
dars, eveu though such partition may cause a further division of recognized sub- 
divisions of bhags ( Veribhai, v. Ragabhai, 1 Bom. 225 ). 

2. Whenever any process has issued out of any Civil Court 
for the seizure, seqestration, attachment or 
pr " a* 1 * Q y portion o a bhag or share in any 
m bhagdari or narwadari village other thaui 
recognized sub-division of such bhag or share, 
or for the seizure, sequestration, attachment or sale of any home- 
itead, building site (gabhan) or premises appurtenant or appcndant 



BftAODABZ AKD NABWA0AW TaWttMUi AdT, 

to such bhag or share, or recognized sub-division thereof, it shall be 
lawful for the Collector or other chief revenue-officer of the district 
in which any such bhagdari or narwadari village is situated, al- 
though not a litigating party, to move in such Civil Court, that such 
process shall be set aside or quashed, and that the provisions of 
this Act be put in force ; 

and if such Court be of opinion, on the evidence adduced by 
the Collector or other chief revenue-officer of 

nrJr.fi* <!?. ? n llh the district on such motion, that the case is 
process if case fall with- - ,, . .,,. .,. \ -.in 

f n Act. one following within this Act, it shall set 

aside or quash such process, and cause the 
provisions of this Act to be put in force ; [1]* * * any order which 
the said Court may make on such motion shall be appealable in the 
same manner as a decree of the Court in which it is made. 

Mortgage Of portion Of bhag invalid. Under this section the Col- 
lector 19 entitled to move the Court to quash the process issued for the sale of a 
portion of a bhag in satisfaction of a mortgage debt thereon. The remark to the 
contrary in Ranchhoddas 0. Ranchhodhas (1 Bom. 581) mast be confined to a mort- 
gage made before the Act was promulgated. The fact that a mortgage, though of 
a portion of a bhag, other than a recognized sub-division, is a mortgage of the 
whole remaining interest of the mortgagor by reason of a prior sale, similarly 
illegal, of the rest of his interest in that bhag does not validate the mortgage 
( Narbheram 9. Collector of Broach, 22 Bom. 737 ). 

Sale of unrecognized portion of a bhag. N held unrecognized 

fourth share in a certain bhag. R obtained a decree against N and in execution of 
it sold his right, title and interest in the bhag on the 28th February 1876. It was 
purchased by B. The sale was subsequently confirmed, and B was put in possession 
of a portion of the land. On the 30th September 1880, the Collector applied to the 
Court to set aside the sale on the ground that it was illegal under this Act. It 
appeared that the Collector did not know till November 1877 that the knd told 
was an unrecognized portion of the bhag, and not the whole of it. Htld, that the 
sale might be set aside under this section notwithstanding its confirmation and sub- 
sequent delivery of possession ( Colleobor of Broach v. Rajaram, 7 Bom, 542). 

3. It shall not be lawful to alienate, assign, mortgage or other- 
wise charge or inc umber any portion of any 
AtSff-T'lfil ^g or share ia any bhagdari or narwadari 
in bhagdari or narwa- village other than a recognized sub -division 
dari village other than of such bhag or share, or to alienate, assign, 
recognized sub-division mortgage or otherwise charge or incutnber any 
thereof. homestead, building-site (gabhan) or premises 

appurtenant or appendant to any such bhag or share or recognized 
sub-division, appurtenant or appendant thereto, apart or separately 
from any such bhag or share, or recognized sub-division thereof. 

[1] The words *< and it is hereby furthor enacted that " were repealed by the 
1876 (XII of 1876). 



The fiHAGt)ABI AND NABWADABX TENURES A<5T, 1862 

. Any alienation, assignment, mortgage, charge or incumbrance, 
contrary to the provisions of this section, shall 
rsK be null d void ; d it .Wl be U^ol for 
portion of such bhag. tbe toliector or otaer chief revenue-omcer ot 
the district, whenever he shall, upon due in- 
quiry, find that any person or persons is or are in possession of any 
portion of any bhag or share of any homestead, building-site 
( gabhan ) or premises appurtenant or appendant to such bhag or 
share in any bhagdari or narwadari village other than a recognized 
sub-division of such bhag or share, in violation of any of the pro- 
visions of this section, snmmarily to remove him or them from such 
possession, and to restore the possession to the person or persons 
whom the Collector ahall deem to be entitled thereto 5 

and any suit brought to try the validity of any order or orders 

which the Collector may make in such matter 

Limitation of suit on mus t be brought within three [ 1 ] months 

uouector s order. ftf tep the execution of sucb Qrder Qr Qrder8t 

This section has no bearing on sales by order of a Civil 

Court, but is intended to apply to unlawful sales and alienations of portions of 
bhag made out of Court, or by private individuals (Collactor of. BpocA v. Dtsai 
Raghunath, 1 Bom. 564). 

* Alienation-' The word 'alienation' as used in this section not only 
covers transfers 'inter vivos\ but extends to testamentary dispositions also (Javar 
Jijilhai v. Haribhai, 40 Bom 207). 

Alienation Of lands in bhag:. This section does not prohibit aliena- 
tion by a permanent tenant of lands in a bhagdari and narwadari village, whose 
rights existed before the Act. The Collector's interference with the sale is wrong 
(Vonidas 9. Brzi Hari, 38 Bom. 679). 

Alienation of undivided share of a bhag. The alienation of an 

undivided portion of a bhag, or share in the bhag, to a person who is not a bhag- 
dar, is void under this section (Purshotam v. Hira, 15 Bom, 172). 

The prohibition against alienation of an unrecognized sub* 

division Of a bhag 1 , provided by this section, applies to the person in pos- 
session of the bhag, though he may not be the bhagdar. Where an alienation is 
declared to be void under this section, an order for refund of the consideration 
money which has passed under the impeached trensaction may be made (Jijibhai v. 
Nafii, 11 Bom. UK. 693.) 

Sale of unrecognized portion is illegal. Ths sale of portion 

of a bhag or share in a bhagdari or narwadari village other than a recognized sub- 
division of such bhag or share, or of a building site appurtenant to it is illegal 
Under this section ; and judgment -creditor cannot, in execution of his decree* 
evade the law by describing his debtor's separate portion in a bhag as his "right > 
title and interest in the whole bhag"; for under s. 213 of the Code of Oiv.il Pro- 
cedure, the creditor is bound to specify the debtor's share or interest to the best 
of his belief, or so far aa he has been able to ascertain the same (A.rdesir Nasar~ 
man]i v. MUM Nath A.mi<ji, I Bom. 601). 

[1] The word " calendar " was repealed by the Bombay General Clause* Act, 
(Bom. Aot 3 of 1886), gotadule B. 



THE BHAQDAJU AND NABWIDABI TBNUHB Aor, 1662 5 

There IB no alienation each as is prohibited by this section, where the effect 
of a transaction had not been to effect dismemberment of hhags or shares, bat to 
bring together the various severed portions of a recognized lab-division into the 
hands of one owner (Oulab v. Bai T%j Bai, 21 Bom. L. R. 707). 

Award-Division of recognized sub-division of bhag.An 

award the result of which will be to effect farther partition in a certain recogniz- 
ed sab-division of a bhag is void under this section. The substance and effect oi 
the transaction is what mast be looked to, for the purpose of determining whether 
it is within the mischief of the Act. If the transaction clearly amounts to an 
alienation of an unrecognized sub-division of share in a now, its real nature 
cannot be disguised by calling it a compromise (Nagar KatM 9. Bai DMi, 20 
Bom. L. R 342). 

Mortgage of unrecognized sub-division of bhag. An unre- 
cognized sub-division of a bhag, namely, a house, was mortgaged and the mortga" 
gors were in possession as tenants. In a suit for possession the defendant ad- 
mitted the mortgage deed and rent notes. Held, that the mortgage and rent notes 
were void under this section, the consideration for the mortgage failed ab initio and 
a suit for its recovery is barred if brought more than 3 years after (Javerbhai 9. 
Gordhan, 39 Bom. 358). 

Adverse possession of an unrecognized share. Under this 

section the Collector can aot at any time, and the Statute of Limitation is no bar 
to his action. So adverse possession for however a long time for an unrecognized 
share of a Bhagdari village is no bar to the Collector acting under this section 
and removing the occupant from possession (Data v. Parag, 4 Bom. L. R. 797). 

Where the parties to a suit arrive at a compromise the effect of which is 
that a nerva is split up into two portions over one of which one party givea up 
his right in favour of the other and the division so effected is not a recognised 
sub-division, the compromise is void under this section and s. 5. Where a tran- 
saction is not lawful under cl. (1) of this section, the Civil Court is bound to ad- 
judicate upon it independently of the question whether the Collector interferes or 
not under c). (2) of this section. The Collector can under this section take action 
at any time and the plea of adverse possession cannot prevail against any order 
that he may make (Jethabhai 0. Nanabhai, 6 Bom. L. R, 128 ; 28 Bom. 399). 

Possession, acquired under an alienation made in contravention 

of tbis section can become adverse and bar a suit for recovery by the individual 
alienor, or his representatives in interest (Adam Omar Bah 9. Bapu Bata]i, 10 
Bom. L, R. 1128 ; 33 Bom. 116). 

Alienation of fruit of the trees on land. There u nothing in 

this Act to prevent a permanent tenant of a Bhagdar, from alienating the fruit 
of the tress on the land, of which he is a tenant in the same way as he could alie- 
nate the crops or grass upon such land. The position of a tenant of a Bhagdari 
]and-who is presumed to be a permanent tenant under s. 33 of the Land Revenue 
Code, 1879, is not affected in any way by the prohibition contained in this Act 
against alienation (Nahanchand v. Kekhushru, 9 Bom. L. R. 60 ; 31 Bom. 183), 

Suit to try validity of Collector's order of ouster. The 

suits referred to in this section are such as are instituted by persons against whom 
the order of the Collector is made or whom it affects injuriously and which are 



6 TtE B&GttAfi* 1MB NlBfWADARI TsH&BfiS Act, 

bw*ghiidtffytoBTWitydth60rderof ouster, The Collector 10 not compe- 
tentflnder this section to pass any order aa to the title of the aharera in the 
Nttwa (Haribhai 9. Gokal, P. J. 1897, p. 109). 

4. * * * * [1] Nothing in this Act contained shall be 

construed as prohibiting the issue and execu- 

laafce *nd eoecntion of tion of any such process as aforesaid against 

proceiB in other res- 11 i i IT. 

peoto suthomed by law *?? bha or sbare ' Or recognized sub-dw- 

not barred. fl i n of any bhag or share, in any such village 

as aforesaid, conjointly and in the gross with 
its homestead, building-site (gabhan) and other proper appurten- 
onces, if the issue and execution of such process be in other respects 
authorized by law. 

5. * * * * [I] Nothing in this Act contained shall be 

construed as prohibiting the alienation, assign- 
Alienation, etc , of ment, mortgaging, charging or incumbering 



i u 
warranted by law, not of an y bhag or share, in any such village as 

barred. aforesaid, enjointly and in the gross with its 

homestead, building-site (gabhan) and other 
proper appurtenances, if such alienation, assignment, mortgage, 
charge orincumbnmce, be in other respects warranted by law, the 
object and intention of this Act being to prevent the dismember- 
ment of bhags, or shares, or recongnized sub-divisions thereof, in 
bhagdari or narwadari villages and also to prevent the severance of 
homesteads, building-sites (gabhan) or other premises, appurten- 
ant or appendant to bhags or shares, or recognized sub-divisions of 
bhags or shares, from the same or any of them. 

[1 j The words in as. 4 and 5 "And it is hereby farther declared that" were 
repealed by the Repealing Act, 1873 (XII of 1878). 



The Gujarat Talukdars* Act, 188& 

BOMBAY ACT No. VII 1888 

[ 25th March, 1889 

An Aot to provide for the Revenue Administration of 
Estates held by certain superior land-holders in the 
districts of Ahmedabad, Kaira, Broach and the 
Panoh Mahals, and to limit the further opera- 
tion of Bombay Aot VI of 1862 

WHEREAS it is expedient to remove doubts as to the applica- 
bility of certain portions of the Bombay Land-Revenue Code, 1879, 
to estates held by certain superior land-holders in the districts of 
Ahmedabad, Kaira, Broach and the Panch Mahals, and to make 
special provision for the revenue administration of the said estates 
and for the partition thereof ; It is enacted as follows : 

PART I 
PRELIMINARY 

1. (1) This Act may be cited as the 

Short title. Gujarat Talukdars Act, 1888. 

(2) It extends only to the districts of Ahmedabad, Kaira, 
Broach and the Panch Mahals. 

2. (1) In this Act, unless there be 

Definitions. something repugnant in the subject or con- 

text, 

(a) "talukdar" includes a thakur, mehwassi, kasbati and naik 
and a tnulgameti who holds land directly from Government ; 

Talukdar. A purchaser from a talukdar does not become a "talukar* 
within the meaning of this clsnae (Naiandas v. Purushottam, 26 Bom. 657). 

Thakors The expression "Thakor" means any individual entited to re- 
verence or respect whence it is generally applied to persons of rank and autho- 
rity in different parts of India as a lord, a chief a master. 

MehWaSSi. This term is derived from the expression "Mehwas" mean- 
ing literally, residence or country near or on the borders of the river Mahi (Wil- 
son's Glossary of Revenue and Judicial terms, p. 320). It is a general term for 
a lawless tribe of Kolees and Bheels and free-booteis in Gujarat ((Do.) p. 46). 

ELasbatlS. In different parts of the Ahmedabad District, but especially in 

Dholka, a body of men called kasbatis or townsmen, the descendants of rich sol- 
diers, had by lending money and acting as revenue securities raised themselves to 
be upper landlords or middlemen. 

The tenure known as kasbati in the Viramgaon taluka is permanent (t c., as 
opposed to temporary and not in the sense of perpetual); at the same time, it is 
not an unconditional holding and the British Govarnment have the power to 
resume the villages in case any of the conditions imposed is not fiulfilled (Becrt- 
tary of State 9. Bai Rajbai, 39 Bom. 625, (P. 0). 

Bombay Act VI of 1862 (Ahedabad Talukdars) does not apply to Kasbatis 
and a Kasbati 9 s riffhfcs under this Aot are subject to. and limited by. his vattas 



* THE GUJRAT TALUKDAKS ACT, 

The kathis of the village of Salagpur in the Dhandhaka Talaka of the Dts- 
triot of Ahmedahad are Mulgametis, hat they do not hold land directly from Gov- 
ernment and consequently are not Talakdars within the meaning of this clans 2 
(Sir Dolatsingaji 9. Oghat Vitha, 25 Bom. L. R 726). 

NaikS. -Naiks or Naikdars' are found only in Panch Mahals and Rewa- 
kantha. 

Go metis Gtometia mean Kajpnt Grasbigas in the Ahmedabad Oollectorate. 
Gometis or village owners are a class of owner a of proprietary villages in the 
Ahmedabad District. 

(b) "registered talukdar" means a sole talukdar, or the eldest 
or principal of several co-sharers cf a talukdar i estate, whose name 
is authorizedly entered in the Government records as holding such 
estates, or as the representative of the several co-sharers holding 
the same ; 

((?) jama" means land- revenue payable by a talukdar to Gov- 
ernment ; 

(d) "alienation" means a transfer of ownership, and "alienee" 
means a person to whom ownership is transferred j 

(c) "incumbrance" includes a mortgage, charge, usufructuary 
grant and any interest other than that of an ordinary tenant or of 
an alienee or talukdar, and "incumbrancer" means a person in 
whom an incumbrance vests ; 

(/) Any word or expression which is defined in the Bombay 
Land-Revenue Code, 1879, snd is not here* 
Expres.ions defined in inbefore defined, shall be deemed to have 
tne Bombay Jjana-Ke- ., . . , , i ,i_ . /^i i 

venue Code. t " e m enmg given to it by that Code. 

(2) In Part II, unless there be something repugnant in the 

subject or context, "talukdar" includes any 

;Meeting of "talukdar" class of holders of unalienated estates, upon 

in Fart II. which the land-revenue is fixed by a lump 

assessment, to whom the Governor in Council 

deems fit from time to time, by notification in the Bombay Govern" 

ment Gazette, to extend the provisions of the said part. 

3. [Repeal of part of s. 114, Bombay Act V of. 1879-] Rep. Act 
XVI of 1895. 

PART II. 

SURVEY AND SETTLEMENT. 
Revenue survey. 

4. It shall be lawful for the Governor in Council, whenever 

it may seem expedient, to direct a revenue- 
SSTSSSSi -rvey or a revised revenue .uryey of any 
estate. talukdan estate, under the provisions of the 

Bombay Land-Revenue Code, 1879, appli- 
cable to such surveys, 



OTTJAEAT TADTTKABS'.AOT, 1888 ^ 

m Talukdar's estate Talukdari estate. When an estate is held by 
a single talukdar it is described as a talukdar's estate; whereas when an estate has 
different sharers having different interests therein, it is called a talukdari estate. 

Settlement register 

5. The settlement register prepared by the survey officer under 

fl ,,, , . , M section 108 of the said Code on the occasion 
Settlement register of r i , -n - /- 

a taluqdari estate what of ma kmg any suchsurvey shall, unless Gov- 
to contain. ernment otherwise direct, contain, in lieu o 

the particulars specified in the said section, 
the following particulars (namely) : 

(a) the area and assessment of each survey number ; 

(6) the name of the registered taluqdar, and if there are co- 
sharers, the name of each co-sharer and the extent of each one's 
interest in the estate ; 

(c) if the estate is undivided, 

(i) the manner in which the profits derived from sources com- 
mon to the co-sharers are to be distributed amongst them ; 

(if) the share to be contributed by each co-sharer of the jama, 
of police charges, of the cost of erecting and maintaining boundary 
marks, and of any other charge to which under any law for the 
time being in force the co-sharers are liable in common ; 

(iff) the manner in which the co-sharers are to collect from 
the tenants ; 

W) if a partition of the estate has been effected and the co- 
sharers hold their respective shares in severalty 

(f) the extent and limits of each separate share! ; 

(ff) the same particulars in respect of the several sub-sharers, 
if any, of each such share, as are required to be given concerning 
all the co-sharers when an estate is undivided ; 

(e) the name and description and the nature and extent of the 
interest of every alienee and of every incumbrancer of the estate or 
any portion thereof, together with a specification of 

(f) the aggregate area over which such interest extends ; 

(ff) the amount and nature of rent, or land revenue, if any, 
payable or receivable by each alienee and incumbrancer ; 

(fff) the basis of such interest, whether grant, contract, custom 
or other; 

(iv) the conditions of service or other conditions on which 
such interest depends ; 

(v) any other particulars which Government shall from time 
to time direct. 

Determination of disputes. 

6. (1) If it appears to the Survey officer who frames the said 

register that there exists any dispute as to any 

Disputes concerning matter wMcU he j 8 boun( j under th j A t t 
matters which have to j ^K \ \ i i. 

be recorded under sec- r . ecord therein i ^ may, either on the applica- 
tion 5 to be determined tion of any of the disputant parties, or of his 
hy Survey officer. own motion investigate and determine such 

dispute and frame the register accordingly: 



I THE GUJARAT TALUKDARI* ACT, 1888 

(2) Provided that, when any such dispute shall appear to the 
Survey officer to have been already finally decided by a Court of 
competent jurisdiction, the entry in the said register shall be made 
in conformity with such decision. 

Custody and amendment of Records. 

1. (1) When the Survey Settlement of a talukdari estate is 

completed, the said register and the other 

Settlement records by records thereof shall be kept by the Collector, 

whom to be kept; and and eyery reg i stered talukdar shall be entitled 

to receive one copy of the register free of any 

charge except the cost of copying. 

(2) So long as the said register and other records are in the 
charge of the Survey Oficer, the said officer, 
to be from time to time an d afterwards the Collector, shall cause to be 
corrected. entered therein all changes that occur, and 

everything that affects any of the rights or 
interests therein recorded ; and shall at any time correct or cause 
to be corrected any clerical error therein and also any other error 
which all the parties interested admit to have been made in the same. 
of suits against 



. 

section 6 or 7 ; but ment or against any officer of Government to 

effect to be given to set aside any decision or order of a Survey 

decrees obtained by Officer or of a Collector under section 6 or 7. 
parties inter so. 

(2) But the said register and other records shall from time 
to time be amended by the Survey Officer, or, when the survey 
settlement is completed by the Collector, in accordance with any 
final decree of a Court of competent jurisdiction which the parties 
may obtain inter se on an application accompanied by a certified 
copy of such decree, boing duly made to the Survey officer or Col- 
lector for that purpose. 

(3) In any suit in a Civil Court between the parties or per- 
sons claiming under them, a decision or order of a Survey Officer 
or Collector under section 6 or 7 shall not be held to be conclusive 
as to any matter therein decided. 

9. Every change in the said register 
Changes in records to 8n( j Qther recorc [ s ^^\[ fa communicated with- 

out delay by the officer making it to each of 
the parties affected thereby. 

PART III 
PARTITION 

10. (1) Every person who has obtained a final decree of a 

Court of competent jurisdiction declaring him 

Person* entitled to to j^ en titled to a share of a talukdari estate 

partition. an( j ever y co -sharer whose name is recorded, 



TEE GUJARAT TALTJKDABS ACT, 1888 S 

as such, in the settlement register prepared in accordance with sec- 
tion 5 and pending the preparation of the said register, every person 
whose title to any such share as aforesaid is not disputed by any 
other person claiming a share in the same estate, shall be entitled 
to have his share divided from the rest of the estate and to hold 
the same as a separate estate. 

(2) Any two or more such co-sharers or persons shall be en- 
titled to have their shares divided from the rest of the estate and to 
hold the same jointly as a separate estate. 

The Talukdari Settlement Officer is not a Court subordinate 

te the High Court of Bombay ; and the latter, therefore, cannot interfere in re- 
vision under s. 115 of the Civil Procedure Code of 1908 with orders passed by 
that officer (Gambhirsingji v. parsing, 13 Bom. L. B. 118). 

ReS judlOata. Under this section every person who has obtained a final 
decree of a competent Court, declaring him to be entitled to a share of a Talukdari 
estate, is entitled as of right to have his share divided from the rest of the estate 
and to hold the same as a separate estate. There is no provision in this section 
that the decree alluded to must of necessity operate as res judicata between all the 
parties appearing before the Talukdari Settlement Officer (Ibid). 

11. Applications for partition shall be 

parliSt^hom 'to' ** ^ Talukdari Settlement- officer or to 

be made. suc ' a other officer as the Governor m Council 

appoints in this behalf. 

12. (1) The Talukdari Settlement Officer, or other officer 

aforesaid, on receiving an application for 
Notification of appli- Ptition, shall if the application be not open 
cation. to objection on the face of it, publish a noti- 

fication of the same in the office of the Mam- 
latdar of the Taluka and at some conspicuous place in the village in 
which the estate to which the application relates is situate or in 
each of the villages comprised in the said estate, as the case may be. 
(2) He shall also serve a notice on each of the known co-sharers 
who has not joined in the application, requir- 
n t N -Sn t0 in"the r a r ' in S an y o them w . ho objects to the partition 
pHcation? g "* &P ~ to appear before him to state his objection 
either in person or by a duly authorized agent 
on a day to be specified in the notice, not less than thirty or more 
than sixty days from the date on which such notice is issued. 

"KHOWn GO~SliarerS." The phrase "known co-sharers' in this sec- 
tion covers all who are known to have interest in the property and is not limited 
to those only whose names are recorded under this Act (Sursangji t. Pratapsing, 
28 Bom. 20V). 

13. Where, from any cause, notice cannot be personally 

served on any co-sharer, the Talukdari Set- 
Procedure where t i ement Officer or other officer aforesaid shall 
S^rS I or 8 : order the same to be served by affixing a 
sharer. copy thereof upon some conspicuous part of 

the house, if any, in which such co-sharer is 
known to have last resided, or in such other manner as the Taluk- 
dari Settlement-officer or other officer aforesaid thinks fit. 



THE GTJUBAT TALUKDIES Aor, 1SSS 

14. If, on or before the day specified, any objection is made 

to the partition by any sharer, and the 
'oSirt Taluqdari Settlement-officer or other officer 
admitted. aforesaid, on a consideration of such objec- 

tion, is of opinion that there is any good and 
sufficient reason why the partition should be disallowed, he may 
refuse the application, recording the grounds of his refusal. 

15. (1) If the objection raises any question as to the right 

of the applicant to partition or any other 

Procedure if question question of title which has not been already 

of title w raised. determined by a Court of competent jurisdic- 

tion, the Taluqdari Settlement-officer or other 

officer aforesaid may either decline to grant the application until 

the question in dispute has been determined by a competent Court, 

or if no suit is at the time pending in any such Court in which the 

question is likely to be determined, may proceed to inquire into the 

merits of the objection. 

(2) In the latter case, the Taluqdari Settlement Officer or 
other officer aforesaid, after making the neces- 
Decision when and fiar y inquiry and taking such evidence as may 



officer or officer ap- nature and extent of the interests of the party 
pointed by Government, or parties applying for the partition and of 
the other co-sharers of the estate, if any, and 
directing by whom, and in what proportion, the costs of the in- 
quiry and of the partition (which shall be recoverable as au arrear 
of land-revenue) are to be paid. 

(3) The procedure to be observed by the Taluqdari Settlement- 

officer or other officer aforesaid in any such 

Procedure previous to inquiry shall be that laid down by the Code 

deci8ion ' of Civil Procedure, 1882, for the trial of 

original suits , and the provisions of Chapter 

XLVH of that Code, in so far as they apply to a review of judg- 

ment in an original suit, shall be applicable to the decision of the 

Taluqdari Settlement-Officer or other officer aforesaid. The Taluq- 

dari Settlement-Officer or other officer aforesaid may, with the con- 

sent of the parties, refer any question arising in such inquiry to 

arbitration, and the provisions of the same Code relative to arbitra- 

tors shall apply to such references. 

16. (1) An appeal shall lie from any decision, or from any 

part of a dicision, passed under the last pre- 

Dialriot Court may ceding section by the Taluqdari Settiement- 

^SSSSSSSy. officer or other officer aforesaid, to the Dis- 

or other officer's deoi- tnct u urt, as if such decision were a decree 

sion and may stay of a Court from whose decisions the District 

partition. Court is authorized to hear appeals, 



ffi GUJARAT TALUKDABS* Aoi, 1886 ? 

(3) Upon such appeal being made, the District Court may 
issue a precept to the Taluqdari Settlement-officer or other officer 
aforesaid, requiring him to stay the partition pending the decision 
of the appeal. 

The decision contemplated by this section is the decision, refer- 

red to in sub-section (2) of a 16 supra, which is come to after the making of all 
necessary enquiry and the taking of such evidence as may be adduced (Oambhir- 
singj i c. Agarsing, 13 Bom. L. B 118). 

Second appeal to High Court not competent. No second ap- 
peal lies to the High Court from the decision of the District Court under this 
section (Amarsingji c. Deepsangji, 27 Bom. L. R. 345). 

17. (1) When it has been decided to make a partition, the 
Taluqdari Settlement-officer or other officer 
Partition how to be aforesaid shall give the parcies the option of 
effected. making the partition themselves; in the event 

of their not agreeing or of their failing to 
make the partition, within a period prescribed by the Taluqdari 
Settlement-officer or the officer aforesaid in this behalf, the Taluq- 
dari Settlement-officer or othsr officer aforesaid shall either make it 
himself or, if he thinks fit, shall entrust it to arbitrators appointed 
for this purpose by the parties. 

(2) In making the partition, the Taluqdari Settlement-officer 
or other officer aforesaid and any person acting under his orders 
shall have the same powers to enter on the estate under partition, 
for making out the boundaries, surveying the land and other pur- 
poses as are conferred on Survey-officers by the Bombay Land 
Kevenue Code, 1879. 

_,_ 18. (1) When the partition is com- 

JS? P ^ fcitl ? K 8 Pkted the Taluqdari Settlement-officer or 

complete, order to be r . ~> * -j u n i_ j 

made confirming it. other officer aforesaid shall make an order 
confirming it. 

(2) On making such order the Taluqdari Settlement-officer 

or other officer aforesaid shall publish a noti- 
Nokification of order. fication o tfae f act in the Q ffi ce Q f the Mam l at . 

dar of the taiuka and at some conspicuous place in the village in 
which the estate which has been divided is situate, or in each of the 
villages comprised in the said estate, as the 
Partition when to case may be ; and the partition shall take 
take effect. effect on and from the first day of June next 

after the date of such notification, or such 
other date next after the date of such notification between the first 
day of June and the first day of October as the Taluqdari Settle- 
ment-officer or other officer aforesaid, having regard to the usual 
season of cultivation in the said estate, shall fix in this behalf. 

19. (1) If necessary, the Taluqdari Settlement-officer or 

other officer aforesaid may, at any time after 

DeUvery of posiession. the date aforesaid, order delivery of the share, 

or anv nortion of the share, allotted to amr 



* TUB (JtJJlBiT TALUKDiRS* AttT, 1&88 

co-sharer to be made to him in the manner in which delivery of 
the same might be ordered by a Civil Court, under the Code of 
Civil Procedure, 1882, in execution of a decree. 

(2) If, in executing the order of the Taluqdari Settlement- 
Besiatance or ob tru ffi cer Or other officer aforesaid, the officer 
tion how to F be Vealt charged with the execution thereof is resisted 
with. or obstructed by any person, or if a co-sharer 

is resisted or obstructed in obtaining posses- 
sion of the share or of any portion of the share allotted to him, the 
Taluqdari Settlement-officer or other officer aforesaid shall proceed 
in the manner in which, by section 202 of the Bombay Land Re- 
venue Code, 1879, a Collector is authorized to proceed for the pur- 
pose of inquiring into the reasonableness of any resistance or 
obstruction to the execution of an order made under that section 
and of preventing the continuance thereof. # 

20. An appeal against the decision of the Taluqdari Settle- 
A . . ment-officer or other officer aforesaid confirm- 

confimin g a pwtition t 6 o in S a . P arfcifci n shall lie to the Commissioner 
the Commissioner. within one year from the date of the order 

confirming such partition. 

21. No Civil Court shall entertain any suit or application for 
n . ., n partition of a taluqdari estate ; provided that 

from* 12!*!inJ suTts nothin g thi * secti Q * ha11 b * deemed to 
or applications for affect the jurisdiction of Her Majesty's High 
partition. Court of Judicature at Bombay. 

Note The expressions "taluqdar's estate" and ^taluqdari estate" in this Act 
are used to denote different matters; the former expression means something other 
than taluqdari estate. The expression "taluqdari estate' 7 in this section means an 
estate of Taluqdari tenure (Purstotam v. Bai Pun]i, 4 Bom, L. B. 817). 

PART IV 

REVENUE ADMINISTRATION 
Talukdar's Jama 

22. (1) If a talukdar's estate or any portion thereof, is not 

wholly or partially exempt from land-revenue 
Talukar's jama how and its liability to payment of land revenue is 
w> oe calculated. not Bu bj ec t to special conditions or restric- 

tions, the jama payable to Government in 
respect of such estate or portion thereof shall, if a survey lettlement 
has been extended thereto, be the aggregate of the survey assess- 
ments of the lands composing such estate or such portion thereof, 
minus such deduction, if any, as Government shall in each case 
direct, 

(2) The Governor in Council may declare the amount of 
jama o ascertained fixed for any term not exceeding thirty years. 



THE GUJJLBAT TALTJKDARB* Acn, 18S8 9 

23. (1) Nothing in this Act shall be deemed to affect the 

validity of any agreement heretofore entered 
Saving of existing i n to by or with a talukdar and still in force as 

T?t TluS to the * mount i K* j'> of y ettle - 

jama. ment of the amount of jama made by or 

under the orders of Government for a term of 
years and still in force. 

(2) Every such agreement and settlement shall have effect as 
if this Act had not been passed. 

24. (1) The registered talukdar shall be primarily respon- 

sible to Government for the jama of his vil- 
Responeibility for jama. l age , and, if there are sharers, all the co- 

sharers shall be jointly and severally respon- 
sible therefor. 

(2) If the registered talukdar fails to pay the jama according 

to the rules legally prescribed in that behalf, 
pe i If taluktl ifc may be recovered from his co-sharers, if 
makes default. an y> r to the extent to which it is due in 

respect of the holding of any mortgagee in 
possession, inferior holder or person in actual occupation of the 
estate or of any portion thereof, from such mortgagee in possession, 
inferior holder or person. 

(3) When jama is recovered from any such co-sharer, mort- 

gagee in possession, inferior holder or other 
" > ! be -itowd credit for all pay- 



a . 

from other persons. ments which he may have made to the taiuk- 

dar at or after the prescribed or usual time of 
such payments, and he shall be entitled to credit in account with 
the talukdar for the amount recovered from him. 

25. (1) When a partition has taken place and a talukdari 

estate is held in severalty, the jama payable in 

Distribution of jama respect of each separate portion into which 

in case of partition. the 8ftme has been divided ghftll be determined 

by the Collector, and thereupon each such 
portion shall, for the purposes of the last preceding section, be 
deemed to be a distinct estate. 

(2) Provided that the aggregate jama payable in respect ot 
the several portions into which the estate has been divided shall not 
exceed the jama which would be leviable from the entire estate if 
still undivided. 

^Management of talukdar's estates by Govevnment Officers. 

26. (1) If owing to disputes among the sharers in any 

* i t_ talukdari estate, or for other cause, the Gover* 

di* 2S3T may to n f in Council shal1 deem tbftt ther6 5s Peai0n 

assumed by Collector in to apprehend danger to the peace of the 

certain contingeacies. country or injury to the well-being of the 

inferior holders, he may direct the Collector 



10 tBE GtJjABAT TAUJkbARS* Act, 

to cause such estate to be attached and taken under the manage* 4 
ment of himself or any agent whom he appoints for this purpose ; 
and, on the application of any registered talukdar or co sharer, the. 
Collector shall furnish him with a copy of the reasons on which the 
orders of Government were passed. 

(2) When any estate is so attached and taken under manage- 
ment, the sharers, or any one or more of the sharers therein, may 
at any time apply to the District Magistrate to restore the manage- 
ment thereof ; and, if the applicants shall prove to the satisfaction 
of the District Magistrate that no reason for any such apprehension 
as aforesaid any longer exists, the District Magistrate may order 
restoration of the management to be made to the talukdar. 

27. (1) With the sanction of the Commissioner, the Taluk- 
dari Settlement-officer or other officer ap- 

managemeu't of e'staTe P inted b y Government n7 hold the estate 
pending partition. * n which partition is being effected under his 

own management, pending the completion of 
the partition. 

(2) Provided that, before applying to the Commissioner for 
sanction under this section, the Talukdari Settlement-officer Or 
other officer aforesaid shall &ive to the parties reasonable notice of 
his intention so to do, and shall forward, with his application, for 
the Commissioner's consideration, any written statement of objec- 
tion thereto which any of the parties shall present to him for this 
purpose. 

[a] 28. (1) With the sanction of Government, the Taluq- 
dari Settlement-officer or any other officer 
nmnajlen? of e'stZ PP<>inted by Government for thi 8 purpose 
attalukdar's request. ma y> u P on the written application of a taluq- 
dar in this behalf, take charge of such taluk- 
dar' s estate and keep the same under his management for such 
period as may be agreed upon. 

[6] (1A) Any co-sharer of a talukdari estate, other than a 
co-sharer in a family undivided according to Hindu law, may make 
an application under sub-section (1) in respect of his own share 
in such estate. 

[c] (2) In every case where a talukdari estate is held by 
co-sharers in a family undivided according to Hindu law or other- 
wise, an application signed by co-sharers holding an agregate in- 
terest of not less than three-fourths of the whole estate shall, for 
the purposes of sub-section (1), be deemed to be an application by 
a talukdar in respect of the whole estate. 

[a] 8. 2a was renumbered 28, sub-section (1) by the Gujarat Talukdari 
( Amendment) Act, 1905 (Bom. Act2 of I905)s. 3 (1), and sub-section, (2) and 
the provisos were substituted for the concluding words and proyiso of section 28 
by s. 3 (2) of the same Act. 

[b] This sub-section was inserted by Bom. Act I of 1910. 
Printed as amended by Bom, Act I of 1 910. 



Tra GUUBAT TALUKDABS ACT, 1888 11 

provided, firstly, that no sanction shall be given on any such 
application under sub-section (1) where it appears to the Gover- 
nor in Council doubtful whether the aggregate interest of the co- 
sharers signing the application amounts to three-fourths of the 
whole estate ; and 

provided, secondly , that nothing in this Act shall be deemed to 
prevent any co-sharer other than those signing any such applica- 
tion from obtaining partition of his share. 

29. (1) When any talukdari estate is 

Applicability of sec. t k der mana g eme nt by Government offi- 
tion IPO of Bombay , ? xl _ ., J , ^ j. 

Act Vof 1879 when cers under any of the three last preceding 

an estate is taken under sections, the provisions of section 160 of the 
management by a Gov- Bombay Land-Revenue Code, 1879, shall be 
eminent officer. applicable thereto. 

(2) Provided that no "transfer" [a] or agreement entered 
into by a Government officer managing an estate under section 26, 
in respect of any land in such estate shall be for a period exceed- 
ing five yenrs from the date thereof, and that no such "transfer" 
[a] or agreement by a Government officer managing an estate under 
section 27 shall have effect beyond the end of the revenue year in 
which such officer's management determines, unless the same is 
ratified by the co-sharer to whose share the said land is finally 
allotted when the partition of the estate is completed. 

(3) All surplus receipts, if any, which accrue during such 

management, after defraying the costs of the 
Disposal of anrplns management, including the payment of the 
receipts. current land-revenue and of all arrears there- 

of, and the cost of the extension to the estate of a revenue-survey, 
if the Governor in Council directs, or has before directed, the exten- 
sion of a revenue survey thereto under section 4, shall be divided 
amongst the co-sharers in proportion to their respective shares, at 
such periods as the Talukdari Settlement-officer or other officer 
aforesaid shall see fit. 

[b] 29 A. (1) Except with the approval of the managing 

officer, a talukdar whose estate is taken under 

Dinbilitiesofatalak- mana g ement by Government officers under 

dar whose estate is . e ,__ J rt0 . ,, . . **.,> 

taken under manage- section 26 or 28 shall be incompetent to 
ment. transfer or create any charge on, or interest 

in, his property or any part thereof, or to 
enter into any contract which may involve him in pecuniary liabi- 
lity j and no auit shall be brought in any Civil Court whereby to 
charge any such talukdar upon any promise made after the deter- 
mination of such management to pay any debt contracted during 
the period of such management, or upon any ratification, made 

[J The word "transfer" waa snbssituted. for the original words "sale of 
occupancy rights" by Bom. Act IV of 1913, s. 94. 

[b] Sees. 29-A and 29-B were inserted by the Gujurat Talukdara' (Amend- 
ment) Act, 1905 (Bom. Act II of 1905), 8. 4. 



12 TUB GtfjAiUT TAWJKDABU' ACT, 

after such determination, of any promise or contract made durin g 
the period aforesaid, whether there is or is not any new considera- 
tion for such promise or ratification. 

(2) Nothing in sub-section (1) shall be deemed to affect the 
capacity of any such talukdar to enter into a contract of marriage s 

Provided that no such talukdar shall incur, in connection with 
such a contract, any pecuniary liability, except such as, having 
regard to the personal law to which he is subject and to his rank 
and circumstances, the managing officer may, in writing, declare to 
be reasonable. 

Power to continue 

***** (3) On the death of any such talukdar, 



(a) where the succession to his property or any part thereof 

is disputed, the managing officer may, with 

in case of disputed the sanction of the Governor in Council, 

succession, and either retain the superintendence of the pro- 

perty until one of the claimants has establish- 

ed his claim to the same in a competent Civil Court, or institute a 

suit of interpleader against all the claimants ; and 

(6) where hi property is still incumbeted with debts and 

liabilities, the managing officer may, with the 

where property still sanction of the Governor in Council, retain 

meumbered. ^ ga j d p roperty un der his superintendence 

until such debts and liabilities have been dis- 

charged. 

Ascertainment and liquidation of liabilities of talukars whose estates are 
taken under management. 

29-B, (1) Where any talukdari estate has been taken under 

management by Government officers under 

publication of notice section 26 or 2X, the managing officer may 

S^^"tti P ublish in u the B b y Government Gazette, 
is taken under manage- aQ d in such other manner as the (governor in 
ment. Council may by general or special order direct, 

a notice in English and also in the vernacular, 
calling upon all persons having claims against such talukdar or his 
property, to submit the same in writing to him within six months 
from the date of the publication of the notice. 

(2) Where the managing officer is satisfied that any claimant 
was unable to comply with the notice published under sub-section 
(1), he may allow his claim to be submitted at any time after the 
date of the expiry of the period fixed therein j but any such claim 
shall, notwithstanding any law, contract, decree or award to the 
contrary, cease to carry interest from the date of the expiry of such 
period until submission. _ _____ 

[a] See foot-note under *. -9- A supra. 



ACT, I&8 13 

(3) Every claim against such talukdar or his property (other 
than a claim on the part of Government) not submitted to the 
managing officer in compliance with the notice published under sub- 
section (1) or allowed to be submitted under sub-section (2), shall, 
save in the cases provided for by section 29 ( / ), sub-section (2), 
clause (c) and by sections 7 and 13 of the Indian Limitation Act, 
1877, be deemed for all purposes and on all occasions, whether 
during the continuance of the management or afterwards, to have 
been duly discharged, unless in any suit or proceeding instituted 
by the claimant, or by any person claiming under him, in respect 
of any such claim, it is proved to the satisfaction of the Court 
that he was unable to comply with the notice published under 
sub-section (1). 

"Unable". The word "unable" in this section is not confined to physi- 
cal liability on the part of the claimant ( TAanilal 9. Khodabhai, 38 Bom. 604). 

Notice. Although a decree had been oaaaed against a Talukdar, which was 
being executed before this section was enacted, still notice of the claims is neces- 
sary after the notification under this section has bean issued (The Talukdari 
Settlement Officer v. Akuji Abharam, 46 Bom. 993). 

[a] 29C. (1) The managing officer may by written order re- 
quire that any claimant submitting his claim 
Claimants to furnish . Q compliance w i t h the notice published under 

full particulars and . r or ,r> i /if v n t_ 

documents. section 29B, sub-section (1), shall, within 

such reasonable time as he may prescribe in 
such order, furnish full particulars thereof, and produce all docu- 
ments (including entries in books of account J on which he relies to 
support his claim, together with a true copy of every such docu- 
ment : 

Provided that, where the claim relates to an amount secured 
by a decree or award, it shall be sufficient for the claimant to pro- 
duce before the managing officer a certified copy of the decree and 
a certificate from the Court which passed or is executing the same 
declaring the amount recoverable thereunder, or a true copy of the 
award and a statement of the sum recoverable thereunder, as the 
case may be; and where the claim is pending adjudication in any 
Court or has been referred to arbitration, it shall be sufficient for 
the claimant to produce a certified copy of the plaint, or a true copy 
of the reference to arbitration, as the case may be* 

(2) The managing officer shall, after making, for the pur- 
pose of identification, every original document so produced and 
verifying the correctness of the copy, retain the copy and return 
the original to the claimant. 

(3) Where any document, which is in the possession or under 
the control of a claimant, is not produced by him in accordance with 
an order under sub-section (1), the document shall not be admis- 
sible in evidence against the talukdar whose estate is taken under 
management, whether during the continuance of the management 

[a] Section 290 was inserted by Bom. Act II of 1905, g. 4. 



14 Tax GUJABAT TADTTKAAS' ACT, 1888 

or afterwards, in any suit brought by such claimant or by any 
person claiming under him, in respect of any claim to which such 
document relates, unless it is proved to the satisfaction of the Court 
that it was not within his power to produce such document as 
required by such order. 

[a] 29D. (I) On receipts of all claims submitted in compli- 
ance with the provisions of sections 29 B and 
Investigation and deci- 290, the managing officer shall proceed to 
sion of claims. investigate such claims and shall decide, sub- 

ject to the provisions of sub-section (3), which 
of them are to be wholly or partly admitted or wholly or partly 
rejected, as the case may be, and shall communicate his decision in 
writing to each claimant concerned. 

(2) Where the managing officer has admitted any claim under 
sub-section (1), he may make to the claimant a proposal in writing 
for the reduction of the claim, or of the rate of interest to be paid in 
future, or of both ; and if such proposal, or any modification of it, 
is accepted by the claimant, and his acceptance is finally recorded 
and attended by the managing officer or by any Revenue-officer 
not below the rank of an Assistant or Deputy Collector whom the 
Governor in Council may, by general or special order, appoint in 
this behalf, it shall be conlusively binding upon the claimant. 

Provided that if, when the management is withdrawn, any 
portion of the claim reduced as aforesaid is still unsatisfied, the 
claimant shall be entitled to recover a sum bearing the same pro- 
portion to the original claim admitted under sub-section (1^, as 
the unsatisfied portion bears to the reduced claim. 

(3) Subject to the provisions of sub-section (2), nothing in 
this section shall be construed to bar the institution of a suit in a 
Civil Court for the recovery of a claim, against a talukdar whose 
estate is taken under management or his property, which has been 
duly submitted to the managing officer : 

provided that no decision of the managing officer under this 
section shall be proved in any such suit as against the defendant. 

Management of talukdar's estates by Government officers 
[aj 29E. (1) On the publication of a notice under section 
_ . . 29B, sub-section (1), no proceeding in execu. 

toKS* Ull 3 tion o . an y decree a S ain8fc the talukdar whos e 
flcate filed. estate is taken under management or his pro- 

perty shall be instituted or continued until 
the decree-holder files a certificate from the managing officer that 
the decree-claim has been duly submitted, or until the expiration 
of one month from the date of receipt by the managing officer of a 
written application f jr such certificate, accompanied by a certified 
copy of the decree* 

la] Section* 291) and 29E were inserted by the Gujarat Talukdara* (Amend- 
ment) Act, 1905 (Bom. Act 2 of 1905), a. 4. 



GUJABAT ^AttntDAJis ACT, 1888 15 

(2) Any person holding a decree against such taluk dar or his 
property shall be entitled to receive from the managing officer, 
free of cost, the certificate required by sub-section (1). 

(&) In computing the period of limitation prescribed by the 
Indian Limitation Act, 1877, or by section 230 of the Code of 
Civil Procedure for any application for the execution of a decree, 
proceedings in which have been stayed or temporarily barred by 
reason of the claim not having been duly submitted, the lime from 
the date of the notice published under section 29B, sub-section (l)j 
or of the decree if it was passed subsequently to the publication of 
the notice, to the date of due submission shall be excluded. 

The two things a claimant has to do under this section 
before asking: the Court to execute deoree. Under this section the 

claimant has to do one of two things before he could ask the Court to execute 
the decree. He has either to produce a certificate from the Talukdari Settlement- 
officer that the claim has been duly submitted or to apply in writing to that offi- 
cer for such certificate accompanied by a certified copy of the decree and wait for 
the expiry of one month from the date of receipt by the officer of the application. 
If the officer gave no certificate within that month, the claimant's right to 
apply to the Court for execution revived (Ganpatsing v. Bajibhai, 35 Bom. 324). 

Managing Officer. This section means that before execution of a decree 
can be proceeded with the Court must be satisfied that the decree claimed has been 
duly submitted. If the officer certifies th&t it has been duly submitted there is an 
end of the matter. If, however, he does not certiiy that it has been duly submitted, 
the Oourt must wait for one month from the date of the receipt by the officer of 
an application for a certificate, and upon being satisfied that a claim has been 
duly submitted in accordance with provisions of section 29B, it may then pro- 
ceed with the execution. The expression "Managing Officer" is merely a compendi- 
ous term used in this Act for "the Talukdari Settlement Officer or any other offi- 
cer appointed by Government to take charge of the Talnkdar's estate and keep the 
same in his management" refer red to in section 28 of this Act, and where the officer 
who takes charge of the estate and keeps tho same in his management is the 
Talukdari Settlement Officer; the "Managing Officer" is merely a synonym for 
"Talukdari yetthment Officer." Whore an application relating to a claim is pre- 
sented to the Subordinate Judge and it is forwarded by him to the Talukdari 
Settlement Officer, it amounts to a submission of the claim in writing within the 
meaning of section 2vB of this Act, if the Talukdari Settlement Officer is aUo 
the managing Officer (Pur us hot tarn e Rsjbai, 34 Bom. 142). 

[a] 29F. (1) When all claims have been investigated under 

section 29D, the managing officer shall submit 

Report to Govern- to the Governor in Council a schedule of the 

ment - debts and liabilities o the talukdar whose 

estate is taken under management, and the Governor in Council 

may, where the property appears to be involed beyond all hope of 

extrication, or for any other sufficient reason, by order published in 

the Bombay Government Gazette, direct that, on a date to be fixed by 

the order, the management of such estate shall be withdrawn. 

(2) On the date so fixed 

(a) the management shall terminate 5 

' [a] Stc. 29F waa inserted by the Gujarat Talukdars' (Amendment) Act ; 1?05 
(Bow. Act II 0*1906), . 4. 



10 TUB fttfJRAT TAtXJKDAfcS ACT, 1888 

(b) the owner of estate shall be restored to the possession 
thereof, subject to any contracts entered into by the managing 
officer for the preservation or benefit thereof ; and 

(c) the claims referred to in section 29B, sub-section (3), shall 
revive. 

(3j In calculating the periods of limitation applicable to suits 
to recover and enforce claims revived under sub-section (2 j, clause 
(c), the time during which the management has continued shall be 
excluded. 

Application of provisions of the Bombay Court of Wards Act, 1906. 

[a] 296. On the issue of a notification under clause (c) of 

the proviso to section 3 of the Bombay 

Application of the Bom- Court Q War( j 8 A t 19Q5 ap p oilltin g the 
bay Court of Wards Act, m i i j o x^i \ a* t_ r\ * 

1905 when Talukdari lalukdari Settlement-omcer to be a Court 

Settlement officer appoint- of Wards for the whole or any part of the 
ed to be a Court of area to which this Act extends, the provi- 
Wards ' sions of tho said Bombay Court of Wards 

Act, 1905, shall without prejudice to, and save so far as they may 
be inconsistent with, anything contained in this Act, be deemed to 
apply to, or in respect of any estate, which may thereafter be taken 
under the management of the said Talukdari Settlement-officer 
under section 26 or 23, as if it were an estate under his superin- 
tendence as such Court of Wards, and the talukdar, whose estate is 
taken under management a Government ward within the meaning 
of that Act. 

Police-officers and establishment, 

Government to fix the 3Q (1) The Governor in Coundl may 

number and remnnera- - \ ' . , . J 

tion of Police. * rom tlrc - e to tlme determine 

(a) What Police-officer and establishment are requisite in 
each village in a talukdar i estate ; 

(ft) by whom and under what conditions the Police-officers 
and establishment shall be appointed, punished and dismissed ; 

(c) what remuneration shall be paid to each Police-officer 
and member of the Police-establishment. 

(2) Charges on account of police shall be defrayed by thfl 

talukdar at such times as shall from time tc 

Police-charges how re- time be determined by Government, and in 

coverable. t k e event O f failure by the talukdar to pay, 

at the time when the same becomes due, anj 

sum so payable, the said sum shall be recoverable from him, in 

addition to the jama as if the same were a part of the jama. 

(8) If a partition has taken place and the estate is held in 
severalty, the said charges shall be payable by, and recoverable 

[a] Sec. 29G wa inter ted by the Gujarat Xatakdars' (Amendment) Act, 1906 
(Bom. II 011995), . 4. 



Tsu GUJARAT TA&UKDABS ACT* 1888 17 

from, the holders of the various portions into which the estate has 
been divided in proportion to their respective shares in the estate. 

PARTY 
MISCELLANEOUS. 

la] 31 (1) No incumbrance on a talukdar' s estate, on on any 
-D . . , portion thereof, made by the talukdar after 

B a * of moumbratices TL-AJ. *. * 1111 * t 

on a talukdar's estates, tli18 4 Ct comes mt force 8 ^ a1 ^ be va ^d as to 

beyond talukdar'a own an y time beyond such talukdar's natural life, 

Me, unless such incumbrance is made with the pre. 

vious written consent of the talukdari Settle. 

, ... . ment-officer. or of some other officer appoint- 

trtM&r?"Sife ed b 7 the Governor in Council in this behalf 

ment-officer j [6] (and after the death of a talukdar no pro- 

ceeding for attachment, sale or delivery of, or 

any other process affecting the possession or ownership of, a taluk- 

dari estate, or any portion thereof, in execution of any decree ob- 

tained against such talukdar or his legal representative, except a 

decree obtained in respect of an incumbrance made with such con- 

sent as aforesaid, or made before this Act comes into force, shall be 

instituted or continued except with the like consent.) 

(2) No alienation of a talukdar' s estate or of any portion there- 
of, or of any share or interest therein, made 

e^iS 2f3 aft r this u Ac v come . 8 into force - ^ be valid ' 

Governor in Council. unless such alienation is made with the pre- 
vious sanction of the Governor in Council, 

which sanction shall not be given except upon the condition that 
the entire responsibility for the portion of the jama and of the 
village expen.es ani polhe-chargaa du-3 in respect of the alienated 
area shall thenceforward vest in the alienee and not in the talukdar* 



." A. money-decree is not an iucumbrance on the estate 
within the meaning of this section. The word "incumbrance" does not include a 
decree for the recovery ol money from a talakdar or from the estate of a deceased 
talukdar in the hands of bis heir. An attachment effects no transfer of ownership. 
It is rather a prohibition of transfer, since it is a process preparatory to sale by 
which intermediate transfers or charges are prevented and the title to the pro- 
perty kept in statuquo (Shivlal v. Mulaji, 1 Bom, L. K. 154). 

\a\ Nothing in section 31 shall be deemed to apply to any incumbrance or 
alienation made before the passing of the Gujarat Talukdara' ( Amendment) Act 
IU05 (Bom. Act II of 1905), by a mulgauaeti, who holds land directly from 
Government, except whore his estate his been taken under management by a 
Government officer under Bom. Act VI of 1888. See s 2 (2) proviso, of that Act. 

[b\ These words were added by the Gujarat Talnkdar's (Amendment) Act, 
1905 (Bom Act II of 1905), s. 4. 



18 THB GUMIUT TA^UKDABS ACT, 1888 

"Talnlcdar'S estate". The expression "Talukdar's Estate" in thii 
section means the estate held by the Talukdar as a Talakdar. It does not, there- 
fore, include that which a Talakdar owns as assignee oi a mortgage debt by a 
private investment of bis money (Khodabhai t>, Chhaganlal, 9 Bom. L. B. 1122 ; 
Bichubha v. Vila Dhanji, 11 Bom. L. E. 763). 

This expression means only the estate held by a talakdar on talukdari tenure 
and not property held on any ordinary tenure which is distinguishable from the 
former (Bichubha v. Vela Dhan]i, 11 Bom. L. B. 763). 

Lands, situated in a talnkdari village, which are shown in the Government 
register as Sirkari Udhar Jamabaudi, but which are only recently described as 
Vanta in the register of Inami Vanta lands kept by the Talukdar do not thereby 
cease to be 'Talukdar's estate' for the purposes of this section (Bhankarlal v. 
Bajikh**, 24 Bom. L. B. 709). 

JlVaidar Is a Talukdar.- A Jivaidar is a Talakdar within the meaning 
of this Act. A Talukdar and his son mortgaged a portion of talukdari estate and 
after the death of the Talukdar his son sold the property to the mortgagee. The 
Talnkdari Settlement Officer having issued a notice, under s. 7 3- A of the Bom- 
Land Bevenue Oode, to summarily evict the mortgagee from possession of the pro. 
perty, the latter sued for a declaration that he was entitled to remain in possession. 
Held, (1) That the mortgage by the Taluklar ceased to be operative after his 
death; (2) that the mortgage by his son was inoperative from the start, for he was 
not a co-sharer with his father in the talukdari estate, and not having an interest 
in the property fit the time, he was not competent to incamber the interest to which 
he might succeed on his father's death ; (3) that the sale of the property by the 
son was an invalid alienation under sub-section (2) of this section ; and (4) that 
the notice of eviction under s. 79-A of the Land Revenue Oode was valid (Bhaiji 
v. Talukdari Settlement Officer, 22 Bom. L. R. 906, s. c. 44 Bom. 872). 

Consent of the Talukdari Settlement Otfloer presumed to 
be given to the arrangement. 

The powers conferred on the Collector, under section 323 of the Civil Proce- 
dure Oode, 1882, and those conferred on the Taluqdari Settlement-officer under 
section 31 of the Gujarat Talukdar's Act, 7888, are both of enabling or discretion- 
ary and are not necessarily of a mutually contradictory character. Where the two 
offices are combined in one and the same person on grounds of public convenience 
or expediency, his action must be referred to the exercise of bis discretionary 
powers uuder both sections, if it can be so referred. It is not that in respect of 
one office the action was without, and in respect of the other it was with, juris- 
diction ( Parthotam t>. Aarft&mji, li Tom. L. H. 665). 



32. (1) No consent or sanction given under the last preceding 
section shall be deemed to affect any right of 
Saving of rights of Government under section 3 of Bombay Act 
THTSSiy S V11 o l8 ^ (* Act for the Summary Settle- 
VII of 1863. ment of claims to exemption from the pay- 

ment of Government laud-revenue and for 
regulating the terms upon whicli such exemption shall be recog- 
nized in future, in those parts of the Bombay Presidency which 
are not subject to the operation of Act XI of 1852 of the Council 
of India). 



TEE GUJARAT TALUKDARS* ACT, 1888 10 

(2) And nothing in the last preceding section shall apply to 

. the property of any thakur to which section 

JhTC ^ A S ^T !2 28 o theBorach and Kaira Encumbered Es- 

ana 4* 01 A.CG A. A. 01 * . i rn iii i i j ^ 

1881. tates Act,.l881, is applicable, or be deemed to 

affect the power of the manager of any 
Thakur's immoveable property under section 24 of the said Act. 

[a] 33, (1) Nothing in sections 38 to 40, both inclusive, 44, 

A ,. UM . 60 to 67, both inclusive, 76, 82, 85, 116, 

Bnthav C Tin% fc ? e H7A, 127 to 184, both inclusive, 136, 163, 

xJombay JUaua-Kevenue ^- ^ -- , T- i T -IT* 

Code to taluqdar's 2 16 and 217 of the Bombay Land-Revenue 
estates. Code, 1879, shall be deemed to apply to any 

estate to which this Act extends. 

(2) The provisions of the said Code when applied to any such 
estate shall be subject to the following modifications (namely): 

(a) in section 3, clause (1), the words "the Talukdari Settle- 
ment-officer and every officer appointed by the Governor in Council 
to exercise any power or perform any duty under the Gujarat Taluk- 
dars' Act, 1888, and" shall be inserted after the word "means" ; 

(&) in section 54, the words "or under the Gujarat Talukdars* 
Act, 1888," shall be inserted after the figures "136" ; 

(c) in sections 46, 88, 89 and 94, the word "talukdar" shall be 
substituted for the words "holder of alienated lands" and the word 
"holder" wherever they occur ; 

[6] (c'f) to section 79A, clause (a), the words "whieh he uses 
or occupies in contravention of any of the provisions of the Gujarat 
Talukdars' Act, 18S8, or", shall be added 5 

(d) in section 88, the clauses ( c ) to (/) and proviso shall be 
omitted ; 

(e) for section III the following section shall be deemed to ba 
substituted, viz: 

"11. In the event of any talukdar's estate coming under the 
temporary management of Government officers, 
Revenue management it shall be lawful for the Collector, Talukdari 
JS^ l t4S Settlement officer, or other officer appointed 
rily under Government b 7 Government in this behalf, subject, m any 
management. case to which it applies, to the proviso to sec- 

tion 29 of the Gujarat Talukdars* Act, 1888, 
to let out the lands thereof at rates determined by means of a sur- 
vey-settlement or at such other fixed rates as he may deem to be 
reasonable, and to "grant unoccupied lands by lease" [a] and other- 
wise to conduct the revenue management thereof under the rules 
for the management of unalienated lands not comprised within a 

[a] Sub-section (1) of s. 33 was substituted for the original section by Bom, 
Act IV of 1913, s. 94. 

[b] Clause (c-c) was insterted by s. 5 of the Gujarat Talukdars' (Amendment) 
Act, 1905 (Bom. Act II of 1905). 



20 TfiS GTOBAT TALUKDARB AOT, 188ft 

talukdar's estate, so far as such rules may be applicable and for so 
long as the said estate shall be under the managemnt of Govern- 
ment officers : 

Provided, however, that any written agreements relating to the 
land made by the talukdar of such estate shall not be affected by any 
proceedings under this section in so far as they shall not operate to 
the detriment of the lawful claims of Government on the land ; and 
provided also that, when the estate ceases to be under the manage- 
ment of Government officers, the possession and enjoyment thereof 
shall, except as is otherwise provided in section 29 of the Gujarat 
Talukdars* Act, 1 888, revert to the talukdar, subject to the leases, 
if any, granted under this section"; ......... [a] 

(f) section 113 shall be omitted ; 

(g) in section 147, the words "or under the Gujarat Talukdara' 
Act, 1888," shall be inserted after the word " section"; 

(h) in section 150, clause ( /), the word "alienated" shall be 
omitted ; 

(?) in section 160, the word "be" shall be substituted for the 
words " revert to Government" ; 

(k) in section 162, the words "at any time within twelve years 
from the first day of August next after the attachment" shall be 
omitted ; 

(I) in section 214, clause (h) shall be omitted ; 

(m) generally, the word " talukdar " shall be substituted for 
the word "occupant"; [6]. ..and the words "talukdar's holding" or 
such words to that effect as may be required by the context, for the 
word "occupancy". 

And whereas it is also expedient to limit; the period within 
which fresh estates may be subjected to the operation of Bombay Act 
VI of 1862 ( an Act for the amelioration of the condition of Taluk- 
dars in the Ahmedabad Collectorate and for their relief from debt); 
It is further enacted as follows: 

Powers of Talukdari Settlement offloer -A Government officer 

in the temporary management of a Talukdar's estate has, under this section, the 
same powers which the Collector has in an nnalienated village, to recover arrears 
of revenue inclusive of rent (Jinabhai 9. Ths Collector, 28 Bom, L. R 417). 

34, No new declaration shall be made 

under section 1 of the said Bombay Act VI of 

Limitation of opera- jggg at time ftftep ^ month, f rom the 

tton of Bom. Act VI of , /. , , . . p 

date on which this Act comes into force. 



[a] The words "grant unoccupied lands by lease" were substituted for the 
original words " sell the occupancy of unoccupied lands by auction^" by Bom. Act 
IV of 1013, s. 94. 

[b] The portion repealed by Bom, Act IV of 1913, s 9*, is omitted, 



Broach and Kaira Inncumbered 
Estates Act 

Act No. XIV of 1877. 

[38th June, 1S77.] 
An Act to relieve from incumbrances the estates of Thakurs 

in Broach and Kaira. 
Preamble. Sep. Act XXI of 1881. 

1 to 38. [Application and preliminary enquiry ; Order of manage, 
ment ; proof of debts ; Scheme for liquidation ; Proceedings subsequent 
to sanction of liquidation scheme ; Appeal and revision ; Miscellaneous.} 
Hep. Act XXI of 1881. 

39. f Whereas doubts have been raised as to the validity o 

Bombay Act No. VI of 1862 ( for the arneliora- 

Amendment of Bom- tion of the condition of taluqdars in the Ahmeda- 

bay Act VI of 1862. bad Co liectorate, and /or their relief from debt ) so 

far as it purports to affect the High Court of Judicature at Bombay 5 

for the purpose of precluding such doubts, it is hereby enacted 

that the said Act, so far as it purports to affect the said High Court, 

shall be deemed to be and to have been valid. 

40 t [ The Taluqdari Settlement-officer mentioned in the 
Broach and Eaira Incumbered Estates Act, 
Talaqdari Settlement- 1881, section 7, ] for the time being shall, 
officer to be unless the Local Government in any case other- 

wise directs, be 

(a) deemed to be an officer appointed under section 1 of the 
said Bombay Act No. VI of 1862 to manage 

*Z!. A?VT * ?2* e o r a11 estates with res P ecfc to which a declaration 
Bombay Act VI of 1862, . K t_ j j ui- t_ j j*u 

section i ; is or has been made and published under the 

said section ; 

assistant to certain Ool- (b) an assistant to the respective Col- 

lecfcors - lectors of Ahmedabad, Kaira and Broach. 

41. Nothing heretofore done by any 

Acts of Talaqdari Taluqdari Settlement-officer shall be deemed 
Settlement-officer valid. to ^ or to b ave been invalid by reason only 
of hil not having been duly appointed, 

| The words "and" in paragraph 1 and " farther " in the second paragraph 
were repealed by the Repealing and Amending Act 1894 (4 of 1894). 

J These words and figures were substituted for the words " The said Taluq- 
dar i Settlement-officer " by s. 2 of the Broach and Kaira Incnmbered Estates Act* 
1881 (21 of 1881). 



J THE BROACH & KA.IEA. INCUMBRBKD ACT, 1881 

(a) under section 1 of the said Bombay Act No. VI of 1862 
to manage any estates with respect to which a declaration his been 
made under the said section, or 

(6) to be a manager under * * * t Act No. XV of 
1871, or 

(c) to be an assistant to the respective Collectors of Ahmedabad, 
Kaira and Broach. 



ACT No. XXI of 1881. * 

[ 7th September 1881 ] 

An Act to amend the law providing for the relief of Thakurs 
In the Districts of Broach and Kaira. 

. WHBBEAS it is expedient to amend the law providing for the 

relief of Thakurs in the Districts of Broach 

Preamble an( j Kaira ; It is hereby enacted as follows: 



CHAPTER I. 
PRELTMINABY 

1 This Act may be called the Broach 
Short title. and Kaira incumbered Estates Act, 1881 : 

and it shall come into force on the pass- 
Commencement. ing thereo f. 

2. Act No. XIV of ] 877 ( to relieve from 

Partial repeal of Act Incumbrances the estates of Thakurs in Broach 
XIV of 1877. an j K a { ra f except the last three sections, is 

repealed. 

But all applications, appointments and rules made, all notices 
published and all other things duly done under the said Act or 
under [a] Act No. XV of 1871 (to relieve from Incumbrances the 
estates of Thakurs in Broach ) shall be deemed to have been respec- 
tively made, published and done under this Act. 

In section 40 of the said Act, No. XIV of 1877, for the wordi 
1 the said Taluqdari Settlement-officer," the words " the Taluqdari 
Settlement-officer mentioned in the Broach and Eaira Incumbered 
Estates Act, 1881, section 7," shall be substituted, 

ibe words " the said " were repealed by the Repealing and Amending Act 
1894 (4 of 1894). 

* This Act is not in force in the Panoh Mahals. See the Panoh Mahals Laws 
Act, 1885 (7 oil886), a, 2(1). 

f Act 15 oi 1871 was repealed by s. 2 of this Act. 

[a] Act 15 of 1871 was repealed by the Broach and Kaira Incumbered Esta- 
tes Act, 1877 (14 of 1877). 



THE BBOAOH ft KAUU. IHCUMBSRSD ESTATES Aor, 1881 8 

Interpretation-chase. 3. In this Act 

"thakur" means also taluqdar, jagirdar and kasbati, and such 
other classes of holders of estates as the Local Government may, 
with the previous sanction of the Governor General in Council, [a] 
declare to be tbakurs for the purposes of the Act; 

"heir" means the person for the time being entitled as heir to 
a thakur : 

"Commissioner' 1 means the Revenue Commissioner of the 
Northern Division of the Presidency or Bombay. 



CHAPTER II. 
OF THE APPLICATION AND PBBLIMINABY INQUIRY. 

4' At any time within six months after the passing of this 
Act, any thakur, or any person who would be 
Application for benefit sole heir or one of the heirs to such thakur 
* Act * if he then died intestate, may apply, in 

writing, to the Commissioner stating that 
such thakur is subject to debts or liabilities, other than debts due f 
or liabilities incurred, to Government, or that his immoveable 
property is charged with debts or liabilities other than as afore- 
said, and requesting that the provisions of this Act be applied to 
his case. 

When any thakur or other person entitled to make an applica- 
tion under this section is a minor, or of unsound mind, or an idiot, 
such application may be made on his behalf by the guardian or 
other legal curator of his person, or by the legally constituted 
administrator or manager of his estate. 

5. When any such application is made by or on behalf of a 

thakur, or the person who would be his sole 

Order to inquire. heir if he then died, the Commissioner shall 

direct an inquiry to be made by such officer 

as he thinks fit into the nature and amount of such debts and 

liabilities and the sufficiency of the debtor's property, whether 

moveable or immoveable, to discharge the same. 

When such an application is made in any other case, it shall be 
in the discretion of the Commissioner, subject to any general rules 
which may from time to time be made by the Governor of Bombay 
in Council in this behalf, either to reject such application or to 
direct an inquiry to be made as aforesaid. 

foj 1 be Maliks of Thara in the District of Kaira are declared Thakura for 
thepurpoaea of thia Act (B. G. G. lor 1883, Ft. I, p. 504). 



4 THE BBOA.OH & EAXBA INOUMBEEED ESTATES ACT, 1881 

6. When an inquiry has been directed under section 5, the 

applicant shall, within a period to be fixed by 

Verified statement to the Commissioner, submit to the officer ap- 

be submitted. pointed to make such inquiry a statement duly 

verified by the said applicant, or by some 

other competent person, in the manner required by law for the 

verification of plaints, and containing, so far as may be practicable, 

such details as to the debts and liabilities, and as to the sufficiency 

oC the debtor's property, whether moveable or immoveable, to meet 

the same, as the Commissioner, or the said officer subject to his 

control, may require. 

If any such statement contains any averment which the person 
making the verification knows or believes to 
False averments in be false, or does not know or believe to be 
statement. true ^ guc j i p ergon g ^ a n be deemed to have in- 

tentionally given false evidence within the 
meaning of the Indian Penal Code. 

7. The officer so appointed, after mak- 

Report of inquiry and i ng inquiry, shall submit a report of his 
proceedings thereon. proceedings to the Commissioner. 

On receipt of such report, the Commissioner may 

(a) direct a further inquiry, or 

(b) dismiss the application, or 

(c) by order published in the Bombay Government Gazette, 
direct that the immoveable property of the debtor shall be managed, 
and that his debts shall be liquidated, in the manner hereinafter 
provided, by a manager. 

The Taluqdari Settlement-officer* for the time being shall, 
unless the Local Government in any case otherwise directs, be such 
manager. 



CHAPTER III. 
Off THE ORDER OF MANAGEMENT. 

8. Such order (hereinafter called "the order of management") 
shall extend to all immoveable property of or 
"Order of management" to which the debtor is on the date of its publi- 
fco what it extends, cation possessed or entitled in his own right, 
or which he is entitled to redeem, or which may be acquired by or 
devolve on him during the continuance of the management, and to 

* As to this officer, see the Broach and Kaira i no urn be red Estates Act, 1877, 
(14 of 1877), B. 40. 



THE BBOAOH & KAIRA, INCOMBBRED ESTATES Act, 1881 5 

all debts and liabilities to which he is subject or which are charged 
on the whole or any part of his immoveable property on the said 
date, and to the amount of any loan which may be received by the 
manager from Government in the manner hereinafter provided. 

The management shall be deemed to com- 

Commencement of ma* mence from the date on which the order is 
nagement. published. 

9. On the publication of the order of 

Effect o! order of management the following consequences shall 
management. enflue . 

first, all proceedings then pending in any Civil Court in British 
India in respect to the debts and liabilities 
Stay of pending pro- mentioned in section 8 shall be stayed ; and 
ceedmgs, etc. ^ operation of all processes, executions and 

attachments then in force for or in respect of such debts and liabili- 
ties shall be suspended ; 

secondly, so long as the management continues no fresh pro- 
ceedings, processes, executions or attachments 
Bar of fresh proceed- ghall be instituted in or issued by any Civil 
lngs * Court in British India in respect of such 

debts and liabilities ; 

thirdly, so long as the management con* 
The debtor incom- tinues, the debtor shall be incompetent- 
potent r 

(a) to enter into any contract involving 

to contract debts ; h j m |n pecuniary l iftbnit or 

(b) to mortgage, charge, lease or alienate 
to incumber or all- the property under management or any part 

nate property. thereof, Or 

(c) to grant valid receipts for the rents 
to grants receipts for an( j profits arising or accruing therefrom : 

Provided that nothing contained in this clause shall be deemed 
to preclude the manager from letting, and the debtor from taking, 
the whole or any part of such property on such terms consistent 
with this Act as m*y be agreed upon between the parties : 

fourthly, so long as the management continues, no person other 
than the manager shall be competent to mortgage, charge, lease or 
alienate such property or any part thereof. 

10. The manager shall, during the 

poTf r owne r anTIo management of the property, have all powers 
receive rents and pro- which the owner thereof might, as such, 
fits -, have legally exercised, and shall receive and 

recover all rents and profits due in respect of the property under 
management ; 



Tra BftOAOH & XJURA IBTCUKBEEBB ESTATES Aor, 

and for the purpose of recovering such rents and profits shall 
have, in addition to any powers possessed by 
t f Tk-kor, dl the power, po,ses.ed by a Col- 
lector, under the law for the time being in 
force, for securing and recovering land re - 
venue due to Government ; 

Provided that he shall not, before the liquidation-scheme 
hereinafter mentioned has been sanctioned, demise the property 
under management, or auy part thereof, for any term exceeding 
two years, to take effect in possession. 

11. From the sums received under sec-* 
Manager to pay there- tion 10, the manager shall pay 
from 

first, the costs of the management, in- 
aosta of management, eluding the costs of necessary repairs ; 

secondly^ the Government revenue and all 

Gofernment revenue, debts and liabilities for the time being due or 
6 ' incurred to Government in respect of the pro- 

perty under management ; 

thirdly, the rent (if any) due to any superior 
holder dU6 t0 saperior holder in Aspect of the said property ; 

fourthly, such periodical allowance as the Commissioner may 

- . from time to time fix for the maintenance 

allowance for main i i 

tenance and expenses of *na other necessary expenses of the debtor 
debtor and family. an d of such members of his family as the 

Commissioner directs ; 

fifthly, the cost of such improvements of 

cost of improvements, the said property as he thinks necessary, and 
etc> as are approved by the Commissioner. 

The residue shall be retained by the manager for the liquida- 
tion, in manner hereinafter provided, or the 
Besidne how disposed debts and liabilities mentioned in section 8, 
' other than those so due or incurred to Gov- 

ernment, and also for the repayment, either before or after the li- 
quidation of such debts and liabilities, of any loan received from 
Government by the manager under this Act. 

CHAPTER IV 

PROOF OF Dasrs AND SCHEME FJB LIQUIDATION 

12. On the publication of the order of management, the 

manager shall publish in the Bombay Gov- 

^fdhfc claimftnt8 er nt Gazeette a notice in English and 

against debtor. Qujarati calling upon all persons having 



feaoAOH & KAIRA INOUMBEBHD ESTATES Act, 1882 7 

claim against the debtor or the property under mauagemnt to notify 
the same in writing to such manager within six months from the 
date of the publication. 

He shall also cause copies of such notice 

Copies of notice to be to be exhibited at the Matnlatdars' kacheris in 
exhibited. the ^i str | ct } n w hich the said property lies, 

and at such other places as he thinks fit. 

Claim to coutain fall 13. Every such claimant shall, along 

particular*. ^fa Mg c i a j mj p rese nt full particulars thereof. 

Every document on which the claimant 

Documents to be given founds his claim, or on which he relies in sup* 
up< port thereof, shall be delivered to the manager 

along with the claim. 

If the document be an entry in any book, the claimant shall 

produce the book to the manager together with 

Entries m booka. a copy of the entry on which he relies. The 

manager shall mark the book for the purpose 

of indentification and, after examining and comparing the copy 

with the original, shall return the book to the claimant. 

If any document in the possession or under the control of the 

claimant is not delivered or produced by him 

Power to exclude docu- to the manager a l 0ng with the c l aim the 
ments not produced f P \ j A. 

with claim. manager may refuse to receive such document 

in evidence on the claimant's behalf at the in- 
vestigation of the case. 

14. Every such claim ( other than claims of the Government ) 

not notified to the manager within the time 
Claim not duly notified and in the manner required by such notice 
to be barred. shall, except as provided in section 19, clause 

(d), be deemed for all purposes and all occasions, whether during 
the continuance of the management or afterwards, to have been 
duly discharged : 

Provided that when proof is made to the manager that the 
claimant was unable to comply with the pro- 
Admission of claims v i s i ons O f sec tion 12, the manager may receive 
within furtner period . .. ... ,.' - ., .'^ - . 

of six months. such claim within the further period of six 

months from the expiration of the original 
period of six months. 

15. The manager shall enquire into the history and merits of 

every claim received under sections 12 and 14, 
Determination of debts an d shall, in accordance with the rules to be 
and liabilities. made under this Act, determine the amount 

of the debts and liabilities ( if any ) justly due to the several 
claimants* 
2 



* THE BfioioH ft KAXBA INOUMBBEED ESTATKS ACT, 1861 

16. If such amount cannot be paid at once, the manager shall 

then proceed to rank such debts and liabilities 
Power to rank debts according to the order in which they shall be 

and to fix interest. pftid) gnd ^ fix ^ ^^ ( j f ftay ^ ^ fae 

paid thereon, respectively, from the date of the final decision there- 
on to the date of the payment and discharge thereof. 

17. When the total amount of the debts and libilities includ- 

ing those due and incurred to Government 
Bcheme for liquidation, has been finally determined, the manager shall 

prepare and submit to the Commissioner a 
schedule of such debts and liabilities, and a scheme ( hereinafter 
called the liquidation- scheme ) showing the mode in which it is 
proposed to pay and discharge the same, whether from the income 
of the property under management, or with the aid o funds raised 
under the powers hereinafter conferred, or partly in one of such 
ways and partly in the other. 

Every such scheme shall further provide for the continuance of 

^ . . . , the payments to be made by the manager un- 
Propone of echeme der ^^ n> ftnd ^ th ^ Tep ^ mejJ ^ oi the 

money (if any) which the manager proposes 
to borrow from Government under this Act, and may provide for 
the improvement of the property under management either from the 
said income or with the aid of the funds raised as aforesaid, or part* 
ly in one of such ways and partly in the other. 

18. The Commissioner may 

(a) as often he thinks fit aend back such scheme to the manager 
p .. {O . for revision, and direct him to make such fur- 

^eTonTnbmissioTof ther in( l uir 7 M ma 7 be wqawite for the proper 
scheme. preparation of the scheme, or 

(b) sanction any liquidation-scheme, or any revised liquidation* 
scheme, submitted to him, either as it stands, or subject to such 
modifications as he may deem expedient. 

19. At any time before he has sanctioned a liquidation -scheme, 

r u UQ der section 18, the Commissioner may, by an 
* order Pushed in the Bombay Government 
Gazette direct that on a date fixed by such or* 
der the management shall be relinquished. 
On the date so fixed 

(a) the management shall terminate ; 

(b) the owener of the property under management shall be res* 
tored to the possession thereof, subject to any leases made odder 
section 10; 

(c) any residue of the rents and profits of the said property re- 
tained under the last clause of section 11 shall be paid to him ; and 

(d) the proceedings, processes, executions and attachments 
stayed and suspended under section 9, and the debts and liabilities 
tarred by section 14 shall revive* 



Ttt B*OACH A KAIJU INOUHMEKID ACT, 1861 

In calculating the periods of limitation applicable to suits to 
recover and enforce debts and liabilities revived under this section, 
the time during which the management has continued shall be 
excluded* 

CHAPTER V. 

Or THE PBOClBDlNGfl BTJ1SIQTJBHT TO 8ANOTI01T OP TH1 LlQUIDATIOW-SoHSKl. 

20- When the Commissioner sanctions the liquidation-scheme, 

he shall notify the fact of such sanction at 

Effects of sanctioning guc h places and in such manner as the Local 

80 " *' Government may from time to time by rule 

direct; and thereupon 

1st, all proceedings, processes, executions and attachments 
stayed or suspended under section 9 shall be for ever barred ; and 

2nd, every debt or liability due or owing to any person which 
was provable before the manager shall be extinguished, and such 
person shall be entitled to receive under the liquidation-scheme the 
amount (if any) finally awarded to him under Chapter IV of this 
Act in respect of such debt or liability. 

Suit in Civil Courts for partition not barred by liquida- 
tion-scheme In respect of the debts and liabilities of a Thakur, this Act 
oasts the jurisdiction of the Oivil Courts as soon as a liquidation-scheme under 
this section is sanctioned ; bnt thit ouster does not apply to a suit for partition 
among the debtor Thaknrs themselves. Sees. 9, 20 and 27 show that conclusively 
(Afalek JamiatRaju v. Kanmkhan JAubarajkhan, P.J.for 1896, p. 721), 

21. If the property under management or any part thereof be 

in the possession of a mortgagee or condi- 
Power to remove mort- tional vendee, the manager at any time after 
gagee in possession. fa li qu i<j a tion-8cheme has been sanctioned 
as aforesaid, may, by an order in writing, re* 
quire such incumbrancer to deliver up possession of the same to 
him at the end of the then current revenue-year. 

If such incumbrancer refuse or neglect to obey such order, the 
manager may, without resorting to a Civil Court, enter upon the 
property and summarily evict therefrom the said incumbrancer and 
any other person obstructing or resisting on his behalf. 

Nothing in this section shall be held to affect the right of any 
incumbrancer to receive, under the liquidation-scheme, the amount 
(if any) awarded to him under Chapter IV of this Act. 

22. If the property under management or any part thereof 
... be in the possession of any person claiming 

JSSSZSET& to hold under a lea* dated wUhin the three 
leases years immediately preceding the commence- 

ment of the management, the manager may 
inquire into the sufficiency of the consideration for which the lease 
was given ; and if such consideration appear to him insufficient, 



10 Tsx BROACH & KAIBA. INGUMBEBKD AQT, 1881 

may by order with the consent of the Commissioner,,^ any time 
after the liquidation -scheme has been sanctioned as aforesaid, either 
set aside the lease on require the person so in possession to pay such 
consideration for the said lease as the manager thinks fit $ and, in 
default of such payment, the lease shall be cancelled* 

23. Subject to the rules made under section 31, the manager, 

after the liquidation-scheme has been sane-* 
Power to lease. tioned as aforesaid, shall have power to 

demise all or any part of the property under 
management for any term of years not exceeding twenty yearn 
absolute, to take effect in possession, in consideration of the pay- 
ment to him of any fine, or without fine, and reserving such rents, 
and under such conditions, as may be agreed upon. 

24. At any time after the liquidation-scheme has been sanc- 

tioned as aforesaid, the manager, with the 
Power to raise money previous assent of the Commissioner, shall 
by mortgage or tale, have power to raise any money which may be 
required for carrying out such scheme 

(a) by mortgaging the whole or any part of the property 
under management for a term not exceeding twenty years from the 
publication of the order of management ; or 

(b) by charging the whole or any part of such property; or 

(c) by selling, by public auction or by private contract, and 
upon such terms as the manager thinks fit, such portion of the said 
property s may appear expedient ; or 

(d) by borrowing money from Government at such rate of in- 
terest as appears reasonable to the Local Government. 

25. The manager's receipt for any moneys, rents or profits 

raised or received by him under this Act shall 
Manager's receipt a discharge the person paying the same there- 
discharge. f rom an( j f rom being concerned to see to the 
application thereof. 

26. When the debts and liabilities mentioned in the liquida- 

tion-scheme and the amount of any loan re- 
Termination of manage- ceived from Government under clause (d) of 
menfc * section 24, together with the interest (if any) 

due thereon, have been paid and discharged 
as therein provided, or in such other manner as the Commissioner 
thinks fit, the manager shall publish in the Bombay Government 
Gazette a notice fixing a date for the termination of the manage- 
ment. 

On the date so fixed the mapfegement shall terminate, and the 

owner alkali be restored to the possession and 
Restoration of owner. enjoyment of the property under manage- 
ment, or of such part thereof as has not been sold by the manager 
under the power conferred by section 24, but subject to the leases 



THE BBOAOH 4 KAIBA INCUMBERBD ESTATIS Act, If 81 11 

and mortgages (if any) granted and made by the manager under 
the powers conferred by sections 10, 23 and 24. 

27. If the debtor dies after the publica- 

Death of debtor dur- tion of the order of management and before 
ing management the mana g eme nt has been terminated in either 

of the modes hereinbefore provided, 

1st, the management shall continue and proceed in all respects 
as if such debtor were still living ; 

2ndly, any person succeeding to the whole or any portion of 
the property under management shall, while such management con- 
tinues, be subject in respect of such property to the disabilities im- 
posed by clauses (b) and (c) of section 9 ; and 

Srdly, no Civil Court in British India shall, during the con- 
tinuance of the management, issue any attachment or other process 
against any portion of the property under management, for or in 
respect of any debt or liability incurred by any such person whe- 
ther before or after his said succession. 

Where the Thakur, whose indebtedness rendered necessary the application of 
this Act to his estate, dies during the management; there is nothing in the Act to 
bar a suit against the successor during the management in respect of his own 
debts, though a decree in such su ; t could not bs executed against the family estate 
(Bhikha v. Sidha, P. J. 1886, p. 107). 

28. When a Thakur has been restored under section 26 to 

the possession of any property, no mortgage, 
by M rM g tored ^'hakor char g e > ' eftse or alienation of such property, 
valid only for his life. or f an J P* rt thereof, made by such Thakur, 

shall be valid as to any time beyond his 
natural life [unless made or granted with the previous sanction of 
Commissioner.]"} 1 

Disability applies to successor of Thakur. The disability con- 

tained in this section applies not only to the Thakur during whose life-time the 
estate was taken under management under this Act, bit to his successor also 
(Gavrishankar v Madhavsang]i, 27 Bom. L. R. 88). 

Mortgage by Talukdar. Where a mortgage effected by a Talukdar 
becomes void under this section, after the death of the Talnkdar the mortgagee 
is not entitled to recover back the money advanced by him on the mortgage under 
sec. 65 of the Contract Act (Parshottam v. Chatrasang'}*, 19 Bom, L. B. 545 ; 
s. c. 41 Bom. 546). 

CHAPTER VI 
OF APPEAL AND REVISION 

29. An appeal against any* decision or order under sections 14, 

15 } 16 and 22, or imposing a fine or impri- 
A PP eal - sonment in exercise of the powers conferred 

f The words in brackets were added by Bom, Aot II of 



12 TfiE BaoicH & KAIBA IKOOHBBBBB KsrAini Aw, 

by section 35, shall lie to the Commissioner, if preferred within 
six weeks from the date of such decision or order* 

There shall be no appeal against the decision of the Commis- 
sioner on such appeal. 

30. The Commissioner may, of his own motion or on the 

application of any person concerned, call for 

JS^ft^K the proceedings in any ce under this Act 

thereon. an pa** such order thereon consistent with 

the provisions of this Act as he thinks fit. 



CHAPTER VII 

MISCELLANEOUS 

31. The Local Government may, from 
Power to make roles, timc to {{m ^ make ruleg co^g^ with thi| 

Act 

(a) to regulate the security to be required from Subordinate 
officers under this Act ; 

(6) to regulate the procedure in all cases under this Act ; 

(c) for the guidance of officers enquiring into and determin- 
ing on claims under Chapter IV of this Act ; and in particular as to 
the allowance of interest (if any) on each of the principal debts 
and liabilities so determined, from the date on which it was in- 
curred down to the date of the determination, and on the a<rgre~ 
gate amount of such debts and liabilities from the date of the deter- 
mination down to the date of payment, and as to the order of pay- 
ing debts and liabilities and repaying any loan received hereunder 
from Government ; 

(d) for investing any moneys received or raised by the manager 
under this Act in any Government securities of Biitish India, and 
for the sale of such securities ; and 

(0) generally to carry out the provisions of this Act. 

Such rules shall be published in the Bombay Government 
Gazitte, and when so published, shall have the force of law. 

32. The Local Government may suspend or remove any 

manager, and may appoint any officer in the 

Power to appoint new 8 tead of any manager appointed under this 

man>lger ' Act; and thereupon the management then 

vested under this Act in the former manager 

shsll become vested in the new manager. 

Every such new manager shall have the same powers as if he 
had been originally appointed. 



THI BmoioB ft KAXBA hrotJioiBifcB EITITII Aot, lltl is 

33. Every manager appointed under this Act and every 
agent of such manager shall be deemed a 
gers & their agents public servant within the meaning of the 
to be pnbhc servants. f ndUn p enal 



34. Every investigation conducted by the manager with 

reference to any claim preferred before him 
Investigation a judicial un( i er this Act, or to any matter connected 

proceeding. ^ ftny gach ^.^ ^ ^ ^^ ^ ^ a 

judicial proceeding within the meaning of 
the Indian Penal Code. 

35. For the purposes of this Act, the manager and any officer 

making an inquiry under section 5 may sum* 
witaes?* to nd flammoni 1 mon and enforce the attendance of witnesses 
prodSn ftn of ". aad com P el them to g ive evidence, and 
ments. compel the production of documents by the 

same means and, as far as possible, in the 
same manner as is provided in the case of a Civil Court by the 
Code of Civil Procedure. 

36. No suit or other proceeding shall be maintained against 
n_ . fl . any person in respect of anything done by 

r ot Bwfc8 ' him bonafide pursuant to this Act 

37. Nothing in this Act precludes the Courts in Broach and 

Kaira having jurisdiction in suits relating to 
-^tCSS ^ 8U ^^ y immoveable property 
Kaira in respect of brou g h . t under the operation of this Act from 
oertain suits. entertaining and disposing of such suits; but 

to all such suits the manager of such property 
shall be made a party. 

As this section mentions succession only, it is argued that a salt for parti- 
tion being not a suit relating to succession, on the principle of uniua 
expreBSio alterna exclusio, the jurisdiction of the Civil Courts U excluded. 
The argument is not universally conclusive. It loses all force where one class of 
suits only are removed from the cognisance of the Oivil Courts and no reason 
exists in the nature of purpose of this Act or extending the class. 

This section requiries the manager to be made a party. His not being so is a 
matttr for amendment and it does not take away the jurisdiction of the Court as 
it is the plaint which determines it (Makk Jamiat Ra\u * Katimkhan Mubarajkhan, 
P, J. 186,p. 721). 

38. Nothing in section 9 shall be deemed to render any 
uv u * * * - of the following thakurs, namely, the thakuf 

JSfiSL 01 S of Abraod > th ^ of'Sarod, the thakur of 
provisions of Act* Kerwara, the thakur of Dehej, and the thakur 
of Janiadra, incompetent to enter into con* 
tracts involving him in pecuniary liability, nor? shall anything in 
section 38 apply to any of the said tbaknrs i 



U THB BBOACH & BJLIBA INCUUBEEEB ESTATES ACT, 

Provided that, if any such thakur has, since the scheme for 
the settlement of his debts and liabilities was approved under 
section 11 of the said Act, No. XY of 1871, entered into any con- 
tract involving him in pecuniary liability exceeding the average 
annual income derived during the previous five years from his im- 
moveable property after deducting therefrom the land-tax and 
other dues of Government, the Local Government may, by notifica- 
tion in the Bombay Government Gazette^ declare that the exemption 
made by the former part of this section shall cease in his case, and 
thereupon such exemption shall cease accordingly. 



THE 

Ahmedabad Talukdars Act 

BOMBAY ACT No. VI OF 1862. 

[14th October 1862.] 

An Aot for the amelioration of the condition of taluqdars 
in the Ahmedabad Colleotorate, and for their relief from 
debt. 

WHEBKAS the lands held in the zila of Ahmedabad in the 
Preamble Province of Gujarat under the title of taluq- 

dari estates are now only held on leasehold 
tenure determinable at the pleasure of Government; and whereas it 
has been brought to the notice of Government that many of the 
taluqdars are in embarrassed circumstances and have borrowed 
money on the security of their landed estates ; and whereas such of 
the said landed estates as are of the taluqdari tenure aforesaid could 
not and cannot be lawfully charged, encumbered or alienated ; and 
whereas it is expedient to enable the said taluqdara to effect a settle- 
ment of their debts and liabilities ; It is hereby enacted as 
follows : 

Operation Of this Aot. This Act did not affect talakdari villages, 
the right, title, and interest of the talukdar in which had been sold before the 
Act came into operation, though possession of such villages had not then been 
obtained by the purchaser (Collector of Ahmedabad v. Samaldas, 9 Bom. 206)^ 

1. Whenever it shall appear to the Governor in Council that 
any taluqdar in the zila aforesaid is subject 
rat f* ertomake decla " either personally or in respect of his landed 
mentV^utel 3toto< e8ta f es of an 7 description of tenure to debts or 
dar in officer appointed liabilities equal to or exceeding five times the 
by Government. average rents, profits and other annual income 

derived by the taluqdar from his estates afore- 
said during the previous five years after deducting thereout the 
land tax and other dues of Government, it shall be lawful for the 
Governor in Council to make a declaration vesting the management 
of the said estates in an officer or officers who shall then be appoint- 
ed by the Governor in Council in that behalf, and the said declara- 
tion shall be published in the Bombay Government Gazette. 

Comment. No new declaration ia to be made under this section at any 
time after six months from the date on which Bom. Aot VI of 1888 came into 
force (Su *.S4 of Bom. Act VI of 1888). 

4 'Liabilities." The 'liabilities/ which the first ten sections of this Act 
were intended to i!eal with are liabilities which, at the time of the declaration 
mentioned in this section, were not merely contingent, but could be made the sub- 
ject of an immediate claim. The case of debt or liability to which a talnkdar 
has become ivibject during the period of management in oonsequence of an event 



2 THK AMEDABAD TALUKDARS ACT [Pox. ACT 

which at the commence <nent of such period could not be foreseen with certainty, is 
a casus omissus in this Act (Sheik Gulam 0. Waghcla, P J., 1883, p. 68). 

2. From and after the publication of said declaration as afore- 

said all suits or judicial proceedings for or in 
lores' tcf *of A^ 3 W P* of debts or liabilities in the first sec- 
UabiUUes in first sec- t f on . above mentioned, other than debts due or 
tioa mentioned, other liabilities incurred to the Grown or Govern- 
than debts to Govern- ment, pending before or under appeal from 
ment, to be permanent- an y of the Civil Courts in the said Presidency, 
y fl aye shall be, and are hereby declared to be, per- 

manently stayed, and no further prosecution thereof shall be per- 
mitted, and all writs, processes, executions or attachments for or in 
respect of such debts and liabilities shall forthwith cease and be 
raised. 

3. From and after the publication of such declaration, the said 

officer or officers shall have power, without 

Power to remove mort- porting to any Civil Court, to remove from 

K 0r p ^ 9 Ton ftnC o r f Possession of the landed estates of the taluq- 

estate of taluqdar. dar of any description of tenure, or any part 

thereof, any mortgagee or other encumbrancer 
who may be in possession of the same, without prejudice to such 
mortgagee or encumbrancer bringing his claim under sections 8 and 
9 before the officer or officers appointed for the management of the 
said estates. 

4. From and after the publication of such declaration as afore- 

said, the taluqdar, the subject of such declara- 

After declaration t ion, shall not be liable to arrest, nor shall his 

arre8f a in n0 Lp l e a c t of Phonal estates of any description whatsoever 

debts other than debts e liable to seizure, attachment or sale under 

due to Government. any process, decree, judgment or execution of 

the Civil Court of the Presidency of Bombay 
for or in respect of any debts or liablities existing at the time of 
such declaration, other than debts due or liabilities incurred to the 
Crown or Government. 

5. From and after the publication of such declaration as afore- 

said) the landed estates of such taluqdar of 
Daring management, aa y description of tenure and the rents, pro- 
dSft^SlfJS fits and income thereof shall during- the 
of debts and liabilities period o the management thereof by the said 
aforesaid officer ot officers, be wholly exempt from 

seizure, attachment or sale under or by virtue of any process, de- 
cree, judgment or execution of any Civil Court of the Presidency 
ot Bombay for or in respect of the debts and liabilities aforesaid, 
other than debts due or liabilities incurred to the Crown or Gov- 
ernment. 



VI w i862 J THE AHMDABAD TALTJKDABS ACT * 

6. It shall be lawful for the Governor in Council to make 

rules for the purpose of carrying this Act 

Power to make and i ato e ffect,and from time to time to alter,vary 

alter rules, Of amea( j mc \ i ^j^ ag necessity may arise, 

7. The officer or officers shall, during the continuance of his 

or their management of the said estates, re- 
Managing officer to C eiv e the whole of the rents, profits and in- 

receive rents, profits , i , n <. r i_ ^ i j 

and income ; come thereof and shall defray thereout land- 

tax and other debts due or liabilities in- 
curred, or hereafter respectively to grow due 
or to be incurred, to the Crown or Govern- 
and pay for support of ment and pay to the taluqdar such annual 
taluqdar and family sum only as shall appear to the Governor in 
Council requisite for the decent support of 
the taluqdar and his family, and any balance 
remaining after such payment as aforesaid 
expenses of manage. 8 k a u jj e a ppH e( j i n discharge of the expenses 
Te^anTliabUUieT^n of such management as aforesaid and in li- 
accordance with rules. quidation or settlement of the debts and 
liabilities to which at the time of the publi- 
cation of the said declaration the taluqdar is subject either per- 
sonally or in respect of his landed estates of any description of 
tenure, in accordance with the rules alluded to in the last preceding 
section. 

8. The said officer or officers shall publish in the Bombay 

Government Gazette a notice in English and 
Managing officer to Gujarathi, calling upon all persons having 

L* L^n? ^i W r" c l aira * a g ainsl the 8aid taluqdara or their said 

ams again&c lajuqdar . , , n . < < 0.1 j LJ. 

to notify claims. landed estates m respect ot any of the debts 

or liabilities aforesaid, to notify the same in 

writing to such officer or officers within three r#] months' time 

fnm the time of such notice in the Gazette, and the said officer or 

officers shall, before or contemporaneously with such publications 

in the Gazette, cause copies o such notice to 

Publication of copies be exhibited at the maralatdars' kache ria in 

o notice - the said zilla and in such place or ulaces as 

to such officer or officers shall seem fit and as 

may be directed by the said rules. 

9. Any debt or liability of the taluqdar other than as afore- 

said, to which he is subject, either personally 

Debt or liability not or in respect of the said landed estates, exist- 

notified to be barred. j n g at t ^ e t | me O f fo e Bg \ft declaration by the 

Governor in Council not duly notified to the 
said officer or officers within the time and in the manner iq the 

[a. The word "calendar" was reapealed by the Bombay General Clauses Act, 
1886 (Bombay Act 3 ol 1886), Schedule B, 



4 TILH AHMBPABAD TAI^KDAIIS Aor [ Bon. Act 

last preceding sections specified, shall and is hereby declared to be 
for ever barred : 

Provided always that, upon proof being given to the satisfac- 

tion of such officer or officers of the inability 

Upon proof of inabli- of the claimant to have complied with the 

% claim T y f^I Provisions of this and the last preceding sec- 

mitted within farther tions, it shall be lawful for the said officer or 

period of nine months, officers, to entertain and admit such claim 

within the further period of nine months from 
the expiration of the above-mentioned period of three months. 

10. Ths said officer or officers shall as early as possible pre- 

pare and submit to the Governor in Couucil 

of SSI's' SBTEl a scheme f <* *? ?ttlement of the taluqdar's 
liabilities. debts and liabilities, and such scheme, when 

approved by the Governor in Council, shall 
be carried into effect. 

The amount of any debt or liability as 

fi*ed in such approved scheme shall not be 
creased. liable to increase. 

Any debt Or liability disallowed by such officer or officers 
shall, if such disallowance be approved by 
Bar of debts dis- Government, be and it is hereby declared to 
8llowed - be for ever barred. 

Debt or liability. r ihe case of a debt or liability to which a Taluk- 
dar has become subject daring such period in consequence of an eyent which could 
not be foreseen with certainty at the commencement of uch period must be 
treated as a catus omistut in this Act (Shaik Gulam v. WagJula Rajsangji, P. J. 
1883, p. 63). 

11. It shall be lawful for the Governor in Council to em- 

power the officer or officers aforesaid to raise 

Power to authorise rais- fund t be applie(i to the settlement of the 
tng of fund for settle- , , . , ,. ..vv. -., , , , , , . 

ment of debts and liabU deb ts and liabilities c f the talukdar by assign- 
lities, ing the whole or a portion of hi* landed 

estates of any description of tenure to be held 
and enjoyed, for a period or periods not exceeding twenty years 
from the publication of the declaration aforesaid, by any fit person 
or persons who may advance money on the security thereof, or by 
the sale of such outlying portion or portions of the said estates as 
may appear expedient ; but in case of such sale the consent of the 
taluqdar and of his next heir, if the latter be of age, shall first be 
obtained. 

12. Any debt or liability, except as hereinbefore excepted, 

which may be incurred by the taluqdar, either 
inUF " personally or in respect to his said landed ea- 
J 



ceablo against estates. such management as aforesaid, shall not be 
enforceable in any manner whatever, either 



VI OF 1&62 ] THE AHMED ABAD TILUKDAM ACT 5 

during or subsequently to such period of management, against his 

said landed estates or any part thereof, and it shall not be compe- 

T ... tent for the taluqdar during the said period 

dartTSlel, a fe of "*' to charge, encumber, sell or 

nate. alienate his said landed estates or any part 

thereof, and such charge, encumbrance, sale 

or alienation shall be null and void. 

Inability of guardian to contract on behalf of infant ward 

80 as tO bind him personally. A guardian cannot contract in the name 
of a ward, so as to impose on him a personal liability. This Ac t is intended to 
deal with debts and liabilities which can possibly impose a charge upon the talak- 
dar estate at the end of the period of management, when the estate was to be 
restored to the talnkdar free of incnmbranoe, excepting the Government revenne 
(Waffhelav. Masludin, 11 Bom. 551). 

4 'Incurred 7 ' The term "incurred" in this section is used in its proper 
sense of "run into" and implies an act done by the Talnkdar daring the period of 
management (Bhaik Oulam 9. Wjghela Rajsanji, P, J. 1883, p. 63). 

Maintenance grant. In the Thakorate of Gamph Hindu Rajput 
family in the Bombay Presidency, holding au impartible estate subject to the rale 
of primogeniture it was customary to grant villages to junior sons of tbe holder of 
the gaddi for jivai or maintenance. The grant reverted to the gaddi on failure of 
the grantee's male descendants, widows being excluded, One of such grantees 
died issueless leaving a widow who purported to adopt a son subsequently. Hld 
that the adopted son inherited the grant (Pratap Singh Qhivsingh v. Agarsinghi\i 
Raiingh y 43 Bom. 773, P. 0.). 

13. It shall be lawful for every officer or officers appointed 
under this Act to demand and require the 
up wHts drr^ t0 par8 Production of any writs, decrees, judgments, 
eto,, when required. records, deeds, documents, exhbit, pleadings, 

books, accounts, letters, petitions, papers or 
writings filed in any of the suits mentioned in the second section 
of this Act, or relating to the debts or liabilities of any taluqdar 
whose landed estates are brought under such management as afore- 
said, 1 in the custody or control of any Civil Court, or in the custody 
or control of any Judges, Judge, Assistant Judge, officer or person 
connected with such Court, and upon notice being given in writing 
by such officer or officers to guch Civil Court, or to any Judges, 
Judge, Assistant Judge, officer or person connected therewith, such 
writs, decrees, judgments, records, deeds, documents, exhibits, 
pleadings, books, accounts, letters, petitions, papers or writings in 
the said notice mentioned shall be immediately given up to the said 
officer or officers appointed under this Act, in the manner directed 
by the said notice, any act, usage or custom to tbe contrary in 'any 
wise notwithstanding, 



Tsa ASHUBDJLBAD TALUKDAR* ACT [ BOM. ACT 

14. It shall be lawful for every officer or officers appointed 
,. ^ t. under this Act to summon witnesses and to 

Sr td f*t e^ce, [.]* and it shall also be 
production of books, etc. lawful for the said officer or officers to com- 
pel the production of books, accounts, papers, 
deeds or other documents, and to inflict a fine not exceeding rupees 
one hundred for disobedience to any sanad or order made under 
this section. 

15. The officer or officers appointed for the management of 

the landed estates of any taluqdar under this 

cfficeTfor 1 SS Act 8ha1 / haV6 > f r the P Ur P 8e Of thi8 realiza ' 
rents and profits. tion and recovery of the rents, profits and 

income of such landed estates, the same 
powers as a Collector possesses under the Regulations or Acts now 
or hereafter in force for the realization and recovery of land- 
revenue due to Government. 

Note. The talukdari Settlement Officer seized under this section some 
moveables in levy of rent. Held, that his process was " legal process" under Art. 
29 of ch. 11 of the Limitation Act of 1877( T&akwanta 9. The Tulkdari Bitthment 
Officer, P. J. 1892, p. 32). 

16. The management of the landed estates of any taluqtla r 

by such officer or officers as aforesaid shall not 
Management limited extend beyond the period of twenty years, to 
i^UatoiT'clliill* be calculated trom the first publication of 
eto.,%o be considered 8UC ^ declaration as aforesaid in the Bom- 
settled, bay Government Gazette, and at the ex * 

piration of such management whether before 
or at the end of such period of twenty years, all debts and 
liabilities (except as hereinbefore excepted) existing at the 
time of such declaration, and comprised in such approved 
scheme as aforesaid, shall be deemed to be for all intents 
and purposes whatsoever fully discharged and satisfied, and neither 
the uluqdar nor his heirs nor representatives, nor his heir nor their 
estate?, whether moveable or iinrn >veable, or any part thereof shall 
be subject in any manner whatsoever to such debts or liabilities 
(except as hereinbefore exceptei) or any pare thereof. 

17. It shall be lawful for the Governor 

Power to appoint new i n Council from time to time to appoint new 
officer8 - officers to carry this Act into effect, and all 

such officers shall have the same powers as 
the officer or officers first appointed. 



(1 ] The words repealed by the Repealing and Amending Aot, 18?6 (XII of 
1876;, are omitted. 



VI OF 1862 ] THE AHMBDABAD TiLtitoABS Aofr 7 

18. Officers appointed under this Act 

Powers for enforcing 8 jj a n k ave foe same powers for enforcing the 

payment of fines. payment of fines imposed under this Act as 

are given to Courts [a] by section 61, Act 

XXV of 1861. 

19. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary in this Act, it 

shall be lawful for the Civil Courts to enter- 

Smt3 cognizable by tain and dispose of suits relating to the sue- 

w ourts. cession to, or rights of co-parcenary in, or 

rights of persons claiming maintenance out 

of, any landed estate or estates brought under the operation of this 

Act : 

Provided always that neither the Crown 
** Government nor any officer or officer. 

ing officer. appointed under this Act, shall be liable to 

any suit for or in respect of any act or acts 

done in good faith by such officer or officers. 

20. From and after the expiration of the period of manage- 

ment of the estate of any taluqdar, whether 



K 

management. years, the taluqkdar shall be the absolute pro- 

prietor of his said landed estates as regards 
succession to, and possession, manamgement and transfer of, the 
same, subject to such land-tax as the Governor in Council may be 
pleased to reserve and all usual remedies for the recovery thereof, 

21. **** [b] In this Act, [b] *** 
Interpretation-clause. unlegg tfaere be 80mefch i a g in the 8ub j ec t O r 

context repugnant to such construction* * * *. 

(1) the term "Civil Court" shall mean and include every 
Court of Civil Judicature in the Presidency of Bombay whether 
established by Royal Charter or not. 

(2) and (5) [Rep. Bom. Act III of 1886. 1 



[a] See now s. 386 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1898 (Act 6 of 
1898). 

[55] The words repealed bj the General Olauaea Act, 1886, are omitted. 



The Khoti Settlement Act 

BOMBAY ACT No. I OF 1880. 

[ 6tk May, 1880. 

An Act to amend the law relating to the settlement of Villages 
held by Khots. 

WHEBBAS it is expedient to make special provision for the settle- 
ment and revenue-administration of villages in the Ratnagiri District, 
which are held by khots ; It is enacted as follows : 

FART I. 
PRELIMINARY. 

1. This Act may be cited as the Khoti Set- 
shorttltle ' tlement Act, .88u. 

It extends to all villages held by khots in 
* * the district of Ratnagiri. 

The Governor in Council may from time to time, by notification 
in the Bombay Government Gazette, extend all or any of its provisions 
to any such village in the Kolaba District. 

2. Sections 37 and 38 of the Bombay Survey and Settlement Act, 

1865, are repealed so far as they apply to any 

Repeal of sections 37 village to which this Act extends, or may here- 

oU8b 8 5 ay ACb l after be extended : Provided that the said repeal 

shall not affect the validity of any settlement 

already made under the provisions of the said sections and which has 
been guaranteed by the Government for a filed period under section 
28 of the said Act. 

3. In this Act, unless there be something 

Interrelation clause re p U g nant in the subject Or COntext:- 

(1) "village" means a village, or a portion or share of a village, 
to the extent to which a khot hat? any right or interest in such village 
or portion or share thereof : 

(2) "khot" includes 

(a) a mortgagee lawfully in possession of a khotki, 
() all co-sharers in a khotkti ; 

(3) "khotki" means the aggregate of the rights and interests 
vested in a khot as such : 

(4) "jama" means land-revenue payable.by a khot to Government. 

(5) privileged occupant" means 
(a) a dharekari, or 

(4) a quase-dhari, or 

(c) [a] a permanent-tenant : 

(6) "dharekari" means a land-holder who holds on the "dhara'' 
tenure : 

[a] The phraeo * permanent tenant' ' was substituted for the original phraie 
<tn occupancy tenant" by Bom. Act V of 1913, B, 85 (b). 



KHOTI SETTLEMENT ACT, 

(7) "quasi-dharekari" means a land-holder of any of the derio- 
urinations named in the first column of the schedule [a J. 

(8) "permanent tenant" [0] means a holder of khoti land who has 
a right of occupancy in such land : 

(9) "dhara land" means land held by a dharekari, or by a quasi- 
dharekari : 

(10) "khoti land" means land in respect of which a khot has, as 
such, any right or interest and which is not dhara land : 

[cj (11) ''Recording-officer" means any officer duly empowered to 
make or am^nd entries in the settlement-register or other settlement 
records by or under flection 1U8 of the Bombay Land-Revenue Code, 
1879, or Part Hi of this Act : 

(12) Any word or expression which is defin- 
? d in the Bombay Land-revenue Code, 1870, and 
one Code. is not hereinbefore defined, shall be deemed to 

have the meaning given to it by that Code. 



PART II. 

QBNBBAL PROVISIONS RELATING TO KHOTS AND 

THEIR INFERIOR HOLDERS. 

Khots. 

4. Khots shall continue to hold their villages conditionally on 

the payment of the amounts due on account of the 

Continuance of Rhote' jama of the same, according to the provisions of 

piymeVof taT* 1 "* * this Aot aild of the Bombay Land Revenue Code, 
1879, and of any rules for the time being in force 

made under this Acfc or under the said Code, and subject to the fulfil- 
ment of any other term or liability lawfully annexed or appertaining 
to their tenure. 

Meanings Of "KhOt" and "KhOti". A <Khot' means a renter of a 
village, a farmer of land or revenue. In some provinces he is an hereditary officer 
whose* duty it is to collect for Government the revenue of the village, also an officer 
appointed for this office. The < khoti' means the practice, business or office of a 
khot ^Molesworth's Dictionary). In some parts, e. </., in the Satara District, the 
word "khoti" means contracting for a standing crop (Ibid). 

A Khot ia a farmer of land-revenue and that his office has become hereditary 
(Tajubai t>. Svk-C*llu!torofKo<tba, 3 Born H. 0. R. A. 0. -T. 132), He is a superior 
holder with respect to all the village lands over whitfh he exercises kboti rights. 
Proprietary rights are not essential to the conception of a Khotftiup; in the absence 
of an express grant of the proprietorship of the soil a khot is to be presumed not 
to be the proprietor of the soil (Ibid). That does not, however, mean that be has 
no interest whatever in his Khoti village, nor that he is merely an officer or agent 
Of the Government (Collector of Ratnayiri v. ^ntajt, 12 Bom. 634). 



[a] Words repealed ty Bom. Act III of J886, are omitted, 
[&J ihe phrtie "permanent tenant" was substituted for the original phrase "an 
occupancy tenant" by Bon, Act IV of 1918. 

[e] Clause (1 1) was foisted by Bom. Act HI of 1904, 8. 2, in the place of 
UK fomtr cJme (,11) T>lkfc TUB Kiirltd ly B(m, Act 111 of 1880, 



THIS Kftoii EtamaaiBNT ACT, 18d<J. & 

Inferior Holder. 

5. Every holder of Khoti land who hns actually occupied or 
cultivated the same continuously from any tjrae 
"nt previ * '? * he coipmencetneBt of the revenne 
ants. () >' ear lo45-4D has a right of occupancy in the land* 

so occupied or cultivated 

The occupation or cultivating of the father or other person from 
whom the present holder inherits, and in the case of perm taint tev> 
aucies which are transferable otherwise than by inheritance, tha 
occupation or cultivating of any former holder through whom the per* 
sent holder claims, or of any mortgagee or lessee of the present or any 
former holder, shall be deemed to be the occupation or cultivating of 
the persent holder within the meaning of this section ; 

and, in the case of land which is periodically fallow, years of 
fallow shall be reckoned as years of occupation or cultivation for the 
purpose of this section. 

6- If a permanent tenancy which is not transferable otherwise 
than by inheritance, has been so transferred, the 
'/ has been actual holder of the land shall be deemed to be 
transferred, the tenant thereof, and if he, or his father or 
other person from whom no inheiits, has occupi- 
ed or cultivated the land continuously r'r nu ,-uiy tira? previous to the 
commencement of the revenue year iS43-46 he shuil hav^ a permanent 
tenancy therein : 

provided that, if the actual holder i^ in possession of the land as 
mortgagee, or lessee merely, his occupation or cultivating shall for the 
purpose of this section and of section ,"> be deemed to be the occupation 
cultivating of the mortgagor or lessor, and that if such mortgagor. or 
lessor has a permanent tenancy in the land such permanent tenancy 
shall, notwithstanding the provisions of sectiun 9, be subject to the 
mortgage lien or lease of the said mortgagee or lessee until the sam* 
is duly dit-charged or determined. 

Occupancy tenant. There is no authority for saying that an ocoapancy 
tenant, whose tenancy is not determined, forfeits bis tenancy by parting tempora- 
rily with the possession of his land to another without resigning the land as com- 
pletely as would be necessary, in the case of privileged occupants of another sab- 
clasr, to place the land at the disposal of the khot. And o long as his tenancy if 
not determined the land is not at the disposal of the kh >t. And the khot cannot 
olaim to trnat the person in possession under a right derived from the occupancy 
tenant either as a trespasser even as a yearly tenant, so long aa the privileged 
occupant's rights remain undetermined by resignation, lapse or duly certifiad for- 
feiture (}'e,v? v. Sakharam, 30 Bom. 290). 

7. Privileged occupants shall continue to hold their lands con- 
, ,, . . , ditionally on the payment of the rent from time 

^X n rg V>l9f *' ^ time "lawfully due by them to the khot or 
other person entitled to receive payment of the 
same. 

8. Tenants other than permanent tenants shall continue to hold 
^ ,. A their lands subject to such terms and conditions 

^Ordinary tenants. a s may have been, or may hereafter he, agreed 

(a-a) The phrase " permanent tenants " sva substituted lor the original 
words "occupancy tenants 7 ' by Bom. Act IV of 1913, s, 85 (6). 



KHOTI SETTLIMENT ACT, 1880. 

upon between the khot and themselves, and in the absence of any 
such specific agreement shall be held to be yearly tenants liable to pay 
rent to the khot at the same rates as are*p*ud by permanent tenants 
in the village in which the lands held by them are situate : Provided 
that the said rate shall not exceed the maxima prescribed in section 
33, clause (c). 



Rent* payable by other tenants in absence of agreement with the #/W -Where in a 
khotl Tillage the Settlement Officer has determined the share of that with regard to 
the occupancy tenancies; and the tenants other the occupancy tenants do not ap- 
pear to hold ther lands on any terms agreed upon between the khot and themselves, 
inch tenants are entitled, under thia section, to pay rent to the khot at the same 
rates as are paid by occupancy tenants (Krishnova 0. Keshav, 21 Bom. 71). 

Note* 'Thai' means the portion of produce due from an under-tenant to the 
landlord. 

TRANSFER &c., OF RIGHTS 

What rights are trans- 9. The rights of khots, dharekaris and 

' quasi-dharekaris shall be heritable and transfer- 

able. 

Permanent-tenancies shall be heritable, bnt shall not be other- 
wise transferable without the consent of the khot, unless in any case 
the tenant proves that such risrht of transfer has been exercised in 
respect of the land in hi* occupancy, independently of the consent of 
the khot, at some time within the period of thirty years next previous 
to the commencement of the revenue year 1865-66, or unless, in the 
case of a permanent tenancy conferred by the khot under section 11, 
the khot grants such right of transfer of the same : 

Provided that a permanent tenant raay without the consent of the 
grant a lease for a term not exceeding one year. 

OOQUpanoy tenant's right. Under this section the managing khot is 
entitled to give consent to the transfer of a permanent tenancy (Ibrahim t>. /Tri'.sA- 
fw/i, 26 Bom. L. R. 421). 

*iO. If the land by a privileged occupant lapses for failure of 

heirs or ip forfeited oo the occupant's failing to 

Resignation, lapse or for. pav the rent due in respect thereof, or if any 

fri?ilesel CCU " - 



permanent tenant resigns his land or any por- 

i _ - v ' . . * 

tion of his land or does any act purporting to 
transfer his laod or any portion thereof or any interest therein without 
the consent of the khot (except in the cases provided for in section 9), 
such land shall be at the disposal of the khot as khoti land free of all 
encumbrances, other than liens or charges created or existing in favour 
of Government. 

But it shall not be competent to a privileged occupant at any time 
to resign a portion only of his entire holding: except with the consent 
of the khot ; and no privileged occupant shall be deemed to have for* 
feited his land on failure to pay rent unless such foreitnre is certified 
by the Collector. 

*Not6 This section was substituted for the original section by Bom. Act 
VIII of 1912, . 1. 



THE KHOTI SETTLEMENT ACT, 1880, 5 

Application. Agreement ly tenant to sell whether amounts to transfer. The 
provision of 8. 10 is of a penal nature and must be construed strictly, fold, that a 
mere contract to sell khoti lands by a tenant without the consent of the Khot will 
not be sufficient to amount to a transfer and will not attract the operation of -8. 10 
and place the land at the disposal of the Khot. Semble : It may be that in the case 
of a contract to sell an occupancy holding, the managing Khot may give consent to 
the transfer a\id the transaction will then be good (NARAYAN BALKBSHNAJ. VA- 
MAN NARAYAK, 35 Bom. L. R. 1015). 

Khot'S powers OTer lapsed landS.-As long as a knot's power of per- 
manent disposal rests with him and has not been alienanted to a tenant with privi- 
leged occupancy right*, the land must be regarded for all purposes as nndistingnish* 
able from ordinary Khoti Khisqi, the right remaining with the khot at pleasure 
to recover the land on the determination of any yearly or abort term tenancy 
(Oajanan v. NVo, 6 Bom. L B 84). 

Ooonpauoy tenants. An occupancy tenant by transferring his land on 
sale does not resign it within the meaning of this section so aa to place the land 
at the disposal of the khot (Ramchindra 9. Dattrttrayft, 31 Bom. 261). 

When an oconpincy tenant transfers land to another on a sale deed he cannot, 
cftorling to the ordinary u*aee of language, be said to have resigned the land. 
Though the consent of the khot is not necessary to a resignation still the resigna- 
tion must be made to the khot, and it i* only to the khot that tbe resignation can 
be mnde As to whether or not * pr titular transaction is a resignation to the khot 
must depend upon the circumstances of suoh ca*e (Badeshih r. Narayan, 9 Bom. 
L. R. 29). 

Under this section the occupancy tenant's risjht cannot be sold, either at a 
private sale or a sale in execution of a decree. To this bar there are two exoep* 
tions ; first, where the right of transfer is created by custom under the conditions 
specified in this section ; and, secondly, where the Khot has in granting lease con- 
ferred upon the lessee the right of occupancy at the time of creating the tenancy. 

Hence, where after the occupancy has been created the Khot consents to the 
transfer of his rights by the tenant, such consent has no place whatever in this 
section (MAHADEV o. MAHADJI, 13 Bom. L. R. 1157). 

KhOti land. Where the permanent tenant of khoti lands transfers a por- 
tion thereof without the consent of the Kbit, only the portion so transferred, and 
not the entire holding, is at the disposal of the khot, under this section (ftfadhav- 
rao v. Krishn^i, 46 Bom. 470). 

A simple mortgage of Khoti land by its occupant amounts to a transfer of 
his interest in tho land, within the meaning of this section. The mortgage itself 
gives the khot a right to claim that the land is at his disposal ; the fact that the 
mortgage is satisfied before the date of the suit is no answer to the claim (Vasu v. 
*lfadhavrao, 24 Bom. L. R. 1160). 

Grant of Privileged Occupant's Rights by Khots. 

11. It shall be competent to the khot at any time to confer on any 

tenant the right of a privileged occupant of any 

right^tco^rdby class, or on a privileged occupant of one class, 

khots the right of a privileged occupant of a superior 

class : Provided that the grant by the knot of 



ft THE KHOTI SantitMENT ACT, 1880. 

any such right shall not affect any right of Government in respect of 
the land which is the subject of such grant or of the trees or other 
forest-produce of such land. 

12. On receipt of a written application from the khot, in such 

form as shall he prescribed in rules to be fram- 
Record of g rant. ^ ed under section 40, the Collector shall cause 

an entry to be made, in such record as may from time to time be pre- 
scribed by Government in this behalf, of any right conferred by the 
khot under the last preceding section, and an entry thus duly made 
and authenticated by the Collector's signature shall be conclusive 
proof of the facts therein recorded. 

Nothing in this section or in section 11 shall be deemed to apply 
to a mortgagee lawfully in possession of a khotki unless such mortgagee 
shall have been expressly authorized by his mortgagor to exercise the 
powers conferred by the said sections. 

Recovery of Rents. 

13. [Repealed by Bom. Act III of 1904, s. 3."] 

14. If a permanent tenant neglect to raise a crop on any land in 

his holding on account of the rent of which he 

Rent of land which a would, if he raised a crop, be liable to pay the 

to7ate! Gnant fcS khot a share of the produce, the khot shall be 

entitled to receive froai him the same amount of 

rent as if he had raised a crop. 

In the event of a dispute as to the amount of rent due under this 
section, such amount shall be determined by the Collector, but no such 
rent shall be recoverable by the khot if the tenant shall satisfy the 
Collector that in the year for which such rent is claimed it was proper 
having regard to the custom of the village in respect of lands of the 
same class, or to the nature and requirements of the soil, that the 
land should be left fallow. 

Accounts. 

15. The khot shall 

(a) keep, or cause to be kept, such accounts as may from time to 

time be required bv the Collector under the 
Khots to keep accounts; orderg Qf Qo \ ernmen t . 

(6) produce such accounts whenever requir"" 

when ri^aiwSl 1100 ed fco fche Collector or to any officer subordinate 

to the Collector not lower in rank than a mahal- 
kari ; and 

(c) give a written receipt for every payment 

receTpts! *" ****** of rent or land-revenue made to him whether by 
a privileged occupant or tenant, or by a cosharer 
in his khotki. 

For disobedience of any order duly made under this section, or for 

any infraction of the provisions of this section, 

y ' the khot shall, on conviction before the Collector 

or the Assistant or Dcfputy Collector in charge of the taluka in which 

such khot'e village is situate, be liable to a fine not exceeding one 

hundred rupees, which shall be recoverable as an arrear of jama* 



Eton &dtn>teflT A<n, 

PART III 

SURVEY AND SETTLEMENT. 
Settlement-reco rds. 

16. Whenever a survey-settlement of the land-revenue of any 

village to which this Act extends is made or 

Preparation of settle- revised under the provisions of Chapter VIII of 

^iia g e r s egi8tei> f kh0ti the Bomb y Land-Revenue Code, 1879, the 
settlement-register prepared under section 108 of 

the said (/ode shall show the area and assessment of each survey-num- 
ber and also whether such survey number is held by a privileged occu- 
pant or not. 

*If a survey-number is held by one or more privileged occupants? 
the said register shall further specify the tenure on which such numr 
ber is held, the names of the occupants thereof, and, in the case of a 
survey-number held by a permanent-tenant, whether his interest there- 
in is transferable otherwise than by inheritance or not. 

Survey-numbers which are not held by privileged occupants shall 
be entered in the said register in the name of the khot, or, if a parti- 
tion of the khotki has taken place, of the co-sharers to whose shares 
they respectively belong. 

The said register shall also contain a list of all the co-sharers of 
the khotki, if the village be not held by one khot ID his own sole right 
and shall specify the extent of each such co-sharer's interest in the 
khotki. 

A mortgagee of a co-sharer of a khotki is not a co-sharer 

within the meaning of tnU section, and cannot claim to have hi* name entered in 
the register, though a mortgagee of a whole khotki m*y claim to be so registered 
(Vithalv. Sitabai, 3 Bom L. li 181). 

Khot does not inolude mortgagee of a oo-sharer in the 

khotki The word ''Khot" as used in this Act does not inolude a mortgagee of 
a co-sharer in the khotki. This Act does not give the Survey Officer, when pre- 
paring the settlement register, any authority to invdstigate and determine the title 
of persons who claim as mortgagees only of a share in the khofcki, still less to 
determine whether an alleged mortgage of a share has taen redeemed or is still 
subsisting (Dattatraya v. Itamchandra, 24 Bom. 53S.) 

Revision of order by survey officer making it or his SUCCeS- 

SOr. _ A Survey officer has no power to revise an order made by himself or his 
predecessor in office in accordance with the provisions of this section or the next 
section (Bhifaji v. Sakharam, P. J., 1897, p. 119). 

[a] 17. The other records prepared under 
other records to show t )^ ^id section shall specify 



(a) the description and amount of ront, if any, payable to the 
, khot by each privileged occupant according to 

privilegeci occupant. r< J vigioil|S ^f 3e cti n 33 ; and 



* This para, was subatituted for the original one by Bom. Act IV of 1913, 

B. 88. 

(rtj Sections 17 to 22, both inclusive, were cabatituted for the original see* 
tions 17 to 22, both inclusive, by Bern. Act III oi 1904, 6, 4. 



I tsi* kwon SBTTLWOEWT Act, 

and, when the khotki is 

undivided, the co-sharers 1 /i^ :*fu A IrU/sfV; ; a r. M /4;r;/l */l 

respective rights; (*) "the khOtkl 18 Undivided, 

(i) the survey-numbers in the possession of each co-sharer and 
the rent payable by such co-sharer on account of the same ; and 

(it) the terms and particulars of any written agreement which 
the co-sharers, or any of them, have entered into, or may at the time 
of the framing of the said record enter into, determining their res- 
pective reponsibility ; and 

(w) the order of rotation in which the said co-sharers agree in 
writing, if they do so agree, to take the management of the village 
under the provisions of section 27 ; or 

or when the khotki is ( c ) if a partition has been effected and the 

%S&$j. *"**" c - sharer8 of tlie ktotki hold their respective 
shares in severalty, 

(1) the extent and limits of each separate share ; and 

(it) the same particulars in respect of the several sub-shares, if 
any, of each such share as are required by clause (b) to be given con- 
cerning all the co-sharers when a khotki is undivided. 

Custody and Amendment of Records : Determination of Disputes. 

18. (1) When the survey- settlement of any 

.fcT^S&SSS village to which this Act extends is completed, 
completed, the settlement-register and other records thereof 

shall be kept by the Collector, 

(2) So long ad the settlement-register and other records are in 

the charge of the Survey-officer, the said officer, 
Power ot Recording- and afterwards the Collector or any other officer 
^writ^inSi'tf whom fche ?mor in Council from time to time 
parties ; empowers in this behalf, may, in the cases spe- 

cified in sub-section (3), but not otherwise save 
with the consent of the parties affected thereby given in writing be- 
fore the Recording-officer, at any time amend, or cause to be amended, 
any entry in such register or records, whether by addition thereto, in- 
sertion therein, cancellation or other alteration thereof, as may be 
required ; and unless and until so amended, every entry made shall, 
as long as the survey settlement for which it was made remains in 
force, continue to be spplicable to the land referred to. 

and in certain other (3) The cases referred to in sub-section 

case8 " (2; are the following, namely : 

(a) any clerical error, or any error which all the parties affected 
thereby admit to have been in the same, may be corrected ; 

(b) any entry which the Recording-officer is satisfied has been 
caused by mistake or obtained by means of fraud, misrepresentation 
or personation, or by other means amounting to an offence under the 
Indian Penal Code, may be cancelled, and such other entry (if any) 
substituted therefor as the Recording-officer shall determine ; 

(c) any entry which is rendered inapplicable or incorrect by any 
change of cicumstances or transfer of rights or interests relating 
thereto may be cancelled or corrected, as the Recording-officer may 
deem fit ; 

(d) an entry of the description and amount of the rent payable 
by a permanent tenant may be inserted or altered in accordance with 



THE KHOTI SWTTLUJCHSNT ACT, 1850. 

any of the provisions of rules IV and V under clause (c) of section 
33 ; and 

(*) subject to the provisions of section 20, any entry in respect of 
which the parties affected thereby may have obtained inter se a final 
decree of a Court of competent jurisdiction undr section 21, shall be 
amended in accordance therewith, on an application, accompanied by 
a certified copy of such decree, being duly made to the Recording- 
Officer for that purpose. 

19. (1) If it appears to the Recording-officer that there exists 

any dispute as to any m ttter which he is bound 

Disputes to be deter- to record, or as to any amendment proposed to 

Xer. Rec ^ lln - be made under section* 18, he may, either on the 

application of any of the disputant, parties, or 

of his own motion, investigate and decide such dispute, and frame or 
amend the settlement-register or other record accordingly. 

(2) No such decision and no amendment of any entry in the set- 

tlement-register or other records shall be made 

.fb*btldWj$j: llntil after d"".""^ to the partis affected 
to parties. thereby, and without giving them an oppor- 

tunity of being heard in respect thereto : 

Provided that no such decision or amendment of an entry shall be 
deemed invalid mcrt y for want of such notice 
V180< or opportunity as aforesaid 

(3) But any person affec'ed by any such decision or amendment, 

to whom Kiu ii notice or opportunity at- atorenaid 
Remedy of party affected has not been given, may apph to tue RtCuiding- 

opp'orta^ity gi ven 1 ^ 01 officer to hav ' 8llcl1 decision or amendment can- 
celled or altered, as the circumstances of the 

case may require, and, subject to the provisions 01 sub-section ^;, the 
Recording-officer shall reinvestigafe the mitter and may, if he thinks 
fit, cancel or alter such decision or amendment accordingly. 

20. (1) Subject to such orders as may be passed on appeal under 

sab- section ("2) and to the provisions of sub sec- 

Recording-officer's dec\- tion (3), every entry in the settlement-register 

sion final in certain mat- or other records made by the Recording-officer 

under section 16, 17 or 18, and purporting to 
record 

(a) the fact thaj the interest of any permanent tenant is or is not 
transferable otherwise than by inheritance, or 

(b) the liability of each privileged occupant to pay rent of the 
description and amount entered, 

shall, subject to the provisions of section 18, be conclusive and 
final evidence of the fact or liability so recorded. 

(2) Any person aggrieved by any such entry may, within one year 

or the mnking of the entry, appeal to the Qovern- 

subjecb to appeal to or in * onncil to hiive I be'entn altered, and the 

Governor in Couucii. entry phall ^ a | tpre rf jf { i e orders pa^ed on the 

appeal so direct, and the entry so altered in accordance with such 
orders shall be conclusive and final evidence in the manner and to the 
extent specified in &Ujb-sectioii (I). 



10 THK Enoti fiETttis^^ih! Adr, ISftO. 

(3) Nothing in this section shall affect fd* 

Saving of pending cirii ceedings pending in any Civil Court at the time 
proceedings. when this section comes into force. 

Notice. A landlord can sue in ejectment his yearly tenants who have at- 
tempted to deny his title, and in each case it is not necessary to give any notice to 
them prior to suit. It is a disclaimer on the p%rt of a yearly tenant to claim to 
be a mirasi or permanent tenant. Where under a plea of ownership a party has 
eucoeeded in obtaining a possessory order in a suit before a Mamlatdar, it is not 
necessary for the evicted party to give notice to quit before suing in ejectment on 
his title. It may, however, be otherwise when the possessory order is sought on 
the plea of a disturbance of an existing easement ( Mahipat v. Lakshman, 24 
Bom 420). 

Cause Of action. This section and the following section do not consti- 
tute a fresh cause of action in a case where theie has been a denial of title prior 
to the proceedings before the survey officer (Vithal 0. Sitabai, $ Bom. I. R. 



21. In any other matter the decision of the 

Recording-officer's de- s a id Recording-officer shall not be open to 

Hef^e^^/a^cree 6 appeal or revision, and shall be binding upon 

of Court. all the parties affected thereby until reversed or 

modified by a final decree of a competent Court : 

Provided that 

(a) no person shall be permitted in any Civil Court, as a defend- 

ant or otherwise, to plead, whether directly or 

Proviso m restraint of indirectly, that such decision or entry is errone- 

smts< ous or is not binding upon him, if such person is, 

at the date of the institution of the suit in which the question 

arises, debarred by the law ot limitation for the time being in force 

from instituting a suit for, or with a view to, the reversal of modifica- 

tion of such decision or entry ; and 

(d) no fresh caune of action shall accrue in respect of 

(i) a decision or entry made for the purpose of, or in the course of, 
a revised survey-settlement, or 

() an amendment of an entry made under any of the provisions 
of section 16, 

wiiich makes no alteration affecting the substance of the previous deci- 
sion or entry relating to the same subject-matter. 

Ent ry in revenue records not conclusive, The mere entry of 

the name of some paticnlar person as occupant is not a decision of the recording 
officer which is final. Decisions to the class of tenure and as to the complicated 
rights of the knots are conclusive (Bhiva 9. Babu, 48 Bom. 469)* 

Entry in Bot-khat-Deoision of officer. This section nowhere 

provides that the mere entry in the settlement register of the name of a particular 
person as the occupant of a survey number is eithe r final and conclusive or that it 
is binding upon all parties concerned unless and until it is reversed or modi6ed by 
a decree of the Oivil Court. What is made binding by the provisions of this section 
is the decision of the Recording Officer and not a mete entry of a person's name in 
the settlement regitar (Rafrram, -, Jaganaath 46 Bom, 966). 



Tsa KHOTI SETTLEMBNT ACT, 1880 U 

Limitation The period of limitation for a suit, contemplated by this 
aection, it six years under Art. 120, 8oh, II, Limitation Act (Go pal r. Krishna, 
8 Bom. L. H. 420). 

22. No suit shall lie against Government or 

Bar of suits against against any officer of Government to set aside 
S'officTrs. ' "" an ) T decision or order of a Survey-officer or other 

Recording-officer under this Part. 

PART IV. 

ADMINISTRATION OF SURVEY-SETTLEMENTS MADE UNDE THIS ACT. 

3. The provisions of this Part shall not apply to any village to 
4 , . _ L which this Act extends until such time as the 
Governor in Council first after the passing of 
this Act sanctions a survey-settlement or a revis- 
ed survey-settlement of such village and declares the assessments set- 
tled thereunder fixed for a period of years, in accordance with section 
102 of the Bombay Land-Revenue Code, i879. 

Until such time, the rights and responsibilities of all parties so 
far as regards the matters treated of in this Part shall continue to be 
such as they would be if this Part had not been enacted. 

Khots' Jama. 

24. The jama payable to Government by the khot shall be the 

aggregate of the survey-assessments of the lands 
^aouhowtobecalculat- of the e vi , lage minus ^ p recent 8ge ofdedac- 

tion, if any, as Government may in each case 
direct. 

The amount of the said jama shall be from 

ceftSn U periods e for time to me fixed for the same period for which 
the survey-assessments are fixed. 

Managing Khots. 

25. The annual kabulayats hitherto executed by khots shall no 

, longer be required from them : Provided that 
** nothing herein contained shall be deemed to 

affect the liability of khots to perform any con- 
dition of their tenure, or to do any act which they are now bound to 
perform or to do, or their obligation to refrain from doing anything 
which they are now bound not to do. 

26. When a village is held by two or more co-sharers jointly, the 

said sharers shall be jointly and severally res- 
' "^ P onsible for the jama, but one of their number 
shall be nominated every year to receive the in- 
ferior holders' rents, to pay the Government dues, and generally to 
perform all acts required by this Act or by any other law or rule hav- 
ing the force of law, to be performed by the khot. 

The sharer so nominated shall be called "the managing khot".* 
* Note. The words repealed by Bom. Act IV of 1913, ?. P3, are omitted. 

27. If the co-sharers have, at the time of the framing of the 

survey settlement records or at any subsequent 

be^omTt g ed kh0thOWt P eriod > a reed in writing as to the order of 
rotation, the nomination of the managing khot 
shall be made by the Collector in the order so agreed upon. 



IS THJ* KHOTI SETTLIMEHT Act, 

In the absence of any such agreement, [a] or if the share* whose 
tarn it is to he nominated is for any reason unable to serve as managing 
khot, and fails to delegate his duties and powers under section 31-A 
within such time as may be prescribed by the Collector in this behalf, 
\a] the co-sharers shall be called upon to nominate one of their num- 
ber year by year, [j or for the >ear, as the case may be, [] and in the 
event of their failing so to do within such time as may be prescribed 
by the Collector in this behalf, or if th>y are not unanimous as to the 
nomination, the Collector shall either select the managing khot for 
the year, or cause the village to be attached and taken under the 
management of himself or any agent whom he appoints for that pur- 
pose in the manner provided in section 144 of the Bombay Land- 
Revenue Code, 1879. 

28. [c] The Collector's nomination or selection under section 27 

shall be made by a written order, which shall 

orS'LtTteS "<*. be ;P"> to appeal, and no suit shall lie 
puted. against Government or against any omcer of 

Government in respect of any such nomination 
or selection [<?]. 

But it shall be lawful for anv of the co sharers at any time to sue 

for a decree inter se to declare which Of them 

Ru'flui'p in revert to is entitled to the management, or the order in 

! 1M .rn'SHhi wl^h they should respectively have the manage- 

khota the mi elves. merit, if more than one of them be entitled 

to the same, and from the commencement of 
the revenue year next after an application (accompanied by a certified 
copy of any such decree) is duly made to him for the purpo'se, the 
Collector shall nominate the managing khot in accordance with such 
decree. 

29. [d] The mamlatdar shall furnish every managing khot [YJ 

nominated or selected under section 27 [0] with 
kh fc ' S er " a certificate under his hand and seal to the effect 

that the holder thereof is the recognized manag- 
ing khot for the year to which such certificate relates, and a certificte 
so signed and sealed shall be conclusive evidence of the right of the 
khot therein named to manage the village to which it relates for the 
year therein specified. 

30. When a village is held by a khot in his own sole right, he 

shall be deemed to be the managing khot thereof 
Managing khot when f or all the purposes of this Act, and it shall not 
th*rbare no co-sharers. be neceB8ary to farn j 8 h him with any such certi- 
ficate as is described in the last preceding section. 

31. When a managing khot has been duly appointed under any 

of the foregoing provisions, he alone shall be 
Exclusive power of entitled to assistance for the recovery of rent 
managiug khot. from p r j v ij e g e( i occupants under sections 86 and 

87 of the Bombay Land-Revenus Code, 1879. 

[a-a] iheae words were inserted by Bom Act III of IVOt, s. 5, ol. (a). 
lW| These words were inserted by Bom. Act IH of 1994, s. 5, el (&). 
[0-c] This paragraph waa substitued for the original paragraph 1 by Bom. 
Act 111 of 1204,8. 6. 

[d\ Words repeald by Bom. Aot III of 1905, a. 7, are omitted. 
These words were inserted by Bom. Aot III of 1904, s. 7. 



Kttori SETTI/IMIHT Aer, 1980. i& 

[a) 31 A. It shall be lawful for the managing khot to delegate, 
subject to the approval of the Collector, the per- 
Df legation of duties and formance and exercise of all duties and powers, 
powers by managing khot impoeed or cott f er red upon him either by section 
15 or by section 31, to any person duly empower- 

ed in writing by him in this behalf; and the person so appointed shall 
in respect of the prefor jance of the duties prescribed in section 15, 
be subject to all the liabilities to which the khot is subject under the 
said section. 

Separated Sharers. 

32. When the khots have divided their khotki or a partition 
thereof has been effected by the Civil Court, or 
Separated sharers to be otherwise, and the co-sharers hold their respec- 

^^^M" tive 8h . ares in severalty, the -Collector shall 
determine the amount of jama payable in respect 
of each separate share, and the holders of the said shares shall be held 
severally liable for the portions of the jama so fixed on their respective 
shares, and all the provisions of this Act shall apply to them respec- 
tively as if they were independent holders of entire khotkis. 

Privileged Occupant'* Rents. 

33. The rent payable to the khot by 

^:%*i privileged occupants "shall be as follows 
occupants. (namely): 

(a) by a dharekari : the survey-assessment of his land ; 

(b) by a qnasi-dharekari : the survey-assessment of his land and 
in addition thereto the amounts of grain or money respectively set 
forth in the schedule []; 

[<?] (c> by any permanent-tenant : in each case according to the 
terms of the entry in the survey-record made in respect thereof, and for 
the time being applicable thereto, under the following rules : 

Liability to payment. The libility of occupancy tenant to pay rent 
to khot is as laid dovr i by ol. (c) of this suction, . 9 , a fixed proportion of gross 
annual produce .>f land and fruit trees, if any (f^inayik v. Sitartm. 37 Bom.284). 

Entry to show form of , Rule l ' , ?very *ach entry shall show whe- 
payment ther any rent is payable and, if so, whether it 

is payable as 

(a) an amount fixed : that is so sav, a certain amount, irrespec- 
tive of the crop, payable in money or kind, or both ; or 

(4) a crop-share : that is to say, a fixed proportion of the gross 
annual produce of the land, >md of the produce or fruit-trees (if any). 

Hov* and whan emri.-a Mule //. (1) Amounts fixed shall be entered 

mTned 5 ^^^^ ** determined *>>' agreement of the parties- 



(a) at the time of framing the survey-record, if the Recording- 
officer is satisfied that they have then or at any time previous agreed 

|o] Section 31~A was inserted by Bom. Act HI of 1904, a. 8. 
[ft I Words repealed by Bom. Aot ill of 1886 are omitted. 
[c| Clause (c) was substituted for the original claue by Bom, At HI of 
1004, a. 9. 



U TOT KHOTX BaxqaucwfrT Acrr, 1880 

that Back amounts shall be the rent payable daring any period 
sequent to the introduction of the survey ; or 

(A) at any other time, on the parties appearing in person or by 
duly authorized agent before the Recording-officer and consenting to 
such entry. 

No crop-share to be () No crop-share shall at any time be enter- 

entered as determined by ed as determined by agreement, 
agreement* 

(3) In this rule the word 'parties' means, 

Meaning of the word w ith reference to an agreement, the tenant and 
'parties., the p ergon W h a t t he time of the agreement is 

the managing khot : 

Provided that if any sharer in a khotki whose interest, or any 
number of such sharers the aggregate of whose 
How far, in an agree- interests, exceeds three-eighths of the entire 
=U% k : khotki, shall declare in writing delivered to the 
hater or sharers in a Recording-officer at the time of the nomination 
khotki. or appointment of a managing khot, or at any 

time during the tenure of his office by such ma- 
naging khot, that the managing khot shall have no power to bind such 
sharer or sharers by an agreement with any tenant specified in such 
writing, no agreement entered into after the delivery of such declara- 
tion, between auch managing khot and such tenant, shall be binding 
on such sharer or sharers, unless 

(a) such sharers shall appear before the Recording-officer and 
assent thereto, or 

(b) written notice of an intention to execute such an agreement 
has been sent at the cost of such managing khot or tenant through the 
Recording-officer by post in a registered cover addressed to such sharer 
or sharers, and such sharer or sharers shall, for a period of not less 
than three months after such notice has been sent as aforesaid, fail to 
to appear before the Recording-officer and object to such agreement. 

Rule III. If at the framing of the survey- 
How entries other than record there appears to be no amount fixed by 
>H D Ed agreement of the parties, the Recording-officer 

termined. shall, 

(a) if he finds that a crop share has theretofore been paid in ac- 
cordance with the general custom of the village in respect of similar 
lands, 

enter such crop-share ; or, 

(b) if he finds in any case that the rent theretofore paid has been 
different in description or amount from that payable under the general 
custom of the village in respect of similar land therein, or tnat no 
such general custom is ascertainable, 

enter the rent theretofore paid in such case, or, if such rent has not 
been uniform, the average of the rent paid or payable for such land 
during the twelve years last preceding his enquiry ; or, 

(c) if he finds that a commuted-value of a crop-share has become 
payable under sub-rule (1) of rule V, 

enter the commuted-value payable under sub-rule (3) of the same 
rule: 



Tita Knoti BatTiBMBift Aofr, 1S&<J. 15 

Provided that no crop-share shall in any case be entered exceeding 

in the case of rice land one-half and in the case 
Limits of crop share* Q Wftrkas lftnd one _ third . 

Rule IV. (1) If in any case 

(a) no entry has been made at the intro- 
duction of a survey-settlement, or 
of entry at settlement or (o) the entry made has, by reason of a de- 

on account of entry ceas- C ree of a competent Court or of any change in 
ing to be applicable; the tenant's mode of cultivation or otherwise, 

ceased to be applicable, wholly or in part, to the land in respect of 
which it was made, 

and no amount fixed by agreement has been subsequently entered, 

the Recording-officer may determine and enter, or alter the entry 
already made in respect of, the rent payable, as if he were acting 
under rule III. 

(2) If any land is held wholly or partly in consideration of ser- 

vices to be rendered by the tenant to the khot or 
o to the village community or for the benefit of 

service ceases to render any class thereof, the Recording officer shall, 
such service: upon proof that such services are no longer 

rendered, determine and enter the rent which 
would have been leviable, but for such total or partial exemption. 

(3) If in respect of any land, other than land which is entered as 

held rent-free, the amount fixed, or in the case 
{* crop-shares ,the commuted-value whkh ha 8 
survey assessment and been, oi* might be, under rule V entered as pay- 
local fund cess together able, is less than the total sum representing the 
with a percentage thereon, 8urvey assessment and local fund cess recover- 
able from the khot in respect thereof, together with twenty-five per 
centum of such assessment and local fund cess (hereinafter ca.led 
"the percentage"), the Recording-officer shall on the application of 
either of the parties, raise such amount fixed or commuted-valae to 
such total sum or the equivalent thereof in kind, and shall alter the 
entry accordingly : 

Provided that the Governor in Council may, during the period of 
the survey-settlement in force at the commence- 
subject to proportionate ment of the Khoti Settlement Act Amendment 
d.^bo,e G r p rtt ^,1904,bjnalor .Daci.1 order, in this 
the percentage ; behalf, direct that the whole or part of the per- 

centage shall during the remainder of such 
period be defrayed by Government ; and so long as such defrayal 
continues, the rent payable by the tenant to the knot under the pro- 
visions of this sub-rule shall be reduced to the extent of the amount 
so defrayed, and a note shall be inserted by the Recording-officer in 
the altered entry accordingly. 

(4) If the survey-assessment fixed on any survey-number has 

been reduced or struck off on account of dilu- 

ot when the assessment vion, deterioration by floods or other cause be- 

S'n'JTon Sf ont jond the control of the permanent-tenant, the 

jury to the land. Recording-officer shall reduce the total amount 

fixed, or- in the case of crop-shares the total 



IB Tm Kx<m 6xmaaaan 

comnuited-valne (if any), which has been entered as payable for the 
portion of that number in such tenant's occnj.atkn, by an amount 
bearing to the total amount or coiumn red-value the same proportion 
as the amount of assessment remitted or struck off bears to the total 
assessment for the entire area in his occupation and shall make an 
entry io the record specifying 

(a) the reduced amount, and 

(6) the limit of time for which it is without further entry to hold 
good. 

Rule V. (1) On an application made on or before the first day 

of May in any year by any tenant, whose rent 

when entry of comma. i s payable wholly or partly as a crop-share, the 

may b V e a ma e de f andTS Recording officer shall fix and enter the commut- 

of such entry. ed-value of the whole of such crop-share, and 

such commuted-value shall thenceforth, subject 

.to the provisions of sub-rule (3), be payable, with effect from the 

commencement of the next ensuing revenue-year, by the tenant in lieu 

of the whole crop-share hitherto payable by him. 

(2) In this rule *commuted-value' means the average mo^ey value 

of the produce payable, and the Recording- 
JS5^"f tow toS off f cer shall > in th e absence of any satifactory 

evidence to the contrary, take, as a 'standard for 
estimating such money-value, a half crop-share as equivalent to hree 
multiples of the survey-assessment fixed on the land, a third crop- 
share i\s equivalent to two multiples of Mich assessment, and any 
other crop-share as equivalent to a proportional multiple of such 
assessment : 

provided that the commuted-value of the produce payable on any 

warkas land entered in th records existing on 

i ^. rovis j ^ 8 to warka8 the day when this rule comes into operation, as 

land used for rab ma. Und actually U8ed for the p Urp0se O f ra b 

manure in connection with rice cultivation, 
shall not exceed an amount equal to the survey-assessment on such 
land. 

(3) Where a commuted-value has become payable tinder sub-rule 

(1), the Recording-officer shall at a revised 

Commuted-value subject survey-settlement revise the commuted-value 

wrv7y 8 ^trement. reyi8ed in accordance with the provisions of sub-rule 

(*) with reference to the revised survey-assess- 
ment fixed on the land, but shall not alter the description of the rent 
BO payable. 

Thai to be determined by Survey officer and not by Civil Court Under this 
section it is the duty of the Survey officer to determine the thl or ens torn iry rent 
payable to a knot by an occupancy -tenant. Until a new determination baa been 
made by the Survey officer under this section of the rent payable to the knot, a 
OiTil Oo*t malt award rent to the old rate legally fixed (Bapujitao 9. GUM, 24 
Bom. 489). 

Appeal. Under this section an appeal lies from a decision, and the decision 
pan be reriaed under s. 2M of the Land Hevenue Code by the authorities therein 
mentioned (Gopal *. Dathrtththtt, 21 $om. 344). 



Tsfc KHOTI SETTLEMENT ACT, 1680. 17 

34. The rents due by privileged occupants shall be payable on 

such dates, in such i instalments and subject to 
Privileged occupants' guch rules not inconsistent with the provisions 

rente how and when to be Qf ^ A fc ftg mfty frQm time ^ Ume ^ 

prescribed in this behalf by the Governor in 
Council. 

Cesses , efc. 

35. It shall not be lawful for any khot to levy phaski, vet/i, 
Ab nangarvetk, wartala, or any other cess, rate, tax 

etc. Oll0n Cesse8 or service of any description or denomination 
whatsoever, from any privileged occupant other 
than the rent la-wfully leviable under the provisions of this Act. 

Local Fund Cess. 

36. Local fund cess at such rate as shall from time to time be 
, , ., f , , fixed by Government under section 6 of the 

funo h oe Bombay Local Funds Act, J869, shall be levi- 

able by Government from the khot on every rupee 
of his jama. 

The khot shall be entitled to assistance under sections 86 and 87 
of the Bombay Land-Revenue Code, 1869, for 

dh2S That A recovery of the said cess at the said rate from 
liable forthecess. dharekans aud quasi-dharekcris on every 

rupee of the survey-assessment of * 

their respective holdings. 

Hole. The words "the lands in" repealed by Bom. Act IV of 1913, s. 91, 
are omitted. 

Inferior holders of khoti lands shall not be liable to local fund 
cess, anything contained in section 8 of the 
Bombay Local Funds Act, 1869, to the contrary 
notwithstanding. 

PART V. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

37. Existing survey-settlements of the land-revenue of any 

village to which this Act extends, made, ap- 
BkiBtii* Burfeysettte. proved and confirmed under the authority of the 
menta confirmed. , r\ ! i_ n i_ j 1*1 

Governor in Council, shall be deemed to have 

been lawfully made, and, except as is hereinafter otherwise provided, 
shall continue in force for the terms for which they have been respec- 
tively guaranteed, subject to all the provisions of law which would 
be applicable thereto if this Act had not been passed, and anything 
iw this Act which is inconsistent with any of the said provisions shall 
be deemed not to apply to such settlements. 

Upon the expiry of the period of any such guarantee, or, if it 

shall appear to the Governor in Council that a 

JibJSwT uS5 mtt J rifc y of the land-holders affected by any such 

settlements, guarantee so desire, at any time previous to 

the expiry of the said period (such time being 

fix ad by the Governor in Council)* a new survey-settlement shall be 

introduced into the village in which such guarantee was in force, 



W THS KHOT* SjsntmcBin! ACT, 1880. 

and the provisions of this Act shall thenceforward apply to the said 
settlement, anything in any other law to the contrary notwithstand- 
ing. 

39. Nothing in sections 68, 72, 73, 74, the second paragraph 
of section 104, sections 112, 117A, 117B, clause 
r rf m , b ?7 y o L u and , Re T enue (*) of section 150, or section 153 of the Bom- 
SSbiatMottX 1 ^" bay Land Revenue Coce, 1879, ahall.be deemed 
to apply to any village to which this Act ex- 
tends 

The provisions of the said Code wheo applied to any such village 
shall be subject to the following modifications (namely): 

(a) Repealed by Bom. Act IV of 1913, section 92 (b). 

(b) sections 118, 119 and 123 shall be read and understood as if 
the word "khots" were substituted for the words "patels and other 
village-officers", and the words "village-officers" and the words 
"village-officers and servants", wherever they occur ; 

(c) the khot shall for the purposes of section 136 be deemed to be 
the person primarily responsible to Government for the jama of his 
village ; 

(d) the word "alienated" in clause (/) of section 150 shall be 
deemed to be omitted ; and 

(e) if such village is under attachment at the date of this Act com- 
ing into force, applications may be made under section 162 for the 
restoration thereof at any time within twelve years from the firt day 
of August next after such date. 

40. The Governor in Council may, by notification in the Bombay 
c , . , , . Government Gazttee* from time to time frame, and 

Rules to bo made by ./ ! , . . , ,. 

GoTemor in Council. lrom time fco time Var 7 . r rescind, rules not in- 

consistent with the provisions of this Act 

(a) for the inspection and appraisement of crops when the rent 
payable to a khot consists of a share of the produce of a privileged 
occupant's land ; 

(b) for determining what land is dhara land ; 

(c) for allotting to each privileged occupant, when the exact limits 
of his warkas holding are not ascertainable, such portion of the entire 
warkas land of the village or such rights or privileges in respect of any 
warkas land, or both a portion of the entire warkas land and suck 
rights or privileges in respect of any other such land as may be fair 
and reasonable ; 

(d) determining to what extent, if any, any rule or order made 
under section 214 of the Bombay Land-Revenue Code, 1879, shall be 
applicable to villages to which this Act extends ; 

(e) for the furtherance of the objects of this Act in matters not 
expressly provided for therein ; 

(/) generally for the guidance of all persons in matters connected 
with the enforcement of this Act. 

41. And whereas it is necessary in the general interests of the 

people to enable Government to promote the 
^rStiv^ S e^ension of forests in yillageB held by khots, it 
4 reserved forest. ** hereby enacted that Government may at any 

time constitute any uncultivated laud in any 



THE kiori SETTLIMWT ACT, 1880 1ft 

village to which this Act extends , or may hereafter be extended, a 
reserved forest [a] in accordance with the procedure enacted in Chapter 
II of the Indian Jforest Act, 1878 [a]. But nothing in this section 
contained shall derogate from any rights conferred by any sanad or 
other grant made by any lawful authority. 

Explanation. For the purposes of this section "uncultivated land 
means land which has not been tilled for a period of twenty years next 
before the 1st June, 1879, or the date of the order constituting such 
reserved forest. 

42. Every reserved forest constituted under 
the last preceding section shall be subject to all 
the provisions of the Indian Forest Act, 1878, 
and of any other law relating to forests for the 
time being in force : provided 

(1) that, upon the condition of duly preforming such service con- 
nected with such forest as shall from time to time be prescribed by 
Government, the khot shall be entitled to a share of one-third of the 
net profits derived by Government from such forest after deducting 
the cost of management ; 

(2) that, in the event of the service prescribed by Government as 
aforesaid not being duly performed by the khot, the provisions of sec- 
tion 80 of the Indian Forest Act, 1878, shall be apblicable. 

SCHEDULE. 
( See section 3, clause 7, and section 33. ) 



Reserved forest const! 
uted uuder last preceding 
section to be subject to 
provisions of Icdian 
Forest Act, 



Denomination of 
qnasi-dharekaris. | 



Excess amount of rent payable for every Rupee and 

proportionately for every fraction of a Rupee of 

the Survey-Assessment in respect of 



Dupatkari 
Dnpatkari 



Didpatkari 
Didiwala 

Panne dupatkari 



or 



Rice lands 



Warkas lands. 



2 annas 



2 annas 



, mannd of rice in 5 Ipailis of grain ^half nachanib annai, 
the husk. and half van). 



in 2 



i of rice i 
the husk. 



6 pailis of rice in 
the husk. 



ptilis of grain (half nachani 8 annai, 
and half vari). 

i pallia of grain (half nachanib annai. 
and half van). 



Bagayat or 
Rabi lands. 



annas 



INDEX 



Page 

Acquisition of right 

report regarding, exempt from 

Ooortiee stamp 101 

Agricultural produce 

not exempted from attachment 115 
Alienated 

meaning of ... 7 

Alienated holdings 

non-applicability of 8. 72 to ... 113 
not to be alienated for re- 
covery of arrears of local 
fund cess ...113 

Alluvial land 

vesting in Government, grant of 47 
of small extent, temporary 
right to ... 48 

register of ... 39 

"Any other natural product" 

does not include excavated 

stones ... 83 

Appeal 

against Collector's order under 
Irrigation Act lies to Com- 
missioner ...132 
when to lie to Governor in 

Council ...133 

periods within which, to be 

brought ...133 

admission of, after period of 

limitation ...133 

provision when last day for, 
falls on Sunday or holi- 
day .,.133 
Copy of order to acompany 

petition of ...133 

to lie from any order passed 
by revenue officer to his 
superior ..,132 

Arrears of revenue 

public moneys may be recover- 
ed as ... 23 
Arrears of assessment 

suit by Inamdar for ... 75 

Arrest 

power of, by whom to be exer- 
cised ...116 
Assessment 

excess of, may be laid on land 
inadequately assessed held 
with it ... 38 



Page 

Assessment contd. 

by whom to be fixed 39 

settlement of, to be made with 
the holder directly from 
Government ... 40 

survey officer to fix ... 81 

may be on land or on means 
of irrigation 32 

not leviable without sanction 

of Government ... 82 

excess, not to be levied in the 
year in which Survey Settle- 
ment is introduced ... 83 
limited to ordinary land re- 
venue 83 
power of Government w> direct 
fresh survey and revision 
of ... 84 
conditions applicable to revi- 
sions of 84 
Assistance suits 

appointment of temporary 

clerks for 76 

Attachment and sale 

of houses and buildings of agri- 
culturists, exemption from ... 1 1 5 
Boundary 

effect of settlement of ... 91 

decisions of revenue officers as 

to, are final ... 92 

fixed by Collector ... 92 

decision of revenue officer as to, 

is final ... 93 

Boundary dispuies 

Settlement of, by arbitration .. 90 
settlement of, by Collector ...92, 93 
Boundary-marks 

meaning of ... 4 

Construction and repair of, of 

survey numbers ... 93 

requisition on land-holders to 

erect or repair ... 93 

responsibility for maintenance 

of -. 94 

Collector to have charge of, 
after introduction of Sur- 
vey Settlement ... 94 
of survey numbers and villggw, 

Construction of 98 

description of ... 98 



Page 
Boundary-marks contd. 

responsibility for maintenance 

of ... 94 

penalty for injuring ... 94 

Building site 

meaning of .... 4 

Certified copy or Certified extract- 

meaning of ... 7 

Certified purchaser 

bar of salt against ...123 

liable only for land revenue 

subsequently due ... 1 24 

Chavdi 

meaning of ... 4 

"Civil suit 

not to be barred ... 75 

mamlatdar's order does not 

bar ... 76 

Collector 

Assistant and Deputy Collec- 
tor subordinate to ... 10 
Powers of ...11, 12 
Ohitnis to, and head olerk to, 

is graded with mamlatdar... 15 
revisional jurisdiction of ...135 
Commented assessment 

of land indirectly taxed to the 

State ... 38 

of land liable to occasional as- 
sessment ... 38 
Superior holder to recover, 

from inferior holder ... 38 

Commission 

power of Commissioner by, to 
confer certain powers on 
holders of alienated lands .. 76 
grant of, to sharakatdar not 

necessary ... 77 

form of ... 77 

reference to be made by holder 

of, to Collector ... 78 

power under, to extend to car- 
rent and previous year's 
arrears ... 78 

holder of, not to enforce any 
unusual or excessive de- 
mand ... 78 
holder of, to establish his right 
to enhanced rent in Civil 
Court ... 79 
Creditors 

surplus not to be paid to, except 

under order of Court 124 

Drop 

reaping of, not to be unduly 

deferred , ...10B 

when to be released ...108 



Pape 

Decision or order 

notice of damand by Mamlat- 
dar to pay assessmeent is 
not .. 132 

Defaulter- 
sale of immoveablo property 

of ...114 

arrest and detention of ... 1 1 6 

not to be detained in custody 
longer than debtors may be 
detained by Civil Court ... 116 
date upto which, to pay 

arrears ...120 

arrest of, to be made upon 

warrant ...130 

Dispute 

meaning of ...90 

Distraint 

of defaulter's property ...113 

by whom to be made ... 113 

delegation to Mamlatdar s and 

Mahalkaris of the power of ..114 
of chattels how effected ... 1 1 4 

of cash and currency notes or 

ornaments ...114 

Distraint and sale 

exemptions from ...114 

Estate 

meaning of ... 3 

Exemptions, claims to 

to be determined by Collector... 96 
Field boundaries 

determination of ... 90 

Fine 

inflicted by revenue officer not 

to exceed two months' pay,.. 27 
how recovered ...27 

Forfeited holdings 

may be taken possession of ... 43 

Forfeiture 

order for, when illegal ...US 

not followed by sale ... 1 1 3 

declaration of, before sale ...113 

Hereditary Officers 

to grant receipts ... 44 

Hereditary village accountant 

talati appointed to be kulkarni 

is not ... 74 

Holding 

meaning of ... 6 

Immovable property 

Safe of defaulter's ...114 

Joint holders or /oiftf occupanl**- 

meaning of ... 7 



iii 



Page 

Land 

inoludea benefits to arise out of, 3 
to be assigned for special pur- 
poses and, when assigned, 
filial] not be otherwise used 
without sanction oi Collec- 
tor ... 30 
land ret enue to be a paramount 

chaie on ... 41 

penalty for using, for any other 

purpose without permission ...51 
Land records 

rerunning of ... 7 

open to inspection ...135 

Land Revenue 

assessment of, in case of dilu- 

vion ... 36 

manner and alteration of ... 36 
payment of, by khatedar create 

no charge ... 62 

recovery of. how to be credit- 
ed ...107 
may be levied at any time 

during revenue year ... 1 7 

to secure, Collector to prevent 

reapin g of Orop ... 1 07 

fine under s. 142 is no arrear 

of, of any occupancy ... 108 
Government to determine dates 

of payment of ...109 

liability incurred by default 

of payment of ...110 

Certified account to be evidence 

as to arrears of ...110 

process for recovery of arrears 

of ...110 

recovery of arrears of ... 1 1 1 

Land Revenue Code... 

short title ... 1 

extent ... 1 

Mahalkari 

delegation of power to ... 15 

duties of ... 16 

Extra Aval Earkun treated 
as ... 16 

Assistant or Deputy Collector 

in charge of taluk* is superior 
to ... 16 

may depute subordinate to per- 
form hia duties ... 19 

entitled to issue warrants under 
88. 25 and 26 ... 22 

empowered to fine village offi- 
cers ... 26 



Page 

Mahalkari eontd. 

written permission of, re- 
quired previous to takfog 
up unoccupied land ...44 

Mamlatfar 

appointment of ... 12 

duties and powers of ... 13 

may depute subordinate to per- 
form his duties ... 16 
substitute under s. 15 not 
competent to exercise powers 
of ... 17 
entitled to issue warrants under 

38. 25 and 26 ... 22 

empowered to fine village offi- 
cers ..,26 
written permission of, required 
previous to taking up unoccu- 
pied land ... 44 
Mines and mineral product* 

reservation of right of Govern- 
ment to ... 54 
Notice 

of relinquishment of occupancy 

by occupants or of alienated 

land by holders of such land 

is exempt from registration.. 58 

does not require court fee nor 

stamp duty ... 59 

mode of serv ing ... 127 

not void for error . . .127 

Notice of demand 

when to issue ...111 

when compulsory ...112 

when to be served ...112 

form of ...112 

Notice to quit 

when necessary ... 70 

when not necessary ... 70 

of ten days is invalid ... 71 

Occupancy 

grant of, subject to prohibi- 
tion of alienation ... 53 
when not liable to process of 

Civil Court ... 55 

intestate, to be xold ... 55 

to be transferable and heri- 

able ... 56 

not to be alienated for re* 
covery of arrears of local 
fund cess ...113 

Occupant 

meaning of ... 5 

tenant responsible to, in da* 

mages. ... 6| 

rights ef, are conditional ... 58 



Page 



possession ... 7 

Occupy land 

means possess or take potses- 
sionof land ... 7 

Ordinary enquiries 

how to be conducted ...129 

Partition 

decree for, not properly execut- 

ed ... 86 

Civil Court cannot reopen ... 86 

of certain estates by Collector 

on application by co-sharers. 87 
Pasturage 

regulation of nee of ... 31 

Plaint or application 

Certified copy of record to be 

annexed to ...103 

not to be rejected for omission 

to attach certified copy ... 104 
Processes 

to be stayed on security being 
given or on amount demand- 
ed being paid under protest... 11 9 
Public roads 

belong to Government ... 28 

encroachment on, amounts to 

criminal trespass ... 47 

Purchase money 

when to be made ...121 

Razinama and Kdbulyat 

registration of, compulsory 

under s. 54 of T. P. Act ... 59 
execution of, does not amount 

to transfer of property ... 59 
Receipts 

to be given by revenue officers, 
hereditary patels and village 
aooonntans for receiving 
payments of land revenue 43 
exempt from stamp duty ... 44 
penalty for failure to grant ... 44 
Record 

Certified copy of, to be- annexed 

to plaint application ... 1 3 

Record of rights 

to be maintained in every village 99 
particulars of ... 99 

introduction of, in Inam 

villages ...100 

entry in, to be presumed as 

correct ...105 

application for certified copy 
of entry in, to be made to 
village Acconntattt, Mahal- 
kuri or Mamlatdar ...105 



Age 

Register of mutations 

entries in, how to be certified... 101 
Certified entry in, to be pre- 

sumed as correct ...105 

application for certified copy 

of entry in, to whom to be 

made ...105 

Resale 

notification before ... 122 

liability of purchaser for loss 

by ...122 

Revenue demands 

of former years how recover- 

able ...111 

Revenne defaulters 

sureties liable as ...125 

Revenue officer 

meaning of ... 3 

watandar village officer is not... 3 
forest officer is not ... 3 

District Inspector of Land 

Records is ... 3 

Karkun taking temporary 

charge of the office during 

absence of mamlatdar is not.. 17 
seals to be used by ... 19 

security to be furnished by ... 2 
for purposes of ss. 25 and 26- 

village officers are ... 22 

prohibited acts of 
not to trade ...24 

not to purchase at public sale... 25 
not to be concerned in the re- 

venue ... 25 

not to make private use of 

public money or property... 15 
not to make or receive undue 

exactions or presents ... 25 
orders of, to be made in 
writing ... 26 

fine inflicted by, not to exceed 

to months' pay ... 27 

to give receipt for receiving 

payment of land revenue ... 48 

sub ordination of ... 1 2 6 

Revenue survey-- 

introduction of, by Governor 

in Council ... 80 

control of ... 80 

Rules 

framed by Government ... 1 86 

penalty for breach of ...187 



forfeiture not followed by ...118 
declaration of forfeiture fa~ 
fore ...113 



INDEX 



Page 

Sale contd. 

of defaulter's property ... 1 1 3 

proolaimation of, to be made 

by beat of dram ... 119 

notification of ... 120 

by whom to be made ... 120 

at what time to be made ...120 
postponement of ...120 

of perishable articles ... 120 

when to be stayed ... 120 

of moveable property when 

liable to confirmation ... 121 
mode of payment for moveable 
property when, subject to 
confirmation ... 121 

deposit by purchaser in case of, 

of immoveable property ... 121 
application to set aside ... 122 
order confirming or setting 

aside ... 122 

refund of deposit or purchase 

money when, set aside ... 123 
on confirmation of purchaser 

to be put in possession ,.. 123 
certificate of ... 123 

application of proceeds of ... 124 
does not extinguish incum- 

brances ... 113 

Sanad 

to be granted without extra 

charge ... 97 

given under s. 133 is document 

of title ... 98 

inferior and superior holders 

entitled to get ... 98 

Seals 

to be used by revenue officers 19 
Security 

to be furnished by revenue 

officers ... 20 

fresh or additional ... 22 

Settlements 

introduction of ... 82 

Sites of villages 

limits of , how to be fixed ... 95 
Stipendiary Patel 

when to be appointed ... 17 

Stipendiary village accountant 
not to hold land other than 

hereditary ... 25 

Stipulated rent 

Collector not to demand more 

in addition to ... 117 

Summary enquiry 

officer holding, to be deemed 

Oivil Court | ... 128 

how to be conducted ... 128 

to be deemed judicial proceedings 129 



Pag. 

Summons 

to be ia writing signed, and 

sealed ... 127 

how to be served ... 1?7 

service of, in district other 

than that of issuer ... 127 

Superior holder 

meaning of .... 5 

Talukdari S. Officer is ... 6 
recovery of dues of ... 73 

suit by, to recover dues from 

inferior holders ... 73 

entitled to assistance in recovery 
of dues from inferior 
holders ... 74 

application by, for. assistance 

may be sent by p^st ... 74 

municipality deemed to be ... 75 
Sureties 

liable as revenue officers ... 125 
Surplus profits 

application of ... 117 

Surplus receipts 

disposal of ... 118 

Surety 

to be liable as principal ... 23 
not liable to imprisonment if 

penalty be paid ... 23 

in jail may, by furnishing 

security, obtain his release 24 
liability of, not affected by 
death of principal or by 
his taking different ap- 
pointment ... 24 
how to withdraw from farther 

liability ... 24 

Survey Mamlatdar 

appointment of, by Commie - 

sioner of Survey ... 15 

Survey numbers 

meaning of ... 4 

division of, in new survey 

numbers ... 87 

division of, into sub-divisions 8 7 
Survey officer 

meaning of 3 

appointment of, by Governor 

in Council ... ,17 

their duties and powers ... 18 
to fix assessments ... 81 

Talati 

not to act as money lender ... 25 
Tenancy 

section 83 determines nature 

of ... 64 

from year to year ... 64 

burden of proof of annual ... 64 
forty years old ... 64 



INDEX 



not more than forty years old 
hundred years old 



Page 

64 
65 
65 
65 
65 
66 



Qt 

antiquity of 
permanent 
Tenatit 

meaning of ... 5 

responsible to oecupant in 

damages ... 51 

amount of rent payable by ... 63 
suit by, to recover possession 

claiming as full owner ... 69 
Tdtims and Cities 

sites of , how to be fixed ... 95 
Unoecttpitd land 

to bt granted on conditions ... 47 



Page 

Village 

includes town or city ... 7 

Village Accountant: 

when to be appointed .. 17 

to keep records .. 17 

to prepare public writings . . 17 

bound to give receipts .. 44 

Village boundaries 

determination of ..88 

maybe settled by agreement. . 89 

Court has no power to fix .. 89 

may be settled by agreement... 89 

power of court to fix ... 89 

Village cattle 

does not include cattle of any 

roving grassier ... 31