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iSook of Bruce 


liing %ohttt of g)cotlantJ 

Being an Historical and Genealogical Survey of the Kingly and 

Noble Scottish House of Bruce and a Full Account of 

Its Principal Collateral Families. With Special 

Reference to the Bruces of Clackmannan, 

Cultmalindie, Caithness, and the 

Shetland Islands, and 

Their American 




Author of Prominent Families of New York 



Copyright, 1907, by 


New YoKic 

<\ J 


Dedicated to the Memory of 

daieorge Tsmct 

whose genius contributed substantially to the 
advancement in America of 

"The Art Preservative of All Arts" 











NESS, 91 






























INDEX 337 





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BR0OE ARMS Frontispiece 





























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lONA 281 
























UPON the pages of Scottish history no name shines 
brighter than that of Bruce. The family has been 
a large part of all that is great and glorious in the 
achievements of its native land and has contributed in no 
small measure to the ennobling activities of other countries. 
In war and in peace; in government and in diplomacy; in 
the church and in the world of letters; in the broad field of 
industrial effort; its representatives have ever been conspicu- 
ous and preeminently successful. In popular estimation the 
name belongs particularly to the period of the thirteenth and 
fourteenth centuries that was crowded with events that changed 
forever the destiny of the Kingdom of the North. Then the 
great heads of this house in successive generations were bril- 
liantly and patriotically identified with the development of 
their country into a nation of power and its achievement of 
independence from English misrule. But before that time 
the Bruces had been famous and powerful; and in the subse- 
quent centuries, in all walks of life, they have been worthy of 
their antecedents. 

Students of history know that the Bruce stock gave to 
Scotland its last and greatest dynasty; that, ever since, it has 
transmitted its Scottish blood to the ruling families of Great 
Britain and that it has been allied to other royal houses of the 



old world. Antiquarian research shows that the family, cen- 
turies before its more modern appearance in Scotland, had a 
record that harks back to the dawn of history, and even into 
the mists of tradition and mythology. 

In considering this family genealogically and historically. 
King Robert Bruce— THE BRUCE as Scottish history desig- 
nates him — takes his place as the central figure of such a sur- 
vey. That great and beloved monarch was descended in 
direct male line from the most powerful Saxon and Danish 
lords of the early years of the Christian era and he gave that 
splendid heritage to the many modern families that bear the 
name in England, Scotland, Europe, and America. 

Originally of Scandinavian origin the line is traced through 
the dominant lords, princes, and nobles of Sweden, Norway, 
and Denmark, and by frequent matrimonial alliances, to the 
ruling families of Germany, Russia, and other principalities. 
The heads of the house in successive generations in that 
period were among the strong men of Denmark and Norway. 
They were vikings of the North and played their parts well 
in that heroic age when they and their countrymen were mas- 
ters of the seas ; overran the islands and the mainlands of that 
portion of the world; subjugated the rude peoples of Northern 
Europe, and laid the substantial foundations of consolidated 
government upon which has been built the structure of mod- 
ern nationality. Some of them sailed across the stormy 
waters to Orkney, Shetland, and the Hebrides, taking posses- 
sion of those islands and becoming rulers of the people already 
there. They even made incursions to the northern mainland 



of Scotland and from time to time held sway there, little 
dreaming that four hundred or more years later their greater 
descendants were to come again and hold that kingdom. 
Volumes might be written about the lives and adventures of 
these viking ancestors of the Bruces. Their names gleam in 
the red light of the old sagas; their achievements are related 
in the Latin annals of the ancient historians, in the records of 
the northern kingdoms, and in popular traditions. On the 
following pages the line has been genealogically traced, gen- 
eration by generation, to early in the eighth century. 

Nor is the story of the early Bruces limited to their North- 
land careers and associations. As will be seen presently, Einar, 
Jarl or Earl of Orkney, from whom the Bruces descended in 
direct male line, was a brother of Rollo, the first Duke of Nor- 
mandy. This allied the Bruces to the great ducal house of Nor- 
mandy, and to William the Conqueror, of a later generation. 
Not alone that, but the alliances of the dukes of Normandy 
with the kings of France, Spain, and Germany, and with other 
princely houses of Europe is well known and this Bruce 
connection forms another striking page in the family history. 

Still pursuing investigation into the records of the early 
centuries, it will be found that the Bruce forebears married 
into the royal family of Scotland several hundred years before 
their name became indelibly stamped upon the pages of Scot- 
tish history. Sigurd the seventh Earl of Orkney married 
Olith or Alice, daughter of Malcolm II., King of Scotland. 
He was the ancestor in the fourth generation in direct male 
line, of the Bruces who came into Scotland from Normandy 



by way of England at the time of the conquest and was in the 
ninth generation from the Robert Bruce who married Isabel 
of Huntingdon, also a descendant of Malcolm II. Thus the 
modern Bruces trace to the ancient royal house of Scotland 
through two lines of descent. 

An examination of the annals of the Scottish kings is of 
absorbing interest and reveals a wealth of rich genealogical 
and historical lore. As set down in the records, Malcolm III. 
(Malcolm Canmore or Great-head) great-great-grandfather 
of Isabel of Huntingdon, wife of Robert Bruce, was the eighty- 
sixth king of Scotland.* The record goes back through Mal- 
colm, Kenneth, Donal, and Constantin to Kenneth — son of 
Alpin — who united the Picts and Scots and became king of 
the two nations or tribes, 843-59. Beyond this Kenneth the 
line extends through many heroic predecessors whose deeds 
are matters of record, to Fergus and Eocha, who are generally 
regarded as the first of the long royal line and who ruled be- 
fore the beginning of the sixth century. Beyond Fergus and 
Eocha we come to the famous Irish kings from whom the 
Scots were derived and whose origin has been traced by anti- 
quarians through Spain, Phenicia, and Egypt to Judea and 
Babylon. Into such a far-away period of ancient history the 
pursuit of the ancestry of the first Scottish kings, ancestors of 
the Bruces, leads through mazes of tradition, myth, secular 
and sacred history, and monumental records. 

Before the close of the eleventh century representatives of 
the Bruce stock in the principal male line moved from the 

* Caledonia, by Greorge Chalmers, Vol. I, pages 278 and 461. 


islands of Orkney and Shetland back to the mainland of Europe 
whence their ancestors had come. Again, they were influ- 
ential and powerful in Norway and Denmark. One of their 
ancestors was the father of RoUo, the future Duke of Nor- 
mandy, and another of his sons was the head of the branch 
which produced the Bruces of Shetland and Orkney. When 
RoUo invaded France and took Normandy to himself, setting 
up his great dukedom, several Bruces went with him. In 
later generations marriages between these families brought 
them into more intimate association and gave to their de- 
scendants common blood relationships. Along with the other 
nobles who helped to conquer Normandy, in company with 
RoUo and the dukes who came after him, the Bruces were 
leaders in the warfares of the day and took large part in the 
directions of affairs at Court. They grew in numbers and 
power and the name figures conspicuously in the annals of the 
ancient dukedom. 

Relating to this period of the history of the family there is 
in an old Statistical Account of Scotland a copy of the gene- 
alogy of the Bruces which is very curious in its earlier part. 

"Since we are to speak of the genealogy of that heroick 
prince, King Robert Bruce, take notice in the first place that 
this surname (whether corruptly pronounced for Le Preux, 
the Valiant, as in the old records, it is sometimes written Le- 
Breuse or a tropical surname DeBruis, from a castle and 
town of that name in the Grisons country) hath originally 
from France where about the year 1145 lived Peter Brucie, 
famous for writing against the Romish errors of transubstan- 
tiation, whose followers by the Popish writers are styled Petro 



Transferring its habitat to England when William of Nor- 
mandy conquered that country the stock gravitated gradu- 
ally to the north where was the earlier home of its race on the 
Scottish Islands. There it took its final stand in the eleventh 
and twelfth centuries and became a dominant power in its 
new home. Ranking with the foremost and most distin- 
guished noble houses then existing, the family exercised a wide 
and strong influence among both the earlier Scot inhabitants 
and its Norman emigrant compeers. In less than two cen- 
turies its representatives had attained a position that gave 
them royal rights and honors and within half a century more 
they had mounted to the throne. 

The marriage of the fifth and sixth Robert Bruces into the 
royal family of Scotland early in the thirteenth century brought 
to the Anglo-Norman house the heritage of the Saxon Kings 
of England and the Emperors of Germany. The wife of 
Malcolm III. of Scotland was Margaret, sister of Edgar Athe- 
ling and daughter of Edward the Outlaw. From this Mar- 
garet the line of ancestry runs through Alfred the Great and 
his ancestors. At the height of its fortunes and power no 
royal or noble house ranked higher than that of Bruce. Rob- 
ert, the Bruce, as we have seen, had in his veins the blood of 
the most powerful and the most ancient ruling families of 
Europe, and his children and grandchildren were joined in 
marriage to other noble and royal houses of England, Scot- 
land, and Europe. 

On the male line the Bruce stock produced two kings of 
Scotland, Robert I. and David II. his son. It also gave a 



king to Ireland, Edward I. On the female side it produced 
the luckless Stewart dynasty of Scotland and England. The 
marriage of Marjory Bruce, daughter of King Robert Bruce 
I. to Walter Fitz Alan, the High Steward of Scotland, was the 
foundation of the royal house of Stewart. The descendants 
of Robert Bruce in the Stewart dynasty maintained themselves 
first on the throne of Scotland and then on that of England 
for more than three hundred years. The succession on the 
Scottish throne was Robert II., Robert III., James I., James 
II., James III., James IV., James V., Mary (the unfortunate 
Queen of Scots), and James VI. On the death of Queen 
Elizabeth of England iii 1603, James VI. of Scotland united 
the two crowns, becoming James I. of England. His dynas- 
tic successors in England were Charles I., Charles II., James 
II., Mary, consort of William of Orange; and Anne. From 
the Stewart line was also derived the Hanoverian dynasty 
through Elizabeth of Bohemia, daughter of James VI. of Scot- 
land. Thus Bruce stock by female derivatives has held the 
thrones of Scotland and of England and directed the affairs 
of those two kingdoms, alone or united, to the present day. 

Of lesser rank but not always of lesser power or distinc- 
tion, the Bruce stock has included a Cardinal of Rome; Earl 
of Huntingdon, Carrick, Ross, Elgin, Kincardine, and Ails 
bury; Viscounts Bruce; Barons of Gower, Brember, Breck- 
nock, Abergavenny, Skelton, Annandale, Bruce, and Kinloss; 
Lord High Chancellors of Scotland; a Chief Justice of Eng- 
land; Archbishops, Bishops, Baronets, a Master of the Rolls, 
Judges, Privy Councillors, Ambassadors, Envoys; Knights 



of the Garter, Bath, Saint Andrews, and St. Michael; Prin- 
cesses of Wales, Duchesses of Chandos, Rutland, and Rich- 
mond; Countesses of Atholl, Mar, Ross, Sutherland, Cardi- 
gan, Perth, Devonshire, Hertford, and Airlie; Baronesses 
Percy, Beauchamp, Maltravers, Sayes, Bothwell, Mortimer, 
Brechin, and Cardross. 

A viking ancestor gave to the family the name Brusee or 
Brusi, that veas later transformed into Brus and Bruce. He 
was of the eleventh century and it was his grandson who es- 
tablished the family name and fame firmly in the annals of 
Normandy. In the old writings and provincial nomenclature 
Brus, Bruse, Brwyse, Bruyce, Brutz, Broawse, Brois, and 
others appear to have been one name spelled differently. 
Drummond in his monumental work on British families* gives 
thirty-three forms of the name. Modern France still has 
Bruyce, Broix, and Breux, which probably have the same 
origin. In modern dialect, especially on the borders of Eng- 
land and Scotland, the name has been corrupted, at least as 
it is spoken, into Browis and Brewis. In the Foedera Angliae 
the name of the great King of Scotland is uniformly given as 
de Brus, while it is The Brwyce in the manuscript copy of John 
Barbour's famous rhjined history of King Robert now in the 
Edinburgh Advocates Library.f Bruce has become the regu- 
lar modern form of the name. 

* Histories of Noble British Families, by Henry Drummond. 
t Metrical Life and Acts of Robert Bruce, by John Barbour. 







ON the Scandinavian peninsula, in the early centuries 
of the Christian era, was settled a race whose mas- 
tery of the countries within striking distance of the 
Northland was, for generations, well-nigh complete. Tradi- 
tion and mythology commingle in the story of the semi-bar- 
barous Germanic men of force and their viking descendants. 
The sagas of Norway, Denmark, Iceland, and Orkney tell the 
tale of these titanic rovers of the sea and conquerors of the 
land, their lives and achievements, their wild freedom and 
their cruelties, their loves and their hatreds. From these 
sources are derived the genealogical records that make pos- 
sible the pedigrees of their descendants even to the present 
day. In them scholarly research has found the earliest dis- 
coverable ancestors of the Bruces, men and women of might 
who had a large and influential part in the iron life of that 
heroic age. 

Before the seventh or eighth century the Norsemen found 
full employment for their fighting passions in contending with 
each other for mastery of their respective domains. Gradu- 
ally a slight sense of national spirit developed among them 
and they grew more and more inclined to be at peace with 
their immediate neighbors and kinsfolk and to exercise their 
propensities for conquest and plunder upon other peoples 
than their own. Norway became the fountain head of one of 



the most wonderful conquering and colonizing movements 
that the world had ever known. In fast-sailing ships the 
vikings and their followers made incursions upon Northern 
Europe and the islands of Britain. They considered war the 
most honorable profession and, even as Tacitus said of the 
Germans, "they deemed it a disgrace to acquire by sweat 
what they might obtain by blood." Or, as another ancient 
historian quaintly wrote, they were "people desperate in at- 
tempting the conquest of other realms, being very sure to 
finde warmer dwellings anywhere than in their own homes." 
They harried England, Denmark, and Europe, plundering 
cities, devastating countries, and carrying away spoils by the 
ship-load. Of such mettle were these progenitors of the royal 
house of Bruce. 

On the direct male line the Bruce pedigree goes to Sveide, 
a viking who lived in the middle of the eighth century. On 
the distaff side the pedigree is traced through various lines, 
male and female, to the founders of the several principalities 
or kingdoms that finally became the nation of Norway. 

In the most ancient chronology Odin, a prince who, in the 
fourth or fifth century of the Christian era, was driven, by the 
Romans, from his domains on the border of the North Sea, 
led his Germanic tribes to the Northland. He was a famous 
warrior, always victorious, and when he died he divided his 
new kingdom between his sons and companions in arms. 
His son Skioldr established himself at Lethra upon the island 
of Zeeland and founded the kingdom of Denmark. In the 
course of time, sacrifices were made to Odin, he received 



divine honors, and was worshiped as the creator of the uni- 
verse. Some authors regard him entirely as a mythological 
personage, while others believe in his historical existence. 
But the list of Scandinavian kings who claimed descent from 
him is accepted by historians without reserve, after the seventh 

Beginning with Skioldr, son of Odin, the fourteenth king 
of Lethra was Half dan II., son of Frode III. The kingdom 
was divided between the two sons of Halfdan into Lethra and 
Roeskilde, but in a later generation was reunited by Ivar Vid- 
fami of Roeskilde, the son of Halfdan III. Sniale by his wife 
Alfo. Halfdan III. was a son of Olaj, the Sharp-eyed, of the 
Rurik line of kings who were foremost among those eastern 
princes whose territories and powers were ultimately merged 
in the Russian empire. 

With Ivar Vidfami, or Widefathom, we are on firmer his- 
torical ground. His father Halfdan III. was murdered by 
Gudrod, King of Scandia, and the son went forth to Sweden 
with an army to avenge the death of his parent. King In- 
giald, whose daughter Asa had instigated her husband Gud- 
rod to kill Halfdan, was so hard pressed that he burned him- 
self and all his court in a big banqueting hall. After this Ivar 
acquired "all the Swede land," Denmark, a "great part of 
Saxon-land," all the East-realm, and part of England. From 
him came the early kings of Sweden and of Denmark. 

Auda Diuphaudza, daughter of Ivar Vidfami, married Rad- 

* Manuel d'Histoire, de Genealogie et de Chronologic de tous les Etats du Globe, by 
A. M. H. J. Stokvis, Vol. II, p. 320. 



bard or Robert King of Holmgard, and their son King Randver 
married Asa. In the next generation came Sigurd Hringr, a 
famous king of Sweden, son of Randver and Asa. He was 
living in 735 and his queen was Alfhilda. In 750 a daughter 
of the preceding married Thrond or Hoerk, King of Trond- 
heim, who was a son of Harold Hilditur. Eystein, King of 
Trondheim in 780, was the son of Thrond or Hoerk; Half- 
dan. King of Trondheim in 810, was his grandson and Ey- 
stein Glumra, King of Trondheim in 840, was his great-grand- 
son. A daughter of Eystein Glumra marrying Ivar, son of 
Halfdan the Aged, son of Sveide, the viking, brought to the 
direct male Bruce line a pedigree reaching back through the 
several royal lines that have just been indicated, of early 
Sweden, Trondheim, Holmgard, Rurik, and Lethra to the 
stock that derived from Odin the divine. 

Instead of Ivar, Earl of Upland,* some genealogists give as 
the father of Eystein,'\ Thebotau, Duke of Sleswig and Stor- 
man, who is said to have lived in the first quarter of the ninth 
century; to have served under Gudrod, King of Norway, in 
821, and to have married Gandella, daughter of Vitellan, 
Lord of Ballenstedt and Bernburg in Germany, from whom 
the Ursini family of Italy is descended. This origin of the 
Bruce family was first advanced by Gabriel Surrene, the 
famous antiquarian and genealogist of half a century ago, in 
his researches for material for a history of the Bruce family. 
Among English genealogists Henry Drummond has almost 
alone endorsed the opinion of Surenne. 

* III on page 33. t IV on page 34 



On the other hand, the pedigree making Ivar, son of Half- 
dan the Aged and grandson of Sveide, the father of Eystein, 
is presented by J. H. Wiffen,* who gives a genealogical 
chart tracing, as has been shown on the preceding pages, 
the pedigree of Ivar through ten generations to Olaj the 
Sharp-eyed, King of Rurik. This pedigree is on the authority 
of Suhnf and Snorre.J Stokvis in his Manuel gives 
the same pedigree from Rognvald^ father of Torf Einar and 
of Rollo, Duke of Normandy, back to Olaj the Sharp-eyed and 
then beyond him, generation by generation, to Odin the first 
great monarch of the Scandinavian kings. In the Lakdaela 
Saga and the Landnama Saga, included in the Origines 
Islandicse; in the Heimskringla, the Norwegian sagas of 
Snorre Sturlason, and in the Orkneyinga Saga, to all which 
frequent reference is made in the following pages, the stories 
of these Norsemen, their ancestors, and their descendants are 
related, often with much of detail and with full confirmation 
of the genealogical lines here adopted. 


Sveide of Upland, a viking, 760-800. 


Halfden the Aged, son of the preceding, was the ruler of 
Upland in 800. 


Ivar, son of the preceding, was a jarl or earl of Upland in 
830. He made proud boast of his descent from the deified 

* History of the House of Russell. f Histoire Critique du Denmark. 

X Historia Regum Septentrionalium. If V on page 35. 

3 33 


hero Thor. In 850 he married a daughter of Eystein Glumra 
who was King of Trondheim in 840. 


Eystein, or Euslin, named Glumra of Vors, son of the 
preceding, fled into the kingdom of Norway about 870 to 
escape Danish tyranny. He married, first, Jocunda, daugh- 
ter of Hunthiof , King of North Mere and South Mere, two 
provinces of Norway; second, Ascrida, daughter of Rognvald, 
son of Olaf or Olaus, an independent king of Norway, who 
kept his court at Geirstead. 

Issue : — 

1. Sigurd, the first Earl of Orkney. He married Jocunda, 
daughter of Olaf Hviti, the White, King of Dublin. Olaf was 
descended from the same stock as Harald Harfagra, the first 
king of all Norway. He led an invasion of the Northmen into 
Ireland in 838, and, capturing the city of Dublin, held the 
Celtic race in that part of the island in subjection, and founded 
the most powerful and most permanent Norse kingdom in 
Ireland. He was a son of Ingiald, who was a son of Helgi, 
and his wife was the famous Queen Auda. 

The islands of Orkney were subdued by Harald Harfagra 
soon after the year 875, and Sigurd was placed in possession, 
being created the first Earl of Orkney. The Norwegian race 
of earls of Orkney continued in the male line until Magnus, 
Earl of Orkney, who married the Countess of Caithness, died 
without male issue in the fourteenth century, his granddaugh- 
ter, Isabel of Caithness, transmitting the right of the earldom 
to her son, Henry Sinclair, of the Scottish Sinclair or St. Clair 
family, the claim being acknowledged by Hakon VI. of Nor- 
way in 1379. 

Sigurd in his new possessions had much trouble with his 
neighbors on the Scottish mainland. The sagas relate that 






he and the Scottish earl Melbrigd Tonn, or Tooth, made an 
arrangement to meet in a certain place with forty men each 
to discuss their differences. Sigurd mounted eighty men on 
forty horses. When Earl Melbrigd discovered this treachery 
he accepted the gage of battle and in the fighting was killed 
"and all his men wnth him." But Sigurd did not long enjoy 
the fruits of his victory. An ancient account of the battle 
says: "he gained the victory in a foray over the Scotch jarl 
Melbrigd, and cut off his head, which, in the overweening 
pride of his triumph, he hung at his saddle; but a sharp tooth 
that projected from the head chafed his leg and caused a wound 
which proved his death." Sigurd was buried at Eckialdsbakki. 
2. Rognvald, of whom below. 


Rognvald, son of the preceding, by his wife Ascrida, was 
one of the great men of the Northland. He was an independ- 
ent king of an important section of that country and was 
powerful enough to make himself a leader of other rulers. 
He belonged to the same family as Harald Harfagra and was 
fully equal in rank with that earl. When Harald planned 
the subjugation of the independent jarls or earls of Norway 
and the unification of that country into a nation, Rognvald 
joined forces with him and became his most valued supporter 
and councillor. He assisted Harald throughout the long 
struggle with the other Norwegian chiefs until his kinsman 
was established on the throne as the first king of all Norway. 
When Harald began his warring against the other earls he 
swore never to cut his hair until he had conquered and had 
won the hand of the ambitious maiden Gyda whom he loved 
and at whose instigation he had undertaken this task. AVhen 



he had finally achieved his purpose he had his long shining 
yellow hair cut for the first time in his life and to perform this 
oflBce he called upon Rognvald — so the sagas tell — because 
"that lord was the most valiant and best beloved of all his 

Harald appointed Rognvald Earl of North Mere and 
Raumsdale in 885 after the victory at Solskel when Hunthiof 
of Mere and his father-in-law Nockvi were defeated and slain. 
After the second naval victory at Solskel where he particu- 
larly distinguished himself he was made Earl of South Mere. 

"Rognvald, the Mere Earl, son of Eystein Glumra had 
become King Harald's man that summer, and him King Har- 
ald made lord over the two folks. North Mere and Raums- 
dale, and strengthened his hands thereto both with lords and 
franklins; and ships he gave him withal that he might ward 
the land against war; he was called Rognvald the mighty, or 
the Keen-counselled, and as folk say it was good sooth of 
either name."* 

Among his many famous exploits, told in the sagas, was a 
winter expedition against King Vermund of the Firths. 

"And so he came a night-tide to a certain stead hight Naust- 
dale whereat was King Vermund a-feasting. There took 
Earl Rognvald the house over their heads, and burned King 
Vermund therein with ninety men." 

When his son Ivar, fighting under Harald in Scotland in 
870, was killed, "to boot the loss of him King Harald when 
he sailed from the west gave Earl Rognvald the Orkneys and 
Shetland." But fate had it that Rognvald should meet his 

* Heimskringla of Snoire Sturlason, Vol. I, pp. 100 and 103. 


death in 890 at the hands of the sons of his friend and king. 
Halfden High-leg and Gudrod Gleam, sons of Harald, were 
dissatisfied with their lot and sought the possession of more 
land and the exercise of more power. So with bands of fol- 
lowers they went forth fighting. They "came unawares on 
Rognvald, the Mere Earl, and took the house over him, and 
burned him therein with sixty men." 

Rognvald married, first, Hilda or Helinda, daughter of Rolf, 
surnamed Nefia Grosshertz, a great herrse or baron of Raums- 
dale ; second, Groa, daughter of Wrymund, King of Trondheim. 

Issue : — 

1. Rolf, or RoUo, who led an army across seas to France, 
conquered the province of Neustria, and founded there the 
Dukedom of Normandy. 

2. Thorir, surnamed Thegiandi the Silent. He was made 
Earl of Mere by King Harald after the death of his father. 
He married, in 885, Alof Arbot who was called the Year's- 
heal, daughter of King Harald. 

3. Halladur, the third earl of Orkney. He married Tora, 
daughter of Find the Squint-eyed, a great lord in Norway. 

4. Einar, of whom below. 

5. Hrollaugur or Drogo. He married Ermina and was the 
ancestor of the Barons of Briquebec and other noble families 
of Normandy. 

6. Helinda. She married Sigurd, surnamed Rice, son of 
King Harald. In 900 he was Governor of the province of 
Ringrace in Norway. 

7. Ivar, who was killed in battle in Scotland in 870, 


Einar, surnamed Torf Einar, son of Rognvald and his wife 
Groa, was the fourth Earl of Orkney. Upon the death of 



Sigurd, the first Earl of Orkney, his son Guthrom succeeded 
him, but died without issue a year later, in 875. The earl- 
dom reverted to Rognvald who sent his son Halladur there. 
But Halladur does not seem to have had much in him of the 
fighting spirit of the age and was soon wearied of defending 
his possessions against the never-ending attacks of the plun- 
dering vikings. Therefore he returned to Norway, much to 
the disapproval of his father. When Earl Rognvald heard of 
this — 

" he was ill content with Halladur's journey, and said that 
his sons would become all unlike their forefathers. Then 
spake Einar; 'I have had little honor of thee, and but little 
love have I to part from. I will fare west to the isles if thou 
wilt give me some help or other; and then I will promise thee, 
what will gladden thee exceedingly, never to come back again 
to Norway.' Earl Rognvald said he should be well content 
if he never came back; 'For small hope have I that thy kin 
will have honor of thee, whereas all thy mother's kin is thrall- 
bom.' So Earl Rognvald gave Einar a long-ship all manned, 
and in the autumn-tide Einar sailed West-over-sea; but when 
he came to the Orkneys there lay before him two ships of the 
vikings, Thorir Wood-beard and Kalf Skurva. Einar fell to 
battle with them straightway, and won the victory, and they 
both fell. Then was this sung : 

'Tree-beard to the trolls he gave there, 
Scurva there Turf Einar slaughtered.' 

"Thereafter Einar became earl over the isles and was a 
mighty man there. He was an ugly man, and one eyed, how- 
beit the sharpest-sighted of men."* 

His rule in the islands was beneficent and all people were 
devoted to him. It is said that he discovered the deposits of 

* Heimskringla of Snorre Sturlason, by William Morris and Eri'kr Magnusson, Vol. I, p. 122. 



peat with which the islands abounded and taught the inhab- 
itants how to use it for fuel. To show their gratitude the 
people gave him the name Torf or Turf. 

After Halfdan High-leg and Gudrod Gleam had slain hi? 
father Rognvald, Torf Einar was forced by Halfdan, who 
came to Orkney with an army, to take refuge in Cathanes, or 
Caithness, on the mainland of Scotland. Gathering reinforce- 
ments he returned to Orkney in the autumn and fell upon 
Halfdan High-leg and defeated him and his forces. Halfdan 
was captured and Einar in person tortured him before putting 
him to death, after the manner of that time. The sagas give 
this song that Einar sang after he had accomplished his ven- 
geance : 

"Wreaked have I Rognvald's slaying, 
I for my fourth part fully. 
For the stay of hosts is fallen; 
The Norns have ruled it rightly. 
Heap stones then upon High-leg, 
High up, brave lads of battle. 
For we in strife were stronger. 
And a stony scat I pay him." 

But Einar's triumph was short-lived. When King Harald 
heard of the fate of his son he sailed to the Orkneys and the 
earl again "got him over to Caithness," singing as the sagas 
put it: 

"For the slaughtering of the sheep-kind 
Are some with beards made guilty; 
But I for a king's son's slaying 
Amid the sea-beat island. 
Comes peril, say the franklins, 



From the wrath of a king redoubted, 

And surely of my shearing 

Is the shard in the shield of Harald." 

In the end the affair was settled by Einar paying a fine of 
sixty marks of gold to the king in return for which he was 
left in undisputed possession of the islands. 

Issue : — 

1. Thorfinn, of whom below. 

2. Arnkel who followed King Eric Bloodaxe, son of Harald 
Harfagra, into England and was killed in battle, 950. 

3. Erland who also accompanied King Eric and was killed 
in battle, 950. 


Thorfinn Hausklifr, the Headcleaver, son of the pre- 
ceding, was the fifth Earl of Orkney, and the Earl of Shetland 
in 942. In the latter years of his life he submitted to the rule 
of Queen Gunnhild, widow of King Eric Bloodaxe, and her 
sons who, driven out of Norway, seized Orkney; but he re- 
sumed the earldom when Gunnhild and her sons went over 
to Denmark. 

He died about 963. 

He married Grelad, Greiland, or Grelota, daughter of Dun- 
gad, jarl or earl of Cathanes, whose wife was Groa, daughter 
of Thorstein Rauda, the Red, son of Olaf Hviti, the White, 
King of Dublin, by his wife Aud, the Deep-rich or Deeply- 
wealthy. The story of Aud or Und, the Deeply-rich, who 
married Olaf Hviti, is told in the Icelandic sagas. She was a 
conspicuous figure in her time and country, and a queen who 



exercised a powerful control and widespread influence through- 
out a long and active life. 

"Beorn Buna was the name of a mighty and noble herse 
in Norway. He was the son of Werther-grim, herse or lord 
of Sogn. Grim had to wife Her-ware, daughter of Thor- 
gerde, daughter of Ey-laug, the herse of Sogn. Beorn had to 
wife We-laug, sister of We-mund the Old. They had three 
sons. One of them was Cetil Flat-neb, the second Holgi, and 
the third Hrapp. They were noble men and from them is the 
greatest race that is told of in this book and from them are 
come well-nigh all the gentle-folk of Iceland."* 

"There was a man named Cetil Flatneb, the son of Beorn 
Buna, the son of herse Grim, Halbeorn Half troll's son. He was 
a mighty lord or herse of Norway and of high family. He 
dwelt in Reams-dale, in Reamdale-folk, that is between South- 
mere and North-mere. Cetil Flatneb had to wife Yngwhild, 
daughter of Cetil Wether, a man of good birth. Their chil- 
dren were five. . . . Und (Aud) Deeprich was a daughter of 
Cetil's whom Anlaf (Olaf) the White had to wife, the son of 
Ingiald, the son of Frode the Gallant whom the Swertlings 

"In Cetil's latter days arose the rule of Harald Fairhair, so 
that no folk-king could thrive in the land, nor other great 
man, save he himself settled what their power or rank should 
be. And when Cetil found out that King Harald meant to 
give him the same terms as to the other mighty men, namely 
to have his kin slain bootless (without weregild), or else be- 
come a vassal or leige-man himself, he summoned a moot of 
his kinsmen and took up his speech thus : ' Ye are acquainted 
with what hath taken place between us and King Harald, 
wherefore there is no need to go into it. ... I know of a 
truth the hatred that King Harald bears us, and it seems to 
me that we shall not find much backing in that quarter, and 

* The Landnama Book or Book of Settlements, in Origines Islandicae, by Gudbrand 
Vigfusson and F. York Powell, Vol. I. p. 25. 



methinks there are two choices before us, — either to fly the 
land, or be slain every man in his own place.' . . . 

"Then Cetil said that he was now minded to go west over 
sea (to the British Isles), for he said there was good land there 
and that those lands were known to him far and wide, because 
he had harried far and wide there. . . , Afterwards Cetil 
makes ready for his journey out of the country west over the 
sea. His daughter Und went with him and more of his kin. 
Cetil's sons sailed for Iceland the same summer and Helge, 
the Lean, their brother-in-law. . . . Cetil Flatneb made 
Scotland in his ship and gat good welcome from men of wor- 
ship because he was a man of renown and of a great family. 
And they offered him to settle thereon what terms he liked. 

" Cetil fixed his abode there and the rest of the company of 
his kinfolk, save Thorstan, his daughter's son. He took to 
sea roving at once and harried far and wide over Scotland and 
gat ever the victory, and afterwards he made peace with the 
King of Scots and got half of Scotland for himself and became 
king thereof. He had to wife Thurid, daughter of Eywind, 
and sister of Helge, the Lean. The Scots did not keep the 
peace well, but betrayed him to death in time of truce. Are 
Thorgilson, the historian, says of Thorstan's slaying that he 
fell in Caithness. 

"Und Deeprich was in Caithness when her son Thorstan 
fell and when she heard that Thorstan was slain and her 
father dead she thought that there would be no bettering to 
be got where she was. And so she had a merchant ship built 
secretly in the wood and when the ship was finished she fitted 
out the ship and took much riches in chattels with her. She 
took aboard with her all the company of her kin that were yet 
alive. And men thought that it was scarcely ever known 
that one person, and a woman, should have been able to get 
away out of such perils with so much chattels and such a fol- 
lowing. And it may easily be marked thereby what a para- 
gon she was among women. Und also had with her at thai 
time men of high rank and of great families. . . . Und sailed 







a, O 

I !^' 


her ship to the Orkneys as soon as she was ready. There 
she abode for Httle while. There she gave Groa, daughter of 
Thorstan the Red, in marriage. She (Groa) was the mother 
of Greiland, whom Earl Thorfinn had to wife, the son of Earl 
Turf-Einar, the son of Rognwald, Earl of Mere. Their son 
was Hlodwe, father of Earl Sigurd, father of Earl Thorfinn, 
and hence is come the house of the Orkney earls."* 

The family to which Groa belonged was one of the most 
powerful in the islands of Northwestern Europe, and by his 
marriage to her Thorfinn greatly strengthened himself and his 
descendants in their hold upon Orkney and Shetland. With 
the exception of his successor in the earldom, his sons met tragic 

Issue : — 

1. Hlodver or Lodver, of whom below. 

2. Arnfinn. He married Ragnhild, daughter of King Eric 
Bloodaxe of Norway, and was slain by her in Cathanes. 

3. Haavad. He married Ragnhild, his brother's widow, 
and was killed at Stennis in a fray with his nephew Einar 
Klining who had been instigated by his wife. 

4. Liot. He married Ragnhild, his brother's widow, and 
was slain in battle with the native chief Magbiod at Skid 
Myre, Cathanes. 

5. Skuli. He received the title of Earl of Cathanes from 
the King of Scots ; was slain in battle with his brother Liot. 


Hlodver or Lodver, son of the preceding, was the sixth 
Earl of Orkney. 

He died about 980 and was buried at Hofu in Cathanes. 
He married Audna, daughter of Kiarval, King of Ireland. 

* Origines Islandics, by Gudbrand Vigfusson and F. York Powell, Vol. II, pp. 141-145. 



Kiarval was the Cearbhal or Carrol of the Irish annals, King 
of Dublin 872-87; he was descended from Ivar the Bone- 
less, son of Ragnor Lodbrok. Some authorities say that 
Lodver also married Africa, daughter of Somerlid, Prince of 

Issue : — ■ 

1. Sigurd, of whom below. 

2. Gerleota who married Baldwin Clapham, son of King 
Edmund of England. 


Sigurd, surnamed Digree the Corpulent, son of the pre- 
ceding, was the seventh Earl of Orkney. Beside holding 
Cathanes or Caithness against Kenneth III., King of Scot- 
land, he ruled other parts of the Scottish mainland. Be- 
tween the years 969 and 995 he was challenged by the Earl 
Finnleic, father of Macbeth, to battle on a certain day. Re- 
ceiving from his mother a charmed standard he went forth 
and in the ensuing combat defeated his adversary. Some 
time after 995 he embraced Christianity. The circumstances 
of his change from paganism to Christianity are told in the 
Orkneyinga Saga. It appears that he yielded to the energetic 
ministrations of King Olaf Tryggvison of Norway who made 
an expedition to Orkney. Olaf received Earl Sigurd on 
board his ship and exhorted him to embrace the new faith 

"you may have certain hope of honor from me and will 
gain what is much more important, to reign in eternal joy in 
the Kingdom of Heaven. The other alternative is that you 
shall be slain on the spot and after your death I will send 



fire and sword throughout the Orkneys. You and they who 
put their trust in idols shall speedily die, and shall thereafter 
be tormented in hell fire with wicked devils, without end."* 

Sigurd held out against these urgings and finally King 
Olaf seized the earl's young son Hundi and making ready to 
slay him said: 

"Now I will show you, Earl Sigurd, that I shall spare no 
man who will not serve Almighty God or listen to my preach- 
ing of the blessed message. Therefore I shall kill your son 
before your eyes this instant, with the sword now in my hand, 
unless you and your men will serve my God. For I shall not 
leave these islands until I have completely fulfilled his blessed 
commission, and you have been baptized along with this son 
of yours whom I now hold."* 

Naturally Earl Sigurd deemed it wise to yield to this vigor- 
ous missionary effort. He conceded the superiority of King 
Olaf and his God and was baptized with all his people of the 
Orkneys. But even then King Olaf failed to keep entire faith 
with his convert, for he carried Hundi away to Norway as host- 
age, having first baptized him by the name Hlodver.* And 
Hundi never saw home and parents again, for he died in Norway. 

Notwithstanding this enforced conversion Sigurd contin- 
ued to fight vigorously for the old paganism. Before 1014 
he went to Ireland, leaving his elder sons to rule his do- 
minions and entrusting his younger son, Thorfinn, to the care 
of the boy's grandfather, King Malcolm. Engaging in war 
with the Irish king Brian Boroimhe (Boru), he was killed in 
the great combat at Clontarf April 23, 1014. This battle, 

* The Orkneyinga Saga. 


fought at Cluaintarbh, now Clontarf, near Dublin, was the 
most celebrated of all the conflicts in which the Norsemen 
were engaged on that side of the North Sea. "It was there," 
says an ancient commentator, "that the old and new faiths 
met in the lists face to face for their last struggle." 

Norwegian legends tell that before he set out on this ex- 
pedition to Ireland, Sigurd received from his mother a stand- 
ard, made by her own hand, on which was woven the image 
of a raven, the bird sacred to Odin, the Scandinavian god of 
war. The raven was represented with outspread wings and 
in the act of soaring upwards. On accepting the banner the 
earl was assured by his mother that it had the remarkable 
property of bringing victory to whoever had it carried before 
him, but that the standard bearer himself was doomed to fall. 
In the battle of Clontarf, two of Sigurd's bearers were killed. 
After this none of the officers would take up the fatal colors; 
thereupon the earl wrapped them around his body and gal- 
lantly fought until he fell pierced with innumerable wounds.* 

Thormod Torfeson, whose Latinized name was Torfseus, 
the celebrated historiographer to Christian, King of Den- 
mark, in the latter part of the seventeenth century, recorded 
much of the history and tradition of ancient Orkney. He 
tells the story of a very remarkable apparition in Cathanes 
preceding the battle of Clontarf. On Christmas, the day of 
the battle, a man saw several persons on horseback who were 
riding at full speed toward a small hill, and seemingly entered 
into it. He was led by curiosity to approach the spot, when, 

* Orcades, seu rerum Orcadiensium Historiae, by Thormod Torfeson. 



looking through an opening in the side of the hillock, he ob- 
served twelve gigantic figures, resembling women, employed in 
weaving a web. As they wove they sang a mournful song or 
dirge descriptive of the battle in Ireland, in which they fore- 
told the death of King Brian and that of the Earl of Orkney. 
When they had finished their task, they tore the web into 
twelve pieces. Each took her own portion and, once more 
mounting their horses, six galloped to the south and six to the 
north.* This legend is the subject of Gray's ode The Fatal 
Sisters, which is a paraphrase or translation of a Norwegian 
poem found in the Thormodus and other Norwegian collec- 
tions. In the ode the sisters are the valkyries, who, in Norse 
mythology, chose the slain and are the special ministers of 
Odin to conduct the fallen heroes to Valhalla. 

"Now the storm begins to lower 
(Haste the loom of hell prepare), 
Iron sleet of arrowy shower 
Hurtles in the darken' d air. 

Glitt'ring glances are the loom. 
Where the dusky warp we strain, 

Weaving many a soldier's doom, 
Orkney's woe, and Randvar's bane. 

Ere the ruddy sun be set 

Pikes must shiver, javelins sing, 
Blade with clattering buckler meet. 

Hauberk crash, and helmet wring. 

Weave the crimson web of war, 
Let us go, and let us fly, 

* History of Caithness, by James T. Calder. 


Where our friends the conflict share, 
Where they triumph, where they die. 

Low the dauntless earl is laid, 

Gor'd with many a gaping wound; 

Fate demands a nobler head, 

Soon a king shall bite the ground. 

Long his loss shall Erin weep. 

Ne'er again his likeness see; 
Long her strains in sorrow steep; 

Strains of immortality! 

Horrors cover all the heath, 

Clouds of carnage blot the sun; 
Sisters! weave the web of death, 

Sisters! cease — the work is done. 

Hail the task, and hail the hands! 

Songs of joy and triumph sing! 
Joy to the victorious bands; 

Triumph to the younger king. 

Mortal, thou that hear'st the tale. 

Learn the tenour of our song. 
Scotland, thro' each winding vale 

Far and wide the notes prolong. 

Sisters, hence with spurs of speed; 

Each her thundering faulchion wield; 
Each bestride her sable steed. 

Hurry, hurry to the field!" 

Sigurd married for his first wife, a woman whose name is 
unknown. He married, second, Olith, Alice or Thora, daugh- 
ter of Malcolm II., King of Scotland. 



Issue : 

1. Hundi, or Whelp, who died in captivity in Norway be- 
fore 1014. 

2. Sumerlid, or Somereld, or Sumarlis, who died about 1015. 

3. Bnisi, of whom below. 

4. Einar Wrongmouth, who died in 1026. 

5. Thorfinn, eighth Earl of Orkney. He married Ingi- 
biorg, daughter of Earl Finn Arnason. 

6. Ellen. She married Duncan, son of Malcolm II., King 
of Scotland. 


Brusi, or Brusee, son of Sigurd by his wife Alice, although 
he was a man of peace for those days of warfare was the 
center of storms during his life and bequeathed an inheritance 
of bloodshed to his sons. When his father died four sons, 
Sumerlid, Brusi, Einar, and Thorfinn were left. As soon as 
the youngest attained to maturity he demanded from his 
brothers his share of the earldoms of his father and was sup- 
ported by his grandfather, King Malcolm. 

"Earl Thorfinn was from his youth up speedily wrought 
with all pith: he was mickle and stark; a man ill-favored: 
and so soon as he waxed in years it was easily seen of him 
that he was a grasping man, hard and grim and exceeding 

Thorfinn began his career when he was only fourteen years 
of age, going forth on sea excursions for plundering. His 
skald, Arnor, thus sang of him: 

* Heimskringla of Snorri Sturlason, Vol. 11, 170. 


"By the prince in storm of helmets 
Was the sword's edge deeply crimsoned. 
Scarcely fifteen the great hearted 
Sought renown on fields of battle, 
Ready to defend his own land, 
Or to ravage in another's. 
Under heaven a braver leader 
Ne'er was found than Einar's brother." 

In the struggle that Thorfinn made for Orkney Brusi was 
always the peacemaker. He conceded Thorfinn's claim and 
contented himself with a third part of Orkney, where he ruled 
well beloved. At a great feast that was given by Thorkel 
Fosterfather at Sandwick to celebrate the peace between 
Einar and Thorfinn, Thorkel, acting under the advice of King 
Olaf of Norway, slew Einar as he sat at the hearth stone. 
After that, by the support of King Olaf, Earl Brusi held two- 
thirds of Orkney for a time until finally, about 1030, Thorfinn 
again wrested from him all but his original one-third " whenas 
Knut the Rich had laid Norway under him, and King Olaf 
was gone out of the land." 

"Brusi was meek and peaceful, wise, deft of speech and 
well beloved. Einar was stubborn, sullen and gruff, grasp- 
ing and griping and a great warrior. Sumerlid was like to 
Brusi in his ways."* 

Brusi was converted to Christianity in the eleventh cen- 
tury. He became privy councillor to King Olaus the Holy 
and was made Earl of Cathanes and Sutherland. 

He died in 1031. 

* Orkneyinga Saga. 


He married Ostrida, daughter of Regenwald Wolfson, Earl 
of Gothland. 


1. Rognvald, of whom below. 

2. Ingreda. She married Turbrand, son of Galbrand, a 
noble of Norway, who was murdered by Alfred, son of Uchtred, 
Earl of Northumberland. 

3. Margarita, who married Thurbrand the Bald, a Danish 

4. Olaf, a monk of Clareveux. 


Rognvald, son of the preceding, was early in life held in 
hostage at the court of King Olaf the Holy, of Norway. He 
became a general in the army of Olaf and when the king was 
compelled to flee from Norway Rognvald shared his fortunes. 
On the battlefield of Stickelstead, where Olaf was slain, he 
distinguished himself and saved the life of Harald, the brother 
of the king. Subsequently he was made governor of the 
Castle of Oldegorburg in Russia by Duke Waldamar. 

After the death of his father Rognvald waged ineffectual 
warfare against his uncle Earl Thorfinn for the recovery of 
Orkney. In the end in 1046 Thorfinn subdued all Orkney 
and made the islands his principal home. Rognvald escaped 
to Norway but soon returned and, discovering the home of 
his uncle, set fire to the house to destroy him. Thorfinn, tak- 
ing his wife Ingibiorg in his arms, broke through the vaulted 
roof of the house and, escaping, fled to Cathanes. Rognvald, 
supposing that Thorfinn had perished in the flames, took pos- 
session of Orkney and proclaimed himself ruler of all Thor- 



finn's dominion in Cathanes and Hebrides. For a time Thor- 
finn, undiscovered, lived quietly among friends in Cathanes, 
but about Christmas 1046 he went secretly to the island of 
Papa Stronsay, where his nephew was and set fire to the house 
in which Rognvald dwelt. Although Rognvald then es- 
caped he was soon after taken prisoner and put to death by 
Thorkell Fostri, the follower of Thorfinn, who years before 
had also killed Earl Einar, his father. It was said of Rogn- 
vald that — 

"he was the goodliest to look upon, his hair thick and yellow 
as silk; he was of early days big and strong, and of all men 
was he the likeliest, both by reason of his wits and his courte- 
ous manners." 

He married, first, Arlogia, daughter of Duke Waldamar; 
second, Felicia, daughter of Robert, Duke of Normandy, 
who was father of William the Conqueror. 

Issue : 

1. Waldamar of Russia. 

2. Brusi, or Robert de Brusee, of whom below. 

3. Hamilliana. She married Ottala the Brisk, Prince of 
Russia, nephew of Waldamar. 

4. Arlogia, who married Thurstan du Beck. 







BRUSI, or Robert de Brusee, son of Rognvald, found 
Orkney little to his liking. Norway, the original 
home of his ancestors, attracted him more and 
shortly he attached himself to the fortunes of the house of his 
maternal grandfather, going over to Normandy where he 
established the Bruce stock. There he became eminent and 
powerful in the court, being councillor to Robert I., Duke of 
Normandy, the father of William the Gonqueror. He built 
the castle of la Brusee or Bruis, now Brix, in Normandy, 
which became "the cradle of the royal house of Scotland." 
Brusee castle or the Ghateau d'Adam near Valognes in the 
diocese of Gonstance was situated on the declivity of a hill, 
on the top of which was the village of Bruis, while at the foot 
flowed the river Douve. Located nearly five hundred feet 
above the river the castle commanded a beautiful panoramic 
view of the country for miles away. Long ago the buildings 
were demolished by the inhabitants of Bruis to build their 
houses, so that only the foundations with a few remnants of 
the walls have been left to the curiosity of later generations. 
The chateau had three ramparts, the foundations of which 
appear to have been three hundred, six hundred, and eight 
hundred yards from the main structure. The ditches were 
about forty-five feet wide and about fifteen feet deep, which 



showed that the Brusee castle must have been a fortress of 
the first order. On the whole it was a defense which only a 
large army could successfully invest, but it appears to have 
been many times besieged. 

He married Emma, daughter of Alain, Earl of Brittany. 


1. Alan or Alain de la Brusee. He married Agnes Mont- 
fort, daughter of Simon Montfort, Earl of Evreux. He was 
Lord of Brusee castle and became head of the great Nor- 
mandy family bearing his name. 

2, Robert de Brusee, of whom below. 


Robert de Brusee, second of the name, son of the pre- 
ceding, followed the standard of William, Duke of Normandy, 
when that prince went to conquer England in 1066. With 
him, as appears from the roll of the knights who came over 
with William, were many others of the same name.* He had 
a contingent of two hundred men, the only contingent that 
is specifically set down in the ancient document. He seems 
to have been a man of distinguished character and stood high 
in the regard of his royal master. He shared generously in 
the favor and munificence of the Conqueror, from whom he 
received extensive estates in remuneration of his services. 
Some authorities say that he possessed no fewer than forty- 
three manors in the east and west ridings of Yorkshire and 
fifty-one in the north riding. f 

* Role de ceux veignont in Angleterre ovesque Roy Wm. le Conquereur. 
t Caledonia by George Chalmers, Vol. I, p. 569; Baronage of England by Sir William 
Duedale, Vol. I, p. 447. 



He died about 1094. 

He married Agnes, daughter of Walderne, Earl of St. Clair. 
Walderne of Santo Claro came from Normandy with William 
the Conqueror. He was of the household of Richard, Duke 
of Normandy. His son, William de Santo Claro or St. Clair, 
was one of the many Anglo-Norman barons who settled in 
Scotland in the reign of King David I, and he received from 
the King of Scots a grant of the barony of Roslin in Mid- 
lothian. From his fair and gracious deportment this son was 
called "the fair St. Clair." 

Issue : 

1. William de Brusee, who came into England with his 
father and was Lord of Brember in Sussex. 

2. Adelme de Brusee, of whom below. 

3. Hortoliana. 

4. Philena, who married Wolstan, Lord of Paston. 

5. Amicia, who married St. Aylmer de Tours. 


Adelme or Adam de Brusee, son of the preceding, came 
into England in 1050, in attendance upon Emma of Nor- 
mandy, who was a daughter of Richard I. of Normandy by 
his wife Gonnor, and became the Queen of Ethelred, King of 
England. After the death of Queen Emma he went to Scot- 
land, to which country he was naturally attracted by the 
family connection that existed through his ancestors of six 
and seven generations before, the earls of Orkney, Shetland, 
Gathanes, and Sutherland. When William the Conqueror 
came to England de Brusee joined the army of the invader, 
and after the conquest he received the barony of Skelton and 



the lordship of Cleveland as a reward for his services. Of 
all the Yorkshire manors the chief was that of Skelton in 
Cleveland, near Whitby. This became the seat of the elder 
or English branch of the Bruce family. 

Adam de Brusee died before the fourteenth year of the 
reign of William I., 1080. 

He married Emma, daughter of Sir William Ramsay. 


1. Robert de Brusee, of whom below. 

2. William de Brusee, who was the first prior of Guisburn. 
He died in 1155. 

3. Duncan. A lord in Scotland. 

4. Rosselina, who married Walter Moreville, constable of 


Robert de Brusee, third of the Jiame, son of the preced- 
ing, was born about 1078 and was the head of the barony of 
Bruce and the first Baron of Skelton and Annandale. He 
assisted Edgar, son of Malcolm Canmore, against 'Duncan, 
his base brother, who had usurped the crown. At the in- 
stance of Pope Honorius II. he gave the church of Middle- 
burgh and some lands to the monks of Whitby to establish a 
cell of the Abbey of Guisburn in Cleveland. His brother, 
William de Brusee, was the first prior of the abbey. He also 
granted the manors of Appleton and Hornby, with other lands, 
to the monks of St. Mary of York and he generously endowed 
the hospital of St. John of Jerusalem. He held by grant the 
lands of Strathannan or Annandale and by his first wife ac- 
quired the lands of Carleton and Camelford, and Hart and 









Hartnesse in the bishopric of Durham, "the maritime key of 
the palitinate." 

The early years of Robert de Brusee were passed at the 
court of King Henry I. of England. At the same time Earl 
David of Scotland resided there and a close friendship sprang 
up between the two young nobles. When David came to the 
throne he granted, by charter to his friend, the land of Annan - 
dale, which embraced the largest part of the county of Dum- 
fries. He had also been associated with David in military 
adventures, serving with him during t'he conquest and part 
of the period of his government of Cumbria, the district com- 
prising the Lothians and 'Galloway that had been bestowed 
upon David after the death of his brother Prince Edgar. 

The time came, however, when these two friends were 
parted. King David I., supporting the cause of Maud the 
Empress, his niece, declared war against King Stephen of 
England, and advanced with a great army to Northallerton 
in Yorkshire to meet the forces of the English monarch. 
Thurstan, the aged and infirm Archbishop of York, although 
he could not personally take the field against the invader, 
summoned the nobles of his diocese to repair to the support 
of the standard with all their powers. 

"Amongst the rest Robert de Brusee, notwithstanding he 
had a very great kindness for the King of the Scots, yet with 
his son, Adam, a young nobleman of great worth, brought a 
great company with him which not only in force of arms, but 
in splendour and vigour of youth, much adorned the whole 

* ^thelredus de bello standard!. 


"This Robert, an old man of great wealth, slow of speech, 
yet who expressed himself with great readiness of words, from 
his youth having been a great follower of the King of Scots 
and very familiar with him, obtained leave from his compan- 
ions in arms to pass over to David, either to persuade him to 
desist from his enterprise, or, as he was bound to him in fidel- 
ity and fealty, by holding the lands of Annandale and others 
of that King, to disoblige himself by renouncing his fealty. 
In his speech to David he represented to the King that the 
English and Normans, against whom he was arrayed, had 
repeatedly restored the power and authority of the Scottish 
monarchs when driven out by disloyal subjects, and that they 
were more faithful to the royal family than were the Scots 
themselves. He begged his friend and patron to withdraw 
from the contest and concluded in the following affectionate 
strain : ' It wrings my heart to see my dearest master, my pa- 
tron, my benefactor, my friend, my companion in arms, in 
whose service I have grown old, thus exposed to the dangers 
of battle or to the dishonor of flight.'"* 

"As an old acquaintance and liegeman he was sent to the 
Scottish King, on his invasion of England in 1138, to offer 
terms of peace and it is curious to note that he was associated 
in this embassy with Bernard de Baliol. On the king's re- 
fusal these two barons, whose descendants were destined to 
be such deadly rivals, fought side by side in the battle of the 
Standard and were also soon after ranged under the same 
banners as partisans of the Scotch intruder Cumin."f 

In the battle of the Standard that followed, August 22, 1138, 
Robert Bruce was a conspicuous figure, being in command 
of a large part of the army of the English king. The battle 
was so called from the standard that was carried on the field 
of combat, and about which the army was rallied. This 

* Histories of Noble British Families, by Henry Drummond. 
t The Battle Abbey Roll, by the Duchess of cieveland, Vol. I, p. 102. 



standard was in the form of the mast of a ship, having on its 
top a cross whereon was the consecrated host in a silver pix, 
and the banners of St. Peter, St. John of Beverly, and St. 
Wilfred of Rippon waving below. It was erected on the b^am 
of a great chariot and around it and upon it were the more 
aged of the English barons. Before the battle, Ralph, Bishop 
of Orkney, deputed by Archbishop Thurstan, assured the 
knights and the soldiers that by fighting bravely they would 
secure remission of their sins, and upon receiving from them 
expressions of contrition, he pronounced their absolution and 
added his benediction. At the same time the priests in their 
white vestments, carrying crosses and relics, went among 
the ranks, encouraging the soldiers by their exhortations and 

" Where the Kings Standard being erected they all Rende- 
voused upon notice and exhortation from the venerable Thurs- 
tan, Archbishop of York; who had likewise caused all the 
Clergy of his Diocese to repair personally thither, with their 
Crosses, Banners and Relicks of Saints carried before them, 
to defend the Church of Christ against the rage of that bar- 
barous people. And beholding the English army formally 
drawn up for Battle; as also the Priests in their sacred Vest- 
ments, with their Crosses and Relicks, walking about and 
encouraging the soldiers; being then a very aged person, ex- 
ceeding wealthy, likewise of grave deportment and singular 
elocution; he made a speech to them with great majesty and 

Robert de Brusee died in 1141 and was buried in Guis- 
burn Priory. 

* Histories of Noble British Families, by Henry Drummond. 
t The Baronage of England, by Sir William Dugdale. 


He married, first, Agnes Pagnel, daughter of Fulk Pagnel; 
second, Agnes of Annandale. 


1. Adam de Brusee, second lord of Skelton. He died in 
1162. He married Ivetha or Juletta de Archis, daughter of 
William de Archis and widow of Roger de Hamville; she 
died 1167. Skelton and other Enghsh lands remained in the 
possession of the descendants of Adam de Brusee until 1271, 
when Peter Bruce, head of the house, died without male heirs. 

2. Robert de Brusee, of whom below. 

3. Agatha de Brusee. She married Ralph, son of Ribald, 
Lord of Middleham in Yorkshire. 

4. Pagan de Brusee. 


Robert de Brusee, fourth of the name, known as Robert 
Le Meschin, or the cadet, second son of the preceding, by 
his second wife, Agnes of Annandale, was the second baron of 
Annandale. Residing in Scotland, he adhered to the cause 
of King David and became the head of the Scottish branch 
of the Bruce family. During the conflict between the Scots 
and the English, supposedly at the battle of the Standard, he 
was taken prisoner by his father and sent to England, but 
was pardoned by the king and returned to Annandale in the 
custody of his mother. He also had lands in England, for 
his father gave him the lordship of Hart, in the bishopric of 
Durham. It is probable that he was the De Brusee who 
gave to the monks of St. Cuthbert, the Chapel of Eden, with 
this proviso, — 

" excepting that when I or my wife or my household abide 
at Eden, my own chaplain shall sing mass in my own chapel 






in my castle and shall receive all the offerings made by my- 
self, my family and my guests hearing the mass." 

He died between 1189 and 1191. 

He married, first, Judith, daughter and co-heir of William 
de Lancaster, Lord of Kendall, and succeeded to the posses- 
sion of the Lordship of Kendall. He married, second, Eu- 
phemia, whose family name is not known. 

Issue by wife Euphemia: 

1. Robert de Brusee. He married, in 1183, Isabella, daugh- 
ter of William the Lion, King of Scotland. He died before 
his father and without issue. His widow married Robert de Ros. 

2. William de Brusee, of whom below. 


William de Brusee, son of the preceding, was the third 
baron of Annandale. Some authorities say that he died in 
the tenth year of the reign of King Richard I., 1199, while 
others fix the date of his death in the sixteenth year of the 
reign of King John, 1215. 

The name of his wife is not of record. He succeeded his 
elder brother Robert in the fief of Annandale, holding that 
along with the English manors of Helt and Haltwhistle. 

Issue : 

1. Robert de Brusee, of whom below. 

2. William de Brusee. 

3. John de Brusee. 


Robert de Brusee, or Robert Bruce, sixth of the name, 
son of the preceding, was the fourth baron of Annandale and 
one of the great personages of his time and country. His 



large estates and his royal connections assured him rank 
among the most powerful barons of southern Scotland. He 
was liberal to religious institutions and confirmed to the 
monks of Guisburn the patronage of the churches of Annan- 
dale, first granted to them by his grandfather. When King 
Alexander II. went to York in 1221 he was one of the retinue 
of Scottish magnates or barons who accompanied the king 
and was a witness of the endowment that Alexander bestowed 
upon his wife Joanna, sister of King Henry III., of England. 
He died in 1245 and his wife died in 1252. Both are buried 
in the abbey of Saltre, near Stilton in Huntingdonshire. 
Stukely, the antiquarian, visiting the place of their burial, 
quaintly wrote: 

"when I saw the ruins of the church in which lay the bones 
of Robert Bruce and his wife Isabel, the progenitors of kings, 
I uttered many a groan." 

He married Isabel, daughter of David, Earl of Hunting- 
don, who was the son of Prince Henry of Scotland and grand- 
son of David I., King of Scots. The Earl of Huntingdon 
was brother of Malcolm IV., King of Scots, and William the 
Lion, King of Scots. Thus the legitimate royal blood of 
Scotland was introduced into the Bruce family and gave the 
descendants of this Robert Bruce their claim to the throne. 
By this royal match the Lords of Annandale attained to high 
rank among the richest and most powerful noble families of 
Scotland and England. Through his wife (as co-heiress with 
her two sisters, of her father's property) Bruce, exclusive of 
his personal estates in both kingdoms, came into possession 



of the manor of Whittle and Hatfield in Essex, together with 
half the hundred of Hatfield. She likewise brought him the 
castle of Kildrummie, and the lordship of Garioch in Aber- 
deenshire and the manors of Connington in Huntingdoiishire 
and Exton in Rutlandshire. 

Issue : 

1. Robert Bruce, of whom below. 

2. Richard Bruce, who died in 1287. 


Robert Bruce, seventh of the name, son of the preced- 
ing, was born in 1210. He was called the Competitor from 
his claim to the crown of Scotland against John Baliol. On 
the death of his father he became Lord Annandale and when 
his mother died in 1251 he came into possession of her share 
of the earldom of Huntingdon. Thus he was a powerful sub- 
ject of both kingdoms, England and Scotland. In 1250 he 
was a justice of the Court of Common Pleas of Henry III. 
On the death of Alexander II. of Scotland, in 1255, he was 
one of the regents named to act during the minority of the 
young king, Alexander III. He was made sheriff of Cum- 
berland and governor of Carlisle by Henry III.; between 
1257 and 1271 he frequently served on the English bench and 
in 1268 he was appointed capitalis justiciarius, being the first 
chief justice that England had. He sat in Parliament, and in 
the Barons' War was one of the supporters of the king, march- 
ing with his sovereign from Oxford to Northallerton. In the 
battle of Lewes, May 14, 1264, he was taken prisoner but was 
released after the king was victorious at Eversham in 1265. 

S 65 


During the lifetime of this Robert Bruce began the great 
struggle for the crown of Scotland that, after more than a 
quarter of a century of warfare, resulted in the seating of his 
famous grandson upon the throne. This Bruce was among 
those who at the convention of Scone, in February, 1283-4, 
recognized the right of succession of Margaret, the Maid of 
Norway; but, on the death of King Alexander III. in 1286, 
he joined the league of powerful nobles who met at Turn- 
berry Castle and pledged themselves to vindicate the claims 
of whoever should gain the kingdom by right of blood, accord- 
ing to the ancient customs of Scotland. In the civil war that 
ensued Lord Annandale asserted his title to the crown against 
his cousin John Baliol. 

As neither Bruce nor Baliol was able unaided to attain 
his ambitions the dispute was referred to King Edward I. 
of England as arbitrator. Edward, it is said, offered to de- 
cide in favor of Bruce if the latter would do homage to him. 
Bruce refused these conditions, saying that he preferred the 
honor of his country to his own personal advantage and that 
as his country always had been free he would maintain it so. 
Thereupon Edward offered the throne on the same condi- 
tions to Baliol, who accepted and was crowned in 1292. Being 
then advanced in years Bruce felt that he could no longer 
contest for his rights. He even refused to do homage to the 
new king, exclaiming, "I am Baliol's sovereign, not Baliol 
mine, and rather than consent to such homage, I resign my 
lands in Annandale to my son, the Earl of Carrick." He 
then retired to private life in the castle of Lochmaben. 




He died in Loehamben on Good Friday, in 1295. In Dug- 
dale's Monasticon there is a picture of the tomb of this Robert 
Bruce at Gisburn. It has no recumbent figure above as was 
customary on tombs of that period, but five upright figures 
stand in niches on each side and three at the west end, the 
central figure being a king with his crown and sceptre, and 
the royal arms of Scotland on his shield and over his head 
the lion rampant, and the saltire and chief on different shields. 

Robert Bruce married, first, in 1240, Isabel de Clare, second 
daughter of Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester and Here- 
ford. She was born in 1226 and was only thirteen years of 
age when married. She died in 1271. He married, second, 
Christiana, daughter of Sir William de Ireby. 

Issue of Robert and Isabel (de Clare) Bruce: 

1. Robert Bruce, of whom below. 

2. William Bruce. He married Elizabeth de Sully, daugh- 
ter of Raymond de Sully. 

3. Bernard Bruce, who held the barony of Connington in 
Huntingdonshire. He married, first, Alicia de Clare; second, 
Constance de Morleyn. 

4. Isabella Bruce, who married John Fitz Marmaduke and 
died in 1300. 

5. Alosia Bruce, who married Sir Nigel Graham, Lord of 

6. Christiana Bruce. She married Patrick Dunbar, Earl 
of March, one of the competitors for the crown of Scotland. 


Robert Bruce, eighth of the name, son of the preceding, 
was the first earl of Carrick. He was born in 1253. When 
a mere youth, in 1269, he went to the Holy Land, a compan- 



ion of Prince Edward, afterwards King Edward I. of England. 
In 1284, as Earl of Carriek, he acknowledged with other 
Scottish nobles the right of Margaret of Norway to the crown 
of Scotland. In 1292, upon the death of his wife, he resigned 
the earldom of Carriek to his son Robert Bruce. About the 
same time he was party to the agreement that his father en- 
tered into with Florence, Count of Holland, another com- 
petitor, against the claims of Baliol to the crown of Scotland. 
After the death of his father in 1295, he succeeded to the 
lordship of Annandale and was appointed governor of Car- 
lisle, both he and his son, the Earl of Carriek, swearing fealty 
to Edward I. as king of England and of Scotland. He sat in 
Parliament in 1295-97. King Edward I. restored to him the 
lands in Scotland that his father had given up and he accom- 
panied the king on his expedition into Scotland against Ba- 
liol when the latter asserted his independence of England. 
After Baliol was overthrown at Dunbar in 1296, Bruce claimed 
the throne of Scotland by virtue of a promise that he asserted 
had been made to him by Edward. The answer of the Eng- 
lish king, as reported by one of the chroniclers of the period, 

" Have I nought ellys to do nowe 
But wyn a Kynrik to gyve yhowe." 

Disappointed in his ambitions he retired to his estates in 
England and took no more interest in the affairs of the king- 

He died in the Holy Land in 1304 and was buried in the 
Abbey of Holmcultram, Cumberland. 



He married in 1271, Marjory, widow of Adam de Kilcon- 
cath who fell in the Holy Land in 1270; she was the only 
daughter of Neil, Earl of Carrick. She died in 1292. The 
circumstances attending this alliance were singular arid ro- 
mantic. According to the ancient historian Fordun, as quoted 
by George Grant*: 

" It appears that a short time after his return from the Holy 
Wars, Robert Bruce was riding through the beautiful domains 
of Turnberry Castle, the property of the widowed Countess 
of Carrick, who, in consequence of the death of her husband, 
had become a ward of the crown. The noble baron, how- 
ever, cannot be accused of visiting Turnberry with any de- 
sign of throwing himself in the way of the young and hand- 
some heiress of Carrick, and indeed any such idea in those 
days of jealous wardship would have been dangerous in the 
extreme. It happened, however, that the lady herself, whose 
ardent and impetuous temper was not much in love with the 
seclusion of a feudal castle, had come out to pursue her favor- 
ite diversion of the chase, accompanied by her women, hunts- 
men and falcons; and this gay cavalcade came suddenly upon 
Bruce as he slowly pursued his way through the forest, alone 
and unarmed. 

"The knight would have spurred his horse forward and 
avoided the conflict, but he found himself suddenly surrounded 
by the attendants, and the countess herself riding up, and, 
with gentle violence taking hold of his horse's reins, reproached 
him in so sweet a tone for his want of gallantry in flying from 
a lady's castle, that Bruce, enamoured of her beauty, forgot 
the risk which he ran and suffered himself to be led away in 
a kind of triumph to Turnberry. He here remained fifteen 
days and the adventure concluded as might have been antici- 
pated by his privately marrying the young countess, without 
the knowledge of the relatives of either party and before ob- 

* Life of Robert Bruce, by George Grant. 


taining the king's consent. Alexander the Third was indig- 
nant at this bold interference with the rights of the crown and 
seized her castle of Turnberry; but being a prince of great 
benevolence, upon the intercession of the noble baron he 
extended his forgiveness to Bruce, upon his paying a heavy 
feudal fine." 

The earldom of Carrick that the Countess Marjory held in 
her own right was one of the most ancient in the kingdom of 
Scotland. It added much to the already high distinction of the 
Bruce family, and the title Earl of Carrick was one of their 
most cherished possessions for generations. 

Issue of Robert Bruce, by his wife Marjory, Countess of 

1. Robert Bruce, King of Scotland, of whom below. 

2. Edward Bruce, the younger brother of King Robert 
Bruce, was most famous for his incursion into Ireland where 
he was made king. When King Robert Bruce invaded the 
district of Galloway in 1308, Edward Bruce acted as comman- 
der of the forces part of the time, and led the retreat from 
the army of the Earl of Richmond. On the banks of the 
river Dee he made a stand and defeated the chiefs of Gallo- 
way, making a prisoner of Donall, Prince of the Isles. Fi- 
nally, he brought the district of Galloway under the control of 
King Robert and gained possession of the town of Dundee, 
thus driving the English out of almost their last stronghold 
in Scotland. In 1313 he besieged Stirling Castle, and in 
1314 he was one of the chief commanders on the glorious field 
of Bannockburn, leading the right column of the Scottish 

In 1315 in a convention of the prelates, nobles, and com- 
mons of Scotland, Edward Bruce was, by ordinance, recog- 
nized as king in the event of the death of his brother Robert 
without male heirs. This action was a just tribute to his 



talent, his commanding force of character, and, as well, to 
his high ambition. He was a valiant, experienced, and able 
soldier and is said to have aspired to share the kingship with 
his brother. But his thoughts were turned away from the 
throne of Scotland by an invitation from some of the native 
chiefs of Ireland to go over to that island to drive out the 
English. The Bruce descent from the old line of Irish kings 
through the family of Scottish kings into which their ances- 
tors had married, gave them something of a claim to the Irish 
throne and this was recognized by the chiefs who called 
upon him. 

The Scottish army landed in Ulster in May, 1315, led by 
Edward Bruce, the Earl of Moray, and others. The town of 
Carrickfergus was besieged and taken and there Bruce was 
crowned King of Ireland. In the campaign that ensued he 
encountered and defeated on many occasions the forces of 
the government in Ireland. John Barbour, in his rhymed 
history of the Bruces, says that he defeated the English in 
nineteen engagements. In the autumn of 1318, he projected 
another descent upon Leinster, but in battle near Dundalk, in 
October of that year, he was slain and his forces put to flight. 
His body was quartered and his head was sent to King Ed- 
ward in England. He was not married. 

3. Thomas Bruce, who was taken prisoner by the English 
at Galloway in 1307 and put to death at Carlisle by order of 
King Edward I. 

4. Alexander Bruce, who was taken prisoner with his 
brother, Thomas Bruce, and suffered a like fate. 

5. Nigel, or Niel Bruce, who was taken prisoner by the 
English in 1306 and executed at Berwick. 

6. Isabel Bruce. She married, first, Thomas Randolph of 
Strathdon, Chamberlain of Scotland; second, the Earl of 
Athol ; third, Alexander Bruce. 

7. Mary Bruce. She married, first. Sir Niel Campbell of 
Lochow; second, Alexander Frazer of Cowie, Chamberlain 
of Scotland. 



8. Christiana Bruce. She married, first, Gratney, Earl of 
Mar; second. Sir Christopher Seton, who was put to death at 
Dumfries, in 1306, by order of King Edward I.; third, Sir 
Andrew Moray of Bothwell, who was governor of Scotland 
during the minority of King David. 

9. Matilda Bruce. She married Hugh, Earl of Ross. 

10. Elizabeth Bruce. She married Sir William Dishington 
of Ardross in Fife. 

11. Margaret Bruce. She married Sir William Carlyle of 
Torthorwald and Crunnington. 

12. Margery Bruce. She married Sir David de Breschin. 



MMt; Iv' OMIIKI', 'I'lli; HKMIi'i; 




ROBERT BRUCE, ninth of the name, son of Robert 
Bruce and his wife, Marjory of Carrick, was born 
July 11, 1274. His early years were passed in the 
court of Edward I., King of England, where he acquired the 
graces of society and the art of arms that afterward so well 
adorned him. Upon the death of his mother, in 1292, when 
he was just entering his eighteenth year, his father resigned 
to him the title of Earl of Carrick. It is said that he then did 
homage to John Baliol, acknowledging the claim of that noble 
to the throne of Scotland. It is not at all certain that such 
homage was rendered, for in the disputes that subsequently 
arose between Baliol and King Edward both the young 
Bruce and his father were always favoring the cause of 

Throughout Scotland's troublous and exciting years, at the 
close of the thirteenth century, Bruce, most historians con- 
cede, occupied an equivocal position. Correspondence and 
documentary evidence show that he was first on one side and 
then on the other. His attitude during all the early years of 
his country's struggle for freedom has been much discussed 
and even at this late date has not been made to appear wholly 
satisfactory to his admirers. The testimony of early Scottish 
and English chroniclers is variant and untrustworthy on this 



point, for it was the aim of those on each side of the contro- 
versy, though with different motives, to make out that he at- 
tached himself early to the national cause. That he did so, 
is not clear, however. In 1296, when he was twenty-two 
years of age, his father was governor of Carli'sle by appoint- 
ment of King Edward, and the son swore fealty to that mon- 
arch. In the following year he raided the Douglas lands in 
the interest of Edward, and in this doing made himself, for 
the moment at least, the pronounced enemy of the man who 
was destined to become, a few years after, his most loyal and 
beloved supporter and friend. 

When, however, it was disclosed that Edward intended to 
make Scotland wholly subservient to England, and the re- 
volt against English domination became general, finally as- 
suming national proportions, the Bruce gave his support again 
to the Scottish cause. After Baliol and the Scots were forced 
to capitulate at Irvine, in July, 1297, he turned again to the 
standard of England. Professing loyalty to King Edward, 
he was required to give hostage to the English for his future 
faithfulness. When Wallace once more raised the standard 
of revolt, the Bruce was again summoned and at this critical 
moment he whose name was to become the greatest on the 
pages of Scottish history, held back. 

For a time he took no active part in the new rebellion, but 
when King Edward invaded Scotland in 1298, he determined 
to stand on the side of his countrymen. It is said that he 
summoned the Annandale men, vassals of his father, then in 
the service of King Edward, and addressed them thus: 



"You have already heard, without doubt, of that solemn 
oath, which I lately took at Carlisle, and I cannot deny the 
fact; but the oath was a foolish one and exacted by fear: it 
was my body that took the oath and not my mind; but its 
having been taken at all is now to me the cause of much re- 
morse and sorrow : yet ere long I hope to be absolved from it 
by our Holy Father. In the meanwhile, I am resolved to go 
and join my fellow countrymen and assist them in their efforts 
to restore to its liberty the land of my nativity, for none, as 
you known, is an enemy of his own flesh, and as for me I love 
my own people. Let me beseech you then to adopt the same 
resolution, and to accompany me, and you shall ever be es- 
teemed my dear friends and approved counsellors."* 

But the men of Annandale declined to yield to these exhor- 
tations, and the Bruce had only a few vassals of Carrick to 
follow him to the camp of the insurgents, where, as the result 
of the stand he had taken, he and his family were forced to 
remain a long time in hiding. In the following year, how- 
ever, the Bruce had reinstated himself in royal favor, for he 
was one of the three guardians of Scotland for John Baliol 
and also was associated with other nobles in an attack upon 
Lockmaben castle then held by an English garrison. From 
1300 to 1305 he maintained an attitude of unquestioned loy- 
alty to King Edward and received many favors from the 
hands of that monarch. 

"The conduct of de Brus, at this juncture, as throughout 
the entire period prior to his assumption of the crown, not 
being understood, has excited the wonder and regret of pos- 
terity. Supple, dexterous and accommodating — now in arms 
for his country, and then leagued with her oppressors — now 

* Royal Descents, by J. Bernard Burke, p. 13. 



swearing fealty to the English king, and again accepting the 
guardianship of Scotland in the name of Baliol, it seems to 
require all the energy, perseverance and consummate pru- 
dence and valour of after years to redeem his character from 
the charges of apparent and culpable weakness. De Brus, 
the guardian of Scotland in the name of Baliol, says Lord 
Hailes, is one of those historical phenomena which are inex- 

But, as pointed out by other historians, this conduct, upon 
careful examination, does not seem so inexplicable. Impor- 
tant interests of Bruce and of his father were in England, and 
they had always been loyal to King Edward. In Scotland, 
he felt that he had been wrongly deprived of the crown and 
he had no particular reason for loyalty to the rival house of 
Baliol, that, for the moment, had been successful in pushing 
him aside. Wallace and Moray, who led the revolt against 
English misrule, had developed their movement to national 
proportions, but it was a movement quite as much for the ad- 
vancement of the Baliols as for the freedom of Scotland. 
Wallace was a supporter of Baliol as were also the Comyns, 
rivals of the Bruce in their own right and also in that of Baliol. 
Although the insurrection was widespread among the masses 
there was lack of unity among the Scottish nobles. Some 
stood for their country at all hazards, while others were not 
ready to support a cause that had for one of its main purposes 
the reinstatement of Baliol. Bruce, holding firmly to his 
right to the throne, and determined to assert his claim to the 
uttermost at the opportune time, could in reason neither 

* The Scottish Nation, by William Anderson, Vol. I, p. 412. 



support his rivals' cause nor press his own affair when the 
power of BaHol or of Comyn was still in the ascendancy. 

Matters were finally precipitated by the murder of John 
Comyn, the younger, of Badenoch, February 10, 1305-6. 
With the renunciation of all claim to the throne by John Ba- 
liol, John Comyn, the Red, was next in line, according to the 
award of King Edward in 1291. The two rivals, Bruce and 
Comyn, met in the church of the Minorite friars at Dumfries. 
There they quarrelled, and Bruce, drawing his dagger, stabbed 
Comyn to the heart. The story is told by Lord Hailes that 
as Bruce emerged from the building he was met by his com- 
panions Kirkpatrick and de Lindsay who, noticing that he 
was agitated, asked how it was with him. "Ill," said the 
Bruce, "for I doubt I have slain the Comyn." "Doubt!" 
exclaimed Kirkpatrick, "then I'll make sure." Thereupon 
he rushed into the church and plunging his dagger into the 
body of Comyn, completed the work that Bruce had begun. 
In remembrance thereof the crest of the Kirkpatrick family 
is a hand holding a dagger, distilling drops of blood with the 
motto "I make sure." 

With that the die was cast. The field was clear and Bruce 

had henceforth no competitor for the throne. The moment 

was favorable too. Once more the country was aflame with 

patriotism, for it had been made plain that King Edward was 

fully determined that Scotland should be simply a vassalage 

of England. The Scottish nobles were still divided in their 

allegiance, but the national idea enkindled by Wallace was 

stronger than ever with the people. It is doubtful if the mur- 



der of Comyn was premeditated. The deed was probably 
done in the heat of the moment, in passion engendered by 
discussion of differences between the two rivals. Neverthe- 
less by this act, Bruce had put himself upon the defensive 
and he had no choice now but to stake all upon the hazard 
of warfare. Despite the sacrilege of violence before the altar 
the church was on his side, the people were ready to acclaim 
him, and he had friends and supporters among the nobles. 

Now that the time for indecision and dalliance had passed 
Bruce went forward bravely, energetically, and patriotically. 
From that moment he never faltered. Nearly two months 
later, in March 1305-6, he was crowned king of Scotland. 
The initial ceremonies took place at Scone, March ?7. The 
Bishop of Glasgow furnished from his own wardrobe the 
coronation robes and presented to the new king a banner 
embroidered with arms, which he had long concealed in his 
treasury. On the head of the monarch the Bishop of St. 
Andrews placed a small circlet of gold, and a few prelates 
and barons paid homage to him as he sat on the state chair 
of the bishop. 

A second coronation followed a few days later. This had 
in it an element of romance. Ever since Malcolm Canmore 
had ascended the throne in 1056, the Earls of Fife, descend- 
ants of the celebrated M'Duff, had enjoyed the honorary 
distinction of crowning the Scots' kings, or, at least, of placing 
them on the throne on the coronation day. But Duncan, 
who was then Earl of Fife, was on the side of the English. 
His sister Isabella, the wife of the Earl of Buchan, was true 



to Scotland and in sympathy with the Bruce, and she deter- 
mined that her family should not fail in its traditional service. 
Withdrawing secretly from her castle, unbeknown to her 
husband, she repaired to Scone, avowing herself a partisan 
of the new king and patriotically devoted to the liberties of 
her oppressed country. At Scone she insisted upon exer- 
cising the privileges and discharging the duties of her family, 
and the ceremonial was repeated on Sunday, March 29. It 
is said that on this occasion the determined countess carried 
off the war horses of her liege lord and took them with other 
appurtenances of war to the assistance of the Bruce. 

Many there were who said that the deed of the countess 
was inspired quite as much by love as by patriotism and tra- 
dition. The gentle rumor was that the countess cherished 
a tender attachment to King Robert, although each was in 
the bonds of matrimony. English writers of that period 
were quite ready to take that view of the matter. "She was 
mad for the beauty of the fool who was crowned," said 
Matthew of Westminster, who, though, was neither unbiased 
nor veracious. That interpretation has been put upon her 
action by some modern writers. John Davidson, the Scotch 
poet, dwelling upon this event, puts these words into the mouth 
of the fair countess, as the culmination of her decision; 

"Now, world, wag, wag, your tongues! 
I sacrifice my fame to make a king. 
And he will raise this nation's head again 
That lies so low; and they will honour him; 
And afterwards, perhaps, they'll honour me. 
Or if they slight me and my modest work, 

6 81 


I shall be dead; 1 have enough to bear 
Of disrespect and slander here to-day, 
Without forecasting railing epitaphs. 
But some — nay, many of the worthiest. 
And many simple judgments too, — will see 
The sunlight on my deed. This, I make sure: 
No Scots' allegiance can be held from Bruce 
Because he was not crowned by a Macduff. 
And if I love him, what is that to him ? 
That's a good saying. So is this, I make: 
If I do love him, what is that to me.''" * 

For the ensuing eight years the history of Bruce and of 
Scotland was a history of warfare with all the accompani- 
ments of danger, deprivation, and suffering. At the outset 
the castles and lands of Scotland's king were declared forfeit 
by King Edward and sentence of excommunication was passed 
upon him in St. Paul's Cathedral. With his supporters the 
Bruce was driven into the fastnesses of the Highlands where 
they led the lives of outlaws. When he started he had only 
about four hundred followers and was quite unable to cope 
with his adversaries. He was first defeated by the Lord of 
Lorn, and at Craigrostan, on the western side of Ben Lomond, 
there is a cave which tradition says afforded shelter for him 
and his little band on this occasion. Here he spent a night 
surrounded by a flock of goats and was so much impressed 
with this companionship that he afterwards enacted a law 
that all goats should be exempt from grassmail or rent. Be- 
friended by the Earl of Lenox, and Angus of Isla, Lord 
Cantire, both whom received him in their castles, he moved 

* Bruce: A Chronicle Play, by John Davidson, Act II. 








over to the small island of Rachrin, now Rathlin, on the 
northern coast of Ireland, where he and his adherents passed 
the first winter of their enterprise. 

Queen Elizabeth, with Bruce's daughter Marjory by his 
first wife, and other ladies of his family, had been sent to 
Kildrummie, the royal castle in Aberdeenshire, for protection, 
under the escort of Nigel Bruce, the king's brother, and the 
Earl of AthoU. But Kildrummie fell into the hands of the 
English and the members of the royal party were captured. 
Nigel Bruce was executed as a traitor and Queen Elizabeth, 
the Countess of Buchan, and the other ladies were held in 
confinement in various castles and convents until the end of 
the war. The Earl of AthoU was among those apprehended. 
He was carried to London, where, says the chronicler Langtoft: 

" being hanged on a gibbet thirty feet high, he was cut down 
when only half dead, that he might feel greater torments and 
was then cruelly beheaded. The trunk of his body was burned 
to ashes before his own face." 

The earl was a second cousin of the King of England and 
for that reason his treason was considered a greater offense. 
Matthew of Westminster says that Edward, although griev- 
ously sick, endured the pains of his disease with greater 
equanimity after hearing of the capture and execution of his 
disloyal kinsman. A dozen or more Scottish nobles were 
put to death by the remorseless Edward and there is a list of 
twenty-seven nobles and ladies who were imprisoned. 

In the spring of 1307, Bruce came out from hiding on the 
isle of Arran whither he had gone from Rachrin, his first place 



of refuge, and with the help of the "good Lord James Doug- 
las," ever faithful, and some three hundred hungry but valiant 
followers, captured from the English his ancestral home 
Turnberry Castle in Carrick. He was not able to hold 
the castle, however, but collected what spoils he could 
from the country and then withdrew to the highlands of 

During the months that immediately followed, the situation 
was desperate and indeed, apparently well-nigh hopeless. 
Douglas achieved several slight successes but nothing of real 
importance. Three brothers and several friends of the Bruce 
had perished on the gibbet. His queen and his daughter 
were prisoners in the hands of the English. His lands were 
confiscated and his supporters were deserting him. Beset 
by enemies who environed him with superior forces he wan- 
dered, a homeless outlaw, with few friends and unable even 
to rouse the vassals of his family to unite for his protection. 
To this period the romantic and marvellous stories of his ex- 
ploits that have passed into history principally pertain. Most 
of them had origin in the metrical work of Barbour arid while 
some are apocryphal, others were undoubtedly true or at least 
had some foundation in fact. 

Hard pressed by his foes, the throneless king had numer- 
ous adventures and many narrow escapes from death or cap- 
ture. He was tracked by bloodhounds; he was followed by 
hired assassins ; he was lured into traps that were set for him 
and only his bravery and skill brought him safely through. 
He always carried a two-handed sword or a ponderous battle- 



axe and the chronicles of the period abound in stories of his 
power in wielding that weapon. 

Barbour tells that on one occasion he was surprised by a 
body of his enemies to the number of more than two hundred 
when he had only sixty soldiers with him. Placing his men 
in a secure place, he stood forth alone at a narrow pass to hold 
the attacking force at bay until help that he had sent for should 
arrive. On the first assault he slew five of the enemy, whose 
dead bodies became a rampart of defence against the rest. 
Dismayed by the fate of their companions, the assailants drew 
back a little, but regaining courage they returned to the on- 
slaught, urging each other on. Brandishing his great sword, 
Bruce stood bravely to the work. As only a single man at a 
time could approach, so narrow was the pass, he slew them 
one by one as they came within reach of his sword. When the 
rescuing party that he had sent for arrived and the English 
troop in the face of superior forces fled, it was found that 
fourteen had fallen victims of the prowess of the Bruce. 

Such stories as this were heralded far and wide through- 
out Scotland, and gradually a popular enthusiasm developed 
for the king, bringing to him more support from the nobles as 
well as from the common people, and more subsistence and 
munitions of war. His affairs began to take on a more prom- 
ising outlook and his hopes heightened. Venturing into the 
low countries, he reduced the districts of Kyle, Carrick, and 
Cunningham, won the small victory at Glentool, and then 
defeated the Earl of Pembroke at Loudon Hill. That was 
the final turning point of his career and when three days 



after he encountered Ralph Monthermer, Earl of Gloucester, 
and overthrew him with great slaughter, the patriotic enthu- 
siasm of the Scots broke all bounds and from every quarter 
they flocked to the national standard. 

From this time on, the Bruce's career was one of almost 
uninterrupted success. King Edward died in July, 1307, 
and although his son Edward II. continued the fighting it 
was to little avail. Bruce swept through Scotland, captured 
English strongholds, and invaded England, laying waste to 
the northern districts and exacting heavy tribute. In Feb- 
ruary, 1309, the clergy of Scotland in a provincial council at 
Dundee, issued a declaration that the Scottish nation had 
chosen Robert Bruce for their king and that they willingly 
did homage to him as sovereign. 

By the end of the year 1312, nearly all the fortresses in the 
kingdom had been retaken from the English. The only im- 
portant one held by the enemy was the castle of Stirling, de- 
fended by Sir Philip Mowbray. Edward Bruce laid siege to 
this fortress in the autumn of 1313, and King Edward, with 
an army that has been estimated to number one hundred thou- 
sand men, went to the rescue. To oppose this force, King 
Robert Bruce had only about thirty thousand men, but in the 
ensuing combat — the battle of Bannockburn, June 24, 1314, 
— he defeated the English army which fled from the field in a 
disorderly rout, while King Edward barely escaped capture. 

Even then the English king refused to consider his cause 
lost. For fourteen years longer he continued hostilities. But 
he was steadily beaten all along the line in military operations ; 



when he attempted to invade Scotland, his efforts resulted in 
failure; he could not prevent the armies of the Bruce from 
invading northern England, laying waste to the country along 
the border and carrying away great stores of plunder; his 
attempt to win through the intervention of Pope John was 
also a failure, for the Bruce would listen to no papal envoys 
who did not come with full recognition of him as King of 
Scotland. Edward II. abdicated in 1327, and was succeeded 
by his son King Edward III., a boy of fifteen. Negotiations 
had been under consideration for several years, during a 
truce between the two sovereigns, and now peace was con- 
cluded formally and ratified at Northampton, March 4, 1328. 
It was an instance of the irony of fate that the Bruce did 
not live to enjoy the fruits of the victory that he had fought 
to secure for himself and his beloved Scotland. He had 
achieved liberty, independence, and peace for his country and, 
looking into the future, he now endeavored to make assur- 
ance doubly sure by betrothing his son and heir to the throne 
to Joanna, a sister of the King of England. Little more re- 
mained for him to do. The hardships and sufferings that 
he had endured had reduced his once strong constitution and 
he became afflicted with disease. He spent the last two years 
of his life in comparative seclusion in a castle that he had 
built at Cardross on the northern shore of the Firth of the 
Clyde. There he devoted his time principally to the building 
of ships and to aquatic and fishing excursions, hawking and 
other sports. He was not able to attend the wedding of Prince 
David to the Princess Joanna at Berwick, in July, 1328, being 



represented there by the Earl Douglas and the Earl Moray; 
the bridegroom on that occasion was only four years old and 
the bride but six. King Robert lingered for a year longer, 
dying June 7, 1329, in the fifty-fifth year of his age and the 
twenty-third year of his reign. He was buried in the church 
at Dunfermline beside his wife who had died in 1327. 

When he was on his deathbed, he gave directions that his 
heart should be removed from his body after death and taken 
to the Holy Land and then be brought back and buried in 
the new church of Melrose Abbey. Froissart tells the story 
of this deathbed scene : * 

"Then calling to his side the gentle knight Sir James of 
Douglas he thus addressed him before all the lords: 'Sir 
James, my dear friend, you know well that I have had much 
ado in my days to uphold and sustain the right of this realm, 
and when I had most difficulty, I made a solemn vow, which 
as yet, I have not accomplished, for which I am right sorry. 
That vow was, that if it was granted me to achieve and make 
an end of all my wars and so bring this realm to peace, I would 
go forth and war with the enemies of Christ, the adversaries 
of our holy Christian faith. To this purpose, my heart has 
ever intended. But our Lord would not consent thereto; 
for I have had so much to do in my life, and now in my last 
enterprise, I have been smitten with such sickness that I can- 
not escape. Seeing, therefore, that my body cannot go to 
achieve what my heart desires, I will send my heart instead of 
my body, to accomplish my vow. And because I know not 
in all my realm a knight more valiant than you, or better able 
to accomplish my vow in my stead, therefore I require you 
my own dear special friend, for your love to me and to acquit 
my soul against my Lord God, that you undertake this journey. 

* Chronicles of England, France, Spain, and adjoining Countries, by Jean Froissart. 



I confide so thoroughly in your nobleness and truth, that I 
doubt not what you take in hand you will achieve; and if my 
desires be carried out as I shall explain to you, I shall depart 
in peace and quiet. I wish as soon as I be dead th^t my heart 
be taken out of my body and embalmed, and that, taking as 
much of my treasure as you think necessary for yourself and 
the company suitable to your rank which shall go with you 
on the enterprise, you convey my heart to the holy sepulchre 
where our Lord lay and present it there, seeing my body cannot 
go thither. And wherever you come, let it be known that you 
carry with you the heart of King Robert of Scotland, at his own 
instance and desire, to be presented at the holy sepulchre.' 

" Douglas accepted this trust on his honor as a true knight 
and the King added: 'Then I thank you, for now I shall die 
in greater ease of mind, seeing I know that the most worthy 
and sufficient knight in my realm shall achieve for me that 
which I could not myself perform.' " 

In fulfillment of his promise to his royal master and friend, 
Douglas started for the Holy Land in the spring of 1330. 
He was accompanied by several other knights, many squires, 
and a large retinue. He carried the heart of the Bruce in a 
silver casket. He sailed for Spain first and there engaged 
to take part in the holy war that Alfonso XL, King of Castile, 
was waging against Osmyn, the Moorish Prince of Granada. 
In battle near Theba, on the frontier of Andalusia, he was 
killed as he impetuously led the onslaught against the Moors. 
His body was recovered and taken back to Scotland to be 
entombed. The silver casket was also recovered and the 
heart of the Bruce was interred in Melrose Abbey without 
ever having been laid at the holy sepulchre in Jerusalem. 

No name has been more deeply graven upon the hearts of 



the Scottish people than that of Robert Bruce. His achieve- 
ment in estabhshing the independence of his native land made 
him a great figure, and his knightly character won for him the 
undying affection of his countrymen. Romance has blossomed 
into full flower in the story of his life, while fact and imagi- 
nation have closely intermingled as his deeds have been re- 
hearsed. Upon the national life of Scotland he exercised a 
profound and enduring influence. He changed the histoiy 
of England as well as the history of Scotland, and made possi- 
ble the one great nation where two warring peoples had before 
existed. In tradition, folk lore, and poetry, the inspiration 
of his deeds and the loving loyalty that has encompassed his 
memory have enriched the literature of the English tongue. 
The estimation in which he is held in the enthusiasm and 
affection of his countrymen is well expressed by the spirited 
lines of the poet Cunningham: 

De Bruce! De Bruce! — with that proud call 

Thy glens, sweet Galloway, 
Grow bright with helm, and axe, and glaive. 

And plumes in close array; 
The English shafts are loosed, and see. 

They fall like winter sleet ; 
The southern nobles urge their steeds, 

Earth shudders 'neath their feet. 
Flow gently on, thou gentle Orr, 

Down to old Sol way's flood; 
The ruddy tide that strains thy streams 

Is England's richest blood. 

Flow gently onwards, gentle Orr 
Along thy greenwood banks; 



King Robert raised his martial cry, • 

And broke the English ranks. 
Black Douglass railed and wiped his blade, 

He and the gallant Graeme; 
And, as the lightning from the cloud. 

Here fiery Randolph came; 
And stubborn Maxwell too was here. 

Who spared nor strength nor steel; 
With him who won the winged spur 

Which gleams on Johnstone's heel. 

■ • • • • 

De Bruce! De Bruce! — on Dee's wild banks, 

And on Orr's silver side. 
Far other sounds are echoing now 

Than war-shouts answering wide; 
The reaper's horn rings merrily now; 

Beneath the golden grain. 
The sickle shines, and maiden's songs 

Glad all the glens again. 
But minstrel mirth and homely joy, 

And heavenly libertie — 
De Bruce! De Bruce! we owe them all 

To thy good sword and thee. 

Lord of the mighty heart and mind. 

And theme of many a song! 
Brave, mild, and meek, and merciful 

I see thee bound along — 
Thy helmet plume is seen afar, 

That never bore a stain; 
Thy mighty sword is flashing high. 

Which never fell in vain. 
Shout, Scotland, shout— till Carlisle wall 

Gives back the sound agen, — 
De Bruce! De Bruce! — less than a god 

But noblest of all men." 



Nor can we forget that he was the inspiration of Robert 
Burns' immortal verse, that is the Scottish national song: 

"Scots, wha hae wi' Wallace bled, 
Scots, wham Bruce has aften led. 
Welcome to your gory bed. 
Or to victorie." 

It was Thomas Carlyle who pronounced this "the best 
war ode that was ever written by any pen." 

Of the personal appearance of King Robert Bruce we have 
little knowledge. It is not known that his portrait was painted 
during his lifetime. That he was a man of large stature and 
great strength is indicated by the stories of his prowess which, 
even though they may have been somewhat exaggerated to 
suit the popular idea of the hero, were without doubt substan- 
tially based on fact. No man of small stature or of ordinary 
strength could have handled the broad sword as he is reported 
to have done, and the suffering and privation that he under- 
went must have worn out a man of ordinary physique long 
before middle age. The only description of him that has been 
left is the following from an ancient work : * 

"His figure was graceful and athletic, with broad shoulders; 
his features were handsome; he had the yellow hair of the 
northern race, with blue and sparking eyes. His intellect 
was quick, and he had the gift of fluent speech in the vernacu- 
lar, delightful to listen to." 

At Taymouth, the ancestral seat of the Earls of Breadal- 
bane, descendants of Sir John Campbell and of the Bruce 
line, there is a portrait of the Bruce painted by George Jamie- 

* Historia Majoris Britannise. 

(From Ihi i>irtiii-e iit Taymiiitth hy yamieson.) 


son, the Scottish painter of 1586-1644. Naturally, it is a work 
of imagination, but the artist could have been guided by 
traditions and descriptions that had been handed down to 
his time. The work is a bust portrait of a man clad in armor 
with a close-fitting cap on his head. The face is mild-featured 
and the eyes strikingly clear and penetrating. A flowing 
mustache half conceals the lines of the mouth and a long 
heavy beard falls upon the breast. In the left hand is held 
a battle-axe upright. A round frame holds the canvas and 
on this is the inscription "ANNO DOM. MCCCVI. RO- 

Robert Bruce married, first, Isabel of Mar, daughter of 
Donald, the tenth earl of Mar; second, Elizabeth Aylmer de 
Burgh, daughter of Richard de Burgh, the second earl of 

Issue ; 

1. Marjory Bruce. She married Walter, High Steward of 
Scotland, Earl of Renfrew, and became ancestress of the royal 
house of Stewart of Scotland and England. 

2. David Bruce. Born in 1324, he succeeded to the throne 
as David II. on the death of his father when he was only five 
years of age. With his child consort Joanna, he was crowned 
at Scone in 1331. The reign of the baby king did not open 
auspiciously. Edward Baliol, son of John Baliol, the former 
king, had been exiled in France for many years but now saw 
his opportunity. In 1332, three years after the death of King 
Robert, he came secretly to Scotland by way of England, 
raised an army, and defeated the Scots on the Muir of Dup- 
plin on August 11 of that year. He was crowned at Scone 
a month later and young King David and his bride were sent 
over to France for security. For more than a decade, Baliol 



and his supporters, English and Scottish nobles, contended 
for mastery of the country. In 1341, King David and Queen 
Joanna were brought back from France, but in battle near 
Durham in October, 1346, he was captured by the English 
and taken to London where for eleven years he was held in 
captivity. During this time the affairs of Scotland were man- 
aged by the regents and patriotic nobles until finally in 1357 
Edward of England abandoned further attempts to conquer 
the northern country, entered upon terms of peace by the 
treaty of Berwick and set King David free. For fourteen 
years he wore the crown, but his reign was not brilliant. He 
died in Edinburgh Castle, February 22, 1371. He married, 
first, Joanna, daughter of King Edward II. of England. She 
died in 1362. He married, second, Margaret Logic, widow of 
Sir John Logie, a Scottish gentlewoman of great beauty. He 
left no issue. 

3. Margaret, or Jane, Bruce. She married, first, Robert 
Glen; second, William, Earl of Sutherland. 

4. Matildis Bruce, who married Thomas Isaac. 

5. Robert Bruce, of whom below. 

6. Elizabeth Bruce, who married Sir Walter Oliphant of 

7. John Bruce, who died in infancy. 

8. Walter Bruce of Odiston on the Clyde. 

9. Nigel Bruce who was killed at the battle of Durham. 


NESS ji^J-'^'^'^'^'^ 

TIf /fiiimiitt i.f Clfi, kmannnn Tmrn: Tfirri< Nprr firr erected mthin a ithnrt rlhttinir ufrnch nihrv ; b»t 
(fits trim thfprhieijtal icj/rfciicr of ihf fnm'ify brfure Robert Hi uce gained the thmnr. 



AN important chapter in the history of the Bruce 
family is that dealing with the distribution of the 
various branches throughout the mainland of 
Scotland and the adjacent islands. The name became con- 
spicuously identified not only with Scotland, where the younger 
branch settled in the eleventh century and was most famous, 
but also with England where the same branch, as well as the 
elder, has given to public life many distinguished men and 
women. The branch from which the American Bruces came 
adhered to its early Scottish habitat. For several generations 
immediately after King Robert Bruce I., its representative was 
established at Clackmannan, one of the great Bruce's castle 
homes. Then toward the close of the fifteenth century a 
cadet of the house moved to Cultmalindie, in Perthshire, 
marrying into one of the leading families of that section. 

Both in Clackmannan and in Cultmalindie these branches 
of the Bruce family became famous and for generations were 
actively and substantially identified with the life of those 
localities. Particularly the Bruces of Clackmannan were 
numbered among the great noble houses for several cen- 
turies. The heads of the house were active and influential 
in all public aifairs and worthily carried the honors of their 
distinguished ancestors. 

7 97 


Nearly a hundred years later, the head of this branch went 
to Shetland, thus reverting to the ancestral home of the Bruces 
more than five hundred years before. This re-establishment 
of the Bruces in Shetland and Orkney was of an especially 
interesting character. In 1565 the crown' lands of the old 
earldom of Orkney and Caithness were conferred by royal 
grant upon Sir Robert Stewart of Strathdon who subsequently 
was created Earl of Orkney and Lord of Zetland (Shetland). 
This earl of Stewart was an elder half-brother, on his mother's 
side, of Laurence Bruce of Cultmalindie in the parish of Tib- 
bermore and county of Perth. 

One branch of Laurence Bruce's family remained in Shet- 
land and Orkney where ever since it has been numerous and 
strong. The elder branch clung to the old home in Cult- 
malindie until the close of the seventeenth century when the 
eldest son of the main line moved to Caithness, another local- 
ity which by virtue of brilliant historical associations clearly 
pertains to the Bruces. There Robert Bruce, the grand- 
father of George Bruce of Edinburgh and New York, was 
bdrn in the little village of Watten on the banks of Loch 
Watten, the largest lake in the district. There also were born 
his son John Bruce, father of George Bruce, and his grand- 
sons who carried the family name to distinction in the western 


Robert Bruce, tenth of the name, son of King Robert 
Bruce, was created Earl of Ross by his elder half-brother, King 
David II., after the death of William, the third earl of Ross. 



He was killed at the battle of Dupplin August 11, 1332. 
He married Helen Vipont, daughter of Captain Allan Vipont, 
of Lochleven. , 


1. Robert Bruce, of whom below. 

2. Marie Bruce, who married Sir Alexander Scrimgeour of 


Robert Bruce, eleventh of the name, son of the preceding, 
is on record as having received the castle of Clackmannan 
from King David II., the charter, dated December 9, 1359, 
being to " delicto et fideli consanguineo suo Roberto de Bruys." 
By this charter Bruce received the castle and manor of Clack- 
mannan, Gyrmanston, Garclew, Wester Kennault, Pitf ol- 
den, and other lands in the sheriffdom of Clackmannan. In 
October, 1364, he had other grants in the same sheriffdom and 
in January, 1367-68, lands in Rait within the sheriffdom of 

He was killed in the battle of Shrewsbury July 23, 1403. 

He married Isabel Stewart, daughter of Sir Robert Stewart 
of Roslyth or Rosyth castle. 

Issue : 

1. Robert Bruce, of whom below. 

2. Edward Bruce, ancestor of the Bruces of Airth, Earlshall, 
and Stenhouse. 

3. Alexander Bruce, ancestor of the Bruces of Garbot. 

4. James Bruce, Bishop of Dunkeld, 1441, and High Chan- 
cellor of Scotland, 1440; died in 1447. 

5. Helen Bruce, who married David Ross of Balnagowan. 




Robert Bruce, twelfth of the name, son of the preceding, 
was the second baron of Clackmannan. In 1393, he received 
the lands and castle of Rait or Raith by charter from King 
Robert Bruce III. who called him "my beloved cousin." 

He died in 1405. 

He married a daughter of Sir John Scrimgeour of Dudhope, 
constable of Dundee castle. Sir John Scrimgeour was con- 
stable before 1400, under Alexander, Earl of Ross, Lord of 
the Isles and Baron Kincardine. His father, Sir James 
Scrimgeour, fell in battle at Harlaw, fighting under Alexander, 
Earl of Mar, against Donald, Lord of the Isles, July 24, 1411. 

Issue : 

1. David Bruce, of whom below. 

2. John Bruce. 

3. Patrick Bruce. 

4. Thomas Bruce. 


David Bruce, of Clackmannan castle and manor, son of 
the preceding, was the third baron of Clackmannan. 

He married Jean Stewart, daughter of Sir John Stewart of 
Innermeath and Lorn. 

Issue : 

1. John Bruce, of whom below. 

2. Patrick Bruce, 1449. 

3. James Bruce, 1450. 


John Bruce, son of the preceding, was the fourth baron 
of Clackmannan. 



He married Elizabeth Stewart, daughter of Sir David 
Stewart of Rosyth castle. 


1. David Bruce. He was knighted by James IV. He 
married, first, Janet Stirling, daughter of Sir William Stirling 
of Keir; second, Marion (Herries) Stewart, daughter of Sir 
Robert Herries of Terreagles, and widow of David Stewart of 

2. Robert Bruce, of Cultmalindie, of whom below. 


Robert Bruce, second son of the preceding, was of Cult- 
malindie, parish of Tibbermore, County of Perth. 

He died in 1508. 

He married in 1475 Janet Barbour, daughter of John 
Barbour of Cultmalindie, and by this marriage received half 
of the Cultmalindie lands. 


Hector Bruce, son of the preceding, succeeded his father 
at Cultmalindie. 

He died in 1535. 

He married January 19, 1502, Gelis Wardlaw, daughter of 
John Wardlaw. 


John Bruce, son of the preceding, was also of Cultmalindie. 
He died in 1569. 

He married Euphame of Elphinston, daughter of Alexander, 
the first baron of Elphinston. 



Issue : 

1. Lawrence Bruce, of whom below. 

2. Robert Bruce, who is traditionally said to have been the 
father of William Bruce of Symbister. 

3. Henry Bruce. 

4. James Bruce. 


Lawrence Bruce, of Cultmalindie, son of the preceding, 
went to Scotland in 1571. His uterine brother. Lord Robert 
Stewart, appointed him underfowde of the earldom in the 
Shetlands and Orkneys, an office corresponding to that of 
governor. That appointment determined him to make his 
home in the islands, and accordingly he went thither with his 
family, establishing his residence on the island of Unst. He 
became a large owner of lands on that and other islands, and 
in 1598 he commenced building the castle of Muness on the 
island of Unst, a work that was completed by his son Andrew. 
In August, 1614, the Privy Council appointed him a commis- 
sioner to apprehend any of the rebels from Orkney who might 
seek shelter in Shetland. 

He died in August, 1617. 

He married, first, Helen Kennedy, daughter of Alexander 
Kennedy of Girvan Mains; second, Elizabeth Grey, daughter 
of Patrick, fifth Lord Grey, by whom he had no issue. 

Issue of Lawrence and Helen (Kennedy) Bruce : 

1. Alexander Bruce, of whom below. 

2. Andrew Bruce, who succeeded to the paternal estates in 
Shetland. He died February 12, 1625. He married, in 1600, 
Isabel Sinclair, daughter of Malcolm Sinclair of Quendael. 




3. Helen Bruce, who married, in 1588, Adam Sinclair. 

4. Margaret Bruce, who married Alexander Fordyce. 

5. Marjory Bruce, who married Malcolm Mclnroy. 

6. Elizabeth Bruce. 


Alexander Bruce, of Cultmalindie, had a charter of 
confirmation March 24, 1587, securing to him the lands of 
Cultmalindie granted to him by his father. 

He died October 23, 1624. 

He married, December 15, 1568, Jean Oliphant, daughter 
of Lawrence, the fourth Lord Oliphant. 

Issue : 

1. Lawrence Bruce. 

2. George Bruce, of whom below. 

3. Alexander Bruce. 

4. Helen Bruce. She married, first, Robert Moray, fiar of 
Abercairney; second, Malcolm Fleming. 

5. Barbara Bruce, who married David Smith. 

6. Jean Bruce. She married Hugh Sinclair and died 
March 8, 1644. 

7. Marjory Bruce. She married John Cheyne and died 
April 4, 1645. 

8. Margaret Bruce. 


George Bruce, of Cultmalindie, son of the preceding, sold 
his patrimony to James Drummond previous to May, 1667. 

He died in 1675. 

He married Margaret (Campbell) Stewart, daughter of 
Robert Campbell of Glenlyon, and widow of Robert Stewart 
of Ballechin. 



Issue : 

1. Lawrence Bruce. 

2. George Bruce, of whom below. 

3. Jean Bruce. 


George Bruce, son of the preceding, was the first of bis 
family to appear in Caithness. In the parish of Wick, March 
10, 1709, he married Anna Sutherland. 


Robert Bruce, son of the preceding, was a resident of 
Watten, Caithness. 

He married, November 2, 1728, Janet Sutherland, daughter 
of George Sutherland by his wife Margaret Bruce. 


1. John Bruce, of whom below. 

2. George Bruce, born May 19, 1732 


John Bruce, son of the preceding, was born in Watten, 
Caithness, April 8, 1730. 

He married, January 12, 1764, Janet Gilbertson, daughter 
of William Gilbertson of Watten. She was probably born 
in 1740, her baptism being of record October 27 of that year. 

Gilbertson. The Gilbertson family was originally of 
North of England antecedents. As the name indicates, it 
was a branch of the Gilbert stock, Gilbertson being simply 
the son of Gilbert. The Gilberts were people of distinction, 
being descended from Gilbert of Normandy, the name, mean- 



ing " bright fame," having been given to a crusader. Gilbert 
of Fontenelle was closely associated with William the Con- 
queror, and other distinguished representatives of the family 
were an Auvergnat knight of the second crusade, the English 
founder of the order of Gilbertine monks, and a Bishop of 
Caithness. According to the Heralds Visitation of Leicester- 
shire in 1619, William Gilbert, son of Hugh Gilbert, bore the 
following arms: gules, an armed leg couped at the thigh, in 
pale between two broken spears argent, headed or. Crest : a 
dexter arm embowed in armor proper, the hand darting a 
broken lance in bend sinister, the point argent, staff or. The 
Gilbertson coat of arms is identical with the above, proving 
consanguinity. The crest of the Gilbertson family is a snail 
in the shell proper. 

William Gilbertson moved with his individual family from 
the old home in England to Caithness in the early part of the 
eighteenth century. Births and deaths in his family are re- 
corded in the parish register of Wick which adjoins the parish 
of Watten, where John Bruce lived. He is there called 
William Gilbertson of Myrelandorne. He appears to have 
been a man of standing in the community, and his daughter 
took a substantial fortune to her husband. 

The Bruces and the Gilbertsons of this generation were 
admirable representatives of the industrious, hard-headed 
Scotch people who have made names for themselves, not alone 
in their native country, but in other parts of the world. Al- 
though they came from ancestors who had brilliant records, 
they prided themselves even more upon their honesty and 



integrity of character and their love of native land. They 
contributed well to the life of the little communities in which 
they lived and their sons and daughters were worthy descend- 
ants, who, in their way, cast further honor upon the names of 
their families. 

Issue : 

1. Elizabeth Bruce, born January 12, 1766. 

2. Janet Bruce, born April 15, 1768. 

3. David Bruce, born November 16, 1770. 

4. Whilhelmina Bruce, born in 1785. 

5. John Bruce, who died in Egypt fighting Napoleon. 

6. George Bruce of Edinburgh and New York, founder of 
the New York branch of the family; of whom below. 






SEVERAL Bruce families of Scotland and England have 
ranked high among the nobility of the United King- 
dom. Their representatives have been conspicuous 
in the social life of the periods in which they severally lived 
and have rendered their country signal service in affairs of 
state, in diplomacy, in war, and in literature. One line has 
been particularly noteworthy, that of Kinloss, Elgin, and 
Kincardine, which has given to the world several men and 
women of preeminent achievement and which produced 
Ghristiana Bruce, who married William Cavendish and was the 
progenitor of the great Dukes of Devonshire. 

The branch from which the Lords of Kinloss, and the Earls 
of Elgin, Ailsbury, and Kincardine sprang, connected with 
that from which George Bruce of Edinburgh and New York 
derived, in the person of John Bruce, the fourth Baron of 
Clackmannan who was in the fifth generation from King 
Robert Bruce I. and who married Elizabeth Stewart, daughter 
of Sir David Stewart of Rosyth Gastle. Sir David Bruce of 
Clackmannan, the eldest son of John Bruce and his wife 
Elizabeth (Stewart) Bruce, was knighted by King James IV., 
and was the immediate ancestor of this noble family. 

David Bruce, son of the preceding Sir David Bruce, be- 
came the seventh baron of Clackmannan. In 1497 he mar- 



ried Janet Blackadder, daughter of Sir Patrick Blackadder 
of Perthshire. He had a family of five sons and four daugh- 
ters, of whom the most prominent in the next generation was 
his second son, Edward Bruce, of whom below. 

Edward Bruce of Blairhall, second son of the preceding, 
married Alison Reid, daughter of William Reid of Aikenhead, 
County of Clackmannan, and sister of Robert Reid, Bishop 
of Orkney. He was president of the Court of Session from 
1543 until the time of his death in 1558. He died in France 
whither he had gone as a commissioner from Scotland to wit- 
ness the marriage of Mary, Queen of Scots, to the Dauphin 
of France. He had three sons, Edward Bruce, of whom be- 
low, Sir George Bruce, whose descendants became the Earls 
of Elgin, and William Bruce. 

Edward Bruce of Blairhall, second son of the preceding, 
was born about 1549. His public career began as early as 
1576 when he was judge of the Commissary Court of Edin- 
burgh. In the same year he received a grant of the Abbey of 
Kinloss in Ayrshire and was appointed one of the delegates 
of the Lord- Justice General of Scotland. He was commenda- 
tor of the Cistercian Abbey at Kinloss and was appointed lord 
of session in 1597. A devoted adherent of King James VI., 
he was active in all the intriguing of that period for the advance- 
ment of James. It was largely due to his efforts that the peace- 
able accession of the Stewart to the English throne was 
brought about, and he accompanied James to England to be 
present on the occasion of that monarch's coronation in 1603. 


MOHlSSiraMl ®7 JL.ffliBJBBK'JJSS.SK TJHS K®IIi£.S ®!Hi!J?S!t. 


He became a naturalized subject of England, was made a 
member of the Privy Council of both kingdoms, and was 
raised to the peerage with the title of Baron Bruce of Kinloss. 
In 1604 he succeeded Sir Thomas Egerton to the mastership 
of the rolls. He died January 14, 1610-11, and was buried 
in the Rolls Chapel in Chancery Lane, London, where a 
monument was erected to his memory. This memorial 
structure shows his effigy recumbent clothed in the habit of 
the master of rolls. Upon it is the following inscription: 


We were — we are no more. 

Sacrae Memoriae Domi- To the sacred memory of 

ni Edwardi Bruce, Baronis Lord Edward Bruce, Baron 

Bruce, Kinlossensis, sacro- Bruce of Kinloss. Of the sa- 

rum scriniorum Magistridica- cred Records Master who died 

tum, qui Obiit 14 Jan. Sal Jan. 14th, 1610 of the age of 62, 

1610 Aetat 62 Jacobi Regis 8. in the 8th of James the King. 

Brucius Edvardus situs hie Bruce Edward buried here, 
et Scotus et Anglus; both Scot and English, 

Scotus ut ortu, Anglis sic As Scot by birth, so sprung 
oriundus avis, from English ancestors, 

Regno in utroque decus tu- In each kingdom glory he 
lit, auctus honoribus amplis, maintained, entrusted with 

great offices, 

Regi a consiliis regni utri- To the King he was of 
usque; fuit Councils of each kingdom; 

Conjuge, prole, nuro, ge- In Wife, Children, Daugh- 

nero, spe, reque beatus; ter-in-law, son-in-law, hope 

and estate blessed, 

Vivere nos docuit, nunc do- He taught us to live ; now 

cet ecce mori. teaches lo! to die. 



He married Magdalen Clark, daughter of Alexander Clark 
of Balbirny in Fife. 

The eldest son of Edward and Magdalen (Clark) Bruce was 
Edward Bruce, the second Lord Bruce of Kinloss. He was 
a Knight of the Bath and was killed in Holland in an historic 
duel by Sir Edward Sackville, afterwards Earl of Dorset, 
who had long been his close companion. 

"It appears that Lord Bruce was a nobleman of singu- 
larly gentle and amiable manners, and had been intimate from 
boyhood with Sir Edward Sackville, a young man of profli- 
gate and dissolute habits. An attachment had grown up be- 
tween Lord Bruce and Lady Clementina Sackville, Sir Ed- 
ward's sister, and it was agreed that when he had attained 
to manhood they should be married. One day when going 
out hunting at Culross in Fifeshire, an old woman was nearly 
ridden over by Sir Edward who struck at her several times 
with his whip. Lord Bruce begged him to calm himself, and 
said 'Don't hurt her, she's a spae-wife.' The old woman ex- 
claimed: 'Ride on to your hunting, young man. You will 
not have the better sport for abusing the helpless infirmities 
of old age. Some day you two will go out to a different kind 
of sport and one only will come back alive.' "* 

Despite the intimacy of the two young men Sir Edward, on 
two occasions, when under the influence of wine, insulted and 
struck Lord Bruce in the face. For his love of Lady Sack- 
ville he bore this insult at first with calmness, but upon its 
repetition he felt compelled to defend his honor. In those 
days a duel was inevitable under the circumstances, and 
without delay the young men arranged to meet upon the 
field of honor. 

♦Histories of Noble British Familiei, by Henry Drummond. 


"Bruce then went and took leave of his mother, and then of 
Lady Clementine Sackville, and going abroad sent a challenge 
to Sir Edward. A piece of ground was bought near Bergen 
of Zoom that they should not be interrupted arid thither they 
repaired. Nothing is known of the particulars of the duel 
but from a letter of Sir Edward's, in which the account bears 
upon the face of it the stamp of truth and whence it appears 
that Bruce would accept of no quarter and was determined 
that one or the other should die; and that he was very nearly 
victor himself, for Sir Edward was badly wounded, but Lord 
Bruce died. The place is called by the name of Bruce's Field 
to this day. The heart of Lord Bruce after being placed in a 
silver case, was brought to this country and interred in the 
vault or burying ground adjoining the old Abbey of Culross in 

In a treatise on second sight, by John Aubrey, it is said : 

"The unfortunate Lord Bruce, saw distinctly the figure or 
impression of a mort head, in the looking-glass in his chamber, 
that very morning he set out for the fatal place of rendezvous, 
where he lost his life in a duel, and asked some of them that 
stood by him, if they observed that strange appearance; 
which they answered in the negative. His remains were in- 
terred at Bergen-op-Zoom, over which a monument was 
erected, and the emblem of a looking-glass impressed with a 
mort head, to perpetuate the surprising representation which 
seemed to indicate his approaching untimely end. The 
monument stood entire for a long time."f 

The second son of Edward and Magdalen (Clark) Bruce 
was Thomas Bruce who became the first Earl of Elgin. The 
youngest son was Robert Bruce, the Baron of Skelton. The 
only daughter of the family, Christiana Bruce, married, in 
1608, William Cavendish, second Earl of Devonshire. 

* Histories of Noble British Families, by Henry Drummond. 
t Miscellania Scotic.i. 
8 113 


Thomas Bruce, the third Lord of Kinloss and the first 
Earl of Elgin, succeeded to the title upon the death of his 
elder brother, unmarried. He was born in Edinburgh, De- 
cember 2, 1599. Attending King Charles I. into Scotland, in 
1632, he was created Earl of Elgin in that year, and, in 1641, 
was created a peer of England, with the title of Baron Bruce 
of Whorlton. He died December 21, 1663. He married, 
first, Anne Chichester, daughter of Sir Robert Chichester of 
Devonshire; second, Diana Vere, dowager of Henry Vere, 
Earl of Oxford, and the second daughter of William, Earl 
of Exeter, by his wife Elizabeth Drury. 

Robert Bruce, the second Earl of Elgin, son of the pre- 
ceding, succeeded his father in 1663. He was Lord Lieu- 
tenant of the County of Bedford in 1660 and a member of 
Parliament in 1660 and 1661. He was a member of the 
Privy Council in 1678 and was appointed lord chamberlain 
of the household of King James VII. He was created Baron 
Bruce of Skelton, Yorkshire, and was Viscount Bruce of 
Ampthill, Bedfordshire, and Earl of Ailsbury in Bucking- 
hamshire in the peerage of England. He died at Ampthill, 
in Bedfordshire, in 1685. He married, in 1646, Lady Diana 
Grey, second daughter of Henry, first Earl of Stamford, and 
had eight sons and nine daughters. Five sons died young. 

Thomas Bruce was the third Earl of Elgin and the second 
Earl of Ailesbury. He was the sixth and eldest surviving son 
of the preceding Robert Bruce, and succeeded his father in 
the title in 1685. He adhered to the cause of King James II., 



and in 1695 was active in the plottings in which so many 
Scottish noblemen were involved to restore that monarch to 
the throne. He was apprehended by the English authorities 
and committed to the Tower of London in February, 1695-6. 
During the time of his confinement in the Tower his wife died 
through apprehension of the fate that might overtake him. 
After his release he left England and went to Holland to live. 
He died in Brussels in 1741, having been a resident in that city 
after 1698. He married, first, in 1676, Elizabeth Seymour, 
daughter of Henry Seymour, Lord Beauchamp, co-heir of 
Mary Tudor, sister of Henry VIII. ; she was a sister of William, 
Duke of Somerset, a lineal descendant of Mary, Queen of 
France, daughter of King Henry VII., and was connected by 
blood with several of the most ancient noble families of the 
kingdom. He married, second, Charlotte, Countess of Sannu, 
of the house of Argenteau, Duchy of Brabant. 

Charles Bruce, second son of the preceding, was the 
fourth Earl of Elgin and the third Earl of Ailesbury. He 
succeeded his father in 1741. He was chosen a member of 
Parliament in 1707, 1708, and 1710. Under the title of Baron 
Bruce of Whorlton, he was one of the twelve peers who were 
created and summoned December 31, 1711, to secure for the 
government a tory majority in the House of Lords. In 1746 
he was created Baron Bruce of Tottenham. He married, 
first. Lady Jane Saville, eldest daughter of William, Marquis 
of Halifax, and she died in 1717; second, in 1720, Lady Juliana 
Boyle, daughter of Charles. Earl of Burlington, and she died 



in 1739; third, in 1739, Caroline Campbell, daughter of John 
Campbell, afterward Duke of Argyle. He left no surviving 
male issue and the title Earl of Elgin devolved on Charles 
Bruce, the ninth Earl of Kincardine. 

The line of Charles Bruce, the ninth Earl of Kincardine 
and the fifth Earl of Elgin, also unites with that of the Ameri- 
can Bruces in Sir John Bruce (xxvi)* who was the father of 
Robert Bruce (xxvii)t of Cultmalindie, extending through 
his son. Sir David Bruce, his grandson, Sir David Bruce, and 
his great-grandson, Edward Bruce of Blairhall.J 

George Bruce of Carnock, third son of Edward Bruce of 
Blairhall by his wife Alison Reid, was prominent in trade and 
manufacturing and did much to develop the coal mines in 
Culross early in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. He 
was knighted by King James VI. in 1604, and died May 6, 
1625. He married Margaret Primrose, daughter of Archi- 
bald Primrose of Burnbrae. 

George Bruce of Carnock, eldest son of the preceding, was 
a man of affairs and took a prominent interest in the political 
movements of his day. He was a member of the commission 
appointed to treat with England in regard to the union of the 
two kingdoms in July, 1604. He married Mary Preston, 
daughter of Sir John Preston of Valleyfield. His son, Edward 
Bruce, was created Earl of Kincardine and Lord Bruce of 
Torrey in 1662 and died without issue, being succeeded in 
1662 by his brother, Alexander, the second Earl of Kincardine, 

♦Page 100. t Page 101. J Page 110. 

r u 



whose second son, Alexander Bruce, the third Earl of Kin- 
cardine, died in 1705 unmarried. 

Alexander Bruce, the second Earl of Kincardine, was a man 
of extraordinary character. His deep and lively concern in 
political affairs compelled him to exile himself from Scotland 
in 1657, and he did not return until 1660. After the Restora- 
tion Scotland was a possible place of residence for him, and 
in the quietude that followed he was occupied in business; 
but after a time he again devoted himself to public affairs, 
being particularly thus engaged from 1660 to 1676, during 
which time he held various offices of trust. In 1676 his ac- 
tivity and influence became of such a pronounced character 
that the king dismissed him from the Scottish Privy Council. 
During his residence in Holland he married, in 1659,'; Veronica, 
daughter of Corneille Van Arson Van Sommelsdyck, Lord 
of Sommelsdyck and Spycke. This marriage added much 
wealth to his own considerable possessions and made him one 
of the great and prosperous men of his day. He was engaged 
in the Greenland whale fisheries, in quarrying, and in other 
industries and substantially increased his fortune. He was 
a man of wide culture and varied attainments, and of unusual 
personality in many ways. An historian has said of him that 
he was a 

" man of deep personal religion, of highly refined tastes and 
of very wide attainments; medicine, chemistry, classics, math- 
ematics, mechanical appliances of every kind especially as ad- 
apted to his mining enterprises, divinity, heraldry, horticulture, 
forestry, pisciculture, mining and the management of estates."* 

* Dictionary of National Biography, by Leslie Stephen. 


Robert Bruce of Broomhall, brother of the preceding 
George Bruce of Carnock, was the third son of the first Sir 
George Bruce of Carnock. After the lapsing of the title in 
the line of the elder brother through the death without issue 
of the sons and grandsons of the second George Bruce of 
Carnock, his family became first in the male line, although he 
himself had died half a century before the title came to his 
sons. He was a member of the legal profession, was admit- 
ted an advocate, and became eminent among the practition- 
ers of his time. He was lord of session, appointed in June, 
1649. He died in June, 1652. He married Helen Skene, 
daughter of Sir James Skene of Curriehill. It was through 
him and his son Alexander, in the direct line from the first 
Sir George Bruce of Carnock, that the famous Earls of Elgin 
and Kincardine of later generations derive. 

Alexander Bruce, the fourth Earl of Kincardine, son of 
Robert Bruce of Broomhall, took his seat in Parliament 
in 1706. He married Christiana, daughter of Robert Bruce 
of Blairhall, son of Edward Bruce of Blairhall, and was suc- 
ceeded in turn by his three sons, Robert Bruce, Alexander 
Bruce, and Thomas Bruce. 

Thomas Bruce, the seventh Earl of Kincardine, son of the 
preceding, was born March 19, 1663. He died March 26, 1740. 
He married Rachel Pauncefort, daughter of Robert Paunce- 
fort of Hereford. 

William Bruce, the eighth Earl of Kincardine, son of the 



preceding, possessed the title only a few months, dying Sep- 
tember 8, 1740. He married, in 1726, Janet Roberton, 
daughter of James Roberton of Lanark; she died March 29, 

Charles Bruce, the ninth Earl of Kincardine, son of the 
preceding, was born about 1722. He succeeded his father 
in 1740, and in 1747 attained to the Scottish earldoms of Elgin 
and Ailesbury on the death of his kinsman, the fourth Earl of 
Elgin; thenceforth he was styled Earl of Elgin and Kincardine. 
He was active in promoting agriculture in both parts of the 
United Kingdom and developed important industrial enter- 
prises. He died in Broomhall May 14, 1771. In the church- 
yard of Dunfermline Abbey a handsome monument stands 
to his memory and is thus inscribed: 

"Sacred to the memory of Charles, Earl of Elgin and 
Kincardine, who died the 14th of May, 1771, aged 39 years. 
By the goodness of his heart and the virtues of his life, he 
adorned the high rank which he possessed. In his manners 
amiable and gentle; in his affections warm and glowing; in 
his temper modest, candid and cheerful; in his conduct, 
manly and truly honorable; in the character of husband, 
father, friend and master, as far as human imperfection ad- 
mits, unblemished. Pious, without superstition; charitable 
without ostentation. While he lived the blessing of him that 
was ready to perish came upon him. Now their tears em- 
balm his memory. Reader! beholding here laid in the dust 
the remains which once so much virtue adorned, think of the 
vanity of life; look forward to its end, and prepare, as he did, 
for immortality." 

He married, in 1759, Martha White, daughter of Thomas 



White of London, and was succeeded by his son, William 
Robert Bruce, who died only two months after his father. 

Thomas Bruce, second son of the preceding Charles Bruce, 
was the seventh Earl of Elgin and the eleventh Earl of Kin- 
cardine. He was born in 1756 and educated at Harrow and 
Westminster, afterwards studying at St. Andrew's and in 
Paris. He entered the army in 1785 and rapidly rose to the 
rank of major-general in 1809. It was in diplomacy, however, 
that he achieved his greatest distinction, and he has been re- 
membered as one of the ablest and most brilliant diplomats 
in the history of modern England. In 1790 he was intrusted 
with a special mission to the Emperor Leopold of Belgium, 
and in this opportunity he was so preeminently successful 
that he was sent as Envoy-Extraordinary to the Court 
of Brussels in 1792. Subsequently he was Envoy-Extraor- 
dinary and Minister-Plenipotentiary to the Court of Berlin 
in 1795. 

He was appointed Ambassador-Extraordinary and Minister- 
Plenipotentiary to the Sublime Ottoman Porte in 1799, and 
there he entered upon a mission in connection with the preser- 
vation of the ancient works of art of Greece that gave him 
worldwide fame and entitled him to the admiration of all 
lovers of art. Taking up the study and examination of 
Grecian art he was soon embued with an enthusiasm that 
carried him quite beyond his original intentions until the pur- 
suit absorbed his mind and his time exclusively for many 
years. His initial movement was made to have permission 



5/ IS'- ..T «0.( r,t'-,f..r> 


from the Porte to carry on the work that he contemplated. 
This concession was secured in 1801 and the privilege was 
granted to him to make drawings and reproductions of the 
Grecian sculptures of the Parthenon and elsewhere, and to 
take away such of those remains as he might desire. Em- 
ploying competent artistic assistants he made a large collec- 
tion of the antiquities which he had ready for transporta- 
tion to England in 1803. This was only the nucleus for the 
great collection which subsequently became known as the 
Elgin Marbles, additions being made to it from time to time 
until 1812. 

As soon as all these works of art were safely landed in Eng- 
land he arranged an exhibition of them in London, and they 
excited the wonder and admiration of all who saw them. He 
did not, however, entirely escape criticism, for there were many 
ready to accuse him of vandalism in removing these art works 
from their original home in Greece. In this connection 
Byron's scathing poem, "The Curse of Minerva" will be re- 
called. In the course of time, however, his acts have come to 
be generally approved, and in 1816 the whole collection was 
purchased for the nation. 

From 1790 to 1840 Lord Elgin was one of the representa- 
tive peers of Scotland, but after his return from the East to 
England he took but little part in public affairs, his life being 
embittered by the criticisms that were made upon him by 
many of his contemporaries. He died November 14, 1841. 
He married, first, in 1799, Mary Nisbet, the only child of 
William H. Nisbet of Dirleton, Haddingtonshire; second, in 



September, 1810, Elizabeth Oswald, daughter of James T. 
Oswald, of Dunnikier, Fifeshire. 

James Bruce, second son of the preceding, by his second 
wife Elizabeth Oswald, was the eighth Earl of -Elgin and the 
twelfth Earl of Kincardine. He was educated at Eton and at 
Christ Church, Oxford, and became a Fellow of Merton. 
On the death of his father in 1841, he succeeded to the Scottish 
earldoms. Entering the diplomatic service of his country he 
became one of the most famous diplomats of his time, rival- 
ling in achievement even his father. In March, 1842, he was 
appointed Governor of the Island of Jamaica and his adminis- 
tration there under specially discouraging conditions was pre- 
eminently satisfactory. His success won for him promotion 
to the governorship of Canada where he was sent in 1846. 
Troublous times were then in the Dominion, riots and other 
disturbances throughout the country upsetting affairs and 
giving both the local and the home government much anxiety. 
The new Governor-General, however, was again successful 
and after an eight-year term of service he was able to leave the 
Dominion in a much more healthful condition politically and 
industrially than it was when he arrived. 

In 1857 he was sent as an envoy to China, but before reach- 
ing there he was ordered to India to aid in suppressing the 
mutiny which had broken out in that colony. Having done 
admirable service in that emergency he returned to China and 
negotiated a treaty with that country, and also with Japan. 
In 1859 he was a member of Lord Palmerston's Cabinet, 



holding the portfoUo of Postmaster-General. The distinction 
of his achievements in public life brought him abundant recog- 
nition, and he was elected Rector of Glasgow University and 
received the freedom of the Gity of London. 

In 1860 he was sent as an Envoy to Ghina on another deli- 
cate mission, and two years later was appointed Viceroy and 
Governor-General of India. Leaving England in January of 
1862 he entered upon the duties of his new position with some 
misgivings on account of ill-health. He was able to accomplish 
a great deal of good, however, in the two short years that he 
lived, his death occurring from heart disease at Dharmsala in 
November, 1863. He married, first, April 22, 1841, Elizabeth 
Mary Bruce, only daughter of Gharles Lennox Cumming- 
Bruce; second, in 1847, Lady Louisa Mary Lambton, daugh- 
ter of the first Earl of Durham. 

Frederick William Adolphus Bruce, the youngest son 
of Thomas and Elizabeth (Oswald) Bruce, also won distinc- 
tion in the diplomatic service of Great Britain. He was born 
at Broomhall, Fifeshire, April 11, 1814. He was first ap- 
pointed Golonial Secretary at Hongkong in 1844, and sub- 
sequent appointments were Lieutenant-Governor of New- 
foundland in 1846; Gonsul-General to Bolivia in 1847; Gharge 
d'Aflf aires to Uruguay in 1851; and Agent and Gonsul- 
General to Egypt in 1853. He was secretary to his brother 
James Bruce, Ambassador-Extraordinary to Ghina in 1857, 
and was appointed Envoy-Extraordinary and Minister- 
Plenipotentiary to Ghina in the following year. In 1865 he 



was transferred to the United States where, as British Minister 
at Washington, he won the approval of both his home govern- 
ment and that of the United States. His term of sei-vice in 
the United States lasted less than two years, ending with his 
death which occurred suddenly in Boston September 19,1867. 
He was not married. He was buried in Dunfermline Abbey. 





:^ -'vi 




IN the peerage line the Bruces of Glaekmannan and their 
offshoots longest maintained their identity. Descent 
in male stock was preserved for many generations, and 
title and possessions were held by worthy sons of the name. 
The Elgin, Ailesbury, and Kincardine were the most famous 
of these branches and contributed most vigorously and most 
brilliantly to the history of their country. But other strong 
lines long persisted and from some of them branches extended 
even into foreign lands. Most noted among these was 
probably that of Airth from which sprang the Bruces of Earls- 
hall, Kinnaird, and Stenhouse and the Counts Bruce of 
France. Some of the branches of this line were scarcely less 
distinguished than their parent stem. 

" And in Scotland still, not far removed from the old sites of 
Dunfermline, Clackmannan, and Rosyth, and still possessing 
Broomhall, Gulross, Blairhall, etc., etc., we must look for the 
chief of that ancient house; whilst on the south side of the 
Forth some few scions still remain of the house of Airth, and in 
foreign lands we find many willing to claim kindred and bear- 
ing for centuries the same arms. The Gomtes de Brus 
in France we have been enabled to trace from their origin. 
Russia, Prussia, and Sweden have also their branches; and 
the Princesses des Home of Salm and Stolberg took pains to 
prove their descent from their mother, the Lady Charlotte 
Maria Bruce, daughter of Thomas, third Earl of Elgin, who 



married at Brussels, in 1698, Charlotte, Countess de Sanu, 
of the noble house of Argenteau, in the Duchy of Brabant, 
one of whose grand-daughters became the wife of Charles 
Edward, Chevalier de St. George."* 

In the day of Wallace the patriot, Erthe or -Arth was one of 
the great strongholds on the banks of the Firth. It was held 
by a garrison of English soldiers who oppressed and maltreated 
the people of the neighborhood. They imprisoned many, 
including an uncle of Wallace, the priest (6f Dunipace, in a 
cave or cell under the castle, and thereupon Wallace attacked 
the stronghold and, killing its defenders, rescued the prisoners. 
On the west side is a tower that is still called Wallace's tower 
and the spot is pointed out where he killed most of the English 
soldiers. The De Erths recovered their property after a 
while and it was retained by them until well into the fifteenth 
century. The family was very ancient and highly connected, 
its sons and daughters marrying into various families of 
distinction. Of Alexander de Airth, 1296, Nisbet says: 

"An ancient family in Stirlingshire, that had the baronies 
of Airth, Carnock, Playne, etc., etc., which in the reign of James 
I came to heirs female, and by marriage to the Bruces, 
Drummonds and Somervilles." f 

The name occurs frequently in the Ragman Rolls and other 
Scottish records from the latter part of the thirteenth 
century. In 1426-27 Alexander de Arth was one of the 
representatives of Malyse, Earl of Strathearn by his mother 

* Famfly Records of the Bruces and Cumyns, by M. E. Cumming Bruce, p. 296. 
t Ragman Rolls, by A. Nisbet. 



Matilda, one of the daughters of that earl by his third wife, 
Isabel, daughter of Magnus, Earl of Caithness and Orkney. 
Because in the reign of King David II. he gave his eldest 
daughter, Johanna, in marriage to Narrenne, Earl of Surrey, 
" an enemy of King and Kingdom," the Earl of Strathearn was 
forfeited of his title by King Robert II. 

Edward Bruce, second son of Sir Robert Bruce of Clack- 
mannan by Isabel Stewart of Rosyth,* married Agnes de Erth, 
eldest daughter and co-heiress of William de Erth, and thus 
his family came into possession of Erth or Airth. Personally 
he does not appear to have held that property, as he proba- 
bly died before his father-in-law and his father. He left two 
sons, Robert Bruce and William Bruce. His widow married 
secondly an Elphinston, of a family with which the Bruces 
in several lines were often matrimonially connected. 

Sir Robert Bruce of Airth, son of the preceding, married 
Agnes Livingstone, a daughter of Sir Alexander Livingstone. 
With his father-in-law and other nobles he was constantly 
embroiled in the political controversies of his time. His activ- 
ity made him an object of jealousy on the part of the courtiers 
of King James II., and he lost his life thereby in 1449-50. 

"That samen yer, the xixth dai of Janvier, James II held 
his first parliament. Then was forfaulted Sir Alexander 
Levingstone, Lord Kallender, and James Dundas of that 
Ilk; and Robert Bruce, the Lord of Clackmannan's brother 
(nephew) and James Levingstone, son and heir of the said 

* XXm on p. 99. 


Alexander, was put to deid, baith togidder, on the Castle hill. 
Their heides stricken off the 3d dale of the Parliament." * 

Sir William Bruce, brother of the preceding, went to 
France and entered the service of King Charles VIII. He 
•was greatly beloved and honored by that monarch, by whom 
he was made a knight of the order of St. Michael and re- 
ceived permission to add the fleur-de-luce to his arms. The 
Earlshall family founded by him through his grand-nephew. 
Sir Alexander Bruce of Brigham, ever after bore arms with 
that distinction. 

Sir Alexander Bruce, only son of Sir Robert and Agnes 
(Livingstone) Bruce succeeded to his father's title and lands 
upon the return of the family to the royal favor in 1451. He 
married, first, Joneta, daughter of Alexander, the first Lord 
Livingstone, and, she dying without issue, he married, second, 
Margaret Forrester, daughter of Sir Malcolm Forrester. 

Sir John Bruce, eldest son of the preceding, died before 
his father. He lived at Stanehouse which appears to have 
been the property and residence of the heir apparent of Airth 
for some generations. He was involved in many of the politi- 
cal troubles of the time and became so conspicuous in his 
doings that he was placed under ban as a traitor, as appears 
from an act of Parliament, November 6, 1481. 

"The quhilk tyme the saide Commissioners chargeit Jolme 
the Brois of Erthe, Constable Depute in that pairt to call Alex- 
ander, Duke of Albany, the Earl of Marche, and others, to 

* Auchencleck Chronicle, p. 26. 


compere in our Souveraine Lorde's Parliament to answer for 
their crimes of treason." 

In some one of these difficulties engendered by the passions 
that made Scotland so long a bloody field of family and 
neighborhood animosities, he met a tragic death. As appears 
by the Criminal Trials, he was " sclaughtered " by the Men- 
teiths, brothers of his wife. 

"28th January 1488-89, William Menteith of the Kerss, 
Archibald, his brother, Alexander Menteith, for thaim, their 
kyn and frendis, on the tae pairt; 'Robert the Broisse of 
Arthe,' 'Alexander,' 'Lucas' and 'Robert Broisse ' for thaim 
and bre her, emes, and friendis, on the uther pairt; bind and 
oblije theimselves to abide the sentence of the Lords of Coun- 
cil ' tuiching the making of Amendis for the sclaughter of 
umquhile Johne the Broisse of Arthe, and tuiching the making 
of amite,' luff and tendernis betwix the pairties in tyme to 

Sir John Bruce married, in 1471, Elizabeth Men- 
teith, daughter of Sir William Menteith of Kerss. He left 
three sons. Robert Bruce succeeded his father. Thomas 
Bruce found a branch of the family in France. One of his 
daughters, Helen Bruce, married a son of Sir William Men- 
teith of Karss, one of her father's murderers. Another daugh- 
ter, Janet Bruce, married William Livingstone, the younger, 
who fell on Flodden field. 

Sir Robert Bruce, son of the preceding, succeeded his 
father in Stanehouse and his grandfather Sir Alexander Bruce 
in Airth, 1488-89. During his lifetime the peace between the 
Bruces and the Menteiths was still further bound by the 



erection in the Airth church of the Bruce aisle at the expense 
of the two famihes. He married Euphemia Montgomery, 
daughter of Alexander, Lord Montgomery. 

Robert Bruce, son of the preceding, succeeded his father 
who was killed at Flodden. In May, 1544, he was Captain 
of the castle of Edinburgh and in that place gained special 
renown by the gallant defense that he made against the army 
which King Henry VIII. of England sent to Scotland to en- 
force his demand for the person of the Queen Mary, who was 
then only an infant and whom the English desired to take 
from her Scottish environment. 

" The Laird of Stanehouse, captain thairof , caused shoot at 
them, in so great abundance, and with so guid measure, that they 
slew a great number of Englishmen, amonst whom were some 
principal captains and gentlemen, and one of the greatest 
pieces of ordinance was broken, wherethrew they were obliged 
to raise the siege shortly and retire." 

He married Janet Forester, daughter of Sir Walter For- 
ester of Garden. 

Sir Alexander Bruce, head of the house in the fifth 
succeeding generation in the direct eldest male line from the 
preceding Robert Bruce, came to a much diminished inher- 
itance. His grandmother was Margaret Elphinston, daughter 
of Sir Alexander, fourth Lord of Elphinston. Early in life 
he took military service in Germany and he was with Prince 
Rupert in the Low Countries during many years. He re- 
turned to his native land in the spring or summer of 1665, and 
in September of that year he died — the last Bruce of Airth 



in the male line. Through the marriage of his daughter, 
Jean Bruce, to Richard Elphinston, the barony passed to 
those of the name of Elphinston and Dundas. In the old 
street of Airth, the village cross, still standing, bears on one 
side the Bruce arms, with the lion for a crest, and on the other 
the Elphinston arms with the motto "Do well, let them say," 
with the initials C. E., 1697 (Charles Elphinston). Near by 
a stone bears the united arms of Bruce and Elphinston. Not 
many years ago, there was in the old church of Airth a slab of 
black marble that bore upon its face an inscription to one of 
the barons of Airth. The marble has long since disappeared, 
but the inscription that was on it has been preserved and reads 
as follows: 

Brusiois hie situs est pietate an clarior armis 

Incertum; est certum regibus ortus avis. 
Heer lies a branch of Brusses noble stemm, 

Airth's Baron! whose high wurth did sute that name. 

Holland his courage honoroured. Spain did feare — 
The Swedes in Funen bought the triall deare. 

At last his Prince's service called him home 

To die, on Thames, his bancke, and leave this tombe, 

To bear his name unto posteritie, 
And make all men love his memorie. 

Alexandro Brussio 
Ex Robertii Brossii, Scotorum Regis 

Filio Natu secundo progenito 
Baroni Airthensi. 

Primum in Belgio per Annos XLII. 
Dein in Anglia pro Tribuno Regio. 



Viro cum strenuo turn pientissimo. 
^tatis anno LVI. vitague simul defuncto. 
A.D. XVII. Kal. Oct. ob. CI3, LIC. XLII. 
G. Lauderus, affinis, M.P. 

The modern French house of Bruce is derived from the 
Sir John Bruce of Airth who married EUzabeth Menteith 
and was murdered by his wife's relatives. Besides the son 
who succeeded him he had a second son, Thomas Bruce? who 
married EUzabeth Auchmoutie. Adam Bruce of Waltown, 
great-grandson of the preceding, Thomas Bruce, Lord of 
Labertsheilles and Woodsyd, went to France in 1633 and es- 
tabUshed himself there. He married Eve Marie de Hermant 
and founded the house of the Counts Bruce in France that 
has been noted in the history of that country. 

Louis Daniel, Count de Bruce, seigneur de Montlerard, 
great-grandson of Adam Bruce, was the first of the family 
who entered the service of the King of France. He married 
Harriette Dieudonnee de Montaigu, daughter of the Marquis 
de Montaigne. Charles Hector, Count de Bruce, grandson 
of the preceding, was the head of the house in the nineteenth 
century. He was a chevalier of Malta, a chevalier of St. 
Louis, and a chevalier of the Legion of Honor. He was bom 
in 1772. He married in 1820 Fanny de Chamont, daughter 
of the Chevalier de Chamont. 

Descendants of the Bruces of Airth were also established 
in Prussia and Russia. A brief account of these Bruces and 
their families was given in a memoir written by Peter Henry 
Bruce and published in 1782. During the troublous times 



of the Protectorate two cousins of this house, John Bruce 
and James Bruce, determined to leave their native country 
and seek fortune abroad. John Bruce went to BerHn and 
entered the service of the Elector of Brandenburg. In time 
he rose to the command of a regiment and had large grants 
of land whereon he built the villages of Brucenwold and Jet- 
kensdorf. His wife was of the family of Arensdorf. His 
eldest son, Charles Bruce, was killed at the siege of Namur. 

James Bruce, youngest son of this John Bruce, married Eliza- 
beth Catherine Detring of Detring castle, Westphalia. He 
was a lieutenant in a Scotch regiment commanded by the Earl 
of Leven in the service of Brandenburg. Peter Henry Bruce, 
son of the preceding James Bruce, was educated in Scotland 
and then served in the Prussian army and afterwards in that 
of Russia. In 1714 he received his commission as captain 
in the artillery and engineers of the Russian army. After 
nearly twenty years he returned to Scotland, married, and 
settled upon a small estate near Cupar. About 1740 he 
entered the service of the English as an engineer and was em- 
ployed in refortifying Providence, one of the Bahama Islands, 
and in making surveys for the fortification of Charleston, 
S. C. During the last six months of 1745 he took part in the 
military operations about Hull, Newcastle, and elsewhere on 
the occasion of Prince Charles Edward's invasion of Scot- 
land. Thereafter he retired to his farm where he died in 1747. 

James Bruce, who also left Scotland in the time of Crom- 
well, went to Russia. There he settled and married and his 
descendants became numerous and powerful. General Robert 



Bruce, grandson of this pioneer, was of the Russian ordnance 
service in the time of Peter the Great. He was a knight of 
four orders, St. Andrew, The White Eagle, The Black Eagle, 
and The Elephant. When the Czar was honored by his 
senate with the titles of Peter the Great and The Emperor of 
all the Russias, General Bruce was made a count of the 
Empire and received ten thousand roubles. At the corona- 
tion of the Empress Count Bruce carried the crown and the 
Countess Bruce was one of the four train-bearers. 






TO no family of England did the Bruce stock in mat- 
rimonial alliance bring more of success and bril- 
liant renown than to that of Cavendish. In the 
early centuries of Scottish history the Cavendish ancestors 
were not of particular distinction. The marriage of Eliza- 
beth Hardwicke to William Cavendish in the forepart of 
the sixteenth century — ^ lady who afterwards became the 
Countess of Shrewsbury — was the beginning of the change. 
As the Countess of Shrewsbury the widow Cavendish availed 
herself of her wealth and social position to guard and pro- 
mote the interests of the children of her first husband. Under 
her tactful direction the house was able to take the first steps 
that led toward the substantial position among the peers of 
the realm that it now holds. What the Countess of Shrews- 
bury began in the direction of the advancement of the family 
fortunes, political, social, and financial, was added to, two 
generations later, by the Countess of Devonshire, Christiana 
Bruce, daughter of Edward Bruce of Blairhall. It was un- 
doubtedly due in no small degree to the genius of Christiana 
Bruce that her son and grandson as well as her descendants 
in succeeding generations, achieved the renown that has at- 
tached to them. 

Cavendish as a family appellation was not known previous 
to the fourteenth century. It is held by some genealogists, 



and generally accepted with here and there a scant reserva- 
tion, that the ancestors of the first Cavendish came from the 
Gernon family, which was of considerable note as remote as 
the eleventh century. According to this account, Robert 
Gernon was a Norman who came to England with William 
the Conqueror in 1066. So far as the records show he does 
not appear to have been prominent, but he received several 
grants of lordships from King William and was a generous 
contributor to the churches. Matthew de Gernon, son of 
the preceding, married Hodierna. daughter of Sir William 
Sackville, who was a son of Herbron de Sackville. Ralph de 
Gernon, son of the preceding, was living in 1167. He mar- 
ried a sister of Sir William de Brewse, who was a descendant 
of the first Alan de Brusee who went into Scotland after the 
Norman invasion and, as has already been shown, estab- 
lished the Bruce family there. Ralph de Gernon, son of the 
preceding, founded the Lees priory in Essex. He died in 
1248. William de Gernon, son of the preceding, died in 
1258. He had a wife Eleanor and left two sons. One of his 
sons, Geoffrey de Gernon, was the father of Roger de Gernon 
who is believed to have married the daughter and heir of 
John Patton, Lord of Cavendish in Suffolk County, his chil- 
dren adopting the title name of their maternal grandfather. 
The surname Cavendish was derived from the locality Caven- 
dish of Suffolk County. 

John Cavendish, son of the preceding Roger de Gernon, 
was a noted lawyer and judge of England in the middle of 



the fourteenth century. It is said that his father was a jus- 
tice itinerant in the reign of Henry II., which may account 
for the son's incHnation for the legal profession. John 
Cavendish was chancellor of the University of Cambridge, 
and in 1352 he was a collector in the counties of Essex 
and Suffolk. As early as 1366 he was a sergeant-at-law and 
soon after that time was a justice on the King's Bench. In 
1373 he was appointed chief justice and reappointed in 1378. 
He was a lawyer of remarkable talent, and as a justice was 
particularly noteworthy, becoming one of the most conspicu- 
ous figures in his generation. His pronouncements from the 
bench were of strong character and made a deep impress 
upon the life of that period. One of his peculiar judgments 
attained more than transitory or mere local fame. As the 
story goes, he was trying a case in which the defendant, a 
lady, alleged, as a defence in a suit involving land possession, 
that she was a minor. The question of her age arising natur- 
ally, she announced her willingness to leave the decision on 
that point to Chief Justice Cavendish, but he declined to 
render a decision upon the grounds as he said: 

"II n'ad nul home en Engleterre que luy adjudge a droit 
deins age ou de plein age, car escuns femes que sont de age 
de XXX ans voile apperer d'age de XVIII." * 

He died June 15, 1381, under distressing circumstances. 
The peasantry in Suffolk County, under the leadership of 
Jack Straw, had risen in riot against the ruling authorities 
and their rage was directed particularly against the lawyers. 

» Year Book, 50 Edward III., p. 12. 


A mob of fifty thousand persons assembled and John 
Cavendish was sent to suppress the insurrection. He was 
captured by the mob and with Sir John of Cambridge, a 
prior of the Abbey, was brutally beheaded in the market- 
place of York. The people were especially incensed against 
him personally because his son, John Cavendish, had some 
time previously killed Watt Tyler in the insurrection led by 
that individual. 

He married Alice de Odyngseles, daughter and heiress of 
John de Odyngseles, and by her had two sons and one daugh- 
ter. By this marriage he acquired the lordship of Cavendish- 
Overhall. His eldest son. Sir Andrew Cavendish, was sheriff 
of Suffolk and of Norfolk County and died in 1396. 

John Cavendish, the youngest son of the preceding, was 
an esquire to King Richard II. He is said to have slain Watt 
Tyler at Smithfield, and he served under King Henry V., 
being present at the battle of Agincourt in October, 1415. 

"For William Walworth, Mayor of London, having ar- 
rested him, he furiously struck the mayor with his dagger, 
but being armed hurt him not; whereupon the mayor, draw- 
ing his baselard, grievously wounded Watt in the neck; in 
which conflict an esquire of the King's house, called John 
Cavendish, drew his sword and wounded him twice or thrice 
even to death. For which service Cavendish was knighted 
in Smithfield and had a grant of MW from the King."* 

He married Joan Clopton, daughter of Sir William Clop- 
ton, and had three sons. 

William Cavendish of Cavendish Overhall, son of the 

* Collins' Peerage of England, by Sir Egerton Brydges. 1812 Edition, Vol. I., p. 308. 



preceding, died in 1433. He married Joan Staventon, and 
had two sons. 

Thomas Cavendish, eldest son of the preceding, was of 
Cavendish and Poslingford, Suffolk. He died in 1477. He 
married Katherine Scudamore, who died in September, 1499. 

Thomas Cavendish of Cavendish Overhall was the clerk 
of the pipe in the Exchequer. He died in 1524. He mar- 
ried Alice Smith, daughter of John Smith of Podbrook Hall, 
Suffolk. She died in March, 1515, leaving two sons. One 
son, George Cavendish of Cavendish Overhall, was born in 
1500, and became famous for his attachment to Cardinal 
Wolsey, whom he served from 1526 until the death of that 
prelate. After that he retired to private life and wrote a life 
of Wolsey. He died in 1562. 

William Cavendish, youngest son of Thomas Cavendish, 
was born about 1505, and early in life engaged in the public 
service. In 1530 the King appointed him a commissioner to 
visit the monasteries to receive from the monks the property 
which they were called upon to surrender to the Crown. In 
1541 he acquired valuable grants of land and in 1546 he was 
treasurer of the King's Chamber, was knighted, and was 
made a member of the Privy Council. Throughout his life 
he enjoyed the favor of his sovereigns, Henry VIII., Edward 
VI., and Queen Mary, and was a very wealthy man. He 
died Ocotober 25, 1557. He married, first, Margaret Bos- 
tock, daughter of Edmund Bostock of Walcroft in Cheshire, 
and had one son and four daughters. He married, second, 



Elizabeth Conyngsby, daughter of Thomas Conyngsby, and 
she died in 1540. He married, third, in 1541, EHzabeth 
Hardwicke, daughter of John Hardwicke of Hardwicke, Der- 
byshire, and widow of John Barley, and by her he had three 
sons and three daughters. After his death, she married 
George Talbot, the sixth Earl of Shrewsbury, and became 
famous as the great Countess of Shrewsbury. 

William Cavendish, second son of the preceding, was a 
member of Parliament in 1588; a high sheriff of Derbyshire 
in 1599, and a justice of the peace in 1603. He was created 
Baron Cavendish of Hardwicke in 1605. Becoming seri- 
ously concerned in the advancement of English interests in 
America, he was associated with other leading men of his 
time in promoting the colonizing of Virginia and the Islands 
of Bermuda; one island of the Bermuda group was named 
for him. He inherited a large fortune from his mother, the 
Countess of Shrewsbury, and from his elder brother, Henry 
Cavendish, who died in 1616. Among the possessions re- 
ceived from his mother were the three estates of Chatsworth, 
Hardwicke, and Oldcotes, which have been described as "the 
three most splendid estates ever raised by one hand." He 
was created Earl of Devonshire in 1618 and died March 3, 
1625-26. He married, first, Anne Keighley, daughter of 
Henry Keighley of Keighley, Yorkshire, and had three sons 
and three daughters. He married, second, Elizabeth Bough- 
ton, daughter of Edward Boughton of Couston, Warwick- 
shire, and widow of Sir Richard Wortley of Yorkshire. 


%YM^ (ir^ajier? rr^foinjiff.^Tr-r^'^^v .rvi? :f^,p'w.niM"',i;^i(t(o^f^ . 

/h)m. the Oritftitai by Vandyke m the Coll«6iion ^ the Manuesr v/^Ushwy 


William Cavendish, second son of the preceding and 
the second Earl of Devonshire, was born in 1591. He was 
a member of Parliament in 1621 and thereafter, and Lord 
Lieutenant of Derbyshire in 1619, and again in 1625 and 1626. 
He was a man of many accomplishments, one of the noted 
gallants of his age, and a spendthrift of such prodigality that 
when he died he left his family almost in poverty and his es- 
tate burdened with indebtedness of every description. He 
died June 20, 1628. 

He married, in 1608-9, Christiana Bruce, who became 
one of the most famous women of her time in England and 
whose marvellous abilities exercised in various directions not 
only resuscitated the fortunes of the house of Cavendish but 
started son and grandson on that splendid career which since 
her time has distinguished the house of Devonshire. She 
was young in years when married, being less than thirteen, 
and she took to her husband a handsome dowry from the 
king, James I., who esteemed her father Edward Bruce, 
Lord of Kinloss, as one of his prime favorites. To this 
dowry the king persuaded the father of William Cavendish 
to add a substantial amount so that the young couple were 
well started in life. 

Upon the death of her husband it was discovered that his 
estate was heavily charged and complicated with nearly thirty 
law-suits. The countess thereupon devoted herself to saving 
the property and to the education of her son, to whom she 
was intensely devoted. The litigation in which she was in- 
volved was made as perplexing and tedious as possible by the 

lo 145 


cunning and power of her adversaries, yet in the end she tri- 
umphed over all opposition and her success was so marked 
that it became the talk of the kingdom. On one occasion 
King Charles jestingly remarked to her, "Madame, you have 
all my judges at your disposal," which perhaps may be taken 
as an indication of how she was able to overcome the disas- 
ters that threatened her estate. She developed marked busi- 
ness talent and increased the value of her holdings until she 
became very wealthy. 

She had fine intellectual qualities and also took an active 
and important part in the politics of the kingdom. At the 
time of the rebellion against the Stewarts, she supported the 
cause of the royal house, and after the battle of Worcester 
carried away and concealed for King Charles much of her 
personal property. Her devotion to the Stewarts was in- 
tensified by the death of her younger son, Charles Cavendish, 
who was killed at the battle of Gainsborough, July 27, 1643, 
fighting against the army of Cromwell. During the Protec- 
torate she maintained her relations with the royalists, giving 
them much secret assistance. After the Restoration King 
Charles II. was frequently at her house, and she was upon 
intimate terms with the leading men and women of the new 
regime. Her palace was the center of hospitality and she 
entertained many men of letters who wrote agreeable verses 
in her praise. It was said of her that she was — 

"of that affability and sweet address with so great wit and 
judgment as captivated all who conversed with her and of such 
strict virtue and morals that she was an example to her sex." 



Horace Walpole wrote of her as follows: 

"Christiana Bruce, Countess of Devonshire, was a lady of 
much note in her time. She was the daughter of the Lord 
Bruce of Kinloss, one of the favorites of James I., who to 
facilitate her match into so great a family gave her, besides 
his recommendation £10,000. ... In her youth she was 
the platonic mistress of William, Earl of Pembroke, who, 
according to the romantic gallantry of the age, wrote a volume 
of poems in her praise which were published and dedicated 
to her by Dr. Donne. In every period she seems to have 
held one of those female tribunals of literature first instituted 
by the Marquise de Rambouillet at Paris and of late years 
very numerous there. The Lord Lisle in a letter to Sir Wil- 
liam Temple tells him that the old Countess of Devonshire's 
house was Mr. Waller's chief theatre. One of the Indepen- 
dents has recorded her life in a small tract written in the 
more spiritual tone of those times. Upon the whole her 
ladyship seems to have been a fair model of our ancient no- 
bility, a compound of piety, regularity, and human wisdom 
so discreetly classed as to suffer none of them to trespass on 
the interests of its associates. Thus while her devotion was 
universally admired, her prudence entrusted the education 
of her eldest son to Mr. Hobbes; and though she lived up to 
the splendour of her rank, having a jointure of 5,000 a year, 
so judicious was her economy that she nearly doubled it; and 
having procured the wardship of her son she managed his 
affairs so skillfully as to extricate his estate from a vast debt. 

"Nor were politics neglected by a lady so extremely tinc- 
tured with a knowledge of the world. On the contrary Lady 
Devonshire was not only busy but reckoned instrumental in 
the conduct of the Restoration, being trusted by the pearl of 
secrecy. General Monck. In a word, if this Countess in the 
flower of her age was like the Queen of Bohemia, the theme 
of the wits and poets of the court; in her riper years she 
seems to have imbibed the profitable wisdom of her Lord's 



grandmother, the famous Countess of Shrewsbury, and to 
have made it her study to preserve and augment that wealth 
of importance to the house of Cavendish of which the gran- 
dame had laid such ample foundation." 

The Countess of Devonshire died January l(i, 1674-75. 
Her second son, Charles Cavendish, who was born in 1670, 
was named after Prince Charles Stewart. He served in the 
war against Cromwell, becoming a general of cavalry. At 
Gainsborough, July 28, 1643, he was defeated and killed. 

William Cavendish, the third Earl of Devonshire, son of 
the preceding, was born in 1617, and upon the coronation of 
King Charles I. in 1625 he was made a Knight of Bath. His 
advancement in public life was rapid and he became Lord 
Lieutenant of Derbyshire in 1638, retaining that office until 
1641 and was High Steward of Ampthill in 1639-40. De- 
votedly attached to the royalist cause he was marked by the 
opponents of the Stewarts, and was one of the eight peers of 
England who were impeached for high crimes and misde- 
meanors and expelled from the House of Lords in 1642. He 
was attainted and his estate was sequestrated and a heavy 
fine imposed upon him. Under these circumstances he was 
obliged to leave England and remained abroad on the Con- 
tinent until 1645. Then he secured pardon and lived in 
retirement with his mother at Latimers, Buckinghamshire. 
Upon the restoration of the house of Stewart his disabilities 
were removed and he was reappointed Lord Lieutenant of 
Derbyshire. He was a man of high culture, interested in 



scientific pursuits, and was one of the original Fellows of the 
Royal Society- He died November 23, 1684. He married 
Elizabeth Cecil, daughter of William Cecil, Earl of Salisbury. 
She died November 19, 1689. 

William Cavendish, eldest son of the preceding, was born 
January 25, 1640, and was educated under the careful di- 
rection of his grandmother. In 1661 he was a member of 
Parliament for Derbyshire, and was again in Parliament in 
1666. He served in the British navy in 1665, and in 1669 
was appointed on an embassy to France. From 1675 until 
1681 he was in Parliament in strong opposition to the court 
party, and became one of the foremost men of the realm. He 
succeeded his father as Earl of Devonshire in 1684. He was 
a man of pronounced views, irascible and impatient, and was 
constantly in trouble with others who were active in the public 
affairs of the day. As a result of an encounter with Colonel 
Thomas Culpepper he was sentenced to pay a heavy fine and 
was condemned to confinement. He escaped from prison, 
but all the influence of his grandmother, the Countess of Dev- 
onshire, and her family could not avail wholly to save him 
from the consequences of his act. It was not until long 
afterwards, in 1697, when political power in Parliament had 
changed that the record of his conviction was removed. 

For several years in the latter part of the seventeenth cen- 
tury he was living in retirement, but never ceased his opposi- 
tion to King James and was among those who made plans for 
the succession to the English throne of the Prince of Orange. 



He was very useful in bringing about the accession of William 
and Mary to the throne in 1689, and as a reward for his ser- 
vices the new sovereign appointed him Lord Lieutenant of 
Derbyshire, and he was elected a Knight of the Garter. In 
1692 he served in the English army in Flanders, and as a re- 
sult of that campaign he was created Duke of Devonshire. 
He was much addicted to sport of all kinds, especially horse- 
racing, and was noted even in that luxurious age for the munifi- 
cence of his entertainments. His last public service was in 
assisting to conclude the union with Scotland for negotiating 
which he and his son, the Marquis of Hartington, had been 
appointed among the commissioners by Queen Anne. He 
died August 18, 1707, and ordered the following inscription 
to be put on his monument : — " Willielmus Dux Devon, Bono- 
rum Principum Fidelis Subditus, Inimicus et Invisus Tyran- 
nis." He married in 1660, in Kilkenny, Ireland, Lady Mary 
of Ormonde, daughter of James, Duke of Ormonde. 

In later generations the representatives of the ducal house 
of Devonshire, descendants of Christiana Bruce, have not 
been less famous or less distinguished than those of their an- 
cestors whose careers have here been noted. They have been 
prominent in public life, serving their country at home and 
abroad, and have exercised a marked influence upon each 
generation of English life. The Devonshire ducal house is 
rightly regarded as one of the most eminent, most distinguished, 
and most powerful in the United Kingdom. 









AS a royal house, the family of Stewart which gave 
kings to Scotland and to England for several cen- 
turies and whose history became one of the most 
conspicuous parts of the annals of the United Kingdom, was 
more Bruce than Stewart. The surname was derived from 
ancestors who, while they had been not without distinction 
in the generations immediately preceding their matrimonial 
connection with the Bruces, were in no wise royal. The 
pedigree went back to men of eminence only a few hun- 
dred years, and, honorable as it was, the record in the begin- 
ning was not even of nobility. 

Stewarts could claim no relationship to royalty previous 
to the marriage of Walter, High Steward of Scotland, to Mar- 
jory Bruce. With that alliance there was brought into the 
family the blood of a stock which, as has been shown on pre- 
ceding pages, went back generation after generation, not only 
on the male side but also in various collateral lines, to those 
who had been foremost in making history and in establish- 
ing nations upon the European Continent and the adjacent 
islands. Between the Stewarts who began in the twelfth cen- 
tury and the Bruces who started from kings and princes six 
hundred years before and could also trace through genera- 
tions to the royal houses of Scotland and Ireland, there was 
a wide difference. It was the royal strain brought into the 



family by Marjory Bruce that gave the descendants of Walter, 
the High Steward, their claim to the throne. Therefore it was 
that the Stewarts as a ruling house were really Bruce in every- 
thing except name. 

Still, despite these considerations, among the many great 
families with which the Bruce line became connected in mar- 
riage none was more worthy or had up to that time occupied 
a more conspicuous place in the history of Scotland than that 
of Stewart. Its history began in the time of William the 
Conqueror, and after the twelfth century it was a house of 
power and distinction while its representatives ranked among 
the leading men of Scotland. 

So far as careful antiquarian research has been able to dis- 
cover, the family was of Norman origin and vestiges of its Eng- 
lish founder have been discovered in the province of Dol in 
the northeastern section of Brittany. It is believed that the 
first English or Scotch ancestor came from France about the 
time of William the Conqueror or shortly before. An in- 
genious but not altogether successful attempt has been made 
by some writers to connect the family with Bancho, thane 
of Lochaber, who lived in the reign of King Duncan of 
Scotland and was murdered by Macbeth in 1043. This is 
the Banquo of Boece and Shakespeare, and his place in history 
as an ancestor of the Stewarts, as argued by the supporters of 
this pedigree, is somewhat hypothetical although not wholly 
impossible. The argument in its favor is presented strongly 
by the Reverend, J. K. Hewison in Bute in Olden Time, 
and by others before and since that author. 



According to this pedigree the son of Banquo was Fleance 
who married Nesta, daughter of Griffith ap Lewellin, a Prince 
of Wales who was murdered by ruffians in 1045. Walter, 
son of Fleance, was obliged to leave Wales on account of dis- 
turbances at that time and was brought up in the court of 
King Edward the Confessor. Having some disagreement 
with the Saxon court he was sent to the Continent to live with 
Alan, Earl of Brittany, who was a relative of his mother. He 
married a daughter of Alan, and subsequently joining the army 
of William the Conqueror, fought in the battle of Hastings 
in 1066. For some reason he fell into disfavor with King 
William and retired to Scotland where he was received by 
King Malcolm III., and thereafter rendered considerable ser- 
vice to the Scottish king. In reward he was made Dapifer 
Domini Regis, an office which did not differ much from that 
of the High Steward of Scotland which was subsequently the 
hereditary prerogative of the Stewart family. Alan, son of 
Walter, became a valiant knight and went to the Holy War 
under the standard of Godfrey Bouillon. He was present at 
the taking of Jerusalem in 1099. After his return home he 
was made Lord High Steward of Scotland in 1153. 

Walter Fitz Alan is the member of this royal family who is 
accepted with certitude by all genealogists as the real founder 
of the stock in Scotland. From him downward to later 
generations the pedigree is without controversy. Variant 
and speculative genealogical discussion regarding him con- 
cerns itself only with his origin and ancestry. Those who 



hold to the genealogy just presented make him the son of Alan 
who was the great-grandson of Bancho. The more accepted 
and reliable view is that he was the son of Alan Flaald, a 
Norman knight who obtained, soon after the conquest of 
England, the grant of the castle of Owestry in the County of 
Salop. There is nothing to show that this Alan Flaald may 
not have been the Alan, son of Walter, who was Lord High 
Steward of Scotland in 1153 and is included in the supposed 
line from Bancho. According to Eyton* and other Scotch 
historians, this Alan married Avelina or Adelina de Hesdinges, 
sister of Ernulf de Hesdinges, and had three sons. 

Walter Fitz Alan founded the Abbey of Paisley in Renfrew- 
shire for monks of the Cluniac order from the convent of Wen- 
lock in Salop in 1164, and his family became fully established 
in Renfrewshire where it remained for centuries, being a 
large owner of land, and wealthy and powerful. From the 
death of King David 1., in 1153, to the death of King David II., 
in 1371, the Fitz Alans held chief sway in Renfrewshire and 
were persons of weight throughout the kingdom. It is said 
that Walter Fitz Alan went from Shropshire in England 
to Scotland during the reign of King David, and that mon- 
arch made him Steward of Scotland and gave him valuable 
lands. In 1153 King Malcolm IV., the successor to King 
David I., confirmed these grants and further maintained the 
family in important standing. Eyton* says that he married 
Eschina, daughter of Thomas de Londoniis and heiress of 
Molle and Huntlaw in Roxburghshire. He died in 1177. 

* Antiquities of Shropshire, by R. W. Eyton, Vol. VII., p. 228. 


Alan Fitz Alan, son of the preceding, succeeded his father 
in the important office of High Steward of Scotland. He was 
a man of notable character and emulated the zeal of his father 
in religious affairs, giving many munificent grants to church 
institutions. He died in 1204 and was buried in the Abbey 
of Paisley. He married, first, Eva, daughter of Suan, who 
was a son of Thor, Lord of Tippermuir and Tranant ; second, 
Alesta, daughter of Morgund, Earl of Mar. 

Walter Fitz Alan, eldest son of the preceding, became in 
turn the High Steward of Scotland. So far as the records go 
he was the first to term himself and to be called Seneschallus 
Scotise. On August 24, 1230, he was appointed by King 
Alexander II. to the office of justiciary of Scotland. He was 
held in such esteem by King Alexander that he was commis- 
sioned as an ambassador to negotiate with Mary, the daugh- 
ter of Ingelram, Count de Coucy, for her marriage to the King 
of Scotland after the death of his first wife in 1239. He was 
preeminently successful in this mission, as the marriage of the 
king to Mary of Ingelram in the same year fully evidences. 
Like his father and grandfather he was a benefactor of the 
church, and besides other grants for religious purposes, he 
founded the monastery at Dalmulin on Air. He was born in 
Paisley and died there in 1246. He married Beatrix, daughter 
of Gilchrist, Earl of Angus. His sons were Alexander Fitz 
Alan, who succeeded him; John Fitz Alan, killed at the siege 
of Damietta in Egypt in 1249; Walter Fitz Alan, Earl of 
Monteith; and William Fitz Alan. 



Alexander Fitz Alan, eldest son of the preceding, be- 
came High Steward of Scotland after the death of his father. 
He was a valued counsellor of King Alexander HI., and in 
1255 was named as one of the regents of the kingdom of 
Scotland. In that year he received a charter of the barony 
Garbis and himself gave many charters and grants to churches. 
He was not only beneficent and well-disposed toward his de- 
pendents, but was a brave man and a capable commander in 
military affairs. At the battle of Largs, in 1263, he led the 
Scottish forces under King Alexander III. and was mainly 
instrumental in the defeat of the Norwegians under King 
Hakon. In 1264 he was sent to the Isle of Man to receive 
there the subjection of the people who heretofore had been 
under the domination of the kingdom of Norway; and he 
secured the annexation of the island to Scotland. 

When at Rosburgh in 1289 the nobles of Scotland assembled 
to consider the succession to the crown of Scotland in case 
of the decease of the ruling king he was prominent and 
influential in the deliberations. He was a subscriber to the 
agreement for marriage between Mary, the daughter of King 
Alexander III., and Eric, King of Norway. He died in 1283. 
He married Jean, daughter of James Macrory, who was the 
son of Angus Macrory, Lord of Bute. His children were 
James Fitz Alan, who succeeded him; Sir John Stewart of 
Bonkyl, the ancestor of the Stewarts of that name, and Eliza- 
beth Fitz Alan, who married William, Lord Douglas, of 
Lugton in Lothian. 

Margaret Fitz Alan, the youngest daughter of Walter Fitz 



Alan and sister of Alexander Fitz Alan, married Niel, Earl 
of Carrick. In the next generation the daughter of this mar- 
riage, Marjory of Carrick, married Robert Bruce, seventh of 
the name; by this marriage the first union of the houses of 
Bruce and Stewart was brought about. 

James Fitz Alan or James Stewart, son of the preceding 
and the next High Steward of Scotland, succeeded his father 
in 1283. By this time the Fitz Alan family had become 
habituated to the use as a surname of the name of the heredi- 
tary oflSce that their ancestors had held for generations. It 
is not certain exactly when the change in the family name was 
made, and in fact for several generations both surnames were 
in use at the same time indiscriminately. But James Fitz 
Alan became James Stewart and his descendants gradually 
grew more and more accustomed to the use of the new name 
until finally they adopted it altogether. Like his ancestors, 
James Stewart was a man of influence and power and taken 
much into consideration in all important proceedings in the 
kingdom. In 1286 he was one of the six regents who were 
appointed to rule under Queen Margaret after the death of 
King Alexander III. In September, 1286, associated with his 
brothers, John Stewart and Walter Stewart, Earl of Monteith, 
and other leading nobles assembled at Turnberry Castle, he 
was a subscriber to the agreement to support the claims of 
Robert Bruce to the throne of Scotland. 

In 1291 he was one of the auditors acting on the part of 
Robert Bruce to support that noble's claims before King 



Edward of England. In 1297 he gave his support to the cause 
of the patriotic VViUiam Wallace, but upon the failure of that 
enterprise he was, in common with many other Scottish nobles, 
compelled to make his peace with King Edward and swear 
fealty to that monarch. Still devoted to his country and 
willing to sacrifice everything to secure her freedom from 
English rule, in 1302, with six others of like patriotism, he 
visited France to solicit the assistance of King Philip to 
enable Scotland to maintain her liberties; and afterwards 
he was engaged on a similar mission to the court of Spain. 
He died July 16, 1309, in the sixty-ninth year of his age. He 
married Cecilia, daughter of Patrick, Earl of Dunbar and 
March, and had three sons and one daughter. His sons were 
Walter Stewart, who succeeded him; Sir John Stewart, who 
was with the army of invasion that Edward Bruce led to 
Ireland in 1318, and with Bruce was killed at the battle of 
Dundalk; Sir James Stewart of Durisdeer. 

W^ALTER Stewart, son of the preceding, was the next High 
Steward of Scotland. He was born in 1293. He was one of 
the staunchest and most trusted supports of the Bruce and 
when King Robert invaded Ireland in 1316, he and Sir James 
Douglas were appointed governors of Scotland to rule the 
kingdom in the absence of the king. He showed himself 
possessed of patriotic spirit and of military instinct at an early 
age, and in 1314 at Torwood, preceding the battle of Ban- 
nockburn, he brought a body of hardy men to support the 
Bruce, the sturdy warriors of Slrathgryfe. 



"Walter Stewart of Scotland fyne 
That then was but a beardless hyne, 
Came with a rout of noble men, 
That might by countenance be ken."* 

In arranging the forces of the Scottish army for the ensu- 
ing combat, Walter Stewart had command of the third divi- 
sion in company with Sir James Douglas. 

"And syne the third battle they gave 
To Walter Stewart for to lead 
And to Douglas doughty of deed, 
They were cousins in near degree. 
Therefore to him betaught was he; 
For he was young but not forthy, 
I trow he shall so manlily 
Do his devoir, and work so well 
That he shall need no more zounseil." * 

In the battle of Bannockburn he shared to the full the work 
and dangers of the day as well as the glory of victory. In 
recognition of his services he was knighted for bravery and 
at that time he had reached the age only of twenty-one. He 
married, early in life, AUce Erskine, daughter of Sir John 
Erskine, and had by her a daughter, Jean Stewart, who mar- 
ried Hugh, Earl of Ross. 

The romance of his life came after he had acquitted him- 
self so brilliantly at Bannockburn before the eyes of King 
Robert Bruce and the other nobles of Scotland. In the next 
year when the royal Scottish prisoners. Queen Elizabeth, 
Marjory Bruce, daughter of the King; Christiana Bruce, 

* Metrical Life of Robert Bruce, by John Barbour, p. 228 and p. 232. 
II 161 


sister of the King; Earl Mar, the Bishop of Glasgow, and 
others were released from confinement in England where they 
had been held by King Edward I. they were sent to the Scot- 
tish borders under English escort. King Robert Bruce com- 
missioned Walter Stewart to receive them and escort them 
to Scottish soil. This was the first meeting of the young 
warrior with Marjory Bruce and he immediately fell in love 
with her. King Robert must have held his supporter in the 
highest esteem, for he willingly gave his daughter to him 
in marriage and conferred upon him the barony of Bathgate 
and other valuable lands. Marjory (Bruce) Stewart died in 
1316, only a year after she was married. Walter Stewart 
married, third, Isabel Graham, daughter of Sir John Graham 
of Abercorn. He died April 9, 1326. 

Robert Stewart, the succeeding High Steward of Scotland, 
was the only son of Walter Stewart and Marjory Bruce. He 
was born March 2, 1316. When he was little more than 
seventeen years of age he was placed in command of a body 
of troops of the Scottish army upon the field of Halidon. 
After that defeat he was concealed for some time in Bute, 
knowing full well that the King of England was desirous of 
apprehending him, inasmuch as he was the heir-apparent 
to the Scottish throne. By act of parliament in session at 
Scone in 1318 the throne was entailed upon the issue of Mar- 
jory Bruce in the case of the death of all male heirs. There- 
fore Robert Stewart was next in line of succession to King 
David II., son of King Robert Bruce. 




In 1334 he found refuge in the castle of Dunbarton and 
began actively to engage in plans for the recovery of Scotland 
for King David. While the King was in exile in France he 
was associated with John Randolph, Earl of Moray, as one of 
the regents of Scotland and assisted in the military operations 
which resulted in Baliol, the pretender to the throne, being 
overthrown and driven from Scotland. In consequence of 
changes in the situation, in 1335, he lost the regency and Sir 
Andrew Moray of Bothwell took his place. Three years later 
Sir Andrew Moray died and Robert Stewart again became a 
regent. During all these years he was active in encourag- 
ing the national spirit of Scotland and in developing plans 
for the reinstatement of King David and the firmer estab- 
lishment of the Stewart royal house upon the throne. When 
King David and his wife Joanna returned from France, 
Robert Stewart was among the first to greet them, and in 
the fighting that followed he was in the forefront of the battle 
at Durham that resulted so disastrously to the Scottish cause. 
After the capture of King David on this occasion Robert 
Stewart exerted himself to the uttermost to secure the re- 
lease of Scotland's young monarch from the hands of the 
English. He was active and influential in the negotiations 
for the treaty of peace between Scotland and England, and 
when that treaty was signed in 1357 he was one of the eight 
Scottish nobles who submitted themselves as hostages to 
King Edward to secure the fulfillment of its terms. 

King David died February 22, 1370-1. As he left no male 
heir, Robert Stewart succeeded him on the throne and was 



crowned at Scone March 27, 1371. As a monarch King 
Robert II. made no marked impress upon his age. His pre- 
cocious youth when he accompHshed so much for Scotland 
and his relative, King David, was the most brilliant part of 
his life. Although he reigned for nineteen years, that period 
was of secondary importance compared to the years that had 
preceded in his life. It was of consequence only as marking 
an epoch in Scottish history, the commencement of a new race 
of kings — the Stewarts. 

King Robert II. was past his prime when he came to the 
throne and seems to have lost altogether the spirit of ac- 
tivity that once dominated him. Shortly after his accession 
England again waged war upon Scotland, but the King took 
no vigorous personal part in the defence of his country. Even 
when the French under Admiral Vienne came over to assist 
their Scottish allies King Robert was not present at first to 
meet them. Subsequently when he did see them he did not 
make a very agreeable impression. As one of the writers of 
that age said, they thought "it seemed right well that he was 
not a valiant man in arms; it seemed that he had rather 
lie still than ride."* After that the King retired to the High- 
lands and did not show himself for some time, taking no part 
in military operations because, as the same writer says, "he 
was not in good point to ride in warfare and there he tarried 
all the war through and let his men alone." * 

He died in 1390. 

He married, first, Elizabeth Mure, daughter of Sir Adam 

Chronicles of England, France, and Spain, by Jean de Froissart. 



Mure of Rowallan, and by her had four sons and six daugh- 
ters. He married, second, in 1355, Euphemia, Countess of 
Moray, daughter of Hugh, Earl of Ross, and widow of John 
Randolph, Earl of Moray, and by her had two sons and one 

Robert (John) Stewart, son of the preceding by his 
wife Elizabeth Mure, was born about 1340. He was originally 
John Stewart, but that name was changed to Robert in order 
that as a monarch he should not carry the Christian name of 
John Baliol, the old-time enemy of the Bruces in their contest- 
ing for the throne, and also from the desire of his parents to 
preserve in the line of the kings of the house the family name 
of Robert. He was the eldest son of King Robert II., and 
upon the death of his father in 1390 he was crowned at Scone. 
Physically he was not strong, and he never really governed the 
kingdom. He had little inclination to rule and was quite 
willing to entrust the affairs of the kingdom to regents who 
directed affairs the greater part of his lifetime. The first re- 
gent, his brother Robert, Earl of Fife and Duke of Albany, was 
succeeded in 1399 by David Stewart, the King's son, Earl 
of Carrick and Duke of Rothesay. 

Albany conspired against his royal brother, and contested 
the position of the Duke of Rothesay, who shortly died at 
Falkland under circumstances that have never been fully 
explained, but that have always been regarded as pointing 
toward his having been put away at the instigation of his 
uncle Albany. These domestic troubles naturally gave King 



Robert much unhappiness, and he took less and less interest 
in the affairs of his kingdom, allowing the contentious nobles 
to go on altogether in their own way. Retiring to his castle 
Rothesay, he fell into sickness and died April 4, 1406. His 
melancholy pursued him to the end. It is related that his 
wife urged him to follow the examples of his ancestors and 
the custom of the age by preparing a royal tomb for himself, 
but he refused her importunings, saying that he "was a 
wretched man unworthy of a proud sepulchre;" and he 
prayed her to bury him in a dung-hill with this epitaph, 
"Here lies the worst king and the most miserable man in the 
whole kingdom." 

He married Annabella Drummond, daughter of Sir John 
Drummond. She died in 1401. He had three sons and 
three daughters. 

James Stewart, third son of the preceding, was bom in 
Dunfermline in 1394. After the death of his brother David, 
Duke of Rothesay, in March 1402, by reason of the anxiety of 
his parents lest he might fall victim to the animosity of his 
uncle Albany and other nobles, he was placed with Bishop 
Henry Wardlaw at St. Andrew's to be cared for and to be 
educated. Two years later it was determined to send him 
to France for greater security, but on the way thither he was 
captured by an English man-of-war and with his compan- 
ions taken to London where he was first imprisoned in the 
Tower. During the subsequent nineteen years he lived in 
exile in England under more or less restraint, part of the time 




in prison, and again enjoying considerable freedom at the 
courts of King Henry IV. and King Henry V., and in the castles 
of English favorites of those kings. He was a man of pro- 
nounced literary taste and a writer of much merit. Several of 
his poetical works rank among the masterpieces of that period 
of English literature. The Kingis Quair tells in part his life 
story and a melancholy tinge pervades it. 

"Bewailing in my chamber thus allone, 
Despeired of all joye and remedye; 
Fortirit of my thought and wo begone, 
And to the wyndow gan I walk in hye, 
To see the world and folk y' went forbye, 
As for the tyme though I of mirthis fude 
My* have no more, to luke it did me gude."* 

When he came to manhood he met with much favor from 
King Henry V., and accompanied that monarch on many 
military expeditions. He was present with King Henry at 
the siege of Melun when the army of France with its Scot- 
tish supporters was defeated after a four months' engagement. 
Thereafter he remained in France several years, but upon 
the death of King Henry he returned to England. When 
the treaty was arranged between England and Scotland, in 
1423, he was released upon payment of ransom and the agree- 
ment of other minor conditions. Before his return to Scot- 
land he married, in February, 1423-4, Lady Joanna Beaufort, 
daughter of John Beaufort, the first Earl of Somerset, and 
granddaughter of John Plantagenet of Gaunt. On May 

* The Kingis Quaire, by King James I., Canto II. 


21 of the same year he was crowned King of Scotland as James 
I., at Scone. 

As soon as he was seated upon the throne he manifested 
great personal interest in the affairs of his kingdom and en- 
tered upon a policy of inaugurating new legislation, a policy 
that he consistently followed throughout his entire life. Very 
early in his reign he was drawn into a contest with the nobles 
of Scotland who were principally led by Douglas, Dunbar, and 
Lennox; some twenty-five or thirty nobles were engaged in 
opposition to the crown and eventually a rebellion broke out 
led by James of Albany and others. This uprising was 
suppressed and several of the leaders were hanged, but the 
movement of the nobles against the royal house was never 
fully overcome. Throughout his reign the Albany malcontents 
were in constant opposition and the King was never able to 
abandon the policy of trying to destroy the power of those great 
nobles. Toward the end of his life strained relations with 
England promised to bring about another war between the 
two countries and this added to his troubles. He was a 
monarch of much ability, ruling under the most discouraging 
conditions, but still accomplishing a great deal for his beloved 
Scotland. It has been said of him that "while the nation 
made his predecessors kings he made Scotland a nation." 

He died February 20, 1437, being assassinated by Sir 
Robert Graham. The story is told that in the previous De- 
cember he journeyed to Perth to keep Christmas. 

"As he was about to cross the Forth a Highland woman 
shouted 'An ye pass this water ye shall never return again 



alive.' He took up his residence in the cloister of the Black 
Friars of Perth. While playing a game of chess with a knight 
nicknamed the King of Love James referring to a prophecy 
that a king should die that year said to his opponent, 'There 
are no kings in Scotland but you and I. I shall take good 
care of myself and I counsel you to do the same.' A favorite 
squire told James he had dreamt that Sir Robert Graham 
would slay the king and for this he was rebuked by the Earl 
of Orkney. James himself had a dream of a cruel serpent 
and horrible toad attacking him in his chamber." 

Finally these prophecies and dreams were realized in his 
assassination. By the marriages of his children he strength- 
ened the royal house and the Scottish kingdom by powerful 
home and foreign alliances. Margaret Stewart married 
Louis, the Dauphin of France, who afterwards became King 
Louis XL of France. Elizabeth, or Isabel, Stewart married 
Francis, Count of Montfort and Duke of Bretagne. Joan, 
or Janet, Stewart married James Douglas, Lord Dalkeith. 
Mary Stewart married Wolfram van Borselen, Lord of Camp- 
Vere in Zealand, who by his wife was Earl of Buchan in 
Scotland. Annabella Stewart married George Gordon, the 
second Earl of Huntley. Eleanor Stewart married the Arch- 
Duke Sigismund of Austria. 

James Stewart, Duke of Rothesay, son of the preceding, 
was born October 16, 1430. Only seven years old at the 
time of his father's death in 1437, he was crowned at Scone 
in March of that year. A regency was established, and the 
young prince was retained in the custody of his queen 
mother. Civil war between the rival nobles broke out and 



continued during the lifetime of this monarch as it had in the 
Hfetime of his parent. When he became of age and assumed 
the throne and with it the authority, he was drawn into the 
contentions between the nobles, and as his father had done, 
maintained opposition to the great leaders of the nobles' 
party. Personally he killed Lord Douglas and followed up 
that deed by a campaign in 1453-55 against the Douglas 
supporters. A war with England also demanded his atten- 
tion, without which at that time no Scottish king could fairly 
consider himself to be ruling. In this war he laid siege to 
the city of Roxburgh and there was killed accidentally August 
3, 1460. 

As a monarch he was vigorous, politic, and successful. 
Sincerely devoted to his people and desirous of raising Scot- 
land to power as a nation, and of improving its domestic con- 
dition, he was naturally popular with the commons, but like 
his predecessors and those who followed him failed to win the 
approval and support of the noble class. He married, in 
1449, Mary Gelderland, daughter of Arnold, Duke of Gelder- 
land. By this marriage he strengthened the relations between 
Scotland and Flanders. 

James Stewart, son of the preceding, was born July 10, 
1451. In his minority the nobles, still struggling against 
their inevitable downfall as a concentrated political power, 
tried to usurp authority but were not at all successful. In 
the exigency King James III., who had been crowned at the 
Abbey Kelso on the death of his father, took actual control of 



affairs in 1460 when he was only eighteen years of age. 
At that time he had been just married and his bride was 
twelve years old, the Princess Mai^garet, daughter of King 
Christian I. of Denmark. The first part of his reign was very 
fortunate since Scotland was quiet at home and enjoyed peace 
abroad. Presently, however, came the inevitable war with 
England, while the brother of the king, the Duke of Albany, 
rose against him and secured the support of King Edward 
IV. of England. 

For a time James was successful against this movement 
of the nobles, but at Sauchie in 1488 his army was defeated 
and he was driven despairingly from the field. The circum- 
stances of his death as related by the historians of the 
period were touching, but reflected little upon his courage. 
Escaping from the field of disaster he imprudently revealed 
his identity to a woman who was drawing water at a well by 
mournfully telling her, "I was your king this morning." Ac- 
cording to the traditional story the woman thereupon called 
for a priest, and a soldier of the victorious army who hap- 
pened to be near by assumed that character. When asked 
by the fallen monarch to shrive him the soldier replied that 
he would give him short shrift and promptly dispatched 
him with his sword. 

James Stewart, son of the preceding, was born March 18, 
1472-3. After the fatal battle of Sauchie he was crowned 
as King James IV., and at once his troubles began at home 
and abroad. Some of the noble leaders who had been in 



revolt during the reign of his father were now restored to 
power, but the plottings that had been going on for generations 
preceding still continued, and King James found great diffi- 
culty in meeting them and in keeping his kingdom quiet. 
At times he was courted by princes, on friendly terms with 
his father-in-law, blessed by the Pope, and at peace with 
his subjects. Again he was at odds with all parties and nearly 
all personages. In 1513 he was obliged to go to war again 
with England and was killed at Flodden. 

The story goes that at the time of this battle, before leaving 
Linlithgow, he had been warned against the war by an ap- 
parition. A version of this tale, given by Pittscottie, was 
the basis of Scott's Marmion. Therein it is related how a 
bald-headed old man in blue gown with brotikins on his feet and 
belted with a linen girdle suddenly appeared at the king's desk 
where he prayed and prophesied the defeat and death that 
so soon followed. James married, in 1503, Lady Margaret 
Tudor, eldest daughter of King Henry VH. of England. Out 
of this alliance grew the right of the Stewarts to the throne 
of England, which was successfully asserted three generations 
later when King James VI. of Scotland, great-grandson of King 
James IV., became King James I. of England. 

James Stewart, only son of the preceding, was born April 
15, 1512. He was crowned at Scone in 1513 as King James 
V. Throughout his reign he was the victim of the evils of a 
regency and the ambitions of the nobles, and was no more 
able to contend successfully against them than had been the 



kings of his household who had preceded him. The mar- 
riage of the queen mother to Archibald Douglas, Lord Angus, 
alienated the son from his maternal parent, and before he was 
eighteen years of age he plunged into the midst of affairs and 
made war the pursuit of his life. He had varying success 
against the Douglas party, but was always in the midst of 
conspiracies, mostly to his disadvantage, and he had also 
continually to contend against border raids with which the 
English vexed the country throughout his reign. His army 
was overthrown by the English at Solway, November 25, 
1542, in more disastrous defeat even than that of Flodden, 
and the king died in Falkland, December 16 following. 

James married, first, in 1537, Madeleine, daughter of 
Francis I., King of France. His queen was an exceedingly 
attractive young woman, and it is said of her that " her fragile 
beauty won all hearts in Scotland." When she died in July, 

1537, only a few months after her marriage, there was general 
and sincere mourning for her. James married, second, in 

1538, Mary of Guise, daughter of Claude de Lorraine, Duke 
of Guise, and widow of the Due de Longueville. 

Mary Stewart, daughter of the preceding by his wife 
Mary of Guise, was born December 8, 1542, and was a mere 
infant when the death of her father made her the queen. 
Her history as Mary, Queen of Scots, has become a house- 
hold word in English-speaking lands, and need not be dwelt 
upon here. By the order of Queen Elizabeth of England 
she was beheaded at Fotheringay Castle, February 8, 1586, 



after a life full of unhappiness. She married, first, in 1558, 
Francis, the Dauphin of France, afterwards King Fancis 
II. ; second, in 1566, Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley, eldest son 
of Matthew, fourth Earl of Lennox, heir-male of the Stewarts; 
third, in 1567, James Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell. 

James Stewart, son of Mary, Queen of Scots, by her 
husband, Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley, was born June 19, 
1566. When his mother was forced to resign the crown at 
the time when the young prince was but a year old, he was 
declared king with the title of James VI. of Scotland, being 
crowned at Stirling, July 29, 1567. Upon the demise of 
Queen Elizabeth of England in 1603 he received the sceptre 
of England in addition to that of Scotland, ascending to the 
throne of the United Kingdom as King James I. With the 
union of Scotland and England the history of the Stewarts 
as the royal line of Scotland exclusively came to an end. 






NO history of ancient times has been more carefully 
or more thoroughly investigated by painstaking 
scholars of mediaeval and modern times than that 
which treats of the origin and the careers of the Irish kings. 
Plentiful records concerning those monarchs were preserved 
by the old monks of the early Christian period; and beyond 
that the priests and other functionaries who surrounded the 
rulers of the world in the long generations antedating the 
coming of Christ preserved much of information concerning 
the people from whom the Irish race and subsequently that 
of Scotland originally sprang. To these varied and multi- 
tudinous records were gradually added an abundance of 
tradition and much of mythical lore out of all which it has 
been possible to derive an interesting and generally accept- 
able account of the Hibernian chiefs and their ancestors. 

It is largely due to the labors of the scholastic monks in 
the early centuries of the Christian era and even before that 
time that we are able to trace the history of those rulers 
chronologically and genealogically. In the fifth century nine 
scholars, among whom were St. Patrick, St. Benignus, and 
St. Carioch were appointed by the triennial parliament of 
Tara in the reign of Lseghaire, the one hundred and twenty- 
eighth monarch of Ireland, "to review, examine and reduce 
into order all the monuments of antiquity, genealogies, 

12 177 


chronicles and records of the Kingdom." The documents 
thus examined and placed in order were carefully preserved 
in the national archives until the Danish and Anglo-Norman 
invasions. At that time some were destroyed; some were 
carried away to Belgium, Denmark, England, France, Rome, 
and elsewhere; some were preserved in public and private 
libraries in Ireland, and some were held in safety in Irish 
and Scotch convents and monasteries.* 

Early in the seventeenth century another special under- 
taking was inaugurated to bring together these scattered 
records, to compare them with original documents, and to 
compile from the vast amount of widely distributed material 
a reliable history of the colonization of Ireland from the 
earliest ascertainable period to about the close of the six- 
teenth century. The monumental work that was thus accom- 
plished is known as The Annals of the Kingdom of Ireland 
by the Four Masters, and also as The Annals of the Four 
Masters. Upon this imposing work later historians and 
genealogists have in large measure depended, although much 
has been added from time to time from other sources, giving 
additional information or throwing new light upon what 
had been before collated. Thus the celebrated Irish Pedi- 
grees of O'Hart and the works of O'Ferrall, the Irish his- 
toriographer to Queen Anne, and other investigators have 
given us works that not only reproduce but reinforce the 
conclusions of the Four Masters. 

The task of compiling these annals was placed in the hands 

* Irish Pedigrees, by John O'Hart. Fifth Edition, Vol. I, p. 17. 


of the three brothers O'Clery, — Michael, Cucogry, and Con- 
aire, — and Feearfeasa O'Mulconaire. Michael O'Clery, or 
Teige of the Mountain, was born in 1575. Early in life he 
sought admittance to the religious Order of St. Francis, 
but instead of giving himself up to religious work he deter- 
mined to devote his life to historical research. He and his 
brothers became hereditary historians to the O'Donnells, 
princes of Tyrconnel. Peregrine O'Duigenan and Maurice 
O'Mulconaire of Roscommon, who were hereditary historians 
to the kings of Connaught, assisted the O'Clerys and Feear- 
feasa O'Mulconaire in their work. 

Throughout a period of fifteen years these scholars were en- 
gaged in gathering manuscripts and various kinds of documen- 
tary and traditional evidence from all parts of Ireland. They 
had access to the Annals of Boyle which the monks in the 
Cistercian monastery of Boyle had collected; the Annals of 
Connaught which dealt with the history of Ireland from the 
thirteenth to the sixteenth century; the Annals of Innisf alien 
which had been collected by the monks in the Abbey of Innis- 
f alien and were also sometimes called the Annals of Munster; 
the Annals of Ulster collected by Cathal Maguire in the 
fifteenth century, and many other important collections of 
similar character. 

Many of these original annals have been preserved to the 
present day and are even now accessible to scholars. The 
Leabhar-Gabhala of the O'Clerys contains poems and other 
documents which were the sources of the bardic history of 
Ireland. Many passages from these poems were reproduced 



verbatim in the Annals of the Four Masters. The first 
manuscript is in the library of the Royal Irish Academy. 
Another valuable source of information for this compilation 
was the Annals of Clonmacnoise which contained the syn- 
chronisms of Flann, the poems of Maelmura/ poems of 
Gillacaemhain, and so on. 

The catalogue of Irish kings by Gillacaemhain, mcorpor- 
ated in the Annals of the Four Masters, was principally derived 
from the accumulated traditions of the poets and seanachils 
of Ireland. Pinkerton and other Scottish historians who 
have dealt with the early centuries of Ireland and Scotland 
unreservedly admit the antiquity and general reliability of 
this list. Pinkerton in commenting upon it says that it was 
" so easily preserved by the repetition of bards at high solem- 
nities and some grand events of history" that it is readily 
credible. Michael O'CIery, speaking of the work of himself 
and his associates, said that the Annals were compiled "from 
the ancient and approved chronicles, records and other 
books of antiquity of the Kingdom of Ireland." The work 
upon the Annals was begun in the monastery of Donegal 
in 1632 and was finished in 1636. From the locality where 
the work was done the Annals are sometimes called The 
Annals of Donegal. 

A further reason for confidence in these Annals is derived 
from the fact that the first settlers upon the island, the Mile- 
sians, established principles of law particularly involving 
hereditary possession of property. They adhered to the prin- 
ciple that a man's right to inheritance depended upon his 



family relationships, and therefore with them genealogy early 
became a very important matter. They employed officials 
whose duty it was carefully to compile the genealogical 
history of all families of prominence. These Milesian Irish 
genealogical records and chronicles were, even in the cen- 
turies before Christ, constantly examined and revised in order 
to prevent errors and to continue the historical family account. 
As state documents they were preserved from generation to gen- 
eration, and they constituted the material from which in the third 
century was written, by order of the monarch Cormac MacArt, 
a history of the Irish nation called The Psalter of Tara. 

From this and from other equally ancient and valuable 
records Cormac MacCullenan, Archbishop of Cashel and King 
of Munster, wrote in the ninth century The Psalter of Cashel, 
the original of which is now in the library of the British Mu- 
seum. The reliability of these annals and records is now very 
generally recognized by scholars, and the chronological and 
genealogical pedigrees of the Irish kings set down in them is 
accepted as being quite as fully and firmly established as any 
history dealing with periods as far back as the beginning 
of the Christian era. 

From the outset the royal Milesian rulers of Ireland were 
split into several lines of lords who controlled different parts 
of the island, just as in Norway, before the time of Harald 
Harfagra, the country was divided into many small kingdoms 
held by independent princes. But all these Irish kings 
derived originally from the same common stock and were also 
closely allied by intermarriages in successive generations. 



Ultimately they united in the one royal house which held the 
most part of Ireland long before the Christian era and which, 
in its royal descendants, gave to Scotland the great family 
which dominated that country for nearly seven hundred years 
and became especially distinguished in its famous kings, 
Kenneth, Alexander, and Malcolm. 

According to the ancient Irish historians Ireland was 
colonized by several nations more than two thousand years 
before the Christian era. These colonists were mostly of 
Scythian origin and they made no very deep impress upon 
the new country in which they settled, never rising in civiliza- 
tion higher than mere tribal existence. Then came the 
permanent occupants of the island who conquered the tribes 
who had preceded them. The origin of the later settlers has 
been traced to the conquerors from the East who overran the 
southwestern peninsula of Europe, subjugating the rude 
people of Galicia and Lusitania long before the Roman 
legions had invaded those countries. 

These were the Gaelic, Milesian, or Scotic men who arrived 
in Ireland in the year of the world 3500, according to the 
ancient chronology. Under them the country was developed 
into a nation. They set up stable government, bringing 
with them customs and laws that had made Assyria, Egypt, 
Babylon, and other nations of the East rich and powerful 
and the forerunners of modern civilization. The nation that 
they established remained in existence, and the continuity 
of the royal line was unbroken until Ireland was subjugated 
by King Henry II. of England in 1186. 




1 — 1 




( ) 













It is recorded * that Niul, the youngest son of Fenius Farsa 
(Phoeniusa Farsaidh), king of Scythia, being a man of great 
learning was invited into Egypt by the ruHng Pharaoh about 
the time of the captivity of the IsraeHtes. He received land 
bordering on the Red Sea and married Scota, a daughter of 
Pharaoh. Gaodhal or Gathelus, the son of Niul, was the 
ancestor of the Clan-na-Gael, that is " the children or descend- 
ants of Gaodhal." He lived in the time of Moses who, it is 
said, at one time cured him of a serpent's wound by the laying 
on of a rod. During many succeeding generations the descend- 
ants of Gaodhal who were driven out of Egypt led their 
people in warfare on the island of Greta, in Scythia, and up 
and down the Caspian sea. Cachear their high priest fore- 
told that, 

"there should be no end to their wanderings until they 
should arrive at the western island of Europe now called 
Ireland, which was the place destined for their future and 
lasting abode and settlement; and that not until their pos- 
terity after three hundred years should arrive there." 

Brath, the seventeenth king in line after Gaodhal, ruled 
in Getulia or Libya, but leaving that country established a 
colony in Galicia, Spain. His son Breoghan, or Brigus, 
conquered Galicia, Andalusia, Murcia, Castile, and Portugal, 
and made himself king of all those countries. He built 
Breoghan's tower or Brigantia in Galicia and the city of 
Brigansa or Braganza in Portugal, which was named after 
him. Also Castile was originally called Brigia for him. 

* The Annals of the Four Masters. 


Brigus sent into England a colony that settled in the territory 
now embraced in the counties of York, Lancaster, Durham, 
Westmoreland, and Cumberland. These colonists were called 
Brigantes, and the Romans found their posterity there cen- 
turies later. 

A grandson of Brigus was Milesius of Spain who is the 
great figure in ancient Irish history. In his youth he went 
back to Scythia, the early home of his race ; there he married 
a daughter of the king and was made a general of the army. 
He grew in power and in the affection of the people until the 
king became jealous of him and determined to put him out 
of the way. Milesius, anticipating his father-in-law's inten- 
tions, slew him and sailed away to Egypt with a fleet of sixty 
vessels. In Egypt Pharaoh Nectonibus received him gracious- 
ly, made him a general, kept him eight years in the country, 
and gave him his daughter Scota in marriage. 

Returning to Spain he found that his father was dead and 
his country threatened by the invasion of foreign tribes. He 
fought these enemies successfully, winning, it is said, fifty- 
four battles and establishing peace throughout the land. 
Inspired by a desire to find out about the islands to the west 
and remembering the prophecy of the old magician of his 
race centuries before, concerning them and his people, he 
sent his uncle Ithe thither to spy out the land. Ithe was 
killed by the islanders who resented his intrusion, and then in 
revenge Milesius determined to invade and subdue the country; 
but before he could mature his plans he died. 

The eight sons of Milesius undertook to carry out the work 



that their father had contemplated, but on the way westward 
part of their fleet was destroyed and five of the brothers were 

"They met many difficulties and various chances before 
they could land; occasioned by the diabolical arts, sorceries 
and enchantments used by the Tuatha-de-Danans, to obstruct 
their landing; for by their magic art, they enchanted the island 
so as to appear to the Milesians or Clan-na-Mile in the form 
of a hog and no way to come at it (whence the island, among 
the many other names it had before, was called Muc-Inis 
or the Hog Island." * 

The three surviving brothers, Heber, Heremon, and Amergin 
with Heber Donn, son of Ir, one of the brothers who had 
perished, effected a landing, slew in battle the three Tuatha- 
de-Danan kings, routed their army, and took possession of the 

"Heber and Heremon, divided the kingdom between them 
(allotting a proportion of land to their brother Amergin, who 
was their arch-priest, druid or magician; and to their nephew 
Heber Donn and to the rest of their chief commanders), and 
became jointly the first of one hundred and eighty-three kings 
or sole monarchs of the Gaelic, Milesian or Scottish race, 
that ruled and governed Ireland successively for two thousand 
eight hundred and eighty-five years from the first year of 
their reign Anno Mundi three thousand five hundred to their 
submission to the crown of England in the person of King 
Henry the Second; who, being also of the Milesian race by 
Maude, his mother, was lineally descended from Fergus 
Mor MacEarca, the king of Scotland, who was descended from 
the said Heremon, so that the succession may be truly said to 

* Irish Pedigrees, by John O'Hart. Fifth Edition, Vol. I, p. S3. 



continue in the Milesian blood from before Christ one thou- 
sand six hundred and ninety-nine years down to the present 
time." * 

"This invasion, conquest or plantation of Ireland by the 
Milesian or Scottish Nation took place in the Year of the 
World 3,500 or the next year after Solomon began the foun- 
dation of the Temple of Jerusalem, and 1,699 years before 
the Nativity of our Saviour Jesus Christ; which according 
to the Irish computation of Time, occurred Anno Mundi, 
5,199; therein agreeing with the Septuagint, Roman Mar- 
tyrologies, Eusebius, Orosius and other ancient authors; 
which computation the Irish chroniclers exactly observed in 
their Books of the Reigns of the Monarchs of Ireland, and 
other Antiquities of that Kingdom; out of which the Roll 
of the INIonarchs of Ireland, from the beginning of the Mile- 
sian Monarchy to their submission to King Henry the Second 
of England, a Prince of their own blood, is exactly collected. "f 

The expedition of the sons of Milesius is the theme of 
Thomas Moore's beautiful Song of Inisfail: 

"They came from a land beyond the sea 

And now o'er the western main 
Set sail, in their good ships, gallantly, 

From the sunny land of Spain. 
'Oh, where's the isle we've seen in dreams, 

Our destined home or grave.''' 
Thus sang they, as by the morning's beams, 

They swept the Atlantic wave. 

And lo! where afar o'er ocean shines 

A spark of radiant green. 
As though in that deep lay emerald mines, 

Whose light through the wave was seen. 

* t Irish Pedigrees by John O'Hart. Fifth Edition, Vol. I, p. 54 and p. 55. 



*'Tis Inisf ail — 'tis Inisfail!' 

Rings o'er the echoing sea; 
While, bending to heaven, the warriors hail 
That home of the brave and free. 

Then turned they unto the Eastern wave, 

Where now their day-god's eye 
A look of such sunny omen gave 

As lighted up sea and sky. 
Nor frown was seen through sky or sea, 

Nor tear o'er leaf or sod. 
When first on their Isle of Destiny 

Our great forefathers trod." 

On his shield and standard Milesius of Spain bore three 
lions. In explanation of these insignia the story is told that 
on one occasion in his younger days, when journeying in 
Africa he killed three lions on a single day. In memory of 
this exploit he always after bore three lions on his shield. 
His two surviving sons, Heber and Heremon, and his grand- 
son, Heber Donn, after their conquest of Ireland, adopted 
these arms, each of them bearing a single lion on his shield 
and banner, but of different colors. Their descendants to 
this day preserve these arms with additions and changes as 
may be. The lion rampant was a distinctive part of the arms 
born by members of the royal house of Scotland, the earls 
of Huntingdon, and several of the Bruces. 

For a more detailed account of the pedigrees of the kings 
of Milesian origin during their occupancy and control of the 
emerald isle, the records and annals already quoted may be 
profitably consulted. Taking up the narrative in the cen- 
turies immediately preceding the birth of Christ we find it 



set down that one of the strongest royal houses of Ireland was 
that which ruled Dalriada, a province that comprised part of 
the modern counties of Antrim and Derry. 

^Eneas Tuirmeach-Teamrach, the eighty-first monarch of 
Ireland, who died at Tara, the royal seat of the Irish kings, 
in 324 B.C., had a son named Fiacha Firmara; this son was 
the ancestor of the kings of Dalriada in Ireland, and Dal- 
riada and Argyle in Scotland. In the twenty-first generation 
from Fiarcha Firmara was Conaire II., known as Conaire 
MacMogha Lainne; he married Sarad, the daughter of Conn 
of the one hundred battles, who began to reign in 122. 
Carbry Riada, the son of Conaire II. and his wife Sarad, 
was the first king of Dalriada. He invaded the northeastern 
part of Ireland and conquered a new territory which was 
named after him. He was a cousin of King Comal, and his 
descendants lived and ruled under the protection of the 
sovereign house of Ireland from the time of the first occupancy 
of the country in the middle of the third century. After 
Carbry Riada the successive kings of Dalriada, his lineal 
descendants, were Kionga, Felim Lamh-foidh, Eochy Forta- 
mail, Fergus Uallach, ^neas Fort, Eochy Mun-reamhar, 
Earc, and Loarn; the last named was the last king of the 
province and with him we come to the beginning of the Scot- 
tish kings. 














AS was shown in the preceding chapter, toward the 
conclusion of the fourth century the Dalriadinian 
Scots were one of the powerful ruling peoples of 
Ireland. Previous to that time men of the same Scot origin 
had sailed across the narrow waters between Ireland and the 
larger island and established themselves in a desultory sort 
of way in North Britain. There they had come more or less 
in contact with the Picts who were already located in that 
region and who, as distinguished from the newcomers, were 
of Gothic descent instead of Gaelic. Before the end of the 
fourth century larger and more studied invasions of Roman- 
ized Britain were made by the Scots from Ireland. On one 
occasion, in 360 B.C., they were repelled by the natives of North 
Britain, but this in no wise dampened their ardor. 

This immigration continued persistently, if not strongly, 
for several centuries. Ultimately a substantial colony from 
Irish Dalriada came over and, settling at Kintyre in 503, 
succeeded in establishing firm footing. The Dalriadinian 
Scots affiliated with the men of Scottish origin who had pre- 
ceded them and made common cause against the more bar- 
barous Picts. Gradually, as time wore on, they became 
successful in their fighting, and not only were able to maintain 
themselves in their newly chosen home but gradually en- 
croached more and more upon the territory of the Picts. 



Bede, the historian, says: 

"In course of time, Britain, besides the Britons and Picts, 
received a third nation, Scotia, who, issuing from Hibernia, 
under the leadership of Reuda (Riada) secured for themselves, 
either by friendship or by the sword, settlements arqong the 
Picts w^hich they still possess. From the name of their com- 
mander, they are to this day called Dalreudini; for, in their 
language, dal signifies a part. Dalriada meant Riada's 

Fergus is the first Scottish king recognized in the line 
of descent from the Irish kings to King Kenneth McAlpin 
of a later generation. Some antiquarians have built up a 
pedigree extending many generations beyond Fergus, but 
their conclusions have not been accepted by conservative and 
more reliable investigators and scholars. Scotland's great 
historian, George Chalmers, in his Caledonia concedes the 
beginning of the line of Scottish kings in Fergus as historically 
and conclusively established. Other historians and genealo- 
gists of his day and of later periods who have made a particular 
study of the earlier and somewhat cloudy periods of Scottish 
history, unite in agreement with Chalmers. Upon the strength 
of their conclusions the record from Fergus is received. 

Loam, who at this time was at the head of the Dalriadinian 
Scots in Scotland, was closely pressed in war by the Picts, 
and sent to his tribesmen in Ireland for assistance. His 
grandson, Fergus Mor MacEarca, went over to assist him. 
Fergus was a son of Loarn's daughter, Earca, and of Mure- 
dach who was grandson of Niall Mor, known as Niall of the 
nine hostages, the one hundred and twenty-sixth monarch 



of Ireland. It was in 498 that Fergus came to Scotland 
to the assistance of his grandfather, and he was accompanied 
by his two brothers, Angus and Loarn. Upon the death of 
his grandfather Loarn the three brothers assumed control 
of affairs. 

Fergus became the sole monarch of the Dalriadinian Scots 
upon the death of Angus and Loarn. However, he did not 
long survive his two brothers but died in 506. An ancient 
Gaelic poem, or genealogical account of the Scoto-Irish 
kings, applies to him the ephitet ard, which means great in 
character or first in sovereignty. His reign lasted only three 

"In A.D. 498 Fergus Mor MacEarca in the twentieth year 
of the reign of his father, Murdoch, son of Eugenius or Owen, 
son of Niall of the nine hostages, with five more of his brothers, 
viz. another Fergus, two more named Loarn and two named 
Aongus or iEneas with a complete army, went into Scotland 
to assist his grandfather who was King of Dalriada, and who 
was much oppressed by his enemies the Picts, who were in 
several battles and engagements vanquished and overcome 
by Fergus and his party. Whereupon on the king's death, 
which happened about the same time, the said Fergus was 
unanimously elected and chosen king as being of the royal 
blood by his mother; and the said Fergus was the first abso- 
lute King of Scotland of the Milesian race : so the succession 
continued in his blood and lineage ever since to this day." 
[Annals of the Four Masters.]* 

DoMANGART, son of Fergus, followed his father and ruled 
the turbulent Scots and Picts for five years, dying in 511, his 

* Annals of the Irish Kings, by John O'Hart. Fifth Edition, Vol. II, p. 641. 
13 193 


life having been "full of troubles." Comgal, son of Doman- 
gart, reigned for twenty-four years — some authorities say 
thirty-two years — and in this long period widely extended the 
settlements of his kingdom and consolidated his authority. 
It was written that " his reign passed away without reproach." 

Gauran, brother of Comgal and son of Domangart, suc- 
ceeded in 535 in the direct line from Domangart to Kenneth 
McAlpin, who became about 850 the progenitor of the great 
Scottish royal house. His reign of twenty-two years passed 
away "without reproach" until in 557 he was overpowered 
by Bridei, a king of the Picts. Power passed into the hands 
of his nephew Conal, son of Comgal, who was a protector of 
the sainted Columba, but Conal's administration of fourteen 
years was unlucky and closed in 571 in civil war. 

AiDAN, son of Gauran, after the fall of Conal, successfully 
maintained his rights to the inheritance on the battlefield 
of Loro. In 574 he was inaugurated at lona by Columba, 
and in the next quarter of a century he gained many victories 
over his rivals in his own family and over the Saxons and other 
fighting men of that period. Frequently beaten by the Saxons, 
he lost his sons, Arthur, Eocha-fin, and Domangart in battle, 
and in his defeat by the Northumbrians under iEthelfred 
at the battle of Dawstane in 603 the Dalriadini were then 
so completely overcome that for many generations thereafter 
they did not attempt to extend their territory far to the south. 
Aidan was the greatest of the Dalriadinian monarchs and 



was called "the king of the noble portion." He died quietly 
at Kintyre, at the age of eighty, in 605. 

EocHA-Bui, the yellow haired, son of Aidan, ruled sixteen 
years, 605-21, but his reign closed under a cloud of for- 
eign and civil war. He and his sons won many victories 
over their neighbors, but when he died, in 621, he left his 
people in the midst of troubles. 

Kenneth-Cear, the awkward, son of Eocha-Bui, "ruled 
happily" during three months, said the Gaelic bard, but he 
was slain in the battle of Fedharvin in 621 fighting the 
Irish chieftain Cruitbne. Following the death of Kenneth 
the kingdom was controlled by Ferchar, of the Loarn line of 
kings, for sixteen years. 

Donal-Breac, the freckled, a son of Eocha-Bui, in 637, 
upon the death of Ferchar, obtained the sceptre that had 
fallen from the hands of his brother, Kenneth-Cear. He 
was a man of strong character, vehement and impetuous. 
Early in his reign he invaded Ireland to attack King Domnal 
II., and there he was overwhelmingly defeated on the plain of 
Moyrath in 637. Again in the following year he was beaten 
by the Picts in the battle of Glenmoreson and, invading the 
Clyde in 642, he was slain at Straith-Cairmaic by Hoan, 
one of the reguli of Strathcluyd. During the next sixty years 
the sceptre was in the hands of the Loarn and the Comgal 
descendants of Ere, and the record of those years is a record 
of family feuds. 



DoMANGART, SOU of Donal-Breac, was not able to succeed 
his father but was assassinated in 672. Then it was not until 
Ferchar-Fada, the tall, of the family of Loam, died in 702, 
after a bloody reign of twenty-one years, that the house of 
Gauran again acquired power. 

EocHA-RiNEVAL, SOU of Domangart and grandson of 
Donal-Breac, rose to the control of affairs, but he had a reign 
that was short, troublous, and inglorious. In 705 he was 
compelled to give way to Ainbhcealach, the power again pass- 
ing to a rival branch of the family. 

EocHA III., son of Eocha-Rineval, asserted his rights to 
the succession in 720, and finally in 729 was able to over- 
throw all his rivals, the whole Scottish-Irish kingdom becom- 
ing united under him. After a reign of nine years over Kintyre 
and Argyle, and four years over all the Dalriadinian tribes, he 
died in 733. Following his death a contending faction again 
seized the sceptre and held it for six years. 

AoDH-FiN, son of Eocha III., came to the head of the 
Dalriadinian tribes in 739. He proved to be a great sov- 
ereign. During his reign the Scots gained a decided suprem- 
acy over the Picts and their king was the hero of many 
adventurous exploits. After a brilliant reign of thirty years 
he died in 769. Fergus, son of Aodh-Fin succeeded his 
father, and reigned feebly three years. After him the sceptre 
was lost to his family for a quarter of a century. 



Eocha-Annuine, another son of Aodh-Fin, reestablished the 
line of the Gauran branch. This Eocha IV. is the Archaius 
of the Latin annahsts. His reign began in a period of civil 
war, but he held himself firmly in power and strengthened 
the royal position of his family. He died in 826 after 
a prosperous reign of thirty years. He married Urgusia, 
daughter of Urgusia and sister of Constantin who ruled the 
Picts from 791 to 821 and of Ungas who ruled the same 
tribes in 821-30. By this marriage he laid the foundations 
for the alliance of the Scots and Picts that was realized when 
Kenneth McAlpin, his grandson, rose to power. 

Alpin, son of Eocha-Annuine and Urgusia, after a three 
years' reign by Dungal, of the house of Loarn, took up the 
sceptre but did not distinguish himself. His ambitions for 
more extensive domains and the control of a richer people 
than he ruled over impelled him in 836 to lead an army into 
the country beyond the Clyde. He laid waste to the territory 
between the Ayr and the Doon, but in an engagement near 
the site of Laicht castle he was slain. 

Kenneth, the son of Alpin, succeeded his father in 836. 
He was a man of enterprise, power, and valor. To avenge 
the death of his father he made several invasions south of the 
Clyde, and in 843, after he had reigned over the Scots for seven 
years, he seized the ancient sceptre of the Pictish kings from 
Wred, and then held it. By virtue of his descent from Urgusia 
the Picts were willing to accept him as their sovereign and the 



two peoples, Scots and Picts, were united into one nation. 
Notwithstanding this success Kenneth held a territory that 
comprised only a small part of Scotland. Power over the rest 
of the country was established gradually as the nation devel- 
oped. After Kenneth the monarchs were called kings of 
Picts and then kings of Alba, and it was not until the tenth 
and eleventh centuries that the name of Scotland was fully 
adopted. The substantially complete historical account of 
the kings of Scotland begins with Kenneth McAlpin. 


CoNSTANTiN, son of Kenneth, did not immediately succeed 
his father since Donal, his uncle, came in for a weak inef- 
fectual reign of four years. He was crowned king at Scone 
in 863, and at once engaged in the work of correcting the 
ills that his immediate predecessor had brought upon the land 
and in extending and strengthening the domain that had been 
secured by his father. Meantime the Northmen who had 
been settled in Ireland for nearly half a century were making 
predatory incursions to the shores of North Britain. Con- 
stantin was compelled to meet these invaders soon after he 
began to reign. For nearly a decade he combated them 
successfully, but in the end he was overcome and killed on the 
shores of the Forth in 881. He married a daughter of a 
prince of Wales and by her had two sons and one daughter. 

Donal IV., the son of Constantin, came to the throne in 
893 after the intervening reigns of Aodh and Eocha. His 
reign was marked mostly by fighting against the Northmen 



who continued to ravage North Britain wherever they could 
gain foothold. Donal defeated them at Collin on the Tay, 
near Scone, but in 904 he was killed while battling against 
an army of Danes led by Ivar O'lvar. The Gaelic bard sang 
of him as "Domhnal Mic Constantin chain," — "Donal, 
Constantin's son, the beloved," and it was said of him that 
he was "equally dear to the high and the low." 


Malcolm I., son of Donald IV., received the kingdom 
after Constantin III., his cousin, at the end of a forty years' 
reign, had relinquished the sceptre in 944 and retired to a 
monastery in his old age. Malcolm inherited a turbulent 
dominion, but he distinguished himself by an alliance with 
England, securing Cumbria from King Edmund, and in later 
years he raided Northumberland. In an insurrection of the 
Moray men in 952 he slew Cellach the maormor and in the 
following year at Fetteressoe fell a victim to the revenge of 
Cellach's followers. After him three kings of another line, 
Indulf, Duff, and Culen ruled for a time over Scotland. 

Kenneth III., son of Malcolm I., came to the throne of 
his forefathers in 970. He waged war against the Britons 
and ultimately gained the important object of his ambitions 
in annexing the kingdom of Strathcluyd to the territories of 
the Scottish kings. In a decisive combat on the field of Lun- 
carty near Perth he overthrew a great army of invading 
Danes and secured freedom from the forays of those foes. 
Involved in domestic war by an insurrection in the Merns, he 



was assassinated by Finella, wife of the maormorof thelNIerns, 
in revenge for the death of her son. His death occurred in 
994 at the close of a long reign of twenty-four years. He 
left a son who came to the throne as Malcolm II., a son who 
was killed in 1032, and a third son Boidhe, who was the father 
of the celebrated Gruoch, Lady Macbeth. 


Malcolm II., son of the preceding, was born in or about 
954. He was variously known as King of Scots, Malcolm 
MacCinseth, King of Alban, King of Monaidh, King of Scotia, 
"the most victorious king," and "a warrior fortunate, praised 
of bards." His reign began in 1005 after he had defeated 
his cousin, Kenneth III., king of Alban, in battle at Mongie- 
vaird, near the banks of the river Earn. In 1010 he achieved 
a victory over the Danes and as a thank-offering he founded 
the monastery of Marthillach or Mortlach where the battle 
was fought. During his reign the battle of Clontarf in Ire- 
land was fought and the battle of Carham on the Tweed. 
In 1031 Malcolm yielded to Canute of England, becoming 
subject to the Saxon monarch. 

He died at Glamis, November 25, 1034, at the age of eighty 
or more and after a reign of nearly thirty years. 

Issue : 

1. Bethoc or Beatrice. She married, about the year 1000, 
Crinan the Thane, hereditary lay abbot of Dunkeld and 
seneschal of the Isles. Crinan was slain in battle at Dunkeld. 
Eleven of the descendants of this matrimonial alliance were 
Kings of the Scots between 1034 and 1285. 

2. Donada. She married, about the year 1004, Finlaec, 



mormaer of Moray and had Macbeth, King of Scots, 

3. Alice or Thora, who married Sigurd, Earl of Orkney, 
the Norwegian ancestor of the Bruces. 


Duncan, eldest son of Crinan and Beothoc, was born about 
103L He was known as the King of Scots, King of Alban, 
and Duncan the Wise, and was the gracious Duncan of 
Shakespeare's play, Macbeth. He was made king of the 
Cumbrians before 1034, and upon the death of his maternal 
grandfather, Malcolm IL, he succeeded him as king*of Scots. 
His reign was short, lasting less than six years, and in military 
enterprises was not brilliant. He unsuccessfully besieged the 
city of Durham in 1040, and the same year was defeated 
in battle at Torfness by his cousin Thorfinn, earl of Orkney. 

He was murdered at Bothnagowan, now "Pitgaveny, near 
Elgin, by Macbeth, August 14, 1040. Macbetn was a cousin 
of Duncan and a commander in his army and succeeded him 
on the throne. 

He married a cousin of Siward, earl of Northumberland, 
about 1030. 

Issue : 

1. Malcolm of whom below. 

2. Donald Bane who was twice King of Scots. 

3. Melmare. 


Malcolm III., Canmore, Great Head or Chief, son of the 
preceding, was born about 1031. He became the greatest 
of Scotland's ancient kings and was called "a king, the best 



who possessed Alban." For fourteen years he lived at the 
Court of England and received an excellent education, being 
accomplished in Latin and English as well as in his native 
Gaelic tongue. When he was about twenty-three years of 
age he became king of the Cumbrians after the victory of his 
kinsman Earl Siward over King Macbeth at Scone in July, 
1054. After he had defeated and killed Macbeth in August, 
1057, and Lulach, the successor of Macbeth, in the following 
March he became king of Scots. He was crowned at Scone, 
April 25, 1058. 

He invaded England five times, waging war against the Nor- 
mans and in support of his kinsmen, the Saxons. His first 
invasion was in 1061, and others followed in 1069, 1079, 1091, 
and 1093. After the battle of Hastings in 1066, the defeated 
Edger the Atheling and his sisters fled from the victorious 
William the Conqueror and found refuge in the court of Scot- 
land's monarch. Scotland was frequently invaded by the 
Normans during his reign, and parts of Malcolm's kingdom 
were from time to time annexed to England. These forays 
back and forth were the beginning of that long and bloody 
struggle that lasted for centuries while the conquerors of 
England were endeavoring to subdue Scotland. 

He was killed by Morel of Bamborough at Alnwick, in 
Northumberland, November 13, 1093, aged about sixty-two, 
after a reign of nearly thirty-six years. He was buried at 
Lynemouth, but afterwards reinterred at Dunfermline. 

He married, first, about 1059, Ingibiorg, daughter of Earl 
Finn Arnason and widow of Thorfinn Sigurdson, earl of 


luml/oj Mui~^,fl Ua,^u.'J b^^.iUi.d in I'-lAtl). 


Orkney. He married, second, in 1068-9, Margaret, daughter 
of Edward the Outlaw, king of England. She died November 
16, 1093. 

Issue by wife Ingibiorg: 

1. Duncan, king of Scots, as Duncan II., in 1094. 

2. Malcolm. 

3. Donald, who died a violent death in 1085. 

Issue by wife Margaret: 

4. Edward, who died from wounds received in battle at 
Alnwick in November, 1093. 

5. Edmund. He ruled parts of Scotia, 1094-97, became 
a monk, and died at Montague in Somersetshire. 

6. iEthelred, Abbot of Dunkeld. 

7. Edgar, King of Scots, 1097-1106, 

8. Alexander, King of Scots, as Alexander I., 1106-24. 

9. David, King of Scots, of whom below. 

10. Matilda, "the good Queen Maud." She married 
King Henry I. of England in May, 1100, and died May 1, 1118. 

11. Mary. She married Eustace, Count de Boulogne, in 
1102 and died May 31, 1116. 


David, the ninth and youngest son of the preceding, was 
born about 1080. His youth was spent at the court of King 
Henry I. of England, his brother-in-law. On the death of 
his brother, King Alexander I., he ascended the throne of 
Scotland as David I., in April, 1124. His reign, which lasted 
twenty-nine years, was eventful. Cumbria and Lothian were 
reunited with Alban under his authority; his supporters were 
successful in the battle of Strikathro against the men of Moray 
in 1130; he invaded England in 1136; an army of Scots 
defeated the English at Clitheroe in 1138, but the King was 



overwhelmed by the English in the great battle of the Stand- 
ard in the same year. David, who was the first feudal king 
of the Scots, was a man of fervent piety and devoted to his 
people. He was surnamed St. David and was "a pious and 
God-fearing man." Much of his time and means was given 
to the upbuilding of the church and church establishments. 
He founded monasteries at Selkirk and Jedburgh, and estab- 
lished or reconstituted six bishoprics and ten abbeys. 

He died at Carhsle, May 24, 1153, and was buried under 
the pavement before the high altar in the church of the Holy 
Trinity, at Dunfermline. 

He married, about 1113, Matilda, daughter and heiress of 
Waltheof, earl of Huntingdon, granddaughter of Siward, 
Earl of Northumberland, and widow of Simon de St. Luz. 
She died between April 23, 1130, and April 22, 1131, and was 
buried at Scone. 

Issue : 

1. Malcolm who was strangled when a child by Donald 
Bane, ex-king of Scots. 

2. Claricia, who died unmarried. 

3. Hodierna, who died unmarried. 

4. Henry of whom below. 


Henry, younger son of the preceding, did not live to mount 
the throne, dying before his father, June 12, 1152. He suc- 
ceeded to the earldoms of Northumberland and Huntingdon. 

He married, in 1139, Ada de Warenne, daughter of William, 
earl of Warenne. She died in 1178. 



Issue : 

1. Malcolm, who was born March 20, 1141-42. From 
his youthful and feminine appearance he was called "the 
maiden." He succeeded his grandfather and was King of 
Scots, 1153-65, as Malcolm IV. He died unmarried Decem- 
ber 9, 1165. 

2. William, who was born in 1143. He was the famous 
King of Scots, known as "William the Lion," and was a 
worthy successor of his great ancestor Malcolm Canmore. 
His reign extended from the death of his brother Malcolm IV. 
to December 4, 1214, a period of forty-nine years. He died 
December 4, 1214. He married in 1186, Ermengarde, daugh- 
ter of Richard vice comes de Bellomonte; his son Alexander 
II. succeeded him on the throne. 

3. David of whom below. 

4. Ada, who married Florence III., Count of Holland, in 

5. Margaret, who married, first, in 1160, Conan IV., Duke 
de Bretagne, Earl of Richmond; second, Humphrey de 
Bohun, Earl of Hereford. 

6. Matilda, who died in childhood in 1152. 


David, the third son of the preceding, was born about 1144 
and succeeded to the title of earl of Huntingdon. He founded 
the abbey of Lundors, now Lindores, near Fife. 

He died at Jerdelay, June 17, 1219, and was buried in the 
abbey of Saltre in Huntingdonshire. 

He married, in 1190, Maud, daughter of the earl of Chester. 


1. Robert, who died young. 

2. Henry, who died unmarried. 

3. John le Scot, Earl of Chester and Earl of Huntingdon. 
He died without issue. 



4. Margaret, who married Alan, Lord of Galloway, in 
1209. Her daughter Dervorgilla married John Baliol; their 
son John Baliol was the successful competitor for the throne 
of Scotland in 1291, and their son-in-law, John Comyn senior, 
was also a competitor and father of the John Comyn whom 
Robert Bruce killed in 1305. 

5. Isabella, who married Robert Bruce of Annadale. 





IN preceding chapters it has been shown how the Bruces 
of Scotland were descended from noble and royal 
ancestors of Normandy, Denmark, Norway, Scotland, 
and Ireland, inheriting their preeminence as a royal family 
from the great warriors who, violent and masterful, and yet 
with some display of rude statesmanship, opened the way 
for modern civilization on the western part of the Continent 
of Europe and the adjacent islands. Another royal descent 
was theirs; that of the Saxon kings who in the early centuries 
of the Christian era came to the island of Britain and laid 
the foundations for the wonderful nation that has in time 
been built to the admiration of all peoples. Every schoolboy 
knows the story, how the Romans failed in the attempt to 
subdue the rude inhabitants of Britain, and abandoning their 
task left the islands to the semi-barbarous tribes that they 
had found there. 

Shortly the German tribes began to give attention to the 
island as a promising place for emigration and subjugation. 
Hengist and Horsa led the Jutes from Denmark in 449, 
and settled in Kent, becoming kings of that section. Then 
Aella came in 490 with his three sons, and made himself 
king of Sussex. Five years thereafter, in 495, Cerdic arrived 
with his son Cynric, and established the kingdom of the West 
Saxons, afterwards conquering the Isle of Wight. Cerdic 

14 209 


was really the first king of the long Saxon line which, for 
several centuries, held the land and its people, foreign and 
native, full in control and finally developed the nation of 
England out of this raw material. He has been called "the 
third monarch of the Englishmen." His ancestry has been 
traced through eight generations to Odin, the great Scandi- 
navian lord.* Gibbon called him "one of the bravest of the 
children of Wodin." 

Cerdic came with a great force of ships and men, and from 
the time of his first landing, which was made at the mouth 
of the Itchin, he was uniformly successful in all his movements 
and in beating back the natives further and further to the 
interior of the island. His progress of conquest, although 
slow, was continuous and decisive, and finally he was able 
firmly to establish throughout the valley of the lower Avon 
those who came with him and others who followed after. 
There he became king of the West Saxons in 519. He 
died in 534, but not until he had seen his followers fixed 
in their new home, and could look forward with much of cer- 
tainty to the future growth and development of a people 
already beginning to bear the impress of nationality. 

It was a century and a half, however, after the reign of 
Cerdic, before the compact nation that we now know as Eng- 
land had come surely into stable existence. In the course of 
time seven different Saxon kingdoms, known in history as 
the heptarchy, existed in Britain. Of these the most powerful 
was that of Wessex where the descendants of Cerdic ruled. 

* Manuel d'Hisloire, de Genealogie et de Chronologic, by A. M. H. J. Stokvis. 



From Cerdic to Egbert there were many kings in direct line 
of descent who ruled over Wessex. Rivals to them were the 
kings of the other Saxon states and all were continually in 
war with each other. 

Gradually Wessex, or West Saxon, grew more and more 
powerful until it finally engulfed all the other Saxon states, 
Kent, Northumberland, East x\nglia, Mercia, Essex, and 
Sussex. The situation was somewhat similar to that which 
existed in Denmark before the time of Harald Harfagra who 
conquered the other independent earls about him and con- 
solidated their principalities into the kingdom of Norway. 
The difference was that in Britain the several Saxon kings 
were more powerful and more independent and possessed 
royal power as well as royal descent, holding themselves in 
that respect not inferior to the kings of Wessex. But the 
descendants of Cerdic finally acquired suflScient strength to 
dominate the other kingdoms and maintain themselves as the 
sole royal house in Southern and Western England. This was 
the condition of things when Ealhmund, the direct descend- 
ant in male line from Cerdic, was the ruling king of the West 
Saxons. With his son Egbert began what is generally accepted 
as the Saxon line of the kings of England. 

Egbert or Ecgberht, son of Ealhmund, was, in his youth, 
driven from England by the joint action of Offa, king of 
Mercia, and Beorhtric, king of Wessex. He found safe 
refuge in the court of Charles, king of the Franks, afterward 
the Emperor Charlemagne, where he remained nearly thir- 



teen years. It is supposed that he was banished in 789, 
and upon his return to England on the death of Beorhtric in 
802, being well-accompHshed in the arts of war, diplomacy, 
and government, he was accepted by the West Saxons as their 
king. At once on assuming control of affairs he was beset 
by uprisings of the people of Wales, Mercia, Northumbria, 
and other kingdoms, but compelled submission until he had 
united all the English race under one over-lordship. He was 
not wholly king of England, but the kings over the different 
divisions of the country were dependent upon him and ac- 
knowledged his authority. In 834 he met a great force 
of invading Northmen in Dorsetshire and was defeated by 
them, but two years later he was more successful in routing 
the same enemies. He died in 839, having reigned more 
than thirty-seven years. He married Redburga. His children 
were Ethelwulf, of whom below; Aethelstan, who ruled over 
Kent and Essex; Editha, who became abbess of Pellesworth. 

Ethelwulf, son of Ecgberht, during his father's lifetime, 
took part in the battling for the control of England, and 
succeeded to the kingship of Wessex on the death of his 
father in 839. Soon after he was mounted on the throne he 
lost his disposition for military affairs and endeavored to 
lead a quiet life, leaving to followers the work of defending 
the kingdom. In his times the Danes renewed their onslaughts 
but suffered defeat and the loss of many men, so that tem- 
porarily they abandoned all efforts to conquer the land of 
the English. 



He married, first, Osburgha, daughter of Oslac, the thane. 
Oslac was a Goth descended from Stuf and Withgar who, 
the best commentators agree, were probably grandsons of 
Cerdic and sons of a sister of Cynric. He was a pincerna, 
butler or cup-bearer, of England, that being an ofiice fre- 
quently held by nobles of distinction. He belonged to one of 
the ancient princely lines of the Jutes of Wight, established 
on that island after its subjugation by Cerdic. Ethelwulf 
married, second, Judith, daughter of Charles the Bold, king 
of France. His children by Osburgha were: Ethelstan, 
king of Kent, who died in 852; Ethelbald, who helped 
his father to achieve the victory over the Northmen at Ockley, 
in Surrey, in 851, became king of the West Saxons during 
his parent's life and, after his father died, married his father's 
widow, Judith, this scandalous union bringing upon him 
both church and secular condemnation; Ethelbert, king of 
Kent after the death of Ethelstan; Ethelred, king of Wessex, 
after the death of Ethelbald in 866; Alfred, of whom 
below; Ethelswith, who married Burhred, king of Mercia, 
and died a nun in 889. 

Alfred or Aelfred, son of the preceding, was born in Want- 
age, Berkshire, in 849. Early in life he engaged actively 
in the fighting that had been going on for generations to keep 
the Danes out of England, and by 880 he had enlarged 
the bounds of his kingdom and had made himself recognized 
as the only English power in Britain able to bring the whole 
country into union and independence. Further warfare 



ensued, but the country was nearly free from Danes by 

As a warrior, patriot, and legislator Alfred became the most 
famous of the race of Cerdic. An English writer says of him 
that he 

"is the one great character of our early history whose name 
still lives in popular history. . . . Popular belief has made 
him into a kind of embodiment of the national being; he has 
become the model English king, indeed the model English- 
man." * 

The same writer, asserting that he has received credit for 
many things that he did not do, adds : 

"and yet even the legendary reputation of Alfred is hardly 
too great for his real merits. No man recorded in history 
seems ever to have united so many great and good qualities." ■\ 

Historians of all ages have united in his praise. Keightly 
compared him with Marcus Aurelius, Mirabeau esteemed 
Charlemagne as his inferior, and Voltaire maintained that 
there never existed on the earth a man more worthy of pos- 
terity's respect. He died October 28, 901. 

He married, in 868, Ealhswith, daughter of Ethelred, sur- 
named the Mickle, earldorman of Mercia, and his wife 
Eadburk. She died between the years 902 and 905. His 
children were: Eadward, of whom below; Ethelward, who 
was born in 880 and who died in 922; Ethelfleda, who 
married Ethelred, duke of Mercia, became known as The 
Lady of Mercia and, after the death of her husband, adminis- 

* t Dictionary of National Biography, by Leslie Stephen. 


tered the affairs of the kingdom with marked ability; Ethel- 
giva, abbess of Shaftesbury; Elfthryth, or Alfritha, who 
married Baldwin II., count of Flanders, and was the great- 
great-great-grandmother of Baldwin V., count of Flanders, 
whose daughter Matilda was the consort of Williar the 
Conqueror; she died in 929. 

Edward, or Eadward, called the Elder, eldest son of King 
Alfred and Ealhswith, bore the title of king as early as 898, 
being recognized as his father's chief supporter and assistant. 
Upon the death of his parent he was chosen by the witan to 
succeed to the throne. He ably carried on the work of up- 
building and strengthening the kingdom that had been begun 
by his predecessor and his success brought to him the title 
of "the unconquered king," as recorded by the historian 
Florence of Worcester. He died at Farndon in Northampton- 
shire in 924 in the twenty-fourth year of his reign. 

He married, first, Ecgwyn or Egwina, a lady of high rank; 
second, Elfreda or Aelfaed, daughter of Earl Ethelhelm and 
his wife Ealhswith; third, Edgiva, or Eadgifu, daughter of 
the Earl Sigelline, lord of Meapham, Culings, and Lenham 
in Kent. His children by Egwina were: Athelstan, who 
was born about 894 or 895 and succeeded his father on 
the throne and under whom the sovereignty of the whole 
island was achieved and the kingdom of England fully estab- 
lished before his death in 941; Editha, or Eadgyth, who 
married Sightric, the Danish king of Northumbria. The 
children of Edward by Elfreda were: Edward; Edwin, 



drowned at sea in 933; Elsfeda, a nun at Wilton or 
Ramsey; Egvina, or Eadgiful, who married, first, in 919, 
Charles the Simple, king of France, by whom she had King 
Louis and a daughter Giselle, first wife of Rollo, Duke of 
Normandy; Ethelhild, a nun at Wilton; Ethelda or Eadhild, 
who married Hugh the Great, Count of Paris; Elfgifu or 
Adela, who married, about 936, Eblus, son of the Count 
of Aquitaine; Edith, or Eadgyth, who married, in 930, 
Otto, afterwards emperor of Germany, and who died in 
947. The children of Edward by Edgiva were: Edmund, 
of whom below; Edred, who came to the throne and died in 
955; Edburga, a nun at Winchester; Eadgifu, or Edgiva, 
who married Lewis, king of Aries or Provence; Gregory, 
abbot of Einsiedlen. 

Edaiund the Elder, son of Edward the Elder and his wife 
Edgiva, was born about 922. He succeeded to the throne 
after the death of his elder half-brother in 941. His reign 
of nearly six years was strenuous, for he was in constant war- 
fare with the Danes, the Norwegians, and the northern Celts. 
He died in 946. At a banquet in celebration of the feast 
of St. Augustine he was stabbed to death by an outlaw named 
Liofa. He married, first, Elgiva, or Elfgifu, a princess of 
exemplary piety who died in 944 and was hallowed as a 
saint. He married, second, Ethelflaid, daughter of Elfgar, 
an earldorman. His children by Elgiva were: Edwy or 
Eadwig; Edgar, or Eadgar, of whom below. 















Edgar the Peaceful, son of the preceding, was born in 
944, the year of his mother's death. Before he ascended 
the throne, Edred his uncle and Edwy his brother ruled, the 
first for nine years and the second for four years. There 
was some fighting in the early part of his reign, with the Welsh 
and the Northumbrians, but on the whole his rule was "a 
period of national consolidation, peace, and orderly govern- 
ment." He was particularly successful in the pacification 
of the Danish people settled in Britain. Although he held 
the scepter from 959, he was not crowned until 973, the 
ceremony taking place at Bath on Whitsunday. After 
the coronation he sailed to Chester and it is recorded * that 
there eight Anglo-Saxon kings, Kenneth of Scotland, Malcolm 
of Cumberland, MacOrric of Anglesey and the Isles, Inkel 
of Westmoreland, Jago of Galloway; and Howel, Dyfnwal, 
and Griffith of Wales — met him and swore to be faithful 
to him, and to be his fellow workers by sea and by land. 

Edgar was devoted to the church and a generous patron 
of the monks, and enacted wise laws for the government 
of his people. The characteristic of his reign which most 
impressed the men of his own time was well expressed in the 
saying "God granted that he dwelt in peace." He died 
July 8, 975, at the early age of thirty-two and was buried 
at Glastonbury. Fifty years later he was reverenced as a 
saint. He married, first, about 961, Wulfrid or Wulfthryth; 
second, Elfleda, or Ethelflaed, known for her beauty as 
"the white duck," daughter of Ordmar, earldorman of East 

* Chronicles of Florence of Worcester. 

n o o K () F h R T- r e 

Anglia; third, Elfrida or Elfthn-th, daughter of Ordgar, 
earldorman of De\'onshire. His children by Wulfrid were: 
Edith, or Eadgjih, who was bom in 962, became a nun 
of Wilton, where her mother is said to have been abbess, and 
was sainted after her death in 984 at the early age of 
twenty-three; Edward, who was king in 975 and Wing 
assassinated in 978, at the instigation of his stepmother 
Elfreda, became known as Edward the MartjT. HLs children 
by Elfrida were: Ethelred, of whom below; Edmund, who 
died in 971 or 972. 

Ethelred II., sumamed the Unready, son of Edgar and 
Elfrida, was bom either in 968, or in 969. Succeeding his 
brother Edward he was crowned at Kingston by the Arch- 
bishop Dunstan in 978 or the next year. From the beginning 
of his reign evil was prophesied concerning him and events 
bore out the prognostications. The Danes and Northmen 
renewed their attacks upon the coasts of England and for nearly 
a quarter of a century carried on their depredations. Various 
expedients were adopted to free the country from these marau- 
ders. Treaties were made with them; from time to time their 
departure was purchased by the paj-ment of large ransoms; 
occasionally they were ^^aten in battle; in 10O2 there was a 
cold-l>looded massacre of those then living in England. 

Still the invasions continued until, in 1013, Swend of Den- 
mark, who had already led many expeditions thither, came 
again with a splendid fleet and received the submission of all 
northern England. Ethelred fled to Normandy for safety. 



He returned shortly after and drove out the Danes under 
Canute, but his triumph was only temporary and with him 
the Saxon rule of England practically came to an end. He 
died in London. April ^l>. 1016. 

He married, tirst. in 0S4. Elgiva or Elfgifu. daughter 
of Thored. an English earl; second, in 1003. Emma, called 
for her beauty. " the {^>earl of Xormandy." daughter of Richard 
I., duke of Xormandy. His children by Elgiva were: Ethel- 
stan. who died in 1010: Ecgberht. who died about lf>Oo; 
Eadmund. of whom below; Eadred; Eadwig. who was; ban- 
ished by King Canute and slain by his order in 1017; Eadgar; 
Eadward; Wulfhild. who marrietl Ilfc_\-tel. earldorman of 
East Anglia; Eadgyth. who married Eadric Streona. earl- 
dorman of the Mercians; Elfgifu. who married Earl I'hti-ed. 
His children by Emma of Xormandy were: Eadward, who 
was born in SO^. ascended the throne on the death of the 
Danish king Harthcanut in 104'i. and was known as the 
Confessor, his devotion to religion and his munificence to 
the church winning ecclesiastical commendation so that in 
1101 he was canonized by Poj>e Alexander HI.: Aelfred, 
who was slain in 10;>0 by Earl Godwin; Godgifu. who married, 
first. Drogo. Count of Mantes, and. second, Eustace. Count 
of Boulogne. 

Edmund 11.. or E.\dmuxd. called Ironside, son of Ethelred 
the Unready, was born after 9S1. He inherited the throne 
on the death of his father in 1016 and made a bold etfort to 
revive the falling fortunes of his house. He could not wholly 



overcome the Danes under Canute and finally was forced to 
divide the kingdom with the Danish rival for the throne. 
He died suddenly November 30, 1016. The cause of his 
death is left uncertain by the chronicle writers, but there is 
very general agreement that he was assassinated at the insti- 
gation of his brother-in-law Eadric Streona. He married, 
in 1015, Algita or Ealdgyth, widow of the Danish earl Sige- 
ferth. His children were: Edmund, who fled with his 
brother from England to escape from the victorious Danes, 
and was protected and educated by Solomon, King of Hungary, 
Edward, of whom below. 

Edward, surnamed the Outlaw, son of the preceding, was 
long an exile from his native land during the reigns of the last 
kings of his line. He lived at the court of Hungary until 
recalled by his uncle Edward the Confessor in 1057 that he 
might be made heir to the throne. He died within a month 
after reaching London. He married the Princess Agatha, 
daughter of Henry II., Emperor of Germany. His children 
were: Edgar, the Atheling; Christiana, a nun; Margaret, who 
married Malcolm III. of Scotland and became the ancestress 
of the Bruces. 









AS has been already shown in other chapters, the 
Bruces of Scotland derived their claims to regal 
rights and honors from the ancient Scottish kings 
and the Irish kings who preceded those first conquerors of 
North Britain, and also from the original Saxon line of Eng- 
lish kings. Beyond that they had the distinction of being 
allied to the princes and earls of Scandinavia, as was pointed 
out in the chapter on their Scandinavian origin. Their royal 
ancestry was not, however, limited to those pedigrees, for they 
could boast also of descent from the great ruling houses of 
Continental Europe which, in the opening centuries of the 
Christian era, were dominant in the control and direction of 
affairs in that part of the world. 

By the marriage of the seventh Robert Bruce with a de- 
scendant in the sixth generation from William the Conqueror, 
subsequent Bruce generations had the inheritance of the blood 
of the masters of Western Europe. From William the Con- 
queror they went back through the dukes of Normandy until 
this line of their pedigree met an ancestor who was the com- 
mon founder, on the male side, of both the Bruce house and 
that of Normandy. Also through the line of William the 
Conqueror they traced to the Emperor Charlemagne and his 
ancestors of the Carlovingian line of princes, to the house of 



Vermandois, and to other famous overlords of mediseval times 
in Germany and France. Through Matilda, the consort of 
William the Conqueror, they went back to the house that 
produced the celebrated and powerful counts of Flanders and 
to the noble families that were allied to and became part of 
that line. 

RoLLO, who was the founder of the ducal house of Nor- 
mandy, was the son of Rognvald, Earl of North Mere and 
South Mere in Norway, by his wife Hilda, daughter of Rolf 
Nefia. Einar, who became an earl of Orkney and was in 
the direct male line of Bruce, was his half-brother. He 
was a very tall man and wherever he went he marched a-foot 
rather than ride on the small Norwegian ponies. For this 
peculiarity he was nicknamed Ganger or Walker, and was 
thus known throughout his life. When he came to mature 
years he developed into a man of ambitious and turbulent 
character. And it was soon apparent that he was marked by 
destiny for greater things than were possible in the narrow 
field of his native land. 

King Harald of Norway was then engaged in his eflfort to 
bring the lesser chieftains or earls of that country under his 
centralized control and to bind them into something that 
should resemble a united nation. One of the first measures 
that he instituted for the accomplishment of this end was 
to interdict the predatory warfare that these independent 
or semi-independent lords had hitherto been accustomed 



to wage upon each other, his plan being to make them more 
and more interdependent and to establish more kindly relations 
between them. Rollo was impatient of this exercise of 
authority by Harald and would not yield to the domination 
of that prince who was so rapidly growing in power and influ- 
ence. Holding himself entirely free from Harald and the other 
earls who had already acknowledged themselves as depend- 
ents of Harald, he continued to plunder according as oppor- 
tunity offered. 

"Rolf would be ever a-harrying in the East-lands; and 
on a summer when he came to the Wick from his Eastland 
harrying he had a strand-slaughtering there. King Harald 
was in the Wick at that time, and was very wroth when he 
heard hereof, for he had laid a great ban upon robbing in 
the land. Wherefore at a Thing (or assembly) he gave out 
that he made Rolf outlaw from all Norway. But when Hild, 
the mother of Rolf, heard thereof she went to the King and 
prayed him for the peace of Rolf; but the King was so wroth 
that her prayers availed nought. Then sang Hild: 

'Thou hast cast off Nefia's namesake; 
Brave brother of the barons. 
As a wolf from the land thou drivest. 
Why waxeth, lord, thy raging ? 
Ill to be wild in quarrel 
With a wolf of Odin's warboard. 
If he fare wild in the forest 
He shall waste thy flock right sorely.'" * 

Thereupon Rollo decided that, rather than yield to Harald, 
he would break with that prince and hold to his independence. 
He brought together a small fleet of vessels and manned them 

* Heimskringla, by Snorre Sturlason. 
15 225 


with followers who were as independent and as venturesome 
as himself, and sailed away from Norway seeking new adven- 
tures. First he went to the Hebrides, overrunning those 
islands, and it is said that he even planned to invade the greater 
island of Britain from its north shores and attempt the con- 
quest of the people there. It is a singular coincidence that, 
having been diverted from this project, it was left to his descend- 
ants several generations later to accomplish the same purpose 
by entering England from the south and acquiring domina- 
tion of the land that their far-away ancestor had cast covetous 
eyes upon. 

With Rollo at this time other councils prevailed, and he 
turned the prows of his vessels toward the mainland of Europe, 
stopping on the way thither to conquer Friezeland. Arriving 
at the continent he established himself and his companions 
in Neustria, making the city of Rouen his headquarters. 
Years of fighting with King Charles of France followed, 
but his mastery of Neustria was finally acknowledged and 
that province was erected into the duchy of Normandy. The 
first duke was a man of uncommon wisdom and energy and 
before he died he had established Normandy firmly among 
the powerful nations of the world. He accepted Christianity, 
in form at least, and upon being baptized received the name of 

He died about 931. He married, first, Gisele, daughter of 
King Charles the Simple of France ; second, Papia, daughter 
of Berengier, Count of Bayeaux. His children, by his wife 
Papia, were: WiUiam, Duke of Normandy, of whom below; 



Robert, Count of Corbeil, whose descendants became the 
ancestors of the noble EngHsh families of Gloucester and 
Granville; Crispina, who married Grimaldus I., Prince of 
Monaco; Gerletta, who married William II., Duke of Aqui- 
taine, their great-great-granddaughter Eleanor, Duchess of 
Aquitaine, becoming the wife, first, of Louis, King of France, 
and, second, of Henrv II., King of England. 

William, son of the preceding, was surnamed Longa 
Spatha, or Long Sword. He succeeded to the ducal throne 
upon the death of his father in 931. His reign was short 
and troublesome, and he left a record of feebleness as a gov- 
erning prince. He was well-intentioned, but his abilities were 
of less marked character than those of his father. He was 
surnamed Sans Peur, a sufficient indication of his character 
and of the popular estimation in which he was held. His 
death was accomplished through the treachery of Arnulph, 
Count of Flanders. Disagreements existed between him and 
the princes of adjoining kingdoms, and he was persuaded to a 
conference to discuss the difficulties and an arrangement of 
terms for peace. There, however, he met death instead of 
peace, being murdered by Arnulph. He died in December, 
943. He married Adela, daughter of Hubert, Count of 

Richard I., son of the preceding, was born in 933, and 
therefore was only ten years old when his father's death put 
upon him the burden of the dukedom. Following a regency 



of a few years he assumed personal direction of affairs and 
reigned for fifty-five years. During his hfetime wars with 
other nations were incessantly waged by him, with varying 
results but generally to the success of the arms of Normandy. 
Among the great contests that he was called upon to engage 
in were those with Hugh the Great of France, and Otho of 
Grermany. He was renowned for his bounty to the clergy, 
and built the cathedral at Rouen, and other religious edifices. 
In his succession to the dukedom he was Richard I. He 
married Gonnor, a lady of high birth, and by her had four 
sons and three daughters. His daughter Emma married, 
first, Ethelred of England, and after the death of her husband, 
married, second, Canute the Great of England, and became 
the mother of Hardicanute. This alliance constituted the 
substantial basis for the claim which several generations later 
the famous descendant of Duke Richard I., William the Con- 
queror, set up and successfully maintained for the possession 
of England. 

Richard II., the eldest son of the preceding, was sur- 
named the Good. He reigned thirty years after succeeding 
to the dukedom upon the death of his father, and during 
that time was celebrated for his display of desire for justice, 
for his courage, and for his religious disposition. He was 
well beloved by the people over whom he was on the whole 
a beneficent ruler. He won the esteem of the neighboring 
princes and nobles and was less in war than most of his pre- 
decessors or contemporaries. He was a strong ally of the 



King of France and assisted that monarch in the conquest 
of Burgundy. 

He died in Fecamp, August 23, 1026. He married, first, 
Judith, daughter of the Duke of Brittany, by whom he had 
six children; second, Estrith, sister of King Canute and 
daughter of Swene, King of Denmark; third, Papia, a Danish 
lady of good family. By his wife Judith he had Richard, 
the third Duke of Normandy, who died in 1027 without 
issue, and Robert, who succeeded his brother. Leonore, his 
daughter, married Baldwin IV. of Flanders, who was the 
father of Baldwin V. and the grandfather of Matilda, who 
became the wife of William the Conqueror, the grandson of 
this Richard. 

Robert, Duke of Normandy, son of the preceding, was 
surnamed Le Diable, although his character seemed anything 
but deserving of that nickname, for according to one of the 
old chroniclers he was "courteous, joyous, debonnaire and 
benign." He was better called the Magnificent, and after 
he had succeeded to the dukedom he was engaged actively 
in measures to broaden the extent of his possessions and to 
strengthen his power. He helped to restore King Henry of 
France to the throne from which that monarch had been 
excluded, and in 1051 made an important visit to the English 
court for the purpose of securing his recognition by Edward 
the Confessor as a possible heir to the English throne. Already 
a Norman party had developed in England and Duke Robert 
evidently considered the time opportune to press the interests 



of his family in that direction. In the eighth year of his reign 
he made a journey to the Holy Land, and on his way home 
he died in Nice in June, 1035, and was buried in a church in 
that city. 

William, son of the preceding, was born in Falaise in 
1027 or 1028. He was a favorite with his father who, as soon 
as the boy came to maturity, began to plan to have him as 
his successor, although by birth he was not entitled to that 
advancement. When Duke Robert set out on the pilgrim- 
age to the Holy Land that ended in his death, he called his 
nobles and other followers about him and indicated in the 
strongest terms his desire that William should be accepted 
as his successor. The nobles yielded to his wishes and there- 
fore upon his death in 1035 William was recognized as the 
head of the house. The new duke proved to be ^ man of 
wonderful energy and discretion and of marked skill as an 
administrator of government. 

The agitation in England for the reception of the Normans 
as a ruling house, that had been begun in the reign of his 
grandfather, had developed to a high point by this time and 
it was clearly recognized that Duke William had before him 
every opportunity that an ambitious man in those days could 
desire to add the island across the Channel to his own already 
large and powerful domain. Upon the death of Edward the 
Confessor the contest for the rich prize waxed strong between 
Edgar, the last of the Saxon line, Harold Godwm, of an 
ambitious but not royal house, and the Duke of Normandy. 



Every reader of history knows the result. In the battle of 
Hastings, in 1066, Willianj of Normandy overthrew the Saxon 
rule of England and planted himself so firmly upon the 
island of Britain that the old Saxon authority forever disap- 
peared. For over twenty years he ruled as King of England 
and at the same time was Duke of Normandy; elevating himself 
and his family into a position of the highest rank and the great- 
est power among the then known kings and princes of Europe. 
He died September 8, 1087, and dividing his great kingdom 
he gave Normandy to his son Robert, and England to his 
son William Rufus. To his son Henry he gave a large sum 
of money only. He married Matilda, daughter of Baldwin 
v., Count of Flanders and Artois. 

Henry, son of the preceding, was born in 1068. In his 
early years, after the death of his father, he was engaged 
in constant contention with his brothers, King William 
Rufus of England, and Robert, Duke of Normandy, prin- 
cipally over the possession of Normandy and the right of 
succession in England. Upon the death of William Rufus 
the witan chose Henry to be King of England, and he became 
Henry I. in 1100, when he was thirty-two years of age. He 
made a record as an active and industrious king, considerate 
of the people, and, like all the princes and nobles of that age,- 
a benefactor to the church. He spent considerable time in 
Normandy and was of course drawn into the contentions that 
were constantly carried on between the different kings of 
Western Europe. He died near Lyons, France, in December, 



1135. He married Matilda, daughter of Malcolm Canmore, 
King of Scotland. His daughter Matilda married the Em- 
peror Henry of Germany in 1114 and afterwards Geoffrey 
of Anjou. These matrimonial alliances involved him in 
plotting and warring during the greater part of his life. 

Robert, son of the preceding, was the favorite son of 
his father who created him Earl of Gloucester and endowed 
him with considerable property. He died in Bristol, Eng- 
land, October 21, 1147. He married Mabel, who by some 
authorities is named Matilda and by others Sybil, a daughter 
of Robert Fitz-Hamon, and had six children. His son 
William, the second Earl of Gloucester, was the father of 
Amicia who married Ralph de Clare and had Gilbert, Earl 
of Gloucester, whose daughter Isabel de Clare, married 
Robert Bruce, seventh of the name, in 1240. 

Matilda, who married William the Conqueror and was 
the ancestress of the Isabel de Clare who married the seventh 
Robert Bruce, belonged to the house of the Counts of Flan- 
ders, who ruled that important domain for hundreds of years, 
and who were connected in marriage with the Carlovingian 
kings and other princes of that period. 

Baldwin, Count of Flanders, surnamed Bras de Fer, or 
Iron Arm, was a great-grandson of Lyderic, Count of Harle- 
bec, the first hereditary governor of Flanders. Baldwin 



became Count of Flanders in 858. He died in 879. He mar- 
ried, for his second wife, -in 863, Judith, who was the widow 
of Ethelwulf of England and a daughter of Charles the Bold, 
a grandson of Charlemagne. 

Baldwin, the second Count of Flanders and Artois, son 
of the preceding, was surnamed the Bold. He died January 
2, 918. During his lifetime he was engaged actively in war 
against the kings of France, Eudes and Charles the Simple. 
He married, in 889, Alfritha, or Aelfthryth, daughter of Alfred 
the Great of England. 

Aenulf I., Count of Flanders and Artois, son of the pre- 
ceding, was surnamed the Great. He died at the extreme age 
of ninety-two. He married, in 923, Alisa or Alice, daughter of 
Heribert, Count of Vermandois, who was in the fifth gener- 
ation from Charlemagne. 

Baldwin III., son of the preceding, was the next Count 
of Flanders and Artois. He ruled from 958 to 961. He mar- 
ried, in 951, Matilda, daughter of Herman Billung, Duke 
of Saxony. 

Aenulf II., son of the preceding, succeeded to the title of 
Count of Flanders and Artois. He died in 988. He mar- 
ried Rosala, daughter of Beranger II., King of Provence and 
Marquis of Friuli. 

Baldwin IV., son of the preceding, was named the Fair- 
beard, and became Count of Flanders and Artois in 988. 



He was a man of much energy and made large additions 
to the family domain by conquest, especially Valenciennes. 
The Emperor Henry II. endowed him with the island of 
Wacheren. He married either Origina, daughter of Fred- 
erick, Count of Moselle, or Eleanor, daughter of Richard II., 
Duke of Normandy. 

Baldwin V., of Lille, son of the preceding, was known 
as the Pious and also as the Debonnaire. During the minority 
of his nephew. King Philip I. of France, he was a regent of 
that kingdom. His military activities were never-ceasing, 
and he conquered Hainault and also helped his son-in-law, 
William of Normandy, in that monarch's enterprises. He 
died in 1067. He married, in lO'-JT, Adele, daughter of 
Robert, King of France, who was a son of Hugh Capet. 
She died in 1079. Their daughter Matilda married William 
the Conqueror. 

J* J» JK Jfi JK 4^ t^ 

In the young centuries of the Christian era two great 
powers existed in Continental Europe, the Franks and the 
Lombards, preceding the growth to power of the Carlovin- 
GiAN Kings. Western Europe was beginning to emerge from 
the barbarism in which the Romans had found and left it, and 
masterful lords were developing among the different tribes 
in that part of the world and making their people into nations. 
Clovis, the first great leader of the Franks, was supreme 
over Gaul about the year 500. He was of the Merovingian 
dynasty, of which Merowig was the founder, and which had 



become supreme among the powers then existing. Follow- 
ing the death of Clovis, in 511, the kingdom began to split 
up and finally after the time of Dagobert, the last Frankish 
king, the realm had become divided principally into Aus- 
trasia, Neustria, and Burgundy. 

Pepin of Landen came into control in Austrasia. He was 
a prince who held the rank of mayor of the palace, but prac- 
tically he was the ruler of the country, the nominal king being 
merely a figurehead. One of his daughters married An- 
seghis who was the son of Arnulf, Bishop of Metz, through 
whose influence Pepin had been elevated to the position that 
he held 

Pepin of Herstal, son of Anseghis by the daughter of Pepin 
of Landen, not only strengthened himself in the kingdom 
of Austrasia, but also conquered Neustria and welded the two 
kingdoms under one control. Although he found the Carlo- 
vingian family already established in high rank among the 
lords of Austrasia and regarded with deference by the nobles 
of other countries, he advanced its prestige still higher and 
increased its power. He did not hesitate to lead a revolt 
against King Dagobert, and overcoming that monarch, 
received the title of the Duke of Franks. In time he subdued 
all Northern Gaul and became the acknowledged ruler of 
the entire Frankish empire. He died in 720. 

Charles, son of the preceding by his wife Alpaida, became 
one of the most distinguished monarchs in his line previous 



to the advent of the greater Charlemagne. He was Duke 
of Austrasia and mayor of the palace of the Frankish kings. 
Early in life he was engaged in rebellion against his step- 
mother who was planning to secure the succession to the 
throne for her son to the exclusion of Charles. By his superior 
talent and energy, he was able to subvert the plans of his 
stepmother and his half-brother and to ingratiate himself 
with the other Austrasian nobles. His supporters made him 
Duke of Austrasia, and he conquered Neustria which had 
endeavored to break away from the alliance that had been 
made by his father Pepin. 

For a time — some twenty years — he allowed the throne 
that his father had bequeathed to him to lie vacant, but in 
742 he became lord of the united kingdom of Austrasia 
and Neustria. In several campaigns that he inaugurated 
against the German nations he was preeminently successful, 
but he gained his greatest fame by repelling the Moslems 
who, starting from Spain and sweeping northward, endeavored 
to bring all Western Europe under their control, or to lay 
waste to it. He met the Moslem forces at Poictiers in 
752, and defeated them so completely that they were hurled 
back a mass of disorganized soldiery into the mountains of 
Spain. From this victory he got the name Martel, or hammer, 
thus being known to history as Charles Martel. He annexed 
to the Frankish empire all of Aquitania, and when he died 
left the kingdom which he had received from his father so 
well established that it was fast becoming one of the great 
nations of the continent. 



Pepin II., son of Charles Martel, was born about 715. 
He was surnamed le Bteuf, the Short, but beUed his nick- 
name by proving to be a man of extraordinary prowess and 
of physical ability. Receiving from his father the control 
of Neustria, Burgundy, and Provence, he governed those 
countries with diligence and skill. He did not personally 
ascend the throne, but for diplomatic reasons placed thei'eon 
a Merovingian prince, Childeric II., who made an imposing 
figurehead but had no real power. Pepin had a brother, 
Caroloman, who for a time divided authority with him, but 
upon the death of this brother he became the recognized 
ruler over all that territory that in subsequent times became 
France. He sent Childeric to a monastery, and supported 
by the church and other nobles, came forward as the real 
monarch and was crowned in 752. One of the most 
brilliant achievements of his life was his victory over the 
Lombards in 755, as a result of which he founded that 
temporal sovereignty that has ever since been part of the 
Holy See. For eight years, 760-68, he was engaged in a de- 
structive war with Aquitania which resulted in his triumph 
over the opposing nation. He died in 768. 

Charlemagne, son of the preceding, was born April 2, 
742. His brother Caroloman preceded him in authority, 
but after the death of his father Pepin and his brother, he 
attained position at the head of the entire Prankish kingdom. 
Unquestionably he was the greatest figure in his age in the 
world. He became master of all Gaul and West Germany 



and maintained himself impregnable against all rivalry and 
against all enmity. Near the beginning of his career he was 
particularly fortunate in wars with Italy, Spain, Germany, 
and other nations, and by the close of the eighth century had 
enlarged his kingdom until it had become an enormous em- 
pire extending from the Baltic and the North Seas on the 
north to the Mediterranean and the Adriatic on the south, 
and from the Atlantic Ocean to the Oder and other eastern 
rivers of Germany. 

Not only was Charlemagne noted as a warrior and as a 
founder of empire, but he was even more famous perhaps as a 
law-giver and as a patron of art, science, and learning. Not 
only did he unite the Germanic and Prankish peoples, but he 
taught them again the arts of literature and science which had 
been wellnigh forgotten in the dark ages. He encouraged 
trade and bent his energies more toward making his people 
pacific than warlike. He revived learning in a way that has 
made his name synonymous with culture, establishing some 
of the most famous schools of learning that the world had 
known up to that time outside of Greece and Rome. He 
was one of those few great men who have arisen at far dis- 
tantly separated periods of time, who, with power of mind 
and mastery of execution and energy of purpose, have by 
their efforts changed the face of the world, altered the trend 
of history, and inaugurated a new era of civilization. In 
addition to his other varied accomplishments he was a man 
of literary skill and was the author of many works of im- 
portance. He died in 814. 



Louis le Debonnaire, son of Charlemagne by his wife 
Hildegarde of Swabia, w'as named not only the Complaisant 
but also the Pious, for the many good deeds that distinguished 
his life. He was born in Casseneuil, Aquitania, in 778. As 
a child he received the title of King of Aquitania, but was 
not active in ruling until after the death of his father, in 
814, when as the only surviving son he succeeded to the head 
of the nation that his father had brought together. His 
disposition was not entirely toward government, and he felt 
that his kingdom was fast becoming unwieldy. Accordingly, 
in 817 he divided it with his sons, giving Aquitania to Pepin, 
Bavaria to Louis, and Italy to Lothair. 

This division, instead of pacifying the ambitions of the 
sons, served to stir up rivalries and animosities and hence- 
forward Louis was in constant trouble with the members 
of his family. Ultimately he was deposed and his wife was 
imprisoned in a convent. In 830, however, the people 
of Germany, who were much attached to him, restored him 
to his throne and released his wife from the convent. His 
position was maintained only for a short time, for again he 
was overthrown by his son Lothair who with unfilial spirit 
subjected him to great indignities. For the third time, after 
considerable fighting, he remounted the throne in 835, but 
it continued to be a troublous seat for him, although he was 
able to maintain himself thereon until the end of his life. He 
died June 20, 840, and with him began the dissolution of the 
Carlovingian empire. He married Judith the Fair, daughter of 
Welphus I., Count of Altorf , Switzerland ; she died April 19, 843. 



Charles le Chauve, the Bold, son of the preceding, was 
born in Frankfort-on-Maine in 823. He became Emperor 
of the West in succession to his father Louis, and was 
also King of France and Neustria. In fact his inheritance 
comprised nearly the entire western empire, but he was not 
permitted to enjoy this quietly, for his brothers were ambitious 
of territory and desirous of elevating themselves in kingly 
positions. Establishing his authority over the territory now 
known as France, he became Emperor in 875. His 
brother, Louis of Bavaria, retained Germany, while Charles 
in the end confined himself almost exclusively to the kingdom 
of France. He died October 6, 878. He married Richilda, 
daughter of Bovinus, Count Aldemir Waldi. 

Judith, daughter of the preceding, married, first, Baldwin 
Bras de Fer, and second, in October, 863, Ethelwulf of 
England. By her husband, Baldwin Bras de Fer, she be- 
came the ancestress of Matilda, the wife of William the 
Conqueror, and through her, the ancestress of the Bruces 
of later generations. 

Robert the Strong was at the head of the noble house 
that claimed the kinship of France in rivalry with the Carlo- 
vingians and that included the founder of the Capetian 
Dynasty. He was a Saxon warrior who held in fief the 
province of Anjou, and afterwards was possessed of the duchy 
of Ile-de-France. He was best known for his brilliant strug- 
gle in keeping the Norman invaders of France at bay in the 



ninth century ; and thereby he won enduring popularity with 
both the nobles and the commonalty. He died in 866. 

Robert, second son of the preceding, succeeded his father 
as royal claimant, and was the leader of the barons who 
rose against the Carlovingian kings and maintained warfare 
with more or less success. He married Beatrix, daughter of 
Heribert I., Count of Vermandois. 

Hugh the Great, son of the preceding, succeeded his father. 
He was Count of Paris and Orleans and Duke of France and 
Burgundy. He held under control the vast dominion that 
extended from the Loire to the frontier of Picardy. He 
married Hedwiga, daughter of Henry I., Emperor of Germany. 
Henry of Germany, called the Fowler or the Falconer, was 
the first Saxon king of Germany. He was born in 876, 
the son of Otho, the illustrious Duke of Saxony. He suc- 
ceeded his father to the dukedoms of Saxony and Thuringia, 
and upon the death of Conrad, Duke of the Franks, he was 
chosen to that dukedom in 910. He consolidated all Ger- 
many under his rule, defeated the Hungarians in 933, and 
the Danes in 934, and achieved other successes in war. He 
died in 936 after an eighteen years' reign, leaving a large 
and oowerful kingdom soundly established. 

Hugh Capet, son of Hugh the Great by his wife Hed- 
wiga, and grandson of Emperor Henry I. of Germany, was 
born about 940. He is celebrated as the founder of the 

16 241 


Capetian dynasty, the third race of French kings. He 
inherited from his father the duchy of France and the county 
of Paris and soon became one of the most powerful princes of 
his age. Upon the death of Louis V., the last of the Carlo- 
vingian kings, the nobles and bishops assembled and selected 
Hugh Capet to hold the throne. He was crowned July 3, 
987. His reign was illustrious beyond that of any of his 
predecessors, and he ended by making the crown an hereditary 
possession of his family, bequeathing it directly to his son 
Robert. He died in 996. 

Robert I., king of France, son of the preceding, was born 
in 971. He had a long but inglorious reign, remaining 
on the throne twenty-five years. He was of an easy, kindly 
disposition and was never able to quiet the turbulent nobles 
who surrounded him. His ambitious queen and her fol- 
lowers made particular trouble for him, and it is said that 
he felt quite resigned when the approach of death indicated 
that he was to be liberated from the cares of his lifetime. 
He died in 1031. He married Constance, daughter of 
William, Count of Toulouse. 

Adele, daughter of the preceding, married, first, Richard 
III., Duke of Normandy, and second, Baldwin V., Count of 
Flanders. Matilda, daughter of Count Baldwin and Adele, 
married, as we have before seen, William the Conqueror, 
and became the ancestress of the Bruces. 

Jm Jm ^ ^ J^ J^ _ Jm 



Pepin, founder of the house that produced the Counts 
OF Vermandois, was one of the sons of Charlemagne. He 
became King of Italy, and of other countries of Europe. 
He died in 810. 

Bernard, son of the preceding, died in 818. 

Pepin, son of the preceding, manifested little disposition 
for the strenuous life of that period, and does not appear to 
have been in any way conspicuous in the battling for power 
and possessions that absorbed the attention of most of the 
men of that age. 

Heribert, son of the preceding, became the first Count 
of Vermandois and maintained himself securely in master- 
ship over that little kingdom. He died in 902. 

Heribert, son of the preceding, succeeded to the throne of 
Vermandois in 902. He died in 943, after a long and peace- 
ful reign. 

Alisa, daughter of the preceding, married Arnulf I., Count 
of Flanders and Artois, from whom, in the sixth generation, 
descended Matilda, who married William the Conqueror.- 





FROM the beginnings of its long career the house of 
Bruce became connected in marriage, generation 
after generation, with most of the powerful families 
of Scotland. The Bruce strength as claimant to the throne 
of Scotland was decidedly reinforced by these alliances, 
which also added the increased distinction of notable ances- 
tral traditions through various collateral lines. The sons and 
daughters of Bruce were naturally sought in marriage by 
the other noble families with whom they were associated and 
especially since few of those had any trace of royal descent 
such as made the Bruces conspicuous among their con- 
temporaries. Almost alone in rivalry on the ground of this 
royal origin were the Baliols and the Cumyns who traced to 
the ancient kingly house of Scotland the same as the Bruces. 
But even they, notable though they were, had not behind them 
the royal ancestry in other lines that the Bruces possessed. 

Genealogically, therefore, the history of the Bruces clearly 
includes the history of the largest proportion of the promi- 
nent families of Scotland from the year 1000 onward, and 
afterwards of many of the foremost noble families of Eng^ 
land as well. So far as the marriages of the Bruces, either 
on the male or female lines, into these families is concerned, 
the distinction achieved by them becomes part of the dis- 
tinction naturally belonging to the Bruce stock. In other 



chapters of this book special attention has been given to the 
inheritances that came to the Bruces through marriage and 
intermarriage into several of the more conspicuous families 
of that age, such as the Stewarts and the Cavendishes. 
Scarcely of lesser interest is the history of other families, of 
lesser fame only to those just mentioned. 

ijv Jw f2^ V* (^* (^* ^* 

By the marriage of Lady Mary, daughter of Donald, the 
tenth Earl of Mar, to King Robert Bruce I., the line of one 
of the oldest noble houses of Scotland was connected with that 
of Bruce. Concerning the title of Mar, Lord Hailes remarks 
that it is one of the earldoms whose origin has been lost in the 
mists of antiquity. The first Earl of Mar of whom there is 
any record is Martacus who was living under King Malcolm 
Canmore in 1065. Gratnach, son of Martacus, is recorded 
as one of the witnesses to the foundation charter given by 
Alexander I. to the monastery at Scone in 1114. Morgundus, 
son of Gratnach, was the third Earl of Mar, and lived in the 
time of King Malcolm IV. Gillocher, son of Morgundus, 
was living in 1163 and was the fourth Earl of Mar. 

MoRGUND, son of Gillocher, was living in 1171 and was the 
fifth Earl of Mar. According to a curious writing preserved 
by the historian Selden, he received in 1171 from King William 
I. a renewal of the investures of the earldom. He donated 
much property to the church and gave lands to the Priory of 
St. Andrew's "for the welfare of the souls of himself and 
his wife Agnes." He had five sons: Gilbert, who was the 



sixth Earl of Mar; Gilchrist, who was the seventh Earl of 
Mar; Duncan, who was \he eighth Earl of Mar; Malcolm, and 

Duncan, third son of the preceding, became the eighth 
Earl of Mar, succeeding his two elder brothers who died 
without issue. He was living in the reign of King Alexander 
II. and made donations to the church of St. Mary of Mony- 
munk, being also a benefactor of the monks of Culdees. 
He died some time before 1234. He married Isabella, 
daughter of William, son of Nessius, lord of Latherisk. 

William, son of the preceding, succeeded his father and 
became the ninth Earl of Mar. He was a trusted counsellor 
of King Alexander III. and was one of the nobles who guar- 
anteed the treaties of Scotland with England in 1237 and 1244. 
When the party of Henry III. prevailed in Scotland in 1255 
he was removed from his official position in the government 
of King Alexander, but in 1258 he was chosen a regent of 
Scotland, and in 1264 was made Great Chamberlain of Scot- 
land. He was sent on a special mission to King Henry HI. 
of England in 1270 and died shortly after that time. He 
married Elizabeth Cumyn, daughter of William Cumyn, 
Earl of Buchan. She died in 1267. He had two sons, 
Donald and Duncan. 

Donald, eldest son of the preceding, was the tenth Earl of 
Mar. He was knighted by King Alexander III. at Scone, 



September 29, 1270. He was one of the Scottish nobles who 
in February, 1283-4, bound themselves to support the right 
of succession of Margaret of Norway to the throne of Scot- 
land in the contingency that King Alexander III. should die 
without leaving a male heir. He was witness to the contract 
between Margaret of Scotland and King Eric of Norway in 
1281, and was otherwise prominent in all the great events 
of his age. He died in 1294. His daughter, Lady Isabel, 
married King Robert Bruce I., and his daughter, Lady Mary, 
married Kenneth, the third Earl of Sutherland. 

Gratney, son of the preceding, succeeded his father in the 
earldom in 1294. He died some time before 1300. He 
married Christiana Bruce, daughter of Robert Bruce, Earl 
of Carrick, and sister of King Robert Bruce. Besides his 
son Donald, he had a daughter who married Sir John Men- 

Donald, son of the preceding, became the twelfth Earl 
of Mar upon the death of his father in 1300. He was in- 
timately associated with his royal uncle. King Robert Bruce, 
in the early campaigns of that monarch. When the Bruce 
was defeated in 1306 the Earl of Mar was made a prisoner 
by the English and was detained in captivity until the battle 
of Bannockburn in 1314. He was one of the party of Scotch 
prisoners, which included the wife, sister, and daughter of 
Bruce, who after that event were exchanged for the Earl of 
Hereford. For a short time he resided in England, but in 



1318 he was a member of the ParUament that met at Scone. 
He was appointed by King Edward II. of England as the 
guardian of the Castle of Bristol which he afterwards de- 
livered to the Queen, and himself returned to Scotland. In 
the invasion conducted into England by Randolph and 
Douglas in 1327 he had a small command. After the death 
of Randolph, who was then Regent of the kingdom. Mar 
was elected by Parliament to the vacancy. As Regent he 
assumed command of the Scottish army, but was defeated by 
Edward Baliol in 1332 and killed in the rout that followed. 
He married Isabel, daughter of Sir Alexander Stewart of 
Bonkill, and had, besides his son Thomas, a daughter Mar- 

Thomas, son of the preceding, succeeded to the earldom 
of Mar. He was conspicuous in public transactions in the 
time of King David II., and held many important official 
positions. He was entrusted with the mission to England 
to plead for the liberation of King David II. from captivity 
in 1351. When King David was released in 1357 he was one 
of the seven lords of Scotland from whom three were selected 
as hostages for the fulfillment of the terms of the treaty. He 
was Great Chamberlain of Scotland in 1358 and ambassador 
to England in 1362. He held many lands and was made a. 
pensioner by King Edward III. He was married three times, 
but died without issue and with him the male line of the 
earls of Mar became extinct. 

«^ ^* t?* «^ (^ ^* j^ 



"No surname in Scotland can boast of a more noble origin 
than that of Dunbar; being sprung from the Saxon kings 
of England, the princes and earls of Northumberland."* 

Crinan, the first of the family of whom there is any record, 
was a nobleman before the conquest of England by William 
of Normandy. He was probably of the royal line of Athol, 
for it is recorded that Crinan was the father of Duncan who 
attacked Macbeth in 1045. The Irish annalists say that 
Crinan, the Abbott of Dunkeld, and many with him, even 
twenty heroes, were engaged in that affair. Crinan married 
Algitha, daughter of Uchtred, Earl of Northumberland, by 
Elgiva, his wife, who was a daughter of King Ethelbert of 

Maldred was a son of the preceding. 

CosPATRic, son of the preceding, was in Scotland before 
1068. He was created Earl of Northumberland by William 
the Conqueror, but was soon deprived of that honor on account 
of some disagreement with his royal master. Thereupon he 
fled to Scotland where he was received by King Malcolm 
Canmore who gave to him Dunbar and lands adjoining. 
Not only was he an earl but he became a monk of Durham, 
and dying in December, 1069, was buried in the monks' bury- 
ing ground at Durham. 

CosPATRic, son of the preceding, was the second Earl. 

* Douglas' Baronage of Scotland. 


He was a great benefactor to the Abbey of Kelso. He died 
August 16, 1139. 

CosPATRic, son of the preceding, belonged to the brother- 
hood of Kelso. He died in 1147. 

CosPATRic, eldest son of the preceding, was the fourth 
earl. He founded the Cistercian convents of Coldstream 
and Eccles, in Berwick County, and was a benefactor of the 
Abbey of Melrose. He died in 1166, leaving two sons by 
his wife Derder. 

Waldere, eldest son of the preceding, was the fifth earl, 
but the first to have the territorial designation of Dunbar. 
He was one of the hostages for the due performance of the 
treaty for the liberation of King William I. He died in 1182. 
He married Aelina and left two sons and one daughter. 

Patricius, or Patrick Dunbar, son of the preceding, was 
the sixth earl. He was justiciary of Lothian and keeper of 
Berwick. In 1218 he founded the House of the Red Friars 
at Dunbar, and when advanced in years retired to a monas- 
tery. He died in 1232. He married, first, Ada, daughter of 
King William the Lion; second, Christina. By his first 
wife he had four sons and one daughter. 

Patrick Dunbar, eldest son of the preceding, was the 
seventh earl in 1232. He was a powerful noble of the first 



rank and was a crusader under King Louis IX. He gave a 
house to the monks of Dryebergh and lands to Melros. In 
1235 he commanded the army sent against Thomas Dow- 
mac-Allan of Galloway, the usurper, and made him submit. 
He was a witness to the treaty between King Alexander II. 
of Scotland and King Henry II. of England at York in 1237, 
and one of the guarantors of it, and also of another treaty 
in 1244, between the same monarchs. He was killed at the 
siege of Damietta in 1248. He married Eupheme, second 
daughter of Walter, High Steward of Scotland. 

Patrick Dunbar, son of the preceding, was the eighth 
earl. Taking a prominent and active part in Scotch politics, 
he stood with the EngUsh party. After the death of King 
Alexander III. he was one of the regents, and one of "the 
seven earls of Scotland," a body wholly distinct from the 
other estates of the kingdom. He died in 1289. He was 
the first to sign himself Earl of March, which he did in 1248. 
He commanded the left wing of the Scottish army at Largs. 
He married Christiana Bruce, daughter of Robert Bruce, 
Lord of Annandale. She founded " ane house of religione in 
ye toune of Dunbar." 

Patrick Dunbar, son of the preceding, was the ninth 
earl of Dunbar and also bore the title of Earl of March. 
He was surnamed Blackbeard. He was a steadfast supporter 
of the English interests, in 1298 was King Edward's lieu- 
tenant in Scotland, and in 1300 was on the English side at 



the siege of Carlaverock. He married Marjory Cumyn, 
daughter of Alexander Cpmyn, Earl of Buchan, and as his 
wife sided with the Scottish party Dunbar was not always 
able to meet the demands of fealty to the English sovereign. 

Patrick Dunbar, son of the preceding, was the tenth 
Earl. He was with his father at Carlaverock and after the 
battle of Bannockburn assisted King Edward III. to escape. 
Making peace with King Robert Bruce, he was appointed 
governor of Berwick castle and valiantly held that fortress 
against King Edward III. At the battle of Durham he 
commanded the left wing of the Scottish army. He died 
in 1369. He married Agnes, daughter of Thomas Randolph, 
Earl of Moray. His countess, known in history as Black 
Agnes, was a grand-niece of King Robert Bruce. In January, 
1337-8, during a siege of nineteen weeks, she made a gallant 
and successful defence of the castle of Dunbar against the 
assaults of the English led by the Earl of Salisbury. This 
affair is memorable in Scottish annals and has been the 
subject of many a minstrel's song. 

j» j» Jt Jt j» j» j» 

In an interpolated passage in Fordun's monumental work 
on early Scotland* is the following account of the origin of 
the name of Scrimgeour. 

"Early in the reign of King Alexander I, who ascended 
the Scottish throne in 1107, some of the men of Mearns and 
Moray assaulted the residence of his majesty, who escaped 

♦ Scotochronicon, by John of Fordim. 


by the assistance of one of his bed chamber men, called 
Alexander Carron, through a private passage. The King 
raising forces went in pursuit of the rebels and came in sight 
of them on the other side of the Spey. The river was then 
high; but the King giving his standard to Carron, whom he 
knew to excel in courage and resolution, that brave oflBcer 
crossed the Spey and planted the standard on the other side 
in sight of the rebels. The royal army followed, the adver- 
saries taking to flight. In reward of the gallant service of 
Alexander Carron the King constituted him and his heirs 
heritable standard-bearers of Scotland; made him a grant 
of lands and conferred on him the name of Scrimgeour, 
signifying a hardy fighter." 

Alexander Scrimgeour, descended from Alexander Car- 
ron, the original holder of the name of Scrimgeour, was one 
of the most active and most valiant associates of William 
Wallace in that patriot's glorious attempt to restore the 
liberties of Scotland. When Wallace was constituted gov- 
ernor of Scotland, in recognition of the services of Scrim- 
geour he conferred upon him the constabulary of the castle 
of Dundee, giving this grant for his "faithful aid in bearing 
the banner of Scotland which service he actually performs." 
This grant was dated at Torphichen March 29, 1298. 

NicoLL Scrimgeour, or Skyrmeschour, as the name is 
sometimes spelled in the records, son of the preceding, had 
from King Robert I. a charter of the office of standard-bearer 
and also grants of lands in the barony of Inverkeithing, 
forfeited by Roger Moubray. 

Alexander Scrimgeour, son of the preceding, had a 



charter of lands near Dundee in 1357, and a letter of safe 
conduct into England in 1366. In a charter of 1378 by 
King Robert II. he is spoken of as Constable of Dundee. He 
died in 1383. 

Sir James Scrimgeour, son of the preceding, in several 
charters of his time by King Robert II. and King Robert III., 
also is mentioned as Constable of Dundee. Among those 
who accompanied Alexander, Earl of Mar, to Flanders, in 
the service of the Duke of Burgundy in 1408 was: 

"Schere James Scremgeoure of Dundee, 
Comendit a famous Knight was he, 
The Kingis banneoure of fe, 
A lord that wele aucht lovit be."* 

He fought at the battle of Harlaw, July 24, 1411, under the 
same Alexander, Earl of Mar, against Donald, Lord of the 
Isles, and was there killed. The name of his wife was Egidia. 
He had a daughter Egidia who married James Maitland, 
second son of Sir Robert Maitland of Leithington. 

Sir John Scrimgeour, son of the preceding, was also 
Constable of Dundee. Previous to April, 1413, he was for 
many months a prisoner in the tower of London, presumably 
for political reasons. In 1444 he had a charter from Alex- 
ander, Earl of Ross, Lord of the Isles and Baron of Kin- 
cardine, of lands in Kincardinshire. One of his daughters 
married Robert Bruce, second Baron of Cultmalindie. 

1^ jli J^ J^ J* ^ «^ 

* De Orygynale Cronykil of Scotland, by Andrew of Wyntoun. 
17 257 


The earldom of Gloucester was a foundation by King 
Henry I. of England. It dates from the early part of the 
twelfth century. 

Robert, the first Earl of Gloucester, was the son of King 
Henry I., and was born in Caen, France. Upon the occasion 
of his marriage his father gave to him large properties in 
Normandy, Wales, and England, so that he was one of the 
richest men of his time. Among these properties was the 
"honour of Gloucester" which the King formed into the earl- 
dom that afterwards became so distinguished. Robert was 
intimately associated with his father in all that monarch's 
battling in Normandy and elsewhere. He was his father's most 
beloved son, and was preferred far beyond any other mem- 
ber of the family. 

He was the only child present at his father's death, and 
following that event he was urged by his father's followers 
and by others to lay claim to and contest the crown of Eng- 
land. But, without ambition in that direction, he declined the 
proffered honor, contenting himself with the earldom. His 
birth gave him unusual prominence and he could not keep 
entirely out of the rivalries and contests of the period. King 
Stephen especially disliked him, and quarreled with him fre- 
quently, but Robert succeeded in maintaining his independ- 
ence and keeping himself aloof during the war that was 
waged against Stephen. Nevertheless he felt himself con- 
strained to go to the assistance of his half-sister Matilda in 
Normandy in 1138. 



Subsequently, in 1141, through King Stephen's warring 
against Matilda, he found himself drawn into that contest 
and was captured in the battle at Winchester at the same 
time that Stephen was captured by the opposing forces. 
The two warriors were exchanged for each other. He always 
championed the cause of his sister and was the main support 
of the Angevin party that was promoted by Geoffrey of An- 
gevin, Matilda's second husband. He was a warrior, states- 
man, and scholar, and left a deep impress upon the age in 
which he lived. He died in Bristol, October 31, 1147. He 
married Mabel, or Matilda, or Sybil, daughter of Robert 
Fitz Hamon and had by her six children. 

The ancient family of Fitz Hamon was derived from 
an ancestor, Richard Fitz Hamon, who was a son or 
nephew of RoUo, the first Duke of Normandy. Its repre- 
sentatives were in Neustria from the very beginning of the 
invasion of that territory by the Normans, and they were 
possessed of important lordships in various parts of the 
country under the rule of the dukes of Normandy. The 
house was old and illustrious and had many distinctions 
long before the appearance of Robert Fitz Hamon in England. 

Robert Fitz Hamon came from Normandy with William 
the Conqueror, and after the battle of Hastings settled' in 
Kent where he became possessed of extensive lands. When 
the Normans pushed their way into Wales for the purpose 
of conquering that section of Britain this noble had a con- 
spicuous and useful part in the campaign. He was really 



the leader in the invasion, and it was wholly due to his efforts 
that Glamorgan was conquered. So complete was his 
success that, with the approval of King William, he established 
himself in Wales permanently, beginning the construction at 
Cardiff, in 1080, of a castle which in after years and for many 
generations was the seat of the family. It has been well said 
of him that he really founded in Wales a county palatinate. 
He added much to the possessions of Tewksbury Abbey 
and was called the second founder of that institution. He 
also endowed the monks with many titles and was especially 
liberal to the Abbey of St. Paul's in Gloucestershire. Devoted 
to the cause of King William I., he was a close confidant of 
King William Rufus, King William's son and successor, 
until the death of the latter monarch. Then he attached 
himself to the cause of King Henry I., and was a stalwart 
defender of that king in all the difficulties that assailed his 
throne. At the siege of Calais he was wounded and as a 
result died in March, 1107. He married Sybil of Mont- 

William, son of Robert, the first Earl of Gloucester, by 
his wife Mabel Fitz Hamon, succeeded his father and be- 
came the second Earl of Gloucester. He married Hawse, 
daughter of Robert, surnamed Bossu, Earl of Leicester. 
He died in 1173, leaving no son but three daughters, and 
with him the earldom of Gloucester in the male line of his 
family ceased. 







Amicia, daughter of the preceding, married Richard de 
Clare, and was the grandmother of Isabel de Clare who 
married Robert Bruce. 

The Huntingdon family to which belonged David, Earl of 
Huntingdon, whose daughter, Isabella of Huntingdon, married 
Robert Bruce, was of ancient Saxon origin as well as of the 
royal family of Scotland. 

Waltheof, son of Syward the Saxon, who was Earl of 
Northumberland, lived in the time of King William I. of 
England. He received from King William the earldoms of 
Huntingdon and Northampton, on the occasion of his marriage 
with Judith, daughter of a sister of King William on his 
Norman mother's side. Subsequently Waltheof disagreed 
with his royal uncle and took part in a conspiracy to expel 
him and the Normans from England. In this he was un- 
successful and in consequence thereof was beheaded in 1075. 

Maud, or Matilda, daughter of Waltheof, married for 
her second husband, David, son of King Malcolm of Scot- 
land, and through her David became possessed of the earl- 
doms of Huntingdon and Northumberland. Subsequently 
he became King of Scotland. 

Henry, son of the preceding, obtained from King Stephen 
of England the earldom of Huntingdon. He married Ada, 
sister of William, Earl of Warren and Surrey. 



David, son of Prince Henry and great-grandson of Wal- 
theof , first Earl of Huntingdon, had by his wife, who was the 
daughter of Hugh, Earl of Chester, Isabel who married 
Robert Bruce. 

The DE Clare or de Claire family which became con- 
nected with the house of Bruce was descended from Richard 
de Claire who came into England with William the Conqueror. 
Geoffrey, son of Richard I., Duke of Normandy, was its 
ancestor. He had a son Giselbert, named Crispin, who was 
earl of Brion in Normandy. Dugdale gives this ancestry 
of Richard de Clare, although Hornby says that he was the 
son of Gilbert, officiary Earl of Auci or Owe in Normandy. 

Richard de Clare received great honors and possessions 
from William the Conqueror. At the time of the survey he 
was called Richard de Tonebruge (Tunbridge), Kent, from 
the seat which he had established there. He had thirty- 
eight lordships in Surrey, thirty-five in Essex, three in Cam- 
bridge, and ninety-five in Sussex. Among other places that 
he owned was Benfield, in Northamptonshire, from which 
he was called Ricardus de Benefacta. From his manor in 
Suffolk he had the name of Richard de Clare. In a few 
years that became the seat of the family and his heirs took 
the title of Lords of Clare. It is said that he was killed by the 
Welsh while on a hostile expedition into that country. He 
married Rohesia, daughter of Walter Gifford, Earl of Buck- 



ingham, and had six sons and two daughters. His son, 
Richard de Clare, became Abbot of Ely, and his son, Robert 
de Clare, was steward of King Henry I. of England. 

Gilbert de Clare, eldest son of the preceding, succeeded 
to the possession of his father's lands in England and resided 
at Tonebruge. He was engaged in rebellion against King 
William Rufus, but after a time became reconciled to that 
monarch. He married in 1113 Adeliza, daughter of the 
Earl of Claremont, and had five sons and one daughter. 
His son, Gilbert de Clare, was Earl of Pembroke, and had a 
son who became the celebrated Richard Strongbow and 
conquered Ireland. 

Richard de Clare, eldest son of the preceding, established 
himself in Wales, and his family remained there for generations. 
He is said to have been the first to hold the title of Earl of 
Hertford. He was killed by the Welsh in 1139. He married 
Alice, sister of Ranulph, second Earl of Chester, and had 
two sons and one daughter. His son, Gilbert de Clare, be- 
came the second Earl of Hertford, but died in 1151 without 
issue. His daughter, Alice de Clare, married Cadwallader- 
ap-GriflBth, who was a prince of North Wales. 

Roger de Clare, second son of the preceding, succeeded 
his brother, Gilbert de Clare, and became third Earl of 
Hertford. From the king he obtained large grants of land in 
Wales, and built and fortified many castles there. In the 



tenth year of the reign of King Henry II., he was one of the 
earls present at the recognition of the ancient customs and 
liberties confirmed by his ancestors. For his works of piety 
he was surnamed "the good." He died in 1173. He married 
Maud, daughter of James de St. Hillary, and had one son. 

Richard de Clare, son of the preceding, was the fourth 
Earl of Hertford. He was one of the twenty-five barons 
who bound themselves to enforce the observance of Magna 
Charta. He died in 1218. He married Amicia, daughter of 
William, the second Earl of Gloucester, and through his 
wife became possessed of that earldom. 

Gilbert de Clare, son of the preceding, was the fifth 
Earl of Hertford, and the first Earl of Gloucester and Hert- 
ford jointly. He was one of the twenty-five barons who 
opposed the arbitrary proceedings of King John and upheld 
the Magna Charta. He was also prominent in the Barons' 
War and supported the cause of the Dauphin Louis of France. 
At the battle of Lincoln in 1217 he was taken prisoner, but 
afterwards made his peace with the king. He died in 1230. 
He married Isabel, daughter of William Mareschal, Earl of 
Pembroke. His youngest daughter, Isabel, married Robert 

J* ut J* Jt jt ^ Jt 

The founder of the house of Carrick of Scotland was 
Fergus, Lord of Galloway, who married Elizabeth, daughter 



of King Henry I. At liis death in 1161 he left two sons, 
Gilbert and Uchtred, between whom his lands were divided. 

Gilbert, with his brother Uchtred, attended King William 
the Lion in the invasion of England in 1174, but subsequently 
sought the favor of King Henry II. In the same year he 
procured the assassination of his brother, and, although for 
some time he was held in royal disfavor on this account, he 
was received into the presence of King Henry two years later 
and was pardoned. Under the protection of the English 
monarch he carried war into Scotland in 1184, but before 
hostilities were concluded he died, in January, 1185-6. 

Duncan, son of the preceding, in the endeavor to heal the 
family difficulties, entered into an amicable conclusion with 
his cousin Roland, son of the murdered Uchtred. He was 
also a vassal of King William of Scotland, defended the dis- 
trict of ancient Galloway, and was confirmed in the possession 
of the territory of Carrick in 1186. Carrick was the southern- 
most of the three districts into which the county of Ayr was 
divided and gave title to the earldom. Duncan was created 
Earl of Carrick by King Alexander 11. , founded the Abbey of 
Crossramore, or Crossregal, for the Cluniac monks, and also 
endowed other monkish orders of Paisley and Melrose. 

NiEL Carrick, son of the preceding, followed the example 
of his father in acts of piety, making liberal gifts to the mon- 
asteries of Crossramore, or Crossregal, and of Sandale in 
Kintyre. He was received under the protection of King 



Henry III. in 1255 and the same year was appointed one of 
the regents of Scotland and guardian of Alexander III. and 
that monarch's queen. He died June 13, 1256. He married 
Margaret, daughter of Walter, High Steward of Scotland. 
His daughter Marjory (Carrick) de Kilconcath married the 
eighth Robert Bruce and, becoming Countess of Carrick in 
her own right, brought to her husband and transmitted to 
her descendants the earldom of Carrick. This matrimonial 
alliance of the Bruces with the house of the High Steward 
of Scotland was recalled several generations later when 
Marjory Bruce, daughter of King Robert Bruce, married 
Walter, the head of the house of Stewart of Scotland. 

UcHTRED, the second son of Fergus, Lord of Galloway, 
married Guinolda, who was the daughter of Waldeve of the 
Dunbar family. Waldeve was the grandson of Crinan, the 
founder of the noble house of Dunbar, and succeeding his 
brother, Cospatric, who died in 1139, had the barony of 
AUandale and other lands, maintaining his home at Cocker- 
mouth castle. He married Sigarith, a Saxon lady. 

Roland, of Galloway, son of the preceding, after the 
death of his uncle Gilbert who had murdered his father, 
defeated the vassals of Gilbert, slaying their commander 
Gilpatrick in July, 1185. He finally came into possession of 
the whole of Galloway which he stubbornly held against all 
enemies. He married Elena Morville, daughter of Richard 
Morville, by whom he had several sons. 



Alan, of Galloway, son of the preceding, had by his first 
wife, whose name is unknown, a daughter, Elena, who married 
Roger de Quincey, Earl of Winchester. He married, 
second, in 1209, Margaret, the eldest daughter of David, 
Earl of Huntingdon, and had a son, Thomas, and two daugh- 
ters, Christiana and Dervorgill. The last named married 
John Baliol of Bernard Castle and had John Baliol, the 
competitor, who in 1292 was successful in prosecuting his 
claim to the throne of Scotland against Robert Bruce and 
other rivals. Thus a branch of the house of Carrick became 
associated with the fortunes of the Bruces in another and less 
agreeable way. 

The DE Burgh family from which King Robert Bruce 
chose his second wife was originally of Ireland where it was 
of special distinction, being connected with one of the first 
royal houses of that land. 

Richard de Burgh, surnamed the Great Lord of Con- 
naught, son of William FitzAdelm de Burgh, Lord Deputy of 
Ireland in the time of Hervig II., was also Viceroy of that 
kingdom 1227-29. He built the castle of Galway in 1232 and 
died in 1243. He married Una, or Agnes, daughter of Hugh 
O'Conor, King of Connaught, son of Cathal Crobhdearg, or 
the Red Hand. 

Walter de Burgh, eldest son of the preceding, was Lord 



of Connaught, and in right of his wife became Earl of Ulster 
in 1243. He married INIaud, daughter and heir of Hugh de 
Laci, Earl of Ulster, and had four sons. 

Richard de Burgh, son of the preceding, was the second 
Earl of Ulster. He was a great warrior and statesman, and 
commanded all the Irish forces in Ireland, Scotland, Wales, 
and Gascoigne. He founded the Carmelite monastery at 
Loughren and built the castles Ballymote, Carran, and Sligo. 
In his declining years he retired to the monastery of Athassail. 
He died June 28, 1326. He married Margaret de Burgo, 
daughter of John de Burgo, Baron of Lanville, who was a 
great-grandson of Hubert, Earl of Kent. Elizabeth Aylmer 
de Burgh, daughter of Richard de Burgh and his wife Mar- 
garet de Burgo, was the second wife of King Robert Bruce. 

William de W^arrenne, Earl of Warrenne in Normandy, 
was a kinsman of William the Conqueror. He was among the 
Norman nobles at Hastings, and after the conquest of England 
received great honors from the King. He married Gundred, 
a daughter of William the Conqueror. Old-time authori- 
ties made this Gundred a daughter of William by his wife 
Matilda of Flanders. Recent investigations, however, con- 
clusively show that she was the daughter of William by 
another wife. 

William de Warrenne, eldest son of the preceding, 





built the castle of Holt and founded the priory of Lewes in 
Sussex. He made his home principally in Lewes, although 
he had castles also in Norfolk and at Coningsburg and Sandal. 
Dugdale gives the following quaint account of his closing 
hours : 

" It is reported that this Earl William did violently detain 
certain lands from the monks of Ely; for which being often 
admonished by the Abbot and not making restitution he 
died miserably. And though his death happened very far 
off the isle of Ely, the same night he died, the Abbot lying 
quietly in his bed, and meditating on heavenly things, heard 
the soul of this earl, in its carriage away by the devil, cry out 
loudly, and with a known and distinct voice; 'Lord have 
mercy on me. Lord have mercy on me.' And moreover 
on the next day after the Abbot acquainted all the monks in 
chapel therewith. And likewise that about four days after 
there came a messenger to them from the wife of this earl, 
with one hundred shillings for the good of his soul, who told 
them that he died the very hour that the Abbot had heard 
the outcry. But that neither the Abbot nor any of the 
monks would receive it; not thinking it safe for them to 
take the money of a damned person. ... If this part of 
the story, as to the Abbot's hearing the noise, be no truer 
than the last, viz., that his lady sent them one hundred shil- 
lings, I shall deem it to be a mere fiction, in regard the lady 
was certainly dead about three years before." 

This William de Warrenne joined Robert de Belesme, 
Earl of Arundel and Shrewsbury, in supporting Robert' Curth- 
ose, son of King William I., against his brother King Henry I. 
The rebellion was short-lived, however, and subsequently 
William de Warrenne was faithful to the cause of King 
Henry. He married Isabel, daughter of Henry the Great, 



Earl of Vermandois, and widow of Robert, Earl of Mellent. 
Adeline, his youngest daughter, married Prince Henry of 
Scotland, son of King David, and was the grandmother of 
Isabella de Huntingdon who married Robert Bruce. 

The Elphinston family derived its name from the lands 
of Elphinston in the vicinity of Edinburgh. It was famous 
among the barons of Scotland before the thirteenth century. 

Alexander de Elphinston acquired the land of Erthberg, 
county Stirling, from his mother Agnes de Erthberg. 

Alexander de Elphinston had a charter of lands from 
King David II. in 1362. 

Sir William de Elphinston had a charter of lands in 
1399. He had three'sons. His son Alexander de Elphinston 
was killed in a conflict with the English at Piperdean Septem- 
ber 30, 1435. His son Henry de Elphinston succeeded him. 
His son William de Elphinston was the first Earl of Blyths- 
wood in Larnarkshire, and married Mary Douglas. A 
younger son of William Elphinston and Mary Douglas was 
William Elphinston, Bishop of Ross and Aberdeen, High 
Chancellor of Scotland, and founder of the University of 

Henrt Elphinston, second son of the preceding, was of 
Pittendriech, which he had under charter in 1477. He also 



held Erthberg, Strickshaw, and other honors. He had two 
sons, James and Andrew. 

James Elphinston, son of the preceding, died before his 
father, having had two sons, John and Alexander. 

Sir John Elphinston, eldest son of the preceding, had 
charter for the lands of Pittendriech, Erthberg, and Cragrossy. 
He had a charter of the barony of Erthberg, and in 1503 the 
honors of Chawmyrlane and Cragoroth were erected into a 
barony to be called Elphinston, the title of which was first 
conferred upon him; 

Alexander Elphinston, son of the preceding, had 
numerous grants of lands and had the custody of the king's 
castle of Kildrummie in Aberdeenshire in 1508. He was 
raised to the peerage in 1509 as Alexander, Lord Elphinston. 
He also had charters of lands in Fife, Stirlingshire, Banff- 
shire, and elsewhere. He fell at Flodden Field, where he 
was fighting in the support of James IV. on that fateful day 
in September, 1513. He married Elizabeth Barlow, a noble 
Englishwoman, who was maid of honor to Mary, Queen of 
King James IV. His son, Alexander Elphinston, succeeded 
him. His daughter, Elizabeth Elphinston, married Sir David 
Somerville. His daughter, Eupheme Elphinston, was the 
mother of Robert Stewart, Earl of Orkney, by King James 
v., and subsequently married John Bruce of Cultmalindie. 

jft jit * ^ jit j)t jt 



The ancient family of Oliphant was of Norman origin. 
Its first ancestors known in connection with English history 
were settled in Northamptonshire and held land there. 

David Olifard, or Oliphant, was the first bearer of the 
surname. He was intimately associated with King David 
I. of Scotland, who was his godfather. He befriended his 
royal master during the conspiracy of King Stephen, and 
was secretary of King David I. after the rout of the forces of 
Matilda at Winchester in 1141. He thereupon went to Scot- 
land and was rewarded with lands. He was associated in 
charters with Duncan, Earl of Fife; Ferteth, Earl of Strath- 
earn; Gilbride, Earl of Angus; Malcolm, Earl of AthoU; and 
others. He was justiciary of Scotland in 1165 under King 
David I., and also under King William the Lion. He died in 

David Olifard, eldest son of the preceding, succeeded his 
father in his estates and in the justiciary. He died toward 
the end of the twelfth century. 

Sir Walter Olifard, eldest son of the preceding, inherited 
the estates of his father and was justiciary under King Alex- 
ander n. He died in 1249. He married Christiana, daughter 
of the Earl of Strathearn. 

Walter Olifard, son of the preceding, was also justiciary. 
He died after 1250. 



Sir William Oliphant of Aberdalgy, eldest son of the 
preceding, was a prominent figure in all the campaigning of 
King Robert Bruce for the throne of Scotland. About 1296, 
after the battles of Berwick and Dunbar, he was seized and 
held in prison until some time in the following year. In 
1299 Stirling Castle, which had been fully garrisoned after 
the English had been driven out of it, was committed to his 
care. He held control of this fortress for years and skil- 
fully defended it for three months against the determined 
siege of King Edward in 1304. Following the downfall of 
that fortress he was a prisoner for four years in the Tower 
of London. In 1311 he held Perth as a deputy for King 
Edward. At the siege of Perth by Robert Bruce he was 
taken prisoner and sent into banishment in the Western 
islands. After King Robert had fully established himself 
in the kingdom, Oliphant came into favor, received grants of 
land, and was present at Parliament in 1320 and in 1326. 
He died February 5, 1329. 

Sir Walter Oliphant of Aberdalgy, son of the preceding, 
married Elizabeth, youngest daughter of King Robert Bruce. 

Walter Oliphant of Aberdalgy, son of the preceding, 
was a sheriff of Stirling and keeper of Stirling Castle in 1368. 
He married Mary Erskine, daughter of Sir Robert Erskine 
of Erskine. 

Sir John Oliphant of Aberdalgy, eldest son of the pre- 
ceding, was knighted by King Robert 11. He died about 

18 27S 


1420. He married, first, a daughter of Sir William Borth- 
wick; second, a daughter of Sir Thomas Home. 

Sir William Oliphant of Aberdalgy, eldest son of the 
preceding by his first wife, was one of the hostages in England 
for the ransom of King James I. in 1424. He married Isa- 
bel Stewart, daughter of John Stewart of Innermeath, Lord 
of Lome. 

Sir John Oliphant of Aberdalgy, son of the preceding, 
was by his marriage drawn into the long existing feud between 
the Ogilvys and the Lindsays. In one of these family quar- 
rels he was slain at Arbroath January 25, 1445-6. He mar- 
ried Isabel, daughter of Walter Ogilvy of Auchterhouse. 

Sir Laurence Oliphant of Aberdalgy, eldest son of the 
preceding, was created a lord of Parliament before 1467. 
He sat in the first Parliament of King James IV. in 1488; was 
a privy councillor; a justiciary in 1490, and a peace com- 
missioner to treat with England in 1491. He died about 
1531. He married Isabel Hay, youngest daughter of William 
Hay, first Earl of Errol. 

Sir John Oliphant, eldest son of the preceding, was the 
second Lord Oliphant. Succeeding his father, he sat in Parlia- 
ment in 1503 and afterward. He died in 1516. He married 
Lady Elizabeth Campbell, third daughter of Colin Campbell, 
first Duke of Argyle. 



Colin Oliphant, eldest son of the preceding, fought with 
his brother, William Oliphant, on the fatal field of Flodden 
in support of King James, both brothers being killed. He 
married Lady Elizabeth Keith, second daughter of William 
Keith, who was the third Earl of Mareschal. 

Sir Laurence Oliphant, son of the preceding, was the 
third Lord Oliphant, succeeding to the title on the death of 
his grandfather in November, 1526. He took his seat in the 
Scottish Parliament in 1526 and was a member in many sub- 
sequent years. He was a consistent opponent of the prog- 
ress of the Reformation and was constantly in trouble on 
account thereof. At the rout of Solway he was captured by 
Dacre and Musgrave in November, 1542, was locked up in 
the Tower of London for some time, but was ransomed the 
following year and returned to Parliament. He died at 
Aldwick in Caithness March 26, 1566. He married Margaret 
Sandilands, eldest daughter of James Sandilands of Cruvie. 

Sir Laurence Oliphant, eldest son of the preceding, was 
the fourth Lord Oliphant. He was born in 1529 and suc- 
ceeded to the title in 1566, having also the barony of Aber- 
dalgy, Gask, and Galray. He joined the association in 
behalf of Queen Mary at Hamilton in 1568, and was always 
a devoted partisan of that queen. He was frequently in Par- 
liament and a conspicuous figure in all the politico-religious 
controversies and struggles of that period. He died in 
Caithness June 16, 1593, and was buried m the church of 



Wick. An old diary of that time contains this brief notice: 
" 1593 January 16. Laurens. L. Oliphant diet in Kathnes, 
and buriet in the Kirk of Wik." He married, in 1552, Lady 
Margaret Hay, second daughter of George Hay, seventh 
Earl of Errol. His daughter, Jean Oliphant, married Alex- 
ander Bruce of Cultmalindie. Both she and her husband 
were direct descendants from King Robert Bruce, she in 
the eleventh generation and he in the tenth. 

Bards and historians say that the predecessors of the house 
of Campbell, which has been one of the most numerous and 
most powerful in Scotland, were Lords of Lochow in Argyle- 
shire as early as the year 404. The first appellation that they 
bore was O'Dwbin or O'Dwin, a name that was assumed 
by Diarmed, a brave warrior. In Gaelic the descendants of 
this Diarmid are called Scol Diarmid or offspring of Diarmed. 
From Diarmed O'Dwbin followed a long series of barons of 
Lochow until the male line ended in Paul O'Dwbin, Lord 
Lochow, called Inspuran because he was the king's treasurer. 

GiLLESPiCK Campbell, an Anglo-Norman of distinction, 
married the daughter of Paul O'Dwbin, Lord Lochow. 

Duncan Campbell of Lochow lived in the reign of King 
Malcolm IV. 

Colin Campbell of Lochow was a subject of King William 
the Lion in the latter part of the twelfth century. 





GiLLESPicK or Archibald Campbell of Lochow lived in 
the reign of King Alexander I. He married Finetta, daughter 
of John Eraser, Lord of Tweeddale. 

Duncan Campbell of Lochow was also living in the reign 
of King Alexander I. He married a daughter of the house 
of Comyn. His son, John Campbell (1250-86), was a famous 

Sir Gillespick or Archibald Campbell of Lochow, the 
eldest son of the preceding, was living in the reign of King 
Alexander III., and married a daughter of William de Somer- 
ville. Baron of Carnwath. 

Sir Colin Campbell was so successful as a soldier that 
he was named More or Great. From him the chiefs of this 
family have ever since been styled MacCalan More. He was 
knighted in 1280 by King Alexander III. He married a 
daughter of the house of Sinclair. 

Sib Niel Campbell of Lochow, the eldest son of the 
preceding, was knighted by King Alexander III. He early 
allied himself to the fortunes of King Robert Bruce, and 
adhered to that monarch through prosperity and adversity. 
After the battle of Bannockburn he was one of the commis- 
sioners sent to York in 1314 to negotiate a peace with Eng- 
land. He was among the great barons who sat in the Parlia- 
ment at Ayr in 131.5. He died in 1316. He married Lady 
Mary Bruce, a sister of King Robert Bruce. 



In subsequent generations the descendants of this Sir Niel 
Campbell ranked among the most distinguished people of 
Scotland. His descendant. Sir Duncan Campbell, first as- 
sumed the title of Duke of Argyle, and other titles were also 
borne by representatives of the name. Descendants of King 
Robert Bruce several generations later married and inter- 
married with the family. 










DURING the more than nine centuries that have 
elapsed since the Bruce stock was established in 
Scotland it has, both in its main line and in its 
collateral branches, been identified with nearly all the fa- 
mous historical places of the Northern Country. In successive 
generations its representatives owned castles which are now 
in ruins, while memories of them and of their ancestors are 
indissolubly attached to such religious and national shrines 
as lona, Dunfermline, and others. An account of some of 
the most important of these castles and churches reveals how 
large a part the Bruces had in the life of their times and how 
tradition and romance have lovingly dwelt upon whatever 
the Bruce name has enriched in historical association. 


No island in the waters that roll upon the coast of Scotland 
has been more renowned than lona, the ancient burial place 
of the Scottish kings before the time of Malcolm Canmore, 
the royal ancestor of the Bruces. As Dr. Johnson Expressed 
it in one of his letters it is : 

"The illustrious island which was once the luminary of the 
Caledonian regions, whence savage clans and roaming bar- 
barians derived the benefit of knowledge and the blessings 



of religion. . . . That man is little to be envied . . . whose 
piety would not grow warmer among the ruins of lona." 

Before the sixth century the island was a great centre of 
Druidism. About the year 563 the Irish saint Columba 
emigrated thither and upon that spot set up the cross and 
propagated the Christian faith. 

Columba, who made lona famous and sacred, was born in 
521, the son of Felim, who was a son of Neill, the great king 
of Ireland. He was highly educated and travelled widely. 
Before he was twenty-eight years of age he built churches 
in Ireland and then sailed away from his home to carry his 
religion to the lands of the Picts. King Brudius granted 
him possession of lona and there he established himself to 
preach and teach the doctrines of Christianity. It was not 
long before lona became celebrated throughout the civilized 
world. The institutions there planted and perfected were 
the foundations of the church in that part of the world, and 
the library of Columba was known as one of the richest in 
literary treasures in that age. The name of the island, Icolm- 
kill, or cell of Columba, was derived from its famous monastic 
establishments. Relics which still exist indicate the former 
greatness of the place. In an enclosure adjoining St. Oran's 
Chapel were buried sixty-one kings; forty-eight Scottish, 
four Irish, eight Norwegian, and one French. 

Paulus Jovius, writing in the sixteenth century, said of 

"In the church of lona there are preserved very ancient 
annals and parchment rolls, containing laws and charters 



signed by the kings and sealed with their effigies on seals of 
gold or wax. It is also reported that in the same library 
there are ancient works of Roman history, from which we 
may expect the remaining decades of Titus Livius, which, 
indeed, we have lately heard, letters from Scotland have 
promised to Francis, King of France."* 

In 1595 the sanctuary of lona was quaintly thus described 
by another historian: 

"Within this ile of Columkill there is ane sanctuary or 
kirkzaird, callit in Erische Religioran, (the cemetery of St. 
Ouran who was one of the companions of St. Columbus at 
the foundation of the monastery) quhilk is a very fair kirk- 
zaird and Weill biggit about with staine and lyme. Into this 
sanctuary there is three tombes of staine, formed like little 
chapelis, with ane braid gray marble or quhin staine in the 
gavill of ilk ane of the tombes. In the stain of the ain tombe 
there is written in Latin letters, 'Tumulus Regum Scotise' 
that is, the tombe or grave of the King of Scotts. Within 
this tombe according to our Scotts and Erische cronikells 
there layes forty-eight crouned Scotts Kings, through the 
whilk this ile lies been richlie dotat be the Scotts Kings, as 
we have said. The tombe on the south syde forsaid, lies this 
inscription 'Tumulus Regum Hybernise,' that is, the tombe 
of the Irland Kinges; for we have in our auld Erische croni- 
kells, that ther wes foure Irland Kinges eirdit in the said 
tombe. Upon the north side of our Scotts tombe the inscrip- 
tion bears 'Tumulus Regum Norwegie,' that is, the tomb of 
the Kings of Norroway, in the quhilk tombe, as we find in 
our ancient Erische cronikells, ther layes eight Kings of-Nor- 
roway, and also we find that Coelus, King of Norroway, 
commandit his noblis to take his bodey and burey it at Colm- 
kill if it chanced him to die in the Isles, but he wes so dis- 
comfitit that ther remained not so maney of his armey as wald 

♦ Descriptione Brittanige, by Paulus Jovius, Venetia, 1548. 


burey him ther; therfor he was eirded in Kyle, after he stroke 
ane field against theScotts, and wesvanquist be them. Within 
this sanctuary also lyes the maist part of the Lordis of the 
Isles, with their lineage, Twa Clan-Lynes (Clan Lean) with 
their lynage, M'Kynnon and M'Guarrie with their lynages, 
with sundrie utheris inhabitants of the hail isles; because 
this sanctuary wes wont to be the sepulture of the best men 
of the Isles and also of our Kings, as we have said, because it 
was the maist honerabil and ancient place that was in Scot- 
land in thair dayes, as we reid." * 


The town of Scone in the sheriffdom of Perth is situated on 
the north bank of the river Tay near the centre of Scotland. 
Its name, in the Gothic, is Skorn and in the Anglo-Saxon, Scon, 
meaning beautiful. It was famous particularly for the abbey 
that was founded there by King David I. for the monks of St. 
Augustine. Some historians assert that a religious house 
was established here for the Culdees monks by King Alexan- 
der I. During the life of that monarch the place was occa- 
sionally the royal residence and under the monks it was a 
trading centre, with customs payable to the monastery. The 
abbey wall enclosed about twelve acres of land. In the 
Reformation the abbey and the king's palace were destroyed. 

"So was that abay and plaice appointed to sockage; in 
doing whereof they tuk no long deliberation, bot committed 
the hoUe to the merciment of fyre, guhairat no small number 
of us war offendit."t 

At Scone was held the earliest ecclesiastical council of 

* Description of the Western Isles; by Donald Munro, High Dean of the Isles, 
t Knox's Historic, p. 146. 



Scotland of which there is any authentic record. In the 
Pictish Chronicle it is said: 

" Constantine, the son of Ed, and Kellach bishop, to- 
gether with the Scots, solemnly vowed to observe the laws 
and discipline of faith, the rights of the churches and of the 
gospel, on the Hill of Credulity, near the royal city of Scone. 
Henceforward this hill deserved this name, i.e. (Collis Cre- 
dulitatis) of the Hill of Credulity." 

Few traces of the old monastery have come down to mod- 
ern times. The contemporaneous church and buildings are of 
the seventeenth century and later. Many memories of the 
hapless Stewarts cling to the place. Queen Mary was often 
there and the king's room where James I. and perhaps Charles 
II. slept on the eve of their coronations is still shown. 

Scone was particularly endeared to the Scots as the ancient 
place of coronation of the Scottish kings. There was the fa- 
mous coronation stone, or stone of destiny, seated on which 
the monarchs received the crown and sceptre. It is a small 
block of red sandstone imbedded with pebbles and, as the 
royal emblem of Scotland, was always regarded with the 
deepest veneration. 

According to ancient traditions the history of this stone 
went back to the Tuatha de Danaans, the Scythian family that 
invaded Ireland, immediately preceding the Milesian con- 
quest, coming from Persia or Greece. They were skillful 
far above the native people about them and for that reason 
were regarded as possessed of magic powers. It is told of 
them that when they came to Ireland they brought with them 
a remarkable stone called lia fail, "the stone of fate or des- 



tiny"; and from this Ireland received the name Inis Fail or 
Island of Destiny. 

"This Ha fail was held in the highest veneration; and 
sitting on it the ancient monarchs of Ireland both in Pagan 
and in Christian times were inaugurated at Tara." 

It is stated that whenever a legitimate king of the Milesian 
race was inaugurated the stone would emit a peculiar sound, 
an effect produced probably by some mechanical contrivance 
of the clever druids. 

One account has it that in the beginning of the sixth cen- 
tury Fergus MacEarca, who had become King of Scotland, 
requested the Irish monarch Murtogh MacEarca, his brother, 
to send him the lia fail to be used on the occasion of his in- 
auguration so that he might have security to his throne in 
accord with the ancient prophecy that the Scotic race would 
continue to rule as long as this stone should be in its posses- 
sion. Another account says that the stone was not brought 
to Scotland until the ninth century, when Aldus Finliath, King 
of Ireland, sent it to his father-in-law Kenneth McAlpin, 
King of all Scotland. The lia fail was preserved with great 
care and veneration for centuries, first in the monastery of 
St. Columbkill, on lona Island; afterwards at Dunstaffnage 
in Argyleshire, the first royal seat of the Scottish kings of the 
Irish race, and later at Scone, to which place it was taken by 
King Kenneth and where it was preserved until 1296, when 
King Edward I. carried it away to England with other regal 
appurtenances and deposited it in Westminster Abbey. 

This stone of destiny has been Latinized as saxum fatale 


C A S T L F: S A X D C II f II C II E S 

and lias been called by some writers Jacob's stone, from the 
tradition that it is part of the stone called Jacob's pillow at 
Bethel, as related in the book of Genesis. The stone is 
mentioned by Boethius and other early Scottish historians 
and the following Irish verse concerning it is classic: 

"Cineadh Scuit, saor an fhine, 
Mun budh breag an fhaisdine, 
Mar a ffuighid an Liagh Fail 
Dlighid flaitheas do ghabhail." 

"If Fate's decrees be not announced in vain. 
Where'er this stone is found the Scots shall reign." 


Associated as it is with the tragedy of Macbeth, Glamis 
castle, in Forfarshire, probably enjoys a wider fame than al- 
most any other building in Scotland. The present structure 
preserves little likeness to that which existed in the time of 
Duncan, and indeed changes have been made in it since the 
poet Gray described it, in 176.5, as follows: 

" Rising proudly out of what .seems a great and thick wood 
of tall trees, with a cluster of hanging towers on top . . . the 
house from the height of it, the greatness of its mass, the 
many towers atop, and the spread of its wings has really a very 
singular and striking apf>earance." 

Rebuilt and altered as it has been, it is even now one of the 
noblest buildings of its kind in the Land of the Thistle, archi- 
tecturally dating from the fifteenth century and since. Fordun 
and other chroniclers tell that in the vicinity of Glamis Mal- 



colm II. was attacked and mortally wounded in 1034, and that 
his assassins were drowned by breaking through the ice as 
they attempted to cross the neighboring loch of Forfar. The 
earliest proprietary notices of Glamis show it to have been 
a thanedom, and its lands regal domains. In 1372, King 
Robert II. by charter granted it to Sir John Lyon, designating 
it as "our lands of the thainage of Glammis." 

Sir Walter Scott spent a night in the castle in 1793, and he 
thus concluded a curious account of his sensations on the 
occasion : 

"In spite of the truth of history, the whole night scene in 
Macbeth's castle rushed at once upon me, and struck my 
mind more forcibly than even when I have seen its terrors 
represented by John Kemble and his inimitable sister." 


Dunfermline in Fifeshire, some fifteen miles from Edin- 
burgh, and the burial place of King Robert Bruce, is indis- 
solubly associated with the memory of the kings of Scotland 
from the time of Malcolm Canmore to the days of the Bruces. 
The town is beautifully situated on the brow of a gentle emi- 
nence that overlooks the surrounding country and the waters 
of Forth. For centuries it was the favorite royal residence, 
and in modern times it has been the home of the Earls of Elgin, 
descendants of King Robert Bruce. Its antiquities are many, 
but of the ancient tower of King Malcolm III. only the ruin re- 
mains, two low broken walls. The tower was probably built 
about the middle of the eleventh century. Fordun, Canon of 



Aberdeen, the early Scottish historian, thus describes it in 
giving an account of the marriage of King Malcolm III. : 

"The nuptials were magnificently celebrated a.d. 1070 
at Dunfermline which the reigning king then held prooppide" 
(his town or fortified residence) "for that place was naturally 
well defended in itself, being surrounded by a very thick wood, 
and fenced with precipitous rocks, in the middle of which was 
a pleasant level ground, also strengthened by rock and water, 
so that this might be supposed to be said of it ; 

" Non homini facilis, vox adeunda feris. 

" Not easy for man, scarcely to be approached by wild 
beasts." * 

This tower or castellated palace was not a spacious edifice 
nor does it appear to have been sumptuous. Still, here the 
famous monarch, ancestor of Robert Bruce, lived with his 
Queen, Margaret, daughter of Edward, son of Edmund Iron- 
side, King of England. Not far away from the hill on which 
the tower stands is St. Margaret's cave, where the Queen was 
accustomed to retire for her secret devotions. The tower is 
referred to in the ballad of Sir Patrick Spens : 

"The King sits in Dunfermline toun 
Drinken the blood red wine, 
Whare sail I find a skeely skipper 
Will sail this ship o' mine." 

A short distance from the tower are the ruins of a palace 
that was once the residence of the sovereigns of Scotland. 
Only a small portion of the wall, two hundred and fifty feet 
in length and sixty feet in height, supported by buttresses, now 

* Scotichronicon, by John Fordun. 
19 289 


remains. At the western end is a high window, completely 
covered with ivy, and a chimney of the room in which, tra- 
dition says, the ill-fated Stewart monarch, Charles I., was 
born. Subterranean passages and crypts are still intact. 
The palace was probably built before 1100. The last mon- 
arch who occupied it was Charles II., in 1650. 

Most interesting of the antiquities of Dunfermline are the 
ruins of the old abbey which was destroyed at the time of the 
Reformation. It was built "at great expense." John Leslie, 
Bishop of Ross, an old historian, wrote of it as "templum, in 
civitate Dunfermilingensi magnifice suis impensis extructum, 
sanctiss. Trinitate dicavit." Turgot relates that "it was 
enriched with numerous ornaments, vessels of solid gold, and 
an inestimable crucifix, formed of gold, silver, and precious 
stones." Originally built by Malcolm Canmore, additions 
were made from time to time by the successors of that mon- 
arch, particularly Alexander I., David I., Alexander II., and 
James VI. 

The monastery was dedicated to Margaret, the Queen of 
Malcolm Canmore, who died in 1093. Queen Margaret was 
canonized in 1249 and on June 13 in the following year the 
bones of the sainted one were transferred from the place 
where they were originally deposited "in the rude altar of 
the Kirk of Dunfermline" to the choir of the Abbey Church. 
The young king, Alexander III., with his mother and a large 
company of nobles and clergy were present to witness the 
ceremony. The remains were placed in a silver sarcophagus, 
which, the chroniclers state, was adorned with precious stones; 



and then a miracle occurred. King Malcolm had been buried 
beside his queen, and &t first all the strength of many men were 
not suflBcient to remove the relics of the sainted Margaret 
from the spot until those of her husband had first been lifted 
and deposited in the place where hers were destined to lie. 
Wyntoun in his Cronykil tells of this miracle : 

"With all thare powere and thare slycht. 
Her body to rays thai had na mycht. 
Na lift her anys owt of that plas, 
Quhar sho that tyme lyand was, 
For all thare devotyownys 
Prayeris and yret orysownys, 
That the persownys gaddryd there 
Dyd in devot manere: 
Quhell fyrst thai tuk upe the body 
Of hyr lord that lay thereby 
And bare it bene into the quere 
Lysrly syne in fayre manere 
Her cors thai tuk up and bare ben, 
And thame enteryd togyddyr then. 
Swa trowd thai all than gadryd thare 
Quhat honour till hyr lord scho bare." 

Following the reinterment of the remains of St. Margaret 
and her husband, the abbey became the burial place of the 
royal family of Scotland. It succeeded in this respect the 
island of lona, which for generations had been the ancient place 
of sepulture of the Scottish monarchs. Besides Malcolm, 
his Queen Margaret and his son Prince Edward, there were 
interred: King Edgar, King Alexander I., King David II., 
King Malcolm IV., King Alexander III. and his first Queen 
Margaret; King Robert Bruce and his Queen Elizabeth; 



Prince David and Prince Alexander, sons of Alexander III.; 
Mathildis, daughter of King Robert Bruce; Malcolm, Earl 
of Atholl, and his Countess; Annabella Drummond, Queen 
of King Robert III. and mother of King James I. ; the Earls 
of Elgin, and others of the royal Bruce blood. 
Of Queen Margaret, Sir Walter Scott wrote : 

"She did all in her power, and influenced as far as possible 
the mind of her husband to relieve the distresses of her Saxon 
countrymen, of high or low degree, assuaged their afflictions, 
and was jealous in protecting those who had been involved 
in the ruin which the battle of Hastings brought on the royal 
house of Edward the Confessor. The gentleness and mild- 
ness of temper proper to this amiable woman, probably also 
the experience of her prudence and good sense, had great 
weight with Malcolm, who, though preserving a portion of the 
ire and ferocity belonging to the king of a wild people, was 
far from being insensible to the suggestions of his amiable 
consort. He stooped his mind to hers on religious matters, 
adorned her favorite books of devotion with rich bindings, 
and was often seen to kiss and pay respect to the volumes 
which he was unable to read." 

King Robert Bruce was buried in the choir of the church 
before the high altar. His body was embalmed and a rich 
tomb or cenotaph was erected above the spot. The tomb 
was made in Paris, of white marble in Gothic work and richly 
gilt. Barbour wrote : 

"And quhen thai lang thus sorrowit had. 
Thai haiff had him to Dunferlyne: 
And hym solemply erdyt syne. 
In a fayr tomb, intill the quer." 

Nearly five hundred years passed and the gilded marble 



tomb had disappeared, perhaps purposely destroyed, or over- 
whelmed in the ruins of the church. Workmen, digging 
for the foundations of the new church in 1878, discovered a 
large leaden coffin, which, upon official inspection, was found 
to contain the skeleton of Scotland's great king. After ex- 
amination the remains were reinterred in a sealed coffin, on 
the spot where they had been found , and there they now rest. 

The abbey of Dunfermline was the meeting place of the 
Scottish nobles during the long warfare between the Baliols 
and the Bruces and in the revolts against the English. It 
thus fell under the marked disfavor of King Edward. When 
the English king journeyed to Scotland in 1303 he spent the 
winter, from December until the following May, in the abbey, 
where he was magnificently entertained. When he and his 
court departed in the spring his soldiers set fire to the building, 
either in recklessness or under instructions from the king, 
who has been accused of thus venting his spite against those 
whom he considered his rebellious subjects. Again during 
the same war the buildings were set on fire by the English 
troops, but the church was saved. In the Reformation the 
abbey was a special object of disfavor of the covenanters 
who could not forget the eminence that it had attained as 
a churchly institution of the monastic period. Lindsay of 
Pittscottie,' in chronicling the events of May, 1530, briefly 
tells of its destruction by the Protestants: 

"Upoun the 28 day thairof, the whoU lordis and baronis 
that war on this syd of Forth, passed to Stirling, and be the 
way, hest down the Abbey of Dumferling." 




One of the finest and strongest fortresses belonging to the 
Bruces was Kildrummie castle, which came to the family in 
the thirteenth century by the marriage of Isabel, daughter 
of David, Earl of Huntingdon, to Robert Bruce, the fourth 
Baron of Annandale. It was a home much loved by the 
Bruces but in a later generation it was the scene of disaster 
to Queen Elizabeth, consort of King Robert Bruce, and the 
Scotch patriots who surrounded her. 

Ruins of this stronghold remain in the Curgarff mountains 
of the district of Garioch in Aberdeenshire, on the north bank 
of the river Don, about forty miles from the sea. The struc- 
ture stood on an eminence, one side of which is washed by 
the Don, while two other sides are defended by deep ravines. 
Located in an obscure spot amid scenery wild and gloomy, 
it seems to have been a stronghold of the old royal do- 
main of Garvyach or the Garioch, the appanage of David, 
Earl of Huntingdon. 

The castle was built by Gilbert de Moravia, of the Scottish 
Murray family. Bishop of Caithness, in the time of King 
Alexander II. According to tradition, originally it was merely 
one great circular tower or donjon, having five floors or stories. 
When the castle in its fulness was completed this formed the 
western comer and was called the Snow Tower. It is said to 
have been one hundred and fifty feet high, but only the merest 
vestige of it now remains. Subsequent to its establishment 
the fortress was enlarged into an irregular pentagon, surround- 



ing a spacious court and defended by six other towers of un- 
equal magnitude and dissimilar in form. Four of these pro- 
tected the four angles of the pentagon, while two others were 
placed in the western face or curtain, for the security of the 
barbican which occupied the space between them. 

The intervening buildings connecting the several towers 
seem to have been only two stories high, and the walls are not 
more than four feet thick, of small irregular stones. The 
western wall, in which was the barbican or entrance gate, was 
reared on the summit of a regular slope of no great acclivity, 
which rises from the river and seems to have been the garden 
of the castle. The northern side is protected by the steep 
banks of a brook which flows into the Don. 

The area of the castle was nearly four acres. In addition 
to the site of a pit-well, a subterranean vault or passage may 
be traced within the ruins. This passage opens to the bank 
on the northern side of the castle and probably served as a 
sally port. By means thereof the wife, daughter, and sisters 
of Bruce the king, with their escort and attendants, are said 
to have made their escape when they fled to the sanctuary 
of Tain in Rosshire, from which they were delivered into the 
hands of the English by the earl of Ross. 

In the middle of the western wall the remains of the chapel 
still may be distinguished by the lancet form of its altar 
windows, consisting of three long narrow slits. During the 
siege of the castle this chapel was used as a magazine of forage 
for the horses belonging to the garrison. The besiegers de- 
spaired of success until, throwing a piece of red-hot iron 



through the window, they set fire to the forage and hterally 
smoked out the defenders. 


Lochmaben castle in Dumfriesshire, where Robert Bruce 
the Competitor, grandfather of King Robert Bruce, lived and 
where he died and was buried, was one of the hereditary 
castles of the Bruce family. In its time it was the most power- 
ful fortress on the border. The original structure was on the 
hill near the town of Lochmaben, but the present castle was 
built in the thirteenth century by Bruce the Competitor. 
Commanding the entrance to the southwest of Scotland, it was 
the subject of many contests during the border warfare. It 
was captured by King Edward I. in 1298 and he strengthened 
its works. When Robert Bruce fled from England before 
taking the field for the crown of Scotland, he first sought 
refuge there. After his success he bestowed it on Randolph, 
Earl of Moray. John Baliol handed it over to King Edward 
III., but it was besieged and retaken by King David II. in 
1346. When Archibald Douglas, Lord of Galloway, expelled 
the English in 1384, it fell into the Douglas hands and re- 
mained there until 1455, when it was sequestrated as a royal 

The castle stands on a spit of flat ground running into 
Lochmaben. By a wide ditch cut across the neck of the 
peninsula the site could be converted into an island about 
sixteen acres in extent. Three other ditches protected it. 















Access was most likely by boats that came into the great ditch 
or moat, which could be amply defended from the battlements 
that overlooked. The walls were high and solid and well 
provided with parapets and defences, but they are now re- 
duced to mere shapeless fragments, having been used in 
recent generations as a quarry for building materials. 


Turnberry castle in Carrick, which Marjory, Countess of 
Carrick, brought to the house of Bruce, was one of Scotland's 
most noted fortresses for several centuries. Turnberry Point 
on the coast of Ayrshire, between Ayr and Girvan, is a rock 
projecting into the sea, the top about eighteen feet above 
high-water mark. Upon this rock was built the castle. 
Only a few feet high of the wall next to the sea are now stand- 
ing. The length of the structure was about sixty feet and its 
breadth fifty-five feet. It was surrounded by a ditch, but that 
was filled up many years ago. The top of the ruin, rising 
some forty or fifty feet above the water, has a magnificent 
appearance viewed from the sea. Around the castle was a 
level plain about two miles in extent, forming the park. 

To Turnberry King Robert Bruce longingly looked several 
times during his troublous career. Once when he made a 
descent upon the coast of Ayr he was, according to tradition, 
able to gain possession of the stronghold. Lord Clifford 
and Lord Lennox held the castle for the English, and the 
Bruce, with his impetuous brother Edward, Lord Douglas, 



and other followers, were waiting an opportunity at the Isle 
of Arran, which had been won by Douglas from Sir John 
Hastings in 1306. There he made ready to cross to the main- 
land of Carrick. Cuthbert, a trusty retainer, was sent over 
into Carrick to sound the people and see if they were favora- 
ble to the cause of Bruce. If he found that they were willing 
to join the cause of the king, it was arranged that he should 
start a signal light on the shore where it could be seen from 
the Isle of Arran. At nightfall the light eagerly looked for 
gleamed over the water and the impatient watchers hastened 
to sail across the bay to lead the expected uprising. Upon 
landing they found Cuthbert, who said that he had given no 
signal because he had learned that the Bruce vassals of Carrick 
could not be depended upon to support their lord. In this 
emergency and threatened with discovery, it was almost impos- 
sible to retreat. Prudence gave way to the dictates of valor. 
Regardless of the support of the people of the district, Bruce 
and Douglas with their little band made an impetuous and 
desperate attack upon the castle and were successful in driving 
out its defenders. 

The unexpected lights that appeared around Turnberry 
that night, as though beckoning the Bruce on to death or to 
repossess his ancestral home, have been explained by prosaic 
matter-of-fact folk as the work of the brush burners at their 
occupation. Sentiment and superstition have attached to the 
incident, however. Sir Walter Scott, in The Lord of the Isles, 
refers to the belief of the common people of Ayrshire that the 
fires were really the work of supernatural power, unassisted 



by any mortal being; and it is said that for several centuries 
the flame rose yearly at the same hour of the same night of 
the year that the king saw it for the first time from the turrets 
of Brodick castle. The place where the fire is said to have 
appeared has been called Bogie's Brae beyond the remem- 
brance of man. 

The description of Bruce's descent upon Carrick is one of 
the most beautiful parts of Scott's poem : 

"They gain'd the Chase, a wide domain 

Left for the castle's sylvan reign, 
(Seek not the scene — the axe, the plough. 

The boor's dull fence have marred it now,) 
But then, soft swept in velvet green, 

The plain with many a glade between, 
Whose tangled alleys far invade 

The depth of the brown forest shade. 
Here the tall fern obscures the lawn. 

Fair shelter for the sportive fawn; 
There, tufted close with copsewood green, 

Was many a swelling hillock seen; 
And all around was verdure meet 

For pressure of the fairies' feet. 
The glossy holly loved the park. 

The yew-tree lent it shadow dark. 
And many an old oak, worn and bare. 

With all its shiver'd boughs was there. 
Lovely, between, the moonbeams fell. 

On lawn and hillock, glade and dell. 
The gallant monarch sigh'd to see 

These glades so loved in childhood free. 
Bethinking that, as outlaw now. 

He ranged beneath the forest bough. 


And from the donjon tower on high, 
The men of Carrick may descry 

Saint Andrew's cross in blazonry, 
Of silver waving wide! 

The Bruce hath won his father's hall! 

'Great God! once more my sire's abode 

Is mine, — behold the floor I trod, 
In tottering infancy! 

And there the vaulted arch whose ground 
Echoed my joyous shout and bound. 

In boyhood, and that rung around 
To youth's unthinking glee.' "* 


Robert Chambers, in his Pictures of Scotland, wrote: "The 
time when there was no Stirling castle is not known in Scot- 
tish annals." The fortification is of great antiquity and the 
date of its origin is so remote that it has been forgotten. The 
ancient inhabitants had a fortress on Stirling rock, and the old 
chronicles say that it was held by Agricola during the Roman 
invasion and made an easily defensible headquarters for the 
Roman legions. Early monkish writers called it Mons Do- 
lorum, or Mountain of Grief, and it was also named Styreling, 
or Hill of Strife, both appellations clearly indicating its pur- 
pose and its character. After the Romans had withdrawn 
Stirling formed part of the Pictish province of Forterin or 
Forternn. When Egfrid, theAnglian king, overran the country 
in the seventh century, it is supposed that he occupied Stirling, 

* The Lord of the Isles, by Sir Walter Scott, Canto VI. 


which was still a frontier or fortress as late as the time when 
Kenneth the Hardy led Jiis followers across the Scots Water 
or Forth and destroyed it. 

After King Donald was taken prisoner by the Northum- 
brians, he yielded the territory around Stirling as ransom, 
and the Northumbrians rebuilt the castle and strongly gar- 
risoned it. For nearly a quarter of a century it was in posses- 
sion of the North Saxons and then it was returned to the Scots. 
In the tenth century it was a rendezvous of the troops under 
King Kenneth III. when the country was invaded by the 
Danes; and thence he marched to the battle of Longarty. 
It was not however until Forteviot, Scone, and Abernethy 
ceased to be royal residences or capitals that Stirling pos- 
sessed a castle worthy the name. 

In the reign of King Alexander I., there was a fairly well- 
built fortress on the rock, and that king founded the first 
chapel within its walls. When the successor of Alexander 
ascended the throne, a feudal castle, probably a single square 
tower or keep with spacious courtyard or enciente, replaced 
the earlier buildings of wood and wattles, rudely fortified by 
earthworks. In the reign of King William the Lion, Stirling 
castle was one of the five principal fortresses of the kingdom. 
During the wars with England, it was more than once de- 
stroyed and rebuilt, and it was the prize for which the bat- 
tle of Bannockburn was fought by King Robert Bruce against 
the forces of King Edward I. of England. 

From the accession of King Alexander I. to the union of 
Scotland with England, Stirling was one of the chief centres 



of political activity and statecraft, and a relation of its annals 
would involve nearly the whole of Scottish history. By the 
early kings of Scotland it was regarded as one of the most 
important places in the kingdom, and it was a frequent and 
favorite residence of the royal family. In the words of the 
poet, it was "parent of monarchs, nurse of kingly race." King 
Alexander I. died there, and when King William the Lion was 
ill he asked to be carried to Stirling, where he lingered for 
several months before death closed his career. The Stewarts 
recreated Stirling castle and it became a delightful and lux- 
urious home for them. There in February, 1452, King James 
II. stabbed the Earl of Douglas: 

"Ye towers! within whose circuit dread 
A Douglas by his sovereign bled."* 

Stirling castle, well preserved, is one of the most revered 
structures of Scotland. For generations, alike in its pictur- 
esque beauty and noble grandeur and in its stirring historic 
associations, it has been the admiration of all who have looked 
upon it and has been an inspiration to patriotism and to letters. 
Said one enthusiastic writer describing it: 

"Who does not know Stirling's noble rock rising the mon 
arch of the landscape, its majestic and picturesque towers, 
its amphitheatre of mountain and the winding of its marvel- 
lous river; and who that has once seen the sun descending 
here in all the blaze of its beauty beyond the purple hills of 
the west can ever forget the plains of Stirling, the endless 
charm of this wonderful scene, the wealth, the splendor, the 
variety, the majesty of all which lies between earth and 
heaven ? " 

* Lady of the Lake, by Sir Walter Scott, Canto V. 


In close proximity to Stirling are the villages of Bannock- 
burn and St. Ninian's, ,and the famous battleground where 
Bruce achieved the liberation of Scotland lies immediately 
between them. The Bore-stone, in which the Scottish king 
planted his standard, is still preserved and occupies its origi- 
nal site near the village of Bannockburn. 

On the Esplanade of Stirling stands a monument of 
Robert Bruce, of colossal size. The figure is nearly eleven 
feet high, and stands looking in the direction of the field of 
Bannockburn, where King Robert achieved his greatest vic- 
tory over the English forces. The king is represented as a 
knight of the highest rank, clad in the fighting armor of the 
period and in the act of sheathing his sword after the victory. 
On the front of the pedestal is the Scottish [shield with the 
lion rampant in high relief. On the western face of the ped- 
estal is the inscription "King Robert the Bruce; June 24, 
1314," the date of the battle of Bannockburn. The statue 
was unveiled November 24, 1877. 

Melrose Abbey 

Melrose abbey had a precursor in a religious house of the 
Culdee brotherhood established in the seventh century, under 
the patronage of Oswald, King of Northumbria. ' That has 
long ago disappeared, and even the more modern building 
is in ruins. The abbey that stood where ruins now are 
was founded for the Cistercian monks in 1136. The second 
abbot of the house was the famous St. Waltheof, Walthen, or 



Waldeve, who was related to the ancestors of the Bruces. His 
grandfather was Siward, the Saxon count of Northumberland, 
who strongly opposed William the Conqueror, by whom he was 
captured and beheaded. Siward's daughter, the mother of the 
abbot, married Simon, Earl of Huntingdon, and after the death 
of that noble married Prince David, who later became the king. 
In the wars between England and Scotland the abbey suf- 
fered much from the English invaders, who were at odds with 
the monks because the latter avowed the cause of Bruce and 
Scotland. When Edward II. invaded Scotland in 1322 he 
intended to rest at Melrose. Douglas was near by with a small 
company of retainers and the brotherhood admitted him and 
his men to the abbey, from which they could sally forth in an 
attack upon the English. According to Barbour* they sent 
out to reconnoitre " a rich sturdy free, that wes all stout, derft 
and hardy." 

"Upon a stalwart horse he rad 
And in his hand he had a sper. 
And abaid upon that manner 
Quhil that he saw them command near, 
And quhen the fermost passit wer 
The coynge — he cryit 'Douglas, Douglas.' 
Then till them all a course he mass, 
And bar ane down delyverly. 
And Douglas and his company, 
Ischyt upon them with a shout." 

Douglas could do little damage to the big English army, and 
after he had fallen back to the forest King Edward occu- 
pied the place and took summary vengeance, wrecking the 

* The Bruce, by John Barbour. 











building, slaying the monks, and carrying away with him the 
silver pix for holding the sacramental wafer. 

King Robert Bruce was a good and generous friend to the 
brotherhood. Among the muniments of the foundation is 
an interesting document in which Bruce commends the broth- 
erhood with great affection and warmth of expression to the 
pious charge of his son and successor, David, staling that he 
intends that the monastery shall be the depository of his heart. 

The present buildings, ruined as they are, belong to a date 
much posterior to the time of the reigning Bruces. They 
are not older than the fifteenth century. Few among the 
ruined historic structures of Scotland are more picturesquely 
attractive or more generally admired. 

"If thou would'st view fair Melrose aright, 
Go visit it by the pale moonlight: 
For the gay beams of lightsome day 
Gild but to flout the ruins gray. 
When the broken arches are black in night. 
And each shafted oriel glimmers white: 
When the cold light's uncertain shower 
Streams on the ruined central tower; 
When buttress and buttress alternately, 
Seem framed of ebon and ivory; 
When silver edges the imagery. 
And the scrolls that teach thee to live and die; 
When distant Tweed is heard to rave. 
And owlet to hoot o'er the dead man's grave, 
Then go — but go alone the while — 
Then view St. David's ruined pile; 
And home returning, soothly swear. 
Was never scene so sad and fair."* 

* The Lay of the Last Minstrel, by Sir Walter Scott, Canto II. 



Clackmannan tower, home of the Clackmannan branch of 
the Bruces, is situated on the top of a hill on the eastern slope 
of which the town of Clackmannan stands. In 1359, King 
David II. granted a charter of this domain to Robert Bruce, 
his nephew, and the castle was held by his descendants in 
this branch of the Bruce family until the close of the eighteenth 
century. The old tower is remarkably well preserved, being 
a rectangular keep, twenty-four feet by eighteen feet inside, 
with walls six feet thick. In its prime it contained a fine 
entrance hall with adjacent rooms, and several floors above. 
A second tower was added in the sixteenth century, and 
this is now in existence, with fireplace, staircase, pictur- 
esque belfry, and other appurtenances. In the adjoining 
village there was long a relic of the Bruce, a large stone 
which, having been broken, was girded with bands of iron 
and preserved with devout reverence. On this stone, says 
the tradition, the king, while residing in the tower, accident- 
ally left his glove, and, sending his squire to fetch it, used 
the two words clack, a stone, and, mannan, a glove : from this 
the tower, village, and county derived their name. 


Rait castle in Nairnshire, the home of Robert Bruce the 
second baron of Clackmannan, is of such ancient origin that 
there is no account of its beginning. It is an interesting and 



unique building about three miles south from the town of 
Nairn, and commands the coast between Nairn and Moray 
Firth. Tradition says that it belonged to the Raits of that 
ilk and afterwards to the Comjms. The ruins show that the 
castle was an oblong structure about sixty-four feet by thirty- 
three feet, with walls five feet thick. At the southwest 
angle was a round tower twenty-one feet in diameter. There 
were three stories, but the upper ones have disappeared. The 
entrance was one floor from the ground and opened upon a 
great hall with handsome mullioned windows. 


On the coast along the Firth of Forth, not far from Dun- 
fermline, is the ruined castle of Rosyth which was the ances- 
tral home of Sir David Stewart, whose daughter Elizabeth 
Stewart married John Bruce the fourth Baron of Clackmannan. 
It stands high on a rock that slopes gently into the sea and 
that at full tide is an island wholly surrounded by water. It 
consists of a high tower, with a vaulted apartment underneath 
and an inner winding staircase leading to the upper room or 
floor. Portions of the north and west walls of an adjoining 
building on the west are still to be seen. In a high compart- 
ment over the gateway is a defaced armorial bearing sur- 
mounted by a crown and the date 1561, with the letters M. R. 
(Maria Regina). Mary Queen of Scots, whose memory is 
thus perpetuated, is said to have slept in this castle, the first 
night after her flight from Lochleven on her way to Glasgow, 



near which in May, 1568, was fought the fatal battle of Lang- 
side. On the south side of the castle, near the door was an 
inscription on an old stone in Roman capital letters: 


The castle was anciently the seat of the Stewarts of Rosyth 
or Durisdeer, the lineal descendants of the brother-german 
of Walter, the high steward of Scotland, father of King 
Robert II. 

BiRSAY Palace 

At the extreme northwest corner of Orkney, twenty miles 
from Kirkwall, is the large and imposing Birsay palace. It 
was built by Robert Stewart, half-brother of Queen Mary 
and descendant of Robert Bruce. He put upon the building 
this inscription: "Dominus Robertus Stewartus, filius Jacobi 
Quinti Rex Scotorum." It is said that this bad Latin by 
which the title King of Scots was made to pertain to Robert, 
even if he did not intend it, had an influence in bringing Earl 
Patrick, son of Robert, to the block, when he was arraigned 
on a charge of treason. 

Robert Stewart and his son. Earl Patrick, ruled Hke kings 
in this far-away part of Scotland, and Birsay was a palace be- 
fitting a sovereign. It is now very much ruined, but it gives 
abundant evidence of its former grandeur. It is situate close 
to the seashore and can be reached easily both from the land 
side and the waterside. It consists of a court yard sur- 



rounded with two-story buildings and having two vaulted 
towers at the angles to protect the approach. 

Earl Patrick Stewart rivalled his father in the imposing 
palace that he built near the cathedral of St. Magnus and the 
Bishop's palace in Kirkwall. This building has been preserved 
almost entire except the roof. Sir Walter Scott thus described 
the remains of the fortified palace of the earls of Orkney : 

"These remains, though much dilapidated, still exist in the 
neighborhood of the venerable and massive pile, which Nor- 
wegian devotion dedicated to St. Magnus the Martyr, and, 
being contiguous to the Bishop's palace, which is also ruinous, 
the place is impressive as exhibiting vestiges of the mutations 
both in church and state which have affected Orkney, as well 
as countries more exposed to such convulsions. The earl's 
palace forms three sides of an oblong square, and has even 
in its ruins, the air of an elegant yet massive structure, uniting, 
as was usual in the residences of feudal princes, the character 
of a palace and of a castle. A great banqueting hall, com- 
municating with several large rounds or projecting turret 
rooms, and having at either end an immense chimney, testi- 
fies the ancient Northern hospitality of the earls of Orkney, 
and communicates, almost in the most modern fashion, with a 
gallery or withdrawing room of considerable dimensions, and 
having, like the hall, its projecting turrets. The lordly hall 
itself is lighted by a fine Gothic window, of shafted stone at 
one end, and is entered by a spacious and elegant staircase, 
consisting of three flights of stone steps. The exterior orna- 
ments and proportions of the ancient building are also very 
handsome, but, being totally unprotected, this remnant of the 
pomp and grandeur of earls who assumed the license, as well 
as the dignity, of petty sovereigns is now fast crumbling to 
decay." * 

* The Pirate, by Sir Walter ScoH. 


Since the time of Scott, this princely palace has gone fur- 
ther to ruin, but it still gives plentiful evidence of its former 
stately character. Architecturally, it belongs to the seven- 
teenth century. 


Muness castle has been called "the most northern specimen 
of our Scottish domestic architecture." Lawrence Bruce, 
its builder, might well have said in the words of Longfellow : 

"So far 1 live to the Northward, 
No man lives North of Me." 

The castle stands on a rising moorland, about half a mile 
from the sea. It is oblong, seventy-four feet by twenty-eight 
feet, with two large round towers. The building is three 
stories high and quite entire. The entrance doorway is on 
the south front and above this is a large panel with an inscrip- 
tion in German letters, which runs thus: 

"List ye to know yis building quha began.? 
Laurance the Bruce, he was that worthy man, 
Quha earnestlie his airis and oifspring prayis. 
To help and not to hurt this wark alwayis. 
The zier of God 1598." 

Above the inscription is a panel with the Bruce arms. 





1 «l 



0^ if t>^s ^ 







AS to armorial bearings, in the early centuries of the 
Ghristian era, either none were worn, or they were 
continually changed, says Henry Drummond, the 
antiquarian. In some instances they were even taken irre- 
spective of relationship, and in other cases members of the 
same family varied them as suited their respective inclina- 
tions. Arms of the Bruces in the different branches, and of 
the leading Scottish families that became allied to the Bruces, 
are given herewith. 

Bruce — The bearings of the original stock of the Scottish 
Bruces were : a lion rampant azure on a field argent. Alan de 
Brusee had: a lion rampant gules on a field or. The Skelton 
line adopted a lion rampant azure on a field argent, and the 
Brember line a lion or on a field azure. Jacques de Breze, 
Baron de Brieuze, Marshal of Normandy, had: a lion rampant 
azure on a field or. After the Bruces became fully established 
in Scotland many changes were made in their arms. Robert 
Brusee, Robert Le Meschin, the fourth of the name, had: 
or, a saltire and chief gules. Robert Bruce, sixth of the name, 
had : or, a saltire gules, chief argent, a lion passant. The same 
Robert Bruce used as a seal the arms of the earls of Hunting- 
don. The arms of King Robert Bruce were : or, a saltire gules, 



on a chief gules, a lion passant. Edward Bruce of Blairhall 
had: or, a saltire gules, chief gules charged with a crescent. 
George Bruce of Carnock had: quarterly, first and second 
argent, a lion rampant azure; second and third or, a saltire 
and chief gules. The Bruces of Carrick adopted the arms 
of the Bruces barons of Annandale: or, a saltire and chief 
gules; in a later generation one of the Ailesbury branches of 
the family used the same arms with a lion rampant azure on 
a canton argent. 

Huntingdon — Nisbet the antiquarian, in his great work 
wherein he reviewed the heraldic claims and customs of the 
noble families of Scotland, observed : 

" David, Earl of Huntingdon, brother of King William of 
Scotland, did not use the entire arms of his grandfather, 
King David I., but only a small part of them; argent, an 
escutcheon within a double tressure flowered and counter- 
flowered gules. He had the field of his arms argent and not 
of the metal or, that of Scotland, because it was the field of 
arms of his grandmother, daughter of Waltheof, Earl of 
Northumberland and Huntingdon." 

Robert Bruce of Annandale bore Huntingdon arms. 

Waltheof — The last Saxon earl of Northumberland, 
Waltheof, ancestor of the earls of Huntingdon, had: argent, 
a lion rampant azure, chief gules. 

Orkney — The arms of the earldom of Orkney were : azure, 
a ship at anchor, oars in saltire and sails furled within a double 
tressure, flory and counterflory or. 

Caithness — The arms of the ancient earldom of Caith- 
ness were : azure, a ship under sail or, the sails or. 



Normandy — William the Conqueror used the arms of his 
great ancestor, Rollo, the first Duke of Normandy: gules, 
I two lions passant, guardant or. 

Gloucester — The Earls of Gloucester — de Clare — who 
were the ancestors of Isabel de Clare, who married the seventh 
Robert Bruce, had: three chevrons or, gules. This line be- 
came extinct in 1313. 

Warren — The Earls of Warren and Surrey had: chequy, 
or and azure. 

De Burgh — The first Earl of Ulster, Richard de Burgh 
of Ireland, whose great-granddaughter, Elizabeth Aylmer de 
Burgh, was the second wife of King Robert Bruce, had: or, 
a cross, gules. 

Elgin and Kincardine — The lords of Kinloss and the 
earls of Elgin and Kincardine with their near connections 
have had almost exclusive distinction as the remaining direct 
line of male descendants from King Robert Bruce. As has 
been genealogically shown on other pages, they are derived 
from the Clackmannan branch of the Bruce stock, which has 
been the one line most conspicuously preserved in its ident- 
ity. The arms of the earls of Elgin and Kincardine are ; or, 
a saltire and chief gules, on a canton argent, a lion rampant 
azure. Crest: a lion statant azure. Supporters; two sav- 
ages proper wreathed about the head and middle with laurel 
vert. Motto ; Fuimus. 

AiLESBURY — The Ailesbury branch. Barons Bruce of 
Whorlton, Yorkshire, now extinct, had these arms or, a 
saltire and chief gules, on a canton argent a lion rampant 



azure, — the same as the Earls of Elgin and Kincardine, 
with whom they were allied. The arms of the modern Ailes- 
bury family are: quarterly, first and fourth or, a saltire and 
chief gules, on a canton argent, a lion rampant azure, for 
Bruce; second and third argent, a chevron gules between 
three morions or steel caps azure, for Brudenell. Crests: 
first, a seahorse argent; second, a lion passant azure. Sup- 
porters: two savages proper wreathed around the loins and 
temples vert, each supporting in the exterior hand a flag, 
thereon the first quarter of the arms for Bruce. Motto: 

Clackmannan — The arms of Bruce of Clackmannan in 
the sixteenth century were: or a saltire and chief gules, the 
latter charged with a mullet argent in dexter chief. Later 
arms of this branch are: or, a saltire and chief gules. Crest: 
a hand in armor proper (including the upper part of the 
elbow) issuing out of a cloud, grasping a sceptre, and signed 
on the point with a closed crown or. Supporters: dexter, 
the lion of England; sinister, the royal unicorn of Scotland. 
Motto: Fuimus. These were the heraldic ensigns of Henry 
Bruce, the last of the Clackmannans. They were also car- 
ried by David Bruce in 1686, who added the motto: No deest 
generoso pectori virtus. 

CuLTMALiNDiE — Robert Bruce of Cultmalindie had: quar- 
terly, first and fourth, or a saltire and chief gules, charged 
with a mullet or; second and third gules, a lion rampant 

Devonshire — The arms of the Cavendish family, dukes 



of Devonshire, to which the marriage of Christiana Bruce to 
William Cavendish gave added distinction, are: sable, three 
bucks' heads, caboshed argent. Crest: a serpent, nowed, 
proper. Supporters: two bucks proper, each wreathed 
around the neck with a chaplet of roses alternately argent 
and azure. Motto: Cavendo tutus. 

Stewart — The arms of the Stewarts were: or, a fesse 
chequy argent and azure. These arms were quartered by 
the several branches of the family. 

Moray — The Randolphs who were Earls of Moray were 
Bruces through Isabel, Bruce, sister of King Robert Bruce I., 
who married Thomas Randolph. The earldom became ex- 
tinct in 1465. The arms were: or, three cushions, two and 
one of a lozenge form, with a double tressure, flory and coun- 
terflory gules. 

Dunbar — The arms of the ancient house of Dunbar were: 
gules, a lion rampant argent, within a bordure of the last, 
charged with eight roses of the field. The earlier seals ex- 
hibit simply the lion rampant, the bordure of roses being, 
according to Nisbet, the badge of the comital office of 
the Patrick Dunbar who was first designated Earl of 

Elphinston — The arms of the Elphinston family are: 
argent, a chevron sable between three boars' heads, erased 
gules, armed of the first. Crest: a lady, from the middle, 
richly attired proper, holding in her dexter hand a castle 
argent, and in her sinister hand a branch of laurel proper. 
Supporters: two savages proper with laurel garlands around 



their heads and loins and carrying clubs on their shoulders 
proper. Motto: Cause causit. 

Oliphant — The arms of the Oliphants are: gules, three 
crescents argent. Crest: a unicorn's head, couped, argent, 
maned and horned, or. Supporters: two elephants proper. 
Motto: A tout pourvoir. 

ViPONT— The Viponts of Scotland have for arms: gules, 
six mascles, three, two and one or. 

Campbell — The oldest arms of the Campbells of Lochow 
were: gyronny of eight or and sable. The arms of the later 
Campbells of Glenlyon, with whom the Bruces married, are 
in part like those of the Earls of Breadalbane, also a Bruce 
family. They are: quarterly, first and fourth, gyronny of 
eight or and sable, for Campbell; second or, a fesse chequy 
argent and azure, for Stewart; third argent, a lymphad, her 
sails furled and oars in action, all sable, for Lorn; in the 
centre of the quarters a man's heart gules, crowned or. 
Crest: a demi-lion proper with a collar gyronny of eight or 
and sable and holding in his dexter paw a heart crowned 
as in the arms. Motto: Quae recta sequer. Campbell of 
Barbreck, descended from Sir Colin Campbell of Lochow, 
nephew of Sir Robert Bruce, had : quarterly, first and fourth, 
gyronny of eight or and sable ; second argent a broadsword in 
bend gules, hilted sable; third argent, a castle triple-towered 
sable ; on an escutcheon of pretence sable, a boar's head erased 
or, a crescent argent in chief. Crest: a lion's head affront^e 
proper. Motto : I bear in mind. 





SCENDANTS J* jt ot jt ^ 






THE ancient Scottish family of Bruce has been trans- 
planted to America at different periods of our 
country's history by various emigrants. These 
representatives settled in several states and their descendants 
have been numerous and influential in many communities. 
Pre-eminent among these American branches are those es- 
tablished by the brothers David Bruce and George Bruce, the 
celebrated typefounders, both whom were conspicuous citi- 
zens of New York in their generation. The present memoir 
is concerned with the younger of these brothers, George Bruce, 
his wife, Catherine (Wolfe) Bruce, — daughter of David Wolfe, 
— and their children. 

George Bruce, son of John and Janet (Gilbertson) Bruce,* 
was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, June 26, 1781. His eldest 
brother, David Bruce, came to America about 1790, es- 
tablishing himself in the printing business in Philadelphia. 
During the Napoleonic wars, John Bruce, a younger son of 
this family, lost his life in the army in Egypt, and, the family 

* XXXV pp. 104 and 105. 
21 321 


fearing to lose another of its members in the same way, George 
Bruce followed his brother to America. 

Upon arriving in Philadelphia, the Scotch laddie, then only 
fourteen years old, obtained employment with a firm of book 
printers and binders. In 1797, he entered the office of the 
Philadelphia Gazette, an afternoon paper rejoicing in a cir- 
culation of some two thousand. There he remained about 
a year, when, to escape the yellow fever epidemic then raging, 
he and his brother left the Quaker City. He was attacked 
by fever on his way north and, being unable to obtain a place 
to stop, remained in a shed, being taken care of by his brother; 
he always believed that he owed his life to this enforced fresh- 
air treatment. The two brothers proceeded to New York 
and from there went to Albany, where they were employed 
in the office of the Sentinel, which did the official printing 
for the State Legislature. 

In the spring of 1799, the brothers went to New York City, 
a removal which was destined to be permanent and to lead 
them to both fortune and fame. George Bruce, now in his 
eighteenth year, secured a position in the printing establish- 
ment of the Mercantile Advertiser, owing to his youth being 
able to obtain only three-fourths journeyman's wages. Sub- 
sequently he was employed on books in the offices of Isaac 
Collins, James Crane, and T. & J. Woods. During this time 
the Franklin Typographical Association was organized by the 
journeyman printers of the city, about fifty signing the con- 
stitution, and he was elected its secretary — an evidence of 
the substantial standing which already he had attained in 




his craft. In 1802, he became connected with the office of 
the Daily Advertiser, of which he was made foreman in the 
course of a year; later, he assumed entire responsibility for 
the publication of the paper, his name appearing as its printer 
in the volumes for 1803, 1804, and 1805. 

About the end of 1805 Mr. Bruce embarked in the printing 
business on his own account, and among other works issued 
from his press were reprints of various standard books from 
England. Joining in partnership with his brother, the firm 
of D. & G. Bruce, which afterwards attained a wide celebrity, 
was organized. With a new press and types from Phila- 
delphia, "they established themselves in the upper part of a 
house at the southwest corner of Wall and Pearl streets. The 
apartment, which they hired of Miss Rivington, was the same 
which had been occupied by her father, as the king's printer, 
during the Revolutionary War." Marked prosperity at- 
tended this venture, and within a brief time the firm had nine 
presses in operation. As an instance of their vigorous enter- 
prise, it is noteworthy that they regularly brought out repro- 
ductions of the Edinburgh, London, and Quarterly Reviews, 
the first American reprints of those British periodicals. 

In 1812 was taken the first step which resulted in the intro- 
duction by them of the art of stereotyping in America, and, 
incidentally, in the erection of their great type-founding busi- 
ness. During that year David Bruce made a visit to England 
to look into the merits of the stereotyping process, then newly 
invented and known only to a Mr. Walker of London and 
to the printers to the Universities of Cambridge and Oxford. 



He obtained by purchase the rights to the process, and in 1814 
the Bruce firm issued the first edition of the New Testament 
from plates stereotyped in America, and in 1815 the first 
edition of the Bible thus produced. As a measure of econ- 
omy, to provide the requisite quantities of type for stereotyp- 
ing, a type-foundry was begun, at first as a mere incident of 
the printing business. Owing to betrayal of trust by one of 
the workmen of the establishment, the stereotyping business 
did not continue profitable. On the other hand the type- 
founding department speedily grew in importance, and after 
the retirement of David Bruce in 1822, George Bruce, who 
succeeded to the direction of the concern, turned his energies 
exclusively to type manufacture. 

The Bruce foundry under his management promptly took 
rank among the leading establishments of its kind in the 
world. The personal contributions of George Bruce towards 
the perfecting of type manufacture, in both its mechanical 
and its artistic aspects, were in the highest degree noteworthy, 
leaving a lasting impress upon the progress of that industry. 

"Aiming to attain to the best process of 'punch-cutting,' he 
was enabled to produce many fonts of type for ordinary use 
of the most perfect symmetry, while his fancy types and bor- 
ders were of such variety and excellence as to enable the letter- 
press printer to rival the productions of the copper-plate 
presses in superior execution and effect. He himself cut 
two fonts of beautiful 'script' probably yet unexcelled. He 
formed a new scale for the bodies of printing type, by means 
of which each body bears a certain relative proportion to the 
next, thus leading to the present perfect 'point' system 
adopted by printers generally. His nephew, David Bruce, 



Jr., invented the only type-casting macliine that has stood 
the test of practical work and is now in general use. To this 
he added some improvements and bought the patent from his 

For many years George Bruce was president of the Me- 
chanics' Institute of New York City and the Type Founders' 
Association. He was a member, among other organizations, 
of the New York Historical Society, Saint Andrew's Society, 
and the General Society of Mechanics and Tradesmen. Says 
one of his biographers: 

"He was a man of great thought, quiet benevolence, of 
thorough business integrity and loyalty to principle, and of 
unusual force of character. The success he achieved was due 
to his own intelligent foresight and patient attention to busi- 
ness. He never received financial aid in his business or 
otherwise, but, always living within his income, was able to 
permit himself the luxury of assisting others." * 

He died in New York, July 5, 1866. 

He married, in 1811, Catherine Wolfe, daughter of David 
Wolfe of New York. 


1. Janet (Jenet) Bruce. She married Dr. G. Brown of 
Newburgh, N. Y., and left one son, G. Bruce Brown, of whom 

2. Catherine Wolfe Bruce, of whom below. 

3. David Wolfe Bruce. He died March 13, 1895, in his 
seventy-first year. He was named from his maternal grand- 
father. Succeeding to the conduct of the Bruce type-foundry, 
he managed it successfully until his retirement from active 

* Memorial History of New York, Biog. Vol., page 23. 


business. Like his father, he was a man of high business 
and personal standing in the community. 

4. Matilda Wolfe Bruce, who is now the only survivor of 
this family. Her home is in New York City. 

5. George Wolfe Bruce. He was born in 1828 and died 
November 14, 1887. He attended Columbia College, but 
before graduation left to engage in business, becoming one of 
the most reputable merchants in New York. 


Catherine Wolfe Bruce was bom in New York and died 
March 13, 1900. She left an enduring name in connection 
with the encouragement and advancement of educational and 
scientific interests, especially in the department of astronomi- 
cal science. From the early age of five years she loved the 
science of astronomy. Her services for the promotion of as- 
tronomical work are known throughout the world, and were 
the more valuable for being judiciously directed. During 
her lifetime she gave in excess of $200,000 to that end. To 
the Harvard Observatory she presented the splendid Bruce 
photographic telescope, with which much of the most nota- 
ble scientific work of our times has been achieved, includ- 
ing the discovery of Phcebe, the satellite of Saturn, by Prof. 
W. H. Pickering, in August, 1898. This instrument is in 
constant use for photographing, and for spectroscopic plates 
showing the composition of stars too faint to be studied in 
this way elsewhere. In 1897 she established a fund under 
the auspices of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, to pro- 
vide for the award of a gold medal annually for distinguished 



achievements in astronomy. Her benefactions in other direc- 
tions, and her contributions to charity, were large. 

At the time of her death the following tribute, signed W. L. 
K., was published in the New York Tribune of March 25, 

"Miss Catherine Wolfe Bruce, who died after a long illness 
at her home, No. 810 Fifth Avenue, on the night of March 13, 
deserves more than the ordinary obituary record, for she was 
a woman of the highest character, and contributed nobly of 
her means to the cause of charity, of education, and of science. 
The George Bruce Free Library she built, established, and 
endowed, and it is to-day one of the most flourishing branches 
of the free-library system. Her benefactions in the cause of 
astronomy are known all over the world, and her name is 
identified with many important advances in that science. 
She corresponded with eminent professors here and in Europe, 
and was the recipient of distinguished honors for her interest 
and service. A gold medal was presented to her by the Grand 
Duke of Baden, and she enjoyed the signal distinction of 
having her name given to a newly discovered asteroid. Up- 
ward of $200,000 has been her contribution to the science 
she loved. Her charitable gifts and those of private benevo- 
lence need not be mentioned here. 

"Miss Bruce was the daughter of George Bruce, the famous 
typefounder, whose work has stood the test of time and change, 
and is still in use at the present day. Naturally she was inter- 
ested in the art of printing — that art ' preservative of all arts,' 
as she was fond of quoting. It has been said that she was 
an accomplished woman. She had made a study of painting 
and was a painter herself. She knew Latin, German, French, 
and Italian, and was familiar with the literature of those lan- 
guages. She wrote and published in 1890 a translation of 
the Dies Irse. For many years she was an invalid, and de- 
prived of that society which her talents and character well 



fitted her to adorn. She was always patient and uncom- 
plaining, and entirely resigned to the will of the Almighty 
Disposer of Events. She has left a gracious memory of good 
and generous deeds and an impressive example of noble 


George Bruce Brown, son of Dr. George Brown and his 
wife, Janet (Jenet) Bruce, married, first, Virginia McKesson; 
second, Ruth Arabella Loney — Mrs. Bruce-Brown. 

Issue (by first wife) : 

1. George IMcKesson Brown. 

2. Catherine Wolfe Brown, who married Allen Donellan 
Loney and had Virginia Bruce Loney. 

(By second wife) : 

3. Wilham Bruce-Brown. 

4. David Loney Bruce-Brown. 

In America four generations of the old Lutheran family 
Wolfe have been resident in New York City. 

JoKX David Wolfe, who established the family in America, 
was born of Lutheran parents in Saxony, Germany, October 
13, 1693. He came to the Province of New York in the first 
quarter of the eighteenth century, and died in 1795. He 
married, November !21, 1747, the widow Catherine Busch. 

David Wolfe, son of the preceding, was born in New York, 
August 21, 1748, and died August 13, 1836. He married 
Catherine Forbes. 

Catherine Wolfe, daughter of the preceding, married 
George Bruce. 





In the preparation of this book, many state, parish and other public records and family 
papers in Scotland and England, and family records in America have been drawn upon 
for material. In addition numerous historical and genealogical works have been consulted. 
Following is a list of the principal printed authorities that have thus been utilized: 

Abercromby, Patrick. — ^The Martial Achievements of the Scots Nation. 2 vols. Edinburgh. 

Anderson, Joseph. — The Oliphants of Scotland. Edinburgh, 1879. 
Anderson, Rasmus Bjorn. — Viking Tales of the North. Chicago, 1877. 
Anderson, William. — The Scottish Nation. 3 vols. Edinburgh, 1863. 
Antiquaries of Scotland, Proceedings of, 1851-1854. 

Bain, Joseph. — Calendar of Documents Relating to Scotland, i vols. Edinburgh. 
Balfour, Sir James.— The History of the Picts. Edinburgh, 1706. 

Banks, T. C. — The Dormant and Extinct Baronage of England. 4 vols. London, 1807. 
Barbour, John. — The Bruce; or the Book of the Most Excellent and Noble Prince Robert 
de Broyss, King of Scots. Vols. 1 and 2 in the Scottish Text Society Publications. 
Edited by W. W. Skeat, Edinburgh, 1894. 
The Bruce, or the History of Robert I., King of Scotland, Written in Scottish Verse. 
Edited by J. Pinkerton. 3 vols. London, 1790. 
Billings, R. W.— Antiquities of Scotland. 4 vols. Edinburgh, 1845-1852. 
Boethius, Hector. — The History and Chronicles of Scotland, translated by John Bellenden. 

2 vols. Edinburgh, 1821. 
British Archteological Association, Journal of. Vol. 45. London, 1889. 
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Ada, daughter of Henry, Earl of Hunting- 
don, 205 
daughter of King William of Scotland, 

(deWarenne) wife of Henry, Earl of 
Huntingdon, 204, 261 
Adela, wife of William, Duke of Normandy, 
daughter of King Edward the Elder, 216 
daughter of King Robert I. of France 

wife of Baldwin V., Count of Flanders, 
234, 242 
Aelfaed, wife of King Edward the Elder, 215 
Aelfred, son of King Ethelred the Unready, 

Aelfthryth, wife of Baldwin the Bold, of 

Flanders, 233 
Aelina, wife of Waldere, Fifth Earl of Dun- 
bar, 253 
Aella, King of Sussex, 209 
iEneas Fort, King of Dalriada, 188 
^neas Tuirmeach-Teamrach, 188 
Aelfred, Saxon King of England, 213 
Aethelred, Abbot of Dunkeld, 203 
Aethelstan, King of Kent, 212 
Africa, daughter of Somerlid, 44 
Agatha, Queen of King Edward the Outlaw, 

Agnes of Annandale, 62 
Aidan, Scottish King, 194 
Ailesbury Arms, 315 
Ainbhcealach, Scottish King, 196 
Airth, Bruces of, 99 
Alain, Earl of Brittany, 56 
Alan of Brittany, 155 
de la Brusee, 56 
Family (see Fitz Alan) 
Flaald, 156 
of Galloway, 267 
son of Walter, 155 
Alexander I., King of Scotland, 203, 291 
II., King of Scotland, 205 
HI., King of Scotland, 291 

Alexander, son of King Alexander III., 292 
Alfhilda, Queen of Sigurd of Sweden, 32 
Alfred, Saxon King of England, 213 
Alfritha, wife of Baldwin the Bold, 233 

daughter of King Alfred, 215 
Algita, Queen of King Edmund Ironside, 

Algitha, wife of Crinan of Dunbar, 252 
Alice, Princess of Scotland, 48, 201 

wife of Arnulf the Great, 233 
Alisa, wife of Arnulf the Great, 233 
Alof Arbot, daughter of King Harald of 

Norway, 37 
Alpaida, wife of Pepin of Herstal 235 
Alpin, Scottish King, 197 
Altorf, Count Welphus of, 239 
Amergin, son of Milesius, 185 
Amicia (de Clare) of Gloucester, 261, 264 
Angus, Beatrix of, 157 

Gilchrist of, 157 

of Isla, 82 
Annandale, 77 

Agnes of, 62 
Anne, Queen of England, 25 
Anseghis, son of Arnulf, Bishop of Metz, 236 
Aodh-Fin, Scottish King, 196 
Aquitaine, Dukes of, 227 

Eblus of, 216 
Archaius, Scottish King, 197 
Archis, Ivetha de, 62 

Juletta de, 62 

William de, 62 
Arensdorf Family, 135 
Aries, King Lewis of, 216 
Arlogia, daughter of Rognvald of Norway, 

wife of Rognvald of Norway, 52 
Arnfinn, son of Thorfinn Hausklifr, Earl of 

Orkney, 43 
Amkel, son of Torf Einar, Earl of Orkney, 40 
Arnulf U., Count of Flanders, 233 

the Great, Count of Flanders, 233 
Ascrida, daughter of Rognvald of Norway, 

Athelstan, Saxon King of England, 215 



Athol, Isabel (Bruce) of, 71 

Atholl, Earl of, 83 

Auchmoutie, Elizabeth, 134 

Auda Diuphaudza, 31 

Aud Deep-rich, wife of Olaf Hviti, King of 

Dublin, 34, 40, 41 
Audna, wife of Hlodver, Earl of Orkney, 43 


Baldwin, Count of Flanders, 215, 232, 233, 

234, 240, 242 
Baliol, Bernard de, 60 

Dervorgilla, 206, 267 

Edward, 93 

John, 66, 206, 267 
Bannockburn, Battle of, 70, 86, 161 
Banquo, 154, 155 
Barbour, Janet, 101 

John, 101 
Barley, John, 144 
Barlow, Ehzabeth, 271 
Beatrice, Princess of Scotland, 200 
Beatrix of Vermandois, 241 
Beaufort, Joanna, 167 

John, 167 
Bellomonte, Emiengarde de, 205 
Beorhtric, King of Wessex, 211 
Beorn Buna of Norway, 41 
Beranger II., King of Provence, 233 
Berwick Peace Treaty, 94 
Bcthoc, Princess of Scotland, 200 
Billung, Herman. 233 

Matilda, 233 
Birsay Palace, 308 
Blackadder, Janet, 110 

Patrick, 110 
Bohun, Humphrey de, 205 
Boidhe, son of King Kenneth III., 200 
Borselen, Mary (Stewart) van, 169 

Wolfram van, 169 
Borlhwick, William, 274 
Bossu, Robert, Earl of Leicester, 260 
Bostock, Edmund, 143 

Margaret, 143 
Boughton, Edward, 144 

Ehzabeth, 144 
Boulogne, Count Eustace de, 203 
Bovinus, Count Aldemir Waldi, 240 
Boyle, Charles, 115 

Juliana, 115 

Brath, King of Libya, 183 
Breoghan, King of Galicia, 182 
Breschin, David de, 72 

Margery (Bruce) de, 72 
Bretagne, Duke Conan IV., 205 
Brewse, William de, 140 
Breze, Jacques de, 313 
Brian Boroimhe, Irish King, 45 
Brigus, King of Galicia, 185 
Brown, Catherine Wolfe, 328 

David Loney Bruce, 328 

George, 325, 328 

George Bruce, 325, 328 

George McKesson, 328 

Janet (Bruce), 325, 328 

Ruth Arabella (Loney), 328 

Virginia (McKesson), 328 

William Bruce, 328 
Bruce, Adam of Wallown, 134 

Agnes (de Erth), 129 

Agnes (Livingstone), 129 

Alexander, 71, 99, 102. 103, 130 

Alexander (of Airth), 131, 132 

Alexander, Second Earl of Kincardine, 
116, 117 

Alexander, Third Earl of Kincardine, 

Alexander, Fourth Earl of Kincardine, 

Alexander of Cultmalindie, 276 

Alison (Reid), 110 

Alosia, 67 

Andrew, 102 

Anna (Sutherland), 104 

Anne (Chichester), 114 

Arms, 313 

Arms of Ailesbury Branch, 315 

Arms of Clackmannan Branch, 316 

Arms of Elgin Branch, 315 

Arms of Kincardine Branch, 315 

Arms of Kinloss Branch, 315 

Barbara, 103 

Bernard, 67 

Caroline (Campbell), 116 

Catherine Wolfe, 321, 325. 326, 328 

Charles, 135 

Charles, Fourth Earl of Elgin, 115 

Charles, Fifth Earl of Elgin, 116, 119 

Charles Lennox Cumming, 123 

Charlotte (of Sannu), 115 



Bruce, Charlotte Maria, 127 

Cliristiana, C7, 72, 118, 250, 254 
Christiana, Countess of Devonshire, 

113, 139, 145, 317 
Christiana (de Ireby), 67 
Count Charles Hector de, 134 
Count Louis Daniel de, 134 
Count Robert, of Russia, 136 
David, 93, 100, 101, 106 
David of Clackmannan, 109 
David of New York, 321, 325 
Da\'id Wolfe, 325 
Diana (Grey), 114 
Diana (Vere), 114 
Edward, 70, 99, 129 
Edward, First Earl of Kincardine, 116 
Edward, Second Lord of Kinloss, 112 
Edward of Blairhall, 110, 118, 139, 314 
Elizabeth, 72, 94, 103, 106, 273 
Elizabeth Aylmer (de Burgh), 93, 268, 

291, 315 
Elizabeth Catherine (Detring), 135 
Elizabeth (Gray), 102 
Elizabeth Mary, 123 
Elizabeth (Menteith), 131 
Elizabeth (Oswald), 122 
Elizabeth (Seymoiu-), 115 
Elizabeth (Stewart), 101, 109, 307 
Euphame (Elphinston), 101 
Euphemia (Montgomery), 132 
Eve Marie (de Hermant), 134 
Fanny (de Chamont), 134 
Frederick William Adolphus, 123 
Gehs (Wardlaw), 101 
George, 103, 104, 110 
George of Carnock, 116, 118, 314 
George of New York, 98, 106, 109,321, 

George Wolfe, 326 
Harriette Dieudonnee (de Montaigue), 

Hector, 101 
Helen, 99, 103, 131 
Helen (Kennedy), 102 
Helen (Skene), 118 
Helen (Vipont), 99 
Henry, 102 

Henry of Clackmannan, 316 
Isabel, 71, 317 
Isabel (de Clare), 67, 232, 261, 264, 315 

Bruce, Isabel (of Huntingdon), 64, 206, 261, 

262, 270 
Isabel (of Mar). 93 
Isabel (Sinclair), 102 
Isabel (Stewart), 99 
Isabel, wife of King Robert I., 248, 250 
James, 99, 100, 102, 135 
James, Eighth Earl of Elgin, 122 
Jane, 94 

Jane (Saville), 115 
Janet, 106, 131, 325, 328 
Janet (Barbour), 101 
Janet (Blackadder), 110 
Janet (Forester), 132 
Janet (Gilbertson). 104, 321 
Janet (Roberton), 119 
Janet (Stirling). 101 
Janet (Sutherland). 104 
Jean, 103, 104, 133 
Jean (Oliphant) 103, 276 
Jean (Stewart), 100 
Jenet, 325, 328 
Joan (Clopton), 142 
John, 94, 98, 100, 101, 104, 106, 131, 

135, 321 
John of Airth, 134 
John of Clackmannan, 109, 307 
John of Cultmalindie, 271 
Joneta (Livingstone), 130 
Julianna (Boyle), 115 
King David H., 98 
King Robert I., 70, 75, 109, 248, 268, 

277, 291, 313, 315 
King Robert at Turnberry Castle, 298 
King Robert, Statue at Stirling Castle, 

King Robert, Tomb of, 292 
King Robert III., 165 
Laurence, 98 

Lawrence, 102, 103, 104, 310 
Louisa Mary (Lampton), 123 
Magdalen (Clark), 112 
Margaret, 72," 94, 103, 104 
Bruce, Margaret (Campbell-Stewart), 

Margaret (Elphinston), 132 
Margaret (Forrester), 130 
Margaret (Logic), 94 
Margery, 72 
Marie, 99 



Bruce, Marion (Herries-Stewart), 101 

Marjory, 93, 103, 153, 154, 266 

Marjory (of Carrick), 69, 297 

Martha (White), 119 

Mary, 71, 277 

Mary (Nisbet). 121 

Mary (Preston), 116 

Matilda, 72 

Matilda Wolfe, 326 

Matildis, 94 

Neil, 71 

Nigel, 71, 83. 94 

Patrick. 100 

Peter Henry, 134, 135 

Rachel (Pauncefort), 118 

Richard, 65 

Robert (6th), 63, 206, 313 

Robert (7tli), 65, 159, 232. 264. 316 

Robert (8tli), 67, 266 

Robert (9th), 70, 75 

Robert (10th), 94, 98 

Robert (11th). 99 

Robert (12lh), 99, 100 

Robert (13th), 101 

Robert (14th). 102 

Robert (15th), 104 

Robert. Baron of Skelton, 113 

Robert of Airth, 129. 131 

Robert of Blairhall. 118 

Robert of Broomliall, 118 

Robert of Clackmannan. 129 

Robert of Cultinalindie, 316. 257 

Robert of Stauehouse, 132 

Robert, Second Earl of Elgin, 114 

Thomas, 71, 100, 131 

Thomas, First Earl of Elgin, 1 13, 1 14, 120 

Thomas, Seventh Earl of Kincardine. 118 

Thomas of Labertsheilles, 134 

Veronica (Van Sommelsdyck). 117 

Walter, 94 

Wilhelmina, 106 

William. 67, 100, 130 

William, Eighth Earl of Kincardine, 118 

William Robert, Sixth Earl of Elgin. 120 
Bruce-Brown David Loney, 328 
Bruce-Brown Ruth Arabella (Loney). 328 
Bruce-Brown, William, 328 
Bnices of Airth. 99 

of Earlshall. 99 

of Garbot, 99 

Bruces of Stenhouse. 99 
Brucie, Peter, 23 
Brusee, Adam de, 57, 62 

Adelme de, 57 

Agatlia de, 62 

Agnes (of Annandale). 62 

Agnes (Pagnel), 62 

Alain de la, 56 

Amicia de, 57 

Castle, 55, 56 

Duncan de, 58 

Earl of Cathanes, 49 

Emma de, 56 

Euphemia de, 63 

Hortoliana de, 57 

Isabella de, 63 

John de, 63 

Judith (de Lancaster), 63 

Juletta (de Archis). 62 

Pagan de, 62 

Philena de. 57 

Robert de, 1st son of Rognvald of Nor- 
way, 52, 55 

Rolx>rt de (2d), 56 

Robert de (3d), 58 

Robert de (4th), 62 

Robert de (5th), 63 

Robert de (6th), 63 

Rosselina, 58 

William de, 57, 58, 63 
Brusi, Earl of Cathanes. 49 

son of Rognvald of Norway, 52, 55 
Buchan. Isabella of, 80 
Burgh, Agnes (O'Conor) de, 267 

Arms of Richard de, 315 

Elizabeth Aylmer de, 93, 268, 315 

Margaret (de Burgo) de, 268 

Maud (de Laci) de, 268 

Richard de, 93, 267, 268, 315 

William Fitz Adelm de. 267 

Walter de, 267 
Burgo, John de, 268 

Margaret de, 268 
Burhred, King of Mersia, 213 
Busch, Catherine, 328 

Cadwallader-ap-Griffith, 263 
Caithness, 98 

Earls' Arms of, 314 



Caithness, Earls of, 51 

Isabel of. 34 
CampbeU. Archibald 277 

Arms. 318 

Caroline. 116 

Cohn, 274, 275, 276, 877 

Duncan. 276, 277 

Elizabeth, 274 

Family. 276 

Finetta (Fraser), 277 

Gillespick. 276. 277 

John, 116, 277 

Margaret, 103 

Mary (Bruce), 71. 277 

Neil 71 

Robert, 103 
Canute of England. 228 
Capet, Hugh, King of France, 234, 241 

Robert, King of France, 234, 242 
Capetian Dynasty, 240 
Carbry Riada. First King of Dalriada, 
Cardross Castle, 87 
Carham, Battle of, 200 
Carlovingian Kings, 234 
Carlyle, Margaret (Bruce). 72 

William. 72 
Carrick, Earls of, 264 

Margaret (Fitz Alan), 159 

Countess Marjory of, 69, 159, 266, 

Neil, Earl of, 69, 159 
Carrickfergus, Battle of, 71 
Carron, Alexander, 256 
Cathal Crobbdearg, 267 
Cavendish, Alice (de Odyngseles), 142 

Alice (Smith), 143 

Andrew, 142 

Anne (Keighley), 144 

Charles, 146, 148 

Christiana (Bruce), 113, 145, 317 

Ehzabeth (Boughton), 144 

Elizabeth (Cecil). 149 

Ehzabeth (Conyngsby), 144 

Elizabeth (Hardwicke), 144 

George, 143 

Joan (Staventon), 143 

John, 140, 141, 142 

Katherine (Scudamore), 143 

Margaret (Bostock), 143 

Mary (Ormonde), 150 

Thomas, 143 

Cavendish, William, 113, 139, 142, 143, 144, 

148, 149, 155 
Cearbhal, King of Dublin, 44 
Cecil, Elizabeth, 149 

William, 149 
Cerdic, King of the West Saxons. 209 
Cetil Flat-neb, son of Beorn Buna of Nor- 
way, 41 
Chamont, Fanny de, 134 
Charlemagne, Emperor, 211, 237 
Charles le Chauve, King of France, 240 
Charles the Simple, King of France, 216 
Charles I., King of England, 25 
Charles 11., King of England, 25 
Charles Martel, 235 
Chateau d'Adam, 55 
Chester, Maud of, 205 
Cheyne, John, 103 

Marjory (Bruce), 103 
Chichester, Anne, 114 
188 Robert, 114 

Christiana, daughter of King Edward the 
Outlaw, 220 

of Galloway, 267 
Clackmannan Arms, 316 

Castle, 97, 99, 100, 306 
Claire Family, 262 

Richard de, 262 
297 Rohesia (Gifford) de, 262 

Clan-na-Gael, 183 
Clan-na-Mile, 185 
Clare, Adeliza de, 263 

Alice de, 263 

Alicia de, 67 

Amicia de, 261, 264 

Family, 262 

Gilbert de, 67, 263, 264 

Isabel de, 67, 232, 261, 315 

Isabel (Mareschal) de, 264 

Maud (de St. Hillary) de, 264 

Ralph de, 232 

Richard de, 261. 262, 263, 264 

Robert de, 263 

Roger de. Third Earl of Hartford, 263 
Claricia, daughter of King David I. of Scot- 
land, 204 
Clark, Alexander, 112 

Magdalen, 112 
Clontarf, Battle of, 45, 200 
Clopton, Joan, 142 


aopton, William, 142 

Clovis, 234 

Columba, Saint, 282 

Comal, Irish King, 188 

Comgal, Scottish King, 194 

Comyn, John, 79, 206 

Conaire, MacMogha Lainne, King of Dal- 

riada, 188 
Conal, Scottish Kong, 194 
Conan IV., Duke de Brctagne, 205 
Conn, 188 
Constance, wife of King Robert I. of France, 

Constantin, King of Scotland, 198 

King of the Picts, 197 
Conyngsby, Elizalx-tli, 144 

Thomas, 144 
Corbeil, Count Robert of, 227 
Coronation Stone, The, 285 
Cospatric, Earl of Dunbar, 252, 253 
Crinau of Dunbar, 252 

the Thane, 200 
Crispina, daughter of Rollo, Duke of Nor- 
mandy, 227 
Cultmalindie, 97, 101, 102, 103 
Cultmalindie Bruces, Arms of, 316 
Cumming-Bruce, Charles Lennox, 123 
Curayn, Alexander, 255 

Elizabeth. 249 

Marjory. 255 

WiUiam. 249 

Dagobert, 235 

Dalriada, 188, 192 

Damietta, Battle of. 254 

Darnley, Lord, 174 

David I., King of Scotland, 59, 203 

David n., Iving of Scotland, 291 

David, Earl of Huntingdon, 262 

son of King Alexander III., 292 
Dawstane, Battle of, 194 
De Burg Family, 267 
De Clare (Claire) Family 262 
Derder, wife of Cospatric, Fourth Earl of 

Dunbar, 253 
Dervorgill of Galloway, 267 
Detring, Elizabeth Catherine, 135 
Devonsliire, Arms of Dukes of, 316 

Countess Christiana (Bruce) of, 147, 317 

Devonshire, Dukes of, 144, 150 
Dishington, Elizabeth (Bruce), 72 

William, 72 
Domangart, Scottish King, 193, 196 
Donada, Princess of Scotland, 200 
Donal Breac, Scottish King, 195 
Donal IV.. King of Scotland, 198 
Donald Bane, King of Scots, 201 

Earl of Mar, 248. 249, 250 

son of King Malcolm III., of Scotland, 
Douglas, Archibald, 173 

Elizabeth (Fitz Alan), 158 

James, 169 

Joan (Stewart), 169 

Mary, 270 

Wilham, 158 
Drogo, son of Rognvald of Norway. 37 
Drummoiid, Annabella, 166, 292 

John, 166 
Drury, Elizabeth, 114 
Dumfries Church, 79 
Dunbar, Ada, 253 

Arms, 317 

Castle, 255 

Cecilia, 160 

Christina, 253 

Christiana (Bruce), 254 

Earls of, 252 

Eupheme, 254 

Family. 266 

Marjory (Comyn), 255 

Patrick, 67, 160, 253, 254, 256 

Patricius, 253 
Duncan, Earl of Carrick, 265 

Earl of Mar, 249 

King of Scots. 201, 203 

son of William, Ninth Earl of Mar, 249 
Dundalk, Battle of, 71 
Dunfermline, 202, 288 

Abbey, 88, 290 

Abbey. Destruction of, 293 
Dungal, Scottish King, 197 
Dupplin, Battle of, 93, 99 
Durham, Battle of, 94, 162, 255 

Eadgar, son of King Ethelred the Unready,219 
Eadgifu, daughter of King Edward the 
Elder, 216 



Eadgifu. Queen of King Edward the Elder, 

Eadgyth, daughter of King Edward the El- 
der, 215. 216 
daughter of King Ethelred the Unready, 

daughter of King Edgar the Peaceful. 
Badger I., King of Scots, 203 
Eadhild, daughter of King Edward the 

Elder, 216 
Eadmund, Sa.\on King of England, 219 
son of King Malcolm III. of Scotland, 
Eadred. son of King Ethelred the Unready 

Eadward the Elder, King, 214, 215 
the Confessor, King, 219 
Saxon King of England, 215 
son of King Ethelred the Unready 219 
son of King Malcolm III., of Scotland, 
Eadwig, son of King Ethelred the Unready 
Saxon King of England, 216 
Ealdgyth. Queen of King Edmund Ironside 

Ealhmimd, Saxon King of England, 211 
Ealhswith. Saxon Queen of England, 214 

wife of Earl Ethelhelm, 215 
Earc, King of Dalriada, 188 
Earlshall. Bruces of, 99 
East Anglia. Ulfcytel of, 219 
Eblus of Aquitaine, 216 
Ecgberht, Saxon King of England, 211 

son of King Ethelred the Unreadj'. 219 
Ecgwyn, Saxon Queen of England, 215 
Edburga. daughter of King Edward the El- 
der, 216 
Edgar the Peaceful, Saxon King of England, 
son of King Edward the Outlaw, 220 
Edgiva, Queen of King Edward the Elder, 
daughter of King Edward the Elder, 216 
Edith, daughter of King Edgar the Peaceful, 

Editha, daughter of King Edward the Elder, 
215, 216 
daughter of King Egbert, 212 

Edmund, Sa.xon King of England, 216 
son of King Edmund ironside, 220 
II., Ironside, Saxon King of England, 

son of King Edgar the Peaceful, 218 
Edred, Saxon King of England, 216 
Edward the Outlaw, Saxon King of Eng- 
land, 220 
son of King Edward the Elder, 215 
son of King Malcolm III., 291 
Saxon King of England, 215 
the Martyr, Saxon King of England, 
Edwin, son of King Edward the Elder, 215 
Edwy, Saxon King of England, 216 
Egbert, Saxon King of England, 211 
Egvina, daughter of Edward the Elder, 216 
Egwina, Saxon Queen of England, 215 
Einar, Earl of Orkney, 21, 37, 224 

Wrongmouth, son of Sigurd, Earl of 
Orkney 49, 50 
Einsiedlen, Abbot Gregory of, 216 
Eleanor, daughter of Richard II., Duke of 
Normandy, 234 
Duchess of Aquitaine, 227 
Elena, daughter of Alan of Galloway, 267 
Elfgifu, daughter of Ethelred the Unready, 
daughter of King Edward the Elder, 216 
Queen of Edmund the Elder, 216 
Queen of King Ethelred the Unready, 
Elfleda, Queen of King Edgar the Peaceful, 
Queen of Kin g Edgar the Peaceful, 218 
Elfreda, Queen of King Edward, 215 
Elfthryth, daughter of King Alfred, 215 

Queen of King Edgar the Peaceful, 218 
Elgin Arms, 315 
Earls of, 113 
Elgiva, Queen of Edmund the Elder, 216 
dauglitet of King Ethelbert of England, 

Queen of King Ethelred the Unready, 
Elizabeth, daughter of King Henry I., of 
England, 264 
of Bohemia, 25 
Queen of England, 25 
Ellen, daughter of Sigurd, Earl of Orkney, 49 


Elphinston, Agnes (de Erthberg), 270 

Alexander, 101, 132, 270, 271 

Andrew, 271 

Arms, 317 

Elizaljeth, 271 

Elizabeth (Barlow), 271 

Euphame, 101, 271 

Family, 270 

Henry, 270 

James, 271 

Jean (Brvice). 133 

John, 271 

Margaret, 132 

Mary (Douglas), 270 

Richard, 133 

William de, 270 
Elsfeda, daughter of Edward the Elder, 216 
Emma, Queen of King Ethelred the Un- 
ready, 219,228 

wife of Robert de Brusee, 56 
Eocha-Annuine, Scottish King, 197 
Eocha-Bui, Scottish King, 195 
Eocha III., Scottish King, 190 
Eocha-Rineval, Scottish King, 196 
Eochy Fortamail, King of Dalriada, 188 
Eochy Mun-reamhar, King of Dalriada, 188 
Erland, son of Torf Einar, Earl of Orkney, 40 
Ermina, wife of HroUaugur of Normandy, 37 
Erskine, Alice, 161 

John, 161 

Mary 273 

Robert, 273 
Erth, Agnes de 129 

William de, 129 
Erthberg, Agnes de, 270 
Estrith, wife of Richard II., Duke of Nor- 
mandy. 229 
Ethelbald, King of the West Saxons. 213 
Ethelbert, King of Kent, 213 
Ethelda, daughter of King Edward tlie Elder, 

Ethelflaed Queen of King Edgar the Peace- 
ful, 217 
Ethelflaid, Queen of Edmund the Elder, 216 
Ethelfleda, daughter of King Alfred, 214 
Ethelgiva, daughter of King Alfred. 215 
Ethelhelm, Earl, 215 
Ethelhild, daughter of King Edward the 

Elder, 216 
Ethelred, Duke of Mercia, 214 

Ethelred, King of Wessex, 213 

II., Saxon King, 218 
Ethelstan, King of Kent, 213 

son of King Ethelred the Unready, 219 
Ethelswith, daughter of Ethelwulf, Saxon 

King of England, 213 
Ethelwulf, Saxon King of England, 211, 240 
Eupheme, daughter of Walter the High 

Steward, 254 
Euslin Glumra, 34 
Eva, daughter of Suan, 157 
Eversham, Battle of, 65 
Exeter, William, Earl of, 114 
Eystein Glumra, King of Trondheim 32 34 
Eystein, King of Trondheim, 32 

Fedhar\'in, Battle of, 195 

Felicia, wife of Rognvald of Norway 52 

Felim Lamh-foidh, King of Dalriada, 188 

Felira, son of Neill, King of Ireland, 282 

Fenius Farsa, King of Scjihia, 183 

Ferchar, Scottish King, 195 

Ferchar-Fada, Scottish King, 196 

Fergus, Lord of Galloway 264 

Fergus Mor Mac Earca, 185, 192 

Fergus, Scottish King, 192, 196 

Fergus Ullach, King of Dalriada, 188 

Fetteressoe, Battle of, 199 

Fiacha Firmara, 188 

Fife, Earl of, 80 

Finlaec of Moray, 200 

Finn Arnason, Earl, 49 

Fitz Alan, Adelina (de Hesdinges), 156 

Alan, 157 

Alesta (of Mar), 157 

Alexander, 157, 158 

Beatrbk (of Angus), 157 

Elizabeth, 158 

Eschina (de Londoniis), 156 

Eva, 157 

James, 158, 159 

Jean (Macrory), 158 

John, 157 

Margaret, 158 

Walter, 155, 156, 157 

William, 157 
Fitz-Hamon, Mabel, 232, 259 

Matilda, 232, 259 

Richard, 259 



Fitz-Hamon, Robert, 232, 259 

Sybil, 232, 259 
Flanders, Count Baldwin Bras de Fer of, 240 

Count Baldwin of, 215, 229, '232, 234, 242 

Leonora of, 229 

Matilda of, 215, 229, 231 
Fleance, son of Banquo, 155 
Fleming, Helen (Bruce), 103 

Malcolm, 103 
Flodden Field, Battle of, 172, 271, 275 
Forbes, Catherine, 328 
Fordyce, Alexander, 103 
Forester, Janet, 132 

Malcolm, 130 

Margaret, 130 

Walter, 132 
Francis II., King of France, 174 
Fraser, Alexander, 71 

Finetta, 277 

John, 277 

Mary (Bruce), 71 
Frode III., Bang of Lethra, 31 

Gainesborough, Battle of, 146, 148 
Galloway, Alan of, 206 

Battle of, 70, 71 

Dervorgilla of, 206 

Lords of, 265 

Margaret of, 206 
Gandella, daughter of Vitellan of Ballenstedt, 

Gaodhal of Scj'thia, 183 
Garbot, Bruces of, 99 
Gatelus of Scythia, 183 
Gauran, Scottish King, 194 
Gelderland, Arnold, 170 

Mary, 170 
Geoffrey of Normandy, 262 
Gerleota, wife of Baldwin Clapham, 44 
Gerletta, daughter of Rollo, Duke of Nor- 
mandy, 227 
Gernon, Eleanor de, 140 

Hodierna (Sackville) de 140 

Matthew de, 140 

Ralph de, 140 

Robert, 140 

Roger de, 140 

William de, 140 
Gilford, Rohesia, 262 

Gifiord, Walter, 262 
Gilbert, Earl of Auci, 262 

Earl of Mar, 248 

Family, 105 

Hugh, 105 

of Fontenelle, 105 

of Galloway, 265 

of Normandy, 104 

William, 105 
Gilbertson Family, 104 

Janet, 104, 321 

William, 104, 105 
Gilchrist, Earl of Mar, 249 
Gillocher, Earl of Mar, 248 
Giselbert, Crispin, Earl of Brion, 262 
Giselle, wife of Rollo of Normandy, 216, 

Glamis Castle, 200, 287 
Glen, Margaret (Bruce), 94 

Robert, 94 
Glenmoreson, Battle of, 195 
Glentool, Battle of, 85 
Gloucester, Amicia of, 232 

Earls of, 232, 258, 260, 264 

Earls, Arms of, 315 

Mabel (Fitz-Hammon) of, 232 

Sybil (Fitz-Hammon) of, 232 
Godgifu, daughter of King Ethelred the Un- 
ready 219 
Gonnor, wife of Richard I., Duke of Nor- 
mandy, 228 
Gordon, Annabella (Stewart), 169 

George, 169 
Graham, Isabel, 162 

Nigel, 67 

John, 162 

Robert, 169 
Gratnach, Earl of Mar, 248 
Gratney, Eleventli Earl of Mar, 250 
Gregory Abbot of Einsiedlen, 216 
Greiland, daughter of Dungad of Catha- 

nes, 40 
Grelota, daughter of Dungad of Cathanes, 40 
Grey, Diana, 114 

EUzabeth, 102 

Henry Earl Stamford, 114 

Patrick, 102 
Griffith ap Lewellin, 155 
Grimaldus I., Prince of Monaco, 227 
Groa, daughter of Thorstein Rauda, 40 



Groa, daughter o( Wrymund, King of Trond- 
heim, 37 

Gudrod Gleam, 39 

Kiny of Norway, 32 
King of Scandia, 31 

Guinolda, wife of Uchtred of Galloway, 266 

Guisburn Abbey, 58 

Guise, Mary of, 173 

Gundred, daughter of William the Con- 
queror, 208 

Haavad, son of Thorfinn Hausklifr, 43 
Halfdan II., King of Lethra, 31 

ni., Sniale, 31 

High-leg, 39 

King of Trondheim, 32 

the Aged, 32, 33 
HaUdon, Battle of, 162 
Halladur, son of Rognvald, 37, 38 
Hamilliana, daughter of Rognvald of Nor- 
way, 52 
Harald Hilditur, 32 
Hardicanute, of England, 228 
Hardwicke, Elizabeth, 139, 144 

John, 144 
Harlaw, Battle of, 100, 257 
Harlebec, Count Lyderic of, 232 
Hastings, Battle of, 231 
Hawse, wife of William, Second Earl of 

Gloucester, 260 
Hay, George, 276 

Isabel, 274 

Margaret, 276 

William, 274 
Heber Donn, son of Milesius, 185 
Hedwiga, daughter of Henry I., Emperor of 

Germany, 241 
Helinda, daughter of Rognvald, 37 

daughter of Rolf Nefia, 37 
Hengist, 209 
Henry, Earl of Huntingdon, 261 

I., King of England, 231 

U., Emperor of Germany, 220 

n.. King of England, 227 

the Fowler, King of Germany, 241 
Hepbiu'n, James, 174 
Heremon, son of Milesius, 185 
Heribert I., Count of Vermandois, 241 
Hermant, Eve Marie de, 134 

Herries, Marion, 101 

Robert, 101 
Hesdinges, Adelina [Avelina] de, 156 

Ernulf de, 156 
Her-ware, daughter of Thorgerde, 41 
Hilda, wife of Rognvald, Earl of North Mere, 

37, 224 
Hildegarde of Swabia, 239 
Hlodver, son of Thorfinn Hausklifr, Earl of 

Orkney, 43 
Hodierna, daughter of King David I. of 

Scotland. 204 
Hoerk, King of Trondheim, 32 
Holgi, son of Beorn Buna of Norway, 41 
Holland, Count Florence of, 205 
Holmcultran Abbey, 68 
Home, Thomas, 274 
Horsa, 209 

Hrapp, son of Beorn Buna of Norway, 41 
Hrollaugur, son of Rognvald, 37 
Hubert, Count of Senhs, 227 
Hugh Capet, 241 
Hugh, Earl of Chester, 262 
Hugh the Great, Count of Paris, 216, 241 
Hundi the Wlielp, 45, 49 
Hunthiof, King of North Mere, 34, 36 
Huntingdon Arms, 314 

Earl Da\'id of, 205, 267 

Family, 261 

Henry, Prince of, 204, 205, 270 

Isabel of, 64, 270, 294 

John le Scot, Eari of, 205 

Lady Maud of, 205 

Margaret of, 267 

Matilda of, 204 

Waltheof of, 204 

Icohnkill, 282 

Ingiald, King of Sweden, 31 

son of Helgi, 34 
Ingibiorg, Queen of King Malcolm III. of 
Scotland, 202 

wife of Thorfinn, Earl of Orkney, 49, 51 
Ingreda, daughter of Brusi, 51 
lona, 281 
Ireby, Clu-istiana de, 67 

William de, 67 
Isaac, Matildis (Bruce), 94 

Thomas, 94 



Isabel of Huntingdon, 64, 206 

Isabella, wife of Duncan, Earl of Mar, 249 

Ivar, Earl of Upland, 32, 33 

son of Rognvald, Earl of Orkney, 37 

the Boneless, 44 

Vidfami of Roeskilde, 31 

James, King of Scotland, 25 
II., King of England, 25 
son of Morgund, Earl of Mar, 249 

Joanna, Princess of England, 87, 94 

Jocunda, daughter of Hunthiof, 34 
daughter of Olaf Hviti, 34 

Judith the Fair, 239 

Saxon Queen of England, 213, 233, 240 
wife of Richard II., of Normandy, 229 
wife of Waltheof, Earl of Northumber- 
land, 261, 


Kalf Skurva, 38 
Keighley, Anne, 144 

Henry, 144 
Keith, EHzabeth, 275 

William, 275 
Kennedy, Alexander, 102 

Helen, 102 
Kenneth-Cear, Scottish King, 195 

m.. King of Alban, 200 

King of Scotland, 199 

McAlpin, King of Scotland, 22, 192, 197 
Kiarval, King of Ireland, 43 
Kilconcath, Adam de, 69 

Marjory (Carrick) de, 69, 266 
Kildrummie Castle, 65, 83, 294 
Kincardine Arms, 315 

Earls of, 116 
Kinloss Aims, 315 
Kintyre, 191 
Kionga, King of Dalriada, 188 

Laci, Hugh de, 268 

Maud de, 268 
Lambton, Louisa Mary, 123 
Lancaster, Judith de, 63 

William de, 63 
Largs, Battle of, *158 
Latherisk, Lord William of, 249 

Leicester, Robert, Earl of, 260 

Lenox, Earl of, 82 

Leonore, daughter of Richard II., Duke of 

Normandy, 229 
Lewis, King of Aries, 216 
Lia Fail, 285 

Liot, son of Thorfinn Hausklifr, 43 
Livingstone, Agnes, 129 

Alexander, 129, 130 

Janet (Bruce), 131 

Joneta, 130 

William, 131 
Loarn, King of Dalriada, 188, 192, 193 
Lochmaben Castle, 66, 67, 296 
Logic, John, 94 

Margaret, 94 
Loudoniis, Eschina de, 156 

Thomas de, 156 
Loney, Allen Donellan, 328 

Catherine Wolfe (Brown), 328 

Ruth Arabella, 328 

Virginia Bruce, 328 
Lodver, son of Thorfinn Hausklifr, 43 
Loro, Battle of, 194 
Lorraine, Claude de, 173 
Loudon Hill, Battle of, 85 
Louis, King of France, 169, 216, 227 
Louis le Debonnaire, 239 
Luncarty, Battle of, 199 
Lyderic, Count of Harlebec, 232 


Macbeth, King of Scots, 201 
Lady, 200 

Macrory, Angus, 158 
James, 158 
Jean, 158 

Madeline, Princess of France, 178 

Magnus, Earl of Orkney, 34 

Maitland, Egidia (Scrimgeour), 257 
James, 257 
Robert, 257 

Malcolm, Earl of Atholl, 292 
I., King of Scotland, 199 
U., Kuig of Scotland, 21, 48, 200 
HI. (Canmore), King of Scots, 22, 201 
IV., King of Scotland, 205, 291 
son of King Da\'id I., of Scotland, 204 
son of KingMalcohn HI., 203 
son of Morgund, Earl of Mar, 249 



Maldred of Dunbar, 252 
Mar, Alesta of, 157 

Christiana (Bruce) of, 72, 250 

Donald of, 93 

Eari Gratney of, 72 

Earls of, 248 

Isabel of, 93 

Isabel (Stewart), 251 

Lady Mary of, 250 

Morgimd of, 157 
March, Arms of Earls of, 317 
Mareschal, Isabel, 264 

William, 264 
Margaret, daughter of Brusi, Earl of Ca- 
thanes, 51 

of Huntingdon, 206 

daughter of lienry of Huntingdon, 205 

daughter of Walter the Steward, 266 

Princess of Denmark, 171 

Queen of King Alexander III., 291 

Queen of King Louis XI. of France, 109 

Queen of King Malcolm IH. of Scotland 
203, 220, 289, 290 

wife of Alan of Galloway, 267 
Marjory, Countess of Carrick, 297 
Marmaduke, John Fitz, 67 
Martacus, Earl of Mar, 248 
Mary, daughter of King Malcolm UI., 203 

Queen of Scots, 25, 173 
Matilda, Queen of Henry of Germany, 232 

Queen of King Henry I., 203, 232 

Queen of David, King of Scotland, 261 

wife of W'illiam the Conqueror, 203, 234, 
240, 242 
Mathildis, daughter of King Robert Bruce, 

Maud, Queen of David of Scotland, 261 
Mclnroy, Malcolm, 103 

Marjory (Bruce), 103 
McKesson, Virginia, 328 
Melbrigd Tonn, Scottish Eari, 35 
Melmare, son of Duncan, King of Scots, 201 
Melrose Abbey, 88, 89, 303 
Menteith, Elizabeth, 131 

Helen (Bruce), 131 

John, 250 

William, 131 
Merovingian Dynasty, 234 
Merowig, 234 
Middlehara, Ralph of, 62 

Milesius of Spain, 184 

Monaco, Prince Grimaldus I. of, 227 

Mongievaird, Battle of, 200 

Montaigu, Harriette Dieudonnee de, 134 

Montfort, Agnes, 56 

Count Francis of, 169 

Countess Elizabeth (Stewart), 169 

Simon, 56 
Montgomery, Alexander, 132 

Euphemia, 132 

Sybil of, 260 
Moravia, Gilljert de, 294 
Moray, Andrew, 72 

Arms of Earls of, 317 

Christiana (Bruce), 72 

Countess Euphemia of, 165 

Helen (Bruce), 103 

Robert, 103 
Moreville, Walter, 58 
Morgund, Earl of Mar, 248 
Morleyn, Constance de, 67 
Morville, Elena, 266 

Richard, 266 
Mo.selle, Count Frederick of, 234 
Moyrath, Battle of, 195 
Muness Castle, 102, 310 
Mure, Adam, 164 

Elizabeth, 164 


Neill, King of Ireland, 282 

Nesta, daughter of Griffith ap Lewellin, 155 

Niel, Eari of Carrick, 265 

Nisbet, Mary, 121 
William H., 121 

Niul of Scythia, 183 

Normandy Didces. 21, 224, 227. 228. 229,268 
Adela. wife of Duke William of, 227 
Crispina, daughter of Duke RoUo of, 227 
Duke William of, 215, 227, 229, 230 
Dukes, Arms of, 315 
Eleonor, daughter of Duke Richard of, 

Estrith, wife of Duke Richard of, 229 
Gerietta, daughter of Duke Rollo of, 227 
Giselle, wife of Duke Rollo of, 216, 226 
Gonnor, wife of Duke Richard of, 228 
Judith, wife of Duke Richard of, 229 
Leonore, daughter of Duke Richard of, 



Normandy, Matilda, wife of Duke William Origina, daughter of Frederick, Count of 

of, 234 
Papia, wife of Duke Richard of, 229 
Papia, wife of Duke Rollo of, 226 
Robert, son of Duke William of, 231 

Northallerton, Battle of, 59, 65 

Northampton Peace Treaty, 87 

Northumberland, Earls of, 261 
Earl Uchtred of, 252 

O'Conor, Agnes, 267 

Hugh, 267 

Una, 267 
Odin, 30 
O'Dwbin, Diarmed, 276 

Family, 276 

Paul, 276 
Odyngseles, Alice de, 142 

John de, 142 
Offa, King of Mercia, 211 
Ogilvj-, Isabel, 274 

Walter, 274 
Olaf, son of Brusi, Earl of Cathanes, 51 

H\'iti, King of Dublin, 34, 41 

of Norway, 34 

of Rurik, 31, 33 

Tryggvison, King of Norway, 44 
Olaus, King of Norway, 34, 50 
Olifard, Family, 272 
Oliphant Arms, 318 

Elizabeth (Bruce), 94, 273 

Elizabeth (Campbell), 274 

Elizabeth (Keith), 275 

Family, 272 

Isabel (Hay), 274 

Isabel (Ogilvy) 274 

Isabel (Stewart) 274 

Jean, 103, 276 

John, 273, 274 

Laurence, 274, 275 

Lawrence, 103 

Margaret (Hay), 276 

Margaret (Sandilands), 275 

Mary (Erskine), 273 

Walter, 94, 273 

William, 273, 274 
Olith, Princess of Scotland, 21, 48 
Ordgar of Devonshire, 218 
Ordmar of East Anglia, 217 

Moselle, 234 
Orkney, 98 

Earls, 21, 34, 37, 41, 43, 49, 98, 201, 224 

Earls, Arms of, 314 
Ormonde, James, 150 

Mary, 150 
Osburgha Saxon Queen of England, 213 
Oslac the Thane, 213 

Ostrida, wife of Brusi, Earl of Cathanes, 51 
Oswald, Elizabeth, 122 

James T., 122 
Otho, Duke of Saxony, 241 
Ottala the Brisk of Russia, 52 
Otto, Emperor of Germany, 216 

Pagnel, Agnes, 62 

Fulk, 62 
Papia, wife of Richard of Normandy, 229 

wife of Rollo, Duke of Normandy, 226 
Patton, John, 140 
Pauncefort, Rachel, 118 

Robert, 118 
Pepin of Herstal, 235 

of Landen, 235 

II., le Breuf, 237 
Perth, Siege of, 273 

Phoeniusa Farsaidh, King of Scythia, 183 
Plantagenet, John, 167 
Preston, John, 116 

Mary, 116 
Primrose, Archibald, 116 

Margaret, 116 
Provence, King Beranger of, 233 

Quincey, Elena de, 267 
Roger de, 267 

Raclu-in Island, 83 

Radbard, King of Holmgard, 32 

Ragnhild, daughter of King Eric, ' 

Ragnor Lodbrok, 44 

Rait Castle, 100, 306 

Ramsay, Emma, 58 

William, 58 
Randolph, Agnes, 255 

Euphemia, 165 




Randolph, Isabel (Bruce), 71, 

John, 165 

Thomas, 71, 255 
Randver, King of Holmgard, 32 
Rathlin Island, 83 

Redburga, Saxon Queen of England, 212 
Regenwald Wolfson, Earl of Gothland, 51 
Reid, .\lison, 110 

Bishop Robert, 110 

WiUiam, 110 
Reuda, 192 
Riada, 192 
Richard I., Duke of Normandy, 227, 262 

n., Duke of Normandy, 228 

UI., Duke of Normandy, 229 
Richilda, Queen of Charles le Chauve, 240 
Robert I., King of France, 234, 242 

Count of Corbeil, 227 

Duke of Normandy, 229 

Earl of Gloucester, 258 

King of Holmgard, 32 

son of David, Earl of Huntingdon, 205 

son of Robert the Strong of France, 241 

son of William, Duke of Normandy, 231 

the Strong of France, 240 
Roberton, James, 119 

Janet, 119 
Rognvaid Earl of North Mere, 224 

of Norway, 34 

second Earl of Orkney, 35 

son of Brusi, Earl of Cathanes, 51 
Roland of Galloway, 266 
Rolf Nefia (Rollo) of Normandy, 21, 37, 224 
Rosala, wife of Arnulf II., 233 
Rosl)-th Castle, 99 
Ross, David, 99 

Earl Hugh of, 72 161, 165 

Earl of, 98 

Helen (Bruce), 99 

Jean (Stewart), 161 

Matilda (Bruce) of, 72 

Vv'illiam of, 98 
Rosyth Castle, 99, 101, 307 

Sackville, Clementina. 112 
Edward, 112 
Herbron de, 140 
Hodierna, 140 
WiUiam, 140 

St. Aylmer de Tom's, 57 
St. Ciair, Agnes, 57 

Walderne, 57 

William, 57 
St. Hillar}', James de, 264 

Maud de, 264 
Saltre Abbey, 64 
Sandilands, James, 275 

Margaret, 275 
Sannu, Charlotte, Countess of, 115 
Santo Claro, Walderne of, 57 

William de, 57 
Sarad, daughter of Conn, 188 
Saucliie, Battle of, 171 
SaWlle, Jane, 115 

William, 115 
Scone, 80, 284 

Battle of, 202 
Scota, daughter of Pharaoh, 183 

daughter of Pharaoh Nectonibus, 184 
Scrimgeour, Alexander, 99, 256 

Egidia, 257 

Family, 255 

James, 100, 257 

John, 100, 257 

Marie (Bruce), 99 

Nicoll, 256 
Scudamore, Katherine, 143 
Senlis, Counts of, 227 
Seton, Christiana (Bruce), 72 

Christopher, 72 
SejTnour, Elizabetli, 115 

Henry, 115 
Shetland, 98 

Shrewsbury, Battle of, 99 
Sigarith, wife of Waldeve of Dunbar, 266 
Sigelline, Earl, 215 
Sightric, King of Northumbria, 215 
Sigismund, Arch-Duke of Austria, 169 
Sigurd, Earl of Orkney, 21, 34, 44, 201 

Hringr, King of Sweden, 32 

Rice, son of King Harold of Norway, 37 
Sinclair, Adam, 103 

Helen (Bruce), 103 

Hemy, Earl of Orkney, 34 

Hugh, 103 

Isabel, 102 

Jean (Bruce), 103 

Malcolm, 102 
Siward, Earl of Northumberland, 201, 204 



Skene, Helen, 118 

James, 118 
Skid Myre, Battle of, 43 
Skioldr, son of Odin, 30 
Skuli, son of Thorfinn Hausklifr, 43 
SkjTmeschour Family, 256 
Smith, Alice, 143 

Barbara (Bruce), 103 
David, 103 
John, 143 
Solskel, Battle of, 36 
Solway, Battle of, 173, 275 
Somereld, son of Sigurd, Earl of Orkney, 
Somerlid, Prince of Argyle, 44 
Somerville, David, 271 

Elizabeth (Elphinston), 271 

William de, 277 
Standard, Battle of, 60, 204 
Staventon, Joan, 143 
Stenhouse, Bruces of, 99 
Steward of Scotland, 93 
Steward, Walter, 93 
Stewart, Alexander, 251 

Alice (Erskine), 161 

Annabella, 169 

Annabella (Drummond), 166, 292 

Arms, 317 

Cecilia (Dunbar), 160 

David, 101, 109, 307 

Earl Patrick, 308 

Eleanor, 169 

Elizabeth, 101, 109, 169, 307 

Elizabeth (Miu-e), 164 

Eupheme (Elphinston), 271 

Euphemia (Ross-Moray), 165 

Family, 25, 93, 153 

Henry, 174 

Isabel, 99, 169, 251, 274 

Isabel (Graham), 162 

James, 159 

Janet, 169 

Jean, 100, 161 

Joan, 169 

Joanna (Beaufort), 167 

John, 100, 158, 165, 274 

King James I., 166 

King James II., 169 

King James IH., 170 

King James IV., 171 

King James V., 172, 271 

Stewart, King James VI., 174 
Iving Robert H., 162 
King Robert HI., 165 
Margaret, of France, 169 
Margaret (Campbell), 103 
Margaret, Queen of King James, 171 
Margaret (Tudor), 172 
Marion (Herries), 101 
Marjory (Bruce), 93, 153, 154, 162, 266 
Mary, 169, 173 
Mary (Gelderland), 170 
Mary (of Guise), 173 
49 Matthew, 174 

of Bonkyl, 158 
of Rosyth, 308 

Robert, 98, 99, 102, 103, 271, 308 
Walter, 93, 153, 154, 160, 266 
Stirling Castle, 86, 300 

Siege of, 273 
Stirling, Janet, 101 

William, 101 
Stone of Destiny, The, 285 
Straigh-Cairmaic, Battle of, 195 
Strathearn, Cliristiana of, 272 
Streona, Eadric, 219 
Strikathro, Battle of, 203 
Suan, son of Thor, 157 
Sully, Elizabeth de, 67 

Raymond de, 67 
Sumerlid [Sumarlis], son of Sigurd, 49 
Sutherland, Anna, 104 
Earl of, 94 
George, 104 
Janet, 104 

Kenneth, Earl of, 205 
Margaret (Bruce), 94 
Mary of, 250 
WiUiam, 94 
Sveide of Upland, 32, 33 
Swene, King of Denmark, 229 

Talbot, Elizabeth (Hardwick-Cavendish), 
George, Earl of Shrewsbury, 144 
Taymouth, 92 
Theba, Battle of, 89 
Thebotau, Duke of Sleswig, 32 
Thomas, Thirteenth Earl of Mar, 251 



Thora, Princess of Scotland, 48, 201 

Thored, Earl, 219 

Thorfinn, Earl of Orkney, 40, 49, 50, 51, 201 

Thorgerde, daughter of Ey-laug, 41 

Thorir, son of Rognvald, Earl of Orkney, 37 

Thorir Wood-beard, 38 

Thorstein Rauda, 40, 42 

Thrond, King of I'rondheim, 32 

Thurbrandthe Bald of Denmark, 51 

Thurid, wife of Thorstein Rauda, 42 

Thurstan du Beck, 52 

Thurston, Archbishop of York, 59, 61 

Tora, daughter of Find, 37 

Torf Einar, Earl of Orkney, 37 

Toulouse, Constance of, 242 

Count William of, 242 
Tours, St. Aylmer de, 57 
Tuatha-de-Danan, 185 
Tudor, Margaret, 172 

Mary, 115 
Turbrand of Norway, 51 
Tumberry Castle, 84, 297 


Uchtred, Earl of Northumberiand, 252 

of Galloway, 265, 266 
Uhtred, Earl, 219 
Ulfcytel of East Anglia, 219 
Ulster, Earl of, 95 
Und Deep-rich, 40, 41 
Ungas, King of the Picts, 197 
Unst Island, 102 
Urgusia, Scottish Queen, 197 

Van Sommelsdyck, Corneille Van Arson, 117 

Veronica, 117 
Vere, Diana, 114 

Henry, 114 
Vermandois, Beatrix of, 241 

Count Heribert of, 233, 241 

Counts of, 241 

Isabel of, 270 
Vermund, King, 36 
Vipont, Allan, 99 

Arms, 318 

Helen, 99 

Vitellan, Lord of Ballenstedt, 32 


Waldamar of Russia, 52 

Waldere, Fifth Earl of Dunbar, 253 

Waldeve of Dunbar, 266 

Walter, son of Fleance, 155 

Waltheof, Earl of Northumberiand, 261 

of Huntingdon, 204 

of Northumberland, Arms of, 314 
Wardlaw, Gelis, 101 

John, 101 
Warren, Ada de, 204, 261 
Warren and Surrey Arms, 315 
Warrenne, Adeline de, 270 

Earls of, 268 

Eari William of, 204 

Gundred de, 268 

Isabel de, 269 
Watten, 98, 104 

We-laug, wife of Beom Buna of Norway, 41 
Welphus I., Count of Altorf, 239 
Werther-grim of Sogn, 41 
White, Martha, 119 

Thomas, 119 
William, Duke of Aquitaine, 227 

Duke of Normandy, 215, 227, 229, 230 

Eari of Gloucester, 264 

King of Scotland, 63, 205 

Lord of Latherisk, 249 

Ninth Earl of Mar, 249 

of Orange, 25 

Rufus, King of England, 231 

Second Earl of Gloucester, 260 
Wolfe, Catherine, 321, 325, 328 

Catherine (Busch), 328 

Catherine (Forbes), 328 
Wolfe, Da^^d, 321, 325, 328 

John David, 328 
Wolstan, Lord of Paston, 57 
Wulfhild, daughter of King Ethelred, 219 
Wulfrid, Queen of King Edgar, 217 
Wortley, Richard, 144 
Wulfthryth, Queen of King Edgar, 217 

Yngwayild, wife of Cetil Flat-neb, 41 



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