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It ifl tinnecessary to apologize for the sppe&ranca of this 
book, as Bome each work has long been a desideratam to 
ficbolan. A knowledge of £noch is iodiapensable to New 
Teetament stndente. 

It would be beet perhapa, at the onteet, to mention 
briefiy the features in which this edition diifers from 
previooa editions of EuooL 

I. First, the Translation is made, in the main, from a 
British Mnseum MS. which is incomparably better than 
those on whieh Professor Dillmann's Ethioplo text is based. 
Bat as this MS., which I designate Q, is still unpublished, 
I have followed Dillmaim'B text, and, in every instance in 
whieh I have deviated from it in deference to or other 
British Maseum MSS., I have given in my Critical Notes 
the Ethiopic reading adopted, and Uiat as a rule as it 
stands in the MS. followed, though it may be vieione 
alike in orthography and syntax. These instances are in 
all about six hundred. It will be remarked tiiat on p. 4 
they are said to be three hundred and twenty-two. The 
explanation of this disorepanoy is to be found in the fact 
that the bulk of this book was already in type when the 
Qizeh MS. was published by M. Bouriant, and that I have 
allowed the Introduction to remain as it already stood 
before the publication of this Greek fragment. But as the 
examination of this fragment speedily made it olear that 
I had nndovestimated the value of these new Ethiopic 

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viii The Book of Enoch. 

USS., I waa obliged to follow their aathority in three 
hundred additional inatancea against DiUmann's text. 
However, as I could introduce only a limited number of 
these new readings into the Critical Notes already in type, 
the reader will not unfrequently have to consult Ap- 
pendix C for the text followed in the Translation in the 
earlier chapters. In addition to the new readings incor- 
poiwted in the Translation, a number of others are proposed 
in Appendices C, D, and £. These are preceded by the 
readings they are intended to displace, and are always 
printed in italics. I might add that the Oizeh fragment, 
which, through the kindness of the Delegates of the Press, 
is added on pp. 32(5-370, will bo found to be firee from the 
serious blemishes of M. Booriant's edition. 

To the kindness of the Kev. M. R. James, King's Coll^, 
Cambridge, I owe the Latin fragment in Appendix E. 
This fragment was lately discovered by Mr. James in the 
British Museum. It will be seen that it helps to emend 
the Ethiopic test in a few points. 

n. Of late years the criticism of Enoch has reached 
certiun assured results. From these duly given and sub- 
stantiated a fresh departure in criticism is made. The 
so-called Grundschrifi is shown to proceed from at least 
four different autdiors. The book thus becomes intelligible, 
(md much light is thereby thrown on the internal his- 
tory, and thought-developement of the Jews in the two 
centuries preceding Hie Christian era. The present writer 
is convinced that until this plurality of authorship is 
recognized, no true or adequate interpretation of Enoch 
is possible. In the book of Enoch we have a typical 
example of the Oriental method of editing. Lees important 
books were constantiy rescued from oblivion by incorpora- 
tion in larger books. Plagiarism and literaiy property 
were ideas alike foreign to the Palestinian consciousness 
of the time. As the name of David attracted diOerent col- 
lections of the Psalms, and the name of Solomon successive 


Preface, ix 

collections of proverbB, bo the name of Enoch atiracted 
varions treatments of celeetial and terreatrial phenomena 
as well OS of the prohlem of the suffering righteous. 

m. The history of important conceptions which appear 
frequently in Euodi, such as that of Hades, the Resurrection, 
tjie Messiah, fto., is traced hut briefly, as the present writer 
hopes to issue later an independest work on the Eschatology 
of pre-Christian Apocryphal and Apocalyptic literature. 

IV. An attempt is made to give some account of the 
influence of Enoch <m subsequent literatore, especially that 
of l^e New Testament. 

The Slavonic Enoch, which is mentioned occasionally in 
the following pages, I hope to publish shortly. This 
Apocryph, which is critically revised and translated by 
my friend Mr. Morfill, the Reader in Russian and the other 
Slavonic Languages, will be furnished with an Introduction 
and Notes. 

The many changes introduced into the text when already 
in type, as well as the incorporation of much fresh material, 
have made, I fear, the presence of occasional errors inevit- 
able. I shall be grateful for any oorreotions. 

My best thanks are due to Dr. Sanday, to whom I am under 
manifold obligations, and in connexion with whose Seminar 
this work was primarily undertaken ; to Dr. Neuhauer, 
whom I have consulted witii advantage in season and out 
of season : to Professor Margoliouth, for his courteous and 
ever-ready help in questions affecting the Ethiopic text: 
and finally and chiefly to my wife, whose constant sympathy 
and unwearied labour in the verificotJon of references and the 
formation of indices have materially lightened the burthen 
of my work. 

Ann., 1S93 

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Oknkkai. iMTEOBDOnOir 

i i. SlwTt Aooonnt of the Book (pp. t, »). f 3. Tha Ethic^ic 
MS8. (pp. l-f). f 3. OnA VerdoD (p. 5). f 4. Emend*- 
tiont(pp.5, 6). {5. £<UtioiuoftliBGtlilopicTexl — laaxtace, 
Dillmum (p. 6). | 6. lYuialkliDii* — iMoeaaa, HoAoann, 
IMlIiiiaim,8cho<lde(i^. 6-9). 1 7. CriUoftl InqDiriee—Lttoke, 
HofiDBnii, Dillnuui, Jelliuek, Gildemdat«r, Evkld, Weisw, 
KoMUd, HilgBiife1d,ydlkiiitf , Geiger, I^ugen, Sieffert, Eoltc- 
manii, HkllJTi, Fhllippi, Wittiohen, Q«blurdt, Aj^er, Venee, 
Euenen, lldemui, Dnmuncmd, Haontti, Upanx, Weitoott, 
Sehodde, WiegaJer, Sohiirer, Stenton, Beiui, Holtmnum, 
PfleideniT, Baldeiupeiger, Salmon, Peter, Deane, llioDuon, 
dMrfne, De Faje (pp. 9-11). f B. From a BsImw Origliial 
through (he Hediium ot a Greek TruiilaUoii (pp. ai, ai). 
I 9. The Objeot of Apocalyptia Utemtnre (pp. 11-14). 
I 10. The diffennt Elemeiiti in the Book of Enoeh, with 
thHT reipeotire (SkarMteriatica and Datei. Thia book a 
fragmentarj iorviTal of an Enoohio literature witll large 
additiona tram an ApooaljpM of Noah, deriTed tttoD at UMt 
b[z aathon. Fart I (pp. 15, »S), t-xxxvi, before 170 B.C., 
mainly from the prophetic itandpoint of aneh ohaptera at 
la. IzT, IxTJ, bat irith a more developed eaohatolngy. Part II 
(pp. a6-i8),Iii»iii-io, written between 166-1618.0., mainly 
from the lama atuidpoint a> Daniel. An immsnae advance 
oo the naive andaeninons oonoeptioni of i-ixxvi. The king- 
dom to be intnidnoed by the warlike efforta of Jndaa Uaooa- 
baena and to laat for ever on earth. Part in (pp. aS, 19), 
in-dv, written betweeo 134-94 >.ci., introdueea a worid of 
new conoepttooa in which the oentre of intcnreat haa pMied 
from the material world to the ituritaal ; the MnMianifT king- 
dom haa beoomo merely of temporary duration, and heaven 
itaeUI not the Mewianio kingdun, haa beoome the goal of the 
hopea of the righteoiia. Part IV (pp. ig, 30], die Similitadea 
xxivii-lzz, written between 94-79 B.o. or 70-64 B.o. The 
varying relationa in whkJitlmMaacabeea itood to theOhaaid 

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The Book of Enoch. 

party raflwted In (he booki of Enoch (p. 30). The TmtTing 
oomx^oDi of the Meadah in Uiea« IkwIib aorreipondtug to the 
hiitmical gventa of the timea (pp. 30, 31). The teaohing of 
th« Siiulitudea atanda in diear conbut with xd-cdv (p. 31). 
Part V (p. 31). Um Bode of CeUttial Ph;tiot baU-Uxriu, 
Ixxzil, Iziix; date nnoertain. Part VI (pp. 31, 33), 
Noaohiao and olhar inteipohttions ; incorporated in the 
main bef«re the CbriBUM era. f 11. The Influvnoe of 
Kuwh on Jewiih Uterature — ^the Svtk oj Jubiltet, the 
Jpoealjip»e ^ Baruck, IV.Ssra, Ttttameutt o/the TWIva 
Pa<n'areA« (pp. 33-38). The Influmoeof EnochonPatiutio 
liitentnre — the SpittU of Samabat, Jii»ti» Martj/r, It«- 
MMtti, AlkoMogoTOM, TertulUoik, CUmuM AUa^ Origtn, 
AmaMimt, SHary, CJtry^Mloa, JeroBU, Atiguiiiat, Apot- 
iolie Coiutituiitnu, Sywcelliu (pp. 38-41). Inflneuce of 
Enoch cm the New Testatneot — tiia Qeneral EpirtUe, Book 
of BmtlaUotk, Pauline EpittUt, S^IU to Ua Hdirewt, 
AaU of tie Apottla, Gotpeb (pp. 41-49]. On Sew 
Teatament doctrine of tha Ueadania Kingdom, the Ueaaiah, 
Shed and the BesDirection, Demonology (pp. 50-53). 

Thb Book or Ehocb. — Spbciai' Intboddctjohs, 


Notes 55-3o8 

81011O8 I (chtqitera i-ixxvi) SS'iOf 

iKTBODiTonos. — A. CrtOtal Strvotura. B. JUIoMon qf 
tkU Saettoit to (o) IzziUzxiii; (b) Ixiziii-ic; (0) ^- 
ciT. C. lU Date. D. The Problem aai tfi Solutioit . 55-57 

Tkanblatios and CtitiiM, amd Exmitioal Notm , 57-105 

SMTIOtr IL— Thb BuuUTums (chattel* lurii-lni) 106-1 S6 

iRTBODUOnoa.— A. CHtieal Btruetnre. B. Btlation of 
nzvii-lixi to fla ra«f 0/ <ia book. C. Bale. D. The 

Problain a»d itt Sobuio» 106-109 

Tbuislatioh AMU Cbithux akd Euoitioal Notm . 110-186 
Sboiioh m. — Teb Book or Cslbstiai, Pstbiob (cluf)terB 

liiU-lzizii) 137-119 

iHTsODDonoH. — A. lu Crilieal atrvetitre and Ohjetl. 
B. It* IttfU^aadmew of I-xxxtL C. iia Calatdar and 

tie KmmUdfft tierein implied 187-191 

Tkahblatioii avd OBmoAi. AHD ExaomoAi, Nona igi-119 

SiOTiON IV.— Tei Dbum-Tuioxs (ohapten Izxsiii-xc) )io-35!> 

IvnosuonoN. — A. CritietU Siruehtre. B. £alatJa» qf 

tUiSeetion to (a) 1-xxzvi; (b) xd-dr. C. Tie BaU. 

D. Tha PriAUm and iU SoMio» .... lao-iij 

TuvSLAiiOK AMD Camau. axd BitaxncAL Noru 133-159 


SvmOM T (ohftptan sd-^r) i60'3oS 

IxTBODnonoa. — A. Critieal Strueitrt. B. MAaUoti of 
id-dv U (o) t-mri ; (6) Ixzxiii-zo. C. AaOtorAip 
and Zinfc. D. Tke ProNem and (b ^oIuMon . 160-165 

Tkuiblitioh AMD CBincu um BiiamoAi Nons . 165-308 

Afpbhdix a, — Additionitl Biblit^frephy — Bonriant, 
Migne, Ooldachinidt, Loda, BiaaeU, Sohwftlly, 
Zockler, Battiffol, DiUmann, Chorlea 

Afpeitdix B. — 'The Son of Man' 

Apfekdix C. — The Qizeh Greek Fragment (i— xzxii] 
with Introduction and I^'otee 

Afpeksix D. — Additional Notes on xxxrii-cviii 

Appbnbiz £. — The New Latin Fragment, cvi. 1-18, 
with Introdaction and Kotee 



Zhdbx I. — PassogeB from the Bcriptoree and other 

ancient hooka 377-383 

Ihvbx H. — Names and Subjects .... 385-391 

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Din. B DOlmtnn. 

A,B,C,Aw. refer to Ethiopia MSS. Seep. l. 

Sjn. Gk. — the Greek Eragmenta preHtrred In Sjnoellui 

Oil. Ok. - the GKzeb Greek tngmeat. 

The matiaing oontraotioni ire for the moit part bmiliar. 

Di.itradb, Google 


Pig* g, lino lo from t<^ /or b.o. rtad A.D. 

•• S^t •> '3 » />r (hrae timet Bad twice read twioa uid ohm 

.. 38, „ 17. iS „ erow Ep. Bam, «vi. 6. Cf . En. id. i j. 

„ 66, „ 8 „ for ejebrowi read ejelidi 

„ «6, „ ai „ /or Qk. ri arlxe*!!' rtad Gil. Qk. 9tW" 

„ 70, „ 16 „ fbr which read of thon who 

« T'. .. H .. /or fll^'rt' "od ftl¥At 

„ 73, eratt CriL Note on i. 7. 

.. 74. .> «S .. /bf hJhW Mai IHMO* 

» 76, .. 4 fron bottoD, /or Pspiu> raod PqoM 

„ 80, » $ bom top, fwmoM eontnui o^er forth 

„ 81, „ 6 „ /ar th« walU of the home mad Its walli 

» 81, „ )3 „ /or therecm read (thflreon) 

„ 64, Ust line, /or Ok. rrad Bjb. Gk. 

„ 93, line ai from top, J^ (0}L read IDA. 

„ 98, „ 16 „ />r Ik (*«*!«) read H" (hptm) 

„ 98, „ 18 „ fi>r „ „ rtad „ „ 

» 99i » 17 » /o** ^'"s ''^O'' there 

„ 101, „ 14 „ for then read ftnd thenoe 

,, loi, „ 13 „ /itr then rtad thare 

„ 104, „ 16 „ /or one of then blowi read they blow 

.. '05. .. '5 « /or In read H" 

„ 116, „ 11 „ btfore The arigin»l odd Afe beantUtallT' n 


„ lao, „ 19 „ /or Vuiael read Bnfkel 

„ IM, „ 19 „ /orkMAread^^Kii. (^ thii futuoe U 

reading of GU is oorrnpt.) 

„ HI, „ »t „ /orGMreodQ 

„ 114, „ 19-30 „ for Tftkm over into the Intarpolatiotu reo 

from whenoa it waa boirowed : of. alia 

.. >8o, „ »9 n /orlttO-readtnO- 

„ 348, oroM ategetical not« on so. 3. 

„ 1S6, liat line, for land reiui Uw 

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§ I. Shobt Account of the Book. 

In Gen. t. 24 it is said of EoocIl that he walked wiUt Qoi. 
This eipreeBion was taken in later times to mean not only 
that he led a godjy life, hat also that he was the recipient oE 
saperhnman knowled^ It was not onnataisl, th^efore, 
that an Apocalyptic literature b^an to circulate under his 
nune in the centories when sntdi literature was rife. Id the 
|ffesfflit hook, translated from the Ethiopic, we have large 
fra^^eots of such a literature, proceeding from a rariety 
of aatliors. Additional portions of this literature may be 
diflcoTered in the coming years. Only recently two Slavonic 
MSS., which belong to this literature, bat are qaite inde- 
pendent of the preeeot book, have been printed in Rossia. 

The present book from the Ethiopic belongn to the second 
»id fiiBt centuries b.c. All the writers of the New Testa- 
ment were familiar with it, and were more or less influenced 
by it in thought and diction^. It is quoted as a genuine 
production of Enoch by S. Jude, and as Scripture by 
S. Barnabas. The authors of the Book of Jabileee, the 
Apocalypse of Bamcb and IV Ezra, laid it andw con- 
tribation. With the earlier Fathers and Apologists it had 
all the weight of a canonical book, bat towards the close 
of the third and the b^^inning of the fourth centuries it 
b^an to be discredited, and finally fell under the ban of the 

■ For > fall uoonDt of iti influanoe tur«, lee the doaiiig Cluq>t«r of tUa 
fin mller Jcwbb uid Chrntlaa lileni- iDtrodaotiun. 

Di.itradb, Google 

2 The Book of Enoch, 

Churcb. Almost the latest reference to it in the Early 
Church is made by George Syncdlus in his Chronography 
about 800 A. D., who has preserved for as some long passages 
in Greek. The book was then lost sight of till 1775, when 
an Ethiopic version of it was found in Abyssinia by Bruce. 
This traveller brought home three copies of it, two old MSS. 
and a transcript from one of them. From one of these 
Laurence made the first modem translation of Enoch in 1821. 

§ a. The Ethiopic MSS. 

There are seventeen MSS. of this book in Europe. Of 
these one is in Paris, a transcript of B in the Bodleian. 
Another is in the Vatican Library, but of this MS. I know 
nothing further. The remaining fifteen are designated by 
the letters A B C D, &c. Of these Laurence based his text 
on A, and Din. on A B C D E. For a description of these five 
MSS. see Dln.'s Liher Henoch, Aeihiopke, Annotal. pp. 1,3. 

Of the remaining MSS., all of which are in the British 
Museum, two were obtained by purchase, F, L in 1861 and 
1862, and the rest fell into the hands of the expedition 
against King Theodore at Magdala, 

These MSS. with their Nos. in the British Museum Cata* 
logue are as follows: 

F. Add. 24185 J9th cent. Divided into 106 cbs. 

G. Orient. 485 Beginning of i6th cent. Without usual division 

and nambering of cbs. 
G*. „ „ Consiatsonlyof xcvii.e"^ 

cviii. 10. 
See Crit. Note on xci. 6. 
t8tb cent. Divided into 108 chs. 

„ Chs. i-lx. la* wanting. 

„ Divided into 107 cbs. 

„ Witbontusoal numbering 

and division into cbs. 
„ Divided into 87 chs. 

„ Divided into 106 chs. 


Orient. 484 


., 486 


,. 490 


Add. 94990 

M. Orient. 491 


.. 49" 


•> 499 

Di.itradb, Google 

General IniroduciioH. 3 

I collated these MSS. with DId/b Ethiopic text on more 
than three hundred paeea^. The result of this test was 
so favourable to G and G' that I made a complete collation 
of these MSS. and have given the hulk of their variants in 
my critdcsl notes. 

The superiority of G to all other MSS. will be evident 
from the following seventeen passages. Id these I have adopted 
a different text from Din. in accordance with the Ethiopic 
MSS. which were supported by the independent testimony of 
the Greek of S. Jude 15, of the Greek fragments of Enoch 
in G. Syncellus, andof theGreekfr^mentof Enoch published 
by Mai in Patrum Nova Bibliotheca, vol. ii. These passages 
and the MSS. that support the reading adopted are — 

Bnoch i 9 GM Eupportedby S. Jade 15. 

vi. 3 


Greek of Syncellus. 



» .1 

viiL 3 


ix. 4 





^ 3 






XV. 8 





xvi. I 


uiz. 43 


„ fragment of Mai 




For the evidence of the above MSS. on these passages see 
Crit. Notes in loc. It will be remarked that G agrees four- 
teoi times oat of the seventeen with the Gk., and M eleven 
times, E three times, E F H L N twice, and ADO once 
each. Hence it would appear that the five MSS. ABODE 
ou which DId/b t«xt is founded aud in a somewhat less degree 
F H I K. L N O rest on a recension which did not affect G 


4 The Book of Enoch. 

at all and was probably sabseqoeat to it and only partiaUy 
affected M. Tbia probable conolosioQ becomes a ceitainty 
when we examine the i«at of the book. The following list 
of paseagos in which we have departed from Dln.'s text, in 
deference to the better readings of the British Mosenm MSS., 
shows that G- represents an qnciatt nnievised text, and that 
6' M are nearly related to G ; bat that all the rest belong 
more or less closely to another type of text, of which we may 
r^ard Dln.'s text aa a partially adequate representation. 
This latter type of text ^ves an inferior meaning, frequently 
when opposed to G alone, and nearly always when opposed 
to GM, G G', or G G*M, or these supported by one, two, or 
more of the other MSS. Thus I have followed against Din, 

G ftlone 103 time^ 

G withoneormore of CDEFHKLNO . 

GM 13 

G M with une or more of ABCDEFHIK.LNO 3 

GO' I 




H alone or with Greek or with other MSS. i 

D with Greek 

EN with Greek 

FI . 

Thns in 522 instances I have followed the above MSS. 
against Din. In every instance, however, I have also given 
Dln.'s text with its translation that the reader may form his 
own judgment. 

Before passing from this subject I will give a few passages 
to show how weakly at times Dln.'s text is supported even by 
inferior MSS. See Crit. Notes on xxxix, 7 where G K and 
seven other MSS. are against him; liii, 7 where G M and 
nine other MSS. ; Ixvii. 3 where G M and eight other MSS. ; 
Ixvii. 13 where G M and all MSS. but B C; xc. lil where 


General Introdttction. 5 

O M Euid nine MSS. ; zo. 19 where G M and eight MSS. ; 
xciii. 10 where G M and seven MSS, 

I wiU adduce one more point under this head. On xcriii. 2 
alt MSS. bat G G' M agrree in giving a vox nnUa. The 
agreement of these later MSS. in presenting a coimterfeit 
word points either to a recension or to the same ancestrf . 

§ 3. Gbeik Tebsion. 

Only fragments of this version have come down to as pre- 
served in the chronograph^ of Geoige Syncellus (about 
800 B.C.). These are vi-ix. 4; viii. 4-x. 14; iv. 8-ivi. 1 j 
and in a Vatican MS. (Cod. Gr. 1809) published by Mai in 
the Patrum Nova Bibliotheca, vol. iL Only Ixxxix. 42—49 
is found in this MS. I have printed these fragments in 
parallel colnmuB with the translation from the Ethiopic, 

The Greek version has, no doubt, undergone corruption in 
the process of transmission ; yet in many respects it presents 
a more faithful text than the Ethiopic. This we might infer 
to some extent from what has gone before, and the following 
instances where it undoubtedly preserves the truer reading 
will more than confirm this view: — vi. iS; viii. i ; ix. 6, 10; 
X. 14; XV. 11; Izxxix. 45, 48. In these instancee we have 
followed the Greek version against all the Ethiopic MSS. 
The Greek version is by no means free from corruptions. 

As the Greek fragment which has lately been discovered at 
Cairo has not yet been published^ I have not been able to 
avail myself of it. 

§ 4. Eheiojatiohs. 
The text presented by the best MSS, is still far from 
perfect, and contains muiy primitive errors. Some of these 
have been emended successfully by Din. and Hatl^vi. I have 
introduced into the text emendations of Dlu. in the following 
pasB^es : — Ivi. 7 ; Ixii. 2 ; xc. 38 ; and emendations of Hall^vl 
in Ixvii. 13; Ixxvii 1-3; ci. 4, 9; and emendations of my 
own in xvL i ; lU. 9 ; xlvi a ; Ix. (S, 1 9, 24 ; Ixiii. 7 ; 

Digitized by GOOC^IC 

6 The Book of Enoch. 

Ixxvi. 6, lo; xc. ao, ai. For the reaeouB Bee Crit. Notes 
in loe. 

There are still manj passages which are undoubtedly 
corrupt. On many of them I have given sn^esttons of 
Hallgvi and of my own. See Crit. Notes on Ixv. lo ; Iziz. 
I, 13, fcc. 

$ 5. Editions of the Ethiopig Text. 
L&CKENCE, lAhri Enoch Vertio Aethiopica, Oxoniae, 1838. 
DiLLftUHN, Liber Henoch, Aetkiopice, ad guinqve codieum fdem 
editttt, cum vanii lectionibut, Lipsiae, 1S51. For an account ■ 
of the MSS. see pp. 2-5. 

$ 6. Tbanslations. 

Four translations with introductions and commentary have 
already appeared. The latter two of them we shall criticise 

Ladkemce, The Sook <^ Enoch, an apocri/phal production, now 
first Iratulafed from an Ethiopie MS. iW the BodUioJi Library, 
Oxford, i8ai. 

HoFTMANN (A. G.), Bai Buck Henoch in volUidndiger Vber- 
xeizung mil fortlavfendem Commeniar, auifUhrUcher Einleitung 
vnd eridvtemdeti Excurien, 3 vols. Jenaj 1833-38. 

DiLiUANN, Das Buch Henoch vbersetzt vnd erklSrt, Leipzig, 
1853. This splendid edition at once displaced the two that 
preceded it, corrected their many ungrammatical renderings^ 
and furnished an almost perfect translation of a text based on 
live MSS. So much however has been done in the criticism 
of Enoch since 1853 that the need of a new edition is im- 
perative alike in respect of the text, translation, interpretation, 
and criticism of the book. For a criticism of the Ethiopie 
text of Din. see pp. 3-4. As for the translation some of the 
renderings are grammatically impossible. See, for instance, 
^ Crit. Notes on xv. 11 ; lii. 10; Ixxxis. 7; xcii. 16; cvi. 13. 
Many other inaccuracies in the trartslatioD are silently corrected 
in his Lexicon. For some of these see Crit. Notes on viii, i ; 


General Introduction. 7 

xxxvii. a, 5; xxxviii. 2; xli. 5; Ixxxiii. 5; Ixxxv. %; xeii. 5. 
Further he h&s omitted to translate the opening words of 
xzzrii. I and a clause in xci. 6. As for the interpretation of 
the book, this has been pressed and stnuned in order to sup- 
port the critical views which Dhi. then held but which he has 
long since abandoned. His critical views indeed have undeigone 
many changes, but these undoubtedly are in the right direction. 

In his edition of 1 853 Din. insisted that the book proceeded 
from one author with the exception of certain historical addi- 
tions, vi-xvi; xci. la-i? ; xciiij cvi-vii, and of certain 
Noachic interpolations, liv. 7-Iv. 2 ; Ix ; Ixv-lxix. 25 ; and 
also cf . XX ; Ixx ; Ixxv. 5 ; Itttii 9-20 ; cviii. 

In i860 in Heizog's U.E., Ed. i, vol. xii. 308-310, and in 
1871 in Scbenkel's {Bihel-Lex^ iii. 10-13, ^^ rec<^nised the 
separate authorship of xxxvii-lxxi and a6Bert«d with Ewald 
its priority to the rest of the boot. 

In 1883 in Herzog's R. E., Ed. 2, vol. xii. 350-353 he 
abandons his original standpoint so far as to describe the book 
of Enoch as a mere 'combination of the Enoch and Koah 
writings,' and concedes that xxxvii-lxxi are later than the rest 
of the book. His final analysis is as follows. (1) i-xxxvi ; 
Ixxii-cv, with the exception of certain interpolations, form the 
ground-work and were composed in the time of J. Hyrcanus. 
{2) xxxvii-lxxi together probably with xvii-xix were written 
at latest before 64 b. c. (3) The Noachic fragments vi. 3-8 ; 
viii. 1-3 ; ix. 7 ; x, 1, 1 1 ; xx ; xxxix. i, a * ; liv. 7-lv. 2 ; Ix ; 
Ixv-lxix. 25 ; cvi-cvii, (4) cviii. 

Yet despite every defect, Dln.'s edition will always maintain 
a unique position in the Enoch literature. 

ScHODDB. The Book of Enoch trandated with Introdueiion 
and Note*, Andover, 1882. The introduction is interesting and 
the account of the bibliography though incomplete is helpful, 
hut the arrangement of the text and notes in this edition 
is most inconvenient. The translation is made from Dbt's 
Ethiopic text. But the work as a whole is unsatisfactoty. 
All Dln.'s slips and inaccuracies, with one 01 two exceptions, 


8 The Book of Enoch. 

are perpetastedj even Uiose which have been corrected in his 
Leiicoii, and to these Br. Schodde has added a good]y 
niunber of his own. At times he transIateB directly from the 
Gterman instead of the Ethiopic As for ingtance in xxxvi. 
3 he translates 9*^Ml wrongly 'every evening' instead of 
'to the west.' The ezphination of this strange mistake ie 
fonnd in Dln.'s rendering 'gegen Abend,' which may be 
translated either way. Again in Ixii. 4 he gives the extra- 
ordinary rendering ' when tlifl son enters the month of the 
mother,' instead of the obvioos translation ' enters the month 
of the womb.' Here again Dln.'B * Wann sein Sohn in den 
Mnttermnnd tritt,' explains Dr. Sohodde'a error. It is pos- 
sible that t^ error ehoold be set down to an imperfect know* 
ledge of English, such as he displays in xxi. 3 where the 
words ' tied together to it ' represent some stars as tied to a 
void I whereas the literal translation is ' bonnd together in 
it*; or in xxv. 5 where he renders *it will be planted 
towards the north ' instead of ' it will be transplanted to the 

At other times Dr. Schodde confounds words that in the 
Ethiopic closely resemble each other, as in ixvii. 2 'here 
will be their judgment ' instead of ' here will be the place 
of their punishment ' ; in szxii. 3 * of attractive beanty ' 
instead of 'of goodly fiagnmce'i in Ixxxix. 18 'abode' 
instead of 'assembly,' Again in Izxiii. 8 he commaits 
rightly in the notes on the waxing moon, but his translation 
wrongly refers to the waning moon. On the other hand the 
notes on the astronomical Chs. are often misleading and 
uuintdligible : cf. Izxii. 3, 35: Ixxiv. 6; Ixxv. i. A more 
thorough study of Dln.'s conomentary would have saved him 
from such misconceptione. 

It will be sufficient to point to one or two more mistransla- 
tions in this book. 

xix. I ' On the day whrai the great judgment . . . shall be 
consnounated,' instead of ' on the day of the great jndgmoit 
... till they are consummated.' 

Digitized by GtXlglC 

General fntrodttctton. 9 

Ixxir. 14 * To l^e sum of these are added sixty-two days' 
instead of ' an addition is made to the sixty-two days.' 

Ixzvi. 10 ' After these northerly winds From the seventh 
portal,' instead of 'Aft» these are tiie north winds: from the 
sereith portal,' && 

In the face of such a listas the above, and it is by no means 
ezhaugtive, it is hard to congratolate Dr. Schodde, and yet 
we are g^teful to him for the good service he has rendered 
in introducing the knowledge of Enoch to the Western world. 

I ehonld add that Dr. Sohodde's analysis of Enoch is : — 

i. The groundwork i-zxzvi ; Ixzii-cv, before the death of 
Jodas Maccahee. 

ii The Similitades xxxvii-lzxi, between 37-4 b. c. 

iii, Noachic interpolations liv. 7-lr. a ; Iz ; Izv-lziz. 25 ; 

He thinks it probable that xz ; Ixx ; Ixxv. 5 ; Ixxxii. 9- 
20; zciii. 1 1-14 are also interpolations. 


I had intended to give a critical histoiy of all the work 
done on Enoch since 1850, and had collected almost sufficient 
mat^ials for that purpose, when I found that my space 
would not pennit of such a large addition to the book. I shall 
therefore content myself with enumerating these inquiries and 
adding occasional notes. 

Lttcxi, EinleUung m die Ofenianmg det Jokanneg (3nd 
^Ed. iSja), pp. 89-144: 1071-1073. Liicke regards the 
book as consistiag of two parts; the first embiaces i-xxxt ; 
)xxi-cT, written at the bcfpinning of t^ Maccabaean revolt 
(p. 142), or according to his- later view in the reign of J. 
HyrcanuB (p. 1072); the second consiBtA of the Similitudes 
and was written in the early years of Herod the Great (p. 142). 
lix. 7—14 and Iziv-lxvii. i are interpolations of an uncertain 
date. In his fint edition Liicke maintained the Christian 
authorship of tfae whole book. 

HoFHANir (J. Chr. E.), ■ Ueber die Entstehungszeit dee 

Digitized by GOOC^IC 

lo The Book of Enoch. 

Buch Henoch (^^aaff. L.M. 1852, pp. 87-91) ; Scirijf- 
heweu (and Ed.), i. 430-43; IHe heil. Sckrift N.T.'i zu»am- 
mmhangmd untertueht, vii. z, p. 205 sqq. Hofmann regards 
Enoch as the work of a Christian writer of the eecond century 
A. D. His chief contribution to the understanding of Enoch is 
his correct interpretation of the seven tj shepherds in lxxxiz~xc. 

DiLLUAjnt. See above under editions ; also ZeiUckr. 
D.M.G., 1 861, pp. 126-13], This is a criticism of Volkmar's 

Jellinek, Zeitichr. 2). M. G., 1853, p. 249. 

GiLDEHEiSTER, Zeittcir. J). M. 0,, 1855, pp. 621-624, gives 
the Greek fragment of Enoch from the Codex Vaticanus 
(Cod. Gr. 1809) and discusses the relative merits of the 
Greek and Ethiopic versions. 

EwALD, Abhandlung iber det aihiopitcheit Bnchet Henokh 
Enistehung, Sinn und Zutammemetzung, 1855; Hittory of 
Israel, v. 345-349 (transl. from the Germ.). It was the merit 
of Ewald first to discern that Enoch was composed of several 
originally independent books. It is, in fact, as he declares, 
' the precipitate of a literature once very active which revolved 
. . . round Enoch ' Hitt. (v. 349). Though this view was at 
once assailed by Kostlin and nearly every other critic since, 
its truth can do longer be denied, and Holtzmann's declara- 
tion that 'the so-called groundwork (i. e. i-zzzvii ; Ixxii-cv) 
is composed of a ^riiole series of sections, some of Pharisaic 
and others of Essene origin' [Theol. Ziteraturzeitung, 1890, 
p. 497), is a notable sign of the return to Ewald's view. Bat 
though future criticism must confirm Ewald's general judg- 
ment of the hook, it will just as surely reject his detailed 
analysis of its parts. His scheme is — 

(i) Book I, xxzvii-lxxi (with the exception of certain in- 
terpolations), circ, 144 B. c. 

{2) Bookllji-xvijlixxi. i-4;liniv; xei-cv, circ 135 b.c. 

{3) Book III, xx-xxxvi ; Ixxii-xc ; cvi-cvii, circ. 1 28 B. c.j 
cviii later, 


General Introduction. 1 1 

(4) Book IV, the Noah book. vi. 3-8 ; viii. 1-3 ; ix. 7 ; 
I. 1-3, II, 32 '; xrii-iii; liv. 7-lv. a; Ix. i-io, 24, 25; 
Ixiv-Ixiz. 16. Somewhat later than the former. 

(5) Finally the editing, compressiiig, and enlarging of the 
former books into one vol. 

Weisse, Hie 'Evangelie^-Wrage, 1856, pp. 314-334. Weisse 
agrees with Hofmann and Fhilippi in maintaining a Christian 
authorship of the book, but his advocacy of this view sprbgs 
from the dogmatic principle that the entire idea of Christianity 
was in its pure originality derived from the self-consciousness 
of Christ. 

KoBTLiH, ' TJeber die Entstehung des Buchs Henoch ' {Theot. 
Jakrb., 1856, pp. 340-279; 370-386). KSatlin, as we have 
already remarked, contended against Ewald that the book of 
Enoch did not arise through the editing of independent works, 
but that by far the larger part of Enoch was the work of one 
author which through subsequent accretions became the 
present book. Though this view must be speedily abandoned, 
it must be confessed that the Articles in which it is advocated 
are masterly performances, and possess a permanent value for 
the student of Enoch. 

HiLOENFELD, Die jMUche Apokalyptik, 1857, pp. 91- 
1 84. This work like that of Kostlin is of lasting worth and 
indispensable in the study of Enoch. We cannot, however, 
say so much for the conclusions arrived at. Many of these 
are, in fact, demonstrably wrong. According to Hilgenfeld, 
the groundwork consists of i-ivi; xx-xxxvi; Ixsii-cv written 
not later than 98 B. c. The later additions, i e. zvii— 
xix; zzzvii-lxxi ; evi-cviii are the work of a Christian 
Gnostic about the time between Satuminos and Marcion. 
There are no Noachic interpolations. 

There is no occasion to enter on the, for the most part, 
barren polemic between Hilgenfeld and Volkmar on the inter- 
pretation and date of Enoch, to which we owe the following 
writings of Hilgenfdd : — ' Die jiidische Apokalyptik und die 

Digitized byCoOglc 

12 The Book of Enoch. 

Qeaeeten Forschungen ' {ZeittcAr. /. wiaieiuciaflL TAeoL, iii. 
iStio, pp. 319-334 : ' Die Entatehungszeit des urBpriinglichen 
Bucha Heaoch' {Z. f. «. TAeol., iv. 1861, pp. 212-122): 
' Noch ein Wort ttb^ dae Buoh Henoch.* {Z.f. w. TAeol., v. 
i86a, pp. 216-221). In Z.f. to. TAeol., it. 1871, pp. 584-587, 
tiiere is a rqoinder to Ctebhardt (see below). 

VoLKUAB, ' Beitr&ge zur Erk^rong des Buches Henocli.' 
{ZsiUeAr. D. M, 0., xiv. 1 860, pp. 87-134, 296}: 'Einige Bemer- 
knngea liber Apokalyptik' (ZeiiicAr. Jl w. TAeol., iv. 1861, 
pp. Ill— 136 : ' Ueber die katholisdiai Briefe tmd Henocb,' 
iv. 1861, pp. 421-436; v. 1863, pp. 46-75. As HUgenfeld 
reckoned the periods of the seveDty shepherds at seven years 
eaeh, starting from 588 b. 0., and thus arrived at 98B.C., 
Volkmar started from the same anterior limit and reckoned 
each p»iod at ten years. He thus found the entire mie of 
the shepherds to last 700 years or, through certain refine- 
mratfl, peculiarly Yolkmarian, 720 years, and so arrived at 
the year of Baicochab's rebellion 133 a. d, — a year which has 
exercised a sttange fascination over him and has been fatal to 
bis reputation as a critic. Thus Enoch was written 132 b. c. 
It was the work of a disciple of Akiba, and was designed to 
announce the final victoiy of Barcochab. Yolkmar restated 
his theory in an essay : Eine Neutestamentliche Entdeckung, 
Zurich, 1863. His views have received more attention thwa 
they deserved through the rejoinders of Hilgenfeld, Dillmann, 
Langen, SiefEert, Gebhardt, Drummond, and Stanton. 

Gbiobk, JaditcAe ZeittcAr,/. WutetucA. mtd Leben, 1864- 
65, pp. 196-204. This article deals mainly with the calendar 
in Enoch. I have adopted one of his suggestions in x, 4. 

liANeEN, Dot JudentAurn in Paldatina, 1866, pp. 35-64. 
Langen regards Enoch as an early but highly composite work 
put together in its present form about 160 b. 0. (pp. 56, 64), 
and emanating from orthodox and patriotic Judaism as a 
protest against heathen religion and philosophy. 

SlBr?EBT, Be apoerypAi lilri HettoeAi origine ei argumeiUo, 


General Introduction. 13 

R^imonti, 1867. Bieffert (p. 3) takes the groundwork to be 
i-ivi ; xx-nivi ; Ixxii-lxxxii ; lei-cT, written by a Chasid 
in the age of Simon the Maccabee (p. 11-13): Ixxxiii-zc is a 
later addition aboat the year 108 b, c., and xrii-zix ; xxxvii- 
iiii; cvi-cviii are of Essene ori^ and composed before 64 
B. c. (pp. 27-39). 

HoLTZMANN, Getehtckte det Voliea Iwael, 1867, vol. ii, pp. 
201, 202. 

Hall^i, ' Becherohee ear U langue de la redaction primitive 
da livre d'£noch' {Journal Anaiique, 1867, pp. 352—39 j). 
Thiij most interesting essay proves beyond doubt that Enoch 
was ori^nally written in Hebrew. Unhappily the writer has 
lost much time over passages wbicb better MSS, show to be 
mere corruptions of the text. There axe many errors in the 
Ethiopic part of this essay, but these are most likely due 
to the press. I have given the most probable of Hall^vi's 
Bu^eatioBs in my Critical Notes, and have adopted several of 
them in my translation. 

Philippi, Das Buck Henoch, tein ZeitalUr und lein Ver- 
iallnitt zwm Juda^ri^e, Stuttg. 1868. This writer ^rees 
with HoFmann, Weisse and Volkmar, in r^arding the book 
as post-Christian. He thinks it was written in Greek by one 
author, a Christian, about 100 a. d. It is notable that all the 
four writers, who assign a post-Christian origin to the book, 
have done for dogmatic reasons. 

WiTTiCHiH, Die Idee de» MengeAen, 1868, pp. 63-71 ; Die 
Idee de» Seieket Goiiet, 1872, pp. 118-133, 145-150. 

These books I have not been able to see. 

Gbbhasdt, 'Die 70 Hirten des Buches Henoch und ihro 
Deutongen mit besonderer Btioksicht auf die Barkochba- 
Hypotheee' (Men' ArcAivfUr loiitentchifti. Erfor»ehnng det 
.i4.2'.i872,vol.ii.HeftiL pp. 163-246). In this most trenchant 
crittcism of the different explanations of cbs. Ixxzix-ze the 
writer carefully refraina from advancing any theory of his 
own. Nay more, be holds it impossibie with our present 

Digitized byCoOglc 

14 The Book of Enoch. 

text to arrive at a troe interpretation of the author's 
meaning. But this writer's despair of a true interpretation 
is orerhasty and his condemnation of the text is unwar- 

Angee, Yorlesungea Hher die Geichichtt der Me»siani»che» 
Idee, 1873, pp. 83-84. 

Veenes, ffiitoW de* Idett Megtianiquei, 1874, pp. 66-117; 
264—271. These sections are composed mainly of a French 
translation of Dln.'s German version. Vemes thinks that the 
earliest part of Enoch was written ia Aramaic by a con- 
temporary of J. Hyrcanus ; and that the Similitudes spring 
from a Christian and Gnostic circle about the dose of the 
first cAituiy A. D. (pp. 264 sqq.). 

'K.wsss, Religion of Itrael, 1874-1875, iii. 265, 266 (trans- 
lated frtan the Dutch Edition of 1869-70). 

TiDBKAH, ' De Apocalypee van Henoch et het Eeeenisme/ 
[TAeol, Tijdtchrifl, 1875, pp. i6i~%<j6). Tideman regards the 
book as proceeding from different authors living at different 
periods. His analysis is as follows : — 

(i) The oldest book: i-xvi ; n-xixvi; Ltxii-lEmi; xciii; 
zci. 12-19 '> ^<^ i xeiv-cv from the band of a Pharisee in the 
early times of the Maccabees 153-135 b. c. 

(2) The second book : Ixzxiii-zci. 10 from an Eesene wtit&c 
who added it to the older book 134-106 b. c. 

(3) The Apocalypse of Noah : xvii-xii ; xli. 3-9 ; xUii, 1, 
2; xliv; liv. 7-lv. 2; lii-li ; liv-lxix. 25; Ixi; evi-evii, 
from an author versed in Jewish QnoBttcism 80 a. d. 

(4) The Similitudes (with the exception of the Noachic in- 
terpolations) written by a Christian in the days of Domitiao 
or Trajan when the Christiana were persecuted and the Romans 
were at war with the Farthians 90—100 a. d. 

(5) Ch. cviii by the final editor of the book, a Christian 
Gnostic of the type of Satnminus, 125 a. d. 

Christian interpolations are found in zc. 38; cv. 
Tidemui thinks that we have in the Similitudes a comhina- 


General Introduction. 15 

tion of the fihought that the Meseiali is to be a man m the 
cloodB (Daniel), and of the doctrine that he was to proceed 
from the commaoitf . En. xc. 37, 38. 

DauHHOND, The Jevnth MemaA, 1877, pp. 17-73. I*niin- 
mond givee a conciBe and able review of the work of former 
critics on £noch. He rightly approves and farther enforces 
Hofmann's interpretation of the seventy shepherds as angels. 
He agrees with the limits assigned by Tideman to the oldest 
book in Enoch ; but eoncludes, against Hilgenfeld and Tide- 
man, that the Similitudes conld not entirely be the work of a 
Christian ; for if they were such, there wonld undoubtedly 
have been some reference to the crucified and risen Christ such 
sa we find in Test. xii. Patriarch. Levi, 4. The di£Seulties of 
the case are met, he believes, by supposing that a Christian 
Apocalypse has been worked into the tissue of an earlier 
Jewish production, and that all the Messiah passages are due 
to the former. His chief arguments are : (i) the title ' son of 
a woman ' conld not have been applied by a pre-Christian Jew 
to a snpematural Messi^ ; (ii) a consistent text is possible by 
an omission of the Messiah passages, a teztalso which answers - 
to the title placed at the beginning of eaoh Similitude ; (iii) 
the closing ch. Ixzi confirms this view where in the descrip- 
tion of a Theopbany there is no mention of the Messiah and 
the title ' Son of Man' is applied to Enoch ; (iv) the Book 
of Jubilees though using Enoch extensively does not cite the 
Messiah passages. 

This theory is as untenable as that of Hilgenfeld and 
Tideman. As for (i) the title in question is not found in the 
oldest MS. ; (ii) in itself will have no weight if we bear in 
mind the want of logical sequence and the frequent re- 
dundancy characteristic of Semitic writings generally and of 
Jewish apocalypses in particular. Moreover in no instance 
that I am aware of does any superscription in Enoch give 
an exact account of the Chs. it introduces, (iii) This argument 
not only fails to testify against the genuineness of the 
Messiah passages but also famishes one of the strongest 


i6 The Book of Enoch. 

proofs of their being original constituentB of the text. It Ja 
first to be obeeired that Izxi must be te^^arded as ui int«r- 
poktion CD quite other groonds (see notes in loe.). la the next 
place what sigikificanee are we to attach to the ajqiearanee of 
the title 'The Son of Man' ia the interpolations and as 
api^ied there to Enoch, Ix. 10 ; Ixxi. 14? We owi only ander- 
stand this by studying the method of the interpolator. In 
the Noachic interpolations we find that the interpolator seeks 
to adapt his additions to their new contexts by incorpoiating 
technical terms from these contexts. Thus the following 
technical terms and phrases among otheis are taken over into 
his inta^lations ; ' Lord of Spirits,' see xxxviL 2 (note) ; 
' Head of Days/ xlvi. 1 (note) ; ' Angels of Punishm^t,' 
Ivi. I (note); "Those who dwell on the Earth,^ xxxvii. 5 
(note); but either through ignorance or of set purpose the 
technical phrases are misused. At the same time the pre- 
sence of many such misused technical terms in the inter- 
polation over against the technical terms in their adjoining 
eontezte is demonstrative evidence ss to the genuineness of 
the latter. Srery copy or caricature preeapposes an originaL 
And this is exactly what we find in connexion with the title, 
' The Son of Man.* It is found repeatedly thronghoat the 
Similitudes in the technical sense of a supernatural Messiah 
and Judge of the World, and accordingly it would be sur- 
prising in the extreme if it escaped the &te of the other 
technical designations. But the interpolator has not dis- 
appointed ns; the inevitable 'caricature' appears in Ix, 10 
and Ixxi. 14, and therein we have the best evidence we could 
desire for the genuineness of the technical designation in the 

The Similitudes, therefore, are neither of ChrigtiaD author- 
ship as Hilgenfeld supposes nor of Jewish authorship worked 
over by a Christian, All evidence internal and external will, 
as we shall see presently, prove not only that they are Jewish 
but also pre^hristian. (iv) It would be most unreasonable 
to expect the Book of Jobilees to quote or refer to the Messiah 


General Introduction. 1 7 

passages, seeing that tbroughout it tKere is not even the 
Eaintest allusioD to a Messiah. 

Hauseath, Neulettamentlieie Zeifgttehichte, Erster Theil, 
3td ed., 1879, pp. 185-189; 191-193. The oldest book, 
i-xxxvi J Ixxii-CT, is referred to the time of J. Hyrcanus. 
The Similitndes, with the exception of the Noachic inter- 
polations, were probahly composed in the reign of Herod the 
Great. Hausrath thinks that the Messiah-passages may have 
won somewhat of a Christian colooring in the process of 
transhition from Hebrew to Greek and Greek to Ethiopic 
by Christian hands. 

Lipsics, art. 'Enoch' in Smith and Wace's Dictionary of 
CAriitian Bioffrapiy,\o\.u. 1880, pp. 124-128. (i)The oldest 
book dealt with celestial physics, xvii-xiz ; xxi-xxxvi ; Ixxii- 
Ixxiz; Ixxxii, in which Enoch appears as a teacher of such 
higher wisdom. This however is an unhappy synthesis; forthe 
demonic doctrine of xvii— xix connects it peculiarly with the 
Noachic interpolations, while its Greek colouring as strongly 
disconnects itwiUi the nltra-Jewish Ixxii— Ixxix; Ixxxii. (2} 
In the second book i-xvi; Ixxx—lxxxi; Ixxxiii-cr which 
never existed independently but only as an expansion of the 
former, Enoch is represented as a preacher o£ righteousness. 
This book belongs to the reign of J. Hyrcanus. (3) The 
Similitndes written nnder the later Maccabeans or the Herods. 
(4) Noachic interpolations liv. 7-lv. a; Ix. 7-35; Ixv-lxviii. 
I and probably x. 1-3; 22''; xli. 2-9; xliii-xliv; lixj liix. 
2, 3 ; cn-cvii. Other interpolations and additions xx ; cviii. 

This article forms a valuable contribution to the criticism 
of Enoch, and I welcome it all the more gladly as I arrived 
at many of its results before I was acquainted with it. 

WxSTCOTT, Iniroduelion to tie Study of ike GotpeU, 1881, 
6th ed., pp. 99-109; Gotpel of St, Join, 1882, p. 34. In 
the former work this writer recognises the probability of the 
different sections of the book as proceeding from different 
authors, yet he essays the impossible task of moulding their 

Digitized by GOOC^IC — 

iS The Book of Enoch. 

conflicting features into one coneiatent whole. In the latter 
work Dr. Westcott asserts tliat the title in Enoch is ' A Son 
of Man'; bnt wrongly; for it is as definitely 'The Son of 
Man ' as the language and sense can make it. The being so 
named, further, is gnperhuman, and not merely human as 
Dr. Westcott states. 

ScHODDE. See above (pp. 7-8). 

■WiESELBB, 'Ueber die Form dee judischen Jabres um die 
Zeit Jesu ' {Beitrage zur riehiigen WUrdigung der SmHgelieH, 
1869). We hare here an interesting and valuable discaseion 
of the Calendar in Enoch. 

' Znr Abfassnngszeit des Budis Henoch' (Zeiitcir. S.M.Q., 
i88a, pp. 185-193). Wieseler sssigns the Similitudes no less 
than the rest of the book to the reign of J. Hyrcanus. 

ScHUBBK, A Biitoty of the Jeioitk People in the Time of 
Jetu* Ckritt (traDslated from the second and Revised Ed. of 
the German), vol. iii. div. ii. pp. 54-73, 1886. This is a 
most judicious statement of the results already attained by 
criticism. In accordance with these Schiirer divides the 
book into three parts: (i) 'the original writing' i-xxzvi; 
!xxii-cv, written in the reign of J. Hyrcanus; (3) the Simi- 
litudes written in the time of Herod the Great ; (3) the 
Noacbian Fragments, liv. 7-lv. 2; Iz; Izr-lxix. 25, and 
probably cvi-cvii. cviii is a later addition. He is careful, 
however, to remind us that the ' original writing is composed 
of very heterogeneous elements.' While he rightly dismisses 
as idle all attempts to introduce chronological exactness into 
the interpretation of the sevenfy Shepherds, he thinks there 
can be no doubt as to where the different periods are intended 
to begin and end. It was Schurer who was the first to 
recognise the validity of Hoffmann's interpretatdon of the 
Shepherds and to give it currency. This article oonclndes 
with a very full list of patristic passages referring to Enoch 
and with an excellent bibliography of the literature. 

Stanton, The Jewiih and the Chrittian Meitiah, 1886, pp. 


General Introduction, 19 

44-64, 139-140, 142, 153. ^70-i75» 286, 305, 311-315, 33a, 

The analyBiB of the book given in Schiirer is adopted also 
here. Dr. Stanton agrees likewise with the generality of 
criticfl in assigning the first part, i. e. i-sxsTi ; Ixxii-cVj to 
the reign of J. Hyrcanus. The Similitadee must, he thinks, 
be ascribed to a Jewish Christian or to a Jew influenced by 
Christian ideas. The fntgments of a lost Apocalypse of Noah 
are probably xxxix. i, a' ; liv. 7-lv. 2 ; Ix ; Ixv-lxix. 25, It 
is to be hoped that the aathor of this admirable book will 
add to onr indebtedness, and give to the book o£ Enoch the 
fuller luid profonnder treatment it deserves. 

Riuss, GtKh. der heil. Sciriffen A. T'» §5 498-500. 

HoLTZMANir, EiiUeitung i»dat N. T., 1886, 109, no. 

P7i:.BiDEBEB, i>fl* Urciritlentiim, 1887, pp. 310-318. This 
writer accepts the traditional view with regard to the ground- 
work, and approves of Crommond's theory as to the origin of 
the Messiah-passages in the Similitudes. This theory he 
seeks further to substantiate, but without success. 

Bau>ensfkeqeb,, Btu SelbttbetoiMttteiu Jaii, 1888, pp. 7-16. 
This writer assents to the traditional view and date of the 
ground-work. The Similitude* he assigns to the years im- 
mediately following on the death of Herod the Great. He 
believes there are many references to the Romans in the 
' Similitudes, and that Augustas and Herod are designed 
under the phrase ' the kings and the mighty.' 

Salhon, Introdvction io the N. T,, 4th ed., 1889, m*. 537, 

FxTXB, Le Livre ^Henoch. Set Id4ea Memaniquet et ton 
Euhatologie, Geneve, 1890. This is an interesting little 
treatise, but by no means free from blemishes. The Simili' 
tudes are pre-Christian, and the traditional view and date of 
the ground-work are here reproduced. 

DbanBj The Ptendeptgrapka, 1891, pp. 49-94- This is a 
c z 

Digitized by GOOC^IC 

20 . The Book of Enoch, 

praiseworthy attempt to populariee a knowledge of these 
works. The writer assigns the traditional ground-work to 
the years 153-130 B.C.]Biid r^ards the Similitudes as written 
a few years later. Many of thb writer's statements on the 
theology and influence of Enoch are to be taken with extreme 

Thohsok, Booh thai influenced our Lord and Ria Apoillet, 
1891, pp. 95, 103, 108, 125-348, 389-411. Mr, Thomson's 
analysis is as follows ; — 

(i) Book of the Similitudes and the Book of the Weeks, 
xzzvii-lxxi; xci. 12-xcix, written about the year 2io B.C. 

(2) Noachic Fragments, Ix; Ixv-lxix. 24. 

(3) Book of the Fall of the Angels and of the Luminaries, 
i-xxxvi; Ixxii-xci. 1 1 ; c-cvii, written not later than 160 B.C. 

(4) cviii. Mr. Thomson's chief ground for r^arding 
xsxvii-lxxi as the oldest section is derived from the presence 
of the Noachic interpolations. As he believes that these 
interpolations are confined to this section, be infers that 
xxxvii-lxxi is therefore the oldest and that i-xsivi ; Ixxii-xci 
were not yet in existence. Even if Mr. Thomson were right 
in his facts, quite another conclusion would be possible. But 
this writer's premises are without foundation. Interpolations 
are found in every section in Enoch and numerously in the 
sections which Mr. ThomBon regards as free from them. It 
cannot be said that this book contributes much to the better . 
interpretation of Enoch, luid this is all the more to be deplored 
as Its author obviously possesses abundant ability for the task . 

Chktne, Origin of the Ptalter, 1891, pp. 22, 375, 412- 
414, 423-434, 448-449, and about fifty references besides. 
'Possible Zoroastrian Influences on the Religion of Israel,"^ 
Eiepoiitory Timet, 1891, p. 207. Dr. Cheyne accf^ts pro- 
visionally the traditional division of Enoch into the ground- 
work, Sinuhtudes and Noachic fragments, and r^ards the 
Similitudes as pre-Christian. He deals mainly with the 
dogmatic teaching of the book and its place in the devel(^- 


General Inirodttciion. 2 1 

•taeot of Jewish religious thought, and points to the Essene 
and Zoroastrian elements which have found a place io it. 

Db Fayb, Let apocalypaet juivei, Paris, 189a, pp. 38-315, 

§ 8. Feou a Hebkew OfiiaiNAL through thb Medium 
OF A Gbeek Translation. 

Lanrence and Hoffmann believed on various grounds that 
the original was written in Hehrew. Jelliaelc (ZeiUcir. 
JJM.G., 1853, p. 249) argues for the same conclusion from 
Hebrew fragments of Enoch which are preserved in various 
Jewish writings. Din. {BvcA HenocA, Einleit. li-liii) holds the 
same view and urges in suppori; of it the accurate knowledge 
shown by the book of the localities round Jcmsalem, the 
intimate acqnaintance of its writers with the Old Testament, 
and tJiat not through the medium of the LXX but directly 
with the Hebrew, the frequent etymologies resting only on a 
Hebrew basis and the Hebraistic style, which is so all per- 
vading that there is not a single expression in the book which 
does not readily admit of retranslation into Hebrew. 

The evidence furnished by Din. is quit« sufficient to esta- 
blish a Hebrew original. And his conclusion has been further 
and finally confirmed by Hall^vi. This scholar has retrans- 
lated the entire book into Hebrew, and in the Journal Aiiatigue, 
Avril-Mai, 1867, pp. 552-395, has proved his thesis to demon- 
stration. There is much that is far-fetched and more 
ingenious than true in this able article, yet none the less 
its author has established his contention. As proofs of a 
Hebrew original he adduces (i) frequent paronomastic expres- 
sions possible only in Hebrew (see Crit. Note on vi. 6); (2) 
Hebrew etymolc^es of proper names ; (3) unintelligible 
expressions rendered clear by reproduction in Hebrew. 

This Hebrew original was first translated into Greek. 
Portions of this translation still exist (see pp. 62-y^ 83—85). 
It was from this Greek translation that the Ethiopic version 


22 The Book of Enoch. 

was made. Ethiopic did not exist as a literary language beCore 
350 (see Noldeke ' Semitic Languages,' Encye. BriU, 9tli ed., 
vol. xxi. 654). The translatioD of the Bible into Ethi(^ic 
was made between 350 and 600, and it ie probable that the 
book of Enoch was not made much earlier than the later 

The Place of Composition. — There is no room for doubt 
as to the Palestinian origin of the book. The various authors 
are at home in Palestine and accurately acquainted with the 
varbus localities close to Jerusdem, the valleys, brooks, and 
other natural features in its immediate neighbourhood. To 
them further Jerusalem is the city of the elect, the centre of 
the coming Messianic kingdom, and Gehenna is the destined 
habitation of the apostate. Greek elements have no doubt 
found an entrance iA certain fragments of the book, but as a 
rule there is a deliberate and sustained opposition rendered 
to all Hellenistic ideas and influences. The whole tone and 
exegesis of the book are Palestinian in character. 

\ 9. The Object of Afocaliftic Liteaatube. 

The object of Apocalyptic literature in general was to solve 
the difficulties connected with the righteonsness of Ood and 
the suffering condition of his righteous servants on earth. 
The righteousness of God postulated according to the Law 
the temporal prosperity of the righteous, and postulated this 
temporal prosperity of necessity; for as yet there was no 
promise of life or recompense beyond the grave. But in the 
experience of Qod's servants this connexion of righteonsness 
and temporal reward was so often found to fail that the 
Psalmists at times go so far as to complain that the best 
things of this life are bestowed on the wicked. The difficul- 
ties thus arising from this conflict between promise and 
experience might be shortly resolved into two, which deal 
respectively with the position of the righteous as a com- 
munity, and the position of t^e righteous man as an in- 


General Introduction, 23 

dividnal. The Old Teatsment prophets had concerned them- 
selves chiefly with the fonner and pointed in the main to the 
restoration of Israel as a nation and to lerael's ultimate 
possession of the earth as a reward of their righteousness. 
But later with the growing claime of the individual, and the 
acknowledgment of these in the religions and intellectual life, 
the latter problem pressed itself irresistibly on the notice of 
religious thinkers, and made it impossible for any conception 
of the divine rule and righteousness to gain acceptance, which 
did not render adequate satisfaction to the claims of the 
righteous individoal. It was to this difficulty in particular 
that Apocalyptic addressed itself, though it did not ignore 
the fonner. It strove to show that tJike in respect of the 
nation and of the individoal the righteousness of God would 
be fully vindicated. In order to justify tbeir contention 
Apocalyptic writers sketched in outline the history of the 
world and of mankind, the origin of evil and its course, and 
the final consnmmation of all thipgs, and thus in fact 
presented a Semitic philosophy of religion. The righteous 
as a nation should yet possess the earth : even in this world 
the faithful community should attain to all its rights either 
in an eternal or in a temporary Messianic kingdom. So Apoca- 
lyptic taught universally and thus enforced the teaching of 
prophecy. As for the destiny of the individual, and here lay 
the chief interest and service of Apocalyptic, this was finally 
to be determined according to his works. For though tiie 
righteous individual might perish amid the disorders of the 
world, his death oonld not fall out without God's knowledge, 
and though cat ofF here apparently as a sinner, he would not 
feul to attain through the resurrection the recompense that 
was his due in the Messianic kingdom or in heaven itself. 
The conceptions as to this risen life, its duration and character, 
vary with each writer. 

With this short introduction we will now proceed to con- 
sider the different writings in this book, their respective 
chaiacteristicB and dates, and the various accounts they offer 


24 Tlie Book of Enoch. 

of tbe future lot of the righteous community and of the 
righteous individnal. 

\ 10. Thb dif?beiint Elements in the Book of Enoch, 


The book of Enoch is a fragmentaiy ettrvivsl of an entire 
literature that once circulated under his name. To this fact 
the plurality of books assigned to Enoch from the first may 
in some degree point : as for instance the expression ' books ' 
in civ. 13 : Book of Jnbileea iv; vii ; Test. XII. Fatriarcb. Jud. 
1 8 ; Origcn c, Celmm v. 54 ; in Num. Homtl. zxviii. 2 (Ed. 
LommatEch) ; Aug. He Ctv. Dei xt. 23 ; and Q-. Syncellus, 
p. 20 (Ed. Uindorf.) 'the first book.' 

This presumption becomes, a matter of demonstration on 
the following grounds. The referendes to Enoch's writings in 
tbe Book of Jubilees anjl in the Test. XII. Patriarch, cannot 
in many instances be traced to the existing book of Enoch. 
The last passage attributed by Syncellus to Enoch has no 
corresponding part in the Ethiopic. Portions of tbe Ethiopic 
version are manifestly lost, as, for instance, the close of the 
first Similitude. And finally two Slavonic MSS. have been 
recoitly published, in Russia which belong to this literature 
and yet differ from the Ethiopic Enoch throughout in diction 
and matter. 

This preliminary conclusion is finally confirmed on internal 
grounds. All critics are agreed in ascribing the Similitudes 
ixxvii-lxxi to a different authorship from the rest For the 
main grounds for this conclasi<ni see pp. 106-107. Criticism 
is further agreed as to the presence of a large body of inter- 
polations. But the interpolations are far more numerous than 
has hitherto been observed, and the discrimination and due 
appreciation of these are indispensable to the understanding 
of the book. They are found throughout the book, and are 
as follows: — 

Digitized by GtXlglC 

General JntroducHon. 25 

vi. 3-8; viii. 1-3; ix. 7; X. 1-3, 11; svii-xx. See notes 

in I0C. 
xszix. I, 2»; ill. 3-8; xliii-xliv; liv. 7-lv. a ; Ivi. 5-lTii. 3'; 

lix-Ix; IxT-lxix. 35. See notes on liv. 7. 
1. See notes in loc. 
Ixxi. See notes in loc. 
Ixsx-Ixxxi. See not«9 is loc. 
xc 15; xcL 11; xciii. 11-14; xct!. a; cr-crii. See notes 

in loc. 

The bulk ol tteee belong to a lost Apocalypse of Noali 
(mentioned in the Book of Jubilees x; zxi), i.e. vi. 3-8; viii. 
1—3; ix. 7; X. 1-3, llj xvii-zx; xxxix. i, 4'; ili. 3-8; 
xliii-xliv; liv. 7-lv, 2; lix-lk; Ixv-Ixix. 35; cvi-cvii. We 
might refer 1, Ivi. 5-lvii. 3'; Ixxi j Ixxx-lixii ; xciii. 11-14 
to the same source, but only indirectly in their present form, 
as they appear to be of the nature of a mosaic. We can 
hardly be wrong in ascribing them largely to the authorship 
of the editor who brought all the writings into one whole, 
cv may be due to the same editor, cviii is undoubtedly a 
later addition. 

Disr^arding the closing chapter we find that there are 
thus three distinct elements in the book : — 

(a) The so-called ground-work i-xxxvi ; lzxii-<nv. 

ifi) The Similitudes xxxvii — ^Ixx. 

(y) The Noachian and other interpolations, as given above. 

The question now arises : are we justified in regarding 
i-ixxvi, Ixxii-civ aa proceeding from the same author? This 
question is discussed at length in the Special Introductions 
to sections i-xxzvi; Ixxii-lxxxii ; Ixxxiii-zc; and xci-civ, 
and it is there shown that these four sections are distinct 
writings as to authorship, system of thought, and date. We 
will not resume here the gronnde for this eonclusion, but will 
sketch briefly the various independent writings contained in 
the book of Enoch, with their respective characteristics and 

Fart I, consisting of chs. i-xxxvi, written at latest before 


26 The Book of Enoch. 

170 B.C. and miunly from tbe prophetic standpoint of such 
chs. as Is. Ixv-lxvi. This is, undoubtedly, tbe oldest part of 
the book, being anterior to Ixxii-lxxziij lnxiii-xc;andxci-ciT 
(see Special Introductions). It is laid under eontributioa by 
the authors of these sections. As Ixxziii-xc was written not 
later than 161 B.C. i— xxxvi must be some years earlier, and 
further, as there is not the &intest alluaion to the persecutions 
and massacres of Antiocbus Epiphanes, we are probably safe 
in fixing on 170 b. c. as the latest limit possible for its com- 
positioD. This hook i.e. i-xxxvi is noteworthy as being most 
probably the first to mention the resurrection of the righteous 
and the wicked : to describe Sheol according to the concep- 
tion accepted later in tbe New Testament as opposed to that 
of tbe Old Testunent : and to represent Gehenna as a final 
place of punishment. In other respects the writer of i-xxxri 
has not advanced much beyond the Old Testament prophetic 
view of tbe Messianic kingdom. This kingdom, he holds, is 
to be ushered in by tbe resurrection of the righteous and tbe 
wicked (with the exception of one class of the latter) followed 
immediately by the final judgment. The wicked angels, 
demons, and men were to be punished according to their 
deserts, and the righteous to become members of the eternal 
Messianic kingdom. The scene of tbe kingdom was to be 
the earth purged from all violence and sin. Peace, and hap- 
piness, and prosperity were to prevail everywhere. Sin should 
never again appear on the earth, and after a life crowned with 
all good things, and blessed with patriarchal years and num- 
berless offspring, tbe righteous w^% at length to die in peace> 
as in Is. Ixv-lxvi. 

It is manifest here that the writer apprehended neither the 
thought of the immortality of the soul, which was pressing 
itself on the notice of Judaism from the side of the Greek, 
nor the doctrine of the resurrection of the righteous to an 
eternal blessedness which was seeking recognition from tbe 
side <A Zoroaetrianism. 

Part n, contdflting of Ixxxiii-xc, written between 166-161 


General Introduction. 27 

B c, aoA mainly from the same standpoiat as Daniel. The 
grounds for discriminatiiig this section from the rest are g^ven 
at length in the Special Introductions to those sections. 
We find there that the writer of Ixxxiii-sc has made 
use of i-xxxvL He is moreover of an ascetic turn of 
mind. These visions came to him before he was married, 
the implication being that he has no such superaatoral ex- 
periences after marriage. But as visions are inferior to actual 
waking intercourse with the angels, such as Enoch enjoyed 
in i-xxxvi, it is clear even on this single ground that these 
two parts are from different aathors. 

The writer of Ixxxiii-M has advanced oonsiderably beyond 
the naive and sensuons views of the kingdom presented in 
i-zxxvi His conceptions are more spiritual. He writes a few 
years later thui the last chapters of Daniel, and like the latter 
has risen to the conception of an everlasting blessedness. He 
may be indebted to this writer for the fourfold division of 
the seventy angel reigns among the four great world powers 
to which, in succession, Israel was subject, and the phrase 
'glorions limd' (Ixzxix. 40, cf. Dan. xi. 16, 41) may be 
dmwn from the same source. His eachatoli^cal views are 
developed at greater length than those of Daniel, but he 
follows in some respects prophetic rather than apocalyptic 
ideas. In Daniel the final crisis is sudden and nnnLediated, 
but in Izxziii-xo it is ushered in through the warlike efforts 
of the Chaeids led by Judas Maccabaens. In this strife the 
heathen enemies of Israel are destroyed. Then ensue the 
judgment and condenmation of the fallen watchers, the faith- 
less angel shepherds, and the apostate Jews. 

The judgment appears to be followed by the resurrection of 
righteous Israelites only: if this is bo, then this book diverges 
from the teaching of Daniel xii. i, 2 and the earlier book of 
Enoch i-xxxvi. The righteous Jews are all assranbled in the 
New Jerusalem established by Qod Himself, and their ranks 
are swelled by those Gentiles who had hitherto been neutral, 
but are now converted to the worship of Israel's Ood. At 

Digitized by GOOC^IC 

aS The Book of Enoch. 

the close of all appears tlie Meesiah. This is the earliest 
reference to the Messiah in non-canonical liteisture. Bat he 
has no idle to play : he has not as yet vindicated for himself 
a real place in the Apocalyptic doctrine of the last things. 

This Mesdanic kin^om lasts on eulh for ever, and its 
members enjoy everlasting blessedness. 

Part III, consisting of ici-civ, and written between 134- 
94 B. c, or possibly 1 04-94 b. c. For a detailed criticism of this 
writing and its relations see Special Introduotion to this part. 

As we pass from Ixxxiii-xc to xci-civ we feel we are 
entering into a worid of new conceptions. In all previous 
Apocalyptic writings, the resurrection and the final judgment 
have been the prelude to an everlasting Messianic kingdom ; 
but here we encounter quite a new schema of the last things. 
These great events are relegated to the close of the Messianic 
kingdom, and not till then in &ct do the righteous enter 
on their reward. In this writer we have a fosion of pro- 
phetic and apocalyptic ideas, but a fusion which, without 
doing actual violence to either, gives expression to both in a 
profonnder and more comprehensive system. As we see in 
such Apocalyptic writings as the Apocalypse of Bamch, 
iv Ezra and Bevektion, that an adequate fulfilment is given 
to the promise that the righteoos should inherit the earth 
through the establishment of a temporary Messianic kingdom: 
so in xci-civ the Messianic kingdom, in which the righteous 
possess the earth in peace, lasts from the eighth to the close 
of the tenth week. In this kingdom no place is found for a 
personal Messiah : the righteous, with God's help, vindicate 
their just cause and destroy their oppressors. On the close 
of this kingdom follow the final judgment and the risen 
spiritual life of blessedness in a new heaven. From such a 
view of the future it is obvious tJbat for the writer the centre 
of interest has passed from the material world to the spiritual, 
and the Messianic kingdom is no longer the goal of the hopes 
of the righteous. Their faith finds its satisfaction only in a 
blessed immortality in heaven itself. The righteous, it is 


General Introduction. 29 

true, wlio are living on the advent of the Meesiaoic kingdom 
will indeed be recompensed witli alt good things, but the 
departed righteous will not rise thereto, but will find their 
reward in the everlasting spiritual bliss that is the inheritance 
of all Ijie faithful after the final Judgment. In the meantime 
they are at rest, guarded as the apple of an eye by the angels 
of God, and will in due time, on the close of the Messianic 
kingdom, attain to the reenrrection. ThiB resurrection of the 
righteous appears not to be of the body but of the soul only, 
as we find in a later hook, the Psalms of Solomon, or in the 
still later Book of Jubilees. As for the wicked they wOl 
descend into the pain of Sheol and abide there everlastingly. 
Here Sheol appears as Hell for possibly the first time. 

The writer of this section lived towards the close of the 
second century b. c. He was a Pharisee strongly opposed 
to all hellenizing tendencies, but apparently influenced by 
kindred Zoroastnan ideas. His chief denunciations are 
directed against the Sadducees, These oppress the righteous, 
and the rulers who are in league with them connive at their 
oppression. The persecution which the righteous undergo is 
severe, but far removed from the murderous oppression of 
which they were the victims from 95 b. c. onwards. We 
may therefore regard this book as written before that date, 
and aft«r the breach between J. Hyrcanus and the Pharisees, 
i.e. between 134 and 95 b. c. ; or if we may take c 2 to be 
an aUnsion to Aristobolxts' murder of his brother, between 
104-95 B. c. 

Part rV. — The Similitudes, consisting of xxxvii-lii* and 
written between 94-79 b. c. or 70-64 b. c. For full account 
see pp. 106-109. 

The Similitudes introduce us to the events and aspirations 
of a time not &r removed in years from the period we have 
just been considering but very remote in character. The 
sufFerings of the righteous mourned over in xci-civ are of 
shght consequence compared with their afflictions of this 
later date. Their plaint 'ib no longer now of the greed and 

Digitized byCoOC^Ic 

3© The Book of Enoch. 

avarice of the rich; of their enperetitioDS and idolatries, their 
heUenistic tendencies and apostasies. For their grief they 
have now g^raver and more abundant reason. Their hlood is 
now crying to heaven for vengeance. Their foea, moreover, 
are not as in xci-eiv the Sadducees secretly hacked by the 
rulers of the nation, but the rulers themselves are now their 
foremost and declared oppressors, and take the chief part in 
their destruction. These rolers are liie Maccabean princes, 
and not the Uerods ; for as yet there is no reference to Kome, 
though we know that Rome interposed authoritatively in tli6 
afCairs of Palestine about 64 b. c. The widespread influence 
of the book on the writers of the New Testament (see pp. 
41—53) witnesses in the same direction, and is innplicable on 
any date subsequent to the time of the Maccabees. The date 
of the Similitudes therefore must be lat«r than 95 and before 
64 B. c, or more precisely between 95-80 b. c. or 70-64 b. c. 
For the fuller treatment of this subject see pp. 107—108, and 
the notes referred to there. 

The varying relations in which the Maccabees stand to the 
Chasid or Pharisaic party are faithfully reflected in the books 
of Enoch. In Izxziii-xc the Maccabees are the leaders of the 
righteous, and their efforts form the prelude to the Messianic 
kingdom. In xci-civ they are no longer regarded as the 
chiefs and friends of the Chaside, and yet they have not 
become their open foes. Th^ are, however, the secret 
abettors of their Sadducean oppressors. But when we turn 
to the Similitudes the scene is wholly changed. The Mac- 
cabeans are now the open and declared enemies of the 
Pharisees and add to their other guilt the slaying of the 

It is still more instructive to observe the concepticms 
r^arding the Messiah to which the writers of these hooks 
were led by the events of their times. In Ixxxiii-xe we have 
the Messiah coming forth from the bosom of the community. 
He is a man only, but yet a glorified man and superior to the 
community from which he springs. So iax as he is a man 


General Introdtulion. 3 1 

only, he may be regarded as the prophetic Meesiah as opposed 
to the Apocalyptic Messiah of the Similitudes: and yet he is not 
truly tJie prophetic Messiah ; for he has absolutely do function 
to perform, and he does not appear till the world's history is 
finally closed. Accordingly his presence here most be ac- 
counted for purely through literajy reminiscence, and the hope 
of the Messiah must be r^arded as practically dead at this 
period. The vriter felt no need of such a personality so 
long as the nation had such a chief as Judas Maccabaeus. 
It was very different fifty years or more later, when the 
fondest enthusiasts could no longer look to the Asmonaeans 
for any help or stay in the time of their distress. Accord- 
ingly the writer of xci-cir refers only once to the recreant 
chiefs of the nation as secret upholders of the enemies of the 
righteous, and dii^ts the thoughts of his readers no longer 
to a religious monarchy but to a religious commonwealth or 
restored theocracy established by the righteous themselves, 
and owning no head but Ood alone. This Messianic kingdom, 
further, which was without a Messiah, was to have only a 
temporary continuance, and heaven was to be the true and 
final abode of the righteous. Once more, as we turn to a 
somewhat later book, we find in the Similitudes that the 
ixremediable degradation and open hostility of the Maccabees 
have caused the hopes and aspirations of religious thinkers to 
take various directions. Of these some retiuned to a fresh 
study of the Old Testament, and revived, as io the Psalms of 
Solomon, the expectation of a prophetic Messiah, sprang from 
the hoose and lineage of David. Others followed the bold 
and oiigiRal thinker of this period, who, starting from a 
su^estive phrase in Daniel, conceived the Messiah as the 
supematonl Son of Man, who, possessing divine preroga- 
tives, sboold destroy the wicked, and justify the righteous, 
and vindicate a transformed heaven and earth as their habita- 
tion for everlasting. For a full account of the Messiah of the 
Similitudes we must refer the reader to the notes on xlvi. 3, 
and xxxviii. 2. 

Digitized by GtXlglC 

32 The Book of Enoch. 

The teaching of the Similitudes Btaads throughout in clear 
contrast to that of xci-civ. Whilst in the latter there is no 
Messinh, in the former the conception of the Messiah plays a 
more important role than had ever yet been assigned to him. 
In the former, again, there seems to be only a resurrection of 
the righteous; in the latter a reenrrectioD of all Israelites. 
In the former the Messianic kingdom was only temporary ; 
in the latter it was of everlasting continuance. In the former 
the final judgment was held at the close of the Messianic 
kingdom; in the latter at its banning. In the former 
there was a resurrection of the spirit only, in the latter of the 
body also. 

Part V, — Tbe Book of Celestial Physics consisting of 
Ixxii-lxzviii ; Ixxxii ; Ixxix. There are no materials at hand 
for fixing the date of this section. In the Special Intro- 
duction to this part we have shown at some length that it is 
an independent writing, and distinct originally from all the 
other constituents of the book. A close examination of this 
section leads manifestly to the excision of kxx-lxxxi, and to 
tbe restoration of Ixxxii to its original position before Ixxix. 
The object of the writer is a quasi-scientific one. His aim b 
to justify the Hebrew calendar against the heathen calendan, 
and particularly tbe Greek, and to insist on the value of the 
moon as an infallible divider of time till the new Creation. 
The only blessing pronounced by him is for those who sin not 
as the sinners in the reckoning of their days (Ixxxii. 4). The 
interpolator of Ixxx-lxxxi was a man of quite a different 
type. His sympathies were wholly moral and religious. 
There is an order of nature, it is true, but this order is con- 
tinually thrown into disorder by the sin of men, and the 
moon thus becomes a mieleader of men (Ixxx. 4). Accord- 
ingly we are not surprised to find that the blessing pronounced 
by this writer is on the man against whom there is no 
record of unrighteousness (Ixzxi. 4). 

Part. VI. — The Noachiau and other interpolations. These 
have been enumerated above (p. 15). So far as we may 


General Introduction. 33 

tniBt to internal erideace, it would appear that nearly all 
these interpolations were added by tbe editor who put the 
different books together, and sought by means of his additions 
from an existing Apocalypse of Noah, and possibly from 
elsewhere, to give a complete account of the different great 
world judgments. When this editing took place we cannot 
determine definitely, but we may with safety conclude that 
it waa before the beginning of the Christian era. The con- 
tents of these interpolations — which deal with a vast variety 
of sabjects, such as the books «f Noah, the deluge, the evil 
wrought by the Satans and t^e fallen angels, the secrete of 
celestial phenomena, and other cabbalistic lore — do not admit 
of being shortly summarised. 

§ XI. The IsFLrENCB of Enoch on Jewish and Patbistic 


LooT, Ideas, and Doctbinb. 
The book of Enoch exercised a very important influence on 
the Christian and Jewish literature of the first three centuries 
A. D. The first notice of a book of Enoch appears to be due 
to a Jewish or Samaritan Hellenist (bo Schiirer). This notice, 
which hae come down to us successively through Alexander 
Polyhistor and Eusebius, asserts that Enoch was the fomider of 
Astrology : cf. Euseb. Praep. Evang. ix. 17.8 (Gaisford) twtqv 
fiipt\Kipat vp&Tov Tiiv iarpokoylav. 

The Impltjekce op Enoch on Jewish Literatoee. 
Excluding for the present the coosideration of the New 
Testament and of Christian testimonies generally, the book 
of Enoch was probably used by the author of the Assumption 
of Moses written about the Christian Era. Cp. iv. 8 — Tristes 
et gementes quia non poterint referre immolationes Domino 
patrum suorum with En. Ixxzix. 73 : and x. 3, 4—£xiet de 
habitatione sancta sua with Enoch i. 4, ' will come forth from 



Tlu Book of Enoch. 

His dwelling': and x. 4 — Tremebit terra, vMque ad finet tuat 
coQCutietaTj et alti montcs humiliabantor et concntirator with 
En. i. 5, 6, ' onto the ends of the earth — the high monutoins 
will be shaken and — made low.' 

In the Book of JubUeet, written before 70 A. D., £noch is 
largely drawn upon : cp. Book of Jubilees — 

CH. I. ' I have foriaken them because of all the evil they have 
wrought — in foriaking the covenant ' with En. Itttjit. 

6i> 54- 
' Until I descend and dwell witii tbem ' with En. xxv. 3 ; 

Ixxni. I. 
'From the day of the new creation,' ftc. with En. Irxii. t. 
II. In this chapter the ideas of En. Ix. i6-ai are further 

developed and a presiding spirit is assigned to every 

natural phenomenon, 
m. In this chapter there is the first mention of tiie ' heavenly 

tables ' — a phraee borrowed from Enoch. See for lull 

treatment of this phiase zlvii. 3 (note). 
IV. ' Jared ; for in his days the angels of the Lord descended 

on the earth.' Of. £u. vi. 6 ; cvi. 13. 
' He took himself a wife and her name was Edna.' Cf. 

En. IxxxT. 3. 
' He was with the angels of God six years of tide jubilee.' 

CI En. xii. i. This refers to Enoch's temporary 

sojourning with the angels. 
' They (i. e. the angels) showed him (i. e, Enoch) every- 

thiog in earth and heaven — and he wrote it all down.' 

Cf. En. xzi— xxxvi; Ixzii— Ixxzii. 
' He testified to the watchers,' ftc, En. xii-xiv. 7. 
'We conducted him (i.e. Enoch) into the Garden of 

Eden.' This refers to Enoch's final translation. Cf 

' There he writes down,' En, ziL 4. ' The Scribe.' Cf. 

XV. I ; xcii. i. 
V. ' He (i. e. Qod) bade us bind them (i. e. the fidlen 

watchers) in the depths of the earth.' Cf. Ed. 

X. 4-ta. 
The account as to the destruction of the children of the 

watchers depends directly on En. x. 12 ; xii. 6. 


General Introduction. 35 

The accoont of the heavenlf ' Beren water torrenti ' nnd 
'the fonntaini »f the great deep' are derived from 

Bn. iTTiri-r. 2—7, 

Ti. Conqwre the aocoont of the year of 364 days with its 
implicit polemic sgainat En. Ixziv. 10, la; Ixxv. a; 
Ixxxii. 4, 6, II. 
Tn. Compare the three cluHes of grants here described with 
En. vii; lixxix. 6 : the coiutaat prohibitions agunet 
the eating of blood (cf. also zxi) with En. vii. 5 ; 
xcviii. It: 'Enoch, the eeventh in bis generation' 
with Ed. zciii. 3. 
vin. ' Mount Zion, the centre of the navel of the earth ' with 

Z. Compare the doctrine of tiiiB chapter and of xxl regarding 
the demons, the children of the watchers with En. zv. 
la-xvi tnotee). 
These demons are subject to Satan. Cf. En. lir. 6. 
zi. The worship of idols and of demons (aleo in i and xzii). 
Cf. En. xtz. I ; zciz. 7. 
ZTi. ' Plant of righteouBuess ' (alio in xzi), a phrase used of 

Israel. Cf. En. z. 16 (note). 
XXt. Compare the list of evergreen trees given here with En. iii. 
xnij The life of the righteous though it eztend to a thousand 
years is still finite. Cf. En. t. 7 (note). 'Hiere is no 
resurrection of the body — apparently the teaching of 
En. zci-civ. 

The Apocalgpte of Baruck, written not long after 70 a. d., 
bas many aflSaities with Enoch both in diction and in tbooght, 
and is manifestly dq>eDdent on it. 

^jioc.far.xiii. 8, 'Judicium enim En. Iziii. 8, 'His judgments have 
eet ezcelsi qui non respicit no respect of persons.' 


zxiv. I, ' Aperientnr libri in En. xc. ao, ' He took the sealed 
quibus scripta sunt peccata books and opened them.' 
omnium qui peccaverunt.' 

xxiz. 4, A later form of the En. Iz. 7-9. 
myth of Behemoth and Le- 
viathan which is found 
first in En. Ix. 7-9. 

Digitized by GtXlglc 

The Book of Enoch. 

xsix. 5, ' Terra dabit frnctna 

BuoB UDnm in decern millia.' 
XXXV. a, 'O ocnli mei eetote 

Bcatebrae et palpebne oou- 

lorum meoriun foDs lacri- 

li. 3, 'Qni plantavernnt in 

corde buo radicem sapien- 

tiae' (cf. lii. 7). 
li. lo, 'Assimilabuntor angelis 

et aeqnabnntur stellis.' 

lir. 3, 'Cni nihil difficile est.' 

Ivi. 6, 'Cum (Adam) trana- 
greEBns eaaet, morB, quae 
noD erat tempore ejna, fait.' 

Ivi. 10-3, 'Etiam angelis fuit 
periculum. Adhnc enim 
illo tempore, qno creatas 
fuit, erat eiB liberias; et 
descend erunt ex iia et 
oommiati sunt cuft muli- 
eriboB. Et tanc illi qui 
BIO operati sunt, in vinculia 
crnciati sunt.' 

lix. 2, ' Lex aetema.' 

En. X. 19, 'Each measure will 
bear ten thousaud.' 

En. xcv. I, 'Oh that mine e7es 
were a cloud of water tbat I 
m!ght weep oyer you and shed 
my tears as a water cloud.' 

En. X. 16, 'The plant of 

Ed. civ. 6, 4, ' Haye great joy as 
the angels — shine aa the stars.' 
Of. Ixix J I. 

En. Ixxxiv. 3, 'Nothing is too 
hard for thee.' 

En. Ixix. II, 'Uan was created 
exactly like the angels — and 
death could not have taken 
hold of him.' 

En. Ti-x. 

En. xdx. 3, ' The eternal law.' 

The dependence of this book on Enoch is still more evident 
if we may regard it as proceeding firom one author ; for it re- 
produces in the main the conceptions of En. xci-eiv save that 
it expects a Messiah. Thus in this Apocalypse of Baruch the 
Messianic Kingdom is only of temporary duration. The 
Messiah reigns till sin is at an end Ixxiv. 2, 3. During his 
reign the earth yields 10,000 fold, and there are no pre- 
mature deaths. At the close of this period the Messiah 
returns to heaven and the resurrection ensues I-li. 6, The 
righteous are then transformed and made like the angels 
li. 5» 10- 

Digitized by GtXlglC 

General Introduction. 


The aathor of 17. Ezra, vriting between 81-9^ a. d., has 
made a not iiifreqaent use of Enoch, and this mainly of the 

4 Ezra vi. 49-53 takes up and 
develops further the myth 
found in En. Ix. 7-9. 
vii, 33, 33, 'Et terra reddet 
qui in ea dormiunt, et 
pulvlB qui in eo silentio 
habitant, et promptoaria 
reddent quae eis commen- 
datae sunt animoe. Et re- 
velabitur AltieeimnB super 
sedem jndicii,' 

4 Ezra [vi. 3] 'Et dicet tunc 
Altiasimns contra iUoe 
populoB resuBcitataB : re- 
Bpicite et rideto quern ab- 
negastis, aut quern non 
coluistis aut cujus praa- 
cepta rojecistiB.' 

In, Ix. 7-9. 

En. li. I, 3, 'And the earth will 
give back those that are 
treasured up within it, and 
Sheol also will give back that 
which it has received, and 
hell will give back that which 
it owes . . . And the Elect 
One will sit on My throne.' 

En, Ixii. I, ' Thus the Lord com- 
manded . . . those who dwelt 
on the earth and said : " Open 
yonr eyes and lift up your 
boms if ye are able to recog- 
nise the Elect One." ' 

En. Ix. 6, ' Who have not served 
the righteouB law and who 
deny the righteous judgment 
and who take His name in 

[vi. i] 'Bevelabitor fumos En. xlviii. 9, 10; xxvii. 3. 

gehennae, et ex adverso 

ejus itemm paradisos ju- 


[vi. 49] 'TJt renoves crea- En. Ixxii. i. 

tnnun tuam.' 

[vi. tio, 68] A development of En. c. 5. 

vii. 55 ' Super etellaa fulge- En. civ, 3, ' Ye will shino as the 

bunt facies eorum.' stars of heaven,' 

'. . . nostrae autem facies En, IxiL 10, 'Darkness will be 

super teuebras nigrae.' piled upon their feces.' 

In the TettamenU of the Twelve Patriardt there are nine 
direct references to Enoch. Of these Lev. 10, 14 are prob- 
ably references to En. Ixxxix. 50 j xci. 6, 7 ; Dan. 5 to Ed, 


38 The Book of Enoch. 

Ixii, 15 whereas Sim. 5 ; Lev. 16; Jud. 18; Zeb. 3; Napht. 
4 ; Benj. 9 cannot be traced directly to any paesa^ in the 
Ethiopic Enoch. Keub. v and Napht. 3, though Enoch is 
not directly mentioned, may be referred to En. vi-ix. a, 

From the second century onwards all knowledge of the 
book of Enoch Tanishes from Jewish literature with the 
exception of a few references that are given by Jellindi in 
the ZeiUehT. D. M. 0., 1853, p, 249. 

The Infloehcb as Enoch oh Patsibtio Litbkatitre. 

Still adjourning the consideration of the New Testament 
we find a lat^ body of Christian testimonies. The Eput/e 
of £arnabat, written not many years after 70 A. D., cit«s Enoch 
three times and twice as Scripture : iv. 3 — fb riktiov sKiiAdkov 
f}Yyu:fv w«pi o5 yiypavrai, its 'E;rix A^yei : ivL 4 — \iyti yelp 
il ypaip-^' Koi lirrai l-n i<TX<irow t&v KoX TopoSuffft kIj/moi 
r4 itpS^ara. t^s vop.^s ital rqv {iAvbpav jtai rbv i^ipyov aimiv fU 
KaTa^0op6.v. Cf. En. liiiii. 56, 66. Ep. Bam. xvi. 6. Cf. 
En. xci. 13. 

In the second century JuHin Martyr, Apol. ii. 5 (quoted in 
note on iz. 8, 9) ; cp. also i. 5. Enoch is not mentioned in 
these passages but is ased. 

Irenaeui, iv. 16. 2 (quoted in note on xiv. 7). 

AtienoffOTM (about 170 a. d.) in his ■npto-^fla x regards 
Enoch, though he does not name him, as a true prophet : tart 
8e fi,T]iiv i/MS iit&pTvpov XiyfW, & ii rot; vpotfi^aii tKVf<p<ivriTai, 
p^Tjiriftv. iKttvoi fiiv, els iTnOvfiiaii iSfa6iTes, tiapOiuaiv . . . ix /ici> 
ovv Tuv vtpl rat ttapQivmis i}(6vTiov oX KoXovficvoi iy(vv^6i}aa.v 
yiydiTTfs k.tA. 

Teriullian, writing between 197 and 223, regards Enoch as 
Scripture, Apol. zxii (quoted in note on xv. 8, 9); De Culiu 
Feminarum, i. 2 (qnoted on viii. l). 

I. 3 : Scio ecripturam Enoch, quae hunc ordinem angelis 
dedit, non recipi a quibusdam, quia nee in armariam Judaicum 
admittitor. Opinor, non putavenmt illam ante cataclysmum 
editam poet enm casum orbis omnium rerum aboliiorem salvam 


General Introduction. 39 

esse potuiBBe. But Tertnllran proceeds to show that this was 
possible : cum Enoch filio sno Matusalae nihil altud mandaverit 
guam ut notitiam eomm posteris sois traderet. He then 
pronounces the singular critical canon : Cum Enoch eadem 
Bcriptnra etiam de domino praedicarit, a nobis quidem nihil 
omnino rejiciendnm est, quod pertineat ad nos ... A Judaeb 
potest jam videri propterea rejecta, sicut et cetera fere quae 
Christum sonant ... £0 accedit quod Enoch apud Judam 
apostolum teetimonium possidet. IL 10 (quoted on viiL i). 
Se Idol, XV (quoted on ziz. i). Cf. also De Idol, ix ; De 
Virg. Vetand. vii : Si enim propter angelos, scilicet quos 
legimns a deo ei caelo excidisee ob concupiscentiam feminamm, 
&c. De Idol. XT: Haec igitui ah initio [OBeTidens spiritus 
sanctus etiam oatta ia superstitionem ventura praececinit per 
antiqnissimum prophetea Enoch. 

Clement Alex. Eclcgae PropAet. Ed. Dindorf, iii. 456 (quoted 
on xix. 5) ; iii 474 (quoted on viii. 2. 3) ; Sirom. iii. 9 (quoted 
on ivi. 3). 

Origen (18^—354) does not r^ard Enoch as inspired, and 
yet he does not wholly reject it. Cf. Contra Celeum, v. 53. 
Celsus argues that other iyyfXoi descended to the earth before 
Christ : iK6fii> yap koI AAAotw \iyovai itoXK&KK Kol ifum yt 
i^Kovra $ i^bofJfKovTa' ots S^ y€viaB(u KOicoW Kol ttoKiifffQai 
bttrixdis vnofiXtiBivras iv yrj' S6(v Koi Tas Btpiih^ mryhs flvat 
ra iKfCvav iJuipva. In a lengthy rejoinder Origen remarks, v. 
54 : ip TOAs iKKXtfirlms oi vaw tpiptrai its Ofia rh i-ntytypOfiLiUva 
ToS 'Eca>x fii^>^(a. That Ongen was undecided as to the 
value to be attached to Enoch is clearer from the following 
passages, /m Joannem, vi. 2$ (Lommatsch. i. 241) : Us iv r^ 
'Evu;^ yiypa-Brai, el T<f <f>tkov vapa^)(€(r6ai as Aytov rb 0tff\(oti, 
In Num. Homil. xxviii. 2 (Lommatsch. x. 366): De quibus quidem 
nominibuB plurima in libellis, qui appellantur Enoch, secreta 
continentur, et arcana : sed quialibelli ipsi non videntur apud 
Hebiaeos in auctoritate haberi, interim nunc ea, quae ibi 
nomijiautur ad exemplum vocare differamns. De Princip, i. 
3. 5 (Lommatsch. xxi. 73) : Sed et in Enoch libro his similia 


40 The Book of Enoch. 

describiintar ; ir. 35 (Lommfltsoh. xxL 47'5) (qaoted on 

AfuUoliui appointed Siehop of Laodicea in 269. Quoted 
iQ Eoseb. Hitt, Mccl, viL 32. 19 : roS Ki r6v Trpurov ■nap' 
'E^paiats p,^va tttpl Imffuplati tlva^, TropatrrariKti koI rh iv 

Thenceforward the book fails to secore a single faroaiable 
notice. Hilary, who died 568 a. d., writes in his Comment, in 
Pt. cxzxii. 3 : Fertur id de quo etiam nescio cuius liber extat, 
quod angeli concupiscentee filiaa hominum, cum de caelo 
deBcenderent, in huno montem Hermon maxime convenerant 
excelsom. Chrysostom (346-407) does not indeed mention 
Enoch, but declares that the stoij of the angels and the 
daughters of men r«ste on a fitke exegesis, U&mil. in Gen. 
vi. I and is a blasphemous fable, 

Jerome (346-420) r^ards Enoch as apocryphal. De Vim 
Jllutir. iv : Judas frater Jacobi parram, quae de eeptem 
catholicis est, epistolam reliquit. £t quia de libro Enoch, qui 
apociyphuB est, in ea assumit testimonia a plerisque rejicitur : 
tamen auctoritatem vetuetate jam et usu meruit et inter sanctas 
oomputatur. Comment, on Pt. cxzxii. 3 : Legimos in qnodam 
libro apocrypho, eo tempore, quo descendebant filii dei od 
filias hominum, desceodisse illos in montem Hermon, et ibi 
iniisse pactum qnomodo venire&t ad filias hominum et sibi eas 
sociarent. Manifeetissimtis liber est et inter apociyphos com- 
putatur. Comment, on Epiat. ad Titum, i. 1 2 : Qui autem 
putant totum librum debere sequi eum, qui libri parte usus 
sit, Tidentar mihi et apocryphum Enochi, de quo Apostolos 
Judas in Epistola sua testimonium posuit, inter ecclesiae 
Ecriptoras recipere. 

Anguttive (354~429) pronounces strongly against Enoch. 
Be Civ. Dei, xv. 23, 4: Scripsisse quidem nonnuUa divina 
Enoch ilium septimnm ab Adam, negare non possumus, cum 
hoc in Epistola canonica Judas Apostolus dicat. Sed non 
frustra non sunt in eo canone Scriptnrarum . . . Unde ilia 
quae sub cgus nomine proferuutur et continent istae de 

Digitized by GOOC^IC 

General Introduction. 41 

gigantibas fabnlas, quod Don liabuerint homines patrea, recte 
a pradentiboB jodicantnr noD ipsios esse credenda. Cp. also 
De Civ. Dei, xviii. 38. 

Enoch is finally condemned in explicit tenns in QmtfU. 
' Apotiol. vi. 16 : KOt iv rois itaKaiaXi hi ru/e r mv^pw^av ^t0\la 
i-noKfiV^ Mwircu; Kal 'Evitx koI 'Aiifi, 'Hirafov re Kal AajSiS 
Kal 'HA fa koI t&v rpi&v trarpuip^ui', tf>$opoiroM Kat r^f 

StafiiXXovTd ijifuov/yybw, yipav, vpSvoiav, TfKVoyovlav, v6}U)V, 

Under the ban of ench authorities the book of Enoch 
gradually passed out of circulation and knowledge in the 
Western Church, and with the exception of vi-ix. 4 ; viii. 4- 
X. 14; XT. 8-xvi. I and another fragment which are preserved 
by Sfncellu* in his Ckronographg, pp. ao-23; 42-47 (Ed. 
Dind. 1829) it was lost to western CbriBteudom till the pre- 
sent century. Syncellus adds that the book of Enoch runs 
counter in some respects to the tradition of the Church, and is 
untrustworthy through the interpolations of Jews and heretics : 
Kol ravra fiiv Jx roS Vfxirou ^i^kiov 'Bv^x '^^P^ ^**^ iypf\y6pto», 
(I itaift.^ TtXfuoS)^ vpoffixfoi ivoKpwpois ii^urraTiAii hvttmxT- 
ripovs, iid Tf T& trfpiTTi riva xal irpifii} Ttjs. iKKXiftriacrriK^t 
irapai^atms i\tti/ koI bia rd if(ifo6fii<r0ai airi xmi 'lovbaCtov Kat 
olpfTiKW, (Ed. Dindorf, pp. 47, 48.) 

Thb Implcbkcb oj Enoch on the New Testament. 

The influence of Enoch on the New Testament has been 
greater than that of all the other apocryphal and pseud- 
epigraphal books taken together. The evidence for this 
conclusion may for the sake of convenience be arranged under 
two heads. (A) A series of passages of the New Testament 
which either in phraseology or idea directly depend on or are 
illustrative of passages in Enoch. (B) Doctrines in Enoch 
which had an undoubted share in moulding the corresponding 
New Testament doctrines. 


42 The Book of Enoch. 

(A) We will be^ with the Qeneral Epistles. I quote irom tbe 
IteTised Veraion when a more accurate readering is desirable. 

(a) S. Jvde 4. Denying onr only 
Muter Bud Lord. 

). 'The angels which kept 
not,' Ac. 

13. ' Wandering etars.' 

14. 'The seventh from Adam.' 

En. xlviii. 10. ' Denied the Lord 
of spirita and His anointed.' 
Cf. ixxTiii. 3; xli. 2 i Wii. 8. ' 

En. X. 5, 6, la, 13. 

En. Iz. 8. 
En. i. 9 ; T 

The seventh from 

14, 15. A direct qnotaUon 

I S. Ptter iii. 19, 30. 
iv.17. 'Judgment to begin at 

the faonse of Ood.' 
3 S. Peter ii. 4. (Observe how En. x. 4-6, 

appropriately rapTapivas ia 

used in connection with the 

fallen angels : Tartamawas 

originally the place of 

punishment of the Titans, 
iii. 13. 'A new heaven and a 

new earth.' 
I S. John ii. I . ' JeauB Christ the 

ii. 8. 'The darkness is past 

and the true light,' &o. 

En. X. 4. 5, 13. 13. 
En. i. 7. 'Judgment . 
tbe righteous.' 

En. xlv. 4, 5 ; Ixzii. i ; xci. 16. 

i. 7. ' Walk in the light' 

En. xxxviii. 3. ' The Righteous 

En.Iviii.S- 'Itbasbecomebright 

as tbe Bun upon earth, and the 

darkness is past.' 
En. Tcii. 4. ' The righteous . . . 

will walk in eternal light.' 

[The eontmt between light and dmrknenin S. John's Efnitlei lepeatedlj' 
enfaroed in Enoeh. Bee xxxvilL 4 (note).] 

iii. 3. ' We sball be like Him.' En. xc. 37, 38. 
S. James i. 8. 'Double-minded £n.xcL4. 'A doable heart.' See 
man.' note. 

V. 1-6. Woes against the rich. En. xciv. 8-1 1 with paraUel 

(6) Book of Revelation. — The writer or writers of this book 
are steeped in Jewish apocalyptic literature. 


General Introduction. 

Rev. i. 4- ' Seven spirits which 
are before His throne,' Cf. 
ir, 5; viii. 2, . 

ii.7. 'Tohimthat OTercometh 
will I ^ve to eat of the 
tree of life'; also xzii. a, 
14, 1 9 ' the right to the tree 
of life.' 

iii. 5. ' Clothed in white rai- 

10. 'Them that dwell upon 

the earth.' 

En. xc. 21. 'Seven first white 
ones.' Cf. Tobit xii. 15. 

En. xxT. 4, 5. Oulj tbe elect in 
the MesBionic kingdom are 
allowed to eat of the tree of 

En. xc. 31. 'Gbthed in white.' 

En. xxxvii. 5. ' Those that dwell 
on tbe earth.' 

[Thii pliTua hai alwayi m bkd senae in Bevelation with tlie eiceptlos of 
xiv. 6. Cf.vLio; Tiii. 13; li. 10 ; ziii.S, 14; iril. S, uid Uu>t in Uiii 
TMpect RtTeUtion (ollawi the ow of this phrase in the NoncUo inter- 
polationi, lee En. xxiTii. 5 (note).] 

iii. 13. 'The New Jerusalem.' 

20. 'I willcometmtobimand 
sup with him.' 

21. 'Sit with Ue on Uy 
throne.' Cf. xz. 4. 

iv. 6. ' Bound about the 
throne were four living 

v. II. 

vi. 10. ' How long, Master, 
the holj and trae, dost 
thon not judge and avenge 
our blood on them that 
dwell on the earth t ' 

vi. 15, iti. Compare tbe fear 
of ' the kinge of the earth, 

En. xc. 39. 

En. IxiL 1 4. ' (The righteous) will 
eat, and lie down, and rise up 
with that Son of man.' 

En. Gviii. 13. 'I will seat each 
on the throne of bis honour.' 

En. xl. 3. ' On the four sides of 
tbe Lord of Spirits I saw four 

Ed. xiv. 23 ; xl. I ; Ixxi. 8. 

En. xlvii. 3. 'The prayer of the 
righteous that it (i.e. the 
shedding of their blood) may 
not be in vain before the 
Lord of Si^ritB, that judgment 
may be done unto them, and 
that they may not have to 
Eufier for ever.' Cf. icvii. 
3-5; xcix. 3, 16; civ. 3: 
also xxii. 5-7 where tie souls 
of the righteous in Hades pray 
for vengeance. 

En. Ixii. 3, 5. 'Tbe kings, and 
the mighty, and the exalted 


The Book of Enoch. 

and the princes, and the 
chief captuDB, and the rich, 
and the strong' when they 
see 'the face of him that 
eittetb on tlie throne.' 
?«. vii. I. The four angela of 
the winds. 
15. 'He that sitteth on the 
throne shall dwell amoi^ 

17. 'Shall guide them unto 
fountains of waters of life.' 

Tiii. 3, 4. Angel with golden 
censer of incense offers it 
with the prayers of the 
saintB before God. In v. 8 
the elders do bo also. 

ix. I. 'I saw a star from 
heaven &llen unto the 

20. 'Hepentedaotof tbeworlcB 
of their hands that they 
should not worship demons, 
and tlie idols of gold, and 
of silver, and of brass, and 
of stone, and of wood.' 

xii. 10. 'The accuser of our 
brethren is cast down.' 

xiiL 14. ' Deceiveth them that 
dwell on the earth.' 

xiv. 9, 10. The worshippers 
of the beast are to be ' tor- 
mented with fire and brim- 
stone in the presence of the 
holy angels, and in the 
presence of the lamb.' 

10. ' Holy angels.' 

20. ' Blood came out of the 
winepress even unto the 
horses' bridles.' 

. . . will be terrified . . . and 
pain will seise them when 
they see that Son of Man 
dtting on the throne of Hia 

En. Ixix. 33. ' The spirits of the 

En. xIy. 4. 'I will caote Thine 
Elect to dwell among them.' 

En. xlviiL i. 

This intercession of the angels 
is found frequently in Enoch, 
ix. 1-3, 10, 1 1 ; XV. 3 ; xl. 7 ; 
zlviL 3 ; xcix. 3. 

En. liiiTi. I. 'And I saw . . . 
and behold a star fell from 

En. xcix. ?. ' Others will make 
graven images of gold, and 
silver, and wood, and clay, 
and others will worship im- 
pure spirits and demons.' 

En. il. 7. 

Eo.Uv. 6. 'Leading astray those 

that dwell on tbe earth.' Cf. 

Ixvii. 7. 
En. xlviii. 8, 9. The unrigfateons 

bum ' in the presence of the 


En. passim. 

En. c. 3. ' The horses will walk 

up to the breast in the blood 

of sinners.' 


Htv. xvi. 5 

xs. 1 2. ' And the books were 
opened ' and ' another book 
was opened which is the 
book of life.' 

13. "The sea gave up the dead 
which were in it, and death 
and Hades gave up the dead 
which were in them.' 

General Introduction. 
Angel of the Ea. Ix, 16. ' Spirit of the » 

En. xc. 30. 'The books were 

En. xWii. 3. "The books of the 

En. li. I. 'The earth also will 
give back those that are 
treaenred up within it, and 
Sheol also will give back that 
which it has received, and 
hell will give beck that which 
it owes.' Cf. Ixi. 5. 

II. 11-15. ^B '**^ JD^gmanl Is held sft«r the temporuy Ifetaiuiic 
kingdom <zx. 4, 5), joM M in En. zci-dT. Then ii however no reanr- 
reo^n in the tamporuj Mesiinnic kingdom of Enoch u there ii in 

15. 'Cast into the lake of En.zcalS. ' Cast into that fierj- 
fire,' abysB,' 

III. I, 3, 'We have here a new heftven and a new earth, and a new Jeru- 
nlem oomin^f down from heaven : yet in zxii. 14, IJ all olaHe* of 
dnnen ara aaid to be without the gatee of the dty. Bat if then were 
a new earth, tbia woold be impoedble. Thii ooob«diotion nuij have 
ariaen bom combining the divergent Mesiianie oonoeptioni which 
appear in Enoch. Cf. xlv. 4, 5 ; zo. 19. 

(c) We shall next deal with the EpxsUet of 8. Paul. This 
Apostle, as we know, borrowed both phraseology and ideas 
from many quarters : from the Greek poet« j from the 
apocryphal writings, as the Book of Wisdom; from the lost 
Revelation of Elias — i Cor. ii. 9 according to Origen, and 
Eph. V. 14 accoiding to Epiphanins. We shall find that he 
was well acquainted with and used the Book of Enoch. 

Jiom. ym. 38. 'Neither angels, En. IxL 10. 'Angels of power 
nor principalities, nor and angels of principalities.' 


ix. 5. 'God blessed forever.' En.lxxvii. i. 'He that is blessed 
for ever.' 

I Cor. vi. II. 'Justified in the En. xlviii. 7. 'Saved in his (i.e. 
name of the Lord Jesos.' the Meseiah'u) name.' 

iiized by Google 


The Book of Enoch. 

xi. lo. TertnUian, C. Mara. t. 8 ; de Tirg. Ttlaad. J, expltdm this Teim 
through a refetanoti to the bod uigeli spoken of in Enodi vho would be 
Indited to wantonnen by ouTeiled women. 

3 Cor. iv. 6. ' To give the light 
of the knowledge of the 
glory of God im the lace of 
Jesos Christ.' 
xi. 31. ' He who is blessed for 

Gal. L 4. 'This preeent evU 

Bph. i. 21. 'Above all prinoi- 
pality and power.' 

9. 'Aocording to Hia good 

V. 8. ' Cfaildien of light.' 

Phil. ii. 10. 'At the name of Jeens 
every knee should bow.' 

Cot. i. 16. 'Principalities and 

11,3. 'In whom are hid all the 
treasures of wisdom and 
I Thest. V. 3. ■ Then sadden 
destruction cometh upon 
them as upon a woman 
with child.' 

En. xxxviii. 4. ' The light of the 
Lord of Spirits is seen on the 
face of the holy.' 

En.lxxvii.i. 'He who is blessed 
for ever.' 

En. zlviii. 7. ' This world of un- 

En.lzi. 10. 'Theangelsofpower 
and the ai^^ls of principali- 

En. xlix. 4. ' According to Hie 
good pleasure.' 

En. cviiL 11.' The generation of 

En. xlviii. 5. ' Will fall down and 
bow the knee before Him' (i.e. 
the Messiab). 

En. Ixi. 10. "The angels of power 
and the angels of principali- 

En. xlvi. 3. 'The Son of man . . . 
who reveals all the treasures 
of that which b hidden.' 

En. Mi. 4. 'Then shall pun come 
upon them as on a woman in 

Both thaie pawagei refer to the endden appearing of the Meniah. 

V. 5. ' Sons of light.' En. cviii. 11. ' The generation of 


2 Theu. i. ?. ' The angels of His En. Ixi. 10. ' The angels of 

power.' power,' 

I Tim. i. 9. ' Law is not made En. xciii. 4. ' He will make a 

for a rigbteoua man but for law for sinners.' 

the lawless,' &c. 

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General Introduction. 


I Tim. i. 15. ' Worthy of all bc- En. xoiv. i, ' Wortliy of occepta- 

ceptatioD ' (cf. vi. 9). tion.' 

T. 31. ' Th« elect angels.' En. zxxix. i. 'Elect and holy 

children of the high heaven,' 

vi. 15. 'King of Kings and En. vs.. 4. 'Lord of Lords . . . 

Lord of Lords.' King of Kings.' 

16. Dwelling in, the light En. xiv. ai. 'None of the angels 
which DO man can approach conld enter (there) and no 

nnto, whom no man hath man could behold the form of 

seen.' the face of the Honoured and 

Gloriona One.' 

(rf) EpUtle to tie HebreKt. This Epistle was probably written 
by Bamabaa. Aa we have seen above (p. 38) this writer cites 
Enoch as Scriptnte in the Epistle which goes by bis name. 

Htbreux iv, 13. 'There is no 
creatnre that ia not mani- 
fest in His sight : bat all 
things' are naked and laid 
open before the eyes of Him 
with whom we have to do.' 
xi. 5. ' Enoch was translated 
. . . for before hie transla- 
tion be bad this testimony 
that be pleased Qod.' 

xL 10. ' The city wluch hath 
foundations whose builder 
and maker is God ' (cf. ziii. 


xii. 9. *Fatber of spirits.' 

En. ix. 5. ' All things are naked 
and open in Thy sight, and 
Thoa seeat all things and 
nothing can hide itself from 

The parallel passage must, it 
seems, depend on the Enoch 
book where Enoch is always 
accounted an example of 
righteousness and therefore 
translated. Cf. xv. i ; Ixxi. 
14, &C. In Ecdui. xliv. 16 
Enoch is translated indeed, 
bttt is cited aa an example of 
repentance. Fhilo, De Abra- 
Ttamo, speaks of the former 
evil life of Enoch. 

En.xc. 39. 'WfaereGod Himself 
builds the New Jerusalem.' 

'Lord of spirits,' passim in 

33. 'TheheavenlyJerasalem.* En. i 

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The Book of Enoch. 

(e) AcU af the Apottki. 

iii. 1 4. ' The Righteoua One,' 

i.e. Christ. Cf. alsovii. 51; 

xxii. 14. 
iv. 13. "There ie none other 

name under heaven . . . 

whereby we must be saved.' 
X. 4. "Thy prayers ... are 

gone up for a memorial 

before God.' 
Kvii. 31. 'He will jndge the 

world in rigbteouBnesE by 

the man whom He hath 


(/) The Goipeh. 
S. John ii. 16. The temple ia 
called ' God's house,' but 
owing to sin of Israel ' your 
house,' i. e. merely house of 
Israel. Cf. 8. Luke xiii. 35 
and parallels. 

v.a2. 'He hath committed all 
judgment unto the Son.' 

3 7 . ' He gave bim authority to 
execute judgment because 
he is the Son of Man.' 

xii. 36. ' Sons of light.' 

xiv. 3. ' Many 

En. xxxviii. 2. 'The Righteous 
One ' (i. e. the Messiah). 

En. xlviii 7. 'Saved in His (i. e. 
the Messiah's) name.' 

En. xoix. 3. ' Baise your prayers 
as a memorial . . . before the 
Most High.' 

En. xli. 9. 'He will appoint a 
judge for them all, and He 
will jndge them all before 

Ed. Ixxxix. 54. Temp]e=honse 
of the Loi-d of the sheep. 

En. Ixxxix. 56. But owing to 
sin of Israel it is said 'He 
forsook that their house.' 

n. Ixix. 37. 'The sum of 
judgment was committed 
uuto Him, the Sou of Man.' 

fn. oviii. ti. 'The generation of 

So. xxxix. 4. ' Mansions of the 

righteous.' Cf. xxxix. 7 ; 

xlviii. I, &c. 

.S'.Z«iei.53. 'HeliatbputdowD 

En. xlvi. 5. ' He will put down 

princes from their thrones.' 

the kings from their thrones.' 

ix. 35. 'This is My Son, the 

En. xl. 5. ' The Elect One,' i. e. 

Elect One.' So Greek 6 

the Messiah. Cf. xly. 3-5; 


xUi. 2, 4, &c. 

xiii. 35. See on S. John ii. 16. 

xvi. 8. < Sons of the Ught.' 

En.cviii.ii. ' The generation of 



General Introduction. 


S. Luix X7i. 9. ' UiMnmun of 
zviii. 7. ' Shall not Oad 
avenge His Elect wliicb cry 
to Pim day and night, and 
He is loug-sofEering over 
them.' Cf. 3 Pet. iii. 9; 
EccIuS. •'"^Tii, 18. 

xxi. 28. ' Your redemption 

draweth nigh.' 
xxiii. 35. * The Christ of God, 

the Elect One,' 6 iAta6,. 
S. MaOhmo t. za, 29, 30; x. aS 

where Gehenna is the place 

of final punishment, 
xix. 38. 'When the Son of 

Kan shall eit on the throne 

of His glory.' 
' Ye also shall sit on twelve 

six. 29. 'Inherit eternal life.' 
xxi.13; xxiii. 38. SeeS.Jolin 

u. 16. 
XXV. 41. 'Prepared for the 

devil and Ma angels.' 
xxvi. 34. 'It had been good 

for that man if he had not 

been bom.' 
nviii 18. 'All authority hath 

been given to Me in heaven 

and on earth.' 
S.Murksi.i'j, SeeS.Johnii.6. 

En. Ixiii. 10. 'Mammon of nn- 

£0. zlviL I, 2. See Trauslation. 
This veree of S. Luke eoggests 
another rendering of Enoch. 
' The prayer of the righteous 
. . . that judgment may be 
executed on them and that 
He may be no more long' 
Buffering over them.' 

En. li. 2. 'The day of their 
redemption has drawn nigh.' 

En. xl. 5. ' The Elect One.' 

En. xxvii. 2 ; xc. 26, 27 where 

Gehenna first definitely ap- 

pears as hell. 
En. Ixii. 5. 'When they see that 

Son of Man sitting on the 

throne of His glory.' 
En. cviii. 12, ' I will seat each 

on the throne of his honour.' 
En. xl. 9. 
En. Ixxxix. 56. 
En. Ixxxix. 64. 
En. liv. 5. ' Chuns . . . prepared 

for the hosts of AzaseL' 
En.xxxviiLa. 'Ithadbeengood 

for them if they had not been 

En. Ixii. 6. ' (The Son of man) 

who rules over all.' 

En. Ixxxix, 54. 

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50 The Book of Enoch. 

(B) Doctrines in Enoch which had an undoubted share in 
moulding the corresponding New Testament doctrines, or are 
at all events necessaiy to the comprehension of the latter. 

(a) The nature of the Messianic Itingdom and of the future 

{h) The Messiah. 

(c) Sheol and the Resurrection. 

{d") Demonology. 

(a) The Kingdom. We shall only deal with one incident 
coming under this headj it is found in the three Synoptists: 
S. Matt xxii. 23-53 ; S. Mark xii. 18-37 J S. Luke xx. 27-36. 
This incident can only be rightly understood from Enoch. 
When the Sadducees said, ' Whose wife shall she be of them ? 
for the seven had her to wife,' they are arguing from the sen- 
suous conception of the Messianic kingdom — and this was no 
doubt the popular one— given in £d. i-xzxvi, according to 
which its merabere, including the risen righteous, were to enjoy 
every good thing of earth and have each a thousand children. 
The Sadducees thought thereby to place this young prophet 
on the horns of a dilemma, and oblige Him to confess either 
that there was no resurrection of the dead, or else that 
polygamy or polyandry would be practised in the coming 
kingdom. But the dilemma proves invalid: and the con- 
ception of the future life portrayed in our Lord's reply tallies 
almost exactly in thought, and partially in word, with that 
described in En. zci-civ, according to which there is t« be a 
resurrection indeed, but a resurrection of the spirit, and the 
risen righteous are to r^oice 'as the angels of heaven' 
(En, civ. 4j S. Matt. xxii. 30J S. Mark xii. 35), 'being 
companions of the heavenly hosts ' (En. civ. 6). 

{b) The Messiah. The Messiah is referred to in xc. 37, 38. 
He is represented as Uie head of the Messianic community 
out of which He proceeds, but He has no special rdle to fnlfil 
and His presence in that description seems due merely to 
literary reminiscence. This Messiah-reference exercised no 
influence on New Testament conceptions. But with regard 


General Introduction. 51 

to the Messiah described in the Similitudes the case is very 
different. Four titles applied for the first time in Uterature 
to the personal Messiah in the Similitudes aie afterrrards 
reproduced in the New Testament, These are 'Christ' or 
' the Anointed One/ ' the Righteous One,' ' the Elect One,' and 
' the Son of Man.' 

' Ckriti ' OT 'tie Anointed One.' This title, found repeatedly 
in earlier writings but always in reference to actual con- 
temponuy kings or priests, is now for the first time — see 
xlviii 10 ; lii. 4 — applied to the ideal Messianic king that is 
to come. It is associated here with supernatural attributes. 
A few years later in another writingj the Psalms of Solomon 
(xvii. 56; xviii. 6, 8), it possesses quite a different connota- 
tion. In those Psalms the Messiah, though endowed with 
divine gifts, is a man and nothing more, and springs from 
the house of David. 

' Tie Righteout One.' This title, which occurs in Acts iii. 
14; vii. 52j xxii. 14 (cp. 1 S. John ii 1), first appears in 
Enoch as a Messianic designation ; see En. xxxviii. 2 ; liii, 6. 
Righteousness is one of the leading characteristics of the 
Messiah, zlvi. 3. 

*Tie Elect One' This title likewise appearing first in 
Enoch, xl. 5 ; xlv. 3-4 ; xlix. », 4 j U. 3, 5, &c., passes over 
into the New Testament, S. Luke is. 35 ; xxiii. 35, ' The 
Christ, the Elect One.' In the Old Testament we find 'Mine 
Elect,' Is. xlii. i, but not 'the Elect One.' 

'The Son cf Man' This definite title {see notes on xlvi. 
2, 3) is found in the Book of Enoch for the first time in 
Jewish litorature, and is, historically, the source of the New 
Testament designation, imd contributes to it some of its most 
characteristic contents. For an account of the relations 
between the Enochic and New Testament uses of this title, 
we must refer to the Appendix on ' The Son of Man ' at the 
close of tiie book. 

(e) Shxol, If we except the Psalms we have in £noch the 
first instances in which this word is found in its New Testa- 

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52 The Book of Enoch. 

inent signification. For the history of thia word and its 
meanings, see note on Ixii. lo. 

It is further interesting to note that the writer of xci-civ 
delivers himself of a sustained polemic in cil 4-Giv. 9 against 
the Old Testament doctrine of Sheol, and the faot that this 
writer in xci. 4 borrows Ecdus. l 25 makes it probable that 
the immediate book he had in view is Ecclesiaeticus, which 
enforces dogmatically and repeatedly the Old Testament 
doctrine of Sheol. 

The BESUBKSCTioir. 1^ doctrine, which is first taught 
beyond possibility of doabt in Dan. xii, though a true 
ez^fesis will find many intimations of the doctrine in earlier 
books, was made a common-place of Jewish theology by the 
book of Enoch. For the various forms this doctrine assumed, 
see note on IL i. 

{A') The Deuonology of Enoch reappears Cor the most part 
in the New TesWuent. 

(a) The angels which kept not their first estate, S. Jnde 6 ; 
2 S. Pet, ii. 4, are the angelic watchers who fell from 
lusting after the daughters of men, and whose £aU and 
punishment are recounted in En. vi-xvi. They have always 
been imprisoned in darkness from the time of their falL 

(^) Demons. These are, according to Enoch xvi, i, the 
spirits which went forth from the souls of the giants who 
were the children of the &llen angels and the daughters of 
men. These demons were to work moral ruin on the earth 
without hindrance till the final judgment as disembodied 

80 in the New Testament. The demons are dis^abodied 
spirite, S. Matt. xii. 43-45 ; S. Luke xi 24-26. They are 
not punished till the final jndgment : S. Matt. viii. 29, 'Art 
Thou come hither to torment us i^w-e the time ? ' They are 
subject to Satan, S. Matt xii 34-28. 

(y) Satan appears in Enoch as the ruler of a conntor king- 
dom of evil, yet a kingdom subject to the Lord of Spirits. He 
led astray the angels and made them his subjects, liv. 6; Ixix. 5. 


General Introduction. 53 

A Satan aleo led astray £ve, Ixix. 6. The Satana (as in Job) 
can still appear in heaven, zl. 7. The fuDctions of the Satans 
are threefold : they tempted to evil, Ixix. 4, 6 ; they accused 
the fallen, xl, 7 ; they poniehed the condemned as angels of 
pnnishmeat, liii. 3; Ivi. i. 

So in the New Testament there is the counter-kingdom of 
sin, S. Matt. xii. 26; S. Luke xi. 18; 'if Satan cast out 
Satan, how shall his kingdom stand ? ' Satan led astray the 
angels. Rev. xiL 4, and led astray nmn, 2 Cor. xi. 3. The 
demons are subjects of Satan, S. Matt. xii. 24-28. The 
functions of Satan are tempting, S. Matt iv. i-ia; S. Luke 
xxii. 31 ; accusing, Kev. xii. jo ; punishing, i Cor, v. 5, where 
impotent sinners are delivered over to Satan for punishment. 

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Di.itradb, Google 





A. Critical Structvre. B. Relation of IhU Section to (a) Ixxti- 
kxxii; (6) Ixiriii-xc ; (e) xei-civ. C. lU Dale. D. TJie 
Problem and it* Solution. 
A. Critioal Stmotore. For tbe relation of this Section to tlie 
rest of his book, see Oeuentl Introdaction (p. 26). This Section in 
at once incomplete and composite. To determine its origiiial form 
is perfectly bopelees ; it has enffered &om all the evile incident to 
tradition and unscrupulous interpolation. It ia impossible to 
regard it aa a complete work in itself, and its leading ideas 
preclude our finding its original complement in the other Sections 
of the book. It is composite in character, not to apeak of exten- 
tdre interpolations (i.e. xrii-xix). There are two distinct world- 
conceptions present. In xii-xvi the transcendence of Ood is 
pictured in an extreme degree. He dwells in heaven in a crystal 
palace of fire, into which not even an angel may enter, xiv. 9-23 ; 
whereas in i-xi, xx-xxxvi, the old Ud>rew ttandpoint ia fftirly 
preserved. Ood will come down to judge on Sinai, i. 4 ; the 
Messianic kingdom will be established on earth, and all ain will 
vanish, x. 17-23 ; the chambers of blessing in heaven will be 
opened, xi. i ; Jerusalem will be the centre of the Messianic king- 
dom, xxT. g ; and Ood Himself will come down to visit the earth with 
blessing, and will sit on His throne on earth, xxt. 3 ; men will enjoy 
patriarchal lives, and die in happy old age, v. 9; x. 17; xxt. 6. 

There are many interpolations: vi. 3-8; viii. 1-3; ix. 7; x. 1-3; 
xvii— xix. The peculiarity attaching to these interpolations is 


56 The Book of Enoch. [Sect, r. 

that no attempt is made to aesimilate tbem to tlieir new CQnt«xtB. 
Geaerally they stand in glaring contradiction with them. 

B. (a) B«l«tlon of i-xxxvi to IzxU-Izxzfl. TheM two sections 
come from different aathors ; see Special Tntrod. to Ixxii-lxxzii. 
(6) Bslatlon of i-xzxrl to IxzxUl-xo. These two Seotione 
are of distinct aathorship. The former ie the older, and was 
known to the author of the latter; see Special Introd. to 
Ixxxiii-xo. (c) Belatlon of l-xzxri to xol-oiT. TTiese two 
Sections are likewise independent; bat the author of the latter 
was acquainted with i— xszvi or some form of it; see Special 
Introd. to xci-ciT. 

O. Its Date. As i-xxxvi is anterior to Uzxiii-xo, the oldest 
of the remaining Sections of the book, and aa that Section mnst 
haTe been writton before )6t b. c. we have thus the latest 
possible date of the composition of i-xxxvi. But it is hi^y 
probable, that it was writton much earlier, earlier in bot than the 
persecution under Antiochus ; for to the horrors of that persecn- 
tion, which impressed themBelves so strongly on the author of 
Daniel, and of En. hoodii-xc there is not the bintest allusion 
in i-xxxvi. 

D. The Problem and itc SolntioiL The author essaya to 
justify the ways of God. The righteous will not always suffer, 
and the wicked will not always proBi>er, i. i. The limits thereto 
ure set by death, xxii, and by great world judgments. But the 
cure of the world's corruption can only be understood by appre- 
hending its cause, and this cause is to be traced to the lust of the 
fallen Watchers for the daughters of men. Original sin stands not 
in the following of Adam — whose sin seems limited in its effects to 
himself, xxxii. 6 — ^hnt in the evil engendered through the Watchers, 
ix. fi, 9, 10; X. 8. Hence the Watchers, their companions and 
children were destroyed, x. 4-10, la ; and their condemnation and 
confinement form the prelude to the first world judgment, of 
which the Deluge forms the completion, x. 1-3. But though only 
the righteous survived the Delnge, sin still prevailed in the world 
through the demons — the spirits which had gone forth &om the 
slaughtered children of the Watchers and the daughters of men, 
and all manner of corruption was wrought through them, xvi. i, as 
they escape punishment till the final judgment. But the recom- 
pense of character is not withheld till the last judgment ; there is 
a foretaeto of the final doom immediatoly after death, xxii. In tiie 
second and last judgment on Sinai, i. 4, the Watchers, the demons, 


Sect. I.] Chapter I. \-2. 57 

and godless, x. la; xvi. 1, aud all classes of Israel, with one excep- 
tion, receive their final award, i. 9. To make this possible, this 
judgment is preceded by a General Iteaurrection of Israel, zxii. 
A final end is now made of sin on the earth, and the earth cleansed, 
X. 15, 16, 30-33 ; the wicked are cart into Gehenna, and their 
punishment is a apectacle for the ri<;hteou8 to behold, xxvii. 3 ; the 
Messianic kingdom is established, with Jerusalem and Palestine as 
its cmtre, xxr. 5 — there is no Messiah, and Ood abides with men, 
zzT. 3 ; all the Oentilee will become righteous and worship Ood, 
X, a I ; the righteous are allowed to eat of the tree of life, xxr. 4-6, 
and thereby enjoy patriarchal lives, v. 9 ; xiv. 6, begetting 1000 
children, x. 17, and enjoying unlimited material bleaaings, v. 7, 
X. 18, 19; xi. 3. 

As to what becomes of the righteous, after the second death, 
there is no hint in this fragmentary Section, lliere is much 
celestial, terrestrial, and eubterrestrial geography in xvii-xix, xxi- 


I. I. The words of the blessings of Enoch, wherewttii he 
blessed the eleot and righteous, who will be living in the day 
of tribolation, when all the wicked and godless are to be 
lemoTed. 3. And Enoch answwed and ^>ake — (Enoch) a 

righteons man, whose eyes were opened by God, that be mi^t 
see a vision of the H0I7 One in tiiie heavens, which the angels 
showed mcj and &om then I heard everything and I undei^ 
stood what I saw, but not for this generation, but for the 
remote generations which are for to come. 3. Concerning 

I. 3. Ood. I hare rendered XTHJMftbC by 'Ood,' and XTliX 
by ' Lord.' The former word is at times a rendering of i aipun, 
and at times of 6 0(rfc in the LXX. It occurs ten times in Enoch. 
]i^*'lll=4 6t&i it) found nine times. TUon of the H0I7 One. 
80 BG ^JUI and the Giz. Gk. Other M8S. 'holy vision.' 

L 1. Tlio elKit and rlshteoiu. nmilu' dedgnstimu of Ood ms t. 3. 

This deaigiution ii fbanil kbo in The change from the thfid to ths Grat 

xxxriii. 3, 3, 4; xxiii.6, 7; ilviii.!; peiiaa In this t«tm, ii of fraqoent 

Iviii. 1, 1 ; Ui. 13; liii. 11,13.15 ; lix. oomircnoa In this book: of. siL i~3 ; 

3. a. The Half One. ForUuiud uivii. i, ]; Izx. i-3ilxxL 5; xcii. 1. 


58 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. I. 

the elect I spake, &nd uttered a parable concenimg them : 
the Holy and Great One will come forth from Hie dwelliDg, 
the God of the world. 4. And going from thence He 

will tread on Mount Sinai and appear with His hoBte, and in 
the strength of Hie might appear from heaven. 5. And 

everyone will be smitten with fear, and the watchers will 
quake, and great fear and trembling will seize them unto the 
ends of the earth. 6. And the high mountains will be 

shaken, and the high hills will be made low, and will melt 
like wax before the flame. 7. And the earth will be 

rent and all that is upon the earth will perishj and there will 
be a judgment upon everything and upon all the righteous. 
8. But to the righteous He will give peace and will protect 

3. Uttered a parabla oonoemliiK tham : th« Holy One. 80 Q 

omitting the H in Die's text, and the Oiz. Gk. owXqSoi' rqv 

vapaffoKliw ftmi. Din., misled by the H and taking yM as a 
[ireposition, translates : ' conversed concerning them with the 

Koly One.' 7. The earth will be rent. So G ^hMfllT 

iind the Gtz. Gk. liaiTxia6^<rtTai. Other MSS. 'tvmf ' will sink 

In xd-clv (lie«e obangM are oonfas- hare wid in z. g, ij ; zii. 1, 4 ; xiU. 

ing. 9. The elect. Thin demgna- 10 ; iit. 1,3; ly. 1 ; xtI. i, 1 ; xa. 1 j. 

liunbelongi iiuiu)l)> to the SitniliCudca. Iniz. 1 1 mix. u. 13 ; xt. 3 ; Ixi. 11 ; 

' It is iband in f. S; v. 7; iit. 5: zl. IxiL 7 it daugnsta the arahangek. 

S; ill 1; xlTJii. I, 9; li. 5; iTi. 6, It iBfint found in Dbu-It. 13, 17, 13. 

tj; Iviii. 3; Ixi. 4, l); Izii. 7, 8, 11; 6. Cf. Judgea v. 5 ; Pi. xcrii. 5: Is. 

xciiL 1. H0I7 and Great One. Mv. I, 3; Mic L 4; Juditil xvi. ij 

TliU title !• found elsewhere in i. i ; (Din.) Acsumpt. Maj'seoa x. 4. 7. 

xiv. 1; IZV.3; Ixiiiv. II loii. 1; icvii. Din. thinki that we bave in jH) a 

6; KCTiiL6; dv.g. God ii deaignated description combining the two great 

Hiinplj as ' the Hoi j One,' xdii. 1 1 , and judgments ; bat everything from vene 

IIS ' the Great One/ liv. a ; oiii. 4 ; 4 to and is perfectly appiioable to the 

civ. t (twice). Dome forth fiwm Hla Hnal Judgment. ?et cT. Izxziu. 7. 

dwelling. Cf. Mic.i. 3ils. xxvi. It. 8. Will glra pMoe. See v. 4 note. 

.\Mum|jtio Hoyeece x. 3. Ood of The rUhteotu. This designation is 

the world. Cf. Iviii. 41 Ixzii. 10; found in all parts of the book ; i.7,8; 

Ixzxii. 7 ; Ixiii*. 3 ; also zii. 3; Ixxii. y. 6 i zxt. 4 ; zzzii. 4 ; zliii. 4 ; zlvil. 

3. 4. Sinai, whanee t^e Law I, i, 4{ xlviil. i, 7, 9 ; L a ; liii. 7; 

was given, will likewise be the place Ivl. 7; Iviil. 3. g i Iz. 1; IzL 3; Ixii. 3; 

of future JDc^ent. Cf. Dent. xxxiiL lixxii. 4; xdv. 3,11; xcv.3,7; zovi. 

3; Fb. liviii. 17. S. Watohen. 1, S; xcvil. i, 3, j; xcviii. 11-14; xdx. 

This name belongs to the UImi angels 3; o. j, 7, lo; ciL 4, 10; dii. i; oiv. 


Seel. I.] 

Chapter I. ^—III. 


the elect, and grace will be upon them, and they will all belong 
to God, and it will be well with them, and they will be bleesed 
and the light of Ood will shine upon them. 9. And lo ! 

He comes with ten thousands of (His) holy ones to execute 
judgment upon them, and He will destroy the ungodly, and 
will convict all Hesh of all that the sinners and ungodly have 
wrought and ungodly committed against Him. 

II. 1. 1 observed everything that took place in the heaven, 
how the luminaries which are in the heaven do not deviate 
bata. their orbits, how they all rise and set in order each in 
its season, and transgress not against their appointed order. 
2. Behold ye the earth, and give heed to the things which 
take place upon it from first to last, how unvaryingly every 
work of God appears. 5. Behold the summer and the 
winter, how (in the winter season) the whole earth is full of 
water, and clouds uid dew and rain lie upon it. 

III. I observed and Baw how (in the winter) all the trees 

dowa.' 9. WiU oonvlot aU flesh. .^H&^ So Q M. Jude 
15 A^f<u. The Qiz. Gk. tKiy^u. Other MSS. .fc^T«*ft= ' will 
plead with all flesh.' See Appendix on thia verse. 

m. I. QU read IHh O0a>i ^e instead of hovi h4h (HeoH XC 
as Din. 

. I, 6, 13, 13. Tlis Uffht of Qod 
will iliiiie upon them. Cf. xiiTiii. 
4. e. Qaotod bjr St Jade 14, 

15, who Id the ume paoage drftwa 
iipoD T. 4 ; nvil. a ; li. 8. Cf. oi. 3. 
Ten thoonuidB of Hli holy onea. 
CC DkD. Tii. 10. The angela ue to 
called In xii. 1 ; dv. 13 ; xnix. 5 ; 
ilvii. 1 ; Ivii. 1 ; li. 4 ; IxL 8, 10, i a ; 
IxT. \t; Iziz. 131 IzxkL s; dii. 1; 
cn.lQiMaltsadyin Jobv. l; it.ij; 
Zech. xiv. s; Dan. W. 13; rlii. 13. 
They are called 'holjr uigela ' in xx. 

1-71 X 

iT. 6; 3 

; iizii. 6; Izzi. 8; xdii. j. 'Holy 
onM of heaTen : ' iz. 3. Far other 

deeignatiou aee vi. i (oole). 

n. The aothoi in U-v. 3 empha- 

ii«a the order that prevaila in the 
world of nature ai a ountraat to the 
diaorder that pMvaill in the WDi4d of 
man. In Teat. Naphth. 3 men are 
bidden to obaerre the law of Ood as 
the mil, moon, nnd gtan obtwrre the 
order appconted to them, and the 
Watchera, wba were cuned of Ood for 
foraalciiig their natural order and 
eitate, are held np as a vaming. C£. 
aIaaEoclDB.xyi.a6-l8; Pss. Sol. KviU. 
11-14. 9. The Hebrews divided 
the -jtMi Into two seasons, J*^ embrac- 
ing Exiling and 3mnmer, and ((iH em- 
btwnng Autumn and Winter. Qen. 
Tiii. 13; Is.iTiii. 6; Zech. zi;. 8. Cf. 
Heme's £,£. vi. 497 ■ Jar.' 


6o The Book of Enoch. [gect. I. 

seem as though they had withered and shed all their leavee, 
except fourteen trees, which do not lose their foliage but retain 
the old folia|^ from two to three years till the new comee. 

IV. And again I observed the days of Eummer how the 
son ie above the earth over against it. And you seek shade 
and shelter against the heat of the mm, and the earth also 
bums with glowing heat, and . so yon cannot tread on the 
earth, or on a rock by reason of ite heat. 

Y. I. I observed how the trees eover themselves, with 
green leaves and bear fruit : wherefore give ye heed to every- 
thing, and recognise how He who liveth for ever hath made 
all this for you. x. How His works are before Him in 

each succeeding year, and all His wor^ serve Him and alter 
not but everything is done as God hath ordained. 5. And 

behold how the seas and the rivers together accomplish their 
task. 4. But as for yon, ye have not continued steadfast, 
and the law of the Lord have ye not fulfilled bnt have 
transgressed it, and have slanderoosly spoken proud and 
hard words with your impure months against His greatness — 
O ye hard hearted ye will find no peace. 5. And therefore 
will ye execrate your days and be bereft of the years of 
your life: but the years of your destruction will be mul- 

V. 5. Be bereft of the ymn of toot lib. tffNtr may be either 
2nd Pers. PI. Fntnre I. i='ye will lose, bo bereft of'=afro- 
TTtp^iriirSt, or 3rd Pers. PI. PrCBeiit III. j=' They are periahing.' 
Din. takes it to be the latter. But the preseot tense is out of 
ptaee between two futures. The Tears of your deatruotloii. 
The wwds are drawn from the Oiz. Gk,, having dropped out of the 
Ethiopic M8S., but the text of G implies them, giving Q.C7ilv'ir 

m. On tile fonrtAail erargrsea ipokan. The ohtrgv of blatphem; ia 

treN et Din. tR Ion. Arequent in loi-civ. Cf. id. 7, 11; 

V. 4. The UkW of Uxe Ziord. Cf. idv. 9 ; lori. 7 ; 0. 9. HHd bouted. 

adz. 1. 'The eteniat l>w.' Proud Cf. xorlii.ll; o.B 'obttlnMeofkawt.' 

Mtd bard word*. Ct ixrU. a ; cJ. 3. Te will find no pesos. Thi( phtaaa 

Vrtna t^CM punge* the don of oocnri in Seote. i-xxxri Mid xd-dr 

"" --- onlj: i. 8; ». 4; lii. Si xHi- '; >". 


Sect. I.] Chapters IV— V. 6i 

tiplied in etonal execnitioQ and ye will find do mercy. 

6. In those days ye ahall give your name for an eternal 
execration onto all the righteous, and they will evermore exe- 
crate you as sinners — you together with (all other) sinnArs. 

7. But for the elect there will be light and joy and peace, and 
they will inherit the earth : hut apon you, ye ungodly, 
there will be execration. 8. Then too will wisdom be 
bestowed on the elect, and they will all live and never 
again sin, either through heedlessness or through pride, 
but they who are wise will be humble nor fall again into 
sin. 9. And they will not be punished all the days of their 
life, nor will they die of plagues or visitationB of wrath, but 

. they will complete the full number of the days of their life, 
and their lives will grow old in peace, and the years of their 
joy will be many, in eternal happiness and peace all the days 
of- their life. ^ 

'will be multiplied in eternal execration.' Later Bcribes, findiog 
no subject for the verb iu this clause, omitted the preposition and 
read auCt^ ; hence Dln.'s text, ' eternal execration will be mnl~ 
tiplied upon 70a.' 6. Te shall giTe your name for an eternal 
axaoratlon unto all the righteous, reading tW with G instead of 
A^pv with bU other MBS. but M. If we accept the other reading, 
we are to translate : ' Ye shall give up your peace to become au 
eternal execration.' The phrase appears to be drawn from Isaiah 
Ixv. 15, 'Te shall leave your name for a curse unto My choseu,' 
1'rob n^^ DDD^ DFinjrn, The Giz. Gk. supports G. 

d. 3; di. 3; dH. 8. 7-ThBtan- 351) hw Urady mod, vL 3-8i viU. 

p<a»I bleidiig* prnniwd in the O.T. t-3 ; iz. 7; i. it belmig; to > Sem- 

an here leaewod, bat on tha qowtaon jam cjds ormjtha; for in tbew pM- 

of Sbaol ud the Besuireotion the skgM Scaqjua i« nprsMuted ■■ daet 

writer baa fbnakoi O.T. gioand. kud Asueel tenth in command ; >• >Lki 

8. Willwladom be bestowed on th« inlxii. i. Elaewherein Enodi Au- 

•iMlt: He xliL t, 1. 0. Cd Is. lel ia chief and 9emjaz» ia not man- 

IzT. 30, il; Zedi. Tiii. 4; Eo, xzt. 4, tJoned. Again x. 1-3 belonga to an 

g (note). ApooalypM of No>h, man; &agmanta 

VX-XI. The abrnptuew with which of which are fonnd In Enoch. An- 

vi-xi are IntrDdiiotsd, is quite in oUier fragment of thii ApooaljpM ia 

kee^ng with the fngmentair and preflerred b; Sjucellai in the Oraeii ; 

oMnpoaile nature of the reat of ths bnt to (hii thac U m 

Sectioo. Aa Din. (H«»% lt.£iii text in the Bthlopic 



VI. 1. And it came to page 
when the children of men 
had multiplied in those days 
that heantiful and comely 
daoghters were bom nnto 
them. 2. And the angele, 

the Bons of the heavens, saw 
and lueted after them, and 
spake to one another, ' Come, 
now let ns choose as wives 
from among the children of 
men and heget children.' [3. 
And Semj&z& who was their 
leader sp^e unto them : ' I 
ieta ye will not indeed agree 
to do this deed and then I 
alone shall have to pay the 
penalty of a great sin.' 4. 
Then answered they all unto 

TA£ Book of Enoch. 


Fragments of the Cireek 
Version of Enoch preserved 
in the Chronography of G. 
Syneellufl. Ed. by Dindorf, 

'Ek jm TrfxoTov pipXloo 'Eiwx 

■nepl Tuv kypt\y6paiV' 

G. Syncellns, S. 20-25. 

Hen. 6, 1-9, 4. 

Kai iyivtTo, qt( iicXijffvv- 
6y)<riut ol vtot rSv &v$piiimv, 
iytiniri6T]<iav avrots Ovyartpti 
upaiat, Kol iT!(&v^i\aav avras 
o( iypriyopoi, koI lnt€itti.(ie^&t\- 
<r(u> dtciiriii avr&v, Koi ftvov 
vph% eUAif Aovf, ^icXcfcfrMda . 
favToit jwvoiKas duo ruv Ovya- 
WpMP tUv AvOpdirav Tijs yiji. 
Kal ttitt £(^aCar 6 Hpxaiv 
airr&v vpos avrois, ^ojSotifuK 
fiTi oil 6t\'q<rrjT€ vot^irat rd 
■npayfui rofiro, ical Itropiai iya 
(i6vas i^fikirqi hfiaprlas lityi- 
Aijr. Koi iviKplBifiraii aimf 

VI. 3. Par the penalty of a great aln. So Q T& iAKs A^MOJi^; 
Qfl^ and the Oie. and Syn. Ok. S^Afrrit AiAopriat fuyaXiis, Other 

VI. 9. Bona of Uw hmvena. Cf. 
xiii.S; Kiv.3; xxiii. I. Seezv. 1-7. 
CF. 'Sotu of th« holy augdB,' Ixii. i ; 
T. 6 ' DeBcended in the daji of 
Jand.' Sea Crit. Note. The entire 
m;th of Ota uigeli and the daagbten 
of men in Unoob iprings originitll; 
(h>mO«n.TL i-4,Thereit ianidthat 
' Uie Bou of God cum ia to the 
d»agfat«n of men.' These wwda ve 
not to be taken Moipnaiiigkllluicei 
betwMD the SethHe* and tlie CUnitea, 
bnt aa belonging to a verj eari; myth 
of Feraiiui origin to the effaot that 
demoD* had corrupted the earth before 
the oiKning of Zoroaatar and had allied 
thmnaelTM with women. SoDclitnoh, 
iftuer ComtMittar titer d. Oenaie, 
18S7, pp. 146-8. The LXX originally 

TOtdered the words ' whi« of Ood ' by 
tyyiXei roS Bau, and this rendering 
ia foand in Philo, if* Olganliinu, Enie- 
tiiua, Augustine, and AmbiOMu lliii 
Tiaw of Gen. vi 1-4 waa held b; 
moat of the early &th«ia. On the 
mytha regarding the intenMnne of 
angela with the daughtera of men, aee 
Grflnbaam b ZDMQ. rod. 115 If. 
(BeferredtobyDelitnch.) Foratate- 
menta of later writers either depend* 
ing direotly on tUs aooonnt In Buoch 
or harmonizing whh it, of. Joaeph. 
J»t. i. 3. i; Philo, ds Oigantibia; 
Teat. Reuben j; Napth. Jj Juitin 
Martyr, ^pol. 1.5; Fi. Clement, £oin. 
TiiL 13; Clem. Alei-Slrom. v. 1. 10; 
Tert. De 7irg. VeUatd. vil; Ade. 
Jforv. T. 18; D»Idol.\x; Lact./iufif. 


Chapter VI. i-6. 

Sect. L] 

him and spabe : ' Let ue all 
swear an oath, and bind oor- 
eelvee b; matual imprecations 
not to abandon this plan but 
to carry it into execution.' 
5. Then aware they all to- 
gether and bound themeelvea 
by mntnal imprecations to its 
fnlfilment ; and they were in 
all two hundred. 6. And 
they descended in the days 
of Jared on the summit of 


&isain€s 5pK<f koI ivaSefiaTiffoi- 
fj.(v AXA^Aouf row ^^ iiroorpt- 
ifrai TTiv yviifitfe ravrrfv, fx^xP'^ 
ot ivonKimoiuv ainju. rort 
■ndvTfs &ixoiTap 6fi.(ni koi iitOf- 
fiArurav AW'^Kovs- *H(rav ii 
oStoi SuXK^fftot ot KarafidvTtt 
if Tats ^[lipats 'Ici/xS tls r^v 
KOpw^v Tov ^EpfiovtfliJ, Spovs 
Kol JKdAfo-oi' t6 Spoi 'Eppd/i, 

MSS. 'Pay the penalty of this great sin.' 5. Bound thvm- 

Mlvea hy mutual Imprecatlona.' So M and the Qiz. and Syn. 
Ok. Other MSS. insert 'all.' 'They all bound themselveB,' &c. 
6. Deaceudad In th* dart of Jand. I have here followed the 
Greek text ol naraflimt ir roTi iiixipoK 'laptS tU rifii Kopv^ij* rnC 
'Efifiowflft Spmt. The Ethiopio text reads: 'descended on Ardis 
which ie the summit of Mt. Hermou.' The name Ardie, otherwise 
unknown, is to be expltuned with Din. as a coropression of 'id/Md nV, 
the translator not having found iv rou imipatt in his text. Hall^n 
in the Journal Anaiigtte, Avril-Mai 1867, pp. 356-357, reproduces 
this verse in Hebrew, whereby we see at a glance, why the angels 
descended in tiie days of Jared — from TP to descend, and why it 
was that they bound themselves by mutual oaths on Hermon — 
&om Byj a curse. 

Cf, Book of Jubilees iv : ' Jared ; for in his days the angels of the 

il. 15; ComniadiaiL intlnurf. i. 3. In 
the De Civ, Dei xr. 33, AugniUiw 
somlwto this view, tod dsDiei U» in- 
■ptntioDof Enoch, which ii uphdd bj 
TvtoUiM]. a. SflMended In tha 
days of Jued. 8m Crit. Note ; al» 
ovi.13. Dtn.rafenabotoOrig. Com- 
ment, in Joatn. torn. viii. p. 131, ed. 
Hurt; Epiph. ade, Satr. i. 4, ed. 
FctAv, tiilli. i p. 4. The reuoni for 

the deeoent of the ftn^le is tlie Book 
of JnUleee differ ttvm those given in 
thii chi^ter. In iv uid v of that book 
it it ttated th»t the watchan were tent 
to the auth by God ■ to instrDot the 
children of men to do Judgment 
ftnd nprightneiB,' >nd that when bo 
doing they began to luit after the 
daoghten of men. Hii* fonn of the 
mjib teem* to be Mowed in Teat. 



The Book of Enoch. 

[Sect. I. 

Mount HeimoD, and they 
called it Mount Hermon, be^ 
oause they had ewom and 
bound themBelves by mutual 
imprecatbns upon it. 7. 
And these are the names of their 
leaden : Semj&z&, their leader, 
UrftktbarfLmggl, Kdkab!61, T&- 
mi^l, R&mug], D&ngl, Zaqild, 
Sar^nj&l, AbSuI, ArmarSs, 
Batraal, An&ni, Zaqfibe, Sam- 
fftveSl, Sula^l, Turel, Jom jael, 
Ar&zjiL 8. These are their 
chiefs of tens, and all the 
others were with them.] 

VII; I. And they took unto 
themselves wives, and each 
chose for himself one, imd 
they b^ao to go in unto them 
and they mixed with them, 

koSSti upxraf Koi iufSffidTKraii 
iXk^Kovs iv airrif. Kal ravra 
ra dvcfftara rui' ip\6imoii airuti" 
a' Stftta^oE i &pxa>v airStv. 
j9' 'ArapKoij^. y' 'ApaKitjk. 6' 
Xm^apiJJK. (' 'Opafj^n'^. e 

6' BoAiM^X. t' 'AfoXf^A. lo' 
^apitap6s. ij3' 'A/«j^i^\. ly 
' Kvayi\yAs. tS' 0av(iaijX. ic' 

cij' Trpi^X. (tf* 'lotifii^A. k' 
£ap(qA. OJ!roi Kal ol Aotirot 
■a&vrti Iv Ty xiXio<rT<f iKoroirr^ 

iKafiov iavTois jnivoiKat koI 
iipiamo iua(tttr$ai iv aSmui 

Lord descended on the earth.' 8. Those are theic ohleb of 
teoB. 80 G OaE'-h IwCfi VUarg^ and M, but that for the tint 
word it reads thttMvo^ So also the Qiz. Gk. oSroi cim* lipxni 
airm' ol tiica, which, ss IS. BouriaDt proposes, should be emended 
into oSro/ tbrm ol ttKopxpi aSrrar. The Syn. Gk. omits. These 
twenty dekarchs are over the 300 angels mentioned in verse 5. On 
the other band the Qiz. Gk. omits the rest of this verse, but the 
Syn. Gk. gives it. Thus G U point to a text anterior to that of 
either Greek iVagmeat. All other M^. but G M give a corrupt 
reading 'chiefs of the two hundred angels.' 

Keiiben t. Id Enooh the uigeU ue 
wd to hkve doecended through their 
Init for (ha duightera of mao, uid the 
MOUtaMCuUgifeniD JaUtiU Bchitn. 
Berenh. 44. Bm Websr, Lthrtn d. 
Ttdnutd 344. Agaiiut Ihia ani! other 
■tatementa of Enooh there ii an im- 
plicit palcmiain the Book oF Jubiloea. 
In later tiaditfoii (Eiaenmenjiar Ent- 
deckl. Jud. ii. 387) tha reaion that 
Asaiel oould doI ntnni to haaTSD 

waa that h« hnd outatayed the limit 
of tima aadgnad to angeiio virilaoti 
to earth — asTen dajn. 7. Thia liat 
oontMns eightsen namei; liix. 1 
twenty-one j the Greek givei twenty. 
They diSsr oonndeiBbly from aaob 
other. IMti. makea an elaborate at- 
tempt at hannoniiing them, pp. 1)3, 94. 
TU. The EthloFUO uid Greek Tai7 
eonuderably In thU and (he fullowing 
chatter. The notea of time given in 


Sect. I.] 

Chapters VI. 

and taught them charms and 
enchaatmente, and made them 
aoquainted with the catting 
of roots and of woods. a. 

And they became pregnant, 
uid thejr bare great gianta, 
whose height was three tbon- 
sand e]]s. 3. And these 

consumed all the acquisitions 
of men tfll men could no 
longer sustain them. 4. Then 
tlie giants tomedthem against 
mankind in order to devour 
them. 5. And they began 
to sin sgainHt birds, and beasts, 
and reptiles, and fish, and 
to devour one another's flesh, 
and drink the blood there- 
of. 6. Then the earth com- 
plained of Uie muigbteooB 
VIII. [i. And Ak&z«] taught 

T — VIILl. 6s 

leas rou KarocXt'ErjMNi. Kolfrccov 
ovrois; yivr\ Tpla' irpwTOv yiyav- 
TUi pKytUoiiE. oJ 8i yiyavrts 
iTiKmtKTiui Na^Aeffi, koI rots 
Ka<f>i]ktlfi iytvrrjOrjtrav 'EXtovfi. 
Kol ^TOF ai^6tx(iioi Kara ri)ir 
fKyoXcufnira air&v, Kal ibHa- 
^01) kmiTohi Ktti riti yvvaUas 
JatTwv ifMpfiaKfias xaX ivaot- 
SlaS' Tlp&Tos 'A^a^K 6 iiKaros 
run ip)(6mwp ^SiSafc ■noitai 
fiaj(a(pas koI BtipoKas nal vSui 

the 0>«ek »rt no doaU doe to lat«r 
luuida. 1. Oh*n>u and enolmtt- 
msnta. Cf. JoMph. Aat. mi. t, 5. 
a, Bara groat KUnt*. ¥<a fartlier 
tefcranoe* to thne of. Wild. liv. 6 ; 
Tob.Ti. 14; EooIdi. iTi.7; Bar. iiLi<S; 
3 MaiM. ii. 4; Jubilee* t. WIiom 
haight w>B three Uionaand elU. 
The mutiber tfare« thoniuid li found in 
tbe Giz. Gk. but It it wutiiig in the 
SfiuOk. The three oluw* of giaoU 
mentioned in the Greek — the Qreat 
Giaoti, the Nephalim, aodtheEllnd— 
««M, -we mnit inppcae, origlnaUy 
givMt in tbii obspter ai they are pre- 
■oppoeedinluiTi. 4; Ixxzriii. s, and 
pawed fram ^ooh into JaUl««« vii, 
when the; are called Giaota, Naphll, 
and Elje. S-a. TbcM Tom oooar 

In a different order in tiie Greek — at 
the end of rili. 3 and in • very ihort- 
ened fonn. The Greek order eeema 
preferable. D. Blood. The eating 
of blood with (he Jswi wu a great 
otilne. Gen. ii. 4; Acta xv. 10 1 Book 
of Jnbilera Tii, xxi ; En. icTiii. 11. 
One anotber** fleali. Thia niay refw 
to the dcBtrncUon of one olan of giania 
by another. Cf. Book of Jabilees tJI. 
The text— ct the Oil. Ok. iU^Xm 
ria s&piau—iiKt not admit of IHu-'a 

Vm. 1-3. An interpolation. See 
p. 61, Aiaiel in riii. I ia only tlie 
tenth in oommand, but fint In 
the genuine part*. 1- AsaaaL 

Cf. HoaanmiUler'a Scholia on Lev. 
ztI. S; Henng'i S. £. U. tZ-'S- 



The Book of Enoch. 

[S«!t. I. 

men to make swords and 
knives and shields, and coate 
of mail, and made known to 
them metals and the art of 
working them, bracelets, and 
ornaments, and the nse of anti- 
mony, and the beautifying of 
the eyebrows, and the most 
costly and choicest stones and 
all coloariDg tinctures, so that 
the world was changed. 2. 
And there arose great godless- 
nees and much fornication, and 
they sinned, and all their ways 

T^r yr\i Kol ri y^pmaUiV it&s 

airiL nivfua raXs yvvtu.^ xaX 
rbv Hfyyvpov. Hfi^t hi airrois 
Koi rb arlXpdP icai rd koXAw- 
vCCt^v Koi rois iK\fKToi>s Aidovc 

tavroLi ol viol rHv ivSpuTiwv 
Kai Tois Ovyarpiaiv a.iir&v, Kot 

hylovs, Kal iyivtro iadpua 
■noXXri lirl ttjs yffs. koX ^^ivi- 
aav ras oSoiis air&v. 'Ert bi 
Kal 6 upi&Tapjfps aiirtiii Stfua^as 
itCba^tv flvai ipyas (cari tov 
vo6s, kqI pi'fas ^oTQcuv T^ff yrji. 
6 bi ii'biKaros ^apftapis ib(ba(f 
tfiapfuiKflas, iitaoibiai, aotfiCat, 

Vin. I. Uetala and the art of workliig them. So Oiz. Qk. 
rd fMToXXa ml r^i- ipyairiar avrir. The Etbiopio MSS. give ' what 
is after (or ' behind ') them and the art of working them.' Hence 
the translator fonnd or mletook p*t tmrd for /vroXXa. Th« um 
of antimony. Dhi. tranelates 'the use of rouge.' But h*rfiA never 
means to put on rouge, but to use antimony for the eyes. See 
Lex. Gol. 823. Ok. ri frriXiSfw. Tta« world wu changed. 

So G "taiAi*. Din. gives "tiD^irt and translates 'the metals of 
the earth.' 

JUflM. Cf.TwtalBan, Dt CoUh Fern. 

i. a : HeUlloTTun oparm nndaTsnint. 
Antimoiv. SeeCrit.Kote. Tartalliui 
borrow* from tUa and tbe preoediiig 
chapter In Dt Ctlla Fern. i. 2 : Her- 
bmm bgcnift tntdaxeruit et incuit^ 
tionnm tItm provulgkvenuit et omnem 
otuiosiMtein ntqus >d ctelluniiii inter- 
pretadonem dedgiuiTemit, pn^rie at 
qoMi pecnlUiitar feminu initnunen- 
tnm istud muliebrit glorisa contale- 
runt.lununa lapiUorumquibuii monlliB 
TiiuntuT et eireoloa ei auro quibiM 
biaoUa krtMttnr-<-et iUam ipnm ui- 

gnuD palvareni quo oduIotdid eiotdia 
piodnaaiitiir : and in Dt Culls Fmt. 
ii. 10 : Quodal iidem angeli qnl et 
nuteriaa ejnamodi at illecebraa dete- 
xanrot, aori dioo at lafddoiu illos- 
triam, et operai eonun tndideroni, 
et jam ipnun calliblepbanim — tlno. 
ton*— dooaeruat, — nt Enooli lefert 
.... Cf. Tart. BeabeD 6> whieb 
also dependi on these ohapten in 
Bnoeb. S, S. IRie variationa be- 

tween tiie Bihlopic and tbe Bya. Oh. 
aie hare nmneioui. Astoologeia. Cf. 
Clem. Alex. Eehg. Propk. Dind. tlL 



Chapters VIII. l-IX. 2. 


became corrupt. 3. Ame- 
zfir&k taught all the en- 
chanters and root-cuttera, 
Anu&rfiB the resolving of en- 
chantmentsj Baraq'&I (taught) 
the astrologers, K6kabe] the 
signs, BJid Temel taught 
astrology, and Aarftdel the 
course of the moon.] 4. And 
as men perished, they cried, 
and their voice went up to 

IX. I. Then Michael, Ga- 
briel, Surjan vaA Urjan, looked 
down from heaven and saw 
the great quantity of blood 
that had been shed upon the 
earth, and all the wrong that 
had been wrought upon the 
earth. 2. And they spake 
to one another 'The earth 
made without inhabitant 
echoes the voice of their cry- 
ing up to the gate of heaven. 

Kal i-naoih&vXvrfipia. 6 tvvaros 
iilba^tv iirrpoa-KOTtUur. 6 M 
rirapTos IbCba^tv iirrpoKoyCav. 
6 SJ Syboos iHSa^tv &fpo<rKo- 
•eiav. & hi Tplroi itlbix^t rh 
tntfjifia r^s y^s. 6 bi f^bofios 
ttlia^e ra tnifxeta roC f/Kiov. 
6 hi (Inocrrds iiCSa^t toL mjntta 

TIJS irtk^VTIi. n&VTfS OVTOi 

ijp^trro ivaKoXiTiTftv ra p.v<rr^ 
pM rats yviiM^lv avrQv xol 
roiv riKvois ovruv. Mcr<i hi 
raCro jjp^irro ol ylyavra kqt- 
t<r6Uw ras v&pKai rmv bvOpi- 
itatv Kal ijp^avTo ol &vQpaiitOi 
iXoTToCerflai kir\ ttjs y^s. ol hi 
XoVKoX i^Ar^av cit t^v ovpavbv 
tttpX T^f KaKiiaeoM avr&v kiyov- 
Tfs el<rtvexj^f}vai rb lurqfioavvov 
aiftAv iviimov KvpCov. Kal 
dKOijtravrcs ol Tiffirapes /xfydAot 
ip\Ayy€\oi Mtxa^A. Kal Oupi^\ 
Kal 'Pa<t>ai)\ koI rafiptijK iiapi- 
Kwfrcur M ttJd yijv is t&v byttov 
roO oipcuiov' Kal dtaadfitvoi 
atjia voKv iKKf)(yfiiiioii itci Tijs 
yfjt Kol irao-oji dtri^^iav Ktd 
avoiilaii y€vop.i>rnv i-n' air^s, 
fla(\$iiiTts flisov Tipbs AAA^ 
Kmis Sti Th nvtviiara nal al 
yj/vxal Tuv bjtSpi-niav tTTfv&Cov 

3. Tbe reaolvliig of enohantmenta. So Q K U /.trfi : all other 
M3S. give i^dt, which is bad in sense and grammar. The Greek 
ivaoibSiv XvT^pui confirms the reading i.tih. Din. gives i.'VA in his 
text, but his German translation is a rendering oi i^dk. 

ierpon/iian koI fiwrud^r «al t(U SAAot 

, IX. SnrjaDsnd Urjan uevuUnU 
of Sdiiel ftnd Uriel. Suriel u not 
mentiotied agun in tbu book, but ia 
known in Ulet JuiUlgm ia Talmud 
Bowdiotli, M. 51. ii, M Din. punb 

ont. It ii probable, bowever, tlut 
io>(«ad of Snijan we ihould read 
Baphaal in aooordanoe witb UieGreek. 
Bee xl. 9 (note). Midual, Gabriel, 
Uriel, and Raphael were generallj 
Tegaided ae (he fotur arahangalt. 2. 
Tbii vene is not found In the Greek. 
Uade without liib»bltant : of. Ixrii. 
3 ; Luii*. S ; "^ ^mL Napth. 3 


The Book of Enoch. [Sect I. 

9a> ivTvyxp^ovra ical Xiyovra, 
an flaayaytii r^f Kpitrw Jifi&v 
vpis rbv {hjtujTop, Kal ■n}p 
AittiXttfa' ^fiSv tv^Ttiop Tijs 
lo^t r^s firYokayriivtfs, imtjiiov 
Tov Kvplov ran KupCatv ■aivrtiv 
Tp fifyaKdxrvvv. Kal ft-nop ry 
Kvplif T&v al^vwv, in/ ft 6 6fds 

T&V $(&P Koi KiplOS T&P KVfiimv 

Kot 6 Boo'iXniE Tuv BairiXtv6v- 

TiOP Kill 6fi)S T&V ol<aV<iAV, KoX 

i Bpopoi Tijs Wf^r (TOW tls 
vAiras r^f ytptils t&p aliiptop, 
Koi rh Svofti <rov iytov Kal 
ti\oy<i}fi4pov «r ttAvtos tous 
al&vas, Kal tA ifis- rtfre 6 
^t<rros iKi\tv<rf rats byCois 

i^ip\ovs air&p Kal t^aXov 
airols tls r^ii &^v<rirop, ?ias 
•njs Kpdrtias, Kal t^ i^s. Kal 
Tavra fikp & 'Ei/ux tMprvptl. 

'E(t TOV koym 'EufSx- 
Tct \ovn& tifpl iypriyopoip. 
{G. Syncellua. S. 43-47.) 

Hen. 8, 4-10, 14. 
Tore ifi^irap ol &.v6pmii(n 
tls rbp ovpavbv Kiyomts, tX(r- 
ay6ytTt r^v Kpiirtp fjiiStp vpbs 
riv fii^urrov, Kal rijp StTi4\fuiv 
iffjMV ivtiviov r^s' b6^s rijs 
fxeyiXifs, tmiirtop roC Kvpiov 
T&V KVpioip vipToip nj pitya- 
KmirCirp. Rot h.Ka6aavrti o\ 
riaaapfS y^&Xoi iLp)(6Lyytkoi 
Mtxa^A Kal Ovpii\\ koI 'Pa^a^A 
Kot Ta^pirik vapinnlrap inl ttjp 
yijp Ik t&p byliav rem oiparov. 
Kal Btaa^fpoi aliia tfoXir 
iKKfxvpfPop iwl r^i T^S Koi 
natrap Avoniav koI Atrifftiav 
yipopAviiv iv <arri)i, fitrt\$6v- 
Tts et-KOv vpds iXXrfXovs, Sri rci 


Sect I.] 

ChapUr IX. 3-6. 


3, And now to youj ye holy 
ones of heaven, complain the 
Bouls of men, saying, "procure 
OS justice with the Most 
High." ' 4. And they spake 
to their Lord the King: ' Lord 
of Lords, God of Gods, King 
of Kings, the throne of Thy 
glory (standeth) onto all the 
genemtions of the ages, and 
Thy name holy and glorions 
onto all the ages : blessed and 
glorious art Thou I 5. Thou 
hast made all things and over 
all things hast Tbou dominion : 
and all things are naked and 
open in Thy eight, and 
Thon eeeat all things and 
nothing can hide itself from 
Thee. 6. See then what 
A2&zti hath done, how he hath 
taught all unrighteouBuesB on 
earth and revealed the secret 
things of the world which 
were wrought in the heavens. 

iwBp^tup iimyxdvowrt <mi>i- 
(ovra Kol kiyovTO, fltraydytrt 
rijv biift^iv Tiftioi; upds fdv (i^i- 
trrov. Kai vpoa(X$6vTti oi 
riaffopts &p)(ayyfXoi ftvov Ti^ 
KvpC<f, trv fl 0(hs T&v G<av Kol 

K^ptOC T&v KVpCtOV Kol ffoTlXtitt 

run ^atTtKevotmov Kal 6tds tuv 
StpOptiTtiiiv, Kol 6 6p6iios rfjs 
Jo'ftjr ffov (Is Ttdirai ras yewaj 
tUp al<iva>i), xal rd Svoftd <rov 
Hyiov Kai (iKayrifUmv tls -niv 
rac rovE aiuvat' oi ydip tX 6 
TTOiiJirar ra itdvra km ndvTmv 
■n\y i^oviriav ^xa>v, Koi vivra 
ivuTitdv <Tw tfKtvtpii Koi Ako- 
AuiTTo, Kai -navra ip^s, Kol ovk 
(imv S Kpv^^val fft bivarat. 
ip^i Stxa ivoCitatv 'A^aqK, koX 
iaa (Itr^vtyKtv, &ra itlAa^tv, 
^ikIols Kai hfiapTlas ivX r^c 
y^i, Kfu tt&vTa i6kov ivX r^s 
f tjpaf, iilba^f yap r^ ftvtrr^pia 
Koi &«fK6}w\(rf rtji alUpi rh iv 
ovpavcp. lirirtjifvovai hi ra 
iviTTiheifiara avrov, tlb^pM ra 

IX. 4. Their lK>rd the King: so all MSS. but OK, which give 
< the Lord of Kings.' Unto all the twos. So GM omitting ^0<IlI£ 
and Qreek tit itairat roit atarat. All other MSS. ' unto all the genera- 
tions of the world.* 6. Bevealed the woiet thlnsa of the worlcl 

T<({u r1)i' yvr iokirru-. 3- Holr onrl^iMoiuiieH on emrlb ; <£. Tii. 

DOM : wtalg (note). Mort HIA : i. Th* MOMt thing*, Jw. Wbtt 

•M idx. 3 (noto). 4. Tha pimjra theM u« ii not told. 7. Ad in- 

<rfUieuig«UiifDl]eTiDUieS7ii.Gk., tarpdatioa from tha lame MwrM a> 

•od > itai mm rbetorioal form of it vL 3-8; tUI. 1-3 ; m« p. 61. Tba 

i« foimd in Izzzlv. 1, 3. 6. All Sjra. Gk. aeemj to be defeotive here. 



The Book of Enoch, 

[Sect. I. 

[7. And Seinj&z& to whom 
Thou hast given authority to 
hear mle over his associates has 
mada known enchantments.] 
B. And they hare gone to the 
daughters of men upon the 
earth,andhaveBlept with them, 
with those women, and deBled 
themselves, and revealed these 
sins unto them. 9, And the 
women have home giants, and 
the whole earth has thereby 
been filled with blood and 
unrighteoosness. 10. And 
now behold, the spirits of the 
souls which have died, are 
crying and complaining to the 
gate of heaven, and their 
lamentations are ascending : 

Kas tx^iv T&v aiv airt^ ilfui 
Svrmv, Kol inopfiSjjffov irpdt 
r^S Ovyaripas r&v iv0p^ito)i> 
rijs yijs, Kai tniMKOi^ifdijinu' 
fur' air&p, xal fv TOis $TiKtl<ui 

THIS iriaas t&s l^iaprlas, ko! 
ihiha^an avras filinjTpa vouw, 
Kot uvv tioii al 6vyar4p(S tui> 
&ii0piiis(i)v irtKov i( avT&v vloiis 
yCyavTas. K{^&TtX.a ^wi rijs yHs 
tUv ivSptiitdtv JKK«xtrrat, ical 
oKrj ii y^ ivK^Oj) dStK^ac. Kai 
fOv I6oi' r^ ■ai'tvfiara ruf ^ru> 
X&p TWP ivo^atxiVTaiv ipOpti- 

r&v miKSp ToS avpajmS hvi^r\ 6 
trrfvayiids airap, rxtl oi i^parai 

which wen wrought in tlie hoavena. 80 all MSB. and the Oiz. Ok. 
bat the Syn. Ok. liirii^v^ rf oiun ri iv avpmi^ gives a better sense, 
tt. Upon tha earth. O M give d'CQi MA. This, as the reading 
of the Oiz. add S^n. Ok. r^t y^r ehowa, is a corruption of MMt Hlb. 
Hence my trauelation. All other Ethiopic MSS. give wrongly 
'tft'(!= together. 10. The spirits of the souls which have dtod. 
Hpre I have followed the Syn. Ok. ra vwtCfutra run ^x*' ^'' <nn>A>- 

8, 9. Cf. JiutiD, Apol. a. 5 01 SI 
SrfyKm — yiiraiKiy /li^mr ifrHifriaui 
■al roiSai irirrturiai, «I tWir ol \rfi- 
lityoi Boi/iDVfr — iro^ tU Av0pidiraut ^6- 
nvi, wt\inovt, fuHXi'm — Kol wSffar 
icuW Imipar. 10. Tha Bpliita 

of tho sonla, Ao. See CriL Note. 
They oumot Moape from, fto. The 
EtMopic ii hare lopeTiorto the Greek. 
The interceulon of the ugeli on 
inKD'i behalf which appean in thii 
ohftpteruul ii found ■Luin it. a; xl. 

6; ilvii. i; xiix, 3, 16; dv. t, k kd 
O.T. doctrine ; c£ Job t. i ; xxiiii. 
13 ; Zech. i. II. It WM eridenUj • 
popular doctrine. Ct. Tobit xii. 11 

wpovmxvf ifiAr iriwMr tow irr^o 
(eoalnat Acta x. 4); alio xii. 15 iyA 
iliu 'fa^a^K th Ik tSt tirri iylmr 
irrfiKmr 0! rpacaru^iprnvi tit wfoatv- 
xii Tir kyUtr : Kev. Tiii. 3 ; Teit. 
Levi 3: (Iso 5 iyi tlfU t tyyiKn i 
xafmrei/itrct ri yim 'Iffpo^^. 


Sect I.] Chapters IX. 7 — X.2. 71 

and they cannot escape from jfcA.tftii' h.Tsh ■apoa-^'nov t»v ivl 

the unrigliteoiiBnefls which is ^j- y^^ y,yt,^i^^^ iSi^j^Twr. 

wrought on the earth. 11, , ^ , , ,. , . , ^ 

. , „ , , „ ., . Kai on avra oioos ttdo tup aw& 
Ana thou knowest all thiDgs 

before they come to pass, and X*"^*^"' ««' ^P»« o^oi-s «<»1 

Thou knowest this thing and iqs airrvis, koI o^iv \4y(ii. 

every thing afEecting them, tC M noiiiffai ovrois wepl tot'- 
and yet Thou didst not speak 
to us. What are we therefore 

todoinregaidtothis?' ^<*" ^ H^ittos tZitt koI 6 

X, I, [Then spake the Moat &yios i }Uyas iX6XtiiT(, koI 

High, the Great and Holy lirffi^Pt Tte CWpt^\ jrpij rdii 

One, and sent Arsjal&ljflr to ,, . r . > / . 

' ' vlov AAftfx Myaiv, vopcvou irpos 
the son of Liunech and said 

to him: a.'TeUhiminMy '*" N«. «ai .Ixi,- a^V ^¥ 

name "tide thyself!", and *A"P iv^iMTi, Kpv^ov trtavrov, 

reveal to him the end tiiat is koI d^Awiroi' a^u rihos http- 

appioKhiig: for the whole ^i^„,, j,, . ^ aWU.r.. 
earth will be destroyed, and a , - , 

,, .„ ,, ira<fa. Koi elirdv avra on Kara- 

deluge will presently come * 

upon the whole earth, and "A''<'**^s f^^^e' yivtv^ai nUrjs 
all that is on it will be de- rijs yijs, &itoiU<rai nAirra inth 

Hun-wv. The Ethiopic text i^iWt: Mi f*F='the soula which have 
died ' must therefore be emended into oof^fl^ AiVAfi XAi f*F. 
We find, moreover, tltia ezpreeaion in the correct text of xxii. 3 
ttO^VAtt Alf^^oo*; AyiD-?'} and a similar expression in the 
correct text of xvi. i flOffW^i XT^WT, and the Syn. Gk. ri 
tntlifuira t& iKKopivSfuva oiro T^r ^"jcis avrmr. In ix. 3 read the 
e^lrlta of the souls instead of the souls. The Qiz. Gk. sapporte 
in xvi. I and xxii. 3 the readings adopted but agrees with the 
Ethiopic text in ix. 3, lo. 

Z. 1-8. Tbete varMg belong to *d text U jirofakbly a oi»TiiptioD, 80a 

ApocalTpM of Noah. 1. The of Iiameoh, i.e. Noah. If x. 1-3 

MoatHish; weicix.3(note). The belonged origiiUkUy lo tliia tection, 

Oceat Hid Holjr: iee i. 3 (note], the writer moit have fblhnred the 

AnJaltUOr. For thii (he Syn. Samaritan reckoning. Hlda thyself t 

Ok. has limplj Uriel, and the Gii. i. e. in order ta reeeive furthra' dii- 

Gk. hai Iltiael. The name in the doearea from the angel: cf. xii. i. 



The Book of Enoch. 

[Sect. I. 

etroyed. 3. And now ia- 
stract him that he may escape 
aad his seed may he preserved 
for all ^eneratioDs.] 4. And 
again the Lord spake to 
Ra£ael: 'Bind Az&zgl hand 
and foot, and place him in the 
darkness: make an opening 
in the desert, which is in Da- 
d&SI, and place him therein. 
5. And place open him rongh 
and ja^ed rocks, Mid cover 
him with darkness, and let 
him ahide there for ever, and 
cover his face that he may 
not see the light, 6. And 
on the great day of judgment 
he shall he cast into the fire. 

riv fiiKcuoi' rf iroc^o-ci, rhv vXhv 
A(l|ue)(, kqI T~qi> ^x^" ovroS fli 

6(' aiuFoE Kai ^f ahrtm ifttrrtv- 
SijirrTai ipirevfia Kai araOi^fffTai 
Tidvas Ttis yfvtas Tov aiuvof. 
Kai rip 'Po^o^A eiwe, nopfuov 
'Pn^oijA, Kai B^o-oii rflj-'AfoijA, 
Xtpo'i Kai ttoaX m/ftirSBtaoii a&- 
rdv, Kai tixfiaXt avriiv th rd 
VKOTos, Kai Jifoifbi' TTji; Ipufuw 
rryti oZirav hi rp Ip'^fitf AouSa^A, 
Kai ^K(( vopivOfii /3(iXe aiT6v 
Kol iTi66fs avT^ Afdovs i^ts 
Kai Kirovs TpaxfiSf Kai ivi- 
KeiAv^v avry ffKoros, Kai oIki}* 
(r<ira> jkci <{; rdv al&va, koI 
r^v Syffiv ainim "nijiavov, xal 
<^E H^ SdOjxirm. Kai Jif r^ 
}|^iip<^ T^s Kplffftui &va)(9^<Tt7ai 
fls riv iftnpurfi^ roS mipis' 

X. 3. Tot aU gvneratlons. So O M reading tW^n"^, ^a>Aj&. 
Din. and other MSS. except N give 'for all the earth': cf. the Qk. 

8. lie S;n. Qk. li tnueh faUer. 4-6. 
The Usk d^uted to Kaful or Ba- 
jdiael. 4. AzBisl ai the obisf 

affuder and leader i* finrt poniihed. 
TIm pnlimiiufj panithmeiit of Aaaiel 
is deuribed in vr. 4, 5 : the final one 
in V. 6. AhubI vae oonoeiTed ■■ 
obiuned in the irilderuMe into whioh 
die eoape-goat mt led. The Jenua- 
lem Targiun (Fa. Jonathan} on Levi- 
tioni laji that ' the goat wai nut to 
die in a hard and roogh plaoe in the 
wililerntai of jagged rooks, i.e. Beth 
Chaduda.' This Beth Chadoda was 
three uUm, or aoouding to aDotber 
•aoootit, twelve tnilea from Jcnu^em. 
This i« daariy lh« Dodael mentioned 
in Mm vme, and it is thus • dtflnite 

looallty in th« nelgbboturfaood of Jeru- 
salem. See Juditcke ZtUtekr^ f. 
IFuHMcin/t mul iiebni I S64, pp. 1 96- 
304. Cf. Lot. xri. 10, 11. e. 

Plaoe ivon Um. The Greek glvM 
ihrMo afrry, but this is probably a 
■lip for twlttt atrrf. Vot ev«r. like 
cb -rhr aUm, of ithieh the Ethioplc 
text is an eiaot rendering, this phraae 
has no definite meaning in itself. 
It ma; denote aooording to the oon- 
tait an unending pailod ; or a period 
cf eevraitj generations, as here ; of, 
T. II ; or a period of five hundred 
yean, aa In t. 10. 8. Great day 
of jodcment: seexlv. I (note). Hkis 
judgmentinaugurala the final punish- 
uent of the angels, Th* tu*: eee 

Digitized byCoOglc 



•}. And heal the e&rtli which 
the angele have defiled, and 
proclaim the healing of the 
earth, that I will heal the 
earth, and that all the children 
of men shall not perish throng^h 
all tiie secret things that the 
watchers have disclosed and 
have tanght their sons. 8. 
And the whole earth has beat 
defiled through the teaching of 
the works of Azftzgl : to him 
ascribe all the sin.' 9. And 
to Gabriel said God ; ' Pro- 
ceed against the baatards and 
the reprobates, and against 
the children of fornication : 
and destroy the children of 
fornication, and the children 

^- 3-9- 73 

Kol larroi r^v y^ir ip) ij^dftirai' 
a\ iyfy^yopoi, uol tt)v tatriv rijs 
vKifyrjs S^Xaxroii, Zva Idatovrai 
r^v vXi)y^v, Kat fiT) iv6\»PTcu 
vAfTts «[ viol Tuv iiv6piitmp, 
iv r^ fiViTTTjplif t (litoi; ol kypri- 
yopoi Koi. ihHa^v rov; vloiis 
airuv, koI ^pTjutiOrj ttaira $ y^ 
iv rots tpyoK t^s MatrKoXlas 
'Afa^\* Ktti Iv ovTp ypi^op 
iiiffas riis hiu^trCas. koI rip 
TappiiiK tt-Ttt, itopviov VafipiifK 
M Tcin yiyairras tvl rois k(J9- 
l^Kovs, Ivl roiic vlovs r^c vop- 
vfias, Kol &if6KfiTov Toiis vltAs 
T&v iyprjy6p^i> &vb t&v vl&v 

trdvat rdc ytvtit rev alntut. 7. Froolatm the hsallng of the earth, 
that I wUl heal the earth. The Syn. Gk. givea rqp Wv t^c irXi^y^t 
d^^Mvor, Ua Imrmrrai rift sXi7yi)v. lliug, as the word rendered ' earth ' 
in the Ethiopic appears as rXt^^ in the Gk., it is most probable that 
the Hetffew word was bsn which means ' earth ' when punctuated 
i^, a 'pollution' when punctuated ^3rt. doalOMd. All MSS. 
read ^A* 'have slain'; the translator found htin^ar as in the 
Qiz. Gk. which is a corniption of ArfVaoav. The Sjn. Gk. gives 
<&r». 8. To him. So the Giz. Gk. The Syn. Gk. gives • to it.' 
9, Baatards. So also the Ois. Gk. which gives a corrupt trans- 

zTtiL 11; ziz; ziL 7~io. 7. Th* bythe Book of JubileM v. TbegtmnU 

comnuDd given to Baphkel ia lueh ilnj oach othv In the pretenM of 

as hu nuns toggmta from Kfit 'to their pkrents: cf. iit. 6. The Utter 

beftL' CX Tob. iiL 1 7 ; xii. 14. 8. ure then bound in the kb;nei of the 

ObMTT* bow kll dn ii uoribed to th« earth, and their power of hintJog the 

fallen u^t. 8, 10. The deetrno- earth is at an end : ot ztr. 5, fint 

ti<m of the panti throng Gabriel, tbii U not id with the spiriti of the 

^M account here ii followed cloadj giaDtn. They enjoy an Impunity in 

itradb, Google 


The Book 

of the watdiers £rom amongBt 
men : lead them oat and 
send them one against the 
other that they may destroy 
each other in battle : for 
length of days they shall 
not have. lo. And do re- 
quest that they (i. e. their 
fathers) make of thee will 
be granted nnto their fathers 
OB their behalf although they 
hope to live an eternal life, 
and that each one of them 
will live five hundred years, 
[ii. And the Lord eaid nnto 
Michael : ' Go, announce to 
Semj&z& and his associates who 
have united themselves with 
women so as to have defiled 
themselves with them in all 
their uDcleanness.] i2,'When 
all their sons have stain one an- 

of Enoch. [Sect. I. 

ruf it/Opdvatv. ir4)i^lrov ainiis 
fU iXX^Xovs, i^ air&v tls av- 
roifS, iv vokifUf Kal Iv latw\t(q, 
Koi iiaKpirrfs ^ftcpuv ovk lorai 
airols, koI va<ra ipiiTJ}ins ovk 
Itti Tois ■noTpJuTiv a^uv, 3ri 

Inf irtPTaKoina. Kai ry Mt- 
XaifK «Iir<, -KopeSov iAi\a^K, 
iijiTov ^fniaCav xal toUis flXAovf 
iriip tarrtf, tiAs mjfifttY^inas TOis 
6vyaTpii7i tup ivfl/wiiraiv roS 
jxiajrd^vai tv avrais iv t^ &xa6- 
apaitf avT&v. Kal Stov kotb- 
v^ay&tyai oX v\o\ airuv, km 

literationofthe Hebrew word, i,«.iAaCiptovt. lO. No request tbat 
ther make of thee will be granted unto their ftithen. So GM 
reading INC, instaadofIli-A!Vi>'u Din. SotheSyn,Gk.:)ra<ra/poMT)iTit 
oiK i<rrt Tois varpimv lArity, but M by a slip XflfO: hS-\VO''i instead 
of a>K^iuD-X or iOKf-tA with 0. Although they hope to Uve 
an eternal life. 80 G K M : Xnov; f'tUJO.i f-Mttli ib^Ofln 
HflMy". SotbeGk.: A^ .'ibw. {?<"« f"'*'"J»>'"»'. Other MSS. and 
Din. omit the MfXfD. ' Tbongh they hope for an eternal life.' 
II. And the Ijord said unto Mlohaal: 'Oo, announce.' So 
O F H L : fiMr. hVtOii tb-Ci AAC-O. Other MSS. and Din. omit 
rfhC, but wrongly ; cf. the Greek voptvm. Instead of announce the 

wrongddng till tbs final jadgment : angds, oC xii. 6 ; xiii. 4-6 ; liv. }. 

Me XT. I i-iri. An etMiMl life, U. Thia vetM ia an intarpoUUon : 

i. 8. flva buDilred jrean: na t, 5 Mep.611 tv. 9-16 deacribe tbe task 

(note). Totichiiig tba prayer of (he aaaigned to 0»bri«l. U. SUin 


Sect I.] 


other, and they have seen the 
destmctioii of their beloved 
ooes, bind them East under 
the liillB of the earth for 
seventy generations till the 
day of their judgment and of 
their confimnmation, till the 
judgment which ie for ever 
and ever is coneummated. 
13. In those days they will 
he led off to the abyss of 
fire : in torment and in prison 
will they be confined for ever 
and ever, 14. And whoso- 
ever shall be condemned and 
from thenceforward be de- 
stroyed with them, will be 
bound together with tbam to 
the end of all generations. 

X. 10-14. 75 

fB(o<ri T^y h.-ni\(ia.v r&v iyowif- 
T&i) aWSv, ifjaov avTOvs iitl 
i^bon^Koirra ytvtis els toj 

KpCtTfois avT&v, fUxpi ^fi^pas 
Tfkeuifffat TeXeo-jioC, lots ffvp~ 
Tt\f<T9^ Kplfta Tov alavos t&v 

(If TO xilos roC iTvpii koI tli 

riipiov T^f iTvyitX((<rfaiS TOV 
alavos- Ka\ bs &v KaroKpiB^ 
Kal &<Pam<r$^ ind roG vSv fur' 
aJrrSn, tt6-^tT€TM l^xpt TtXeiei- 
atati yfpfas avrwi'. 

Syn. Ok. gives Sfjiror, bat this is an error for dqXutroi'. See the Giz. Qk. 
14. And whosoever atull be oondenmed and firomthenoefbrward 
be destroyed with them, will be bound together (with them) to 
the end of all genara.tianfl. I have followed the Syn, Qk. The 
Ethiopic rona : ' And forthwith he will bum and thenceforward 
suffer destruction with them : they will be bound together to the 
end of all generations.' The singular in ' he will bum ' is mean- 
ingless, as we have here only to do with the entire body of watchers. 
The Syn. Ok. gives at once excellent sense and explains the oiigin of 
the Ethiopic corruption : &t hi naraxpiSg xal o^avto-d^ otrA tou ruv /irr' 
avTmi', A(0q<r<rai ptXP^ rtXtuxrtas ytvtat alrrar, KaTaiipi6g ^ ' be Con- 
demned,' in connexion with the fiery abyss in the preceding line. 

ni. 6 ; xiv. 6 ; BocJc Apoc of weeks. Sea Spec Introd, of 

of Jubileea v. The Innding of the xoi-oiv. 'WiUi vr. 5, 11 et, JDde 

ugeli under the luUa WBttot to be an 6. IS. AbjM of fire, t. e. the 

iileft derived from the Greek mytha ume m thM mentioned in t. 6 ; 

of (lie TituiH. BeTeotygenerntlona. zviit. 11; liz; zii. 7~io; ic. 14. 

Thii period has no connexion with the 14. See Crit. Kote : cF. xiz. i. 


76 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. I. 

15. And destroy all the lustful bouIs, and the children of the 
watchers, because they have oppressed mankind. 16. De- 

stroy all oppression from the face of the earth and let every 
evil work come to an end : and the plant of righteousness 
and uprightness will appear, labour will prove a blessing: 
righteousness and uprightness will be established in joy for 
evermore. 17. And then will all the righteons escape 

and will live till they beget a thousand childreiij and 
^t the days of their youth and their old age (lit. sabbath) 
will they complete in peace. 18. And in those days 

will the whole earth be tilled in righteousness and will 
all be plimted with trees and be full of blessing. 19. And 
all desirable trees will be planted on it, and vines will be 
planted on it : the vine which is planted thereon will yield 
wine in abundance, and of all the seed which is sown 
thereon will each measure bear ten thousand, and each 
measure of olives will yield ten presses of oil. 20. And 

cleanse thou the earth from all oppression, and from all 
uurigbteousDees, and from all sin, and from aU godlessness, 
and from all uncleanness which 19 wrought upon the earth : 

could easily be taken by the translator for Karoiav^^be burned, 
and BO give rise to the present Etbiopic text. Rightly tisnelated 
then, the verse refers to the women who are to be destroyed with the 
fallen watchers. Cf. xix. 3. tuawun^ ie the reading of the Qiz. Ok. 

16. Deatror, fto. The writer ii itill hM hire gone over wholl; to ft deKtlp- 

deacribing tbe duties of Oabriel, i.e. tion of the Meoiuiio Umea. He 

the dtatnoUon of the giiuiti and tbe piotnra U a very kimuoub one. Th«lT 

impriaoimient of tlie CaUen watchen. old at^ '■ ct zit. 3, 4 (note). 18, 

16. Flaat of rishteooBiuaa, i.e. 19. The fatura !« depicted after O. T. 

ImeL Ivael qiringi from a aeed propheaj. C£ Anun li- 13, 14; Hoa. 

that 'iiaown' by Qod, liii. 3; heaoe ii. 31, 33; Jer. ixxL 5; la. zzt. 6 ; 

it ii establiibed as ' a plant of the Enk. xzriii. 16 ; xiziT. 16, 17. Will 

■ead for ever,' liixiT. 6, I* called ' tbo eaoh meaaniw bear, *a. : dL Ii. r. 

plant of npri^lnet^' xdii. 1, 'the 10, and the chilitatlc eipeotalion 

plant of righteouinnt,' xciii. 5, ' the Papini in lien. adv. Sam. t. 33. 

eternal plant of righteooancM,' idii. 80. Thii twm oould be interpreted 

10, and finally ' the plant of rig1it«aiu of the deluge, but it aeema batter to 

jadgnoat,' xdii. J. 17.nwwiit«r nhr it, aa the vemabefbraatid after. 

iiized by Google 

Seet. I.] Chapters X. i<, — XII. 4. 77 

destroy them from off the earth, 31. And all the children 

of men shall become righteous, and all nations shall offer 
Me adoration and praise, and all will worship Me. 32. 
And the earth will be cleansed from all corruption, and from 
all sin, and from all punishment and torment, and I will 
never again send (them) upon it, from genwation to genra-a- 
tion, for ever. 

XI. I. And in those days I will open the store chambers of 
blessing which are in the heaven, so as to send them down 
upon the e^ih over the w<»k uid labour of the children of 
men. 2. Peace and jnetice will be wedded throoghoat 
all the days of the world and throughout all the generations 
of the world. 

XII. T . And before all thrae things fell out Enoch was hidden, 
and no one of the children of men knew where he was hidden, 
and where he abode, and what had become of him. 2. And 
all his activities had to do with the holy ones and with the 
watchers in his days, 5. And I Enoch was blessing the 
great Lord and the king of the world, when lo I the watchers 
called me — Enoch the scribe— and spake to me. 4. ' Enoch 
thou scribe of righteonsness, go, announce to the watchers of 
the heaven who have abandoned the high heaven and the 
holy eternal place, and have defiled themselves with women. 

toUteHeaalajiIobiDgdam. 21. He ileep uidii traniported In ipitit unto 

oonwnoi of the CrSntilei : of. zc. 30 heaven, zit. a : ipeakl with • tongae 

(note). as. In dorrapt HS8. there of Beah, xiv. a : and ii terrified, like k 

ia k referenoe to the delnga here. mortal man, ftt the prewnoe of God, 

ZI. 1. Thii dupter oondndee ui zir. 34. 'Wme hidden, ii the Bthiopic 

McaantofdieUe«I*niektngdoni. Cf. InndatioQ of tip? and ^in-ihiHv : of. 

Dent. zzviiL 11. a. Cf. Izzxt. I o ; Izzi. 1, 5, S. E0I7 onee : see L 9 

le. xxziL 1 7. (note). Wktohen : eee i. 5 (note). 

Xn-ZTI. On these cbkptars, (ee 8. Kingoftlieworld: M«i.3(Dote). 

Speo. Inbod. p. 55. L Wmi hidden, The laribe: cf. zdL i. Enoch U 

L e. in order to reouTO the fbUoving farther oalled 'the scribe ofrigfateoiu- 

re*el»tion : of. i. 1, Guooh ii alill new,' xii. 4 ; iv. i, becaiue be i* htm- 

living: hia final tranilatlon ficm lelf a righteoni man, zt. 1 ; Izzi. 14- 

•aith bag not yet fallen oat; for m 16, and declaree tbe righteoni jndg- 

a man he write» the petjtioo for the ment that ii ooming, siiL 10; zIt. i, 

angele, ziii. 6; receive* a TtHon in ;; lizxi. 6; Ixixii. i, Ao. 4. Cf. 


78 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. i. 

and have done as the children of men do, and have taken 
unto themselTes wives, and have grossly defiled themselves 
on the earth. 5. They -will have no peace on the earth 
nor forgivenesB of sin : and inasmuch as they delight them- 
selves in their children, 6. the murder of their beloved 
ones th^ shall see, uid over the destruction of their children 
will they lam^t, and will make supplication unto eternity, 
but mercy and peace will they not attain/ 

XIII. I. And Enoch went and said: 'Az&zSl: thou shalt 
find no peace : a severe sentence has gone forth against thee 
— (Rufael) shall put thee in bonds : 3. And alleviation, 
intercession, and mercy will not be accorded to thee, because 
of the oppreeeion which thou hast taught, and because of all 
the works of blasphemy, oppression, and sin which thou hast 
shown to the children of men.' 3. Then proceeding &rt^er, 
I spoke to them all t<^ether and they were all afraid and 
were seized with fear and trembling. 4. And they besought 
me to draw up a petition for them that they might find 
forgiveness, and to take their petition into the presence of 
God in heaven. 5. For from thenceforward they could not 
speak (witii Him) nor lift up their eyes to heaven for shame 
of their sins for which they were punished. 6. Then I 
composed their petition and the prayer on behalf of their spirit, 
and for their individual deeds for which they besought for- 
giveness and forbearance. 7. And I went off and sat down 
at the waters of Dan, in Dan, to the right (i. e. the south) 

XII. 5. Inaamuoh m tbey. &«. So : (oXflOOi f-^tj^itf, 
ahttPao': •H'A: ^^^ITavi f-CtX", but with the iiiBertioii of A 
before at-ttt^tf with nine other USS. Cf. the Qiz. Qk. irtpi L, 

jfalpoBai ruv vU>v abraw, 

Jnie6. 6. HopaMB: cf. *. 4. Ing with Enooli'i literu; «liH«ot« 

e. Cf. X. 10, t], that lis dniwi np thur petition in 

Xm. 1. Aiuel addisMed In oon- writing, uid doea not praent it hy 

fbnnl^ with z. 4. ITo p«aa« : cf. word of tnoatb. 7. 'Watan of 

r. 4. 4, 6. &B the angdi oonld Dan. Thii river, railed alw> the 

not addroMOod nor lift op their ejea little Jordan, Joeeph. A%t, I. xil. i, 

to heaTBD, Enooh !■ beiooght to be- it a tribatai; of the Jordan. HiIb 

, It ii in keep- plaoe, fnm T^ to jndge, U ohoiM 

itradb, Google 

Sect. I.] Chapters XII. 5 — XIV. 4. 79 

of the west of Hermon, and I read their petition till I fell 
asleep. 8. And behold a dream visited me and visions fell 
down upon me, vnA. I saw the vision of a chastisement to the 
intent that I should recount it to the sons of the heaven 
and reprimand them. 9. And when I awaked, I came to 
tiiem, wtd they were all sitting together weeping with their 
&ces covered at UblesjEl^, which is between Lebanon and 
S4nes^. 10. And I recounted to them all the visions which 
I had seen in my sleep, and I b^^ to recount those words 
of rightcooaness, and to reprimand the heavenly watchers. 

XIY. I. This book is the word of righteousness and 
the reprimand of the eternal watchers in accordance with 
the commandment of the Holy and Great One in that 
vision. 2. I saw in my sleep what I will now recount 
with a tongue of flesh and with my breath which the 
Great One has put into the mouth of men, that they 
might converse with it, and understand in their heart 
3. As He has created man and given to him the power of 
understanding the word of wisdom, bo hath He created me 
also and given me the poww of reprimanding the watchers, 
the sons of heaven. 4. ' 1 wrote out your petition, and in 

XIIL 9. Thar wera aU dning. So all USS. but O. Q reads 
^tOft* 'were talking.' 

XIV. 4. inserts after v. 4 mk9'f'>Stii M^tX*', il»Ati I^ft' 
ovfAAi 9A0»i iDimi ^fty^ AOAAa>»^ isA.^haMliaD' 'And 
from henceforth their friendBliip is at &□ end unto all the days of 
eternity : and jadgraent has been finally passed upon yon and no 

beCkOM ill iuin« ii ligiiificant of the la oftaa lued in Enoob. Seax. j (note). 

tnbjeot the writw !• dMHng witli, HoIraadOrsat One: M«L3(nM«j. 

i.e. Ae judgment of tte si^el*. 8. 9, a. Ab luiely •■ Qod hu cm*ted 

Bom of tbe heaTOn : lea tL i man «id given bim t, (ongne for 

(note). 9. UbleeJUl and Senaiir ipaeeh and a Jaoalty for ondemtaud- 

aremtknownplaoe*. 10. He«T«nl7 iog, bo juit aa oertainly baa He ap- 

watobNa: aee i. 5 (note). Tbe viiioD pointed Bnooh to r^irimand tbe 

ii deacribed in ziv-XTL eternal vatohen. Tangne of fleah : 

"XXV. 1. VtenMl watohara, lit. of. Izzzir. i. Tbe Oraat One : ef. 

watoben who aie from eternity, L e. oiii. 4 ; cit. i . Bona of hMiTOn : 

in tbe looae aenae in whioh that word m* tL 1 (note). 4~7. The repri- 


8o The Book of Enoch. [Soot. i. 

my vision it appeared thus, that yoor petition will not be 
granted throughoat all the dayg.of eternity, and that judg- 
ment has been finally passed npon yon, and no iadulgeoce will 
be granted to yon, 5, And from henceforth yon will 

never again ascend into heaven to all eternity, and on the 
earth the decree hath gone forth, they shall bind yoa for all 
the days of eternity. 6. But pTOvioosly yon will see the 
destraotion of your beloved sons and yoa will not have them 
in your keeping, bat they will fall b^ore yoa by the swoid. 
7. Yoor petition on their behalf will not be granted, nor that 
on yoor own : likewise despite your tears and prayers yon will 
receive nothing whatever contained in the writing which 
I have written.' 8. And the vision appeared to me thus : 

behold in tlie vision clouds invited me and a mist invited me : 
the course of tiie stare and t^ lightnings drove and im- 
pelled me, and the winds in the vision gave me wings and 
drove me. 9. And they lifted me up into heaven and I 

came till I drew nigh to a wall which is built of crystalB 
and surrounded by a fiery fiame : and it began to affright me. 
10. Asd I went into the fiery flame and drew nigh to a 

indolgence will be granted unto you.' 7, Ton will ro- 

oelva notblng whatever. The Ethiopic, which is a literal 
rendering of the Oiz. Qk. fui XaXovn-ii nor pi)/ia, gives so in- 
telligible Bense. Hence I have supposed XoXoCirfi to be a cor- 
ruption of Xdx^ff. and bo translated. Bat the corrupticm may 
have originated in the Hebrew through the oon&sion of K^ and 
■■np. 8. Instead erf .fftdfc, GM read f JHI*t='incited.' 

mand which Enoch adminiiterad to eat et coniarvatnr oique dkdo Mtie 

the wtttohari. B. Cf. xiii. 5 ; also jndioii Dw, qnoniam luigeli quidam 

the^polo^of Atheiugonu : oCroi «/ tmiiigTSHi deoidemnt in temun in 

irfi*\anA iKw*a&rT»inv ^fvmr... jndidum. S. Olonda Invited 

<Aittt\ lit Tik ^m^nfiaia. far(piciS<^i me. Thii 11 a pecallar exprelrian 

iiai^rtu. 6. Ct x. 9. ?■ See and m»y he due to »n error. We 

I'rit. Note. Irenaeni IV. zvL 3. should expect eome Rich idea M ii 

(Stitren'fl «d.) refen to (hii pHWge : Aiund in Pa. iriii. 10, 11; dr. 3. 

Bnoeh. ..anm enet homo, legatdone fl-lS. Enoch U caniad ap Into heaven 

ad angeloa Amgebatur et translatiii and pasiea within the enter wall that 


Sect. I.] Chapter XIV. 5-21. Si 

Wge toDse wliicli waa built of crygtals ; and the walls of that 
houee were like a moeaiu ctyetal floor, and its groundwork 
was of crygtaL 11. Its ceiling was like the path of the 
stars and lightnings, with fiery chembiin between in a 
transparent heaven (lit. 'and their heavea was wat«r'). 1 2. 
A flaming fire surrounded the walls of the house, and its 
portal blazed with fire. 13, And I entered into that 

bouse, and it was hot as fire and cold as ice : there were no 
delights of life therein : fear covered me and trembling gat 
hold upon me. 14. And as I quaked and trembled, I fell 

upon mj face and beheld in a vision. 15. And lo ! there 
was a second house, greater than the former, all the portals 
of which stood open before me, and it was built of flames of 
fire. 16. And in every respect it so excelled in splendour 
and magnificence and extent that I cannot describe to you 
its splendour and its extent. 17. And its floor was fire, 

and above it were lightnings and the path of the stars, 
and its ceiling also was flaming fire. 18. And I looked 
and saw therein a lofty throne; its appearance was as 
hoarfrost, its circuit was as a shining sun and the voices 
of cherubim. 19. And from undemeaUi the great throne 
came streams of flaming fire so that it was impossible to look 
thereon. 30. And the Great Glory sat thereon and His 

raiment shone more brightly than the sun and was whiter 
than any snow. 21. None of the angels could ent«r 

i3.Thereww«noaeUghtaof Ufothareln. SoOM li^O; Ai^Of^: 
also the Qiz. Ok. Din. and FHLO read <^: D^i^Olt 'there 
were no delights and no life thereia.' 20. TIlb Great Olory. 

So G and the Qiz. Ok. Din. gives ' He that is great in glory.' 

■mrounds the rpiraat or foreooLirt of apon Ii. vi ; Exak. i, i ; Dan. vii. 9, 

the jwlace of God. 14. CI li. 3 ; 10. Thia puug« (tt. 18-11) ii uud 

Ixzl. 11; Eiek. i. iS; Dul viii. 17, bj the aatbor of liii. 5-^. A loftr 

l3, Ac is. Enoch approachea throne : of. Ezsk. i. 1 ; Dnn. tU. 9. 

the palaoa of God bat doe* not enter, Aa hoarfrost, i.e. dazzliiig and 

•■ DU mortal Diay behold God. Aa bright a* boiT^iwt : cf. Dan. vii. 9 

tlie dooia are open, he can dewiiibe ■ whits nimaw.' 18. Cf. Dan. vii. 

what is within. 18. In thl« and 10. 30. The Great Qlory : ef. 

the follonlDK veraei, tlie writer draw* oil 3, Whiter than, &c. : cf. Dait 


82 The Book of Enoch. [Sect, I. 

ftud could behold the f&ce of the Honoured and Olorioos One 
and no fleeh could behold Him. 22. A flaming fire was 
round about Him, and a great fire stood before Him, and 
none of those who were around Him oould draw nigh Him : 
ten thousand times Usa. thonsand were before Him, but He 
stood in no need of counsel. 33. And the holiness of the 
holy ones, who were ni^h to Him, did not leave by night nor 
depart from Him. 24. And until then I had had a veil on 
my face, and I was trembling : then the Lord called me with 
His own mouth and spake to me: 'Come hitiier, Enoch, and 
hear My holy word/ 35. And He made me rise op and 
approach the door : bnt I turned my face downwards. 

XV. I. And He answered and spake to me with His 
voice: *I have heard, fear not, Enoch, thou righteous man 
and scribe of righteousness : approach and hear my voiee. 
3. And go, say to the watchers of heaven, who have sent thee 
to intercede for them : you should intercede for men, and not 
men for you : 3. Wherefore have ye left the high, holy, 
eternal heaven, and lain with women, and defiled yourselves 
with the daughters of men and taken unto youreelvee wives, 
and done like to the childrai of earth, and begotten giants 

33. A flaming fire. So A O E M and the 0!e. Ok.: Din. and 
F H L O ' Fire of flaming fire.' 33. And the hollnan of th« 

holy onsc, irbo were nigh to Him, did not leave by night nor 
depart flrom Him. So G lASSt^. ^<ill: XA; ^Clh "iOlh 
A.M14>; AAti ortX)^, Xy^U-. Also the Oiz. Ok. 94. Bear. 
80 the Oiz. Ok., but wanting in the Etbiopic MSS. 

XV. I. 1 have heard. SoGMfl^Wl-. Other MSS. ft^TO ^ 

Tii. 9. SI. Tlie Honoured and omm and-'wtad' or'Tolce.' Inzd. 

Glorloiu One : of. oiii. i. 39. i we ^oolil probnbly tiuolat* * the 

Oonlddrawnisli: 15: Ttnoe ealU me.' ntber (ban 'the 

iTlm.Ti.itf. Ten thouaand time*, word' ha. SO. Eiuxih ii bidden 

Ao. Dan. vii. 10. 33. Contraat to drav near tiie docs' bat not to 

Ixd. 8. 34. M7 holr word ; tee enter. 

CrlVNote. In iv. 1 , 1 have rendered XV. 1. Boribe of ligbtaonaneaa : 

■ bear m; voice ' ai in the Oiz. Ok. see zii. 3 (note). %. Zntaroeda : 

ThaSthit^wordiitlieiuieialMth lee iz. 10 (note). 8. ClxU. 4; 

Digitized by GOOC^IC 

Sect 1.] Chapters XIV. 22 — XV. 9. 83 

(as your) eons. 4. Whilst you were Btill spiritoal, holy, 
in the enjoyment of etemal life, you have defiled youraelves 
with women, have b^otten (children) with the blood of flesh, 
and have lusted after the blood of men, and prodoced 
flesh and blood, as those produce them who are mortal 
and shortlived. 5. Therefore have I given them wives 

also that they might impr^nate them, and children be 
borne by them, that thus nothing might be wanting t« 
them on earth. 6. But you were formerly spiritual, 

in the enjoyment of eternal immortal life, for all genera- 
tions of the world, 7. Therefore I have not appointed 
wives for you ; for the spiritual have their dwelling in heaven. 
8. And now, the giants, who jjg^ j_ g_jg , 
ate produced from the spirits Rai jmA' frtpa- koI vvv oi 
and flesh, will be called evil ylyturrti cA yfvvij$ivT(i &-na 
spirits upon the earth, and on '"^'W™". ««' '^"P""* ^^-^^Ta 
the earth will be their dwell- „^o^j_ g^^ « Karolia,<riS o^»v 
ing. 9. Evil ^irits proceed l(rrai ivl Ttjs yifs, mfei/^wcro 

■hear.' 5. Tliat thus, Ac So O : }un>: h'Tlh A.^1^: 7'OCi 
DAiUSJm. Bui the last word 'throu^ them' (fern.) I have 
rendered to them (maso.) as in the Gliz. Ok. wa n)/ iiikthtt aunui. 
Din. and FHKNO read honj W^0-. M^ftCi 7-QC = wie solche 
Dinge zu geschehen pfl^;en (Din.). 8. From tbe qpirits. 

So G ii0»W^. So the Ok.: «r^ mrv^drmr. Other MSS. 

and Din. X^l^^ = ' from the body,' but Ihia is clearly 

Jodafi. 4-7. Far mkn m niortBl that theerilkctiTitiMof theaedamoM 

uid dwdling upon the euth iredlock are not restnined or farbjddei) H 

I« Appointed tlukt •■> tbe nwe may thoM of tbur pnient^ for the latter 

oontinue to eiUt : bat for the angeU were throim into cbalm Immediately 

who are immortal anil dwell in the on the death of the giaota, tbdr 

heaTen inch oommingling ia oontni? obildien. S, 0. Tram the iplrlta 

to their natora and invoWsi pollution MUl llwh : cee Crit. Note. On theae 

and gnilt. B, 8. The anion of Tenei of. JoHtin. vlpoJ.uii, qaoted in 

angelj and the daughters of men will the note on ii.8,91 Tertnll. Jpol.izii: 

give birth to ■ new order of bcdngi, Qtiomodo de angelis qoibnedam sua 

. giauta, and from theie giant* aponte oorruptlB con u p ti og gem dae- 

when they die will pcooeedevil ipirita, mobmneTaierit-.^ndlitlaraau 
I «, denona, and t^ieae will have the ordo oognaadtm. In I«et. JiutU- IL 
earth lor their habitation. Obwrre ij, (he demoni are regarded pnrd^u 
G 2 

Digitized byCoOglt, 


The Book 

from their bodies; because 
they are created from above, 
(and) from the holy vatchers 
is their begioniiig and primal 
origin; they will be evil spirits 
on earth, and evil spirits will 
they be named, lo. And 
the spirits of heaven have 
their dwelling in heaven, but 
the spirits of the earth which 
were bom npon the earth have 
on the earth their dwelling. 
II. And the spirits of the 
giants will devour, oppress, 
destroy, attaek, do battle, and 
cause destruction on the earth, 
and work affliction : they will 
take no kind of food, nor will 
they thirst, and they will be 

of Enoch. [Sect. r. 

i^(Kijkv8iha &iri tov adjiaTos 
TTfS <TapKdt airr&ti, bioTi &v6 

TUf hyliitv T&V iyptfyop^v q 
ip^ Ttjs KTtffeais air&v koI 
ipX^I tfe^Xfbv. Tcvevnara tco- 
ifijpi iwi T^s y^s iiTovTm, tA 
vvcvfiara (al.: irp&ra) r&v yi- 
ykvrtav vfp.6p.iva, dSiKwira, 
&if>aviCovTa, ipitC-nTovra tcai 
iTvtx-nahaloin-a koI ^ntTovvra inX 
T^S yr\s Kol hp6pavi iroioCvra, 
Ktti pii&v iadlovra, iAA' A<ri- 
Tovvra Koi ipifrpara woiovi^o 
Koi St^wvra koX tspoffK6irrovTa~ 

wrong. II. Will derour, oppran, dsstror, attack. So 

the Syn. Gk. : vifUium, aJtucoumi, aipatlCovra, iptrlvTorra. Dln.'s Ethi- 
opic text runs An»¥t: XAi t-l^O-. fif^t04 <D£a>j&*, and ia 

thus translated by him: Wekhe auf die Wolken aich stttrzen, 
werden verderben nnd herabstiirzen, but this is not poaaible gram- 
matically. Before we compare tbe two versions we moat chnnge 
fi^lli- into £"91^ in accordance with Q and the Ok. a<t>avlCovTa. 
We find there, that f-l^O" is the exact equivalent of iSirinivTa, 
ff At- the equivalent of o^un'^uin-u, and fiotjit a bad rendering of 
iiiirivTorTa. We now come to the main difficulty, ^IiD^i XA as an 
equivalent of rfiiAptm, Dr. N^eubauer has suggested to me that 
the Hebrew may have been 13U i-e- *l!?='they oppressed,' of 
which pffiufUM might stand as a free rendering, and that this UP 
may have been confuted with |3ff 'a cloud' by the Qreek translator, 
whom the Ethiopic followed. The Qiz. Gk, supports the corrupt 
Ethiopic text, and reads vt<pAar. Nor will thejr thlrat. The Ok. 


8«t.l.] Ckapters—XVJ.i. 85 

invisible. 12. And these Kaii$avaaT^<rovTiuTa.-sv€6fiaTa 

spirits will rise up against the iisX row vKovs rHv &»Op<iTiaip 

children of men and against mt r&v yvvatKun, 5ti i$ airSiv 

the women, hecau^e they have ^feAijAiJtfaa-f teal A-nb fjixipas 

proceeded from them. xaipov fftpayfj^ km iv^tias 

XVI. I. Inthedajsof mnrder icot ^aviirov t&u ytyivriav No- 

uid of destruction and of the ^qAc^/i, oi Itrxtipot r^r ^t, oi 

death of the giants when the fifyttAot ^vOfuurroC, rh mrriftara 

spiritshaTegoneforthfromthe ri ^KwopfiioVtva awi t^s^^X^* 

Boulsof theirfleeh,inordertode- air&v, its iK r^r aapKis i<rovTai, 

Btroy without incurring judg- iufuarCiovTa \a3pU Kpltrtan, oi- 

taeat — thus will they destroy r««s &(l>avia-oviri fUxp^s ^fUpai 

until the day when the great tjjs r€\€t^<Tei>s, ius t^s KpCa-ton 

consummation of the great tjjs ^iryA}ir)s, Iv ^ 6 alav 6 it4yas 

world be consummated over nktvB^vtTai, i<l>' &iraf ifiov 

the watchers and &o godless. Ttktir0^<rfTai. 

18 wroag iu omitting the negative Jk^urra. H is likewise wrong, 
1 3. Will rise up agaiust. So M. All other HS8. add a nega- 
tive : the Ok. Gonfirms M. 

XVI. I. Correct Xy"lW|- in Dln.'a text into X^fSW witli 
E and N and the Ok. ini t^c imjfit, and Iftt into tV<<7^ with A £ 
y a H K L M N O and the Gk. rAuatrtwr. The text is atiU very 
corrupt ; but it ie not difficult to restore the original with tlie help 
of the Book of Jubilees and the Syn. Gk. which runs : ra itwu/uith 

ri tKtroptti6iitra mii t^c 'f'vx^c ovTur, o>r ix rqi trapxic (itoitoi, at^afifovrn 
X"?'" Kpltrttn, o&rut atfiaiiltroviri ftixp^i ^ftipas ti/r TtXiiaxriaiv. In the 

Book of Jubilees, cb. x, it is said that the purpose of the demons 
is AA'TK?: a)AAftA-h ^Ao"; IHi='to destroy and lead asti-ay 
until the judgment.' This gives the sense of the Gk. and what 
should be the seuEe of the Ethiopic. The text then should 
read: Alt; fd: fD$^i omiltj X^^Mts J"P Vaa«, tlfilhh 
Hfoyflh HXiaAi hJii h"™- t^tli-i Xfth; Ortt: f ¥Jl"Xt: OOfi. 
This is the text which 'we have translated above. For this use 
of A in (ifiM- as an inseparable conjunction of purpose, see Dln.'s 

XVX 1. Set Crit Note. The appeui in tb« Book of Jnbileei x, 
Jemona will not be ponidied till the nd In tbe N.T. Cf. Matt. vili. 19, 
final jadgment. This deatriae likewise 'Art Thoa oome Uther W toiment 


86 The Book of Enoch. [S«rt. i. 

The following Fragment is not foniul in the Ethioptc 
Version. It probably belongs to tbe lost Apocalypse of Noab 
which is interwoven with the book of Enoch. 

Kat oStftr' Ttafiii 8! row Spovs Ip ^ £fxo(rav koI iifSffiArurav 
Tfpds t6v uKrfalov airr&», Jrt tU thv oluva oi }ir) iitoirTrj &ir' 
airov ^)(_os koI x**^" '^"■^ nAxpti koI bpoaoi oi fit) Karaj9^ fis 
airro, cI /jt) ct; Karipav Karo^^erat in' aM, fW^ptf iifiipas 
Kplirtms Ttis ixryiXijs. iv ry Kttip^ htCvif KoraKavS'^iTfTtu koI 
raimvwdqVerat koI tarat KaTaKai6fi€iiov koI vr\K6p.evov Sts Kijpos 
airb mphi, otfrats KaTaxa^afrai irtpl irAirruv rSv Ipymv avrou. 
Kol mv iyii A^yoi jfiLP uloi; dvdpc^wi', ^py^ fuyiiXff ko^* vptuv, 
Karti rwv ulwc iiiQi', koI ov Tair<rcTai ^ ■)/>y^ aUnf A^' ipMP, 
fi^XP^ KOtpoO <r<f>ayrjs t&v vl&v vn&v, koi iTiokovvrat ol iya- 
ffrrrol I'jt^i' Kal &vo6avovvTtu ol timp.01 vpMv &ird tt6<n}S t^e T^fi 
on irao'at al ^fUpai rfjs C'l'^f alrr&v Avi roG i>Cv oi fi^ tvovrai 
iskfim T&v tKoriv tlKo<rtv iriiv. kqI p,if Btf^rc 4ti ^trai iiii 
■jtktlova hi}' oi yhp iarw itr' aWois irtura iths Ixific^^tios ivi 
TOV vvv bii r^v ipY^>'i ^^ upyfadij ifiXv 6 ^atrtXriw vivrav t&v 
al^wav fuj VQfd<n)Tt Stt iK^ru^taOf rowro. 

Kal Tovra piv ix tov vp^rao jSt^Uov 'Ei«!>x "^pl ™*' ^CI* 


3. And now as to the watchers who have sent thee to 
intercede for them, who had been aforetime in heaven, (say to 
them,) 3. "Yon have been in heaven, and though the 
hidden things had not yet been revealed to you, you knew 
worthless mysteries, and tiieee in the hardness of your hearts 

Lex. Col. 34. The Giz. Ok. supports tlie view taken above: U r^t 
^X7' r^c vap*it avrAv 7<rrai, though it wroiigly omits the it. Dln.'s 
test is very corrupt and misleadiDg. Over the watobers and 
the godlma. Not in either Greek fragment. 3. Worthless. 

See Appendix. Cf. the Oiz. Gk. rb <V tov 6tou ytytvrnuiMi*. 

yuhiforetiietimtV Oonanminktloa: SfroM. ed. DinUoif. iii. g ; JtyyiMt 
■M xIt. a (not«). S. Thii ttate- imaoi ol rkr Sw KK^r *hqx^(t, 

■sent b ths buii of Clem. Al«z. K«ttKir9iirwmt tit lilcwdt, <E«(m» ri 


8«t I.] Chapters XVI. ■i — X VII. 4. 


you have recoanted to the women, and thiougli these mysteries 
women and mrai work mnch evil on earth." 4. Say to 
them therefore : " You have no peace." ' 

[XVII. I. And they took me away to a place where there 
were forms like flamingo fire, and when they wished they 
appeared as men. 3. And they conducted me to the place 
of the whirlwind and to a mountain, the point <A whose 
summit reached to heaven. 3. And I saw the places of 
the luminaries and of the thunder at the ends thereof ; in the 
depths thereof, a fiery bow and arrows and their qaiver, 
and a fiery sword and all the lightnings. 4. And they 
took me to the water of life, and to the fire of the west. 

XVII. 9. O r«ads 0)AJU=the7 oondnotwd ma. Cf. i/'M in 
TV. I, 4. Other MS8. give OiAjU, ' one conducted me.' The Qis. 
Qk. BupportB O. 3. Tha plaoas of tb« lomlnarles. 80 M O— 
«»»l9t: flCVrt-, aho G an^-flCt: -acyfl-. 80 alao the Qiz. Gk. 
Din, and F H L N : ' brightly shining places.' After tlia plaoes 
of the lumlnarleB the Giz. Gk. adds uil nAt Btjmnipoit ru* 
doTipiw. At the ends tlLsreof. See Appendix. And 

hifp^rm rmt yvraiHr tra rt «If 
Yrwrv atrw ifSmi. 4. Ho p9«oo : 
■ae r. 4 (note). 

XVU-XIZ. Then chftpters an 
etrtMialj roreign to ths mt of tliis 
MctioD. The; us full of Greek ele- 
ment*. We bare nferenoM in zvii. 
5, G to the pTtiphlegeChoD, Stjx, 
AoheronuidCaejtai; inzTiLj, 7, S; 
iviil. 10, to the Ommi Strewa : in 
itU. 6, to Hadea in the wot. Again, 
xviii. 6-^ it t, AafikUia aooonnt of 
Tiix, 1-3; xriiL 13-16 a dopliOBte 
Bcoonnt of ui. 1-6, and xii of zd. 
7-10, tbongh in the lait eaaa there 
are important diTergeiicief. AgiJn, 
lie I oontradiotazT. 4-1 a ; for, whetaM 
we have in sz demcnio beingi before 
tlie tUI of the angeli, in tlie Nat of 
i-iizvl the demon! are dewiribed ai 
the ehildrcD of the fidlen angd*. 

XTH. 1. Ponna like "^"'"t 
firs, Su). Tittme are lome kind of 
angela; cf. xii. i. S. Flaoa of 

the whirlwind : of. Job xniii, 9. 
A monntaln. It ii impossible to 
dstermine aujtliiiig about this monn- 
tnia. S. Flaoaa of the Inmin- 

arlB*. These niay be the ' ohamben 
of the luminaries': of. ili.s. Of the 
thnnder : of. xli. 3; zliv; lii; Ix. 
13-15 and note*. In the depth* 
liumot, i. e. of the places of the 
thnnder. Tleir "bow — (be bow with 
which the li^tnlngs are shot : cf. Ps. 
Tii.ii;H*b.iiL9;LMQ.ii.4iiii. II. 
Arrows, i. e. the lightninga : ef. Ps. 
zriti. 14; Izxvli. 17, 18. Their 
anlTor: of. Lam. lii. 13. Sword: 
cf. P«. tIL la; Dent, zzzii. 41. 
4. The water of Ufo: see Crit. 
Note. Cf. 'tlie fountun of lite,' in 

Digitized byCoOglc 

88 The Book of Enoch. [Soct. I. 

which receives every eettmg of the san. 5- -^^ ^ came to 
a river of fire, the fire of which fiowB like water and discharges 
itself into the great aea towards the west. 5. .And I eaw 
all the great rivers and came to a great darkness, and went to 
the place where i^ flesh wanders. 7. And I saw the 
mountains of the darkness of winter and the place whence the 
waters of the entire deep flow, 8. And I saw the mouths 
of all the rivers of the earth and Uie mouth of the deep. 

XVIII. 1. And I saw the chambers of all the winds, and I 
saw how He had furnished with them the whole creation and 
the firm foundations of the earth. 2. And I saw the corner- 
stone of the earthy I saw the four winds which bear the earth 
and the firmament of tlie heaven. 3. And I saw bow the 
winds stretch out the vaults of heaven and have their station 
between heaven and earth : these are the pillars of the heaven. 

a Aeiy sword. Not ia the Giz. Ok. 4. Th« wator of li£e. 
80 the Giz. Gk. All Ethiopic MSS. insert the epithet ' so-calW ' 
before water, bnt snch a description would be incompatible with 
the prophetic role of the author. 6. After cams the Giz. Gk. 
inserts ' to the great river and.' All fleah. The Giz. Gk. states 
exactly the opposite itrav irami irftf({ oi vtpanati. If the Greek is 
right, we may find a parallel to this statement in xii. 3. If tiie 
Ethiopic is right, the place is to be taken as Hades, as in the 
note. 7. The mountaliia of tbe darkness of winter. The Giz. 
Gk. gives ' the wintry winds of the darkness.' We have no means 
of determining which is light. Tlie plaoa wbenoe, not ' den 
Ort wohin ' as Din. Cf, the Qiz. Gk. n}* i<qiy<r». 

Pi. xiivi. g; ProT. i. tl ; xiii. 14; *«., i. b. Ooaaniu. 

ziT. 37 ; xri. 3] ; Iter. uU. 17, 'miter XVIH. 1. Ohamben of all the 

of life.' Fire of tlu w<at : am xiiii wlndi : sea xli. 4 (note) ; Ix. 1 1, 13 ; 

(notes). 6. BlTerofflre: the »Im> xxxiv-ixxTi. Poimd>tioiu of 

Hupi^ry^far. Orsat aaa : 'OmavJj the oavth. & frequent phraae in the 

or tbe Qreat Ocean Stream. 6. O.T. Cf. nSam.xiil. 16; Jobixxriii. 

All the srest rlvera : Styx, 4; Pa. xdii. 15; liixii. 5, fto. S. 

AcberoiL and Coojliu. The place OomeratODo: Job.xzzviif. 6. The 

where, An., L e. Hadei. 7. The four winds. Thia (heor; hw no 

mauntaic*, Ao.: lee Crit. Note. rootinllieO.T. S. PtUaraoftlia 

S. The mouttu of all tlia rlvsra, heaven: theexpreidon ia from Job 


Sert.I.] Chapters XVII. 5 — XVIII. it. 89 

4. And I saw the winds which turn the heaven, which brin^ 
the circumference of the sun and aJl the stars to their setting. 

5. And I saw the winds on the earth, which cany the clouds; 
and I saw the paths of the angels : I saw at the end of the 
earth the firmament of the heaven above, 6. And I pro- 
ceeded towards the south, and there it bums day and night, 
where there are seven mountains of magnificent stones, three 
towards the east, and three towards the south ; 7. and 
indeed of those towards the east, one was of coloured stone, 
and one of peark, and one of antimony, uid those towards the 
sooth of red stone. 8. But the middle one reached to 
heaven, like the throne of Qod, of alabaster, and the summit 
of the throne was of sapphire. 9. And I saw a flaming 
fire, which was in all the mountains. 10. And I saw there 
a place, over against the great earth : there the heavens were 
gathered together. 11, And I saw a deep abyss, with 
pilkrs of heavenly fire and among them I saw pillara of 
heavenly fire fall which were in number beyond count alike 
towards the height and towards the depth. 12. And over 

XVUI. 4. Instead of f OCIh AbflO, G has the Btraoge reading 
tOCth lOAl MHI. 10. Heavsns. So OM tm^ aod the 

0i2.Gk. Later MSS.'^.r^' waters.' ii. I saw a deep abyM. 
So OM. DId. and FHELNO add 'in the earth.' But this 
abyss is beyond the earth. The Gii. Ok. supports G M. 

zxri. II. A. Tom thahesvui, and Uiim In the South and the uTanth 

Ae: of. Izzii. g', lixiiL i. S. •tth^pointofoontwt l^odMorip- 

OuiT tbe oloada. An «xpluuttion ti™ here nriea lomBwhat from tlut 

of the dJScultiM (qggerted in Job in izIt. 1-3. ThsM moontadiw Me 

xxtTi. 19; xxitU, 16, At the end mentionedintheBookot JnUUeeviji. 

of the earth the flnnunent, Ao. S. Of lappUt* : et Eiek. i. a6. 

The end> of the firmameitt of heaTcn 10. The nme idea aa in zviii. £; 

iMt on the endi of th« earth: cf. xrxiii. a. 11. Thii ma^r be the tnal 

nxiiJ. 1 ; the nralt of heaven ii lap- place of paniahment fbi the Mien 

ported by the wlndl, ztiil i, 3. angel*. If wi, of. x. 6, 13 ; lii; xxi. 

Q'0. Thi« t« another Terdoo of what 7-10 ; ic 14. Of heavenlj fire : cf. 

ii reooanted In zzIt. 1-3. TheM Gen. lii. 34,' Pi. xL6; Euk. uzriii. 

■eren moaatiJiu lie three in the East n. 19-16. Tliii plaoe of pnniih- 



The Book of Enoch. 

[Sect. T. 

that xbyss I saw a place whi«h had ao finnameiit of the 
heaven above and no foundation of earth bmeath it : there 
was no water npon it and no birds, bat it was a waste place. 

13. And what I saw tiiere was horrible — seven stars like 
great burning monntaine, and like spirits, which besought me. 

14. The angel said ; ' This is the place where heaven and 
earth terminate, it serves for a prison for the Btars of heaven 
and the boat of heaven. ij. And the stars which roll 
over the fire are they which have trausgresBed the command- 
ment of Grod before their rising because they did not come 
forth at the appointed time. t6. And He was wroth with 
them and bound them till the time when their gpilt should be 
consummated in the year of the mystery.' 

XIX. I. And Uriel said to me 'Here will stand the 
angels who have connected themselves with women, and thdr 

XIX. I. DId.'s t«xt is very corrupt. Hence I have transferred 
the from -flHC^ \a the word before it, in accordance with the 
Qiz. Qk. Again I have read XMl for XIh» with BCHMNO, 
and Mt, for OOAI* with C Q L K N 0. Thus we have a literal 

ment for tlie disobedient aUn ii tiffia 
deecribed in zii 1-6. It \a ftli«>d; 
oecupiad. 13. Seven; >naied 

number in tbie book. HotmUlJlUL 
The«tan ■» larger thiin they i^tpeKr. 
Iiike epliits whioh beaonglit me. 
The Stan kre r^krded u oomdoai 
being! and aooordinglj punished for 
their diaobedienoe. Cf. the l^Wptt 
T\arqT<u in Jnde 13. 16. The 

angdkaowa not when the pnniihment 
of theee itan will be over, and de- 
clarae tliia to be > myiteiy; jet in 
xiL 6 Ail myateiy ia diaekaed. 

XZX. Thii chftpter hai been misia- 
teipreted bj Din. We hkTe already 
leen (p. S7] that zvii-xix are an 
intradiiti in the preaent t«it, tad tbe 

ziz. I tbe angela are aaid to aednoe 
mankind into laoriSoiiigtotbe demoni 
aa godi ; bnt acaoiding to z-ivi thia 
IB impoaaible ; for tha deman* are the 
spiiitc which have gone forth from 
tbe ohildren of these angela, and aa 
the impriaonmoiit of the angelA and 
the deatmoUon of their ohildren were 
in effect Doutemponneoaa (x. 11), it 
waa impoaaible for the former to teaoh 
men to aaorifice to demoiu. Aooord- 
ing to IV. ii-xri an end wni aet to 
the daatamctive tigendee of the fallen 
angel* by their impriaonment, whereaa 
unlimited tioeme waa aooorded to the 
demona till the Sual Judgment. We 
have ha«, therefore, a different view 
oF the origifn of the demon-world. 
ThedemDni,aooDrdingto tbiaohapter, ) 
•re in eiiitenoe beibre the fidl of the 

D,;,t.z.dDy Google 

SMti.] Chapters XVI 11. 13 — A'A". 4. 91 

spirits assuming many difFerent fomu hare defiled mankind 
and will lead them astray into sacrificing to demons as gods, 
(here will they stand,) till the day of the great judgment on 
which they ehal! t>e judged till they are consanunated. 2. 

And with their women also who led astray the angels of 
heaven it will fare in like manner as with their friends/ 5. 
And I, Enoch, alone saw the vision, the ends of all things : 
and DO man will see what I have seen as I have seen.] 

XX. I. And these are the names of the holy angels who 
watch. X. Uriel, one of the holy angels, the angel over 

the world and over Tartarus. 3. Rofael, one of the holy 

angels, the angel of the spirits of men. 4. Bagnel, one of 

translation of the Giz. Qk. 3. The Qiz. Gk. differs greatly : «ai 

□I yvntaiat atrr&ir rw ynpuffair m ' AyytX-mir dt mifi^nit yarrivoiTai. 3. 

WIU MS. So O M, and the Qiz. Ok. Din. and F H ' has seen.' 

XX. 3. The angel over the woild. 80 G HAM^, and the 

Giz. Ok. M rev k6vimv. Din. gives 'over thunder.* Over 

Tartarus. So the Oiz. Gk., but all Ethiopic M8S. give ' over 


M soda: ot D«Qt. uxii. 171 Pi. 
cvi. 37 ; Bar. It. 7. Thii pMMge imd 
zoii. 7 are probablj the >oiin)e of 
Tertalliui, Dt Mot. It : Hnooh pime- 
di««M onuda elamentft, omuem moudi 
canium, qnM omIo, q<ue man, quae 
term oontineatur. In idoliitruaii ver- 
■aroe daemoiui et ■[uiitui deMrtoram 
Kogelonun, nt pro Deo mItosui Deuin 
coaBwTarentur. D^ of the sraat 
Jodamant : ace ilr. I (note). Are 
oonraiiiinated, or 'are dertrojed.' 
9. The wt>iaen will be mtbjeoted (o 
the latiie poniidunsnt ai the fUlen 
»pgeU : t£. I. 13. 8. The anda 

of all thinca. Qaotwl by Clemena 
Alex. Edog. Pnp\. (Dind. ii!. 456) : 
* AanJ)X X^i liuSafih rf "E^x rf 
by Otigen, D* Frine. iv. 35: aoriptniii 
namqoe eat hi eodem libello dioente 

Buodi ' amrenaa material per- 

XZ. In mj Gen. lolrod. I have 
b«atad thia ohnpler a* an interpola- 
tion. The oompariioD, however, of 
tli« Oil. Qk. ihowa that nuuiy of the 
■tatamenta diacordant with the reat of 
the aection are foreign to the tnia text. 
This ohapt^, therefore, waa probably 
an ori^nat part of thia Motion. 1. 
'Who watoh : aee lii. 3 (nol«}. S. 
The provinoe aaaigned to Uriel eerrea 
to explain aueh paangea a* xxi. 5, g ; 
xxrii. 1 ; xixill. 3, 4. Ct hit rAle in 
rv Exra iv. I. 8. Bu&el : aaa i. 

4, 7. The definiUon hen giraa ia 
vague, but Huita admirably in ixiL 3, 
6. In ixxii 6, howarer, Rufaal dia- 
chargaa dutiea whioh aoooi^ng to xi. 
7 (hoald belong to GabrieL 4. 

Basnel (&tnn VJ^ ' to ohaatiae ' or 
'terrify') ia the olianiuir of the la- 

itradb, Google 

92 The Book of Enoch. [Secti. 

the holy angels, who takes vengeance on the world and on the 
luminaries. 5. Michael, one of the holy angels, to wit, he 
that is set over the best part of mankind, over the people. 
6. Saraq&^, one of the holy angels, who is set over the spirits 
of tiie children of men, whose spirits have sinned. 7. 
Gabriel, one of the holy angels, who is over I^radise and the 
serpoito and the Cbembin. 

XXI. I ■ And I went round to the place of cbaos (lit. ' where 
nothing was made'). %. And I saw there something 
horrible, I saw neither a heaven above nor a firmly founded 
earth, but a place chaotic and horrible. 3. And here I 

saw seven stars of the heaven bound t(^fether in it, like great 
mountains and flaming as with fire. 4. On this occasion I 
said ' For what sin are they bound, and on what account have 
they been cast in hither P ' 5. Then spake Uriel, one of the 
holy angels, who was with me and was chief over them, and 

qaaHng,' The Greek is right; cf. xxi; xzvii. 3. 6. See 

Appendix. 7. FaradiM and the Hrpenta. So Q and the Qiz. 
Ok. DId. inverta this order. The aerpentfi may be Seraphim. 
See Appendix. 

XXI. 2. I saw neither a haavan above. So G CUk (DlL/l<^i 
AM: and tbe Git. Gk. ki>p<aa oSn ohpan^ i-nava. DIq. givea ' no 
high heaven.' A plaoe obaotio. So G flolils HM: J&Ao^ but 
that it wrongly omits the negative : cf. the Giz. Gk. tinior axata- 
oKtiaaTov. Later MSS. add 'empty ' after 'place' sgainst G and 
the Giz. Gk. 5. And was ohiaf over tbem. So the Oiz. 

Ok., jcol aiT^c aiiTa,¥ jf/flro. Uriel is over Tartarus, xx. 3. Cf. for 

miiuriei and leenu la be rightly bo the ipekber in zxxii fMscocding to 

mentioiled in xxiii. 4, aooording to the thii Tone. 

moat protMibla text. See Appendix. XZZ. 1-6. T^ plus of pnnidi- 

6. Michael i* the gaardiui uigel at ment of the dinbedient ttut haa 

bnel: to In Dan. i. 13, ii; xii. I, been al read; dsmibed in iTiii. 6-1 a. 

andlikewiae nniTcnatly : ue W«ber, Thateilnomaterialdiffarencebetween 

L. d. T, i6s ; aooording to thi« vone the two aoconnta. 1. Origan 

Michael it poaribly the right speaker (C« PHne. it. 35) hw dted thii 

in zziT-xxTi. fl. SaraqUL Not vene: Ambulari uique ad imperfee- 

foand elaewhere. 7. Gabriel thonld turn. 2. Ofaaotio : see Crii. Note. 


Sect. I.] Chapters XX. i — XXII. i. 93 

said : ' Whei'efore dogt thon ask, and why dost thou enquire 
and art curious P 5. These are the stare which have trans- 
gressed the commandment of God, and are bound here till ten 
thousand ages, the number of the days of their guilt, are con- 
summated.' 7. And from ^ence I went to another place, ' 
which was still more horrible than the former, and I saw 
a horrible thing : a great fire was there which flamed and 
blazed, and the place was cleft as far as the abyss, being 
full of great descending columns of fire : its extent and 
size I could not see, nor was I able to see its origin. 
8. Then I spoke ' How horrible is this place and how hideous 
to look upon I ' 9. Then Uriel answered me, one of the holy 
angels who was with tne : he answered and spake to me ' Why 
do you entertain such fear and alarm at this horrible place 
and in the presence of this pain ? ' jo. And be spake to 
me ' This place is the prison of the angels, and bere they will 
be imprisoned for ever.' 

XXII. I. And then I went to another place, and he sbowed 

phrase, xxiv. 6. Ethiopio MSS. wrongly 'and was my chief or 
' guide.' Wh7 dost thou enquire and art eurloua P So O M. 
Din. and F H L N O iuBert ' why doat thou ask J ' after why dost 
thou enquire P ti. Ctod. So G and tbe Giz. Qk. Din. gives 

' Host High Qod.' 7. The place waa oleft. 80 G, reading 

0Bl||, instead of Dln.'s corrupt oAl^ and the Giz. Gk. duunr^* 
tXxa i timot. 8. Hideous to look upon. So G r&tM-^. 

Other MSS. !bfiH9^ 'painful to look upon.' 

6. God. Late MSa read ' Mort High detailed d«Krip(ioii of Shsol or Hade*. 

God,' bat WTODgljF — ne Crit. Note. Aocording to tbii writer Sheol U 

riua title ii not (band in Enoch sitiiated in the fur weit accDidiiig to 

tboii^ ' Mort High' ie fonnd in Greek and EgTptian ideas, and in 

all the taatiDwi i Bee idz. 3 (note), thig respect the writer mna counter 

7-10. In these venes we have a full to the Tiews of the Hebrews who 

dewsriptioooftheGiial plane of punish- placed Sheol in the underworld. In 

mant for the angels. See ivUi. 11 ; all the other seoUonsof (be book Um 

xix. Hebrew oonoeptdon prevsils. This is 

XXZI.'Fhii chapter contains a TS17 the matt andeub aocoimt of the 



The Book of Enoch. 

[Sect. I. 

me in the west a great high mountain and hard rocks luid 
fonr beautiful phuses. z. And there were there deep 

and wide (places) perfectly emooth, as smooth as something 
which rolls, and deep and black to look at. 3. And this 
time Bnfael answered me, one of the holy angels who was 
with me, and spake to me: 'These hollow places whereon 
- Hhe spirits of the sonls of the dead are assembled, have 
been created to this very end, that all the souls of the 
children of men should assemble here. 4. These places 

are appointed as their habitation till the day of their judg- 
ment and till their appointed period, and this appointed 
period is long, till the great judgment comes upon them.' 
5. And I saw the spirits of the children of men who were 

XXII. a. The Ethiopic here is defective snd misleading. See 
Appendix. 3. Tbe spirits of the soula of tba dead. 80 0, 
reading Al¥^^av* instead of Bln.'s l^/^aix. H gives the some 

doctrine of Sheol from the Fhariwie 
or Chuld standpoint, but dewl; thU 
doclrioe OMinot luve leaped .into life 
fullgiown u it ^ipean here, but 
mnjst klreodf tuva pwied tluoogli 
WTenl Rtagee of derdopment. Hades 
is DO longer here, h in tlie O.T., ft 
place mainly of ■ Beniicatudoiu nm- 
monl Btate of sxiitanos where the 
only diitinoUone that prevailed were 
TCoial and not mnnl ; bat hai already 
become essentially a place of conauious 
eiiatcnoe, where cTerything ii deter- 
mined by moral distinctions and moral 
diatinotions alone. See Idii. lo for 
the hidory of this dootrine. So tax 
as we may infer from i-izzvl, the doc- 
trin* of this ehaptw most be limited 
to IsiaelitM and thsir progenitMS 
from Adam, jost as only Isntdites are 
taken aooomit of in Dan. liL ], 

Tonr. There are fbnr dmnooa in 
Hades: twofiff therig^teons, vt. g-9. 
and two for tbe wicked, tt. 10-13. 
BeantifUL His epithet haa 00 right 

here. ItiepresentatcaXaf.aoorraptian 
of KoiXoi, and tbli latter beldngsd to 
the neit reise, See Appeudiz. 3. 
TUf vene must rafer to the places of 
ponishmeiit — ' deep and black to look 
at.' See vr. 10-13. B- BnflMl. 

As Schodde remarki, Bufad has the 
Bsme lAle In ToUt. Bpirlta of the 
Bonis of the dead : see Crit. Note. 
8, 4. The ot^eot with which HadM 
was oraatad. 6-7. The lint di*MaD 
of Sheol contains those ri^teona aaols 
which in thcdr life met with peneca- 
don and suffered a riolant and an- 
Jseut' II ed death, lleee ory continually 
to Qod fbr Tengeanee on those who 
wrongad them. In the time of the 
author many of the Chaddim mnit 
have perished in this way. This idea 
of the righteoos or of the angels 
vying ^at Tengeaace en the wicked 
is In swne fctm common to all the 
srctions of this book. CC iz. 1-3, 10, 
It; zxU. 5-S; xlviL i, 3; luxii. 76; 
xcviL 3, 5 ; xdi. 3, iS ; eiv, 3. Cf. 


Sect I.] Chapter XXII. 2-12. 95 

dead and their voice penetrated to the heaven and compUined. 
6. This time I aeked the angel EaEael who was with me and 
spake to him ; ' Whose spirit is that one yonder whose voice 
thoB penetrates (to heaven) and complains?' 7. And he 

answered me and spake thus to me saying : ' This is the spirit 
which went forth from Abel, whom his brother Cain slew, 
and he keeps complaining of him till his seed is destroyed 
from the face of the earth, and his seed disappears from 
amongst the seed of men.' 8. And therefore at that time I 
asked r^arding faim, and regarding the judgment of all, 
' Why is one separated from the other ? ' 9. And he 

answered me and spake to me : ' These three divisions are made 
to separate the spirits of the dead. And the souls of the' 
righteous are thus separated (fi'om the rest) .- there is a 
spring of water and light above it. 10. Such a (division} 

likewise has been made for sinners when they die and are 
buried in the earth without incurring judgment in their 
lifetime. Ii. Here their souls are placed apart in this 

great pain, till the great day of judgment and punish- ' 
ment and torture of the revilers for ever, and vengeance 
for their souls, there will they be bound for ever. 12. 

meaning ovf^^Atl If^^cn*'. Bin. and FELMN give 'the spirits, 
the souls of the dead.' The Oiz. Qk. supports Q. See Crit. Note 

alMiBev.Ti. lo; IT Em iv. 35; ffeber, in life. Mid SiuJly attained to bonour- 

h.d.T. 314. 9, 7. Abcl't Hial able biiri»L According to Hebrew 

criei for the defltruoticsL of the (eed &nd Greek ideal the privation of 

of Cain; o£ Gen. ir. 10. S. Ttin fnnenl litea «■■ a great oalamity, 

Tens UTvei to introduoe an acoonnt and involTed, at leait acoording to 

of the three remaining diTlBl(ni8 of Greek ideas, ineTitabU ■nffeTing br 

Bhe<J. S. The •eoond dividun the departed aouL 11. Great 

li Cut Uie lonli of the righteooi who pain : of. diL 7, 8 1 Lake xvi. 13-3J. 

have not aa thoee in the fint divliion Oraat day of jndgment. See zov. 

mat with a violent and nndBurred 3 (note). Of ttaa ravllen. This 

death. These have a ipring of water oonld also be tranilated ' of the ao- 

and light. G may be right here :' a coned' (lit. on thoee whom one 

^iringof thewaterofUfo:' af.x?ii.4, conei). For Avar. Thlimeantonly 

Crit. Note. 10, U. Tba tliird to theSsal jodgment. U. 19. He 

divi^on ii for thole nnnen who lived fborth dlvlakm la for the unnen who 

pToapetDuily and eacaped punlahment aaffered In tbwr life and tiierefore 



The Book of Enoch. 


And Buch a division has been made for the souk of those 
who complain and make known their deetmction when they 
were slain in the days of the stoners. 13, Thus it has 

been made for the souls of men who were not righteous 
bnt sinn^fi, complete in their crimes : they will be with 
oriminals like themselves; bnt their souls will not be slain 
on the day of judgment nor will they he raised from thence.' 
14. Then I bleraed the Lord of glory and said : ' Blessed be 
my Lord, the Lord of righteousness, who ruleth for ever.' 

XXin. X. From tlience I went to another place towards 
the west, unto the ends of the earth. 2. And I saw a 

burning fire which ran without resting and paused not from 
its course day or night but (ran) r^ularly. 3, And I 

on ix. 10. 14. The Iiord of rlghtaoumuB, who mleth for 

over. So Q M. Dk. and F H L N O give ' The Lord of glory and 
righteousnesH who ruleth all things for evermore.' 

XXUI, 1. And pauMd not. 80 Din. and F H E L M N and 
the Giz. Gk. G omits. 

inoor % Ian penaltj in Sheol. 18. 

Booh a divldoa hu been made. 
Thii ii the reading of the Gii. Gk. 
»nd hu good psraUeU in Tenei 9, 10. 
See Appendix. The Ethlopio USS. 
inatrt sguiut Uie Greek the words 
' if it «>■ before eteniitj.' Bnt 
thin addition <■ meauinglen, and 
mint be ooiTupt. Oomplaia, Ao. 
Tlieae linnen demand vengeance on 
Umm thkt did violence to them 
in life, jnit aa the righteoiu in 
the Grat diviaion demanded juatice 
Bgainet thoie that bad dertroyed 
them. In the day* of the ala- 
nen: probablf thedmeeof Antiochua 
Epijdianus. IS. Their aonla will 
not b« alaln. Tbere are degreei of 
auSerlng in Sheol. The wont peoaltj 
^ipeantobe ' thealajliigof theaonl,' 
but even this did not imply annibiU- 
tion. Be* oviii. 3 (note); alao xcix. 
II. Hor wtU tlwr be railed. The 

ainnsn in the tUcd diriiiati will riae 
in order to be delivered over to a 
aeverer condemnation. The resllrTee- 
tion here implied 1* of IumI only: 
•0 the entire aeotion i-xizvi would lead 
ni to Infer. Othenriae tliia declaratian 
of a Qenend Keeurrectinn ia aalilary 
and unique in pre-Chriatian Jewiah 
Apocrypha. 14. After each fresh 

revelation Enoch generally bunts 
forth into a doiology. Cf. uv. 7 ; 
uvli. jiziivi. 4;iiiii, g-li;ilviii. 
10 ; Izizi. 3 ; Izixiii. 1 1 ; Ixxiiv \ xc. 
40. These doiologies have aa » rale 
% eloM oennexioD in thought with 
their reapeoUve oontenta. Iiord of 
Klory: see xxv. 3 (note). X>ord of 

: cf. s 


TrTTTTt 1, s, Enooh atill remains 
in the Weat, hot pioceeda to another 
quarter of the Weat where there ia 
a restless river of fire. ivii. 4 ap- 
pean to deal with the same sabject. 


Sect. I.] Chapter XXII. 13 — XXIV. 5. 97 

asked, sayiDg : 'What ie ihie whicli rests notP' 4. This time 
Rag^elj oae of the holy angels who was with me, answered me 
and spake to me : ' This burning fire in the direction of the 
west, the coarse of which yoa have seen (is the Sre of) all the 
luminaries of heaven.' 

XXIY. I. From thence I went to another place of the earth, 
and he showed me a mountain range of fire which fiamed day 
and night. a. And I approached it and saw seven mag- 

nificent mountains each different from the other, and magni- 
ficent beautiful stones, magnificent as a whole, of glorious 
appeamnce and fair ^terior; three towatds l^e east, one 
founded on the other, and tiiree towards the south, one upon 
the other, and deep winding ravines, no one of which joined 
vrith any other. 3. And the seventh mountain was between 
these, and in their elevation tiiey all resemble the seata of 
a throne ; and the throne was encircled with fragrajit trees. 
4. And amongst them was a tree such as I had Dever yet 
smelt : neither was any amongst them nor were others like it ; 
it had a fragrance beyond all fragrance : its leaves and blooms 
and wood wither not for ever : and its fruit is beautiful, and 
it resembles the dates of a palm. 5. And on this occasion 

I said : ' Behold this beautiful tree, beautiful to look upon, 
and its leaves are fair uid its fruit very delightful to the eye.' 

XXIV. 2. One founded on the othar. Bo Din. and FHKLMO. 
For 9M\ ON read )tiKl='nioaiited or reatiiig upon.' Ona 
upon the other. So DEFGHKLMN. Din. with ABCO 
inserts tOM-fi 'one founded on the other.' The Gia. Gk. sapporU G. 

4. Thel<l(«,uIHii.>iigguti,naiuto Enoch Snd* H to ootuiat of Beren 

be that the lomiiuuieg rtoniit their iammiti, the middle »nd higheat of 

WMtad firee by pasting through thii vhich ii tha tlirone of God. llieie 

mtlan atreani of fire In the Wait, moontalni were oompoaed of predoiu 

The text Kenui oormpt 8ae Ap- Monea, each of a different one. Hie 

peodii. throne wai girt with fngrant trees, 

ZXIV. 1-S. Thii mountain nuige, the moat denrable of troM. 4. The 

Booording to iviii. 6-g, li in ths tree here described, eo notable for ita 

Smtli. On nearer acqn^tonce fragranoa (of. zzr. 6], ia the tree of 


The Book of Enoch, 


6. Then BJiswered Michael, one v/t the holy and honoured 
angeb who was with me, and was in charge thereof : 

XXY. J. And he spake to me, 'Enoch what dost thon aek 
as touching the fragrance of this tree and what dost thon seek 
to know ? ' 2. Then I, Enoch, answered him and smd : 

' I ehonld like to know about everything, but especially about 
this tree.' 3. And he answered me and said : ' This high 
mountain which thon hast seen, whose summit is like the 
throne of the Lord, is His throne, where the Holy and G-reat 
One, the Lord of Glory, the Eternal King, will sit, when He 
shall come down to visit the earth with goodness. 4. And 
no mortal is permitted to touch this tree of delicious fragrance 

XXY. 4. Till tbe great Aks ot Judgment, when He sliall 
aveoBe and bring everything to its conaummatlmi for ersr; 
thii tree, I say, will (then) be given, fto. So O : hlOu OOfit 
OAlri XH^ IMk AoBi ^atlii iKfh wfi/^ttF^. Xlttu ATAy": 
'Hh....^(DD>fl. Din., supported in the main by the other MSS., 
readu: XAtu lua>i OiLfit l^Ai AoBi ^tO^As ll>#: atfifTiJ^t 
XAh; AMy": Hh- . . . filrmtM; which he translates tlios: 'Bis 
Qm die Zeit des grossea Oerichts : wann Allea gesUbnt und vol- 
lendet werden wird filr die Ewigkeit, wird dieaer — 'llbergeben 

lira, ur. 4-6 (uoCea). 6. MlahAel, 
the pfttron angel oC Imd, It in ohvge 
of theM ipeaikl ii«uana of the Hei- 
nuiio kingdom. 

XX7. S. Thii high moimtAin, 
L e. tba middle one of tbe seven. 
Hill moontwD, detcribed in iiiil 6- 
9, zzIt. 1-3, it not to be identified 
with Knai, i. 4, for there Cioddanenda 
to judgment. Thl« mount^n ii God't 
thione on euth when bs ooinee down 
to bleM the eMth. Cf. liiriL i. 
Holy and Orekt One: ■eei3(MteJ. 
Irt)rd «f OI0V7: of. uiL 14; u*. 
7 ; xzfif. 3, 5 : zzxri. 4 ; xL 3 ; IxiiL 
a ; IxxiiiL S. ntamal Xinc : of. 
TV. 5, 7 ; xxvil. 3 ; onlj found in i- 
TEXn, 4, B. Thli tree ii the tree 

of life. By the efitdng of this tme 
after the final jndgment men nre en- 
dowed with long life — not eternal 
life: of. T. 9; I. 17; nv. 6. Cf. 
Apoc. Bar. IziUL 3, 3, 6, 7. The 
writer of i-xzivi hai not riien to the 
ooooeption of an eternal Ufu of bleaaed- 
Den for the tighteoni, and ao hai not 
adTKDced a tingle step beymd the 
conoeptiona foand in la. liv, Izvl. 
Thii materi&liitiu oonooptian of the 
tree of llfo bawd on Qen. il. 9, ill n, 
and here pnbliahed afresh, gained 
aFCerwarde a wide emreno; in Jewiib 
and Chriatian litei>tnre : d. Ber. iL 
7; zxii. a, 14; ivEsraviii. 5). Why 
thin tree ihoold be amongat the 
in the Sonth doet not 


Sect. I.] Chapter XXIV. 6 — XX VI. 2. 99 

till the great day of jadgment, when He efaall avenge and 
bring everything to its coneominatioE for ever; this tree, I say, 
will (then) he given to the righteoue and humble. 5, By 
ito fruit life will be given to the elect : it will be transplanted 
to the north, to the holy place, to the temple of the Lord, the 
Eternal King. 6. Then wUl they rejoice with joy and be 

glad: they will enter the holy habitation : the fragrance thereof 
will be in their limbs, and they will live a long life on earth, 
such as thy &,thers have lived : and in their days no sorrow or 
pain or troable or calamity will affect them.' 7, Then 

blessed I the Lord of Glory, the Eternal King, because that 
He bath prepared such (recompense) for the righteous, and 
hath created it and promised to give it to them. 

XXVI. X. And I went from thence to the middle of the earth, 
and I saw a blessed and fruitful place, and there were branches 
there which had taken root and grew out of a dismembered 
tree. %. And then I saw a holy mountain, and underneath 

werden.' 6. WUI enter th« holy habitation. So O : iD^'h 

^^; "H^itJC, bat defectively, omitting ^(la^A. which later M8S. 
cormpt«d into f fliD-A-. Cf. the Oiz. Gk. t\s ri Srfw t}aiKtiiaotnu. 
For V*^ G reads 40C. 

XXVI. I. G omits Xy"Od: but F H L M N support Din. 

■ppesr. 4. Great day of jodgment : 30. 7. For the doiology, cf. 

•ee iIt. 1 (note). Arenss and bring ziu. 14. 

•VMTthlns to Its oonatuumatioii : XXTX Enoch TimlHjeruuleniwid 

ne Crit. Note. Blghteona : lee i. iti vicinit;. 1. The midtUe of 

8 (note), qmnble: of. oriiL 7. B. the earth. The writer r^arcU Jem- 

Sleot : *ea i. 3 (note). To Qi» holy MUem m the centre of the earth : of. 

pUtoe, i.e. Jeruulem. Wecannottell Ezek. xziviii. 1 1 ; t. 5. In tlie Book 

whether the tutlior intended heie the of J ubiteea, viif , it i« oalled the navel 

New Jernnlein, wliioh aooording to of hiu^tt,ii of the earth, jut •■ 

Izzzix. 18, 39 wai to be let Dp by Delphi wm r^iirded amongst the 

Qod Hinuelf. It Is, at aU eveoti, areelu. Id En. xc aS Qehetma ie in 

a Jenualem cleansed &om all im- the middle of the earth. Blonad 

pmitj, and that ii ^obably all and frnltftil plaoe : of. xzriL i ; 

that the aethor meant. fl. The lxx:dx. 40; Dan. li. 16, 41, 45. A 

holy habitation: lee CriL Note, diamambered tree, 1. e. IiraeL The 

The fraccanoe thereof, Le. of the bnnoheearetherighteoiudetcendaiits 

tne of life. Cf. izit. 4. Ho aoi^ who are to participate in the Mea- 

low or pain, fto.: cf. Ii. IzT. 19, lianic lungdom. S.Aholfmonn- 

H 2 

Digitized byCoOglc 

loo The Book of Enoch. [Sect.!. 

the moimtain to tbe east of it a stream which flowed towards 
the south. 3. And I eaw towards the east another nioun< 
tain of the same height, and between them a deep and narrow 
ravine : in it also ran a stream skirting the mountain. 4. 
And to the west thereof there was another monntain, lower 
than the former and of small elevation, and underneath it and 
between than both was a ravine : and other deep and sterile 
ravines were at the extremities of all three. 5. And all the 
ravines were deep and narrow (and formed) of hard rock, and 
trees were planted upon them. 6. And I marvelled at the • 

rocks, and I marvelled at the ravine, yea, I marvelled very 

XXVII. I. Then said I : 'For what object is this blessed 
land, which is entirely filled with trees, and this accursed 
valley between?' x. Then Uriel, one of the holy angels who 
was with me, answered me and spake : ' This accursed valley 

taJn, i. e. Zion. A, atream, i. e. the 
brook of Silodi. 8. Another 

monat, i.e. the Hoant of Olives. 
BkTlii*. i.e. the v^ej of tlie Eedron 
OT of J«hiMh>ph>t. A itream, i. e. 
the brook Eedron. 4. Another 

moontaln, L t. the Mount of O^noa. 
A ravine. \. e. tlie tkUsj of Elnnom. 

5. Hie Mvonnt u to be relied on. 

6. The valle; of Hinnom. 
ZXVII. 1. Thlt blMMd luid: 

■ee iKTi. I, note 1. Thlj 1 
Talle J. QeheoDB ma earl; ■ 
with the wonhlp of Moloch, to whom 
the Ixnelitei okiued their children 
to paM throDgh tbe fire. For tbe re- 
presioll of their abomiuAtioni Joilfth 
took the wrereat mumrae, II Kingi 
siiil. 10 ; n Cbron. xiriii. 3, but not 
with any permanent effect ; (or we 
find Jeremiah prouannoing the valley 
aoouned, and declaring that it ahould 
henoeforth be known aj tbe valley 
of ilaaghter: Jer. Til. 31, 33 ; xii. a, 
6; xxziL 35. Again, In Ib. Ixvi, 34 
there b a dear reference to tlie vallej 

of Binnom ae tlie ptaoe where the 
(lain enemiei of the Henianic kingdon 
ihould luffer by fire, and that in the 
preeoioe of the righteani. From this 
point It ii not a far cry to the definite 
oonoeptica of Qebenna a* it appears 
In Enoch. Gehenna i> in Snoob the 
place of punishment of the ^ioabit« 
DT UthlsM Jem who ■nffu' in tbe 
pro— nee of the righteooa ; cf. xxvIL 
i, 3; xlviii. 9; liv. 1,3; Iiil. 11, 13; 
so. 16, VI. Obierve that tiiere ii a 
alight modification of the conception 
in the Similitude*, ilviii. g (note). 
Tn the N. T. (Matt. t. ig, 30 ; z. iS ; 
iviii. 9; xziii. 15, &c.) and in iv Bm 
[vi. 1-3] Gehenna ii no longer the 
place of paniihment of unrighteooa 
Jewi hut of tbe wioked generally. 
In later Judaiim the conoeptica 
underwent a further change. G«benn» 
wai regarded as the Purgator? of 
futhloe Jewa who were afterwards 
to be admitted into Paradise, bat Uie 
place of eternal perdidon for the 
Gentiles; <£ Weber. L. d. T. 316, 7. 


Sect. I.] Chapter XX VI. 3 — XXIX. 2. lof 

is for those who are accmsed for ever : here will all those be 
gathered together who atter nnseemly words with their lips 
agunst God, and speak hard things of His Gloiy; here will 
they be gathered together, and here is the place of their pun- 
ishment. 3. And in the last days there will he the spectacle 
of a righteous judgment apon them, in the presence of the 
righteons continually for ever ; here will those who have 
found mercy bless the Lord of glory, the Eternal King. 
4. And in the days of judgment over the former, they will 
bless Him for the mercy in accordance with which He has 
assigned them ftheir lot).' 5. At that time I also blessed 
the Lord of Olory and q)ake to Him and remembered His 
greatness, as was befitting. 

XXVIII. I. Then I went towards the east, into the midst 
of the mountain range of the desert, and I saw here nothing 
save a plain. 2. Nevertheless it was filled with trees of 
this seed, and water streamed down from above over tt. 3. 
It was manifest that there were many watercourses which 
flowed as well towards the north as to the west, and here 
also as everywhere water and dew ascended. 

XXIX. I. And I went to another place, away from the desert, 
drawing nigh to the east of the mountain range. %. And 
then I saw the trees of judgment^ particularly such as give 

XXyn. 3. ThoM who have found m«ray. The text gives 
tmnCS^ = ' the merciful ' ; bat the seme requires the meaning given 
above. The text may be a comiptioa of ^Ih£>1='thoM who have 
found mercy.' The Gia. Ok, gives iat^ls, a corruption of ttiat^'it. 

S. Utt«r nnMMaly word* : Me v. which npKrntei thb plun tnan Jeni- 

4 (note). 8. SpMitttoto : cf. zlviil. nltm. Aoconling to Eiek. zlrii. 8, 

9}lz]j.i).'Whoh«T0foimditiMnnr: tUi dcaart should one dky b* well 

■M Crit. Not«. Ziord of KI017 : lee wktarad and ooTorad with tnea. 
ziT. 3. SteniAl "Ttng : Ke izt. 3 X3EJX. 1- Enoch goa itill fnrtLer 

(note} . But ind conun to ths ngicw of h*- 

XXVni. 1. Din. lakei the plain grant tT«a. S. Treei of JndsniMit, 

hen referred to to be that of the i. e. tree* whioh will be given to the 

JotdAn, and the mouatain range of righteooi after the judgment : a£ x. 

the deMTt to be the rock; r^os 19; Ii. Ix. 6; Fi. IzziL 10. 80 


I02 The Book of Enoch. [Seoti. 

forth the fragrance of frankmceDse loid myrrhj iiad the trees 
also were BuniUr. 

XXX. I. And above that (even) above thesej above the 
Eastern Motmtam and not far digtant, I saw another plaee, 
v^leya (fed) with onfuling streams. 2, And I saw a 
beautiful tree, which reaembles a fragrant tree such as tiie 
mastic. 3. And on the eides of those valleys I saw sweet- 
smelling cinnamon. And paseing over these I drew nigh to 
the east. 

XXXI. I. And I saw other monnt^uns on which there were 
trees, and there flowed forth from them ae it were nectar, and 
it is named Sarira and Galbanum. 1. And over that 
mountain I saw another mountain whereon were aloe-trees 
and those trees were full of a hard substance like almonds. 
3. And the taste of that fruit (lit. 'when one took of that 
fruit ') was better thui all &agnuit odours. 

XXXII. I. And after these fragrant odours, as I looked to- 
wards the north, over the mountains, I saw seven mountains 
full of choice nard and aromatic trees and cinnamon and 
pepper. 2. And thence I went over the summits of those 

XXIX. 2. Tlie trees also were aimllar. So Q M : tt9tD-ti 
jB^h»yflA. Add 'to walnut-trees' from the Giz. Ok. Din. and 
F H K L N give d8a>l: A^'T'Tftft', which Din. tranHlates 'waren 
nicht gleich (gewobnlichen) Kumen.' 

XXX. 2. WMoh reHmbles a fragrant tree mioh aa tlie maatio. 
SoQM: ltBaPMi;Oe: tfoWi htfo; X>h Hfth.?^. Thiereading 
supports the reading of Q M in zxix. 2. Cf. zxxii. 4. Din. 
find F H L N give ' the fragrance of which is like the fragrance 
of mastic.' 

XXXL I. There flowed forth, firom them, as it were neotar. 
Ho 0: a>jC0dIk: 3l?"fcU": hin>! WTC. Din. and FHKLNO 
insert "H-t (Dfi^otX 'and there flowed forth water, and there 
flowed forth from them as it were nectar.' M points to the text 
of G. The Giz. Gk. sappoi-ts G. 

Jfln., but (fail interpreUtiott nema tr»« he mwui* U nncerUin. 
forced. XXXL 1. 8«e Crit. Note. 

XXX.a.AbeaatifaltrM. What 

iiized by Google 

Sect. I.] Chapter XXX. i — XXXIII. i. 


mountains, far towards the east, and passed above tlie Ery- 
thraean sea and went far from it and passed over the angel 
ZutSl 3. And I came into the garden o£ righteousness tuid 
saw beyond those trees many large trees growing there, of 
goodly firagmnce, large, very beantifol and glorious, and 
the tree of wisdom which imparts great wisdom to those who 
eat of it. 4. And it is like the Carob tree : its fruit is 
like the clusters of the vine, very beantifnl : t^e fragrance 
of the tree goes forth and penetrates afar. 5. And I said : 
' This tree is beantiful, and how beaatiful and attractive 
is its look I ' 6, And t^e holy angel Knfael, who was with 
me, answffl^ me and said : ' This is the tree of wisdom, of 
which tJity old father and thy aged mother, who were before 
thee, have eaten, and they leamt wisdom and their eyes were 
(^>ened, and they recognised that they w^« naked, and they 
were driven ont of the garden.' 

XXXIII. I. From thence I went to the ends of the earth 
and saw there great beasts, and each difiered from the otlier, 
and (I saw) birds also differing in appearance and beauty and 

XXTETT. a. Bi7ti>neM ■•«■ Tha 
Psniao and Indiui oceans : of. Ixxni. 
6, 7. ZxMA. Thu •MDu U> be (li« 
angel who guarded the entrance la 
Paiadiie. S. Oardan of rishte- 

onaneia : oC IxinL 3 ; alw Ix. 8, 
13; IxL II, with nolM. In IxxTii. 3 
the garden ii in ths N.B., and the 
description hen would admit of the 
same localit?; In \xx. 3, on ths other 
hand, it is in the N.W. Again, in 
xxiTii-lzx, as well as in the Koachio 
fragmeote, tbi* garden !• tbe abad« 
of tike departed i^htaons ; bat in i- 
xxsvi this is trot so ; to a special 
dinsion in Sheol Is assigned to the 
souls of the righteooa. It would seem 
therefiiM that tbe Garden or Pantdiae 
spckoi of In zizTii-liz is not the 
esrthl; Paradise, bat the heavenly 
one, and that it is in fiwt identiosl 
wilh the dirisioD set ^lart in Bheol 

for righteoiu saub. This Tle«r is 
farther oonfirmed by the &ot that 
this Faradiae of the righteons is said 
to lie in the N.W. in lix. 3, 4-~a 
■talement that baimoidies peifeotlj 
with the looaU^ asdgned to Sbeol 
inxxii.l, i.e. the Wert. The earthly 
Garden of Bdea tkerefbre appears to 
have no further ctmnezion with the 
destinies of manldad according to the 
Ethiopie Gnocb. 6. Adam and 

Eve are hare snpposed to be still 
living. Henoe, if x. 1 belongs to this 
■ection originally, the writer adopted 
the Samaritan chronology, bat if, as 
we mnit rather believe, z. 1-3 is 
an intrnpolatfon, then the Hebrew 
reckoning is here possible. Bee Iiv. 
a (note). Observe that Adam's ain is < 
not regarded a* the oaosa of man's 
fin and deatniotion in the deluge. 


104 "^^ ^^^ °f -^WiwA. [Sect. I: 

voice, and they all diffned the one from the other. 3. And 
to the east of these beasts I saw the ends of l^e earth whereon 
the heaven rests, and the portals of the heaven were open. 
3, And I saw how the stars of heaven come forth, and I 
counted the portals out of which they proceed, and wrote 
down all their outlets; of each individual star by itself, 
according to their number, their luunea, their connexions, their 
positions, their times and their montiis, as the holy angel 
Uriel who was with me showed me. 4. He showed all 
things to me and wrote than down for me : aJso their names 
he wrote for me, and their laws and their companies. 

XXXIV. I. From thence I went towards the north to the 
ends of the earth, and there I saw a great and glorious wonder 
at the ends of the whole earth. z. Here I saw three open 
portals of heaven in the heaven : from each of them proceed 
north winds: when one of these blows there is cold, hail, 
frost, snow, dew, and rain. 3. And out of one portal it 
blows for good : but when they blow through the two other 
portals, it is with violence, and it brings misfortune on the 
earth, and they blow (at such times) violently. 

XXXV. From thence I went towards the west to the 
ends of the earth, and saw there three open portals such as I 
saw (afterwards) in the east, the like portals and the like 

XXXYI. I. From thence I went to the south to the ends 

XXXm. 4. Thelp oompanlas. So M '^■JflfrtlPtfO'. Din. 
gives y^fW-Wtf*" ' their fanotlonB.' 

XXXIV. I. A great and glorious woniter. So Din. and ail 
MSB. but G, which reada .?Tu;=' device.' 

XXTTTT. a. WhMAontliabAwrMa mod moon, IzziL 3. 

tHte: Me zTiii. 5 (nota). 8. The XXXIV. In thii eb»pt«r EdooIi 

poittll of the Itan ben numlioned daBQiib(athep<nieJsoftlieiiarthwJDd' 

■MduaribadatlengUiiiilizU-lxizii. m well m the lutiire of theie irladi. 

If we are to regud tlis two moooomta Cf. Ixzvi. 

M In the nudn OMiiiitetit, tike poitali XXXT. Poiiidi of the welt wind*, 

of th« itan ue kbo thoae of the lan XXXVL L Pottali of the loitUi 


g*ct.r.] Chapter XXXIII. 2 — XXX VI. ^. 105 

of the earth, and eaw there three open portals of the heaven : 
thence come the eouthwind, dew, rain, and wind. a. From 
thence I went to the eaat to the ends of the heaven, and saw 
here the three eastern portals of heaven open and small portals 
above them. 3. Throogh each of these small portals pass 
the stars of heaven and ran thar course to the west on the 
path which is shown to than. 4. And when I saw it I 
blessed (Him) and thus each time I blessed the Lord of Glory 
who had made the great and glorious wonders, to show the 
greatness of His work to the angels and the souls of men, 
that they might praise His work and all His creation : that 
they might see the work of His might and praise the great 
work of His hands and bless Him for ever. 

XXXVI. 4. Hlght pralM Hla work and all Hlx oreatioii : 
tbot the; might mo. So G H : iKAr: tVOC. Other MSS. and 
Dla. give 'Might pnuse His work and that all His creatures 
might see.' 

windi. 3. Enoeh Ntonu to llie tho winds and the portals for tbe etan 

Eiut, and here he wee the portalg fw above them. 



(chapters xxxvn — lkxi.) 


A. Critieal Strueture. B. Sdaiion of xxxvii-lxxl to th» reH of 
the ho^ C. DaU. D. The Probhm and iu Sotutum. 

A. CSritioal Stmatnre, This Section gives on the whole 
a coneisteiit apocalyptic u distinguished from a prophetic picture 
of the future, and may be regarded, as coming from one and the 
same hand. It contains, however, numeraiia and extenaive inter- 
poktions, i.e. xxxix. i, 2»; sli. 3-8; xliii ; xliv; 1; liv. 7-lv, 2; 
Ivi. S-lvii. 3*; liz; Iz; Ixv-lxix. 35; Ixzi. These interpoktions, 
with the exception possifaty of 1 ; Iti. 5-lvii. 3'; Uxi, are drawn 
from an already eziBting Apocalypse of I^oah and adapted by their 
editor to their adjoining contests in Enoch. This he does by 
borrowing characteristic terms, euoh as ' Lord of Spirits,' ' Head of 
Days,' ' Son of Man,' to which, however, either through ignorance 
or of set intention he generally gives a new connotation : see Notea 
for details. 1; Ivi. s-lvii. 3* may be from the same hand, bnt 
belong rather to the prophetic than to the Apocalyptic school of 
thought. Ixxi ie of the nature of a mosaic and is modelled, as 
Kostlin saw (Tiuol. Jahr. 1856, p. 378), on ch. xiv, and on 
various sections of the Similitndea, of which it appears to ^ye 
a deliberate perversion. See Notes. 

B. Belatlon of xzxvU-lzxi to the rest of the book. As all 
critics are now agreed that the Similitudes are distinct in origin 
from the rest of the book, there is no occasion ibr treating ex- 
haustively the grounds for this conclusion. Accordingly, we shall 
give here only a few of the chief characteristics whioh differentiate 
this Section from sU the other Sections of the book. (a) Ifamea 
of Ood flsund (miy In xxxvli-txxl, ' Lord of Spirits ' (passim); 


Introduction. . 1 07 

'Head of Days' (zlvi. 2); 'Lord of the Highty' (Ixiii. a); 'Lord 
of the Ralers'(lxiii. 3); 'Lord of Wisdom '(Ixiii. a). (6) Ai>s«l- 
olog7. The four chief angela in xxxni-lxzi are Michael, Bniael, 
Gabriel, and Fannel. Fanael is not mentioned elsewhere in the 
book, whicb gives Uriel instead. In xiv. il Gbd is surronnded 
by Cherubim: but in Ixi. 10; Ixxi. 6, by Cherubim, Serft- 
pbim, and Ophaoim, angels of power, and angels of dominions. 
The angel of peace (xL 8) is also peculiar to the Similitudes, 
(c) Domoiiologjr. In the other Sections of the book the mns of 
the angels consisted in their lusting after the daughters of men 
(vi-viii), bat in liv. 6 in their becoming subjecta of Satan. In xxirii- 
Isx an evil spirit-world is presupposed ftwa tbe beginning, but not 
in the reet of the book. Satan and the Satane, xl. 7; lili. 3; liv. 6, 
are not even mentioned in the other Sections. These have access 
to heaven, il. 7, whereas in the other Sections only good angels have 
access there. Tbe angels of punishment also are found for the first 
time in xxxvii-lxxL (if) The Heaalanio doctrine in xxxvii-lxx 
is unique, not only as r^ards the other Sections of Enoch, bub 
also in Jewish literatnre as a whole. The Messiah pre-exists 
xlviii. a (note) &om the beginning : be aits on the throne of Ood, 
xlvii. 3, and possesses universal dominion, Ixii. ti ; all judgment is 
committed unto bim, Ixix^ 37, and he slays the wicked by the word 
of his month, Ixii. a. Taming to the other Sections we find tbat 
there is no Messiah in i— xxxvi and in xci-civ, while in Ixxxiii-xc 
the Messiah b evidently human and possesses none of the great 
attributes belonging to the Messiah of the Similitudes. (s) The 
^cffiff of tlie TlfniinlaTilfi kdngdom in i--xxxvi is Jerusalem and the 
earth purified from sin ; in ixxxiii-xc, a heavenly Jerusalem set 
up by Ood Himself; in xci-civ, Jerusalem and the earth as 
they are ; but in xxxvii-lxz, a new heaven and a new earth, 
zlv. 4, 6 (note). Again, the duration lA the H eeaianio Ungdom 
in i-zxxvi is eternal, but the life of its members limited. The 
duration of the Mesmanic kingdom in Izxziil-xo is eternal, and 
the life of its members eternal (!). The daration of the Uesuanic 
kingdom in xci-dv is limited, and the life of its members limited. 
(In xci-civ the real interest centres, not in the Messianic kiQg- 
dom, but in the future spiritual life of the righteous.) But 
tbe duration of the Messianic kingdom in xxxvii-lxx is eternal, 
and the life of its members eternal. 

C. Date. From a full review of the evidence, which is given 
and discussed in the notes on xxxvili. 5, it appears that the kings 


io8 The Book of Enoch. [ 

and the mighty so often denounced in the Similitudes are the later 
Maccabean princeB and their Sadducean sopporters — the later 
Maccabean princes, on the one hand, and not the earlier ; for the 
blood of the righteous waa not shed as the writer complains (zlvii. 
I, z, 4) before 95 B.C.: the later Uaccabean princes, on the other 
hand, and not the Herodiaos; for (i) the Saddnceea were not 
supporters of the latter, and (3) Rome was not as yet known to 
the writer as one of the great world-powen — a &ct which neces- 
sitatee an earlier date than 64 B.c^ when Borne interposed 
authoritatively in the afbirs of Judaea. Thus the date of tlie 
Similitudes conld not have been earlier than 94 b. c. or later than 
64 B. c. But it is possible to define the date more precisely. 
Ab the Pharisees enjoyed unbroken power and prosperity under 
Alexandra T9-70 b.c., the Similitudes most be assigned either 
to the years 94-79 or 70-64. Finally, if we consider that Ivi. 5- 
IviL 3" is an interpolation, and that this passage most have been 
written and interpolated before 64 B.C., the Similitudes might reason- 
ably be referred to the years 94-79. See also Qen. Introd., p. 30. 
D. The Froblem and ita SolntioiL Seeing that Ood ia a 
just Ood, how comes it that wickedness is throned in high places 
and that righteousness is oppressed 1 Is there no end to the 
prosperity and power of unbelieving rulers, and no recompense 
of reward for the suffering righteous % The author (in the geouine 
portions) finds the answer in a oomprehenBive view of the world's 
history : only by tracing evil to its source can the present wrong- 
nesa of things be undwstood, and only by parsaing the world's 
history to its final issnes can it« present inequalities be justified. 
The author haa no interest save for the moral and spiritual worlds, 
and this is manifeBt even in the divine names ' Lord of Spirits,' 
' Head of Days,' ' Most High.' Whole hierarchies of angelic beings 
appear in Ixi. lo-iz. His view is strongly apocalyptic, and 
follows closely in the wake of Daniel. The origin of Sin is traced 
one stage Jtirther back than in i-xxzvi. The first authors of sin 
were the Satans, the advemries of man, xl. 7. The Watchers fell 
through becoDUBg Bubject to these, and leading mankind astray, 
liv. 6. Punishment was at once meted out \a the Watchers, and 
they were confined in a deep abyss, liv. 5, to await the final jndg* 
ment, liv. ti ; Iv. 4 ; Ixiv. In the meantime sin flourishee in the 
world : sinners deny the name of the Lord of Spirits, xxxviii. a ; 
xli. 3, and of His Anointed, xlviii. 10; the kings and the mighty 
of the earth trust in their sceptre and glory, Ixiii. 7, and 


Sect, n.] Introduction. 109 

oppress the elect of the children of God, Irii. r i. But the prayer 
of tha righteoQB BBceudB, and their blood goes np before the Lord 
of Spiritfl crying for vengeance, xlvii, i ; and the angels unite 
in the prayer of the righteous, xlrii. a. But the oppresmon of 
the kings and the mighty will not cootinne for ever : suddenly 
the Head of Days will appeu and with Him the Son of Man, 
xIti. a, 3, 4 ; zlyiii. a, to execute judgment npon all alike — on the 
HghteouB and wicked, on angel and on man. And to this end 
there will be a Reanrrection irf all Israel, 11. i ; Izi 5 ; the books 
of the living will be opened, xlvii. 3 : all judgment will be com- 
mitted nnto the Son of Man, zli. 9; Utx. 37; the Son of Uan 
will poBsesa univerBoI dominion, Ixii. 6, and sit on the throne <si 
his glory, IziL 3, 5 ; Ixix. 27, 29, which is likewise Qod's throne, 
xlvii. 3 ; li. 3. He will judge the holy angels, Ixi. 8, and the 
fallen angels, Iv. 4, the righteous upon earth, IxiL 3, and the 
sinners, bdi. a ; bnt particularly those who oppress his saints, 
the kings and the mighty and th(»e who poasesB the earth, xlyiii. 
4-7 ; liii. 3 ,* hdi. 3, 1 1. All are judged according to their deeds, 
for their deeds are weighed in the balance, xli. i. The fallen 
angels ore cast into a fieiy furnace, liv. 6 ; the kings aiMl the 
mighty confess their aina, and pray for forgiveness, but in vain, 
Ixiii; and are given into the hands of the righteous, xxxviii. g; 
and their destruction wiU famish a spectacle to the righteous as 
they bom and vauieh for ever out of sight, xlviii. 9, 10 ; Ixii. la ; 
to be tortured in Gehenna by the angela of punishment, liii. 3-5 ; 
liv. I, 2. The remaining sinners and godless will be driven from 
v& the &ce of the earth, xxzviii. 3 ; xli 2 ; xlv. 6. The Son of 
Man will slay them with the word of his mouth, Ixii. a. Sin and 
wrongdoing will he banished from the earth, xlix. a ; and heaven and 
earth will be transformed, xlv. 4, 5 ; and the righteous and elect 
will have their mansiona therein, xxxix. 6 ; xli. a. And the light 
of the Lord of Spirits will ahine upon them, xxxviii. 4 ; xlriil 9 ; 
they will live in the light of eternal life, IriiL 3. The Elect One 
will dwell amongst them, xlv. 4 ; and they will eat and lie down 
and rise up with liim for ever and ever, bdi. 14. They will be 
dad in garments of life, Ixii. 15, iti; and shine as fiery lights, 
xxxix. 7 ; and become angels in heaven, li. 4. And they will 
seek after light and find righteouBness and peace with the Lord of 
Spirits, Iviii. 3, 4 ; and grow in knowledge and righteousness, 
Iviii. 5. 

Digitized by GtXlglc 

The Book of Enoch. 

[Sect. II. 

XXXVII. I. Tbe vision whicli he saw, the eecood visioB of 
wisdom — which Enoch the son of Jared, the son of Mahslalel, 
the son of Cainan, the son of Enoa, the son of Seth, the 
son of Adam saw. 2. And this is the b^finning of the 
words of wisdom which I lifted np my voice to declare and 
reconnt to those which dwell on earth : hear, ye men of 
old time, and see, ye that come after, the holy words which I 
will speak before the Lord of Spirits. 3. It were better 

XXXVII. I. Tb« vUdon whlob lie saw: £AA HCXt- Ihese 
words are omitted in Dhi.'s irtmBlation. 3. Iiiftod up my voloe 
to declare. Al^XlH k^fVC- Bhi. givee wrongly 'anhab zu 
reden,' but tbe phrase is rightly translated in his Lexicon. ^A 
is to be nnderstood after Al^A. The same idiom oconrs in 
zxTvii. g: Izxxiii. 5: Ixzxv. 3. When tbe writers of Enoch 
wish to express the idea of beginning to do an action, tbey 
use XtHi XIH followed by tbe indicative, as in Ixxrvi. 5; 
Ixzzviii. 1, or A'fH followed immediately by the sal^Dnctive, 
Iviii. I. (DOIf is also used In this sense in this book followed 

XXZTXI. 1. The genMlogy with 
whioh this •ecticm begini agrees with 
toMiy other ehaiaoterutioi of the 
Sunilitndei in nurking It ont u tux 
independent work. 9. ICan of old 
time. Tbcae would EmbrMe Cmdau, 
Mkhabled, uid iitA, aooording to 
the LXX. chronology, which ii ful- 
lowed in the ffimllitudea. See liv. 7 
(note); Izz. 4 (note). ZiOrd <d 
Spltita. Tht« 

oontemporary or earlira wriUngi that 
I mm ftwue <J. It it fbnnd in ixxvii. 
4 (twice); ravlii. 1 (twice), 4, S; 
xuli. 3, 7 (twice), 8, g (twice), i» ; 
xL I, 1, 4, g, 6, 7, \a\ lU. 3 (twice), 
6, 7 ; iliii. 4 (twice); iIt. i, 3 ; xlvi. 
3 (twice), 6, 7, S ; iItII. i, 3 (twioe), 
4: zlTiii.3,3,5, 7(twice), 10 (twice); 
xliz.3,4; L 1,3 (twice), s; li.3;Ui. 

5,9; liii.6; liv. 5,7; 1t,3,4; l»it. 3; 
lvlii.4,6(twioe); liz. I, 1; 11.6,8,14, 
isCtwice); ID.3, s,B,9 (thrioo), II, 13 
(twice); liii. 1, 10, 11, 14, 16 (twice); 
Ixiii. I, 3 (twioe), 7, 19 (twice); liT. 
9, II ; Izvl. 1 ; livii. 8, 9 ; liTiii. 4 
(twice) ; Iiii. 34 (twioe), 39 ; Ixz. i ; 
lui. a, 17. Id the text (f G, whtoh 
I hkve followed, this title ooonn in 
zl. 10 And Izi. g, where it doe* act 
ftppeu in DIn.'i text. In Din. 'a enn- 
ioD of the pnnegei in which it 
ooccra, he omits Mven by ovenlght. 
We find it in ell 104 timee, and 18 lA 
(heie at least in the Interpdatioaa. 
Iq the genuine portiMU It atand* in 
the cloeertaonnazioD with the charac- 
ter of its context: of. iixii. tl; xl. 
i-io; xlri. 3-8, .4c.: but in the In- 
trapolntioni t)jti appropriateneai li 
wanting : et ili. 6, 7 ; lii. i, 3, where 


tei.ll.] Chapter XXXVII. \— XXXVIII. I. iii 

to declare (tiiem) to those men of old time, but even from 
those that come after we will not withhold the beginning of 
wisdom. 4. Till the present day the Lord of Spirits has 
never given snch wisdom as I have received according to 
my insight, according to the good pleasure of the Lord of 
Spirits by whom the lot of eternal life baa been given to me, 
5. Three Similitudes were imparted to me, and I lifted up my 
voice and recounted them to those that dwell on the earth. 

XXXVIII. I. First SimiKtude. When the congregation of 
the righteous will appear and sinners are judged for their sins 

immediately by the subjunctive, XlH with the indicative, < 
and a finite verb. 5. Zilfted up m; voice : see note on v. 

only tbingi of tiia D»tiinl world ue 
- in queation : cf. «Ibo the other pai- 
Bkge*. This loBjli to the coDjecture 
Uut thii ^tle wu iDtrodaoed into 
these InterpoktioOB when they were 
inoorpoTkted in the SimOitiide*, with 
a view to kdspting them to their new 
conteiti. 4, ThA lot of at«Rl«l 
Ufa : cf. iL g ; Uiii. 3 ; liii 14. In 
i-mri the life of tlie member of the 
Meaduue kin^om i* at the be*t 
limited in dsnti(Hi,T. 9; z,l7;zxT.6, 
In xzirii-lzlz it ii etemU : in the 
Heavanic kingdom of the Dream 
Viiions, lixziii-lizzii, its doration ia 
uncertain. The kingdom itMlf li 
teoipnru; in xd-^v and the real re- 
oompenae of the fighteona ii the eter- 
nal life whioh folioin on the dote of 
the Meaiianio kingdom and the Sua) 
jadgment. 5. SimlUtode*. The 
Ethiopio word here repreientt im- 
mediately vapa^aAoi and mediately 
Q'pl^, 7^ is u«ed pretty mnah 
in the came aenae here m in Nnm. 
"•"' 7,lS en' JobzzTii, 1, and means 
merely an.eUboratediaoouTM, whether 
in the Ibrm of a viaion, a propheoy, 
er a poem, Itt objaot ii genentlly 
parenetic. ^nioMtlMt dwell on the 

earth. This phraae (except in xlvi. 
7 and Izz. 1, whero it is merely geo- 
graphical) ia need ia a good ethical 
•ensa in tbe gannine portiona of thia 
aection. CCixxvii. j; x1.6,7i xlTiii.j. 
80 Bev. xIt. 6. Bat b the Interpo- 
lations it calls ap different aaaoclv 
tiona : these are bad in liv. g ; It. I ; 
Ix. S; IxT. 6, 11; liTi. i; Ixvil. 8 ; 
und either doubtful or mere]; geo- 
graphical in iliiL 4 ; liii. I ; 1!t. 6 ; Iv. 
1; Ixvii. 7; lxix.1. We ihoold obaerre 
that thia phraae haa an evil aignifi- 
canoe in Berelation, except in xiv. 8. 
Cf. iii. 10; Ti. 101 Tiii. 13; li 10 
(twice); liii. 8, 14; xvil. 8. 

Z XXV 111. Hie time of requital 
ia coming. When the Meanah a^ 
pean and the light of the Lord of 
Bpirits ahinee on the face of the light- 
eoOH and eleot, where will be tbe 
future hatutntion of the ilnnera and 
godless T !> Tlio ooDSragatioiiof 
ttia riglit«oaa. Thia phraae, whi<di 
ia peculiar to the parahlaa, ii explained 
by a oimipariaoii of xxxrlil. 3 ; liii, 6 ; 
Ixii.S. CtPB.oilii.1, 'In tbeoongie- 
gation of the aainta ' ; Faa. Sol. xtU. 18. 
DrivDU from ths fMe of the earth. 
Thia form of pniuahmant ia &eqoantly 

itradb, Google 

1 1 2 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. ii. 

and driven from the face of the earth : a. And when the 

RighteonB One shall appear before the eyes of the elect right- 
eous whose works are wrought in dependence on the Lord of 
Spirits, and light will appear to the righteoos and the elect 
who dwell on the earth — where then will be the dwelling of 
the sinners, and whae the resting plaee of those who have 
denied the Lord of Spirits ? It had beoi good for them if 
they had not been bom. 3. And when the secrets of the 

righteous shall be revealed, then will the sinners be judged 
and the godless driven from the presence of the righteoue and 
elect. 4. And from that time those who possess the earth 

XXXYIII. a. WhoM worfca are wrought In dependenoe on 
tlie Iiont of Spirit* : lit. ' hang upon.' The same meaning is to 
he given to the word IlMi in zl. 5 and xlvi. 8. In these three 
instances Dln-'s translation gives to this word the meaning of ' gewo- 
gen," weighed': 'whoee works are wei|^ed by the Lord of Spirits,' 
hut in his Lexicon he has tacitly withdrawn thk interpretation. 

(bond. Cf. Li; xxxvifi. 3 ; ill. t ; bMTenly wcrld, zIt. i ; the Hesdah, 

ilv.1,6; ilri.8; ilvHi.9,io;IiiL]; zlviii. 10; the ipirit of God, IziiL 10 ; 

Iziz. 17. 2. ThsBishtooiu One. Uw righteoiu jndgmait, li. 6. The 

The Hemkh will not appear tOl the righteoiu on the other hand beUere 

final judgment. TheMeanah ii Tari- in the name of the Lord, zliiL 4. 

only named : ' The BIgbteoni and Obeerre that thig i^raw U taken orer 

Elect One,' llii. 6 ; ■ The Eleot One of into the Interpolationa, IitU. 8, 10. 

right«Diume(B and of buth,' mli . 6 ; It had been good for them, Ae. 

■ Tbe Elect One,' zl. 5 ; iIt. 3 ; lUz. CI Bt. Matt, xivi 14. Edcnfaeim, 

1. 4;U-3, 5; lii.6, 9; lit;. 6; It. 4; UfaimATiimt»>ffJt»mti*Uu*(iA, 

lii.5,8, loj bcti. l; 'TheUonah,' 11. 1 ao, ptdnla out that this wai a well* 

xlriii. 10 ; lii. 4. For other dengna- known rabbinic eipresdon. fl.When 

tianJ^ tee note on ilvl. i. Obeerre the aaoreta of tbe rlchteona ahall 

that ai the memben of the kingdom be revealed. The hieeiingi In itore 

are ' the righteoiu,' wo the Mnwiiih ia for the rightemu, die heritage of faith, 

■theRighlMoaOne'; cf. ' The Elect,' are iUll hidden, IviiL 5; bnt the; wHl 

'HieBleotOne.' Xleot rlsbtooiu. one day be revealed. He Meadah 

Hwe only tn Enoch. Denied the hlm—lf ii hidden with the Lord tA 

ItOld of Spirit*. TUl charge ii fre- Bplrite, liii. 7. 4. Hie eapremacy 

qaeutly bmo^t againat the onnen : and oppreiaion d the earth'* mlere 

It If In bot 'tte head and front of and great onee are gpeedUj drawing 

their offending.' Cf. xU. a ; iIt. 3 ; to a ele«e. Ttd* ii the ooBrtant theme 

slTi. 7 ; xlviii. 10 ; Iziii. 7. Cf. St. of the KmiUtndea, xlvi. 4-8 -, ilviiL 

Jndc^ 4. Th^ denj llkewlM the S-iOilULsi Izii. i-ia; Uii, and 


sect.n.] Chapter XXX Vm. 2-5. 113 

will no longer be powerful and exalted, and they will not be 
able to bdiold the i»xa of the holy, for the light of the Lord 
o£ Spirits is seen on the face of the holy and righteous and 
elect. 5. Then will the kings and the mighty perish and 

5. Tha UngB and tbe mlgh^. So Q M. 

hu been Uken over Into Uw Int«rpo- 
latinu, liTii. 6-13; •nd thli ta odb 
of the leading oharacteriitie* which 
diitiaguiih zxxrii-Uii icasa zci-<iiT. 
With the rolen of the euth m sDidL 
the Ikttor HctioD hu pnotic^y no 
eonoem. The holy uid riaht- 

eotu and eleat. Thi* deaignktian >< 
found ftUo in ilTiii. i. The light 
of tHe Z.aTd of Spirits la Men on 
the boe of the holy. Thii light ii 
>t oDoe iplritiul knd phyuokl : the 
neunen of God'i pneenoa tranafigurea 
the coantenaooe and penon of His 
akinta. Light in &11 its fomu ia the 
ble«a!Dg of the kingdom. The right- 
eona will have lights Ukd jo;, and 
peace, v. 7, and the light of Ood 
■billing upon thnn, i. 8. In th« 
Similitudea the heaven will be trana- 
fonned into an eternal light, iIt. 4; 
and light will appear onto the right- 
eona, xixviii. 3 ; and the light of daj^a 
will abide upon them, 1. i ; tbej will 
abide in the light of the ana and in 
the light of eternal life, Iviii. 3 ; their 
faces will be illuminated with the 
light of the Lord of %irita, xxxviii. 4; 
and the; will aeek after light and find 
righteouaneaa, and the light of truth 
will be mlghtj for eTenuore, Iviii. 
3-4. The Idea ta atill further de- 
vdoped in xd-oviiL The lighteoua 
belong to the geneiation of ligh^ 
eviii. II ; and will be olad in light, 
eviii. Ill and will walk in eternal 
light, iidi. 4 ; and will be raaplendent 
and ahine aa the light* of heaven for 
eTBnn<H«,cTiii. 131 dT. )■ S. Tha 
Unca and Uie michty 1 cf. IziL i, 

3,6,9; Iziii. I, ), ij; Iivii. 8, 11. 
Thaae deaignationa ate ptMtioaUy 
«7non7moaa in the Similitudea. The 
phiaae ' nu^t/ kinga,' which appears 
cAen in Din.'s text, ia without the 
•opport of the beat HSS. eioept in 
It. 4, and there I feel we maet regard 
the text aa oorrupt, and read ' the 
kinga and the mighty.' Ilia better 
teit removea,a» we ahall find, atleaat 
one foRDidabls difficulty in the Inter- 
pretation. Who then are thsM kinga 
and might; one*! Hie facta taken 
together point deddedlj to nnbelier- 
ing native rulere and Saddnoeea. Thej 
have denied the Lord and HU Aiunnt- 
edL ilviii. 10 ; and a heavenly world, 
xlv. I ; the; belong to the hooaai of 
Hia eongregaliona — to the Theocratic 
conununity, ilvi. 8 ; but they are an 
offence thereto, an offaove on the 
removal of which the Theocratic ideal 
will be realiaed, liiL 6 ( they do not 
acknowledge from whom their powa 
la derived, ilvi. 5 ; bat tniat in their 
lichee, ilvi. f ; and place thelt hope 
in their aceptre and gloiy, IziiL 7 ; 
tUey have made the righteoua thtir 
aervanti, itvi. 7 ; and outraged God'a 
children, IziL 1 1 ; and ahed their 
blood, ilviL I, i. Accordingly they 
will have to stand before the Meaaiah 
whom they have denied, when He 
jndgea the angeli, Ixi. 8 ; Iv. 4; and 
the tightaoui, liil. 3 ; and the ainneri, 
. Izii. 1 ; and they will be terrified, 
IxiL s i and fall down and wonhip 
theMeanah, Izii.9 ; and acknowledge 
the righteouaneaa of their judgment, 
IziU. 9 i and pray (or a rea[dte in oidec 



The Book of Enoch. 

[Sect. II. 

be g^veD into the band of the righteous and boly. 6. And 
thenceforward none will seek for mercy for them with the Lord 
of Spirits, for their life is at an end. 

to rspeut, liiU. i ; and eipre« tbdi 
thank B£[iviiig of faith, IziU. 8 ; bat 
tboir prayar will not b* heard, and the 
Lord of Spirits, Ixii. ii, and the 
lightaont, xlviil.g, wJU eieoate judg- 
ment npon tbem, and their dettruc- 
tiou will form k Bpeotaole over which 
the lighteoiu wiU rqtricc^ bcii. I a ; 
and thej will be delivered over to the 

will deeoend into the tortme* of hell, 
liiii. lo. Only one atatement aeenu 
to point to heathen rulen : i. e. ' their 
f^th ii in the godi which they have 
made with their handji,' ilvi. 7. But 

n (br 

the heathen or Saddnoean attitude 
of the Uaccabean princee and their 
Bnpporten, and with it we might aptly 
oompare Fn. Sol. I, 8 ; viii 14 ; xvii. 
17, wherein the lame personi are 
charged with snrpaaring the heathen 
in idtdatriea. There I> a like exag- 
geration of the wtckedneea of the Sad- 
daoeea in xciz. 7 ; civ. g. Hie king* 
and the mighty In the text^ therefore, 
are native nilen and Saddnceea. We 
thai agree with KSaUin. Thtol. Jahrb. 
1856, 368 iqq., and Din., Hazog,B.E. 
Kii. 351, in iilenti^ing tfaese piiuoee 
withtheUatofthed ecsy ing Aemonean 
dynaity. The Herodion dynasty waa 
not aupportad by the Sadduceea, and 
thni may be loft ont of oonaidavtion. 
Further, M there are no references 
to Borne in the ^militudea, it can- 
not as yet have made Its power to be 
feltinPaleatine; and the Similitudes, 
therefore, mast have been written be-- 
fore 64 B. a, when Borne in(«rpo«ed in 
fiivour of Aristobului IL Baldeniper- 
Indeed, triea t« ibow tlwl there «re 

the Roman power; but 
hii main oantention, that the falling 
A smoneans could htrdl; be designated 
M ' mighty kings,' it already uuwered 
□n critical gronnds: the phrase' mighty 
kings,' does not belong to the tme 
text. Hie lower limit is thoe €48.0., 
and the higher may be reasonably 
fixed at 94. His dlfferenoee between 
the Macoabaes and the Pluuiseec, 
vhioh had already grown important 
under John Eyrcanus with his Sad- 
duoean policy, were further developed 
under Arlatobnliu I> and In the early 
yean of Alex. Jannasus were intena- 
fied into an irrecondUble antagonism. 
This antagoniBmJtrtt Issoed in Uood- 
shed about 95 B. 0. , when 6000 Pbari- 
Bees were pot to death becaiue they 
insulted Alex. Jannaena for (ailing to 
comply with their views on ritual. 
TbbfaotexpUina the writer's demand 
fbr vengeance for the murder of the 
righteous, xlvii. i, 1, 4- Subseqaeut 
jean only embittered tliB strife be- 
tween the Pharisee! ard the Asmo- 
neaa head of the Sadducees, and 
provoked a dvil war in which 50,000 
Jews felL Weary of the straggle, 
Jannaeu* aaked the Pharisees to 
name their conditions of peace : their 
anawer was laconic ondirrecondlable, 
'Thy death'; but in the subsequent 
strife they were for the time crushed 
into impotence. Owing to the molti- 
tndes of Pbariaees slain byJaunaeu*, 
he oame lo be called 'the slayer of 
the pious.' With the aooession of 
Alexandra 79, howevra, the Pharisees 
became master* of the nation, and 
peace prevailed Ull 70, when again 
(he nation vras rent in twain and 
plunged into deraitatlDg and Uoody 


Sect, n.] Chapters XXX VIII. 6— XXXIX. 4. 115 

XXXIX. [i. And it -will come to pass in those days that elect 
and holy children of the high heaven mil descend, and their 
Beed will become one with the children of men. 2. In 

those days Enoch received books of zeal and wrath, and books 
of disqniet and expulsion] and ' mercy will not be accorded to 
them ' saith the Lord of Spirits. 3. And in those days 

a cloud and a whirlwind carried me off from the earth, and 
set me down at the end of the heavens. 4. And here I saw 
another vision, the mansions of the holy and the resting-places 

wan, through the fratemftl atrife of 
HjrcanDi II and AHatobnliu II. 
To a devout Phuiwe, the Uaoeabeee 
with their SMiduoeui mnd Hellanio 
piincipl«« might waQ t^pear m eii»- 
min of the Theocratic oomniaiiily 
during the yean 94-79 or 70-64. To 
one or other of theea periods, therefisre, 
we aeeign the eompoution tA the 
Sinulitnde*. Will be giveD into 
thB hand of the ligbieoiu. Thi« 
phnoe wodM ■eom to indicate the 
period of the iword, when the right- 
sona were themaelve* to llaj the 
wioked. fiat thia woold be uunit. 
able hem : the jndgmeitt ii cataatro- 
phio and fbrenmc The Sou of Man 

OBted by the angeli of puoishment, 
ill. 3 ; IxIL II. Thii phrue recuia 
in xlviii. g ; hat tbsre thu context 
nqoire* nt to nndentand the caaCing 
rf tb hingi into Gehenna. In L 1, 
where we again find this idea anmie. 
takeably, the dtfficolt; U obriated by 
the faot that 1 ia moat probably an 
interpolation. Sither, then, we have 
here an inoonniCent featoro introduced 
by tlie original writer, or elie the 
phnae la only to be taken in a gen- 
eral eeDta, aa eiprewing the triumph 
of the righteoui. Blshteoiu and 
bolr- This de>ignaDon of the mem- 
ben of the kingdom ia fonnd abo in 
xlriU. i,4,7;li. J (liT.ia). 6. 

Nona wHl aeok for meroj. The 

aeaaon for mercy ig paat, L 5. Thaiz 
lift Is at an end : i.e. their tenipraxl 

•. Tlua ia nndanbt- 
edly an interpolation : Din. tried in 
hia commentary to take thia a* an 
account of the deacent of the unTollen 
angels to lire with the righteoni, but 
he haa dnoe (Henog, B. E.) come to 
tee that it can only refer to the de- 
Kent of the watcherB to unite them- 
eelvei with the daughters of men, and 
must therefore be an intmiion here. 
By omitting it we get a amooth text. 
SIsot and holy ohUdrMl of tJM 
hiflh heaven : ot cvi. 13, ' Some 
from the height! of hearao.' For 
the epithet 'elect,' cfi I Tim. t. 31 'the 
elect angeU.' Sehodde eomparea Tob. 
Till. ij. XniMh rsoelved taooka of 
leal, to. Aa we ahall find later, 
Kanetimes an angel dictates to Enoch, 
at othen the angel himself write* 
the boolc and oommits it to Enoch, 
a. Carried me olE TiOM leems tn 
be reoonnted u a real translation of 
Enoch, at in lii. I ; af.ii£ingiii. 11, 
and not aaa mere incident in adream,at 
iniiT.8,9. A.Kantloiu. Thiaoould 
be rendered 'dwellings' or 'abiding- 
placet': tee zxiix. 7, S; xli. 3. The 
Tidon here(iizix. 4-1 >)eet forth ia pro- 
phetic, but there are many diffiflultiet 
in the inteapretation which we oan sor- 
moont only by bearing in mind that 
what we have here todeal with iaa vitf on 


1 16 The Book of Enoch. [8«ct. n. 

of the righteooB. 5. Here mine eyes saw their dwellings with 
His rigbteotiB augela. And their reeting-placea with the holy, 
and they petitioned, and interceded and prayed for the children 
of men, and righteousness flowed before them as water, and 
mercy like dew apon the earth : thus it is th^ Care for ever 
and ever. 6, And in that place mine eyes saw the Elect 

One of righteonaness and of faith, and how righteousness 
shall prevail in his days, and the righteous uid elect sh^ be 
without number before him for ever and ever. 7. And I 
saw his dwelling-place under the wings of the Lord of Spirits, 
and all the righteous and elect before him are beautifully 
reeplendent as lights of fire, and their mouth is full of blessing, 
and their lips extol the name of the Lord of Spirits, and 
righteousness before Him never faileth, and uprightness never 

XXXIX. 6. And In tliat place. So : VtSO-'UVx aoY^. Db. 
reads na)X*ti OifOA 'in those daya.' The Elect One erf 
rfcbtoouaneBS. So QM: ^tA\ AftJS^. Bin. and FHKLO 
give 0Vf|l! "W^'. HX'J&^ = ' the pkce of the elect ones of right- 
eouaneBS.' In his dt^s. So H. Din. and F H K L O (^ve 
'in their days.' 7. His dweUloK-plaoe. So QM '^'tJUT. 

DId. and FHKLNO ^^'t^A^P'oix = > their dwelling-places.' 
The original reading of O is obliterated: a late band gives 
fifflXtt. And uprightness never lUleth befbre Him. 

of Aef^tim McwJanie kingdom, uid under the wli^ of th« Lord of Spbila; 

that we mnit not pttm the deUiU; ;et this ii impoMible, a* the hutory 

for in thii, M in vuunu frequently, of mankjud ii Bot yet oonminuuated, 

there i» no ezaot obatuvuuie of the and tlie Uenah appeua only to oany 

niutiai of time and pUce. No one out iu coniDnimatian. Tlie chief 

individual period i< indicated ; for the iuference that wa can legitimately 

&«t Uiat the Meieiah ii miTouaded drav U that the MsManio oommani^ 

t^ all Hii righteoua and elect me* vill one day be oompowd of both 

•howi that the hiitory of the world ai^eli and tneu, under the rule of the 

ia doaad, and the final judgment Meanah and the immediate proteo- 

already paMed; yttthisiiimpowible, tion of tlie Lord of Spiriti, B. The 

H the angela are atill praying on be- water and daw are her« gymbolioal 

half of men. Nor from thii chapter, of abundance. C£ I*. Zl. 9 ; Amoa 

taken by ilaelT, ean we argue ai to t. 14. See alw> ch. zlix. i ; xciii. 9. 

the locality indioatsd by the virion, e. The Blaot One of rls^teouttMM 

At fint dght it ■eMDt to be heaven, and of faith : lee note on inviii. 1. 

a> theMwriah and the righteoniare 7. Baaplendant m Ushta of Are — 


S«ct. n.] Chapter XXXIX. 5-14. 1 17 

failetli before Him. 8. Here I wished to dvell and my 

§oul longed for that dwelling-place : here already heretofore 
had heen my portion, for so has it been established concerning 
me before the Lord of Spirits. 9. And in those days I 

landed and extolled the name of the Lord of Spirits with 
blessings and praises, because He hath destined for me 
blessing and glory according to the good plesBnre of the Lord 
of Spirits. 10. For a long time my eyes r^arded that 

place and I blessed Him and extolled Him, saying: 'Blessed be 
and may He be blessed from the beginning for evermore. 
II. Before Him there is no ceasing. He knows what the 
world is before it is created, and generation nnto generation 
that shall arise : 12. Those who sleep not bless Thee : 

they etimd before Thy glory and bless, land, and extol, saying : 
" Holy, holy, holy, is the Lord <£ Spirits ; He fiUeth the earth 
with spirits." ' 13. And here my eyes saw all those who 
sleep not, how they stand before Him and bless, uid say : 
' Blessed be Thon and blessed be the name of the Lord for 
ev^ and ever.' 14. And my &ce was changed until I 

could no longer sea 

BoGEFaHLHNO. Dhi. omitB with A B D. 10. Blessed 

Blm and ertolled. Bo CEGM. Dhi., with ABD, omita 'and 
extolled Him ' iDttfillJaP. 1 4. TTntQ I ooold no lon^r see. 

Instead of Mlh='anttl,' Q reads XIl('B=' for.' 

'ihiiw M the itan.' S. Enoch pre- i. s I hkve tdantified thun with the 

deatined to % pUoe in the kingdoni. ' W&tohan.' Holy, holTi holy, 

Cf. brii. 14-17 ; to. 31. 9. !rhe la the Itord of Spirit*. The change 

Bood pleuure of the Ziord. Ju in (ha trisagioD, Llt!. 3, iain keeping 

ixxvii. 4, and hen. tiie free graoe with the character of the entire aec- 

of God ia faronght £:7war(1, but not (Um. 18~XIi. Eoooh next aeea all 

exclnaiTely ; for, like a tme Phariiee, the chief angela and thoiuand* of 

■nan'a put in aalTatkiu ii omphaaiaed thouaandt of angela who ttood before 

in ixzrii. 4 ' acoonUng to my inaight.' the tbrooe of God, and reoonnti (hia, 

U. Before Kim tlx«re ia no o«aa- not aa a pn^helio rldon, but at an 

Injr- Paat, prceant, and fatnra are be* actual eiperienoe. 14. The change 

fore Him. 13. Thoaa who aleep of face here ia not to be nndentood aa 

not: cf. mil. 13 ; zl. 1 ; Izi. 11. Thia a tranafiguiatioQ, a« In Aaoeudo Itwae 

deaignation ia taken OTer into \ha In- vii. ig ; Enoch ia ' iUxiad bj excela 

terpoktiona, Ixzl. 7. In the note on of light.' 


The Book of Enoch. 


XL. I. And after that I saw thonsands of thooaaods and 
tea thooeand times ten thonsand, a multitude beyond number 
and reckoning, who stood before tbe Lord of Spirits. 2. I 
looked and on tbe four sides of the Loid of Sjpirits I saw four 
preseDces, difFerent from those that sleep not, and I learnt 
their names : for the angel that came with me made known 
to me their names, and showed me all the hidden things. 
3. And I heard the voice of those four presences as they gare 

XL. I. Bsfbre tbe Lord of Splrlta. SoADFOMO. Dhi. 
and H L N ' Before the glory of the Lord of Spirits.' 3. TboM 
that Bl«ep not. So O hM(D^»'. This is better than Db.'s 
(also FHLNO) f^fO^O' 'those that stand': cf. xxxir. 13; Ixi. 
12. Dln.'s f4o>-0^ is probably an emendation of M's reading 

XIi. 1. ThODMUida of thooauidi 
and ton tbouMQd ttmss Mn thon- 
sand. Tliu phraae U takm OTSr 
axAotly into ths InterpoUtioni, li. I ; 
liil. 8, tboogb tha phrase wo* of 
coune a ouirent one, awing to Dan. 
vii. 10. 9. Them are h^her angels 
than tboH thai alaep not: Uieae 
are the four angels of the prearaioe — 
□<^ *3k!)9— so called from I>. Iiiii. 
9. Thur names hers are Michael, 
RnEwl, Qabriel, and Fanael ; and the 
same list is oarried over into the Inter- 
polations, lixL 9. In Inter Judaism 
we Bnd Uriel instead of Panuel. In 
ix. I the names of the four obiefs 
are Miohaal, Gabriel, Suijan, and Ur- 
}an (for Sarjan, the Qreek text givea 
Bf^hael). In xi there are ^ chief 
angda Minmeiated ; Uriel, Bahel, 
Ragnel, Miehael, Saiaqael. and Oa- 
briel. Thns, Hichsel, BuEmI, and 
Qabrlsl belong in oommon to xi aad 
il, but the fanoUotu reqiectivsly as- 
signed them in these cbaptcn are 
irreconcilable. Li ic 91 there is a 
reference to tercn chief angels : 
in IxxxL f ; xc. 31 three angels are 
mentioned «rha were chuged with 

the escort of Enoch : in IxxxTii. 
3, 3 we find again fbnr. It would tw 
a mere wnste of time to attempt to 
reoondle the angelolcgj of th««e Titri- 
ouB passage*. On Angelologj see 
Ksenmanger, Enldeei^t* J%d. ii. 370- 
468; HaRag,iJ.J?.iv.J30-]>7; bat 
especiallj Hamborgei', R. E. i 305- 
313: Weber, LAren d. Taltmid, 
i6i-i6g, 141-ijD. The angel 

that oams with me. This angel is 
mentioned in the some vi^ne manner 
in iliii. 3 ; ilri. i ; lii. 3,4; lii. i, 3 ; 
IxiT. I, bat is named the ' angel of 
pe««e' inxi. S; Vi. a liii. 4; Uv. 4; 
Ivi a. nsTe is gansrall; a osriain 
fltneae in the deeignatiou ' angel of 
peace* in the oonteitt^ where It 
oceora in contrast to the wicked angels 
and the angels of punisiiment. This 
designation has also been taken ov«r 
into the Interpolations, Ix. 14 ; and 
bono wed by the writer of Teet. Beig . 6. 
The origin of the phnse is prottablj 
to be traoed to Is. »^""" 7, as that 
vsrw was, aooordiiig to Jerome, uuder- 
■tood of the angels, and Xihf '3>tf>9 
woald in that case — ' angels of peace.' 
Cf. BosenmUller's Seiuiiia in loo. 


Sect. II.] 

Chapter XL. 1-7. 


glory before the Lord of Glory. 4. The first voice blesses 

the Lord of Spirits for ever and ever. 5. And the second 

voice I heard blessing the Elect One and the elect ones who 
cleave to the Lord of Spirits. 6. And the third voice I 

heard piay and intercede for those who dwell on the earth and 
Eupplicate in the name of the Lord of Spirits. 7. And I 

heard the fourth voice fending oS the Satans and forbidding 
them to appear before the Lord of Spirits to accuse them who 

^}aMn>', which wanU the negative. 5. See note on xxxviii. 2. 

4. The fint prsMiuw, MichMl, hu 
for his talk the pnise of the Lord of 
Spirita, M Ui nuae indiotea, i>K3^. 
In Tene 9 he li 'the meraifnl uid 
long •offiBridg.' B. The teoood 

preeenoe ii Rabd, who prueee the 
Elect end tbe elect isaat. Conronn- 
ablj to hii name (from (ttn, to haal) 
he ii appdnted to heiil the wounde 
and lUt of men (tbibo 9) : of. Tobit 
xii. 14 'Ood WD( me (Raphael) fa 
tMlthee'i and Hi. 17 'Raphael wh 
wut to haal them both.' In Rabbinic 
writings he was the power that pre- 
sided OTW medicine : cF. Eiseameng. 
fa/d.J'iHl.ii. jSo. Seealw)!. 7;xz.3. 
The meot On«. This designatioB 
of tbe Mesdah oomca from Is. iliL i. 
Its later nae seenu to be confined (o 
tbe Similitudes (aee zzxriiL 3] end 
St. Lake ix. 35, oErdi iimr J vUt 
fwi' d lK\(\<7fU>'i>t— 'the Elect One' 
(W and H). Tbis, the oarrect text, 
has been preserred in the Ethiopia 
N. T.: St. Lnke niii. J5 ' the Christ of 
Ood the £lect One.' 6. The third 
presence is Gabriel, whose task ii that 
of intarcesdon on behalf of the ia- 
habiters of the earth. Aa the hero or 
atrong one of God (IX and ?et) he Is 
natorall; set otct all the powers 
(vene 9). Those who dwoU, Ao. ; 
see invii. j. 7. The fourth is 
Fanuel, who is set over the repen- 

tance and hope of the inheritors of 
eternal life (verse 9). He prevents 
the Satans from i^pearing before the 
Lord of S)Hrits to Boonse men. The 
Satnns appear here for the first time 
in Enoch, zl. 7. Thej seem to beloog 
to a oonntar kingdom of evil, raled 
bv a c^ef called Satan, liii. 3. Thej 
existed aa evil agencies before the fall 
of the watchan ; fbr the guilt of the 
latter consisted in becoming sabjeot 
to Satui, liv. 6. This view har- 
moniaee exactly with that of Gen. 
iii. I combined with vi. 1-4. Usee 
Satans had the rigfat of access into 
heaven, il. 7 (of. Job i. 6 ; Zech. iii) 
— a jnivilege denied to the watchers, 
ilii. 5 ; xir. 5. Thdr functions were 
threefold : thej tonpted to evil, Ixti. 
4, 6 i the; aoonsed the dwellers upon 
earth, xl. 7 ; thej punished the oon- 
demued. In this last character they 
are technically called ' angels of pOD- 
iiihment,' liii. j; Ivi. i; liil. 11; 
Ixiii. I ; this designation has been 
taken over into the Interpolationa : 
cf. livi. I (note). The Tahnnd (cf. 
Weber, i. i. T. 14»-»4S) *»• "o* 
draw this dear Une of demarcation 
between the Satans and tbe follen 
angels, but rather confuses their attri- 
bntes just aa in ch. Izix. For the 
dose connexion between the De- 
mondogy of Enoch and the N. T. see 

itradb, Google 

1 20 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. ir. 

dwell on the earth. 8. After that I asked the angel of 

peace who went with me, who showed me everything that 
IB hidden, 'Who are these four presences which I have 
seen and whose words I have heard and written downP' 
9. And he sud to me : ' This first is Michael, the mercifnl 
and long-suffering : and the second, who is set over all the 
diseases and the wounds of the children of meu, is Rufael : 
and the third, who is set over all the powersj is Gabriel : and 
the fonrth, who is set over the repentance and hope of thoee 
who inherit eternal life, is named FanueV 10. And these 

are the four angels of the Lord of Spirits and the four voices 
I heard in those days. 

XLI. I , And after that I saw all the secrets of the heavens, 
and how the kingdom is divided and how tiie actions of men 

8. Wbo are, ftcP Before these words DId. inserts 'and I said 
unto him' against GM. 9. Ttds first Is Hiobael. So OM. 
Din. and F H K L N r«Bd ' this firat is the holy Michael.' 
The third . . . OabrlaL So O U. Dlu. and F H K L N 'the 
holy Gabriel.' Is named FanueL 80 GM: HDoP? 44AA. 

Other M88. 'is FanueL' 10. Tb« iKird of SplrUa. So GM. . 
Din., with other MSS., ' the Moat High Ood.' 

GeD, Introd. (pp-sa-j). 8. Ancst with tbe diwtrliie of divine ^noe ; 

of paaoa : tee note on vf ne 1. bat in the Tklmnd it is abaolulelj 

XIiI. 1. The klnsdiini U divided. DutteriallBed, uid miin'B nlvktion de- 

What 'tbe kingdam' meftna here it pencU on » literal prepondermnce of 

donbtfnl. Din. tkkea it to mean the hit good deeds over his bkd one* : see 

Meedudo kingdom; Sohodde, the Weber,!/. d.Z'. 169-373. This weigh- 

kingdom of thi« world. Can it refer ing of man'g deedt goee on dail; 

to tbs divlinon of heaven Into leven (idem 171]. Bat u the nenlta of toch 

pMla t The motions of men at* judgment) were neoesmilj nnknown, 

weighed! of. Izi. 8. The idea is there oonld not Ml to be muoh nneeai- 

derived from the O.T., where Job nen, and to allay tbii the doctrine 

(iixi. 6) pro;! to be weighed in an of Abrahiun'g meriturioui righteoiu- 

even balance, and the ipirite of men oeai was in due time developed, in 

ate weighed by Qod, Ptot. in. 1; virtue of which all natural deieen- 

xxi. 3 ; uiv. II, and tbe wicked are danti of Abraham thioagh Jacob 

foand wanting. Ph. liii. 9 ; Dan. v. a 7 ; became enUtled to aalvation (Weber, 

Ph. Sd. V. 6. In Enoch, la in the 180-185). 1^'* doctrine, though aa 

O. T., thii Idea ii not inoompntible yet unknown in Enooh, waa a popular 


Sect, n.] Chapters XL, 8 — XLI. 5. 

are weig'hed upon the balance. 2. There saw I the i 
of the elect and the mansione of the holy, and miae eyes saw 
there all the eiuners being driven from thence which had 
denied the name of the Lord of Spirits, and being dragged 
off : and they could not abide there because of the punishment 
which proceeds from the Lord of Spirits. [3, And there 

mine eyes saw the secrets of the lightning and of the thunder, 
and the secrets of the winds, how they are divided to blow over 
the earth, and the secrets of the clouds and dew : and there I saw 
from whence they proceed in that place and from whence they 
saturate the dust of the earth. 4. And there I saw dosed 

ehambers ont of which the winds are apportioned, and the 
chamber of the hail and winds, and the chamber of the mist, 
and tiie clond thereof hoTers over the earth from before 
eternity. 5, And I saw the cluunbers of the sun and moon 

XLI. 3. Instead of fJdStWO^ O reads fA<b(h. The senBe 
practically comes to the same, but O gives a more nnlform text. 
Cf. the co-ordinate verb in the previous line ^AjK. U ^AAifr 
— an easy corraption of O. 3. The dust of the earth. Oreads 
MM 'the dusty earth.' 4. The ohamber of the hail and 
wlnda, and the chamber of the mlat So Q3I. Din. and 
F H L N {^ve : ' The chamber of the hail and the chamber of the 
mist and of the clonde.' O combinea both readings : ' The chamber 
of the hail and winds, and the chamber of the mist and clouds.' 

belief in N. T. tfniM : cf. Hfttt-Iii. 9. winds. On tlie muilfold funo^oiiB 

3. Tha •fnnara being driven from of ibe winda in Eaooh we iviii. 1-5 ; 

Uienoe: tee xnviij. i. Denied iiiiT-Tl; Ixiii. 4, The oliamben 

the nuns of the Iiord of Splrlta: of the winds, miat, cloud, Ao. Thaie 

see ixrviil. 3. , 3-8. Thcae veraes oouceptimu rtwt du the poetaol fan- 

ue, it ii obvioo^ alien ia ipiiit and eiei of Job ixiviii. 33. The writer* 

podtion to the oonteit. Tlisj belong in Enoch conceive all the natorsl 

in chanuter and detail to zliii. 1,1; powera, ai thunder trad lightning, 

iliv; lix; Ixix. 13-15: nailfii. Thej nin, hail, dew, essa. and moon, Ac, 

may pcedbly, ai ndemu thinks, aa dwelling in their respective cham- 

bdong to the Noab-Apocnljpee. 8. ben. The olond thereof. I.e. the 

The lightning and thunder Me treated clond of mirt. DWb reading (ue 

of repeatedly : see ivii. 3 ; zliii. 1-2 ; Crit. Note) is full of dlfBculty. Have 

zliv ; liz; li. 13-15 : o£ Job mnii. we here a rsfsrenoe to Oen. i. a t 

14> >£> 35' ^I^he wozeta of the S. For the teaching of Enoch on (he 

Digitized by Google 

122 Tiu Book of Enoch. [Sect. n. 

whence they proceed and whither they come a^ain, and their 
gloriooa return, and how one is saperior to the other, and 
their stately orhit, and how they do not leave their orbit, and 
they add nothing to their orbit and they take nothing from 
it, and they keep faith with each other, abiding by the oath. 
6. And first the Bun goee forth and traverses his path ac- 
cording to the commandment of the Lord of Spirits, and 
mighty is His name for ever and ever. 7. And after that 

comes the hidden and the visible path of the moon traversing 
the orbit of her path in that place by day and by night — the 
one holding a position opposite to the other before the Lord 
of Spirits. And they give thanks and praise and rest not ; 
for to them their thanksgiving is rest. 8. For the sun 

changes oft for a bleesing or a cnrse, and the course of the 
path of the moon is light to the righteous and darkness to 
the sinners in the name of the Iiord, who made a separation 
between the light and the darkness, and divided the spirits of 

5. Their stately orbit. Din. translates 'Ihren festbestimmteu 
Lauf.' But this meaning of ■fllMk is not possible, and is tartly 
withdrawn in his Lexicon. Abiding by the oath. £ G U give 
Hf.£{< instead of HHlf>, bnt the seDse does not differ materially. 
8. The vun. So O. All other MS8. read ' the Bhining san.' 

suD and moon, see Ixxii. 5. Their cf. liii. 14. God call) tlu itwt by 

Ktorlon* return, i, e. from veit to dmhc and thuy aiwwer, iliii. i ; thej 

eut on (he other ode of the Snnk- keep &ith with eeoh other, iliii. 3 ; 

ment,or,>oeardingt<iluii.5,roandby theyara veighed, u men, in a rif^t- 

w«y of the uortb. Tlie perfect tngq,- eou bkUiioe, iliii. i i the diaobedlent 

larily with whiDfa the nm uid moon iten ua poniahed, xriii. 13. In 

IraTeras dieir orbiti i> hsra empha- luii-lxxix Tarioua funotioiu legard- 

■i>ed, aa in Ixiir. 13 ii that of the ing the dlrigion of time an aadgned 

moon. Tet in Ixzi. 4 it ii Mid that to them. In the Fenian religion 

the noon will become inegolar. We the itan were regarded aa embodied 

eball find, bowsrer, that Iziz ia an eiirtenoee £«ided into tm^ eftdi 

interpdatlon. The oath. A ear- nndm it* own leader, Hcriog, R, E. 

tain degree of Bonwioaineaa uema li. 335. Thii theory woold loit 

to be attribated to the Ran, moon Imli. 9-10 .perfectly. It moat be 

and itan. The aon and mora are oonfeaaed, however, that the conoqv. 

lubjaot oidy to God, xlL 6 ; they give tion variM. 7. Hidden path of 

thanlu and pruie, and reat aoti for the moon, le. when the moon i> 

to them tLiDkigiTiiig ii rert, zli 7: lnTidbU:teelsuii-iT. 6.0i*id«d 


Sect, n.] Chapters XLI.b — XLIL%. 123 

men and Btrengtbeos the epiritB of the righteous in the name 
of His righteoosneaa.] 9. For neither angel nor power is 
able to hinder; for He appoints a judge for them all and 
he judges them all before Him. 

XLII. I. Wisdom found no place where she might dwell ; 
then a dwelling-place was assigned her in the heavens. 3. 
Wisdom came to make her dwelling among the children of 
men and found no dwelling-place ; then Wisdom returned to 
her place and took her seat among the angels. 3. And 

9. For nrither sn^ nor power la atde to hinder ; Ibr He 
appoints a Judge fbr thent all and bo, fto. This is the trans- 
lation of O, out; that I have read oob-l? as ovlhli; for in this 
MS. the nominative and accusative are constantly confused. This 
text gives an excellent sense, and harmonises perfectly with the last 
words of xli. i ' because of the punishment which proceeds from ^e 
Lord of Spirits.' tv. 3-4 are an interpolation. O differs from tiie 
other MSB. and I <1d in reading Kf^Pi. instead of JL^MlX, and 
f^otL instead of MA. . The sense of Dln.'a text is poor : ' For an 
angel hinders not and no power can hinder: but the Judge sees 
them all and He judges them all before Him.' F U E L M O sap- 
port Dh). If we do not change in>|i>11 into OOlbH, can be 
translated 'For the judge ha8appoint«d them all.' N reads fCJL- 

the Bptrit* of men. 'Dwe nami Job nviil. ia-14; 10-14; Banioh 
to be an Mttul pndeninktioD hers tii. 19 ; Eccliu. xiiv. 4 ; and m oom- 
ipoken of. Thii divisioD into ohil- ing (o eMth Mid dgeiring to make her 
dnu of light and duknesi u ia the »bode with men, Prov. i. 10 iqq. ; viii 
pMt: the ifdrit* at (be tighteooi era iqq.; ix. i-io; Eooliu. niv. 7: bnt 
strengthened in the preaent. 8. M men refused to reodm hu', c£ zcut. 
See Crit. Note. The jadge appointed £, ihe retomed to heaven. Bat in the 
i« the Hetalfth. Thli vgne !■ to be Meaeiaoio Umee (he will retum, and 
read directly after ili. 1 : of. Act* will be poured oat aa water in abnn- 
«viL 31. dance, xUz. i ; and the tlunty will 
XTiII. A« Din. and ottun liave drink to the fall of witdom, iWiii I ; 
already reeogniied, iUs dutpter is a ihe will be beatowed on the elect, 
iragment,and ont of coikBezion with fti t. S; xd. 10: cf. Apoc. Bar. iliv. 
present ocat^ : where in the present 14 ; iv Ezra viii. Ji ; and tlie spirit 
book of Enoch it shoold staud, I do of Wisdom will abide in the Messiah 
not know. 1, 8. The praise of the Elect One, xliz. 3. We are re- 
wisdom was a fiivonrite theme. Wis- minded in some toeaoure here of the 
dom was regarded aa having her Pnilagne of SL John. 8. The 
dwellJng-plaoe in heaTsn, Iziziv. 3; ditbrent welcome wliioh the wioked 


1 24 T)u Book of Enoch. [Swt. il. 

unrighteousneBs came forth from her chambers : and she 
found those whom she sought not, and dwelt with them 
(being welcome if> them) as rain in a desert and dew on a 
thirst; land. 

[XLIII. !■ And again I saw lightning and the stars of 
heaven, and I saw how Me called them all by their names and 
they heard Him. z. And I saw how they are weighed in 

a righteous balance according to their proportions of light, the 
width of their spaces and the day of their appearing, and how 
their revolution produces lightning ; and (I saw) their revolu- 
tion according to the number of the angels, and how they 
keep faith with each other, 3. And I asked the angel who 
went with me and showed me what was hidden, ' What are 

XLIII. 2. Tlie day of tlielT appearing, and how their ravo- 
lotion produoM lightning. 80 Q, omitting the ONUt in Din. 
U also omitfl it, but Taries otherwise. Other MSS. give ' The 
day of their appearing and reyolution : bow one fiaah of lightning 

gtva to miTlghtMtitneH Inleiuiflee 
tbelT guilt In rapeot to irladoiii. Thej 
modved not wiadom when she Dame 
unto them ; but thaj took home unto 
thenuelTea Dmighteominan though 
■he lODght theiii not. 

XUn, ZIiIT. Then ohapten 
belong to the ume cImm of Interpola- 
tion! ni xli. 3-S. The itudy of the 
thinl Smilitude, wbara the Interptdk- 
tioni oknnot be miMaken, end of the 
Similitudes genenllj, ehows that the 
original irritiir had no interat in 
natural phenomena, but that all hii 
attention wu diisctod Immediately 
to the fi^Titnal world, and the great 
■[riritual background and oriiU of the 
woiid'i hiitwy. The laterpoUtioiu 
ooms from mindi of a fiw inferior 
type ; and though of an ethioal turn, 
they are ai a rule fantaitic and frivo- 
loBB, and their authon are oloiely 
allied to the later Rabbinioal writen, 
but have nothing In ocmmoo with 

the great and imaginative thinker 
who wrote the Siinilitudea. Hie 
original ending of this Kinilicude ii 
loet ; that of the other two t* pre- 
■erred : we Irii 3 ; Ixix. 19. 

ZI.III. 1. Callod them all by 
their namee; of. Fi. cxlvii. 4; Ii. 
zl. 16 ; Bar. iii. 34. 9. Weighed 
In a rishteoQB balanoe. On the 
oanKdou* eiigteDiie attributed to the 
rtiui, (ee ih. 5. 8. Tha ansel 

wlio want with me Mid ahowed me 
what WM hidden :cf.xlTi. I. Taken 
over into tiie Inlerpolatdone, li. II. 
S, 4. Them i( lome myiteriou ooii' 
neiion between the ttan and the 
holy, whereby the itan lepreaent the 
namei of the holy. Doei il mean 
that the holy will be ai numwon* aa 
the (tan 1 or ai bright ai (be itan ! 
of. cdv, 1 ; Dan. xU. 3 ; Hatt. siii. 43. 
There waa a doae connexion between 
the atan and the augdi in the O. T. : 
of. Job xzzviii. 7, where the morning 


s«i.ii.] Chapters XLIJI.x — XLV.i. 125 

these ? ' 4. And he said to me, ' the Lord of Spirits hath 

showed thee their parabolic meaning (lit. 'their parable'): these 
are the names of the holy who dwell on the earth and believe 
in the name of the Iiord of Spirits for ever and ever.' 

XLIY. Also other phenomena I saw in regard to the 
lightnings : how some of the stare arise and become lightnings 
and cannot part with their new fonn.] 

XLY. I. And this is the second Similitude concerning 
those who deny the name of the dwelling of the holy ones 
and the Lord of Spirits. 2. They will not ascend into the 

heaven, and on the earth they will not come : such will he 
the lot of the sinners who deny the name of the Lord of 
Spirits, who are thus preserved for the day of suffering and 

produces another.' 4. Their parabollo meanlnff. Din. trans- 
Utes ' ein Bild von ihnen.' The names of the holy. So G M 
AtOil. Other MS8. ' The names of the righteous.' 

XLIV. Hoir some of the ators arise and become llghtnlnga 
and OKnnot part with their new fbrm. Dbi. translates: 'Wie 
die (i.e. die Blltze) sub deu Sternen entstehen und z\x Blitzen 
werden.' But Xy°hTll'fl^ is a familiar idiomatic espresaion for 
■ aome of the Btars.' In the above translation we have token 
yflAJTao* BH if it were f^^ltao'. Din. points out that it stands 
for this form in Eiod. xzxiv. 13. 

Btkn Aie Dndoabtedly nngeli : cf. ilio kcoimtt deaoriptjon of the coatente 

Dent. IT. 19. 4. Bollere in tbs of tba Similitude from tha oponing 

nune : ef. zzziz. 6 ' tha Eleot One . . . tstw or luperacriptiDn. We find none 

of /olU'; Iviii. 5 'the inherituioe of aoch in xxxviii. 1,1; nor yet in iTiii. 

f^ih ' ; liL 4 ' the meainres gi«6n to l, a. For a BanimaT; of the thought 

/oiU'; Ixi. II ' in the spirit of /aiU.' of the SimititadeB, tee pp. 10S-109. 

ContraM the ifenial of anneiB, Thoae who dsnr the dwelllna: : lee 

zzxviii. I. iiiTiii.i(notfl]. 9. On the aarth 

XIiJT. Tiie refereuoe here ia to they will not oome. The «uth will 

■hooting (tan, daripit ttoBtorrn \ be tnuufbrroed (v. g) and be llienoe- 

Axiit. Mtteor. i. 4. Lightning in forth the abode oF the righteooi only. 

geuetal ii produced b; the quiok Deny tlie name of the Iiord of 

morement of the itan, xliii. 3 ; but Bpiilta : lee zizvlii. ) (note). Day 

■oroe of tlie ican at timei an tram- of mfferi&g and tribulation. The 

funned wholly into lightning. final judgment ii vu^otial; named 

XIiV. L It ia idle to eipeot an 'that greatdaj.'Uv. 6 ; 'dayof jadg- 



The Book of Enoch. 

[Sect. II. 

tribulation. 3. Oa that day Mine Elect One will sit on tbe 
throne of g'lory and make choice amongst their (men's) deeds, 
and their mansions will be innomerable, and their sools will 
grow strong within them when they see Mine elect ones and 
those who have called npon My glorious name. 4. And on 

XLV. 3. Klne Elect One. So G 14sC?. FHLMN 

and Din. give ' The Elect One,' as we find ia zl. 5 ; xlix. a, 4 ; 
li. 3, S ; lii. 6, 9 ; Uii. 6. Bae Hine elect ooes. So Q L N : 
dl^rcn^ tiVe^; HJtC. Din. and FHMO give 'See Mine 
Elect One.^ Glorioua name. So OU. Other MSS. and 

ucnt,' ixii. 4 ; 0.4; 'day of jodgnumt 
and oonmrnmation,' x. ii; 'd*; 
of tha gnat ooniummation,' zn. I ; 
'Um gTa*t judgmsnt,' xiz. i ; zxii. 4; 
' da; of the great jadgment,' lii. i ; 
IxuiT. 4; lUT. 9; loriil. 10; ida. 
15 ; Ay. 5 ; 'gnat day of judgment' 
z. 6; ixH. 11 ; xxv. 4 ; 'judgment 
vhioh ii for ever,' dv, 5 ; ' great 
jodgment which ii for ever,' xci. \t, ; 
'judgment which ii for evsr and 
aver,' 1. 1 1 ; ' da; of tribulation,' f . i ; 
zovL 3; 'day of tribnlatCoa *nd [mJd,' 
Iv. 3 ; ■ day of tribnlntion and great 
ihame,' zcriil. 10; 'day of anffering 
Kud tribalktiDa,' zlv. 1 ; Iziii. S ; 'dny 
of affliotion,' zlvili. 10; 1. 3 ; 'd»y of 
angquili Bod kfflioUon,' zlviii. S ; ' day 
of deatraotjon,' xcviiL 10; 'day of 
■boghtcr,' zoiv. 9 ; ■ day of nnoeudng 
bloodiliad,' idi. 6; 'dttyofdarkneM,' 
xdv. 9; 'day of nnrlghteoiuueu,' 
zcrli. I. Ab the umo phnue ii ap- 
plied to qnite diSarant evsnti it ii 
nee ei iary to obeerve tbat — (l) The 
Deluge or Hnt world jodgment ti le- 
fetred to in z. 4, 5, la"; liv. j, 7-10; 
zd. 5; idii. 4. (3) Final win^d 
judgment at (ta htgiiminq ofOa Ma- 
«<aNti> JHn^om, x. 6, ll<; (vi. i; 
xiz. 1 ; zzii. 4, 1 1 ; zxv. 4 ; zlv. 1 ; 
liv, 6; Iv. 4; zo, 30-17. (3) J>«te- 
ment of the iword ai lAe htguaang 
of ikt Jfeotoiib hingiom, when the 

rigbteoniilay tbe wicked, I. 3; zc 19: 

Final world-judgment ai Hit doit of 
theMtaiatiie kiiigdtiBt,xAt.9; zaviii. 
10; 0. 4 ; cili. 8 ; civ. 5. In zlviii. 8- 
10 there laems to be a oombinatioQ of 
(3) and (3), and in zoii. 9, xcii. 15 of 
(3) lud (4). 8. Mine EUeot One : 
*ee xl. 5. On tha throne of glory. 
The Elect One will tit on the throne 
of hii gloiy, zlv. 3 ; Iv. 4 ; Ixil. 3, s : 
M Son of Man, he will lit on tbe 
throne of hti glory, Ijit 17, 39 ; being 
plaoed tbereon by the Lord of Bplrite, 
Ixi. S ; IzU. 1 ; and bii throne U like- 
wiwi the throoe of the Head of Day*, 
ilviL 3 ; li. 3. Hie Elect One lite on 
hii throne to judge; for all judgment 
hai been oommitted nato him, lili. 
37. Uaka ohoioo amons their 
deed*. Tbii eeems to mean ' to eepa- 
rate their good deedi and thcdr evil 
deedi in order to weigh them in the 
balnaoa for parpoaea of jodgment.' 
Hie itep Ii here distinctly taken 
towarda the later groat oonoapUoni of 
thaTalniDd: leezli. I (note). Han* 
aioni. This ia not tbe nme word aa 
!■ need In miz. 4 ; but may be nm- 
dered ainularly. aa It is the Ethiopio 
rrnderiog of manaio, fiorl). 4, 8. 

After the judgment the Meadanio 
kingdom la eatabliahed and tta ■oene 
will be a tranaformed heaven, zlv. 4 ; 


Sect. II.] Chapters XL V. 3. — XL VL 2. 


that day I will catute Mine Elect Oae to dwell among them, 
and I will traneform the heaven and make it an eternal 
blessing and light. 5. And I will transform the earth and 
make it a blessing and cause Mine elect ones to dwell upon 
it : but the sinners and eril-doere will not set foot thereon. 
6. For I have seen and satisfied with peace My righteous ones, 
and have caused them to dwell before Me : but for the sinners 
there is judgment impending with Me so that I may destroy 
them from the &ce of the earth. 

XLYI. J. And there I saw One who had a head of days, 
and His head was white like wool, and with Him was another 
being whose countenance had the appearance of a man and 
his face was full of graciousness, like one of the holy angels. 
a. And I asked the angel who went with me and showed me 
all the hidden things, concerning that Son of Man, who he 

Din. give: 'Holy and glorions name.' 4. Cause Kino Eleot 
One to dwoU among tbem. O r«ads KiOCl (HTXhA:; A'K^li 
HJtt nhich is nntranalatasble. All other MSS. support the text. 
XL VI. 3. The angel who went with me. The Ethiopic gives 

U. 4 ; uid earth xlf. l ; iIt. 5 : its 
and men ; and ths Elect One will 
aUile amoDg»t them. Thla idea oT 
the tnuuformation of the worid wm 
derived directly bom Is. liv. 17 and 
liTi. 3, and probably ortginall; ttttai 
ZoToaitrianlam ; Bee Chejne'B Origin 
0/ th« Ptdlttr, 404, 405. It ia foond 
aliewhere in Bnooh in Ixzit. i ; toL 
16. In laaiah thla idea li ontj 
adopted eclectlcallj ; for It ll hicom- 
paUble with other £icta in the ooiilezt ; 
i.e. Ixv. 10, Ac,; but in JInoah it ii 
•coepted in !t« enUn lignifiaaiwe aa 
logicallj' involving the immortal bleaa- 
•dncM of man : of. Apoo. Bar. szxii. 
< ; IviL 3 ; iv Eir* [»i. 49]. 

XLTLl. InthiiandthaMoiring 
ebqtlwiDMtiel vii has been laid nndn' 

conbribntion, and fhm it have been 
drawn direoUj the expreniom ' Hiad 
of Da;*,' and 'Son of Man.* The 
former means in Daniel the Everlaat- 
ing. It is round in Enoch in ilvj. 3 ; 
ilvU. 3; ilviii. i,and has heencairted 
over into the Interpolatioos, Iv. I ; 
lx.i;lxii. 10,1), 13,14. Theoriginal 
writer naei this axpreadon of Daniel 
with mnoh appropriateneaa In oon- 
nezlon with the iiup«mataral Son of 
Man and the qaeatiui of Goal judg- 
ment ; in hoi the two expre«ion> are 
correlative: obeerre the qoeation, 
•V/hj h* went with the Head of 
DayiT' bat this technical appropri- 
ateneaa b wanting in the Interpola- 
tiona. Another beinc - . . Uke one 
of the hall' angela : cf. 1 8am. xiii. 
9 ; A«ta vl. 15. 8. Bon of Kan. 


1 28 The Book of Enoch, [Smi. n. 

was, and whence he was, and why he weot with the Head of 
Days ? 3. And he answered and said unto me ' This is the 

'one of the angels who went with me.' But, ss Volkmar has 
already recoguised, Enoch has only an Angel to guide him in the 

Thera >re lome difficulUea conneoted 
«ith lhi« eipreaioD In Eooch, u it 
hu there thiea different EUiiopio 
refideriugi, "filiui homiiiii, xlvi. 1, 
3, 4; ilTJtL 1, filiot Till, libt. 19; 
Ixn*. 14, Htd filial prolii mktiii vi- 
veatium, Izii. 7, g, 14; Iziii. 11; Iiix. 
16, 17 ; Ixz. I ; liii. 1 7 ; and theie 
are the greMer a> the Ethiopio trvu- 

'4mtor «aii only h&TS had oiia KrA the 
Mme phnM before him, i. e. j iiloi 

' Tou dpe^nw. Far the LXX. invui- 
■bly luei ulii irBpirtoo aa a rendsring 
of Ditrp «id e*Uir|3, ud euct 
Greek equivalents of the Etbiopic 
eipre«ians ore huxlly conoeivable. 
Are Me tben to anppoae that theee 
variationB exiited in the Hebrew, 
Mid aooordingly poatolate on the part 
of the Ethiopic tranfllAtora a direct 
aoqaaintauce with an Hebrew MS. 
(vmilarlf, M Niildeke, Enegc. Brit. 
ixi. 654, in the CMe of the Ethiopia 
Bible, poatulatea the pMeeiiae of 
Aranmo teachov in order to ex- 
plain the fact that certain religious 
conceptioiu are tltere eipteaaed by 
The** inppoailioaa 
There i* no itrict 
nnifonnitj of rendering in the Ethiopia 
Btble- vlit irtpdiwou is rendered bj 
prolea matrix riTentinm in Num. uiil. 
19 [ P». TiiL 4 ; oiliT. 3 ; oil»i, 3 (in 
the laat two iniitance^ two distinct 
HArew nprenivai are and) : bat 
by SUoM prolia matrls TiTentiam in 
Pi. lux. If. Thii latter rendering is 
practically the anthorised one in the 
Ethiopio >i it ii found throughont 
EwkUl, in Dan. vii. 13, and nni- 

Tersally In the If.t. Agwn -(til/Li 
vir is freqaentlj nsed where we shonld 
expect IMlAichomo, and yice vena. 
Hence filini viri and &lias hominis in 
the Ethiopio text may be ayiuHiymoas 
and the variation may be due to the 
oareleamewof the tranalator. Of inch 
carelenneii there are many instances 
in Enoch. In Ixixii. i we find ttlA 
where we ahould have 4lnlL ai it it 
oorrectly in tv. 9 and 36. Again in 
linii. 45 we have twice the render- 
ing 'sheep' where according t« the 
context and the Greek it should be 
'lamb.' Aooordingly we hold that 
these variatioas were coaSaed to the 
Ethiopia veraioa, and this oonolmioD 
is omGrnwd by the CuA that filiui 
viri, hdx. 39, does not imply one 
bnm of man without the mediation of 
a mother as some have supposed ; for 
tlte tatoe phrase ii applied to Enoch 
In Ixxi, 14, and it therefore the eqaiva- 
lent of filins honiinii in zlri. ), fto. 
We have above remarked that the ex- 
pression in the Greek verdon of Enoch 
must have been i vlh rev irSfirmou, 
and not lAbs ArSpiiwm, for in Enoch it 
is the distinct designation of the pei^ 
Bonal Meaiah. In xlviii. lo; liL 4 be 
is styled the ' Meniah.' For the rela- 
tion between the titie ' Sod of Man ' In 
Enodi and in the N.T., les Appendix 
on 'the Son of Man.' S. The Met- 
tilth is conceived in the Kmilitnde* a* 
(0 the Judge of the worid, (9) the Be- 
vealer of all things, (3) the Messianic 
Chatninon and Euler of the righteons. 
(i ) As judge, he poiienei {a) righteons- 
neaa, (b) wisdom, and (o) power (Pm. 


Seot. ir.] 

Chapter XL VI. 3, 4. 


Son of Man who hath righteouflness, with whom dwelleth 
righteonfinesa, and who reve&lfi all the treasures of that which 
is hidden, because the Lord of Spirits hath chosen hirh, and his 
lot before the Lord of Spirits hath surpassed everything in 
uprightness for' ever. ' 4. And this Son of Man whom thou 
hast seen will arouse the kings and the mighty ones from 
their couches and the strong from their thrones, and will 
loosen the reins of the strong and grind to powder the teeth 

SimilitudeB. Hence, as in lii. 3, we must read A(n>AJtt) instead of 
A||X0B<tX)t^- The error probably arose through the occurrence 

ilv. 4-8 ; Uxii ; I». xi, 3-5 ; Jm. siiii. 
5, 6}. (a) He U (he RightmuB Ods 
ia an extraordinary leiue, xnviii. 3 
(aee note) 1 liii. 6 : be poEMuea right- 
oouineM, and it dwell* with him, 
xlvi. 3, and on the gronnd of hli 
eesentinl rigbteousncBs, xlri. 3, hai he 
been ehown no leu than according to 
Ood'i good pleasure, xlix. 4. (b) 
Wiadom, which could Bod no dwelling- 
place on earth, xlii, dwella in him 
and Uie spirit of Him who gireth 
knowledge, xlix. 3 : and the secrets of 
wisdom itream forth from hii mouth, 
li. 3, and wisdom b poured oat like 
wat«r before bam, ilii. i. (c) In him 
liMta the ^>fait of power, xlix. 3, and 
be poosesKS univenal dominion, Ixii. 
6. (a) He is the revealer of all 
thing*. His appearance will be the 
signal for the revelation of good and 
(he unniBiiking of evil : will bring to 
light everjtluDg that is hidden, alike 
the inTiaible world of rigbteousness 
and the hiddrai world of sin, xItI, 3 ; 
xlix. 1, 4 : and will racnll to life 
those (hat hare pcriihed on land and 
sea, and those that are in Sheol and 
bell, li. 1 s IxL 5. EtO when once 
onma'kcd will vanish from his pre- 
tence, xlix. a. Hence all judgment 
has been oummitted nnto him, Ixix. 

1;, and he will alt on the throne of 
his glory, ilv. 3 (see note), and all 
men and angels will be j udged before 
him,li.i; lv.4; I1L8; Irii. J,3, and 
no lying ntterance will be potaible 
before him, xlix. 4 ; liii. 3, and b; the 
mere word of hll mouth will he slay 
the ungodly, Ixii. 1. (3) He is the 
Messianic champion and ruler of the 
righteous. He is the stay of (he 
righteous, xUiii. 4, and fau already 
been revealed to them, liii. 7 : he is 
the avenger of their life, xlviiL 7, (fas 
preaerrer of their inheritance, xlviii. 
7 : be will vindicato the earth as (hetr 
poeeesnon for ever, li. 5, and establish 
the community of the righteous in 
unbindned prosperity, liii. 6 ; liii. S ; 
their faces will shine with joy, H. j, 
and they will be vestured with lifc^ 
liii. 1 5, and be resplendent with l{gh(, 
xxiii. 7, and he will abide in closes( 
commnnion with them for ever, liii. 
14, in die immediate presence of the 
Lord of Spirits, iixii. 7, and his glory 
is for ever nnd ever, and bis might 
unto all generations, ilii. i. Hath 
ohoaen him. Hence he is called ' the 
Elect One ' : see xxxviil 1 (note) ; il. 
4 (note). HIa lot . . . hath anrpaued 
araty thine in nprlKhtn«M:cr.Heb. 
L 4. 4 B. Grind to powder. 


1 30 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. n. 

of the einners. 5. Aod he will pat down Uie kings from 

their thrones and kingdoma because they do not extol and 
praise him, nor thankfoUy acknowledge whence the kingdom 
was bestowed upon them. 6. And he will put down the 
countenance of the strong and shame will cover them : dark- 
ness will be their dwelling and worms their bed, and they will 
have no hope of rising from their beds because they do not 
extol the name of tbe Lord of Spirits. 7. And these are 
those who make themselves masters of the stars of heaven, 
and raise their hands against the Most High, and tread down 
the earth and dwell upon it, and all their deeds manifest 
unrighteousness and all their deeds are unrighteonsness : 
their power rests upon their riches, and their &uth is in the 
gods which they have made with their bands, and the name 

of the latter phrase in ibe preceding line. 5. Put down the 
kings from their tfaronas and kiogdoma. 80 all M&S. but Q M, 
which pve fi-li/irPao', A17/"Yi aoq^ictffaif. flJUli inK'-nCW**' 
'Put down the kings, throne upon throne of them'(l) 7. All 
their deeds m&nlAet unrlf^teouaness and all their deeda are nn- 
riehteonaness : their power, fto. So U, omitting the a> before 
.fCXf- with DEFHL, and inEerting lD»it after .PCXf-. Din. 
and O give : ' All their deeds are nnri^^teouanesB and manifest 

The phn«eolog7 of these vema ia tdien m a figurative ezpTeni<ni fi» 

largely drawn from the O.T,: cf. w. the dertruoUon awwting tie mighty 

4Bnd6 withli.xiv. 9, II ; Paa. iJi. 7; the oppreMon ofthe righteoiu : cf. II. 

Iviii. 6; Lam. Hi. 16. We have here IztL 34: Jadith zvL 17 ; Eocliu. vil, 

a highly figurative descriptioQ of Hie 17 ; Marit ii. 48, Worms their bed 

HeMiauic judgment of the migh^ . . . beoanoe ther do not extol the 

ones of the earth. B. Put down namo of the Itord : of. Acts lii. 13 

the kings from their thrones : of. for a like coonexioD of thought. 7. 

Lnke i. 51, which seemi to depend Hake themselvea mastera at tbo 

directly on thii veiee in Enooh in itan. The stan by it txJd figure 

phrasing and thooght. Ror aeknow- stand in Enoch for (l) the angeli; 

ledse wbenoe the kingdom: cT. (a) the righteoui, as in tfali verrc ; 

Wisdom ii. 3 1 Rom. xiiL I. 6. cf.xliil.4; Dan. viii. 10, 11, 13, 35. 

Woniu their bed. Baldentperger Dwallnponlt (i.e. thecarth). When 

(p. 14) thinks that thlH expression thispbraseocoarsbyitselfintheSimili- 

refen to the disease of which Herod tndes it has a good ethical sense. See 

died (B. o. 4). In II Maoo. ii. 5, g it mviii. » (note). Their powor re«t* 

is said that Antiochus Epiphanes died upon their rlohes : of. Psa. xlii, 6 ; 

of tbii dlseue. It ia rather to be lii. 7 ; En, ztav- S (note). Their 


Sect, n.] Chapters XL VI. i—XL VII . 3. 131 

of the Lord of Spirits have they denied. 8. And they wUl 
be driven forth from the houses of His congregations and of 
the faithful who cleave to the name of the Lord of Spirits.' 

XLVII. I. And in those days the prayer of the righteous 
and the blood of the righteous will have ascended from the 
earth before the Lord of Spirits. a. In those days will the 
holy ones who dwell above in the heavens unite with one voice 
and supplicate and intercede and laud and give thanks and 
bless the name of the Lord of Spirits on account of the blood 
of the righteous which has been shed, and the prayer of the 
righteous that it may not be in vain before the Lord of 
Spirits, that judgment may be done unto them, and that they 
may not have to suffer for ever. 3. And in those days I 

eaw the Head of Days when He had seated Himself on the 
throne of His glory, and the books of the living were opened 

nnrighteouaneea, and their power, ftc' The Iiord of Spirits 
have they denied. So Q. FHLUNO and Din. read 'The 
name of the Lord of Spirits have they denied.' 8. Will be 
driven forth from the houses of Els oongree^atlons. OM 
rea'I f-t\Jl:K^ Aflfi" ' The houseB of Hia congregations will drive 
forth.' Cleave to the name : see xxxviii. 3 (note). 

fkith ta in the godi wbloh tliay rigMeoia ons will arise from ileep 

h&vemftde. .. and the name of the and wiidoin . . . will be given unto 

Lord of Spirita have the; denied, ihtm.' Above all, In tli« n«it verge. 

This b a itrong eipreEBion for the where the phrase occun Rgun, we 

idolatroui tendenciei of the Sadduceon Bad ' the blood of the righteous one!.' 

court. For ■ diacnnion of the verve, The fint of the Mnccsbeei to ahed the 

tee XEXviii. 5 (mote). 6. Cf. liii. 6. blood of the righteoua wm Alex. 

XIiVH. 1. Od the dethronement Jonniieiu, 95B.C. Seexixviii.g^note). 

and destruction of the mighty follows 3. On the iatercesgion of the uigrls 

» description of the jndgmeat. The see zv. i (note). The prayer of the 

blood of the righteous. ' The righteous ; of. Bev. vi. 10 for exactly 

righteous' is hem a colleotive in the the same Jadtustio sentinieDt. Bee 

singnUr, though, in the preceding xcvil. j (aote). 9. Book^ofthe 

phnse, ' the prayer of the righteous,' living. The idea underlying thii 

it uintheplnral. Some have thought phreee in to be traced to the O.T. 

the singular side by siils with the There the book of life (or itt equiva- 

plural must be ngniGcant here, — in lents, Exod xiiii. 31 sq. 'God's 

bet a Christian allusion : but this is book ' ; Ps. liix. 18 ' book of the liv- 

not so; the name juxtaposition of oases ing') wan a rsgister of the oitiiena of 

is found in xlvii 4; xci. to 'the the Theocratic community. To have 

K % 


132 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. II. 

before Him, and His whole host which is in heaven ahove 

»ne'B name vritt«ii in the book of life 
implied the privilege of puticipoUng 
in the Umfmal bleningi of the Theo- 
CTMj, Is. IT. 3, while to be blotted 
nut ufthiBbook.Exod.xxiii.aa; Fa, 
liii. iS, meuit ezclmdaa thersFroni. 
In the O.T. thii expTSRUon wu 
nriglDkll; cnuBned to ttinpotaX blsM- 
ing» only, but in Dun. xii. i it ii 
transComied through the ioSuenoe of 
the new conception of tlie kingdom, 
■nd diitinotly refen to itn immortality 
of bleesednen. It haa the Bamu mean, 
ing in oar text. A fnrtlier rafereBoe 
to it ii to be found in civ. t. Tlie 
phnue again q>pean in the Book of 
Jubilma izz in oontrut wiUi ' the 
book of thoae thnt ihall be destroyed,' 
but in tile O.T. tenie. Hie 'Books 
of the Sainte'inoviii. 3 (dii. I T) has 
practically the HHoe meaning. In the 
N.T. the phntw a of frequent occui^ 
renoo, Phil. iv. 3 ; Hev. iii. j ; liii. 8 ; 



Hud the idea in Luke 1. 10 ; Heb. : 
33 ' written in heftvan.' For later 
instancee of its use sea Pastor Her- 
niae, VU. L 3, 3 (gee Hamack in loc) ; 
Sim. ii. 9 ; Mand. viii. 6 ; i Clem. xlv. 
8. There is no idea of abaoliite pre- 
destination involved in this conception. 
The same thought, i. e. the inicriptEon 
of the name in the book of life, under- 
lies the words ' the memorial of the 
riyhteoni will be before the Face of 
the Great One unto all generationt,' 
ciii. 4. Contraat Pas. Sol. liii. lo, 
' the memorial of the wicked ahall no 
more be foand.' (i) Booka of remem- 
brance of good and evil deeds. For 
tfaoae wherein good deeds were re- 
cordeil, nee Ps. Ivi. 8 ; Mai. iii, 16 ; 
Book of Jubileoa ui; wherein evil 
deeds were recorded, Is. Ixv. 6; En. 
Ixxd. 4; luxii. 61-64, ^^1 7°i 7'i 

76,77; »C17,30i IOTiii.7,8; dT.7i 

Apoc Bar. ixiv. I ; wherein good and 

evil deeds were recorded, Dan. vii. 10 ; 
Rev.ii,ii; AiicIs.ii.JO. (3) Tlie 
heavenly tables -^ vXitmc vaii oiifmioa 
in Test. >:ii. Patriarch. The concep- 
tion anderlying this phrase is to be 
traced partly to Ps. cuiiz. 16 ; Eiod. 
iiv. 9, 40 ; iivi. 30, where we find 
the Idea that there exist in heaven 
divine atcbetypei of certain things on 
earth : partly to Dan. z. ti, where a 
book of God's plana is referred tor 
but moat of all to the growing deter- 
minism of thought, for which tliis 
phrase stands as a concrete expression. 
In Apocryphal literature hiBt<nic*J 
events are not depicted acocsding to 
the maniTold variety of life, but are 
methodically arranged under artificial 
cat^oriee of measnre, number, weight. 
Wisdom li. 10 1 IT Ezra iv. 36, 37. The 
conception is not a hard and Gied one : 
in Enoch and Teat. iii. Patriarch, it 
wavers between an absolute determin- 
ism and predictioa pure and simple : 
whereas In Jubilees, in addition to 
these significationa it Implies at tJmes 
little more than a oontemporsry 
heavenly record of events. In Enoch 
the idea is mainly predestinarian, the 
■heavenly tabiea' recordall the deeds 

of HI 

3 the r. 

Ixxxi. I, 3 ; and the entire iiietory of 
tho earth, iciiL 1-3; and all the 
unrighteous ness that will anae, cvi. 
ig; Gvii. I ; aa wtU a< all the blesa- 
ings in store for the righteous, dil. a, 
3. They are likewise called the Book 
of the Angels, ciii. 3 ; for they are 
designed also for the pemsal of the 
angels, cviii. 7. that they may know 
the future reooropenseaof the righteous 
andthewicked. In Twt. iii. Patriarch. 
Levi 5 ; Aser 7, the idea is predictive 

Levitical law. Id Jubileea the v 


Sect. 11.] Chapters XL VII. ^ — XL VIII. %. 133 

and aroand Him stood before Him. 4. And the hearts of 

the holy were filled with joy that the number of righteotisnesa 
had drawn nigh, and the prayer of the ri{{bt«ouB was heard, and 
the blood of the righteoos required before the Lord of Spirits. 
XLVIII. I. And in that place I saw a fountain of right- 
eousness which was inexhaustible : around it were many 
fountains of wisdom, and all the thirsty drank of them 
and were filled with wisdom, and had their dwellings with 
the righteous and holy and elect 3. And at that hour that 

XLTn. 4. Had drawn nigh. So GM tCO isalead of (l]l*ffi 
of Din. 

XLVIII. I. Wblob waa inexhaustible. It is not necessary- to 
conjectnre with Din. tliat JL^4*)A^isa corruption of iL.^4~fAf ; 
for the former is the natural rendering of ampldniror, which in 
Hellflmstio Greek meant TariouBly ' great,' ' strong,' ' immense,' 

; of tin He>- 
; ofthereocTdini; 

of the phrMs ii ver; loose ; the 
beaveoly table* we the irtstale hook 
of the Theocntc;, or k mere contem- 
pomr; record, or else are prediotive or 
deteimiiifttive. TheheareiiljtKbleara- 
coid: (1) L&wi Levitiol Knd criminal. 
In aotne iiuhuicee previuiuly obeerred 
in heftveo, in otben, eitabllihcd tor 
Ihefirittlmeoneulb: Peaet ofweeki, 
vl; Tabenudet, ivi; Paiaovgr, 
■tlie FeatiTal of the Lord,' 
CaremonUl ulnannim. iii ; Ci'-cunici- 
■ion, 1; the Sabbath, XT i Uthea, xzzii 
uuriiatre of elder dftDghter, iivili 
deetmction of him n-bo give* hit 
daoghler to a Gentile, izi ; of the 
moiderer, iv ; of the ioaeatnoat penon, 
xniii (ordained because of Seuben) ; 
of (he teed of Lots xvi ; of the Fhilis- 
tinei, izir. (i) Merely ■ oontem- 
porar; STent: the slangbter of the 
Sbecbemites, ixz; the insUtntion of 
the ■ FecUval of (he hori,' xviii i the 
(bowing of the Seven Tables to Jaoob, 
mil ; Isaac'* blessing of Levi and 
Jnd«h,>xxi; the naming of Abraham, 
liz ; and of Levi, iii, as (Henda of 
God. (3) Piediotions : of the judg- 

t ofal 

Blatiie kingdon 

of the faithful as Menda of God and 
the transgressors a* liateis, iiz. HU 
whole host. God, as the Jehovah 
of Hosts, ill His manifei 
general!; bo sooompanled : 
Iz. I, 4; bed. 9-14. Aeoordlng to 
the Similitudes It is the Messiah that 
judges. 4. The nnmber of light- 
eonsness. Din. takes thUtomean the 
period determined beforehand for the 
complete revelationof divinerighteonn- 
neas, i.e. the year of the final judg- 
ment. This interpretation ii pei^apa 
favoaredbj ler. l. On the other hand, 
would it not be better to take the 
phiMe as meaning that iht nunib^ ••/ 
tketUctmxtalmoit/ntfititd^ cf.Bev. 
vi. to, II. 

XliVm. 1. Flaoa: see xlvi. i. 
Foantaiua of wisdom: aee xHi. 

I, 3 (note). Cf, Is. Iv. I sqq. 3. 
At that hour, i. e. when Enoch was 
beholding these visions. That Bon 
of Man was named. The pre- 
exiitenoe of the Son of Man is plainly 
taught in the Similitudes. He (not 


134 ^^ Book of Enoch. [8«et. II. 

Son of Man was named in the preeence of the Lord of 
Spirits and his name before the Head of Days. 3. And 
before the snn and the signs were created, before the Btars 
of the heaven were made his name was named before the 
Lord of Spirits. 4. He will be a staff to the righteous 

on which they will support themselves and not fall, and he 
will be the light of the Gentiles and the hope of those who 
are troubled of heart. 5. All who dwell on earth wilt fall 
down and bow the knee before him and will bless and laud 
and celebrate with song the Lord of Spirits. 6. And for 
tliie reason has he been chosen and hidden before Him before 
the creation of the world and for evermore, 7. And the 
wisdom of the Lord of Spirits hath revealed him to the holy 

' innumenLble.' g-ThelKtrdof Splrlta. 80 G : ANTHJt; OD^ffl't*- 

Din. gives ' the name of the Lord of Spirits.' 6. And for ever- 
more. So E G H M N 0. L and Din. add (W-JS^D- ' And he 

his name) hu been choam imd hidden 
ID God's preunce &om before creation 
and unta eternitj, ilvlii, 3, 6 ; the 
Moat High liu preeerred him and 
revealed him to the elect, ilri. I, Ij 
l:tii. 7 ; hit glory ia Tor ever and over, 
xlii. 3 1 >jid when Enoch was trana- 
lated, the Son of Man WM already 
abiding with the Lordaf SpiriCa, lii. i, 
Tbii actual pre-existence if the Son of 
Man i§ only in keeping with his other 
■Dpematiual aCtiibates of QniverBol 
do[ninion,lxii.6, and unlimited judidal 
authority, liii. 17. That the eailier 
Itabbi* taught only an ideal pre- 
existence of the Meaaiah (Weber, 
IaKt. a. Talmud, 339-41) doei not in 
the leait make against the idea of an 
actual pre-eiistence being found In 
the Similitndes, as the whale con- 
cuption of the San of Man there i« 
uniqae in Jewiih literature. It is 
moreover found in it Eira lii, 3a ; 
xiii. ]6. Beaidea, Edetsheiu, L^t 

and Timet of Jeiat, i. 174-6, main- 
tain! that thii doctrine is taught in 
the oldest Babbinio writings, and 
Wsber (p. 340) conoedee its appeal^ 
ance in the Uter. Cf. SohUrsr, IXv. 
ii. vol. ii. 159-16], who agreed with 
the view above followed. 3. Tho 

slKna. These are ths aigna of 
the Zodiac ^^~^, Jab luviii. 31. 
See alio viii. 3 ; Ixiii. 13, 19. 4. 

Ths ligtit of the OeotUea. Is. ilii. 
6 ; iLix, 6. The Mesaiah will become 
the light of the Gentiles through hia 
future coming and character being 
made known unto them. Cf. liii. 7> 
where he is already revealed to the 
rightvoui. S. All will bow Ul« 

knoa before him. Even those who 
have denied him, Ldi. 6, 9, lO; liiii. 
See also xc. 33-38. Cf. FhiL ii. 10. 
e. Tar thia reaaoD, i.e. that given 
in vv. 4, 5. Hidden: cf. it Ezra 
xiii, $3. 7. BoTealfld bim to 

th* holy and rigbteooa, i.e. throogh 


Sect, n.] Chapler XL VIII. 3-10. 135 

and righteous for he preserreth the lot of the righteous, 
becaQBe they have hat«d and despised this Trorld of ud- 
righteoosaess, and have hated all its works and ways in the 
name of the Lord of Spirits : for they are saved in his name 
and he is the avenger of their life. 8. And in those days 
the kings of the earth, and the strong who possess the earth 
will be of downcast countenance because of the works of their 
hands, for on the day of their anguish and affliction their 
souls will not be saved. 9. And I will give them over into 
the hands of Mine elect : as straw in fire and as lead in water 
they will bum before the face of the holy, and sink before 
the face of the righteous and no trace of them will any more 
be found. 10. And on the day of their affliction, there 

will be before Eim for evermore.' 7. He la tli« avenger of 
tbeir lifo. So all MSS. but O, which reads lU^A 'Accordiag 
to His good pleasure is their life ordered': lit. 'it happens iu 
regard to their life.' Q's reading preserves the paralleliEm in both 
form and meaning. 9. Befiire the fiuM of the I10I7. So G. 
Other MSS. except M read: 'before the face of the righteous.' 
Befbre the fboe of the rlght«ous. So O M. Other MSS. and Din. 

O.T. ptopheoy. Cf. lili. 7. Frs- Ibe huida, Ao, : ne uxviit 5 (note). 

MTVBth the lot of the righteona. Ab atrkv i& Jlro. A omnmoD figure 

Tha Mewah ii th« itkj of the right- in the O.T., Eiod. ir. 7 <» Ii. v. 14 ; 

eoiu uld tbs gnardiui And ■oraty of Mai. iv. I : '*» lead in water,' Bzod. 

the inhsritanoe that awaita them. i*. 10. Before the (aoe of the holf. 

Hated aad deepind thli world of The nference here ii to Gehenna, 

nnrlghteoasneaa : cf cviiL 8, 9, 10; Cf. xivii. a, y, id. a6, 17: but in the 

Gal. L 4. Saved In hla name : ct SimUitudntheidraofGeheiuia under- 

I Cor. Ti. II ' Juitified in tha name goea lome traniformntion. In izvil. 

D^' &11. Avenger of their Ulb, ij 3 1 ic 16, 37, the sufferings of the 

i. e. by reoompennng the rigbteaua wioked fonn an ever-preieiit ipcctMcle 

and requiting their foea who ihoold to the rigbteoas. Cf IV Em [vi. i], 

be handed over to the angeli of ' BevelaUtor fumui gehenoae, et ez 

paniahineut, liii. 11. S. Day of adveno sjuiiteraia paradisuejaotnidi- 

thelr uignlah: aee xIt. 1 (note), tatom*: but in the Siniilitudea, where 

8-8. Aa the Metdah li the Saviour faeaven and earth are traniformed on 

of the righteona, m ii ha the deitioyer the advent of the Mceriah, thie >pec- 

of their oppreMon. The louU of the taole U only a temporary one, and 

<^reaMn ' will not be aaved' : of. GehsDna and it* vlctimi vnniah for 

ixiviiL 6. Olve them over Into ever &om tiie tight of the righteout, 



Tke Book of Enoch. 

[Sect. II. 

will be reBt on the earth ; hefore them they will fall and Dot 
rise a^in : and there will he no one to take them with his 
haods and raise them : for they have denied the Lord of 
Spirits and His Anointed. The name of the Lord of Spirits be 

XLIX. I. For wisdom is poored ont like water, and glory 
faileth not before him for ever and ever. %. For he is 
mighty in all the secrets of righteousness, and nnrigbteoufiness 
will disappear as a shadow, and have no continuance, because 

give : ' before the face of the holy.' lo. Before them. So O M 

^SfWeO'. Other MSS. ' before him.' Hia Anolntsd. Tlie 
name of the Iiord of Spirits be blessed. These words are 
omitted by Q through homoioteleuton : found in all other U8S. 
XLIX. I. Is poured oat. Q reads ^!^ (sic), which when 

ilTiU.9;lxi!. 13, 13. CeiUv.zx.14. 
10. B«M ; of. UU. 7. 'Wm &U and 
not rise scsin : cf. var. 4 (or the op- 
pontei cf. ilio P«. zixvi u. The 
Lord Mid Hli Anointed : cf. Pi. ii 
i. Ths term 'M«s>iab' or 'Anoiutod 
One' wu Hppliciible to any one 
(ipeciaUy oommiBEiooed by God to » 
religious or Theocratic functioa: henoe 
to David and bia aooceisora, ind even 
to » Gentile piinoe — Cyras (la. xlv. 
1}: to the Jewish h^^h-piieat — 'the 
nnointed prieit,' Lev. iv. 3, 5, 16; 
vi. II : to the Servimt of Jehovah, 
\\. lii. I. In the Fsslms the title 
geaanlly xt^er* to the Rdgning king 
or to the Dftvidic king m looh : yet 
iM ideal aspent is never lost sight of^ 
When the hi«toiioal kingship came to 
an and, the idea atiU remained and 
waa kept prominent tluoagh the 
liturgical nee of the Pialms. Its 
imperfect realisation in the Unga of 
(he pMt made Israel look forward to 
the true MeMauio king in wbooi it 
should be perfectly embodied. But 
the term is never used (echnioally in 
thii senie in the O.T. In this technical 

sense it is firet (bond in the KmOitndef, 
xlviii. lo; lii. 4, and a decade or so 
later in Psa. Sol. zviL 36 ; ivlii. 6, 8. 
For its later oacairenoe see iv Eva 
vii. 39; liL 311 Apoo. Bar. ziix. 
3 ; zzx. 1 ; mix. 7 ; xl. i ; Ux. 9 \ 
lixiii.aiidN.T. passim. SeeOteyne^ 
OriQim oj" Ua FmUer, 338-39 : Art. 
on the Messiah, ^lej/e. Brit. xvi. 33- 
56. On (he qneation generally, cf. 
Henog, B. E. ix. £41-73 : SchUnir, 
JHv. ii. vol. ii. 110-87. 

XTiTZ. That the UeaaiahwiUthiu 
deal with ths migfaty ones of the 
earth Is dear from bis nature and 
attributes. 1. Wisdom 1« poured 
oat like water : oL Is. xi. g. Wisdom 
hare — the knowledge and fear of God. 
Cf. xzziE.5. aiory feileth not, Ac. 
The MeisiBL is the object of endlesa 
glorificatiou. 3. HlslLtr In all 

the aeoreta of risliteoaaness. On 
the revealing and maaifeating power 
of the Messiah see zlvi. 3 (note). 
Disappear as a shadow, and liave 
no oontlnnanoe. The pliraaealcgy 
is borrowed from Jub ziv. 1. The 
word translated ' continoauce ' i* 


Sect.!!.] Chapters XLIX. i — L.i. 137 

the Elect One standeth before the Lord of Spirits, and his 
glory is for ever aod ever, and his might nnto all generations. 
3. And in him dwells the spirit of wisdom and the spirit of 
Him who gives knowledge, and the spirit of understanding 
and of might and the spirit of those who have &llen asleep in 
righteoufiness. 4, And he will judge the secret things and 
no one will be able to utter a lying word before him ; for be 
is the Elect One before the Lord of Spirits according to His 
good pleasure. 

[L. I. And in those days a change will take place in the 

taken intraneitively is equivalent to Dln.'e reading i%(i0. 3. 
Vila spirit of Him irho gives knoirlsdgs. Instead of ovlAits 
HfAA- O reads cnl^; Il^lUlr="The spirit which speaks to 
him.' 4. He Is tbs Eleot One. Instead of ')4s)& O reads 't4<^ 
' He is consecrated.' 

formed from the verb tnuulatad 
' (tand^ ' : ' uuriglitMDaien will 
hava no itaadiDg-ground bewnH the 
BlMtOne*t*iideUi,'&a Qlorrlifor 
•ver and. ever, Ao.: o£ Ib. Iz. 6, 7 ; 
Hio. T. 1. 8. Farther emiow- 

menta of the Meadah after I*. li. 1. 
The apirit of wladoia: cf. li. 3. 
The apiilt of Hhn who (jvea 
knowledge. Thli may oarreapoed 
to ' the spirit of oooiuel ' or to ' the 
ipirit of knowledge' in Ie.zi.3. The 
apizit of thoae who have fallen 
aileep, Ao. Hie ri^teonimeai which 
In Bome meaante belonged to all the 
Uthfnl in the paat will tn him attain 
perfect rcaUtation. 4. Jodge the 
•eoret Ihlnca : eC t. ) and iMii. 3 
(note). A Irlns word. Falwhood 
will ba impMuble in hia pwaenoe. 
Ot Izii. 3 ; and IxnL 9, where It ia 
taken over in the Inteipolatloni. 
The word tianilatad 'Ijing' denotea 
■ emptineaa' : there ia no reality oor> 
. Cf. li.6<takeHia 
i.e. oommlt perjoiy. 

Tor ha la the Bleot One, fto. For 
these Teiy pnrpoaei haa he been 
oboaea : of. iItIu. 6. 

I.. Thii dtapter mnit, I think, be 
regarded aa an interpolation : if it la 
original, the writer waa inconaittMit 
with himaelf, and the iucongrnoas 
detail! were due to literary reminle- 
oenoe. Theee dataila belong to the 
aanie iphera of thonght aa Ixxiili-xo 
and xci-^v, where the jadgmeot of 
the Bword forma the prelude to the 
Meananic kingdom which ia gradually 
eltabliabad and attended by the e«n- 
Tanion of the heathen, xc. 30, 33 : 
zd. 14, and Dltimately followed by 
the final jadgment. But izivli-lui 
are etrongly apoealypUo in obaracter, 
and the klngdem ia ndieied in by the 
aedden ^ipearing of the Son of Han, 
who inaaguratea hia retgn by the two 
tremendona acta of the reaurreotiiMi 
and the final jndgmant. Thie jodg- 
ment i« (onuiiary and foreaaio, IxiL 1. 
Hiere U no plaoa of repeetanoa : cf. 
Izii 1 Iziii. Ged'a mercy ia ahown in 

itradb, Google 


The Book of Enoch. 

[Sect. 11. 

lot of the Koly and elect ones : and the light of days will 
abide upon them and g^ory and honour vill tom to the holy. 
2. And on the day of affliction, evil will gather over the 
fiinners, bat the tighteous will be victorious in the name of 
the Lord of Spirits : and He will cause the Gentiles (lit. 'the 
others ') to witness (this judgment) that they may repeit and 
forego the works of their hands. 3. They will have no 
houonr through the name of the Lord of Spirits, yet through 
His name will they be saved and the Lord of Spirits will have 
compassion on them, for His compassion is great. 4. And 
He is righteous in His judgment, and in the presence of 
His glory and in His judgment do unrighteousness shall 
maintain itself : whosoever repents not before Him will perish. 

L. a. Bvil will gatbw orer tbe ■limer*. Instead of ^V7-fl: 
Xh-t O reads Itttl?!!: XM and M H7>(Ui XM. Other MSS. 
support Din. May repent. A(hl>>. G reads f^fh- 'tn&j 
arise.' M N A^flrfti. 3. Throni^ the name of tlie Iiord of 
Bpirlta. So O M. dtlao instead of A^J^-OD of other M8S. and 

Hi* dealing! with llie righlootu, lii. 
13. All nnnen ue furtliwitli driven 
from off the otrth : heaven and ewth 
»xe tranafonnsd and become tlia habi- 
tation of the righteonl. Henoe Ihsre 
ii DO room for the period of the 
aword> or for the progieniTe con- 
venion of the heathen. The writer 
baa not, any mwe than Dauid, takes 
into aooount the deitin; of the 
latter, save indireatly in teaching a 
geoeni judgment. TheH Tciaea, then, 
are a later addition made with the 
purpoae of fiillng up a gap in the 
tUmilitodea, bnt in reality they eerve 
only to tend the nfiBmlnw TeatDie of 
their thoagbt nod qntem. 1. The 
night of oppi^adon will give place 
to thu iiinihine of glory and honour 
for the rigbteona with the advent 
of the MnMJanin kingdom : of. Iviji. 
5,6. Ofaaarve that tilers is no meuticm 

of the MeMiah in tt. t-4, nor yet of 
the klngi and mighty onea, boUi of 
whioh faots tend to eonfirm the oim- 
cludon we have above arrived at. 
H0I7 and slaot : cf. Izit. S. S. 

The period of the iword, when the 
rigfateoDi alay the wicked, ii here 
refened to: cf. 10. 19-J4i ^- *'■ 
Day of aiSiotioli : cf.zlviii. 10; klv. 
3 (note). Oaueo tbe Oentilea . . . 
that they m*7 repeat: cf. xo. 30, 
33> 34; loi- 14- 8- The Gentilet 

who repent will be nved aa by fire. 
They will not have the abnndMit 
entering In of the Jews. 4, 6. 

Whui the honr of the final jadgment 
anivet, the Maaim of meroy for the 
Gentilea ii paat for ever. Note the 
afflniUea of Ihonght between 1, 3-5 
and Ix. 5, 15. Ct IT Em vU. 33; 
Apoo, Bar. Ixiiv. is. Obaarve tint 
the final jadgment here la not at the 


Sect. II.] 

Chapters L. i — LI. i. 


5. And from heacef orth He will show no mercy to them, saith 
the Lord of Spirits.] 

LI. 1. And in those days will the earth also give back those 

Din.: 'Before the Lord of Spirits.' 5. He wiU show no 
meroy. This may equally well be translated ' I will show no 

banning of the Meananic reign, aa 
in the Similitades, but *piwroDtly ot 
ita cloae, u In loi-ciT. In iv Exra and 
the Apoc. Bar., when the Mearianlo 
kingdom li of temporarj duration, 
and brought to a close b; the Gnal 
judgment, a period of npentatioe ii 
rightly ipoken of. Cf. Apoo. Bar. 
Ixxxv. 13 ; 17 Ezra vil. 34. 

LL 1. The reeoireetdan here is a 
retDrreodon of all Iirael, but not of 
the Gentilea. IL I would indeed aeem 
to point to the latter, and tbiB all the 
nuH^ no a» rv Ena vii. 31 and [tL 1], 
wbleh an evidently bated on it, and 
on En. Iz. 6, aie applied to a general 
iMunection. But the whole hiitory 
of Jewish thoui^t poiote in an oppo- 
■ite direction. At we ihall see below , 
no Jewiiih book except TV Ecra teachei 
Indubitably the doctrine of a general 
reaurrectlati; and this may be due to 
Christian influence, aa iv Em cwinot 
be eariier than So a. D. Individual 

Talmud wiU be noticed below. On 
the qneatian generally, ue Chejne, 
Origin 0/ (4e fu^ter, 381-4SJ ; ' Po«- 
uble Zoroaatrian InflaenceE on the 
Religion of Iimel,' Ear^miary I'lnof, 
1891, pp. 314-113 ; 148-153: Eiaen- 
menger.^Mccjtffli ./wienUum, iL 8lg, 
810-949 = Weber, Hit Lehrm d. Tul- 
Z^i>Io^,4>*AuB. 753-68: Hera^ 
B. E, Art. UniterbUohkeit, voL iri. 
189-195: HambiiigM',A-£ii. (rSeqq. 
(Art Belebnng der Todten) : Eden- 

heim, £{/> and Tima <^ Jan, ii. 
397-403: Kahle, Biiiisrfe Etchato-^OiSttde.ffberd.A.T.liBhen 
VortielUmgen von dem Zailandt nach 
dem Tode, 1877: Caatelli, 'Future 
Life in Babbinic Literatare,' Art. in 
JeteUk Q;tiarterly RtmetB, July,l8S9, 
pp. 314-51 : Montefiore, ' Doctrine of 
Divine Betribution in 0. T.,' Oct. 
1890,1-1 3. The varionefwDu in which 
the Jewiih doctrine of the reaorrection 
appeared are: (i) a returreetion of all 
laraditea. Thiidoctriiieiafirettaught 
in Dan. lit, 1 ; but, though ao power- 
fully Btterted, It did not become the 
prevailing belief. It i« the aoeepted 
iaith in En. i-zuvi (with the eioep- 
tion of one olaai of rinneie in ixiL 13) ; 
zzzviJ-Uz;lxxxiii-zc; Pb. liv (title) 
inSept.;nMBcc.vii. 9, 14, I3il9<3<i; 
xii. 43, 44 compared with vi. 36 ; Apoc. 
BaT.l--li.6. (3) A retarTectionoftha 
rigbteouB laraelitei. In post-Giilic la. 
XIV. 8;iivi. ]9:Fu.xvLl0,ll;KvIi. 
Origin ofthg Pmltar, 406-408); Job 
xiv. 13-15 ; lix. a6, aj ; En. xoi-oiv ; 
I^SoUiii. i6;iiii. 9;xiv. 7; xt. 15; 
Apoc. Bar. xix ; Joaephna, Ant. iviU. 
I, 3 ; .Self. Jad. ii. 8, 14. That the 
reaurrection waa the sole prerogative 
of righteous Israelite* became the ac- 
cepted doctrine in Talmudio the<dogy : 
Weber, Die Leiritt d. Tahntd, 371- 
3. Individual voices, however, are 
not wanting who aaaerted the leaur- 
reotion of pious Gentile*, Biaenmenger, 
Eittd*etta»JadaUhitm,g08,9x Indeed 



The Book of Enoch. 

[Sect. II. 

who are treasured up within it, and Sheol alao will give back 
that which it has received, and hell will (^ve back that which 
it owee. %. And he will choose the righteous and holy 
from among them : for the day of their redemption has drawn 
nigh. 3, And the Elect One will in those days eit on My 
throne, and all the secrets of wisdom will stream forth from 
the counsels of his month : for the Lord of Spirits hath given 

LI. I. Those who are treasured up within It, and Sheol 
also wlU give back that whloh It has received. So G : XAi 
■HI7(h (DfltJ^ (DOMiL: Tl-Vdc Htimmarir. The text of G ia 
manifestly better tb«n that of Dki., the parallelism of which is 
destroyed apparently by the incorporation of marginal glosses. 
IT Ezra vii. 32 which is evidently modelled on 11. i conRrmB text 
of G. DIq. is supported by F H L N O and gives : ' That which is 
entrusted to it, and Sheol wUl give back that which ia entrusted 
to it, which it has received.' M agrees with Din. but that it 
omits OT'101^ iu the first clause an<) ;f^-AX in the second. 3. 
On Ky throne. SoGM. Other MSS. and Din. 'on His throne.' 

tint of kU the GeDtllu, with aome few 
moeptioiu, but only to die again, 
EiMTunenger, 90S-10; Weber, 373. 
We ihould obaerre tbat even imper- 
fect lanelitee might atUln to the 
Teaumetion of life nfCer purgation in 
Gebenm, Webn, 371. [Obaarre that 
la the Didachs it ii taogU ae » 
Chiiatiiin doetiine thatonljthe right- 
eon.«Bnu*d.»i.7.] (3) Areaar- 
reetion of all mankind, n Ezra vii. 
33; [»i. J;] Tert. lii. Patriaioh. 
Jadae zxv ; Benjamin x. In both 
came the doettine ia probaU; dne 
to Chriatian inflaenoea. Coaourrait]; 
with th« above fotma of doeliine, 
otho' Jewi believed onlj in llie im- 
mortality of the aoul wiUkont a reaur- 
reotion ; Wiidom of Sol. iii. i aqq. ; 
IT. 7; V. 16; Till. 30, conpand with 
ii. 15 ; XV. S ; Jnhileei izit. 1. 

Bhaol. Thu word b here used in Ita 
new Boiae of Hie Intermediate State. 

For the hiitoiy of thia word and itn 
varioDB meanings, aee IxiiL 10. Hell, 
litenlly ' deatruction,' ixitKtta, ii the 
aanw aa ' Abaddon,' Job ziTi. 6 : cf. 
Rer.ii.ll. With the whole verae cf. 
IV Eira vil. 31. The ranirmetlon ia 
H reaurTseUon of the body : cF. Iiii. 14. 
So alio in i-iiiTi ; liudii-ic ; In zoi- 
oiv it Ii only a nianrrection of the 
soul and apirit. Ia thii respect the 
Pag. Sol. probably Kgree wiUi iri-oiT. 
A reeorreotion of the body is taught 
in It Uacc. ; Apoo. Bar. ; IV Eira. 
3. The dar of thalT lodemption 
has drawn nigh: of. Lake ixi. iS. 
Ab the Meaaiah in hia judicial oapadty 
diicriminatea between men'i deeda, 
iIt. 3, ao he diacrimlnatea between 
the righteoua and the wicked. 8. 

Hie Maeeiah ia the eaibodiment of 
wiadotn, ilii. 3 : and in tUa wiadom 
■halt the members of hia kingdom 
ahare, llviii. i; \A. 1, It. Cf. xlii. 


Sect. II.] 

Chapters LI. 2~LII. 2. 


it to him and bath glorified him. 4. And in those days 
will the mountains leap like rams and the hills will skip like 
lambs satisfied with milk, and they will aJl become angels in 
heaven. 5. Their faces will be lighted np with joy because 
in those days the Elect One has appeared, and the earth will 
rejoice and the righteous will dwell apon it, and the elect 
will go to and fro upon it. 

LII. I. And after those days, in that place where I had seen 
all the visions of that which is hidden — for I had been carried 
off in a whirlwind and borne towards the West— 2. There 
mine eyes saw all the hidden things of heaven that shall be, 
an iroD mountain, and one of copper, and one of silver, and 

LII. 2. AH. tbe bidden thin^ of heaven that shall be. 80 
GM, omitting the ilJEOt ^"^C of Din. and FHLNO. Dlu. 
gives ' Tlie hidden tbiugs of tlie heaven, all things which shall be 

3 (note). 4. Tlie monntaini will 
IsftP, Ao., i.e. witli joy: tS. Pb. osiv. 
4,6. All beooms ongela In heavsn. 
This is not to b« weakened down into 
m, mere likeueu (o the angels. At 
the leut it denoted an equaUt; of the 
rightcom with them. In an earlier 
Motion, loi-dT, there is the same 
idea. The rlghteonB will be com- 
panimu of the heavenly linets, civ. 6, 
and re}oice ru the luigela in heaven. 
civ. 4. The idea ie further developed 
In Apoe. Bar. ; the righteons will be 
tratiBformed into the glory of the 
nngela, li. 5, and be made like onto 
them, li. lo, and their lurpasxing 
■plendoar will exceed that of the 
angelj, li. II. This too !■ the teaching 
of the Talmad. 5. The ssrth r.'. 

joicca, for it is tranaformed, xlv. 5, 
and hai at last become the inheritance 
of tlie righteooi as anciently promised : 
cf. Ps. invii. 3, 9, 11. J9,34. 

Iitl. This obsoare ohupter aeemi 
to lymbolize the varioni fiitore king- 
doms of the worLI, and to be founded 

on Dan. ii. 31-45. These kingdom!! 
of material force, symbolized by iron 
and brass sod silver and gold and 
clay, will be aa the chaff of summer 
threshing-floors before the kingdom 
of the Messiah, Dan. tl. 35 : tbey will 
be broken to pieces and consumed, 
Dan. ii. 44. So here the varions world 
powers represeated by these moun- 
tnins of iron and copper and silver 
nod gold, Ac., will melt as wai before 
the fire in the presence of the Mesuah, 
Hi. 6, and be destroyed from off the 
face of the earth, Iji. 9, and no earthly 
might will avail in that day, lii. 7, 8. 
Observe that the idea of aymboliiing 
the world powers by mountains Is 
dnwn from the same section of Daniel. 
In ii. 35 the Meagianic kingdom is 
symbolized by a mountain. 1. In 
that plaoe, i. e. In heaven, where he 
had seen all (he preceding viuons. 
It is idle to attempt to get an eiavt 
idea of Enoch's movements. In xxxix, 
3 he was carried off by ■ whirlwind 
to the enda of heaven : heie he is 


142 The Book of Enoch. [Soctli. 

one o£ gold, aad one of soft metal, and one of lead, 3. 
And I asked the angel who went with me, saying, 'What 
things are these which I have seen in secret ?' 4, And he 
eaid unto me, ' All these things which thon haat seen serve the 
dominion of His Anointed that he may be potent and mighty 
on the earth.' 5. And that angel of peace answered me 
and said, ' Wait a little and there will be revealed to thee 
everything that is hidden, which the Lord of Spirits has 
established. 6. And those mountains which thine eyes 

have seen, the mountain of iron, and of copper, and of silver, 
and of gold, and of soft metal, and of lead, all those will 
in the presence of the Elect One be as wax before the fire, 
and li^e the water which streams down from above upon 
those mountains and will become powerless before his feet. 
7. And it will come to pass in those days that none shall 
be saved either by gold or by silver, and none shall be able 
to escape. 8. And there will be no iron for war nor 

on the eartb.' 5. Wait a llttla and there will be revealed 
to thee everything. So G M. Other MSS. and Din. after Walt 
a little inBert 'and thou wilt see.' For ltttlA=' which he Las 
established,' Q reads HhArt:='which encompaaaes the Lord of 
Spirits.' 6. Whloh thine eyes have seen. So O M : HC^Lf i 
JtO^Ttll. Other MSS. and Din. ' which thou haat seen.' 7. 
ZTone shall be able to escape. So G M. Other MSS. and Din. 
read ' None shall be able to save himself or escape.' 8. There 

bame to the west. S. Soft metal. tiou of these venea eee introductory 

The origiiul word denotes an esaily note to this obapter. The writer giveri 

melted metal, kud may aliio stand a« a twofold ai^iifianoe to theae metali : 

a general name for tin aad lead: cf. that given above and that developed 

liL 6 ; Izv. 7, 8 ; livii. 4, 6. 4. in vv. 7, 8. 6. Aa wax before 

Tbece vrorld powen will serve to show the flra : cf.i.6; Ps. icvii. j ; Micah 

forth the might of the Mseaiah by i. 4. Iiike -water which atreama 

being dertmyed liefore hii faoe. This, down from above : cf. Micah i, 4. 

thongh not the natural sense of the Before hla feet: cf. Mioah i. 3. He 

vene, \% the only one it can have in will tread down the moantains. 7. 

this ouDnezion. The natural answer The pbraxeology Is derival from Zeph. 

to the qneation in t. 3 appears in i. 18: cf. Is. ziii. 17. The more 

V. 5, and this verse may be a later preoioaa metals will nt>( redeem from 

6-8. For the interpreta- danger and death, S. The harder 

ub, Google 

SMt.n.] Chapters LI I. ■i, — LIII.^, 143 

garment for a coat of mail. Bronze wUl be of no service, 
and tin will be of do service and will not be esteemed, and 
lead will not be desired. 9. And all these things will be 
disowned and destroyed from the surface of the eartb when 
the Elect One will appear before the &ce of the Lord of 

LIII. I. And there mine eyes saw a. valley with open and 
deep months, and all who dwell on the earth and sea and 
islands will bring to him gifts and presents and tokens of 
homage, bnt that deep valley will not become full. 2. For 
they commit crimes with their bands, and sinners as they are 
they crimiaously devour all the acquisitions (of the righteous) : 
accordingly as sinners they will perish before the face of the 
Lord of Spirits and will be removed from off the face of His 
earth, continually for ever and ever. 3. For I have seen 
the angels of punishment abiding (there) and preparing all the 

will be no Iron fbr w«r nor garment for a coat of mall. 
This eeeme a better rendering than ' Es wird kein Eisen geben 
fiir den Krieg noeh das Kleid eines Panzers.' — Din. 

LIU. I. A valley with open and deep mouths. So G: 44: 
C'tOi aiOflv^: iK^Vlf tfV. Din. gives ' a deep valley, the mouths of 
which were open.' a. Sinners as tb«7 are tb^ orlmlnonaly 
devotiT. So FHLMNO and Din. G reada (^>TA1: J&OAO*. 
3. Abiding (tb«re) and preparing. So A E H M : XIH: V%S::^\ 

metaU will not prove a defenca but euth bringing gifts to the Mesn&h ii 

will di>Bppe»r before him : cf. Hm. ii. n favoarite one in the TUmuil, Weber 

18 J la. ii. 4; iz.5; Zecb.; Ps. (368-g). Dln.'i interpreUtian of the 

xlri. 9. moQutuDB tuid this valley is aniQ. 

Iiin. L The deep valley hero is telligible. S. Bemoved Avm off 

tbatof JehoBbsphKt,whero,Bccordiii2 the fooe of Hia earth: nee xiivHi. 

to Joel iii. 1, la, Giod waa to BMamble 1 (note). 8. Angela of panlth- 

aud judge the Gentile*. The Talmud ment: eee zl. 7 (note). These angela 

teaohea the Mme view (Weber, Dit apparently propan the ohiinti and 

LehTtm d. TalmiKf, J76). Alt thoae fettan for the kings and the mighty 

who dwell upon earth will bring gidt in the valley of Jeboshaphat, whero 

and preeenta to the Meisiah to win the kings an to be judged. The 

a favourable judgment : but tbeie will chalna for the (alien angels are forged 

be c^ no avail (cf. til. 7). The idea in Gehenna, liv. 3-5. The kings ue 

of the nations and the rieh men of the then taken and cast into Gehenna, 


144 "^^ Book of Enoch. [Sect. il. 

ingtmments of Satan. 4. And I asked the angel of peace 

who went with me, ' These instrunients, for whom are they 
preparing them P ' 5- And he said nnto me 'They are for 

the kings and the mighty of the earth, that they may thereby 
be destroyed. 6. And after this tlie Righteous and Elect 

One will cause the houBe of hia congr^ation to appear : 
henceforth they will no more be hindered, in the name of the 
Lord of Spirits, 7. And these mountains will not stand 
fast as the earth before his righteousness, and the hills will 
be as a fountain of water, and the righteous will have rest 
from the oppression of sinners.' 

LIY. I. And I looked and turned to another part of the 

Ot.fftl'^jUIL. 80 also 0, but with verbs in sing. The reading of 
BCD and also FLN adopted by Din. 'guing and pre|)ariii<{' 
MH! f/faa)-4- seems to be an attempted emendation of the text. 
5. Ther an for the kings. So OM. Olher MSS. and Dlu. 
read 'They are preparing them for the kings.' The miffhty 
of t*e earth. So G. Other MSS. give ' The mighty of this 
earth.' 6. Eenoefbrtb. G omits; M supports. 7. And thaae 
mountatna will not stand. So all MSS. but B C which omit the 
negative. Din. follows B C. Before Hla rightaousnen. So 

O X'J&t. Din. gives 1% ' Before His &ce.' M Ahooi ft^fi^. 

liv. 3. 6. Hooaa of Ma oon- Bhallbe ua fount of water: cf.lii.6. 

gresaticm: Beenxviii. I (note). The The earth's great onea will becrnne 

phrue here <a in the aingiilsr: in liii. BtreDgthleuandvkDishatthepresence 

6 it i» in the plural. There fa ap- of the Meniah. 
pwenti; no aigniflcuioe in the dif- X>IV. In Uii the writer denribed 

ferenca. The boulea of hU cangrega- the icene of the judgment and the 

tioDt are (lia Bynsg^uee: cf. Pb. fatten that were being prepared to 

Ixxir. 8. 7. The mountaliiB . . . biod the king) on their condemnation. 

andbilU: see Crit. Note. There i> Here he speaks of Gehenna into which 

a retam here hi tiie figurative Ian- the kings are cast ; thejare punislied 

gnage of lii. The mountainB and the in the sight of the righteoas : cf. liii. 

hills are syiiibols oF the world powen 13. The Wen angels are oaat into 

ai personated in the kings and the a fai-nace of Are. The idea of the 

Diight^T- Before the Meeeiah'a right- fallen angels and the kings bvng 

eonsness, the moantains (i.e. t)ie judged tt^lber is to be traced to 

kings) will not be like the parth which Is. iiIt. ai, ii. 1. To another 

abidethfareTra,Ps.liiviiL6[); Eccles. part of the earth. Tlie writer now 

i. 4 : and the hills (1. e. the mighty) tnina fiom the valley of Jehoihaphat 


SMt.n.] Chapters LIII. \ — LIV.-j. 145 

earth and saw there a deep valley with homing fire. 2. 
And they brought the kings and the mighty and put them 
into this deep valley. 5. And then mine eyea saw how 

they made inBtraments for them, iron chains of immeaanrable 
weight. 4. And I aeked the angel of peace who was with 

me, saying : ' These chain instromente for whom are they 
prepared ?' 5. And he said unto me : ' These are prepared 
for the hosts of Azflz£I so that they may take them and oast 
them into the abyss of complete condemnation, wd cover 
their jaws with rongh stones as the Lord of iSpirite com- 
manded. 6. Michael, Gabriel, Bnfael and Fanuel will take 
hold of them on that great day and cast them on that day 
into a baming furnace, that the Lord of Spirits may take 
vengeance on them for their unrighteousness in becoming 
enbject to Satan and leading astray those who dwell on the 
earth. [7. And in those days will punishment come from 

LIV. 2. Into thl» d»ep valley. So Q M Hh-. Din. 'Into the 
d«ep valley.' 3. How tbey mads instrumftnts for them, iron 
chains. For Hai)aO'V£lf<n»* Q reads HmMft'tD'cn*-. 5. Cover 
their Jaws. So ^UM- in Bubj. as preceding verb. Other M8S. 
and Din. read fhJMk 'they will cover.' 6. WUl take hold 

of tham. on that great day and oast them on that day Into 
a burning ftimaoe. For <Hf-, htti Hfi-iSiA O M read 
64*1; nfi-iAJt and omit 'cast them/ but wrongly, u their 
reading of OMDitY instead of OO'-IH' (Din.) implies a second verb. 
For a like possible confaaion of A and <D see next verse (Grit. 

on the north-BBBt of Jonualeni to tbe who execute the first judgment npon 

vkLe; of Hinnom lying to the wnth them. 6. He Bokl judgment on 

of it. A deep vklley : lee zlTiii. 9 the watohen. On that gt*tA duf : 

(note). 8-6. The prs-Heedaiua see xlv. 1 (note). OUerre that in the 

jndgmant of tbe intohers in ver. j Slmilitndee the gallt of the trateiien 

u (hat deeoribed at length in i-zvi. originated in their becoming lubjecti 

Hie BbTM of ootnplet* oondsmna- of Satan : eee zL 7 (note) ; Book of 

lion la not Gehenna bat only tbe JabQeea x. Bnralnc fUnuaa: cf. 

preliminary place of puniihrnait: of. z. 6', ivUL 11; ixL 7~'°> '<!■ '4i 

X. 5, 1 3. We are net t«ld hj whom 15. Hie ii to be dietinguiRhed Cran 

the ohaini are f<^(ed for the fillen Gehenna, 7-I>T. S. Thii digree- 

■ogsU, DOT jet who are the egenti non on the Bret world-j adgmont ia 



The Book of Enoch. 

the Lord of Spirita, and all the chamben of waters whicli are 
above the beav^e will be op«ied aod of the fountaiiu which 

Note). On them. Q omits. 7. All the ohambeTB . . . will b« 
opmed. Bo Din. and aU H&6. but G, which gives ittdbl tt4^ 
a*ll7'0t. And of the tbuntalna. For the impoBslble OhCA 

I reed 0!kA. Cf. nest clause according to QM (DjkA: ftl^Ot: 
oH'AI^ fAC Otherwise for UHCA read QCQ 'in addition to.' 

»NoMUofr«gneat. ABookofKoah 
ii maalioDcd in the Sook of Jabileei 
x; uL TbsM ftagnMota, zxziz. i, 
3*; Ut. 7>-1v. 3; Ix; IxT-liiz. 15, 
daal nuinly with the Delnge. Iliey 
an to be i^uded ai intarpolatloni 
tn tha following gnxuida out of many : 
(i) They alwaj) dktntb the ooDtaxt 
in whiob they oooor. (a) Thsy pro- 
be a terelatiiai of Noah, li. 
t Ti ^y_U, )4, j; ; IxT-liTiiL J. (3)1*^ 
J^^,.^beloDg to a inoeh later dardopmant 
of Jewiih gnods or kabbala: eC li*. 
8 ; Iz. 7 aqq. ; Ut, 7, S ; liril 6, 
(4) Such a defiiute dale ai ii gtren 
in li. I ill nnknowniMthaSiiiulitBdca. 
ia dsolared an abaolute aaoret In IzviiL 
3-5 in oontndiotian with liv. 4-6 ; 
1*. 3, 4. (6) The demonolc^ ii dif- 

wbo ara carafhlly dlatinguiihed In 
the Smilitadee aia oDnfoaed in the 
additions, liii. The obief, moreover, 
of the Ulen angela in the Similitude* 
1* Aiawl ; in the addition!, Samjaza. 
(7) TIm interpoUtoT aaelu to adapt 
hli addition! to their new oinitezia, 

> >^ and Booordin)^; inooiponitea in tliem 
many tennt and phraani from the 
Similitade^ nd a> ' Angd of peace,' 

' ^.Iz. 34, lea xl. * (note); *do lying 
word can be ipokan before Him,' 
zlix. 4 (tiote) ; 'denied the L<nd of 
e^ti,' Izrii. 8, 10, aaa xxzvUi. 3 
(note) ; ■ the angel who want with ma 
and thowed dm what wm hidden,' 

llrLi; Iz. II (note); hrfodnrM Oaf 
in ntcA borr^wJn^ile mfnuM UdaAeal 
Una* and jiiraMi, either throng 
IgiuntBOftorof aetpnipoa*. Ot'Lord 
of Spirit*,' lee * nxrii. 3 (note) ; 
'Head of Sayi,' It. I, aae zItL I 
(oota) i ' Angeb of pDnfthnant^' il. 
7l IzTi. I (note); 'Sok of Man,' Ix. 
10 (not*); 'thoae who dwell on tha 
earUi,' Ut. 9 ; zxzrii. j (note}. (S) 
The intopolator mitnndeiaUada the 
Similitodea, and otmibinee abaoliitely 
alien alemmta : cf. ' tha bnming 
Talley in the metal moimt^nt tn the 
wart '—an illegitimate eombinaUon of 
UL I, 3 and liT. I. (9) Finally, the 
KmiiitndM follow the T.YY . ahtnuo- 
logy : tha Inteipolatibni follow the 
Bamaritan. Tha* in bd. 11 Enooh 
■paalu of the deot a* bung already in 
Paiadiie, and in In. 4 whiatnuulation 
he find* hi* fcardkthei* already thara. 
Thi* ooaJd be tha ca*e only aooording 
to tha LXX. raokoning; for aootnding 
to the Samaritan all hi* fbceUliara 
inniTed him, and, aooonHi^ to the 
Hel»ew, all ezoept Adam. Hie Inl«- 
polati<m* follow the Samaritan reokon- 
ing : lae Izt. 3 (note). The object of 
the interpolator li clear. Altbocgb 
loigtii, thna are only the biiafeit 

W Wvw 

tnif ly thfa datbct in the Simili- 
tnde* that an eilatiiig Apocalypae 
of Noah WH laid under oontribn- 

;d by Google 

8«ct.ll.] Chapters LIV. 8 — LV. 3. 147 

are below the heavens and beneath the earth. 8. And all 
the waten will be joined with the waters : that which is 
iU>ove the heavens is the masculine and the water which is 
beneath the earth is the feminine. 9. And all who dwell on 
t^e earth will be destroyed and those who dwell nndw the 
aids of the heaven. 10. And they will thereby recognise 
their nnrighteousnese which they have committed on tiie earth, 
and owing to this will they be destroyed.' 

LV. I. And aft«r that the Head of Days repented and 
said : ' In vain have I destroyed all who dwell on Uie earth.' 
a. And He swore by His great' name : ' Hencrforth I will 
not do so (again) to all who dwell on the earth, and I will 
set a sign in the heavens : this will be a pledge of good &ith 
between Me and them for ever, so long as heaven is above 
the earth.] 3. And this will be according to My com- 
mand: when I desire to take hold of them by the hand 
of the angels on the day of tribulation and pain, before this 

Din. emends by reading JEnH. 8. AU th* waters wUl Im 

Joined with the waters : that whloh Is above the heaveng la 
the masooliiLe. So O M, bat omitting with B fbe H which they 
read before yWIA. Other M8S. and Din. give: 'And all the 
waters will be joined with the waters which are above in the 
heavens: the water indeed which ia ubove in the beaveD ib mas- 
cnline.' 9. G omits ^vho direll on the earth, and. 10. 

OwlnctotUswlUtherbedeetroyed. So M (LCAt and Q Mt. 
Dbi.'B MSS. and KIiN O (DOXini— clearly an emendation. 

LV. I. For lUi O reads ntiOB. %. wui not do ao. G M 
omits ' BO.' 3. And thla wUl be. So M reading (0li 

instead of aHiS^ = ' after this it will be.' For tt JtC G reads 

8. The diitingoiihing of Iha wkton iUartntion of ths method by which 

intoiiuaaiiluuimndfeimiiiDsIa qaitelD the interpoUtor leeka to ■trlniilitfi 

keeping with the other lubbklUio hiiadditionibjliicorponiUiigteduiieal 

ideM of theie Interpolationi : of. Iz, temu from the nuiu text. Bepsnted : 

7, 8, tS. 8. AU who dweU on of. Qai. viiL ii. 3. Hare the 

the earth: ne xxxvii. £ (note). original text of liv. 6 ii momed. 

IiV. L The Hekd of Daye : ue Say of toibnlatlon and pala ! leu 

iItL I (note). We h»ve hoM a good zIt. a (note). Before thia Hlne 


148 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. II. 

I will cause Mine aoger and M7 punishment, Mine anger and 
Mj punieliment to abide apoD them, saith God, the Lord of 
Spirits. 4. Ye mighty kinge who will dwell on the earth, 
ye shall have to behold Mine Elect, how he sits on the throne 
of glory and judges Az&z^l, and all his associates, and all his 
hosts in the name of the Lord of Spirits.' 

LVI. I . And I saw there the hosts of the angel of pnmsh- 
meat going with sconrgee and chains of iroa and bronze. 

2. And I asked the angel of peace who went with me, and 
said : ' To whom are these angels with the scouiges going ? ' 

3, And he said unte me : ' Each one to his elect and beloved 
ones that they may be caat into the chasm of the abyss of 
the valley. 4. And then that valley will be filled with 
their elect and beloved, and the days of their lives will be at 
an end, and the days of their being led astray will from 
that time on no longer be reckoned. [5. And in those 

i^SSQ (sic), and this I liave followed above. 4. Kig^tf 

kingfl. See xEtviii. 5 (note). Throne of ^017. 80 GM : 

other MSS. and Dbi. ' Throne of Hy glory.' All hia hoaU. O 
omits ' his hosts.' 

LVI. I. Wltb sooorges and ohains fX Iron and bnmie. 
So O (OfAAIh ai^v»<Pt\ a . . (uc). Other MS8. omit 
'aconrges and.' 3. With the econrgeo. So O reading 

ii«»*ivW after XA: ^A'lH'. Other MSS. omit * Bcomxea.' 5. 

ftnger, I.e. 'befbra thiimanifeitBtioii The term 'beloved' is ipetiiJI; nied 

cifMlne enger': of. a aimllu- aipree- of the demooe in ngird to their 

lion is I. 4. 4. Tlie kingi hare pareDti in i-iiz*i : tee 1. 11 ; xl*. 6. 

to wltncM the jnctginent pMaed on MoieoTer, it would be pomible to 

the tngeiM : if Amcel »dA hi* hoeta tatmUte, ' the* days of their leading 

nn judged and oondamned b; tlie Mtrajr.' 4. Noloogarbereakoned, 

UewlBfa, how much more likely wUI i. e. be at an end. B-IiTIX. S*. 

thejt The text ihould abnoat oer- We have hera anotber addition to 

taini; be ' Ye kingi and mighty ' : see the text. It defriots the iMt atroggla 

xxKviii. 5 (note) ; bdi. 6 (Ciit. Note), of the heathen poweri agunat the 

LTX. 1-4. There i< here finally MeHianIc kingdom «atabliihed in 

the judgment of the remaining theo- Jeraialam. Such a conception it quite 

oiatio einneiB and thnr condemnation in place In Ixuili-xo, lol-civ, but Ii 

to Gdenna. It U poarible, boverer, Irreconcileable with the ruling idea* 

to interpret theievaeei of the watch- in xixni-lxi. A Mrerinh who ww 

en and thsir children the demoni. only a m«n with his «eat at Jem»leni 

itradb, Google 

Sect. II.] Chapters LV.\ — LVI. 7. 


days will tlte angels return and hurl themselves upon the 
East, upon the Parthians and Medes, to stir up the Icings 
and provoke in them a spirit of unrest, and rouse them from 
their thrones, that they may break forth from their resting- 
places as lions and as hungry wolves among their fiocks. 
6. And they will march up to and tread under foot the land 
of Hie elect ones, and the land of His elect ones will be 
before them a threshing-floor and a path. 7. But the 

wm return. 80 Q ^7>flAv for ^>0A> of DhL 'Will gather 
together.' M supporta Din., bat is written over an eraeion. 
Hurl tlienuelvea. This trauslfttion of ACMilPffV*, cf. cviii. lo, 
uems better than DId.'b ' Ihre Haupter . . . richten.' For fiwJt^ 
a reads fitOj^. 6. Hia elect oiiea. So G tUU-. Other 

might well be oouceiTed of u amiled 
bj the G«nlile powen. But this U 
impoMible in the oae of ft ■apei~ 
hnnuui Meiaith, who, paeuMing oni- 
veiuJ damJniDn and ftttendod bj 
legiom of angebi holds muTenol 
aniie, and, ntpportad b; the aotoal 
prtMiMe of the Almightj, derttoyi 
all hii enemiea with the breatli of 
hii month. Beddai, (t) thU aectiun 
fonns a banh break in the oo&tazt. 
(i) The Suiilitade* deal rail; In 

tioned aa heie, nor is may definite 
infonnation given M a neMU of 
determining their date or the penoni 
against whom they are direotvd. (3] 
And finally the teat of the kingdom 
on the Advent of Itie Meuiah will 
not be JernMlem nimely aa is here 
iupUed, bnt a tranafcnned haaTea 
and earth. HiIb aeelion though into- 
polated b itnpM'tant m fumiabing 
a lower limit ibr the date of the 
SmlUtndea. The doKription la pto- 
phetioal, and i> menil; a rtfiroduetion 
of the ooming itrife of Qog and 
Uigog againat laiaeL Tfae latter 
aame* are replaced by thoae of the 
Uedee and Paithiani, who aie (be 

only great worid powera ftrom whom 
the interpolator believea great danger 
Di»j be ^prebanded. Syria bad 
ceased to be formidable frran 100 B.C. 
onward, and liome wm practically 
unknown till 64 B.C. The date then- 
fore of thia aection miut be earlier 
than 64 B. o. Furthv, ws fbnnd (pp. 
107-8) on independent gma&di that 
the Similitade* ihonld be referred 
either lo 94-79 or 70-64. If, 
then, thia addition ww written and 
added before 64 B. o., the SimilitDdea 
should probably be rafemd to 94-79 
B.O. We ought to have remarked 
above that Ivi. j-lvii. j* exhibits no 
sign of having been an independent 
writing before ita appearance in ite 
present context. 6. lii Enk. xxxriii. 
4-7 it is said that God wUl stir 
Dp the Gentiles ; bnt here Id kecking 
with Uie views of a later time thin 
bosinssB is auignsd to the angels: 
of. Dan. X. 13, 10, ai ; xii. i. The 
:adM. These are 
the leagne against 
land. e. The land of Hla 

elect onaa, i. e. Palestine. Threah- 
Ins-floor: vt. Is. ixi. lo. 7. Bat 
the attack on Jonsalem will fiul. 

ilizedbyGoOC^Ic ^ 

1 50 The Book of Enoch, [Sect. ii. 

city of My ri^teoas will be a hindruico io their horses, utd 
they will begin to fight amongst themselves, and their right 
hand will be strong against themselves, and a man will not 
know his brother, nor a son his &ither or his motlier, till the 
number o£ corpees through theii slanghterje b^ond count, 
and their punishment be do idle one. 8. And in those days 
Sheol will open its jaws, and they will be swallowed np 
therein, and their deetmction will be at an end ; Sheol will 
devour the sinners in the presence of the elect.' 

LVII. I. And it came to pass after this jthat I saw again 
a host of waggons, whereon men were riding, and they came 
on the wings of the wind from the East, and from die West 
to the South. 2. And the noise of their waggons was 

IttSS. and Din. ' their elect ones.' 7. A man will not fenow 
TdSa brother. 80 O M omitting the A^lAA^ (D of Din. Other 
MSS. tuid Din. give : ' A man will not know hU neighbour or his 
Irotfaer.' Through fhelr alauglitor. G omita: M Xf^flV*, a 
corraption. Is berond oount. Following Dln.'a SDggeBtion 

I iiave emended MlCD-'} into Kf^VO^. Their punishmsnt be no 
Idle one. So G M reading A.tfrl: Ml:. Din. gives (DA.^UD-'}; 
flh which he tranalates ; 'Das Strefgericht Uber Bie — ea wird 
iiicht vergebUch sein.' 8. Tbey will be swallowed op. O 
reads ^iMmy. Thalr deatruotlon will ba at an end. So O 
AT*iH>1 •M.W. M reads rfi^lPfl*; -IvTa*; OAJUi. Other 
HSS. and Dhi. give : * Their destruction . . . Sheol will devour the 
Binners, Ac' ' Their destruction ' in the text means ' the destruc- 
tion wrought by tliem.' 

LVII. 1. Whereon men were riding, and tbey oome on the 
winga of the wind. So Din. and FHXO. For jUUPov^ 
mf^f!h\ HXa l<H) G reads m^^. iBXaogrkt JCOs f^'tt'. So 

Zach. iti. a, 3; and civil itrife will Jawi : cf. Num. xtL 31-3; b. 

break oat amongit ths invading v. 14. Seo Ixiil. lo (note). 
Dktioni, Enk. xzxtiii. 11 ; Zech. liv. IiTIZ. On Uu deatraotdoii of Ui« 

13 ; Hag. ii. 11, >nd thaj will Involve Gentile invkden, tha diiperaed of 

•a^ other in common deitniation : Imel Tetom to Jerualem ftua tbe 

cf. 10. 4 } 0. 1-3, to which notion Emit and from the Weet : of. Ib. 

th«»e ideal rightlj belong. B. On xivii. 131 iliii. 5,6: xUx. i>, 3), 13. 

thia and the prsoading venal, lae 1. Oame on tha wlnga of tha wind. 

Grit. Kot«>. Bheol will open Ita A Bgure expranii^ the awiftncai of 


Sect n.] Chapters LVI.i — L VIII. 5. 151 

heard, and when this tunnoil took place the holy ones from 
the heaven remarked it, and the pillars of the earth were moved 
from th^ place, and (the soond l^ereof) was heard from 
the one extremity of heaven to the other in one day. 3. 

And they will all fall down and worship the Lord of Spirits.] 
And this is the end (^ the second similitade. 

LYIII, I. And I b^an to speak the third similitude con- 
cerning the righteons and the elect. 2. Blessed are ye, ye 
righteoos and dect, for glorioos will be yonr lot. 3. And 

the righteous will be in the light of the sun, and the elect in 
the light of et«mal life : there will be no end to the days of 
their life, and the days of the holy will be without nomber. 
4, And they will seek the light and find righteousness with 
the Lord of Spirits : there will be peace to the righteous in 
the name of the Lord of the world. 5. And after that it 

M but with the correction of K^/H* into It^H'. a. From tb« 
one extramlty cX heaven to tbe other. So GM X^ftiK^ 
tPnf-: Xntu AJKV. Other U8S. ' inim the extramitj of earth 
to the extremity of heaven.' 

LVin. I. G omits this verse, bat leaves space for It. 4. In 
the name of the lK>rd of the world. So G ClAov. Other MSS. 
And Din. give (I'M ' with the Lord of the world.' 

tfadr irtDTD. 2. The pillars of 
tha earth were movsd : cf. H>g. iL 
6, 1 ; Joel iH. 16. 

IiTIII. Hera begim ths third 
timUttude. It ii probable that > 
large pui of it hu been kwt, beii^ 
diipUoad to make room for tbe 
NoMihia fragment!. Ai it ebtudi. It 
•mbiaeei Iviii ; lii-liiT ; Ixix. 16-ig. 
ITba Introdaotory wordi, * CoDoeming 
the rl^teooa and the daot,' in thi* 
dmUitude, aa in the other two, are 
but a very indiflbrent Index to Ita 
ooatenta. 13» ^militnde »■ it hag 
rMoIied n*. might reaionably be d»- 
•oribed aa ' Concenilitg the final Jodg- 
mant held by the 8<hi of Man over 

all created bei&gi, bot aapedally over 
the gTMt on«t of the earth and the 
final bleawdneas of the rigbteon* and 
eieat.' S. Qloriona will be yoar 
lot. This lot ii prceerred for them 
by tbe UoMiah, ilviii. 7. a. Iiistat 
of tbe Bun: see xixviii. 4 (note). 
Bternal lift : eee xxxril. 4 (note) : 
of. Dan. lii. a; Pai. of 80L lii. lA. 
4. They will throngh a natnntl af- 
finity seek after light and righteoni- 
nee*: <A. ixiviil. 4 (note). Ziord of 
the world. Thii title U found again 
in Iizxi. 10. For rimilai azprtedona 
of. t. 3 ; xU. 3 ; IxzxI. 3 ; Ixxiii. 7 ; 
Ixzxiv a. B. They will be triddea 
to leek Mtd make thmr own the 


/. t Tj-W 

152 Th« Book of Enoch. [Sect. 11. 

will be Baid to 'San holy tbat they should seek in heaven fihe 
secrets of righteousness, the herita^ of faith ; for it has 
become bright as the sun upon earth, and the darkness is 
post. 6. And there will be unceasing light and on a 

reckoning of the days they will not enter; for the former 
darkness will be destroyed, and the light will be established 
before the Lord of Spirits, and the li^t of uprightness will 
be established for ever before the Lord of Spirits. 

[LIX. I. And in those days mine eyes saw the secrets of 
the lightnings, and of the luminaries, and the judgments 
they execute (lit. 'their judgment'); and they lighten for a 
blessing or a curse as the Lord of Spirits willeth. 2. And 
then I saw the secrets of the thunder, and how when it re- 
sounds above in the heaven, the peal thereof is heard; and 
they caused me to see the dwelling-places of the earth, and 
the pealing of the thunder how it ministers unto well-being 
and blessing, or serves for a curse before the Lord of Spirits. 
3. And after that all the secrete of the luminaries and 
lightnings were shown to me, how they lighten to give 
blessing and satisfy (the thirsty soil).] 

[LX. 1. In the year five hundred, in the seventh month, on 

LIX. 1 . Of tha ItuabuuioB. So O ■{kCI'Pt and rightly : cf. ver. 3 . 
Din. gives this word io the ace and translates : ' die Lichtmassen.' 
2. Bafbre. So Q a^,iew>. Other MSS. 'According tothe word of.' 

bidden reocanpeiiae of rigbteousneM it&tcmenta ri. (Le writer nat on Job 

(of. x»iTiii. 3), tha glorion* heritage xxxvi. 31 ; xxxvil. 5, 13; mriil. 14- 

whli^ Iki be«n ordained for them 17. He wiahea to laing oat the 

in hMTen and preaerved for them bj gthical end* of Uie thunder and the 

tbs Maena h , xlviii. 7. mil will not lightnii^. Vor a bleMlng or a 

be auhteved oDoe and for all ; bat thU oarae: oC Jobizzvl. 31 ; zxxriL 13. 

will be a progr««i (rom light to light 9. CT. bt. 13-15- 'Lord of ipirita ' 

and from iighteoiimee« to righteooi- incorponted &om the adjidning oon- 

ncaa. Herltace of fklth : cf, ixiii. teit. 8, Job iKirlii. ^4-17. 

6 ; Izl. 4, II. BriKht •■ tbe aim. LX. Tbk ciiaptei li one of the 

Ao. : ef. 1 John I. g. Noachie &agmcait4. For the ground* 

UX. Thii oh^itar ii an intnufmi, cm wbioh tbcae are regarded ai Inter- 

and balongi to the aame olaM aa ili. polattons, «ee liv. 7 (note) : aln the 

3-S; zllli;zliT. It ii probaUj drawn following note* on Iz. i, 3, 6, 10, 11, 

fhim a Noah-Apoi»l;p*e. 1. The Iw. 1. Tha reu Ave hundnd. 

Digitized by Google 

Sect, n.] Chapters LVIII. 6 — LX. 4. 155 

the fourteeDth day of the month m the life of Eooch. In 
that similitude I saw how the heaven of heavens quaked with 
a mighty earthquake, and the host of the Most High, and 
tlie angels, a thousand thousands and ten thousand times ten 
thousand, were thrown into an exceeding great disquiet. 
3. And the Head of Days sat on the throne of His glory 
and the angels and the righteous stood around Him. 3. 
And a great trembling seized me, and fear took hold of me : 
my loins became relaxed and my whole being melted away, 
and I fell upon my face. 4. Then Michael sent another 

angel from among the holy ones and he raised me up (and) 

LX. a. Tha Hand of Di^a sat. &o. So O M. Other MSS. 
insert Mlf\ CUl- ' then I saw the Head of Days ait.' 3. IC7 

loliui beoamQ relaxed. So O M. Din. reads ' my loine bent and 
were relaxed.' For •hwfloJ ' melted away ' G reads Oijt^ '■ M 
omits. 4. Then Hlobael sent another angel fix>m among the 
h^ ones. So QM omitting ^fHi and reading iiS^Aiih in- 
stead uf fJ(^|| Xjr^i OP^toti ^KKi in DId.'s text : ' then the 
holy Michael sent another holy angel, one of the holy angels.' 
And he ralaed me up. After these words all MSS. but G M 

TUi date is dnws from Gen. t. 31, 
and ii ■ date in the lifs of Noah and 
not of Enoch aa it itaud* in our text. 
For Bnoch we shonld read Noah. 
In the aeTenth month, on ths 
foorteentb day of th« month. 
TU* aooordiDg to Leritioal law 
wai the ere of the Feart of TUiar- 
mwlei. In that almlUtada. Thii 
fdkraae marki a oltmuy attempt to 

oontait, but batoaya the hand of the 
intcipolator. A nmHitade in Enoch'* 
MMe i« an acooQnt of a Tirion ; bat 
the text reqnirei here the word 
' viiion ' ; for the writer eayi, ' I law 
the hMTen quaking.' The hMtren 
qnakod. Tbii «a> a token of the 
manifcitation of dirine judgment : 
ef, 1 6, 7. Hoot of the Uort HIch 
... a thonaand Ihoiuanda : of. i. 9; 

xl. I ; Ixii. B, 13. a. Head of 

D^a ; aee xlri. I (note) ; Ut. 7 
(note). The angela and the rlfht- 
eona. Aocoidiag to this we are to 
regard God ae accompanied by angels 
and rainft. The lighteoiu here can 
haTfl no other meonlng. Such a con- 
oeption of the final Moarianic jndg 
ment ia diffioolt thongh poMlble; 
but in the OMe of the fint jadgment 
(i. e. the Flood) it ia not poedble 
except throngh miaoonceptloa. Here 
again the hand of an ignorant inter- 
polator ia diwiloaed. 8. Cf. xiv. 
14,14. Loiiu beoame relaxed Pa. 
Ixix. 13; I«. xIt. I. 4. Cf. Dan. 
TiU. 17 1 X. g, 10. Klohael sent 
amother augeL Miohael In the obief 
aiohangel : of. xL 4, g. The other 
angel ia appmntcd to a like dnly with 
the angel of peace in the Smilitndei, 


154 Tke Book of Enoch. [SMt.n. 

my spirit returned; £or I had cot been able to endure the 
look of this host, and the commotion and the quaking of the 
heaven. 5. And Michael said unto me: 'What vision 

has Eto disquieted thee ? Until tiiis day lasted the day of 
His mercy; for He was mercifol and long-soffering towards 
those who dwell on the earth. 6. But when the day, and 

the power, and the punishment, and the judgment have 
come which the Lord of Spirits haa prepared for those who 
serve not the righteous law and for those who deny the 

inaert ' and when he had raised me up.' 5. And KlohaeL 

So GM. Other MSS. and Dlu. insert ^<A 'the holy Michael.' 
For similar insertions of this epithet cf. xl. 9 (twice) and Ix. 4 
(twice). For ftX>h ^"T+l tfAjt; HhiwTI: t1Ia»* What vialon 
iLBS ao dlaquietad thee P Q reads r'YCx ^S.\ ltlvn>71: iHiD^L 
6. Who serve not the Tighteoua law. I have here sup- 
posed a loss of the negative before fitnUt. Such an omission 
is of constant occurrence: cf. in MS. O alone v. 2; Ixvii. 8; 
Ixxzix. 3; xcT. 4; c. II, &c. ; Book of Jubilees Dln.'s text 
chs. xii (twice); xv ; xvi. This coi^ectore is further otmfirmed 
by IT Ezra vL 3 : ' Behold and see him, (i) whom ye have denied ; 
(3) whom ye have not served (so Ethiopic version) ; (3) whose 
commands ye have demised.' Here daose (a) corresponds to clause 
(i) in Enoch; clause (i) to clause (2) in Enoch; and clause (3) 
vaguely to clanse (3) in Enoch. See General Introduction (p. 37), 
where we have shown several points of connexion between Third 
Vision of iv Ezra and Enoch. Dln.'s text gives ' Those who bow 
to the righteous judgment '; but to class these with die sceptics 
and peijurers as alike threatened by the coming judgment is 
impossible. Eall^vi {^Jinvmal Aiiat. 367-9; 1867) fii^ pointed 
out this difficulty and sought the explanation in the translator's 
reading PJJ OB?*) "nsi)^ instead of "» "» la^Jfj*. Thus we should 
have 'who have transgressed the righteous law.' In this verse 
I have followed Hall^vi in translating Iftt first as ' law ' and then 

xl. 1, a&d h aotumUy ao named in li. His Deloge « fint world-jadgniflnt 
14. S. Ibrolftil and l«ng.niaBr- U bere cU*(g4b«d with featora belong- 
ing : ot Ter. 15 ; 1. 3, 5 ; lii. 13. Cf. lug properij (0 Iba MMaiuiio jadg- 
1 P«t. iiL 10 ; IT Esa [tj. 47;] tU. 33. niut of the Smilitudaa. Tho Lord 
e. SMCrit.Nota: ct ivBn* [t1. a], of Bplrlta: aae xxxviil. i (note). 


Sect, n.} 

Chapter LX. 5-10. 


rigfateons judgment and for thoee who take Hia name in 
vain — that day is prepared, for the elect a covenant, bat for 
sinnen an inquisition. 7. And on that day will two 

monsters be parted, a female monster named Leviathan, 
to dwell in the depths of the ocean over the fountains of 
the waters. 8. But the male is called Behemoth, who 

occupies with his breast a waste wilderness named D6ndftin, 
on the east of the garden where the elect and righteous dwdl, 
/'where my g randfather was taken up, the seventh from Adam, 
the first man whom the Lord of Spirits created.' ^ 9. And 
I beeought that other angel that he should show me the 
might of th(»e monsters, how they were parted on one day, 
and the one was placed in the depth of the sea and the other 
in the mainland of the wilderness, 10. And he spake to 

ns 'judgment,' as 09^^ baa both meaninga. For XhP'K Q M read 
f.if'K. 8. For AlS^e.! G reads AM^I. 

7. Tbk stmtge fancy nbont Behemoth 
Mkd Iiertatluii whiiA ue fint nien- 
tbnud In Job xl, zli, is fonnd by 
Jewish expounder* tHat) ia GeD. i. il ; 
^ L 10; Ih. ixviL 1 (Din.)- I'or 
later alluHioiui see iv £xr« vi. 49-51; 
Apoc. Bar. «ii. 4. Here they are 
represented aa hage monsters orented 
on the fifth day of Creatioa to be the 
food of the righteoiu in Measiania 
tim««. This doctrine does not ^)peu 
in Enoch. Fnr further infonnation 
seeDraniinoDd.iraciaAJfeenai, 35a- 
55', Weber, Lehren d. Talmud, 156, 
195, 370, 384. The Talmndie view 
Hgreea with that of sv Em and Apoc. 
Bar. so Bir as to make Behemoth 
food for (he rigfalvous. Tomitaiii* 
of tb« wmten : of. Gen. vli. 1 1 ; Job 
xxiviii. 16; En. linix. 7. 8. 

Dendain front IH l**^) 'Q nnknown 
locality. On Uie aaat of the sarden, 
i.e. the garden of Eden. The locality 
of Eden varies in tile different MCtiona: 

ui xxxii. », 3 It lies In the Bast: in 
lix. 1-4 between the Wart and North : 
in Ixxvii. 3 in the Kortb. The ac- 
count aa to those who dwell in it 
varies also. It is apparently empty 
in Enodi's time In xizii. 3-6, and 
th« righteous dead are in the West, 
xiii : it ii the abode of the righteoiu 
and the elect in Enoch's and Noah's 
times in bd, la ; li. S, 13 : the abode 
of the earliest fathers in Enoch's 
time. III. 1-4 : the abode of Enoch 
and Elijah in Elijah's time, luxix. 
51: BeeUv.i(iiote). This passage and 
the USX. are the oldest tsatimonitti 
for the tmnslatioit of Enoch nnto 
Paradise : later this idea ntade its 
waj into the Latin ver^on <^ Ecdus. 
xliv. 16 and the Ethli^io vertlon of 
Qen. V. 14 : eight others shared this 
hononi with Boooh aooording to the 
Talmud, Weber, 141. Bevantta from 
Adam : of. loiii. 3 ; Jnde 14 ; Book 
of Jobilees vii. 9. Tbat other 



The Book of Enoch. 

[Sect. II. 

me : ' Tboa eon of man, thou dost seek hero to know what 
is hidden.' Ii. Then spake nnto me the other angel who 

went with me and showed me what was hidden, what is first 
and last, in the heaven in the height, and beneath the earth in 
the depth, and at the ends of the heaven, and on the fonnda- 
tion of the heaven, and in the chambers of the winds : 1 3. 
And how the spirits are parted, and how the weighing is 
done, and how the fountains of the spirits are reckoned 
each accoiding to the power of the spirit, and the power of 
the li^ts of the moon, and how it is a power of righteous- 
ness ; and how the divisions of the stars according to their 

II. Spaikaunto m«, O reads ^fUF 'spake unto him.' 
theeartlL. So GM OjfAtt; t-OA. Other MSS. and Din. 'od earth.' 
Chambers of tlMwinda. G gives a»H7>ftt: OvI^'H'. u. How 
tlLO fountalna of the spirits ore reokoned eaab aeoordlng to 
the power. Bo OM ^'^•K ftl^Ml tnl^ti OOfM: 
DId.'b text runs : ' How the fountains and tJte winds are 
reckoned according to the power.' I have taken ^^A^ above 

WDgal: BM vv. 4, II. 10. Thou 

■on of man. Thia om of tlis pbrwc 
after the nuiitier of Ecekiel U found 
again in Izii. 14. In botb initancea 
it it boTTDWed nice olJier technical 
phroiM (of. xizvii. 3 note; It. l,fto.) 
itnna the Smilitudea and miBuaed oi 
the; are. As Che main conoapUoD of 
the Son of Man ia unmiatakeahle in 
the Similitudn, ilvi. 1-3 (notei), thii 
miBuse of Che plinoe ii due either 
Co ignoranix or to a deliberate pei^ 
venioQ of ita loesiiing. The praience 
of this phraoe in the tnterpolatioiia 

thaoi7 that all lefereniee to the Sou 
of Uon are Christian interpolaClonB. 
Sea OeD. iDlroduolion, pp. 15, 16. 
11. We ebcrald expecC the amww Co 
the qnaation in ver. 9 (o follow here, 
but iC ii not g^ven Cilt Ter. 14, and 
a long aoconnt (ii.'ij) dealing with 
phyaeol Ma«te ioterreiiM. 8u(^ 

oIonuineM iboald not caiua any lur- 
prlie in InterpolatioDi like the preeenC. 
The ousel who went with me and 
allowed me, Ao. Borrowed from 
ilvi. J ; ef. xliii. 3. Ohomben of the 
wind* : cf. iviii. 11 zli. 4. 19. 

Spirits or ongeU ore appointed to 
contnd the various pheaomena of 
natara. This ia pecaljor to Cheie 
interpolHtioiu, ai in other porta of the 
book Che powera of nature ore either 
penonitipd w ore regarded a* coQ- 
actoua intelligeuoea : of. iviii. 14-16. 
The view taken b; the interpolator 
ia followed b j the Book of Jnliileeaii, 
where wa find ' ongela of the apint 
of lit«,' 'angela of ha3,* ' angela of 
boor-boat,' 'oi^ll of thnnder,' &c., 
Ber. Tii. 1, i % ijt. iB (angel of Gre)j 
zix. 17 (angel of the anti); Jlm. Ia. 
i*.i8. How the weigbins ie done; 
of. ili. I ; xliii. a ; Job iiTiii. 35. 
Light* of the moon. ICa vorion* 


Sect, ir.] Chapter LX. 11-17. '57 

names, aod all the diviBioiu are divided. 13. And the 
thuodeni according to the places where thej fall, aod all 
the divisiong which are made among the lig'htningB that it 
may lighten, and that their liostB may at once obey. 14. 

For the thonda' has places of rest : there it most wait till it 
may peal; and the thnnder and hghtning are inseparable, 
and, although not one and nndivided, they both go together 
throogh the spirit and separate not. 15. For when the 

lightning lightens, the thnnder utters its voice, and the 
spirit enforces a pause during the peal, and divides equally 
between themj for the treasury of their peals is inexhaust- 
ible (lit. ' hke the sand '), and each one of them as it peals 
is held in with a bridle, and tamed back by the power of the 
spirit, and pushed forward according to the number of the 
quarters of the earth. 16. And the spirit of the sea is 
nuuculine and strong, and according to the might of his 
strength be draws it back with a rein, and in like manner it 
is driven forward and dispersed amid all the mountains of the 
earth. 17. And the spirit of the hoar-frost is his own 

as UB«d impersonally. AU the divisions an divided. Q reada 
H'A'i V^tn ^tl^A- 14. Dln.'a interpretatbn of the text is 

here followed, bnt it does not seem ntiafiictory. Hallo's dis- 
cnesioQ of this passage (Joum. Atiai. 369-79; 1867) is worth 
consolting. He arriTes at the following tranelation : 'For the- 
thunder has fixed laws in reference to the duration of its peal 
which is assigned to it : the thunder and the lightniug are not 
separated in a single instance : they both proceed with one accord 
and separate not. For when the lightning lightens, the thnnder 
utters its voice, and the spirit during ita peal makes its ammge- 
ments, and divides the time equally between them.' ig. Baoh 

one of tliem as it peals. Q M omit ' as it peals.' Aoooxdlng 

to the nnzaber of tbe qnaitars. For •Olff O reads ^IIM. 

phaMS. 18. Cf. Job zzxrii. 1-5. With th« flov of the im u oonnected 

M. Sea Crit, Note. 16. Tha ebb iU robtetniMAn mItuim into ths 

uid flow of the «e> explained. Dl«- monnluiui to noBruh the iprings. Bd 

petMd unid all Qis moimtaina. Din. 17. Ib his own sns*!. 


1 58 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. II. 

angelj aad the spirit of the hail is a good angel. iS. And 

the spirit of the snow he has let go, on accoont of his 
strength — it has a special spirit, and that which aaoenda from 
it is like smoke, and ita name is frost. 19. And the spirit * 

of the miet is not united with them in their chambers, but it 
has a special chamber ; for its course is in cleameas and in 
light, and in darkness, and in winter, and in summer, and ite 
chamber is Ught, and it (i.e. the spirit) is its own ang^. 
30. And the spirit of the dew has its dwelling at the ends of 
the heaven uid is connected with the chambers of the rain, 
and its course is in winter and summer ; and its clouds and 
the clouds of tjie mist are connected, and the one passes over 
into the other (lit. ' gives to the other '). 21. And when the 
spirit of the rain goes forth from its chamber, the angels 
come and open the chamber and lead it out, and (likewise) 
when it is ditEomd over the whole earth, and as often as it 
unites with ik»)i water on the earth. aa. For the waters 
are for those who dwell on the earth ; for they are nourish- 
ment for the earth from the Most High who is in heaven : 
therefore there is a measure for the lain and the angels take 
it in cha^^. 23. And all these things I saw towards the 
garden of the righteous. 14. And the angel of peace who 

was with me spake to me : ' These two monsters are pre- 

19. Ita oliambsr Is Uglit and It Is Its own ang«L For -flCfli 
tooo^j^ O M read OvMtli: 'its ciutmber is an angel.' 31. And 
■■ oftan ■■ It imltas. Before these words OM make the following 
addition to Dhi.'s text, f^T^^ y*AAi ^U HfO: t-Oft ' it unites 

i.«. the liMtriVaet hu % qwdal m^I tlie hMvot ; tU« would agree with 

ofitaown. I« ft good ali(eL Tlioagh iiziT-zzzTi and Izxr. 5. 91. As 

faail ii often huitfol, tt la not in the rain u of nuh importanoe alike 

ckarp of a danon bat of a good Cia the ethloal and material waU-b«JDg 

angeL 18. The miit ii (o be db- of niao. Job zzzrii. 11, 13, it* iplrit 

Usgidihed frwn the Ibregtring ph»- ii not Indepcndait but labotdbwted 

ntmuna ; for it ^ipean in all •eatan* to the angeU : cf. Job xzriiL >6 ; 

and by ni^t and daj. SO. The nxriii. 15-38. S8. The (anUn 

dew "hai ilt dwelling at the endi of of tb» riilitooaa : Me ver. 8 (Bote). 


Sect. 11.] Chapters LX. iZ~LXl. 2. 


pand to be fed conformably to the greatness of Gxh], that the 
ptuuBhineiit of the liord of Spirita may cause lamentation, 
and slay the eons with their mothers, and the children with 
their fathers. 25. When the ponishment of the Lord of 

Spirits shall rest upon them, it will rest in order that the 
punishment of the Lord of Spirits may not come in vain 
npon them : afterwards the judgment will take place according 
to His mercy and His patience.'] 

LXI. I. And I saw in those days how long cords were 
given to those angels, and tiiey took to themselTes wings and 
flew, and they went towards the North. 2. And I asked 

the angel, saying : ' Why have these angels taken the cords 
and gone oB?' And he said ante me : ' They have gone to 

with the water on the enrth.' 34. Tbat the punishment of 
ths Zrfwd of Spirits. 80 O M. Other MRS. give 'thst the 
punishiaent of the Lord.' Kar oause lamentation and sliqr 
the sons. This reodering rests on an emendation of O's text 
tlfloj «iH»ip¥1H AXTlUi wlMft (sic) Ml: att^^tn At* into 
hoB; ov^Vt: AXTHJti aarOA^i ^(Uu lOtttAi JSM>. Dk. 
follows B C ia insertiog KfiM, which is wanting in all other M8S. 
E hazards Kfi^^K, borrowing from ver. 35. Din. gives ' that the 
punishment of the Lord may not be in vain and the sons will be 
slain,' &c, 

LXI. I. Took to thenxMlves wings. reads l)¥A iuBteed 
of hli.. 3. Oords. So O M. Other M8S. and Din. give ' long 

54. Ssa Grit. Nuts : eC w. 7 (Dote). 

55. Vlien tlie ptmlshttMot . . . shall 
rest upon ttaam : of. liii 1 1. After- 
wsnii the Judsmenl will t>ke 
plaoQ Booordlnc to Hli merey. 
Gen. TiiL 31, »»; Zn. Ix. 5 (note). 
Qoi'a nwroj wiU be isMuhated aft«r 
the &nt jodgDnent, but not till (hm. 

LXI. 1. Hsra (In bna tait of tb« 
SiiiiUitadei ii lesomed, bat the opan< 
ii^ rene* an very difficult. Those 
angela. The sagsli hare refemtd to 
DU7 bsve bwn dsBnitely luunsd in 

aome pr«oedliig pwi now lost. Din. 
take* it at menlj s gwienl referenoa 
to the angeU tbM hxTe hithsito ap- 
peared in the SitnOitadaa. WlnB*. 
In the O.T. tlie angeU aia not i^r«- 
BODted aa winged, nnlsM in ita lataat 
bodra: at. I Ghron. sii.16. Towards 
the Vorth, i. e. the North-Weat : ef. 
Izz. 3. Faradiae ia the dcaUnatioD 
of the u^eli : of. li. 8 (note). S. 

The aorii wbioh the atif^ela t»ke 
with thsm are fbr meaanring Paia- 
diaa. See the referenoa to thia in 


1 60 The Book of Enoch. [s«ct, n. 

measure.' 3. And the angel who went with me said unto 

me : ' These are bringing to the righteoue the measures of the 
righteous, and the ropes of the righteouB, that thej may stay 
themselves on the name of the Lord of Spirits for ever and ever. 

4. The electwill begin to dwell with the elect, and those measures 
wiU he givai to faith and will etrengthen righteousness. 

5. And these measures will reveal ererything that is bidden 
in the depths of the earth, and those who have been destroyed 
by the desert, and those who hare been devoured hy the Gsh 
of the sea and by the beasts, that they may retain, and stay 
themselves on the day of the Elect One ; for no one will be 
destroyed before the Lord of Spirits, and none can be destroyed. 

6. And all the powers who dwell above in the heaven received 

ccrds.' 3. To tho righteous. Bo ON A^L&Jl. Other 

M8S. omit 4. Wm Btrengthen rlghteousneu. So OM 

■PQIOTi MtS^. Other MSS. 'will strengthen the word of 
righteonsnoBS.' 5. Those who havs been devoured "hj the 
fish of the sea and by the beavts. GM read JtA: -tOAth 
Ju»H7flt: (dXA: tOAIh Xy^"f: OAC 6. So M (rt/"fa 
tXHH; XA: OantkOJ^-h tPHf^ tf-Ann^ "^f^x atftH 0: aHuyk 
D: him: Xtt. Also O, bat that it inserts before ^fiti and 
omits Q before tvf>: DhL with BC f^aiuBt ADEQM inserts 
iwHO: flW*" after \/fy; and so we have 'and all who dwell 

Ixi. 3. 8-B. The tneaaorei periihed; thsy are alire unto the 

of Um iight«otM, ara aooordiiig Lord of Spirits, and will lotuni and 

to Din. the meuurei wherawilh itaj thenuslvei on the daj at hii 

the inlieiitaiice of the righteoiui i> Elect Ono ; tbsM meaanra an ^t«i 

meamrad. But even though then to fiith and Mrengtiien the rightaoni. 

m^ht be a itaff whereon tin tight- 4. Sinnen will be driven from off the 

eou» might itay themtelve^ how ooold &oe of the earth : et ixzTiii. 1 (not*). 

It he (aid of laoh * meuurea ' that S. Onlj (be reoDireetlun of the right- 

tbej will reveal eveiything that it eone is hcse ipoken of. In 11. I, 1 

hidden, and all that have peridiedt I thereiianacoomttof thsreaiirrsotdan 

cannot gite a tatiahofoi; explanation, of all Israel : sea note. After the 

In lome way, however, (hoM 'mea- reaniraotion tollowi the Judgment. 

auree of the rightaoni ' are an ideal B. All who dvell abova In the 

repreem tat ton of the oommnnit; of &aa7an,i.e. theangeli:, 11; 

the righteoni, living and departed, xlrii. 1. In ix. 3 the; are called ' tbe 

and reveal eapedall]' the latter ; for holj ones of the heaven.' The angeli 

It msttert not by what death theaa were oommanded to dng fTaliTa. and 

itradb, Google 

Sect II.] Chapter LX I. %-\o, i6i 

a command, and one voice, and one liglit like unto fir& 7. 
And that One above all they blessed, and extolled and landed 
with wisdom, and showed themselves wise in attenmce and in 
the spirit of life. 8. And the JJord of Spirits placed the 

Elect One on the throne of glory, and he will jod^ all the 
works of the holy in the heaven, and weigh their deeds in the 
balance. 9. And when he shall lift his countenance to 

judge their secret ways according to the word of the name of 
the Lord of Spirits, and their path according to the way of 
the T^hteouB judgment of the Lord of Siorits, then will they 
all with one voice speak and bless, and glorify and extol and 
land the name of the Lord of Spirits. 10, And He will 
call on all the host of the heavens and all the holy ones above. 

above in the heaven received a command, and one pover and one 
voice and one light like unto fire were given onto them.' ' Power,' 
' vtuce,' and ' light ' are in the nom. in Dln.'s text. 8. On the 

throne of gloir. So U, Din. gives ' on the throne of His glory.' 
9. The I.ord of Spirits. So O M. Other MSS. and Dlu. read 
'Most EUgh Qod.' 10, 11. And He will oall on all the host of 
tha heavana . . . and they will raiaa one voioa. Din. translates 
' and all the hoet of heaven will ciy out,' &c. To arrive at this 
translation he is obliged to alter tf-Af in his text twice into tt'A', 
and to give an intraneitive meaning to %B>^, which it never seems 
to have. The reason he gives for euch extreme meaHures is: 
' There is no conceivable reason for Qod calling bother the hoet 
of heaven, seeing they are already assembled around Him ' (p. 194). 

foe tliat purpoce ona power ttiA ono Ditanuoe.' 8. Seo ilv. 3 (note) : 

T<»oe ara given to them. 7. That of. Fa. ex. I, The holr In the 

One, i.a. the Ueariali : op. ver. 5. 80 luavan, i.e. the ingeli: of. Ixi. 6 

Din. Bat thi« is qneationable : the (note). Welsh their deeds : ••• 

pfononn may jiut w nawnably be xli. i (note). S. Aeooidlnc to 

Teferred to the Lord of Spirit! belbre the word of the name of the Iionl 

whom nothing can peiiiL, ver. j ; aod of Bpltit*. Thia oIkobo is oTidentl; 

it ii veiy doubtAiI, if it Ii poeeible, panUel with the next, 'acoordfag to 

to trsnilate maqedma qll, ' before all.' the way of the rigbteoni jadgmeat 

We tbonld perlupe tender Ihem <the of the Lord of S[drita.' We might 

Bnt or opening worda.' Hence, ■ And tfaaretOTe tranatate nagua ' oom- 

tiw opening worda (of the aageli' (ong) mand': 'locordlng lo the oommandi 

bleasad Him . . . and were wiie in of the name of the Lord of Spirit!.' 


1 63 

The Book of Enoch. 


and the host of God, tlie Clierabim, Senphim, and Ophanim, 
and all the uigelfl of power, and all tlie angels of principalities, 
and tiie Elect One, and the otiier powers on the earth, over 
the water, tm. that day; ii. And tfaey will raiae one 

voice and bless and glorify in the spirit of &ith, and in 
the spirit of wisdom, and of patience, and in the spirit of 
mercy, and in tlie spirit of judgment, and of peace, and in the 
spirit of goodness, and will all say with one voice, " Blessed is 
He and may tlie name of the Lord of Spirits be blessed for 
ever and ever." IX And all who sleep not above in heaven 
will bless Him : all tlie holy ones who are in heaven will 
bless Him, and all the elect who dwell in the garden of life, 
and every spirit of light who is able to blem, and glorify, and 
extol, and hallow Thy blessed ntune, and all fiesh which will 
beyond meaeoie glorify and bless Thy name for ever and ever. 

But KoMI doea not metui ' convocare ' here, bat rather ' invitare ad 
suscipiendnm aliqaid.' See hia Lexicon, col. 1301. 11. Otorl^. 
So QU. Din. adds 'laud and extol.' 13. All the holy ones. 
So O M. Din. ' aU His holy ones.' For f jfrM* Q raada ^JtAt. 
Blessed nuie. Bo OM. Other MS8. and Din. give 'boly.' 

10. Ohambim,B«iapUiii, and Oplu- 
Dim: cfilv. II, 18; zz. 7; IzzL 7. 
Hib CWuUm uid Scnpliitn iippMtr 
is the O.T. but mre oanfukly dls- 
tinpiuliad. Saholx, J.TIu!i& TAmL 
p. 617, uji that in no iiutuice are 
the CheruUm to be regarded aa 
angeli, bat ai lymbolio figuiea : thaj 
funn Ood'i ohariot, and are the meini 
of rereaUag or oonoealmg HIi pre- 
■asce. The Senphim are bein^ 
whan ipecial da^ wai to wtrve in 
Qod'* immediate pretence. On the 
nature of theaa *ee bIbo DetiUwh on Ii. 
vL 1. TheOphaiifm(i.«.wheaI«)are 
derived from Eiek. L 15. In the 
TiJinnd a« hare the; are oUwed witli 
the Cherubim and Ber^ihim, Weber, 
^f. 163, 198, 159. On the angelology 
of tiM O.T., ■•• Sohnli, A. TlMAe. 

2%eoI. (606-611). Aniela of power 
and anselj of prinabMUiUM. lleee 
are ezaotl; St. Paul's * prindpalitiea 
and powen ' : of. Bom. *ilL 38 ; £^ 
i. )i \ CoL 1. 16. Th« othar powen 
on the earth, fto., i.e. the lower 
aogel-powon over nature. 11. In 
tbe q)liitoffUth,Aa. Theee Tordi 
nrpree i the Tirtoee which -"'-■-*» the 
augeli who give pralae. Thenrtneeare 
■even in nomber ; d. zliz. j. Bleaaad 
U He, Ao. ; ef. zxzix. 10. U. All 
who Bleep not: tee L 5 (note). 
Qarden of lifb : Bee li. S (note). 
The LXX. ehronology I« foUowed hcse 
•alntheSimilitudeigAiieTallj: atlir. 
7 (note). Spirit of \i^%. A phraaa 
nabradnggood ayiritSfhtimaii and an- 
gelic. Thi«tiiaaght(e£.oTiii. II, 'genera- 
tion of light ") ia nun bllr deralopod 


86ct.ii.] Chapters LXI. w—LXIl, 2. 163 

13. For ^reat ia the mercy of the Lord of Spirits, and He is 
lon^-Bidfering, and aJl His work and i^l the extent of His 
work He has revealed to the righteous imd elect in the name 
of the Lord of Spirits.' 

LXII. I, And thus the Lord commanded the kings and 
the mighty and the exalted, and those who dwell on the 
earUi, and said : ' Open yonr eyes tmd lift up your horns 
if ye are able to reoognise l^e Elect One.' 2. And the 
Lord of Spirits seated him (i. e. the Messiah) on the throne 
of His glory and the spirit of righteousness was poured out 
apoo him, and the word of his month slew all the sinners, 
and all the unrighteous were destroyed before his fa«e. 

13. .&U tlM extent of Hla work So M IHh X7°<nh 7-af< an<l 
Q, but that it omits the pron. suffix. tf-A* mnst be changed into 
U-Ar. Other U88. give, 'All Hie power in all that He has craated.' 
LXn. 2. Tlw lATd of SplrltB seated him (L e. the Heaalab) 
cm the throne of Hla glory. This translation rests on a ueceBsary 
emendation of the text soggested by DIo. — a>JtinC instead ctf 
aiHl£, For the following words 'the spirit of righteonBness was 
poured out npon him' cannot be referred to Qud but only to the 
Messiah (cf. Isaiah xi. 4), and in Terses 3 and 5 the Messiah 
is represented as sitting on the throne. DId.'b text gives ' the 
Lord of Spirits sat oa the throne,* &c. And all the unright- 
eous were destzoTed. So 0, which for Yttt reads l^Avo*; and 

In the N.T., 'ohildm of light,* Luke lot of tLe rlgbteoiu U then dwelt 
iTi.B. IS. Hemr; •••lz.5 (note). apon in oontrut with the &te of the 
LZIL Here we have a lei^faened wicked. 1. Tb« kl&s* and 
acoDost of the jodgment, putioiilarly the mishtr: >ee xizriii. 5. Iilft 
of th« kiagi aod of the migbtr. Tiiia up j-ooi horn* : cf. Pi. Ixxt. 4. 
■QbJMt hai already been haodled Baoosniaa, L e. reeogniee him to be 
■twirtly, xlri 4-8 ; xlviiL8-io; liii- what he ia— the Men!^. The word 
Ut. 3; but hara the Mctiul Boene ii tranalftted 'recogniie' oould aim ba 
portiBjed. The Idiiifi and the might; nmdeied'oomprehsnd,' 'oodentuid.' 
will be aUad with uigolih when they 9. Seated bim. See Crit Note : d 
behold the Monah, ud will &^ Is. xl 4. The word of Ma montb. 
down and wonhip, and pray for He jndgmeut ia foremnn. AU the Kw I-C-m/ C 
meny at hit handi. Snt their {naysn sinnarB, and all the unrlghtsoua. 
will be of DO avail end they will Thoosb the writer ii chiefly con- 
be carried off by the angel* of oerned with the Judgment of the 
poniihment. The bUtKdneM of the kings, the ooDdemnation of the dnnera 


1 64 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. ir. 

3. And there will stand up in that day all the kings and the 
mighty, and the exalted, and those who hold the earth, and 
they will Bee and recognise him how he sits on the throne 
of his glory, and righteousness is judged before him and no 
lying word is spoken before him. 4. Then shall pain come 
upon them as on a woman in travail, who finds it grievous 
to bring forth whea her son enters the mouth of the womb 
and she has pain in bringing forth. 5. And one portion of 
them will look on the other, and they will be terrified, and 
their countenance will fall, and pain will seize them when 
they see that Son of Man sitting on the throne of his glory. 
6. And the kings and the mighty and all who poseese the 

for aiXy*7X. reads Xy°7X.. Dln.'s text gives 'and all the un- 

righteons and they were destroyed.' M omits the (D bnt otherwise 

agrees with Din. 3. XUgbtooiisaeaa Isjadgsd. SoGU. NO 

give ' the rigbteouH sre judged.' AB CDEFHIL'the righteous 

are judged in righteousness.' g. That 80a of Kan. Bo G : all 

later MSB. read ' that Son of the Woman,' -OX/LY instead of -OXA.. 

Before I had consulted G, I felt convinced that the reading ' Son 

of the Woman ' had arisen through the mistake of an Ethiopic scribe 

infloenoed unconsciously through Christian doctrine and possibly 

^^ '}^\ through the occurrence of the word a few lines before. For tlie 

,^ ; I - same corruption see Iiix. 29 (Crit. Note), We should observe alao 

, that there is only a difference of one letter between the two words. 

The implication underlying the Similitudes is fJiat the Son of Man 

-is not of human descent. It is otherwise with the Messiah of the 

«wwo \' -"- Dream-vision. 6. And the kings and the mighty. 9o GM. 

- ^ , t . I^is is the correct text, as we see by comparing Ixiii. 3,13; Ixvii. 8. 

1 Other MSS. and Din. give 'the mighty kings'; but this phrase 

' ' ' "^ '■^— does not occnr in Enoch except in Iv. 4, if the text there is right. 

bud godlea and DDrighteous ii fre- 4. Cf. I«. liii. S ; xxl. 3 ; zivi. 17, tea. 

queotlj reftmd to : of. eutUj. i, i, S. Ons portion of thom will look 

3; xli. 1; xlv. a, 4, 5,6; [L 1;] liii. on the othM. This ahowa Uutt Ii. 

). 71 IxB. 13; Ixix. 17. 9. The &ot liii. 8 wu in the mind of the writer. 

Uut even the righteoui are judged Son of Man. See Crit. Note and 

opens up a terrible proepeet for the ilri. 1 (note). 6. The king* are 

luitgiuidtbeEaightjiaf. iPetiv. iB. now ready to ackaowledgs and wor- 

TSa iTlng word: tee xliz. 4 (note), (hip the Son of Mu, but it it too 

,- .iL 

itradb, Google 

Sect. ii.j Chapter LXII. 3-12. 165 

earth will glorify and bless and extol him who rules over all, 

who was hidden. 7. For the Son of Man was hidden ^AH 

before Him and the Most High preserved him in the presence ' 

of His might and revealed him to the elect. 8. And the 

coDgn^tion of the holy and elect will be sown, and all the 

elect will stand before him on that day. 9. And all 

the kings and the mighty and the exalted and those who rule 

the earth will fall down on their faces before him aod worship 

and set their hope upon that Son of Man, and will petition C . ^Z V/' 

him and supplicate for mercy at his hands. 10. Neverthe- ' 

less that Lord of Spirits will (so) press them that they will 

hastily go forth from His presence and their faces will be 

filled with shame, and darkness will be piled upon their faces. 

11, And the angels of punishment will take them in chai^ 

to execute vengeance on them because they have o^^ressed 

His children and His elect. 12. And they will be a 

spectacle for the righteoas and for His elect: they will 

rejoice over them because the wrath of the Lord of Spirits 

resteth upon them, and His sword is drunk with their blood 

7. Before Him. So G )L?^J!'tf»". DId, gives ' formerly." 9. 
The Idusa and the mlghtr. So G K M. FILO and Din. 
give 'the mighty kiogs.' 10. NeTertheleBB that Xiord of 

Spirits wiU (so) prase them. So OM. Dlii.'s text inserts Mh 
'and accordingly that Lord of Spirits will press them.' 11. 

The angels of pnnlshnient wUl take them In oharge. Bo all 
MSS. but 0, which gives '^fiVD^ rt0v/)X||^, Oin)^^. 12. 

His sword. So QU. FHIL.O and Din. give 'the sword of 

ItUe. Bnle* over all : of. Dan. vii. mnnitir thnt ii ' lowii ' Ii oalled the 

14. 7, 8. Hidden 1 of. zlviii. 0. 'plant of righteoamen'; of. s. 16 

This word oobmIoiu a digrowioD and (note). OonKreKatlon : of. xxzTiii. 

an eiptanatdoiL Befi«e he »ppear«d 1 (note). 6, 10. The deaoription 

to judge he waa proanrred b; the of Uie jadgment of tbe kiagi re- 

Iiord of Spitita and tevealed lo the aumed: they implore mercy, bat in 

elaot through the ajdHt of propbacy, -wtin. Bliame and daikneaa : rf. 

xlviiL 7. By tbia mcmna the com- ilri. 6; iv Eira vii. 55, 11. 

miudt; of the elect -waa founded (lit. Angela of pnnlahment ; «ee xl. 7 

'aown*), hat wai not to behold him (note). Cf. IliL 3-liT. 1. 13. Speo- 

till tbe final judgment. The com- toole: aee ilvlii. 9 (note). Sword. 


1 66 The Book of Enoch. [3«ct.ii. 

(lit, ' from them '). 1 3, And the righteoofi and elect will be 

saved on that da^ and will never again from thenceforth see the 

face of the sinners and nnrighteoas. 14. And the Lord of 

Spirits wUl abide over them, and with that Son of Man will ^ '1 ^' 

they eat and lie down and rise up for ever and ever. 15. 

And the righteous and elect will have risen from the earth, 

and ceased to be of downcast countenance, and will have 

been clothed with garments of glory. 16. And these shall 

be your garmentSj garments of life before die Lord of Spirits; 

and your garments will not grow old, and yonr glory will 

not pass away before the Lord of Spirits. 

LXIII. I. In those days will the mighty and the kings 

the Lord of Spirits.' 14. WUl tbay eat. BoQM. FHILO 
and Din. read 'wiU they abide and eat,' alao N (sec. hand). 
15, 16. Clothed with garmenta of glory. And these shall 
be 70UT garments, garments of llfb. So Q M, which read A-flfh 
tk-aJA: Aflifi^i: a»i>-X'F; ^fi-l: ti-al>tl(n>^ ^■nAi IbS-a^. So aUo 
I N, bnt that they omit j^-aniltfV. K reads as Dln.'s text : the 
other MSS. vary. The conclnding words of Ixii. 16, 'yonr gar- 
ments ttiB net grow old, and your glory will not pass away,' con- 
firm the readJDg of OM. The fi»ct that all these variations are 
absent from DId.'s MSS. points to their beibg dae to a late 
LXIII. I. The mighty and the Unga. So GM: c£ note on 

Uaed flgontivel; here : ct Iziil. 11. 4^ ; Henn. Km. viJi. t. See alio En. 

Drunkref.I*. zxTiv.6. IS.Bavedi oviU. 11. Will not btow old : cf. 

of. xlviii. 7. 14. Tbe kingdom U Dent. rili. 4 ; izix. 5. 

■t iMt eitafaliihed and God Oinuelf LXm. The writer agnin retanu 

dwells unoiigit them: of. I1.I1.; to the king! snd the mighty In radcr 

Zeph. in. ts-17 : utd the Menish to deeoribe their bittar and nnavail- 

will dwell with them : of. ilv. 4 ; lag repeatanee. The dworiptioii is 

zixviiL t. The kingdom lasts for not auamplifioatiDnof liii. 5-11, bnt 

aver. IS. Tlus Tone does not refer takes ap the history at a Utcc stage 

to (be resanection bui dgnifist that after that (he kings have appealed in 

all the hnmiliations of tbe righteous Tun to the Meauh and are already 

are at an sod. 16. Gajwtents at in the oustodj of (lie angds of 

life : see Cri(. Notes on tt. 15, 16. puniihnient. A* (hdr Sftpeal to the 

On tbe garments of the blessed, of. Messiah has fuled, duy Mitreat (he 

nCor. T.J, 4; Itev.iii. 4, S, 18; iv. 4; angels of panishmmt, to whom thej 

11. 11; Tii.9,13,14; ITBBaii.39, an delirered, (o grant them a raspits 


Sect-n.] Cfuipt^s LXU.ii—LXIII.Z. 167 

vrho possess the earth implore His angels of paniahment to 
whom they were delivered to graot th^n a little respite, that 
they mig'ht fall down before the Lord of Spirits, and worship, 
and confess their rans before Him. 3. And they will bless 

and g;lorify tiie Lord of Spirits, and say : 'Blessed is the Lord 
of Spirits, the Lord of kings, the Lord of the mighty and the 
Lord of the nilers, the Lord, of glory and the Lord of wisdom, 
(before whran) every secret is clear. 3. And Thy power is from 
generation to generation and Thy glory for ever and ever : 
deep aie all Thy secrete and innumerable, and Thy righteous- 
ness ie beyond reckoning. 4. We have now learnt t^t we 
should glorify and bless the Lord of kings and Him who is 
King over all kings.' 5. And they will say : ' Wonld that 
we had rest to glorify and thank Him uid confess oar fiuth 
before His glory I 6. And now we long for a little rest 

but find it not : we are driven away and obtain it not : light 
has vanished from b^oie us, and darkness is our dwelling- 
place for ever and ever; 7. For we have not believed 

before Him nor glorified the name of the Lord of Spirits, nor 
glorified our Lord, but our hope was in the sceptre of our 
kingdom and in oar glory. 8. And in the day of our 

sofEering and tribulation He saves as not, and we find no 

IziL 6, F I L and Din, ' the mighty kings.' H K N omit ' the 
migh^.' 3. (Befbrs whom] averr sMiTat la olaar. O points 
to a different meaning MCV; dSttm "WX. M gives .^-ACtf; 
AIHbl •VSektl ^.Mtl. 5. aioruy and tliank Him. So O M. 
Other MSS. give, 'Qlorify, and thank, and blesa Him.' His 
Slorr. O reads 'Tby gbry.' 7. l^oid of Spirits. So QF: 
HILNO give 'Lord of kings': M ' Lord of Lords.' Qlorlfied 
our iKird. So a M. Other MSS. ' glorified the Lord for all His 

towDidilptheLixdafSpiritiuklaon- pMUga, at Wiadoni v. 3--S. 9. 

faM their dm before Him. ^lii in "Yb/Ax oonfawipn aoknowladgee all 

bet bmu ui indireot sod 1m( datpdr- tlut tbey thrmari; denied: of. xlvi. 

ioKappsklto the LmxI of Spirit*. At 5. 8. Cf. xlix, «. 6. Dark- 

tlie Mma time it ii k juitifliMt[on of mew U our dweUlnfl>pUiM : at iItL 

God's jutica. ?[>TaaomewlutdmD>r 6. 8. ThtrebmplMaof Mpenu 



The Book of Enoch. 


respite wherein to confess onr &!& that our Lord is tnie in 
all Hie works and in His jndgmmts and His righteousness, 
and His jndgmentA have no respect of persons. 9. And we 
shall pass away from before His face on sccoimt of oar 
works, and all oar sins are reckoned up in righteousness.' 
10. Now they will say to Uiem : ' Oar souls are satisfied with 
the mammon of uurighteoosness, but this does not prevent 
us from descending into the flame of the pain of Sheol.' 

works.' i 

. In His JudEmsnta. So OM. Dhi. 'in all His 
10. Into the flame. 80 all HKS. but 0, which 

HUM wlieti the final judgmeot hH 
oome. 10. Bicliei avaO not to 

thalr nlralioD : ot. lU. 7; lUi ; Pl 
zllz. 7-11. Xammon of nnriclit- 
eoiuiMu: cr.LDkeiTi.i), 11; Eooliu. 
*. 8. Sheol. Thii word bu bomo 
difinnt mouungi kt diffarent perioda 
snd aIm diffwent mA^niiigt during 
th* ume period, owing to the 00- 
estltmoe c^ different lUgei in Uib 
deTBlopnunt of thooght. Ai then 
diflteent meeningi kre to be bond 
in Enoch, a shot hiitorj of the oon- 
oaption win be the beet meene of 
a^ilaiution. (i) Sbeol in the O.T. 
ia the pboe uppointecl (or all llTing, 
Job zix. t%: from it> gisBp than ie 
nerar utj poaaildlitj of eaoape. Job 
vii. 9. It i< dtnated baneatii the 
earth. Num. zvi. 30 1 it la the land of 
darkneM and confiulon, Job k. 31, 
31 : of deetruirtion, (brgetfnlneae, and 
ailoioe, Paa. IsutEU. 11; xAr, 17; 
czT. 17. NeTarthelen the identity 
of tlie individmd Ii in lome meainre 
, 1%. ziv. 10; Eiek. ziiii. 
I Bkm. zzriii. ij aqq. : but the 
> li joflsia and liaa no potut 
of oontaot with God or human in- 
tereata. Pie. tL 5 ; zzz. g ; Ii. nxviii. 
II, iS. In tlie e(*MeptioD of Sheol 
there la no moral or religiooa elecoant 
invidved: no monJ diitinction* an 

obeerred In it : good and liad &re 
•like. Bnt the family, national and 
aoeial diatinetioni of the world above 
are itlll reprodnoed, and men are 
gktiiered to tiudr fathen or people. 
Gen. zzT. 8, 9 ; zxxv. ig ; E(d(. xizii. 
17-31 ; king! are aeated on their 
throiLea even there, la. xiv. 9, 10; 
Eiek. izziL it. 14. Thui the O.T. 
Bheol does not differ eaeentially from 
the Honiaric Hadea, Odjn. zi 488, 
9. Thii view oF Sheol was the ortho- 
dox and premiling one till the woand 
century B. 0. ; of. Eoolui. xiv. 16 ; ivii. 
31,331 iix. i;; Bar.iM. 11; Tob.Ui. 
I o ; zvii. 3 ; Bnooh oii. 11 (I. e. where 
Baddnoaaa are introduced aa apeak- 
ing). Individual voioea indeed had 
been r^ied againat it In Eavonr of 
a religioQi conoeption uf Bheol, and 
Snallj through thur advooaoy thie 
higbn' oonoeptian gradually won ila 
way into aooeptance. (>) fliia aecond 
and hi^er onneeptiou of Sheol WM the 
prodaet of the aame religion! thought 
that gave birth to the dootrlne of the 
ReauTTtetlon— the thought that iamA 
the aniwv to lU difficultiea by carry- 
ing the idea of retribntlon into the 
lib beyond the grave. The old oon- 
oaptloD thua underwent a double 
change. Firetly, it became eeaentially 
a place where men were treated ae- 


Sect, n.] Chapters LXIII. g — LX V. i. 


II. And after th&t tiieir conntenance will be filled with 
darkoees before tbat Son of Mao, and they will be banisbed 
from bis presence and tlie sword will dwell among tbem 
before h!a face. 13. And Hius spake tiie Lord of Spirits : 

' Ttiis ie the ordinance and jadgment of tbe migbty and tbe 
kings and the exalted and those who pmBese the earth before 
the Lord of Spirits.' 

LXIV. I. And other forms I saw in that place in secret. 
2. I heard the voice of the angel saying: "These an the 
angels who descended to the earth, and revealed what was 
hidden to tiie children of men and seduced the children of 
men into committing sin.' 

[LXV. J. And in those days Noah saw the earth that 

cording to their denrti vitb a diviiioQ 
for ^ righteoo^ and a divuion tor the 
wicked. And, uoDndlj, &cMn being 
tile mitfidiiig abode of the departed, it 
came to ba onlj an iatennediate itate: 
cf. En. zzii : U. i ; oii. j (I) ; Lnke 
xvi. il(t). (3) 'Die aoDoeption under- 
went a farther change, and no longer 
dgniSed the intermediate itate of the 
right«Ou(Bnd of tbe wicked, bat rame 
to be need of the abode of tbe wleked 
ouIt, either a* thmr p^Hminarj 
abode, ot Bey. i. 16; Ti. 8 ; xz. 13, 
14, w M their final ou^ En. Ixiii. 10 \ 
xaii.ii;oiii.7. lUiwaapnibabljdne 
to tlie EMJt that the Itentmotion wai 
limited to Uie ri^teoni, and thm the 
•oqIi of the wicked simplj remained 
in Sheol, which thui practioaDj be- 
oame hell or Oehenna : cCi Pn. Sol. 
liv. 6 ; XV. II. That thii oonaqttieo 
of Bbeol appeared In iaolated eaaea in 
tbe Penian period, lee Cheyne, Orti^n 

Cf. . 


gives i^iA. II. Sarknaaa. So Q. Din. adds 'and fihame.' 
12. For (Dhai>ll G reads hov. 

LXIV. 2. Descended to the earth. So GM. Other MBS. 
' descended from heaven to the earth.' 

LXV. I. For XJHH* O reads AiHrt' with tbe same meaning. 

0/ tU PiaUtr, 3S1- 
thequeetioD ganerBlly, Oehler, X%eol. 
det A. r. i. J53-M; SohnU, A. 
TlieJke. Theol. 697-708 ; Sehenkd, 
£iba;-Zm.ii.5G£-7i. IntheTalmud 
Bheol haa beocme lynonymoaa with 
Gehenna, Weber, L. d. T. 316, ;. 
U. With dftrkueaa : of. xlvi. 6 ; liil. 
la Bword. Used figuratively here : 
cf. ku. 13. 

IiZIV. A brief digreHDOn on the 
fidlen ai^d* whoae judgment hai 
already been deacribed in tbe •eoond 
dmilitnde, liv. 3 aqq.; Ir. 3, 4. 

IiXT-LXIX. 36. llieae chapters 
profetHBdlj and in £tet belong to k 
Noah Apocaljpie, and have no right 
to foim a part of the text of Enoch. 
Hie main reaiani ftir thia oondueion 
are to be fbimd in the note on liv. 7. 
Like tbe other Noachlc interpolation!, 
thi« interpolation ii of a fragmentary 
natare: It deals munlj with three 



The Book of Enoch. 


it was einkiDg down and its destruction wbb nig'h. a. And 
t — " he aroBe from thence and went to the ends of the earth, and 


'"^ ''cried aloud fo his gnndfather Enoch ; and Noah said Uiree 
times with Tehement utterance, 'Hear me, hear me, hear me.' 
3. And I said nnto him : ' Tell me what it is that ia filing 
out on the- earth that the earth is so fatigued and shaken ? 
May I not perish with it 1 ' 4. And thereupon there was a 
great commotion on the earth and a voice was heard from 
heaveDj and I fell on my faoe, 5, And Enoch my grand- 

father came and stood by me and said onto me : ' Why hast 
thon cried to me with a cry so vehement and sorrowful? 6. 
A command has gone forth from the presence of the Lord con- 
cerning those who dwell on the earth that their end should be 
brought about because they know all the secreta of the angels 
and all the violence of the Satans and all their hidden power 
and all the power of those who piactise sorcery, and the power 
of witchcraft, and the power of those who make molten images 

3. I said nnto him. So GU MUT. Other MSS. 'he said unto 
him.' 6. Tor tb* whola earth. These words are in the geni- 

■nbjsoti: (i) Ixv. i~lzrii. 3, the 
imponding Flood nod the tielivenuice 
of Nnah; (l) Izvii. 4-lziz. t, the 
poulahmeiit of the bllen uigsli, wiA 
a di^endon on the kingi »nd the 
might; ; (3) Ixii. a-15, the bU of 
the Kigda and the Mcreta they di«- 

LXV. 1. OUene th»t the *Moa 
ii Nokh't. Hie TliioD opeiu hare 
with k mbaidence of the earth, u In 
li. I with a quaking of the heaveni. 
S. The enda of the earth. He 
eatranoe to heaven {> at the enda of 
the earth. Enooh a (tdll inppoeed to 
be alive and to be engaged with the 
angda: compare tU**eteewitbliviii. 
I. Thut it b Che Samaritan ohrondog; 
wUoh ii followed hne ; for aaooidlng 
to the T.TfTf, and Hebrew Teckonlngi 
Eoooh waa tranilated manjt yean 

before Noah wae bora, whoroai the Ir^JI r_ -L^ 
Samaritanmakeathemoonlemporariae (^ (L 

for 140 yean. Una thie viaioo mnrt ''''^ i^ ^ 
be ngwded u Dot later than Oie vJ\ [^ 
140th year of Noah-, life. In li. 8, Z^A^f.^ 

33, on the other hand, a later date ia 

■uppoaed, the 500th year of Noah'i 

life (of. Iz. 1), and Paradlae ia oon- 

ditently repnaented ai the abode of 

Enooh and the elect, aa this date is 

360 yean after Enooh's tnuuliitian Into 

Paiadiae, OrandflttheF. In reality 

great-grandfather: cf. Iz. 8. A. A 

voloe. This is the oonunand in var. ti. | 

Tell on mj fkoe. Aa in li. 3. 6. j 

ThoM w^u> dwoU on the •arth. 

This phnwe is bonowed from the 

StmilitDdes: el zxxvili. 5 (note). 

Baoanaa ther know all the seareta 

of Qia ancela, fto.; of. vii; viii;lxii. 

Thepoworof wttohonA: of.vii. t. 


B«!tii.] Chapter LXV. 2-11. 171 

for the wlude eftith ; 7. And how diver is piodaced from 
the dost of theeaith, and how soft metal origiuatee on the 
earth. 8. For lead and tia are not produced from the earth 
like the first : it is a fountain which producei them, and an 
angel standa therein, and that angel is an eminent one.' 
9. And after that my grandfather took hold of me with hie 
hand and raised me np, and said nnto me ; ' Qo, for I have 
asked the Lord of Spirits ae touching' this commotion tm the 
earth. 10. And He said onto me: "Because of their 

nnrighteonsnesB their judgment has heen finally decided and 
will be executed speedily (lit. ' it will no longer he reckoned 
before me ') because of the months which they have searched 
out, and through which they know that the earth and those 
who dwell upon it will be destroyed.^' 11. And for these 

tive ; but the context requires this rendering. 7. Xfifr wanting 
iu Q. 8. An angel stands therein. So Q M, omitting H 
before fitahy. Other MSS. and Din. ' There is an angel which 
stands therein.' And that angel Is an eminent one, Hall^vi 
{J<mm.Aiiat. 373; 1867) reprodnoes this in Hebrew lipn Kin DTp*l. 
He Bupposes t was read by mifitake for T in Qlp". Hence we get 
Q^IB^ Hiph. from "V with 3rd pi. maso. su£Gx. Then comparing 
Jer. vL 7 he translates, ' the angel who stands therein and makes 
them to cool is the chief Bat the Hiph. more likely means 'to 
cause to spring up.' Hence 'the angel who. ..cansea them to spring 
up is the chief.' 9. With his hand. Bo all MSS. but O, which 
gives ' by my hand.' 10. Because of the months wbloh they 
have searched out, and through 'whloh the^ knovr that, fro, 
Hall^ (Journ. Aiiat. 374-5 ; 1867) objects that liat-£^ signifies 
months, and never astrology, and that the knowledge of the future 
could hardly be regarded as criminal by the writers of Enoch, and 
that the Deloge waa generally regarded ae a secret : cf. x. 2 ; 
Ixxxix. I. He thinks that the cormption arose through reading 
O'enn (=Borcerie8, Is. iii. 3) as BVin=' months,' and *9 more- 
over = ^i or yap. Henee be would translate, ' Because of the sor- 
ceries which they have searched out and know; for the earth,' Ac 

of tbe wrought tliroagli tlia aagela. 10. 

the ootrnptimi See iiiH. Not*. 11. Enoch hen 


172 The Book of Enoch. [Sect, II. 

there will be no place of refn^ for ever because they h&ve 
Bhown them what was hiddeo, and (none) for those who are 
condemned; hut as for thee, my son, the Ijord of Spirits 
knows that thon art pure and guiltlees of this reproach con- 
cerning the secrete. 12. And He has destined thy name to 
be among the holy, and will preserve thee from those who 
dwell on the earth, and has destined thy seed in righteousness 
to kingship and great hononrs, and from thy seed will proceed 
» fountain of the rigitteous and holy without number for ever.' 

LXVL I. And after that he showed me the angels of 
pnniBhment who are prepared to come and let loose all the 
powers of the waters which are beneath in the earth in order 
to bring judgment and destruction on all who live and dwell 
on the earth. a. And the Lord of Spirits gave command- 

ment to the angels who went forth, that they should not 
raise their hands but should wait; for those angels were 
over the powers of the waters. 5. And I went away 

from the presence of Enoch. 

LXVII. I. And in those days the word of God came unto 
me, and He said unto me: 'Noah, thy lot has come up 
before Me, a lot without blame, a lot of love and uprightness. 
2. And now the angels are making a wooden building, and 

II. Tor tltose who. The syntax requires A to be supplied before 
XA, as in tUkte in preceding line. Din. wrongly takes XA to be 
XA*, and so trsnelates 'they.' Aa fbr thee. So Q. Din. 
inserts a negative. 

LXVIL I. IToah, U17 lot. So OM. Other M8S. and Din. 
' Noah, behold thy lot.' A lot wltbout blame, Wanting in Q. 

>ddr«MM Noah. 13. Noah U to a minxKioeptiDm ai tha t^gealm tit (be 

be the fonnder of a naw and righteoua Deluge or fint Judgment, and aa 

geneiatioD. Fountain : of. Deut. angels ovsr the waton : of. iL 7 

nxiii. aS ; Pa. Ixviii. aii. (note) ; liv. 7. 3. Angela ovsr 

IiXVI.l. He, Le. Enoch. Aosela ttaepowere of the watwa: cf. Rev. 

of pnnlahment We have here an zvi. 5. 

ill^timate oae of thii phtaae, Thsae IiXVU. 1. The eharaeter of Noah 

angeli hare to do wlely with the har« ia baaed on Gen. vi. 9. 3. 

Moood jndgmant in the Similitndn, Thia aoaoant diffen irotn lindx. i, 

and are «aaployad kare onlj through trhae it ia aald that Noah Unuelf 


Sect. 11.] Chapters LXV.\% — LX VII. \. 173 

when they huve completed that task, I will place My hand 
upon it and preserve it, and there will come forth from it a 
seed of life, and the earth will unde^^o a change so that it 
will not remain without inhabitant. 3. And I will make 

&8t thy seed b^re Me for ever and ever, and I will disperse 
those whoJwelLw itfa-ibee over the face of the earth lest they 
tempt (thy seed), and (thy seed) will be blessed and will 
multiply on the earth in the name of the Lord.' 4. And 

t tMk. So O mS:h. U mS^, which should 
evidently be read tOSSh^ This is clearly tb« right text as agaioet 
DIq.'s (O^A- 'have gone forth to this task.' This latter reading 
is out of harmony both with the wordi before and after. For 
AO^ G reads 0+0. 3. All the best M88. ACEFOHIEHN 
read AAmllC after y^fth or f-Oft. We cannot, therefore, 
simply omit it as Dki. As it Btands, it is unmeaning. It is 
perhaps best to emend it into hovi Kt^Xk^ 'lest they should 
tempt' or 'lead astray,' and render XHCJtfl" 'I will disjieree.' 
Thus we should have a reference to the diapeniou of mankind : 
cf. Oen. xi, Dln.'s text runs, 'and I will spread abroad those 

sukn the aric Oomplated: hs 
OriL Note. DIil'i oonnpt irniliiig 
obligM him to make the angeli of 
ponuhment build tbe tA snd than 
go to tet tooaa the waton I It ii en- 
detitly K olaw of good aageli we have 
here. fl. CC Iit. la. A-ZiXIX. 
I. nu nction deali with the pmilih- 
ment of the talliii angeti and iti 
■ignifieanoe tn regard to (3m king* 
and the mighty. It ia very oanfoaed. 
Part of (he oonrndon i* owing to lui 
original confniioii of thooght on the 
part of the writer, and maoh to the 
ooTTnptnsu of (he text. The latter 
i* laigel; obviated by the Mo<rtun- 
ment of a better text: lee CriL If otea 
on rr. 6, ii, 13. As for the funiMr, 
it hai tieen caiued by the writer 
deeeribiDg the Gi>( judgment in fea< 
toree characteriiUo of the final, and 
in identifying looalitiea Id the Simili- 

todat whioh an abeolotaly distinct : 
1, e. (he bnniing valley of Oehenoa 
li placed among (be metal mountaini, 
Izni. 4, though it 1* definKely said to 
lie in another direotion, Uv. 1 , in the 
Similitudee. It ii obvioni, tiwrefbre, 
that no weight ii to be attached to 
4. After treating of (he judgment of 
lYimUml throogh the Deluge, the 
writer t^Meadi to deamibe (he judg- 
ment of the angeli, who were the 
nal oaiiie of man's oorraption. In 
eontradiotion with z, the fallen angels 
•re oait into a burning valley-^really 
the Gehenna Tallay of lir. llien ii 
a twofold oonforion here. It ii not 
nld that the angeli in liv. were 
cast into the Talley of Qehenna, bat 
into a ' bortkiog fumaoe ' ; and, in 
the aeoond plaoe, thia wni the final 
plaoe of pnniihment, not the pre- 



The Book of Enoch. 

[Sect. II. 

He will imprison those angeb who have shown unrighteous- 
ness in that burning valley which my grandfather Eooch had 
formerly shown to me in the west among the monntains 
of gold and silver and iron and soft metal and tin. 5. 

And I saw that valley in which there was a great ooovnlsion 
and a swelling of the waters. 6. And when all this took 

place, tiiere was produced from that fiery molten metal and 
from the convulsion wherewith they were convulsed in l^t 
place, a smell of snlphar, and it was connected with liiose 
waters, and that valley of the angels who had sedoced (man- 
kind) bamed continually onder the earth there. 7. And 
through the valleys of that land proceed streams of fire, where 
those angels are punished who had led astray those who dwell 
upon the earth. S. But these waters will in those days 
serve for the kings and the mi^ty and the exalted and 
those who dwell on the earth for the healing of the body, uid 

who dwell with thee over the face of the earth.' 4. He wUl 
tmprlaon. 80 FGM. Other MSS. 'tliey will imprison.' g. 
For -tViPli G reada 7a>t< (aic) ; M Oo>4l. 6. Tor (DOid^UIB^ 
MOaktioB* O reads 0<ya>-ho>>' ; U mtv^: PiPtiflv. 8. For 
the beaUns of the body. 80 Q : and this reading is obviously 

it, agHia, the bnmiDg 
vklley i< wd to be unongrt the metal 
moantaini in the west. HiU, h ve 
btve tfaown above, ii a mlaleading 
oomlHiutiaQ of Dtterly die[iwmt« iilcM, 
and (honld prore a warning againeC 
Uling ioto the error of Hilgenfeld 
and Dminmond, and badng oon- 
oludoB* on naoh eqnivooal « lather 
demoiuttiably grenndlcM ■tatamanti 
ai appear fn thli vetM. lathoireM. 
Bonowed from lii. i,h other phruoa 
from the adjcdning oonteit, and with 
jn»t w little real ugnifieanoe. The 
phraie ii no real note tA looalitj bat 
onlj another meanisglen plagiariHui 
of (hie iBtcrpoUtur. For othcm aee 
pp.15,16; kJo(nota). Hilgenfeld'i 

to VaanTlna in Mardl <tf a 
banlng Talle; (■ Ue wetf U a boatl«M 
and anoBlled-Ear errand. 8, 6. 

Allele Teraea oombine fbatnrca of the 
Deluge and of Tolcaolo (lutnrbancei. 
The latter are aoonaoted with Uie 
pnniihment of the angaU. Bomed 
nndar Xb» oartli tliere. Not meralj 
the immediate neighbonrhood of the 
Gehenna valley ii here deajgnated, 
but, a« Bin. pianta out, the adjaoent 
cwontiy down to and beyond the Dead 
Sea. A Bubtananaan Bre wa> believed 
to exin nndei tbe Qidienna valley) 
ef. xifli I (note). B. In tbOM 

dayi. Thoie of the writer, Thoaa 
watera will aerve . . . tor tbe heal' 
lug of the body. The hot ifitinge 


8ect II.] 

Chapter LXVII. 5-11. 


for the puaishment of the spirit, becanse their spirit is fall of 
last, that they may be ponished in their body ; for they have 
denied the Lord of Spirits and see their punishment daily, 
and yet believe not in His nama 9. And in proportion as 

the baming of their bodies becomes severe, a corresponding 
change will take place in their spirit for ev^ and ever ; for 
before the Lord of Spirits there will be none to utter a lying 
word. 10. For the judgment will come upon them, because 
they believe in the lust of their body and have denied the 
Spirit of the Lord. 1 1 . And those same waters will undergo a 
change in those days ; for when those angels are punished in 
these waters, these water-springs will change their temperature. 

right ; for the office of the eulphnr Bprings is medicinal in thia 
world, but punitive in the uezt. Other USS. ' for the healing of 
the Bonl and body.' Believe not. Q omits the oegative. 9. A 
OOTveeponding dhange will take place. Q reoda hoD; Hpciv^ 
"twA/n. 1 1. Are pimlahed In tbeoe waters. So G M, read- 
ing T-f^. Other M8S. ' in those days.' Tben water-sprlngi 
will olLonge tbelr temperature ; lit. ' will be changed aa to their 
temperature.' So OM, reading ^^^Am* instead of ^^AT 

retoltod from the meeting of the 
water vA fin nndei^groand by whioh 

UMtMioe of tnoh t. hot sprii^ Din. 
mentirau EaUirrhoe to the east of 
the Dead Sea, to which Eerod the 
Gnat reaorted. Job. A»t. ivii. 6. 5; 
BcU. J»i. i. 33. 5. It bM b«en 
objected that acoording to the Litter 
pMiage theae water* wen aweet and 
not BDlphuotlB. So &r aa thia objeo- 
tJoB ia Talid, it eaaaot bold agaiort 
the hot ipiiiigt of MaebaeniB, 'BM. 
Jud, Tii. 6. 3, wbkh were bitter, and 
1b the nrigbbourhood rf vhioh there 
wen Bolphnr miDea. Holtamaioi 
IJaitrh.f. D. T. ilL 391) nlan to the 
Knptioiia of Uoimt Epomeo in bchia 
in 46 and 35 B. 0. (qooted by Sobodde), 
bat, >a we bare Mtn abovc^ there ii 

no need to go to the we«t for an 
eiplanatloD. 1*01 the pnnlabmsnt 
of the eplrlt, i. e. in the flnal judg- 
ment. Pnnlahed In their body. 
In G«bcona the; will lufier in the 
body a* w«ll M in the ^iiit. Beniad 
the IiOtd of Splrlta : of. xxxvilL * 
(note); liT. 7 (note). Bee thaltpim. 
lahment dally. The hot spring! are 

of the angeU : a teetimooj likewtae 
to the powihment that will baEtll 
the kingi and the mighty. 9. The 
puoiahment will wocic repentance in 
the kings, bat it will ba naavailing. 
A lylBC word : of. zlli, 4 (note). 

10. DoniMl tbe Spirit of th* Ziord. 
Thia MpreMdon b unique in Enoch. 

11. Hie nmoval irf the angels to 
anothar plaoe of punishment is fbl- 



The Book of Enoch. 

[Sect. II, 

and wheo the angels aecend, this water of the springs will 
change and become cold. \%. And I heard Michael answer- 
ing and saying : "This jndgment wherewith the angels are 
jndged is a testimony for the kings and the mighty and for 
those who possess the earth. 13. Because these waters of 

judgment minigter to the healing of tiie body of the longs 
and to the lust of their body ; therefore they will not see and 
will not beheve that those waters will chuige and become a 
fire which bums for ever.' 
LXVIII./"!. And after that my grandfather Enoch gave 

and VMl^ iuHtead of ATkAVP. Otlier MBS. give 'the tempera- 
ture of these water-Bprii^ will chon^.' 13. KiobaeL So OM, 
Other MSS. read 'the holy Michael.' 13. Minister to ths 
bealing of tbe body of the kdnga and to the luat of tbair body ; 
therefbra tliey will not see, fto. So G M, reading tkLO^x 
P'^ffao^, AoD/IXb^: atrt-fT^-h P'yVa^, save that I have auh- 
stituted the word ' kings ' for ' aagels.* TMa change is absolutely 
necessary, as Hall6vi (Jowm. jlrio*. 366-j; 186}) has pointed out; 
for it wwld be absurd to suppose that the augels were healed by 
the chemical action of tlie watei s. The mistake arose through the 
confusion of D*3^pp ' aagels ' with D^?2^ ' kings.' Hallevi thinks 
that ' angels ' in verse 1 1 should similarly be changed into ' kings,' 
but wrongly. The reading of is evidently the right one ; it is 
supported thronghont by 1£, and in the first clause ' to the healing 
of the body ' by all MSS. bnt B G : the text of its second clause 
' to the luat of their body ' could readily be contipted into the 
unintelligible reading of the remaining MSS. ' to the death of their 
body,' A+OMl" into rtf*!* through the influence of verses 9 and i o. 
Dla.'e ' for the healing of the angels ' haa all MSS. but B C against 
it : his readmg ' for the death of the body ' has the support of 
F H I K L N. His text (^ves, ' For these waters of jndgment 
minister to the healing of the angels and to the death of their 
body ; but they will not see,' &c. 

luv«d b; ■ cooling of th« wnters. Tens the Similltnilea tXretAj Oiitt aa 

IS. See CriC Note. Dln.'s text » im- & oomplete work to tha huida of tlie 

intelligible, but the text of 6 u ioterpoUtw. The meuiing of this 

fidlowed above a quite olur. chapter ii dif&Dolt to determine. It 

XiXVIU. 1. Aooording to thi* hni probablj to do nith the Bataui or 


s«t.n.] ChapUfs LXVIL 12— LXVIII.^. \tj 

the signs of oU the Becieta in % book and the Similitades 
which had been given to him, and be put them together for 
me in the words c^ the book of the Similitudes. ) 3. And 
in those days Michael answered Rufael and said : ' The power 
of the spirit transports and provokes me : yet as regards the 
rigour of the judgment of the secrets, the judgment over the 
angels, who can endure the rigorous judgment which is 
passed, before which they melt away "}' 3. And Michael 

answered again and spake to Bufael : 'Who is he whose heart 
is not softened concerning it, and whose reins are not troubled 
by this word of judgment that has been passed upon them — 
upon those whom they have thus led out P ' 4. And it 

came to pass when he stood before the Lord of Spirits, 
Michael spake thus to Bufael : ' I will not take their part 
under the eye of the Lord, for the Lord of Spirits ia angry 
with them because they do as if they were like the Lord. 

LXVIII. 3. XlohoAl. So GH. Din. 'the holy Michael.' 
Tlie power of the oplrlt tnmaportB and provokes me. Can tiiis 
mean 'the spirit of Qod provokes my wrath againBt the fallen 
angels ' } It would perhaps be better to read f^A^ Aiml^t : 
the f might have fallen oat before the initial ^ in ^^nflOUL We 
should thns have: 'the vehemeuce of my feelings tranaporta 
me ... for as regards,' &c. In passed. So Q M. Other MSS. 
and Din. add 'and abides.' 3. KlobaeL So OM. Din. 'the 
holy Micha«l.' So also in ver. 4 ; Ixix. 14, 15. Heart is not 
softened. G M read A.f>£fl<h! Ml-. Word of Judgment. So O 
reading M instead of 9^ aa in Din. : ' who is he . . . whose reins 
are not tronbled by this word 1 A judgment has been passed 

ohteft <i the uigels. 9, The dia- from tils prelimiiuiy to the final place 

logne between MIchMl Mid Bobel of paniihmeni It might p^hkps be 

ia dengned ta Ht ftsth the wTerity of better to tnoslkte ' jadgfinent whiah 

the judgment over the &llen angels, baa been pasnad upon them becaiue of 

Jndgment of the eeo w ta. Thia thoee whom they have thui led forth.' 

may mean the judgment on account In thii oaw we should bare tbe 

of the MOTsta divulged by the augeli. judgmant of the Satani who are 

S. Upon thoaa whom they have rigorouily puouhed beeauae they ae- 

Ihoa led ont. Din. thjjika thia may dnaed the angsla into afn. The words 

msanthoae angela who are conducted 'They do aaiftheywers like the Lord' 

Digitized by Google 

1 78 The Book of Enoch. [Sect, n, 

.5. Therefore all that is hidden will come apon them for erer 
and ever ; for neither angel nor man will have his portion (in 
it), bat alone they undergo their judgment for ever and ever/ 
LXIX. I. And after this judgment they will inspire fear 
and anger in thean because tiiey have shown this to those who 
dwell on the earth. a. And behold the names of those 
angels I and these are their names : the first of them is Sem- 
J&Z&, the second Areettqtf&, the third Arm^ the fourth 
Kokab&^, the fifth TOrel, the sixth Bumj&l, the seventh 
D4nel, the ^hth NQq^, the ninth Barftqel, tJie tenth 
Az^l, the eleventh Armers, the twelfth Batarj&l, the thir- 
temth Basas&el, the fourteenth An&nel, the fifteenth Tflij&l, 
the eixteoith Sim&pisiSl, the seventeenth Jetarelj the eighteenth 
Tftrnfi^I, the nineteenth Tarill, the twentieth Bfim&el, the 
twenty-first IzezeSl. 3. And these are the chiefs of their 

angels luad the names of their chief ones over a hundred and 
over fifty and over ten. 4. The name of the firstj Jeqftn : 

that is the one who led astray all the children of the angels, 

npon them.' 5. All that la hidden. So GU. Other U8S. 
and Din. ' the judgment that is hidden.' 

LXIX. I. Inspire fear and anger. As Din. remarks, there 
must be a corruption here. Hall^vi (J^oum. Anat. p. 3S3 ; 1S67) 
tiiinka Xy"0O is a translation of the Hiphil Tj'jn which means 
(i) to cause to tremble, (3) to irritate. The Qreek translator took . 
the latter meaning, which is unsuitable to the context. Hence 
trsnslate, 'inspire fear and trembling.' a. Q differs consider- 

ably from Dln.'s text in the spelling of the angels' names, bnt 
mainly in the matter of vowela 4. The ancels. So F H M. 

£ivoiiitI>tiiutsriiretatioii:af.I«.iiT.ll- not m dewnb«d. 4. It u to b* 

13. 6. Iq thii rigoroiiB pnoiiiuiieDt in obnrred tliat in (ho ^militndM llw 

■tore for them niither u^sl nor nun Sktuig and the fkllen augali are oare- 

nffen but llioHSataiu(T] only. Fully dlBtlngoIdied : the latter Gtll ia 

IiXIX. 1. See Crit Note. 3. The the daye of Jared acaording to i- 

lilt of nanua here la euentially the zxivi and xd-oiv. Id tMa chapter, 

■ame u in vl 7, bet that the thirteenth howevt^, the fimctiona of theae two 

name ia auperfluoua: aee Din. on yi. 7. nlarmni are oonfbsed. It ia Aiairi In 

In Ti. 7 the namet are nid to be i-iiiTi who ia the oauie of all the 

thoM of the ohieb, bat here Uisy are coiraption npon earth, and 8«mjaxa 


Sect, n.] Chapters LX VIII. 5 — LXIX. 12. 179 

and bioii^t tbem down to the «artli and ]ed them astray 

throQgli the daughters of men. 5. And the second is called 

Asbe^l : he imparted to the children of the holy angels the 

evil coonsel and led them aatray so that they defiled their 

bodies witJi the daughters of men. 6. And the third is 

called Gibdre^ : he it is who has taught the children of men 

all t^e blows of death, and he led astray Eve, and showed to 

the sons of men the weapons of death and the coat of mail, 

and the shield, and the sword for battle, and all the weapons 

of death to the children of men. 7. And from his hand 

they have proceeded over those who dwdl on the earth from 

that hour for evermore. S. And the fourth is called 

P^em&e: he taught the children of men the bitter and the 

sweet, and taught them all die secrets of their wisdom. 

9. And he instructed mankind in writing with ink and paper, r.^ ^-^ v--f 

and thereby many sinned from eternity to eternity and until '. < ^11 >^ V >' ' 

this day. 10. For it was not intended when man was ; 1.- .' m" •- ■> 

created (lit. ' men are not created to l^e end ') that he should i- ^ 3^ - / . V % 

give oonfirmation to his good &ith with pen and ink in suchu ^^^^- \i^ ,1. - 

wise. IT. For man was created exactJy like the angda tQ I ,,.n 

the intent that he should continoe righteous and pure, and 

death which destroys everjrthing ooald not have taken hold of 

him, but through this their knowledge they are perishing and 

through this power (of knowledge) it (death) is consuming 

me. 12. And the fifth is called Kasdej& : he has taught 

Other MSS. 'the holy angels.' la. Por ft^T-Wl O reads alb'n, 

in tha interpolated puMga tL 3. axBotir Uks Uie aiiiwIb. Man wu 

JeqfUi— 'tile indler': Aibeil — 'tb« origiiulJy righteous nnd LmnuHial : 

deieiter from Ood.' 6. GidreJl cf. Book of WiwlDia, i. 13, 14; ii 33. 

la BTidentlj a SkUn as he led Htn; 34. TMi ia abo the docUine at Ibe 

Eire. In viii. I the nuJung of weapons Talmud, Weber, L.d.T, )o8, 314, 

of war ia aaoribed to Am^ 8, 339. Man loet hli ajaightneM Mkd 

10. niongh the inTcmlion of the art immortalily through the eniy of the 

of writing ii ascribed to an evil ipirit, devil, Wiadom il. 34, throu^ the vril 

the writer doet not lecm to condemn knowledge introduoed by the Satani 

it lave in eo &r ai it il niad ai a oE angeU, Bn. liii. 11, thioof^ hU 

■afegnard againrt the bad fiiith of ovn evil aot, icriiL 4, U. Ct.r 

men. U. Kan tna ozeated KoeeiimitUer'e Srlofio on Pi. xd. 5, 6. 


i8o The Book of Enoch. [s«t. ii. 

the children of men all the wicked smitings of spirits aod 
demoDB, and the smitings of the emhryo and the babe, that it 
may.paas away, and the smitings of the sonl, the bites of the 
serpent, and the smitinga which befall at noon, the son of the 
serpent named Tabfi't. 13. And this is the number of 

KeebeSl, who showed the head of the oath to the holy ones 
when he dwelt high above in glory, and its name is Blqi. 
14. And Uiis (angel) requested Michael to show him the 
hidden name, that they might mention it in the oath, bo that 
those who revealed all that was hidden to the children of 
men might qnake before that name and oath. 15. And 

this is the power of that oath, for it is powerful and strong, 
and he placed this oath AkfLe in the hand of Michael. 16. 

And these ore the secrets of this oath, and the heav^i was 
made strong through the oath, and was suspended before 
the world wa« created and for ever ; 1 7, And through it 

the earth was founded upon the water, and from the secret 
recesses of the mountains come beautiful waters from the 
creation of the world unto eternity.' iS. And through that 

and this I have followed. 13. Tha nombor of Keabe^ Hall^vi 
{Joum. Atiat. p. 383 ; 1867) Bi^gests that for "Hit^ there stood 
!T1^ which means either 'number' or 'charge.' Hence, 'this 
is the charge of Kesbeil,' i. e. to remind the other angela of the 
oath by which they were bound. 14. Sbow him tba hidden 

name. So OU. Other MSS. give 'show them the hidden name.' 
After these worda Dla. and all MSS. but GM insert 'that thus 
they might aee that hidden name and.' I have followed Q. M has a 
clause pecoliar to itself. 16. Was made atrong. So 3 014^. Din. 
reads ftlO" ' they were strong . . . and the heaven was saspended.' 
17. BeautUUl vratera. So AEFGHIN and practically M. Din. 

which according to aucieut Jewiah Haaven wai inapeaded: eC Job 

IntsTpretation treated of demonic dan- xiTi. 7 for a nmilar eipreuion regaid- 

got. Tha aarpant nam«d Tabi't. ing (he wrth. 17- Earth wm 

I know nothing about thi* name, fonndad uifon the water : of. Pn. 

18. Sm Crit Not« ; of. zU. 5. I do iiIt. 1; oxxivi. 6. Prom the aaorBt 

not pietend to interpret tbii and raoaaasa af tha mountalna ooma 

vany of the following Teraea 16. baantltnl watara : at Pa. dr. 10, 13. 


Sect. 11.] Chapter LXIX. 13-26. 181 

oath the eea was created, and aa its foundation He laid for it 
the Band against the time of (its) anger, and it dare not pass 
beyond it from the creation of the world unto eteijiity. 

19. And throogh that oath are the depths made fast, and 
abide and stir not from their place from eternity to eternity. 

20. And through that oath the sun and moon complete their 
course, and deviate not from the path prescribed to them from 
eternity to eternity. zi. And through that oath the stars 
complete their coune, and He calls them by their names, 
and they answer Him from eternity to eternity. ii. And 
in like manner the spirits of the water, and of the winds, and 
of all zephyrs, and the paths of all the bands of the spirits. 
23. And in it are preserved the voices of the thunder and the 
light of the lightnings ; and in it are preserved the chambers 
of the hail and of the hoar-frost, and the chambers of the mist 
and the chambers of the rain and the dew. 24. And all 
these believe and give thanks before tlie Lord of Spirits and 
glorify (Him) with all tbeir power, and their food is nothing 
save thanksgiving: they thank and glorify and extol the 
name of the Lord of Spirits for ever and ever. 25. And 
this oath is mighty over them and through it they are pre- 
served, and their paths are preserved, and their course ts not 
destroyed.] 26. And there was great joy unongst them, 
and they blessed and glorified and extolled because the name 

gives 'beautiful waters for the living.' ao. To atemlty: wanting 
in G. aa. For winds G gives wrongly ' souls,' by a change is one 
letter. 23. Tbe voloes of tlLe thimder. So M. Otlier MS8., 
' tbe chambers of the voices of tbe thunder.' 36. And extolled : 

18. Ai 111 fouDdatlon Ha Uid for Bimil&r thoagbb. 96-2B. Thew 

it tlia BBnd, Ao. : cf. Jer. v. ii ; Job *et««a fcmi the conoliuioD of the 

xxvi. 10 ; Pi. civ. 9, &o. 19. The third aimilltnde. Wa hkve *g^ re- 

deptha mkda fut : of. Ptot. viii, 18. turned \a the chief thetne of tBe tliird 

31. OaUi tb«m by tb»lr iuune> : ef. eimilitnde. It ii not improbftUe tiwt 

xliii. I (note). 3S. CI Crit. Nets, the inteipolAtor omitted p*n of thli f" 

Chambara of Uie hail, &0.: ot Ix. liniilitadB and replaced It witli bia 

II, 19-JI. 34. Cf. xli. 7 fw a own addition*. 36. Beoamethe 


1 82 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. II. 

C-.*] VT of ttie Son of Man was revealed onto them: 27. And 

* he sat on the throne of his glory, and the sum of judgment 

^ -, (\ W was committed unto him, the Son of Man, and he caused the 
< sinnera and those who have led the world astray to pass away 

and he destroyed from off the face of the eartlL 28. With 
chains shall tliey he bound, and in their assemhli^^place of 
destruction shall tiiey be imprisoned, and all their wo^ 
vuiish from the face of the earth. 39. And from hence- 

forth there will be nothing that is corruptible ; for the Son of 
I Man has appeared and sits on the throne of bis glory, and all 

_ evil will pass away before his face and depart ; bat the word 

of the Son of Man will be strong before the Lord of Spirits. 
This is the third Similitude of Enoch. 

LXX. I. And it came to pass after this that his name was 

C r, ^ carried aloft during hb lifetime to the Son of Man and to the 

\ Loid of Spirits from amongst those who dwell on the earth. 

2. And he was carried aloft on the chariots of the spirit and 

Iv' J ',i 

wanting in 0. aj. For f«¥ftl; ^VVk O wroi^[ly g^XSi. %%. 
Imprisoned. Before ^^06ai< G M insert H. 39. The irord. 

For 17*. F a I M and originaUy N read .BWt ; and for M10 
reftd (D^ftlO. Far 'OXA. G reads •OlkA.^ 'Son of the Woman.' 
LXX. I. And to the Lord. Bo G. Other MSS. omit 'and,' 

name of the Bon of H«n wu re- laZZ. Thii ohaptor fbmu the «cin- 

Te»led.'*~Thia ii obaonre. Cf. for a duiliiti u uitU Gwiub the introduc- 

dtffareftt nw of the phna^ ilnii. 7; tion of the SimilitDdei. Hiere U 

Itii. 7. 97. He, i. e. tbs MenUh. certunly aome evkwardnen in the 

On the throne of hla glory: mviIt. anthor rnkkiug Enoch deeoribe hi* own 

3 (note). Tlie enm of Jndgnumt, i. e. translation ; bat thii la itself fbnni 

all jndgment: of. St. John t. 13, 17. no valid reaeon for obalidng the 

The tiiUMn. Tloagh the ^militndai chapter, aa in vietj other raipeat it 

are directed ohiefly againn the Idngi ii quite in keeping with the tliongfat 

and the mighty onea, tbe aathor re- of the SinulltndM. 1. Ela iMine. 

tain* repeatedly to the Jndgment of Hie name hwe itanda tor the pwion. 

ijnnera in general : (£zxxTtii. !,>> 3; inie actual pie-exinenae of the Son of 

zU. 1 ; xIt. a, 5, ti ; [La;] Uii. 1, 7 ; Man U here loppoeed : tX. zlTtii. 1 

liu.(,i3. VromofTthalkoeof th« (note). Bon of Kan: c£ slri. a 

eaMb : ef. xxxvili. i (note). 96. Cf. (&ote). Those who dwell on tlia 

liil-vL as. Thii TMM •unmanai earth : of. xzxrii. g (note). S. 

ihortly tttoh a chapter aa sUz. ffliarfota of the apixit : of. * King* 


a«t. n.] ChapUrs LXIX. 2 7 — LXXI. 1 


the name viuished amon^ men (lit. ' them '). 3. And from 
that day I was no longer Qiimb»«d lunoi^t them, and he set 
me hetween the two winds, between the North and the West, 
where the angels took the cotds to measore for me the place 
for the elect and righteons. 4. And there I saw the first 
fathers and the righteous who from the beginning dwell in 
that place. 

[LXXI. I. And it came to pass after this that my spirit 

3. Waa no Icoiger namlierecl amongst tbem. So Q ^thA^lll' 
by a Blip for i'diMlK This is obnonsly the right reading, of 
which 'fAill>ah'='I was drawn or dragged' (so Din.) is a cor- 
ruption, lU giye the same text as Din., bat by a later hand. 

ii. 1 1. Hiii ii an xnoimt of Eiuysh'i 
tnuuiUtloii : of. Ixxxrii. 3, 4; Ixzzlz. 5 9. 
S. Kninbarad : see CMt. Note. B«- 
tw«Ml Ui* North mnd th« Vaat. 
Aooonliag to xiilL 3-6 Pandiw Uj 
In tbe Eut: mooonlliig to liznl. 3 In 
the North: we Ix. 8 (note). Tha 
OOTda: oC M. 4. PumdJK Ii 

■Iready pat^led with hli tighteoni 
((DVfMhen. Thii agnee perfBotlj 
vith Ixi. II, which gpraka of the eleet 
being klreadj in Pkndiie. Tbsa In 
the Simflitudoi the ohronology of the 
LXX. ti fi:liov»d,whcTeM in the Inter- 
poUtiotw it 1* the Samuitan reekon- 
Ing that i> adopted. (VUT.7(note^ 
LXXI. Thii chapter ia moat oer- 
talnljr a later addition. It ii alien 
alike in thought and phiaaealogy to 
the SimiUtade*. Ontwardlj Indeed 
thoe ii a raaambUiia* In phnaMlog; 
bat It ii not real, lor the tachnioal 
tenni of the amilitttdM which are 
tnoroparated In thii chapter are 
wimgly need in allOMt e*erj in- 
Hbuml Thii diapter wai pmbablj 
added \ij Um Bame hand that intMS 
polaled tlM NoaoUo faignunti. Some 
of the groondi for tlks abora oonoln- 
don an: — (i) Hi* tianaoendKice dt 
Ood, o( wbloh we baT* haidlj kkj 

the Similitndia, i« 
here portrayed In the serenat manner, 
llie diitanoa between Qod wid even 
the righteoDi Bnodh in tliii diapter 
ia jmnmanraHfi. whareaa in the 
Bimilitndoa earth and heaven are 
made one eonmnnitj throogh the 
Haniah, and God and the Son of 
Man dwell with men. (i) Ilie deuiip- 
tim of the oryilal palace of Are, Izii. 
I, 6, il borrowed from il*. 9-17, bat 
in the handi of the Interpdator tbia 
aeooont of the theophany beeomee an 
idle tiMurormation aoena^ a mere 
taUean rirant — Qod atter* not a 
woid, it la only an angel that ad- 
dieMee Bnoah. (3] There u abw- 
liilely no eTidenoe to ihow that the 
writer of the Biwilitndea wu «o- 
quunled with i-zzzrl, thoo^ Nn. 
baa thrown ont thii lappodtioB, 
Hemg, £. .B, ziL 3i|i, whereas the 
dqwndenoB of the writer of tiiii 
duqpter on i-xxxil 1* denunwtrable. 
(4) Snoch'i goide ia no longer the 
angd cd' peaoe ai tn the Bimilitndea, 
bat Mlofaael, bod. 3. (g) The title 
' Son of Han ' ia naed in an abulntely 
different aenaa in thischapter — exactly 
indeed aa It li In the Noachio fing- 
mentt: ••• Ix. 10 (note). We may 


184 The Book of Enoch. [6«t. n. 

was hidd^ and it ascended into the heav^e : (there) I saw the 
sons of the holy angels stepping on Sames of fire : their 
garments were white and their raiment and their faces shone 
like snow. 2. And I saw two streams of fire, and the light 
of that fire shone like hyacinth, and I fell on my face before 
the Lord of Spirit*. 3. And the angel Michael, one of the 
archangels, seized me by my right huid and lifted me ap and 
introduced me to all the Becret« of mercy and the secrets of 
righteousness. 4. And he showed me all the secrets of 

the ends of the heaven, and all the chambers of all tLe stars, 
and of the luminaries, whence they proceed into the presence 
of the holy ones. 5. And the spirit translated Enoch onto 

LXXI. I. Sons of ate holy angels. So AEFQHIMN. 
Other MSS. and Din. ' bodb of the aogels.' Thalr fiuMs slioiia 
lik« snow. C a O and originttlly L 'WF\. Other MSS. and 
Din. 'the light of their faces was like snow.' 5. For in>l^; 

indeed h>Ta here k delibanite par- 
verdon of thii phtMS ■■ it appean 
in tile SinuUtudcB: lea zlvi. i, 3 
(notaa), »nd tbi« ii ponible for the 
following Tsuon. (6) lixi. 14, 'Thou 
ait the Sou of Han vfao art Iram onto 
righteounian and righteoiunen alnde* 
ovei thee,' i* an applioadon to E^iooh 
of the words tued of the Son of Man 
ill lUi. 3. (7} The writer of the 
SimiUtndee niea Daniel'i phiau, 
' Bead of Baj*,' meet appodtety in 
oonneiioii with the qaiation of jadg- 
ment : of. xlvi. i (note). Not M the 
Interpolator; he violate* the technical 
•enae of the phraae, and intxnporatei 
it merelj to give vsriomilitude to hii 
additioua. (8) lixj. 17 betrayi the 
hand of an interpolator who cdther 
did not know or «I>e ignored dw fact 
that eternal life was the lot of the 
righteoue in the Similitadea 1 aee 
zxiTli.4(Dcite}. Thii verw probably 
■bowi the writer'i aoqaaintanoe wfth 
i. S! <■ >7; "T. 6. (g) Finally, it 
ii qnite DuStting Uwt Enoch iboold 

hAve liilona raoh >■ are reoonnted in 
thli ch^ter after his tranilation into 
Faradiie. 1. The note of time 

here i* meaningleM witb reganl to 
the Similitadea. Bom of the holr 
ansali. Thia i> practieallj the same 
phnae ae in liix. 5 : of. liix. 4 
' diildren of the angela,' and ori. 5 
'childi^l of the angeU of heaven.' 
The eipreenon ii to be referred to 
&'>n'^ 73, where the Elohim are 
interpreted aa angeli. S. 8ti«am* 
of lire: cf. liv. 19; Dan. vii. 10; 
alao ver. 6 of thii chapter. Thate 
■treuni really proceed from beneath 
the thruns. 8. Beozeta of moroy. 
The mercy of Giod ii often referred 
to in the addition! : of. 1. 3-5 ; 
li. 5, If. 4. We have seen that 

it wai neoeawy to regard the vanei 
and alu^t«n dealing with nataral 
phenoioena, mch aa xU. 3-8, xliii, 
xllT, aa introaiona into the text The 
refermoe here to pbydoal aecreta 000- 
necta the writer of thia ohapternore or 
IcM directly witb thoaejnat mentioned. 


Sect. 11.] Chapter LXXI. 2-14. 185 

the heaven of heavena, and I saw there in the midBt of that 
light a Btructure built of crystals, and between those crystals 
flames of living fiie. 6. And my npirit saw how a fire girt 
tiiat house around — on its four sides streams full of living 
fite, and how they encircled that house. 7. And round 

about were Seraphim, Cherubim, and Ophanim : these are 
Uiey who sleep not and guatd the throne of His gloiy. 8. 

And I saw angels who could not be counted, a thouBand 
thousandB, and ten thooBand times ten thousand (and they) 
encircled that house, and Michael and (jabriel and Rufael and 
Fauuel and the holy angels who are above in the heavens go 
in and out of that house. g. And there came forth from 

that'house Michael and Gabriel, Kufael and Fanoel, and many 
holy angels without number. 10. And with them the 

Head of Days, His head white and pure as wool and His 
raiment indescribable. 1 1 . And I fell on my face and my 

whole body melted away, but my spirit was transfigured ; 
and I cried with a loud voice with the spirit of power and 
bleseed and glorified and extolled. 12. And these blessings 
which wait forth out of my mouth were well pleasing before 
that Head of Days. 13. And that Head of Days came 
with Michael and Gabriel, Ru&el and Fauuel, and with 
thoasaDdB and ten thousuid tiiousands — angels without 
number. 14. And he came to me and greeted me with his 
voice, and sud unto me : ' Thou art the son of man who art 

Airm O reads ml^iK: aqrm. 14- He. SoGK. Other 

M8S. and Din. read 'that angel.' Wbo art bom. Din. wrongly 

S, e. Ct liv. 9-17. 7. Chara- two claatM are practioallj word for 

bim. Seraphim, And Opluiiini : of. word the ranie u the last two daiuai 

111. 10, 13; zxiix. 13; xL 1. S. oflx.3. Spirit w*a trenificured. 

A thooMDd. thonaaudi^ Ao. : cf. liv. Digtingntih this from xnii. 14, and 

ii; xl. I. Ooinandoat. Thii la at Ak. Is. vii. 15. Spirit of 

not BO in ziv. 13. HiohMl, Oatniol, powsr : of. Ixi. ] 1 . 14, And he, 

fto.: ueil. 4-7. 10. TheHoad Le. 'Hlohael'j lee Crit. Note. H 

of Safs : aee (7) of tb« tntroduotoiy ii not God Himsalf who speaki : of. 

uritidim on tUa chapter, ilao ilvl. I ver. 15. Thon art the aon of man 1 

(note) ; Daa. tU. 9. 11. The fint Me ($) and (6) of the introdnetorj 



1 86 The Book of Enoch, 

bom unto righteonanees, and righteoiiBQees abidee orer thee 
and the righteoaBnees of the Head of Days fcn-sakes thee not.' 
15. And he 8»id onto me : 'His word for thee ia (lit, 'He calls 
unto thee ') peace in the name of the world to come ; for from 
thence proceeds peace since the creation of the world, and so 
will it be with thee for ever and ever and ever. iti. And 
all who in the time to come walk in thy ways — tiion whom 
righteousness never forsaketh — their dwelling-places will be 
with thee and their heritage will be with thee, and they will 
not be separated &om thee for ever and ever and ever. 
17. And so there will be length of days with that Son of 
Man aad the righteous will have peace, and the righteous 
his path of uprightness in the name of the Lord of Spirits 
for ever and ever/] 

' der . . . geboren ist.' And ilj^toouuMM : wanting in O. 

critlinBiu on this ohnpter Mid the nis world to oom», L e. ths 01am 

raferenon there giTen. Ifi. He bftbba, (he Meiduuo kingdom. 17- 

oalli onto thea peaoa. Quoted laaDgth of d&ya. See (B) of the 

in Te«t. Dan. 5 6<A* t/A tlp/jrtjr. introductory oritidnn on thii alupter. 

Di.itradb, Google 


A. Jit Critiedl Siruetttra and Object. R. Ift Independence of 
i-xzzvL C. Ita Calendar and the knowledge therein implied. 

A. Oritieal Stmotare and Object. Cbaptor Ixxii intro- 
dnces us to ft scientifia treatise. In this, treatige the writer 
attemplB to bring the many atterancee regarding phyBical pheno- 
mens into one ByBtem, uid pats this forward as the genuine and 
biblical one as opposed to all other Byttems. The parftmonnt, 
and indeed the only aim of this book according to Ixzii. i, is 
to give the laws of the heavenly bodies, and this olgect; it pnnmes 
nndeviatingly from its beginning to Ixxix. i, vhere it is said that 
the trefttise is finished and all the laws of the heavenly bodies 
set forth. Through all these chsptere there u not a single ethical 
reference. The author has no other interest save a soientific 
one coloured by Jewish conceptions and beliefs. As a Jew he 
upholds the accuracy of the moon as a divider of time, Isxiv. 1 1 : 
■ The moon brings in all the years exactly, so that their position 
is not prematurely advanced or delayed by a ungle day onto 
eternity.' And this order is inflexible : there will be no change 
in it till the new creation, Ixzii. i. So far, then, we have to 
deal with a complete and purely scientific treatise, in which 
there is no breach of uniformity till the new creation. But the 
moment we have done with Izxix, we pats into a new atmo^here. 
The whole interest is ethieal and nothing elie: there is, indeed, 
such a thing as an order of natui-e, but, owing to the sin of men, 
this order is more oonspicnons in its breach than in its observance, 
Ixxx. 3-8, and even that in&Uible Inminary the moon (Ixxiv. 1 2) 
becomes a Use guide and misleader of men, Ixxx. 4. 


1 88 The Book of Enoch, [Sect. III. 

Chapter Ixxz, therefore, is numifestly tui addition, made to give 
ua ethical tnrii to a purely scientific treatise, and so furnish it 
with some fitness for its present collocation. Before passing on 
. to Izxxi, we may remark that not only does the general t«ndency 
of Ixxx. 1-6 conflict with the preceding chapters, but the only 
exact specification ventured on by the interpolator in Im. 5 
is in glaring contradiction with Ixxvi. 13. Yet see notes on 

Nor, again, can Izxzi belong to this book. Before entering 
on this question, however, let us consider Ixxxii. i-B, which forms, 
according to most critics, the close of this treatise, tv. (>-30 being 
regarded as a Noachic interpolation, but wrongly : see Ixxxii. 9 
(note). These verses Ixxxii. 1-8 manifestly do belong to bczii— 
Isxix. The same formula occurs in Ixxxii. i, 'my son Methuselah, 
as in Ixxvi. 14 and in Ixxix. 1 (according to some M8S.). The 
wisdom dealt with in Izxxii. 1-8 is the same scientific lore as in 
Ixxii-lxxix. And the blessing of the author of Ixxzii. 1-8 is for 
the man who sins not in calculating the seasons, Ixxxii. 4. 

Ixxii-lxxix and Ixxxii constitute the original book of Celestial 
Physics. But, whereas the bleadng of the author of Ixzii-lxxix, 
Ixxxii is for the man who knows the right reckoning of the years, 
the blessiug of Ixxxi. 4 is for the man ' who dies in righteousness, 
concerning whom no book of unrighteousness is written.' These 
two blessings, in fact, give the keynote of their respective contents 
of the book of Celestial Physics and Ixxxi, and disclose the motives 
of their respective authors. This chapter did not, any more than 
Ixxx, belong to this treatise originally. In fact, we find on 
examination that it is of the nature of a mosaic, and came prob- 
ably irom the editor of the complete Euoch. The phiase 'Those 
three angels,' in Ixxxi. 5, points to some previous statement 
apiwrently ; but none such is to be found. The words are evi* 
dently drawn from Ixxxvii. 3, where they occur exactly as here, 
bvt mth an etplanation. The heavenly tables in Ixxxi. 1, a come 
from xciii. 2, cili. 2. The expression ' Lord of the world ' may 
be suggested by Ixxxii. }, ' Lord of the whole creation of the 
world.' The 'books of judgment' in Ixxxi. 4 are drawn from 
Ixxxix. 61, £4, Ac. 

Again, we observe that Izxxi, 5, 6 are written with reference 
to Ixxxii. I, a and xci. i. This latter verse introduces the section 
beginning in tbe preamt form of Enoch with xci. We shall see 
later that xci does not really form tbe beginning of the last book 


Sect. III.] Introduction. 189 

of Enoch, but tbat it hae been dislocated from its right position 
by tbe author of bixii to serve bis editorial purposes. 

Finally, with regard to Ixxxii, it is evident that it does not 
stand in its original position. Tbe Book of Celestial Physics 
rightly concludes with Ixxlx, which closes thus: 'Tbie is tbe 
picture and sketch of every luniinaiy as tbey were shown to me 
by their leader, tbe great angel Uriel.' Ixxxii must have preceded 
this chapter originaUy, and probably immediately. After the 
long disquisition on the stars in Izxxii, the first words of Ixxix 
wonid come in most appropriately: 'And now, my son, I have 
shown thee everything, and the law of aU Ihs gtara of the heaven 
U oon^leled' If Izxxii does not precede, these words have prac- 
tically no justification in Ixxii-Uxviii. The final editor of the 
whole book was fond of such dislocations. There hag been a like 
rearrangement of xd— xciii. 

B. Its Independence of i-xxxri. (i) In i. a the revela- 
tion of Enoch is not for tbe present, but for remote generations : 
in xciii. 10 it is to remain a secret till the seventh week of the 
world: in civ. ii it is one d&j to be disclosed. But in Ixxxii. i 
the revelations are entmsted to Methuselah to be transmitted 
to the generatione of ihe world, (a) In xxxiii. 3 Uriel writes 
down everything for Enoch, bat in Ixxii. i, Ixxiv. a, Ixsv. 3, 
Ixxix. a-6 Uriel only shows tbe celestial phenomena to Enoch, 
and Enoch himself writes them down, IxxxiL i. (3) The descrip- 
tion of the winds coming from different quarters in xxxiv-xxxvi 
differs from that in Ixxvi. (4) The heavenly bodies are partly 
conscious in i-xxxvi: cf. xviii. ta-i6, xxi. 1-6; hat not so 
in Ixxii-lxxxii, (5) The portals of the stars in xxxvi. a are 
described as tmaU portals aiove the portals of the winds. As in 
Ixxii-lxxxii these portals are also those of tbe sun and moon, they 
can hardly be called ' small,' being each equal to thirty d^rees in 
width. Besides, though described at great length in lxxii~lxxxii, 
they are never said to be ' above ' those of tbe winds. (6) The 
river of fire in xxiii, in which the luminaries set and recmit their 
exhausted fires, has no point of connexion with Ixxii-lxxxii. 
(}) In xxxii. a, 3 the Garden of Eden lies in the east : in 
Ixxvii. 3 in the north. There is undoubtedly some relationship 
between the later chapters of i-xxxvi and Ixxii-lxxxii ; but it is 
not that of one and undivided authorship. 

C. Its Calendar and the knowledge therein implied. 
Tbe chronological system of this book is most perplexing. It 

ilizedbyGoOC^Ic , 

I go The Book of Enoch. [Seci. ni. 

does not in its prMent form preeeot k conaistCDt whole, and 
probably never did. We are not to regard it aa anything more 
th«u the attempt of an individual to eetabliah an eosentially 
Hebrew c^adar over against the heathen calendars in vogue 
aronnd. In itaetf this calendar cannot be aud to have any 
value. It is usefijl, however, ae giving us some knowledge of 
the chronological systems more or less known to the Falestinean 
Jews. For (r) the writer is acquainted with tJie signs of the 
zodiac, but carefully reirains &om mentioning them, replacing 
them by hiB ayetem of portale. (a) He ie acquainted with the 
spring and autumn equinoxes and the summer and winter 
solstices. (3) He knows apparently the length of the synodic 
months (ct Ixxviii 15, iti), which was not published till the time 
of Gamaliel II, 60-1 15 A.S. (4) His attempt to reconcile the 
lunar year and his peculiar year of 364 days by intercalations, in 
the tMrd, fifth, and eighth years, fdrnishes strong presumption 
that he had the Qreek eight-year cycle before him, and the pre- 
sumption becomes a certunty when we consider that, whereas 
every detul in the Greek cycle is absolutely necessary to the end 
desired, in tbe Snochian system, on the other huid, though these 
details are more or leas reproduced, they are absolutely idle, as 
Enoch's system is really a one-year cycle, and tbe lunar year is 
reconciled to bis solar year of 364 days by the addition of ten 
days each year: cf. Ixxiv. 13-16. (5) He aUudes to the seventy- 
six years' cycle of Calippos, Ixxix. 5 (note). 

The writer puts forward a year of 364 days, but this he did 
only through sheer incapacity for appreciating anything better; 
for he must have been acquainted with the solar year of 365^ 
days. His acquaintance with tbe Greek cycles shows this. More- 
over, in the Slavonic Enoch the year of 365} days is distinctly 
taught. It is surprising also that any writer under cloak of 
Enoch's name should fix upon a year of 364 days, as Enoch was 
early regarded as the teacher of tbe solar year of 365 days, owing 
to the significant duration of his life. And our surprise is not 
lessened when we consider that all the surrounding nations and 
peoples — tbe Egyptians, Persians, Arabs, Cappadoctans, Lyci&ns, 
Bithynians, the inhabitants of Gaza and Ascalon— observed a year 
of 365 days. But this year was generally a moveable year of 
365 days exactly, and consequently one in which New Tear's day 
ran through all tbe days of the year in the course of 1461 such 
years, and the festivals continually changed their season, Mow 


Sectm.] Chapter LXXII. i, 2. 191 

Uie writ«r of Enoch recommeDdB hia year of 364 d&ys eepBcially 
on the ground that the posiUon of the years ii not prematurely 
advanced or delayed hy a sin^e day, Ixxiv. n. It was, therefore, 
nothing bnt hie natitmal prejndicee, and posBibly his stupidity, 
that prevented him, knowing as he did the Greek systems, from 
seeing tliat only a year of 365^ days could efiect such a result. 
As for Wieseler's theory that the writer held to a year of 364 days 
with one intercalary day each year, and one erery fourth year, 
there is no evidence for it in the text. The anthor's reckoning 
of the year at 364 days may be partly due to his opposition \x> 
heathen systems, and partly to the fact that 364 is divisihle by 
seven, and amounte to fifty-two weeks exactly. 


LXXn. I. The Book of the courses of the luminaries of 
the heaven and the relations of each, according to their 
classes, their dominion and their seasons, according to their 
names and places of origin, and according to their months, 
which the holy angel Uriel, who wm with me, who was their 
leader, showed me; and he showed me all their laws exactly 
as they are, and how it is with regard to all the years of the 
world and unto eternity till the new creation is accomplished 
which doreth till eternity. 2. And this is the first law of 

the luminaries : the luminary tlie San has its rising in the 
eastern portals of the heaven, and its setting in the western 

IiZXU. L. Ai In the SimillCadai, (Uji Mid nighta tiisreby oocanoDed. 

thB inpenciiptlon oF tills book ii hr Fortala. The lubjeot of tha portal* 

frDm ■omifttaljdeiaribiiigita ooutant*. hu alrakdy to iodib citaat afipured 

Dominion: cf. liiv. 3 ; Izzxii. S-10. Id zziUi-zziTi. But obwrve that, 

Nama* ; eL lixiili. i, i. PImms of tboagh pc«Ml* of the winds and 

origin. Probablj theii plaoas uf poitaUof thaitanmthendeMnibad, 

lisiDg. Tb» new oreattoa : of. ilv. than i« do EOMidoii of portals of the 

4: zoi. I J. 16; Is. llT. 17; Ixvi. 11 ; nui and moMi. According to Ixzil- 

II Pet«r ili. 13 ; Rev. zii. i. All Ixxiii, the mm, moon, and stan pav 

(he lawi of the heavral; bodies given through the sama portals ; can this 

in this book are valid tQl the tw« hold tme oF izitii-ziLivi, when the 

creation. S. This vena intndnoas portals of the «tan are »id to be 

an aeoaont of tha son in its progroM anall and dtuated above the portals 

thraogb the rignt of tha zodiac and of the wind 1 Horeover, in IzziL 6 

the innrflaao and decrease of tha one ot the aoa's portal* is called 



The Book of Enoch. 

[S«ct. ni. 

porttils of the heaven. 3. And I saw six portals ont of 

which the Bun risesj and six portals in which the sun sets : 
the moon also rises and sets through these portals, and the 
leadetB of the stars and those led by them : six in the east 
and six In the west following each other in accurately cor- 
responding order : also many windows to the right and left of 
these portals. 4. And first there goes forth the great 
luminary, named the sun, and his circumference is like the 
circumference of the heaven, and he is quite filled with illu- 
minating and heating fire. 5. The chariots on which he 
ascends are driven by the wind, and the son disappears from 
the heaven as he sets and returns throiigh the north in order 
to reach the east, and is so gutded that he comes to the 
appropriate (lit. 'that') portal and shines in the &ce of the 
heaven. 6. In this way he rises in the first month in 
the great portal, and indeed rises through the fourth of those 
six portals in the east. 7. And in that fourth portal 
through which the sun rises in the first month are twelve 
window-openings from "which proceeds a flame when they are 
opened in their season. 8. When the sun rises in the 

'gremt.' 8. Lesdera of tlie lUn ; 
Bee IxxT. I (note). Wlndmra: cC 
Ter. 7 ; Ixzt. 7, Bisht and left, i.«. 
■oDtli and tiortli, aooording to the 
bmilter Hetxew nie. 4. Cf. xU. 

5-7, where the oonoeption wenu to 
be differant. Hla atroiimflnttiioe. 
The Bon u cileuly oiroolar : of, Izzfii 
1 ; IxzviiL 3 ; ilio zviiL 4 ; lixvlii. 4. 
It [b donbtfal whether he ib oonoeiTed 
of ai ■ Bphere or merely u ■ dlso. 
I h»ve tnuulated on the Utter tap- 
pouliaii, 5. The inn, ■■ alBO the 

other heKTenl; bodies, tr»TerMB the 
heaven In a chariut, Izxiii. 3, Inr. 
3, S, driven bj the wind, ZTiii. 1, 
Ixxiii. 1. Thronxb the north : of. 
xli. J. Ib golded, Foaubly b; an 
angeL In the Slmvooio Enoch isTatTil 


a hiB 

In i-zxxTl the heaTanly bodies have 

a BanJ-eonBdinu exutance ; this ib not 
■0 in Izzii-lzzxii. 6. In the 

fiMt mouth. The writer begins hie 
deeorlplian of lh« buu'i ooone with 
the &Bt Hebrew month Abib (of. 
Ezod. ziii. 4), the time of the qiring 
equinox. Tliis month, oallad generallj 
after the Captivity Niaan (cf. Nah. 
iL l), wai the fint miHitb of the eoale- 
■iutfoal year, and oorreaponds to onr 
April. The mvil year began with 
Tithri, <x October. The sraat 
portal. Bo called in contradiBticctlon 
from the 'window-opening*' in the 
next vene. Yet these portals are 
called 'small' in iixTJ. 1. 7. 

Twelve window-openinca. There 
are twdva nioh at every portal : cf. 
Ixxil. 3 ; liiv. 7. The flame is the 
■oarce of heat : of. Ixxv. 7. S. The 
aatliot'i lystran, whereby he seeks to 

itradb, Google 

Sect. III.] 

Chapter LXXII. 3- 


heaven, he oomes forth through that fourth portal thirty 
momuigs in succession and sets directly opposite in the 
fourth portal in the west of the heaven. 9. Aiul during 
this period day becomes longer than day and night shorter 
than night to the thirtieth morning. 10. And on that day the 
day is two parts longer than the night, and ,the day amotmts 
exactly to ten parts and the night to ei^t parts. Ii. And 

Lxxn. 1 

Two parts longer than the night. adds 
■: ' two ninth parts longer than the night.' The 

rapUoe the hukthea oonoeptiDD of the 
lan'i revolutiuD through the aiglu of 
the zodiM by ft Kheme foaaded m 
he belioTea on the O.T., u m followi. 
Iliere *je six portftU in the eut 
thmngh which the gun rises in the 
oonrae of the year, >nd sii in the 
weat in which he «eti. The fint 
porUtl fonni the moat •onthern point 
of the inn'i jornney, &nd the lizth 
portal the mottnortben. During the 
fint ui monthj, fnim the ihorteit 
day to the longest, (he san advuiaea 
ttaa the Bnt portal to the aiith, and 
DOBTenely. from the longeet day to 
th* ihortnt, be retnnu from the lixth 
portal to the fint. In euih portal 
tiie lan riaet and lets oike month In 
hii jonmey northward*, and likewlee 
riH« and >eta for one month is each 
portal on hie retnio journey. Thna 
arieea the division of the year into 
twelve months. Horeover, daring 
eaoh month on hji journey north- 
wards, the day daily grows longer 
and the night daily ihorter, and this 
is owing to a dallj change of position 
on the part of the sun within eaeh 
g*t«. Of these diSerent poaiUoni or 
ita^ik* of the sun there are ^64. In 
this way the author seeks to dispense 
with tha mgm of the sodiao. Jhe 
sun's northward jonruej from the 

fint to the sixth portal corresponds 
with his oonrse through the signs 
Caprlcomna, Aqnarius, Fisoes, Aries, 
Taurus, and O^nini ; and (he sun's 
return joornejr fiiMn tiie sixth to tbe 
first portal eorresp<mds with his ooune 
tbniugh Canoer, Leo, Virgo, libra, 
Soorpio, and SagittMiiui. Though 
psrfeotl][ .aoqnunted with a year uf 
3651 days, as we shall see later, the 
antbor reckoned it as consisting of 
3&4 days, partly pnadbly on anti- 
heathen grounds, and partly for the 
attractive reason that thesum totalis 
divisible by sevsn, and thus rei^esents 
51 sabbaths of days. The author's 
solar year of 364 days is made ap 
of eight months of 30 dajrs each, and 
four months of 31 dayi eaoh — theee 
latter corresponding with tbe spring 
and antamn equinoxes and the 
Bummer and winter solstioea, or ac- 
cording to tbe system of our author 
with tha sun's pontion in the Erst, 
third, fourth, and siitb portals. Tfaeee 
foot Dumtbs have each 31 days 'on 
aeoount of the sign,' i.e. tliat of tbe 
eqaiooxes or the solstioea : of. Izxii. 
13, 19. The author's division of tiie 
day into eighteen parts ii possibly 
his own devioe, yet it may rest on 
tiaditioni derived froni northern Asia 
of the latitude of 49°, as Krieger sup- 


194 "^^ Book of Enoch. [Eect.iii. 

the euD risee from tliat foarth portal, and sets in the fourth, 
and returns to the fifth portal of the eaet thirty momingB in 
successioii, and rises from and sets in the fifth portal. 12. 

Then the day becomes longer by two parts and amounts 
to elev^i parts, and the night becomes shorter and amounts 
to seven parts. 13. And the aun retoms to the east and 
enters into the sixth portal, and rises and sets in the sixth 
portal one and thirty mornings in saccession on accoimt of its 
sign. 14. And on that day the day becomes longer than 

the night, so that it amounts to double the night, i e. twelve 
parts, and the night becomes shorter and amounts to six 
parts. 15. And the sun mounts up to make the day 

shorter and the night longer, and the sun returns to the east 
and enters into the sixth portal, and rises from it and sets 
thirty mornings. 16. And when thirty mornings have 

elapsed, the day decreases by exactly one part, and amounts 
to eleven parts, and the night to seven parts. 17. And the 
snn goes forth from that sixth portal in the west, and goes to 
the east and rises for thirty mornings in the fifth portal, and 
seta in the west again in the fifth western portal. 18. On 

that day the day decreases by two parts and amonnts to ten 
parte and the night to eight parts. 19. And the sun rises 

&om that fifth portal and sets in the fifth portal of the west, 
and rises for one and thirty moruings in the fourth portal 
on account of its sign and sets in the west. 20. On that 
day the day is equalised to the night and becomes of equal 
length, and the day amounts to nine parts and the uight to 
nine parts. 21. And the sun rises from that portal and 

night to eight parts. O adds 'exactly,' T14+. it. Fifth 

portaL O repeats these words wrongly at beginning of next 
verse. 13. For 0rttA Aft^A G reads fM<h. One and 

thiitr- reads 'thirty.' 19. Blsea in the fourth portal on 

aooount of its sign. O H read : ' rises in the fourth portal on 

poMi, wboe the longgrt day ii twias oar kathor itfttet it ^Z. On ao- 

M loDg u the thortaM ni^t, jolt u wnut of IM dgn, L e. tliM of the 

Digitized byCoOglc 

Swt. III.] Chapter LXXII. 12-30. 195 

sets in the west, and retams to the east and rises thirty 
mornings in the third portal and sets in the west in the third 
portaL 22. And on that day the night becomes longer 
than the day, and night becomes longer than night, and day 
shorter than day till the thirtieth morning, and the night 
amounts exactly to ten parts and the day to eight parts. 

23. And the sun rises from that third portal and sets in the 
third portaJ in the west and returns to the east, and for thirty 
mornings rises in the second portal of the east, and in like 
manner seU in the second portal in the west of the heaven. 

24. And on that day the night amounts to eleven parts and 
the day to seven parts. 25. And the sun rises on that day 
from that second portsJ and sets in the west in the second 
portal and returns to the east into the first portal for one and 
thirty mornings, and sets in the west in the first portal. 
it. And on that day the night becomes longer and amonntfi 
to double the day: the night amounts exactly to twelve 
parts and the day to six. 27. The sun has (therewith) 
traversed the divisions of his orbit and turns again on that 
his orbit and enters that portal thirty mornings and sets also 
in the west opposite to it. 28. And on that day the night 
decreases in length by one part, and it amounts to eleven 
part£ and the day to seven parts. 39. And the sun returns 
and entire into the second portal in the east and returns on 
that his orbit for thirty mornings, rising and setting. 50. 
And on that day the night decreases in length, and the night 

tu'connt of its sign ... in the fourth portal in the east.' 22. And 
night bAoomM longar tban night. So G : (DlWL't^ Xy"IM.t^ 
)1(D^. FHILNO and Din. give 'till the thirtieth mominK.' 
TiU the thirtieth mominK. So G itOA. Dlu. ' till the thirtieth 
day.' 25. In the wMt In the first portal. reads : ttS^it: 
lUrfil:; OA)*! ay"d£4)! A^A M 'in the west in the dxth 
portaL' 37. Bnt«n that portaL G Teada: 'enters all the 

portals.' aS. On that dt^. F G read : ' on that night.' Br 


196 T!u Book of Enoch. [S«ct.iii. 

amounts to ten parts and thd day to eight. 31. And on 

that day the sun rises from that second portal, and sets in the 
west, and returns to the east, and rises in the third portal for 
one and thirty moroiDgs, and sets in the west of the heaven. 
32. On that day the night decreases and amounte to nine 
parts, and the day to nine parts, and the night is equal to the 
day, and the year amounts exactly to three hundred and sixty- 
four daya 35. And the length of the day and of the 
night, and the shortness of the day and of the nights-through 
the course of the sun these distinctions arise (lit. ' they are 
separated '). 34. On that account its course by day becomes 
daily longer, and its course by night nightly shorter. 35. 
And this is the law and the course of the sun, and his return 
as often as he returns sixty times and rises, i.e. the great 
luminary which is named the sun, for ever and ever. 36. 
And that which thus rises is the great luminary, being so 
named according to its appearance, according to the command 
of the Lord. 37. As he rises so he set« and decreases not, 
and rests not, but runs day and night, and his light is 
sevenfold brighter than that of the moon ; but as r^ards 
size they are both equal. 

LXXIII. I. And after this law I saw another law dealing 
with the smaller luminary, which is called the moon. 2. 

on« part reads: ^ttflit: X^ 'HiD-X'P; h¥AlI. 31. Beoond 
portaL ' Second ' wanting ia O. 35. Aa often iub he Tetnma 
alxty ttmea. 80 0, omitting the ^7-aXi AXTt* of Dhi.'s text— 
' As often as he returns : he returns sixty timee.' Tbe arraat 
luminary. So Q M. Other MSS. and Din. ' the great eternal 
luminary.' 37. Aa he rlaea, fto. Bo QU: nhm; .^oidXi 

(Dhavlli Miv4. Nlfht. After this word I omit with QM the 
phrase ' in the chariut' (Din.). 

Note. 8S. BUtr tlmea. The bdng the extra dajr id the Gnt, tfainl, 

■lu ii (ma month Id each parUl on fourUv and dxth portali. 87. 

hiinorthwuil jnomey, kodona moDth Serenfold brighter; of. zoL \i; 

in each portal on fail niuiliwBrd: Is. xxx. j6. Aa vecarda aiaa . . . 

thareiore two nunthi in each portal, equal. So Lnonliui believed, 

nie author ditregaida for the tlnia LXXIEL Tbi* and the fUlawing 


Sect in.] Chapters LXXII. ix—LXXIII. 5. 197 

Her circumference ie like the circumference of the heaven, 
and her chariot in which ehe rides is driven by the wind and 
light is given to her in (definite) measure. 3. Her rising 

and setting changes every month ; her days are like the days 
of the sun, and when her light is unifonn (i.e. full) it amonnts 
to the seventh part of the light of the sun. 4. And thus 

she rises. And her first phaee in the east comes forth ou the 
thirtieth morning : on that day she becomes visible, and con- 
stitutes for you the first phase of the moon on the thirtieth 
day together with the snn in the porLal where the sun rises. 
5. And the one half of her projects by a seventh part, and 


chapter t 

. Thirtieth morning. O wrongly gives Vf^ 
TUrtietb d^. So O M. Other MS8. and Din. 

t of the oouna of the 
a. H«r rlalns and set- 
tlDK, i. e. the place of her nring 
uid setting. Berenth. put of 
the light of the «ttii: of. Iiiii. 
37 ; UxYiii. 4. 4. Her fint 

pb«M, lit 'herbaginning.' The moon 
on the fiiat daj of her raappearuice 
IB here the new moon in the papalar 
senile, not the nev mixiii ntnctly bo 
called, which ie invieible. Thirtieth 
worainK. i. e. of the lolar month. 
Together with the nm. The aun 
and moon are still in the same portal 
on the fint day after oonjnnotion, 
M each portal embraces an extent 
of 30 d^rees, and the moon advanoea 
<mlj 13 degrees dail;. B-8. The 

anthor's aocomit of the phas« of the 
moon is very hard to follow. His 
scheme seems to he an follows. The 
Innar month amoonls to 30 days 
and ig days altenkately. It is divided 
into two parts : daring the first part 
the moon waxes from new moon to 
fall moon in 1 4 days when the noolh 
is 19 days, and in 1 5 when the month 
is 30 days. Daring the ssoond part 
the moon wanes from fall moon till 

■he disappears, always, : 
seem, in Ij days. Again, the author 
(U*idee the moon into 14 parts, and 
explains the waxing of ^e moon by 
the saoceasire lighUng Dp of each 
one of the 14 parte by the son, and 
the waning by the sncoesrive with- 
drawal of light from the 14 parto 
till it all disappear*. Bat to proceed 
more exactly, where there are 15 
days from new moon to foil moon, 
the aathor supposee an additional 
tnenty^Igbtb part ; this part only is 
lighted up on the fint day of iiich 
a mouth, whereas one foorteenth part 
is lighted ap each day of the re- 
maining 14 days, till the mocn be- 
comes fall. Ths waning which ap. 
parently alwnjH takes 15 days is 
the reverse of this process. Again, 
where there are 14 days from new 
moon to full moon, the moon has 
at the end of the fint day <Hte four- 
teenth part + one twenty-eighth part, 
i.e. three twenty-eighths, and taliee 
an additional fourteenth part of light 
each of the remidning 13 days. Ac- 
cording to the text above followed, 
VT. j, 6 BQppoee the period from new to 


igS The Book of Enoch, [Sect. ill. 

her whole circumference is empty, withoat light, with the ex- 
ception of one seventh part of her and the foorteenth part of 
the half of her light. 6, And when she receives one seventh 
part of the half of her light, her light amoonts to one seventh 

' thirtieth morning.' 5. With the exoeption of one seventh 
part of her and the fourteenth part of the half of her light. 
In this translation we have adopted the reading of G with two verj 
slight changes, tlie ineertion of the conjimctiou and the tranB- 
position of the words m'\L^\ >Ji.. The t«zt of is: HXIAA: 
frnWi XAU-: (hPCh MiOt; «»li+; XA -flCyi.. This trans- 
poaition is supported by the fact that Dlo.'s M88. give XA 
immediately after the words of number and by the true reading 
ill the next verse — MHt; X.6; cdI^ 'seventh part of half.' 
Thus, 4th of it, i.e. of the half moon = ^th of whole moon, and 
^{th of half moon = j^th of whole moon: thus, ^tha of whole 
moon are lighted on the first day of new moon, when there are 
hut fourteen days to the full moon. Dln.'a translation of his own 
text ia, ' bis anf einen Siebentheil von aeinen vierzehn Lioht- 
theilen:' i.e. 'one aeventh part of bar fourteen parte of light.' 
Din. aays thia ia a olumay expresaion, meaning ' one seventh of 
the half moon, which haa seven parta, while the whole moon has 
foui-teen parts.' Bnt it ia impossible to get aach a meaning out 
of the German veraion, and, though the Ethiopic could also be 
rendered ' amongst her fourteen parta that could he lighted there 
is no light with the exception of its aeventh part,' even ao the 
sense is not good. Din., which ia aupported by F H L 0, ia 
appai'ently an emendation of M, % Ji^ X^IainVfi"! •flCTI, which 
gives a wrong sense. 6. And when she reoeives one seventh 
part of the half of her light, her light amounts to one seventh 
part and the half thereof: So G : (oaOAt: )1^X: Ml9i^ X^i 

fall moon to be 14 days, whereai tct, (oDrteanth part and one twentj-eigbth, 

7 BiippiMet tliii period to b» 1 5 dn^. bat only tbe former 1 it seemt, therv- 

5. See Crit. Nate. In tbie Tern Mid fore, that the moon is mppoaed to 

th« next the fractions are fraetiotu have tbii one twenty-eigbth to begin 

0/ half tA> mom. 6, ObHrre wiOi. It is different in the ease of 

when the period from new moon to the i5-daj8' period. Ou the flnt day 

foil moon la 14 dayg that it ii nut of inoh a period the moon receiTea 

said that the moon receivea one one twenty-eighUi part of light : le* 


Sect.lii.] Chapters LX XIII. 6—LXXIV. i. 199 

part and the lialf thereof. 7. She sets with the Bun, and 

when the sun rises the moon rises with him and receives the 
half of one part of light, and in that night in the b^^ning 
of her morning [in the beginning of her day] seta with die 
sun and is invisible that night with the entire fourteen parts 
and the half of one of them. 8. And she rises on that 

day with exactly a eeventii part and comes forth and recedes 
from the rising of the sun, and in her remaining daye ehe 
lightens np the (remaining) thirteen parts. 

LXXIY. I. And I saw another course, and the law pre- 

So also M, bat that it reads at before iinl£+. There are here 
fourteen days to full moon. Other USS. and Din. give, ' and when 
she receives one seventh port and the half of her light, her light 
amounts to one fourteenth part and the half thereof.' It is to be 
remarked here that in the first half of this sentence the parte are 
fractious of the half moon, whereas in the second half the parts - 
are treated as iractiona of the whole moon. But, granting this 
poBsible, the sense is idle. If A is B, then A is B, is all it states. 
7. In the twginnlng of her day. I have bracketed this as a 
gloss. With the entire Csurtean parts. M reads, 'with the 
entire thirteen parts.' 8. The (remaining) thlrtattu part*. 

So G M N : ftJtftt: mMiVti Wg., but G omits the a). Id the 
beginning of this verse it is said that the moon rises with exactly 
a seventh part of half of her light : during the remainiag days 
of her waxing, she lights up the remaining thirteen parts. 
FHILO and Din. give 'the remaining fourteen parts,' hut 
this gives a wrong sense. 

ver. 7. 7, a. Half of one put of to be Inviaible. On the Mcond d>j 

light, i. e. on* twenty-eighth. See ihe reoeiTGa one fonrtMintb pnrt of 

prerJODC notea, and obaerve that ia light, and beoomei viuble to that 

this Terse the frootjoiu are fraotionB extent. Thui the one twentj-eigfhth 

of the whole moon. Theee v«nee part ii Ignored oa being fnctioallj 

■Dj^was the cue when there are 15 invUble. During the lematning 13 

dajB from new to Ml moon. On the dajB the moon Teoeivea daily one 

flnt day the moon reeeiTes one fonrteenth part of light. 

tweotyeighth part of light, and has IiXZIT. In this ahapcer the writer 

advanced to eome ^ght degree ont deali ihmtly with the waxing and 

of eonjnnation, but Itill practically waning of the moon, her monthly 

■eta with the swi, aod may be aald ohnnjg'e of poeition with record to the 


200 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. m. 

scribed to her u she performed her monthly rerolation accord- 
ing to that law. 2. And Uriel, the holy angel who is the 
leader of them all, showed everything to me, and I wrote 
down their positions as he showed them to me, and I wrote 
down their months (exactly) as they were and the appearance 
of their lights till fifteen days are expired. 3. In single 
seventh parts she waxes till her light is fall in the east (lit. 
' completes her entire light') and wanes in single seventh parts 
till she is completely invisible in the west (lit. 'completee her 
entire darkness'). 4. And in certain months she alters her 
settings, and in certain months she pursues her own peculiar 
course. 5, And in two the moon sets with the sun, in those 
two middle portals the third and the fourth, 6. (That is) 
for seven days she goes forth and turns about and returns again 
through the portal where the sun rises; and in that porta] 
her light is full and she recedes from the sun and in eight 
days enters the sixth portal from which the sun goes forth. 
7. And when the sun goes forth from the fourth portal she 
goes forth seven days, so that she goes forth from the fifth 
and turns back again in seven days into the fourth portal and 
her light becomes full, and she recedes and enters into the first 

LXXIV. 3. G reads : fl A S frflWl XA f^9:9*i H-«^ -flCyft 

(If Cfr; fl^oftMI. Wanea In single ooventh parts till ali« 

■igDl ftnd the inn, and tha differsDoe forth u it wuei from the third portil 

lietweeii Innmr uid solw ^euv. 3. throngh tha dgni to tha Gnt portkl 

Of tbem mil, i. e. the vkriouB phura in wnen daji, tania abiTOt, and re- 

of the moon. VUteen dira, i. e. from tnnu to ths portal where the odd 

a ODDJanetiaii till Tnll mooa or from risea, 1. a. tha third, in leren or eight 

full moon till a oonjonotion. 8. days, and theia beocmiM fall mooD, 

Cf. lixiil and Izzviii. 4. Her and prooeeda thanoe thnragfa tha 

own prnmliar oonrae, i. e. a conns tanrth and fifill to the alxtb portal, 

independent of that of the Ban. 6, where ihe aniTea alter eight daji. 

6. Dnriiig two montht tha moon Mta Thence the moon retanu to the third 

nitb tile ian u new moon and aa portal in Hren dayt. 7, B. The 

faU moon. When the lun ii in Jriaa icbana with ragaid to the fourth 

and libn, the new moon and the foil portal and the new moon. Hie 

moon are in the tiilid and fooith moon proeeedt to the lizth portal 

poTtalt. Id verae 6 the moon goei and letniu to the Ibaith in 14 da;*. 


Swt. m.] 

Chapter LX XIV. 2-12. 

portal in eight days. 8. And she retuniB again in seven . 

days into the foarth portal from which the sun goes forth. 
9. Thus I saw their positions, the smi rieisg and setting 
according to the order of their months, 10. And in those 

days the sun has an overplos of thirty days in five years 
taken together, and all the days which belong to one of those 
five fall years amomit to three hundred and sixty-four days. 
1 1 . And the overplns of the sun and of the stars amounts to six 
days : in five years, six days every year come to thirty days ; 
and the moon falls behind the sun and stars to the number of 
thirty days. 12. And the moon brings in all the years 

exactly, so that their position is not prematurely advanced or 
delayed by a single day unto eternity; but (the moons) com- 
plete the changing years with perfect justice in three hundred 
and sixty-four days. 13. In three years there are one 

Is completely Inviaible. Wanting in O M. 9. The mn rlalng 
and aetting aooordtng to the order of thalr moatlia. O M read : 
attO": fi.V&: hiD-A^. aAHCti: Krti^. 11. In five years, 
six d^^ every year. reads: A £ 'iao^^; titt. ia. For 

■nd thence to the fiist port&I and 
back in if dayi. 10, 11. The 

(UBte«n«a betwoen the lonu and the 
■alar year. Aoconling to liiviii. 15, 
16, in a lanar year there are mx 
monthi of 30 dajB, and aii monlha 
of 39 dayi each — in all 354 dajm. 
In a aolar year there are Ii 
monthi of 30 daja each and four 
intercalary dayi in the equinoxea and 
■olitioea — in all 364 daji (ef. luiv. 
10, 13 ; IxzT. 1]. Thai the diSerenoe 
between the Inuar and the laUr jear 
amonnta to ic dayi. But in ver. lo* 
and 1 1 no aoooant ii taken of Uie 
intercalary day* In the lolar year, k 
that the uUr year ii leokoned at 
360 dayi. Thai the difierenca in thii 
ease ia di dayi. 13. There ii 

manifMly a polemJoal tone in thii 
Taraa> Hie wHler aawrtj the ac- 

curacy of the moon ag a time-dirider 
againit thoea who pnt forward the 
■olar year only. TbsBook of Jubilee* 
vi. proteati agahut the use of the 
lunar year. 18-16. We hate h«re 
clearly a reference to the right-year 
cycle or DDtaetetis. In thia cycle an 
intercalary month of 30 days wae 
iossrtiKl in (he third, Sftb, and eighth 
yean of the cycle in order to recon- 
cile the lunar and aolar yean, which 
were reckoned reipectively at 354 and 
365I dayi. Ai our author, howeTcr, 
does not reckon the loUr year at 
365J daya, but at 364, he proceedi 
to reconcile this lolar year of 364 
dayi with the lonar year of 354. 
Thai (rer. 13) In three anch uJar 
ysata there are 1091 daya; in five, 
i8jo dayi; in eight, igis daya; 
whereai (ver. 14, 15) in three lunar 


202 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. in. 

thousand and ninety-two days, and in five years eighteen 
hundred and twenty days, so that in eight years there are two 
thousand nine hundred and twelve days. 14. In three 

years there accrue to the mocm herself one thousand and 
sixty-two days, and in five years she falls fifty days hdind : 
i.e. at the close of these an addition is made to the (one 
thousand and) sixty-two days. 15. And in five years there 
are seventeen hondred and seventy days, so that the days 
in eight Innar years amount to two thousuid eight hundred 
and tihirty-two. 16. Thus in eight years she &ll8 behind 

to the amount of eighty days, and the sum total of the days 
she &ll8 behind in eight years is eighty, 17. And the 

year is accurately completed in conformity with titeir stations 
and the stations of the eon, as they (i. e. the sun and moon) 

^J^ff- G gives wrongly ^'<*^ 1 4- Btxt7-two days. Q gives fi. 
An addition ia made to the aixty-two days. Q reads 'sixty- 
two daja are added,' omitting {(1. 15. Again here gives 
unintelligible readings : for ao tbat the d^a amount to two 
thouaand eight hundred and thirty-two, O reads A % OWDAi 

yean tliare kre 1061 days; in fife, msrel; My over mnd ovei again that 

l77odajB; in eight, 1831 daji. Thui the differenoe between 364 and 354 

there is a difference of 80 daji be- days ii 10 dayi. 14. In Dts 

twe«n sight aolar yean of 364 daji yean ihe fUla flfly daya behind, 

and eiijht limar yean. Aa all theae We ihoold, aa Wieader auggeati, 

oalcnlatJona merely amount to aaying read hen : ' In thi«e yean she falla 

that hia aolar year haa lo day> thirty dayi behind.' 'Diii wonld give 

more than the lunar, the wHter had a good lenae to the tbllawing wordi : 

obviously the eight-year cyole before 'at the cloae of theae (i.e. three yean) 

him \ Ira only (lias ean we explain an addition (of 30 days) i« made to 

the external resemblance orhitayitem the (one thousand and) sixty-two 

to thsOrerli oyole: ef. Spedal Introd. days.' That ii, the addition of 30 

(PP.1S9-9D). Unlasi theaatborhad daya to the snm of three Innar yean 

the Qreek dght-yeai eyole before make* them •qnal to Uiree aolar 

him and wbhed to give hia own work yean. Dln.'s rendering and eiplana- 

■oms lemblanoe of likeneee ther«to, tJon of theae latt wordi are uniatj*- 

there was 00 need to go throagh alt factory : ' NiLmlieh mit der Bumme 

then perioda of three, Sre, and eight davoD addirt man lu iwei and aeehng 

ysut ; tat they da not in Cut oon- Tagen.' 17. With their ataUona, 

tribnte a ^le additional ftwt, but i. e. tiie ataUona of the moons. 

;dbyGcH)c^[c] Chapters LXXIV, 14—LXXV. 4. 203 

rise from tibe portals through which it (the eon) rises and sets 
thirty days. 

LXXY. 1. And the leaders of the heads of the thoosands, 
who are placed over the whole creation and over all the Rtars, 
hare also to do with the four intercaUry days, which cannot be 
separated from their function, according to the reckoning of 
the year, and those render Berrice on the four days which are 
not reckoned in the reckoning of the year. 3. And owing 

to them men go wrong therein, for those luminaries truly 
render eerrice on the world-stationfi, one in the first, one in the 
third, one in the fourth, and one in the sixth portal, and the 
harmony of the coarse of the worid is brought about through 
ite separate three hundred and sixty-four world-stations. 
3. For the signs and the times and the years and the days 
were shown to me by the angel Uriel, whom the eternal 
Lord of glory sets over all the luminaries of the heaven, 
in the heaven and in the world, that tbey should rule on the 
surface of the heaven and be seen on the earth, and be leaden 
for the day and the night, i.e. the sun, moon, and stars, 
and all the ministering creatures which make their revolu- 
tion in all the chariots of the heaven. 4. In like manner 

LXXV. I. From their ftmoWon. So M: Xy"!: y^OCflO". 
Also Q, but with sinff. suffix. Other MSB. 'from their place.' 
Beokonlng. 80 Q M. Other MSS. and Dhi. ' entire reckoning.' 

IiXXV. Thii chapter ds*l> with daji: of. lixxii. 5. 3. Hsn do 

the intarcaUry dajl, (he itan, and not kuoir of thew hitarotiarj inyt, 

the gim. 1. The four intercalar; nnr] w nokoD vroBgly: ef. Izixii. 

dayi are nnder the charge of the 4-6. 8. Yat theee Intercakry 

highest etai*, the leadar* of the headi daye are a reality ; for Uriel ihowed 

of ten thooeanda. Theia are not the them to Enoch : of. Ixdi. i. Sl(lil, 

chiliarche, u Din. nippoeei (p. 14S), i.e. of the sidliio: of. iTxii. 13, 19. 

but the leaden of the ahilian)li«. Xt«nMl Xiord of glory. HeNonly: 

For farther development of thii inb* aealiizlT. 1 (note). Ohariot* of tha 

Ject MeUixIi. IT.I). Thee* leaden h»T«u : ef. liiii. 5. 4. The tbi1»- 

are not angeli, m might be tnppneed, tion in the uaoaiit of heat given 

but (imply ' Imnlnariei ' : of. ver. 2. by the inn 1< eiplained by tmlve 

Al« not rookoned In the laokon- opening! in the diik of the aun 

tng of tbo year- Apparently the throngb irhich heat i« given forth In 

year wai popaUrly reckoned at 360 proportion to the unmber of windowi 


204 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. ill. 

Uriel showed me in the circumfereDce of the ean's chariot in 
ilie heaven twelve door-openings thiongh which the rays of 
the sun break forth ; and from them is warmth diffosed over 
the earth, when thej are op«ied at appointed aeasons. ,5. 

[There are also snch openings for the winds and the spirit 
of the dew when they are opened, standing open in the 
heavens at the ends (thereof).] 6. Twelve portals I saw in 
the heaven, at the ends of the earth, out of which go forth 
the sun, moon, and stars, and all the works of heaven in the 
east and in the west. 7. And many window-openings are 

to the left and right of them, and one window at it« (ap- 
pointed) season produces warmth, corresponding (as these do) 
to those doors from which the stars come forth according as 
He has commanded them, and wherein they set, corresponding 
to thfflr numher. 8. And I saw chariots in the heaven, 

running in the world, above those portals, in which revolve the 
stars that never set. 9. And one is larger than all the 

rest and makes its course through the entire world. 

LXXVI. ). And at the ends of the earth I saw twelve 
portals opened for all the winds, from which the winds 

4. tTriei ab*w»d me. Wanting in Q. Through whioh the 
rays of the aun break forth and. Wanting in 0. g. When 
they are opened, standing open. So Q M N. Other IISS. add 
' in their BeaaoiiB.' repeats ' when they are opened ' at the end 
of this verse. 8. Above thoee portalik So A K O U I M N. Cf. xiv. 
17. Other MSS. and Din. give : ' above and below those portals.' 
LXXVI. I. Opened for all the wlnde. HallM thinks that we 

opened. D. TUe porteU of the at ft time, uid all difieiing in ilegree of 

windl: of. zuiii-Ti; Izivi. Din. hudng power. 9. OneisUrger. 

think* thii T«ne k ui interpoliition This may be the Great Bear, 

on the ground of it« inappropriateneu IiXXVI. This ohapter givn a 

tier^ and of (he phraae, ' spirit of the detulad aceonnt of the twelve portals 

dew,* which oimneeta it with li. ao. of the winds and the natore of the 

0, 7. A4j<Hning each one of theae windnwlilahiniietherelroin. Theshnrt 

twelve portals of ths sun are twelve aoounnt in xziiii-zxivi agrees with 

wlDdow-iq«ningi to the left and right it. This disquisition on (be nature 

oflhem: cf. liiii. 3, 7. These diffuse of the winds has ta much relation 

warmth over (h« earth, one being i^n to realitv as that on the year of 364 


Sect, ni.] Chapters LXXV. ^—LXXVI. 9. 205 

proceed and blow over the earth. 2. Tliree of them are 

opened on the face (i.e. the east) of the heavens, and three 
in the west, and three on t^e right (i.e. the aonth) of the 
heaven, and three on the left (1. e. the north). 3, And the 

first three are those towards the east, and three toirards 
the north, and after those on the left three towards the 
south, and three in the west. 4. Throngh four of these 
come winds of blessing and prosperity, and from those eight 
come hurtful winds : when they are sent, they bring destruc- 
tion on all the earth and on the water upon it, and on all 
who dwell thereon, and on everything which is in the water 
and on the land. 5. And the first wind from those 

portals, called the east wind, comes forth through the first 
portal in the east, which inclines towards the south : from it 
come forth destruction, drought, beat, and rain. 6. And 

through the second portal in the middle comes a favourable 
(wind), and from it there come rain and fruitfulness and pros- 
perity and dew; and throngh the third portal which lies 
toward the north come cold and drought. 7. And after 

these come forth the south winds through three port»ls : in 
the first place through the first portal of those inclining to 
the east comes forth a hot wind. 8. And through the 
middle portal lying next to it there come forth fragrant 
smells and dew and rain and prosperity and health. 9. 
And through the third portal lying to the west come forth dew 

should here render ' open to all the quarters,' see Isxvii. i, Crlt. Note. 
3. After thoM, &o. So Q : (UiM: Xft-, for which Dln.'a MSS. give 
QJMCiXA. IshiBreaderingpwsihle: Zur Linken entgegengesetzt 1 
6. Cornea s A.vourable (wind). I have emended C^Oi ADft'X in 
. Dln,'s text into C^Hftl ^4Dft'X, as this phrase occurs in Ijtxvi. 1 1 . 
We might also translate ' comes in a direct direction,' as in Ixxvi. 1 1. 

Jbji. 2. Tliii method of dedgmt- ths middle wind of the three in eftoh 

ing the four quuten of the earth qnmrtar : the rMt are hnrtfiiL E. 

waa nanal among the Hebrewi : cf. The E.S.K wind. 6. lite E. and 

Ixzii. 3. 4. ThTODghfoorofUMW EJ4.G. wind*. 7. The 3.K&. 

portaU come beoefidal winda. 1, e. wind. B. The S. wind. 9. The 


2o6 The Book of Enoch. [Secu in. 

and mn, locaste and destroction. lo. And i^ter these the 
north winds : from the seventh portal towards the east come 
dew and rain, locusts and destruction. 1 1 . And from the 

middle portal come in a direct direction min and dew, and 
health and prosperity; and through the third portal towards 
the west come clond and hoar-frost, and snow and rain, and dew 
and locuBts. 1 2. And after these the west winds : through 
the first portal adjoining the north oome forth dew and rain, 
and hoar-frost and cold, and snow and frost. 13, And 

from the middle portal come forth dew and rain, prosperity 
and blessing ; and through the last portal which adjoins the 
south come forth drought and destruction, conflagnttion and 
death. 14. The twelve portals of the four quarters of the 

heaven are (therewith) completed, and all their l&wa and all 
thar ph^ee and all their benefactions have I shown to thee, 
my son Methuselah. 

G I omit thia pbroee. 10. XTorth winds. I have followed Din. 
in omitting the words HAcn^ OAC as a gloss. From th« 
seventli ]7ortal towards the eaat. After these words the MSS. give 
the following phrase, H:f1l'Ili a»l7A: AIM, which I have omitted 
on the folloviog grounds. Xli^ JUll means 'inclining to' or 
'adjoining,' not 'opposite to.' In Ixz. 5 the RS.E. wind is de- 
scribed as the eaat wind, XT+: ^"KVk; AJtlM, ' which adjoins the 
south.' In Ixxvi. 7 the S.E.8. wind is described as the south 
wind, XTil tJrtl! AimnA: 9°fi^, ' which adjoins the east.' 
In Ixxvi. 12 the W.N.W. wind is descriiied as the west wind, 
Mti JUll; fl<n»17rti eoht, 'which adjoins the north.' Hence in 
Ixivi. 10 H:^Jl'nJ (WlVAi ftiWl when spoken of a north wind 
is absurd. For the same reason we have omitted in our transla- 
tion the phraee XHl f^^Tihi Acvftd in Imti. ii, as it would 
be no lees absurd in this context to speak of a north wind as 
adjoining the north. By the removal of these misapplied phrases 
the text becomee clear. 11. Prosperity. Wanting in Q. 

13. Bain. Wanting in 0. 14. AH their bene&otlonB. FI. 

S.W.S. wind. 10. SMCrit.Note. W.N.W. wind. 13. The W. uid 

The N.B.N. wind. U. See Crit. W.3.W. winda. 14. Mr mb 

Note on praoadiDg tstm. The N. HethtiiMlah : ef. IxxziL i. 
■nd N.W.N, windi. IS. The 


Sert.Iii.] Chapters LXXVL lO—LXXVII. 4. 207 

LXXVII, I. And the first quarter is called the east, because 
it is the first : and the second, the south, becaase the Most 
High descends there, and there in quite a special sense He 
who IB blessed for ever comes down. z. And the west is 

named the waning qnaiterj because there all the luminaries 
of the heaven wane and go down. 3. And the fomth 

quarter, called the north, is divided into three pajis : the first 
of them is for the dwelling of men : the second for the seas of 
water, with the valleys and forests and rivers, and darkness and 
clouds ; and the third part with the garden of righteonsness. 
4. I saw seven high monotains, higher than all the mountains 

GM give 'all beaefactions,' At\a"i U-fl*. Other MSS. and Din. 
' their benefactiooB.' 

LXXVII. 1-3. As HaUAvi {Jauim. Asial. 384-5 ; 1867) remarks, 
the Greek traualator erred in rendeiing nn in these verseB by 
' wind' instead of by ' quarter.' In Ezek. xlii. ao the LXX. rightly 
i-euders it by 'liipai.' The writer bad no intention of teachiog 
the names of the winds. This is dear from bis geographical 
division of ibe north, and also from his explanation of the Hebrew 
word O'rn, which denotes the southern r^on, and not the south 
wind. I have therefore traustated in ver. i ' and the first quarter 
is called the east, and tbe second the south ' ; and in ver. 2 ' and the 
west is named the waning quarter'; and in ver. 3 ' and the fourth 
quarter, called the north.' This rendering is absolutely necessary 
for the sense. 3. The tblrd part. G gives, by a slip, 'the 

IiZZTlX 1-8. Th««e TBise* deal pnrti: one for men, the ucond for 

not with tha ten winda but with the wfttoni, of. nCX-ui overfluiriDg : for 

fbm qoarten: me Crlt. No(«. Tha darkneu and olond, from JLX, to 

fint qB*it«r !■ the eait, i. e. Q'lp, reader iunnble. The third enolovM 

beaanw it ii in front or the fint, Faradiie, from fDX, to reserve. Pan- 

'jtoip. The (eoo&d the toDtb, DS'Vt^ dise is the recumpcoue reitTved for 

'becatiM the Moat High deacendi therighteoui,Fa.iiii.i9:of.HaUdvi, 

there' from Cr\ T1*, or became the Journal Aiiat. 1667. The Barden of 

Moat High abide* there, Q^ "n riahteoumeH : see Li. 8 (note); In. 

CDln.) : of, xxT. 3. The wert Ii called 3 (note). 1. The nomber mien 

the waning quarter, for which pro- playa a great rAle in this book, and 

babl; there itood in the Hebrew generally in Jewish writen : ef.ivUl. 

jVirmt, which the Greek tranilator 6; x^t. a ; zxiii. 1 ; Ixi. 11; IziiL 

rendered by irartpHr. 80 Din. The 3; ; id. 16^ xciii. 10. Beran tigh 

north fItX ia divided into three monatalna. These have nothing to 



The Book of Enoch. 

[SmI. III. 

wbicli are on the earth : liieiice comes forth hoar-frost, and 
dayE, seasons, and years pass away and vanish. 5. I saw 

seven rivers on the earth larger than all the otb^rs : one of 
them eomiog from the west ponrs its waters into the Great 
Sea. 6. And two of them come from the north to the sea 

and pour their waters into the Erythraean Sea in the east. 
7. And the remaining four come forth on the side of the north 
to their own sea, (two of them) to the Erythraean Sea, and two 
flow into the Great Sea there, [according to others into the 
desert]. 8. Seven great islands I saw in the sea and on the 
mainland : two on the mainland and five in the Great Sea. 

LXXVIII. I. The names of the sun are the following: the 
firet Orj&r^B, the second Tdmas. 3. And the moon has four 
names : the first Asdnjfl, the second Ehlft, the third BenElse, 

second part,' 5. Sevra rivers. ' Seven ' wanting in G M. 

7. Two flow Into the Or«at Sea. So HMNO and Din. O reads 
' four flow into the Great Sea.' 8. Tvro on the mainland and 
five in the Great Sea. So F I L M and Din. G reads : MO-i 
aAAA.: (tOAC: hCfti-. 

do with tbote of uriii. 6; xxiv. 3; 
xxiiL I. B. Ons oomina from 

the wen. Thi* mutt be tbe Nile u 
Din. take* it, baC the deMriptiou 
'Troin tbe veM' irgenuiDsIa diffloult. 
The Qreat Be>, I.e. the Mediter- 
raneui: of. Nam. iniv. 6, 7. 8. 

Th« Buphntae uid Tigru. The 
EirthTBeui Sea. A geoenl luma 
for the Armbisn, Fernan, knd Indun 
seM (Bin.). 7. The remalntna 

four, i. e, the Indue, Gangei, Oids, 
and Jazortea (Din.). Aooordlac to 
othen Into the desert. Hue ii 
nuoifatly a gloee. Such ■ Hooiid 
view ii impouibla in a viiioD. 

LXXTHI, T.TTTTt The rel*- 
tioiu of ^le Bun and moon are again 
deecribed, ai well ae the waxing and 
the waning of (he moon. 1. HaU«vi 
punte DDt that the two nainea of 
(he eon gl*ea here eorreepoDd to the 

two eeaaoni of tbe year in Pttleatlne : 
ef. tli; iv; IxTiii. 15. OijfcrAi from 
D^n ^^ fa the eon whan hi> power 
la diminiahed in the winter Maaou ; 
for D^n or bnn — * potsherd ' aa well 
aa 'euD.' The •eooDd name non in 
onr text altered into Tomaa by change 
of nl and T denotaa tiia aan when 
the heat I) powerfiil Id the inmmer, 
from OOn. 2. Tbe four namea 

of tb« tnoon are, aa Qall^ri ihowa, 
oonneoted with ita variooi phsaea. 
AaAnjft from vf I^B'^K where fiC^'K 
il a diminatlTe of B*^ and IT merely 
an intanmre termination. Thia ia the 
name of die moon in connexion with 
ill likaneaa to the faumnn bee : of. 
Ter. 17. Eblk, altered from njs!)- 
tha paJe atar, denotes the moon in 
her waning period. BontaS, &om 
noa-r? (i. e. nD3 10 oovar), ia an ap- 
prt^tiate nime of the moon in the 

itradb, Google 

Sect, mo Chapters LXKVII.^—LXX VI 11. %. 209 

and the fourth Erile. 3. These are the two large luminaries : 
their ciicumfereDce is like the citcumference of the heftven, 
and in size they are both alike. 4. And in the circumfer- 

ence of the Bon there is a seventh portion of light wherewith 
additions are made to the moon, and definite measures are 
transferred till the seventh portion of the sun is exhausted. 
5. And they set and enter the portals of the west, and make 
their revolution hy the north, and eome forth through the 
eastern portals on the fiice of the heaven. 6. And when 

the mooQ rises she is seen in the heaven with the fourteenth 
part of the light ; and in fourteen days she becomes full moon. 
7. Also fifteen parts of light are added to her so that on the 
fifteenth day her light is full, according to the sign of the 
year, and there arise fifteen parts, and the moon originates in 
the addition of fourteenth parts (lit, ' through the half of a 
seventh part'). 8. And in her waning the moon decreases 

on the first day to fourteen parts of her light, on the second 
to thirteen, on the third to twelve, on the fourth to eleven, 
on the fifth to tai, on the sixth to nine, on the seventh to 
eight, on the eighth to seven, on the ninth to six, on the 

LXXVIII. 3. In Biae tbey are botta alike. O M read : A^<qf: 
llAPa^i h0i>: nnA: tPH^x AbM-lPan-i 04'f, but this addition 
is only a repetition of the precediog line. 4. Definite mesanieo. 

p«riod of eonjanotion when ihe I> 6. Bjt&e north; of. lixii. 5. S-17. 

iiiTiiibls. lErle from rn^ (i. e. &oin Theee Tsna give > debailsd daeerip- 

rrV to cast, dui) ia aiiit»bla u > Ijon of Uw waxing and waning of 

detignatin) of the waiing or full the moun, of the Isngtli of the 

moon. 8. Cf. lixii. 4, 37 ; lixiil. montlii, Jtc. 6. Tbli oau when 

a. 4. fVran luii. 37 and liziii. 3 then ai« fotuteen daya &Dia new 

we have atnadj learnt that the light moon to full moon Iwa already been 

of the iDD li leTenibld that of the treated of in Iiuii. ;, 6 (notee). 7. 

■noon ; from Izxiii. a that light U Hue e«ae where there an fifteen 

added to the moon in due meaaute. dayi from new moon to full moon 

Here we are farther infbnned t^iat haiakeady beendiicuued: ieelzzili. 

one uTenth of the light of tiia ion 7, 8 (note). 8. Ai tlie mooa wanea, 

ii gradnally tranefeired to the moon, her light decreaeea each day by one 

and that thii eerenth part ia wholly fonrtaenth part ; on the fifteenth day 

traniferred when the moon ia fnll. theTemainder,i.e. onetwenCy-aighth, 

itradb, Google 

2 lo The Book of Enoch. [Sect. HI. 

tenth to five, on 1^ eleveutb to four, on the twelEtli to thr«e, 
OQ the thirteenih to two, on the fonrteenth to the half of a 
seventh of oil her %ht, and all her remaming (light) disappears 
on the fifteenth. 9. And in certain months the month has 
twenty-nine days, and once twenty-eight. 10. And Uriel 

showed me another regulation (which determines) when light is 
added to the moon on which side it is added to her by &e sun. 
II. During all the period in which the moon is growing in 
her light, she is opposite to the sun as she waxes (lit. ' she 
waxes opposite the sun') till the fourteenth day her light 
becomes 'full' in the heaven, and when she is illumined 
throughout, her light is 'full ' in the heaven. 12. And on 
the first day she is called the new moon, for on that day the 
light rises upon her. 13. And she becomes full moon 

exactly on the day wh^ the sun sets in the west, and die 
rises at night from the east, and shines the whole night 
through till the sun rises over against her and she is seen 
over againet the sun. 14. On the side whence the light of 
the moon comes forth, there again she wanes till all her lig^t 
vanishes and the days of- the month are at an end, and her 
circumference is empty, void of light. 15. And three 

So Q M. Other IISS., ' in defuiit« measures it ia added.' 8. Hal^ 
bo. So : oDl^^i (DS3US: l±te\ ^i^%., bat that I omit 0. 9. 
Onoo twenty-elgbL Qreade 008400; a>g, and M (DP: Oinfh (DJ. 

vuiiihea. 9. Twenty-nine dayi: tcentb, nineteenUi, and thtu the dif- 

af.lzziT, 10-17; lizTiii. 15-17. Onoe fersmoe between the ooUr uid Innw 

twentj'-elght. Aa ire leuiLt from ;eui »t the <md of thii cycle wu 

IzxiT. 13-16 th&t the Kutbor WM ftbont 7} hourt. Calippiu, reoogni*- 

■oqn^nted with the eight-yeu: cycle ing tbia diffsrence, qoadrapled the 

of the Oreek*. >o bare, m Wimlsr Metonio eyde and dedacted one day 

hM already pointed ODt, we find a from the laat month of tliic period 

rtf erenoe to the eerenty-nz year cycle of lerenty-iix yean, and thu thii 

of Cali}ipDi. The cycle of Calii^oi month had only twenty-ei^t day> a* 

is renUy an emended Mstouie eycle. in our text. 11. The moon waxei 

Aoooidiiig to the oyole of Meton, to over againit the lun on the aide 

which there ii no alliiiion in Enoch, tamed to the sun, i. e. the weetem 

■even lunar monthi were intercalated ddo. IS. This remaA ii quite 

in lunateen lunar yean, in the third, troa. ID. Eaoh balf-y«ai ha» 

fifth, wghth, eterenth, thirteenth, nz- three uuinthB of thirty dayi and three 


s«] Chapters LXXVIII.^-LXXIX. I. 211 

months sbe makes of thirty days at her appointed time, and 
three months she makes of twenty-nine days each, in wbit'h 
she accomphsbee her waning in the first period of time, and 
in the. first portal in one hundred and seventy-seven days. 
16. And in the time of her going out she appears for three 
months (of) thirty days each, and she appears for three 
months (of) twenty-nine each. 17. At night she appears 

like a man for twenty days each time, and by day like 
the heaven, for there is nothing whatever in her save her 

LXXIX. I. And now, my son, I have shown thee every- 
thing, and tlie law of all the stars of the heaven is completed. 
X. And be showed me all their laws for every day, for every 
season of bearing rule, for every year, and for its going 
forth and for the law prescribed in every month and every 
week : 3. And the waning of the moon which takes 

place in the sixth portal : i.e. in this sixth portal her light 
comes to an end, and after that there is the beginning of the 

IS- Of thlr^ dATB at her appolntad time. Q reads : noBTOft: 
aXUnfTh HJt7i ^Q: i^%'9kX\ HJtD-: ^7>aC. U reBembles Q 
with variations. All other MSS. support Din, Twentr-niiie 
dars each. Q inserta flhm before these words. 

LXXIX. I. Hr son. So O M. Other MS3. and Din., ' my 
son Methuselah.' The law of oU the stara. So O V. Other 
USS. and Din., ' all the law of the stars.' 3. Of benrinc rule. 

So O: HO: ^ftinl. Din. reads HaifA". '^j^'nl, which he 
tranBlates '^ jede Herrachaft.' Tor the law preaorlbed 
In. G reads (I^XHIM; 0. 3. CkoDiM to an end. The 

translator uses this verb ^JlOD in Ixzviii. ti, 13 in ^e opposite 
sense, 'to become fall moon.' Beginning <rf the month. 

of tirantj-luiiB. In tba first period i. a. in the Moond ludf of the yeu. 

0f time, i. e. In the first hKl^JU^. 17. CI ver. t (note). 
The anthor leoogiuBei only two (BMoni LXXIX. 3. Irsrr teaaon of 

in (he year: of. iii, iv, Izxriii. 1 bearing rule : lee Ciit. ITote. S, 

(note). So olteD aa the moon ii id 4. ABiuliiTiiL if the writer ihowed 

(he fint portal daring the firA half- that ta the tint portal during the 

jeer, ibe ii waning : of. Izzii. 3, 4. firat half cX the year the moon alwaya 

16. In Um time of her KOina out, waned, m now he ihowi that in tJie 


2 1 2 The Book of Enoch. [Sect, ill. 

montli : 4. And the wamn^ which tabes place in the first 
portal, in its season till one hundred and seventy-seven days 
have elapsed : reckoned according to weeks, twenty-five weeks 
and two days. 5. She falls behind the sun and in accord- 

ance with the order of the stars exactly five days in the course 
of one period, and when this place which thou seest has been 
traversed. 6. This is the picture and sketch of every 

luminary, as they were shown to me by their leader, the great 
angel Uriel. 

[LXXX. 1. And in those days the angel Uriel answered 
and said to me : ' Behold I have shown thee everything, Enoch, 
and I have revealed everything to thee that thou shouldest 
see this son and this moon, and the leaders of the stars of the 
heaven and all those who tnm them, their tasks and times 
and departures. %. And in the days of the sinners the 
years will be shortened, and their deed will be tardy on their 
lands and fields, and all Uiings on the earth will alter and not 
appear in their seaeon: the rain will be kept back and the 
heaven wilt withhold it. 3. And in those tim«s the fruits 

GMN omit 'month' and read CX/li :^<1rlXX>^■ 5. She 

fiOls behind. So GM. N 'and ehe falls behind.' Other MSS. 
' and how she falls behind.' 

LXXX. I, The angel Uriel, So Q M. Other MSS. 'Uriel.' 
I have shown thae. Q reads ftChth. 2. Will alter. 

G M read f-mjWV^. Wm withliold. G reads '^m-T'. 

ttecond half of ths ye&r the moon muked, th&t the moment we have 

alwBf« wkiai in the Snt portal, done witli Iziu we pau into a wiTld 

6. Elzaotir flra d^B. Thii, tiocord- ofnewc<nicai^i>iui,tliewhale interest 

ing to liziv. 10-17, oQghl to be idi of which u ethical and nothing elie. 

da;i. Wieaeler ma; be right in Tfaera iaabwlutely no fixity in natural 

Gnduig liere anothsr raferenoe to the phenDmeoa : their lawi and unifbrm. 

thortenlng of the lut month in tlie ities are always dependent on tha 

Beventj-jii year period by one day : moral action of men : of. iv Eira v. 

■ee IsiviiL 9 (note). 1-13 (quoted by Schodde). Thi» line ' 

ZiXXX. For the reaaons for re- of thought is quite alien to Izzii- 

garding thii chapter aa an interpola- liiix. 1. Zie«deta of the etan ; cf. 

lion, tea Jnlrod. to thia Book of lizii. 3; Ixiv. a.3. Thosswhotum 

CeleMial Phyiioi (pp. 1S7, 188). In them. Then an probably the winds: 

that Introduction we h&ve alrewly re- ef. liiii. 5 ; Ixxiii, 1. S. Cf. Jer. 

itradb, Google 

Bert, ni.] Chapters LXXIX. ^—LXXXI. i. 213 

of the earth will be backward aad cot grow in their season, 
and the ftuito of tbe trees will be withheld in their season. 
4. And the moon will alter her order and not appear at her 
(appointed) time. 5. And in those days there will be seen 

in the heaven a great unfmitf ulness coming on the outermost 
chariot to the west, and she (i.e. the moon) will shine more 
brightly than accords with (her) order of light. 6. And 
many chiefs of the superior stars will err, and these will alter 
their orbits uid tasks, and will not appear at the seasons pre- 
scribed to them. 7. And the whole order of tiie stars will 
be concealed from the sinners, and the thoughts of those who 
dwell on the eEuth will err concerning them, and they will be 
estranged from all their ways, and will err and take them to 
be gods. 8. And evil will be multiplied upon them and 
punishment will come upon them to destroy everything.'] 

[LXXXI. I. And he said unto me : ' O Enoch, observe the 
writing of the heavenly tablets, and read what le written 

5. For tV^f- G reads (itif^f- over an erosion, and tor liy"Otf>a GM 
read AyOMI; both of wbiqh readings I have accepted. Hallivi 
tries to show that the text is corrupt here, and tliat the original 
reference was to the sun. 8. To de«tr(^ everything. Bo OM. 
Other MSS. ' to destroy them all.' 
LXXXI. I. Writing of. O omits; but MN, though also 

iii. 3 ; T. 15. 4. Ct for limiltu' uitently with the kUlhoc's aoheme. 

ideu Joel ii. to; Amoa vlil. 9; iv 6. Ohlaft of tho •npeiior (Um; 

Ezra T. 4. 8. If the ^eaant text of. tot. i (note). 7. Will ba dod- 

Ib oorreot, «re nutjt t»fe[y regard the oemled firom tha alimsra : cf. Ixit. 

wradi And in those days ... on j ; Ixxiii. 4-6. Tliaae who dwell 

th* oatarmott oharlot to the weat on the earth. Thia phnaa ia need 

M an inteipol&tiDii in tbU intei^ here aiaotl; in the aenae in which 

[Mlated ohapter. If we omit tiieee It appeara Id the ioterpolatioiia in 

worda the text runa nnoothlj and the aiinilituilei : tee ntvli. g (note). 

IntelUgJblj: 'The moon will alter b«r Take them to be gods: cf. Acta 

order and not »|ipear at ber (ap- vii. 41. 

pointed) time, and will ahlne more IiXXXI. For the reaions for re- 

brightly than aceordi with (her) garding thii chapter ai an inteipota- 

order of light' The worda were tion, aee Intnd. to thia Book of 

pnibablj added to the text in eon- CelesUal Phytita (p. iSS). 1. The 

uexion with iome recent eTcnt. It hearenlr tablata. For a complete 

is Dot poaaible to explain them coo- acooont of tbia and kindred exprea- 


214 "^^ ^<x^^ ^/ Enoch. [Sect. m. 

thereon, and mark every individu^ £act.' 3. And I obBerred 
everything on the heavenly tablets, and read everything which 
was written (thereon), and understood everything, and read 
the book of all the deeds of men and of all the children of 
flesh that will be upon the eartJi to the remotest generations. 
3. And forthwith after that I blessed the Lord, the King of 
the glory of the world, in that He has made all the works of 
the world, and I extolled the Lord because of His patience 
and blessed Him because of the children of men. 4. And 

after that I spake : ' Blessed is the man who diee in righteous- 
ness and goodness, concerning whom there is no book of 
unrighteousnesB written, and (against whom) no day of judg- 
ment is found.' j. And those seven holy ones brought me 

umitting, imply its presence, and all other MSS. give it. a, Tlie 
book of aU the deeds of man. So M : aoftOi&Ji ^ff. OBflCoo^ 
A/HlX. So G, with one necessary grammatical change. Other 
MSS. 1 ' ihe book and everything which was written therein and 
all the deeds of men.' Of aU the ohlldron of flaah. So G M, 
reading H'A' instead of tfAr. 3. The King of the glory of the 
world. So a M : Th»»: fMMit: A«ly". Other MSS. and Din, 
HA4A^ ' the eternal King of glory.' But some reference to the 
world in the divine title seems to be reqtiired ; for God's relation 
to the world is dwelt on in this verse; 'He has made all the 
things of the world.' At the close of this chapter He is called 
' the Lord of the world.' Children of men. So F G I L M : 
ai-ttA\ My. This phrase occurs in Dent, xxxii. S, and in the 
Book of Jubilees. Dla.: 'children of the world.' 4, 

After that. So GM (DXyfcU-. Other MSS. 'at that hour.' 
(Against whom) no di^ of judgment la found. So Q M ; Ottti 
ttH- Other MSS.: ' against whom no sin is found.' 5. Beven. 
So M. Din. gives ' three.' Brought me. G M read JLt^lH. 

siona, tee ilvii. 3 (Di>t«). S. Cf. 3 (note). Ho d^ of Jndsment la 

uli. 14 for ■ liiiiikr eiprefdoD of fonnd: •wCrit.Note. If tliil oUuM 

praiae: we Crit Note. 4, See be taken itrlcti;, U !■ here taoght tint 

Introd. (p. 188) on ttia oo&tnrt be- there ia no jndgmeDl Tor tbe riglit«oil«. 

tween ttiia blswing and that pn>. S. Thoae aeven holy onaa. TlieBe 

noonced by the writa of IxxU-luix. wonli have been taken by the IntM- 

Bookof narlchtatnuneaa: aeeilvU. pclator from xe, ai, ta wix. Later 


Sect, nr.] Chapters LXXXI. 2—LXXXII. i . 215 

and placed me on the earth before the door of my house and 
spake unto me : ' Declare everything to thy son Methuselah, 
and show to all thy children that no flesh is righteous in the 
sight of the Lord, for He is their Creator. 6. One year we 
will leave thee with thy children, till again a command 
(comes), that thou mayest teach thy children and record (it) 
for them, and testify to them {even) to all thy children ; and 
in the second year they will withdraw thee from their midst. 
7, Let thy heart he strong, for the good will announce 
righteousness to the good : with the righteous will they 
rejoice, and they will offer mutoal congratulation. 8. But 

the sinners will die with the sinners, and the apostate go 
down with the apostate. 9. And those also who practise 

nghteousness will die on account of the deeds of men, and be 5 
gathered together on account of the doings of the godless.' f 
10. And in those days they ceased to speak to me, and 
I came to my people, blessing the Lord of the world.] 

LXXXII. I . And now, my son Methuselah, all these things 

ITo flesh. O M omit the negative. 6. Till again a nommand 
(oomu). So O: Xflti: *|0& ^XHU. Other MSS.: Mill; llDdi 
^ini ' till thou art strong again.' 7. With, the righteous 
wlU they redoloe. Bo O M. Other MSS.: 'the righteous will 
rejoice with the righteous.' 10. Iiord of the world. So M. 
Din. gives, ' Lord of the worlds.' 

MSS. n»A 'ihreB'— ft cbuLgs whloh becftoMof UieevU,'!)^] n^n ^ilBD 

iiii>7^d'><'*>lxTii.i,3. Nofleah p'^fltn : ef. u Ktsgi ziiJ. 10 ; Book 

la rlshteoiu, Ao.: cj. JubU. »; Ps. ofmBdnDi<T.7~i4. The Hebrew verb 

xiv. 1 . OreBtoi : ct xdv. 10, 6. ia lued of being ' gfttheied to one'ii 

TlUasftln»ooiiimMid(omiiea) : see fathen,' Nam.iz. 36. Id Ps. oiv. 19 

Crit.Note. ThnetwoverMi.w. 5,6, God it nJd to 'gkthei' the qtiritof 

Me inimtad tu texye t an introdau- '■"'■"itN when they die. \0. Ziord 

titm to xd'ciT. B. The apootftte oflhsworld: of. i.j ; zii.3 ; lTiii.4; 

will zo down, i.e. into Oehennft. lixii. 3; Iniii. 7 ; lixiiv. 1, 3. 
8. The rif^teouB die indeed, yet are t.tttttt The oondnaioQ of the 

they 'gftthered' onto the ftbodee of Book ofCelsBtiitl Fb;Bio». 1. In 

the bleated. The phntae la borrowed xuiii 4 Criel write* down erery- 

cUrectly frran la. Irii. i, where the thing for Enoch ; bnt in thia book, 

litCTftl (ranalation rnna, ' the righteona o£, Izxii. I ; lixiv. 1 ; Ixxv. 3 ; Izzii. 

ia gftthwed out of the way of or a-6; Ixxiii 1, Uriel only ahowa the 

Digitized byCoOglc 

2i6 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. III. 

I am recoimting and writing down, and I have revealed to thee 
ererything, and given thee books coaceming all of them : (so) 
preserve, my son Methaselah, the books £rom thy father's 
hand and commit them to the generations of the world. 3. 
I have given wisdom to thee, and wisdom to thy son, and 
to thy children that are yet to be, that they may give it to 
their children, generation onto generation for evffl-, this 
wisdom (namely) that paseeth their thought. 3. And 

those who undentand it will not sleep, bat will listen with 
the ear that they may learn this wisdom and it will please 
those that eat (thereof) better than good food. 4. Blessed 
are all the righteous, blessed are all those who walk in the 
way of righteonsnees uid sin not, as the sinners, in the 
reckoning of all their days in which the sun traverses the 
heaven, entering into and departing from the portals for 
thirty days at a time, together with the heads of thousands 
of this order of the stars, together with the four which are 
added and divided amongst the four portions of the year, 

LXXXII. I. Writlag down. So GM. Other MSS. and Din. 
add ' for thee.' Gfineratlons of tlie world. G reads : tthfeS^ 

qfty ' children of the world.' 3. Wisdom to thy aoa. So G : 
T(1A: idAjMi ; but A must be read before (DJUCIt. Bin. gives ' to 
thy children.' Tor «v«r. Wanting in G M. 4. Blessed ar« all 
those. Wanting in G. Divided. So GMO .^.^ft^t. Other 

hidden thing* (o Enooh, uid Enoch theae rsrelfttioni ii > &eqaent thema 

writea them down. Commit tham with the Enoch writan : cf. zzzrii. 

to the Keneratlona of (ha world. 4; icii. 1 ; iciii 10-14. ^^ ^I*** 

Hmw rereUtloni of Enooh ua for and ... to thr aon : cf. Fs. Ixiviii. 

•11 CheiraildlhjmlhesuliMtganwa- 5,6. Aa we unit infer liom thcee 

tioni: those tn i-izzTi are only for woidi th&t T^manli u alrMdy bom, 

the tar distant geuentioM : of. L l. the wriler hu followed the SanuritMi 

See Speoinl Intiod. (p. I8g), It ii or Maaoretjo reckoning: the former 

evidently this pawage that Tntallian would allow of Noah being present, 

refers to in I}» Cultn T'mt, i. 3 : Cum 8. Batter Uun (nod food : cf. Ps. 

Enoch Gilo Buo Matoaalae nihil aliod lix. 10. 4. He fiinr intwcalai; 

mandaverit qnam nt notitiam coram daji introdaoed by four leadMi : cf. 

poaterii laisbaderit. 3. Wiadom. tot. 11 ; Ixzt.i, 1. Heada of thou- 

The luipaMing wisdom convejed In a«ndi, L e. the chlliarcli* which lead 


Sect, m.] Chapter LXXX II. i-\\. 217 

which lead them in and enter with them four days. 5. 
And owing to them men will be at fault and will not reckon 
them in the reckoning of the whole course of the world : yea, 
men will be at fault, and not recognise them accmntely. 6, 
For they belong to the reckoning of the year and are tmly 
recorded (thereon) for ever, one in the first portal and one in 
the third, and one in the fourth, and one in the sixth, and the 
year is completed in three hundred and sixty-four days. 7. 
And the account thereof is accurate and the recorded reckon- 
ing thereof exact ; for the luminaries, and months, and festivals, 
and years, and days, have been shown and revealed to me by 
Uriel, to whom in my behoof the Lord of the whole creation 
of the world has given command over the host of heaven. 
8. And he has power over night and day in the heaven to 
cause the light to give light to men — sun, moon, and stars, 
and all the powers of the heaven which revolve in tiieir 
circular chariots. 9. And these are Uie orders of the stars, 

which set in their places and in their seasons and festivals 
and months. jo. And these are the names of those which 

lead them, who watch that they enter at their appointed 
seasons, who lead them in their places, in their orders, times, 
months, periods of dominion, and in their positions. 11, 
Their four leaders who divide the four parts of the year enter 

MSS. and Din. ' divide.' 8. He haa power over night and 

d«r. G reads ; /"Afllli Pl^! AA^! Q<n»9At. To canoe ... to 
give light. Q reads JPCJkfL. lo. Who lead them In their 
plooes. So G M : Mi ^aoCSrao". im'nfttffea'. Other MSS. 

tlisBedayi. 6. CCIxxt. «. 6. Ontha Fhyika. Moreover, Izxii I prombn 

four ioterakUry dayi imd the porUU an aooomil of the itan, uid Ixiix. I 

to whicb (hej belong, see Ixxv. 7. ileoluea that the fuQ aooonDt faM 

Irind of tlie wliole CTemtlon of the now been given. ThU wonld be Im. 

world. Here only: of. lixxiv. i. possible without Izuii. g-io. U. 

0-90. Din. r^anli these venae as m See Ciit Note. Dln.'s teit of thi« 

Uto' addition to the book, bat with- vena, even in the Crit. ' Note, ia 

e«t adequate reaaon. Thejareqnite practiimllj unintelligible. There ii no 

In barmoBj with all that rightly difionlty in tlie text of OM whidi 

btlonga to the Book of Celeatial we have ftdlowed here. The twelve 


2i8 The Book of Enoch. [Sectni. 

firet; and after them the twelve leaders of the orders who 
divide the montha ; and for the three hundred and sixty days 
there are the heads over thousands who divide the days ; and for 
t^e four intercalary days there are the leaders which sunder 
the four parts of the year. 12. And of those heads over 

thousands one is added between leader and leader, behind the 
position, but their leaders make the division. 13, And these 
are the names of the leaders who divide the four parts of the 
year which are ordained : Melkegl, and HelemmSlek, and 
Melejal, and N&rgl. 14. And the names of those which 

they lead: AdnfirgI, and Ijaslis&el, and Ijelumiel — these 
three follow the leaders of the orders and one follows the 
three leaders of the orders which follow those leaders of 
positions that divide the four parts of the year. 15. In 
the beginning of the year Melkejil rises first and rules, 
who is named Tamafini and sun, and all the days of bis 
dominion whilst he bears rule are ninety-one days. 16. 

And these are the signs of the days which are to be seen on 
earth in the days of his dominion : sweat, and heat, and 
anxiety ; all the trees hear fruit, and leaves are produced on 

omit. II. Divids tbe mouUiB; and for the three hundred 

and sixty doya there are the heada over thouaands who divide 
the days. So O M : .HlA^ov; AAio^-^i (DA£{a)g: ACMtt; I{. 
I have here emended I in O into tS, in conformity with M. M, 
by a slip, gives 300 instead of 360. This text is superior to Din. 's 
ID seuBe euid clearness. Dhi. gives : .KlUi^^in**: AAlD'tf^ 
(DA9<Hri WO^iOW^ta ftCkftt: n-welche die Monate u. das 
Jabr in 364 Tage trennen nebst den Hauptern Uber Tansend. 
13. Between leader and leader. So G M. Other USB., 'be- 
tween the leader and the led.' 15. In the beginning of the 

lekden of the mantha diviiJs ths u Ealldvi hu ahown. MalSjal uid 

niDiilIi* : tlie cliiliarctia divide tho 36a NirAl ue truuliteraldoiu of Hebrew 

d»j>, kud the foat leaden which cames. 14. This verae aeenu 

divide the year into four parU have □ninteiligibla. US-I7. "Hie period 

charge of.the iotercatarf days. 13. ^m spiing to ■nmmei'— 91 dayi 

I do not nndentuid thie vene. 18. uodei the dominfoD of Melkejil or 

Helkedl from 7K*app !■ nmply an Melke«l, 'who ia named . . . aim.' 

invenionof HeleDunelMifroni^?D*bN Hotr (hla leader b naued 'the ana' 

ilizedbyGoOC^IC] Chapter LXXXII. 12-20. 219 

alt the trees, and the harvest of wheat, and the rose flowers, 
and all the flowers bloom in the field, but the trees of the 
winter season become withered. 17. And these are the 

names of the leaders subordinated to them : Berkeel, Zalbesfl^, 
and another who is added a head, of a thonsand called H€l6jft' 
seph : and the days of the dominion of this (leader) are at an 
end. 18. The other leader who is after them is Helem- 
mSlSk, named the shining sun, and all the days of his light are 
ninety-one days. 19. And these are the si^s of the days 
on the earth : glowing heat and dryness, and the trees bring 
their fruits to ripeness and ripen and mature all their fruits, 
and the sheep pair and become pr^nant, and all the fruits of 
the earth are gathered in, and everything that is in the fields, 
and the wine-press : these things take place in the days of his 
dominion. 30. These are the names, and the orders, and the 
leaders of those heads of thousands : G^dftM, and KM, and 
H^el, and the name of the head of a thousand which is added 
to them, As&61 ; and the days of his dominion are at an end. 

year. 'Year' wanting in O, 16. AH the flowers bloom. 

U reads H^^lDdX 'all the flowers which come forth.' M omits 
'bloom.' 17. Head of a thousand. O reads CXAi II. 

19. Sigiu of the txs^. QM read 'days of his sigp.' Ripen 
and mature aU tlielr flruits. So G M. Other HSS. g^ve, 'to 
maturity and cause their fniite to become dry.' 20. The 

leaders. So G. Other MSS. ' the nibordinate leaders.' 

doM not k|>pev. 16. Bose floiren. Thu tmw te oonfUted. The thrae 

Not known in the O.T., thongh the nuns* are thoee of the leaden of 

word ii found in the E. venitni in tbe three mouthi. Tbe foardi — 

la. xixT. I ; Song of Solonion ii. i . AsftSl from TMfiDf^ ' God aide,' which 

The rose ii mantianed in Eodiu. ixiv. \t merely an inTersloD of HSUjlatph 

14 i zxzix. 13; Book of Wiadom ii. (ram IP^fW — ia the chiliuch who 

8. fiat in the fint two pauagea it ii has to do with the intenmlat; d*y 

probably tha cdeMidw that Is rftft-rred Dnder one of the fouF diiaf le»den. 

to. 17. The leadera anbordi. There ia no aooouut of the ramaining 

Dated to them, i.e. the leaders of aii moaths. Thii may have been 

the three monthi. 18-30. The omitted by the final redactor. 

period from aammer to kntnun. 20. 

Digitized by GtXlglC 


(chapters lxxxiii-xc.) 

the deeam-vi3ion3. introduction. 

A. Critteal StruetuTe. B. RtHation of tltii Seelion io (a) i-xxxvi ; 
(6) xci-civ. C. The PaU. D. The Problem and ite Solvtioa. 

A. Critiosl Stmotnre. There is no diJBcult; about the 
critical structare of this Bection. It is the most complete and 
self-consi stent of all the eectiona, and has suffered least from the 
hand of the interpolator. There seems to be only one iaterpola- 
tion, i.e. xc. 15. Of dislocatious of the t«zt there are two: 
Ixxxiz. 48l> should be read after Ixxsix. 49: see Ixxsix. 48 
Grit. Note; and xc. 19 should be read before xc. 16 : see xc. 15 

B. (a) Belatlon of thla Ssotlon to i-xzzrl This question can 
only be determined by giving the points of likeness as well as of 
divergence. The points of likeness or identity in (i) phraseology, 
and (a) in ideas, are : — 

(1) 'Tongue of flesh,' Ixxxiv. 1 ; xiv. 3 : ' make the earth with- 
out inhabitant,' Ixxxir. 5 ; ix. a : ' Holy and Great One,' Ixxxir. i ; 
X. i: 'glorious land' (i.e. Jemsalem or Palestine), Izxxiz, 40, 
compared with ' blessed land,' xzvii. i : ' Ood of the whole world,' 
Ixxxiv. 2, compared with 'Glod of the world,' i. 3. The doxology 
iu Ixzxiv. a appears to be a more rhetorical form of that in ix. 4. 

(3) There is, in the main, the same doctrine of the fallen 
angels : the judgment in both is at the beginning of the Messianic 
kingdom : Gehenna is fonnd in both, xc. z6 ; xxrii. i : the abyss 
of fire for the fallen angela, xc. 34 ; xxi. 7-10 ; the conversion of 
the Gentiles, xc. 30; x. 21. 

There is, practically, nothing that is distinctiTe in (2) — certainly 
nothing more than would refer the two sections to the same school 
of thought. But the evidence of (i) is of a different nature, and 


Introduction. 2 2 1 

points, wben CMnbined vith the evidence of (z), to a close 
connexion between the two sections either in identity of author- 
ship, or in the BOqoaintance of one of the authors with the work 
of the other. That the latter altemative is the true one, we shall 
find on the following grounds: — (i) In Ixxxiii. 11 the sun comes 
forth from the ' windows of the east ' ; this term is never used of 
the son in i-xxxvi, nor in Ixsii-lxxxii : see bcxxiil. 1 1 (note). 
' Windows ' baa a different reference altogether : see Ixxii. 3 (note). 
(2) In Ixxzir. 4 'day of the great judgment'=DeIuge; in i— xzxvi 
and xci-cir alway8=6nal judgment: eee Ixxxir. 4 (note). (3) 
The account of the descent of the watchers in Ixxxvi. 1-3 differs 
from that in vi. (4) In xc. ai, sa seven archangels are men- 
tioned; inix.four — yet see xx. 7, Giz. Ok. (5) In xu. 19 the period 
of the Sword is an important feature ; yet it is not alluded to in 
i-xixvi. (6) The throne of judgment is in Palestine in xc. 
ao-36 ; on Sinai in i. 4 : whereas the throne on which God will 
sit when He comes to bless His people ia xxv. 3 corresponds 
in locality to the throne of judgment in xc. ao. (7) Appearance 
of the Messiah emphasised in xc 3}, 38; not alluded to in 
i-xxxvi. (8) The scene of the kingdom in Ixxxiii-xc is the Kew 
Jerusalem set up by Ood Himself; in i-xxxvi it is Jerusalem and 
the entire earth uiyehangti though purified, x. 18, ao. (9) life 
of the members of the Mesuanic kingdom apparently unending 
ia xc. 33-39; but only liuite in v. 9; x. 17 ; xxv. 6. Life is 
transfigured by the presence of the Messiah in xc. 38 in the New 
Jerusalem ; but in xxv. 5 by the external eating of the tree of 
life. (10) The picture on Ixxxiii-xc. is developed and spiritual ; 
that in i-xxxvi is naive, primitive, and sensuona. (11) Ixxxiii-xc 
are only visions assigned to Enoch's earlier and unwedded life ; 
i-xxsvi ore accounts of attoul bodily trauslationa and are assigned 
to his later life. If these two sections were from the same author 
and that an ascetic, exactly the converse would have been the case. 

On these grounds, therefore, identity of authorship is impossible ; 
but the similiarities in phraseology and idea prove that one of 
the aurora bad the work of the other before him. Of the two 
sections there is no room for doubt that Ixxxiii-xc is the later. 

(6) Belation of Ixxxlil-xo to xo1-o1t. See Special latrod. 
to xoi-civ (pp. 262, 263). 

C. The Date. The fourth period began about 100 & 0. (see 
note on xc. 6—17, p. 249), and mai^ the transiti<Hi of supremacy 
over Israel from the Graeco-SgypUiiiu to the Graeco-Syrians, as 


222 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. iv. 

well aa the rise of the C^asids. The Chaaida, Bymbolieed by the 
lambs that are bora to the white sheep, xc. 6, are already an 
orgsuised party is the Maccabean revolt, xc. 6 (note). The lambs 
that become horned are the Maccabean family, and the great 
horn is Judae Uaccabaens, xc. 9 (note). As thig great horn 
ia still warring at the close of the rule of the twelve shepherds, 
xc. iti, thia section mast have been written before the death 
of Judas, 161 B.C., posdbly before his puriGcatton of the Temple. 

As the fonrth period began about aoo B.C., the author of 
Ixxxiii-'xc, writing in the lifetime of Jadoa Maccabaeus, most have 
expected its close between 140 and 130 b.c.; for, on the ana1<^ 
of the third period, each shepherd would rule between five and 
aix years. Thia expectation in connexion with Judaa Maccabaeus 
was not unnatural, as his eldest brother, Simon, did not die 
till 135 B.C. 

D. The Froblem and its Solution. This section forms in 
short compass a philosophy of religion from the Jewish standpoint. 
It is divided into two visions, the former of wbii^ deals with the 
first world-judgment of the Delnge, and the latter with the entire 
history of the world till the final judgment The writer doea not 
attempt to account for the ain that showed itself in the first 
generation. In his view, it was not the sin of man, but the sin 
of the angels who fell (in the days of Jared), that corrupted the 
earth, Ixxxiv. 4, Isxxvi-lxxxviii, and brought upon it the first 

In the second vision the interest centres mainly on the calamities 
that befall Israel from the exile onwards. Why has Israel become 
a by-word among the nations, and the servant of one gentile 
power after another 1 Is there no recompense for the righteous 
nation and the righteous individual 1 That Israel, indeed, has 
sinned grievously and deeei-ves to be punished, the author amply 
acknowledges, but not a punishment ao unmeasurably transcending 
its gnilt. But these undue severities have not come upon Tamel 
from Qod's hand; they are the doing of the seventy shepherds 
into whose care God committed larael, Ixxxix. 59. These shep- 
herds or angels have proved faithless to their trust, and treach- 
erously destroyed those whom God willed not to destroy; but 
they have not therein done so with impunity. An account has 
been taken of all their deeds and of all whom they have wickedly 
destroyed, Iittjt. 61-64, <^nd for all their victims there is laid up 
a recompense of reward, xc. 33. Moreover, when the ontlook 


SactlV.] Chapter LXXXIII. i, 2. 223 

is darkest, and the oppreeaiDn at ita vont, & righteom league 
will be eatablialied in Israel, xc. 6 ; and in it there will be a 
family from which will come forth the deliverer of Israel, i-e. 
Judaa Maccab&ene, zc. 9—16. The Syrians and other enemies 
of Israel will put forth every effort to destroy him, bat In vain ; 
■ for a great sword will be given to him wherewith to destroy 
his enemies, xc. 19. Then all the hostile Gentiles will assemble 
for their final struggle agunst Israel, still led by Judaa Uaccabaeus, 
xc 16; but thia, their crowning act of wickedness, will alao be 
the final act in their history and serve aa the signal for their 
imme<liate judgment, 6od will appear in person, and the earth 
open ita mouth and swallow them u^, xc 18. The wicked shep- 
herds Hud the fallen watchers will then be judged, and cast into 
an abyffi of fire, xc. 30-35. ^ith tlie condemnation of the 
apostates to Gehenna the great assize will close. Then the New 
Jerusalem will be aet np by Ood Himself, xc. aS, 29; and the 
surviving Qentilea will be converted and serve Israel, xc. 30; and 
all the Jews diapersed abroad will be gathered together, and 
all the righteous desJ will be raised to take part in the kingdom. 
Then the Messiah will appear amongst tbem, xc. 37; and all the 
righteous will be gloriously transformed after hie likeness, xc. 38 ; . 
and God will rejoice over them. 

Ixxxiii-xc were written by a Chasid in support of the Hacca- 
bean movement. 


LXXXIII. T. 'And now, my son Methoselah, I will show 

thee all my Tisions which I have seen, recotinting (them) before 

thee. 2. Two visions I saw before I took a wife, and the 

LXXXin. I. Hy vialona. 80 G M. Other MSS. and Dhi. 

Tbe fint Dreuo-TiiioD, Izzziii, ooone with tlie angeli, md is touis- 

lixiiv, dsala with the Delu^ or fint Uted bodily and Oiereiu admitted 

warid-jadgment. to higher priillegw thmn in mere 

T.TTTTTTT 8. BaEoro Z took a visioiu. Yet if Ixiiiii-XD tnme ^m 

wUi», i. e. belbre I irai Eixty-five : tbe ume hand an tbe other uotioiu, 

eC Geo. v. 31. The name of thia wife the cxniTene ihould have been thecaae 

I Edua, Izuv. 3 : of. Book of on aKClie gmnndti, and Enoch ihanld 

Jntriieee iv. We abould obaerve that have had his bodily t 

Ixzziii-ie are onl; di«ami or dream- heaven and hia interooone with the 

vinons ; whereas in the other aactioiu angel* daring faia anmairled yean, and 

of the bodt Bnooh baa open inter- hiadream-Tiaioiiaikfterhe badtakena 


224 The Book of Enoch. [Beet. IV. 

one was quite unlike the otlier : on the first occasion when I 
was leamiDg to write, on the second, before I took thy 
mother, I saw a terrible vision, and conoeming them I prayed 
to the Lord. 5. I had laid me down in the house of my 

grandfather Mal^l^l, when I saw in a vision how the heaven 
collapsed and was borne off and fell to the earth. 4. And 

when it fell to the earth I saw how the earth was swallowed 
up in a great abyss, and mountains hang suspended on moun- 
tains, and hills sank down on hills, and high trees were rent 
from their stems and hurled down and sunk in the abyss. 

5. And thereupon utt«rance came into my mouth, and I lifted 
up my voice to cry aloud, and said : " The earth is destroyed." 

6. And my grandfather MalfUel waked me as I lay near him, 
and said unto me : " Why dost thou cry aloud, my son, and 
why dost thou thus make lamentation ? " 7. Then I 
recounted to him the whole vision which I had seen, and 
he said unto me : " What thou hast seen, my son, is terrible, 
and thy dream-vision is of grave moment as to the sin of all 
sin of the earth : it must sink into the abyss and be destroyed 
with a great destruction. 8, And now, my son, arise and 
make petition to the Iiord of glory, since thou art a believer, 
that a remnant may remain on the earth. 9. My son, all 
this will come from heaven upon the earth, and there will be 
violent destruction upon earth." 10. After that I arose and 

'the visiuDS.' 5. Iilft«d up my voloe to ory aloud. See 
Crit. Note, xxxviii. 9. O reads "MTJlfr ' I arose to cry aloud.' 
7. Is of crave moment as to. 80 "HA not = 'betriffb' as in 
Dln.'s tranBlaUon; see Lexicon, col. 607, Q reads ^f-^. Bin 
oC So a ^mjtt, and virtually M. Other MSS. 'secrets 
of.' 8. Bamaln on the earth. So G U. Other MSS. 

and Dtn, add ' and thnt He m&y not destroy tbe whole earth.' 

wife. S. Ouna Into my month, lit. of kIoit. lliHtitleiifDtindiDixv. 3, 

' fell into iny month.' Tha phnu de- 7 ; ixTii. 3, 5 ; zzxTi. 4 ; xl. 3 ; Iziii. a ; 

note* the ipoDtaBeoiu ehuMter of the and 'Eternal LordofGlnrT'inhxT.s. 

CTf. 7. S«e Ciit. Note. B. Iiord e.FromhekTen.i.e.ordnmedorQod. 


86ct.iv.] Chapters LXXXIILi—LXXXIV. i. 225 

prayed and implored, and wrote down my prayer for the 
^aerations of the world, and I will show everything to 
thee, my son MethoeeUh. 11. And when I bad gone 

down and forth and saw the heavesi, and saw the sua rising 
in the east, and the moon setting in Uie west, and a few stars, 
and the whole earth, and everything as He had known it in 
the bc^inningf, then I blessed the Lord of judgment and 
extolled Him because He made the sun to go forth from the 
windows of the east, so that he ascends and rises on the face 
of the heaven, and sets oat and traverses the path shown unto 

LXXXIV. I. And I uplifted my bands in righteousoess 
and blessed the Holy and Great One, and spoke with the 
breath of my mouth, and with the tongue of flesh, which 
God has made for the cbildreu of the fiesh of men, that 
they should speak therewith, and He gave them breath 
and a tongue and a mouth that they should speak therewith : 

10. Hy prayer, G reads instead: cdAMlIk (Dftd&lK 0. M: 
(DAMJk (DHHt. II. And the whole earth. SoCDFGILMO. 
N and Din. omit. And everything aa He had known it in the 
beginning. Din. has rec<%msed the ineptness of this reading but 
has not Buggeited an emendation. Either, then, read HAXiR>£|l> 
instead of HAXfOil 'and everything as I bad known it afore- 
time;' or, the reading of the MSS. may have been owing, as 
Professor Margolionth Los suggested to me, to the Greek translator 
confosing r?0 and T??- In that case we should tmnalate 'and 
everything u He had established it in the beginning.' Bets ooL 
SoABCEFGHM XI^A : see Lexicon, col. 637. Other MSS. 

LXXXIV. I. The ohlldren of ths flash of men. So ABCFG 
HIMN: IP4-J& ^:>\ ftON. LO and Din. 'children of men.' 

10. Ky titifvt. Voond in bccxlv. word invariably lued in oonnazica 

U. 8m Crii Note. Ifovd of Jndc- «lti> tbe lan. For the w«cd ' win- 

ment. Han only. Windows. Hiii dowi,' ms Izzii 3 (note), 

lann naT« u*ad In i-ixxtI >o> in IiXZXIT. 1. The Holy and 

IzxU-lxncii of til* nu. Fvrtaliitlw OTMtOn*:M«L3(nota}. Tencns 

Digitized byCoOC^IC 

S26 The Book of EttOck. [Sect. IT. 

3. " Blessed be Thou, O Lord, King both great and mighty in 
Thy greatness, Lord of the whole creation of the heaven. King 
of Kings and Qod of the whole world,and Thy power and king- 
ship and greatness abide for ever and for ever and ever, and 
Thy dominion thronghout all generations, and all the heavens 
are Thy throne for ever, and the whole earth Thy Eootetool for 
ever and for ever and ever. 5. For Thou hast created 

, and rolest all things, and hast made all things fast aud no 
manner of wisdom escapes Thee; she departs not from her 

^ throne — ^Thy throne, nor from Thy presence; and Thoa 
knowest and seest and hearest everything, and there is 

I nothing which is hidden from Thee for Thou seest everything. 

4. And now the angels of Thy heavens trespass (s^ainst 
Thee) and Thy wrath abideth upon the flesh of mesi until the 
day of the great judgment. 5. And now, O Ood and Lord 
and Great King, I implore and pisy Thee that Thou mayest 
fulfil my prayer, to leave me a posterity on earth, and not to 
destroy all the flesh of man and make the earth without in- 
habitant, BO that there should be an eternal destruction. 6. 
And now, my Lord, destroy from the earth the flesh which 

3. Hast made aU tliliiga fiuft. So G : AXIOh; IHT, which should 
bo correct«d into ftfKDh; M*. Dhi. gives, ' nothing is too hard 
for Thee.' Departs not. O reada li^aopMA ■ does not torn 

lliee away'; and If X.Y^ai4/T4l. 

of flMh : BM liT. 1. 9. Cf. Ix. In both then pMUgw m the •wnko- 

4 iqq. I.OFd of tho wbole oi«ation or vdpcSfiot ofOod. The idM ii to ba 

of the heaTsn. Here ddIj: cf. traoed to Ptot. Tiii. 30 in the T.TfTf , 

lixiii. 7; ilao ItUL 4 (note). King venlon, 4><>r>' 'V^: cf.Eodo*.!.!, 

ot Klngi. Abo in li. 4. Ood of /ht' tdiiov iirra tU tin oJAra. 4. 

the wlioltt world. Here onlj : of. Upoa the fleah of nun : of. tt. i, 5 ; 

■Qodot the world,' i. 3 (note). All Jobxii.10. Dv of the great Jndj;- 

the lM»Teas are Thy tbrone, An. ment : lee iIt. 3 (noto). Tbii phnae 

EVom Ii. Ixvi. t. 8. She de- cnn refer here ml; to the Deloge. 

parta not from hei throne — Thr In zli. i It tefen to the final jndg- 

throns : of. Book of Wkdom iz. 4, ment, and lo alwayt in zd-dT : of. 

'WUdom that utteth by Thee on zdv. 9; xorlit. 10; 1011,15; ci*. 5. 

Thjthione.' Wiad<«i ii Tepreientad 6. Great King. AltolnzcLij. 6. 


Sect. IVO Chapters LXXXIV, 2—LKXXV. 3. 227 

haa aromscd Thy wrath, but the fleah of righteousness and up- 
righfnees establish ae a plant of the seed for ever and hide not 
Thy face from the prayer of Thy servant, Lord," 

LXXXV. I. And after this I saw another dream, and I will 
show all the vision to thee, my son.' 2. And Enoch lifted 
ap his voice and spake unto his son Methuselah : 'To thee, 
my son, will I speak : hear my words— incline thine ear to 
the dream-visicoi of thy father. 3. Before I took thy 

mother £dna, I saw in a vision of my bed, and behold a bull 
came forth from the earth, and that bull waa white ; and 
aft«r it came forth a heifer, and along with t^is (latt«r) came 
forth two young bulls, one of them black and the other red. 

LXXXY. I. After Wf O adds AtuiP. ^. Zdftect up bta 
Toloe. See Grit, Note on xxxviii. 2. 3. In a vlaioa of my 
bed. So QM. Other MSS. <in a viEion on mj bed.' Came 
forUi two young buUn. So ON : <D^h\ bMLt. Olher MSS. give 

A plant of the acwd for stbt : lee 

X, 16 (notfi). Tlii* ide» wu ■ very 
TaToarite ana: cf. liii. 8; zoili. i, j, 

IiXXXV'ZO. The Mooiul Dnwn- 
vidoD. Jn thii lecond viiioD t)ie 
■wni/a i^fm * oomplete hUtoiy of 
the world from AdMn dons to tbe 
final jadgment and the establilhment 
of the Heodasio kingdom. After the 
aiample of Daniel men are ■Tmboliied 
byabimftla. Tlieleadratof theohoiea 
raoe aie repreaented bj domeetfo 
animals, the patriaroha \ij boUt, and 
the Mthfiil of latei tim«a bj theep. 
Thif difference b Intended to mark 
the later deolennon of Inael in faith 
and righteonsueu. The Gentilea are 
■jmboUied by wild bearti and birds 
of prej ; tiie Mien watohen by ffatn ; 
nnfiillen angds by men. At iJmts 
the ftnthor ia obliged to abandon his 
*;mb(Jism. and he is not always con- 
sistent in his use of it, as the same 
symbol varies in meaning. Even the 

divine nams is adapted to the pre- 
vailing lymboliim. In the main the 
narrative Is based on the O.T., bat 
at thnee mythioal elements from later 
Jewish eiegeeis are inaorporated. 

IiXXXV. a. Cf. Prov. V. I. 8. 
Bdna: of. lixziii. 1. BnlL The 
Ethiopia •marA. ia lihm. Thit word 
has varioDi meanings in the fbUowing 
chapters. In the sing. it«>Inill or 
heifer; in the plur, it-holli, or 
cattle, or cows. Hie context nniut 
determine the lense. The authpr uses 
also the nneqaivoeal word sAr, which 
alwBTS means a boll. Ta'wa-Titolas 
or vitola in these ohapters. Eve is so 
deugnated in this verse, L e. a heifer, 
to denote her M a virgin. In yet, 6 
she is called ' a oow.' Wliite is the 
colonr that symbolizes righteooaness 
throagbout this viajon : c£ lizxv. 8 ; 
bcxiTii, >, &e. Cf.Is.i, 18; P«.li. 7; 
Bev.vii.14. Tw-oyonnsbnllB: see 
CrikNote. CaiQisUaak,u(hisoalDur 
sjDibaliias his sin : Abel ia red — the 

Di.itradb, Google 

228 - The Book of Enoch. [Sect IV. 

4. And that black young ball gored the red one and poisoed bim 
over the eartb, and thereupon I could no longer see that red 
young bull. 5. But that black young bull grew and a heifer 
joined him, and I saw that many oxen proceeded from him 
which resembled and followed him. 6. And that cow, that 
first one, went from the presence of that firet bull in order to 
seek that red young ball, but found him not, and thereupon 
raised a great lamentation and (still) kept seeking him. 7. 
And I looked till that first bull cam« to her and quieted her, 
and from that hour onward she cried no more. 8. Aft«r 
that she bore another white bull, and after him she bare many 
bulls and black cows. 9. And in my sleep I saw that 
white bull likewise grow and become a great white bull, and 
from him proceeded many white oxen which resembled him> 
10. And they began to beget many wbit« oxen which re- 
sembled them, one following the other (in due succession). 

LXXXVI. I. And again I saw with mine eyes as I slept, 
and I saw the heaven above, and behold a star fell from 
heaven, and it arose and ate and pastured amongst those oxen. 
2. And after that I saw the large and black oxen, and behold 

iDX'Ai llftX ' came forth other young bnllH.* 5. But that black. 
O omits * but that.' Followed Mm. Q M read ' fallowed them.' 
6. For ^AY ' thereupon ' Q reads ^IW. 8. Another white 
bulL For 'another' O reads MlA 'a pair of white oxen': i.e. 
iSeth and a sister to be his wife. 

LXXXVI. T. Pastured amonsot thoaa oxan. a. And after 

oolour •mblenuktio of hii mwCyrdoiD. to tha 'bulk' ftbo. 9. Boll. 
4. Toong boU. Bo I render ta'*a Bendering of lAr ; ue ver. 3. Tlili 
when H-Titnlni, u in vr. 4, 5, 6. buUisSvtIi. Xbe dMcandanti of Seth 
B. A hsifer. The uma word >■ used are likawiaa rjglitaon* tike thsr pro- 
of Eto iu TOT. 3. Thi* li«iar u C^n'i genitn. 

wife, and Kooording to the Book of IjXXZVI. I. A star, i. e. Amel 

Julrileesiv.hiiiiiter.bjDMDe Avail, or Samjua; for we oannot be luie 

Oxen, l^ii ia the rendering of (he wkioh of the two fonui of the m^th 

plmal of Uhm, and iixJiidea bnlli ia followed here, aa it differ* from 

and oowa. 6. Eve ae^* Abil. tll* aooonnt giisn In ri, where all 

B. Asothor irtitta bnll, i a. Setb, dcMended together. In the Talmud 

bat lea Crit Not*. Blaok oowa. (Weber, L, d. T. 344} th«ae angeti 

Thaadjaotiv«'bUok'beloi^pMbabl7 dMoend (ogether. S. The roaolt 


Sect IV.] Chapters LXXX V. 4 -LXXX VII. 2. 2 29 

they all changed their stalls and pastures and their cattle, and 
began to live witli each other. 3. And again I saw in the 

vision, and looked towards the heaven, and behold I saw 
many stare descend and oast themselves down from heaven to 
that Bret star, and they became bulls amongst those cattle and 
(remained) witli them, pasturing amongst them. 4. And I 
looked at them and saw, and behold they all let out their 
privy members, like horses, and began to cover the cows of 
the oxen, and they all became pregnant and bare elepbants, 
camels, and asses. 5. And all the oxen feared them and 

were affrighted at them, and they began to bit« with their 
teeth and to devour, and to gore with their horns. 6. And 
they b^an then to devour those oxen ; and behold all tbe 
children of the earth began to tremble and to quake before 
them and to flee. 

LXXXVIL I. And again I saw how they began to gore 
each other and to devour each other, and the earth began to 
cry aloud. 2. And I again raised mine eyes to heaven, and 
I saw in the vision, and behold there came forth from heaven 

tbat I saw ths large and black oxen. For this Q reads shortly, 
' pastured amongst those large black oxen.' a. For (OXy^; 

CAit- M gives mAoixl-F: CMh; XAtrF. Bagan to Uve with aaoh 
othsr. So a : KiVr. frfiAlL: HfHAi *tM: This alludes to tbe 
alliances between the Sethitea and Cainites. Other MSS. 'began 
to lament one with another.' But the time for this had not yet 
come: it has come in verse 6. 3. Beoame bulls amongst 
those oatUe and (remained) with them. So Q M : <^XhAi XAlM 
mOf! liMT^i ^>-: a)y°AA>lf<n>*. Other MSS.: 'were amoi^st 
those cattle and oxen. There they were with them.' 6. To 

See. After these words OM add Xy^Ufo*'. 

' of thefitUof tbeangabwM theintor- oameU; and asseB. STmbiJidng tbe 

mingUng of tha SathitM andCunitw. three kindiof giiuits: Merii. » (note). 

The ■ lerge ' oxen are probably the 6. Tb* ehlldran of the earth, i. e. * 

SeUiitce, end the ' bleok ' the Ceinitea. tboae «f pmely henuut deacent as 

Becan to live with eaoh other: oppoaad to the watehw* and their 

iee Crit. Note. 3. Fall i^ tbe children. 

net of the angela. A. niephanta, IiXXZVU. L The conflict of tlie 


230 The Book of Enoch. [Sect, i v. 

beingtj who were like white mea : one of them came forth 
from that place uid three with him. 3. And those three 

who had hist come forth grasped me ky my hand and took me 
up, away from the ^neratione o£ the earth, and brought me 
up to a lofty pUce, and showed me a tower raised high above 
the earth, and all the hills were lower. 4. And they said 

nnto me : " Bemain here till thou seest eveiything that befalls 
those elephants and camels and asses, and the stars and the 
oxen, and all of them." 

LXXXVIII. I. And I saw one of those four who had 
come forth before, and he seized that first star which had 
fallen from the heaven and bound it hand and foot and laid it 
in an abyss; now that abyss was narrow and deep, and 
horrible and dark. 2. And one of them drew his eword 

and gave it to those elephants and camels and assee : then 
they b^fan to smite each other, and the whole earth quaked 
because of them. 5. And as I was beholding in the vision, 
lo then one of those four who had come forth cast (them) 

LXXXyn. 3. All the blUB were lower. Q reads : AlUti U-A-: 
tmC. U: AM: If-ftn hiD-'3C. Other MSS. support Din. 
4. And the oxen and aU of tham. So Q U. Other MSS. ' and 
all the oxen.' 

LXXXVIII. a. Camala and. Wanting in Q. 3. One . . . 

bulU uid giuiU. 3. BolnK* who UmeB Enoch wu tr»niktad thither, 

wera Uk* whit« men, i.e. anMlm we b*ve in txuiii-xo k conocptioa 

Kugeh. Aa men are repreaeoted \ij of its localit; uid InhabituiU di^r- 

«"■■"«<■, the unfollen uigeli Mrs ostur- ing from an j tluit hai premded : mw 

atlj re^«aeiited b; men. White : li. S Cuoto). 

«f, lzxzT.3. Ona. ..and three with tiXXXViXl. There is* very doae 

him. The ' one ' ia probably Michael, connexion between this chapter and i. 

Thii U the fint real Dooarrenoe of 4-14, bat the lariationa are nnmerouB 

the 'three ongeli' in Enoch. It ia enough to preclude any neceecity for 

fnoDd mown in id. 31. It ii from auppodng the lame authorship. 1. ' 

the proent pasaags tliat the inter- Cf. i. 4-8,wbtte Uuiaelbinda Anusel. 

polator of lixzi boirawtd UuaphrMe: 3. In x. g, 10 Gabriel eieoate* thia 

cf. Ixxxi. J. 8, 4. If we an (o tatk. 8. In x. ia-14 it ia really 

ragard thia high tower aa Paladiae, Giabriel who bindi and Impriaona the 

and it aeenu we mnit, aa aooording EUlen watohera, for x. 1 1 wliioh apeaka 

(0 the unireraal tradition dl later of Miohael ia an interpt^tion. Iha 


Sect.tvo Chaps. LXX XVII. %— LX XXIX. s. 231 

down from heaven, and they gathered and took all the great 
fltars whose privy membera were like those of horses, and 
bound them all band and foot, and laid them in an abyss of 
the earth. 

LXXXIX. 1. And one of those four went to that white boll 
and instructed him in a secret, as he trembled: he Wsa bom a 
boll and became a man, and boilt for himself a great vessel 
and dwelt thereon ; and three bulls dwelt with him in that 
vessel and they were covered in. 2. And again I raised mine 
eyes toward heaven and saw a lofty roof, with seven water 
torrents thereon, and those torrents poured much water into 
an enclosure. 5. And I saw again and behold foantains 

were opened on Uie earth in that great enclosure, and that 
water began to swell and riae upon the earth, and it hid 
that enclosure from view till the whole surface of it was 
covered with water. , 4. And the water, the darkness, and 
mist increased upon it ; and as I looked at the height of that 
flood it rose above the height of that enclosure, and streamed 
over that enclosure, and remained on the earth. 5, And 
all the cattle of that enclosure were gathered together until 
Z saw how they sank and were swallowed up and perished in 

OMt (tbem) down from hsaTsm, and they gatherod. So O M. 
Other MSS.: < One ... caat (them) down from heaven and gathered.' 
LXXXIX. I. To that whlt« tniU. So M. All other MSS. 
' to those wUte bulla' As lie tmubled. O iuserta a negative 
here: 'fearleBS as be was.' a. Fourod muob vr»\ot. O reads 
f^D•!tXt 'flowed with much water.' 3. Hid that enoloaora 
from view. a:XCXriAa>A*ri01Le'. U : A-CXf*: Aai-Xl:: ARj&. 

ImpUoation heie, hovBrerj ia that it see Crit. Nnte. In ordsT to bidid the 

u not Qabriel but anottMr of ths fiva Ark, IfMh U npnsented m beootninjf 

wbo u the agent of Judgmsat. In a dud. Three biiUa. Noab'atlirae 

an abyai of th« aarth. Id z. 1 1 Mmi. OaytmA In : oC Qen. vii t(S ; 

'under the hill*.' Ed. IxriL a. _ 9. Ab men are 

ZiXXXEZ. 1-e. The Deli^ and ijmbdiied b? animals, Uunr plaoe of 

tlM Deliverance of Noah. L Ot habitation U naturally called a pen, 

X. 1-], where Urlsl Tliita Noah for fbld, or enoloeure. B«Ten: cf.lzzvii. 

thenmeend. To that whlt« ball ; 4 (note). S, 4. The Delate. 


S3S Tke Book of Enoch. [Sectiv. 

that flood. 6. Bat that resael floated on the vaixst, while 

all the oxen and elephants and camek and asses sank to the 
bottom together with all the animals, so that I could no 
longer eee them, and they were not able to come oat, bat 
perifihed and sank into tiie depths. 7. And again I saw 
in the vision till those water torrents were removed from that 
high roof, and the chasms of the earth were levelled np and 
other abysses were opened. 8. Then the water b^aa to 

run down into these, tilt the earth became visible ; but that 
vessel settled on the earth and the darkness retired and light 
appeared. 9. Bnt that white hull which had become a 
man came oat of that vessel, and the three bulls with him, 
and one of the three was white like to that ball, and one of 
them was red as blood, and one block ; and that white boll 

6. Amos unk to tbe bottom. We have in tftTov^ iPAtl T'JbC 

an idiomatic ase of 9*AC. See Lexicon, col. 217 : practically 
the same expregaion recurs in this verse, ' sank iuto the depths,' 
tATfB^ to-tttl t^lfi. ' Bottom of the sea ' may be espremed either 
by y^it lyhC or +'Ki nibC. Dlii.'s rendering 'the uneB on 
the earth sank,' thon^ admiastble grammatically, can hardly be 
right here. 7. The ohaams of tbe saztb war* levelled up : 
VfOti y"JS-Ci 0£X. Din. renders: 'Die Quellen der Erde ver- 
. degten,' 'the fountains of the earth dried ap,' mistaking by a 
strange oversight ^^0)* for h^09^ of verae 3. This mistake 
led him to a forced and unreal rendering of 0£t. Tbe writer 
conceives the flood as having been caused by a cleaving of the 
depths of the earth. Cf Oeii. vii. 1 1 tvt: IfA^ M^, and the 
staying of the flood as having been due to a closing or levelling 
up of these clefts or chasms. For this use of 0£X, cf, Bamoh v. 7, 
'the valleys shall be filled up,' tOfiCi: 9'AC=iU dpiXur^ t^c 7^1. 
This idea of closing the abysses was a familiar one : of. Prayer of 
Manasses 3, i nXfunii r4* ilffvawr; and Book of Jubilees vi, 'the 
moatb of tlie depth of the abyss was closed.' 9. And one 

e. Sank to tha bottom: im Crit. of the Mtrth. Ac: we Crifc Ni>t«. 
Noie. Wltb aU tha aaimalB, i. a. 9. Nokh ud Ui three kou. That 
tli« real Mlinsl*. - 7. Tba ohMms white ball departed £Mm tbem. 


Sect IV.] Chapter LXXXIX. 6-14. 233 

departed from them. 10. And they began to bring forth 

beasta of the field and birds, bo that there aroee oat of them 
all together a mnltitnde of kinds : lions, ti^re, dogs, wolves, 
hyenas, wild boars, foxes, squirrels, swine, falcons, vnltures, 
kites, eagles, and ravens ; and among them was bom a white 
hnlL 1 1 . And they b^an to bite one another ; bat that 

white boll whioh was bom amongst them b^at » wild aes 
and a white boll with it, and the wild aas multiplied. 12. 

Bat that bull which was bom &om him b^at a black wild 
boar and a white sheep ; and that wild boar begat many 
boars, but that sheep b^at twelve sheep. 13. And when 

those twelve sheep had grown, tbey gave up one of them to 
the asses, and these asses again gave up that sheep to the 
wolves, and that sheep grew up among the wolves. I4. 
And the Lord brought the eleven sheep to live with it and to 

blMk. 'WantiQg Id G M. io. Tigers. Q reads ft'MC^ = 

' sea monsters,' but this word is frequently confused in MSB. 
with Affy"C* =' tigers.' For ftX^Mlt G reada JfOOt ; but no 
such word exists. For Ao'-m' 'vultures' G reads AlACt*. 
which can have the same meaning, ii. For ^^Ath, 'bite 

each other,' G reads f^lStfh. Hub ftnm is not found elsewhere. 
13. And that wild boar b^at manr boars. Wanting in GL 

i. a. Noali died. 10. The iMonai- whli tlie nams of tha anliiul it de- 

tiea of hii inbjeot oUige tha anthn' ttatad mot : cT. tt. 41, 43, 49, 66. 

to mar the nktnnlnen of hU 17m- In tot. 7a itii uwdof the SunaritUM. 

bolitm. Hit cattla prDdnoa all manner A white thaep, i. e. Jacob. Iraael 

of IbuT-fboted beaete and birdi of ie tpedaHj in tha rpnholio language 

pnj. Nearly all thew ■ppear Inter of theO.T. tbeaheapof Qod'^pafture, 

M tbe enemim of IsneL A whita Pit. Ixiiv. 1 ; IexIz. 13 ; o. 3 ; Jer. 

bun, i. e. Abraham. 11. The wild xiiii. I, and hence there ii a peculiar 

an Ii Iihmael, the piwenitor of the fitnea in repneentlng tba intUTtdn^ 

Aiab* or HidlanKM, who in TT. 13, t6 who fint bore the uama at a white 

an oalled tlia ' wild mm.' which it ebeep. The Idea, of denleniion in 

nn Hie whcde an apt detigna^on : faith [aee p. iij) can hardly attach 

ol Qm. x*i. 17. Tha 'white boll' to thiiinitaDoaofitautA IS. One 

ialnae. U. A black wild boat, of tliam. La, Joieph. The aaaaa, 

L e. Emu. later Jawiih hatMd thoi the Hidlaaitei : at *v. ii, 16. The 

m wolTw, Le. 


234 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. IV. 

pasture with it among the wolves ; and they maltiplied luid 
became many flocks of sheep. i j. And the wolves began 

to fear them, and they oppressed them till they destroyed 
their (the sheep's) young, and they cast their young into 
a river of much water ; but those sheep began to ciy alond 
on aoconnt of their young, and to complain unto their Lord. 
id. And a sheep which had been saved from the wolves fled 
and escaped to the wild asses ; and I saw the sheep how they 
lamented and cried and besought their Lord with all their 
might till that Lord of the sheep descended at the voice 
of the sheep from a lofty abode, and came to them and 
pastured them. 17. And He called that sheep which had 

escaped the wolves, and spake with it concerning the wolves 
that it should admonish them not to touch the sheep. 18. 

And the sheep went to the wolves according to the word of 
the Lord, and another sheep met it and went with it, and the 
two went and entered together into the assembly of those 
wolves, and spake with them and admonished tbem not to 
touch the sheep from henceforth. 19. Thereupon I saw 

the wolves and how they oppressed the sheep exceedingly 
with all their power ; and the sheep cried aloud. 30. And 
their Lord came to the sheep and b^an to smite those 
wolves: then the wolves began to make lamentation; bnt 
the sheep became quiet and forthwith ceased to cry out. 
21. And I saw the sheep till they departed from amongst the 
wolves ; but the eyes of the wolves were blinded, and those 

i6.Faaturedttaeni. Cf.ver.a8. Dln.'oacliihnensah.' r8. Xat 
it and wMit wltlt It, and the two went and entered. So Q, snd 
virtually M. Other M8S. ' met that sheep and went with it and 
the two entered.' 30. And their !Lord aanaa . . . and began. 
G reads ' and their Lord came . , . and thej began,' X^th fitmTPao: 

tdrOi ibtir (UnilJiig d«(tgii»tion in one in Uiii and the foUowliig oh^iten, 

thii TlBiim. 16. A ahaep whioh and ocean about twentj-aght times, 

had b«0ii uiTed, i. e. Moao. Iiord 18. Anotlur tbaejt, I. e. Aaron, 

of the ahees. Thia title U the naoal 20. The plagaea of Egjft, XL- 


Sect. IV.] Chapter LXXXIX.\%-%o. 235 

wolTes departed in parsnit of the sheep with all their 
power. 11. And the Lord of the sheep went with them, 
as their leader, and all His sheep followed Him : His foce 
was dazzling and glorious and terrible to behold. 23. Bat 
the wolves began to pursue those sheep till tbej foimd thnn 
by a sea of water. 34. And this sea was divided, and the 
water stood on this side and on that before their face, and 
their Lord who led them placed Himself between tbem and 
the wolvra. 35. And as those wolves did not yet see the 

sheep, they proceeded into tiie midst of that sea, and the 
wolves pnisned the sheep, and those wolves ran after them 
into that sea. 36. And when they saw the Lord of the 
sheep, they tamed to flee before His &ce, but that eea gathered 
itself together, and resumed its own natore suddenly, and the 
water swelled and rose till it covered thoae wolves. a?. 
And I saw till all the wolves which pursoed those sheep 
perished and were drowned. 38. But the sheep escaped 

from that water and went forth into a wilderness, where there 
was no water and no grass ; and they began to open their 
eyes and to see ; and I saw the Lord of the sheep pasturing 
them and giving them water and grass, and tiiat sheep going 
and leading them. 39. And that sheep ascended to the 

summit of that lofty rock, and the Lord of the sheep sent it 
to diem, 30. And after that I saw the Lord of the sheep 

standing before them, and His appearance was great and 

33. aiorlons and terrible to behold. So QM; MKl 07<^i 
AdlA Dlu. gives, ' His nppearaiice was terrible and glorious.' 

34. And on that. Wanting in Q. a8. Began to open their eyas 
and to see, G reads f-^^!^ : ' began to opes their eyes and 
they saw.' 30. Ozeat and terribla. So OM : OILA (Dff^. 

37- The Esodoi from EgTpt. S8- to ncovet (hrit apiritnal Tidon ud 

40. Joumeyiiigi through the wilder- Tstnin to Qod : oC Izxziz. 31, 33, 41, 

D«H, the giving of the Uw on Sinai. 44, 54 ; zc 6, <>, 10, 16, 35. 90. 

and the noaapatian of PkleMine. Move*' Mcent of Knki and Tetom to 

98. Began to open their ejw, i^e. Israel at God'a oomnund, Bzod. xii. 

Digitized byCoOC^Ic 

236 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. IV. 

terrible and majestie, and all those sheep saw Him and were 
afraid before His face. 31. And they all feared and 

trembled becanse of Him, and they cried to that eheep which 
was with them, which was amonget them : " We are not able 
to endure the presence of our Lord or to behold Him." 32. 
And that eheep which led them again ascended to the eammit 
of that rock, bnt the sheep began to be blinded and to wander 
from the way which be had showed them, but that sheep wot 
not thereof. 33. And the Lord of the sheep was wrathful 

exceedingly against them and that sheep discovered it, and 
went down from the sunimit of tlie rock, and came to the 
sheep, and found the greatest part of them blinded and fallen 
away. 34, And when they saw it, they feared and trembled 
at its presence, and desired to return to their folds. 35. 
And that sheep took other sheep with it, and came to those 
sheep which bad fallen away, and thereupon began to slay 
them ; and the sheep feared its presence, and (thus) that sheep 
brought back those sheep that had fallen away, and they 
returned to their folds. 36. And I saw in this vision till 

that sheep became a man and built a house for tlie Lord of 
the sheep, and placed all the sheep in Uiat house. 37. And 

Dln.'s HBS. omit 'great and.' 3t. Din. ^ves ' after ^aaX sheep 
that was with Him to the other sheep which was amongst than.' 
G reads: ATllK 070; ^AAJPoo^ HOft^ '^Miftvo-, and this we 
have followed ; for Dln.'B MSS. and others give a wroDg Beose : 
MoGes was not with Qod when the people appealed to him, Ezod. 
xz. 18 ff.; Dent. v. I9ff.; but amongst them, and so appeal 
whatever was made to Aaron, 33. Ajcaln ascended. (D7>(Ut 
. . . atOCn : or simply ' returned and ascended.' 33. Fallen 

avray. So SM. Other MSS. and Db. add 'from His path.' 
35. Thereupon. Q reads XIH. 36. In tbls vlaion. So 

3L That shMp whloh was with 85. d Bsod. zxiii. ifr-19. 38. 

them, i.e. Aaron; bm Oni, Note. Tlut aheep, i.e. Hoee* beeoDiee « 

S9. Cf. Ezod. niv, it aqq.; zzzii. nun to build the Ubenuolei of. tt. 

34. It, i.e. Hoiet. Betium to thalr 1, 9. Flaoad all the sheep Is that 

foLdi, L«b to abandon thdr tmn, honae, Le, made the tabemade the 


Sect. IV.] Chapter LXXX IX. %i~^i. 237 

I saw till thia sheep which had met that sheep which led the 
sheep fell asleep ; and I saw till all the great sheep perished 
and little ones arose in their place, and they came to a 
pasture, and approached a stream o£ water. 3}^. Then that 
sheep which led them and became a man withdrew from 
them and fell asleep, and all the sheep sought it and 
lamented over it with a great lamentation. 39. And 

I saw till they left off crying for that sheep and crossed 
that stream of water, and there always arose other sheep 
as leaders in the place of those which had led them and 
fallen asleep (lit. ' had &I]ett asleep and led them '). 40. 
And I saw till the sheep came to a goodly place and a 
pleasant and glorious land, and I saw till those sheep were 
satisfied ; and that house stood amongst them in the pleasant 
land. 41. And sometimes their eyes were opened, and 
sometimes blinded, till another sheep arose and ted them 
and brought them all back, and their eyes were opened. 

GU an^JiC Other MSS. and Din., < there tlie vision.' 
37. loBtead of AVlK 07d gives the ooainsed text Wk 
An70. 'WMcb led tbe sbMp. QM read 'which led them.' 
41. And sometimea their •ye« ware opvned. Wanting in Q. 

ceotre of their vronliip. B7. Death JVovaBAIioUtca, t.ii. HuTegiven 

of Aaron uul of all tbe gensretioa thii fragrosnt for pmpoaaa of oom- 

(hathadgoneoatofEgypt. PMtnrs. paiiion with th« Buj^liih venlon of 

The land to the eaat of Jordan. A tbe Ethiopia. The )f Qs whiob ooann 

•teekm. The Jordau. 88. Death between two vene* belimgiDg int- 

of HoMi : ef. Dent, iiziv, 88. mediately to each other, L & 46, 47, 

Othar aheep aa leaden. The and thefirefrlmertedinver. 47piova 

Jndgei, including Joabua. 40. that tbe ooUector of theae Orsek 

Palcatioe : of. zivi. i. Obeerve that excerpts had not tlie complete Enoeb 

the epithet 'glorioae' it nsed in the before Uu, tot drew them from an 

■ame connexion bf Dan. xi. 16, 41, aatbor wlio bad brought together 

U-IIO. Hiatorjr of the timca of the paaiagee from Bnoch and annotated 

Jndgei to tbe boilding of the Temple, tbem. So GUdemcdMer, ZdUdir^t 

Of VT, 43-49 there ii preetrred a D.M. O., 1855, pp. 6ji equ. «. 

valuable bagment of the Oreaii Perioda of religions adTUkoe and da- 

vetiloB. nil waa pnUiahed by Mu cleuaicaL : wozk of SamneL 

itradb, Google 


The Book of Etiock, 

[Sect IV. 

43. And the dogs and the 
foxes tuid the wild boars began 
to deToor those sheep till the 
Lord of the sheep raised ap 
another sheep, a ram from 
their midst, which led them. 
43. And that ram b^an to 
butt on either side those dogs, 
foxes, and wild boars till he 
had destroyed them alL 44. 
And the eyes of that sheep 
were opened and it saw that 
ram, which was amon^^t the 
sheep, foi^tting its digoity 
and b^innin^ to bntt those 

Greek fragment from Vati- 
can MS., published by Mai, 
Patrum Nova SibliolAeea, t. ii, 
deciphered by Gildemeister in 

'Ek toS row 'Efux fiiPKiov 

Kai ol Kvvtt ^p^avTo Kortv- 
9Uip Ttt vpo^ara koI ol ies Koi 
oE iXiiirtKfs KorqirBioti avri, 
fi^i oS T^fipfo 6 loapias ran 
•ttpo^6.Tav Kptip Iva tx tup 
vpo^irap. Kal i xpihs oStos 
np^aro KfparCCfw koX iiriiid- 
Kftv iv Tois KfpaiTiv jral htrt- 
vfurafp fit rovs iXiivfKiM koI 
f(cr' o^oiiE fU roitr &it koI 
attiktatp Has voWovt Kal ficr' 
avTVVT . . .rd Toiis Kvvar. Kal 
ra ■npA^ara &v ol i^$aX)io\ 
^iiolyriaav iBtdtrapro rdp Kpidp 

43. Till the Iiord of th« sheep ralssd up anotber sheep. So 0, 
against all other HSS.: tJltit KifK. HAX; 076: XTHJt: A070. 
The slight error here of liftAi Q70 for 1|A0: 070 explains the origin 
of the later and corrupt reading H/"Jt for m^ in an attempt to 
emend the text. O is coafirnted by the Ok. fitxp' oS Ifyttpt* 6 ripat 
T&r wpofiinn' xpiir ha. Other MSS. give 'till another sheep, the Lord 
of the sheep, arose.' Din. in his translation leaves ont the words 
' Lord of the sheep ' as a gloss. The words ' another sheep ' are, 
I beliere, a gloss, and we should render ' raised up a ram from 

49. !n>e doga and tha fozea and tha 
wild boan. The ' dogi ' are, Moord- 
ing toTT.46, 47,tliaPIiili«tiiMi. "Dm 
' foiM ' are taken by Din. to be the 
Amaleldtea, bat thii inhnprelatian 
will not nit T«r. 55 where th« tbua 
turn atill notable fbei of larael dose 
on tlie tbne of the Exile, whereaii tlie 
Anulekilea piasUcatlj disappear from 
hiatorj with the reign of David. 
We ahalt roo»t probably be right in 
taking the ' foiea ' to mean the Am- 
monites. From the earlieit tamea 

down to the wan ot the MaoeibM* 
the Ammmite* were alwayl tlta nn- 
relentii^ foea of Lnel. This in the 
view a1»o of tite glDH«r on the Greek 
Pr*groen^ tv. 41-49. The 'wild 
boan' an the Edranitea: cf.TT. 11, 
43. 49. 66. TUl the Iiord of tbs 
ahaep raiaed, iko.: see Crit. Note. 
43. SeatroredthemalL TheOredc 
text (Awiikiatr nXXaift) U hen 
deddedly better. BauL by no meani 
deatzqysd tliem ilL 44. The 

eyM of that Bli«ep were oponvd. 


Sect IV.] Chapter LXXXIX. 42-47. 
sheep and trampling upon 
them and behaving itself un- 
seemly. 45. And the Lord 
of the eheep sent the lamb to 
another Iamb and raised it to 
being a ram and leader of the 
sheep instead of that ram 
which had been forgetful of 
its dignity. 46. And it 
went to it and spake with it 
alonej and raised it to being 
ram, and made it the prince 
and leader of the sheep ; but 
daring all these things those 
dogs oppressed the sheep> 47. 
And the first ram pursued 
that second ram, and that 
second ram arose and fled be- 
fore it ; and I saw till those 
dogs pulled down the first 

rhv ip Tois vpofiirois, tus oD 
iiftiJKtP t^v 6ibv alrroS Kal fjp- 
faro Tfopf6(a$ai di>oS^f. Kal 6 
Kvpioi rmvvpo^&imv hniimiXtv 
rhp &pva toUtov M ipva htpov 
Tov (nijaai airrbv tk Kpiiv tv 
ApXji ''Mv upo^&Tinv ivrX tov 
Kpiou ToG hi^ivTQi 7T)v itov ah- 
ToS, Kal iitopfiBri irpds avriv koI 
^XftAijo-fv airrif aiytj Kara ^lovas 
KalijyfiptvairrdvftsKpidv Kolfh 
&p\ovTa Kat ({; ifya6p.€vov ruv 
•npo^irtov Kal ol leivfs i-nl irdtri 
TCTfroir f6\i^ov ri vp^^ara. 
'E^S ti Totfrotr yiypaTrrai (trt 
i Kptos 6 ■np&roi rhv Kpidv rbv 
ie^rrtpov imblaiKtv Kal ^<f>v- 
■ytv ijrfl TspixTiiTcov airoC" ftr 
iSfapow, ^alv, rbv Kptov tov 
iTp»rov ta>s oS Ivttrtv tpitpoa- 

amongst them.' 9o Ok. 45. The lunb to anothar lamb. 
80 Gk. All Ethiopic USS. give ' the sheep to another sheep.' 
C£ ver. 48, Grit. Note. Inotead of that ram. SaD,<hn:A?0; 
aiid Ok. ^1 roS KpuA. Other M8S. ' instead of that sheep.' 

Thii phrue u kppUad to Sunael 
here oftnnot be lued In the wnw of 
ipiritiul kwKkemng And ratum to 
God whjoh It hki eUewhora in this 
tI^dd ; of. TOT. jS (note). Hera it 
mnit mokn the prophetic gift of in- 
light >i in i. 1. Tha Greek venion 
certainly empea thii difficmltj bj 
applytng the phraae in ita uaoal genae 
to the iheep, Mid li probably (he 

true tait. 46, 46. David anointed 
king. OfaaOTTe that in ver. 45 the 
Greelc wed Afna and not npifiwrov for 
Samnel knd for JJavid lo long •■ the 
latter ia not yet king, when the 
Ethiopia employ! the more general 
term '(faeep.' Obaerre fiuther that 
Solomon previoas to ]ii« ooninatioD, 
ver, 49, ii called ' a little abeep,' i. e. 
k Iamb, 1 have roUowed the Greek ; 


240 The Book of Enoch. [Sect rv. 

ram. 48. And that second tfev ruv kviwv. Kal h np^^ 6 

ram arose and led the sheep, 

and that ram begat many ^^tf»,si»ain,^<rasi,f^yJiffaTo 

sheep and feU asleep; and a ^^„ ^^^^^^^^ Kal ri ^p^. 

little sheep became ram in its 

Etead and became prince and para rji^rjeiiiTaii koI iit\ri9vv- 

leader of those sheep. 49. 

And those sheep grew and ^f''""" "'^ ''^" "* "*'"" "' 

multipUedj and aU the dogs „i ax<i7r«« ti>VYo,> ii:' oiroC 

and foses and wild boars 

feared and fled before it, "ol J^o^oCwo aiT6v. 

and that ram butted and killed all the wild beasts, and those 

wild beaste had no longer any power among the sheep and 

robbed them no more of ought. 50. And that house 

4S. Atom. O reads f^A for l^/'A, and M iJ^hao; i«d 

thfl aheep. So Ok. Etbiopic MSS. give ' led the little sheep.' 
Bui the word ' little ' should be omitted, aa it is wsntiog in the 
Ok., and the expression 'little sheep' is pointless here, and 
found hut once before in ver. 37. It crept into the text from the 
next line. The rest of the verse is also wantiag in the Gk., 
but this ia so, only because the fragment ends with ver. 49, 
at the close of which these words origttially stood. Thus they 
form a natural transitioo to the account of the temple. A further 
and stronger reason for their genuineneES is the phrase ' a little 
sheep ' applied to Solomon, previous to his becoming king. This 
phrase baa nothing derogatory in It, but can only be a loose 
rendering of (vuMt ' lamb,' applied also to David previoos to his 
being appointed king, see ver. 45. Kvidently the Ethiopic trans- 
lator did not feel the technical use of the word, as be has 
obliterated it altogether in ver. 45. Thus, aa the technical term 
is not found in the Ethiopic in this cuunexion, an Ethiopic inter- 
polator could not have produced this manifest, though imperfect 

9eeCrit,NotfaraiTsr.45. 4S. Tba aheep, i.s. lamb: sea w. 4c, 46 

Greak text givm tbt trae wdar here : (note). 49. Thu ii > daacription 

we Crit. Nota. The wcordi 'And of tbe rdgn of David. SO. That 

that ram begat . . . princa and leader hotua. Aa Din. ihom by a com- 

of thoH aheep,' (hoald be placed pariaonofTV. 56, 66«i., 73 M].alidUie 

aft«rver.4gi tee Crit. Note. Altttle paMage in Test. Leri x, i jip fSnt, 


Sect. IV.] Chapter LXXXIX. 48-54. 241 

became great and broad, and a lofty and great tower was 
built for those sbeep : it was built on the bonse for tbe Lord 
of tbe sheep, and that house was low, bot the tower was 
elevated and lofty, and the Lord of the sheep stood on that 
tower and a full table was placed before Him. 51. And 
again I saw those sheep that they again CTred and went 
many ways, and forsook that their boose, and the Lord of 
the sbeep called some from amongst tbem and sent tbem 
to the sheep, but the sheep began to Blay tbem. 52. And 

one of them was saved and was not elain, and it sped away 
and cried aload over the sheep; and they wanted to slay 
it, but the Lord of the sheep saved it from the sbeep, 
and brought it up to me, and caused it to dwell (there). 
53. And many other sheep He sent to those sheep to 
testify and lament over them. 54. And after that I 

saw that when they forsook tbe house fA the Lord and 
His tower they fell away entirely, and their eyes were 
blinded ; and I saw the Lord of tbe sheep how He wrought 

form of it. 50. A loftf and great tower was built for those 
aheep : It woa built on the house for the Lord of tbe eheep. 
80 Q, inserting (DOOA trhlR after iT-t and omitting lib-. 
I M N give, ' a lofty tower was built £3r those sheep on that house 
and a tower lofty and great was built on that house for the Lord 
of the sheep.' So also L 0, but that they give ' on ti« house for 
the Lord of the sheep.' F H and Din., ' a lofty tower was built 
for those sheep on that house for the Lord of the sheep.' We 
might also translate ' was built hy those sheep for the Lord of 
the sheep.' 53. From the sheep. So QM. Other MSS. aud 
Din. 'from the hands of the sheep.' 54. Tbe boose (tf tbe 
Lord. So QM. Other MSS. and Din. 'the house of the Lord 

tr Ir iKkil^Tot nipuH, 'IfpoiwoX^;! of the Temple. SI. Called some 

uK^aiTOi, maSin wtfiix't fiiB*-at . . . and lent thsm, i. e. thepmpheti. 

"Enbx ToB turafov, thii hoiua ii 02. Ew»p« and tiwuladam of Elijah ; 

JeniMleni and the tower U the cf. zdli. 8. SS, M. The Miitlea 

temple. A foil table, i. e. offeringi wtdritj of the [ovipheti, and the 

■od ncrifioee. Sl-67. Oradaal eomplsf* lfioatM7 of the nation owing 

deoleiwion of Inael till the deitraotion (o (heir abaadonineiit of the Temple. 


242 The Book of Enoch. [Sect iv. 

mucli slaugliter amongBt than in their individual herds Tintil 
those sheep invited such shmghter and betrayed His place. 
55. And He gave them over into the hands of the lions and 
tigers and wolves and hyenas, and into the hand of the foxes 
and to all the wild beasta, and those wild beasts began to 
tear in pieces those sheep. 56. And I saw that He for- 
sook that their house and their towerj and gave them alt into 
the hand of the lions to tear and devour them, into the band 
of all the wild beasts. 57. And I began to cry aloud with 
all my power and to appeal to the Lord of the sheep, and to 
represent to Him in r^ard to the sheep that they were being 
devoured by all the wild beasts. 58, But He remained 
unmoved, as Ha saw it, and rejoiced that they were devoured 
and swallowed and robbed, and left them to be devoured in 
the hand of all the beasts. 59- -^^^^ ^^^ called seventy 

shepherds and put away those sheep that they might pasture 

of the sheep.' In their Indlvidiial herds. For Ofl O U 
read fl 'in their hei-ds.' fi6. For f^ik'^^OV G reads 

f^yvfoygo.^ 57. Lord irf the sheep. GM have the strange 
reading NTHJb JtV-OM* ' Lord of the lions.' AU the wUd 
beasts. G reads ' all of them.' 58. Far lUSi IfA-OP* G reads 
Vttti \A. 59. Seventy. Q M read A-flOi*, a miBtake for tWi- 

InrlMd moh BlaoKhter and be- figore and phnueology in <*ef{ard ta 

trared Hfa plaos, i.e. oiled in the degtmctiun of lanel by the 

hMlhen uiCioiu to help them and healhea: cf. Jer. xii. 9; Is. Ivl. 9 ; 

ao betnjBd Jenualeni. CS. The Bi«k. ihit. 5, 8. Buiubaa ivi. 4 

flokl fortunes of tbe two Idngdomi rafen to thii vene, see qaotation 

and the nuuei of thdr Ofpnma*. (p. 38). SB. The aavtaiy ehep- 

IilotusadtiBBri, i.e. the AnjruDt herds. Tlu« U the moct rezed 

and Chddeea. In tv. jti, 65 (?) where qnaiUon is Enoeh. The earliest in- 

the liana alone are taentioued, the terpreten took the flnt thirty-seTen 

Chaldee* are meant. The ' wolvee ' ihepherda to mean th« natiTe kings 

an the Bgyptiana ; o£ ver. 13. The of Israel and Judah. ItwasEwald'a 

'hyenas' may be die £thio;daiii. merit to point on( that this was a 

Be. mi Tene dworibee hoir Ood oonoeption imposiible for a Jew, and 

gradually withdrew&omthedegraded that the seventy ihepheida mnst 

^eooiacy and gavo Israel defeneeleM rqtresant so many heathen oppreasors 

Into the hands of its enemies. To of IiraeL Thii interpretation hai 

davonr. Die proptieta dm the same nndergone many fonus, but all alike 

Digitized by GOOC^IC 

Sect. IV.] Chapter LXXXIX. 55-59. 243 

them, and He spake to the shepherds and their comptmionB : 
"Let each indi-ridiial of you pasture the sheep henceforward, and 

IuT« proved imntii&ctiM; : of. Geb- 
bantt's 'Die 70 Hiiten dea Buehei 
Henoch n. ibra DeDtnngeo' in Merx*> 
Arthivf. WUtaueiiafa. ErforMiinng, 
1S71, pp. 163-346. To Hofibiuui, 
SnhriflbeiBtu, L 41], it doc the credit 
of giving the onlj poulble mod latig- 
fiotoiy explanation. Thii ex[duuitioik, 
which hu been accepted by Sohftrer, 
Dnunmond, WieMler, Sobodd^ Thoio- 
■cm, and Deane, interprets the ibep- 
heida «• angdi and not >■ men ; and 
that bii interpretation b the true 
one, there i» no farther room lor 
doabt. For (i] the ■evantyihepherdi 
^>t RmlmtpormMMuIy, and are imn- 
moned tegeliar before the Lord of 
the ibeep to receive their oommivlon, 
Ixixiz. J9. Thii oonld not be leid 
of either native or GenUie mien. 
(1) The ghepherdi are appointed to 
protect the iheep, Izixiz, 75, and to 
allow only ■ limited portion ot them 
to be deetioyed bj tb« Qen^M. 
nil could not be nid of heathen 
rulort. (3) Jew! and Gentilei and 
their kingi aleo are alike aynibDllied 

cannot iTmbalite men. If not men, 
tbey are angeli. (4) In the earlier 
Idatoiy God vai the tnie ehepberd 
tt Inael, bot on it« ap«ba^ He 
withdreir &om it and committed i(a 
paaturing to ieventy of Hie angsli. 
With the groining tranecendeoee of 
God, Hie place wai naturally taken 
by angell. (5) The angel who 
record* the dinngi of the seventy 
diepherdi ie dmply nuned ' another,' 
Izziix. 61, in eoonexion with them, 
aed to naturally beloi^ to the Mine 
oategmy, (6) In the lait judgment 
they are claMed with the fidl«n 
angell, xe. 31-15. (7) Qod ipeekt 
directly to the ihepberdi and not 

through the medium of angels aa 
diewhere in the book. The idea of 
the aerenty ahepberda ii oied by the 
anthai to eipli^n aome preaaing dilH- 
cultiea in Istael'a history. So long 
aa Qod wai the immediate Bhepberd 
of Israel, it waa not pucHble fur 
aucb calamitiea to be&ll it aa it 
experienced from the captivity on- 
waida. Israel, therefor^ dnring the 
Utter period wai not ihepherded by 
God bat by angels oomniianoned by 
Him. But again, thongh Ood rightly 
forsook larael and committed it to 
the care of angela, thou)^, further, 
Israal wM rightly pnni^ied for ita 
mna, yet the author and the Jews 
generally believed that they were 
poolshed with nodne severity, indeed, 
twofold mora gKevonsly than they 
deaarved (Is. zl. 1). How waa this to 
be accounted for? The answer waa 
not ttr to seek. It was owing to the 
fitithleosneaa with whieh the angels 
diadkarged their trnaL Had they 
only fulfilled their oommission, the 
GentJlee could not have made havoc 
of Israel and apoalate Jews only 
could have been out off. Tlere may 
be aome distant connezlan between 
the seventy angels iiere and the 
seventy guardian angela of the Oendle 
nations : at. Wsber, 1G5. The theory 
of the seventy ahepberda is a develop- 
ment ofthe aeventy years of Jeremiah, 
just as the writer of Daniel bad seeD 
in Jeremiah'a aeventy yean seventy 
periods, and the tbnr diviaions intu 
which the aeventy she^erd) fUl coi> 
raapoud to the four world empirM 
in Daniel. It is idle, however, to 
seek fur chronologicitl ^uctiiesa in 
the fonr perioda Into which the writer 
of Enoch divides all history between 
the (all of Jarusalem and the Mes- 

itradb, Google 

244 '^^ B^^ of Enoch. [Sect. IV. 

eTerytluQg Uiat I shall commiuid yon that do ye. 60. And 
I will deliver them over unto you duly numbered (lit. 'by 
number') and will tell you which of them are to be de- 
stroyed — and those destroy ye." And He gave over unto 
them those sheep. 61, And He called another and spake 
unto him: "Observe and mark everything which the shep- 
herds will do to those sheep ; for they will destroy more of 
them than I have commanded them, 62. And every excess 
and the deetruotioD which will be wrought through the shep- 
herds, record, (namely,) how many they destroy according to 
My command, and how m&ny according to their own caprice, 
and record against every individual shepherd all the destruc- 
tion he effects. 63. And read out before Me Jby number 
how manyi^ey destroy, and how many they deliver over for 
destruction, that I may have this as a testimony against 
them, and know every deed of the shepherds, so that when 
I give over to them the sheep I may see what they do. 

62. For flTA^fJO- a reada S^thte. 63. How many thsy 
dMtroy. So A D G L M 0. Other MSS. and Din. add ' accordiog 
to their owD caprice.' They delivor over. So GM ^"STOL. 
Din. ^i^T^ffO" ' are delivered unto them ' (lit. they deliver to 
them). That when I give over to them the shaep I may aee. 
G reftds XiDT5'a«>'. M IwoT^ffo^ fioXimffflw. The original 
reading, therefore, was probably A(R'T?<'<*' 'that I may comprehend 

siania kingdoro. ThsM foar periodi endi mtli the return 

■re thm divided: 19 -<- 13 + ij-t- 11. tiyity under Cyrai. 

No ayrtwn wliethm of Hilgenfeld, eit«nds &om Cyras to 

VidknuiriOrWieaeler, which attribntea of AJeiander, 331 B, 0. The third 

% like anmber of jean to each shop- extends fimn this date to the tiaiu- 

h^ can airive at any bat a fiuced lerence of the inpremaoy over Iirael 

«i[d>nation of theie nnmben; Aa from the Graeco - Egyptian to the 

fiohOrer Temarke, ihie diviilon ia Otaeoo-Sjnrian pover. llie fonrth ex- 

merely Intended to denote two ionger teDdifrDmthi*ilate,abantaooB,a.,to 

period! ooming between two ihorter, the ettabliehment of the Mewiaoia 

The limits of theee periodi are on kingdom. 60. Dnlj niimb«r«d. 

the whole not dtEBcnlt t« determine. The nainbo' in each instanoe to be 

Hie fint period begina with the destrojad was a definite one. 01. 

Attacks of the heathen powera, and Another. Aixtording to zc 14, 31 

ffnt that of Asi^rria on Inael, and this 'anothn' is an tvcbangel and 


Sect. IV.] Chapter LXXXIX. 60-69. 245 

whether or not they abide by My command which I have 
commanded them. * 64. But they shall not know it, and 
thou Bhalt not declare it to them, nor admonish them, but 
only record against each individual in each case all the 
deetniotion which the shepherds effect and lay it all before 
Me." 65. And I saw till those shepherds pastured in their 
season, and they b^an to slay and to destroy more than they 
were bidden, and tbey delivered those sheep into the hand of 
the lions, 66. And the Uons and tigers ate and devoored 

the greater part of those sheep, and the wild boars ate along 
with them ; and they burned that tower and demolished that 
boose. 67. And I became exceedingly sorrowful over that 
tower because that bouse of the sheep was demolished, and 
afterwards I was osable to see if those sheep ''utered that 
house. 6fi. And the shepherds and their associates de- 

livered over those sheep to all the wild beasts, to devour 
them, and each one of them received in his time a definite 
number, and the other wrote of each one of them in a 
book how many each of them destroyed. 69. And each 
one slew and destroyed many more than was prescribed; 
and I began to weep and lament on accoont of those sheep. 

and see.' 64. Thou shalt . . . deolare. O reads rMTtCXf dv. 
68. Tile other. All M88. read AhAA-. Either expange A as above, 
or render ' how many each of them destroyed in a difTerent way.' 
Cf. A in Asc. Is. V. 14 ; Hark xv. 38. Or take A as a corruption 
of A. 69. Iiameat. 80 O M. Other M8S. add ' exceedingly.' 

the ^nwdlaii angel of Isnel, and or poaiibly with a aomewhat Utw 

haiMW, piobably, MichaeL 64. date, a« ths former niaj oome under 

No TsmonitTance againit or loteT- tlie Kooont given in tt. 5j, 56. 

fenraoe with the iheplierda was to be 66. Tbe accannt in general terma 

made dnringtheirperiod of dominioD, of the deetnietioD of the northern 

bat all their deeds vere to be re- and Kinthem klngdoon by tbe liona 

oorded againtt the final judgment. and tigen, ie. the Aaeyriana and 

etf. Into tha hand of the Uone. Cheldeuia. The wild boan: tee 

The linni ajqwar to be the AuTiiani, ver. 13 (note). Cf. Obad. to-ii; 

and the r^gn of the iheplierda to Eiek. xzr. la; xzxv. 5 iqi].; I*. 

bc^oonteroporBneonily with the final Iziii. 1-4; Pi- csziviL ;. That 

(tmggle* of the northern kingdom ; towar, and that bonae : >ee rer. 50 

Digitized byCoOglc 


■ The Book of Enoch. 

[Sect. IV. 

70, And thus in the vkion I eitw that scribe how he wrote down 
every one thai was destroyed by those shepherds, day by day, 
and carried this same entire book up to the liord of the sheep 
and laid it down and showed (to Him) everything that they 
had done, and all that each one of th^n had made away with, 
and all that they bad given over to destruction, 71. And 
the book wa£ read before the Lord of the sheep, and He took 
the book from hb hand aod read it and sealed it and laid it 
down. 72. And forthwith I saw how the shepherds 
pastored for twelve hours, and behold three of those sheep 
turned back and came and entered and began to build up all 
the ruins of the house ; but the wild boars tried to hinder 
them, but they were not able> 75* ^^ ^^^y began again 
to build as before, and they reared up that tower, and it was 
named the high tower; and they b^an again to place a 
table before the tower, but all the bread on it was polluted 

71. Tb» book waa read. G reads onftAkLi ^Mfl. From his 
hand. SoQM. Other MSS. 'into His hand.' 72. Tunwd 
back. G reads 7-fl{-. 73. Began to plaoe a table. Q reads 

(note). 70. With the nuling of 

the book which reoorded all the doiiiga 
of th«M ghepherdi it ia implied th&t 
dia fint period hai oome to > oloae. 
73. At the close of tfas dwniptioD 
of tbii period, the writer deBues iba 
doistioD exiictly m twelve hours 
long, ju>t M nt Uie cloee of the third 
period deeoribed in xc 3-4 he deiiiiea 
tta donkUoa in.xo. 5. Further, we 
are to obHrre thU the term 'hour' 
ii to be tftken in the same eeiiBe m 
' time' in in. s, alnce in the iiflj- 
eight timet there mentioned, the 
twelve hoan are ttvated wMotij •■ 
' timei.' In &ct we ma; feel oertatu 
that the *ariadon of eiprewion 'honr* 
and ' time ' originated with tha Ethi- 
i^ic tranilatoT ai rendering* of the 
■ame word Sifo, Three of thoie 
■beep. Twoofth«MW«reZerQbbabel 

and Jodiua. If the text be coiTaot, 
I see no objection to finding the thiid 
in Ezra or Nehemiah, notwithstand- 
ing the interval that aeparatei theie 
from the farmer. The aoconnt of tJie 
attempt oF the tjamaritani to prevent 
the rebuilding of the temple ii as 
tme of the latter a« the former, Em 
Iv-t; Neh. iv-vi. In later timee 
one of the two wai at time* mentioned 
without the other, EooIdi. zlii. 1 1-13 J 
u Haoo. ii. 13. 73, 74. The 

bread waa pollnted, i.e. the offer- 
ingi were uncleas: of. Ual. L 7, 
' Ye offer pollnted bread Dpou mine 
altar.' Theie wordi famish no ground 
fur Buppocing an Baaeae antiiar of the 
Dream-vision* : they are not stronger 
tluu Mai. i, ii, and wonld only ez- 
pt««* the Drdinar; judgment of » 
fanatioal Fharisee soeh as the writer 

itradb, Google 

3ect.iV.] Chapters LXXXIX. ']0 — XC. i. 247 

and not pare. 74. And besides all (thU) the eyes o£ 

these sheep were blinded so that they saw Dot, and the eyes 
of their shepherds likewise ; and they were delivered in large 
nnmb^s to their shepherds for destructioa, and they trampled 
the sheep with their (eet and devoured them. 75. And the 
Lord of the sheep remained unmoved till all the sheep were 
dispersed over the field and mingled with them (i. e. ^or beaete), 
and they (i.e. the ehepherds) did not save them out of the 
hand of the beasts. 76. And he who WTot« tiie book 

brought it up, and showed it and read it before the Lord 
of the sheep, and implored Him on their account, and be- 
sought Him, as he showed Him all the doings of those 
shepherds, and gave testimony before Him agaiikst all the 
shepherds. 77. And he took this book and laid it down 
beside Him and departed. 

XC. I. And I saw until that in this mutner thirty-six 

KVSr. MH: ^MC: ■ . . "TXJ^. 76. Before the l^rd. So O, 
OfAi A7HA. iDBtead of 010 Din. gives 10: X^LTt, which against 
the order of the words he is obliged to connect with an earlier 
verb : ' brought it np to the habitation of the I<ord of the sheep.' 
M MLfl*. Implored Him on their aoOount, and beaou|^t 
Him. Repeated in G with a slight variation. Other variationB 
in M. aave testtmany. G M read ^tPH^. 

XC. t. Thlrty-alx. According to MSB. it b doabtful whether 

ofthii leotion on the Peniui period — thip ma condocted bj >n uAWnthj 

k jadgmcnt oerfatinly jniUfiad bj ths and heitbeitiaed bienUrolij. 75. 

few detul* that lorvlTa of that Inul dnued Mill farther in miaglhig 

period: aae Ewald'aSutory^-'ciuI, among the heathen nittioiii. Thit !> 

'.104^106. TheauthorctftheAMtunp. the beginning oT the 'diipArrioa.' 

tion of Moiae— a Zealot writing aboot 77. Hen the leoond poind dawk 

the beginning of the ChriiUan era — with the hll of the F«ni>n power. 
Mji that the two tribe* grieved on XO. 1, Thirty-aiz. Thii muet be 

their retom ' benaoae they oonld not an error of the 1133. for Ihirty-fiTe. 

offer ncriBoei to the God of their The Ethiopia ie far &om bedng above 

fkUMn,' It. S — the knthor therein reproach in thin roepaot. The tbiitj- 

fanplfing that Uie laorifioea of the five giTee the >am of the two perioda 

•eoond temple were no true nariflce* already dealt with-, i.e. 11 + 13, j<>*t 

beosaee the afttioa wm nnder the an- aa In zo. 5 at the sloee of the third 

premaoy of the heathet, and ita wor- period the three period* are anmnied 



The Book of Enoch. 

[Sort. IV. 

shepbetds audertook the pastnring oE the sheep, and they 
severaUy completed their periods as did the first; and 
others received them into their hand, to pasture them for 
their period, each shepherd for his own period. a. And 
after that I saw in the vision all the birds of heaven coming, 
the eagles, the vultures, the kites, the ravens ; but the eagles 
led all the birds ; and they began to devour those sheep and 
to pick out thmr eyes and to devour their flesh. 3. And 
the sheep cried out because their flesh was devoured by the 
birds, and as I looked I lamented in my sleep over that 
shepherd who pastured the sheep. 4. And Z saw until 

those sheep were devoured by the dogs and eagles and kites, 
and they left neitiier flesh not skin nor sinew remaining on 
them till only their skeletons stood there ; their skeletons too 

thirty-six or thirty-seven. 3. I looked. So G IRCfr. M gives 

togetbar, I) f 13 + iJ-sS. A« fb* 
flrst. Aj the twalrs had duly oom- 
plfltad thrir timet, w UkewlaB did 
ttw rait of tlie thirty-five. OUiera 
vsoairsd them. Thete words lovk 
the tnulUoii to the Gieek penod. 
ThU period eitenda from tlie time 
of Alexander, 333, to the establiah- 
ment of the MewiBnio kingdom. It 
falli into two dinatont — (lie fiiM 
ccmitituted by tlie G-raaoo-Egyptian 
domination otsf Palestine, 333-100, 
daring which twenty-three ibepbeidi 
hold Bwftjr ; and the aeoond comti- 
tnted by the Gnwo-Syrian domioa- 
tion over Falettine from aoo IdU the 
eatablighment of the HeaiiitDic king- 
dom. During the fourth divliion 
twelve ihepherdi bear away. S. 

The new world-power — that of the 
Qreda, La. QrMCo-Egyptian and 
Giatwo-Syrian — ia fltUi^y repce- 
■entad by » different order of the 
animal kingdom, namely, by birds of 

prey. The ' eagle* ' are the Qreeki 
or Mncedoniana. The ' nveni,' aa we 
aea from w. 8, 9, la, are (be Syriana 
under the itoleuoidae. ^e'vuldirea' 
■□d ' kilei ' mua( itand for (ha 
Egyptians □nderthePhdemiee. Trasea 
1-4 deal with the Graeoo-Ggyptian 
domination. Yet (he 'ravoia,' Le. 
the Syriana, are men(ii»ied onee, and 
the leaaon i» obvjoai, for Syriana 
frequendy oonteated (he Egyptian 
niprenuw^ over Paleitins, and In all 
theae a(raggle« pBle«tJne laffovd 
nverely. It waa ai Joaephna Miya, 
' Uka (o ft ihip in a atoim whioh i» 

tc«Md by (ha waves an both rides,' 
.^nf. ziL 3. 3. S. That ahepherd. 
Powbly Flolemaena J^agi who oap- 
(nied Jamaalem by daoait and 
traacheiy 00 a sabbath day, A.'Kt. zii. 
I. I. 4, The doga. AooDrding 

to Izzxii. 41, 46, 4^, theaa are the 
FliiUs(ine«;cf.Eoclus.l.i6. Haither 
fleeh nor akin. Front Mio. iii. a, 3. 


Sect. IV.] 

ter XC. 2-6. 


fell to the eartli and the sheep became few. 5. Aitd I saw 
until that twenty-three undertook the pasturing, and they 
completed in their sev»al periods fifty-eight times. 6. But 

CXJk Other MSa 'I cried.' 5. Twantr-tfaree. 80 QU. 

Other MSS. odd 'shepherds.' Undertook the pasturing. Oreads 

S. Sm Ter. I (notfl). 6-17. The 

foortil and list period of tha hekthcm 
lapremacy. He beginning of (liii 
)>raiDd lynchionuet with the truu- 
ferenoe of (he ■nfamjuuiy over Imwl 
from the OtaeoD-EgijrptiAn to the 
Oiaeoo^STrimn power dboat qoo B.C. 
Thoagb tbU U not itated in m iDHt; 
woidi, it ii tlia odI; legitimate in- 
tupreUtioD. Pot (i) tbe MuJt^ of 
the three preoeding p«Hodt pointi 
to this ooncliuion, ■■ each ii marked 
by a like trMsftavDoe of tfae 

to another. (1) Not only doe* the 
uulag7 of the other p«>iod* lead to 
thii oondoaion, but also every rabw- 
qnent ttatement in the teit, and with 
its aeoeptanee tha bvdiUonal diQ- 
oultiea of interpretaiioD Taniih. (3) 
Irhu period I* marked by the riie 
ofthaChanil». Ae theee were alreacly 
an OTganiied party (aee ver. Q note) 
baftm the Maonabean riiiDg, their 
fiiM ^ipearauoe mnct have been mooh 
earlier and poenbly lyndironiaee with 
tbe beginning of this period. (4) 
There ia abeolotely no groood in the 
text for making thJi period be^pq 
with the reign of Antioohne ^uphanee, 
ai all oritiei have done hitherto. 
Tbia miaooneeption baa naturally 
made a right inteipretaUon of the 
■nbaeqaent detail! impoemble, and no 
two critjo have been able to agree 
on tiieii ezegeaia. 6. The beginning 
of thii period i> marked by tbe ap- 
pearanoe of a new olan or party in 
IiraaL Theae were the Chaddi or 
Aiideam who ezkted ai a party for 

■ome time before the Maccabean 
rising. Some have identified the 
Cbaddi with the followen of Jndaa 
Uacoabaeoe, and have traced t^nt 
origin to the efbrti of that leader. 
Bnt tbe eeparate mention of the 
Chaaida ai diitinguislied itoxa the 
immediate foUawera of Jadu, I Maoo. 
iii. 13, their liiagDed organieation 
already eziiting before the Maooabean 
ODtbreak, al is clear from I Hace. ii. 
4], iii 13, and their action generally 
in lapport of Judaa, bnt at t^ea 
aotnally aotagonietio to blm, t Maoc. 
vil. 13, make it quite manifsat that 
thie theoiy ia without fonndallon. 
In faet 10 far ^m ite being tme 
that Jndaa foandad this party, the 
only available evidenoe goee to prove 
that he wae ori^nally merely a 
member of i^ a* we aball ne preaently. 
Tiie Chaeidi while Brat appearing 
aa the ohamfuonB of the law againat 
the Hellenizing Sadduoeea ware really 
the repreaentativM of advanced fonnt 
of doctrine on the Haananic kingdom 
and the Beaorrection. The Chadda 
pceaeaned all the enthniiaam and re* 
ligioni Utb of the nation, and thongb 
•iMtoal children of the Scribea, 
they drew wttUn thdr memberahip 
the moat lealoQa of the priestly aa 
well aa the non-priesUy fomilies. 
Hence our author rqtrsKnta (xc 9) 
the Maocabean family aa belonging 
to tha Cfaaaidi aa well aa the High- 
priert Oniaa III. Within thii party, 
though a divenity of eaohatologioal 
vlewa waa tolerated, the matt ttriot 
of the law waa enfonsed, 


250 The Book of Enoch. [e«:t. IV. 

behold lambs woe bome by those white sheep, sad they 
f-€JlKf 6. Bebold. 60 QM ir. Other MSS. 1M1A 'simU.' 

uid wlUi it* raqnirwiumta no political 
aim wu alloweil to interfere. On 
the other hftnd, any movement that 
came forward u the ohampion of the 
Uw natnnll; cominaiided ths >dhesioiL 
of the Chadds, and so thay cast in 
their lot with the Maocabeao party 
— hit that only afUr much indedaion 
(t Hmo. TiL 13), beoaoBO the Maoca- 
bean movement put them in itrifig 
with tlie high-prieit of (he time, the 
legitdmata and religioae head of the 
nation. By a member of thie party 
the prennt Droun-vifioni vera writ- 
toD. Thii ii obvloui from the doc- 
trines of the Remrraotjon, the Bnal 
jadgmsnt, and the kingdom of the 
MeMah whioh he teach ea, but 
eapedally from hii severe oriticiim 
on tlie moral and ceremonial iiregn- 
lariliea in the eervioeii of the uooud 
temple (Izixix. 73). To remedy these 
abiuea and defeat tbe schemee of 
Antioohna the Chaaide were ready to 
eacriBoe their lives, but all their 
effiirtt ivere directed to one md only 
— the re-establiihment of the Tlieo- 
eraoy and the preparation for the 
Uestiaido kingdom. To the writer 
of the Dream-vision* all these hopes 
are bound up together with the ino- 
oesi of the Maooabein leader. 80 
long than •■ tlie Maooabesin family 
fought for these objects, so long they 
carried witli tltsm tlie snpp^ of the 
Chauds; but tlie moment tbey laid 
hands on the high-prietthood, from 
that momsut begun the alienation of 
the Chaslds, whioh afterwards do- 
vel<^)ed into a deadly hostility. Thia 
bostilitj of tile Phwisess to H^^nnus 
i« attested bj their demand that the 
ktter sbonld redgn the higb-priest- 
bood (Jnt. till. 10. 5), and the same 

demand i* praotioally made in the 
Fss. Sol. ivii. The writer who so 
■evereiycritidsed the temple wonhip 
under tbe UgHimalt line of high- 
priests could not regard an iiUgiii- 
mate holder of that oSce as the 
champion of tbe Tbeocraey. On this 
ground, therefore, we hold that 
chapters Imiii-xc most have been 
written before Jonathan*! assomption 
ofthehigh-priestliaod, 153 S.O. Tliis 
in itself nutke* it imposdble to 
identify the ' great horn ' wiUi Byr- 
canos — so Din., SohDrtf, and others, 
or with Alei. Jannaeus — bo Hilgen- 
feld, and we shall find that the 
natoral and nnforoed interpretation 
of the tait will confirm the oonoludaQ 
we have thns arrived aL 6, T. 

Lambs wars borne hj thos« whlt« 
■heep. The ' white sheep ' are tbe 
fkithfnl adherents of the Theocsaoy : 
the ' lambs ' are the Chadds, a new 
and diitinot party amongst the Jews, 
as we have above seen. BchOrer 
thinks that it is only 'stnbbwn 
prejudice whicb oan prevent any one 
from seeing Hiat by the symbolism 
of the lambs the Maooabee* ate to 
be nnderstood.' It aeem^ on the 
other hand, to be only ' stabbom 
prejudioe' that can hold to such a 
viaw if the text is interpreted 
natarally. Bj taking the lambs in 
TOT. 6 to symbolise the Ghasids, every 
diffleulty is removed. In w, 6, 7 we 
have the unavailing appeals of the 
Cha^ds to the nation at large : in 
ver. 8 the dettnotion of one of thani, 
Onlas III, by the Syrians; and in 
v«r. g the rise of t^a Uaooabees — 
the honied or powerful Lunha. IF 
with Schflrer the lambs in ver. 6 
rbat Is to be 


Sect. IV.] 

'.er XC. 7-9. 


b^an to open their eyes and to see, and to cry to the Bheep. 
7. But the sheep did not cry to them and did not hear what 
they said to them, bat were exceedingly deaf, and their eyes 
were exceedingly and forcibly blinded. 8. And I saw in 

the vision how the ravens flew upon those lambs and took 
one of those lambs, and dashed the sheep in pieces and 
devoured them. 9. And I saw till horns grew upon those 
lambs, and the ravens cast down their horns ; and I saw till 
a great horn of one of those sheep branched forth, and their 

7. Forcibly. GMttA-. 8- One of those. Q reads XyMt^i 
AHfr and dnplicHtes this clanse. 9. Of oit». So O A D- ^^■ 

Iliads of the homed Umb* in var. 9 1 
Moreover, tboogh the lamb* or 
Chuida did 'ppeeJ in yain to the 
tution, the Hacobeei did not. 8. 
The SjTiNiB mttuk bnel »nd pot 
OqIm m iA death, 171 B.a.: «ee 
n Maoo. ii. 33-35. We are rtUl in 
the pre - Muokheka parjod. We 
■hoold, p«rhap», have eipeoted Onlu 
in to be (jmboliiad b; a white 
■lleep rather than by a luab. The 
writer m»j have ^ne back for a 
moment to the tjnibolio ineaning of 
thi« tern in liziiz. 45 ; bat it Ii 
more Ifkely that it ii mod looaelj ai 
indading Oniae amonf[ the Charidt. 
In any oaae It cannot be interpreted 
of Jonatlian who was chief of the 
naUnn, and would have been iTmbol. 
lied by a honed Iamb or a ram ; 
nor oould it pouibly be uid, at In 
ver. g, that the lamba did not beoonw 
homed ^1 after the death of Jonatliaa. 
e. The homed tamba, aa we hnve 
Men, mart be the Maoeabaea, and in 
(he 'great hi«n' it a impoadble to 
find any other than Jndaa Maoc*- 
baens. So LUcke and Sohodda; but 
tbrir interpretation oonld not be up- 
hald against the objeotiou tliat the 
period Arom Antiochna Bpiphanes to 
Jndaa Maoaabaent ia far too abort 

for the rale of the twelve laat (hep- 
hccdi. Sohodde indeed triea to ahow 
that the 'great horn' oomae early 
in thia period, and that it ia not 
tbe ■ great hom ' bot the Heaeianio 
kingdom whioh forma the fanmnvf 
ad quem. Bnt the text ia againat 
him. The 'great hom' ia atill war- 
ring in ver. 16, and the period of the 
twelve ahepherdi' mie ia doaed in 
Tor. 17. But thia objectioii doaa not 
hold Bgainat the tme oonoeption of 
the period, which datea ita beginniog 
abont 900 B.C. Thoa nearly Ibrty 
yean of thia period would have 
elapaed before ihe writing of thaae 
chapter! Ixxxiii-io; for thife aeotjoa 
miut have been written beibi« the 
death of Jnda^ 160 B. 0. The aothor, 
therefore, mnat have expaoted the 
Heaaianic kingdom to appear within 
twenty yean or more. Thia would 
allow anffloient time for the mle of 
tha twelve abepherda, and alao admit 
of the ' great hom ' being repreaented 
■a warring UU Qod Interpoaee in 
parson and establiahea the kingdom. 
The interpretation of Din., Kiiatlin, 
Sohfirar, and othen, which takea the 
' great horn ' to lymboliie John Hyr- 
eanua, doaa violsnoa to the text, and 
nuNtta with Ute inanperable objection 



The Book of Enoch. 

[Swt. IV. 

eyes were opened. 10. And it looked at them and their 
eyes opened, and it cried to the sheep and the rams saw it 
and all ran to it. 1 1, And notwithstanding all this, those 

eagles and vnltures and rav^s and kites still kept tearing the 
sheep and swooping down upon them and devonring them : 
still the sheep took no action, but the rams lamented and 
cried out. 12. And those ravens fought and battled with 

it and sought to destroy his horn, but they had no power 
over it. 13. And I saw them till the shepherds and eagles 
and those vultures and kites came, and they cried to the 
ravens that they shotdd break the horn of that ram, and 
they battled and fought with it, and it battled with them 

omits A. QH ELdd (DCXf; AO/YttPov. 10. It looked at 

them. Better take CXC as Cfy\, and translate ' it pastured with 
them ' or 'pastured them.' It cried. G I N ' they cried,' 11. 
notwithBtaxLding aU this. Better than Dln.'s 'wahreod alle 
dem.' Kites. Wanting in G. 13. rought. Q reads ^^JS^A^ 

thftt Umi there would not ba even 
the fkinteat refersnoe to Jnda^ the 
gre>ta«t of all the MumbM*. 10. 
The ejM of the iheep are opeoed 
through the eSbrti of Jadaa Maoon- 
b«a>. Banu. 80 I have rBUdersd 
dlMUt here and in the next vene 
in aooordanee with Dln.'B latest 
Tiewi : lee Lex. ool. i loi. The word 
rendond 'nun* in Ixzxix. 41-44 1* 
qmte % different one, and haa a 
teohnieal meaning not found in thit 
word. 11, la. BaglM Kid vql- 

tnre* and . . . Utaa, In the Sjiian 
ancie* mercenariea were enrolled 
from the Greek and oth«t nntioni: 
ef. t Haoo. t. 39 ; ti, 19. Syria umi 
evei7 effiirt agahut Joilaa but in run. 
la. It would leem that (he nw of 
■ome of the lymbola ii not ataadj. 
The 'mlturea' and the 'kitea* in rer. 
a ouut mean the Gmeoc^Egyptiaiis; 
bat In tMa vmm and ia ver. 11 it it 

doDbtfol who are to be nndentood 
by thew. We hare already obearved 
that the writer oaea the lame bnite 
Bymbol for different nationi, i. e. the 
wild boan tepteient the Edomtte* 
in lixxii. 66, bnt the Samaritana dx 
venea later: see ^lo ver. 16 (note). 
There may be a freah ohaoge of 
■ymboU here, and the Taltoree and 
kitea may atand for Amman and 
Bdom : ol i Mtwo. v. The atioggle 
here di;{»cted ia a lifo and death one, 
and neither of HTtoaniu' wan agiinrt 
Antioohua Kdetiaand Antiochaa Cyzl- 
I can fikirly be deecribed a* laoh. 
Tlie latter, mtireover, waa conducted 
by Hjroanni' aons while Hyrcamia 
himaelf wu qaietiy diaoharging hia 
prieatly datiea In Jenualem ; while 
the former oooairing daring the fint 
year of Hyrcanna could not be re- 
ferred to la Yr. II, 13, as rer. II 
deaOt with the fint attaokii of the 


Sect IV.] 

Chapter XC. 10-17. 


and cried tiiat his encconr should come unto him. 14. And 
I saw till that man who wrote down the names of the shep- 
herds and oarried (them) up mito the presence of the Lord of 
the sheep came, and he helped that ram and showed it every- 
thing, that be bad come down to help it. [15. And I saw 
till that Lord of the sheep came to them in wrath, and all 
who saw Him fled, and all caet themselves into the darkness 
from before His face.] ilS. All the eagles and vultures and 
ravens and kit«s assembled together and brought with them 
all the sheep of the field, and they all came together, and 
helped each other to break that horn of the ram. 1 7. And 
I saw that man who wrote the book according to the com- 

Wltb It. G reads 'with them.' 14. Helpod. G adds 

lDh£r^ 'helped and saved.' H» bad coma down to help It. 
So G, reading MJl:M?. Din. 'that his help had come." 15. 
Cast tbeniBelvea Into tli« darkneaa from befbia Hla fitca. Din., 
' fielen in Eeinem Scbatten vor selnem Angesicht.' 16. BrouglLt 
witb them aU the aheep at the field. G reads aafiJ^ . . . \ttln 
A070 'a!I the eheep . . . went with them.' 17. Who wrote. 
Q reads tl(n>: f-^ib^. According to the oommand of the 

heKthen on the ■ gnat hum.' Oriad 
that hla auoooni •boold oodm 
unto him: of. i Maoo. Tii. 41, 41 ; 
llMaoc. zv.Saqq. U. Bam. The 
wune vord that is naed in tt. 10, 1 1. 
U. I feel ooDvinoed Ukat thii tbtim 
is an inttfpalation, and that ver. ig 
■hodid be jnierted before v«r. 16, as 
the dcatniation of the Oentile* in ver. 
19 IkM alr«ad; be«D oooiammatsd in 
Ter. 18. leema to be modelled 
OD y«i, 18. This twofold apifsaranoe 
of God ii nncallad for, and only the 
•eoond appeaianoe Is ofiiyctiiaL The 
help that ia pnymiaed in ver. 14 ia 
deaoribed in tst. 19 as the sword, 
which is givm to Iinwl fiir the 
destraetionoftheOentilBS. Weshould 
omit vsr. ij and insert tot. 19 before 
Ter. 16 in onr interpralation. 18. 
^le period of the awurd hsre has a 

natvmal rigniflouioe : Tsnwl aveoget 
itself on its boathen opfffeasora. In 
loi. 19, on tlie other hand, the period 
of the Sword haa an tthieal and Tin- 
diotive lignifioince: Israd dettr^ 
the anrighteoos and those who have 
oppressed it. In thia Terse we pass 
oTsr Into the fature. IS. The fint 
great Mesifaiua Tictories of Israel are 
the signal for the final Msanlt of 
all tlie 0«ntiles combined with the 
apostate Jews (I. e. the shesp of the 
Gsld) against Lrael. Israel is slill 
led by Jadas, the great horn. Here, 
agun, there is a loose as* of symbols : 
the eaglos, raTcnn, vultares, and kites 
represent all the hostile heathen 
nations In their Uwt Gog and Magog 
stru^le against Israd. 17. Th« 

Ibotth period of twelTC shsphtrds is 
now at an end, aad the period of 

Digitized by GOO^^IC 

25+ The Book of Eitock. [Swt. iv. 

mand of the Lord, till he opened that book coDcerning the 
deetniction which thoee twelve last shepherds had wroa^t 
and showed, that they had destroyed much more than their 
predecesBors, before the Lord of the sheep. i8. And I saw 
till the Lord o£ the sheep came onto tbem and took the staff 
of His wrath into His hand and smote the earth so that it 
was rent asunder, and all the beasts and the birds of the heaven 
fell away from the sheep, and sank in the earth and it closed 
over them. 19. And I eaw till a great sword was given to 
the sheep and the sheep proceeded against all the beasts of 
the field \a slay them, and all the beasts and the birds of the 
heaven fled before their face. 20. And I saw till a throne 
was erected in the pleasant land and the Lord of the sheep 
sat Himself thereon, and that other took the sealed books and 

Iiord, till he opened tbat book ooneeraing tlie destruotlon. 

reads: 0^^ XTtU-OrfbCi ^fl(n>: t^trfii t&tix X7liX: Om-Xl^i 
A{H^. Deatroyad much mora than their predeosssora, 
before the Iiord of the sheep. And I saw till the Iiord of the 
sheep aam.e unto them. Q makes ' before * an adverb, and reads 
(D iminedistely after it, omitting the tD before CJUh ^ua making 
'the Lord of the eheep' subject of the next sentence. Next, for 
flWffB'i h7)LA: Aa70 it raads Iturin^: AX(170. Thos it gives, 
'destroyed much more than their predeceeeors formerly. And 

1 saw nntil the Lord of the sheep came to the sheep.' 18. Of 
Hiswrath. 80 BCDFGH ILH NO. A E, which Din. follows, 
give 'of wrath.' It olosad over them. Q reads lt,fi?aB^ 
JEfUPtnx. It,. All the beasts. So AEFQHILMNO. Din. 
' those beastB.' 20. I aaw. Wanting in G. Thereon. reads 
^tmPdD*, That other took the sealed books. I have emended 
the text here, readiog 1|AX instead of \ttt. This teems necessary, 
as otherwise the writer would say— ' the Lord of the sheep opened 

judgment hu arrived. IS. God land: cf. Itt«It. ^o, !. c Palaatine. 

Himself (leBtTOTS the lut eaeniiM of C£ Dan. xi l6, 41, 45. Ood'i -Uirona 

Inrnd ti^Bt the mBiiner of Koi*h ud ii set np in the iounediftte uvighboor- 

Iiii fotlawen, Num.zvi. 31 iqi). Tbii hood of Jaraulam (of. ver. 16), tbe 

ia the fint act of the GukI jadgment ; boolu ire opened u in Dan. vii, 10 ; 

bat the rem&iniiig acta ue of » «ee ilvii. 3 (note). The Moaikli doee 

foToniic naturi). 20. The pleaunt not appear Ull sfter the judgnuot 


Sect. IV.] Chapter XC. \S-2^. 255 

opened them before the Lord of the sheep. 21. And the 
Lord called those aeven first white ones and commaDded that 
they should bring before HldIj be^nning with the first star 
which led the way, all the stars whose privy members were like 
those of horses, and they brought them all before Him. 32. 
And He spake to that man who wrote before Him who was 
one of the seven white ones, and said unto him : " Take those 
seventy shepherds to whom I delivered the sheep, and who 
taking them on their own aathority slew more than I com- 
manded them." 23. And behold they were all bonnd, I 
saw, and they all stood before Hiql 24. And the jndg- 

the sealed books before tlie Lord of the sheep.' Further, the 
Lord of the sheep does uot Himself read the books. Cf. Ixxsix. 
71, 72, 76, 77 ; zc. 14, 17. Din. ' He took a]l the sealed books.' 
21. Seven. O MIk. U has a conflate reading, but supports 
the test. This verse is most corrupt, and requires emendutioii. 
First of all I have accepted Dln.'s correction of Xy"li Mlfr into 
AH'ft'. Next, from G we see that confusion is introduced 
through the repetition of a clause. This repetition is concealed 
through variations in the later MSS., but it is clear m O. Thus 
the clause ' the fin,t star which led the way ' appears the secoud 
time in later MSS. as ' the first star which fell first,' bnt iu Q 
as 'the first star which went before,' i. e. led the way, HiDAfti 
f JSm instead of Hai:^^ ^£:o^. I have accordingly omitted 
this clause on its secood occurrence as an interpolation. In the 
earlier part of the verse I have followed Uln., t9^Ki ^JS^^O-i 
Xy"Wlfa against Q f^TtA-i AMl-fl. as. Beron vrtiite ones. 
'Seven' wanting in Q. Doubtful whether 'six' or 'seven' in M. 
Beven^. Wanting in 0. On tbelr own authority sleiv more than 
I commanded them. G gives unintelligibly +t'(h fllW! W'rt: 
httimtimao: M ^ft-j -nH^fc Xo^TF: HAHHin*'. 23. CA.tK 
totO'*' aud the second H-AW are wanting in O, which therefore 

in Ixziiii-ia. 31. SovMi fltat Oe PraJter, pp. )8i, 38), 313-327, 

whlM onM. Thii ordn of aer^n 334-337; 8cb«nXel's£ib«2.X«i.imd«t 

arcbasgeli is derived from the ZoroM- Ekokl. Star: tea Iiiivi-lxiiviii. 

tri>n Aimhaipanda. They ire ipokea 33. The leTenty anjielB who had 

of in Tobil liL i; : of. Rev. i. 4; iv. ehaige of Imel are judged along 

Giviii. 1,6. 8e« Cheyne, Or4<" V* *■*!■ I'lo ^'^d watchen. M. 


256 The Book of Enoch. [s«t. rv. 

ment was held first over the stats, and they were judged and 
found guilty and went to the place of coDdemnation, and they 
were cast into an abyes, full of fire and flaming, and full 
of pillars of fire. 25. And those serenty shepherds were 

judged and found guilty, and likewise cast into that fiery 
abyss. 36. And I saw at that time how a like abyss was 
opened in the midst of the earth, fall of fire, and those 
blinded sheep were hrong-ht, and they were all judged and 
found guilty and cast into that fiery abyss, and they bonied : 
now this abyss was to the right of that house. 27. And 

I saw those sheep burning and their bones burning. 38. 

And I stood up to see till He folded up that old house ; and 
all the pillars were taken away, and all the beams and 
omamente of the house were folded up with it, and it was 
taken off and laid in a jJace in the south of the land, 29. 

And I saw the Lord of the sheep till he brought a new bouse 
greater and loftier than that first, and set it up in the place 
of the first which had been folded up : all its pillars were new, 
and its ornaments were new and larger than those of the first 
one which He had taken away, and the Lord of the sheep was 

runs, 'and behold they were all bound before Him.' 34. Flaming, 
and full of pillarB of fire. Q omita ID^^X ' flaming with pillars 
of fire.' 96- Seventr. GM MlX. 26. FoU of Are. 

a reads \i9'S:t instead of HfM. Hary abyw. G L give 
OffB^. 28. Folded up: reading («W" for tn^f according 

to.Dhi.'s oonjeoture. M reads tATon, N mtoy. In a place. 
G reads flffa^i flOvU. 29. The flrat one. So G. Other 
USS. ' the first old one.' I'he Iiord of the sheep was within. 

An abyia fuU or Are : cfxtiii.ii; 14; En. zlnli. 9 (note). SB,3e. 

zii; TIL 7-10. SS. The Aepherdi T)ie removnl of the old Jeraulem 

are out into the lune Rbfu : of. liv. and the Betting up of the Ksw Jern- 

6 (note). SS. The apostatei ■!« wlem. Thii expectation Ii detlTed 

cast into Gehenna. In tlie midat from O.T. prophecy : Eiek. zl-zlviii ; 

of the earth: cf. zit]. i. To the Ii. Uv. 11, la ; Iz; Ua^- ii. 7-9 ; 

lisht of that hmia*, Le. to the Zeeh. H. 6-13. The idea irf a new 

Kiuth of Jemialem. S7. The Jernialem ooming down turn heaven 

apoetatei were pnnjahed in view of wai a *»"'*'"' one in Jewish Apo- 

the bleMed in JenualMn: of. le.lzvL oaljpeea: of. ivEaavU. aC; iiU.3$; 


Sect. IV.] Chapter XC. 25-34. 257 

within it. 50. And I saw all the sheep which had beem 
left, Mid sU the beasts on the earth, and all the hiids of the 
heavra, falling down and doing homage to tlioee sheep and 
making petition to and obeying them in eveiy word. 31. 

And thereafter those three who were clothed in white, who 
bad taken me up before, seized me hj my hand, and the hand 
of that tarn seizing hold of me, they took me np and set me 
down in the midst of those sheep before the judgment took 
place. 33. And those sheep were all white and their wool 

was abundant and clean. 33. And all that had been 

destroyed and dispersed and all the beasts of the field and all 
the birds of the heaven asaembled in that house, and the Lord 
of the sheep rejoiced with great joy because they were all 
good and had returned to His honse. 34. And I saw till 

they laid down that sword which had been given to the sheep, 
and they Inoaght it bai^ into His house, and it was sealed 

SoBEFHMN. GILO and Din. ' all the sheep were within.' 
30. Uaklng petition to and oberlng tham. O omits 'and 
obeying them.' 31. And thereaftar those three. O reads 
(DX^^nfm-. For MtM. 6 reads ^HL, and for MCM. O reads 
X0C7. 33- AH that had been. 'That' wonting in Q. 34. 

Apoc. Bar. xuii. 3; S«v. ui. i, 10. jndgioaiit took piMM. Ttieme woidi 

30. The ooDvenion of the Gontilai — ore moet oonfiudiig. If the; an 

of thou who took DO part in the op- genniae, it ii hard to rettora them 

pnaaloD of laiael ; tar the ra*t were to their pUoe wtiitnoUirily. 83. 

d«etovjed in Ter. iS — and their spon- The righteoumen of the memben of 

tuieooi sebmiuion to Icnal : of. Ii. tiie kingdom ii expreawd \>j tlie 

itv. 1 ; ixvi II, 19-11, and parallel whitenaw and eleanlineea of Uie too! 

paMagea. later Judaism almost imi- of the ihaep ; and the large meainre 

Temllj denied even this hope to the of thur righteouBuen bj the abund- 

GttllUea: of. Weber, L. d. T. 364- aaoeof the wool: of. le. i. 16; iv, 3; 

3^> 376. 31. ThOM three who Ix. ii. SS. The righteooi dead 

were olothed In white : eee Ixxxvii. will riae to ibaTe in the kingdun : 

1,3. Thetrtus. Same word a* need of 11 i (note). Likewiee the die- 

hi VT. 10, II. Thie ram ia the iheep praied of Imel will be gathered 

•aved in Izziix. ji from id enetniea into it: of, Mio. ir. 6, 7. Bejoioed: 

and Iwon^t np to live with Enoch, ef. Ii. Izii. 3-5 ; Izv. 19. 84. The 

Fanuhae la onl; the temporary abode iword wherewith Israel had eruihed 

of Enodi and Elijah. BeEote the itt enKoie* Maled and preaerved aa a 



The Book of Enoch. 

[Sect IT. 

before the presence of the Lord, and all the Bheep were inTit«d 
into that hooee, but it held them not. 35. And the eyes of 
them all were opened to see the good, and there was not one 
amongst them that did not see. 36. And I eaw that that 

hoDse was hu^ and broad and very fall, 37. And I saw 

that a whit« btdl was bom, with lai^ horns, and all the 
beasts of the field and all the birds of the air feared him and 
made petition to him all the time. 38. And I saw till all their . 
(difierent) kinds were transformed, and they all became white 
oxen ; and the first among them became the buffalo, and that 

War* Invited. So O IIUiKh. Other U8S. tOXm, ' they were 
enclosed.' 35. Q reads ts^KS-tAi OPHAittvo'. 38. Tbe fixat 
amoDC them tMoame tlie bufblo: ^Xcra: W^iCt\tea»\ M; Ylt. 

Here aa Din. soggeetB tbe Hebrew was Df!^. 'Goa the Qreek 
translator transliterated ioto pi\^, which was in torn taken by the 
Ethiopic tranelatoT for ^qpi. Hence the f7C of the text, and the 

memorikl. It htfd tham not : of. 
Ii. xlix. 19-11; Zeoh. ii 4; I. 10. 
87. K whit« bull, i. e. the Hnnah. 
We have here die Messiah coming 
forth frrai the bewa of the com- 
unnit;. He is a maa cmlj. bnt jet 
n glorified man ; for he U described 
MairhiteballtomaTk his superiority 
to the rest of the eommnnity of the 
righteou* who are symbolised b; 
sheep. 6a &r as he i« ft man only, 
he may be regarded aa the pro^etio 
Messiah as opposed to the kpocalyplio 
of the Similitodee i and jet he is not 
really the prophelic Messiah ; &>r he 
has abstJntelj no f anoUoo to perform, 
M he does not ^>pear tiU the world's 
bktoij Is finally doeed. Aooordingly 
his preaenoe here most ba accounled 
for tbroogh literacy reminisoenoe, and 
the Measiah-hope mast be r^uded 
as piaolioalty dead at this period. 
Hie naUon, in fact, felt no need of 
anch % penonalitj >o long as they 
bad such • chief sa Judas. It was 
very diffoent, however, ia the follow- 

ing centnij, when the fondest en- 
thosiast Dould no longer look to the 
Asmonsans, and the hel|deis degrada- 
tion of thU dynaatj loroed religions 
thinlimi to give their hopes and 
•epilations a different direation. Of 
these, some letuined to a &eih study 
of the O.T. and revived the hopea 
of tbe Mensianie Son of David •■ 
in the Pis. of Salomon (70-40 B. o.) : 
othcn Mlowed the bold and origiud 
thinker who ooneeived tbe Mesdah 
as Uie sapematural San of Man, who, 
poasessiiig divine attribntee, should 
give to every man his due and vindi- 
cate the snUre earth for the pos- 
session of the righteoiu : to in the 
Similitodes (94-70 B. 0.}. a& All 
the memben of the kingdom are 
transformed ; tiie white bull ({. e. 
the Messiah) into a great animal, 
and the sheep, beaeta, and birds into 
wlute oien. llius mankind is resUmd 
to the primitive righteousness <rf 
Eden, i. e. Adam was symbullied by 
> white bull. The bnSklo: see 


fi«t. IV.] 

Chapter XC. 35-42. 


bu&lo became a great animal, and had great black horns on its 
head ; and the Lord of the sheep rejoiced over them and over all 
the oxen. 39. And I slept in their midst : then I awoke and 
saw ererything. 40. This is the vision which I saw while 
I slept, and I awoke and blessed the Ix>nl of righteoasness 
and gave Him glory. 41. Then I fell into a great fit of 

weeping and my tears stayed not till I coald no longer en- 
dare it: when I looked, they flowed on aocotmt of what 
I saw ; for everything vill come and be fulfilled, and all the 
deeds of men in their order were shown to me. 42. And 

in that night I remembered my first dream : on its account 
also I wept and was overcome, because I had seen that 

misleadiDg tnuiBlatioii ' the first among them was the worJ.' 
Some critics have imagined this to be a Chrietian interpolation 
referring to the ti6yot, but it is ^A and never I7C which is used 
to tnuislate the word \iyot. The LXX. renders Dtn by furiittpat 
and Ethiopic hy Mt^ 4Ct^ The Iiord of the sheep. Q has 
the pecnUar reading aop^H; AOfX ='the fatted sheep.' 41. 
After when I looked G ioBerta Afloo; Xfr 'till I conld no longer 
endure it, when I looked ; for they Sowed,' &c. 

Crit. Nota. Hioajjh nothing ii aud 
u to the dunttioD of the life of the 
btdividoal inthii teolMO, the liii[)lio»- 
tion ii Out it ii oteniaL If Enoch 
and Elijah we truMferred to the 
Heniamo Unploin from Paiadiie, 
•nrely it is only rsMonaUe lo oon- 
dude that the new form of GziBtenoe 
ig BD eternal one j for thiB new form 

that enjoyed by Enoch and Elijah 
in Paradlie. In Paradiie Elijah vai 
■jmbollzed I37 a rata, bnt in the 
Meaianie blngdam by a bull. 40. 
CC nil. 14. 41, 42. Enoch weept 
becaiue of the voea that <hi«aten 
mankind in hii two vinona. 




A. Critiedt Structure. B. Stlativn of zci-ctr (o (a) i-xxxvi ; 
(6) Ixxxiii-xc. C. Atithonhip atid Daie. D. Tke Problem 
OTtd its Solvlitm. 

A. Critioal Stmotnie. This eectian may be regarded as eom|dete 
in the main and eelf-conaistent. It has in some degree suffered at 
the hands of the final editor of the book, both in the way of direct 
interpolation and of severe dislocationB of the text. The interpola- 
tions are— zoi. ii ; xciii, 11—14; xctI. a. The dislocations of the 
text are a more important featnre of the book. They are confined 
(with the exception of cri. 17", which should be read immediately 
after cvi. 14) to xci-xciii All critics are agreed as to the chief of 
these, xci. iz-17 should undoubtedly be read directly after xciti. 
In xciii we have an account of the fint seven weeks of the ten into 
which the world's history is divided, and in xci. 13-17 "'* ^^ 
last three weeks. But this in far from a fiill acooimt of th« 
matter. The remaining dislocations only need to be pointed out 
in order to be acknowledged. On other grounds (pp. 360-363) *e 
find that xci-civ is a book of different authorship to the rest 
of the sections. Now this being so, this section obviously begins 
with zcii — 'vritten by Enoch the scribe,' &c. On xcU follows 
xci. i-io as a natoral seqnel, where Enoch sonunons his children 
to receive his parting words. Then comes the Apocalypse of 
Weeks, xciii. i-io; xci. 13-17. ^- '^i '9 f'^'*"^ ^ natural 
transition from xci. 12-17 to xciv. The original order of the 
text, therefore, was: xcii; xci. i-io; xdii. i-io; xci. 13-19; 
xciv. These dislocations were the work of the editor, who put 
the different books of Enoch tt^^ether and added Ixxx and Ixxxi. 

B. (a) Belation of xo1-o1t to i-xzxvl. Do these sections 
proceed firom the same author 1 or if not, of what natuie is the 


Introduction. 36j 

manifeBt relaiioik between them 1 Let na proceed to weif^ the 
evidenee od the former question. At first mght, the evidence 
for unity of authorship seema overwhelming, (i) The phnse 
'ye will have no peace' is found in xci-^iv and in i-zxsvi, and in 
tbeae Bectioue only — xdv.6; xoviii. ii, t6; xcix.13; ci- 3; eii.3; 
ciii. 8 ; i. 8 ; v. 4 ; xii. 5 ; xiii. i ; xvi. 4. ' Plant of righteouS' 
nesB,' xciii. a, S, 10; x. 16. (3) Titles of Ood in common. 'The 
Holy and Great Ooe,' xcil. 3 ; xcviL 6 ; xcviii. 6 ; civ, 9 ; x. i ; 
xiv. I ; XXV. 3. ' The Great One,' ciii. 4 ; oiv. i ; xiv. 3. ' The 
Great Glory,' cii. 3; xiv. 30. (3) References in each to the 
Law, zcix. 3; V. 4: to the eating of blood, zcviii. 11; vii. 5: 
to the regularity of nature, ci. 1-7 ; ii. i-v. 4 : to the hardhearted- 
ne« of men, xoviiL 11; v. 4. (4) No hint of a Uesaiah in either. 
(5) The division 1^ human history io the Apocalypse of Weeks into 
ten weeks, each ai^wiently of seven generations, seems to agree 
with X. 13, where a period of seventy generations is given. (6) 
The dato of the final judgment over the Watchers in xci. 15 
at the close of the tenth week seems to agree with the dato 
assigned to it in x. is, i.e. at the end of seventy generations. 

(7) In hoth the resurrection is taught, xci. 10; xcii,3; c.5; xxii. 

(8) In both tlie scene of the Uessianio kingdom is the earth 
OS it is. 

There are thus many pointo of connexion, but as we proceed 
we shall see that these are mainly extomal. The points of 
divergence, on the other hand, are far more serious because 
intomal. (i) In the first place, the last four points of agreenient 
mentioned above are apparent, but not reaL The seventh day 
of the tenth week in xci 15 m&rks tA« dow 0/ l&e MtadcMie 
kingdom, which be£[&n in the eighth week: whereas the seventy 
generations in x. 13 tenninato with the ulatli^uneiU of ttu 
Mesnanie kingdom, "Sfsc do tiiese periods start irom the same 
dato ; the Apocalypse of Weeks reokuus &oin the creation of 
Adam : the seventy generations from the judgment of the angels. 
(3) The final judgment in xci, ig is held at the close of the 
UeBsianic kingdom, bnt in x. I3, zvL i, before its eetablishment. 
(3) Whereas the reHorreotion implied in xxii is only a reeusdtation 
to a tamporary blessedness, v. 9, x. 17, xxv. 6, the resurrection 
in xci-oiv is not to the temporary Messianic kingdom spoken 
of in xci. 13, 14, xcvi. 8, but to one of eternal blessedness sub- 
sequent to the final judgment. For, from c. 4, g we see that the 
righteous do not rise tUl God has judged sinners and an end has 


262 The Book of Enoch. [Sect, v. 

been made of ttU sin. Thus the resurrection of the righteous 
in zci-civ follows the final judgment at the dose of the temporary 
Meeuanic kingdom in xci-«iv. Farther evidence to this effect 
ia to be found in xcii. 3, 4, where the rightecas are said to ' walk 
in eternal light ' : in civ. 6, where they are to become ' companions 
of the heavenly hosts': in civ. 2, where they are to 'shine as - 
the stars,' and have 'the portals of heaven open to them.' These 
statements could not possibly apply to the members of the tem- 
porary Messianic kingdom. (4) There is only a resarreotion 
of the righteons in xci-civ : cf. xci. i O ; xcii. 3 ; c. 5 : whereas in 
xxii a general reenrreotlon with the exception of one class of 
sinners is taoght. (5) There is no resurrection of the body in 
xci-civ : there is a resurrection of the body in i-xxxvi. (6) Con- 
trast the spiritual nature of the kingdom in xci-civ with the 
crass materialism of i— xxxvi, where much of the bliss conusts 
in good eating and drinking and the begetting of lai^ families, 
and life itself depends on the external eating of the tree of life. 
(7) Finally, contrast the answers given by i-xxxvi and xci-civ to the 
question ' why do the righteous suffer )' See pP'5ti, 57; 364, 365. 

The lines of thought, then, being so divergent in these two 
sections, there is no conclusion open to ns other than tiiat they 
proceed from different authors; whereas the obvious points of 
agreement necessitate the assumption that one of the two authors 
had the work of the other before him, and we need feel no hesita- 
tion in concluding that the author of xci-«iv had i-xxxvi or some 
form of this section before him — some form of this section we 
repeat, for it is at the best fragmentary. 

B. (&) BeUtion of xel-olT to IxxxlfJ-^o. There are some 
points of resemblaace between these sections, (i) Elijah's trans- 
lation referred to, xciii. 8; Ixxilx. 53. Qod rejoices over the 
destruction of the wicked, xciv. lo; Ixxxix. 58. (3) Titles of 
Ood in common : 'The Great King,' xci. 13, Ixxxiv. 5 ; 'the Holy 
and Great One,' zcti. 3 (note), Ixxxiv. i. 

But these and other superficial points of resemblance are far 
outweighed by the divergent lines of thought porsaed in the two 
sections, which render the theory of one and undivided authorship 
impossible. We should observe then, that— (i) the Ueseianio 
kingdom is finite in duration in xci-civ, i.e. from the eighth 
to the tenth world-week inclusive ; wheraas in Ixxxiii— xc it ia 
eternal. In xd-eiv the final judgment takes place at the close 
of the Messianic kingdom: in Ixxxiii-xo it is consummated at 


Sect, v.] Introduction. . 263 

the beginning of the Ueesumic kingdom, (a) There is a resur- 
rection of the righteous only in xci-civ; hut in Ixxziii-xc a 
resnrrection of apostate JewB also. (3) Ulie period of the sword 
is differently dated and conceived in the two sections. lu xin-cir 
it is separated from the final judgment by the whole period of 
the MeBsianic kingdom, see zci. la : in Ixxziii-xc it immediately 
precedes the final judgment, see xo. 19: in xci-civ it is ethical 
and vindictive — the destruction of the wicked by the righteous ; 
in Ixzxiii-xc it is national and vindictive — the destruction of the 
hostile Gentiles by the Jews. (4) The building of the Temple 
precedes the final judgment in xci-civ : in Ixxxiii-xc it is subse- 
quent to the final judgment. (5) The scene of the Uetwianic 
kingdom in xci— dv is apparently heaven; for in xci. 14—16 the 
former heaven and earth are destroyed and a new heaven created, 
but no new earth, and in civ. a heaven ia thrown open to the 

We must therefore conclude that xci-civ and Ixxxiii-xc proceed 
from different authors, and this concluuon is confirmed when we 
observe the forcible dislocations that zd-civ have undergone at the 
hands of the final editor. This section taken in the following 
order, xcii; xci. i-io; xdii. i~io; xci. ia-19; xciv (see 
p. a6o) forms a complete book in itself and presents a worid- 
view peculiarly its own. Why then was the original order de- 
parted from, unless in order to adapt it to a new context 1 On all 
sides, then, the condusion is irresistible that xci-civ once formed 
an indepeiMlent writing : that it was afterwards incorporated into 
a latter work, and underwent its present dersngements in the 
process of incorporation. 

O. Tbe Authorahip and Sate. The author belongs to a 
clearly defined party. That this party is the FhariBees is obvious ; 
for it is exdnsive in an extreme degree, xcvii. 4 ; it is an upholder 
of die law .against an apostate hellenizing party, xcix. a, 14; it 
looks forward to a temporal triumph over its opponents, zci. la, 
&c.; it believes iu a final judgment and resurrection of the 
righteous, xci. 10, xcii. 3, and in Sheol as the place of eternal 
punishment for the wicked, xcix. 1 1, oiii. 7, 8. 

The enemies of this party are rich and trust in their riches, 
xovi 4, xcviL 8-10, zcviii. a: they oppress and rob the poor 
of thdr wages, xcix. 13: they have forsaken the law, xcix. 2, 
fitlsified the O.T. writings, and led men astray through their 
heathen doctrines, xdv. 5, civ. 10: they are given up to super- 


264 The Book of Enoch. [Sect v. 

station and idoUUzy, xdx. 7-9: they hold that Qod does not 
concern HimBsIf with the doingi of men, zcriiL 6, 1, oiv. 7, (uid 
that life ceaeea with the grare, cii. 11. As the former part; are 
dengnated aa the 'children of heaven,' ci. i, theBe are called the 
' children of earth,' 0. 6, cit. 3. 

The date of thia clearly defined and developed oppoeitioo of 
the two partiea cannot have been pre-Maccabean, nor yet earlier 
than the breach between John Hyrcanna and the Fhariseea. Bnt 
a Btill later date most be assomed according to the literal inter- 
pretation of ciii. 14, 15, where the mlera are said to uphold the 
Sadducean oppressors and to share in the mnrder of the righteooB. 
IhU charge ia not jnstified befinre 95 b.c. As for the later limit, 
the Herodian princes cannot be the rulers here meutioned, fbr the 
Saddacees were irreconoilably opposed to these, as aliens and 
usurpers. It appears, therefore, that thia section' should be 
aesi^ied either to the years 95-J9 b.c. or to 70-64 b.c, daring 
which periods the Pharisees were crppreesed by both rulers and 

If, on the other hand, we might regard the word ' mnrder ' as 
merely a stitmg expression fbr a severe persecution, and the mlence 
elsewhere observed as to the rulers would pdut to this interpreta- 
tion, then we should naturally refer this section to the years 
134—95 B.C., i.e. after the breach between Hyrcanna and the 
Pharisees and before the savage destraction of the Pharisees by 
Jaapaeus in 95. If the date of the book is subsequent to 95, 
the merely passing referenoe in ciiL 15 to the cruelties of Jannaeos 
is hardly intelligible. We ahoold expect rather the fiwce indig- 
nation {gainst ' the kings and the mighty,' which we actually do 
find in xxxvii-lsz, and which fittingly expresses the feelings of 
the Pharisees towards Jannaene, ' the dayer of the pious.' We 
are Inclined therefore to place xci-civ before 95 b.o., and if we 
may regard c. z as an historical reference, these chapters are to 
be assigned to the years 104-95 B.o. 

The author is thus a Pharisee, writing between the years 104 
and 95 B. 0. 

D. The Problem and its Bolation. The author of i-xxxvi 
solves the problem of the righteons suffering by their resuscitation 
to a temporary blessedness in the Messianic kingdom : the wicked 
dead who »Meaped pvmuhmtnt in life, xxii. 10, 1 1, rise also to 
receive requital for their sin. What becomes of the righteons 
after their second death is not so much as hinted at in that section. 


Sect. v.] Chapter XCI. I, 2. 265 

"ntoa in tUa respect tbe solntioii of the problem here pregented has 
not advanced a single step beyond that given in le. Ixv and Ixvi. 

But this solution of the problem nmst have failed early to give 
satisfaction. In Tci-Kiiv we find another attempt to grapple with 
this difficulty, and in this an answer immeasumbly more profound 
is acbieTed. The wicked are eeemingly sinning with impunity ; 
yet their evil deeds are recorded every day, civ. 7 ; and forthege 
they will suffer endless retribution in Sheol, xcix. \i; iac Sbeol 
is not a place such as the O. T. writers conceived, but one in 
which men are requited acoor^ng to their deserte, cii. 4-ciT. 5. 
From this bell of d&rluiees and flame their souls will never escape, 
xcviii. 3, 10; civ. 7, 8. But the time is coming when even on 
earth the wicked will perish and the righteous triumph over them, 
on the advent of the UeBsianic kingdom, at the beginning of the 
eighth world-week, xci, 12 ; xcv. 7 ; icvi. r ; xcviii. la ; xcix. 4, 6. 
This kingdom will last till the close of the tenth world-week, and 
during it the righteouB will etyoy peace and well-being, and see 
many good days on earth, xcL 13, 14; zcvi. 8. Then will ensue 
the final judgment with the destruction of the former heaven and 
earth, and the creation of a new heaven, xoi 14-16. And the 
righteous dead, who have been specially guarded by angels all 
the time hidierto, c. 5, will thereupon be raised, xci. lo, xciL 3, 
as spirits only, cliL 3, 4, and the portals of the new heaven will 
be c^ned to them, civ. a, and they shall joy as the angels, civ, 4, 
and become compudons of the heavenly hosts, civ. 6, and shine as 
the stars for ever, civ. a. 

XCI. I. 'And now, my sod Methuselah, call to me all thy 
brothers and gather together to me all the sons of thy 
mother ; for the word calls me and the ^irit is poured out 
upon me that I should show you everything that will hefall 
you for ever.' a. Thereupon Methu«ekh went and called 

XCI. I. Q gives a different order of the words : ' call to me all 
the nms of thy mother, and gather bother to me thy brothers.' 

XOI. 1. EMoh oalk Ut sms to- S,6. All the sons of thr mother. 

8«U>» Om of Uw edikci of thii The namai of thsM loiu is given in 

book bM almdy pi^Med for tbe the ^Tonio Bnooh. The word oalla 

iabodnetion of thi« eeotioa in bcxxL me. Thii eipreMlan must be takan 


266 The Book of Enoch. [Beet. v. 

to turn all his brothers and assembled his relatiTes. 5. And 
he conversed with all Uie children of righteousness and spake : 
' Hear, ye eons of Enoch, all the words of your father, and 
hearken befittingly to the voice of my month; for I exhort 
and say unto you, beloved, love uprightness and walk therein. 
4. Ajid draw not nigh to uprightness with a double heart, 
and associate not with those of a doable heart; but walk 
in uprightness and righteooaness, and it will guide you on 
good paths and righteousness will be your companion. 5. 
For I know that a condition of oppression will increase on the 
earth and a great chastisement will be executed on the earth, 
and all nnrighteousness will be consummated and be cut off 
from the roots, and its whole superstructure destroyed. 6. 
And unrighteouBuess will again be consummated on the earth, 
and all the deeds of nnrighteonsness and of violence and tnms- 

3. With aU the children of rlglitoousneas. So G tD-CtSA KS^. 
Din. reads a>ib^ ft-C^ ' with all hia cUldrcD concerning right- 
eonsneBB.' T« bohb of Snoch. SoGM. OtherMSS. andDhi. 'my 
Bons.' Beloved. SoGM. Other MSS. ' my beloved.' 4. And 
awooiate not with those of a douhle hoart Wonting in G. ITp- 
rlghtnesB and. So Q flC^lh (D. Other MSS. omit and read ' my 
Bone' after 'righteonsneBe.' 6. AfterXOiyjS'irG inserts (D^Xmi, 
and FHILMN lOWAjTI. The former is poasibly a corruption of 
(D^1f1I(Beelxxxi. 6 Grit. Note) 'will grow atrong.' I have however 
followed the reading of FHILMNO ' will prevail,' omitted in Din. 
And tram g r o salon. From this point the order of G is coniuBed. 
It omits for the present xci. 7— xovii. 6* and connects xcvii. 6l>-cTiii. 
10 directly with xci. 6. Then it resumes with the last word 
of xci. 6 and proceeds without break to xctIi. 6*. With the words 
'the Great and Hol^ One' begins a fresh section, xcrii. 6^-cviii. 10, 
but from a difierent MS. than G — a fact which will be con6rmed 

u aquivilent to ' the Spitit u paored of. Pa. tii. 3, 371 3? ; Jw. i. 8, lfl(«X0T. 

out upon me.' S. Ii«Te upright- Awooiata not, fto.: of. xdv. i, 3 ; 

neis, *o. ! of. idT. I. 4. Draw oiv. 6. S. Tha Deluge. Out off 

not nigh to nprlchtncn with « from the roota: cf. *t. S, ii. 6. 

doable heart. This is oDdouUedly The growth of wiokednaa kfter tha 

deTiTed&oiaBcaltii.<. jSj/i^rpor^Afpi Deluge. And traiugreulau : m* 

B^y(i.e.^^mpl<iv)JrBv)ff!<i70$: Orit.Not& PteTaU: see Grit. Note. 


Sect.v.] Chapter XCL 3-11. 267 

gresBioD will again prevail. 7. And then when imnghteoiiB- 
ness and ai& and blasphemy and violence in all kinds of deeds 
will increaee, and apostasy and transgreesion and oncleanness 
increase, a great chaatisement from heaven will come upon 
th^m all, and the holy Lord will come forth with wrath and 
chastisement to execute judgment on earth. 8. In those 
days violence will be cut off from its roots and the roots 
of unrighteoasneas, together with deceit, and they will be 
destroyed from under heaven. 9. And all the idols of the 

heathen will be abandoned : tiie temples will be bnmed with 
fire and they will be removed from the whole earth, and they 
(i.a the heathen) will be cast into the judgment of fire and 
will perish in wrath and in grievous eternal judgment. 10. 
And the righteous one will arise from sleep and wisdom will 
arise and be given unto them. [11. And after that the 

when we deal with that section. Thus, for chapters zcvii. 6l>- 
cviij. 10 we pOBsesa two MSS. belonging to the beginning of the 
uzteenth century. In that section we shall distingoieh the two 
MSS. aa Q and 0'. 7. In aU Unda of deeds. So OM. 

Other MSS. 'and all kinds of deeds.' And tranagresalon. 
Wanting in G. From baaven. Wanting in G. The holy 
lord. After these words adds JEfli r'AC 8. For a)A^£0i 
Ooi^ G reads (DOodH and omita tOpt^btC against H and all 
other MS8.: 'in those days violence will be cut off from ita roota 
and uorigbteouBoeBB together with deceit from under heaven.' 

9. For A^'^Al' G reads JB^'Nl ii. For ]t/"j«) G reads 

T.S.ThiifrMlldeTelapmBiitofwiGked- when the oonvenloiL of the hutboi 

nen wiUeill forth the SiuJ judgment. U ezpeotad. That Tcne, howsTer, 

Boot! tS tmrlcliteaauieM : of. vr. belong! to the Apooaljpae of Week* 

5, II. 8. The abeolate rajeetion which hu kit the appeannoe of mi 

of the heathen weau to be taught esfller bagment iitoorporated in hk 

faere. This ma a prevuling though work b; the original aoUrar of xd-dr. 

not the imiveraal belief of later 10. Tha rightaona one. Uaed ool- 

JutUam: tea Webar, L. d. T. 36S. leotiTelj aa in zoiL 3. In zei-dv 

Idolatry la repnibated in zoiz. 7-9, only tbe lighteoaa attain to the Beaor- 

10, M here. Ther will be oaM Into reetion : «ee li. i (note) for full dla- 
ths Judgment of fire. TUt leproba- eaaiioD of the lubjeot. Wiadran : 
tion of the heathen iltrai not appear see zUL I, » (note). 11. Aa we 
to agree with the teaching irf Ter. 14, have lilTead; leen (p. 360), zm. 12- 



The Book of Enoch. 


roots of aQri|*ht«oaBDefl8 will be cut ofE and the sinnars will 
be destroyed by the sword (uid the roots) will be cut off from 
blasphemetv in eTery pla<!e, and those who devise oppression 
and those who commit blasphemy will perish by the ed^ of 
the Bword.] i a. And after that tliere will be anoUier week, 
the eighth, that of righteousness, and a sword will be given 
to it that judgment and righteonratess may be ezecnted on 
those who commit oppression, and sinners will be delivered 
into the buids of the righteoos. 15. And at its close they 

will aoqoire houses throng their li^teoosness, and the house 
of the Great King will be built in glory for ever more. 14. 
And after that in the ninth week the righteoos jadgment wUI 

Xj'"'^Ca). In Bvary plaoe. ' Place ' wanting in Q. Tho8« 
who devlatt oppression and those who oonunlt lilasphamy. 
G reads 'those who devise and those who commit hlasphemy.' 
13. The bouse of the Great King wUl be bttilt In glory. 80 M 
nh-Orfi^. Other MBS. ' a honse will be built to the glory of the 

17 ociginsUj (Cood sAer xatil. i-io. 
As fcr this rone, «a ma«t regwd 
it u an interpcJatioii added fa; the 
final editor in order to introdcce 
TT. la-ij) whioh ha had torn from 
thdr original ooDtazt. Thla veraa Ii 
wlu>ll7 out of plsM hare. Jodgment 
baa alraady bam oonnmuaated, all 
stU worki ileatrojed, and all the 
winked handed OTer to a judgment of 
fire (tt. 7-9). In tct. io the Reiar- 
reoUon anaaea and jadgmsnt la noir 
onr. Butinver. II allthuiat(fnond 
Bod a Toaa^ ohao* li repiManted ai 

jodgmont of tt. 7-; 
the period of the Bword — man'i part 
in the final judgment — praoadaa tha 
BMOnection ; ef. so. 19 ; zai. 1 1. The 
Beannevtion fbllowi upon Uie deitino- 
tlon of all anl and the final judgment, 
e. 4, 5. Finally, thia vena eeama 
modelled psrtjj on tt. 7 and 8, and 
partly on T«c. I i,tb« eipM^gw about 

blaipbenun being drawn from tw. 7, 
the phiaae ' roota of nnrighteonanees 
will be (Hit off' &am Tcr. S, and tha 
refwenoe to the Sword from Ter. 1 3. 
la-lS. llgae Tenae ginng an aooonnt 
of the fiMt three weelu of the world's 
hiatory ihoald be read after loiii. i- 
to (lee p. 160), the aoootmt of tha 
fiirt irTun weeka. 19. The eighth 
week Mas the eatablishment of tha 
Hearianlo kingdom. It likewiae tbima 
the flrvt aot of the Sua! judgment; 
for it is the period of the Sword ; cf. 
sa 19; and tha wicked ara giTeo 
into the haada of the il^iteona ; cf. 
SOT. 7; sari i; seviH. u; idi. 4,6; 
alao zzzTlil. 5. IS. On the po^ml 
of itrife will follow that of rest and 
quiet poMoatloa of the earth ; of. Is. 
Iz. 11, %i ; IzT. 10-33. The honae 
of the Otm* Kins : see Crit. Note. 
Thia mMOB first of all (he Temple, and 
in the next plaoa Jarasalem. 14. 

TUa i<cM is diffimlt. The ninth 
week, aa Din. auppoaes, may maan 


itradb, Google 

Sect, v.] Chapter XCI. 12-17. 269 

be reredied to the vhtJe world, and all the works of the g:od- 
less will Taaieh from the whole earth, aiEd the world will be 
written down for destmctioD, and all mankind will look to 
the path of nprightnees. i5> And after this, in the tenth 

week in the seventh part, there will be the great eternal 
jadgment, in which He will execute Teogesnce amongst the 
(mgels. 16. And the first heaven will depart and pass 

away, and a new heaven will appear, and all the powers of 
the heavens will diine sevenfold for ever. 17. And after 
that there will be many weeks without number for ever in 
goodness and righteouaness, and sin will no more be mentioned 

Great King.' 14. WiU be revealed. G reads thtft (sic). 

All tta« work! of tbe godleso. reade ' stl the godless.' The 
world will be written down for deatruotlon. G reads ^Jt'rfi^S 
A/b'Mli ?A^ ' one Bhall write dovn the destruction of the world.' 
15. Seventb part. 'Seventh' wanting in O. The great 

eternal Judgment, In wbioli He win oxecmte vangeaQce amongat 
the angels. So U, and also G, but that it reads ^(It^ instead 
of ^O^A as M. F U L and Din. ' the eternal judgment, 
which is held over the watchers, and the great eternal heaven 
which springs from amongst the angels': thns adding ofttlMii 
Jl^^tT-y^i tobPHf-: HrtWy". This was probably a marginal 
gloss. It appears in I N as ' which is held over the watchers of 
the eternal heaven.' 1 6. WUl shine sevenfbld for aver. 

G reads ^(ICtf- and omits MM". 17. In goodneaa. G inserts 

the period in which true religion will >□<!■ with ths final judgment on th« 

aprad OTBT Uie earth, and (h« judg- wsCohan. Aj there ii no mentioii of 

ment deaoribad in rer. Ii, ud eze- the judgnuat of the wicked bj Gkkt 

ented b; the righteoiu, will be made in person in thia vene, the preceding 

known to tha neatnJ Ositile n&tioni vene may in ninia meunre refer to 

witli ■ view to their oonTtosioii : of. it. The sreat eternal Judgnimit : 

1, i-S; 10.30, 33, 3S. Wlththi»»iow "oa Grit Note; also ilv. a (note), 

the oonclading wordi of thia verae 10. Obaarre thM thon^ then will 

woQld hArmoniie well. Yet aea ver. be a new he»Ten, cC la. liv. 17; 

15 (note). Tha works of the god- Ixvi. 11 ; Pi. oii. 36, there ia no men- 

leaa will Tuilah ; cf. z. 16, 10, 31. tioo of » new euth, of. dv. 3 (note). 

The world will be written down Tia the idra of > new onaitioii, cf. 

for dartmotion. Thia daatlnntion slv. 4 ; Izzil. I (nota). Barenfold ; 

will take effect towarda the oloae of the li. Is. xxx. 16; li. ig, lo. 17. 

tenth week. IS. The tenth week Thia vene oltKe* the Apocalfpae of 

Digitized byCoOglc 

270 The Book of Enoch. [Sect.V. 

for ever. 1 8. And now I tell you, my bodSj and I Bhow 
yon the paths of rig'hteousness and the paths of violence, and 
I will show them to you again that ye may know what will 
happen. 19. And now, hearken, my sons, and walk in the 
patiis of righteootmese and walk not in paths of violence ; for 
all who walk in the paths of anrighteonsness will perish 
for ever/ 

XCII. I. Written by Enoch the eoribe, t^s complete 
doctrine of wisdom which deserves the praise of all men and 
is a jndge of the whole earth, for all my children who will 
dwell on the earth and the future generations who will 
observe uprightnees and peace. 2. Let not your spirit be 
troubled on account of the times ; for the Holy (and) Oreat 
One has appointed days for all things. 3. And the 

righteous one will arifie from sleep, will arise and walk in 
the path of righteousnesB, and all his path and conversation 
will be in eternal goodness and grace. 4. He will be 

before these words aiIfA*(n>' ' and all of them in goodness.' 18. 
The paths of rlghteonsnesa. G reads 'all the paths of righteons- 
nesB.' Will ahow to yon. G reads ftC^^fbturB*. 19. 

Bearkan and. Wanting in Q, repeated thrice in M. 

XCU. I . The aorihe, this complete dootrine of wisdom. O 
reads: 0^9!^^ Mti^t XTh; Sfffft; H»ln tSy"CTl iotJ»«Ch 
T(HI. aMBb-*}}. O U omit the to. 2. On aooount of the 
tlmea. O reads lUffl ' indeed,' ' tnily.' 3. For the righteous 
one will arise from sleeqp, will arise O merelj gives fi^i'^^: 
TfHI ' wisdom will arise.' M ' righteousness will arise from its 

WmIu. 16, 18. TlioM form a Tbi* book ia munly pncUcal in cha- 

moit anUabls tmudtion from th« nwter. A ladae of Iha whole 

Apooalfpao of Weeks to xdT. earth. Wlidoiii u rspresenlad u the 

XOU. Tbia chapter fbrma the real ■wiptipos or imcaaor oTGod in liziiv. 

begiDning of the independent book 3 : tee note. a. The timea are 

CDrnpoMd of aliKpten xO'dT. The evil ; bat the« too are the ordination 

order of the cnginal text wai (>se of God. The Holr (and) Qreat 

p. 160) zoii; xd. i-io; zdll. i-io; One: aeeL 3 (note). S.Theiitfit- 

xoi. 11-19; imT. 1, The aorlbe: eona one. Uied ooUeetivel; aa in 

cf. lU. 3, 4. Dootrine of wladom. xd. 10. In eternal soodneai Mid 


Sect. v.] Chapters XCI. 1& — XCIII. 2. 271 

gracious to the righteous and will f^ve him eternal upright- 
ness, and will give him power, and he will live in goodness 
and righteoasneea, and will walk in eternal light. 5. And 

sin will perish in darkness for ever, and will no more be seen 
from that day for evermore. 

XCIII. I. And after that Enoch b^an to recount from 
the books. 2. And Enoch spake : ' ConcCTning the children 
of righteonsneas and concerning the elect of the world and 
the plant of uprightness — of these I will speak to 70U and 

sleep, Trill arise.' 4. To Uie ligliteouB. O reads AX'Ji^ ' to 

XCni. I. For M G reads OiDAl. a. Plant of tvrJghtnma. 

gnoa. Then wot^ we fmrtli«r ax- 
pikiaed in var. 4. 4. Power. 

Uprightneaa Mid powsr will no longer 
be diiHTered. In etomml llsht: «e 
iiXTiij.4 (note). 5. Cf. i. 16, io. 
XOm. 1-10. In ttose Terwi we 
have an aooooot of tbe gieat events 
of the worid daring the fit*l •evsni 
weeki of ita history. Tbeae ■erm 
belong to tbe paat, tba three lart 
weeka deacribed in zed. 13-17 l>eloi>g 
to the fatuie. Afl thia Apoealjpae 
of Weaka oomaa from ■ difienot an- 
thoc and date to the Dream-vinoiu, 
Ixxzui-zo, we are relieved of the 
tnak of hannonitiDg them, on whioh 
many oritioa hare laboured and to no 
poipoaa. We are not to ragaid the 
ten weeka aa bong daRnite and equal 
perioda of 700 yean aaoh, aa Wiaaeler, 
HoStaiaun, and othen have done ; for, 
not to preaa the fact that thU reckon- 
ing would plaoa the book after Chitat, 
the faota reooided aa oooatring in the 
indiTidaal weeki wonld not till within 
the limit* aaaigned tlmn by thia 
theory. Dln.'a aoheme of aeven^ 
-genetationa of vaiying length, seven 
geneialiona to eaoh wash, ia atill more 
nnaatiahctary. In tt^Givt five weeks, 
seren aotnsl generations ais taken 
for eaoh week ; bnt in tbe tilth and 

■eventii weeks fearteen or more gene- 
latiooi are compreaed into the needfol 
saven. Sather we are to r^aid the 
ten weeka as perioda of varying 
length, each one of wUoh ia marked, 
eapeoially towards ita (dote, by a<ane 
great event — the Gnt by the Inrth of 
Enoch : the aeoond by the onmption 
of primitiTs man and the Flood : tbe 
third by the call of Abraham: the 
fourth by tho revelation of Uie law 
and the oocapation tt Paleatine : the 
fifth by the building of the Tunple: 
the nzth by the apoatasy of Ivad 
and the dastmotion of the Tonple : 
the aeveDth by the publication of 
Enocb'a vrridnga. Cf. also L» Lttrt 
(TSenovh, par T. Q. Peter, Qen^e, 
1890. 1. Prom the book*, lliete 
were eithw irritten by Enoch, ao- 
cmding to acme aactiona ; or by the 
angel that aooompanied him, aooonl. 
ing to othen : of. iziiii. 3, 4 ; iL 8 ; 
Ixxiv. a; Izzii. 1, a. In the next 
Twse Eooeh appeala to viuona, angali, 
and the heavenly tables, h the lource 
of Us tevdationa. 9. Thes* dia- 

eloanraa are for the children of light- 
eonaneaa: of. idl. i. The eleot of 
tiie world. Thia designation of the 
elect ia not found elsewhere in Bnooh, 
The plant of aprlshtn«ai : aea x. 

itradb, Google 

272 The Book of Enoch. [Seot. v. 

announce to yoa, my sons, I Enoch, aooordin^ to that which 
i^pearod to me in the heareoly vision, and know thron^h the 
word of the holy angels, and have learnt from the heavenly 
tables.' 3. And Enoch b^an to ncount from the books 
and spake : ' I was bom the seventh in the first week, while 
jodgment and rigbteoosnees still tarried. 4. And after me 
there will arise in the second week great wickedness, uid 
deceit wiU spring up ; and in it there will be the &iBt end and 
in it a man will be saved ; and after it is ended onrig^teons- 
ness will grow up and He will make a law for the Bianers. 

5. And after that in the third week at its close a man 
will be chosen as the plant of righteoas judgment^ and 
after him will come for evermore the plant of righteousnees. 

6. And after that in the fourth wed:, at its close, visions of 
the holy and righteous will be seen, and a law for all future 
generations and an enclosure will be made for them. 7. 
And after that in the fifth week, at its close, will the house 

So GM. Other MSS. 'plant of rif^teonBDees and uprightness.' 
5. Plant of righteous Judgment. adds HA^Ay", and omlta 
the rest of the verse. Before lllfl! 9fS^ M inserts rt. 6- 
G reads 9:S^\ fi-'TiJifi- 'tLere will be vimons of the holy ones 

16 (nota). EMvenlr tablaa: «es nant nude with NcMh: Q«tL viii. ai- 

llvii. 3 (note) for a compUta mooouiit ii. 17. Tfaa dme order in the oIom 

of thii and ■Imilai' expresdons. 8. of thii MntoDoe fi not otnerred. D. 

Savonth In tha flxit weak. Enid Abnham aiid iu» »ed choaen ii the 

and Din. find in this eipreagiaD tha noe in and tbrough which God would 

faondatioD of their theory that the reToalHiirigiitHnu judgment*— 'the 

CMkooing here ia aoocoding to genera- plant of rightaocu jadg^nent ' : of. tot. 

tionj. Bnt thii la to preai tha wordi a ; i. 16 (note). 6. Vlaloiu of 

too muoh. The; mean nothing mora tha holr, Aa. Tha divine nunifarta- 

tlun'Hventh in biagenaratian,' Book tiona in favour of I*nel in EgjpU 

at JubUeea vii, or 'aarantli &om A law, fto. The law f(iven on Sinai. 

Adam,' Judo 14. Still tftrrisd. Tba Thii law ia of eternal obligation : of. 

righteoDj judgment of the Ddoge had zoii. a. An enolotore. Din. thinka 

not 7Bt come. 4. Oraat wioked* this ralen to the l^bemaole and the 

naai. Aooording to vi. 6 and ovL 13 hedging in of the national life b; tlia 

this growth of wickedneae should have law. It seami rather to refer to tha 

bean aingned to Jared's dajs, when ooonpation of Paleetina j cf, Izxziz. ». 

(befall of tbe angels look plaoe. This 7. The Temple. The Tonple wiU, 

week includes the Deluge and Cove- Moardlng to this author, stand ' for 



Chapter XCIII. 3-1 1. 


of glory and domiuton be boilt for ever. 8. And after tliat 
in the sixth week, oil those who live in it will be blinded, 
and the hearts of all of them will be given over to a wicked 
forgetfulnesB of wisdom, and in it a man will ascend; and at 
its dose the house of dominion will be burnt with firej and 
the whole race of the elect. root will be dispersed. 9. And 

after that in the Berenth week will a generation arise and 
many will be its deeds, and all its deeds will be apostate. 
10. And at its close will the elect of righteousness of the 
eternal plant of righteoosnees be elected to receive sevenfold 
instruction oonceraing His whole creation. [11. For who 

aod righteousness will appear.' 9. Oaneratloii. 8a Q M. 

'Other M8S. 'apostate generatioo.' 10. The elect of rlghteona- 
ne«a. SoDGLO. Q reads .M:;>i:^ 'Ksffs jf^. ABCFHI 
give 'the elect, the righteous.' EN 'the elect aod righteous.' 
Be elected. 80 A{C)EFGHIMN *t?«. Dhi. with 
B D gives ' he recompensed.' Conoemlns Hfs whole 

ertt',' (bough one tbnn of It ia>; giTO 
pUoe to Miother. If thi* Apoa>l]rpM 
of Weeks was originAlly nn int^nl 
part of zci-dT, thU ' for ever ' mauu 
onl; an bid«fiiiite1; long time; fbr 
though there u an eternal law, there 
appears to be no Temple after tlta 
final Judgment, and the riees right- 
eoai eqoj a purely spiritoal eiiitaDae 
like the angela, u in the Book of 
Jnbdleei, and poadbtf in the Fm. of 
SdomoD. a The time of the 

divided kingdom in Iirael, of gruwing 
degenerai^ and darknew, A nuui, 
I.e. ^jah: of. Ixxiix. ji. At the 
doH of (his week the Tsmpie ii 
dee(royed and, (he niUJOD owried into 
aaptiTi(y. 9. This week eoibraon 
the period &om tlM CaptiTitj to the 
(iuie of (he author. It ia an apostate 
period. The same judgment i> passed 
upon it in luxiz. 73-75. 10. The 
writer here refers to bis own dia- 
do«UN« which will be made known 

at the and of the aerenth week. It 
mi^t seam that it would be im- 
poeaible for any wri(er to make such 
eitravagan( duini for hia productions. 
Wefind •om* alight approach (o tbeaa 
in Bcolns. ixl*. 18-31, and a perfeot 
pHiallel in (he oase of 'Walking' 8(0 wart 
of the early part oF (his oentuiy. 
This writer, who was also the greatcat 
traToUer of his age, styles one of his 
prodDationa, ' this unparalleled wolk 
of human energy,' and describes hiui- 
self as possessing s ' unique mind,' 
and ' onpaiallelsd energies of geoiua.' 
Nay, more, he makes (he wa of 
'lD(eUeo(ual Life or Uoral World' 
to date tram the publication of hia 
ehioF work, and, beliering chat only 
future ages would appreciate him, pre- 
vailed on his personal &iends to bury 
bis books in seoure place* : see De 
Qoinoey's Euagi, vol. vii. The eleol 
of rlshtaoasneas. The revelation! 
aN designed for these, for only (heae 


474 ^^ ^^^ 9f Enoch. [6»ct. v. 

is there of all the children of men that is able to heiur the 
-voice of the Holy One and qoakes not (thereat) ? And who is 
there that can Ihink His tbongbts? and who is there tliat 
can eee all the works of heaven? 12. And how shonld 

there be one who could behold the heaven and who ia there 
who conld understand the things, of heaven and see a soul 
or a spirit and tell thereof, of ascend and see all their ends and 
conceive them or do like themP 13. And who is there of 

all men that conld know what is the length and the breads 
of the earth, and to whom has been shown the measure of all 
of them? 14. Or is there any one who conld discern the 

length of the heaven and how high it is, and npon what it is 
founded, and how great is the number of the stars, and where 
all the luminaries rest ?] 

XCIY. I. And now I say onto yon, my sons, love right* 

oreatlon. For ^f^l^ Q reads T^l* 'conceraing H!b whole 
possessioDB.' 13. Wbo ooulcl bohold tbe beaven and wlio ia 
there who oonld understand. So O M ; H^ftA; \flCt\ tt^fii 
OMiih (D-Xt: tietlfl: AXfC. Other MS8. and Din. omit < behold 
the heaven and who ia there who could.' A aoal or a spirit. 
Bo BM : f¥A: iDhpot Ov aotiJi, and G gives l¥A and aotiM, 
and therefore practically supports M. Other MSB. and Din. 
give ' His breath or His Spirit.' TdlL O gives ItLC. 

will race<Tf them 1 cf.o.6; oIt. 13, ziiviii. 33 i Fn. xl. 5 ; z(di.5; Boclca, 

13. 11-14. Tken TSTHa nre oom- xi. 5. 13. A aonl cm ■ tpliit : mb 

pletel; oat of plkca in their preteut Cr{t.Not«. Thia would r«f«r to Bnooh'a 

■xmtext, u IdUirMiM, Hoflbium, uid joomey through bnTsn and Hadei. 

Schodda have klraady ranutikwl. A«ouid: ct ProT. xn. 4. Tholr 

Thef wonld belong nther to the andi, i. a. of the thing! of hekven. 

Sook of CelettlU Phyrid, IxxU-lxiiz, 13. CC Job xixviii. 4, 5. Not given 

Izzzii, bat are fordgn in chancto' in Enoch. U. The Isnath of the 

to the whole tone of tbi* book, lol- heeven, &o. Jer. xxxl. 37 ; Job xi. 8. 

dv, and do not u a matter of fact Not given in Enocdi. Foonded : ot 

rightly deaoribe tinj one of the boolia zriiL 3, 3. Number of the atwa. 

of Enoch, 11. The voioe of the Thia ia nowheie found in Bnoeb. 

H0I7 One, i.e. the thunder: «f. Job XOIV. Thii ohapter fbUowed Im- 

ztxrii. 4, £1 Pi. zxiz. Think HI* mediately on xd. ia-19 In the coital 

ef. Job T. 9 ; ix, 10 ; tat. It introdeoe* the pmetioal pwt 


Sfctv.] Chapters XCIII. 12—XCIV, 7. 275 

eoosness and walk therein ; for the patlis of ri^hteousDeas are 
worthy of acceptation, but the paths of nnrighteoasnese are 
suddenly destroyed and vanish. 2. And to certain men of 

a (fntnre) generation will the paths of violence and of death 
be revealed, and they will hold themselves afar from them 
and will not follow them. 3. And now I say onto you, the 
righteous : Walk not in the path of wickedness, nor on the 
paths of death, and draw not nigh unto them lest you be 
destroyed. 4. But seek and choose for yourselves righteous- 
ness and a holy life, and walk in the paths of peace that ye 
may live and prosper. 5. And hold fast my words in the 

thoughts of your hearts, and suffer them not to be effaced 
from your hearts ; for I know that sinners will tempt men to 
make wisdom wicked, and no place will be found for her and 
no manner of temptation will minish. 6. Woe to thwe 

who build unrighteousness and oppression and lay deceit as a 
foundation ; for they wiU be suddenly overthrown and will 
have no peace. 7. Woe to those that build their houses 

with sin ; for they will be overthrown from their foundation 
and will fall' by the sword ; and tiioee who aequire gold and 

XCIV. I. W<»tby of aooeptation. Q reads f-Mr. atfi.'twfh^. 
3. Fath fa wlokedneH. So O M . Other MSS. add ' and in 
violence.' 4. But Mok. O reads ho"; XA: fi-i^Ki iJM, and 

connects it with the preceding verse, ' as thoee who seek evil.' A 
holr tifb. This Boits the context better than Dln.'s 'ein wohl- 
falliges Leben.' That 70 may live and proeper. And hold 

of thii Boctton. TboDgh wiittan for of. id. 41 oir. iS. E. We tuve 

the rigbtaone, it devote* u mnoh kt- here ft wsmiog «^nit Snddno««i 

lentioii to tbe iroee kwutiikg the or Qreek influenoaa. TSo plaoa will 

snnen. 1. Iiove rlgbteoiunsu, be fOniLd for her: ct xlii. 8. 

Ao.: af.xd. 3, Worthr of uoept*- Some of the forms that wlokednew 

tion; cf. 1 Tim. i. 15. F»tha of will umme in thote dkys. Build: 

muighleotuneH aia deatoored : cf. icL 5, Hav« no pMtoe, This 

of. Fl. I. 6. 3. The TereUtiDiiB rtcan in icviii. ij, 16; zcix, 13; d. 

through Motel tod the PiopheU. 3; cU. 3; eli!. 8. See aleo 1. 4 

FaOu of dwth : ct Pror. ilv. ii ; (note). 7. Bnlld Utelr horuea 

Jw. xii. 8. S. Dtsw not nigh; with ein: of. Jer. zxii. 13. Thar, 


276 The Book of Enoch. . [Sect. v. 

silver will pemh in judgment suddenly. 8. Woe to yon ye 
rich, for ye have tniEted in your riches imd from your riches 
ye shall depart, because ye have not remembered the Most 
High in the days of your riches, 9. Te have committed 
blasphemy and unrighteousness and have become ready for 
the day of slaughter and the day of darkness and the day of 
the great judgment. 10. Thus I speak and declare onto 

you that He who has created you will oveiihrow you and for 
your fall there will be no compassion, and your Creator will 
rejoice at your destruction. 11. And yoar rigbteom ones 

in those days will be a cause of shame to the sinners and the 

XCY. I. Oh that mine eyes were a cloud of water that I 
might weep over you, and shed my tears as a clond of water ; 
that so I might rest from my trouble of heart ! 2. Who 

has permitted you to practise hate and wickedness? May 
judgment light upon you, sinners I 3. Fear not the sinners, 
ye righteous ; for again will the Lord deliver them into your 
hands that ye may execute judgment on them according to 

ftat. G reads : orXHAOH (D^'JUtaK dtXHH-. 9. And ttaa day 
of darknssB. Wanting in Q. 1 1. Tour righteons ones. H 

reail ' Thy righteous ones.' 

XCV. I . OIL that mlna ayea were a cloud of water. reads : 
ODfj fis^&kx t^i'm ' Oh that I hod water for mine eyes 
that they might become a cloud of water.' 2. "Who has por- 
mlttad you to praotlee bate and wlokedneas P O omits tiovs 
47af^ aad for ^Ctl-Otlim- reads ^dtlOtun**. 3. Tour hands. 

i. e. the men who so bnilA 8. Pm. jS »iid xcHt. a, 11. Tour right- 

ilii.6; lii. 7; Piov.xi.lS; Jer. iz. eotu ohm, i. e. the righteoui among 

33. Ct ftUo En. ilvi. 7: Ixiii. loj hii children's deeoendjmta. 

11CVL4; icTii. B-10. 9. lliroDgh XOV. 1. Oh that mine «7ea wero 

th«r bIq Mkd blaiphemy they are oow % olond of water, *o. fVam Jer. 

ripe for judgment. Sar otsUnshter, ii. I. Tlii* Teres wu probably before 

fta. : eee iIt. ) (note). 10. Tonr the wHter of Banich nrav. 1 : O o«uU 

Creator wiU rejoice at roar mei, ustote icat«brmn. 8. Yet let 

destmotlon. Thii eentlment so op- not the righteoua fear ; for the period 

[Hued to the O.T. (cf. Eiek. zviii. 93, of their BapreoiBa; ii at hand: of. 

]i; iiiHi. II) hai paimUeliinliixIz. loi. ii. Again. The writer may 


Sect. v.] Chapters XCIV.Z — XCVI. 2. 277 

your desires. 4. Woe to you who fulminate irreversible 
anathemas: healing shall therefore be far from you because 
of your sins. 5. Woe to you who requite your neighbour 

with evil ; for ye will be requited according to your works. 
6. Woe to you, lying witneesesj and to those who weigh out 
injustice, for suddenly will ye perish. 7. Woe ta you sinners, 
for ye persecute the righteous ; for ye will be delivered up 
and persecuted, ye people of injustice, and heavy will their 
yoke be upon yoo. 

XCVX 1. Be hopeful, ye righteous ; for suddenly will the 
sinners perish before you, and ye will have lordship over them 
according to your desires. [2. And in the day of the tribu- 
lation of sinners, your children will mount and rise ae eagles 
itnd higher than the vultures will be your nest, and ye will 
ascend ae squirrels and enter the crevices of the earth, and 

Q reads ' their hands/ 4. IiTeversi1>te anatliemas : beaUng 

ahaU tharefbra be br. G reads : THjH*: tld*: f-'fi.'VAf. OHjDtii 

Te vrill be delivered up and penaauted, ye people of li\iaatloe. 
G reads : *<T[TflI.i iDtlt&A: nOon^ ' ye deliver up and persecute 
with injustice.' For XA: Of"^ M reads Xy^ffoR. For HJtlPirP' 
G M read HJty ' its (i. e. iiyartioe) yoke.' 

XCVL I. Te righteoTUi for raddenly will . . . perlsb. 
Wanting in O. AllixP- waating iu G. i. And rise. G reads 

rafer to the Maoskbeui Tictoriei ; for rinnan. 1. IionUlUp : ot xd. 

thWB Ken viotoriaa ovet Sftddnoean ll(iiota}; xcT.3,7; zcriii. 11. 3. 

biflnenoes. Though tha Uacokbewi Thii verw mtut be an interpoUtJoa ; 

prinoeaan tuvSaddiiaeeathemaelvea, it ia aUly id itaelf aod interrapta the 

the period oftha Sword, Che time of the santBit. It ia the wicked who will 

vengeanoe of llie rightaoiu, ia ooiaing. flee to hiile 1 

4. Magical pntotioea and iDoanta^oiu plaoea, xcviL 3 ; c. 4 ; cii. i, and ao( 

are here referTed to. C. Begnited the nghteoua: the letter will not 

■ooording to your worka : oF. c. 7. Lkve to coeoe*! thenuelTea on die 

a. Veicli ODt injoatloe, i.e. ajre daj of juilgment, dr. 5. In th* dar 

QDJuBl Jndgea. 7. See Crit. Note of the tribnlstion of abmen, i. e. 

for a poatlbly better text. when the nnnen anffBr tribolatioii. 

XOTT. The righteoua exhorted to Honnt and riae, fto. From Is. xl. 

hope in the oomingMcwianloltliigdoio, 31. Higher tban the Tnltorea : 

and fr«sh woei denoiuioed againat the tS. 3et. xlix. i€. Into Ute orevloeB 


278 The Book of Enoch, [Sect.V. 

the clefts of tlie rock for ever before the unrighteous, and they 
will sigh and weep becanse of yon as satyrs.] 3. Where- 

fore fear not, ye that suffer ; for healing will be your portion, 
and a bright light will enlighten yoa, and yon will hear the 
voice of rest from heaven. 4. Woe unto yon, ye sinners, for 
your riches make you appear like the righteous, but your 
hearts convict you of being ainnersj and this word will be a 
testimony agtunst you, for a memorial of (your) wickedn^s. 
5. Woe to you who devour the finest of the wheat and drink 
the power of the source of the fountain, and tread under foot 
the lowly with your might. 6. Woe to you who drink 
water at all times ; for snddenly will you he requited and will 
dry up and wither, because ye have forsaken the fountain of 
life. 7. Woe to yon who work unrighteousness and deceit 

and blasphemy : it will he a memorial gainst you for evil. 
H. Woe to you, ye mighty, who with might oppress Uie 
righteous ; for the day of your defitraction will come. In 

f^^tt^. Will algli and w«ep baoansa of you aa Batyrs. 

G reads : ^\Ptk\ ♦.ft^XIPflO'! o^aiu )UZ9t. 4. Tour rlobes. 
Before these words Q insei-ts Xv*. A memorial of (your) 
wlck«dnes>. G reads : -MUlf:! XthjTI. 8. Oppr««L O reads 

of tiie •arth, Ao. Thm words we l)i« O.T. ilootrine of ratribntion, pio«- 

taken &om It. U. 10, 19, 11, knd are perity wu a mark of righteouaueii. 

used there of thou who flaa through This word, i. e. that your riohsi 

fear from the prewnce of tht Lord, jirove ;on to be righteoui. Tor % 

Hwiae the; are moat inajqiropriate memoilaI,fta.: of. ver. ^. 5. The 

in their preaoit oMuexioii. Before fliieat of the wheat : Pm. Ixid. 1 6 ; 

ttie tmrlshteona. Theeewordi imply cxlrii.14. The power of the aoiiTOs 

that the righteotu go into tlie elefta of the firaiitalii. Thii miut mean 

of the rodca to enoape the nnrighteoni. the pureit water. fl. Drink water 

Sigh and weep because of 700, at all tfmea. If the text Is right, 

fto. The present text U very dotibt- this phraw deaoribea the self-indulgent 

fill : see Crit. Note. 3. A bright life : the end of luoh a life will be 

liflht : see xxivili, 4 (note). 4. painfii! want ; for they have fiinaken 

Tour rlohea make ron appear Uka the fonnbdn of true liFe : of. Jer. li. 

thsrlghteoiu. WealthydumBOonld 13; Ps.ixiTtg. 7. Cf. loi.S; 

appeal to their liohee as a proof of xoiv. 6, g. Voi a memorial ; of. 

thrir righteousneea ; for, according to *(e. 4. 6. Hany Mid food d^a. 


Sect v.] Chapters XCVI. ^—XCVIf. 6. 279 

those days many and good days will come to the righteous — 
JD the day of your judgment. 

XCVII. I. Believe, ye righteoue ; for the siimen will 
come to shame and perish in the day of unrighteoosness. 
2, It will become known to you that the Most High is mind- 
ful of your deejjmctioa and the angels of heaven rejoice 
over your destruction. 3. What will ye do, ye sinners, asd 
whither will ye flee on that day of judgment when ye hear 
the voice of the prayer of the righteous ? 4. And it will 

not fare with you as with them, ye i^>ainst whom this word 
will stand as a testimony: "Ye have been companions of 
sinners." 5. In those days the prayer of the righteous will 
reach unto the Lord, and the days of your judgment will 
overtake yon. 6, And all the words of your unrighteoue- 

neas will be read out before the Great (and) Holy One, and 
your faces will be covered with shame, and every work which 

XCVIL 2. The angals of heaven. So U N. Other MSS. 
omit ' of heaven.' 5. G reads, ' will go forth (tvoft'X) and reach.' 
6. AU the worda cS your imrlghteousneaa. G reads : ittn 90*4 
liav*. The words Qisat (and) Holr One introduce the repeated 
section zcvii. 6>M:viii. 10 in G. We shall distinguish the two texts 
for this section as G and G'. It will be remarked that the readings 
of O' stand almost midway between G and Dln.'a text (And) 
Holjr. So G G' M. Din. gives 'and Holy.' Xveiy work whlob 

Tha Tefsraace kere leem* (o be to i>w. 5. 4. TUa word , , , ' Te 

tba tonpoiBi; Mewiaiiiti kingdoin in have tMm oompanioiia of atniwia.' 

which tha lighteoni who are living xovi. 4 mm; be t&km in thli unie^ 

at the time will partidpata. The Phari«aio dutjr of aefmnHaa from 

ZOVXE. This chapter malnl; oan< the aniightaoiii oould not b« mora 

mete of (hraateaingi againit the ibosgly antiMMed. 6. Tha prayer 

wicked. 1. In tha day of on* of the rfshteona : cf, ilvii. i ; xcrii. 

rlchteottsnaaa. A paonllar expraa- 3 ; xdi. 3, 16 ; civ. 3. Ihii crj of 

■ioD lor the da; appointed for tha the righteooi for vengeanoe on their 

judgment of nnrighteoumeu ] aeezlr. peneenton n foand in Sav. vL 10. 

1 (note). 9. Cf. xdv. 10 for a e. "WtU ba read out, i. e. from the 

rimOar eipnaslon' of rallgioiu hata book* of lemambrance of btII dseda : 

eontraited with Lake IV. lo, 8. nexlrii. 3(110(0). Great (and) HoIt 

'Whithar wiU ye flee ; . of. eit. I. Ona : lee i. 3 (note) ; xoii. 1 (note). 

The prayer of tba rishtoona ; of. Corerad with duune : of. xlvi. 6 ; 

ilizedbyGoOC^IC — 

28o The Book of Enoch. [Sect, v. 

■is groaaded in nnrigliteousneBs will be rejected. 7. Woe to 
you, ye sinners, on the mid ocean and the dry land, for their 
remembmnce of yon is evil. 8. Woe to you who acquire 

silver and ^Id in unrighteoasneflB, yet say : " We hare increased 
in riches ; we have possessioDB ; uid we have aoqnired every- 
thing we desire. 9, And now let us dg that which we 
parpoee ; for we have gathered silver and oar granaries are 
full, and plentiful as water are tiie hnsbandm^ in onr honaeG." 
10. And like water yonr lies will flow away; for riches will 
not abide with you but will ascend sudd^y from you ; for 
ye have acquired it all in unrighteonsnew and ye will be 
given over to a great condemnation. 

XCVin. I. And now I swear to yon, to the wise and foolish, 
for ye will experience much on the earth, 2. For ye men 

will put on more adornments than a woman and coloured gar- 
ments more than a virgin : in royalty, and in grandeur, and 
in power, and in silver, and in gold, and in purple, and in 

is grounded In TmrlghteoiumoM will b« r^sctMl, Q reads 
tJjOTi +70^ 0«r»R, and Q' reads mA^ tJOi: HRlOi 0*n»<. 
Text of DtHer MSS. and Din. is a free combination of the two, 
bat leaves both in giving a pwsive ' will be rejected.' g. Are 
full, and plentiful as watar ara the buabandmen. Q reads: 
t|ii»I "TA OHllM. This gives a good tense : ' are full as water 
and many are the husbandmen.' M: mtiovi "Hf-i •VOUT^^. MLrtSl 
d\i£hi. All other MSS. support Din. 10. Acquired It aU. 
a omits H-fr. a' and other USS. retain it. 

XCYIII. I. To the wiw and fbollah. O and O' rrnd 0JUM 
'A41. %■ In royaltr and In grandeur . . . th^ will be poured 

liii. 10; UUL II. 7. On tha ZOVUI. Tbii idupter InbrodooM 

mid ooaan uid the dry land, i. e. a fraUi diviiioii in id-dv. Thia 

BTwjwhere. B«membtMio« : of. e. dirldon, loviii-dJ. 3, oonriaU nuunl; 

10, II ; dv. S. 8. Cf. xdv, 7, 8 of h denunciMfon of tha dnnan, of 

(noM) ; also Boolm. tL 17 ; Laka zii. thalr annri in Ufa and doctrine, and 

19. 10. Thia Taraa ii a reldtidBr annoanoM their oomiog jndgmoiL 

to the boaating of the dnneia, and 1. I nrear to von- Tbli fonnula 

playa paiti; on their worda. Blohea oootara here for th« &rat time bat 

will aaoaad anddenly : of. Pro*. TSonra bcquentlj : of. w. 4, 6 ; loi. 

ixiii. 5. 6, fto. To the wise and fOoUah. 


S«i.T.] Chapters XCVII.T — XCVIU. 6. 281 

Splendour, and in food they will be poured out as water. 
3. Tfaa%fore they will be wanting in knowledge and wisdom, 
and they will perish thereby together with their possessions 
and with all their glory and their splendour, and in shame and 
in slaughter aod in great destitution will their spirits be cast 
into the furnace of &re. 4. I have sworn unto jran, ye 

sinners, as a mountain does not become a slave and will not, 
nor a hill the handmaid of a woman, even bo sin has not been 
semt iqion the earth, but man of himself has created it, and into 
great condemnation will those &11 who commit it. 5. And 
barrenness has not been given to the woman, but on account 
of the deeds of her own hands she dies without children. 
6. I have sworn nnto you, ye nnners, by the Holy and Great 
One that all your evil deeds are revealed in the heavens, and 
that none of your deeds of oppresaion are covered or hidden. 

out as water. But Q omits the (1 in every instance, and thus 
we have, ' royully and grandeur and power and silver . . . will be 
puured out as water,' i.e. as plentifully as water, cf. xcvii. 9. G' in- 
serts the prepoaition before the first four, M before the first three, 
noona, N ineertB it before all. Before ' in royalty ' aiQ MSS. except 
Q Q' M read (Un>17JL, which ia not a possible word. This reading 
is valuable in determining the various worth of the MSS. 4. 
I liave awom. Wanting in Q'. For ailU07C Q reads atVC ' As 
a mountain does not become a slave and a hill will not become 
the handmaid of a woman.' O' H I L M N agree with Dlo. 6. 

The fbolUb ttre addrewD J In zcriii-dL the iminontl view that lia U aoma- 

3; the wiae in cii. 4-oiv. 3. 'WUI thing original and unavuidable. Sin 

ba ponrad out aa water. Their wu of man'i own derising ; ■«« Ixix, 

penonality giving iUelf wholly to 11 (note). S. And u a eonss- 

■noh eztarnal pomMioni will at Uit quenoe of thwi m men an pnniahed 

loee itoidr in than, u water ia kut in jiut beoaose aia !■ a TiAnaUrj thing, 

the evth : cC Fi. izii. 14. 3. The inrtance in the text ■■ oboMn ta 

In great daatltntion. Ia OMitraat an illartraUMi of Uui general law : 

to their wealth in tbii world. Their of. Ho». ii. 14. 6-8. The writer 

■ptrlta: at ver. 10; dii. 8. Ae in- next deale with the view that God 

oofporaal epirite the wioked am oaat doe* not oaacem Hinuetf wilh the 

into hdL This 'fomaoe of flie ' ii world or the deedi of men, oC Job 

the final place of pimiibment. 4. xxii. 13, Pe. Ixxiiu 11, and denlare* 

The writer now proceed! to attack that the deedl of men ar« reoorded 


282 The Book of Enoch. [SectV. 

7. And do not think in your spirit nor say in yoor heui that 
yoa do not know and that yon do not see that eveiy sin is 
every day recorded in the presence of the Most High. 8. 

From henceforth ye know that all your oppression wherewith 
ye oppressed is written down every day till the day of your 
judgment. 9. Woo to you, ye fools, for through your folly 
will ye perish ; ye have transgressed against l^e wise, and so 
good hap will not be yoor portion. 10. And now, know ye 
that ye are prepared for the day of destruction : wherefore do 
not hope to live, ye sinners, but ye shall depart and die ; for 
you know no ransom ; for ye are prepared for the day of the 
great judgment anOor the day of tribulation and great shame 
for your spirit. 11, Woe to you, ye obstinate of heart, who 
work wickedness and eat blood : whence have ye good things 
to eat and drink and to be filled ? From all the good things 
which our Lord, the Most High, has placed in abundance on 
the earth; and ye indeed shall have no peace. I3. Woe to 
you who love tiie deeds of unrighteousness : wherefore do you 
hope for good hap unto yourselves? know that ye shall be 
delivered into the hands of the righteous, and they will cut 

Dasds of oppreoslou. Q omits ' deeds.' 8. Is written down. 

G reads ^JtfhV- Tour Judgmant. G 'jadgment.' 9. 

Tranasresmd agaiiut th« wise. So and 0' ^^Onnx, H 
MM'Creo'. Other MSS. A.^"fly"OW»* 'ye Lave not heaitened.' 
10. Fordestruotloc. O reads AOA; rfi>Ata(lD<, 11. Wlio work. 

every i».j in hatTen. 7. Baoorded : (note). Tor ronr aplrlt : Me ver. 3 

of. zoriL 6 : zoriii. 8 ; a. 10 ; ot. 7, 8. (note). U, Tbe demind«lioa ot 

8. rrom henoBfoitli je know, i. e. indindnil dnnen. Obatlnata of 

from tha pablioatJoD of Enoidi'a book lieart : of. o. 8. Il>t blood : of. tU. 

in tbeae Utw UmM. 9. Tliis Teraa 5. Not contant with enjoying tlie 

introdooei > long anooeNioti of wom b««t tX •veiyUiing that Ood giTe% 

direoted againil the dnnen. 10. theee tinnen ««t blood and break 

PMpared: A sdr. 9. Dl«. lUi the dlrine law: otL Bo<Jc of Jabiieei 

rebrt not only to the ^am of the Hb tU, xdi Aota xt. 99. Have no 

temporal bnt «lao of the lib etenwL paaoo : lee r. 4 (note). IS. Do- 

Ho lanaom : P*. zliz. 8, 9. Oar of Ilvered Into the handa of tha 

(Mat JndgnwBt, fta; •«« ilv. 1 rlahtttona: leeioi. ii (note). 18, 


Sect, v.] Chapters XCVIII. 7 — XCIX. 3. 283 

ofE your necks and Blay yon, and will have no pity apon yon. 
13. Woe to yon who rejoice in the tribulatioD of thengbteous; 
for no grave of youn will be seen. 14. Woe to yon who set 
at noQght tiie words of the righteous ; for no hope of life will 
be yooiB. 15. Woe to you who write down lying and god- ; 
less words ; for they write down their lies that men may hear ' 
them and transgress against (their) neighbour, 16. There' 
fore they will have no peace but will die a sudden death. 

XCIX. I. Woe to them who act godleesly and glory in 
lying words and extol them : ye will perish and no happy 
life will be yours, 2. Woe to them who pervert the words 
of nprightnees and tranegreas the eternal law, and transform 
themselves into what they were not, i.e. into sinners: they 
shall be trodden tmder foot upon the earth. 3. And in 

OO'M give ^V-Ot- and ^IUlP*. 13. ITo grav« of touts wUl 
be aeen. Bo and O' f^UJi. Other MSS. 'no grave will be 
dug for you.' 15. And transgreoa against (tlieir) neighbour. 
• So 0' M : iDf^U"<i9\ AlD.S'- Q leaves a blank space where the 
verb should be, but gives MbA. Other MSS. 'and forget not 

XCIX. I. To will perUh and no bappy Iffb be yonn. 
O Ksds: trfiTAIUfO-, ibfiwX'. VIP1: 'je will perish as to a 
happy life.' a. Woe to them, tie. So OO'M: Mkl AW^ 
AkAi ^TA.T7<n>'. Other MSS. ' woe to you,' Sec, but thia seems 
wrong, as vene i opens with ' woe to them,' and all the remaining 

ZTo crave of yimn will ba aesn : of tha Hallenistlo litermtma are d«- 

■ee Cril. NoM. Cf. Jcr. *ili. a ', uoimaMi: hen all ibote who ijmptr- 

zzil. 19, 14. Ko bopa of llfo, thus with or [osiN them : cf. xtor. 

ka.: of. xotL ij xoviii. lo. 18. ;; xotUI. 15 (note). AotcodloMlj. 

Cf. dr. 10. Thii varae atteata tlie The Etluopio oonld alio ba renderad 

Tigmona Utacmtj itrifa eil«ting ba- ' pnutiao bmnagfnMEJon ' ; tor tha inb- 

twaen the Saddaaeao or Hallenlatio atantiTe here i« derived from the verb 

and Uie Fhuiwa partj. TnuiasM"* tnuuUted 'tmugreaa' in zorili. 15. 

•Ckltwt (thair) nelahbonx : aae Crit. 3. Farrart the worda of u^lght- 

NdU. Cf. ver, 9. 16. Hktb no neaa 1 oC icdr. 5. The Bt«nuJ Uw, 

peaoe : aea r. 4 (note). A anddan i. e. the Heaaio law : of. t. 4 ( zdx. 

da«th; of, idr. i,$, 7; nr*.$; mri 14. Tianaform thamaalvsa into 

1,6. whftt ther am not. i. a. adopt foreign 

XCUCX. I. InxoiiiL 15 the writen oDntomaandiuakathemHlrea 'ainnen 


284 The Book of Enoch. [Sectv. 

those days make ready, ye riffhteoas, to raise your prayers as 
a memorial, and ye will place them as a testimony before the 
angels in order that they may place the sin of the sinners for 
a memorial before the Most High. 4. In those days the 

nations will be stirred op and the families of the nations will 
arise on the day of destruction, $. And in those days those 
who are reduced to want will go forth and mangle their chil- 
dren, and they will cast them away, and th^e will be mis- 
carriages ; and they will cast away their ancklings, and will 
not retom onto them, and will have no pity on their be- 
loved tmes. 6. Again I swear to yoa, sinners, that sin is 
prepared for a day of unceasing bloodshed. 7. And they will 
worship stones, and others will mahe graven images of gold and 

verba of ver«e 2 are in the 3rd pL 3. O reada, ' the righteous 

will make ready to raise their praTers,' fitJ^ki f^tF^~tfPtt^. 
4. WUl be atlrrod up. G gives a fake form i'(D-0(D-h>. 
The flaml]1«a of the nations wlU arise. Q omitB 'families.' 
WUl artoe. O G' M read filfh-, M adding 7ft. 5. Those 

who an Toduoad to want. JUk ^JUA*. Din. rendered this in 
bis traneUtion, ' wird die Fmcht des Mntterleibee abg«lien,' de- 
riving ^JUA* &om 01A. Bat BlA could not bear this meaning. 
In his Lexicon, col. 1386, be derives it from "ilUA, ad egestateiu 
redigi. Cast them away. Bo GQ'K. Other MS8. 'cast 

of Ute Q«n(iIeH ' : become ^xxtatei. will be the period of Uis Swotd ; cf. 

8. Tour prkyam; *ee lovii. j (note), zc 19; ici. i» ; iciz. 6. S. See 

Flaoe tliDm . . . befor* the •)>(•]<. CriU Note. A* there will be wm 

Tbi* mediatoiul hnotion of the mngels utd ■brifei among udoiu, m there 

(of. ix. >-l I note) bia ita root in the will be alto unongitt funQiee : of Ivi. 

O.T, et Job V. i; miil. ij ; Zech. 7 (note); c.I. 6-0.6. DeouncU- 

i. 13 1 but hu no pUee In the N.T., tion of the idoUtiT' and npentititm 

ezoept ID Ber. viiL 3, 4. The Mort of the wicked. In this AeauadtAnoa 

Hlah. Iliia titt* ii foond in ill eeo- not only the kpoatktei but tdio the 

tioiu of the book. For ' Hart Hig^ mAukI beathao wa ineladed. 6. 

Qod'Melnzii.6,CTil.Note. The title Dar of nnoaaalns bloodahod. I.e. 

' Hoet High ' >ppaara in ix. 3 ; z. i ; the judgment of the iword ; aee xa. 

slii. 7 ; Iz. I, » ; UiLj; IxitU. I ; la (note) : xIt. t (note). Quoted bj 

zoiT. Si zcvii. 1; zoviil. 7, 11; zdz. Terttdliau, D* Idol, tv; Jura votnt, 

3, 10 ; cL I, 6, 9. 4. Id the but pecostona, quod in diem akngninia 

time* then will b« wart Hid tomolti perditionia poenitentia parata est. 

among ilie nationa of the earth. Tbia 7. Qraren Imasea of gi^ and 


S«ct.V.] Chapter XCIX. 4-12. 285 

gilver and wood and clay, and others will worship impore spirits 
and demons and all kinde of superstitions not according to know- 
ledge, notwithstanding no manner of help will be found in them. 
8. And tiiey will become godless by reason of the foolishness 
of their hearts, and their eyes will be blinded through the fear ' 
of their hearts and through visions in their dreams. 9. 
Through these they will become godless and fearful, because 
they work all tiieii works in a lie and they worship a stone : 
therefore in an instant will they perish. 10. But in those 

days blessed are all they who accept the words of wisdom, and 
understand them, and follow out the patiis of the Most High, 
and walk in the path of His righteousness, and become not 
godless with the godless; for they will be saved. 11. Woe 
to you who hope for misfortune to your neighbour ; for you 
will he slain in Sheol. 13. Woe to you who make deceitful 

their children away.' 7. Impure spirits. O gives 0*?4Wn 

tat-n ' evil spirits.' M : l^t: XhsH*. ITot aooording to 
knowladga. So Q' iUlty^C So Tert. Jh Idd. iv, quoted in 
Exeget.Note. At^^C. FHILNOand Dhi. tty"Atf^«rt- 'in 
idol temples.' M reads with Din., but insert* a ne^tive. 10. Of 
Els righteouaneBB. So OQ'M. Other MS8. 'of righteonsneBB.' 
With the godleas. Wanting in Q. 11. Hope for mlcfortuna 

to 70ur neighbour. So Q tfliJi^r, i.e. 'ttUat^. Other MSS. 
^rt¥AT 'who spread evil to your neighbour.' la. Woe 

■ilver, . ■ ■ and othan will wonUp and idolatry will prooeod from bad 

■ . . demoni : of. Kev.ix. so. Demoiu: to worse: of. Book of Witdom lir. 13, 

cf.xri I i lii, I. Not awordiiiK to '7; Rom- i- H- Will beoome god- 

kaowledse: see Crit. Nute. Observe Ion: cf. idii. Sj zcii. 9. On the 

that till* readiqg ii mpportod bj relation of dreanu to npentitifHi, cf. 

Tcrtullian, Da Idol, iv, where he Eoeloi. xzil. 1-7. 9. Tbiongh 

: Qot wrvibig these, i.e. drftLins. 10. Ai sudden 

lapidibiu, at qui imaginea &oitis destraoUon will be&ll the IdoUters, 

aoMna et argenl«as et ligneas et la{H- tbt. 9, so salvaUon will be the laoom- 

deaa at GotUea, et serritis pbantaa- pease of thoes who aoeept the true 

matibos et daemoniis et B[iiritibuB wisdom. 11. Hope for mia- 

iBfaiafbuj [MSS. glre inbniis] et fortune, *e. : see Crit. Note. Will 

omnibus erroribos non aeeitadam be alala : of. oviii. 3. This it tlie ei- 

tcienUatn, nullum ab iii inTenialii treme peaalt; of nn : a less aevare 

auiilium: cf. Book of Jubilees i. ponishiaent ia atonal ooodanaation 

8. Ths victims of saeh sapeiatition to Sheol, bnt that not attended by 

Di.itradb, Google 

286 The Book of Enoch. [SectV, 

and false mneores, and wIlo tempt (othen] on the eortb ; for 
they will thereby be utterly consumed. 13. Woe to you 
who build your houses through the grievous toil of others txA 
their building material is nothing save the bricks and stoaes 
of ski ; I tell yon ye will have no peace. 14. Woe to them 
wbo r^ect the measure and eternal heritage of their fathers 
and whose souls follow after idols ; for they will have no rest. 

15. Woe to them who work unrighteousness and aid oppression 
and slay their neighbours ontil the day of the great judgment. 

16. For He will cast down your glory and bring affliction on 
your hearts, and will arouse the spirit of His indignation to 
destroy you all with the sword; and all the righteous and 
holy will remember your sins. 

C. I. And in those days the fathers together with their 
BODS will be smitten in one place, brothers will &1I in death 
one with another until it stresLms with their blood like a river. 
3. For a mui will not withhold his hand from slaying his 

toyou. Ogives 'woe to them.' Haasuiva. So Q O' A(^>flX!i^^. 
M AoB^^i-. Other MSS. Afov^t ' who lay a foundation of 
sin and deceit.' Tempt (othera). 80 G foolif., G' reads 
.PAy4- Other MSS. SeaCA- 'cause bitteraeSB.' 14. WIlobo 

■aula follow after idola. So OM ^-t-jun,- O' testifies to this 
text though its present order is coafiiBed : ^'t'JUIL; Si^lA KVh 
<q^. Other MSS. ' who canae their sonls to follow after idols.' 
16. WIU bring affliotlon on your hearts. Dln.'s rendering is 
astray here : ' die Biiisheit enoh ans Eei-z l^eu.' The sj^irlt of 
Bla Indignation to destroy 70U. O'M read: OOlHl OHiDl^ikt 

0. I. Their blood. G gives 'your blood.' 3. Withhold 

plaoa of puniibniAit : ue liiii. 10 6 (note). 16. DayotthaBroU 

(note) ; oil. 7. 13. See Crit. JndcnMnti bm idv. 9; xcviii. 10; 

Note ; ProT. :d. i ; Hot. lU. 7. 13. zIt. a (note). 16. B«member 

BnUd ■ ■ ■ thronch tha (Tisvaiu your sliu. And troaonUnglv pniy ibr 

tollof otb«n: 0flJv.zxU.13; ■'■o Jtoor dectrnotion : lee zoTii. 5 (note). 

En. sdv. 71 xorii. 8. !«. Tha O. 1. Tha thought in icii. 6 ii 

meanm uid etenwl harltaca, L e. here expuided. Btrauna with their 

tha Moaaio Undi or. ver. s. Hie blood: aC Ii. zzxiv. 3, 7; Pa. Iriii, 


*.V.] Chapters XCIX. 13 — C. 5. 


eons and his sons' sons, and tihe fijoner will not witUiold Us 
lutud from Iuh honoured brother : from dawn till sanset — they 
will slay oae another. 3, And the horses will walk up to 

tiie breast in the blood of sinners, and the chariot will be sub- 
merged to its height. 4. And in those da^ the angels will 
descend into l^e secret places and will gather into one place 
all those who brought down sin, and the Moat High will 
arise on that day of judgment to execute great judgment 
amongst sinnere. 5. And over the righteous and holy he 

will appoint as guardians holy angels to guard them as the 
apple of an eye on^ He has made an end of all wickedness 
and all sin, and tiion^h the rigbt«ons steep a lon^ sleep, they 

Us hand. So G Q' if. Other MSS, ' withhold in compassion bis 
hand.' QG'M givs tVp^X for aiyrW. 3. To Its height 
reads MMu XA-h <n>MMiti (D, and G' XAh XA-f; oi^kMUf. 
4. Wha bxouebt down sin. Be G O' M tmCXV. Other MSS. 
■who aided ain.' Day of Judgment. 60 GG'M: OA'h IHi- 
Other Mas. 'day.' Amongrt. So GG'M: Xi^rMiAVB-.A. Other 
MSS. 'on all.' 5. The righteous. So G. Other VSS. 'all 

the righteous.' He has mad« an end oL So G G' M ^tJttf, 
with the four next words in the ace Other MSS. ' till all wicked* 


9. : 

bTothar. It a Taiy prabaUe that 
ws hftve hera ■ ref«reiu)B to tha 
mnrder of Antigonni by hii brothar 
AiutobQlm I. Joaaphm (Ant, liiL 
II. I, 1) teili □■ that Arirtobnln* 
■peol&U; loTcd Aotigoniu, but movod 
by caliiinnla pat him to dekth, and 
aflannrdi died of Tsmons for thU 
deed. On the inttnracioe itrlflg tint 
na to initikte the kingdom, at M. 7 ; 
imi. 5, 6; Zeah. xir. 13; Eiek. 
zxniii. 11 1 Hagg. il. 12, S. Up 

to the breut : of. Rev. zIt. lo, 
4, Bronclit down aiii : lee Crit. 
Note. The referenoa in thii Tens eaa 
only ba to the lUlen twgeli who m« 
here deaoribed m lunlng 'brought 
down atn.' Ihew foOen angdi were 

tvmpoTarlly bnried in kbyaaee of the 
enrth, Le. 'the Horet plaoei.* 0. 

Thii rene faM elw»ya bean loter- 
preted of the rightsoui on eartli, but 
wrongly. The ligbteoiu here apoken 
of are not the living, bat are ngbteoiu 
■onla in the pUc« of the departed. 
Thia pUoe waa afterwards oalled tlie 
chamber* or promptnaiiea.aa in irEv* 
[tI. 60]; Vident paomptaatla anima- 
mm aHarnm, qnae enatodiuDtnr ab 
»Ty>llm in quiete multa ; and agun 
in [vi 683 the mqIb in th«r j^mpta- 
ariei reqoieaeunt in qnlete mnlta et 
ab angelia coitodiantnr ; cC alio 
IT Eira It. 35 1 vlf. 33 ; Apoc Bar. 
III. a. The vpl* of an ere : of. 
Dent. zziiL 10; Pa. z*ii. S. The 
lishteona elev a Ions ileep. The 


The Book of Enoch. 

[Seel. T. 

hare nonglit to (e&r. 6. And the wise amongst men will 

Bee the truth, ajid the children of earth will Trndravtand bH 
the words of this book and recognise that their riches will not 
be able to save them in the overthrow of their ein& 7. 
Woe to yon sinners, when ye afiBict the righteous on the 
day of great trouble and bum them with fire : therefore ye 
will be requited according to your works. 8. Woe to you, 

ye obstinate of heart, who watch in order to devise wicked- 
nesB : therefore fear shall come upon you and there will be 
none to help you. 9. Woe to yon, ye sinners ; for on 

account of the words of your mouth and on account of the 
deeds of yonr hands which ye have godlessly wrought, ye will 
bum in a fire of blazing flame. 10. And now know ye 

neaa and all sin have been made an end of.' 6. The tnitb. 

aO'LMO rtad Xa»L. 8. ObstlnBts of Iwart. So aG'M: 
7tH4!ft-0. Other MSS.: 74^m:lk<0 'ye perverseof heart.' To 
help you. gives ' to help them.' 9. Oodleaaly wrouglit. Q M 

writir of lol'-ciT ^ not ezpaot tha 
resaireotioii *X the beg^luuiig of the 
temporary HeuiRmc kingdom. The 
woidi ' sImp b long aleep ' oonld not 
be aud with reference to thii kingdom ; 
for the writei liTing at the elote of 
tlie KTeuth week expeoti Ita advent 
iiDmediktelj at the beginning of Iha 
eighth we«k. The ' long deep ' ex- 
tend* from hit time till tba doee of 
(he tenth week, wh<a the righteooH 
rise. Again, from vr. 4, 5 we lee 
that llie lighteoii* do not riie till 
Ood haa judged rinnen and an end 
ie made of all aio. Thai the reeai- 
raotion of the righteona in xei-ciT 
fbUowl the final judgment at the 
eloae of the Haniuiic kingdom, B. 
Those who are still o^nble of wisdom 
will be warned by theae reTelaUons 
of Enoch. Here as in loii. 10, dr. 
II, 13, the writer refei* to the ap- 
pearance of his book. Children of 

sarth. This title belongs to the 
Saddaceea, sinnen, apoaUtes, pagan- 
iiers, cii. 3 ; rf. the nebiew plinue 
^nitri DJ: the righteooa are di-ug- 
nalcd a* the ' childreu of heaven,' 
ci. t. Biohea will not be able to 
aavA them : of Zeph. i. iS. 7. 

The righteoiu noderwent inch perse- 
cation under Antiochns Epiphaues : 
of. II Maoc. Tii, if we may trust the 
latter. On tb« dar of Bve^t trouble. 
These words nhoold probably be read 
direcUy after' woetojon sinners': they 
wonld in that case refer tu the final 
judgment : of. ilv. a (nute). Other- 
wii« cliey niuit be taken of the time 
of the peneeutiaD of the righteous. 
Be<initod aooordlsa; to tout work*: 
cf. lov. £. 6. Obatinate of heart: 
of. xoTlii. II. 'Watoh : of. Is. izii. 
3o. 9. The wicked will nifier 

in the flamea of hcU Ua tli^ godleaa 
words and deed*. 10, AH the 


Sect v.] Chapters C 6~CI. i. 289 

that the ang^lB will seek ont your deeds in heaven from the 
Bun and from the moon and from the stars in ref««noe to 
yonr sins because ye execute judgment on the righteous npon 
earth. 11. And He will smnmon to testify i^ainst yon 
cloud and mist and dew and rain ; for they will all be witb- 
hdd by you from descending npon yon, and that because of 
your sins. 1 2. And now give presents to the tain that it 

be not withhdd from descending upon you, nor yet the dew, 
when it has received gold and silver from you that it may 
descend. 13. When the hoar-frost and snow with their 

chilliness and all the winds of the snow with all th^ plagues 
iaSi upon you, in those days ye will not be able to stand 
before them. 

CI. I. Observe the heaven, ye children of heaven, and 

lA.Wag*', and O' ^nbV. 10. Si»outo Judgment cm. 
G leads tlWK-1 10, irnd G' +7afc ^"ftrt. M: YlWi ^^(l 

II. Cloud. Bo O. Other M8S. 'every cloud.' From de- 

KM&dlnc. O i-eads: tl0»l f^A-. Other MSS.: hmi Kf-lAn 
And that becaaae of your sins. So G : aWtO: IflLM'ta^. But 
the HSS. vary much. G' reads : mf'-%M^ 40: :>AUtb(lV ' and 
tb^ will think of ^our sins.' Din. giree the same as O', with the 
addition of a negative and fA iDstead of 40 : ' and shall not they 
tMnk of your sinsl' B gives an attractive reading, UWbAOL 
' Bhall not they keep watch as to your sidb %' FHILMNO same 
as Din., except 40 for fO. la. That it may decKwnd. Bo 
G G ' I L O. M inserts negative. F H N and Din. omit entire 

CL I. Ya ehildTen. SoOG'M. Other iTBS. ' all ye children.' 

hokvanl; powera vUoh haTawibiMwd 

the dna of thn winked will tertify 

■gfunit tbem; cF. xeriiL 6-8; »bo liiu. Hie is ezaoUj in kMfilng witli 

mtIL 7 ; civ. 8. la Hab. ii. 1 1 thle Izn, one of Uie ohapUm interpoleted 

ta«tiinony ie gfvm by the itonee end in Inii-lnxii ; at Jer. itl. 3. 13. 

btami of tbe direlling of the wioked. Spoken ironioally, IS, Etod the 

Xswmte Jadsment, Ao. Text very Imeer pnniihmente of the elMnonti 

nnoartttn : tee Crit. Note. II. All wre imdetibla. 

the natural powen wMoh miniiter OI. 1. The mao mbjeot punned; 

to the fruftfulam of the earth will bat Ae writer tntni ande iat % 


•290 ' The Book of Enoch, [Sect-V. 

every work of the Most Hi^h, and fear ye Him and work no 
evil in His presence. 2. When He closes tbe windows of 

heaven and withholds the rain and the dew from descending 
on the earth on your account, what will ye do then ? 3. 
And when He sends His anger upon yon because of all your 
deeds, ye cannot petition Him ; for ye have spoken proud 
and insolent words t^iunst His nghteoosness : therefore ye 
will have no peace. 4. And see ye not the sailon of tiie 
ships, bow their ships are tossed to and fro by the waves and 
ure shaken by the winds and m« in sore troable ? 5. And 
therefore do they fear because all their goodly possessione go 
into the sea with them, and they are anzioos of heart lest Oaa 
sea should swallow tliem and they should perish therein. 6. 
Are not the entire sea, and all its waters, and all its move- 
mwts tbe work of the Most High and all its doings and its 
waters, and has He not confined it throughout by the sand ? 

^aarye. O gives ^KTO-' His ways.' 3. BMauae o£ SoOMQ. 
O' oioits. Other MSS. 'and upon.' 4. aaUom of tli« ahlpa. 
I have here and in ver. 9 accepted HalUvi's emendation of ' kings 
of the sbipH ' into 'sailors of the ships.' The blse reading arose 
from a confusion of nl'lKn 'fl^ with"Krt 'alip, 5. G Q' M for 
aw^ read iPf^: 0, and O repeats y"A<UP<n>*— AAC through 
homoioteleuton. 6. And its watora. So QO'M af^t. 

£ ft+oB. Other MSS. rfitw ' has He not sealed all its doings 1' 
Thia last, which Din. follows, is obviously a late coiyecture. 

iDODMit to addnn the righteon* who iuUnoM of gnoh iniolent qweeh, cf. 

*re hen oiled 'ohildTen of hekTen,' zaviii. 7, 8 ; cii. 6. 4-7. They who 

Mebewheiesiiiiienueaallad'ohildren go duwn to tiie »k ia ihipi are GOed 

of earth ' : of. o. 6 j oii. 3. The oon- with feitr kt the might oF ths h« : 

templfttion of heaven kud of utnre how moah more should not men feu 

and of the eudi they Mrva ihonld God bj whom the >ea hu been made 

luoTO them to the fear of Ood. S, and of whom it ii tore afraid I 4. 

3. He wrilw ranmea hit addreu to Sailora of thaihipi; leeCrit-Note. 

the wioked and recon to the lubject : For the thought of tbe verte P(. cvii. 

cf. 0.11,13. Window! of hearen : 33-17. fli 7. He lea can do 

Oai.TiLii. Proad and inaolent nothing gave accordiog to divine aom< 

words : T. 4 (note) ; iivii. 1, Ai mand. Iti dolnca and its waten : 


fieet.V.] Chapters CI. 2 — CH. 4. 291 

7. Aod at His reproofs it is afraid and dries up and all its 
fish die and all that is in it ; bat ye sinners who are on the 
earth fear Him not, 8. Has He not made the heaven and 

the earth and all that is therein ; and who has given under- 
standing and wisdom to all that move on the earth and to all 
that move in the sea? 9. Do not the sailors of the ships 
fear the sea? Yet sinners fear not the Most Hig;h. 

CII. I. And in those days when He brings a grievous fire 
upon yon, whither will ye flee and where will ye find deliver- 
ance ? And when be launches forth His word against you, 
will you not he affrighted and fear? 2. And all the 

luminaries will quake with great fear, and all the earth will 
be affrighted and tremble and be alarmed. 3. And all the 
angels will execute their commands and will seek to hide 
themselves from the presence of the Great Glory, and the 
children of earth will tremble and quake; and as for 
you, ye sinners, ye are cursed for ever and ye will have no 
peace. 4, Fear ye not, ye souls of the righteous, aud he 

7. It la aftatd and dries up. So Q'M. FHILNO and Din. 
'dries up and is afraid.' G omits ' is afraid.' 

CII. I. Whan. Wanting in Q. 3. Th« Oraat OUarj. So 
O' M : Ktlf-i lletUtfV. Din. gives ' Him who is great in glory.' 

ace Crit. Note. With thla pMMge frighted, uid eTen tha faolj angela 
cf. Jer. T. 13 ; Job xxri. lo : zxzTii[. will eeek to Mde themwlvn &nm it. 
S-ll ; Pt8. Ixxxiz. 9 ; oir. 9; Prov.viH. WhnI then will bseume of dnnenl 
ig. 6. God liu not only miida 1. Jl srioron* flra, I.e. the fire of 
the wa, bnt alio heaven and earth hell; cf. idi. 11. His word. I.e. 
and all tiiat ia them ii. He too word of jadgment. 3. Tba Oreat 
hu giTen (nrtinet to animalB and Olorr : of. xiv. 10. Children of 
reaaon to man. 8. The whole oartli: cf. c 6 ; m. I (not«). Hav* 
aliment of the chapter ■ummed ap no peace : cf. icit. 6 (note). 4- 
in a few ia«gnant wordi. Sailors of OIV. 9. The diacnadon and via- 
tha ahipa ; see Crit. Note on ver. 4. demnation of the Saddnoean view* of 
CII. 1-8. If they now refnae to the future life. 4, 5. The right- 
fear God, tlie dajr will come when eooi arc bidden to be of good cheer 
thej will be terrified before the awful though their life be inch •« 011I7 
day of the Lord — a day so terrible ainnen deaerved, and their tatter 
dut beavea and earth will be af- end be full of grief (tv. 4, j). 4. 


293 . The Book of Enoch. [Smlv. 

hopcfnl ye that die in righteoiuneM. 5. And grieve not if 
your soal descends in ^ef into Sheol, and that in yonr life 
your body has not fared as yonr goodnese deBerred but truly 
as on a day on which ye became like the sinnen, and on a day 
of cursing and ohaetieement. 6. And when ye die the 

sinners speak ov« yon : ' As we die, eo die the righteous, and 
what benefit do they reap from their deeds P 7. Behold, even 
as we, 80 do they die in grief and darkness, and what advantage 
have they over us ? from henoefortii we are equal. 8. And 
what will they recave and what will they see for ever? for 
behold they too have died, and from henceforth for ever they 
will see no light.' 9. I tell you, ye sinners, ye are content 
to eat and drink and strip men naked, and rob and sin uid 
acquire wealth and see good days. 10. Have ye seen the 

righteous how their end faJls oat ? for no manner of violence 

CUldron ta eartli. Wantiag in O. 4. Ts that dto. 80 

CFHILMN: Jul! V-MW"-. G has l«li AAi Tf, o£ oiii. 3 ; 
Q' lUl: ff. and Dki., ' hope for the day of yonr death in 
rigbteonsnesB.' 5. IC So Q and a' Xob. Other MSS. ' that,' 
VSga, In grief: 80 G »■ M. Other MSS. ' in great tribulation 
and wailing and sorrow and grief.' 8. What will they rsoalve. 
a and Q' read: ^Tti ^tl^A- 'how wil! they ariaer 10. 

Dia In rlghteoiuiiaBa : lea Crit. aad Mgue that u there u no dlf- 

Note. S. Hie Bathor, given tiie Fereiioe in tlie lot of the righteom 

■tuidpi^t of bdief in a blaaaed future and the viclced in thii life — a point 

fur the rfghteont, oui readilj wmcede jost coneeded by the anthor in ver. 5 

that theie ii oFton no diffenooe in ~-«o there ia none in an exiiteno« 

the oatvard lot of the righteoDi and bejrraid this life : of. Book of Wisdom 

the wickod either In life or death, ii. 1-5; iii. 1-4; Eoolea. iL I4'i6; 

Snoh a eoooeenon aooording to the iJL 19-11, &<:. 7. In grief and 

O.T. doctrine of retribndon was im- darkneH. This raftn to the O.T. 

poMlbla. aiieol : ue Uiil. 10 (note), conoaption of Sheol, Ixiii. 10 (note). 

We muet apparently aiaame an apo- 8, 10. The antwer of the anthor. 

■topetii at the cloee of tbii verae. The Ufa of the wicked is fHsbioned 

Beoama like the aiimere, 1. e. were bj material and temponl uma only, 

afflicted just as if ye were siniienh nnd so all thnr deains find latis- 

0-8. Hie Binnera— the Badducean op- &ation in tUs world ; but the life 

ponants — start from the O.T. doctrine of the lighteooi, as is manibst from 

of letriboUon wbioh tanght the pros- Snt to last, is moulded bj spiritual 

parity of the ri^teon* In this life, and eternal aim*. How thair end 

iiized by Google 

Sect v.] ChapUr CI I. S~CfII. 3. 293 

is foond in ilieiii till Uie dfty of tiheir deatiu 1 1. ' Never- 

theless they perished, and becwne as though they had not 
been, and their sools descended into Sheol in tribulation.' 

cm. J. Now, therefore, I swear to you, the righteous, by 
the glory of Him that is great and honoured and mighty in 
dominion, and by His greatness I swear to yon. 2. I know 
this mystery and have read it in the heavenly tables, and have 
seen the book of the holy onee and have found written therein 
and inscribed regarding them: 3. That all goodness and 
joy and glory are prepared for them and are written down for 
the spirits of those who have died in righteousness, and that 
manifold good will be given to yon in recompense for your 

How thalT end JUla oat. Bo O 0' M, omitting At<n>. Other 
MS^. ' bow their end is peace.' Is found. G reads ^'t^Irt'. 
In thun. Q ^ves ' in you.' 

CIIL I. Br ths ^ktrj at Him that ia great and bonoured. 
So G' : OlHbfal^ Mtifii (oAhQiC. O gives the same text except 
that it omits A before OO.^ FHILXO and Din., 'by His 
great m^ty and glory.' M ; OlHMilH 1ML& OiatlftCs ml?/^. 
And mlghtr in dominion. So O and 0': OlfH: aa'm^. 
Din. 'and by His glorious kingdom.' 3. Are written down 

for tlieBptiitaafthos*. G reads : ^[^Ikii Ml*TI.1P(»*' ' the names 
of those ... are written down.' Manifold good will be given. 

bUaooti •wCiit.MoM. Agkln, m 
in var. 5, the author concedes that 
then i« no outward diiUnction be- 
tween the righteooB and the wicked 
in thi< life, but that there la a religioni 
and atliioal dialinotioo. U. Tlie 

widud rejoin ; this differeBce in cliip 
raoter ii of no advantage— the ««me 
lot await* good and bod alike. 

Om. 1-4. The anthor, iuleod of 
leplying directly to the wiaked, tame 
to the t^htaou, and loleiniily ownrea 
tbem that «vtaj good thing i« b 
•tore tat litem ; for h> he hoi read 
in the heavenly toblae uid in the 
book of the holy one*. HoDoe Uiaj 

wen not to regard the contomelj of 
the wioked. 1. See Crit. Not«. 

The oath ii mora eoleinn here than 
in leriU. i, 4, 5 ; leiz. 6; mv, i. 
a. Tlie writn bawe hii koowledge 
mi the heavoly table* which he hw 
read. Book of the holy anea, 1. e. 
of the angel* : cf. oviii. 7. See zlviL 
I (note). Din. comparing cviii. 3 
take* the holy one* here to mean the 
lointa or rightaoni. 8, 4. The 

blcedng* tiers depicted will be enjoyed 
by the rfghteoat, both in Hheol and 
in the ([dilnial theocracy establiabad 
after tlie final Jadgment The wisda 
hare ore vague and might apply to 


294 . ^^ ^^^ <>/ Eff^k. [fleet. V. 

laboun^^ed that your lot is aboodaotly beyond the lot of the 
Kring. 4. And your spirite — (the spirite) of you who die in 
nghteousoees, will live and rejoice and be glad, and tiieir 
spirits will not perish, bnt their memorial will be before tlie 
face of the Great One onto all the generations of the world : 
wherefore then fear not their contomely. 5. Woe to you, 

ye sinneiB, when ye die in your sins, and those who are like 
you say regarding yon ; ' Blessed are they, the sinners : they 
hare seen all their days. f>. And now t^ey have died in 

prosperity and in richee, and have not seen tribulation or 
murder in their life ', and they have died in honour, and judg- 
ment has not been executed on them daring their life.' 7. 
Know ye that their aoule will be made to descend into Sheol, 
and they will become wretched and great will be their tribu- 
lation. 8. And into darkness and chains (lit. ' net ') and a 
burning fire, where there is grievous condemnation, will yonr 
spirits enter ; and there will be grievous condemnation for the 
generations of the world. Woe to you, for ye will have no 

So Q : -flH^ P^^, and M practically. G> gives -aiM: tOff^f,. 
Din. ' with manifold good is it given.' For •dm we muet read 
•AIM. 4. And their aptriU wUl not perish. So Q: miJt 

ibT-tti aoti^ittVao-; but we must emend tiWHtr into fi^ibl'ttr 
with O' If. Other USS. omit ' will not perish and.' 5. Te sin- 
ners. Q Q' M curiously read ' ye dead sinners.' Die in your aina. 
a' M read : n-flOAl ;>ffUrtte»' ' die in the riches of your sins.' 
Bean all their dayB. Q adds 0*f{ ' seen good all their days.' 
8, Vliere there Is srievoua oondemnatioiL Din. renders ' beiro 
grosMn Qericht.' Oeneratlona of the world. So G Q' M : 
fat-tJii M^. Other MSS. 'all generatioDs unto eternity.' 

Mtber. There ii Kppueatij oolj k sura doom Bwaiti tkem in Sheol — 

re0qrTCOiii>& of the ipiiit. ti-B^ dftrkaea uid <*l'*-in" ukd a bnndng 

A different &l« ttwtiU the wioked. fluae. 7. Sheol: lee Iziii. lo 

TheM bare enjoyed all the bleetings (note), Sheol here is the final pl*oe 

which kocerdjnglo the O.T. belonged nrpnniihment : of. the dlffennt lignl- 

to the righteous. Henoe Ihaj Taunt fleationaithuinoil. .q, ii. 8. Bee 

tbemfeWee on thur pro^ieii^ and Crit. Note. Have no peaoe: eee 

immnni^ from pnniihntent; bat a t, 4 (note); vAy. 6 (note). 9- 


Sect, v.] Chapter CJI/. 4-9, 295 

peace. 9. Say not in regard to the righteous and good who 

9. From tbie verse to the end of tliis chapter the variations 
are nearly sixty in Q alone, bnt these ore munly between the 
jBt and 3rd plurals in the rerbe and the corresponding euffizea, 
verbal and enbatantival. Q favours throughout the 31-d pi., 
whereas Q' in the main agrees with Din. in giving the ist pi. 
The question now arises on which person, the ist or 3rd, 
are we to decide. The evidence of the MSS. would go to prove 
that the yrd ftr»on waa the original ; for in about fifty instances 
Din. gives the ist person and never the 3rd; O gives the 3rd 
pereon in all, except seven instances, confined to vv. 14 and 
15. All otiier MSS. agree with Din. And the evidence of the 
context b in the same direction, ciii. cf-ig are pronounced deri- 
sively by the sinners of the righteous. For in cii. 6-8, when the 
sinners declare that the righteous live in trouble and durknese 
and have no advantage over the wicked beyond the grave, the 
author (10) in reply points to the nature of their death and tlie 
purity of their life. To this tlie sinners rejoin (11), ' despite all 
that they go down to Sheol in woe as we.' The author now 
addresses himself first to the righteous (ciii. 1-4) and then to the 
sinners. In the cose of the latter he givte their glorification of 
their own life (5, 6) and their depreciation of the life of the 
ri^teouB (9-15). In these vereee the wicked describe the wretched- 
ness aud helplessness of the present life of the righteous, just as in 
cii. 6, 7 they had described the wretchedness of the future of the 
righteous. The author could not, as Din. imagines, represent the 
departed righteous who were in blias as discouraging the righteous 
who were still living, and as arraigning, as it were, the justice 
of Qod. At the close of these words the author addresses his 
reply (civ. 1-6) not directly to the sinners who have just spoken 
bnt to the righteous, just as in the opening of ciii, and returns to 

IB. Hien venea kre in the moath of with tlie ^af«re UGs oF the righteoiu. 

(he wicked a urcutic deacriptioii of In theee veraei the wicked abaw Uuit 

tlia lot of the righteooR : «ee <dii. g. In ever; respect tlie life of the rigbt-' 

Crit. Note. Ai in vv. 5, 6, Ihs eona on earth ia a wretched one and 

wicked extol the life of the wicked, oeutracy to ever; expeotAtion nited 

■o here they depreciate the life of by the O.T.: In bot (he righteous 

the righteona — the earthl]/ life, fiir mffta kll the penaltiea thnt were to 

in cii. 6, 7 they hiMl limijiulj dedt befall the wicked. . B. In regard 

iiized by Google 

296 The Book of Enoch. [Soei.T. 

are in life ; ' In the days of their life they are worn out with 
their troablona toil, and have experienced every trouble and 
met with nrnch evil and suffered from diseaae, and have beeu 
minished and become small in spirit. 10. And they are 
destroyed, and there has been none to help them (even) in word 
Mtd have attained to nothing : they are tortured and destroyed, 
and have not hoped to see life from day to day. 1 1. And 

they hoped to be the bead and they have become the tail : 
they toiled laboriously and attained not to the &uit of their 
toil; and they became the food of dnners, and the un- 
righteous laid their yoke heavily upon them. 13. And 
they that hated them and smote them have had dominion 
over them; and they have bowed their necks to those that 
hated them and they have had no compassion on them. 13. 
And they have desired to get away from them that they 
might escape and be at rest, but have fsund no place where- 

the siunerH in w. 7-9. Condosion. We aliall therefore adopt 
the third peraon throughout Id thefs Terees. Space will not 
admit of more than a few of the variatione being given, and these 
will not be mere variations of ist and 3rd persons, but of words. 
Din. gives the first person throughout in the case of the righteous. 
In ciii. 9-15 I have traOBlated the perfects as Greek perfects, 
and the imperfects aa pasts. In tlia d^v of tbxSx lUb thKS 
are worn out with MixAx troufalous tolL So O : QovrOAi 
IhfMt^raO". R*^: /"A<»»00-. AopOI.. Din. gives, 'In the days of 
our adversity we were worn out with toil,' 0^: OaDfOAi Ofi^NWl 
V^l XmXDi. Sufibrod ftom dlaaaM. 80 As>^, which we 
should emend into Ao^ Other MSB. ' were consumed,' +<nXOi. 
10. (Xvan) in word and have attained to notbing. SoG: OflCi 
WhSiyVni KiX^, and also G' M, except in the person of the 
verb. In the tranelation I have omitted fl in tDhSlLf^WX with 
later MS8. Din. gives, ' with word and deed ws were powerless 
and oould attain to nothing.' 11. Hoped. 80 G fitl^MK. 

to. Thii em abo b« tniulal«d ■ to.' beomme nuU, fto. : cf. Pl otU. 39. 

rrom dlMue : lee Cric Note. C£ BmsU In qjlilt. Not ' homblB ' but 

Dtnt. xxTiif. 11, at. lO.CCDent. 'poor-t^\ad' {jn*pi/vx<n). 11. 

xzTiil. >9, 66, 6j. HlnialMd and Cf. D«at. xzTHi. 13, 30, 31. U. 


Sect, v.] Chapters CHI. \o — CIV. i. 297 

onto tihey ehould flee uid be safe from tiiem. 14. And 

they have complained to their nJers in their tribulation and 
cried ont againat those who devonred them, biit they did not 
attend to 'dmax cries and would not hearken to their voice. 
I j. And they helped those who robbed and devoured them, 
and those who made them few; and they concealed their 
oppreesLOD, and they did cot lemove from tiiem the yoke of 
those who devoured, and dispersed, and murdered them, and 
they concealed their murder, and hare thought not of the 
fact that they had lifted np their hands against them/ 

CIV. I, I swear onto yon, that in heaven the angels are 
mindful of yoa for good beftne tJie glory of the Great One : 

15. The confdeion of peraons is made worse by O'M reading J(C<CX 
tiyTflO* 'you helped them.' Tbe yoke of tboM wlu>. So 
OG'M: XCMv^l kA. Din. reads < their yoke but.' 
CIV. I. Unto you. So QO'M. Other M88. insert 'ye 

Cf. DeDt.ziTJii.48. i<L,is.TheM 

miningtheilftteofici-civ. Inlzzziu- 
10 tiie mlrni u« r^nrded m tils 
divlnaly nppointed laftdon of the right- 
eooB. In thii Hction, od the other 
hMld, tJha mien j^tpenr u the vden 
knd kbetton of the enemie* of the 
righteooa. Tbeee eiwmiee are the 

[■guiiien, white the righteoni ue 
the Phtrlui puty. Tlie imtym tw 
tween theea partlea aa thej aj^tear 
In (hia book could not h»re bean ao 
clearly dedoed before the Maooabean 
timel. Nor again ooold thia book 
have been written before the breMh 
between John H;fn]aniiu and the 
Fhariinnii But the date moit be 
bioDght down still further, if we are 
to explain liteiaUy lueh «tat«iaent« 
a* ' diBpareed and murdered them,' 
and ' their murder,' where the murder 
of the ligfataoua la meant ; finr there 
WBi uo blood ipilt between the paitiei 

till the rcdgn of Jaanaaai, 94 B. C. 
The later limit ia not hanl (a deter- 
mine. He eloM oonfedenof whioh 
here preTaUa between the SMidaoeeB 
txA the ralers ^d not eibt under 
the Herodian priocee, but only under 
the later Maocabean ptineei. Henoe 
thia leotion waa written before 64 
I. a, and may be aMigned either to 
the yean 94-79 s. 0. or 7&-64 b. o., 
during which periods the Phariseee 
\sf the rulera and 
But the rert of the 
■ectiou is i^uat taking the word* 
'murder,' Ac litcntUy. We ihould 
probably reganl them merely aa tbe 
deacription of a aeTere bnt not mut^ 
drront penecutiou : aeeSpedal Intnid. 
(pp. 363, 164). IB. Siaperaed and 
mnrdered them. Theie wcoda takes 
literally would ^>ply well to the aataal 
deetrnotlon and diapeimm of ihe 
Phariaaio familiea under Jannaena. 

OIT. 1-a. Inrtettd of anaweiing 
directly the wicked who haTC tbaa 



T^ Book of Enoch. 


your aunee are written beCore the glory of the Great One. 
%, Be hopeful ; for aforetime ye were put to shame through 
iJlB and affliction ; hut soon ye will shine as the stars of 
heaveu, ye will shine and ye will he seen, and the portals of 
heaven will be opened to yon. 5. And persist in your cry 

for judgment, and it will appear to you ; for all your trihola* 
lation will he visited on the rulers, and on all their helpers 
and on those who plundered yon. 4. Be hopeful, and cast 

not away your hope ; for ye will have great joy as the angels 
of heaven. 5. What will ye be obliged to do then ? Ye 
will not have to hide on the day of the great judgment and 
ye will not be found as sinnerB, and the eternal judgment 
will be &ir from yon for all the generations of the world. 

ri|;liieDus.' In heaTon. Wanting in G. 3. Te vrill shine. 
This repetition of the verb in G'M wasting in Din. 5. Wliat 
wlU 70 be obliged to do than P So O' M K and E f^Vt. 
Other M8S. and Din. XTf, which U to be tiansUted: 'as for the 

deriilTely dsambed the lot of the 
righteoDfl in this life, Hie aathor tarn* 
to the ligbteoQi aad mddrauei thmii. 
Thii ie exactly wfakt he did in tlw 
opening of oiii. He Ttitnmi to the 
liDoen in civ. 7-9. In theM venei 
the author praotio«Uy concolei tlut 
tha wicked hnve rightly dsKiribed 
the lot oi tha lighteoiu in thii life ; 
bnt ha holdi out a ■□» hope, a hope 
howsrer not to be fulfilled in tha tran- 
litoiy Hemanie kingdom on earth, 
but to be directed (o the tdweed fatore 
that ii awaiting them in heaven : the 
angeU are mindfol of tbem for good 
even now, and in due time they wOl 
beoome 'companiona of the hoita of 
heaTGD.' 1, The angala am 

mjndftilof ron. Though appai«stly 
{(^gotten on earth, the righteoiu are 
not forgotten before Ood by the 
angali. On the interoenion of the 
BBgela, et x*. 1 (note) ; ■A. 5-7 ; xlviL 
t\ lziiii.7fi. Vamea are wrlttau : 

■ea ilrii. 3 (note). The Oveat One : 
of. xir. 3 ; dii. 4. 9. Bblne aa 

the etara : cf. Dan. zii. 3 ; it Eok 
[Ti.71]; vii.55. Portala of heaven 
will be opened to jrou, I. e, heaven 
will become their dwellli^plaae, for 
they will 'ihineaa the atari,' 'joy aa 
the angela,' and ba ' oompanioni of the 
hoata of heaven.* The antbor doe* 
not hope for a new earth : cf. xoi. 16 
(note). 8. Thair demand for jnitioe 
which thsy make in vmh on earth, 
dii. 14, 15, will one day be latiafied : 
wberefrae let them oontinoe to make 
it ; ot xcTii. 3, 5 (note) ; loii. 3, 16. 
The rulan. Theae are brought for- 
ward very prominently here : cf. ciii. 
14, 15 (note). 4. Ai the angela 

of heaven : of. HatL ndi. 30 ; Mark 
lit 15 ; alM En. oiv. 6. B. See 

Ciit. Note. Day of tite great 
jadsment : of^ xix. i ; Itttiv. 4 ; 
zdv. g; saviii 10; xdz. 15. The 
eternal jodcmaat : et.zd. 15, 'great 



Chapter CIV. 2-10. 


6, And now fou not, ye righteous, when ye see the Binners 
growing strong and prospering in l^ir ways and be not like 
unto them and have no eompaniooship with them, bat 
keep a£ar from their violence ; for ye will become com- 
panions of the hosts of heaven. 7. Ye sianera, though 
ye say, 'Ye cannot ascertain it and all our sins are not 
written down/ still they will write down all your sins con- 
tinually every day. 8. And now I show unto you that 
light and darkness, day and night see all your sins. 9. 
Be not godless in your hearto, and lie not and alter not the 
word of uprightness, and do not charge with lying the words 
of the Holy (and) Great One and glorify not your idols ; for 
all your lying and all your godlessnees will prove not to be 
righteousness but to be great sin. to. And now I know 

rdle ye sliatl have then to play.' 6. Prospering In Uielr nvys. 

80 O Q' M A¥?+0i>-. Other MSS. ' proepering in their luEta.' 
Iilke unto them and. So : h'TO'in*^ ID. WiU beoome. So 
G' &[ DA'lftlcn*'. Din.: DAi^ai>: )1i4> ' are destmed to become.' 
Oomitsverb. 7. O': Jt^X-dif: lNI:::>/ILmi ^ffAfi OAffl.. G 
gives the Bsme sense. 9. Olori^ not your Idols. G resets 4*41111 
■11^, and G' f'*lft'fl^ — 'take no account of your idols.' All other 

eternal jnd^nisnt ': kIw xIt. a (noto). 
There appean to be no jodgment for 
the right«aiw aooording to this Tene. 
Contiaat the teaching of xuvii- 
Ixx; He liii, 3. 6. Ftos- 

p«>fng In ttioir wsts; tee Ciii. 
Note. Cf. Jer. xii. I. The Pharix^a 
exoliulTSiMM u dewl; defined here 1 
ct id. 3, 4. Observe th«t the right- 
eous are not Uddra to hope Ust bleved- 
aen on earth thiotigfa tfas overthrow 
of the rinner*. No doabt the djinera 
will be out off In the period <A the 
Sword, bat the author aeti lltUe itore 
b^' the tenipOTarj Heedaiiio kingdom 
tber<Ai7 eatabliBhed on earth. The 
hopea of the righteoua ean be lealiaed 
in he«Ten alone. Compsntoiu, t».% 
ef. dv. *, 4. 7-B, After ihowing 

tile bleued dectlny of ^m rightw>ni 

In the foture life, be ton* fioallr 
to the wicked, snd declarea that, 
thoDgh they proaper and Are l^Dng, 
and for that reason oonoeiTe tlwt no 
aooonnt ii taken of thdr sin, nerer- 
th^eeg all their siiu are reoorded, 
and recorded duly. 7. Aaoertaln, 
i. e. oar sini. S. Even the nutonl 
poweia will gi«e witneaa against than : 
cf. c. JO (note). S-IS. Fmm a 

reproof of the life and the attitude 
of Che wicked toward* Ae O.T. rsTcda- 
tion, the antkor puses on to certain 
disolotures and directions regarding 
his own book. S. The wicked at« 
admonislMd not to alter or misin- 
terpret the O.T.! of. ndr. £i zcriil. 
i4;xclx.i. HOlr (and) Oreat One : 
«ea i. 3 (note). Tour idols : cf. xdz. 
7-9, 14. 10. A Unie will eoine 


300 The Book of Enoek. [Seotv. 

I this mystery that nuay Binners will alter ami pervert the 
I words of nprig-htiten and will speak wicked words, and lie, 
' and practise great deceits and write books concerning their 
words. II. But when they writs down tmthfolly all my 
words in their longnages and do not change or minish onght 
from my woids but write them all down truthfully — all that 
I first testified conceaning them : ii. Then, I know another 
mystery that books will be given to the righteous and the 
wise to become a canse of joy and uprightneas and much 
wisdom. 13. And to them will the books be given and 

they will believe in them and rejoioe over them, and then will 
all the righteous who have learnt ther^rom all the paths of 
uprightness be recompensed. 

[CV. I. 'And in those days,' saitb the Lord, ' they shall call 

M8S. anpport text. 10. VUl alter and parvert tlia words of 
tvriglitneH. Din. ttanslates, 'die Worte der Rechtschaffenhelt 
dodem ond davon abfidlen werden.' It is arbitrary, however, 
to take tMLlD. as neuter here. FraotlM great daoelts. See 
Lericon, col, 13S3, 4. Din. translates, 'groese Werke schaffea,' 
but this he withdraws in his Lexicon. WtU» books. O Q' M 
giveoBUi^^. II. ISrwords. aO'Hgivef?^. 

whoi the ward* of rev^tiim wHI bo then booki will re«ch the gcnonttioti 

pcrrartad, snd booki be written tat- Tor whom thej were desired — a 

(bndiiK wioked Mid heathen doetrine : ' righteon* and wiaa ' gienetktioD, Mid 

■ee Crit, Note. PrkotlM great thii genention will be the fint t 

« Crit. Not& U. But andcntuid tfadr worth. Fcr thii 

the writing! of Enooh will oonnterMt idea ci Dtn. zii, 4, 9, to. IS. tht 

then healhoi teKkiugB, and theae righteona and the wise will reoogniM 

writingi will be handed down from and believe in thete booka : cf. Dao. 

generation to generation and throo^ lii. 10, ' Nona of tha wioked aliall 

-rarioui langnagM, and in tbe oonrw undoitand, but the wiee shall uader- 

of tranwnJMion be eipoacd to Tolnn- itand.' BaMwapMued. Hie gift of 

tary and involmitaiy perreniaBi and theae booki with their rarelationa and 

ehangei. The anthor qioaka hen wiwiom •eeuii to be tbe reoompeDaa 

from the itandpoint of Enoidi. In of tlie rtghtaom. ^lia Ib oertainlf 

thaii UnsuasM. The O.T. waa the view of tlie writer of or. i: of. 

Mlteadj tranilMed intoOrMk. It i» xdii. lo; 0. 6; d*. 11, 13. Or ia it 

probable that Ar>in»fa» and Greek ara meant that aoon after thdr reoepdon 

the langnagai here releired to. U. the Maaaianle kingdom wHl tpgtart 

At laM in the ooone of tranimiMion OV. Ihi* obaftet doea not aaam to 


Sect. v.] Chapters CIV. 1 1 — CVI. 2. 301 

and testify to th« childien of earth txsaaeroiag their wisdom : 
show it unto them j for ye are their gnides and a recompense 
over the whole earth. 3. For I and My Son will unite | 
with them for ever in the paths of aprightness in their lives ; ; 
and ye will have peace : rejoice, ye children of niHrightness. 

[CVT. I. And after some days my son Methuselah took a 
wife for bis son Lamech, and she became pr^naat by him 
and bore a son. 2. And bis body was white as snow and 

red ae a blooming rose, and the hair of Ms head and his long 
locks were white as wool, and his eyes beautiful, And when 

CV. 3. Amen. So O G' ft'Sl. Other HSS- ' in trath,' OfTl. 

b«loii( to ict-dT. For (i) tha phnas 
' duldim o[ eHtb,' wUoh in loi-dT 
is ft iTnonjin for th« dniun or 
heftthen. Ixm hers » good ethiokl dg- 
niflaatioii : aee c 6 (note) ; d. I (note), 
(l) The HoniKh b {otrodiicsd la or. l, 
to whout thare ii not tha &(iite*t 
■nuMm throoghoot vi-at. (3) The 
flnit* donUon of the U*m of the 
Mint* aeanw to b« implied In m. a. 
HJb ii the dootrine In i-xxxvl, bat 
DM in xd-dr. (4) The empbad* is 
Ijdd in or on the finite life on euth : 
in ici~ci* on the Immortal life in 
heaven. Iliii chapter, like It!. 5- 
Ivii. 3>, ii a liteiw; i««lval of U. T. 
thonghti and ideals. 1. OUIdisn 

of earth. Tlui phnas haa a good 
ligniScation here; for the bootta of 
Eiuch, wbioh onlj ' the righteont and 
the wiae ' will receive, are tha guide* 
of thoae deaignated ' childrea of 
earth.' Contract with thia the teoh- 
DJoal meaning of tbii phtaae in o. 6; 
ciL 3. Baoompenae: of. dv. 13. 
a. To Ur Bon. There ii no difflonlt; 
about the phr>«e ' M; San ' as applied 
totheMeniah bythe Jewi: cf-WEirft 
vii. 18,19; ziv.9. If the rlghteona are 
oiled 'God'c children' tn Mi. 11, the 

Mralah waa pre-amlnaotlj the Sou 
of God. Horeovcr, the aarlj Ifea- 
rianlo Interpretation of Fa. ii would 
naturally lead to anoh an eipraadon. 
In liii, 14 above we have jxactioatly 
the tame thought eiprewed : of: John 
xiv. 13. In tlislT Uvea; see intro- 
dnotion to thii ohapter. Ye vlU 
have peaoe. Tbii wai the q)edal 
bleniog of Uie rlghteouf, at it* Imb 
waa the onrw entailed on the willed : 
ef. xciv. 6 (note). 

OVI-TIE. We have here again a 
ftagment of a Noah Apooalypie. TtiU 
fragment, aa the other fragmenta of 
tlus Apocaljpae, nasa the Samaritan 
reokoning : lee liv. 3 (note) ; lii. 4 
(note). Enodi ii atill aliva and wlUi 
lite angela at the enda of the earth, 
eiaotlj aa it la preani^iOBed is Izv. i; 
Izvi. 3, whoi Noah ia bom. Only 
wonld admit 
aooordbg to it 
Knoch was only aa yet 185 yeu* old. 
Aoo<«dfng to the Hebrew text, on 
the other hand, Noah'i Inrth did not 
ooonr till the seventieth year after 
Bnooh'a tranilalion, and aooording to 
the LXX. not tiU the ifSth yew 
after that event. S. Aa wool ; 


302 The Book of Enoch. [8ert.V. 

he opeoed his eyes, he lighted up the whole hoose like the 
sun, uid the whole hoose was very fall of light. 3. And 

when he was token from the hand of the midwife, he opened 
his mouth and eonversed with the Lord of nghteoufinees. 
4, And his father Lamech was afraid of him and fled, and 
came to his &ther Methaeelah. 5. And he said to him : 
< I have b^^tten a strange son : be is not like man but 
resembles the children of the uigels of heaven ; and hie 
nature is different and he is not like us, and his eyes are 
as the rays of the son and his ooontenance is ^orious. 
t. And it seems to me that he is not sprung from me but 
from the angels, and I fear that in his days a wonder may be 
wrought on the earth. 7. And now, my father, I am here 
to petition thee and implore tbee that thou mayest go to 
Enoch, our &ther, and learn from him tJie truth, for his 
dwelling-place is amongst the angels.' 8. And when 

Methnsel^ heard the words of his son, he came to me to the 
ends of the earth ', for he had heard that I was there, and he 
cried aloud and X heard his yoice and came to him. And 
I said unto him : ' Behold, here am I, my son, for thou hast 
come to me.' 9. And he answered and said : ' Because of 

a great cause of anxiety have I come to thee, and beeaose of a 
distorbing vision have I approached (thee). 10. And now, 
hear me, my father, hear me : unto Lamech my son there hath 
been bom a son, whose form and nature are not like man's 
natnre, and the colour of his body is whiter than snow and redder 
tbsji a blooming rose, and the hair of his head is whiter than 

CVI. 9. Cause of anxisly. So G Q' M Xtf^. Other MSS. f7C, 
' matter.' 10. Hear me, mr fother. So G. DId. and 0' give 

'my fether.' Colo»ur of Us body. So G : -Hli; ^PO-. Other 

cf. ilvi. [. 3. OcinT«r>«d with. uikbI'> i- e. at the eiida of the euth, 

Aoxirdiiig to ver. II Noah 'blessed' m in Ixv. >; livi. 3. 8. OauM 

Ood. Lord of rlghtoooineM : cf. of anxiety : eee Crit. Note, 10. 

xxil. 14; xc 40. 0. Ohildron of Tho oolour . . . roae. Borrowed 

Um angeU of haavan ; ct.lzii.4,j; by Ayov. Petri.' rd fi}r 7^^ aiiiiata 

alio lixf. I. 7. AmODcat the aiitSiti i|r Xtrntirtpa wimp xf^rtn KoX 

itradb, Google 

Sect. v.] Chapter CVI. 3-16. 303 

white wool, and his ej es are Hke the rays of the sun, and he 
opened hie eyes and therenpon he lighted up the whole house. 

11. And when he was taken from the hand of the midwife, 
he opened his month and blessed the Lord of heaven. 

12. And Lamech became afraid and fled to me and did not 
believe that he was sprung from himj but that he was in 
the likeness of the angels of heavea ; and behold 1 have come 
to thee that thon mayest make known to me the truth.' 

13. And I, Enoch, answered and said : 'The Lord will do a 
new thing in the earth, and this I have already seen in a 
vision, and I make it known unto thee that in the genention 
of my father Jared some from the heights of heaven tram- 
gressed the word of the Lord. 14. And behold they com* 
mitted sin and transgressed the law, and united themselves 
with womrai and committed sin with them, and married some 
of them and have begotten children by them, 15. And 
there will come a great destruction on the earth, and there will 
be a deluge and a great destruction for one year. 16. This 
son who is bom unto you will be ]eft on the earth, and his 
three children will be saved with himj when all mankind 

HSS. "His colour." 12. lAmeoh. So G. Other MSS. 'his 

father, Lamech.' 13. This I have alfoady seen, OKfOlK 

0CAJI-. By a strange slip Din. renders, 'diese Weiss ich nnd 
habe . . . geKhen.' This, however, is a well'known idiom. G omits 
inf 0fK IS, In the generation of . . . Jared. G and Q' read : 
A'^O^AXj AJLf &T. M : A1^ a^ft-.C4 Af &£-. Some from the 
heights of heaven. So Din. GO'. L M : JumMUlt: A^JC. 
£ H K give ODMMkti tm^ ; and N gives m'tXliti imfi. An 
easy emendation woald be Am^lrh A'fjK ' some of the angels of 
heaven.' 15. On the earth. O. Other MSS. ' on the whole earth.' 

ifnOpiripa narrit fiitou. Byes . . . tioni beg»n with Jtred, and aatatd- 

son; of. Apoe. Pttri: Mi r^i ing to the Sanuritkn iw&oluiig, 

Saltan aSnSir ix-rbr in ifiSov. 11. Jued, Hethuulah, SDd LunMh die 

Iiord of beftven. Here only in or ace deatroyed in the year of the 

Knoch. IS. Do a new thing. Flood. U. The law, i. e. tiie law 

For thii phrase cf. Nam. zvi. 30; Ii. appointed to them as spiritual being! ; 

iliii. 19. In the seneratlon of . . . cf . st, 16. One year : of. Gen. 

Jared: of. vi. 6. He anfnl geneta- Tii, 11, and viii. 14. 16. 8a« 


304 Th$ Book of Enofk. [Sect. v. 

that we on tiie earth ahall die. 17. The gumts are not 
aocotding to the Bpirit, but according- to the fleeh, and there 
will be a great paniehment on the earth and the earth will be 
cleansed from all impurity. 18. And now make known to 

thy son Lamech that he who was bom was in bnth hia ami, 
and call his name Noah ; for he will be left to you, and he 
and his children will be saved from the destruction which will 
oome upon the earth on aoconnt of all the sin and all the on- 
ri^hteoosnees of apostasy whieb will be oonsnmmated on the 
earth in his days, 19. And after that there will be still 

more nnrighteoosneBB than that which was at first oonsom- 
mated on the earth ; for I know the mysteries of the holy 
ones; for He, the Lord, has showed me and informed me, 
and I have read in the heavenly tables.' 

CVIL I. And I saw written on them that generation upon 
goieratioD will transgress, till a generation of riglitAoasneBs 
arises, and tranegression will be destroyed and sin will pass 
away from the earth and all manner of good will come upon 
it. 2. And now, my son, go and make known to thy son 

1 6. That M« on the aarth ahall die. Here I have omitted tritb 
00' the words which come after these in Din.'s text, 'he and his 
children will be saved. The; will b^;et on earth.' 18. For UStJl^ 
Q Q' give Ut4. Unrichtaouanass of apoatasr which will be 
conmimmated. So O' Xltl OlUDt for XTt: DAtrt* of Din. 
Q reads Ofcd^, and bo really snpports O'. Din. gives ' nnright- 
eoosiwsB which will be oonBommated.' 

CVn. I. Tin. O Q' read lUvv ' that a generation of righteoas- 

Crit.Nota. 17. TheficrtbKlfoT of 'reraiuait'! <jf. Bodn*. iliv. 17 

thii vane, ending with tike wanb where he !b dcaoribed m a nctiMt)!^. 

' tm the earth,' ha* been tianipoeed 19. The mjiterlea of the holf 

through a slip &om Ita ligbi poei- emea. Either the Mcreta kaown to 

Hon after ver. 14 ; in that oonnexfon the angels, or the Mereti relating 

it ahonld be rendered : ' Giants, who to the righteooi in the htore. Hea- 

are not aeoon^ng,' Ac. Dln.'i inoi^- venlr tablsi : see ilvli. 3 (note), 

reot text made any explanation im- UVIL 1. Hie fii^sh growth of lin 

poaritde. 18. Hie name Noah i> tifter the Deluge : ite deltination and 

here liwived frma HU in the aense the advent of the Meadanic kingdom. 


8«*.V.] Chapters CVJ. 17 — CW//. 3. 305 

Lamedi that this son, which has been bom, is in truth bis 
BOD, and that (this) is no lia. 3. And when Methusel&h had 
heard the words of his &ther Enoch — for be had shown to 
him all the secret things — he returned and showed (them) to 
him and called the name of tbat son Noah ; for he will cause 
the earth to rejoice in oomp^isatioD for all destmction. 

CVm. I. Another book which Enoch wrote for bis son 
Methuselah and for those who will come after him and will 
keep the law in the last days. 2. Ye who have done good 

will wait for those days till an end is made of those who work 
evil, and an end of the might of the transgressors. 3. And 
wait je indeed till sin has passed away, for their names will 
be blotted oat of the book of life and ont of the books of the 
holy ones, and their seed will be destroyed for ever, and their 

ness will arise.' 3. For wbea reads liOfl ' again.' B«- 

tonwd and ahowed (them) to him. 3o M : V-OAi (DACXt*. 
omits. Q': 7-aCJi! (DJtCtf*. F H L N and Bin., ■ returned, after 
baring seen him.' 

CVUL 3. Ya who have done good wiU wait for. So O 0> : 
XA: 7(Unui>»-: d»CT! tXl<lK tCMc. oorOft. but that G' gives for 
A. FHILNOandDbi., ';e who have fiilfilled it and are wailing 
in those.' M, 'ye who have fulfilled it, wait ye for,' ^SMrfK A. 
3. Out of the book of Ilfo and. So Q' : Xfloft-fb^i rb^^D^i 0. 
M, ' oat of the book.' Other USS. omit. Of the holy onaa. Q' 

S. The derivation tA Noah givam in 8-10, tiw bleMed inuoartality of tha 
Gen. v. 19 ii bwe partdenlarlj r«- aonl, but apparontly not of the body, 
peated. M weU ai the doaUatn of Ugbt and 
OnH. niia final clupter forms an darkneu ao prominent in tt. 11-14. 
independent addiUon, It> nritar wu criii is more nearly akin to xoi-dv 
aoquunted irith setrtioDi i-xxxvi and than any other laotlon in the book. 
ioi-<nv, or at all events with part* of The object of tbii chapter ii to em- 
it hii acquaintance with i- oooiage the rlghteona stiU tc 

xzzri ia very inaccurate. In tt. depute the loi^ delay tA the advent 

3-6 what waa originally the place of of the kingdom, 1. Keep tha 

pmuihment for the dlaobadfent itan law, as apposed to ' Ul away from 

in ohapten zviii and ni beoomea in the law,' xoix. a. 3. The &ithAd 

his hand* practioally Grehenna. The are exhorted to farther patlenoe. 

wiitv is Esaene in tone. Obwrra 8. Blotted ont of the book of life : 

the high honoQT paid to asoetioism, c£ ilvii. 3 (note). Book* of the 

the MOTn of gold Mid nlTSr in tv, holr onaa, 1. e. the roll of the 


3o6 The Book of Enoch. [Seat. T- 

qarits will be slain, and lihey vill cry and make lamaitation 
in a place that is a waste wildemeas, and they will bum witli 
fire where there is no earth. 4. And I Baw then aomeUiing 
like a viewless clond ; for by reason of its d^th I ooold not 
look thereon, and I saw a flame of fire bnrmng brightly, and 
there circled (there things) like Bhining moantains and they 
swept to and fro. 5. And I asked one of the holy angels 

who waswitii me and said: 'What is this shining thing ? for 
it is not a heaven but only the flame of a boming fire, and 
tiie voice of crying and weeping and lamentation and strong 
paiiL* 6. And he said unto me: 'This place which thoQ 

seest — here are cast the spirits of sinners and blasphemers and 
of those who work wickedness and of those who pervert every 
thing that GK)d does through the mouth of the prophets — 
(even) the things that shall be. 7. For some of than ue 

written and inscribed above in the heaven, in order that 
the angels may read them and know that which will befall 

reads fJUl: ' of tiie Holy One,' Q ^A/H". In . . . a waste wOdra^ 
UMS. O gives : OoBllli JZ^li HA^AtCA.. 4. Por b? noKm 
of Its depth. G reads : Xir^mirf] Oin>4; at. A flams of 
fire. So OQ': 400; Xtt. Dlu. 'the flame of its fire.' 
5. ■Tfaia shining thing. roods HQ-Al = immolatoa. 6. 

Doa& So GO' ^'Vki,. Other MSS. '^Maks.' Ttaronch ths 
moutti. Q gives (IM. 7. Baadthem. Q 0' read .f>aCTai». 

memban of the kiugdam; of. dij. 3. of. xrlii. 13. 6. HtU hell iriiidi 

Bplrita will be Bliin : cf. Edi. 13 ; U ontaidH the eu^ i« the Sud pkoa 

idx. II (note). Thongh the axtreme of pimiihmaiit of siiuien and blM- 

penalty of gin. It doM not Imply vor phemen and parrerten of God'i 

nihiladon, for the viistlmi of tt ' ay revelation and action Ihrongh Aa 

and make lamentation.' In a plaoe, prophets. In verses 3-6 the writw 

fto. Tliii cbaotio flaming hell beyond of thia chapter haa confounded places, 

the limits of the earth >■ the place i. e. Qehenna and the hell of the dis- 

of pnnlduQsnt of the angeU in xviii. obedient stars, that are moat oarefollj 

xt-lh; zxi. 1-7. 4. This hell distingrushed in i-xxxri, and yet bor- 

and ita inhabitanta fnrther de«arlbed, rowHi the phraaeolo^ <Jl that Motion. 

In tamu borroired from xviii. 131 rd. BlaajilLenuin : af id. 7. The pro- 

3. S. One of tbe liolT ansels, phets. Here only mentioned ex- 

fto. lliia phraae is harrowed &oni presaly in Enoch. 7. Written 

I-zizri 1 c£ xxvii. a, Toioe, fto. : and Inaoribed. lliis refcn to tba 


Sect. v.] Chapter C VIII. \-\\. 307 

the eoimers, and the spirits of the bumble, and of those wbo 
afflict their bodies, and are (for that) recompensed by God ; 
and of those wbo are pat to shame by wicked men : 8. Who 
lored Ood and loved neither gold nor silver nor any of the 
goods of the world, bnt gave over l^mr bodies to torture, 
9. and who, since tbey came into being, longed not after 
eortiily food, but regarded theit bodies as a breath that paseetli 
away, and lived accordingly, and were mocb tried by the Lotd, 
and their spirits, were found pure eo that tbey should bless 
His name. 10. And all the blessings tbey received I bav« 
recounted in the books, and He bath assigned tliem tbinr 
recompense because they have been found to be such as loved 
heaven more than their life in l^e world, and whilst they 
were trodden under foot of wicked men and experienced abuse 
and reviling from them and were put to shame, (nevertheless) 
blessed Me, 11. And now I will summon the spirits of the 
good who belong to the generation of light, and I will tians- 

9. Their bodies. So O IflHvv. Other MSS. ■ themselveB.' 
Xitvad MMOTdlncly. Lit. 'observedthis.' 10. He hatb aMdcned 
them tbelr reoompense. O reads ^nfMo*. Heaven more 
man tbeir 111b in the world. So O HAMy". G' and Din. 
give HAM^ 'the eternal heaven more than their life.' Bot 
the collocation of the words favours the former. Here ends 

heavenlj taUv: of. xlvii. 3. These lightaou h&Ta their oonntwpwt 1b 

renai]* are alio called Uie booli of tlie thgte of the naked ; cf. zori. j-7 ; 

angali, for tbeir porpoie ia to aoquaiut zorii. S-lo; zoriiL >. 0. Ba> 

tlie an^li with the fatnra : cC clii. i. Kav^Ad their bodlea aa « breath. 

See also Arc. Is. vii. 17. 7-0. The The aseetdo soom of the bod; Is here 

humble. TbeBe are the D^39 and itronglj expraaaed. The body is left 

D^V to eften referred to in the behind in All world and gamnnte of 

Fialmt. Thej eonstitate the ime tight sBamned after death : of. Asc. 

Israel aa opposed to (he proud, the Is. iv. 17; En. ovili.i). 10. Booch 

■elfish, and the paganiien : see Chejne speaks and refers his hearers and 

an Ps. ix. 13. Those wlio afflict readen to his books. Their lift in 

their bodlea, loved neither gold the world: see Crit. Note: cf. 

nor BilTOT, longed not after earthly ililiL 7. 11. Versae 11 and 13 

(bod. Theae phrases would applj are represented as bdng l^ioken 

well to the Esseoe pai^: of. ilvili. by God. 0«n«rati<in of ll«ht: 

7; cli.5. These ehanwterittio* of Iba oC IxL ii (iKrte); uzrili. 4 (note). 

X % 

Digitized by GOOC^IC 

3o8 Th£ Book of Enoch. 

form those who were bom in darkness, who sought not honoor 
in the fieeh aa their faithfulness deserved. 1 2. And I will 

bring forth clad in shining light those who have loved M7 
holy name, and I will seat each on the throne of hia hononr. 

13. And they will be resplendait for times without number ; 
for righteousness is the judgment of God ; for to the faithful 
He will give faithfulness in the habitation of uprigfit paths. 

14. And they will see how those who were bom in daikness 
will be cast into darkness, while the righteous will be resplen- 
dent. 15. And the sinners will cry aloud and see them aa 
they shine, and they indeed will go where days and f 
are prescribed for thran. 

the repeated section. M has the straoge reading: \7"lX'ili: 
M^/kiTD- HAMy°. II. Bongbt not bononr. So Q: iUJ^Ai 
lril£. F H I L N and Din. ' were not recompeoaed with honour,' 
A.i'^J&f'. M ' ware recompensed.' la. Clad In ahliitng light. 

OCK-Ui ^CS^. Cf. Matt. vii. 15. (lA^nAi 1U170 < clad in sheep's 
clothing.' The statement of the next verse, ' they will be resplen- 
dent,' calls for this translation. Din. translates, 'I will bring 
Forth into a brightly shining light.' The throne of hla honoor. 
So GLMN: OpIO^i IHI^; tUtlt-. Dk. gives <a throne of honoor, 
of his honour.' 13. In the habitation of upright iMths. 

a reads : O'^'IJSC: fflSWVI^ CtO ' in a habitation and paths of 
uprightnesB.' M 'in a habitation and uprightness.' 14. Will 

be oaat. G reads ^I'IDA^. 15. Aa they ahine. For XlHs 

fJfiC^ Q reads ^dfrfwD^. 

Who were bom in ilTtnwii. Of 17; viiL 14, 16; iz. 9, Ae. ThMOM 

Utoie who Are born in darknsu, luoli of hii honour : lee (Mt. Now. C^. 

aiare&ithfulaiidieekiiothoiioiiriil Mktt. zii. l8 ; Rev. liL ai ; It. 4; 

dieS(»hnretnuufonned,batthaaawho Abo. Ig. ii. 10, iS. IS. Enoch «gs]n 

K'-V 'y\ ranuln in their darkneu are OMt into spoaki. Bsapl«ndent, &«. : cf.ixxii. 

dtAnaw ni their oondenmation : of . 7 ; dv. a ; orliL 14. 14. Bom In 

ver. 14, 13. Olad In ahlnlna darknon : we w. it (note). Oast 

light: see Crit. Note; aUo bdi. 16 Into dmrknon: cf. (dU. 8. U- 

(note); AM).Iai.G;; it. 16, Cf. Dan. lii 1, 3. 

Digitized by GtXlglC 



BouEiAHT: Frt^menU greet du Hvre d^ Enoch. Mfmoires 
publics par let Membres de la Mitnon ArcMol. Frangaite, torn, 
ix. pp. 91-136. 

L'Evangile ei I'Apocalypie de Pierre avec le texte gree 

du Hvre d' Enoch. Texte pubHi en fac-givtUe, par T heliogravure, 
d'apris let photograpkiet du manutcrit de 6iz/h. Farb, 1893. 

MiOME : Ze Hvre d^HSnonh in hb Dictionnaire det Apocryphet, 
tWie, 1856, torn, i, pp. 393-514. Tliis Frencli translation 
is made from Laarence'B Ethiopic text. 

G0LD8CHMIDT : JOa* BiicK Henoch aut dem Aelhiopitehen in 
die urtprHnfflich hehraiteke AbfaattngMprache surUckvbeTtetzt ; 
mii einer Mnleilung vnd Noten vereehen, 1892. This retrans- 
lation is tlie work of a very joun^ scholar, and, being eo, 
it is a creditahle performaDce It labours, however, under 
many defects. First, it is based on Dln/s Ethiopic text, 
which is veiy cormpt ; secondly, the author appears to trans- 
late at times not from the Ethiopic as he professes, but directly 
from Dln.'s German translation, as in xxxtL 3 ; zxxvii. 2 ; 
Izxxix. 7, &c. : thirdly, he mistranslates occasionally Eamiliar 
phrases, possibly through carelessness : and finally, he intro- 
dnces oonjectores into the text without any attempted justifi- 
cation in the notes. Notwithstanding, we are grateful to the 
author for his book, and regard it as full of promise for his 
fntureL For my review of tliis boob see Jevieh QvarUrlf, 
Jan. 1893, pp. 327-339. 

Digitized by Google 

3IO The Book of Enoch. 

LoDs: Le Lwre d'H^nock, Fr^meiUi greet, d^eouveria & 
Aihmim, publi/t avee let variantet du texte /tAtopien, traduiit et 
annotSt, Paris, 1893. For Bome unexplsiiied reaeoD France 
hae not till tlie present made any originaJ contribution to tbe 
study of Enoch, though it has been prolific enough in works 
of a secondary importance on this subject. But M. Lods has 
broken through this evil tradition and presented us with 
a woric of first-clasa importance, a work that is at once 
learned, scholafly, and judicious. I have been obliged, how- 
ever, to traverse bis main conclusions on the relative values 
of the Ethiopic version and the GTiz. Gk. text; bnt this 
is due not to tbe £aalt but the misfortnne of M. Lods, as 
he was not acquainted with any bett^ representative of the 
Ethiopia version than Dln.'8 corrupt text See further, p. 319. 
On some other occasion I hope to review at sinne lei^^ this 
attractive and suggestive book. 


BiSSBLL: The Apoerypha of the Old TettameiU, 18S0, pp. 
665, 666. In this short account of Enoch the usual analysis 
into Groundwork, Similitudes, and Noachian fragments is 

ScEWALLT : Dot Lebea naek dgm Tode, 1893. Tbe traditional 
division of the book of Enoch into the Groundwork, Simili- 
tudes, and Noachic interpolations is here assumed, p. 136. 
The author, however, is very arbitrary in his interpretation of 
the text uid is often demonstrably wrong; and this is all 
the more to be regretted as hie work is at once original and 
su^estive. The instances in which tbe book of Enoch is 
used or interpret«d will be fotind given at length on p. zoo 
of Schwally's book. 

ZOCKLxs : J)ie Apoetypien det AUe» TettameiU*, 1891, 
pp. 426-436. Like most writers this author assumes the 
book of Enoch to oonast of a Oroondwork of chapters i-xxxvi; 
Ixxii-cv (135-105 B. c): the Similitudes (of unoertun date) 1 


Appendix A. 311 

the Noadiio fra^ents (before the publication o( the Book 
of Jubilees): and cviii of recent origin. Slight ChriEti&ti 
additions in the Similitndes are admitted. 

Satifpol: in the IHetvmnavre de la Siilt, taec. iii, 1892, 
pp. 757-759, this writer divides the Book of Enoch into 
fi) Book of Celestial Physics, xvii-xix; xxi-nxvij Izxii- 
Ixxix; Ixxxii. (2) Hi^rical Apocalypse, i-xvi; Ixxx-lxxxi; 
Ixxxiii-CT (circ. 1 10 b. c). (3) Similitudes or Messianic 
Apocalypse, xxxvii-lxiii ; Ixiz-lxxi (40-44 B. 0.). (4) Book of 
Noah, liiv-liviii It is worthy of notice that this analysis 
is almost an exact reprodnction of Lipsina' article in Smith's 
Diet, of CAruiian Bioffrapky. 

DiLLMANN : ^tzvnggbericAte d. Kgl. Preitai. Aiad. d. Wut. 
zu Berlin, 1892, li-Uii. pp. 1039-54; 1079-92. This great 
scholar has here resumed his old Apocalyptic studies, and 
published an emended edition of the Gizeh MS., with a series 
of corrections of the Ethiopic text also. That the bulb' of 
these is of great valne goes without saying. Eor some farther 
notice of these papers, see p, 319. 

CsABLES : ' The Recent Tiauslations and the Ethiopic Text 
of the Book of Enoch ' (JewitA Quarlerly Bevteio, Jan. and 
April, 1893). 

Digitized by GtXlglC 



Ab both tiie origin and me&tung of this title in tbe New 
Testament have been very differently understood, it will be 
DectiBsary to disease these theories briefly. 

(i) It has been taken to mean the Messiah with special 
reference to its nse in Daniel. Hengstenberg, ChrUtotogie, iii. 
91, 1858 } Schulze, 7om Mentckauokn und vom Logot, 1867 — 
' while the concept of the Messiah is oontfuned in the name, 
the peculiar expression of it in the Danielic sense can never be 
knowingly left ont' ; and Meyer, Comment, on Matt. viii. 20— 
* As often as Jesus oses the words " Son of Man," He means 
nothing else than the Son of Man in the Prophecy of DanieL' 

The Danielic conception has nndoabtedly influenced the 
meaning of this title in the New Testament in certain in- 
stances ; see S. Matt. zxiv. 30 ; xzri 64 ; bat in the majority 
of instances it is wholly inapplicable] i e. when it is used in 
reference to the homelessness of Christ, S. Matt. viii. 20, or 
His aversion to asceticismj zL 18, 19 ; or His coming not to 
be ministered onto bat to minister, S. Mark z, 45, or His 
destiny to be rejected of the chief priests and scribes and to 
be put to death, viii. 31. 

(ii) It is taken to mean the ideal man, the typical, repre- 
sentatiTe, unique man. So Schleiermacher, who holds (Cirutl. 
Glavbe, ii 91) that this title, in our Lord's use of it, implied a 
consdousness of His complete partic^lion in human natote. 


Appendix B. 313 

M wen as of a distiQctive difference between Himself and 
mankind. So Neander, IiAe% Jent, Eng'. Trans. 4th Ed. p. 99, 
and more or less approximately Tholack, Olahausen, ReoRs, 
Weiflse, BejrBcUag, Liddon, Weetcott, Stanton. 

This Boppoaitaon cannot be regarded as more Baccesafal than 
the former. It fiula to show any fitness in the majority' of 
cases. It is moreover an anachronism in history and thonght. 
No past osage o£ the term serves even to prepare the way for 
this all^^ meaning ; and sacb a philosophical conception 
as tbe ideal man, the personalised moral ideal, was foreign to 
the oonscioasness of the Faleetinian Judaism of tbe time. 
The nearest approach to this idea in the langnage of tliat 
time would be the ' Second Adam.' 

(iii) Banr {Neuieti. Tkeol. pp. 81-3 ; Z. f. W. TieoL i860, 
pp. 274-92) thinks that Jesoa chose tbe expression to designate 
Himself as a man^ not as a man in the ideal sense, but as 
one wbo participated in eveiything that is human, qui hit- 
mani nihil a te alieitttm putat. Bat though He thns nsed it to 
dmote a simple ordinary man in its first acceptation, He 
afterwards incorporated in it the Danielic conception, as in 

S. Matt. xxiv. 30, &c. So Schenkel, Bidel- 
Baor has found but few to follow bim, 

Lem. iv. pp. 170-5. 
His explanation 

b the most inadequate that has been offered whether regarded 
from die standpoint of history or ex^esis. His observation, 
however, that this title had apparently a varying signification 
is worth noting. This variation is recognised by Weize&cker, 
Ev. GetcA. 1864, p. 429; Dot Apotiol. Zeiiaiier, 1890, p. 109. 
Its explanation is to be found in ihe complex origin of the 

(iv) Mr. Bartlet ('Christ's use of the term "tbe Son of 
Han," ' 7^ ExpotUor, Dec. 1892) takes this title to mean the 
'ideal man,' but he gives it a fnrther and more definite 
content by subsuming nnder it the conception of the Servant 
of Jehovah in Isaiah. The actual phrase, he concedes, may 
have been derived from a corrent Enocbic usage. 

Save for the fact that this theory rect^ises the inclnsion in 


314 ^^ ^ook of Enoch. 

this title of the Old Teetunfflit conceptioD of the Seratnt of 
Jdovah, it laboan ouder all the difBculties of (ii), and incurs 
fnrliier disabilities of its own. It attribatee to Jesos a most 
caprivioiiB and arbitrary metbod. It sappoecB Him, first of 
aJl, to choose a cnrrent Apocalyptic phrase ; next to strip it 
absolutely of its received meaning, and to attach to it a 
signiScatioa in the highest degree questionable for the period 
and coimtry j and, finally, while rejecting the Old Testament 
authoritative title of Servant of Jehovah, to subsume its 
complete connotation under this current Apocalyptic phrase 
with its neWj artificial, and tmmediated meaning. That the 
tide, moreover, however transformed, had not parted with 
its apocalyptic meaning, is proved by S. John v. %%, 27, which 
are practically a quotation from Enoch Izix. 27, 

The above interpretations are all unsatisfactory, and die 
reason is not far to seek. They are too subjective and cme- 
rided, and they all mwe or less ignore the historical facts of 
the age. The true interpretation will, we believe, be found 
if «e tiart witA the eoneeption at found in Enoch and irace itt 
etUarffoiient and etiential trantformaHon in the uaage of our Lord, 
In tkii tran^ormaiion it it reconciled to and takea over into itte^ 
its apparent antiihetis, the conception <f the Servant of Jehovah, 
while it hetrayt oeeational renUniteeneeM qf Dan. vii, the ultimate 
lonree if thi* detonation. 

First shortly as to the &ctfl of the problem. The expression 
is found in S. Matthew thirty times, in S. Mark fooiteen, in 
3. Luke twenty-five, in S. John twelve. Outside the Gospels, 
in Acts vii. 56 ; B«t. l 13 ; adv. 14. In all Gteea caaes we 
find i vU$ rou AiiBpdtifm except in S. John v. 37, and Rev. i. 
13, xiv. 14. The two passages in Bev. may be disregarded 
as they are not real desigoationa of the Messiah. As for 
8. John T. 27, 1 can find no satisfactory e^ilanation of the 
absence of the article. 

Our interpretati<Hk of tlus title ia as foUows : — 

(i) Its source in Daniel and its differentiation therefrom. 
The title ' the Son of Man ' in Enoch was undoubtedly derived 


Appendix B. 315 

from Dan. vii, bat a whole world of thooglit lies betweai 
the BDi^estiTe wotde io Daniel and the definite ronnded con- 
ception as it appears in Enoch, In Daniel the phniee seems 
merely Bjmbolical of Israd, but in Enoch it denotes a snper- 
nataral person. In the former, moreover, the title is indefinite, 
' like a Stm of Man' as in Hot. i. 13 ; xiv. 14, bnt in Enoch 
it is perfectly definite and distinctive, 'the Son of Man.' 

(a) The first occasion of its use. As the Similitudes are 
pre-Christian, they famish the firet instance in which the 
definite personal title appears in literature. 

(3) Its supernatural import in Enoch. The Son of Man as 
portrayed in the Similitudes is a supernatural being and not 
a mere man. He is not even conceived as being of human 
descent, as the Messiah in En. xc. 37. He site on God's 
throne, li. 3, which is likewise Hie own throne, Izii. 3, 5 ; Ixix. 
37, 29 J po^esses universal dominion, Izii. 6, and all judgment 
is committed unto Him, xli. 9 ; Ixiz. 27. 

(4} Its import in the New Testament This title with its 
supernatural attributes of superhuman glory, of nniveiBal 
dominion and supreme judicial powers, was adopted by oar 
Lord. The Son of Man has ctnne down from heaven, S. John 
iii. 13 (cp. En. xlviii a, note) ; He is Lord of the SabbaA, 
3. Matt. xiL 8 ; can forgive sins, S. Matt. ix. 6 ; and all 
judgment is conuuitted unto Him, S. John v. 22, 27 (cp. £0. 
Ixix, 27). Sut while retaining its supernatural associatioae, 
this title onderweat transformation in our Lord's use of it, 
a transformation that all Pharisaic ideas, so £ar as He adopted 
them, likewise underwent. And just as His kingdom in 
general formed a standing protest against the prevailing 
Messianic ideas of tranporal glory and dominion, so the title 
' the Son of Maa ' assumed a deeper spititnal significance ; and 
this change we shall best apprehend if we introduce into the 
Enoch conception of the Son of Man the Isaiah conception of 
the Servant of Jehovah. Tk«»e ttsQ eoneeptiona, though ottt- 
leardly oniitMic, are through the tran^ormatum of the fomer 
recouped amd^^filled m a deeper w^y^m the New Tetiament 


3i6 The Book of Enoch. 

Son of Man. This transfomuitioii flowed QatomUy from the 
object of Jesus' coming, the revelation of the Father. The 
Father could be revealed not through the Belf-aesertion of the 
Son, not through Hia grasping at self -display in the exhibition 
o£ BUpeihuman majesty and power, bat through His self- 
emptying, Belf-renunciation and serrice (Phil. ii. 6). Whilst 
therefore in adopting the title 'the Son of Man' from Enoch, 
JesuB made from the outset aupematoml claims, yet these 
supematnial claims were to be vindicated not after the external 
Judaistic conceptions of the Book of Enoch, bat in a revela- 
tion of the Father in a sinless and redemptive life, death, and 
resurrection. Thus io the life of the actual Son of Man, the 
Father was revealed in the Son, and sapematural greatness in 
nnivetsal service. He that was greatest was likewise Servant 
of alL This transformed conception of the Son of Man is 
thus permeated throughoat by the Isaiah conception of the 
Servant of Jehovah ; but though the Enochic conception is 
fundamentally transformed, the transcendent claims ander- 
lyiog it are not for a moment foregone. If then we bear in 
mind the inward ^fnthette of these two ideals of tie jxut in 
an ideal, nay in a PertonalUy irantcendinff them both, we 
shall find little dtffieuliy in understanding the startling eon' 
trasl* that preteni themselves in the New Testament in con- 
nexion with this detonation. We can onderstand how on 
the one hand the Son of Man hath not where to lay His 
head (S. Matt. viiL 20), and yet be Lord of the Sabbath (S. 
Matt. xii. 8) ; how He is to be despised and rejected of the 
elders and chief priests and scribes and be pat to death (S, 
Lake ix. 22), and yet be the Judge of all mankind (S. John 
V. a?). 

It has been objected that S. Matt. xvi. 13, S. John 
xii. 54 prove that the Son of Man was not a current designa- 
tion of the Messiah in tiie time of Christ ; bat no each con- 
clusion can be drawn from these passages; for in the older 
form of the question given in S. Matt, xvi 13, the words 
* the Son of Man ' are not found : see S. Mark viii. 27 ; S. 


Appendix B. 317 

Lake ix. iS. In S. John xii. 54 it is jost the strangeness of 
this fftfw conception of this current phrase of a Messii^ who 
was to suffer death, that makes the people ask, ' Who is this 
Son of Man P we have heard of the lav that the Chrtet 
abideth for ever.' 

On the other hand, thoogh the phrase was a cun-ait on^ 
our Iiord's use of it most hare been an enigma, not onljr to 
the people generallj', bat also to His immediate disciples, so 
mnch BO that they shrank from asing it ; for, as we know, it 
is used in the Oospels only by our Lord in speaking of 

Digitized by GtXlglC 



This importuit Greek fragmeat of Enoch was fiist made 
accessible to scholars under the editorship of M. Booriant in 
October, 1892, though discovered as early as the winter of 
1886—87 '^^ Akhmtm by the Mission Arch^l<^que Fran9aiBe 
at Cairo. The work is done in a scholarly manner, but is not 
quite free from defects. Some of these have been repaired by 
Mr. Bensley, who has recently collated the MS. at Gizeh, and 
from his note in the Academy of Feb. 11 six passages omitted 
through homoioteleuton in M, Bouriant's edition have been 
restored in the text that follows '. 

Unhappily the greater part of the present edition was 
already in type before M. Bouriant's work reached me, and 
I was thus debarred from making extensive changes. Happily, 
on the other hand, the many new readings I had introduced 
into the text under tiie guidance of the MSS. GM were 
almost in every instance in perfect accord witii the new Greek 
text. By the permission of the Delegates of the Press I was 
allowed to make such additional changes as would not inter- 
fere materially with the type already set up. But excise as I 
would, I could not at times make sufficient room for the fresh 
material, and so it occasionally happens that a text is followed 
in the Translation, the justification of which is given, not in 
the Crit. Notes which are immediately below, but in the 

' Since the above wu wriUsn I h>Te leo^ved M. Loda' litrt of oomctiom 
ftDm tha &c8iiiiila of this Qreek US. wblch ia about to be publULed, «nd 
oomcted U. Bomiuit't tait MConUngly, 

itradb, Google 

Appendix C. 319 

BeEore I eater on tlie criticisin of the relative marite of 
the Eth. and Ok. MSS. I wish to call attentioD to further 
emeodatioiiB of the text which are not followed in the Traos- 
lalion, bat will be, ahonld the preeeot work reach a aecond 
editioD. These new renderings will be fcnmd in tke following 
Crit. Notes. They are preceded by the readings they are 
intended to displace and are always printed in iialict. 

In my Introdaction (pp. 3-5) I have dealt briefly with the 
question of the Hthiopic text and the corrapt type of MSS. on 
which Professor DiUmann's text is based. I called attention 
to diie &ct in the Aeademj/ of Not. 26, 1893, and as that 
scholar ku ance amply admitted tliie fact (SUzunfftberieite d. 
Kgl. Preusi. AJiad. d. Witt, zu Berlin, 1892, li-Iiii. pp. 1039- 
1054, 1079-1092) it is not necessary to poipae this qoestioo 
at any lengUi. In these articles, Din. enters on the criticism 
and emendation of the Eth. and Gk. texts, and bases many of 
his new readings on two new MSS. These MSS., however, 
appear to fail Mm in some cnvnal instances where Q M or Q- 
are more than satisfactory. I have read these articles with 
great interest and foond that oxii emendations in the main 
agree : in a few instances I have adopted his suggestions with 
due acknowledgements. In many points, however, I have felt 
obliged to differ, and in many others, on which he has not 
touched at all, the right solution, I think, is offered in tho 
following pages. 

In the revision of this Appendix, I have also had before 
mc the excellent work of M. Lods. This is a most scholarly 
and suggestive book, but M. Lods has throogboat had the 
great disadvantage of basing his criticism on a corrupt Eth. 
text, i.e. Dln.'s, and thus more than one-tiiird of his book is 
already antiquated. Besides, the undeniably inferior character 
of this Eth. text as against the purer Giz. Gk. text has 
naturally blinded M. Lods to undoubted excellencies of this 
oormpt text, and to readings where it is clearly more ancient 
and correct than the Giz. Gk. 

In the Academy of Nov. 26 htst year, jnst after the publication 


320 The Book of Enoch, 

oi the 3iz. MS., I stated shortly the relative poeitioiu and 
vahtes of the Eth. and Gk. texts. As all my subsequent study 
has only served to confirm these, I will restate them with large 
additions and supply confirmatory evidence where necessary. 

lie materials for the textual criticism of Enoch are drawn 
frmn three versions or sources — I. Latin, II. Greek, III. 
Etiiic^ic. As the first of these is of very minor importance, 
we will indicate very briefly the contributions made by ttiifl 
source Co the restoration of the text, and pass on to the otiieis. 

I. The Latin documents are — 

iv Ezra [tL 2] ae contributing 

to the restoration of Eu. Ix. 6 (see Grit. Note, p. 

., . '54)- 

vu. 34 as contnbnting to 

the restoration of . . En. li. i (see Crit Note, p. 
TertoUian, De CuUv Fern. i. 2 : 
Metallorum opera nuda- 

Tor&nt En. viii. i (see Crit Note, p, 


Se Idol, iv En. xcix. 7 (see Crit. Note, 

p. 285). 
Latin Fragment of Enoch cvi 

1-18 Se^ for full treatment, pp. 

n. S. Jode 14, 15 . . . . En. L 9 (see Crit Note, p. 

Greek Fragment publisbed from 

Vatican MS. by Mai . En. Itxtit, 42-49 (see pp. 

Fragmentfl from SyncelluB . . En. vi. i— x. 14 ; xv. i— xvi. 1 

(see pp. 60-75; 83-85)- 
GHzeh MS En. i-xxxii. (see pp. 336- 

III. The Ethiopio MSS. enumerated on p. z, which are 
fiuily represented by DIil's Ethiopic text as corrected in my 
Crib Notes according to G or M or G M, &c. These correctionB 


Appendix C. 321 

are doee on eiz hundred. The following criticism is limited 
to a comparison of the rela1»Te merits of the Ethiopic and two 
Greek versions of chaps, i-xzxii of Enoch. 

i. Each of these versions preserves true readings over 
against corruptions in the other, or in the otJier two where 
these exist. So Eth, in vi. 8 (see Crit. Note, p. 64) ; vii i 
(see Crit. Note, p. 331); i. 5 (see Crit. Note, p. 337) ; x' 19 
{see Crit. Note, p. 340) ; xv. ] 2 (see Crit, Note, p. 350) ; xvii. 
3 (see Crit. Note, p. 35a). So Syn. Gk. on vi. 6 (see Crit. Note, 
p. 63) : ix. 10 : X. I Oipi^K (see Crit. Note^ p. 336) ; x, 14 is 
&i> . . . KaToxpiBij (Cnt. Note, p. 339) : xv. 9 t&v &i>6p4v<M> 
(Crit. Note, p. 349). So Giz. Gk. v. 5 ra In) r^c Inaikilas 
i)fi&v (see Crit. Note, p. 60) : ix. 4 &yu>v k. fiiya tc. ^\6yr\Tov 
(see Cnt. Not«, p. 334) : xiii. 4 &vayv^ (see Crit. Note, p. 343) : 
xiv. 1 wctfTMirL Tou <n6iiaT6s tioo (see Crit, Note, p. 344). See 
also Crib Notes on xviiL 4; xx. 3, 6, 7. Obterve that Giz. 6k. 
Am no unquettionably true readiMg over againgt Eth. and Syn, Gk, 
combined, tohereat Eth, and Syn. Gk. have each many tneh true 
and independent readme. 

ii. These versions taken in pairs attest true readings over 
against corruptions or omissions in the third. So Eth. and 
Giz. Gk. in vi. 3 KaX iStiaovrai, .... oipavov : vi. 5 (lai^ 
omission) : viu. i ffrlptii: ix. 7 &pxeiv. x 9 iia(itpiovs: xv. lo. 
So Etll. and Syn. Gk. in vi. I airrois : ix. 4 pa<rikfv6pT<i>v : 
ix. 8 iv Tail 0Tt\.fltus : x. 9 <Ic oXX^Aovs i^ airr&v els airms : 
X. 10 : xvi 1 its. So Syn. Ok. and Giz. Gk. in ix. 6 : ix. 8 r^t 
y^f (see Crit, Note, p. 70) : ix. 10 Slivarai : ix. II jfs odrotfs : 
X. 7 liaamTOii tt|v ir\r(y^ii : xv. 11 AA\' d^troStTO. 

It ie thus clear so far that each of these three versions has 
an independent worth of its own, though apparently the Giz. 
Gk. is less-original than the other two. 

iii. We have next to determine the relations of these 
versions to each other. Even the most superficial study 
makes it clear that the Eth. and Giz. Gk. are more elotelg 
related than tie Eth. and Syn. Ok. or tie Gie. Gk, and ^. Gk. 
For evidence that this holds gaierally we might point to Hie 


32 2 The Book of Enoch. 

following pessageB (see noteB) : vi. i, s, 4 ; to., i ; nil. i, 1, 31 
ix. 4, 6, 7, 9, 10, II; z. I, 2, 7, 9, 10 ; xr. lo^ is. Bat the 
decisive evidence on this question is fonnd in the fact that the 
Eth. and Giz. Ok. present the same angmnmafacal or corrnpt 
reading in x. 14 KonMoA^ against Stb. Gk. KoroKpiS^ : xiv. 7 
Kot \at \aAmiTct : XV. 9 hmripwv against Syn. Ok. di^pcivMy; 
XV. II vt^ika.% against Syn. Gk. ve/Mffwiv: xviii. 5 paari' 
fovrac iv vtijiiKji for /ScurreiCoi^as vf^Kat (?) : xxii. 4 hmftjtrav 
for lirot^i?i](riu'. As no such phenomena are observable in the 
combinatiouB £th. + Qiz. Qk. and Giz. Gk.4-S7n. Gk., it is 
clear that of the three versions the "EUl and the Giz. Gk. are 
bound together by a close relationship — in which they stand 
to each other, either as parent and child, or as children of the 
same parent. That the fonder ratiier than the Utter is the 
ease we must infer from the conclnsion already arrived at in (i), 
i.e. that the Giz. Gk. preserves no unqaeetionably tme reading 
over against the otiier two versions, whereas the Eth. pre- 
serves many sach. When I say that the Eth. and the Giz. 
Gk. stand to each other in the relation of parent and child, 
I mean, of coarse, that tie Etkiopie vertum vat made from a 
text tihick vhu tie aneettor of that preMTved m the Oixeh MS. 
This conclusion will receive farther confirmation in the sequel, 
iv. The relationship existing between the Eth. and tiie 
Syn, Gk. can be traced with tolerable cer^nty from Uie tacts 
already before us. For, in the first place, not only does the 
Syn. 6k. preserve many tme readings over against corrup- 
tions in the Eth. and the Qiz. Gk., bot it also preserves 
true readings over agunst tAe »ame corrvptioiu in these texts ; 
and, in the next instancy it does not agree in any instance 
with the Eth. in presenting the same cormption over agunst 
the true text in the Giz. Gk. Hence, clearly, it is not 
derived either from the Giz. Gk. or from the Gk. parent 
of the Eth. text which we may designate x, bat stauds on 
a position of equality with m. JFHnally, as there is repeatedly 
an exact verbal agreement between the Syn. Gk. and the 
Giz. Gk, which is the descendant of ai, the Syn. Gk. and x 


Appendix C. 323 

proceed from the same original. Further examination showa 
tJiat « preserves a porer form of text than tiie Syn. Gk. 
Hence the genealogy of the ahove documents might bo 
represented ae follows : 


Eth. Teraion Gii. 6k. 

T. We shall now deal shortly with the general character 
of the Oiz. Qk. and the Eth. on the score of additions, qmw- 
nona, and corruptimu. 

Whilst the undoubted additioiu in the Eth. are few and 
trifling in viii. i; ix.4; zvi i ; xx.6; xziL Vi; xxiv. 3, tliere 
ia a large list of such in the Giz. Gk. — in i. 3, 5, 6, 8, 9 j 
ii. a ; V. I, a, 6, 8 ; viii. 1 ; 1. 1, 8 ; nv. 4, ao j rv. 1 1 ; iviii. 
15 J xxii. 13 ; xxiv. 3, 4 ; ixvii. a. 

As to omittioM, the Eth. is almost certainly gnilty in i i, 9 ; 
V. 4,5; ix.6; xiii.8; iir.25; xv, ii; xi. 7; xxiL 2,5; iivi I : 
but the list of these in the Giz. Gk. is many times Isr^ in 
ii. 3; all iii and iv except six words; in vi, i, 2, 5, 6, 8; 
iX' i> 5> 8 ; z. 10, 16, 19, ai (?) ; xii. 3 ; xiv. 3, 4, 14 ; xr. 2, 

4, 8, 9, 10 ; xvi. I ; zriii 3, II; xix. I; xxi. 9; xxii. 5, 8; 
xxiv. I, 2 ; xxviL i. 

As regards corrvptiont, both versions are much at fault, 
but the Giz. Gk. more so. In the Eth. these corruptions are 
either native to the Eth. text or are due to the error of the 
translator or are derived from a. There are found in i. 9 
iMioT ^ilO"; ii. 1, iii. 1 and v. i mt4 for /nj&4 ; viii. i, 3; 
ix. I, 4, 8 tHA for t'dll j II translator mistaking jfv dn-ol!; 
for rh tts airois : x. 7 ; xii. i ; xiv. a, 18, ai, 33, 23, 34; 
xviii. 4, 7, 9 ; xix. a ; 11. 3, 6 ; xxi, 5, 6, 7, 9 j ixil i, 3, 3, 

5, 8, 9; xxiii. 4; xxiv, 3, 5; xxvL 3, 4; xxvii. 5; xxviii. i; 
xzx. I, 3; xxxi. 3, 3. The corniptionB in the Gtiz. Gk. 
however, are more numerous and de^seated ; i. 2, 3, 9 ; v. i. 


324 Tfte Book of Enoch. 

5, 6, 8 ; TL 8 ; Tiit. 3 ; ix. 4, 6 ; z. 7, 9 (futCi/KOVc » much less 
correct transliteration than that given by Eth.), 10, 11,14,19, 
30; xi. I; xiis, 6; xiii. i, 10; ziv. 2, 6, 8, 13, 15, i8j 19,23 
xY. 8,9, 12 J XTI3J ivii3,6, 7; iviii.3, 4, 5, 11; xx.4,5(?}; 
xil 3, 7{?); TTJi. 3, 4, 5,6,8, II, 14; ixiii. %; xxiv. 3, 4{?) 
xxT. 3, 5; xxvi. 2; xxvii.3; xxTiii. %, 3; xxxi. 2,3; xxxiL 3,3. 

There is another interesting; chkBB of comiptiong character- 
istic of the Giz. Qk. from which the Eth. is comparatively 
free : 1 e. transpoiitiotu of tie text. These are found in i. 2 ; 
vi, 8; X. 19; xii. 4; xiiL i, lO; xiv. 15; xv. I3; xxv. 3, $; 
xxxii. 2. In the £Ui. in ix. 8; xvii, 4; xix. i; xxi. 9; 
xxviii. 3; xxxi. 2. 

I have remarked above that the cormptionB in tite Giz. 
Gh. are very deep-seated. In fact, witfaont the help of the 
Eth. it would be impossible to retrieve the original text in 
euob passages as x. 19 ; xiv. 15 ; xvii. 3 ; xxviiL 2, 3 and 
others. The Eth., on the other hand, is by no means in sach 
an evil strait. Hence the conclnsioit to which all the pre- 
ceding facts point is that the Etk. pretemu a more ancient and 
truiixorliy farm <^ text than the Giz. Gk. : thai it hat fewer 
additions, fewer omittiont, and/ewer and leta eerunn comtpfione 
than that text. 

The results at which we have thus arrived are in perfect 
harmony with the external history of tbe Qiz. Qk, text and 
the Eth. version. The former cannot be earUer than the 
eighth century, and may be as late as the twelfth It is 
possible, therefore, that it is a descendant of the second 
or third degree from «. This of itself would account for 
some of the corruptions; but the real explanation of its 
vicious orthography and Etyutax and of its very numerous 
and serious corruptions is that the Book of Enoch was from 
the fifth century onward practically a proscribed book and 
under the ban of the Greek and Latin Churches. Accord- 
ingly, it was copied without care, and the way was opened 
for every kind of depravation of the text. The Eth. version 
{circ. 500 A. D.), on the other hand, was, so far as we know, 


Appendix C. 325 

regarded {rom the firet as a caoooical book of the Old Testa- 
ment in the Ethiopic Church, and thus it was transmitted 
with the greatest care and accuracy through successive copies 
till the sixteenth centniy. After this dat« the text suffered 
much from ignorant corrections. 

vi. In my Introduction (pp. 'i\, 2z) I have treated the 
question of a Hebrew original as one now practically settled. 
In the case of chapters i-xxxii this view is now established 
beyond the reach of controversy. The translator has trans- 
literated Hebrew words which were not intelligible to him : 
i.e. inx.A^fxa^iIpeovs=^]!Q9; inxviii.8<^ovKa=^; inxxviii. i 
and xxix. i fuw&ojSopa and j3aj3d>ipa='^'^; in x. 19 pirous 
=n3; in zxxi. 1 aappaii='^'^^ [and x.a\^av7f = J^^^rf]; and, 
strangest of all, in xzvii. 2yTj=K'i, where this word has been 
taken as a proper name, as occasionally in the LXX. (cf. 
Ezek. xxzix. 15 ; l Sam. xiil 88). 

In the following Critical Notes, Eth. = Ethiopic text of 
Din. ; Giz. Gk.=text of Gizeh Greek fragment; Syn. Gk.= 
text of Syncellns' Greek fragments. A, B, C, &c. designate 
the Ethiopia MSS. described on p. 2. The English render- 
ings intended to replace the corresponding passages in the 
Translation are always printed in italics. The list of variants 
given in the notes is not exhaustive, but no single variant 
of any importance is omitted. Words bracketed ( ) are 
supplied by me, and that ahnost universally from the Eth. 
The source will be found in the-Notes. Such words are to be 
r^arded as original constituents of the text. At times such 
omissions are not supplied but are marked thus .... Words 
bracketed { ) may be original, but are without a parallel in the 
Eth. Words bracketed [] are corrupt additions. When the text 
has called for drastic remedies, attention is drawn to tiie 
emendation by a f placed in the ma^in. Such emeadatdons 
are made almost universally on the authority of the Eth. 

Digitized by GtXlglC 

326 The Book of Enoch. 

1. I. hiitfm eiXoyfai 'Etttx, Koffits fiXiy^irfV jkAcktvW 
iiKoiovs otruifs taovrai (Is flfupap lu>iyKtts liapai inWoc t<As 

2. Kal ij>aXafi&p r^v vapafioKilP ovroS ftvfv 'Evilly &v8po>vos 
blKtuof 'EoTtf Spami iK dcoC ajtrfji ^c^fi^, kdI ^ifpa ti)i' 
Spoffui rov iyfov KOt roS oipavw ijp tUft^iii futi &yytkoi ^Ayiot) 

iymop hy& Beiop&v. Kal oix fls r^f pvp ytptiw (^iupooufofpy 
iXXh M vipfHA oSvav ytptip. 3. xol Vfpl t&p ^kXcktSv pvv 

Kal j^XdWcTot 6 Ayid; [^wv] d fUyas iK lip xarouc^catr 
a'^roC, Kat 6 tfcdr rot! <duvtn 4. Jirl y$i> iranjcrci Ivt rd Swa 

oJDo£ Kal ^vijirerat JK r^r vapffi^ok^? avroC xal ^oinfireTiu Iv 
T^ Swii^ct T^s lo^or ajirou (tird rot) oipoi'Dv {rwv oipovfiv). 

I. I. tfapt a. Atmx — ^ — ^ 'X" ^i' 'V^n' tuv 071011 «u rov 

avpanv titiitr im Jtoi OTioXoTcn' nffiiar -^ $topm' — 11 — «r« — (7*1 oAAw 
3. ry^cnw — fi 4. «r« — (»« to otira — ^im^irmu — ra/MrJSoA^ 

I. t. After txdpoit Eth. sdde m1 roh Aat^u. 1. After 

ta>^H add ^ftO* ftB Id Qk. draXofSte r. wapaffAipt atnrn). Cf. 
Ter. 4 ; and for ' answered ' read tUtared Ai« parabh. Spam . . . 

awtfyfiinj. So Eth. M. Lode denies this meaning (^ Gk., bat 
unresaonablf. Cf. Arietot. de Anima, in. a, Biod. i. 59, for 
Spaait = faonltf of seeing. However, Gk. as it stands is In fsvonr 
of ^frit= vision. We have in this verse an example of trans- 
position and cormption vhich we shall frequently meet with in 
the sequel: cf. z. 19; zii.4; xlii i, 10; xit. 15; xv. la; xxr. 3, 5. 
First, in fyi ix.'" n)* {fpocnf, 7x<"' ie a conuption of JApa : (fr has 
been removed from its place before SSiifa-. Next, the uJ before 
ayoXoyttf should be Written before (JKoumi. Finally, ayyikit tym aoi 
« tfioviia is a false addition. The text thus restored \a syntax and 
meaning=Eth. literally, bat that Gk. adds iym after JlyrtXos Bud 
for Kal rov oipmmv Eth. reads ro5 tV ro'it oipaimt. yrttJai ^ Eth. 

tat-^^r, the tme text underlying ryv nXXw. 3. See CMt. Note, 
p. 68. i Syiot [pni] 6 piyat. Eth. reads koI for /tmi. 4. nrl y^. 

Eth.=«i! iittiOtv. For Ac t^ n-^. read with Eth. pmh rqt mp. 


Appmdix C. 327 

5. Kol ifiopii&^irovrat vavrfs, (tol [vurrtivowrof] el iyfy^poi 
[miI ^(Tovo-iv ivoKpuifm iv vcuTiv rois Smpon r^j (sic) nal] (r«<T^Jj- 
(Toirrtu [viivra r^ &itpa r^s 7^?] Kal X^^^ertu o^Tovs rpdnos Koi 
^j3of fi^yaf jx^Xf" ^*''' ^</x'''<*>' i^« y$f< 6> koI trctirfl^troiTai 

rat j9ovvol ^^\ol [rov tiofiffvijinxi ^pij] xal raK^trorrat Sis Ki]p6s 
dird A'poo'ciTov mpds [iv ^KoyC"]. J. koI fiuurxto'd^o'crai i^ 

yfj (^trx_(<riui payuifsy, Kai iriiirra 5<ra iariv tit\ r^s y^f dxoXctrat 
Kat Kpltris liTTai xar^ ir(U>r«*v. 8. Kal fier^ rfif ducaiW r^c 

fj/)^v7|v irot^tTfi, Kal ivi rovs iKkfKTciis tarai avvT^pifiTis [koI 
flp^vtf] Kol i-w' (wrowr y(v^(o-()rai Iktos, icat l^iroi/rat w<Ut<s ro6 
0(w, KM T^p tiboKCav idati airois teat [ndvras] tikoy/jmi [xol 

^«t [mal voi^ir« jv' oAro&E (^vi)v], 9. in Ipxfrai trip rots 
nvpiitnp [avroC kaI to!;] Ayfois abnv voi^<ru KpOrip Kara vdvrwv, 
xal (iTroAcVfi (n^tWat) rois ixTt^tis, koH (i)kiy^fi iroo-av (re(/}Ka 

(tkXijpwi' jf JXaAi)o'ai> Adyuv icat Trcpi irdTrwc £i> KaTcXd\i;(raii) 

— #»« — tVTt 8. /i«i« — &'«v — S — •uSothud' — arrtiXiynfitTai 9. ot« 

S> Fall of Chrieiian (1) interpoktioiiB. 7. See Crit Note, 

p. gS : after irairw* Etb. adds mi ndiT<w rSai tucalmr. 9. For Sn 

read with £tfa. and Jnde Itoi. oim roit . . . Aytoit, An expansion of 
the original fl'I'XilA^: ^XJVI : Jude iV dyuur yvpiaaai atrrmi. For 
AiUL^l read AlfAWH; Itlfl with Qiz. Ok. and Jnde; and for 
'nngodly' read oU the ungodly. For iiroKia*t . . . adpta Jade 
reads A^£at mmu roit aaiffi'ts. For IHbi HV-fK- read tf-A^ V-Mi 
Cll4?<n*', (Rbrw fpyuv T^ airt^lat ai/rnr OlB. Qk. and Jude. iM 
u an undoubted corruption of &Il9'=v'*ffl''^^- Hence my ren- 
dering ' ungodly committed.' The last bracketed claase is probably 
an expansion of ml mpl miiTwr rw oA^par ir ikdkijirar. So Jude. 
Hence after iiUt" add O/eKHn »itri J^i-Vh HIOO-. Hence for 
' all that the einuera . . . committed ' read aU the workt of their 
godlesmets iohvA they havt vngocUy eommiUed and of dU lh» hard 

Digitized by GOOC^IC 

328 The Book of Enoch. 

tl. I. 1La.riaafyio.Ti tima rii tpyo. h> ry vipca;^ v&s ovk 
^K\o(»aat> rhs iMis avr&v, koX rdits ^MOTnjpai rovi iv ry oipavtf 
wf tH vdirra dvor^AAct koI bvvft, TtrayfUvOi f (tairror iv t^ reray- 
lUvf Kaip^ (koI raif toprais airiiv ^uwvrtu) Kal ov ■napa^<d- 
povtriv T^w (IhiM)'} T&^ui. 2. RtTf T^r yrjv koI hiavo^0r)Tt 

vfpl T&v ipytip ip avTJi fivofUvutv in' ^x^' M^XP* rtKtifSurtnt 
[ftfflv ^tfd/n-tt], in oiK iXXoMWToi (^oiHv rmv tvi yiji iXAa) 
v6iiTa ipya 0tov (vjxu') ifialpfTat. 3. 18<re r^v 0fpfiav koI 

rdv x'tM^>^- U^- '• K(irQ^Mid<r( koI )2<re ■nipra ra tiphpa, 

V. I. v&s ra ^AAa x^'^P^ ^c fi^ols aKi-novrm rd dccdpa koI 
[vas] j KapTrds avrutr [eIs rifi^v Ka« Mfoi'] SuufOiJ^rc, ^koi yvfirc) 
irepl vdirTw ^ruv ipytov avrov), kuI jio^irarc 3ri [dc6s fwv] 
inoitfaep avra othtts Kal ^ cif [vifirras] roir aiuiws 2. Kat 

rd^/>ya a^oS [iniira oaa liroCntrfV ctv ro^s alSvas] &vb iviavrm 
fls iviavrop yipofitpa [vSarra oSrats] xal irivra [&ra] dxorcXo&rur 

n. 1. ■oTOHnjirfTW — qAAMxrar — T(Ta7fiav mpo — T«i (opnTi — ^crornu 

— m/n^crmwrir — (itnor a. (iSirt — iaa-e^trpyu fn»icift*>w» ^ f<Xf" 

TCAjaxTtan — oAAvDivnu — (»i — Sij — ^(rtrai J. fftpiar — TW X"/*"") 

IIL I. KoraiiaStTai — iSrrai 

V. I. ffHvorra — rafn^r — Sidnnr^rai — Trorroi — ro^mntu — 9t 1. 

thinga toMeh vngodly tinnera havt ap<Aen. Etb- wroDgl; ftdds 
ni between dpipruXoi and dcniScTc. 

U. I. Kiinuv^art. Aa M. Lods has alreodj obserred, mt4= 
nrivdijira U a coTTaption of ni^4l : cf . also ci. i . For ' I obserred ' 
read ^lerve ye. The Etb. tranelator read al ^wrnipts ol instead of 
iiai T. <f)<Mn^/Nic T, rdfiv. So Q ^CT+C"". Din. gives ^XHHiHk. 
z. For tfialnTiu tbe Etb. translator read ^ainj^ra. 3. Bulk <rf 
verse omitted. 

IIL I. KotaftABtn Kal lArTf. Eth. gives ' I observed and saw ' : 
cf. ii. I. For ' I observed and saw ' read obaerot ye and see. Qa. 
Ok. omits this chapter and the next with the exception of six words. 

V. I. For * I observed ' read obtorve ye. I read vKorowrai for 

d-KtWoira with Din. For i taprrit airmr Eth. gives nofrntxpopuiiri, ml Q 

spoils the force of the argnment. Etb. which reads ii{Sia undoubt- 
edly best. For 1^AV<>■ we should probably read iui'>'H=tiSrmt. 
3. Etb. preferable : Qiz. Qk. very corrupt rdmi &ra . . . nlipac 


Appendix C. 329 

avr<p rd Ipya xal oIk ikkotovirTai [avr&e ri ^/O"^] ^^' ^trirepct 
tcartl imrayifv . . . rii wdiro y^crai. 3. Kerc wfir ^ fliiAacro-a 
Kol ol TTOTOfiol ur 6iMites (iirorcAovtriv (koi dvk dAAoiovirii' airup 

oubi iicoi^aart kot^ ris h/roK^i airov, dXAct itriarrfTt Kol kotc- 
Xak^ffarf ftcyiiAow kqI <rKX.r}povs X.6yovs iv <rr6fMTi iKoBapvCas 

{'Or( KoreXoX^ffare tv rots ^€ifxa(rui lu^p), (ricXqpoKiipdeoi, o^k 
i'orat ilp-^irq 5- "^oiy^fi J"^* ^^ipas ifxiip ^(*eis KorapAffta^f 
KM rh, irrj r^s £o>^s iSptur ^voXcTrf, koI (to Inj T^f dv(uX«^af iJfUip) ■)■ 
n'Xijdtw^o'crat ^v xarcifif aldivMii, koI ovk tirrai iiuv t\fos {koI 
flpijvjf'). 6. Tarfl<rratTiS»6fjMraifi&vfWKaTdpaiialiivto» irStriv 
roEt hiKa(oiS) koI ^v ^^t Karoptio-oi/rai iiAiiTfS ol KorapAufVOi, 
Kttt v(b>rcE ol i^utpTOiKoC [koI ai7f^(ii iv ifiiv ifiovvrcu. Kal irivrts 
ol (iii)afx&pTifToi ■)(_ap^avvT<u, Koi ttmu avrots Xilms hfiapri&v koX 
itav l\tos Ka^ flfrrfvrf koX JvictKcta' ^orat avrois (TMTijpfa, ^s 
iyatftit', Kal avrol KXijpoi'o^^o'oiHrui r^ir y^v. icai voo-if {fxuf tois 
ifut^oiXotf o));^ ivdp$ti aMTTjpla, dXXa jnl vfiiTas iiias KortKei' j- 
trerai Kar^/ja], J. koX roTs ^xXcKrotr lorai ^«s koi X'^'f "<*^ 

(If>^in) Koi avrol KXi)f}oi^;ii{a-Of(rii> r^c y^V v^iv Si roif iirt^iaip 
iiTTiu KarApa, 8. t(^ dod^trfrai toT« JKAcKTott [if>us koI X''^^^' 

aUMWFTOi — tw*iTaiyt)r — 7«it-*TBi 3. iitrri — taXaaa — aXAinvvtr 

4. »/iu — (w — tri/urirrat — (nHTmroi — svccrnTriu — *aTtXaX.iiinrrm twice — 
ffTO^TU — (riicX7paiiKip<!i« — »Tn ip^^ £. v/ui JOmipaaaaStu — jnTa( — «al 

Td (nj) — nwoAiTQi — oiTi) — oT(>X4at — tar* 6. tuHi»t — aatfiii — e/Mwnu — 
miMpniTOi — a/japTttwr — twnUKfta—tm- — jnmXvCir mmpir f. ryXttran 

— «rr( before niTap. 8. fYA.(CTiMT twice — 

has crept in from preceding verse. itnnptH) 6<nrtp au). Eth. (mdaf. 
After inaayii* add 6t<ni vith Eth. 3. ut ipaUat, EU). ^/lov. 

4. itarA T^r OToXdc ojinni. Eth. r^v imX^i rou citfHOV. 5. I have 

emended mrA rqc (v^c into ral rd ?n) rqr fw^c with Eth. : see Crit. 
Note, p. 60. ti. See Grit. Note, p. 61. vaym al atr. . , , iiap- 

mXof gives th« wrong seuEe unleBs we take these words in the 
vocative, 'all ye blaaphemerB,' &c. The qnesUon here does 
not concern the cnrsing of sinners hj unners but the oarsing of 
sinuers by the righteoos. 7. yofnt, Eth. (t/"'h, x<^>^- 8- ^"^ 
0A>n>X read ath'Vf. ^ . . . iAtxroii repeated from first parts 


330 The Book of Enoch. 

Kol ovrol KA7)poi>i>fji^<rov<rii' t^v y^v. nfrc So^frcrai nwrip Tott 

mi^ai Iti, ov itar' hai^ixav ofire xari ivfpittjuiviav, (leoi (orai iir 
ivS/Miv^ TtftftamtTtiivif 4^t Koi iii$p<iisif imtrr^fMvi infi^fio.) k(u 

T^s 0"V^ caiTUff, Kol o£ fx^ ^TTO^iiitiMrti' iv opyjj 6vfiov, il^Xa rov 
ipt$fj^p air&p C^oijs ^{Atp&p vktjfxiirovtTtv, ical ^ £u^ avruv ov^tfq- 
atrcu hi ftprivji, koI t& ^ t^s X'V^^ avrAp vAijAiv^trcrtu fv iyaX- 
XuitTEt Kol <^vj} atSfos it> itdtriM raU fifUpais Trjs C^^^ abrmp. 
VI, 1, Rai iyivero, oS &t> ivXi}0iv6jfmai ol viol T&v ivBp^itmp, 
ip iKflvaii row fitiipaK iyav^Bijirav (avroii) Bvyar^pts itpaiai jwl 
Kokai. 2. Koi iSfOffoiiTO avr&s ol SyytKoi vloi oipavcni Koi 

ivf&vfi,rf<riui airis, nal (hav vpis dAA^Xour* AcCrf JicAc^Ed/uffa 
^ovrou yuifa^KaE ivd . . . t&v &ti6p<iriav Kai ytpp^a-tofitp iavrols 
T^Kva. 3. Kol (tvfv ScfMta^; vpot airovi, it ^p tpxMi airuV 
^ofiavfuu fti) vi 0cXi}ai;r< iroi^troi rd vpayfia tovto, xat l<roftai 
jy& fM(fi>9 ^etX^f ifioprfaf fMydAiji. 4. (LireKpf^(rai> oBv 

collar — <T(( — KaT'oXifitiar — onrw twice — (V«iim;fia<i 9. ncrn rn tunft 
VI. 1. o«« — arwa* — vniris rts if pit — eipttu 1. Boi — i-fXt[e- 

futa — arm* — ytmjaoiitw j. ttktigtrai — offiAqnft a/iopraat 4. a><- 
Kftit^^aar — laathiiaittiiaim' — 

of TT. 7, 8. Kor' dOTiSciar^QtULO- We might also emeod nui 
XvAi*. ml fcmii . . . vijiiia u more difficult U>an Eth, and suite 
the context better : c£ cviii. 13. 9. dpifmsiriy. Inferior in mum 
to ^1**!^ 'will be pnsished.' it i/r^ %«iS. Otm^t^ti 

VI. I. TO a* ahoiild probably be emended into ort^reading of 
Q, XlH. After Jrin^Arirav read aArut witb Eth, and Syn. Ok. 
Mol KoXal So Etfa. Syn. Gk. omits. a. Syn. Gk. against Eth. 

and Qis. Qk. omita ml JBtatrawro , . , ovpatov and adds ol fypiiyopot 

ad iK*n^arTi$Tianr iwivm OVTVW after ivid. atiras. dtvr< omitted fay 

Syn. Gk. Before rs* avd^>«n'«r add with Syn. Gk, ru* fioyaripmr : 
A Eth. kyoHl'JSi Mjt, which we should emend into N^AVlLft 
ftOX^'fiMm among the daughters of men.' ul rnv. . . . nma. 
Syn. Gk. omits. 4, After ah^ inbrtf Syn. Gk. and Eth. add 

Kol (Aror, but Q omits. ivoB. irdmr. Eth. and Syn. Qk. omit inb>T<«, 


Appendix C. 331 

oXXifXovE fi^ ivooTfii^i niv yv^ft^v rainjv, f*^(/HC oS Sv nkt- 
(rufMi> ovrijv [koI vDiijiratptei'} rd irpay/ui roSro. 5. t(Jt« &fto<Tm> 
v6,vTf% Afum Kot dve^e^iifriirai' U.\^\our Jit a^f .... 6 

7 . Kal Tttfira ri di^fiara Twy hp)(6vTiav aiir&v Sffua^s) — olirot 
^ fi^mv ojrrfii'— , 'ApaBix, Kitifipa, Sofifiamf, Aomi^X, 'ApcopSi, 
2<(ti^\, 'I(ofi«(^X, Xtuxo/it^X, 'E^CKt^X, Barpi^A, £adt^A, 'ArptiJX, 
Toftt^X, BopaKtiiX, 'AvavSva, @(uv(i{X, 'Pofii^X, 'AovtiX, 'PaK«^, 
Tovpi^X. 8. <^oi fl<riv ol iiKap)(Oi a^«i> (xal oi Xoiirot 

v6vTfS pier' abr&v). 

VII. I. KallKaPopiavToisywaiKai' iKaaros air&v t^tki^avro 
iaVTois yvvMKas, Kal ^p^vro do-itopeSta&u tipds airhs koI 
fuab>(tr$at iv oJn-ai; kaI JSt!k(fa» airhs i^apfMKtCas koI ivaoiiiLs 
(Mil fiiCoTOi*(as Koi rif ^orebat jfi^Xcuo-ai' airats. 

2. Al 8i ^w yam-pi Aa^oCo-ot MKoirav yiyavras /teydAov; 

7, apxo* — offmA/ia' 


mxipro/MF s 





8. opx* ""^ 


VII. I. Timcm before mi 

— /ul*WlT8(U — 



(uot a. 

► B« — Vurrpu- 

— T«T<*™*— 

piixp*f • ■ ■ ^ovTo, £th. ^ mi nXtmu r^« ^v^W ">"")* t^' rpafai, 
m) roiq<r. , , . roCro, Sjn. Ok. omtta. Q. Before itXX^Xouf late 
Eth. M8S. insert IMvv ' all,' bnt G K with Syn. Ok. and Oiz. 
Gk. omit. Ab P^—b ovrf, for 'to its fulfilment' read upon t(. 
Ois. Ok. omits reet of verse and Ter. 6, 7, I hare foUoved 
in giving KdkablSl and Arni&rds instead of AklbUl and Aimers. 
Bead A^^ instead of Zaq!16, and Za^ instead of Zaq«b6. Eth. 
and Syn. Ok. agree in main as to the names against Oiz. Gk., which is 
very corrupt. 8. See Crit. Note, p. 64, where I shonld have added 
that I had emended the evident corruption Otifif' in G into Otifi't. 
VII. I. Syu. Gk. adds at beginning of verse i^ t^ ^'Xnwr^ 
jn>ro<7T^ i^SopijKoar^ Irti rov K6(riun). tiaurTot a(r£i' . . . yuwiunir. 
Bjn. Gk. omits. This clause merely repeats the preceding ODe. 
£th.=(f(X(faTi> inaiTTot ftan^ piav alone preserves the true reading 
here. tlmopfitaSiu n-. lA. ma. Syn. Ok. omits, '^lutfrnr^i. Eth. 
t,£aB{, ' united.' After ir aurais Syn. Ok, makes an important 
addition, ins . . . fMyoXiutnrnt ii^«r: see p. 65- ourat. Syn. Ok. 
gives iavToiit col r^ yimuKat iauraw, xal pt^. . . . aiiTius. Syn. Ok. 
omits. T^ /Sormvf . Eth. atOSOt; ' of trees,' shonld be read a)O00, 
and iret». We shonld expect 0^0(1, 'end herbs.' a. Byn. 


332 The Book of Enoch. 

ix tmx&ii rpitrxiX^MV, 3. oXrwts Kor^irBovcui rt^s kAikhis tAp 
ivSpAvnav' us hi ovk Jdw^tfijow avroTs o\ &vdpairot ivmoptfyw, 
4. ot y{)ui^cs JToA^)}o-(u> jir' avrov; Kal Kani<r6Coaav raits iv&p^ 
vavs. 5. KOt ^p^vTo AftapTdnfiv iv toIs vereuiots noX TtSs 
$T}piois Koi i/nttrols Kol rols Ix&vvui xal dAX^Xuv rdi tripnas 
KortaBUiv, Koi ro ol/ui ^tivoc. 6. rcirc ^ y^ Iv^x'** 'C'*'^ 

run dv^fxaav. 

VIIX. I. 'EBAofev Toir ivBp^itovs 'A^tt^X iiaxfUpas voulv 
Kol SvXa Koi iktnc&ai koI OApaxas, [dtSayfiara iyy^Ami'] koI 
^^Sc^^cv aifTMS ri fWroAAa ical r^ir ipyatriat) airruv Koi <^r^Aia 
Kol KifoTiovs Kol VT^tK KOt r<k KoXXipKi^Mpov koX irairrouivr 
AWow JkXcktovs Kttl rd ^afptiti. 2. Kal lyivtro hiri^tM 

Tftaxitf^^'i' ^ oirnTii KaTteioaatr — amir — (dvm mixofTy 4- aoTf 
VIII. 1. movs — itaytpia — stfmSitt — vnSiffr — fUfoha — Meaiiet — 

Ok. omits the rest of this cliapter. Before Jk *n{xm» Eth. inaerts 
a>ff°(n>*= mi i) t^iKia ovTwv. 3. For itte read XA with Qiz. Ok. 
ocrvri. rovr mkovc. Eth. iuGerts 'all.' wt it. This may have 
been ?■». So Eth. XAh 'till.' 4. /rAfu}(rw. Eth. Iw^^n- 

' tuniod.' 5. tit al^ux. Eth. odds X^7, a^rw. 

YIII. I. -nils irepimavt. So Eth. Syn. Ok. omits. For 'Afo^X 
Syn. Qk, reads npmot 'A^aijX d Braarof rvv d^x*^'*''' ^■'^ Etil. 
onTAill^ =' knives.' oirXa mi itmiias, Syu. Gk. irai- itkcmw 
froXt^LCib. dtSoypira ayytXig*. A gloBS; UOt in Etb. Or SjH. Gk. 

urt3<i£<» avToIc. Syn. Gk. omita. ri ywraXXa. See Oit. Note, 
p. 66. After firrnXXu Syn. Gk. adds t^ t^e uil rd ^pwrioi'. aol 
T^ tpyaaiar t^mi. Hence read with E iD^°7'UT<n>*, koI ^"Xia 
ml mfirpiuc. So Eth. Sjn, Ok. koI (nH^cnxrir ouri nfiTfua n& 
yvvaijt ml riv Ipyvpov, kw vriftta. 80 Eth, : see p. 66. Syn. 
Gk. »K^ dj a^Tcur ml ri oriX^tr. KoXXi/SXt'^uipoF. 80 Etfa. 
Au'lf^ 4&XH* 'the beautifying of the eyelids.' Syn. Ok. 
mXXisn'ifiiii'. muToIoui Xidovr (VXin-ouc. Syn. Gk. rovr iicXtJcniiie 
MAwt. Eth. X-OI; X^U-ft^ X>a1l Wifll (D4K=X(V<>vr ri^Bntrow 

ml AAcKTMrarinn'. T(k ffa^am. Eth. inserts If fr ' all,' and adda at 
end of Terse ' and the world was changed.' Syn. Gk. adds «u 
ArMijira* . . . iyunit: see p. 66. 2. JytrtTO dv0tia roXXij, mi 


Appendix C. 333 

■r&oais raiE iioi^ airrup. 3. Scfiia^t jftfSafcv ^va(o()8&; Kol 

piCoTop.(as, 'ApfiopMC ^aotdfiii Xvr^piov, 'Pcut^ iarpokoylagf 
XoijQfiiiX tA iTTffMUdTtKti, 2a(di)i)A. hartpoaKoviav, 2cp(j){A) ireAi)!'- 

4. Tav ovf kuBpiittiov diioXAv/^vuv ^ j9o(^) Wf ovpovojjc Avi^i). 
IX. I. Trfrt T(ip(a)(n)^iurr<f Mixar)^ ««! OvpiifK xal 'Fo^a^X f 
Koi ^afip^7}(K), oProi i(C rofi oipavm i9tiira(v)To alfia iroXi iKxWi"- 


Mpuvirap. Q reads otih ^91: OfLT: aHMdtt aHmOL. Here 
(HUi (0 is an mtnision. Henoe traiulAte on p. 66 : (Aera onus 
mucA ffodletanMs and they eommitud fornication. Syn. Gk. omits 
mil /vopv. ml lornrX. and adds (irl r^t yqc. 3. Syn. Gk. inserta 

before ZffiioCSt, ^1 Si *al i nparapx-s ovrur. Z(/iuifaE^Eth. A'SHM 

or Jti^lU-A (G). AmlElr&B. This ia corrupt. inaoMt ul ^<^^ 
tVm- Eth. a-fr! aotMliS\i mao^Cfhi ^Crt*=*«iw<.i nnKxfta^ 
ml ^ariiunn. Syn. Gk. (Zvoi apydc mri rot) mh, ml pifoi ^onuwv 
T^f y^. 'Apfuipuc=Syu. Gk. *apiiap&t. Syn. Gk. adds before this 
i ililii«aTtit, and after it iilia^ tpapiumiat nrnoidiai, amfiiat xal. 
'PauqX, Etb. (U!^^, Baraq'fil. mrrpoXoyiac. Eth.=d<7Tpi>X<SfOT'c. 
X«x;rtijX. Eth. Ml-CUA, K&kabftl. miFuiBrud Syn. Gk. t& <n,^ut 
T^c yqi. SoA^X. Eth. 'FJT'Mt, T«md]. ZtptiJX. Eth. M&^Ul 
fffXijniyvyiEc (so I have emended ir(Xi)Pi)Kryuit)=£th. i-9ti aiCt 
'the conrse of the moon.' Syn. Gk. r^ ir^pitia t^c mX^i. Syii. 
Gk. adds mynt oSnM . . . aurav : see p. 67. 

Vni. 4 — IX. 4. For this part there ia a doublet given by 
Syncellus, which we £hall deaii^atB Syn. Gk.' and Syn. Gk.*. 

VIII. 4. At beginning of verse, Syn. Gk.' adds furi Si roOra 
^p^oKTo . . , avBpiariev; see p. 6'j. After oiroXX. Eth. adds ilCffti ^ 
ifiwfirar, 8yn. Gk. variants veiy wild. Syn. Gk.'mlffifaiTa. . .itiiwiw 
ropuni: see p. 67. Syn. Gk.* rJn ifi&Tjvap . . , TS luyakotrmji. Yet 
these may be more correct than the shorter text of Eth. and Qiz. 
Gk., 08 these repetitions (cf. iz. a, 3) are natural in Hebrew writing. 

IX. I. For dfCt^ G reads A^IUt, an obvipns corruption of 
frCAA. For whC^, which G omits, read &4AA with Giz. 
Gk, and Syn. Gk,"°**. Hence, fbr'Soijan and Urjan' read f/rts/ 
and Se^had. Syn. Gk. sol amuaawnt , . . rou ovpamO (see p. 67) 

Digitized by Google 

334 The Book of Enoch. 

vifuv{oi>) iv\ rqr yqr (koI vatrov ijiiniiiui ywofUv^v im Tr\s y^s), 
2. Kol ttirav Ttpiis (UA^Xovk' ^cor^ ^oui' thv jffl r$; y^s f ^X/h 
TvASir roC mpavm. 3. jt'Tvyx<i)'oi'<''U' a^ ^njxol T&v ii>6pAitMi 
\fy6vTmr EltraytiytTc ri)i' Kptaa> i^yAv vpds rdii {^torap. 

4, Kol f7iTa(v) rf mtp^y (rui> atiavaiv)' Sii (Z Kvptos t&v Kvpiaw 
KoX 6 0cd$ ruv dcHV xai ^ainAnw rwv fia(ri\€v6imiv. 6 6p6vos 
r^i S(ffi)t (TOtt eir Trdtras riic yenffts rov oImvos, koI rd Jvofid 
ffov ro AyH)i> Kol fi^ya kcu cvX^fyirrov els vdiTas row olSi'as. 

=QiE. Qk. ntn . . , mpaxov. Eth, agrees with Qlz. Gk. After 
yqf I haTe added ml iratmr orQfiiav ymoitirijw ntl t^ yqr With Eth. 
0111*1 00"* H^tlOCi IWn; fUC. So ijiia Bjn. Ok.'-" 
but that before yamiurtpi they add «ai air<|3(uu', a. «u (uriD'^ 

S;ii. Ok. (IcrtXASnTi (uTDv. S^D. Gk. omits the rest of verse, and 
Oiz. Qk. U imperfect, and should probably be i^i^' ^o*^' o^rvc 
fv/u^ jSof q y^ : cf. En. Ixvii. a ; Ixxziv. 5. 3. Eth. adds at 
beginiiiiig : afiiMii iOWB-. H^A^i ttnfi=iad liv, irpii ipSs, i 
tfioi Tou aipartn. (rrvy^fdMnro'U' . . . XrytWor. Syn. GL in ri rui/iara 
ml ol ^}(al (Syn. Gk.') trrtra^avow hmrfjprarTa mi i.iyotmi (Syn. 
Qk.*) /rTvy;i[annicri irrniafomi ml Xcyorni. Here rd irv. koI oI ifr. or 
tA nv. Twr ^x^ >B the true t«xt agunat both Giz. Qk. and Eth. : 
see Grit. Note on iz. 10, p. 70. Kpiaai. So Eth. and Syn. Qk.': 
Syn. Qk.*giTefl SAjow. After i5^um» Syn. Gk.' adda kqI r^ ArA- 
Ittiar . . , ^r/aiiMmvB (p. 68). 4. After ad Syn. Qk. * adds trpootX. 

«I r. opx- **¥ "'P'? ^^' oUra*. So Syn. Gk.' Tirtoally sopported 
by Q U AXTHAffl*". Al^O*)* = rf icvpif r£> |3a<nXfvd>-n>r. r>» 
(J^Hor, being early corrupted into twv jSotnXtvibTsv in the Qk. 
parent of Eth. text, was omitted later in Oil. US. Hence for 
'their Lord the King' read the Lord of the age*. <rv. So Syn. Qk. 
EtL XIUo, which as Din. points out should be KW. After jSart- 
Xn6rrur which I have emended from ouuHtr, Syn. Qk.' adds ml 6At 
Tu,v alarmv, and Syn. Qk.' au 6tit Tu» irSp&irm'. The former reading 
may have dropped out here both in Eth. and Qiz. Qk. fyuw mi 
fiiya ml *iA6^Toir tit v.T. oiArat. Syn. Gk.'"" omitml jm>o. Eth. 
is here slightly corrupt. In * blessed and gloriona art Thou,' the 
' Thon ' (Alt) belongs to the next Terse, the ' and glorious ' is an 
intrusion ; and the term 'blessed' should be connected with 'name.' 
Hence for "Thy name holy ... art Thon' read Thj/ noma hofy 


Appendix C. ^i$ 

Kol TiWa ivdviAv (Tov ifiavtpA koI iKoXmrra, koI nijrra (ip^s koI 

iAuilas ivl rfjs yfji koI i6^\aiafv rh pifor^pui tov aluvos rd ip 
T^f oipap^ {&) iiriTjfMovinv yvMiui ivdpiuiroi, 7. [koI] 

8. Kul lirop€^9r)ffap upds rdr Bvyaripas ruv eUitfpoSiroiv r^t y^s 
Kol <TVU€Koip.ri&r\vav aircus koI (jf toit 0>)Xc^aif) ^piiiiv^frai' xal 
ii'^Kcoa'aii avraii Ttdtras ras ^utprlas' 9. koI oI yvfawccs 

6, ot — oStunat nn — twirtlltvmmai tyrttrnw 
mi befbra mwat — a/ttfiTtias 9. < Tuficff — Tfirwrot 

and gloriout and bl«Med mUo all the agtt. So Qic Qk. Sytl. 
Gk.'addB at close r^(d v^umt. , .^1 npiatits: SMp. 68. g. yofi. 
Eth. omits. irooxD' T^ i^owriar. Sjll. Gk. mitTwr Ti]r 4(oii(rla». 
So Etli. After nil vi^a 1 have added with Eth. and Syn. Ok. 
ipft . . . Mmitw. 6. ^c. So S711. Qk. Eth. CMb, which we 
should emend into CUl, and for 'see them' read T/um leetl. 
After 'AfoqX Syn. Ok. adds mil Ara ila^rryntr. it. So Eth. Syn. 
Gk. Sm. After JOwfiif Syn. Qk. adds xol ipapriat, and after 
yqt adds Kal varra iokar iiri njt fijpur. mt /B^Xsinv . . . ofpoi^. So 
Eth. Syn. Gk. gives a better sense : iiiia^ yip- • ■ oipa^ : see 
Crit. Kote, p. 70. A iwrnfitvooffoi -ynvai Mpmroi. Gf. Syn. Gk. 
nriD^Atvovtn 3< , , . ii^pstriw : aee pp. 69, 70. Eth. Am^i lHIO^*f, 
COrrapt for IVPD^i ^VflX^^injBfMivo'ui ytAnu SuBpmrm. •]. waL 
G and Syn. Gk. omit. The words Ain>& A-flO^t ahould be comiected 
with preceding verse. ScfimfSt, ^. Syn. Gk. Tf Zf/uafg . ^j^v. 
So Eth. Syn. Gk. ix^- 8- S^ Crit. Note, p. 70. «u tittir6tf 
Mr. Giz. Gk. defective here. After koL Syn. Gk. gives (V raU 
AfXtKui, which is supported by Eth. y"AAi ^AtK AIA^ ' with those 
women,' where, howerer, the a>, ' and,' has been wrongly trans- 
posed. Hence, for ' have slept . . . themselves ' read AatM Aept 
with thtm and d^Ued themidveg with thi>u vjomen. itairac. So 
Syn. Gk. Eth. XA*1t ' these.' Bead with Vila, tf^rw, and for 
'these sins' read oQ sins. After iiiaprlas Syn. Gk. adds mi 
ttHla^v oMt iwnjrpa iroMir. 9. After mi Syn. Gk. adds tmi IdoC. 

ai yvvaaai t^wtjaia. So Eth. Syn. Gk. al dvyariptt . . . vlavr (p. 70). 


336 The Book of Enoch. 

lO, Hol vCc ISov ^o&mv al \lrv\ai rwv rcT<Xevn)K((r<ov koI iv- 
TVYxivawTiv li^xpi tSv iniK&v rov aipavav, koI ioMfit] 6 trrcvay^c 
airiiv koI ov b^varcu i(eK$ftv &v6 vpovditov rwi> ^i t^s y^f 
yivoyAvw ivoftfiiiartov. 1 1, xal tru vdvra dttias itp6 rov a^(i 

ytvitrSiu. Kol <ni 6/)$9 ToCra Kai i^s airovs Kot oi8i 17^ X^yciv 
r( Set 'S'OMtv (rin'ovs irtpl toUtoiv. 

X. I. TA-* H^fruTTos (^flvfv} \vffi roiratv] S fUyas Seyuts, 

nrmm. Syn. Qk. ylyanTat. So Eth. Before A? Syn. Ok. adde 
■iSSijXa . . . ciaK;(vnu «■/, aifumw tm. So Eith. Syil. Ok. iHllitB. 
10. ffoAmr. So Eth. Syn. Ok. omits, ol ^j^n/. Bee Crit. Note, 
p. 70. Correct K^/H* into f (iVH* with Ok., and for ' boqIb which ' 
read mouU of thou teho. M. Xioda (p. 115) here points out that 
C'U Bimply means ' person.' Thus HD FiPBi = • dead persons.' 
Hence the nse of the peculiar expression ' spirits of the bodIb of 
those who have died '(see p. 70) to denote the continuance of the life of 
the spirit after death. Siwarai. SoSyn. Ok, Eth. supposes Avkutoi. 
M. Iiodfl defends tirarm and urges that the qoestion here concerns 
the Bonis of the dead, and not living men, and translates : ' il (lenr 
gtoissement) ne pent sortir [de I'erttr^ des portes dn ciel] i cause 
dee iniquity.' Bat as iivarm i^XOtai prohahly represents DKXp 7^, 
it would be better to render '(their lamentations) cannot cease 
becaose of,' &c. Hence, for ' they cannot escape from ' read cam- 
not txoM bteause of. 11. ir<im>. So Eth. Sjrn. Ok. ounL 
6p^t. Eth. +Ay"C ' thou knowest.' raOra. So Eth. Syn. Ok. 
ainis. iff a&rois. So Syn. Ok. Eth. HttJiVoO' 'everything 
affecting them.' Here the translator confuted rd tit aiiravt with 
i^ atrroii. Henco, for 'everything affecting them' read and Thou 
n^erett them. iifiu>. So Eth. Syn. Qk. omits. 

X. I. Before rirt Eth. adds tai After AOA add fiA with Oia. 
Ok. and Byn. Gk. mpl rovruv. Eth. and Syn. Ok. omit. ml 
«&r<r. Eth. and Syn. Ok. omit. 'lurpaiiK. Eth. hCSuMMC, 
MCTi ftW: (O). Syn. Gk. tAt oipi^X. Aft«r t^i^x Eth. 
reads atfi4Un flA*; but O omits .POA* with Giz. Ok. Henoe, 
omitting a>, for 'and said ... in Hy name' read (eU him m 


Appendix C. 337 

A^fUX' ^- ^l''^" o^ff iTti r<p tf^ dvfffiorc Kp^op mavr^p, 

votra Kol ieara«A.twnds ^XA« ylptirScu nitrtfs t^s yfll Rot 
diroX^n viiTa mra jffrlp a^. 3. koI blba^p airrip Svcos 
iKi^i^y^ KoX fKVCt rd avipfta airnm dt v&<rai rets yfvt^r n>C 

4. Kal T^ 'Pa^a^X flmv ^ritrap rdp 'Afa^X vovln koi x</«rip 
krI /SdAc a^ii> els rd VKAros. Rol Ivotfop r^f Iptfuop ri)p oStrai' 
JV T^ Aoflov^A, Ktbcct /3(iA( o^cfv, 5. vat vtrijtfcr oirtp A^^ov; 

im tls rents almpas, kqI r^v &fnp airoS viiftatrop, Koi ^ur fit) 
OtmptlTm. 6. Kal iv rfj fifitpq r^r ficyiiXt}s -r^s Kpltrtcos Airax- 

ol ^yycAot, Kol t^p tatrui tijs y^s i^KiMtop, tpa livioPTCu njv 

nmi-^ s- >."<om — of 

6. Kpfiiriait — ttmifiaiiey 

My name. After Aifwx Syn. Qk. adds Xrjwf, ir. r. r. n£(. 3. 
After naaa ad Sya. Ok. adds tirt» air^ Sn. Saa tori* avrg. So 
Eth. Stu. Qk. mi wpoamnm t^ yfi. 3. Affer nu Etb. adds 

nnt, tArir. So Eth. Syn. Ok. riw Sljuhoi'. .... Aafux- Byo. Gk. 
afl^er Ai(fi(j[ ailda sal t^ii 'Irvxh'' ■ ■ - (nwnjp^n. jiruc (K0vyfj . . . 
a^ruii. Bo Etb. Syn. Gk. aH tigpti^tu . , . (md^mrai. 4. Aft«r 

<Hu' Eth. adds miXi* 5 Kvpme. Aft«r tliro' Syn. Qk. adds woption 
'P(K^ai}X ui. nmrli' ml \ipai*. Etfa. and Syn. Ok. x^P'"" *"' >"x>^'. 
After xipirlv Syn. Ok. odds (Tu^TrJixraf uMr. r^ AudovqX, Sjn. 
Qk. T^ tpfifi^ Aovda^X. After nLcii Syn. Qk. adds iropto6tis, 5. 
iw66tt. 80 Syn. Qk. Bat Eth. snppoBes (and rightly) MStt, Af-i 
^OlWO". rjMXftr ml a£(ir. So Eth. Syn. Ok. t^'u k. rpaxm. 
6. TJ ffu/f r. luyaKtit r. ■p/o-nM'. Syn. Qk. omits r. fuySluit. Etfa, 
read r. fuyiiAs ijfupf ^^t tplaiits. iwa\8li<FrTat. A technical nse. 
So Syn. Qk. Eth. f-^iAoh is bad : the translator should have used 
OtttA, Z. 13. Syn. Ok. adds at end roS irvpoi. 7. ta^^crtnu ^ y^. 

We sbonld emend this with Eth. and Syn. Ok. into txroi tijh y^v. Sy- 
y*>M. SoEth. 8yn.Ok.(y/]^)<opa(. y^r. SoEth. Syn.Qk.vXTT^r. 
Urwnu. So Syn. Ok., better than Eth. Adi^T, Uooruu. Hence 

Digitized by Google 

338 The Book of Enoch. 

■sktffiiv, isa. ^i) dmfXwiTai tt^Wc; ol vtol xStv ii>0pd-ruv tv rtp 
avrwi', 8. Kol ^ptifuidri itaaa ^ y^ [i^ovtirtfcura] iii rots 

9, Kai Ty r<i/9/>i^A. ctircv i k^/kos" Hopeim ivl row (laCiipiotis, 

inl ro^s Ki/3S^Xov$ koI roti<! vlois Ttjt vopvfUts, Kot dvdXfirop roit 

vloit T««i> iypjfy6pav iwd tuv &v6pAiriep. viix\jft>v airmis iv vo)Jiuf 

dvwAcfar* fuuip&nyt yhp iffup&v oin lanu airr&p. lO. km 

f voxra Spt^is (oiK) Ivrat roXs narpimv airMt [koI] vtpi avrfiv, 

frij irciraKiJirui. 

fi^ amAAwFTiu — amr — iwarafar (for dvJfqmir?] g. rair — n — ma 

twloe — cc4^9(>,(wi — arwm- — amKa 

nod fibfiitL. irXTyqv. So Syn. Gk. £th.=y^. I withdraw my 
Boggestioii in Crit. Note, p. 73, and accept irXiry^ aa original. 
Hence, for ' I will heal the eartlt ' read 90 that they may heal the 
flagw. Before Tki Eth. and Syn. Gk. insert ral. r^ lanmipaf 
oXf . I have emended yJ'tlLii itOf, ' the Eecrete of ererythiug,' 
into yP'aiCt U*ft*=r^ pvirnipUf Skf. Hence my translation. 
iwaatrai; So M. Boiuiant for arAnfiut. Perhaps ^re^qow wonld 
be better. Syn. Qk. thor. 8. i^PiaurSturu. Omit with Eth. and 
Syn. Qk. nit tpyrHt r, tiimnaklm. So Syn. Gk. Eth. = tj 
iidmriuAi^ riw Ipyttr. afif. Syn. Gk. aurj. ^.txipios. Eth.'Qod.' 
Syn. Ok. omits. After voptiov Syn, Qk. adds Tu^itX. pa(i}piotit. 
This is a corrupt translitenttion of ^1^. Eth. more correctly 
flBTHi-l. Syn. Gk. wrongly yiyavrat. rtrl t. ic(j94qXou«. So Syn. 
Qk. Eth. OtAyHV} ' and the reprobates.' Before roue vims r. ir. 
Syn. Qk. adds M. Eth.=«i4nrf. r^c irapnW. SoSyn, Qk. Hence, 
for H"?, 'of the fornicatress,' should be read Hfn**)*, which was 
first corrupted into U"^, pL of ll<^. After limJXnni' Eth. adds 
Toiit vloit T^i mpvtias aiL tbi" irSpiatmr. So Eth. Syn. Gk. r™ 
viMV r. a. Before viiLptai Eth. adds i£air6irTtAo» t^iTois rai. After 
almCi Oiz. Gk. defective: cf. Syn. Qk. and Eth. fir axXiiXoui, ^f 
airar tit airois. it mkipiif anaXtiat- Syn. Qk. if nX. jcol it Amtk. 
Eth. tr wAiiuf dmAAtrrai. itatp- 7^- ^ Eth. Syn. Qk. koI poKp. 
atrSv. Syn. Qk, airoit. I O. Spt^is tvT<u. Syn. Qk. ipaaiiint o£ic 

•<m. So Eth.: see p. 74. mi mp\ aiirAr. Syn. Qk. omita, Eth. 


Appendix C. 339 

II. Kal (Ttcv (ry) Mixa^' Tlapt^m kq! d^Xowxiv ScfuaCf ko^ 
toTe \oim)t; tcks otII' oiry rais ywaiflv fitycun (foG) fuov^voi "I- 
Jv aifTOAS iv T^ iKa$apal^ oifr&V 1 2. koI jfrov Kara(r^a/&rur 
ol viol airrSv koI Rmiru' r^v (LtcjXcuu' rMf iyam^rur, [ml] H^inv 

KpltnoK air&v Kol <rvl^-cXc(r^ov, lots T{>tftT&^ rh KpXya rav oiuvos 
T&v altivtav. 13. rdrt iva^B^aoirrat els tJ x''"' ""^ 'wpis 

Kol (Zr rrlv p&aavw kcX tU ro dcfr^uor^jitoi' ovyKAcfcreus al&vos. 
14. Kol £e fif Karaxpt^ Kai &>f>aviii^ iirb rov vCv /tcr' aivruv f 

15- 'AWXcirov vilvra r^ irirc^^iara ruv ki/3&^Xuv koI tovs vlocr 
TMV lypijy6po>v tia to iitiajtrat riAs ivBp^vovs. 16. mU 

If. TtiTff u> /utyn-nu — avrit 11. ^iBbww — aroKia* — avcwmn— otrm— 
;i<X^i 13. raScffTd ttfffwrqpiovaWKAiffMw 14. orar ■n-ajRUMAi — 

in IttT — TtAMWwn 15. nam — o-sovt 

omits *aL 11. After (&nv Eth. adds 6 laipiot. Before Hixq^ add 
ry with Etli. and Syn. Ok, After vopiiov Byn. Qk. adds Hij^o^. 
ital STXaMToi', So Eth. Byn. Gk. S^mw. Tttic yvf. /itycuri. So £tfa.^ 
Syn. Ob. roit miiiuytfras rolr Svyarpiai r«v (ti^pi&irwr. Before ituwS. 
Syu, Ok. adda nw. Before r^ ixa6apaS^ Eth. adda initrir. 12. ml 
irar. So Syju Ok. Etfa. omits mt. Konur^. So Syn. Ok. Eth.= 

auroS inirrois Koraai^ta^ai. Before ol viol Eth. odds nirrrs, A&BT 

iymntrai' Eth. and Syn. Ok. add avTin. Omit ral before ajtrar with 
Eth. and Syn. Gk. After airoCt add Arf with Eth. and Syn. Ok. 
vdrm^hilU: cf.LXX.Is.xl. la. 80 Syn. Gk. and Eth. nu imv- 
nXnrjiov. Eth. odds atrwr, Syn. Ok. luxpi fitiipas TtktMmitt rfX<(r- 
imS, 13. rifrf. SoSyn.Ok. Eth..^ if ittirais rw^itipait. aray6. 

(aee z. 6 note). Eth, ' one will lead off.' Syn. Gk. iifntxOvrairTm. 
a> should be added after X'H' with Byn. and Giz. Ok. miyiiktlirtait 
oIuMl. 83'n. Gk. T^ a, rou ai<av. Eth. tnr/KKtiBifiiovTai tU rain 
oIwMic r&y tdiumv, AMlH> shonld be stmck out. 14. ht i*. 

So I have emended with Syn. Gk. ; aee Grit. Note, p. 75. Eth. 
&M=TiTt, a wrong vocalisation for MM'^Sriai. Kanxpt^. See 
Crit. Not«, pp. 75, 76. diuni. 80 Eth. Syn. Ok. omita. yrwai. 
Syn. Ok. adds aurur. Eth. ytrias yttuSt. 15. Before inA. Eth. 
adds KoL trrtCiiora t£* lu^SqXw. Henoe, for ffHl l^at-i.'i:' read 
ao?¥ftt: J'^fV); and for 'luBtfDl bodIb' read tpirita of the 
npnbaU (or illegitimate). 16. koI jvA. Eth. omits ad. 


340 The Book of Enoch. 

iatSktaov rj^c dfiucfov ■naaav r^s yqi, ical tov /p/ov vonjpfac 

iX.ii$fias (els robs oluvar) f^ert) x'f'^^ ^vrev(ff^)o'CTa(. 

17> ml vvv TiiiTcs ol SfKOiot jk^c^^oi'ivi, koI ivovn* ^Mi/rcs 
&U yuw^atoo'tP x^"^^^> ""^ votras rds fffidpas vtinfTOi oMip 
Kti r£ trifiPara airw furi ttp^mis vXtiptitrovtrip. l8. r^rt 

ifryatr&qvtTM vSura if yij iv biKOWvivfi, koI Kara^vretitfqo'CTat 
8^i>ftpov ^v oJnr^i Kol vXq(r0^<r(Tiu ciXoyfot. 19. Kol virra ra 

t Kol <nt6pw> {rem fntapivrm (Katrrov [i^Tpov^ irailjtrei ^lAuiBat koI 
tKOOTOii lih-pov IXaUxs voi-Zjati &vh fiirovs d^KO. 

20. Kal cn> Ka$iptffov t^p y^v iird v(i(rt)s iKa$apff^(as koI (lird 

16. lijnocvn;t — mX^ias 

Eth. omits dc nm atina. After olunu add with Eth. 'labour 
will proTo a bleseing : rightoonBDeea and nprigtitneBB,' omitted 
throngh hmt. <f>vmi6, Eth. f^!tltt = 'fnrrtivovm : ct Ter. 19. 
17. ^iM^fiwnu. SoQ^T-^f-. Din. ^7W, corrupt. 18. hi™- 
4>vT. b. i» airn. Eth. 'it will all be planted with trees.' 19. r^t 
oyoAX. This emendation in accoidanoe with Eth. is necessary, 
as Din. and Lods have already recognised. After ainrSKout Eth. 
adds ' on it.' The emendation of oi into xai is necessary. Before 
t^vnwT. Eth. adds 'on it.' For tfla in Dln.'s text read Otfii 
with 0. So Qiz. Qk. oZmu. Eth. renders wpoxoit freely by AitPfl . 
Qk, is confused and defective ; but it agrees word for word 
with Eth. saye that it omits ttttt HCX: H^^i <A7: Hdtt: 
aobLCff with the exception of tiie second word=(nr<Vov. It 
preserves the verb and acoi of this clause, i.e. s-oi^tm x'^^* 
=^>flC! hiii.. KoO IS a comiption of ori. Such disarrange- 
ments are frequent: see i. 3 (note). For 'ten thouaand' read 
tKousaitd, irpoxovt^iiirnfs (sometimes), ffanm is a rendering of 
n^. Hence, instead of 'press' translate hath or vat. A 'bath'= 
8-7 gallons nearly according to Joeephus or 4-4 according to 
Bablnnista. 20, oKaSapa-tat cannot be right : perhaps ffias or 

Digitized by GOOC^IC 

Appendix C. 341 

Ths hKaOafiTLai rhi yivo^vat tiii. t^e yijs k^iXtii^oVt 21. . . . 

Kcii laovrat ir<W(r Xarpctioi^cf ol Kaol koI ffXoyoiWct mlin-cs 
(;iol Koi vpoiTKwmiims. 22. Kal Kadapttr^crcTtu naau ^ yq 

iird fTOiTo; luitritaros kcu iiid vi(n)s iKoOapviat kcX ipy^i xai 
lidmiyos, xat ovKin Ttifi^a iv airoiis tls itia-M ris yffc^; rov 
otuvor. XI. I. Kot rcfrc i,voi^ia ra raft-fXa t^% tiXoyias rd 

opT'a ^i) T(p o^poi'^, roS KarivryKtiv airi tvl ro ^/lyo, tirl r6v 
Ktfirov Tuv vlui) T&v av0p^Tsa>v. 2. Kal rJrc AJv^Oaa, koI elp^jn} 
Kotiwv^crovo'ii' dfM>S elf iiAaas rhs ^fiipas rot) al&vos koI el; ir<l<ra; 
rdr yfvfits T&v ivOpdiriiiv. 

XII. I. Tlpb To&nav tuv Xoyutv iX-^fi^Qij '^vi\, Kol oificlt 
Twv AvOp^vaip iyvat now ^Ai$p(00ir Kai wo6 itrrai kuX rl iyivero 
airrif. 2. xal rd //lya atjroS ^er^ t&v iypTjy6piov, koI fxerd 

T&P &y(mv fit' Tififp&v aiiTov. f 

XI. 1. anfai — m/ua — nu miTO'wjitii' — twti twice 
9. aX(f(ia — i/Bjr^ KotrDnjomwif — orrwr 

XII. I. Aiiwx — oiAi — ana*' a. ovraw — aitfiupt. 

Suitrium. Cf. Eth. 7^ ' violence.' Before iff*0ttat Eth. adda miinif. 
After i£dX. Eth. adds <nr» r^i y^t. 31. Before ral fonmu Eth. adda 

ml 7irDiTCU vovnc ol vial rw aiiOp4trmr Uxaioi. Ferbaps omitted ID 

Ok. tfarongh like beginning. varm iitoi aU. Eth, implies k. it. «. 
13. iai6apelat. Eth. ^^OLft^ 'sin.' After irin^tt cornipt Eth. 
MS8. inaert AjB;> ' a deluge,' but G omits. For fV uirow Eth. 
reads KAT ' upon it' For roE d^xit Eth. reads ffiMltU rt«l^. 

XI. I. After KararfKVM Eth. adds /irl n^r y^v. After Ipja Eth. 
adda ' and,' 3, «i) rin. £tb. omits. A. koi f^. Eth. tip. nil 
A. tUv arOp. Eth. M^ 'of the world' — a confosion of aiiruw 
and avSpinnHi, as M. Loiia points out. 

XII. I. Before vpi Eth. adds nu. rovrav rav. Eth. U*^ 'all,' 
a cormption of htt. Hence, for 'all these things' read theat 
ihmgB. A4f.0ftj. Eth. tlriW 'was hidden.' This— the usual 
Eth, rendering of n(6, /un'OTiu*, and Aq^, in connexion with 
Enoch — is due to the influence of the Enoch ntTth. tS* miep. 
£th.=»v vlmr TM ir6p. 3. iyptiyip^ and &yliM> in inverse order 
in Eth. Obeerre two emendatjons of Qk. in accordance with 


342 Th£ Book of Enoch. 

tn^f, ry j3curtX(i rMV alifiwi'. koI ISov o[ typqyopot (rov &yfot> 
Tov fuytUov^ ^KiiXatn' fic CEvux ^^^ ypafifULrta koI cTvcv IjioC)' 
4. 'Ev^x ^[0 ypo/iMOT^^ ^f fiucaiotrvn];, vopfiov koI flvi roif 
iypr}y6poK rov ovpoi^, oTrivc;, d.7roA(ir(fi^et rof ovpofdv rov 
{nlfifkov, ri hyiofffia r^c oriivfoa; rov aiUvos, fitrii t&v yvpaiKSp 
IfuAiiSrimiv KuC, &avtp ol viol t^s y^i -noiovinv, o&tim ical aitroi 
f irotovirtir Kai tka^ov tavrots yvvaiKas, xal &<f>avtffiiiv fUyav 
TJiJKivCaav Ttjn y^v, 5- "'•^ ™'' ftrrai ifiui tlp^m) oCrc itfttiTis. 
Kol tcfpl &v xd'J'X'txi'ii' I"**" vtwv air&v, 6. rdv ^iwir tmv 

arai^ooaui, KOt &(ii0)j(roi^at ets rclv ai&po, Kai ovk (trrai avroK 

■|- XIII. I. 'O ti 'Eiwx ry 'A(iai)\ imptv6tU tt-ntV Oix tarat 

3. AiHX — m — Sooii^ 4. Amox — Bwnoireup — 
— i^nfiiMT — -/amimr — •jvtrtBa n^ovio/iof fuyiui ecu 

TCTT T. I , uwiv waptaou — f irrc — 

£tb. 3. After nif Etb. adds 'I' and omits iar&t. rf rup!^ 
r^ IxryAmrvnit. Eth. AXTHAi OAfi- ' to the great Lord.' But 
Gk. is right, uid the error lies in the vocalisation. Hence read 
AhTHJt: dafi-t and translate to fhe Lord of gnatnsu. Before 
rf ^00-. Eth. addi 'and.' For rwr aUr»t> Eth. reads M^, rou 
dwvor, rot) ity. rou }uy. Eth. omits. Gb. omits through tike 
beginning 'Enoch the scribe, and spake to me,' which Eth. pre- 
serves. 4. juil tliii. Eth. AA£4 = S^Xaxror. G with Gk. 
omita ID before y"^in>. Hence for ' and the holy ' read the holy. 
ri Sytaaiia r. trriantt r, alapot, Eth. BCema preferable : y^Ttf^ 
f^(orfC^1)i HAMy". Tijt y^. Eth./MlX'of men.' Bat 
Gk. is right, as acribes confound t-flA and A4IX: cf. ix. 8, Crit. 
Note, p. f o. Hence, for ' children of men ' read chSdrmt of earth. 
T^ y^f can stand as a Hebraism with a0. fuy. r/^av. Eth. ' on the 
earth.' 5. For Situw read ahnit with Eth. Before 'Ipipnt Eth. 
adds iw\ nit y^. ml mpl tu x"^?™""- See Grit. Note, p. f S. 
Dln.'s text destrDjrs the sense bjr inserting a negative. 6. For 
(It fXcov ml tlprfnpi I have read 7X«o« «. tipfprn with Eth. 
XUL I. 'AfofX, Eth. Astzti. vofMvdrif (Inr. Emended in 


Appendix C. 343 

troi clp^it)' Kptfta lUya i^KOtv Kari aoS i^iral trc, 2. xat 

tttpl irimotp T&v Ipytov r&v bxre^ft&v kcX t^; (IdtK^t Kal t^( 
&ftapTlas, Stra vitibn^s rois iv6p<ivois. 

3. T(!t< TTOpcvflcls et|in}Ka v&triv airroit. nal aimi vivrts 
ttj>op^0i]irai', Koi IXapfv airrotis TpSptOi koX tj>6fios, 4. ko! 
^ptinjirav fn'ut yp6.'<^<it avrots vvofunj^iara ^poinjircats', Eva yiirqrai 
cAroXi i<f>tiTis Ka\ tfa jy^ (IrayvS avroi; rd iit6ttvrjfui ttJs ipttrq- 
trtioi ivaiciov Kupiov rou ovpasM' 5* ^' avroi oixiTt i^pavrat 
XoX^trat oWli ivapai airruv Toir i^ffakiumt eii tw o^pofdv 4wd 

6. Tffrf iypa^a rh ivifwripM T^t jpmnjo-cio; aJrfii' Kai r^t 
Sdfircu xept TMf m/tvftirwp <At&» koI vcpl Sv S^ovnu fotof airfii' 
yivi^vTot Ittptms koI fuuptfn)f. 7- ""* lioptvBtls iniBura M 
T&p Mtwv Aia> Iv (^y^y AAv, ^k iarXv in ht^i&v 'EpfMaixtcifi 
himas. ivrytpotVKOv rd iTi6fiV7}fia rur hf^tmv aiiruv tag f 
iKoiftrfiTiv, 8. Kol lioii Spttpot iv ijii IjKffop, KOi 6pA<rfis hr' 
lljk ivivi-nros, koi ttov 6p6vfis ipyiji, (,Kal i[X0cv ^u^ X^ycnxra)' 

4, Tfmmu — a»ii7>'« — mi 5, Ttimrrai — ott twof* avror — urxv*^ 

6. IfTtfii — •voTBir 7. wo/mrfif — arvfoniaiaai — m B. onjpoi — apno'ii twice 

&ccoidaiice with Eth. tSfatd tri, Eth. '(Ruiiael) ehall bind thee. 

3. Omit atyibCt with and Oiz. Qk. Hence for 'interceBsion 
and mtmy' read inteneition. Strike out ii>^^ with Q and 
Ois. Gk., and for 'the children of men' read men. 3. After 
innnrEth. adds 'together.' rpd/ui e. 0i{^. £tb. 4. After 
ilpJmtma Eth. adds ip*. irayvm. This 18 better than Eth. Jt6C7, 
which sappoBes a reading irdym. hinmii. 80 ^J&m: Din. 
in. Hence, for 'take their petition into the' read read lAetr 
petitMM in. KvpUi, Eth. XTHJMIibC = 6to0. g. oMi htapau 

Eth. atKtkP'h-. rrpl b iipap. k. Honx. Eth. AO/tlfao-: Htb4f-= 
r«F ^lopwF niriw Acd it aniKpifiriiiiw, 6. fit jr^mii. So Eth. 

O Ml+fl^^. Din. reftde r&t irfitme ^&w. I have omitted the 
before AXTr with Oiz. Ok. 7. yg. Eth. omite. Before iWy. 
Eth. adds »aL 8. rat ^On ^m^ Xr^owni. Eth. omits wrong]; ; 
cf. XT. 9. Hence, for ' to the intent . . . recount ' read and a voice 


344 T^ Book of Enoch. 

Elirdp T<M vlois rov oifKWoS rou iKiy£ai avtoCs. 9. koI 

l^tnrvof ycjwfMira; ^0ov v/)d; tArais. Kol v<tvrcs awtjyfUvtn 
iKddrjiTo TctvOrnvm W]^ 'E^tKtrari, ifns iariv dva lUtroii tov 
A^&vov Kol Sffur^X, vc/jutcKoXvfifi/i'ot r^v ^(f, lO. koI 

4' iv^viov airruv itr^yyttXa [ovrois] vAtras raf Jpdtrcis &r cZBo;' 
Kard ro^s lrin>ovE> Kol tjp^itofa kaXtur roiis k6yo\is ttjs iuMUxritnfs, 
M^yX**" '■"^^ iyp^Y^povs too oipavm. 

XIV. I. Bfj3Ao£ Xtf)r(0if 2iKa(0(r^»iiE itoi i\4y$tas iypiJY^patv 
tUv dwi ToC olvvor, icoTi tt)i' ii'ToX^n roC iyfov tow f«cy<iXoti ^» 

TOUTTI r^ 6p6ffft, 

3. 'Eyi elflov (tar^ rotis forvous /iiw 8[p] iruji X^yut iv yX^tnTp 

trapKCmi, iv r^ n'fcvfMin toC vrtffMirJ; fiov, A ^doiKCP 6 /tiyas rott 

* ivBp^OK kaXfiv ip airroZs koX vo^o-ai Kapil<f, 3. its {iicrifft 

Kai IBwxc rots' ii>0p<^ois km i}uii votiv tovs K^yovs ttjs yvtitrfms 


10. tvonor <• 


« — (unjrr^ 


Aa*jr — AoTW — &«« 

ffW-flt — 

TOC -row before «Yp. 



w — lyom 

1. «t*». 

-•» wr — "("HUT, 




«,*«, 3. 

Of— ««r«n 


oofTM to m« faying : that I ihotUd leU. tMr. Eth. am tlwta. roC 
Ary^oi. Eth. ml Aiy(u. 9. 'ElS>X<r<»ni. Eth. UbleejUI. Itn^X. 
Eth. S«ii«ser. 10. tarh To£[ vnvotic. So O Airy. Hence, for 
' in my sleep ' read in tleep. ikryxiav. Eth. (pXHAf = »il 

XI Y. T. 0ip\«7 Xdyw ftuuuoffwiir xol Aryftw. Eth. "HOBfedt^ 
tAi KJt^i tOHiHf, oirot i tSi^XoE Xdyoc SurouNrvKirr iral fkty^t. xarii 
n)r (imX^r. Eth. tthoOl KHH, Ka6&t n-ap^yyfXm. Before rou /ity. 
Eth. adds m/. 2. Before in r^ nv. Eth. adds mf. jr ry irmvfion 

ToC imSfuiTot fiov, & (Aocn- ^ ^ryor. Eth. (DAffDlXMi HOtOttt OAfii 
hi. ; transposed and cormpt, but easy to restore by reading JU. 
before HtOVtl and attaching the EnfBs to it. Xext strike out ID 
with D. Thus we have Aool^Ai Aft: HailH); OtLP-, a Uteral 
rendering of Oiz. Qk. and supported by Ixxziv. i. Hence, for 
' and with D17 breath which the Great Oae has pat into the mouth 
of men ' read with the breath of my mouth tnhich the Gnat Otis has 
given to men. iv airoit. Eth. 01^ ' with it.' Better read Ot^f, 
wUh them. 3. After m I have restored, with Q, the clause 

(iicTurt ta\ fSiwn ... ml V>m) loflt through hmt. After AA^lA add 


Appendix C. 345 

Koi ifii) iKTurtv Kol tbtoKKP JA^yfairflat iypn\y6pQm robs viain rov f 

^piitrci fiov roCro jdefx^* '^ c^* i^ ip<&Trt<ns ifiav vapfb^fiit 

5- ^i^ lajKiri tls rhv ovpavdv iaxxfi^rf M vivras 

Tovs al&vas, xai Iv rots ifviiois -His yv^ ippi6i) hijvai ifMs els 
v&vas T^S ytpds rm al&vos, 6. koI tva vpb ToCratv fSip-f r^v 4- 
i.itiiK(uai tSv vImv ^pmv t&b iyamjT&v, koI oti o£k firrai ifuv 
SvrfiTK airr&v, iXKh •ntirovvTai iviiitiov vji&v iv fiayaipq. y, koI 
if iptinftris ipMv Trtpl ai/T&v oix larai 0^% vtpl ipMV. kcX vjucie 
KkaiovTfs Kol it4pifvot Kol /iq XoAovvrcf ttoi' pijfia dird r^s ypa^f 
ijs fypa^a. 

CKtiAovf, Kot iitC)(Kai p.* itfHivow, koI biaipofiaX rav iaripw xaX 
itaorpanal fte Karemrtn/Sa^ov koI i6op'6^aQ6v jic, km &v(}Mi iv r^ 
ipia-ft fiov hvfirripaiiT&v fit koI iinjpdv /*< iim 9, xat «!»- f 
iji'cyKiij' ^e eii rdu oipap6v. sat efcr^Xfloi' pJxP^i -^yyura rtij^ovs 

— onXiiu' — tan — mtaoam mawaa — fuXV 7- "/" kAidctk 8. opaai 

ccA.i' with Q. Hence, for ' created man and given to him ' read 
crttUed <mi given to man and me. Omit L in anOOfU. with G 
and Ok. 4. tovto iftcij^. Eth. ovms tS(i;^Aj. col offr< . . . 

waptitxS^. Eth. 'that yonr petition will not be granted.' After 
waptiixdn Boveral clanseB have been loet through hmt., which can 
be supplied from Eth. ' thronghont all the days . . . granted to 
yon.' 5- i*^ Eth. ml lori roC rCv. h/ roTc itapait r^c -^t. Eth. 

" ^ ys- In my Trans, this phrase should be connected with ' shall 
bind. yivtit. Eth.^qfMpaf. 6. >ai tvo. Eth. nii. irpA (a neces- 
sary emendation). So Eth. ^trw aiirSiv. Eth. T£sfUPan* ' have 
them in . . . keeping.' Free, but admiseible. 7. See Grit. Note, 
p. 80. 8. ^1^' ipiati. Eth. ipaait. i^&vauy. Eth. ^XrflHH. 

mrxnr. ml (V^- Eth. tyUHi a>.f ft04f. ' drove and impelled 
me.' iSopvfiaiar ia difficult, intmiptaaaii. A necessary emendation 
= Eth. h*» appears in Eth. after tMirryBa in next verse. 

iiized by Google 

346 The Book of Enoch. 

^Koboiiij}UvQV Iv \MotE x^^Clf "o^ yX^<nra(S mpis K^Kkif airSp' 

I O. Kai clff^A^ov <I; T&; yX«t<r<Tat T<m •wvp6i, xal ^yyura d; oTkot 

iti XttfatvXdiccf, Kal vaotu^o'ai' ^k \t6vos, Kal Jdtl^ ;i(H>i'iKii, II. 
Kal al ariyai &s biaiponaX itrripuv koI tUrrpairaf. xat ftera^ii aiiT&v 
Xfpav^lv tripiva, koI 6 aipavds airr&v H&ttp. t 2. Kal irCp ^eyo- 
fifiraii KfiKXii) Tuv rafx^^i "''^ M^at irvpX Kai6iieviu, T^. <{(r$X9oi> 
els T&v oIkov iKfivop Otpfiiv is TrSp naX y^vxp^v if x*"*^ "''^ 

■j- iraffa r/n>^ fw^f oiiK ijv iv air^. ^^os ftc iKiXvt^fv Koi rpofMs 
lit iKa^tv, 14. K(U i^ffu^ trci^ficvos koI rpip/^p, km litftrop 

{M vp6<iiiyn6v fiov xol) i6ttipovv iv rfj ipAtru (^ov), 15* 

-f- Kal Ibov £AAos oZkos ;ic(£'mi' rovrov icat oXt; ^ M/xt (ovrov) 
dvcyyju^jrr) Karevavri futv koI ifKoboiitJiiivos hi yXiJirtrot; nupof, 
16. Kol £Xot Sia^^p(i>i> ^p Sff^ Kol JD r^i^ Kal jv pifyaXoir&prf 
&(rrf fiii bvvatrOai fK i^fiirtiv ipSv iifpl rifs M^f kqI vcpl riif 
ft(yaXo(rl!fi]E ovTov. 17. t^ fSai^os avrov ijp ■trvp6s, rd ii 

ItvuTtpov airrm ija-av iarpaval koX iiaipofA/d iaripap, Kol ^ ffrtyif 
iAtoS i|j' vvp ^Kiyop. 


WffTt— «*<*K 10. 

— XM»B«a I 

I. OOTtpOr 



13. «««■ 


. o«-oi« — >««. 

.,<« twice 


•W'O*"™ — Tf^*"* 


— opom 11 

5. oXAiji' ftvoc o>WT,i€«j» 

■eHu-n piD nu aum 

, ^«C». re 

mrou JBU oX« 



WTOt— >101. 

-M« «7- ' 


9. -)A<Lircnuc irvpiir. So Eth. Hence I should have traneUtcd more 
litoniUy tongvea ef fire instead of 'a fiery flame.' 10. vatrau 
We should from Eth. expect \i6ot. 13. Before *Ui^\Otni and 
Ap/xfv Eth. adds *aL rpixfiii not rpixp^, as Din. and Lode hare 
already recognised, rpinftt) (mjt. 8ee Grit. Note, p. 81. 14. ffup'- 
Eth. omits. After tmroy I have added vith Eth. iiti wpAawrif 
nov Kai. 15. Ok. corrupt. Arranged as giyen abore, it equals 

Eth. exactly. : cf. x. 19 for a similar dislocation of the text The 
Ok. SKi] 4 6opa neceadtateB a change of tianelatioD. For ' all the 
portals of which' read lit entire portal of vAieA. 17. Before 
t6 a. Eth. adds Kal. nvp6t. So UXfl^ : Din. ^/^^irCfi. 
Hence for 'fire' read of fin, ij <"'<y>) aimii, Eth. adds 'also.' 


Appendix C. 347 

18. 'E0c^potit> St Kflt ctSov 6p6vov iyjniKSv, koI rtk ctHoE a^oC &s 

19. Kai v7t>Kiira> rot! 6p6vov i^ii!0p€^0VTo hotoimI wp^s ijtXtyo- f 
fihov, Kal ovK Hvv&irdrjv iftctv. 20. Kal 17 Jttffa 17 fxtyiXi) 

iKiBjiTO iir airr^- rb ■ntpi^Xatop avTOV [«t etios] ^XCov \aiimp6- 
repov Kal XfVKrfrcpoi' vtitn^t \i6voi' 2I> Kal ovk JSiWro vat 

fiyycAot 7r<ip«Xdeu' ^<{t rdp oU-ov rovTov^ Kal IStif rd Tip6ir6tiroP 
a^rov 3((t ri Ivrtfiov Kal ^j^ofou. koI oiK JSvfaro voo-a <rclpf 
ISctv oirffi'. 32. rd itvp <jikfy6[itvov K^KXif, koI tnjp fUya naptttr- 
r^Kti ajrry, leal oidelf 'yy^C'i avT<^. k^kA^i jjvpCai fivpiUfs jonj- 
Ka{(r(v) ivvntop airw, Kal vas \6yos airov tpyov, 33. Kol ot 
JlytM T&v &y(tMi ot iyY^C^^^f odnp oAk ^voxu/Mnw-ii' WKrds oJrr< j- 
i^ivTOvrat airm. 

16. wttopotr — awv KfinrmXAivor — opot tg. ^XryofuvH — i3ir ac 
AAmt 11. (iSti)' — iSii' mrrou 31. mfiarrjicti — ovjkt (TT'f' ~ 

18. AAer idrmpov Eth. adds rr atir^. S<^ntt. So I have emended 
opos. Eth. ^A implies dinit, ' the voice,', and bo points to S^tac. 
Hence, for 'the voicee' read a vuton. 19. OmitOfL^ with Q 
and Oiz. Ok., and for ' great throne ' read Ihront. iSurair^w. 
For Kfibit read HfiiA. Hence, for ' it was impoBuhle ' read 
/ could noL 31. lit T^ oAnw roCroi-. Eth. omits. ml Ut», 
So Q toCK^- Din. gives cormpt reading £AX. iii ri An/iov 
*ai Mo^. Eth. AbOCs mint A ' of the Honoored and Qlorions 
One.' Bat the Eth. ie wrong. A should be changed into A 
with which it is constant]]' confounded. Thus we get an exact 
rendering of Gk. Hence, for 'the face of the Honoured and 
Qlorions One' read Sia Jaee by reaim of the magnifieaux and 
glory. 33. idaikf. Eth. 'around Him.' After tnrr^ Etfa. adds 
X^IlA ' of those who.' koI vat XJyor airov fpyor. Eth. absolutely 
dissimilar, but the former is found in the Slavonic Enoch ; Eth. 
may therefore be presumed to be corrupt. For 9^1. O reads 
9^C, Hence Eth. may have been tD^Or. i^Kt (D-W^; y^AC : 

cf. Fm. xxxiii. 9 ; CXV. 3 =m1 war SHuma airoB Ipyor, 33. ol AyuH 

rwr AyUn. Q reads ^jE^Hl! ^4A1 ' the holiness of the holy ones,' 
and this X have followed in my Trans. Better, however, to read 
^HUa-. ^ftAX and translate the holy ones of the holy, I e. the 
archangels. iyliat. This is an emendation of ajTeXw with Eth. 


348 The Book of Enoch. 

rpifiup. KoX i Kvpiot rf <rr6[Utn airtS tK&Xuriv fit km flwiv fuit' 
np6af\6f Sif, 'EraX) icat rif X<$/oi' fxov Sicouirov. 3^. (_Kai 

upoaiKB^v [u>i cIs ruv hylttp {jytipip fu^ xal iffrrj^iv (it km 
vfKxr^yoy^ir ^c /i^XP^ ^^ ^/mi;' I7& 8i rd vpivufsAv fiov Kdrw 

X V. I . Kai dTTOKptdeW ctv^v pH [6 HiiBptavos i ikri0uidt &v$ptit- 
iroi T^s AXri$t{ai 6 ypamurrein'] koI rqs ^cev^; avroO ^Kovcra' M^ 
ipo^^Oris 'Evitx iv6p<imos iXriffwds Koi ypOftfMirr^ r^c iXiftfcui;, 
vpocrcXdc abf Kal rffs iptov^s fiov iKOwrov. 2. nopfiBfrt Kal fltti 
(roii iypTty6pois tov oipaiiw) Tols vifi'^atriv at (tot wtpl airr&ii 
tpiMiTijtraiy ipaiTTJiTai iftas Ibti ittpl t&v iv9p<iiratv, koi fiif Tois 
icflpcdTTOVS TTtpl iijjMv. 3. i\Jk tC ivfklnfTt rdp oipapdv rioi 
i^kbp TOP iytov Tov oiucoK, nai fwrd t&v ywam&v iKOifi^0i}Tt, 
Kol fura T&v<op r&p ivSpivaiv ifuSw&rfTt koX iXd^fTf 
lovrocs yvvaUas (icai) &ai:fp v\a\ nfi y^s jvotijirarf, kvX iyavif- 
vare iaiiTols [t^kvo] vioilt yfyaiirac ; 4. icat vfMif ^e ilyioi 

— tmiafttfrai — tXnfitrai 

See Crit. Kote, p. 8a. nwnft. So Q. Din. adds 'and Ax-j.' 
34. |Sij9Xtr;uroc, Etl). 7Ji1A, ie. mplffkijiia, bat probably a cor- 
raption of 7Alhll ^ «r(/H3f/3Xi);u'rai()) or ntpucvtakafiiiii/ot. Aa is 
clear from ver. 35, Enoch is prostrate, ^tfft^iuiins, therefore, is 
to be accepted. Hence, for ' I had bad . , . trembling ' read / had 
bwR prostralt on my face and trembling. Simuaoy. See Orit. Note, 
p. 83. For "Kiymi fiov SnauiToy Eth. has AityoF ftev Syiow, 'where fyov 
is a corruption of Sxaviroy. Hence, for 'bear My holy word' read 
hsar My word. 35. noi vpo<Tt\6ur . . . pt may be a glosa. 

XV. I. 6 SrBpuiroi , . .6 ypappariit. An erroneous repetition of 
later words. Add at before fl^A" with Qk. and connect the words 
as in Qk. Hence, for ' with His voice : " I have beard, fear not," ' 
read and I heard Hit voice: ' Fear net.' z. Before naptiO. £th. 
adds Km', and omits it after it. After tlvi I hare added with Eth. 
ToTc iypriy6pou Tou ovparov, and after m, roC 7. aii. tpau^irat. 3. Before 
Sxrirtp I bare added ad with Eth. iovroic. Eth. omits wrongly. 
Strike out T4aa. 4. tyuii uil nvvfiara. G preeerres this order, 


Appendix C. 349 

Kol TVC^fMi(ra) Cmta altiina' iv t^ atftan t&p ywaiK&v ituJw- 
0ifTf, Kot iv aX[iaTi ffapxhs iy*pf^<raTf, koI in ai[iaTi hvOp^vaiv 
lirtdvu^varf {koI iiroi^<raTf) KoSits xal a^ol iraioiM-ti> iripKa Kol 
alfux, olrivcc i.iio0v^iTKOv<riv Koi in^WviTM' 5- ^"^ tovto 

ibaKa ain-ois OijXfCas, tva initpiiaTiiToWTai tls abriis Kol Ttai^- ■)- 
travaiv iv airais riKva, ofkms Iva ^r) iKKtbttt aintt van Ipyov 
lv\ T^r y^r. 6. vfitts ii iw^pxtrt wf^ftaira) ^vra aliina 

ml oiiK Airodv^iTKOvra els iidiras ras yftifhs rov oluira;. y. Kal 
iii rovro oi/K ivo[r}tra iv vfiw 6rikfias. ra wrSfio^Ta) roS aipavoS 
Ip r^ aiipav^ 17 KaTo(K7}<ris avrfiv. 8. Kal vvv at ylyavTti ot 

ytwrjBimts dir^ t&v irvtviiiriov koI trapKos m^na^Ta) Itrxvpii 
(xXifBrjiroin-ai) ivl rtjtyrjs, koI iv rfj yp ^ KaroCinfiris avT&v (irrai. 
9. vvti^io^Ta) novtfpit i^k6ov ivb roC (r^ifxaros alrr&v, Jtufrt itui 
T&v ivBptivwp iyivovro Kol ix rwf hyUav iyfnfy6paiv 7 ^XT) ''V^ t 
Krfirc&tE ojirup Kal ifixil 0fpifKCov (irveifiara voi/iipi ivl r^c y^s 

but Din. 'a text inTerta, For trin/um £th. read wmifiaracol. » 
ry ol^i. Eth. ftCn ' with.' Loda takes OXA as & oormption of 
IL^OD = ip T^ w/uiTi. Before koAui I have added with Eth. koI 

nroc^rart. g. rtKpiaovrar n atrrtut Ttna, fD-ttA of OanppOrtS tbis. 

Hence read ^4PAft, and for 'children. . . borne' read ftc^tt cAtUinm. 
wn fi4 . . . ipyor. See Crit. Note, p. 83. Correct Mttt^Fi into Awi>'. 
6. After fl( Etb. adds n-fxirfpa*. 7. Before invv/uira Eth. adda Suin, 

rA vpciiiara t. oip. ODl^tOKPI, a COTTUptioD of OVl^JhA'TA 

fieuce, for ' eptritual ' read ipiriti ofhtavea. 8> ttri rur staipArmp. 
Q reads XyiVH* (so read in Crit. Note, p. 83) = oird t&v ^y**' 
Better to vocalize thus ; XflVf^)'. i^icP^- Probably a scribe's 
error for oxAqpo : aeevBr. 11. Eth. and Syn.Qk. tronjpii, which is pre- 
ferable. After liFxupa I bare added iXij^qiTavnu with Eth. and Byn. Ok. 
'^^*'tSy9- Syn. Ok.jriMr.^. 9. Before mvyfiora Eth. adda ni/, 
i^XBor. So Eth. Syn. Ok. trnwrai rh tntifiara /£<Xi)ktiAtra. rtijui- 
T0£ aiiTir. So Etb. Syli,Gik. aiiutrof rift impK&tahSir. Tur aranpair, 

80 Eth. Tiiia I have, vith Syn. Qk., emended into tAr anSpimtr. 
Hence, for ' from above ' read from men. tyinowto. Bo Syn. Qk. 
Eth. t£T<-, which ia bad. Better IidM.. ), ip^ Ttjt «t^«<m 
aiiritp. So Syn. Gk. Eth. omiti r. cr«mM. After dffwXwv I have 

Digitized by GOO^^IC 

350 Tks Book of Enoch. 

ivavta^ vpt^iuau vovrtpi K\ij$^iTtTat. lO. vifcvjMi(Ta) ovpavov 
ip ry oiptw^ 17 KaTolKTtns air&v itmt, Kal tA vvtvfuira. [^l] r^t 
y^ ri ytwrfBivra Ivl tijs y^s (Iv rp yp) i KoroiKrjms airr&p ftrrat' 

11. koIt^ mt^ttara t&v ytyivmv vti^Kas dZiKoSvra, &^avl{oirra 
xal titvltminu Kol vvfxiraiuiiovTa Koi avpptvTovra ivl T^r y^f 

j- [vif^utra cTfcXifpd ytytbrnov], xat rpoftovt Trotovpra koI jit)fiiv 
Jir0(oi^ra), {AXX* lurtTovvray teal dt^'^i'ni icol wpotTKovTovra 

12. xot vifc^^ra) jfovacrr^trct ravni tts Tohs vU)^ ruv iv6p^i!uv 
t Kal r&t yviwKar, 5ri l^f\r)k'u$a<rm &js' avr&p XVI, 1, dvi 

^fUpas iripayrjs Kot ^voiAefar Kal doi^rov (ruv yiydrrmv) ii^' 
Sp rh vvfiifMTa iKVo(>€v6ittpa fK lijs ^Irvx^s t^c trapKis aurav 

1 1. avnifHl nu — t^araar^i — nw TWOutHr 

added wt^iara wetntpk ^1 r^ y^ fvoMtu, with 8yn. Gk. and Eth. 
Before mcvfuira irov, Eth. adds m^ irrfu^i. iror, iAt^AjnTm. 80 Eth. 
Syn. Gk. omits. 10. Syn. Ok. omits entire Terse. Omit nn 
after vvtitutra vith Eth. After 77; I have added n* t$ yS with Eth. 
ttrrm (at close). Eth. omits. 11. nipikas. So Eth.; amaniieBt 
COrmptioD. See Crit. Note, p. 84. mtipara trx. yly. A giMB. 
For SpJfuwt of Giz. and 6711. Gk. I have vith Eth. tHl read 
rp6iimis, dXX" amTttvpra. So Syn. Gk. Eth. omits. After An- 
rouvra Syn. Gk. adds noI ^turftora nviowni. 9rftmiiTa. So Syn. Gk. 
and a. Other USS. add a negative, bat now I think with Lods 
and Dhi., wrongly. trpoimSirrovra, Bo Syn. Qk. Eth. fi-'FOaitl. 
This, as Dhi. shows, is a cormption of fi'FOti' = irpotrK^imiFra. 
Hence, for ' they will take no kind of food . . . invisible ' read thojf 
will fatt and be thirty and cauae ^mua. la. ml mwufun-a. 
I have transposed with Syn. Gk. and Eth, tuuru. So Eth. Syn. 
Gk. omits. For tm* ymauMv (so Syn. Ok.) I have read roc ymmxas 
with Eth. After at^K I have added iiyvffeo- with Gii;. and Byn. 
Gk. oir' airSir. For Hoo we should read A^ as DhL proposes. 

XVI. I . Before aw6 Syn. Gk. adds xaL After Aitarou add with 
Syn. Gk. and Eth, row yiyiWov. After yiyamw Syn. Gk. adds 
a gloss tta^ifktiii , , . imjiaarvl. &ip' S>y. Eth. ' whenever.' Syn. 
Gk. omits. Before inmp. Syn. Gk. adds rd. ck r^t ^"x^t r^t mpAs 
lArm. So Eth. See Crit. Note, p. Z$. In Syn. Ok. the text 
is tnuuposed. orA r$t "^v^ o^fbt Sk hi^ ooptit should be read 


Appendix C. 351 

(&r) tffovnu h^aviCovra \iep\s KpOrttas offras itftavCtmnrtv fUxfiis 
fliUpai rcAcuf<rc(i>« r^; Kpfrcwt r^r fifyikrji, ip i i alwv J (tiyas 

2. Kal wf iyprfY^pois rots nifi'^atrCv crc jpwr^<ra( irc^t avrSv, 
otrivcs jv oi'pai'^ ^ov" 3. il/icir ^p r^ ovpai>^ ^c, ml irov 

fttwr^^iov [ft] oi(t dvcKoXv^ffi) i/iu' xat /MNrr^ptoi' rd i(ov0tvt}iUvov t 
tyvtffTf, ical rovro ifaivitrare rotr yui^i^p jp rou (rKXifpoKapitfatr 
j^if. ml Jr r^ yvar^pUf rovr^ vXi]tflii'ov<nr al ^Xftot Kol ol 
Av^/MinToi rh KOKCt Jirl T^r y^s. 4> cJirdv oSf ajrots' OJuc firnv 

XVII. I. Kol [ir4i/>aXa/3(fjT(;j fic cIe run rifirov iv^yayov, tv 
^ {o[ ^ce) iKfi ylvavTcu in tivp ^\iyop jcol Krav <}^\«M'tv 

XVI. I. (oYot o^amfami — m^artjaauait — rtXutaHn 
TOO a yt-itrtuiiiror — (/uyvmiTC — mrro— rotTia — AjAiw 

XVII. I. fai->u — fAryw 

lori r^l •i'vjf^t <K (! ICol) rfc o-opKis nvruv us. After avrwf ftdd ac with 

Syn. Ok. and Eth. A. See m; restoration of Eth, text on p. 85, 
where for hJi read ttA, and for last two words read i'f^'XI^ 
ttilt Onf with Qiz. Ok., and for ' day when the great coneumma- 
tion' read day of the eonntmmation of the great jvdgmmt. irg. 
So Syn. Ok. Hence, with Din. for Jl^^ft^ read KVtl tAF'. 
With Giz. and Syn. Ok. strike out !iy"^rl: iDiA.'i'i. Hence, 
for ' day when . . . godleee ' read day of the c&ntummation of the 
great jvdgmmt tn which the great age wiU be eorumrunaled. After 
n^w^atna Syn. Ok. adds 1^' dnof d/iov rtXto^ma. Tbeee words 
may be original. After £A.fl O adds H-fti fi^i.ftT'i Jk^^tTYli 
0<ULO1: U-Qr. iiyM^t. 3. After <itr»n Eth. adds irp^por. 
3. I hsTe omitted OffiiML, 'and now,' with Qiz. Qk. irSi- 
jiusTTpiov [t] SMI owKoXf^dq uriiv. The sense is contrary to the 
Enoch tradition. Bj omitting t we get a text agreeing with Eth., 
and with the words of Clement Stra n tit yrSxrai airmi Afiaav. See 
p. 86 (note), ro o rov 6v yfym)iuttui I have emended into 
<£ov&in]fMiitit'=Eth. y^. These ' worthless' secrets relate to the 
rarions arts of embellishing the bninan face, working metals, &c.: 
ct Tiii. I. 

XVU. I. iw^^ayM. Eth. I^ik 'took away.' ol Smc. Eth. 


352 The Book of Enoch. 

3. Kai &-wiiyay6i' in tls yfo^dif nfvof koI th Sptn aZ q Kt^aXif 

i^iKPfiro fls rhv oiptxp6v. 3. Koi tSoi' t6vov r&ir ^tu<m)pcaii 

[koI ro^; 0ti<yavpoiis tuii dirWpoM'] icat ruv ^povT&v {^Kat] flf ra 

t &Kpa j3(iAj S70V r(f£<»> 7rvf>^ teal rd /3^Xi} xal oi 0$KaL airmv 

... Koi at iiOTfxattX icaam. 

M<rew£, ^^trru' [nol] icafii\ov vaaai rhi ftwets row qXfov. 5- *"^ 
ifkdov fU-^pi. itoTUfum Ttvpos, iv ^ Kararf>^ct t6 vfip «; tiiop, koI 
^ei fl$ d^aff'troi) fifyAKiji/ bvattas- 6. tSof ro&; ^yiiAovt 

vorafxoij(f), ^Kol fi-ixP^ ^'^ fitcyiiAoti TTorapuiS} xai MxP^ *'"*' 
fMyiiAov (TKtfrour KaTifinjtra, Mil dir^Xdoi' 3xow vocra o-ipf [ov] 
t W€piirar«. 7. Kon to tfjwj j&v yp6i^u>v ri \fiiifpuii leal r^v 

mrrpovor vmnu. 4. /uu i/h — mjMxtn' — tvirit 5. ijKSafMy 

omits. a. ypd^^, Thie is a hsppy emendatioii of M. Jjoda. 

As ynt^c = ' turbo ' as well u ' caligo,' we hare the explanation 
of £th. ' the place of the whirlwind.' of q tt^akri, EIIl suppoBee 

oS 4 *opv^ri rqf n^uiX^r. 3. Ti!in»> r. iftmrT. See Cflt. NotA, p. 87. 

Omit nu before ilc with Eth. dr rd Stpa fiaAi Smv. So Q : ahttfj 
lOKij Oao^. 10 bnt that I have read li»^i. for MS*^ *lfl. 

For ric Si/Kat and rat atrrpajrit read with Eth. al tfi7«ii and al 
aarpearai. Hence, for ' at the ends . , . fiery bow ' read in tht 
vttermost depike where wen the Jiery bow,' &c. After alirar Eth. 
adds Kol iiajfotpai' trvp6t. 4. After Cairwr Etb. adds a gloss 
HfiftViC 'so-called.' trapixo*. This is right. See p. 363 (notes). 

Eth. =: mpahtxilifixt* is wrong. 5. bimtts. Eth. ^ irpAt r^r 

Buoiv. 6. Before ISof Eth. adds ' and.' Before rave Eth. adds 
' all.' «ii fixfit Tov lityaKm woraitov = th6 Styx. Eth. omits. 
Unless we are here dealing with a description of Hades, this 
danse is an interpolation. But as the whole context points 
t« Hades, the words seem original, and for the same reason we 
must strike out ob alter trapi with Eth. 7. Before TAo* Eth. 
adds ' and.' I have emended rovt om/iovf into ri Spti, as these words 
seem corrupt, and are without the support of the context or any 
parallel : cf. Ixxvii. 4, where the mountains of tbe hoar frost are 
mentioned. Possibly there is also an allnuon to Jer. xiii. 16 


AppetuMx C. 353 

JKXV" ^t i^iram vivnov HiTiov. 8. Ibov rh <rT6y,a r^c 

XVIII. I. nSoi' Tois Oifffavpoili r&v ivifuov v&vrav. Viov <fri 
iir abrots iK6trfU]<rfv itifas r&i Krtvfis, xal rbv dtfi^iov Trjt yijs, 
1. Kfll rbv \l0ov Tdop T^fi yavCas Ttjs yijs. tSov rovs ritrirapas 
&i>iliovs^i>yVvfia<rrdCoi'TasK<dT6<rrtp4ti)itaTovoipavov 3- . . ■ 
. . . Kol oiurol l<rr&<ru< fitra^ yijs Kal o^aim! (o{>rof elnv ol 
ffrvKot rod oipcanA^), 4- l^*" (li'^fMiuy ruv ovpovuf irrpi^vras 
Kol b^vTas rhv rpo)(ip toO ifKtov xal irAvTas tov; hajipai. f 
5' tftor rov; ivX t^s y^s ivi/uyvs paard^oimK rits vct^Xaf (nov f 
ril; 6icAs t&v Ityy^XMii') ISov (ttop^ ra) Tsipara r^r y^r rd arffpiyfUi f 
rou o^pofou Jvcivca. 

ra firrj ^nj ^d \C0uv iro^vreK&p {rpCa) tls ivaroXis ical rpCa 
tls pArop ^^liAXoi^a^. 7. koI ri fUv »pd( (baroX^c inb 

klBm -^iiuxTos, rb tA ^v dvd \i8ov napyaptroo, koI rd ivd XlBov 

artprtfa 6. nDfuvor — roXvrtXv — rpa — foXXarat 

^B*] *7Si 'the motmtainB of darliness,' which might readily be 
regarded m monntaiiis of Hades : cf. last clanse of ver, 6. 
8. Brfore Xht Eth. adds lad. 

XVHI. I. Before Hor (lat and aod) Eth. adds xal. a. After 
T^c Eth. adds wu. 3. Before mi aiiral add with Eth. ml TSoy 
Itt ol Sp*ii<h iftrttrcn ri £ifm( rov oipmrnv, omitted throDgh huit. 
((OTturi)' emended in accordance with Eth. y^t k. oip. Eth. traDS- 
posea. After oipimtS I have added with Eth. oSroi . . . eipmmi. 

4. Before lAoir Eth. adds mi. itJfunit r&v mpariv m-pitfiovras. The 

Eth. text has been trsnepoeed. Hence read i4''H'; AifVf-: 
XA; fylffi'ttt, and translate the viind» of the heaven which turn. 
dvtwriK. So I hare emended with Eth. 5. Omit a) before 

CAA- in Dhi.'s text with O mi Qiz. Ok. jit puf^kas. This 
emendation is very doabtfnl as it has both and Qiz. Qk. 
i^nst it, Le. aftn»rt' = «V w^'Xjj. After w*Aai add with 
Eth. Tftor . . . dyyAow. Before iripara I insert napA rd with Eth. 
6. Kol tSov t6jcov. Eth. read «pit v&tet mi. The text has evi- 
dently been transposed and corrupted. iwcrir c ^lupai are 
similarly transpoeed, jSdXXoirra. Eth. omite. "j. \i£ov ra6tv. 


354 T^ Book of Enoch. 

raOtv, rh 8i kotA v6tov i,vit ktOoo tnippm' 8, rh Si lUirw 
avrmv i[» tli oiptwov &rvtp BpAvos Qtm dird XiSao ^ovKti, koI ^ 
KOpv^^ Tov 6p6vav dird Xfdou trampeipov. 9. sal irijp Kou^eiroir 
I60C KHvi)Kfiva T&v ipiiav rovntv. 10. t6wik iarui, ■aipav 

t r^f tLtyiXxfi y^r ^kci mirrcAcirtftfffOVTm ol oipavoL II. koI 

lOov x<i^;'<'' M^yi '>' ro({ (onS^otf rot) wpds roC ovpai>ov koI ISw iv 

t aivTMs) (TTijAovf rov inipis KaTa^Cvoirrai' koI ovk ^v fxtrpov oSre 
clf /3ii<Jot o£re tls 0^e. 12- Kfli MKttva rov xt'cfMrvt ^nnf- 
rou tdov riitov, Sirov ovft^ arfftiuiita ovpavoS Iviiitt oCre y^ $ 
rc^cfuXuiifi^vif vmucdro) ovrotJ ofirc £8ecp ^v iwd air^ oSre 
TfTciytw, dXX<t rchroE ijtr fprifios xai tpo^fp6s' 13. jxct Bov 

n<f>l £v Tnv6avofifv^ ftoi 14. cfTrcv 6 2)'y(\o;' Ovnk 

«nADi ( -o^ToTi •nJXovt) 

Etii. X^llll iJD^ ' antiiiiaoy ' or ' stone of healing.' raStw ia 
pOMibly ft cormption of axaTTir='Olff, the agate. Eth. aeema to 
reat on an emendation of roBtt into Ui-ou or lar/nuu. 8. iJfiov 
^owcd. "We have hero a, trasBlitoration of ^IB : c£ i Chron. xxix. 2. 
9, *a(irtjwiuia. So M. Lods emende and, so tv as I can see, rightly, 
but he connects them vronglj vith the next Terse. Eth. tonOtn 
iD-fti'=(al i ion iv seems wrong. Ckirrect IMt, 'all,' into XlVt 
' those,' with Qk., and for ' which was in all the mountains ' read 
aiio beyond ihote mtmntaint. As H. Lods obeerres, the translator 
does not seem to hare understood nriuaia : cp. xriii. 1 3 ; zzit. a ; 
XZX. 13 ! Zzzi. 3. 10. riatos i<niv. Eth. ml Qo* Jjcti ntirov. oipoMi. 
See Grit. Note, p. 89. ii. x^ana piya. See Grit. Note, p. 89. 

After iiiya I hare added with Q vrvXotr toS wapic toS ovpovvv ml ZBoc 
tV auTDii, omitted through like beginning. «t rotw. A corruption 
for i» roT». Omit with G the second tlf^f; and for ' heavenly fire 
fall ' read,;fre/afl. /tirpov. Eth. I ' At' ' number.' 12. iriictua. 
Eth. 4(1 ' over.' See ver. 9(note). nii ^i^piSc. These words are 
wrongly oonnected with ver. 1 3 by Eth. Hence for ' waste . . . 
horrible' read tixutg and horrihU jAaee. ^3' ^ a^*"- ^'^ "^ 
iir moBayoiUrf /mm Eth. = kox o)i vmifum nvAu-dfina fwK 1 4. 

itradb, Google 

Appendix C. 355 

rovro Jy^vcToroIrJlfrrpoif Kalratf Svi'^fiieo'd'rovDvpaiwv. 15. Kiit 
ol iarifMi ol KvXufficvot iv r^ -avpi ovroC ft<nv ol ■napa^ivret 
vpSffTayita Kvplaw iv ip)(rj tt}s &i>aTO\fjs avruv, [pn t6vos l£w 
roS oiipavov Kfv6s iartv] ^rt o6k i^jjkOov iv rots Kai/)o(r a^wv, 
16. Kdl &(yyixr$ti airoU koI t^fftv ainoiis tU\pi KOtpou rtXaiiiTfios 
[air&vj ItfiaprCai airuv, ivuanSv fuiplatv. XIX. I. koI 

ttviv /Mi OvptijX' 'EvBHf ol fuyivTfs SyytXoi nus yvvai^p trri)- 
ffffirac Kol rd irvel'/Liara a^ui', mX^fiopi^a ytv6[itva, KvfiaCvtTai 
roit Av^/xfirovt koI irX(ijn{(ret a^oi'r ^(M«v Tois iaifiovlois {&s 
Btdis;) [iixP* (^^ ^f^P'^^) '^* fity^ijt KpCattos, iv jj Kpi^o-ovrat 
clf diroTcA^wiru'. 3. koI ol yu^iKCs a£rwj', rut> vapa^iivrwv 

iyyikaiv, fls <rcip^va; yei^troi^ai. 

Kiu oi fi^ ISj) oi^i etc ioGp^nw) &s iyi» Itov. 

If. KoOitoiann — mipaA>rra — «r 16, ofTio^ — TOjuOtan 

Xiy. 1. Xv/iovm — ;rAai-i)<n — a»OT(Aj«i<Fi» i. aiptfnt 3. G" 

artpeiwar M mi otoi' 

After hrb>Ot=&n-pow omit A*^^ with O and Gis. Gk. Hence, 
for 'etxTB of heaven' read itart. ig. For Xy"^J8wo read 

XoB^Ant^tr ipxB, "od for 'before their rieing' read in the btgin- 
ning oflharrifing. Sn riiroi . , , iarai. AgloSB. 16. iuunrrmr 

pvplm. Eth. tnat*^ y^ALC=Jnavrf fiuvrripSxm. xxi. 6 Bnp- 
porta Qiz. Gk. Hence, for 'm the year of the mystery ' read ten 
Uioutand yeetn. 

XIX. I. See Crit. Note, p. 90. nal ri n*. airmi, icokiitop^. Eth. 

wrongly transpoBes the ID, ' and,' and prefixes it to ■flH^. 
Xvpainrm. Eth. ACfa^OV. This is a bad rendering. After 
&ufu»ja» I have added with Eth. &t $iotc. After iiixpt I hare 
added r^t ^lupat wiUl Eth. tit dnonXtdMriii. Eth.^fi^i^M ammXt- 
u0f}vmnax, 2. rar wapa^arTw Jyyi'Xav. Eth. oomipt. First, with 
a strike out tVlfi, 'of heaven,' and read flD^h^. For Andi.t1 
read fl<b<:M. Thus we hare an exaot rendering of Gk. tli 
mip^rat. G tioDi M^nTt = wr tlp^raim, bat this clearlf has 
ariaeu from a misuDderHtaodiug of tit tniprpnt or &oin the loss of v 
in tFtipT)vat. Hence read the verse thus: And ihe women of those 
angels who teetU aetray will become tirent. As M. Lods points out, 
the atipijv and the Lilith or female demon ore here probably identi- 
fied. 3. After ISg G M add nCMh=.i tlW. As M. Lods points 



The Book of Enoch. 

X3k. I. 'AyyfXot r£p flwii- 
/lecap. 2. 0£p(T)A 6 ct; rmv h-yi^v 
hrfftKtsv 4 i»l ToC K6>rfiov km 

Twv Ayittv iyyiXaav & M ruv 
vvfVfiiTav T&v ia^p^vav. 4. 
'Payov^X i fts T&v ityiatv iyyi- 

t ktiv 6 tKitK&p riv KicriMv t&v 
<Pea<rT^/mv. 5- MixaTjX i tU 
T&v hyiiav iyyiXiav i i%i rSiv 
rov XoDu dya^Mir rtrayfUims 

t [koI] JttI r^ Xa^. 6. Sapt^X ^ 
tXs Tuv hyluiv iyyikw 6 ivX 
T&p wtvfiiratv oXnufs M t^ 
vv€6|laT^ hfuiprAvovaiv, y, Va- 

4. (dhunir r 

XX. 3. & flf T&V iyittv iy- 
yi\m> 6 iiH rov koct^wv koI iw 
rtvH-tEpov. 3. 'Pa^anX S fU r&v 
hyiuiv iyyiXav 6 ivX ruv vrcv- 
^ratf T&v iv^pdv^v. 4- P<** 
yovqX 6 (If Tuv ^yfuv \yyi\m> 
i kKiiK&v rhv Kivftov r&v ifubtr- ■f 
T^ptuv. 5- Mixa^ A t\s T&v 
hyUov iyyiktav ts inl t&v tou 
XaoC hyoBuv r/rnKTat [icai] iwl 
T^ Xoip. 6. SaptT)X 3 (If run ^ 
Ayfuf dyy^Xuv 6 ivX t&v tnifw- 
fidrMV otrti'd kvX T^ we^fMtTt 
Afui/>r(ii>ov<ru'. 7* TajSpt^X J 

XX. a, 01 — «M 3. oifYiXui' — 

n Tor Toir — x**** 

out, the quotations from Clement and Origen given in my note 
p. 91, are not derived from this veim. 

XX. I. SyyikM rut- lotifUMr. Eth. 'And these are the names 
of the holy angels who watch.' a. See Crit. Ifote, p. 91. 

3. i inL Eth. H, (the angel) ' of.' 4. itiaaiv. Bo emended in 
accordance with Eth. See, however, note on xziii. 4 below. 
T. ndapov T&v 0ai(rr. Better than EtL r. mfoyuiw ml r. ipm^r^pat. 
Hence for ' world and ' read teorld of. 5. Omit m/ before rn' 
with Eth. I have emended x°"i which ifi a vox nuQa, into Xoy 
with Eth. 6. ZnptjX. Eth. Sar&qUl. rS» Brrvixdnat oTnvcr M Tf 
mtviiaTi i/iapTarmaiv. Correct and Eth. ooirupt, bat easy of emenda* 
tion. First, for oi'V'Pftt read (io?¥M* with G, and strike out as 
a gloBS \%{ii }uR>ALfa>-. Seit, for Hmf^^At read Hnaof ¥11^ 
and WTA with A B C D E. We have thus an exact rendering 
of Gk. These angels are possibly the Satans who sinned throngh 
pride. The other angels sinned throngh last, i.e. through the 
body. Hence, instead of 'spirits of the children of men whow 
spirits have sinned' (this rests on an emendation) read epiritt 
wkieh have ginned in aprni, 7. See Grit. If ote, p. 9a. ipaicifr»f. 


AppmiUx C. 


ytkii»v&v6(iATaiTrTi.'}. XXI. I. 
Kal i^itfV(Ta tan r^f dxara- 
(TKcvelirrov, 2. Ktbcct^tfcocrcifiti)!' 
jftyov ^^tpSv apoKa ofirc 
aipcuiiv tvivto ofirt yijv [r<- 

Tovov iiKaTaaK€6aarop koI ifto- 
^fpiv 3. KoX inu TtBiapax 
hrri ^rSv] iaripas tov ov/hwov 
iflflUvoas [koI ipt[^i4vm>i\ ip 
t avr^ (d^Mv) 6fM)(ovs ^ipctrii' fie- 
yiKoK Ka\ iv mpX Knui^vom. 
4. rdrt fhcov' Ai4 iroW olrW 

pt^A., d etf TMV hyltav &yy4XMp 
bs ;mt' J/ioC ^11 Kal ah-ds fiyfiro 

tls T&w hyimi iyyiXatv 6 iicl 
rov vapahtCaou koI t&v ipaK6v 

TtOV Koil XtpOV^llt. {'Pffi(())X (6) 

cts tQv hyUiiv iyyikav tv fTo^tV 
6 0cd{ ivl T&v AviarafUptnv iv6- 
IMTa C ipX^yW^"'')' XXI. I. 
Kal i<f>a fvira fAi)ipiTijs dKora- 
iTKev6<rrov, 2. koI ixti iBta- 
vAftJfP ipyoi) ijw^tpop' itipaxa 
tdht oipaviv ivioMo oCrc yrjv 
TtOtfuXtufUpiiP, i)Ah t6vov 
dKoromHiWroi' xal ^^tpip" 
3. Kal iKti TtOiofuu C ioripas 
TOV ovpairov itbfttivovs [koI 
ipiftfUvovij ip ain^ (d/tov) 
ifutlovs Sptaip firf&kois koI tp -f- 
•mpX KOiopAvavi. 4. nfrc cIttoi'' 
Ai^ imiap alriop iirfi^Oiiaav 
Kol S(^ iiolap atrlap ipl^nyrap 

6 ft; T&v kyttap &yy4Xiiiv i fier 
^^lov ibi' Kai avrdf airr&v ^ynro 

7. a77fA« 
XXI. 3. 

— wtsfadiaov—'Spamrrm^ 7- ' 

Siirow — roc ^^mjikktm' ■" 

yXT. I. lux/m — luaniTaintitiatfToi' 
I. ore 3. TtStofiia — opoaii /irynXq 

These are probably winged eerpente or D^DltP Seraphim mentioned 
ia Ib. nv. 99 : xxx. 6 (see Delitzsch tn Zoc.). The sabject will 
recnr in the SIbtodic Enoch. Ailer x*p°'^ ^t^b. omits 'V<im^\ 
. . , nrra : cf. zc. z I . These claases seem original. 

XSX. I. /i^uintni. Etll. Ajm-=:/<cvirX«(ra. 3. <ir<lMii. See Cnt. 
Note, p. 9a, where for erroneouB OitlJVVfi read tDltimfi. 

3. ml ipipiioovt seeme a gloee dne to ver. 4. After airrf add j/iov 
with £tfa., omitted before 6polovt. Strike ont hoD In attW with 
Q and Qk., and for ' flaming as with fire ' read flaming with fire. 

4. BtWov (t for ipofirio'). Eth. f/lUt^ 'ain': cf. ver. 6. 

5. 4fnro ofrAf. Eth. fimCOi. 'he led me' a corruption for 



The Book of Enoch. 

n>/ cicrii' Twe hiaripiM/ rw oipa- 
voS ol vapapivns r^n IwiTay^p 
roS Kvpfov Kal ibi0r{ffav £3c 
fiiXP^ Tov vkrfp»ffM fivpla fr:}) 
rbv xp6vov run l^tofiTrffi&mp 

(Is SAAov rrfirop rtnJrou 0oj3c/m£- 

KOt ^krydfifvoV Kol diaKmr^v 
c7\(v 5 TOTtos Itos Trjs h^itriTOti, 
j- 7rAif/n)s vtSXiov mipis fuyAXav 
KaTa<^fioiiivtiiV o6r«ft^Tpoj»o5r« 
xAfirof i^Siii^Aji" Ibftv cUk tUi- 
trai. 8. riJrt eliroi'- "iii ^fitpis 

ipaiT^s ri Ttfpi rlvos -njv iX^tiav 
<pikoirjrevitis ; 6. ovroC tlinv 
Twv ioTtpteii Tcm mipopw «l 
Ttapapitrrfs rqv iviray^p roS 
Kvplov Kol ^Bc'^crav £fie i^i^xp* 
vktfptadijptu fiiipui Ini, rhv XP^ 
vov Tw iLfiaprtipLdrmv abrov. 
7. K&KfWtii itpdtfwra tU HkXto' 
tSvov roiJroti ^o^tp»Tfpov ital 
Tf6iaftailpYa<f>oPfpi' irvpiiiya 
JKCi KaiofMi^tv KOI ^key^nevov^ 
Kol fitaKoir^p c^X^" ^ nnro; l«s 
r^r d^^troi', irX^/n^f ot^Xuiii 
grvpds ;i(y({\wi' Kara^epa/i/niitjr T 
o^e fUrpov o5rf fUytSos ^v- 
v^6ift; IBciv oJ^F (iieiitrat. 8. 
TffTc cTvoK' 'As iftofitphs i r6ms 

fi4ioCfPai>' ' was chief over tbem ' : cf. xxIt. 6 ; Ixxii. i ; Izxiv. i . 
Uriel is over Tartonu, xx. 3. Henoe he is in cb&)^ of tiiese 
pmUBhed angels. ittpl rh/ot r^r aX^tiey ^Hkotrwt68*K ; Eth. corrupt. 
Firet strike out (D^OXA with G. We have then flX>h <n>h 
4*^1^^ O^Jti^. Here 'ttn-fit is manifestly a cormption <^ 
'Prt=T^ nXqAfUH-. Hence for ' why dost Ihou enquire and art 
cnrioUB ' read why ari ifunt eager after the exact trath f 6. fr^. 
Eth. 9Ay° 't>g^' clearly a corruption of 9y 'a year.' Henoe 
for 'ages' read years. riv xpdm'. Eth.=i ifuBjiln luv ^/wpuv. 
7. diojton^v tTxfv & ndroi. See Crit Note, p. 93. After om add with 
Eth. (BuiniA]*. Id Eth. UMlK WtC: Ofit, ■ I was not able to see its 
origin,' IfK is an intrusion and Oj&l* is a corruption of OjC?=inf. 
of Off (=cIiEdf(()' in Wisdom ix. iti). Hence for ' was I able to see 
its origin' read <»>ulij/(»n}ec<tir0, 8. JWiMJt. Hence for ^"7^ 
I have read Aivy" with Q. 9. After imtpiSii fun I have added 



9. G' ««- 

-O' and! with 



XTTt 1 


nvTfpMt a. 

XnorXiMrptt — 

-JU« — 

Appendix C 359 

9. T<fr« dircicpf(0i)} plot (Owpi^) 9. T(fre ivfKplOrf fiot xal elTT^v 

d cts T«iv dy^f iyyiXuv ts pier' 

ifioD ^11, KaX Hviv 

fioe 'EvcdXi ^'^ ''' ifpo^^v^ oSrms nil ^vroiJiltjE ; Kot d«eKpl^(i')* 

ritpl roifrow TOW tfiofitpcS (rihrow) Kai ir«pl rifs npoirtf^cus r$t 

ftcti^S. 10. Kal (Incir OCrof J r<{vof btffimyr^piov Ayyikiov. 

Sit trvffxt0^<TOvrai ^fUxpt fvdc) tls rdv aiwvo. 

XXII. I. KAKfWtv l^ifwra els AAAov t6i!ov, koI titi^iv fioi 
trpis iwT[i,&s [dAAo] Spot y^ya xal ^^\hv (xai) virpai arcpcds. 
2. Kot ritrirapts r&tiai h> ofrr^ icoLXot, ^&8oi (kqI «rX<iTO;) ^opre; 
Kol XW Aeibt, {rpctf o^uf mcorcu'of, ical ct; ^amipiis, xal 
■miyii ^atos ivh fUaov airov. kcX cTvof) Was Xcia rd icoiX<ifuira 

10. tnTfurnr^uw 
(Iff «onrM — ftravt 

mih Eth. 'Uriel.' mi tlnn. Etil.=:aatKpiSii fux mil cTWy fuu. 
Hei« Eth. has transposed the vords ml amxplff^ and placed them 
before ml ttvy. Hence omit 'answered and,' place the note of 
interrogation after alarm, and for ' at this horrible . . . pain ' read 
and I onteered : ' Beeaute of Ait horrible plaee.' mpl T^r npari^m 
rift Sni^t. Eth. eeems corrupt or a nustransliition. ^.ttoo; 7fe 
AVi rh^yy. Better render with Gk. becatiM of this hideout 
tptetaeU, ttKiYH: 7X1 AliP-^". 10. After t&nr Eth. adds imh. 
Before Mt Eth. adds tai. 

XXIL I. Before mrput Eth. adds nu'. a. mmXoi, Eth. 

VtS'F, ' beantiAil,' wrongly reading takoi. We most iiuther 
change the punctuation of Eth. text and begin ver. a with OQ. 
After fiaSm odd with Eth. Kal trXAnt. Omit tO before na><I|-t:t 
with Gk. Hence, for 'four beautiful places . . . perfectly smooth,' 
read there were in ihit (mountotn) four hoUow placet, dt»g, 
wide, and vtry amooth. After Xttm Eth. omita throngh hmt. 
rptit iiStw trtamml, ml tit ^Hmir6t, ml mjyij udoTtx tM ^iror avrw. 
ml throp. Hence, insert after 'very smooth ' (see note on preceding 
Terse) Three of these were gloomy and one bright and there 
wat a fountain of water in ite midet. And I taid, wAt \tia = 
Eth. hOBl Aon^. nt KwAitfun-a ravro. Eth. Hnfa-^INI implies 

Digitized by GOO^^IC 

360 Tke Book of Enoch. 

rovra Kfti ika^oBia Koi (tkotcu'^ t^t bpiati. 3. rifrf <lT<Kpl0i| 
'Po^^A, 4 <ts rflu ir^uv hyyiKiav, hi («t' i^ fr, icol Aviv ytac 
OSrot ol rcnroi oX xoiXoi, Ii>a ivt(Tvi^)wi'ra( cIs afroiv ra wvt^fuxra 

$ai itAaas rha ^o^x^ ^^^ ia>0p<tirMr. 4, itol oi!rw oE rtfirw clf 

airmv koX f^XP^ ^^ itopivfiov xot iutpuriiivav xp^i"*** ^ ^ h 
Kp(<ns it fitydKr) itrTOi. kv aJTois. 
t 5- Tcdco^ioi (mcC/Mi) ivBpiiiroo vtKpov (^ivrvy^^aiiovnty, koI 
^ 0101^ airrov (liyjtt rofi oipainw vpoifiauxv, xot ivrruY^iavtV 

■(■ awry" ToCto rd vfcvjxa (rd ^jmiyxdi'ot'), r6vf itrrd', oB offru; ^ 
^in) avroC upo^aCvti Kol j;my)(4i^( ^fwr rov oipavoSy ; 7. koI 
dvfKpfdi) pioi Kiywv' Tovro rh vptvfii itrrai rd i^tX6lni itto 'A^cA, 
dv iip6vfviTtv Kdciv i d^A.0iff. koI (_'A^t\y ivrvyxivtt vtpl airm 

— Si — wpodtm 7- an«p«iA) — ^cXSAir — 

KugXAliara or KiMaitaTa, but nuXapmi is right; cf. koiXiii ntrst in 
VT. I, 3. Hence, ftfter 'And I eaid' (see above) for 'u smooth 
u Bomething which rolls,' read Ifout mtooth are theae hoUoK plaest. 
iXofiaOia. £th.=:^a^'a. 3. After amjtptft) Etfa. adds ftot. iohXih. 

Eth. vroDgly read miXo/. I have rendered with Qk. rd wrtiium. 
See Crit Note, p. 94. tit aM roS™. So Q : tef: TH'P. After 
irvxac Kth. adds T&f vU». 4. Anw^tnw. Here Eth. and Ok. 
agree in giving the same cormpt reading Jwoiitatw, 7>Q(>. After 
/i«X/u rov SiopHT/iov £th. adds aMiy. After }(pimi Eth. adds a glon 
10^"%: 0(1^. t* i^. Eth.= £■[, bat lees good. Hence, for 'this 
appointed period ia long, till ' read ei{( the ptriod appointed, in 
wKich. 5. This verse is defective and corrupt in Ok. and Eth. 
I have adopted M. Lods' emendation in the text. Apparently, 
we shoold emend Etb. aooordingly, i.e. Chin a>>1^: tHOu 
ytD^t MH i .^AtU (D^ft*, / taw the tpiril of a man who toot 
iead eonyilatntn^ and Au i)otc«, ftc. 6. For mf Eth. reads 
'this time'^ntrt. ojL A neceessry correction of Jh ol 7. After 
anitpiA; Eth. adds ml (firw. After aMi^i Eth. adda iwnw. 


Appendix C. 361 

fWxP' '""'' AiroX^trfloi Td oitipfM a&rw dwi vpwriivov r^ y^s iwii t 
arth Ti^ <raiptMTos r&v ivOfxivtov i>patiurO^ rd <rnip(M airrov, 

8. t&Tf ^puTi)(ra (te^i a^ov ical) ircpi ruv KoiXufidrHp irot^cui^ t 
Aia T^ ixtl>pCtrSi)traii tv dird rov JDiJs ; 9. koI ittiKpiBr) imi 
Kiyiov OJkoi ol Tptis itrm'^&jftra]/ \(itptC€<r6ai rh mev^ara rwv 
vtKpvV Kol o{^a)£( j)xcup'(r^ (Is rd vjw^futra ruv ItiitofrDi', oC i\ m^y^ 
roS J!daTor (rqff 0^r\i) iv avn^ ^rciv^. 10. Ka\ oikas inrlvOif t 
rotf i)UipTuKoii, Srav ivoOivt/uriv Kal ra^uo-ii' tti r^v y^v koI 
Kpio-tt ovK iyfir^$Ti iif a^uf Jv r^ j|m^ o^mv, 1 1 . &hf \<opl- 
^(Tot rd vfclffiara a^Sv cl; r^v jwydA^jv fidtravop ra^rifv iU)(pi 
■njs fuy6\i]s iifUpai r^s Kpltrtms, r&v fuurrfyuv gal r&p ^(urdvoif 
ruv KanipofL^visi' fUxpi al&vot (ntl) r^s di^a'irodJa-nof r&v wtt^ f 
ftdrMV' JKf ( dijirct otfTOJ'f ^t^t; o^uvof . 1 2. Kai oOrwf ixtepMif 
Tois irvfifumv rip kvr\rfnav6vTi»p, oXrwti ifk4>ayi(pwiv vtpl r^t 

9. rpa —fimrii 
rwX* — Kpurui II. x*/>'<C**w — oiawot if* arraaotsHrnf I 

*Aj3tX. Etli. omito. 8. Before nfn Eth. adds 'and therefore.' 
After j/pAnpra Oik. VTODgly omitB mpl avrou mi = flXTCXO*: <D, 
where nuroC refers to the diTuion in which Abel was. KotXa/uirw. 
So I have emended laiAaitAmr; for (i) the same cormption is 
implied by Eth. text in rer. a ; and (3) whereas xviAta/iantr does 
not give a good aense, mtXitiiintw is eapported by tv. i, 2, and 3. 
See ver. a (note). For ■oiXMpira»' Eth. followed a corropt reading 
uptfiaTm: Hence, for 'I asked regarding Tiim and r^arding the 
judgment of all ' read / atied rtgarding it and rtgarding all At 
hoOow plaett. I have omitted cDAA with Q and Qk. 9, For 
ftt^ltao' read Aaol^iW* = tU ri nvffumi. 7la>A'F is a corruption 
of Ha><X1:, -aCfi of -aVn or -flfrU = *<im.i^. After roO vtant 
I have read t^c C^t with O TC: thfioi'f. Hence, for ' and the eouls 
of the righteooB . . . light above it ' read and thus a division is made 
p>r the spirits of the righteous in which there is a bright spring of 
the loaler of iifs. 10. xal. Eth. tthOB. 11. Omit at before 
ant with G and Ok. For K^tinTdV we should read ao^fttlttPtli" 
with Qk. ri (Txifuira a^rttv. Hence, for ' souIb ' read tpirUs (twice), 
fiSxpt oluvor (koI) t^c Ar nanMatttt. 80 I havfl emended with Eth, 
For 'revilers' we may equally well translate aeeurted. is. I have 
omitted toiuiHi aiM: it^^Jbao; M^ as a gloss. Omit oA 

Digitized by GOOC^IC 

362 Tht Boot of Enoch. 

13. {k(u) oSras iKTlrdii rois wtifuuriv T&v ivBpiivMv Saoi owe 
iaovrai 6aioi dAA' ifUtpTtoXol S<m (SXoi) itrt^fK' nai [ura r«v 
ivifuav ivoVTox fkiTo\oV rh Vi irvcv^ora [j(rt ot jvdi^c 0Xt- 

•nis Kpitrtta^ oiAi ft,^ p.rTfy€pOuva> ivr^^fv. I4> rirt ^Xiytfira 
riv K6pioii T^s i6^s Kill tXva' EMoyi)T4f cT, f^pu, i i^f ftwato- 
iTl!in)i KvpHvup rou al&pos. 

XXIII. I, Kdxctdfi' iift^twra tls AXAov rifxoi' T/>dE IWfia; 
Twv vtpirmi rijt yfis' 2. koI iSfcuriftiiv mp SMrp^ov xal ovk 

vaovip ; 4- rrfre &v(Kpfflri fux 'PayTO^X, ^ «ti rSj» S^yimD 
iyyiiMD, 4s h«t' ifioS ^r OUros ^ ipdfuis rem mpii ri wpir JiwfMlt 
vtip t6 iKhiAK6p ioTtP vimas roin 4>*ovj^pat rou oipapw. 

13, fXfi^frrn — rti/uap^t^iromi 14. «» — n 

VyTTT ] , SioT^j;*'*' — aravM/Mnn' — (rXfimr ~ 

before XA with : of. olrwn. 13. £tb. omits ml before ovrmt. 

For If^^oP*, 'souls,' ve Bhonld read twice in this vene an'OAa'*' 
= m-tv^uunr, apiritg. Before dov^it add Au with Etb. ¥]fyf ■ 
It coold easUy fail out after Aroc iteToxpt. Eth, h'TV(n*' = 
dfUMbt oArau or iauroit. Srt ol M^ Skt^rrn tXarror KoKiiornu, 
' For those who EofEer here are puniabed less.' This is an explana- 
tiory margiiial gloss throst into the text. rtiutptfO^aotTiu. EUl 
W"^A ' will be slain,' lurtytpOAair. I. e. * ri» umA' the rest. 
Eth. ■ rise.' 14. With Q I have omitted a»A*P, iMkbt: a> and 
IfAf. tt. Probably wrong. 3rd pers. nsed almost oniversall; in 
the Enochio doxologies: see xxii. 14 (note, p. 96). For xupu, A nji 
tiKatotrvw^tt Eth. read npufi /uw, i laiptas rqr Suuuoo'vinir, which 
is better. 

XXm. I. Before tmc irrpdroMi Eth. adds }iflh=fuxp>. 2. After 
9vp Eth. adds ^iktyipnar, oXXo. So emended with Eth. from 
4fHi. 4- After Vfwv {v EtL adds ml thiv fim. B«at of verae 
difBcnlt First as to the text Before ipiiut Eth. adds HChAl = 
tr tVitt, and omits wrongly roC itvpit after ip6^ot. Again, H^JbJt: 
IB ohvionsly a cormption for Vifi-d^/i = r4 ii^tAanr. MhAtm 


Appendix C. 363 

XXIV. I. {KiKfWtp i4»ibtv<ra tls AXXov nhrof t^e y^s) ml 
Ihfi^v iMi Sptj mpiii Kaiifitva. . , wktos. 3. Kal Mneiva airHv 
ivopf60tiv, KoX t6taa&fi.i\v imik Spt} JfvSo^, itivTa iK&rtpa tov 
iKoripov iia^&iTffovro, iv ot XlOoi tvrifioi r^ koAXoi^' koI vivra 
IvTtIM Kol tvio^ Kol eitiUj. {rpia hr') AvaroXtis itmjpiyfUva 
(tv) ip Tf ivt, xal rp(a iv\ potov (ip) Ip r^ ivC. xat iftipayyts 
PaBfuu Kol rpax^eiaif fifa t^ fu^ o£k jy^ovo-oi. 5. [koI rf 
^t] i^hopop Spos ipii pAirov TovT<op, Kot iitfp(ix_(P ry {!^<4 Sptoiop 
KoBiipif Opdpov Koi vtpttKiiKXou iipipa airi c^cidi). 4. ical f 

XXIV. I. (9.£(K — xo/Krd 

C4umot meftu ' puimes ' here, as M. Lods thrnks, but ' persecutes,' 
' punishes,' or ' avenges.' This would harmonize with xx. 4. Bat 
this can hardly be right. The idea of punishing dU the luminaries 
is extravagant. It is more probable, therefore, that the author 
derived Bagnel not from ^jn, ' to chastise,' but &om njn, 'to feed,' 
' nourish,' ' govern,' In this case for Giz. Gk.' •kJWum' or Oi*. Qt.* 
f«cii»< we should read /k&uikovv or ttoumir, and not iKdiK&y, We 
should then translate Ragvd — viko feeda (or nouruAw) ih6 world 
of th6 luminaritt. In like manner in this verm we should take 
(cSiiMKw to be an earl^ corruption for iKiioucoCw or Buhmu-. Thus 
Bagnel, whose ofiSce is to feed the fires of the luminaries, rightly 
appears here : and the means of so doing is the restless fire ot 
the west : cf. xvii. 4, Hence, for ' This burning fire ■ . . luminaries 
of heaven,' read TMt eourte of Jin tdiich thou hatt leen it the Jin 
Umards Ae wot tohKh nourishes aU the Iwninariee of Ae heaven. 

XXI7. I. Before m1 ii<t(tv I have added vrith Eth. ui«>d» . . . 
T^r yjjt. Before fvetijc Eth. adds iiUpar nai. a. Jvittaa aiirmr 

inoptv$tpr. The Eth. translator, not understanding Mnoa, renders 
fi^Oti ao'ntM' = nrl airmi nrop, Hence, for ' I approached it ' 
read / vient beyond U. Jbv ol XiAx. Eth. read ml ol XiAx. tj 
mXXovg. Eth. read ml itoXaJl t!ito£a. £tb, = b&>£a(I(ra>I3ot oirM'. 
tiaiii. Eth.= DS'A TUflV 'and of fur exterior.' rpaxiiat. 
Eth. tnfX't =: aKoXtat. 3, £)rf/KiX'* rf infr<( ^^CMor KaSiipq 6p6iitni. 

Eth. corrupt. Emend with Din. W* Jl^VW^-j fift^ttli. 
Thus, for ' in their elevation they resemble the seats ' read beinff 
higher than aU it remablod the teat. After mpuxir add mbrw 


364 The Book of Enoch. 

^ ^vkv aiTMS hivipop t oHimrrf ia-tppavftai koI aHiv tnpov avT&v 
[r)ii^piii&ij] Kat ov3ti> frtpov Siutiov air^' i<rft,iiv clx"* c^»8cir> 
ripav viirruv ^ufuiruV xal rh ip^XXa airmi koL rd Sv^of xol rd 
hivZpav oi iftBbiti tU rip aiUva' ol ii vtpl riv Kopvou &nl 
pirpvfs tt>oi]>CKiop. 

5. TJrc ttvov 'Us KoXiv rd Hvhpov rotW timp ndi foSits, Kot 
Stpma rh ^liAXa, icai ri ivBt] airrov ipaXa rfj ipd(r€i. 6. nfrc 

hxtKpidr\ fiot Mixa^k, tts t&v hyUav iyyiXMv, hs ficr' ifum ifp, 
Kol airii airr&v ijyctro, XXV. 1 . koI Aiitv \un- 'Ei^Xi ''^ 

ipaiT^s ; (^Kal ri iBwifUurasy tv r^ iaft^ tov Hvipmi; koI ^bia rCy 
OiKfii Trfv iX^0fuiP jtaStiv; 2. t6t( iiitKpl6r){p) avr^' Ufpi 

itivntp tl&ivai 84\<o, fidXiora 9^ vtpl toC Hvipov to^tov tr^ctdpa. 
3. Kal ivfKpt&i} kiyav Tovro to Spot rd v<fniK6», oD rj Kopo^ 

t 6ftola 9pivov Bttm, §Ki6ibpa iarlv of KoSltrti 6 Ayto; 6 fUyas Kvptos 
rijs Stf^f, 6 fitunXAs tov al&vos, Stcoi Korap^ JiricrK^atrdai rt)v 
yijp ill' i.ya0^, 4. koI rovro rd S^t^/rav ev(o2^v Kal oiititta 

(T&pi i^avo'lav l)(fi &^aa^$a^ airov itiyjn r^s p.fyiX'i\s Kplinios, 

4. ovtiit rrtpot ttBTaif — nwt^rr^MW — fttivi 5. wfta — of 
XXV. 1. atttpntij 3. Af — KtSviu — firpt «t o^iot 

with Eth, tiMh/. 80 emended as in Etb. 4. ml ovdru n^poc 
atrrSni i)£0p^r^, ' and no one else haa enjoyed them.' The reference 
to the other treee is oat of place. Hence, with Eth. omit rfi^pm^, 
and for olMt rnpot read tMip trtpor. itrit^r '^X''- Hence, for 
Kfi^yttH read with O J&^OH. ol Si rip atpni*. Corrupt. Such 
expreBsionB with nuMC. or fem. art are perBonal, i.e. ol irrpl 'Apx>^ 
='Apx'v. Eth.^ 6 Si Kapwit «iXJc Kal 6 KopirSt. 5. Before rin 

Eth. adds <ni/. lit. Eth. fV ' behold.' timSts. This Beems right : 
c£ XXT. I. Eth. HUppoaea titiSis, but wrongly. Hence, for 
' beantiftd to look upon ' read and fragrant. IMri. Eth. n^nrrfi. 
6. Before ntn Eth. adds koI. t^xt iyimr Eth. adde cal turiimni. 

XXV. I. dtd rL Eth. omits. «^tt ri,* £k^«i>> = Eth. tffl^ : 
cf. xxi. 5. 9. Omit (D at beginning of verae with G and Qk, Aft«r 
a£rf Eth. adds XrywK. 3. After airtupiSii Eth. adds fioi. After 
Spof Eth. adds i tQtt. xaBiSpa, Eth. adds aurou. A Syuiv . . . 
Kupuit. I have restwed the order as in Etb. roS olatw. Etli. 
HAM^ s oUMOf. 4. T^ FMyOiff tplotmt. Bee Crit. Kote, p. 98. 

iiized by Google 

Appendix C. 365 

iv ^ iKhiietfVii vAvTtnv Ka(t} TfXfUiau fiixpis alSvor rtfrc Sucolots f 
Kol Atrlois bo&^fftrai 5. 6 Kafnrdt airov rois JkXcktoie ds 

jltt^v' nal lis poppav tifTa^vT€V$^tTai hi rtfiry ltyi<f, vapci riv -f- 
oZkov roC dcou ^otriX^co; roG atupos. 6, rArt ei^pav&^awrai 
fiff>paiv6fjievot, Kol ^ap^trovTM, koI (Is rd tyiov ftafkfvmpTai' 
a[ dtrfial a^ov iv rois dtrr^oi; avrwi'' xat C^rjv vkfiova i^trovrai 
ivl y^s fjv lf»)<r<u' ol naripfs trov koI ip tbii ^fiipais air&p naX 

»jJX({jTj<fa rir fl<if t^e ^^^s, riv pturtXia toS atuvos, As jjrof- f 
Moircp ivOptimts rh rotavra SiKcUois Kal n^d lKTt(rtv ko! cIvci' 

XXVI. I. Kal ixfiStv t<f><iifv<ra tls rd fxiaov r^s y^f. ko! Idoi' 
rivov i\ii\oYH}iii>ov, i^iv ^ SivSpa) t)(pvTa vapa/ftviias ;tcvov(ras' 
Kai /SAoffToiIiTas tow ih/ipov iKKoirivroi. 3. xdicct rctf^o^t 

^pos jytof, vTOKfiTA) ToB ^ovf Wiap if ivarok&y koX t^v p^w f 
(Ixfv irpis virov. 3. koI Xbov -nphi dvaroXdt jUAo Jpor v^\^ 

<( — tr — (ivSfunroit 5. (II 3o^<<'' *ai — Sa fiaatXtiit 6. xiV<'<i'''« — 

tivthtvavTOi ai oaiu — inrratoa — iiaartiin 7. tpi\ayi)«ia — ft 
XXVL 3. Tittd/H — euirir 

iv i. So M. Lods rightl; emendfi •( 1;. nSn. Etb. Wh ' this.' 
The original, therefore, wm T&n or riS*. Aruwt. Eth. ^rfKt^ 
■ humble.' 5. 6 luipvir . . . C<^- ^th. ' by its frait life will be 
pren to the elect.' kqI cii ffoppSv. I have thus restored nu to 
ite right position before th. So G) : OMdITA: obRO. Further, the 
fitra ID fin-o^nM?. implies a change of place, 'transplanted to,' 
and thna requireB tU ff«ppav. Ok. corruptly reads ttr ^opir xai = 
< for food and.' ti>S t^IUnt. Eth. HAM7°, oI^^dc. 6. Eth. 
osiite Hal before tit. ih r. Sy. tUrtXtiamtnu. See Crit Note, 
p. 99. trXcioKi, Eth. •IIH^ = iroXX4v. This is preferable. Before 

Eoi |3iuraM>i Eth. adds Xfin;, 7. roC oIuMif. Eth.= oli&nov. St. 

Eth. ^flflI' = ^T■l or fcrfri. 

XXVI. 1. After T/tihoyijiitvotr Eth. adde wil nuiva. A> ^ Sitipa. 
Eth. omits through similsrity Ufi't: XOlliD-, bnt to the detriment 
of the sense. Hence, for ' there were . . . grew ' read then wen 
trees there viith branches which kept shooting forth. 2. Before 
immdna Eth. adds koI. pitnr emended from dvo-iv with Eth. 
3. For tl0^ read JlT^ with Ok., and for ' of the same height' 

Digitized by Google 

366 The Book of Enoch. 

t Ttfiov TO&Tats, Kol ixii lUffOv a&rmv ^ipayyav PaSfiav oiK tj(oviTiat 
vK6tos, Kol ii airijs fS««p vopevtrm vKOKirtt ixi ri 3pos — 

4. Kol vpds bwrji&s rotrrov AXAo Spos ravavirfpov airrov koI ouk 
^ov jF^off, Kol ^Apayyaji ^aOeita koI ^pw 6vii fUaav avrAv, sol 
AAXi)!' <ftApayyav ^oBtiav tuH (riphii iv' &Kptov rSp rpi&p ipimv, 

5. KoX itaaai ^ipayy^^ tltriv fiaSfiai, if itirpas crfptas' koI 
iivhpov (oik) i^niTtvrro tv airis. 6. . . . koI iffaiiMtra irtpl rqr 
^ap&yyas naX \iai) iOaofxaira XXVII. I. koI ftvotr AiA tI ^ 
7^ airif ^ (iXoytr/x/n) Kol irooa vA.^^t hivipup, a&nj ii ^ ^f^4payi 
KtKonipafUvr) ttrrl; (rirt iittKplffti Olpi^X, 6 eU rSv hyiatv 
iyyiKttv, ts fur' Ifxov ijv, Kol clvcp') 2. 'H y^ KarAparot rots 
KtKorapanivois itniv [U}^i alSvm' Sit liruniva\6iiiropTM itivrts 
o[ [KtKonipafxivot] ruvr ipovtrw rip trrd^um a^fiv icartl mpioC 
^irf)i> dvpnr^ Kol TCpl r^s dJ^c afrov VKkripci Kakijtrownv. 
iM< jiri(nH>a}(d:^iM>rai Kol &bt itrrai rd olmn^/xov. 3. iv 

t JffxdrtM; alH(ru>, ftroiTat tls Spanv t^s KpCvt»s t^« iXifdunjs 

3. Bimiv 5, miTt fofor-ftt 6. Xiiar 

XXVn. I. ^forf a. occrT^puv 3. (U0x<'rMt — s' mi qfufcut 

(henos fromu (ti l^oinr) — aAi)t«i^f — 

Kftd higher than Ait. atina' emended from tdrtm with Eth. Eth. 
adds Jui' after M*^- {n^xiilni vrd. Eth. op17A. 4. 0(Aia' 
icol fqf«r. Eth. yA-p 'beneath it' For llMVt . . . .MHH* read 
with ak ntA^i Mi 0^"H^ afi^iM:; and for 'other deep and 
sterile lavines' read tmolhar dMp and MerUe ravim- $. o£k 
^^vrnMTo. a reads H^iliA, where the H may be a cormption 
of JL. 6. Before koI iSaufiaira Eth. adds *ak idaviuwa wtpl tb* 

wrrpAr, omitted hj Qk. throngh like beginning. 

XXVIL I. mi. £tb.=T<{r(. After m«ar. Eth. adds iitra^i mrm: 
1. Before q ^^ I have added with Eth. ntn inxpifii) , . . ■oi (^rm. yf 
(Eth. = ^opoyf) to be rendered ' valley,' being a tiansliterstion of Wl, 
dne to miscoaceiTing it as a proper name. It is transliterated as 
7111 in u Sam. xiii. 18; Ezek. xxxix. 15, &c. nuanipaium is a 
gloea ; a> and ruvr are to be read oTriMr. For otn^r^fHw we should 
read xptT^pior with Eth. 3. Omit at before dfiiti with O and 

Ok. alMru. Eth. ODTOA 'days.' tiroincu (Ie ipaaui. Bo I hare 

emended /k nut ^fupaic. They will b« frr a i^eetacU. Eth. 
.^IUP-1: fVbMfao^. tCkf ' there will be Qpon them the spectacle.' 
Bat most probably we should read fihOiii MUfi»i JtC&f , ihay 


Appendix C. 367 

kvojmlav t»v Sucafwi' t\i rhv ivavra •np6vov, &bt tiXoy^ovatp ol 
fitre^fti riv infptov ttjs 6of))f, riv paaikia roG alQvoi, 4. iv T 
Tols ^fiipais TTJs Kpltrtas airSiv evkoy^iToiHTiv (ajrrov) Iv i\4fi me 
ifUpurtv auTWf. 5- '"'''■* 'ji^'^i'o Tin xipiov iflff Bcffti xal 71)11 
Sofav a^ov J8i|X«i>ini teat j!/un)<ra ^icyaXtm/inrSr. 

XXVIII. I. Kat iKtWfP iirapt69t\v <If rd fUiroo }A<aibopapa, 
Koi tiov aifrb fpiiftov koI airi fi6va>, Z. vXijpts biphpaV Kal 

ivd T&v inttppiriap Simp iatofifipoHv ivatBo' 3> ifKUv6pi(vav, f 

iK ibpayvyds ba<pi\^s &t vpds ^oppav Ivi iwrnuv vianoStv 
iviytt tiaip Kal ip6trov. 

JUL V 111, a. rXt/ftp Strtfor — aroiiffpor — arottr 3. faifieiwri 

thtrntdvuvjiU lefor atpteUicU. th Swofto j^ptw. Eth.=(I(rA» 
otifa wiirat r^ q/MpM. tinrt^tt corrected &om atn^tK. See Crit, 
Note, p. lOi. roS otfttor. Ettu = alAnoir. 5. After t^< Eth, 
ftdda nil iyi. After I7CII' (an imperfect rendering of ibrjXmira) add 
IKUfli* with Qk., and for ' spoke to Him ' read ta/orth Sit glory. 
ufinjtni. Hence, for HhCfr = 'fu'iiira read HffDCfr 'I lauded.' 
prjiAarptwAt. Eth. AhffB; f-£if, AOnt is ft misleading attempt at 
a literal translation. Hence for ' remembered , . . befitting ' read 
lavd«d Bim gtorioutly. 

XSVni. I. After nrapfvV ^^- tMlda npit i»an\dt. HnvAo- 
8opa. TbiH ia a fanHf transliteration of ^*|P taken as a proper 
name. It recurs in still fanltier form in xxix. i, Ba^^l]pa. In the 
LXX. tbis mistake is also found. See Schlonmer on HmSdc^Vic 
and Matfiapiru. After ftitrer Eth. adds AAO£ ' monntain range.' 
<8w atri tp^^K Etb. CAJb^. 7An>s lAfM*. Tbaa for tp^/io-, an 
adj., we have ' a desert plain.' xol oM itirov. Eth. (OOAii cormpt : 
read OHUb't 'solitar;.' Hence, for 'I saw here nothing save a 
pliun. a. Nevertheless' read I tato a desert aftd tolHary plain. 
3. (Ina). 3. irX^r iaip»r. So Eth. For ' it was filled with' 
read full of. For <al Ari ru* mrtpparuw Eth. reads orA rmi tmippant 
rovrou itai oMtfifipan^fi^A^ii^. So I have emended from Sn>it&po¥, 
After ifopfipoi* Eth. adds A'lAA' ' upon it.' 3. 0aiM[FUMr:= 

fIttCJL. So I have emended from ^oi/Nt^vo. it vSpoywydt do^iXqr. 
So 0: hOVi AlMli -atMi H^Cfl. irj-ro^ . . . ip6aow na /«».r. 
Eth.^iml warroOfH araytTOi ml tKti&rr v6mp Eol Ap&rof Somewhat trans- 
posed and oormpL First restore ai}i^"UtL fa tbe Knginning of 


368 The Book of Enoch. 

XXIX I. Kal i*.v.&a> jvopc^v th AXAov n^av kv ry Ba/3- 
h-q^i Kol vpis di>aroA^ roS Spom •robroo ^\6ili\v, 3. kbI Iftov 
Kpftrcu; d^S^a wiovra hpttfi^xutv KipSwav koI apipmis' km ra 
iMpa airAv Sftota KofrHats. 

XXX. I. Kal hiiKttva tovtwv if\6fi7iv vpds dvaroXa; fiAxpiv, 
Ka\ Idol' T6voti iXXov ftiyav, ^6payya3> tAaroi, Z. jv f kcu 

iivipov x/x^ <i^^T«o()i) dfiolav irxW- 3- '^'^ ^ vo^ 

rd X*^*l ^^ ifxtpiyyttv rovrav E3ov icu'PiVatfioi' <ipwfuirwi>. 
Mtl Jv^Kcuw Toifrui' tpx'^l" ^P^^ ^varoXfif, XXXI. I. kbI 

Idoc AAAa fpi), Kol iv avTois &)i<nt b4vbpt»v, ml JmropciNffuvw jf 
ofrfii' vifuap, rd KoKo^fitvov trappav Koi xo^jWi;. 

Z. Kat fir^Kfuu TNI' dp^toc rotfrcov tSov &AAo d/mt ir/>^ dimroXar 

xxiz. I in place of W. Next vocalize T"; <^'i OUn" thus £0C7i 
ff; OunA and omit (P before Xy"lf^'. Hence, for ' there vere 
l]iaii7,..xzix. I And I went' rtad many ttnteroourM* which fiototd 
at vieU. touxtrda the north tu to the vxit eaiteed water and dew to 
atcmd on «rery aide. xxix. i Arid thenee I vatmt. 

XXIX. I. JEol iKtiBtf. Bee preceding note, h rf 'Oa^pa. See 
note on zxriti. i. Etb.^ ^h^ nv i^pov. For ral before trpit G readi 
H' which.' 4x^'- ^^- ^M^'l approached.' 2. Before 
'liar Eth. adds tnl. trwcnra. Eth. M4A cormpt. Omit A before 
irtl with G. tpoio. See Crit Note, p. 102. After jB^^flA- 
add AMAO, i. e. lo^u with Ok. 

XXX. I. flr.«.i«o To5r»r Eth. corrupt : 40A>Ih OOAi XOIf. The 
translator aleo did not understand nrvHu-n. Seexviii.9(note). Hence, 
for ' above that (even) above these ' read beyond thoM. 4x^l''P' ^P^* 
^KniXdr. Eth.cormpt. ForOOA; J!4£: ftflA reod^jMK A9tnA= 

VX^I"!" ^P^' irOToKat. iiOKpar. £th. = ical oi) iiaKpiii. jiiyan. Eth. 

omits. After Ziaros Eth. adds h<n>i ^Kf''V^Mt ' as that which fuls 
not.' 2. 4r f Koi. £th.=:iiiil tdov. jifpda apMiurw, ' the appearance of 
fragrant trees.' BoQ: Hfiaotliit69tainm. See Crit Note, p. loa. 
dpuB* irxH- ^ ^ : hovi Xli^ HAtLTl. 3. (iTKOM. £th. JtA 
'over.' Seexviii.9(note). For 'passingovertheae' read fteyondjAMe. 

XXXI. I. cTXcD) SivSpmi. Eth. omits aXcnj. Vnropfu^/Mvor. See 
Crit. Note, p. loa. Before nirrap Eth. adds hin):=u[. ffappar 
seems to be a transliteration of ^^jC, a kind of balsam. This would 
suit perfectly here. In the LXX. ^7riii)=^y. 3. inixtmi. Bee 


Appendix C. 369 

T&v ittpintv rqr y^s, kqI vdirra rti iivipa vX^pf JK <rr(Ucr^t Jv f 
AfMiiiiOTi jfuryS(iX«s(i>)' 3. 2rai' rpCfitomv abri tiaiirrtpw f 

vv^ itdu> &PVIU1. XXXII. 1 . (koI fjxri raSni r^ dp^fura), 

clf poppap wphs ipanXis rtOiofuu iirrit Sfn} vK^ptf vipimi XfiifvraS 

iWrMV, ^oxpcU' dv^X"" *^P^ <baTT)\d$ {r^t T^')- "o^ W^f 

IS — •* .AtoTf^o* — of^mrvr 

xriii. 9 (note, p. 3S4). Eth. 'over,' wronglj, Henoe for ' orer' 
reftd &<yon(i. vpis artmAM . . , afivyidKttf. Here both Qk. and 
Eth. an coirapt, but the bttter len ao. First, ir 6iuuJtiian afuiy6£Xmp 
sHh"*! hCf>0. ' (K vraiu^t. Clearly the ori^al of >£ aimjr wu 
early cormpted into Bomethiiig like m irT4ptat : hence a)itl4] and 
in its wrong place. Kext XMh is a oormption of 1tO:=«a>'ra, 
Thtu BO &r everything is clear. We hare now npit SmnKis rfiv 
mparm TTjt )4c over against aKl>fnrF: OOdV; HMT. Qk. is not 
appropriate whereas Eth, is. Eth. =: col Iv mrr^ iivdpa AAjs. It is 
needless to pnrgoe the corruption further. Hence, for ' those trees 
were full of a bard substance ' read aU Ae tree* vten fvll ofilacte. 
3. Stow rplPnciF ahi tittiitntpor inttp n-Sv Spiofia, Eth. pQl 
JH^X^: A(pA14 <y^ fiifib: Jiy"«-ftl JUjo- • if they took that 
fniit, it was better than all fragrant odours.' Qk. here is 
undoubtedly to be followed. By translating Ok. afresh into Eth. 
we see at once how ibe corruption arose, fid; fi-'ittfi-^, fiMfi 
>t9*»ttt UuD-. Tbeu by an error fi^tilfi^, fifLl^ got transpomd 
(as constantly happens in these MSS.) and were then emended as 
in oar text ^I^X^ J&'i.KA. AtD-Wfi ¥£> is a later explanatory 

gloes. Hence, for ' And the taste, odours ' read When one 

nbbed it, it gmdt tu>eeUr than ony fragrant odow. 

XXXIL I. Before tU ffoppay I have added with Eth. xai ft. r. t. d. 
omitted through bmt. wpit irariAAt. Eth. ovAUkt: KMC 
'over the mountains.' itpit inmAdt occurs suspicioasly often 
(see xxxi, a). axitm. 'Mastich,' Eth, d8a>i in>OH, less good. 

9, mrrmi. Eth. omits, rqc yqr. Eth. omits. ffX^PV ^' axpir ul 

An TOvrvv, I have emended into ^x^op pu^ Airi ro&rm rafsEth. 

Digitized by GtXlglc 

370 The Book of Enoch. 

T^f IkKcuoairptis' koI ISov fuxKp66ai tUv iiviptnv To6mv ^vipa 

(hyitn. rm KOpvoS ajrrov) koI JT^crroiTat <f>p6vii<rip fieyikitP. 

4. ^(S^toi' rd hivbpov Intlvo arpo^tXiif ri S^fmr rii Si ^AAa) 
ainm KtpaTt(q) Bfiout' 6 6i Ko^tkt avrov m<rti ffArpott ifiiriXov 
IKapol A.£av* ^ hi ivfiii avrov biirpextv irippn iisd rov ihApou. 

5. i^c cTvov' 'Hf KaXdf rd iipipop koI As ^irf}(^^ ^ ipim. 

6. njre iviKpiSri 'Ptu^a^k, & iyiot AyycXos d fier* jfuw Av* Totrro 
rd iivbpov ^poinjtrcttt f f oC i^oytp i vartjp <rov. 

3, (Xfav — tflJtm — vaf^inaar — iId — ttm /uw j. nfxpif^ — span. 

Here, as freqnently, koI has bees transpofied, Before Zttnik Gth. 
adds ' angel.' ZwtuX msy therefore be merely the name of a place. 

3. iioKpiBn rSm Siripan rovrar dndpa rXilon nu ft/yaXa=:' from afftT 

trees more nnmerons than these trees and large.' Bnt Q 
interpreted differently: i.e. tubtrtCPavn AXMrF; OBO: 00(0: 
■QH'^Mi (DlNL^ =: ^nnivo r(»i> iMlpuv roum* SiiiSpa s'oXXi «il 
fiiyaXa. I have folltrwed in my Trans. tUfatl'tlPin'' is from 
h'4 or lliMl=tniiis, oltxa. ^udfMH=:^At^ I have restored 
from 8vt» fur. There is no qnestion here about two trees. After 
iml Eth. adds nwdi). 4. ^ U jtrfi^ ofmS , . . Sirtpou. £th.^4 M 
iff/i^ rov 6Mpoo tffanifr ml tUrptxc v6pp». If we omit tAaHu 
(D and for rt read 3l^, Eth.=Gk. 5. For nt« Eth. reads koL 
"Sot itt «aXi> ri SivSpar Eth, reads uiXAr ri itrSpor roCro koI ^ ndldv, 
6. For rirt Eth. reads *ai. After alv Eth. odds ml ttittr i/ioL 

Digitized by GtXlglC 



XXXVn. a. For holy words Q reads ' irords of the Holy 
One.' 3. For JUh ^"t read \A or tHilt. If the former, 
take W"! as a noTin and cf. JlA: Off"!, xc7. 7. 

XXXVm. 4. O amita A before hTHJt. Hence, for -fCM we 
should probably read XCH, and translate for the Lord of SpiriU 
has eaueed the light of ths face of tha holy . . .to appear. 6. 7or 
tbem. So Q AW. Din. omits. 

XXXIX. I. High heaven. So Q. Din. 'high hearens.' 

3. In those daju. So Q : flfD-Ni:; ODVXJi. Din, ' at that time.' 

4. The lioly. 80 Q. Din. ' The righteous.' Tha rlgbtoous. 
So Q. Din. 'the holy.' g. His rlgbteous angels. So : 
an^lrtt ItJNi. Din. 'The angels.' la. After toMOh 
I have omitted h with O. 

XLVni. 4- r haTe omitted A^ftAt with Q. 

LXII. 10. Sarbnass will be piled upon their faoas. Perhaps 
too free. Lit ' Their faces will be increased with darkness.' 

LXm. 10. Uanunon of onrlchtaotuneaa or 'riches of un- 
rigbteoofiness ' ; for neither here nor in Matt. t1 24 : Luke xri. 9 
does Etfa. transliterate /laitoyat. 

LXXVm. 4. Additions are made to the moon. ik^^atCi- 
Better perhaps ' to parts of the moon.' 

CVII 3. Before ^ttt^f"''* G adds ££Wt at ='will save and.' 
For ' will cause . . . destruction ' better render wiU comfort At 
earth beeattae of the univertat d^atruetion or after the univanal 

Digitized by GtXlglc 


(FoiMd in MS. Brit. Mv. Seg. S. E. xiii. Saec. vm. ff. 79*>-8o.} 

The following Latin fragment has been recently discovered 
in tlie British Mneeutn by tlie Rev. M. B. James, King's 
Collie, Cambridge, who 19 engaged in editing a Tolome of 
Apocn/pha Anecdota. By his kindness I am pennitted to add 
this interesting fragment to my Appendix. According to 
Mr. JameSj this fragment is lotmd in an eighth century MS. 
belonging probably to the Monastery at Rochester. It is 
without a title. It follows a penitential edict of St. Boniface, 
while it is preceded by an anonymous tract ' De vindictis 

This MS. is a very imperfect representation of En. cri. i~i8. 
It has BofFered from additions, omissions, and corruptions, uid 
is very seldom a literal rendering of the original for many 
words together. Notwithstanding, this fragment contrilnUet 
to theformatioa of a better teait of CTIin not a few instances, 
as will appear in the notes. 

This MS. further may poifU to a Latin tratulaiton, or at 
least to a partially completed Latin translation of Enoch; 
for (i) occurring in the midst of original Latin treatises it 
appears to have been found in Latin by the collector and 
scribe of these treatises, (2) It has suffered much in the 
course of tradition snd may, therefore, go back to a date 
when the book of Enoch iras not reprobated generally, and 

Digitized by Google 

Appendix E. 373 

wben a Latin translation woold have been aceeptable. (5} It 
does not show signs o£ being an excerpt from a collection of 
excerpts, each as we find in the Greek fragment of En. Izxxix. 
42-49 (see p. 337, notes); but, standing as it does witihoat 
any introdactoiy note or explanation, it looks more as if it 
were drawn directly from at least a larger Latin fragment 
of Enoch. 

I have followed the speUing and punctuation of the MS. as 
fumisbed to me by Mr. James. The italics denote expanded 

CYI. I. Factum est autem [cum txset Lamech annorwne 
^icentonun quinquagenta] natus est ei £Iia(H) 2. cui oeoli 
sunt sicut radi solis capilli autem eiw candi(di)ores in septies 
nine corpori autem eins (nemo hominum potest intueri) 
3. et eorexit inter mmiuf obetetricis suae et adoraoit (et) 

OVX I. The date here is a, foolish addition of some copyist. It 
agrees oeither with the Hebrew, Ssnuaritan, nor LXX. chronology, 
which reepectively give 182, G3, 188 years. 3. Oouli sunt 
Bleat radl soils. This may safely be regarded as the true text. 
C£ Eth. cvi. 10 and the words from the Petrine Apoc., quoted in 
the note to that verse, p. 303. The corresponding Eth. text. 
Jt^Jt<Tnh imV* (so GG'M)! M.eTtV- is corrupt— poBsibly 
a corruption like Il0»i X7Ah AS'hjKi AOfTtI^=<£lf djn-Twt ^Xi'otr 
ol f^AiXftol ovrav. Hence, for ' his long locks were white as wool, 
and his eyes beautiful,' read uwn vshit» at wool and Mi tyee wan 
Wee the rays of the «un. In Mptles or septies, aa in ver. 19, is 
a cormptioD of capitis. Several words have been lost throu{^ 
hmt. : see ver. 10 (note), 3ffemo . , . intueri may be original 

^ouStii TM atSpainar fJhif^ irriffKi^i. Cf. ApoC. Fetli f. I9. 

After these words there is another lacuna. 3. Bt snrezit. 

For tDtm=eb cnm, read a>AA7=et turn with O G*, and translate 
i^^A not 'was taken,' but ar<M«=Burrexit. Hence, for 'when 
he was taken from the hand,' read thereu^M he arose in the 
handa. Make the same chaoge in ver. 11. Before «t adoraoit* 
Etb. in w. 3, II, adds aperuit os suum. Corresponding to 
adoravit here, there is oravit in ver. ii. For adoravit or oravit. 

Digitized by GOOC^IC 

374 "^^ 5<w4 of Enoch. 

diMnintim muentem in secnia laudanit. 4) 5, <$- et timnit 
Lunech ne nra ex eo natos eifet nisi nmtioe dn et uenit ad 
patrem saum Mathusalem et nanauit illi omnia 7. dixit 
Mathasalem ^o aatem non poesum scire nisi eamus ad 
patrem iioiiTum Enoc 8. qvum autem uidit Enoc filiam 

sanm Mathosalem uenientem ad ae [etj ait. quid %tt quod 
uenisti ad me nate 10. dixt^ qwod natns att filio soo 
[nomiMe] Lamech cui ocnli sunt sicut radi solie capilli[s] 
eius candidiores eeptiee niue corpori antent eins (nemo 
r. Sohominnm poteet intueri) Ji. et snrexit || inter numus 

obstetricis suae {eadem hora qua procidit de utero matris 
suae) orauit Aomtaxsa uiuentem in secnia {et laudanit) 

Etb. has 1V72 = coUocntuB est. This is wrong, and probably 
ft corruption of •|*i3rt=grati«m petiit^ oravit or celebravit. For 
' conrersed with,' read prayed to. Sominum uiuentem In 
saecula. Eth.^Dominum justitiae. The eame phrase recurs in 
ver. II, where Eth. = Dominum coeli. Iiaudault- Eth. omits 
here but gives in rer. 11 (ldh-=benedixit, laudavit. Hence it is 
probable that Latia ia right in both verses and that we should read 
prayed to and bleated in ver. 3 for ' conversed with,' and in 
ver. II for 'blessed.' 4, 5, 6. Tery fragmentaiy but nearly 
right in sense, ironttus, clearly a translation of oyycXor, more 
accurately rendered ' angel ' by Eth. Narrault illi omnia ram- 
marisea w. 5, 6. 7. For Matliuaalem, read Mathusalah. 

irtsl «amu«. Eth. gives a different sense. After Enoo two clauses 
are omitted. 8. Very fragmentary. See p. 30a. Quid sat 

quod uanlstL Eth. = quia venisti. Here Eth. is cormpt. TbB 
corruption is clear from Qk. which ran Itoi iyb rtami pov JU W 
iJXAc ; Hera Etb. translator read itiri instead of d^ ri. Hence, for 
' for thou bast come,' read why hast thou come t 10. Oaplllla . . i 

oorpori ; defective and corrupt. The confusion of order and loss 
of words aeem t« have originated in the Latin version. The 
latter supposes the following transposition : Cupilli aatem capitis 
candidiores kna Candida, corporis autem ejna color candidior nive. 
The eye of the copyist straying from candidioree to candidior, he 
wrote nive instead of lana Candida before corporis. After nive 
there stood originally et rubiior ulla ToaA= ipv6pirtpot norrii 
ptfAov. So Eth. and Apoc. Fetri. Septlea, a corruption of capitis. 

Digitized by GOOC^IC 

Appendix E. 375 

13. et timmt Ijamech 13. et dixit Enoc | nontiatnm ett 
mihi (fill) <\u%a [poet qoingentos annos] 15. mitbet Aeu& 

catadiBmuffi aqiuM ut deleat omnem creatuntffl [xu] OBtendit 
oculis m>atna 16. et enmt illi -in- filii [et eront nomiua 
filioru« eitw ■ Sem • Cham • laCetli] 18. et ipse uocabitnr 
Noe [qui i»t«rpre/atar requies <\ula requiem preetabit in 

13. ZTontUtnia eat mlhi. £tli.= nuntio tibi. ig. Klttot 

dens oataollamnm aquae. Eth. = aqua cataclyemi erit. nt da- 
leat aameaa. oreaturam. Eth. ^ et exiliaiii magnuin per imiun 
aimum erit. - Ostendlt ooulla uootrlA. Eth.^vidi in visione 
should be read before aontiatum in rer. 13. 18. Eit Ipse uooa- 

bitur ZToe. £th.=TOca nomen ejus Koe. Qui . . . requiea . . . 
aroliam. Quite an arbitrary departure from Enochic text, partly 
in dependence on that of the LKX. : i. e. requies recalls the iuan- 
naian of that version. Eth.=quia ipse erit Tobis reliquiae. Beli- 
qniae = uraXn/i/ia and followa another meaning of the Hebrew 
word TO. Bee note on cvi. 18, p. 304. Observe that in cvii. 3 the 
derivation of Noah implied Qen. t. 39 from DFU, is reproduced. 

Digitized by GtXlglC 

J, Google 



(.When the dupter uid vene of Enooli are giTOi, ths refaenM will l>« 
fboiid In tiie aorrMponding critiml or eiegatiokl nola.] 


».J4 . . , 


. 1z.t 

. Ti. »; il. 7 
. IxtU. I 

•A 15 

Ti.9 . 

rtli.14 . OTilS 

Till. II . idU. 4 

TlU. 11 . U. 1 

is.4 . . Tii.5 

iz. 17, . zoii]. 4 

ill.' 14 . xiiiL 11 

zir. S, 9 . bm. 10 

EzoDns Ehooh 

iziT. II . Uzziz. 31 
xiT. 9, 40 zlnL 3 
UTi. 30 . ilTiL 3 
yuril , . Iixjrii. 3a 
zoU.)6-i9 lixrig. 35 
ilrii.3liqq. xlrii.3 


iv. 3, 5, 16 zlviii. i< 

ivl, S . . vilL I 

itI. Id, sj t 4 

xtL 30 . hliL 10; 

stL 31 . zo. iS 

xvi. 31-33 lvi.8 

zx. 16 , tzzxL 9 

xxiii. 19 . iItL 1 

ncdL?, 18 xxxrii. 5 

Iv. 19 . . zlUi, 3, 4 

nil. 4 . . Ixii. t6 

zzrilL II zL I 

30, 31 dH. II 

Dirr. Etroci 

66, 6'j . dii. 10 

xzvlii. 48 (dii. 1 1 

nil. fi . lili. 16 

xxxiiL 18 IzT. I : 
izzIt. . Uixix 


r.S - ■ i.6 
xxtHI. 15 

xzix. 9 . zl*! I 

Digitized by GcXlglC 


The Book of Enoch, 


i 9; ix. i< 




UzzT. 3 
i1tu7j lAyA 


bdi.9. . 
IxT. (tiOe) 
IxriiL 17 . 

sItU. 3 
xlvi. 3 

iidi 13 . 

U. [ 
zoviU. 6-8 




t xUL I, t 

noiTi. 31 

zrlii I 

. IzxzL 5;xeU.3 

IzxiU. »4- 
»7 . . 

Ixziv. 8 . 

InviL 17, 
18 . . 
IzzTiii. 5,6 
Izxriil. 69 
Ixnz. 13 . 

.17 . 

i. 16. 

ii-S . 

ji. 5, 6 ; 

xoiL 5 . 

za*iL5 . 1.6;liL6 

Ixzzil. 1 
liii. 7 

XlTi. ) 

icri 5 
bdii. 10 

av. 9 . . 

dT. 10, 13 

071. 37 . 



oiiT. 4, 6 IL 4 


Index of Passages frottl Scriptures, etc. 379 


, liiil, I 
Izii. 1 

:rii. 7 

oiItI 3 

I . xIt). * 
, ilJil. 1 

TiiL 38 . Ixiz. 19 
viii. J9 . d. 6 
Tiii. 30 . Izzziv. 3 

zxi. 4 . . xdii, 11 


i.4- ■ liil. 7 

it i4'-i6 . di. 6 

iii. 19-11. dL6 

li 5 . . «oiii. u 

iv. 3 - ■ 

«. 19 
Ivi. 8 
zlviii. 8 

v[.3 . . 
ii. 5 . . 
ix.lS,7 . 

ilix. 3 

XIV. 8 
nvi. 17 . 

[.16 . 

iziii. 17 . 

Mi. 3 

xKi. ) 

lU. 7 


I U». 
X. 19 

Uii. 4, J 
i. 3 

liiii. 37 
zl. 1 

Ixli. 11 

Ilix. 6 . 

lx.6 . . 


ilviii. 4 

Uii 14; 

llT. . 

Lit. 6. 
Ixv. 17 

liv, ao-»3 

xlvii. 3 

6; xc. 17 

IL4 . . Iii. 8 

iS . . 

il. J . . 

xl. 16 . . 

xl.31. ■ 

iHi. 1 , , 

iliL6 . . 
xUlL 19 . 



OTi. 13 


Digitized by GOOC^IC 


Tht Boot of Eimk. 

xix.1,6 . 

HTU. 1 


». 24 . . 

xxxlx. 5 

zii. 8 . . 


T. »7 . . 

xU. I 



Tiii.i3 . 



T. 4. 


1. 19 


™.9. ■ 

xlT. 18, »; 

xzli. 19 . 

lOTili. 13 


KdU.1 . 

vlLio. . 

I 9; li». 19, 


lixxix. 66 


ilTi. 3 

Mi iL I J 

zzzL 5 . 

I. 19 



a^.yj . 




zxrU. I 

xo. 30 

S.3 . 

zliz.16 . 


tU. 13 . 

zlTi. a 



vU.14 . 


14. . 

viH. 10,11, 




U.4 . . .vii3 

13, >G ■ 
vUi.13 . 




lil. I] . . 

ami. 3 

ylil.17 . 


Biia. . 


vUi. 17,18 



iiLi6. . 


1.9,10 . 


iill . 

e. Id 

". 13. »o. 

iiL9 . 



X. 13, " ■ 

M. 5 



Lio . . 

ii». iB 

1. 11 . . 


t iB . 

m. 7 ; c « 

i.i6 . . 

lii. 10 

xi. 16, 41. 

iu. I6-17 




45 ■ • 

zxvi i; 

i.iS . . 




T. 5 . . 

i>vt. I 

X. I . . 

liv. 18 

rill . . 

II. sj xlvii 



iTiU.J3,3S xd*. 10 

3; Ivi. 5 

ii. 7-9. 


zzv. w . 


xiLi . . 


iL2a . 

Iri. 7; c 


X. IQ 

lii. i, 3 

iM. 3,41 

zzziLi7-3a IzUi. 10 

lii. 3 ■ . 


uziLii . 



i..ii . 



xoiT. to 

xU. 4,9,10 

dv. la 

ti.4 . 




lii. 10. . 

dv. 13. 

U. 6-13 


Hxir. 26, 

iiL . . 


»7 ■ ■ 



T. 9 

ziZT. jiqq, ljraTiT.66 


ix. 10 . 


mTULvr Ms 

iLi8 . . 


1. 10 . 
lii. 3, 3 



Ivi. 7j 0. J 



liT. S. 



iviu. II 

ix.14. . 

loriii. 5 

xi*. 8. 



xo. 19 

xa? . . 

xiT. 13 

Ivi 7; c 






ILio . 

Ivzi. 4 

L7. . 


U. 3i-« ■ 


iii J, 11 


m. iti . 

xlvii. 3 

It. .3 . 


UI. ifi. 


It. I . 


Di.itradb, Google 

Index of Passages from Scriptures, etc. 381 

9t. Matt. Eioai 
iii.9 . . xlLi 
T. jg, 30 . zxriL i 


xlz. 18 
izii. 30 
xxiii. IS 

, ixTii.1 

utS. I 

Si. Uabe 

(•M p. 49) 

ix. 48 . . zItL 6 

xiL 15 . cdT. 4 

St. Lusx 
(we pp. 48, 49) 

i. 5J . , ilTi,5 

iz. as ■ . Jl 6 

I. 10 , . xlviis 

lii. 19. . xctU. 8 

tnst) . zorii. a 

zvL8 . . IxL IJ 
iri. 9, II, 

» . . Iziii. 10 

ivi. >3-}e 

Hi. 18 . li. 1 

Miii as . iL S 

9i. John 


T. »a, 47 , Ixii. J7 

ri». 13 . or, » 



AoM Bhoob 

zT, 19. . xnili. It 

ZTll.31 • xli. 9 


L » . . lolz. 8 

Tlii. 38 . Izi. 10 

liii I . . ilri. 6 

(8M p. 45) 

T. 3,4. . Im. 16 

14... xlTiii. 7 

(•00 p. 46) 
i. II . . Id. ] 



iivia. s 

"Irii. 3 


L 16 . . ki. II 

(•w. pp. 46, 47) 

1.4. . . ilvi.j 
rii »3 ■ . zlrii. 3 

(we p. 4a) 

(we p. 4a) 

iU.«>. . lx.5(Mi3 
It. iS . . IxU. 3 

(MM p. 41) 
til. 13. . IzxiLi 

I JoHir 
(m« p. 4a) 
L9. . . Iviii.5 

St. Jddi 

(•M p. 4i) 

lx.8; zoiiLj 


11.8; d.3 


L4- . . xc. 
L 18 . . IziiL 

iil,4,5, iS l2ii. iti 
iii. S . ■ ilTiL 3 



Izil. tiS; 

Digitized by GcXlglC 


The Book of Enoch. 

BirauTiOH Ehooh 



EooLMua- Ekocb I 

Ti.8 . . 


o» Ibauh 


tLio. . 

nU. s-?! 

iv..7. . 


i. 1. . . 

ImiT.j 1 


iv. 18 . . 

li. la 

i- iS . . 

zm.4 ' 


Tii.»5. . 

xxzJz. 14; 

T.8 . . 


ICTU. 5 

tizi. II 

vu.17. . 


Ti. la, II. 


vii. 17. . 


ri..7. . 


Vill. . 


riii. 14, a6 

oviii. I a. 

liv. 16 . 

IxUi. 10 

■rii. I, a . 




ZTi.7. . 

Til a 

yH- 9. 13. 

ix.]o. . 

xlTii. 3 



14 . . 



li«t 10 

vii. 11. . 

Ix. 11 



ilii. I, a 

Tii. 14. . 

IxrtT. 3 

or Mosn 

zziv. 14 . 

Imii. 16 

Tiii. a, 6 . 
TiiLj. . 


(KM pp. 33- 
Iv.8 . . 

Izxiii. 73,74 

m. 17 . 

Iziii. 10 

rtL 3, 4 . 



mi. 1-7 . 

viiL 13 . 


!■ 3 , , 

xixii. 13 . 


ii. II . . 

IL 1 

1. 4 . . 

illv. rfi . 


li. 10 . . 



llJT. 17 . 

Imiz. 7J 

riii. 8 . . 


iil. 11. . 
iU. 16 . . 

Mii. 10 

Lati . . 


liii. S, 14 . 

zzxriL 5 

liv. 6, 8 . 

iii. .9. . 

iliL 1. a 

xiv. 18 

I1. IJ 

m.34. - 
IV.7 . . 

iiai. I 
lii. I 


riT. » . 



ITii. 8. . 





It. I . . 


n. a 

iix.17 . 



i'-35- ■ 

ixH. 6-^:^-5 



i^. 3«. 37. 


«x. 13,14 


niT. I . 

iivii. 3 

T. 1-13 . 


1X.14. . 


iiii, 3 

ilviH. 10 

Y. 4 . . 

Ittt 4 

zzi. I . . 


ixfx.4 . 


[Til]. . 




IL 1 

['i. 1-3] . 

zztIL I 

tA.%1 . 


ra. I. . 


[Tl.a]. . 

li. i; lx.6. 

zxii. 1, 14 

XIV. 4. 5 

izi. 1. . 



ixiLi? . 


izziL a . 


[vi^r] ■ 


xxii. 19 . 

rfyii. 3 

nxa.6 . 


Ti. 49-S'- 


mr. a . 





xroiz. 7. 

zlviii. to 

[vi.71] . 

df. 1 


il. 1 . . 

xlTiii. 10 

vii.a6. . 


<^. 10 ; 373. 

iU».i4 . 

lUi. i,a 

tU. as, ag 


1-Ii. 6 . . 


Tii.a9 . 

xlviiL 10" 


TiLa* . 



lyiLa. . 



ln.9.' . 

ilTill. 10 

TiJ. 33. 34 


i.5. ■ ■ 

cvtii. IJ 

lnii. a . 


Til. 56 . 


ili-as. ■ 

«THi. I» 


mT. a 

itradb, Google 

Index of Passages from Scriptures, etc. 383 



nHAoauxK Emocb 




zlviii. 11 10 

ai3 . . 

Ixyiii. 71 

xH.14. . 

S.6; xLs 

liiLafi . 


iii.14. . 

Dnii. » 

xii-ij. . 



i»- 33. 3S 


xtU. J . 




Ti»6 . . 


riT.9. . 

e». 1 

Tii.. . . 


•ii. 9, ,4, 
»3, 19,36 
>>• 5. 9 - 


Book or 

Ii. I 
xlvi. 6 






Levi 10 . 

XV. 8 -M. 

xtt 13 

D«ts . 


idi. 7 

B«ij.6 . 


ii. . . 



iT. . . 




s;lxzxT. 5 

IL4 . . 



T. , 


1.9, "0,"* 

iL.s . . 

Zeb. 3: 

lixiv. 11 

PsAun 01 
i. 8. . . 

zzxriii. j 



p. 38 


TiiL . 


iii. t6 . . 


n»i. 1 

T. fi . . 

iH. I 


X. . . 

irLii 1L7J 

yiii. 14 . 



XKt . 

Ut. 7-1t. 
TiS-s; Ilv. 7- 

XUL9 . . 

li. I 
xl™. .1 

i- 13. "4 • 
ii.1-5. . 
iiS . . 

IxixU. 16 


ri».6. . 
lir. 7 . . 


li. I 

xziT. . 

li. 1 





x». 15. . 

XTil. . . 


iil. I .qq. 
iii.i-4 . 


XTtlJ . J.6 

iTi.17 . rfTi6 

I Mamabus 

xrii. 17 . 
iriL iS . 
xrii. 36 . 

xlTiil. 10 

xlviU. 10 
ii. 1 

i». 7 . ■ 
iT. 7-14 . 

». 16 . . 
ri.3 . . 

Tlii. 10 . 

li. I 



U. I 



iL^a . 


ix.4 - . 

Ixxxlv. 3 




Ix-iS . ■ 


». 39 ■ 

ZCL II, 11 

iii.10. . 

Xiao . . 

xlvii. 3 


XC It, 13 

iUL.7. . 

X.6: xLs 

XiT.6. . 




Tui. 15 . 

xxxix. I 

liT. 11,17 




1ii.11 . 


XV. 8 . . 

a. I 

Di.itradb, Google 

J, Google 


Auon, Inxix. iS, 31, 37. 
Abe], ixii, 6, 7 ; luxv. 3, 4, 6, 
Abrahun, Izixii. 10; zciii. 5. 
Acb«ron, xrii. e. 

Al«zuidst the OrMrt, m, 148. 
Aleuoder JaDnasna, 114, 364. 397. 

Aiutolliu, 40. 

Angel of petoa, xl S; lij. 5; liii. 4; 
Kt. 4; ItL j. 

AngaU. 8m ftin Chernbini, Chndreii 
of ibe Aj^^eli, Hoi; onca of the 
hMTen, Optutnim, Sona of tbs he* van, 
Brau of the holy, Ber^ihim, Watohan. 

— Interoede for men, iz. 10 ; zt. 9 ;; zlvU. t_; xoii. 3, 16; oiv. I. 

— of the Preaenoe, zl. S. 

— of power nod of prindptJitiee, IzL 

— of pnnidment, iL 7 ; UH. 3 ; Ivi. 1 1 
bdl. II ; IziH. I. 

— «jin b oliMd by ■bephewb, Ixniz. 59- 
zo. 15. 

— (Tmballud bj ttan, Izzzri. t. 

— lymbolked by white men,lzzzTii. a, 

— bll of the, vi ; zr. 3 ; Ixiz ; Izzzri ; 
otL 13, 14. 

— pmiiihmcniofthe, z, 1-15 ; ziL 4-6; 
xiv. 4-6 J xix. l; zzi. 7-ia; Iv. 51 
Izril. II, 13; ^ si-35; xd. I{. 

— the rightooQi will beoome, U. 4 : rf. 
dT. 4, 6. 

:. 7 (Greek) J 

Augeli, tha iuAj, L 9 ; 

S, 9; zzii. 3; Ac. 
— . the wTen holy onai, 1 

— thefinir,il.;UxzTii. i,3;lzzzTiiLi. 

— (b« time, zo^ 31. 
Anger, 14. 
Antigonn^ 0. 8, 
Antiochnt Cjdoenui, za IS. 
Autioohai E|iqibMiea, 36, {6, 130, 151 ; 

AnUoohnt Sidetei, ze. 18. 
Apooal^e, etijeot oE 13-34, 5<i-S7> 

iog-]<>9, 1S7-18S, 113-313,164-365. 
Ariatobalnt I, zzzviii. 5; c S. 
Ailitobaliu II, 114 ; zzzviiL 5. 
Amn, owd ■ymbollcallj, Izzxvi. 4. 

— wild — lymbolioallj tued, Ixiziz. 11, 

13, is. 

Athenagona, 38 ; ziv. B. 
Aogoitine, 40-^1 ; yi. 9. 
AaaieI,Ti.e; tEI. 1-3; z.4,8 j iia 1; 
117. 5 ; It- 4 i IxzxTilL 1. 

SiJdenipei'ger, 19, 114; zlvl. 6. 
Bamabai, Ejuitle of, 38 ; Izzzli. Be. 
Bartlet, 313-314- 
BktiSbl, 311. 

Behemoth and Larialhan, li. 7, 8. 
Senalay, 318. 

Blood, Mkting of, vii. s ; xoviil. 11. 
Bo«M, wild— tTmbolioallT naed, Ixxxlz. 
IS, 43, 73 ; zo. IS. 



The Book of Enoch. 

Bodioflilb, sItiLS; criii. 3. 

— of tha holy aaai, zlrli. 8 ; eiii. 1. 

— of nmi^teomnsn, ilvii. S ; Ixrrt. 4. 
Book* of tlu living xlni. a. 

— w«o opened, 10. jo. 

— w«M Msled, Ixnir. 70, 71. 
BoniiMit, 309, 318. 

Bull — lymboliomUj nud, Ixiit. 8; 
Inivl. I; Izzxiz. I, 10, II, Ac 

C^ nii. 7 ; Imv. 8. 

Okind* — iTiiibolimUy lued, tIL S (870. 

6k.) ; IxziTi. 4. 
CeUrtul Phjmoi, Book of, Uxii-Iiiii ; 

Chanda or eailj Fhkriwea, 19, 30, 94, 

114, i3i-a»3,»49-J5i, J63-364, 179, 

ChernbiiD, xir. 11, 18 ; zx. 7 ; Ixl. 10 ; 

IzzL 7. 
ChsTiH, 10, 31, 117, 136, 139, 169, 

ass. 307- 
ChQdraaaftheuigglt, Izix. 4, 5 ; cvi 5. 
Chronolotiy, Hebraw, SkinarilM] and 

LXX, 103, 146, 170, 1S3, iiS. 
CUnwni ^ez., 39 ; vHi. 1,8; iri. 9 ; 

denieu Bom., xlvii. 8. 

Co^m, zriL 9. 

CmgngkUon of the nghtaoni, zzzviii. 1, 

3 ; liiL 6 ; Izii. 8. 
Creatun, New, z1t.4; Izdi.l; zoL 15, 

CyoleofCalippiu, 190, no, iti. 

— of Heko, no. 

— Ei^t year or Oetaetem, 190, lot- 

pjrToa, lz^i.Sd. 

DaTid, 1-"^* 45 -4& 
DeMic^ i9~io, 143. 
DmUi dne to da, tziz. 11. 
De Faye, ai . 
Delitmch, 61,161; tI. S. 
Deluge, the, Izzztii. 3-4; zoi. 5 ; cvi. 

— dne lo the Ul of the angeli, zzzii. e. 

Demonokgy. See Angela of pnnuh- 

DemoDe, 51 ; xr. 8, 9, 11 ; ztL I ; 

ziz. (note) ; xdi. 7. 
De QniDcey, zciiL 10. 
IHdaohe, the, 140. 

Doga — lymbotically need, T»^"' 49. 
Dozologiei, Enochic, ziii. 14. 
Dream- Vi^on^ the, Ixzxiii-zc. 
Drammond, 15-17, 155, ifiS, 143- 

■ymbolically, z 
Edenheim, 134, 139. 
Edna, Izzzr. 3. 
E^ypt, Ezodni from, Ittttt. 
— Plagnea of, Izxziz. 10. 
Kummenger, qootad on, tL 6 ; zL 


— and holy ohildren, xxzii. i. 

— of righteonnuM, the, zoili. 10. 

— One, the, zL 5 ; zxzriiL 3. 

— One^ Mine, zlviil. 9 ; Iv. 4. 

— One of righteouneoB and bitfa, the, 

_ Ohm, Hia, M. 6. 

— Onea, Hine, zlr. 3, 5. 

— Ones, the holy and, li. i. 

— lighteoiu, tlie, i. 1. 

Elephant! — lymbtdioally OMd, tU. S 

(Syn. Qk.) ; IziivL 4. 
ElijiJi, Izzziz. 63 ; zdii. 9. 
EmandatioDi, j, 6. 
Bnodi — its Bopante oomponenU, with 

their oharacterirtioe aikd datet. 

— Part I. I-XXXVl. jj-JS. 5S-S7- 

— Fart II. LXZXIII-XC, i6')3, 


— Fart in. XCI-CIY, iS-ag, »6o- 

— Part IV. XXXVII-LXX, 19-ji, 

— Part V. LXXII-LXXXII, 31-33, 
1 87-191. 

— Part VI. Koachio and other Inter- 
ptdalioua, 14-15 ; with uotei ther* 
referred to, eapeeiaUj on Ut. 7; Izzi ; 


Index of Nantes and Subjects. 


Enooh, its inflaenoe on Jawith lit«ntare, 

— Its ioflaence on N«w Tertameitt 
dicUou uul doctrine, 41-53. 

— Itl ioflncnco on Potrlitdo literfttuM, 

— originally written in Hebraw, il-ia, 

— Anciaat VaiuoDi of, th^ rela^ve 
Tslaw, 318-315. 

— Bthiopic MSS. of, a-s- 

— EtbiopieV«nionof— (eitori^nrencw 


— Qreek Vhtoob of— na fbond in Sjtt- 
ceHui, 6i-75, 83-86, 

— Greek Version of— u found in Tail- 
can H8,, 137-140. 

— Greek Venion of— ai found in Giieh 

Ma, 316-370- 

— OreekVernonof— aafoundinS. Jude, 

— Ia^d Venion of, 310, 371-375. 

— Modem Venion* of— Et^lish by 
Laurence, 6. 

— Modem Verdona of — Englidi by 
Sobodde, 7-9. 

— UodeiD VeriioDi of — German by 

— Modem Veinoni of— Qerman by 
Dillmann, 6-7. 

— Modem Veraioni of — Hebrew \sj 
Goldachmidt, 309. 

— Modern Veruoaa of — EVenob by 

— SUvonic, I, 190, 3S7. 

— ' tbe Bcribe of rigbteouinew,' li. S- 

— IVsnilation of, tzx. I, 

EMenJc elements, 146, 305. 
Eternal — word of ambigaoiu meaning, 
z. 8,10. 

— Life. See Life, EtemaL 
Euphtstee, Inrii 6. 

Ere, led astray by a Satan, Uii. 6. 

— history of, 1 [ IzziT. 3-7. 
EwiU. 10, 141, 147. 

Faitb, zzziz. 6 ; iliii. 4 ; iTiii. 5 ; Izi. 

Fanoel, il. 7- 
Fire, abyu of^x. 13. 

— fumaoe of, zoviii, 3. 

— riTer of, iTii. 5 ; lni. a. 

Foxea — nseday inboUc*Uy, Uzxix. 4 J, f j. 

Gabriel, xL 6. 

Gamaliel II, 190. 

Ganges, 108. 

Garden of rightaonmesi tm of lif^ I. a. 

Eden, ixiil. S; Iz. 8, 13; Izi. \%% 

Ixz. S ; IzzTii. 3. 
Ganneiila t^ life, Izii. 16 ; erlii i j. 
Gebbardt, 13-14. 
Oahenna, xzvli. 1 ; iIviiL d ; liU. S-fl ; 

liv.l; Izii. II i lzzzi.8; xo. 36,37; 

oviu. e. 
Geigar, 11. 
Qentilea, Convenion of tli^ L 1-5 ; zo. 

80 i 

i. la. 

CKauts, vii. a. 
Gildemaistar, 10, 137, 138. 
God, tiUes of— 

— Creator, lnzi, s ; zdr. lo. 

— Eternal King, ixv. S. 

— Eternal Lord of Glory, Izxr. 3. 

— God, L 1 (Grit. Note). 

— Godofthe wotW, i. 8, 

- God of the whole woHd, IxixiT. 1. 

- Great Oloiy, the, zir. 10 ; cdi. 3. 
' Great King, IuxIt. 8. 

- Great One, ziv. 9. 

— He that is blessed Ibr ever, Izzrij. i. 

— He that Uveth ftir erer, v. i ; o»i 3, 
1 1 (lAUn Van.). 

- Head of Dayi^ ilvL 3. 

- Holy and Great On^ i. 8. 
-Holy One. i. a. 

- Honoured aod Oloriaus One, zir, 11 
(of. oiU. 1). 

- Eing of Kings, Izzziv. 1. 

- King of the world, zii. 3. 

— Lord, izii. 14, and freqaently. 

- Lord of Glory, zzii. 14. 

- Lord of HeaTcti, cri. 1 1 ■ 

. Lord of Jadgmant, Izxiiil. 11. 

- Lord of the Mighty, IziiL a. 

— Lord of BighleoDsnesa, zziL 14. 

- Lord of the Rulers, IziiL a. 



The Book of Enoch. 

God, tiUea of— 

— Lord of di« (beep, ItrxU. 10. 

— IiOTd of Spiriu, iziTli. 3. 

— Lord of IIm whole Cra*tian of ths 
HwTen, Izzxiv. 3. 

— Lord of Wisdom, Iiiii. i. 

— Moat High, idi. B. 
Ooldaobmidt, 309. 
Oiwk elementa, 87. 

— Yndon. 8e« under ' £noch.' 

HwIm «r Sheol, ixii (note) ; li. 1 1 Iti. 8 ; 
Iziii. 10 ; xdx. U ; di. 4-cir. S. 

— 0. T. oonoeptioo of, the gnol of 'U 
uid fnvolTing sodal not monl dia- 
tinotioni, liiii. 10 ; ^a. it. 

— tlMiiiteciiiadi*teit«t««ftlieHgbl«oii* 
and the irioked inTolTing monl dti- 
tinotioiu, izii ; li. I ; Iziii. 10 \ cii. 5. 

— tbe iatennediate ttata of the wicked, 

ixiii. 10. 

— the final abode of the wioked — hell, 
liiii. 10 ; zmx. 11 ; dii 7. 

HkltM, 13, ai, 154, 176, 107, lOS, 318, 

Hdl, li. L 

Heiigftenbei;^, 311. 

Herm&e Paitor, 13a. 

Hermon, ri. 6. 

Herod, 130, 175. 

Hilgeubtd, ii'ii, 174, ^44. 

Einnom, t&IIsj of (see 'Qehenna'), 

xiTi 4,6. 
Hoffinui, 6, ai, 374. 
Hirfmami, 9, 10, 143. 
Holtimaiin, 13, 19, 175. 
H0I7 onea «> angeU, L 0. 
Htdy onea of he«*ai — aofelii, ii. 3. 
Halyonea^Nintaidii. a ; cviil. 8. 
Holy place, iiv. j, 
Horn, the grekt-Jadaa Uaocabaeui, 

HoDea of the Great King = the temple, 

Hamble. the, ht. 4. 
Hyena — aymbdically oaed, Ixiziz. 35. 
Hyroaniu, John, 114, 151, 364, 397. 
Hynsuiiu II, 115. 

Indni, 3o8. 

Inqoiriea, Critical, 9-ai. 
Irenaeai, qnotad, 38, 8a 
Iiaao and lahmael, Iznix. It. 

Jacob, IjTTJT u, 

Jamea, M. B. 37a, 373. 

Jared, ri. 6; znrii. i; cri 13. 

Jaxartea, 308. 

Jehothaphat, valley t^, zxri. 3 ; liii. L 

Jellinek, lO. 

Jerome, quoted, 40. 

Jeriualem, xzv. ; xxriL 1 ; Ivi. 7 ; 

bff"» . S'. SS. 5^ i =!• »7. '9- 
Jonathan Haocabaena, 350, iji. 
Jordan, Ixzziz. 37. 
Joaeph, I*""'' 13. 
Josephna, 63, 65. 78, 139, 175, 148, 

Joahaa, the hi^ pHeet, Iziziz. 7S. 
Jadaa Maooabaena, 313, 333, 349, aji- 

351, J53. 
JuJgsa and Joshua, tbe, }xxzii. 39. 
Judgment, day of. For the different 

qipliotiona of thia and of parallel 

pbTBie*, Me ilv. 3. 
Joatin Martyr, 38, 6a, 70. 

KaUe, 139. 

Kedron, iitI 3. 

Kings and the mighty, zzzTiii. B. 

Kite*— used symlxdlcally, 10. 3. 

Koatlln, 11, 106, 114, 351. 


L, 14. 

Lamba — uaediymbolically, aaa;ia.6,7. 

I^urence, 6, 374. 

Law, (he (Moaaio), r. 4; idJL 6 ; zinz. 

3, >4- 
Lifs, Eternal— meaning varies with eadi 

anthor, xxivU. 4. 
Light, Eternal, xlv. 4. 
— of the GenUles, ilviii. 4. 
Lions — used symbolioally, Izzzii. 55. 
Upslus, 17. 
Lo^. 31*. 3'8, 319, 3a6, 338, 331. 

336. ftc. 
LOcke, 9, 351. 

Digitized by GtXlglC 

Index of Names and Subjects. 


M ti the, 313, a49, 150. 
Uumnon, Ixiii. 10; 371. 

MargolioDth, ProC, )>5. 
Mercy, bL s, 35; lii. 13. 
Mesiiali, the. See notes on 30-31 ; 50- 

51; 311-317; mTiii. 1; xlvi, i, 3; 

ilriiJ. 10; 10. 37, 38. 
Heuifth, tb«, TUioiul; oonoMved b; the 

different ftnthon, 30-3 1 . 

— HtlsB of— the Bighteom One, 51 ; 

the Elect One. See ■ Elect One.' 


the £leot One of Kghtaonuwai 

and Futh, •'j^' 6. 
the Meoiuh or the Cbrift, Jl ; 

ilTiJL 10. 
the Son of Mao. See ' Son of Mu, 

the," 51, 311-317; ilri. a, 8. 
the Son of God, ov. 1. 

— iTmboIized bj » white boll, za. 87. 
Heniuuo Kingdom — iti dui«tioD and 

character vftriooaly conceived bj each 

anthor, 50, 107. iit, 163, 163; xIt. 

HichMl, ix. i; x. 11; xx. 0; si. 4; 

U. 4, 6 ! liTiii. », 3> 4- 
Hcaiteficre, 139. 
Mood, the, 1B7 ; Uxiii-lixir. 
Mdmi, linii. 16, 19, 34, 36, 38. 
Meant of Offence, xxvl. 4. 

— of OHvea, xxH 3, 
Monntain, Hoi;, xzvi. a. 

Nebemlafa, Izixtx. 73. 

Meubaaer, Dr., 84. 

Nile, IxzriL 6. 

Noaohie fragment*. See under 'Kiodi.' 

Noah, z. l; Iz. 1; Izzziz. 1-9; cri. 18; 

eTli.3; 375. 

Ocean itreun, ztH. 6. 

Oehler, 169. 

Omai in, zo. a, 7, 8. 

ftpKanim^ Ixi. 10 ; Izzt. f. 

0x01, IzzriL 7. 

Faleetine, ntvi-xzril; Ivi. €, 7; liziis. 

I^iae, z. IB. 

Parthialu and Medea, IvL 5. 
'Pence,' 'ye will find no peaoi^' t. 4. 
Peter, T.O., 19, 171. 
Phariuio cictnciveneM, xcviL 4 ; oir. 8. 
PhariMee — their religiooi and litem; 

■trifewith the Saddocsea, 107-108; 

i63-)G4; zcvlii, 16 ; oii, 4-aiT. 

— thcdr varying lelatlcni with tbe 
Maccabeee, 30, 107-10S, 113-115, 
163-1641 dii. 11,16. 

_~ ■ the children of heaven,' oi. l. 

Phillf^ 13, 

Phllo, vi. 9. 

' Plant of rigbteonmeM,' z. 10. 

Ptolemaeoi Lagi, 948. 

Bagoel, XI. 4 ; 3G3. 

Bun — osed ■ymbclioallj', Itttii. M ; 

zc. 10, 81. 
Bavena — need lymbolioally, XC; S. 
Reiniel n. 7 (Gii. Gk."). 
Beeoirection, 5), 57, 109. 

— the, 51, 57, 109, 133, 161, »6i, »6s ; 
v.7i xxU.18: lxi.9; zc.SS; 
zd. 10 ; 0. 6. 

Renn, 19. 
^hteoni, the, L B, 

— and holy, the, zxxviii. 8. 

— and holy and elect, zzzriU. 4. 

— one, the — naed collectively, zoL 10. 

— One, the. See ' Meailah.' 
Kcaeninaller, 65, 118, 180. 

RnEkel or Raphael, z. 7 i xz. S ; zL 6 ; 
liv. 6; IzzzviU. 1. 

Saddaoeee, the enemie* of the PbarlBeai 
and allJei of the later Maooabeee, 30, 
108, 163-164 ; zzzriiL S; zdv. 6; 
zcv. 9; icriu. IS i diL 14, U. 

— lappoTt 0. T. view of Sheol, dl. 4- 

— ' Dhildren of earth,' c 6. 
Samnel, Izixiz. 41, 44. 
Sktani, 51, 53 ; zL 7- 

— canodved In SimJUtndM a* In 0. T., 



Sktaoa, confuied with Ulea M^eU in 

— — BiigeU of paniahmeiit in liil. 3 ; 
It! I ; liiL 1 1 ; IxziL i 

Saul, Ixzzix. 48. 

Behenkel, 169, 955. 

Stdiiaiermftcliar, 311, 313. 

S<^odde, 7-9, 110, 143, ijl, 174. 

ScJinli, 139, 161, 169. 

Bdiulie, 311. 

SdiOier, iS, 134, 136, 343, 150, aji. 

SchmD;, 310. 

8e>, the Gnat - the U«di(arr«tieui, 

— the ErjthrMMi, xxzii. ). 
Seleuoidae, I48. 

Senphim, zx. 7 (Crit. Note); Ixi. 10 ; 

lui. 7( 357- 
Beth, IzzxT. 8, B. 
Seren, % lacred nnmber, Ixxvii. 4. 
Sheep, white, blwdi, Knd litUe — used 

Bf mt>olic*lly, Ixxxiz. 1 i-ic 

— Lord of the. See ' God." 
SheoL See ' Hade*.' 

Shepherda, the ieTent;,liilil. 6fl; 10. 

Seffert, 11, 13. 

Silcah, the brook of, sxvi. S. 

Etimilitodee, the, 39, 30, io$-i86. 

Simon Maeoabaeiu, 333, 113. 

Sin, attaribated in the ouun.nat to AdMD, 
bat to the fftll of the uigela in the 
dftji of Jued, vi-viii ; x. B ; ivi. 3. 

— of Adftm, ixxii. 6. 

— of Eve atUbated to » Sutv), liii. 6. 

— doe to evil knowledge introdnoed by 
the Sabuu,lxix. it. 

— attribnted to num't own aot, zoviii. 4. 
Siiuti, i. 4 ; Izni^ 19, 3], 33. 
Knnen, godle« or anrightaons, the, 

xxxviii. t-3 ; ill. 3 ; iIt. 3, 5, 6 ; 
liii. 1, 7 ; Izii. 2. 

— — theS»dducec«, 163-364. 
ffireiu, 355. 

Solomon, linii. 48. 

Son of Uan, the. See 51, 313-317 ; 

ilvi. 3 ; ilviii. 1. 
all Jadgnent oommittad to the, 

liix. 17. 

Tie Book of Enoch. 


nniverBal dominion of, liii, 6, 

will lit on God's throne, li 3 ; 

llv. 8. 
'Son of Man' — thii phnwe apidied io in* 

terpolationB to Enoch, Ix. 10; Izii. 14. 
Sona of the heaTena, t!. S. 

— of the holy angels, \rn . 1. 
^wctade of the wicked luffering, zxtiI. 

3 ; ilviiL B; Mi. 11. 
S[arita, the Laid of. Sea ' God.' 
' Spiiita of the souls of the dead,' iz. 3 

(SiriL Gk.), 10 (CriL Note) ; ziii. 3 ; 

of. ITJ. I. 

* Spirits of the wnU of the dead ' crfing 

for Tengaanoe, xzii. ft-7. 
Spiriuovw luttarel phcDoioena, li. 19. 
Stade, 139. 
Stanton, 18, 19. 
Stan, contcdooa exiatence of, xli S ; 

— shooting, xliv (note). 

— ' powers of heaven, 'zviii. 1 4 {(H*.Ok.). 

— punished, x»iii. 13-16 ; xxi i-6. 

— used symbdimll]' of tugeli, IiixtL 

— used sjinbolicallj of righteous men, 

St^x, xTii. e. 

Sword, period of the (word, 1)6, 163; 

Sjnsgc^as, called ' houses of His eon- 
gregation.' liii. fl. 

Tables, havenlf — » cowrete expnsdtm 
for determininD, Ixxii. I, 3 ; xdu. i ; 

Temple, the, xc. ag (?) ; leiiL 7. 

' Ten thoQRand times tea thoossad,' 

ziv. 33 ; il. L 
TertuUum, 38, 39, 63, 66, 83, gi, 916, 

385, 3ao- 
Tboauon, 90, 343. 
"Tboae who sleep not' See < Watohera,' 

Throne (of God), xviii. 8; ixiT.3; xxv. 

3 ; xc. 30. 

— of Glcoy (of God and of the Son of 
Man), ilr. 8. 


Index of Names and Subjects. 

ThroiM»ofth8Eleet,oriii. 11. 

W»t8™ oflife, ivii. 4; nU. 9 Cp. 361 ). 

Tidem»n, 14-15, "i- 

Weber, 64, 92, 95, 100, 118, no, 134, 

"39. M3. "65. »6». >69. •79. "^8, 

TigrU. Inrii. e. 

'43. "57. »67- 

•Tcuiguaoffl«h,'iiv. a. 

Weighing of men's deed., ili, 1 ; iliii 

'Tovei'-p>ndue, lizivii. 3. 

1 ; li. 11 ; lii. 8. 

— -UmplB, Ixnix. 80. 

Weieu, 11. 

Tree of life, nv. 4, 6, 6. 

Wertoott, 17, 18. 

— of wiadom, mii. 3, 6. 

Wiesalat, 18, soa, no, an, 243, 

Wudom, uaeMor of God, luiiv. 8. 


Uriel, ii. 1 ; 1. 1 ! xii- I i II. at luii. 


of. niTii. 4. 

— poured out aa water before the 

Varnei, 14. 

Me«»h, slix. I ; li. 3. 

Volkmar, I a, 144. 

Vnlturos— used »ymboIit»llj, ic 2. 

Imii a ; loU. I ; loilL 10. 

— fountain* of, riviii. i. 

WatoheTB-orchuigeli id n. 1; niii. 

— an aiaeaMr onGod't throne, Imiv. 3. 

11,13; il.a; lii. u; liii. 7. 

Wittiohen, 13- 

— -Mien ugeUi, i. 6 ; x. 9, i j ; xU. 


Zion, iiTi. 3. 

W»te™ of D»n, xiit 7. 

Zdokler, 310-311. 

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Stanbarb theological Moths 

The Clarendon Press, Oxford. 



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