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Being mtended for aU ages as well as ranks, Constable's Miscellany is 
printed in a style and form which combine at once the means of giving much 
matter in a smaU space, with the requisites of great clearness and facility. 

Every Volume contains a Vignette Title-page; and numerous other illus- 
trations, such as Maps, Portraits, &c. are occasionally given. 

Each Volume contains at least 320 pages, price 3s. 6d. ; a Umited number 
being printed on fine paper, with early impressions of the Plates, price 5s. 

A large paper Edition is printed of some of the Volumes, to range with 
Lardner's Cyclopaedia, &c. 




More than five years have elapsed since the commencement of 
Constable's Miscellany, and its universal popularity, the, 
continued support of all the leading periodicals, and the numerous 
imitations of it that have subsequently appeared, are the best 
proofs that can be given of the excellence of its plan, and of its 
perfect adaptation to the wants and wishes of the age. The 
increased and increasing diffusion of wealth and knowledge has 
formed, in these kingdoms, a new and very numerous class of 
readers, persons to whom the economy both of time and money is 
an object of importance, but who are, at the same time, anxious 
not to be left behind in the march of intelligence, and who are 
desirous to acquire information suited to the present advanced 
state of society. For such persons this series of publications was 
primarily designed ; the convenient size of the volumes permitted 
them to be studied without any interruption to the necessary 
avocations of life and business ; their cheapness placed them 
within the reach of every reader, and the neatness of their form, 
and elegance of their typography, rendered them ornamental as 
well as useful in the library. Even a cursory survey of the cata- 
logue will suffice to show that the subjects selected for the Mis- 
cellany are precisely those respecting which information is most 
desirable, such as combine interest with utility, and valuable in- 
struction with rational entertainment. The names of the writers, 
containing among them some of the first in the annals of modern 
literature, must be a sufficient guarantee for the style and exe- 
cution of the several volumes ; and the few specimens selected 
from the vast mass of favourable criticism will suffice to show, 
that from its commencement up to the present hour, the design, 
the successive parts, and the whole of Constable's Miscel- 
lany, as far as completed, have received the warmest approba- 
tion from the legitimate guardians of literature. 

Though the work has now passed into other hands, no change 
will be made in the original plan ; the new proprietors are sin- 
cerely anxious to preserve its established character, and to make 
the concluding volumes like those that have already appeared, 
worthy of public favour, by preserving the great characteristics 
of the work, — cheapness, interest, and utility. 


r,„fl-^ I "'^ existing library of useful and entertaining knowledge, neither 
puffed up by an upstart pseudo-monopoly, a junta in an university commTee 
nor a prostituted kviq^."— London Literary Gazette. coramutee, 

iV'-ScotsTimls'' ^^^ ^^S^i^^^nt, and worthy of the name associated with 

"This is a very delightful publication, conceived in the true spirit of 
genius, and executed with proportionate ability. "—TAe Sun. 

" We shall ever be amongst the first to bestow sincere and warm enco- 
rn.ums on works of real utility; and we cannot but consider ConsTabSs E 
r« w ^ ^LP°f f^'^'"? ^'^ indisputable claim to this honourable distinction."- 
lionaon Weekly Review. 

" We know not where so much good and valuable reading can be obtained 
at such an exceedingly moderate cost."— CoMr/er. ""wmeu 

" The first numbers have been very judiciously selected, and there is as 
W^FnTu "'•',"'"'■" excellence in the list attached to the present numbers 
We cordially wish success to this speculation. "-i^etw Monthly Magazine 

np's7^n7fh^ H^'P^-'^*' *^'^ J^«^^ seems well calculated to promote the great- 
ness and the happiness, the beneficial influence, and the true glory of our 
country."— Edmburyh Theological Magazine, ' 

snLY«f V'^^T^^^'if ' """^ "^^ "■^j''^''^' *'^^* "^« Miscellany has been eminently 
successful It well merits success, as well !or its cheapness as for its elegance 
and the intrinsic merit of the works which compose it."-5co/* Times. ' 

^„ly^'^?■^'^ ^^'^^ it difficult to attract the attention of the public too fre- 
fT^Z "^u'^' .^he^^i^r we regard the judgment which must have dic- 

tated the comprehensive excellence of its general plan, or the very meritorious 
ZTTobTermr ^ ^^' ^''^'"° ^'^" '^"'^'^ '''^'' execution. "-TjJ^ 

nrl ^^^^ excellent design continues to increase in extent and value as it 
proceeds ; and we are glad to find that its merits are rewarded by a correspond- 
ing increase of popularity."— Zoweiora Literary Gazette. 

meltl'-hCgZTrel'AZ^^^^^ '"""'' '""^^^ °" '^^ ^^^""^^ ''''' «^" 

know^o?nn^r!f*'^"^"/ '' ?"*,: ''e^''™^ ^y ^°^"™«' ^"to the hands of youth, we 
sto^d with n?/ff ?l ^^ l^}""^ i^^i.' ™'"^' '=^" ^« «o effectually enlarged and 
siorea with useful knowledge."— ^t^tw^Mr^A Weekly Journal. 

Of a select portion of the Miscellany, an edition is printed in small octavo. 

Chambers' Scottish Rebellions. 5 vols. 25s. 

Bell's Life of Mary Queen of Scots. 2 vols. lis. 

Koch's Revolutions in Europe. 3 vols. 15s. 

Conway's Travels in Norway, Switzerland, &c. 3 vols. 16s. 

White's Natural History of Selborne. 1 vol. 6s. 6d. 

Sinclair's Autumn in Italy. 1 vol. 5s. 

Stafford's History of Music. 1 vol. 5s. 

Bourrienne's Napoleon. 4 vols. 20s. 

Memes' Josephine. 1 vol. 6s. 

Sutherland's Knights of Malta. 2 vols. lis. 

St. John's Normandy. 1 vol. 5s. 6d. 

American Ornithology. 4 vols. 24s. 

The Histories of the Scottish Rebellions and of Queen Mary illustrate so 
amply those periods in the Scottish annals on which Sir Walter Scott has 
founded his most popular novels, that the Proprietors have printed them in a 
form to match with the new edition of his works. 

Koch's Revolutions of Europe is a work so indispensable to every historical 
library that has even the most ordinary pretensions to completeness, that it was 
judged expedient to publish an edition of it, unconnected with the Miscellany, 
in a size and form that would render it not unworthy the notice of those who 
require some of the luxuries of literature, fine paper, and superior t}T)ography. 

Few travellers have enjoyed such extensive and well-deserved popularity as 
Mr. Inglis, or, as he chose to call himself, Mr. Dertvent Co?iway ; the large 
paper edition of his travels is designed to range in the library with the other 
works not included in the Miscellany, which have been written by this admired 
author, and very extensively circulated. 

The value of White's Selborne is so universally acknowledged, that the Pro- 
prietors of the Miscellany determined to prepare an edition of it more complete 
than the limited size of the volumes in their series would admit. To this edi- 
tion are added the author's *' Observations on various Parts of Nature," his 
" Summary of the Weather," his " Naturalist's Calendar," his " Posthumous 
Poems," and the original alphabetical Index. 

Stafford's History of Music is published in this size and form, for the conve- 
nience of those who wish to combine beauty with utility in the formation of a 
library, being precisely that class of society in which music is most cultivated. 

For the convenience of continental travellers, Sinclair's Italy, and St. John's 
Normandy, have been published in this separate form : they will be found 
instructive guides and entertaining companions. 

The History of the Kniyhls of Malta is almost the only isolated portion of 
modern history ; it is complete in itself, and scarcely, if at all, is connected 
with thegreat continental revolutions. To poets and novelists it has furnished 
tlie themes most pregnant with exciting interest ; and, if common fame may 
be credited, more than one of our greatest writers are even now about to select 
subjects from the romantic annals of those champions of Cliristendom. 

The American Ornithology is so generally acknowledged to be one of the 
most delightful works on natural history, that the proprietors resolved to pub- 
lish an enlarged edition of the work in a separate form, that would more easily 
admit pictorial illustrations than the small volumes of the Miscellany. 

Bourrienne's Napoleon, and Memes' Josephine, in the large edition, form the 
most complete account of Napoleon and his family that has yet been published. 




viz. — I. Voyage to Loo Choo, &c. in the Eastern Seas. 

IL Interview with Napoleon, at St. Helena, in August, I8I7. 

III. Journal written on the Coasts of Chili, Mexico, and Peru. 

Captain Hall is too well and too favourably known to the public, to require 
any remarks on his great and varied qualifications as a descriptive writer. 
His voyages now rank among the standard works of English literature, and 
must hold that place while the union of a sailor's frankness, with a scholar's 
refinement, will be justly estimated. Being uniform with his interesting 

Fragments of Voyages and Travels," it forms a very appropriate companion. 

"We do not know a more entertaining traveller, or one who more graphically dc- 
^'a wP?''^°"u*?'^ P'**'" ^^ *^* various interesting countries he visiteA."— Scots Times. 
* "orJ's which combine the interest and entertainment of a first-rate novel, with the 
truth and dignity which belong to history."— Dumfries Courier. 



By Hugh Murray, Esq. F.R.S.E. 

The just pride that all Englishmen feel in their navy, will be gratified by 
the perusal of this volume, which contains many striking instances of the 
patient fortitude and unconquerable energies displayed by British sailors in 
the hour of danger. 

" The volume, altogether, vies in interest with the excellent voyages of Captain Hall, 
which preceded \t."— Scots Times. 

MEMOIRS of the 

With a Preface and Notes, by Sir Walter Scott, Bart. 

This volume contains a narrative of the Vendean War, by a lady who per- 
sonally shared in all the exciting events of that unparalleled campaign. 

"While it contains an important picture of French history, it is full of romantic adven- 
tures, and of sentiments in the highest tone of chivalrous loyalty."— Cot<ran<. 

It IS the most affecting piece of female autobiography that has hitherto been given to 
the public. She is the only authentic historian of the revolutionary troubles of her own 
aisincV— Observer. 


By Andrew Crichton. 

Archbishop Sharpe said that the best evidences of Christianity might be 
obtained from the death-bed— these volumes amply illustrate the truth of his 
assertion, and show that the philosophy which leads men to forget religion in 
the vigour of life and sunshine of prosperity, deserts them at their utmost 
need : and that in the time of adversity and of sickness, piety alone is a source 
of consolation, and pure religion the only support in the hour of death. 

6 constable's miscellany. 



With a Narrative of the late Military and Political Operations in 
the Birman Empire. 

The anomalous empire founded by the British in India, presents every day 
some new and strange features to the public view ; but none that better merit 
attention than its future probable relations with the Burmese. They do not 
disguise their anxiety to contest with us the empire of Hindoostan, and this 
work being the only authentic account of their character, deserves to be at- 
tentively read by all interested in the fortunes of our eastern dominions. 

" It bears, in every page, sufficient evidence, that the author was at once a man of su- 
perior intellect, a close observer, and a veracious historian. The style is perspicuous and 
manly, the narrative free and natxaggcTcited."— Observer. 



Works of this kind are more common on the continent than in England, 
where, in fact, they are supposed to be a species of jest-books; they are, how- 
ever, an essential part of literature, being the casual observations of men of 
genius on topics that are rarely the subject of formal works. 



viz. — I. The Shipwreck of the Medusa Frigate. 

II. Captivity of M. de Brisson. 
III. Voyage and Sufferings of Madame Godin. 

Independent of the deep interest of these narratives, they are valuable in a 
philosophical point of view, since they furnish a curious illustration of the in- 
fluence of affliction on the lively temperament of our Gallic neighbours, and 
form therefore an essential portion of the history of national character. 



By H. G. Bell, Esq. 

The descriptions of natural wonders contained in this volume have been 
taken from numerous and very expensive works, not likely to fall into the 
hands of the general reader. To youth especially the work must be of great 
value, since it will stimulate them to further enquiries respecting the pheno- 
mena of the universe. 

constable's miscellany. 7 



ISLANDS, in the South Pacific Ocean. 

From this work the most striking portions of Lord Byron's poem, The 
Island, have been derived. 

" We have had many striking pictures of savage life and manners, but never so flue a 
piece of savage history as is contained in these volnmes."— Quarterly Revieto. 

• XV. XVI. 

in 1745, 1746. 

By Robert Chambers, Author of " Traditions of Edinburgh," &c. 

In these volumes will be found many of the traditions on which the novels 
of Waverley and Redgauntlet have been founded. 

" Till Sir Walter Scott, or Stewart of Garth, take up the pen, this history must remain 
the popular and standard narrative of these civil hToWs."— Edinburgh Observer. 
" It is a work of high national inieitsX:'— Caledonian Mercury. 



By Orlando W. Roberts, many years a resident trader. 

The countries described have been rarely Aisited by Europeans, and by 
none under circumstances so favourable to observation as Mr. Roberts. The 
volume contains some curious pictures of savage life, and is enriched by 
valuable practical liint^ respecting the extension of commerce in the Pacific 



from the German. 

By George Moir, Esq. Translator of '* Wallenstein." 

The history of the thirty years' war, which, after unparalleled vicissitudes, 
terminated in securing the establishment of the Protestant religion and the 
independence of the Germanic states, is here related by Schiller, whose name 
is scarcely second to Goethe's in the modern continental literature. 

" We are really grateful to Mr. Constable for having introduced this excellent history 
into his 'Miscellany.' It bears throughout the stamp of genius; it is distin^ished in 
every part by deep research, order, and perspicuity; by an enlightened humanity, sound 
policy, a noble and manly philosophy, an ardent admiration of liberty, and, above all, by 
an uncompromising love of truth, rarely met with in an historian."— ioMcfow Weekly 

" Of the present translation, we have to say, that it is like every thing of the kind 
which has issued from Mr. Moir's hands— the most perfect specimen of correct and spi- 
rited transmutation."- 5co<« Times. 

8 constable's miscellany. 


of the Manners, Customs, Dresses, Arts, Literature, &c. of Great 

Britain, from the time of the Saxons down to the 18th Century. 

By Richard Thomson, Esq. 

Author of " Chronicles of London Bridge," &c. 

This is a proper supplement to the history of England, and enables the his- 
torical student to understand the causes and course of many events, which, 
from the change of customs and feelings, might otherwise appear absurd or 
even incredible. 


LITERATURE, for 1827. 

An authentic memoir of Canning, and a judicious account of the establish- 
ment of the independence of the South American republics, give to this 
volume a more permanent interest than its title appears to claim. 



By J. G. LocKHART, L.L.B. 

The editor of the Quarterly has never written anything more creditable to 
his head and to his heart than the life of Burns. 

" We have read with unmixed delight his Life of Bums. — An original work of great 
power and beauty."— Z,OMrfo« Weekly Review. 

" Among the men of power who have written worthily of our great national poet, Mr. 
Lockhart will now be numbered, and his Life of Barns will occupy a high place in our 
biographical literature. The whole of this Life of Burns is honourable alike to the bio- 
grapher's head and ht^rt."— Blackwood's Magazine. 

"He uniformly treats Burns as the high and remarkable man the public voice has long 
pronounced him to be. The book gives more insight into the true character of Burns than 
any prior biography."— JBcfmftMr^rA Review. 



By Henry Glassford Bell, Esq. 

Few biographies are more interesting than that of the unfortunate Marj' 
Stuart — none has given rise to more lengthened and more angry controversy. 
In these two volumes the principal events of her hapless life are detailed with 
great clearness, and the evidence for and against her stated very impartially. 

" What we have read of it we have read with more than common delight."— ionrfon 
PVeekly Review. 

" The work is animated and eloquent; and we may add, that it bears marks of care 
and research. The narrative is ample and satisfactory, and the accuracy of every im- 
portant fact is vouched by reference to authorities."— £f/z>iAj<ryA JVeekly Journal. 

"As a biographical work, it is the highest praise to say, that it is not unworthy of the 
■abject." — Caledonian Mercury. 

constable's miscellany. u 


By the Venerable Archdeacon Wrangham. 

In this volume the truth of Christianity is proved by seven successive and 
independent series of arguments ; each separately is a perfect demonstration, 
but the effect of the whole united is irresistible. 

" We hail this well-timed publication with great pleasure. This is the true ' book' (of 
human origin) ' of the Christian Church.'"— London PVeekly Revieiv. 

viz. — I. Journal of a Soldier of the 71st Regiment. — II. The 
Spanish Campaign of 1808. By Adam Neale, M.D. F.L.S. — 
III. Despatch after the Battle of Corunna. By Lieut. -Gen. Sir 
John Hope. — IV. Reminiscences of a Campaign in the Pyrenees 
and South of France. By John Malcolm, Esq. — V. Memoirs 
of the War of the French in Spain. By M. de RoccA. — VI. 
Narratives of the Battles of Quatre-Bras, Ligny, and Waterloo. — 
VII. Death of Napoleon Bonaparte. 

The history of the late war was a subject too interesting and important to 
be omitted in the Miscellany : these volumes contain the narratives of those 
eye-witnesses who had the best capacity and opportunity for observation, and 
who were least likely to have their judgments warped by partiality or preju- 

" Well selected, and, where original, extremely interesting."— Z.t7er«ry Gazette. 

" These records of British courage and constancy will sometimes soothe under disaster, 
by bringing to remembrance the greater sufferings of others; and they will produce many 
a patriotic throb, when the British soldier, as he reads these pages, thinks of his country, 
and looks upon her banner, and hears of her glory, in all ends of the earth."— Caledonian 



and some of the Southern Provinces of the Austrian Empire, 

in 1820, 21, 22. 

By John Russell, Esq. 

The influence of German literature on the English mind is daily becoming 
stronger, and it is therefore useful to have the means of determining what 
result that influence will have, by seeing an account of the effects it has pro- 
duced in its native land. 

" We must say, that we do not recollect to have met with a more reasonable traveller, 
or, indeed, with many authors of any description, who have more successftilly united 
amusement with solid information, or entered on so great a variety of subjects, with so 
little hazard of being represented as either tedious or superficial." — Edinburgh Review. 

" Universally aclaiowledged to be the best of the multifarious works descriptive of that 
ccrantry that has recently &ippea.ied."— Edinburgh Observer. 

10 constable's miscellany. 


under Montrose and others, from 1638 to 1660. 

By Robert Chambers, Author of "The Rebellion in 1745," &c. 

These volumes contain several striking illustrations of the most powerful 
scenes described in the Waverley novels. 

J ?*'^"P'*"''^"^^* shidded his pages with numerons anecdotes, traits of character, 
and local incidents, which excite the attention, and transpose the reader to the scenes he 
represents. We identify ourselves with the period, and imagine we see before us the 
peaked hats, black cloaks, the stern faces, and ferocious hearts', of that most religious era 
of history."— New Mmithly Magazine. 

''They are, in fact, living pictures of the men and events they represent, and place 
both before us with all the force and truth of ocular demonstration."— 5oo<« Times. 

" Amply do these pages repay the perusal. We most cordially recommend, not only 
these volumes, but the wnole Miscellany, of which they form an interesting part Prettily 
got up, neatly printed, and very moderate in price, we know of no literary collection 
more worthy of public patronage."— i.?<er«rj/ Gazette. 


from the Subversion of the Roman Empire in the West, till the 
Abdication of Bonaparte. 

From the French of C. W. Koch, by Andrew Crichton., 

Koch's Revolutions are in fact the grammar of modern history, and as such 
deserve to be studied most diligently. The three volumes contain a distinct 
and accurate outline of all the great changes that have occurred in Europe 
since the Roman empire was broken up, details the causes that have produced 
the rise and fall of its various dynasties, and shows to what concatenation 
of events its present political condition must be ascribed. 

"This is a valuable and an interesting work, every page of which teems with import- 
ant Kr\o-w\eAgt."—Edi7iburgh Literary Joiinml. 
" This work, to the student in history, is an invaluable treasure."— Ca»7t«/e Journal. 




By Captain John Dundas Cochrane, R.N. 

A pedestrian tour by a captain in the royal navy is such a strange anomaly, 
that the volumes cannot fail to be amusing, but they possess much higher 
merits, for they afford us valuable information respecting the remote pro- 
vinces of Russia, which cannot be obtained from any other source. 

"These are amusing volumes. The author does every thing, and says every thing, in 
such a frank manner, that he wins our liking even when he has little to tell vl&."— Scots 

constable's miscellany. 11 



By Derwent Conway, Author of" Spain in 1830," &c. 

This volume contains an animated description of the magnificent scenery 
of Norway, and many interesting particulars respecting the present inhabit- 
ants of that country, which produced the heroic sea-kings, the conquerors of 
England, of France, and of Sicily. 

"A more amusing volume has not, for some time, attracted our notice. Altogether this 
httle volume is well worthy of its place in the excellent collection to which it belongs '* 
—Literary Gazette. ^ ' 




By J. S, Memes, L.L.D. Author of ^' The Life of Canova," &c. 

The histories of the plastic art are, for the most part, too technical for un- 
professional readers, and too expensive for ordinary purchasers. In this 
volume will be found an account of the progress of these arts, sufficiently po- 
pular for general purposes, and at the same time so accurate, as not to be 
beneath the notice of men of science. 

" 1T»is work is entitled to a high rank among the elegant literature of the day."— St/m- 
bnrgh Ltterary Jow-nal. •' 

"Of the work itself, suffice it to say, that we deem it one of the most useiul of the many 
usefal volumes of that well-selected library of instraction and amusement."— 5co<« Times. 



from its establishment in 1326 to 1828. 

By E. Upham, Esq. Author of " The History of Budhism," &c. 

The fortunes of the Turkish empire, in its rise, progress, and decay, present 
phenomena unparalleled in the annals of nations. This is the only English 
work that contains the modern history of the Turkish people, and indeed all 
the former histories were very expensive, and are now so rare as not to be 
acquired without difficulty. 

. " Mr. Upham's history of this remarkable people is composed with much candour and 
impartiality ; and contains a great deal of information not to be met with in any other 
English book with which we are acquainted."— £dm6M/-£^A Literary Journal. 



MAR, in 1689 and 1715. 

By R. Chambers, Author of " The Rebellion in Scotland in 1 745." 

«I!.Tv 'k,'*"'^ '^''^'^™^ ^°'\*3'l!^ ^ far more distinct and satisfactory view of these two 
^eSjournaf^ '" Scottish history than is anywhere else to be fomid."-Edinburffh 





connected with European History. 

By J. P. Lawson, M.A. 

In these volumes are contained accounts of the assassinations of James I 
and James III. of Scotland; the history of Fresco's conspiracy against Genoa • 
the history of the death of Don Carlos, which has afforded such a powerful 
thenie to our best modern dramatists ; the Gowrie conspiracy and the raid of 
JK-uthven; the plot against Venice, the subject of Otway's great tragedy; the 
history of Massaniello ; and an impartial account of the Gunpowder and Meal- 
tub plots in England. 



By the late Rev. Gilbert White, M.A. 

With Additions, by Sir W. Jardine, Bart. Author of 
" Illustrations of Ornithology," &c. 

Few works have enjoyed a more enviable or merited popularity than the 
natural History of Selborne; the observations of a naturalist, enthusiastically 
devoted to the contemplation of the works of creation, written as they were 
suggested by the phenomena, with all the accuracy, but without the parade of 
science, constitute a volume whose peculiar interest can scarcely be paralleled, 
ihe labours of the editor have added many curious facts in animal economy, 
uerived from the researches of modern naturalists. 

fi.r AT'?'^-"^i!1!£^?^? of science, as well as general readers, agree in considering one of 
the most dehghtfal books ever written.-'-ATejt, Monthly Magazhie. 

issJalZ'^e'^S'^^&Z'uZ''' """'"^' '"'' "'^"'^ ^''^"^^ philosophy, that ever 

An AUTUMN in ITALY ; being a TOUR in the AUSTRIAN, 


By J. D. Sinclair, Esq. 

The condition of modern Italy is hourly becoming a matter of greater im- 
portance to Europe, on account of the consequences with which it is pregnant. 
1 his volume is, at the same time, a guide to the traveller and the politician; 
the former will find it a useful director, the latter will see described in it those 
elements of future strife which soon threaten to be fatally developed. 

snhiP^Ptf°iflr/K'°r^^'I',I^^"''';"*?:°^^"/",™''*'°°' °^ » Sre^^ "'"'Cty of important 
fn-n fhp Jin ^^^'^i f^ *'"' ^''"l." ^ ""^^^^ '"^'' accurate knowledge, he is sure to find 
It in the volame now before us;'— Scots Times. 

" Mr. Sinclair's manner of communicating the substance of notes takenonatour through 
f^Tf,i„ *"« P'^asantest regions of Europe, is entertaining and unaftected. People poing 
o^rnnv ™„ri^l\; "*• l^""^-^ 1'''°'^ the book into a corner of their portmanteau; it will not 

T^ All * inches, which, in our opiuion, can scarcely be better employed." 

constable's miscellany. 13 



comprising the History of the Commonwealth, from the year 
1642 to the Restoration of Charges 11. in 1660. 

By M. Russell, L.L.D. 

On the interesting period of history embraced by these volumes, many 
valuable works have been published, but they are, lor the most part, so dis- 
figured by the virulence of party, that they are unsafe guides for the histori- 
cal student. This work not only contains the biography of the Protector, but 
also a full account of the times in which he lived, the parties by which he was 
supported, and those with which he had to contend, the public policy of the 
period, and the private influence by which that policy was controlled. 

" We rejoice, therefore, that the biography of that remarkable man has fallen into the 
hands of a writer who brings to his task so much diligence, research, moderation, good 
feeling, and good sense, as Dr. Russell has manifested in the volumes before us." — British 

" We have not met with any work which does more ample justice to the subject, or 
conveys more instruction to the Tedder."— Times, 


including the History of the Conquest of Mexico. 

By Don Telesforo de Trueba. 

The interest that always attaches to the story of a life, is in this volume 
united to the importance of the greatest event that modern history records ; 
an event that at once changed the entire face of Europe, and whose influence, 
even on private life, was scarcely of less magnitude than its effect on public 

" A very succinct and interesting narrative of very extraordinary events.'"— Lit. Gaz. 

" The narrative is most animated and graphic, and for breathless interest is equal to 
any romance ■vrhf^tevex.''''— Edinburgh fVeekly Journal. 

" He has told the tale of Cortes with a good deal of spirit. It cannot be read without a 
liTCly interest."— 7%c Athenaeum. 

L. LI. 


By the Rev. Henry Stebbing, M.A. 

These two volumes contain more information than can be found in any 
English work on these very interesting subjects. 

" One of the best of the series in Constable's Miscellany. Style clear, sentiments and 
opinions just, descriptions picturesque, and the stream of narrative strong and flowing. 
Mr. Stebbing is a rising yrtiier."— Blackwood's Magazine. 

" It shows a cultivated mind, judicious reflection, much care in the execution, and is, 
altogether, one that merits a cordial recommendation."— ionrfoM Literary Gazette. 

" A work replete with that most attractive kind of interest which springs from a mix- 
ture of the very id,eal of romantic incident and feeling, with the absolutes of history."— 
Coicrt Journal. 

14 constable's miscellany. 

By W. C. Stafford, 
The treatises on the history of Music, like those on the plastic arts, were so 
expensive and technical, that the proprietors of Constable's Miscellany deemed 
that It would be no unacceptable service to procure a work on such a delight- 
ful subject, whose price should be within the reach, and whose matter within 
the comprehension of all classes. 

" The present little volume embodies much information toucliing the origin, composi- 
tion, and performers from the earliest period till the present A^y .--Literacy Gazette. 

We are thankful to Mr. Staiford for the coup d-oeil of the science which he has thus 
presented, for the information which he has so industriously collected. We cordiallv 
recommend this little volume to the notice of the general reader."— Z,a Belle AssembUe. 



with the History of his Struggle for the Independence of Scotland. 

By John D. Carrick, Esq. 

The name of Wallace is too deeply engraven on the hearts of all who love 
their country, no matter to what nation or clime they belong, for us to doubt 
that any person can read these volumes without feeling himself elevated by 
the consciousness that he belongs to the same species as the hero. 

" The best history with which we are acquainted of those important events, which, 
under the auspices of that hero and patriot, led to the re-establishment of Scottish iaAs- 
pendemey—Edmburah Literary Journal. 

''We conscientiously think that the ability and research he has displayed in illus- 
trating this important period in Scottish history entitle the author to the gratitude of • 
nis country." — Inverness Courier. 

By Robert Chambers. 
These volumes, besides being of great importance to all students of English 
history, possess no small interest for the lovers of romance, since they con- 
tain the principal legends on which Scott has founded his tale, The Fortunes 
of Nigel. 

" Pull of curious details, and amusing anecdotes, forming two most entertaining vo- 
lumes."— Literary Gazette. 
" In every respect a clever work, strictly impartial, and well digested."— 5im. 


from the French of BouRRiENNE, Private Secretary 
to the Emperor. 
By John S. Memes, LL.D. 

Bourrienne was the playmate of Napoleon in early life, his companion 
through his first campaigns, and his private secretary after he had reached 
the summit of power. He has made the best use of his opportunities, and 
has revealed to us more of Napoleon's real character as a man, than any of 
the countless writers that have attempted his biography. 

" VVe know from the best political authority now living in England, that the writer's 
accounts are perfectly corroborated by tdicts."— Literary Gazette. 

constable's miscellany. 15 



By Thomas Keightley, Esq. 

This is the best and almost the only complete account of the Greek war of 
independence, and its details furnish us with better descriptions of the mo- 
dern Greek character than any other English work can supply. 

" No one can read, without emotion, this plain and unvarnished narrative of dauntless 
valour, devotfd heroism, and unwearied perseverance in the cause of liberty, which 
would not have been unworthy of the best days of ancient Greece. The style is concise, 
perspicuous, and unpretending."— 2^er6i/«AMe Courier. 



By Don Telesforo de Trueba y Cosio. 

The establishment of the independence of the South American republics 
■was attended by circumstances little understood in Europe, from the ignorance 
that prevailed respecting the ancient history of the Spanish colonies. This 
volume contains very valuable information on the subject, and is, besides, more 
than ordinarily interesting from the pictures it contains of chivalrous enter- 
prize, mixed with mercenary speculation, in the character and conduct of the 
Spanish captains. 

" The material has been collected with much industry, and arranged with great spi- 
rit." — Literary Gazette. 



from the Institution of the Hospitallers of St. John, in 1099, till 

the Political Extinction of the Order, by Napoleon, in 1800. 

By Alexander Sutherland, Esq. 

The History of the gallant community of the Knights of Malta is the most 
extraordinary union of romantic incident with historic truth that can be ima- 
gined. There never was a narrative, each i>age of which was crowded with 
such strange and important events, and each sentence more replete with ex- 
citing interest, than that contained in these volumes. 

" Most admirably has Mr. Sutherland sketched their chivalrous and romantic deeds." — 


By J. A. St. John, Esq. 

This volume contains some very delightful descriptions of rustic manners 
in d part of France rarely visited by tourists, and is replete with valuable in- 
struction for those whom circumstances or inclination may lead to seek either 
a permanent or temporary abode among our Gallic neighbours. 

" It is full of sound and healthy remark, new or hitherto unappropriated facts, and, 
strange to say, light yet learned annotation and research. Its perusal is like reading a 
.letter from relatives settled in another clime."— 5eo<s Times, 




By Derwent Conway. 

The countries described in these volumes are rarely visited by ordinary 
tourists, and they are pourtrayed with all that graphic energy which so pecu- 
liarly distinguishes the author's writings. 



with Notes and Additions, by Professor Jameson. 
Of this, the most interesting work on Natural History that ever has been 
published, it is only necessary to say, that the editor has made this edition as 
accurate in science as it is delightful in description. 



By J. S. Memes, Esq. LL.D. 

This life of the faithful but hapless wife of Napoleon, is a very suitable 
companion to Bourrie'nne's Memoirs. 



By W. C. Taylor, M.A. 

These volumes relate the calamitous history of the wars with which Ireland 
has been so long and so frequently devastated, and point out the effect they 
have produced on the present condition of that country. With what success 
the author has treated his subject may be seen by the following extracts 
from periodicals of every shade of political opinion. 

" From the excellent style, and very careful and impartial manner in which these 
volumes are executed, they form one of the best works of that long series of i)ublicationf 
to which Constable's Miscellany has now extended. A good history of the civil wars ol 
Ireland was a desideratum in our literature." — Mo7ithly Eeinew. 

" We can recommend this as the best compendium of Anglo-Irish history that has 
appeared. It is dispassionate, but not dull; concise, but not obscure." — New Monthly 

" We would not desire to enquire into the case of Ireland under better auspices than 
are supplied in the pages before us." — Dublin Morning Register. 

containing, in addition to Descriptive Letter-press, 1 20 Engrav- 
ings, coloured from Nature. 

By Captain Thomas Brown, F.R.S. F.L.S. M.W.S. &c. 





— "^''In the various departmentsT ' 

"~ —OF ^"^ 



Stialt have the air at freedom.: for a little 
Follow and do me service, s^aicspeam 





^ THE 








VOL. I. 




Printed by Andrew Shobtride, TliisUc 1-ai.p, 








Edinburgh, July, ISSv! 


Chap, Ptig6 

Preface, . . . xi 

Introduction, . . . xxiii 
I. On the Physiology of the Eggs of Papilionaceous 

Insects, ... 39 

II. Of the Larva, or Caterpillar State, . . 59 

III. Of the Pupa, or Chrysalis State, . 66 

IV. Of the Senses of Lepidopterous Insects, . 70 

Of Touch, ... 71 

Of Taste, . . . .73 

Of Smell, ... 78 

Of Hearing, . , .85 

Of Vision, ... 86 

Pairing of Lepidopterous Insects, . . 89 

V. Associations and Migrations of Lepidopterous 

Insects, . . . .96 

VI. Indirect Injuries to Mankind from Butterflies, 103 

VIL Means of Defence of Butterflies, . .105 

VIII. Of Malformations of Butterflies, . 107 

IX. Classification of Lepidopterous Insects, . 109 



Genus PAPiLiOy of Linnaeus, 

The Peacock Butterfly, 

The Nettle Tortoise-shell Butterfly, 

The Oriental Emperor, 

The Hector Trojan, 

The Amphrysius Butterfly, 

The Cramerian Butterfly, 

The Galanthus Butterfly, 

The Amphinome Butterfly, 

The Atys Butterfly, 

The Marsyas Butterfly, 

The Imperial Trojan, 

The .Eneas Butterfly, 

The Anchises Butterfly, 

The Andromachus Butterfly, 

The Orange-tip Butterfly, 

The Adonis Butterfly, 

The Great Copper Butterfly, 

The Clouded Yellow Butterfly, 

The Silver Blue Butterfly, 

The Emperor of the Woods, 

The Plantain Fritillary, 

The Archippus Butterfly, 

The Peranthus Butterfly, 

The Swallow-tail Butterfly, 

The Cambei-well Beauty, 

The Brimstone Butterfly, 




The Mazarine-Blue Butterfly, 

The Bolina Butterfly, 

The Brown Hair- Streak Butterfly, 

The Cassia Butterfly, 

The Deiphobus Butterfly, 

The Chalk-hill Blue Butterfly, 

The Phorcas Butterfly, 

The Marbled Butterfly, 

The Purple Hair- Streak Butterfly, 

The Black and Gold Buttei-fly, 

The Caerulean Butterfly, 

The Apollo Butterfly, 

The Forked Butterfly, 

The Large White Cabbage Butterfly, 

The Apaturina Butterfly, 

The Silver Stripe Butterfly, 

The Andromache Butterfly, 

The Nicippe Butterfly, 

The Radiated Butterfly, 

The Small Copper Butterfly, 

The Statirian Butterfly, 

The Licarsis Butterfly, 

The Helenus Butterfly, 

The Phlegia Butterfly, 

The Helius Butterfly, 

The Amalthea Butterfly, 

The Eutrepe Butterfly, 



The Lyncellus Butterfly, . . . 209 

The Charlotte Butterfly, . . . 210 

The Ludovica Butterfly, . . . 211 

The Belise Butterfly, . . . .212 

The Cleona Butterfly, . . . 213 

The Ricini Butterfly, . . .214 


The intention of the following little work is to 
give a popular view of the habits and economy 
of the most elegant of the Linnean orders of 
Insects, and, from the attractive beauty of the 
objects, to excite in the reader some inquiry 
into their history, which, although by no means 
so striking as that of many other departments 
of Entomology, is nevertheless sufficiently won- 
derful to deserve our admiration. 

There are but few individuals who have not 
been struck with the resplendent and gorgeous 
colours of some of the Butterfly tribe : and 
where is the human being who can behold even 
the most simple and unadorned of the species, 
/ (the common Cabbage Butterfly,) without asso- 
ciating with it " the scenes of his childhood, so 

VOL. T. B 


dear to the heart," when chasing the wayward 
roamer from field to field? Who can meet 
with the pupa of one of these animals, without 
feeling anxious to become acquainted with the 
extraordinary process by which so singular a 
production is transformed into an animal of 
such beauty ? 

There are few who have not, at one period 
of their lives, suffered in some way from the 
consuming powers of the caterpillars of various 
tiny Moths, who find ways of insinuating 
themselves into the inmost recesses of the most 
sacred repositories, and, if undisturbed, quickly 
destroy the finest cloths and most valuable furs. 
The means by which they eifect this, forms not 
the least interesting part of their history. 

Part of our inquiry will embrace the instincts 
and economy of an animal which has, for nearly 
two thousand years, contributed to our comfort, 
the elegance of our attire, and our commercial 
and mercantile prosperity,— namely, the Silk, 
worm Moth. Of the millions who wear, in one 
form or another, the beautiful and durable 
fabrics manufactured from the cocoon of this 
little creature, how few, comparatively, know 



any thing of the habits of the animal by which 
it is produced ! On this division of the subject 
I have been pretty full, shewing the extent and 
importance of the manufacture to Great Britain, 
as well as to many continental states. If I have 
descended to too statistical a detail, I trust the 
importance of the subject will make amends for 
what naturalists might consider as a fault. 

In the selection of illustrations, I have in 
some instances been guided more by the singu- 
larity of the shape and markings of the insect, 
than by the beauty and variety of the colours. 
It is not pretended that the figures are by any 
means entitled to consideration as works of art, 
but, such as they are, it is presumed that a 
work, requiring the same labour, and executed 
in a similar style, has not before been offered to 
the public at so cheap a rate. Another edition 
can never appear at the same price, nor would 
the present, had not the publishers pledged 
themselves to their numerous subscribers. 

I have chosen the Linnean arrangement in 

preference to that of Latreille, or other cele^ 

brated modern authors : not that I think it 

-more perfect, but because it will be more easily 


understood by the general reader, for whose use 
the book is chiefly intended. I have, at the same 
time, as much as possible, stript the descriptions 
of such terms as can be understood only by 
the technical entomologist. 

When the reader has perused this book, 
which embraces so trifling a department of 
Entomology, I hope that he may be induced to 
dip deeper into a science which, although it has 
been much neglected, abounds nevertheless in 
wonderful and diversified manifestations of 
creative wisdom. It contains, besides, objects 
of equal beauty to any other department of 
Natural History, possessed of forms which, if 
not so grand as that of the noblest of animated 
beings, are certainly more remarkable for 
the singularity of their conformation, and the 
striking peculiarity of their habits. 

Entomology is, of all branches of natural 
science, the most comprehensive. There appears 
to be no limits to it ; and I am convinced, that 
of the minuter species we do not know a fiftieth 
part. Microscopic investigation has shewn, 
that, so far as the power of a lens could lead us, 
the most minute insect we have yet discovered 


is liable to be inhabited by a parasite infinitely 
more minute than itself. The mind of man, in 
the contemplation of phenomena so astonishing, 
is lost in wonder. 

Although Entomology met with some atten- 
tion from the earliest natural historians, yet 
it has, till very lately, been much neglected, 
from the circumstance of its being considered a 
trifling and childish pursuit. We are told by 
Harris, in his description of the Plantain, or 
Glanville, Fritillary, (Plate 22. of this work,) 
that " This Fly took its name from the ingenious 
Lady Glanville, whose memory had nearly 
suffered for her curiosity. Some relations that 
were disappointed by her Will, attempted to set 
it aside by acts of lunacy ; for they suggested, 
that none but those who were deprived of their 
senses would go in pursuit of Butterflies. Her 
relations and legatees cited Sir Hans Sloane 
and Mr Rae to support her character. The 
last gentleman went to Exeter, and on the trial 
satisfied the judge and jury of the lady's 
laudable inquiry into the wonderful works of 
Creation, and established her Will."* 

* Harris's Aurelian, p. 27. 


The accomplished and atniable Sir Joseph 
Banks, it will be remembered, came under the 
satirical lash of Dr Walcot's pen for a similar 
reason. But, notwithstanding, he has left behind 
him an imperishable name. 

Another cause why this inexhaustible and 
Interesting study till lately made so little 
progress in Britain, was the want of elementary 
books. But this is now completely obviated, 
first, by the delightful and amusing Introduction 
to Entomology^ by Messrs Kirby and Spence, 
in four volumes, the first of which appeared in 
1813; and, subsequently, by the more technical 
introduction of Mr Samouelle ; and, still more 
recently, by the popular productions of Professor 
Rennie, entitled Insect Transformations, Insect 
Architecture, and Insect Miscellanies. 

The pursuit of nature carries along with it 
many charms, and there is no division of the 
subject beneath the attention of man. " Even 
in favour of the mere butterfly hunter, he who has 
no higher aim than that of collecting a picture 
of Lepidoptera, and is attached to insects solely 
by their beauty or singularity, it would not be 
difficult to say much. Can it be necessary to 


declaim on the superiority of a people, amongst 
whom intellectual pleasures, however trifling, are 
preferred to mere animal gratifications ? Is it a 
thing to be lamented, that some of the Spitalfield 
weavers occupy their leisure hours in searching 
for Papilio Adonis, and others of the more 
splendid Lepidoptera, instead of spending them 
in playing at skittles, or in an alehouse. Or is 
there, in truth, any thing more to be wished 
than that the cutlers of Sheffield were accus- 
tomed to employ their Saint Mondays^ and to 
recreate themselves after a hard day's work, by 
breathing the pure air of their surrounding hills, 
while in search of this ' untaxed and undisputed 
game.' " * 

Crabbe, in his poem of The Borough^ beauti- 
fully illustrates the pleasure to be derived from 
pursuits of this kind: — 

Oft have 1 smiled the happy pride to see 
Of humble tradesmen in their evening glee, 
When of some pleasing fancied good possest, 
Each grew alert, was busy, and was blest ; 

* KiRBY and Spence's Introduction to Entomology, 
vol. i. p. 43. 


Whether the call-bird yield the hour's delight, 
Or, magnified in microscope, the mite, 
Or whether tumblers, croppers, carriers, seize 
The gentle mind, they rule it, and they please. 

There is my friend the weaver, — strong desires 

Reign in his breast ; 'tis beauty he admires : 

See ! to the shady grove he wings his way, 

And feels in hope the rapture of the day ; 

Eager he looks, and soon to glad his eyes, 

From the sweet bower by Nature form'd arise 

Bright troops of virgin moths, and fresh-bom butterflies, 

Who brake that morning from their half-year's sleep, 

To fly o'er flowers, where they were wont to creep. 

Above the sovereign oak, a sovereign skims. 
The Purple Emp'ror, strong in wing and limbs ; 
There fair Camilla takes her flight serene, 
Adonis blue, and Paphia, silver queen ; 
With every filmy fly, from mead to bower. 
And hungry Sphinx, who threads the honey'd flower ; 
She o'er the Larkspur's bed, where sweets abound, 
Views ev'ry bell, and hums the approving sound ; 
Poised on her easy plumes, with feeling nice. 
She draws from every flower, nor tries a floret twice. 
He fears no bailiff's wrath, no baron's blame. 
His is untax'd and undisputed game. * 

* Page 110. 


We hope the time is now gone by when a 
defence of any department of natural history is 
necessary. Should any one ask what is the use 
of the pursuit, we would answer, first, that in 
a contemplation of the many wonders which 
present themselves, even in the study of 
Butterflies, Sphinges, and Moths, there will 
be found much to excite our admiration, and 
sufficient to shew us that a knowledge of their 
history enables us to guard against the ravages of 
some of the destructive species. It also enables 
us to turn the produce of others to highly useful 
purposes, and even to give employment to tens 
of thousands of our fellow men. But a consi- 
deration, of a still higher kind than its palpable 
utility, recommends the study of Nature to 
mankind: it is an inexhaustible source of rational 
and innocent amusement, and a delightful 
exercise of our reasoning faculties. In surveying 
the wondrous works of Creation, even in the 
simplest of forms, we are naturally led to admit 
the truth of the maxim, that " the contemplation 
of Nature raises the mind up to Nature's God." 
There can hardly remain a doubt, that all His 


works were designed to afford His rational 
creatures useful and pleasing instruction. The 
wisest of men says, " Go to the ant, thou 
sluggard, and be wise."* The inspired Jeremiah 
says, in reference to the knowledge of the stork 
and swallow, that they are aware of their 
" appointed times," and " the times of their 
coming."f Our Saviour directs the attention of 
man to the fowls of the air, and the lilies of the 
field, as affording good moral lessons. St 
Paul, in his refutation of the gainsayers in their 
philosophical unbelief, impugns their false doc- 
trines, by an illustration of the possibility of the 
resurrection from the dead, drawn from the 
ordinary process of vegetation. J A closer 
analogy will, however, I think, be found in the 
transformation of Insects; as is more fully 
illustrated in our observations on the Sphinx 

Wherever the student of Nature turns his 
eye, he perceives objects which command his 

* Proverbs, vi. 6. f Jeremiah, viii. 7. 

\ Corinthians, xv. 36, &c. § Plate 62. 


admiration and his wonder ; deep reflection on 
these leads him to 

Find tongues in trees, books in the living brooks, 
Sermons in stones, and good in every thing. 

" In a moral view, " says an anonymous writer, 
" I shall not, I believe, be contradicted when I 
say, that, if one train of thinking be more 
desirable than another, it is that which regards 
tlie phenomena of nature with a constant refe- 
rence to a supreme intelligent Author. To 
have made this the ruling, the habitual sentiment 
of our minds, is to have laid the foundation of 
every thing which is religious. The world 
thenceforth becomes a temple, and life itself one 
continued act of adoration. The change is no 
less than this ; that whereas, formerly, God was 
seldom in our thoughts, we can now scarcely 
look upon any thing without perceiving its 
relation to Him. Every organized natural body, 
in the provisions it contains, for its sustentation 
and propagation, testifies a care on the part of 
the Creator, expressly directed to these pur- 
poses. We are on all sides surrounded by such 
bodies — examined in their parts, wonderfully 


curious — compared with one another, no less 
wonderfully diversified, — so that the mind, as 
well as the eye, may either expatiate in variety 
and multitude, or fix itself down to the inves- 
tigation of particular divisions of the science. 
And in either case it will rise up from its 
occupation possessed by the subject in a very 
different manner, and with a very diiferent 
degree of influence, from what a mere assent 
to any verbal proposition which can be formed 
concerning the existence of the Deity — at least 
that merely complying assent with which those 
about us are satisfied, and with which we are 
too apt to satisfy ourselves, — will or can produce 
upon the thoughts. More especially may this 
diiference be perceived in the degree of admira- 
tion and of awe with which the Divinity is 
regarded, when represented to the understand- 
ing by its own remarks, its own reflections, and 
its own reasonings, compared with what is 
excited by any language that can be used by 


The wonderful metamorphoses of insects affords a 
pleasing subject of contemplation to the human mindj 
and what in early ages seems to have been known as 
an undoubted fact, especially by the Greeks and 
Romans, was held to be merely imaginary in Britain, 
so late as the year 1634. Sir Theodore Mayerne, 
who edited Mouffet's work on insects, entitled Insec- 
torum sive Animalium Theatruniy says, " that if 
animals are transmuted, so may metals." 

These astonishing and diversified transitions in 
the insect tribes, so well known to the ancients, gave 
a colouring to, and excited a belief in, many of the 
metamorphoses recorded by their poets. They were 
utterly unacquainted with the truths of modern 
physiological discoveries, so that the fact of a cater- 
pillar being transformed into a butterfly, must have 
appeared to them sufficient to upset all unbelief in the 
transmigration of souls. There can be but little doubt 
that the principles of metempsychosis originated from 


this cause. Nothing could appear to them more con- 
firmatory of the doctrine, than that an inert aureha 
should be again transformed into a living body. The 
only method they had for accounting for this, was, 
that it had been tenanted by the soul of some 
wretch whose misdeeds on earth had merited such a 

In the institutes of Mense, we are told that a priest 
who has drunk wine, shall migrate into a moth or fly, 
and be doomed to feed on ordure ; and that the man 
who steals gold from a priest, shall inhabit a thousand 
times the bodies of spiders. If any one steal honey, 
he shall be re-born a great stinging gnat. Shake- 
speare puts the same idea into the words of old 
Christopher Sly, the drunken tinker, in the Induc- 
tion to the Taming of the Shreiv. " Am I not old 
Sly's son, by birth a pedlar, by education a card- 
maker, by tr-ansmutation a bear-herd, and by 
profession a tinker." 

The story of the phoenix arising from its own 
ashes, is no doubt of similar origin. The tradition 
is, that it lives five or six hundred years in the 
wilderness, and when thus advanced in age, builds 
itself a pile of sweet wood and aromatic gums, and 
firing it with the wafting of its wings, thus destroys 
itself; while from its ashes arises a worm, which in 
time grows up to be again a phoenix. 


In the Annals of Tacitus, * it is stated, that, in 
the year 787 of Rome, the phoenix revisited Egypt, 
which created much speculation among the learned. 
The accounts of the longevity of this creature vary 
from five hundred to one thousand five hundred 
years. It vv'as considered sacred to the sun. 

The ancients made many allusions to the wonderful 
changes which the insect tribes undergo, and built 
a number of their fictions on them. The mytho- 
logical tale of Cupid and Psyche, is an allegory of 
the human soul, which is sometimes cherished, and 
sometimes tormented by the passions. Psyche, in 
Greek -^w/jKy signifies the soul, as also a butterfly ; 
shewing that the ancients were sufficiently struck 
with the transformation of the butterfly, and its 
revival from a seeming temporary death. Cupid is 
an emblem of desire. Psyche is frequently repre- 
sented by a butterfly, not merely from the beautiful 
appearance of that insect, but on account of its 
surviving the chrysalis condition ; and this breaking 
from its confinement certainly finely designates man's 
future existence, after he shall rise from the dead. 
This fable is perhaps the invention of Apuleius, as no 
mention of Psyche, nor any allusion to such amours 
of Cupid, occurs in any Greek or Latin writer of an 

* Book vi, sect. 28. 


earlier date. Apuleius calls it an old woman's story ; 
and puts it into the mouth of an old hag in a cave of 
robbers, to soothe the grief of a young lady, their 

It is worthy of remark, that the figures of Cupid 
and Psyche embracing, are found on many of the 
gems called Abraxas, from the name of the Egyptian 
deity, whose worship the Gnostics and Basilidians in 
Syria and Egypt contrived to blend with miscon- 
ceived notions of Christianity. These gems were 
used as amulets, or charms, against various maladies 
and perils. 

The learned senator Philip Buonarotti, attempts to 
shew that the fable of Cupid and Psyche is derived 
from the solemn mysteries of love, celebrated among 
the Thespians, &c. and carefully concealed from the 
profanation of the vulgar eye. It is highly probable 
that of the many gems in which the God of Love fs 
variously represented, with or without the butterfly, 
a great number are anterior to the time of Apuleius 
and allude to sacred ceremonies ; that the butterfly 
was displayed in these rites as a symbol of the soul ; 
and that the gems which bear the figure of Cupid 
chasing, tormenting, caressing, and sporting with a 
butterfly, are emblematic of desire acting on the 
human soul : but it does not follow that they have 
any allusion to a fiction resembling that of Apuleius. 


They are probably founded on allegories of more 
ancient and more sublime invention. 

These days are gone by; the metamorphoses, 
now thoroughly known, have been stript of their 
tales of marvel. 

The transformations of insects, more correctly 
speaking, consist rather in a series of developments 
than in any absolute metamorphosis ; being only a 
transition of changes in organs which lay concealed 
from human view, the caterpillar being compound in 
its nature, with the germs of the imago state hidden 
in a succession of cases. The first is the covering of 
the pupa, which is concealed within three or four 
mantles, the one over the other ; these will in succes- 
sion enrobe the larva, and, as it enlarges, the parts 
become visible, and are alternately thro\\Ti off, until 
the perfect insect emerges from its confinement. 
The celebrated Swammerdam found, by dissection, 
the skins of the larva and pupa enveloped in each 
other, and also the butterfly with all its organs, but 
these in a fluid state. Malpighi discovered within 
the chrysalis of a silkworm, that was only a few days 
old, the eggs of the future moth : and those of the 
Bombyx dispar were discovered by Reaumur within 
the caterpillar, only seven days before its change into 
the aurelia state. 
. Although these discoveries disprove all miracu-lous 

VOL. I, C 


intervention, still we are wonderstnick on reflecting- 
that this simple larva, when first it emerges from the 
egg, not thicker than a thread of silk, should contain 
its own triple, or in some cases its octuple covering, — 
the mask of an aurelia and a butterfly, folded in the 
most astonishing manner over each other ; and besides 
these, dififerent respiratory and digestive organs, 
a nervous system, and muscles of motion peculiar to 
each stage of its existence. It is inconceivable how 
these successive changes should be effected, through 
the agency of the food which it takes into its stomach 
during the caterpillar state. And what is still more 
incomjirehensible, is, that this stomach, at one time, 
is incapable of digesting vegetable food, the nectar of 
flowers being all it can contain. In this perfect 
condition, it is deprived of the very organs by which 
it could feed on vegetable matter, and is supplied 
by a proboscis for sipping the honey. It is no less 
remarkable, how, at one period of its existence, it 
emits from that stomach a substance for the formation 
of silky filaments, which in its imago condition, it is 
incapable of doing. 

The knowledge of all these facts shut out the strict 
analogy which existed, before their discovery, between 
the transformation of lepidopterous insects, and the 
resurrection of the human body; yet there is a striking 
picture of that eventful change. Swammerdam, the 


fery person whose discoveries have rendered this 
analogy less complete than it had been before his 
time imagined, still impressed with the singular tran- 
sitions, says, " this process is formed in so remarkable 
a manner in butterflies, that we see therein the resur- 
rection painted before our eyes, and exemplified so 
as to be examined by our hands." * 

The Rev. Mr Kirby makes this interesting allusion 
to the subject : " But although the analogy between 
the different states of insects, and those of the body 
of man, is only general, yet it is much more complete 
with respect to his soul. He first appears in this frail 
body — a child of the earth — a crawling worm — his 
soul being in a course of training and preparation for 
a more perfect and glorious existence. When it has 
finished this course, it casts off this vile body, and 
goes into a hidden state of being in Hades, where it 
rests from its works, and is prepared for its final 
consummation. The time for this being arrived, it 
comes forth clothed with a glorious body, not like its 
former, though germinating from it, for though * it 
was sown an animal body, it shall be raised a spiritual 
body,' endowed with augmented powers, faculties 
and privileges commensurate to its new and happy 
state. And here the parallel holds perfectly between 

• Hill's Swammerdam, vol. i. p. 127, a. 


the insect and the man. The butterfly, the represen- 
tative of the soul, is prepared in the larva for its 
future state of glory ; and if it be not destroyed by 
the ichneumons and other enemies to which it is 
exposed, symbolical of the vices that destroy the 
spiritual life of the soul, it will come to its state of 
repose in the pupa, which is its Hades ; and at length, 
when it assumes the imagoy break forth with new 
powers and beauty to its final glory, and the reign of 
love. So that, in this view of the subject, well might 
the Italian poet exclaim, — 

Non v*accorgete voi, che noi siam vermi, 
Natl a formar Tangelica farfalla."* 

These ideas are beautifully developed in the fol- 
lowing little poem, in which the progress of the 
insect is correctly depicted: — 


The shades of night were scarcely fled. 
The air was mild, the winds were still. 

And slow the slanting sunbeams spread 
O'er wood and lawn, o'er heath and hill. 

• Do you not perceive that we are caterpillars, born to fori 
the angelic butterfly ? 


From fleecy clouds of pearly hue 

Had dropt a short but balmy shower, 
That hung like gems of morning dew 

On every tree and every flower. 

And from the blackbird's mellow throat 

Was pour'd so loud and long a swell. 
As echoed with responsive note 

From mountain side and shadowy dell. 

When, bursting forth to life and light, 

The offspring of enraptured May, 
The Butterfly, on pinions bright, 

Lanch'd in full splendour on the day. 

Unconscious of a mother's care. 

No infant wretchedness she knew; 
But as she felt the vernal air. 

At once to full perfection grew. 

Her slender form, ethereal light. 

Her velvet-textured wings enfold ; 
With all the rainbow's colours bright. 

And dropt with spots of burnish'd gold. 

Trembling with joy a while she stood. 

And felt the sun's enlivening ray ; 
Drank from the skies the vital flood. 

And wonder'd at her plumage gay ! 

And balanced oft her broider'd wings, 
Through fields of air prepared to sail ; 

Then on her vent'rous journey springs. 
And floats along the rising gale. 


Go, child of pleasure, range the fiel<b. 

Taste all the joys that Spring can give^ 
Partake what bounteous Summer yields,. 

And live, whilst yet 'tis thine to live. 
Go, sip the rose's fragrant dew. 

The lily's honey'd cup explore. 
From flower to flower the search renew,. 

And rifle aU the woodbine's store ; 

And let me trace thy vagrant flight. 
Thy moments, too, of short repose. 

And mark thee then with fresh delight 
Thy golden pinions ope and close. 

But, hark ! whilst thus I musing stand. 
Pours on the gale an airy note ; 

And, breathing from a viewless hand; 
Soft silvery tones around me float I 

They cease — but still a voice I hear, 
A whisper'd voice of hope and joy, 

" Thy hour of rest approaching near. 
Prepare thee, mortal ! thou must die ! 

" Yet, start not .' — on thy closing eyes 

Another day shall still unfold, 
A sun of milder radiance rise, 

A happier age of joys untold. 

" Shall the poor worm that shocks thy sight. 
The humblest form in Nature's train, 

ITius rise in new-born lustre bright. 
And yet the emblem teach in vain ? 


** Ah ! where were once her golden eyes, 
Her glittering wings of purple pride ? 

Conceal'd beneath a rude disguise, 
A shapeless mass, to earth allied. 

** Like thee the hapless reptile lived, 

Like thee he toil'd, like thee he spun, 
Like thine his closing hour arrived, 
His labour ceased, his web was done. 

** And shalt thou, number'd with the dead. 

No happier state of being know ? 
And shall no future morrow shed 

On thee a beam of brighter glow ? 

*' Is this the bound of power divine 

To animate an insect frame ? 
Or shall not he who moulded thine 

Wake at his will the vital flame ? 

** Go, mortal ! in thy reptile state. 

Enough to know to thee is given ; 
Go, and the joyful truth relate. 

Frail child of earth, high heir of heaven ! " 

It would be difficult to assign a cause, why insects 
undergo so many changes before arriving at a state 
of maturity. Why is it that they do not, like other 
animals, preserve the same general form from infancy 
to perfection ? This is a question which is not easy 
to answer, but no doubt the thing was wisely ordered 


by the Creative Power. We know, however, that 
one very important part is assigned to insects, — that 
of destroying the redundancy of decaying animal and 
vegetable matter ; and in performing this office, few 
agents could be more effectual ; for, in the larvae 
state, they are not only extremely voracious, but, 
possessing a stomach nearly the size of their whole 
body, and having rapid digestive powers, are capable 
of consuming an immense quantity of food. This 
period of their existence is by far the longest. 
Having allayed their almost insatiable voracity, 
and completed the materials for the development 
of those organs which are destined to form their 
future corporeal condition, they become an aurelia, 
during which state they are quite inert, and without 
any cravings of hunger. Thereafter they assume 
the imago, or perfect condition, when, in general, 
their stomachs are contracted to a tenth of their 
former capacity; and they frequently exist without 
food at all, or only sip the nectar of flowers. After 
this period, the chief aim the animal seems to have 
in view, is to propagate its kind, and no other object 
can divert it from its purpose. 

The new relations which this singular arrangement 
introduces into nature, are not less wonderful than 
striking ; for one individual animal combines in itself 


three animals, in all respects specifically different, 
whose manner of existing, and alimentary nourish- 
ment, are diametrically opposite. 

Several of the vertebrate animals, such as frogs, 
toads, and water newts, undergo metamorphoses in 
some respects analogous to those of the insect tribes ; 
the first form of these being a tadpole, which is 
widely different from that which they afterwards 
assume. These reptiles, too, as well as snakes, cast 
their skins by an operation somewhat similar to the 
larvae of insects. There is nothing, however, in 
their metamorphosis at all resembling the pupa, or 
chrysalis state in insects. * 

All insects pass through four states, — namely, that 
of the egg; the larva, or caterpillar; the pupa, or 
chrysalis ; and the imago, or perfect insect. These 
different forms I shall treat in succession. The egg 
state will apply to the whole order ; but I shall only 
enter into a general account of the physiology of 
the larvee condition, as applied to the three genera. 
Butterflies, Sphinges, and Moths, and give a detailed 
account, in the first instance, of Butterflies ; reserving 
the most singular facts which are connected with the 
history of Moths, to precede the description of the 
animals of that genus. 

• See KiRBT and Spence, Intr. v. pi. i. p. 81. 


When we alter the soil of a country by agrieuir 
tural operations, plants will follow, of their own 
accord, the progress of man's improvement ; and 
wherever plants are introduced, animals are certain 
to find their way thither. It would be difficult to 
give a satisfactory account how this takes place. 
Let brassicas be introduced into the most remote 
valleys, which were formerly the receptacles for dry 
heaths and furze, if they increase to any extent, 
caterpillars will certainly be found in them; if 
nettles are by any means introduced, the beautiful 
butterflies which feed on them are sure to be found 
there ; and as these again increase, insectivorous birds 
will become resident on the spot. In confirmation of 
this fact, Mr Loudon says, " Having made some oak 
plantations, though only on a small scale, near my 
residence, I have occasionally found therein Thecla 
quercus, (Purple hair-streak Butterfly,) Siix^MilitcBa 
cj//>Aro5ywe, (Pearl-bordered Fritillary,) insects which 
previously had never been seen within some miles 
of the spot. I have seldom planted the Athenian 
poplar without finding it taken possession of by Sme- 
rinthus populiy (Poplar Hawk Moth,) and Cerura 
pinula, (Puss-Moth,) and by other less common 
PhalcenidcB. The copious growth of broom in our 
plantations induced, for several seasons, the appear- 
ance of Phalcena spartiata, (the Broom Moth, 


Chesias spartiata of Stephens,) a species which I 
had not observed before, and which has disappeared 
a^ain since the removal of the broom on which the 
larva feeds. The Caterpillar of Acherontia AtropoSy 
(Death's-head Sphinx,) it is well known, feeds on 
the potato, the very extensive cultivation of which 
vegetable root in the present day, will at once 
account for the far more frequent occurrence of 
this fine insect of late years than formerly. We 
are informed, by an able practical entomologist, 
that some of the fir-feeding Lepidoptera, (the French 
Sphinx pinastri and Geometra piniaria,) which 
formerly occurred in scarcely any other part of this 
island, save Scotland or the north of England, have 
of late years, since the growth of firs has been more 
extensively encouraged, been taken, one or both of 
them, in great abundance in the more northern parts.* 
The same law, or something analogous to it, holds 
good also in the vegetable world. Plants sometimes 
spring up, as it were spontaneously, or at least 
nobody knows how, as soon as the soil and situation 
are rendered suitable to their growth." 

The field of Nature is of vast and ever boundless 
extent, and the objects which lie within it are exceed- 
ingly numerous and diversified. To the mind, 

• See Ha worth's Lepidoptera Brit. p. 278, 279. 


therefore, that has acquired a relish for cultivating a 
knowledge of natural objects, it never fails to prove 
an' inexhaustible source of amusement. 

The physical sciences have a strong tendency to 
arrest the attention of the youthful mind, being 
replete with striking phenomena ; and, in mature 
years, few can pursue the study of Nature without 
acquiring an ardent zeal for the extension of their 
knowledge. The varied forms which daily present 
themselves to the inquiring eye, give the mind a 
strong bias for observation and reflection. Hence the 
utility of introducing natural history as a preliminary 
branch of education ; and it would be well if people 
of rank and fortune would see the importance of 
instilling a love of this science into the infant minds 
of their offspring, when they are yet alive to the 
influence of early impressions. They might thus be 
preserved from those ignoble pursuits which are the 
too general concomitants of wealth and rank. 





Butterflies, Sphinges, and Moths, like the whole 
known species of insects, are strictly oviparous 

There is an unerring foresight possessed by the 
female, that of depositing her eggs in the precise 
place where food, suitable to the existence of the 
caterpillar after its exclusion, is found. With very 
few exceptions the eggs are enveloped in an adhesive 
cement, which fixes them to the spot on which they 
are deposited. When eggs are extruded singly, this 
cement generally enveloypes each individual with a 
thin coating, as in the case of the Admirable Butter- 
fly, ( Vanessa atalanta,) but when they are deposited 


in groups, the cement is generally spread over the 
whole, as in the instance of the White Satin Moth, 
{Leucoma salicis of Stephens.) This glutinous 
substance is evidently intended by nature to prevent 
the eggs from being carried from the place selected 
by the mother insect for their depository. The 
Hipparchia hyperanthuSy another butterfly, deposits 
her eggs at random, on different plants. The 
caterpillar of this insect is polyphagous. It has 
been observed that all larvae which live in solitude, 
proceed from eggs laid singly by the female butterfly, 
which is provided with an instrument for the purpose. 
De Geer mentions, that these eggs are in some 
instances deposited with great rapidity; especially 
by the common Moth, called in many places of 
England, the Ghost {Hepialis Humuli.^ This insect 
lays a large number of minute black eggs, resembling 
the grains of fine gunpowder. She ejects them so 
fast, and with such force, that their extrusion 
resembles the shot from a pop-gun. 

It is a curious fact that the female insects of those 
whose larvae spend a solitary life, or those which live 
in societies, take the utmost care to deposit their 
eggs in a manner corresponding to the state in 
which the future caterpillars are destined to exist. 

Several species of Moths cover their eggs with a 
thick coating of the hair stripped from their own bodies. 
This is particularly the case with the Arctia chry- 
sorhoea, and Hipogymna Mispar. They pluck off' 
this hair with the pincers, which are at the point of 
their ovipositors. A downy-like bed is first formed 


on the surface of some leaf, upon which they place 
in succession layers of eggs, taking care to surround 
them with a coating of a similar kind. When they 
have deposited the whole number, they lay a neat 
thatched-like roof of hair over the surface. 

These little creatures are endowed with a peculiar 
instinct, which looks remarkably like intelligence ; 
for, the hairs employed in forming the inside of the 
nest are placed promiscuously, while those used for 
the external covering, are arranged with perfect 
regularity, and such skill, that they render the nests 
impervious to water ; one layer lies over the other, 
with such neat precision, that, as Mr Kirby says, 
the whole resembles a well-brushed piece of shaggy 
cloth, or fur. When the female has finished her 
labour, in which she is usually employed about 
twenty-four hours, and in some cases forty-eight, her 
body, which was before thickly beset with hair, is now 
rendered quite naked. She has thus denuded herself 
for her offspring's sake, and, having completed the 
last task assigned to her by Nature, she finishes her 
earthly pilgrimage, and expires. 

Creative power has made provision for the fulfil- 
ment of all these singular instincts in a wonderful 
manner. The little Gipsy Moth does not exist in 
its perfect condition more then fourteen days, and 
often not more than a week. The male is not furnished 
with this down, as it is of no use to him. 

When the female Gipsy Moth is on the eve of 
laying her eggs, she places herself on the trunk of an 
elm or oak, and always with her head downwards. 


In this situation she continues to place her eggs one 
above the other, in the shape of an inverted cone. Her 
first care is to make a small bed of down, into which 
she places the egg intended to form its apex ; and 
the egg being covered with a glutinous substance, 
attaches itself to all the fine downy hair, and at the 
same time adheres to the tree. In this employment 
she continues for many hours, adding to the cone, and 
taking rest at intervals ; and as frequently does she 
protect her eggs by a layer of down. The following 
is a representation of the Gipsy Moth, in the act of 
laying her eggs, with the shape of the cone when 
completed. The cut represents the Moth half the 
size of nature. 

Professor Rennie mentions having picked up some 
specimens of the Gipsy Moth in the Netherlands, 
and enclosed them in chip boxes. On opening one 
of these some time afterwards, he found that one of 
the moths had deposited her eggs ; but, owing to the 


situation not being favourable, they were laid in the 
form of a wheel, of which her body was the radius 
as represented in the following figure : 

The rim of this wheel was about a quarter of an 
inch broad, and regularly sloped like a candle shade, 
and had down laid all around it in an imbricated 
manner. Another of these captives, although in a 
box of the same size as the other, instead of forming 
a wheel, laid the eggs in a conical form, like a little 
mound. The Professor conceives that this form 
might have been assumed in consequence of the 
moth, in all probability, having laid part of the eggs 
before being captured, as it did not contain above a 
sixth of the number which the other deposited. The 
same general slope was, however, preserved, and it 
was as regularly thatched as the other, as represented 
in the following figure : 

These eggs produced, when in the possession of Mr 
Rennie, in April, 1830, a numerous brood of 

VOL, I. D 


As these eggs are laid in August, and destined 
to endure the storms of winter, the female seems 
to have some foresight of this, in forming so compact 
and appropriate a covering, constructed on principles 
equal to the best devised methods of human ingenuity. 
It is the spring of the year before they are hatched, 
when the elm comes into leaf. 

The whole number of eggs laid by one female is 
frequently placed in a single group, and at other times 
in several smaller ones; either remote from each 
other, on the same plant, or on others which are 
contiguous. The parent insect seems to hold in view, 
in the latter case, the impropriety of ovipositing more 
in one situation than will supply the quantity of 
food sufficient to satisfy the wants of the excluded 

There is great diversity in the arrangement of 
the eggs after extrusion. Sometimes they are depo- 
sited in confused masses ; but in general, they are 
arranged in the most orderly and even systematic 
manner. The common Cabbage Butterfly, with 
various other insects, place their eggs upon one end, 
ranked close together in perfect order : by this 
arrangement the larvae, which on hatching emanate 
from the upper end, cannot disturb the adjoining 
eggs. The eggs of many Papilios are formed so that 
they are intended to be placed in this position. For 
example, those of the Puss Moth ( Cerura vinula) 
have the case of a gummed transparent substance, 
while the rest is cinereous and opaque. The Emperor 
Moth lays eggs, by which the caterpillar can make 



an easy retreat ; these are piled on their side, in the 
same manner as bottles of wine in a cellar. 

The Lackey Moths deposit their eggs on the twigs 
of trees, on which they are arranged with such 
extraordinary regularity and neatness, that they 
resemble pearls set by the hand of the most skilful 
jeweller. Hence the name given to them by garde- 
ners of " Bracelets." They are deposited in close 
spiral circles, of from fifteen to seventeen distinct 
rows, having their interstices filled up with a tena- 
cious brown gum, which secures them against the 
winter's cold, and preserves them from the attacks 
of devouring insects. Each of these depositions 
consists of two or three hundred pyramidal eggs 
with their tops flattened, having their axes perpen- 
dicular to the circumference of the twig to which they 
are attached, which will be more easily understood 
by the following figure : 

It is not very easy to imagine how these little 
animals can accomplish this beautiful arrangement 
by means of their tail and feet, in such a manner, 
that the hand of man could not perform it with 
greater exactness and nicety. The ingenious Reaumur 
made many attempts to investigate this operation 
but in vain. He collected numbers of the moth from 
the eggs, and supplied the females with appropriate 


twigs ; but they most pertinaciously avoided the 
accustomed symmetrical regularity of their kind, and 
extruded their eggs at random.* 

The following is a representation of the eggs of 
some unknown moth, which in some years may be 
seen rather plentifully in orchards, deposited in a 
manner very similar to that of the Lackey Moth : 

In depositing its eggs, the female Vapourer Moth 
( Orgyia Antigua) takes care to avail herself of the 
pupa case, which she has recently left. This envelope 
is lined with a fine soft silky substance, which forms 
a comfortable asylum for the eggs. Swammerdam 
says, that " this custom of fastening the eggs to the 
web in a constant method, and by the immutable law 
of Nature, is so peculiar to this species of insects, that 
I have never observed it in any other kind what- 
soever. This female, like a most prudent housewife, 
never leaves her habitation, but is always fixing her 
eggs to the surface of the web out of which she has 
herself crept, thus affording a beautiful instance of 
industrious housewifery. " 

The reason why the female of this moth is so 
domesticated is, that her wings are so very short that 
they are of little use in rendering her buoyant, being" 

♦ Reaumur, i. p. 95. 


of that description which naturalists call rudimentarj\ 
This is also the case with the females of some other 
moths. So different are these females from the males, 
that they may be taken for animals of distinct genera. 
Their bodies are broad and thick, in proportion to 
those of the males, and the wings excessively small, 
as will be seen by the following figure of the female 
Vapourer Moth: 

^ 9k 

On the other hand, the wings of the male are 
extremely large, in proportion to the size of the body, 
as exemplified in the figure beneath : 

There can be little doubt that the silken web keeps 
the eggs in a proper temperature during winter. 
These cocoons are besides always under the shelter of 
some wall or in the hollow of a tree. Silk is known 
to be an excellent non-conductor of electricity, and 
therefore must preserve the eggs in an equable 
temperature. The following is the appearance 


presented by the eggs laid in the cocoon from which 
the female has issued : 

I shall revert to this subject again, when treating 
of Moths, and give examples of many peculiarities in 
the different species, and of the manner in which they 
deposit their eggs. 

In reference to the degree of cold which the eggs 
of insects can endure, I shall give the ingenious 
experiments of John Hunter and Spallanzani on this 
interesting subject. Indeed, the heat also which they 
are capable of withstanding is not less astonishing. 

" Intense cold," says Spallanzani, " does not destroy 
the eggs of insects. The year 1709 was celebrated 
for the intensity of its cold, and its fatal effects on 
animals and plants. Fahrenheit's thermometer fell to 
1°. * Who can believe,' exclaims Boerhaave, * that 
the severity of this winter did not destroy the eggs 
of insects, especially those exposed to its influence 
in open fields, on the bare earth, or on the exposed 
branches of trees ! Yet the general warmth of spring 
having again tempered the air, these eggs were 
hatched, and as numerously as in the mildest winters.* 
Since that time, there have been winters still more 
severe ; for, in France, as well as in several other 
European states, in December, 1788, the thermo- 
meter fell considerably beneath that of 1709. 


" I subjected eggs of several insects to a more 
severe trial than in the winter of 1709. Among 
others were those of the Silk-worm Moth, and the 
Elm Butterfly, which I enclosed in a glass vessel, 
and buried five hours in a mixture of the ice and 
rock salt, when the thermometer fell six degrees 
below zero ; notwithstanding which caterpillars were 
extruded from all the eggs, and exactly at the same 
time with those which had not been subjected to this 
experiment. In the succeeding year, I exposed them 
to a still greater degree of cold. I prepared a 
mixture of rock salt and nitrate of ammonia, and 
reduced the thermometer to twenty-two degrees 
below zero, which was twenty-three degrees lower 
than the cold of 1709. They suffered nothing from 
this rigorous treatment, as they were hatched in due 

" From these combined facts we must conclude, that 
cold is less prejudicial to germs and eggs than to 
animalcula and insects. In general, it is found that 
germs can survive the cold of two degrees below 
zero ; while it is known that some animalcula die at 
the freezing point, and others at about twenty degrees. 
The eggs of various insects are productive after 
being exposed to a temperature of twenty-two degrees 
below zero, while insects themselves die at sixteen 
and fourteen degrees. This I have proved in the 
eggs of the Silk-worm Moth, and of the Elm 
Butterfly; and although I ascertained that some 
insects can stand a great degree of cold, I have 
invariably found it to be in a much less ratio than 


what can be resisted by their eggs. What can be 
the cause of this great difference ? Insects killed 
at sixteen and fourteen degrees, are so completely 
penetrated and frozen, that their members do not 
yield to the pressure of the finger, and even under 
the knife they appear perfect ice. This is not the 
case with eggs ; for the contents of the shell, or 
crust, remain as fluid under the influence of the 
greatest cold, which can be ascertained by squeezing 
them with the nail of the finger. This may arise 
from their constituent parts being oleaginous or 
spirituous, or from some inherent principle adapted 
to resist the power of cold." 

We are not at all enlightened by what Spallanzani 
has offered as a cause why eggs are enabled to resist 
the effects of cold, as he has given us no satisfactory 
explanation of the phenomenon. 

He proceeds, " If eggs do not freeze, it is probable 
that the included embryoes do not freeze. Is there 
any thing surprising, therefore, that they are capable 
of resisting that cold which proves fatal to their 
contained insect when produced ? Perhaps, for the 
same reason, (and I can perceive no applicable 
objection,) animalcula concentrated, or in the germ, 
can support a degree of cold which they are incapable 
of enduring when emerged. 

" It may be asked, as the temperature of freezing 
still retains a portion of heat, why should it not 
develope the germs of the most minute animalcula ? 
If we had never seen any eggs hatched but those of 
birds, which require a hundred and four degrees, 


we should have naturally concluded that all others 
required the same. A slight knowledge of the 
physiology of minute animals, instructs how many 
kinds produce at a much lower temperature. The 
eggs of butterflies and many other insects hatch at a 
temperature so low as forty-five degrees. If these 
eggs emerge at fifty-nine degrees lower than is 
required for the development of birds, what difficulty 
can we have in believing that at thirteen degrees less 
than the freezing pqint, other animals are capable of 
being hatched ? Nor should I be surprised at being 
told, that there are animals whose eggs would hatch 
in a much greater degree of cold, after being aware 
that there are plants, which are beings so similar to 
animals, that flourish amidst the regions of winter, 
and even fructify. " 

From the experiments of John Hunter, we find that 
a hen's egg will freeze by a great degree of cold, 
while, at the same time, it is possessed of a principle 
of vitality which prevents its destruction ; but, if 
once that principle is destroyed, cold operates on it 
more easily. He mentions that an egg was frozen 
by the cold of zero. After it was thawed, and again 
exposed to the same depth of cold, it froze seven 
minutes and a half sooner. A new laid egg took an 
hour to freeze in fifteen and seventeen degrees ; but 
when again exposed, it froze in twenty-five degrees, 
in half that time.* 

With all these facts before us, we are warranted in 
coming to the conclusion that cold does not destroy 

* See Hunter on the Animal Economy. 


the vital principle in the eggs of insects ; and it has 
been often noticed that, after a severe vv^inter, insects 
vi^ere more numerous in the succeeding" spring and 

We novt^ proceed to give an account of the sub- 
stance of the eggs of Lepidopterous Insects. These, 
like those of birds, consist, first, of a coat, or shell, 
which is strong, flexible, and much of the consistence 
of honey. It will not easily yield to the knife. It 
contains little calcareous matter, if any at all, and 
consequently resists the action of the muriatic and 
other acids. 

With the composition of the fluid, which is 
contained in these minute shells, we are not at all 
acquainted, and can only suppose that it is analogous 
to the white and yolk of birds' eggs. When the 
egg has arrived nearly to the time of hatching, the 
embryo may be distinctly seen by the use of a strong 
microscope, coiled up in an annular form, as in the 
following figure of the egg of a Priest-hawk Moth, 
(Sphinx ligustri.) 

Some of the eggs of this order of insects are 
covered with hair, or a downy substance, as may 
be instanced in those of the Figure-of-eight Moth 
{Bomhyx cceruleocephala.') 


There is considerable variation in the number of 
eggs laid by different species. The Silk-worm Moth, 
{Phalcena mori,) lays five hundred ; the Great Goat 
Moth, ( Cossiis ligniperda,) one thousand ; and the 
Tiger Moth, ( Calimorpha caga) one thousand six 
hundred. This may be considered extraordinary 
fecundity in such small animals ; but, compared to the 
Queen Bee, it sinks into insignificance ; for she 
extrudes the extraordinary number of 2,419,200 in 
a lunar month, and exceeds in fruitfulness every 
other animal in the world. 

Some of the larger fishes lay vast numbers of eggs ; 
for Lewenhoek has ascertained that the sturgeon's 
roe contains 1,500,000, and the codfish deposits the 
amazing number of 9,000,000. 

The eggs of birds are all nearly of the same shape, 
which is supposed to arise from the similarity of the 
form of these animals. The eggs of insects, on the 
contrary, are infinitely varied in their forms, and why 
this should be the case, it is not easy to conjecture. 
Dr Paley has justly remarked in his Natwal Theology, 
that the cause of these differences of forms is, for the 
most part, concealed from human investigation. 
Besides the dissimilarity of shape, they have a character 
which distinguishes them from all the eggs of other 
oviparous animals, being for the most part exter- 
nally ornamented with a variety of beautiful figures. 
Some are figured on one side, and plain on the other ; 
while the eggs of the Tusseh Silk-worm, (^Attacus 
pappea^ and some other of the Moths of the 
division Bombyx, are always orbicular and depressed 



with a central cavity above and below, and have their 
circumference crossed with wrinkles, corresponding 
with the rings of the enclosed embryo. There are 
others which are figured all over. In the butterfly 
Hipparchia JEgeriay all the surface is covered with 
hexagonal reticulations, as under : 

in the new and restricted genus Vanessa of the 
French authors, we find two species of butterflies, 
which differ but little in their forms, the chief dis- 
tinction being that the one is much larger than the 
other : yet the eggs are so dissimilar, that they would 
indicate insects of a totally different form. Those of 
the small Tortoise-shell Butterfly are of a cylindrical 
shape, with eight prominent ribs, as under : 

While the eggs of the large Tortoise-shell Butterflv 



are of a flask shape, and quite smooth, as represented 
beneath : 

The following are striking varieties of the eggs of 
Moths : 


This egg greatly resembles an Echinus or Sea 


These are widely different from any we have yet 
represented, and yet in the insects themselves, there is 
but little variation of form. 

The eggs of the Cabbage Butterfly are of an upright 
longitudinal shape, neck very finely ribbed, not 



unfrequently concealed by elevated ridges, crossing 
them at right angles, as under : 

Those of the Meadow Brown Butterfly {Hip- 
parchia Jurtind) are crowned by imbricated scales 
like the tiles of a roof, as in the following figure : 

The period of hatching varies according to the 
state of the atmosphere. A certain degree of heat 
is also necessary to the exclusion of the caterpillar. 
This heat is in most instances derived from the state 
of the air ; but other causes sometimes produce it. 
Those species which have several broods in the year, 
— such as the Nettle Tortoise-shell Butterfly, are 
hatched in a few days after they are laid; but should 
the female lay late in the autumn, the eggs remain in 


a state of hybernation till the succeeding spring. 
That this condition and difference are attributable 
to the influence of temperature, has been proved by 
numerous experiments. These late laid eggs may be 
hatched by placing them in the temperature of summer 
heat. The Silk-worm is never hatched till six weeks 
after its extrusion. However, by artificial means, the 
ordinary laws of nature may be altered ; for in coun- 
tries where they are much propagated on account of 
the silk, it is the practice for women to hatch them 
in less than a month, by carrying the eggs in their 

Kirby and Spence assert, that "to retard their 
hatching with particular views is in any circumstances 
impossible. When the heat of the atmosphere has 
reached a certain point, the hatching cannot be 
retarded by cellars; and M. Faujas has remarked, 
that in time the Silk-worm's eggs would hatch in an 
ice-house." * 

Contrary to the above assertion, in one instance, — 
and indeed the only time I ever tried the experiment, 
— I found that, by placing the eggs of a Silk-worm 
Moth in a cold damp cellar, they were kept from 
hatching from the year 1818 till the year 1820, 
when they were exposed to the sun's heat, which 
speedily brought them to the larva state. Young, 
in his History of France^ states, that no art will 
hatch the eggs of the common Silk-worms the 
first year, or that in which they are laid; but that 

* Introduction to Entomology^ iii. p. 102 


there is a species brought from Persia, which are 
hatched three times a-year, and which will break 
from the egg in fifteen days, under a proper temper- 
ature. But it is stated, as a circumstance out of the 
ordinary laws of Nature, that in the year 1765, the 
common sort hatched in the first year. 

In some species, the caterpillar is some hours in 
extricating itself from the shell at hatching. In the 
instance of the Satyrus mcera, Saturnia pavonia, 
and various others, the shells are furnished with a 
little lid, which, when the larva is completely deve- 
loped, it can force up, and emerge at pleasure.* 

* Brahm, 249. RosEL. iv. 130. 



The second, or larva state, is that condition of the 
animal which follows its exclusion from the egg. The 
Caterpillar is soft, without wings, and usually of an 
oblong shape, differing, however, very considerably 
in the various species. The lower figure of Plate I, 
represents the larva of the Peacock Butterfly, 
(Papilio lo.) 

The word larva (which, in Latin, signifies a mask,) 
was adopted by Linnaeus, because he considered that 
the real insect, while in that condition, was under a 
mask. In the English language caterpillar is the 
term employed for the grub of the butterfly in this 

The larvae of butterflies are extremely small at 
first, when they issue from the egg, but they grow 
rapidly, and to a great size in proportion to their 
original bulk. The larva of the Goat Moth, ( Cossus 
ligniperday) when it has arrived at its full size, is 
VOL. I. E 


seventy-two thousand times heavier than when it 
emerges from the egg ; and the maggot of the Blue 
Fly is, in twenty-four hours, one hundred and fifty-five 
times heavier than at its birth. 

Caterpillars have sixteen legs, and devour their 
food by means of two jaws j they have twelve eyes, 
so exceedingly minute, as to be nearly imperceptible 
without the aid of a microscope. 

The quantity of food which is daily eaten by a 
caterpillar is surprising, being greatly more in pro- 
portion to its bulk than is consumed by any other 
animal. Many larvae eat twice their own weight of 
leaves within twenty-four hours. John Hunter assigned 
as a cause, that their stomachs have not the power of 
dissolving vegetable matters, but merely the faculty of 
extracting a juice from them.* This seems indisputable 
from the faeces, consisting of coiled up hardened par- 
ticles of leaves, which, after being immersed in water, 
will expand like tea leaves. The quantity, also, in pro- 
portion to the mass consumed, is farther confirmation 
of the fact. Colonel Marshall made some detailed 
experiments, and found that the larva of the Bombyx 
cajUy which weighed thirty-six grains, voided every 
twelve hours from fifteen to eighteen grains weight 
of excrement ; while it only increased in weight 
during that time from one to two grains. While in 
this condition they generally eat voraciously, and 
j.epose but for short intervals. As they enlarge* 
which they to very rapidly, they cast their skins 

* Observations on the Animal Econcmyj p 221. 


several times. When the larva has attained its 
full size, it soon afterwards ceases to eat, becomes 
excessively restless, and searches for a place, fitted 
to its nature, to which it may retire for the purpoae 
of being- transformed from one state of existence to 
another. It spins some silky filaments, generally 
attached to the under side of flowers, the crevice of 
a wall, or such safe retreat ; and again its skin 
separates from the body, exhibiting the animal in its 
third condition. This Linnaeus called the pupa. 

When we know the astonishing numbers of eggs 
produced by various species of lepidopterous insects, 
we may wonder what becomes of them, for we see 
few, comparatively, of the perfect insects to these 
eggs or even to the caterpillars of some species we 
meet with. The Creator of all things has, in his 
wisdom, checked the progress of these destructive 
larvae, by forming a genus of insects to prey 
upon them, diminutive in their size when compared 
to the caterpillars. These are termed Ichneumons 
by Linnaeus, and Microgaster by the celebrated 
French entomologist Latreille. Professor Rennie, in 
treating of these little destructors y says, " It must 
have occurred to the least attentive observer of the 
Cabbage Butterfly, (JPontia brassicce,) that when 
it ceases to feed, and leaves its natural cabbage to 
creep up walls and pailings, it is often transformed 
into a group of little balls of silk, of a fine texture, 
and a beautiful canary yellow colour ; from each of 
which there issues, in process of time, a small four- 
winged fly, (^Microgaster glomoratus spinola,^ of a 


black colour, except the legs, which are yellow. By- 
breeding these flies in a state of confinement, and 
introducing to them some Cabbage Caterpillars, 
their proceedings in depositing their eggs may be 
observed. We have more than once seen one of 
these little flies select a Caterpillar, and perch upon 
its back, holding her ovipositor ready brandished to 
plunge between the rings, which she seems to prefer. 
When she has thus begun laying her eggs, she does 
not readily take alarm ; but, as Reaumur justly 
remarks, will permit an observer to approach her 
with a magnifying glass of a very short focus. 
Having deposited one egg, she withdraws her ovi- 
positor, and again plunges it, with another egg, into 
a different part of the body of the caterpillar, till 
she has laid in all about thirty eggs. It is not a 
little remarkable, that the poor caterpillar, whose 
body is thus pierced with so many wounds, seems to 
bear it very patiently, and does not turn upon the 
fly, as he would be certain to do upon another 
caterpillar, should it venture to pinch him, a cir- 
cumstance by no means unusual. Sometimes, indeed, 
he gives a slight jerk ; but the fly does not appear 
to be at all incommoded by the intimation that her 
presence is disagreeable. 

" The eggs, it may be remarked, are thrust suffi- 
ciently deep to prevent their being thrown oflf when 
the caterpillar changes its skin ; and being in due 
time hatched, the grubs feed in concert on the living 
body of the caterpillar. The most wonderful cir- 
cumstance, indeed, of the whole phenomenon, is the 
instinct with which the grubs are evidently guided to 


avoid devouring any vital part, so that they may not 
kill the caterpillar, as in that case it would be useless 
to them for food. When full grown, they even eat 
their way through the skin of the caterpillar without 
killing it, though it generally dies in a few days, 
without moving far from the place where the grubs 
have spun their group of silken cocoons in which to 
pass the winter."* 


Fig. 8. the eggs, natural size ; Fig. 1. larva, natural size ; 
Fig. 2. the larva magnified. 


Fig. L size of life; Fig. 2. magnified. 

Size of life. 

Insect Transformations, p. 61. 


The cocoon in which the pupa of these little 
animals are destined to remain for a time, is fur- 
nished with a distinct lid, which moves on a sort of 
hinge, which the perfect insect has the power of 
forcing open, to escape from its confinement, after it 
is transformed from the pupa envelope. 

Fig. 1. natural size ; Fig. 2. magnified. 

Besides the larva of the Cabbage Butterfly, many- 
others are liable to be preyed upon by parasites, 
similar to the Microgaster glomoratus. The col- 
lectors of lepidopterous insects are often greatly 
disappointed in consequence ; for, when they have 
gathered the caterpillars of some fine butterflies, 
moths, or sphinges, which they have fed with care, 
and seen transformed into chrysalides, from which 
they expect Butterflies to emerge in the most perfect 
condition, they find in their stead a numerous brood 
of these minute insects. 

The Rev. Mr Bree says, " I once fed in confine- 
ment a caterpillar of Lasio campo querciis of 
Stephens, (the Large Egger Moth,) which, after 
having spun its cocoon, and changed to a pupa, in 
due time produced a host of small Ichneumons, with 


long ovipositors, somewhat resembling the Ichneumon 
manifestator in miniature." * 

The early entomologists of this, as well as of 
other countries, were greatly puzzled to account for 
the generation of these minute parasites. Joannes 
Goedarti, in allusion to the Microgaster glomoratus, 
and another species, speaks of them as being " won- 
derful things, nay, scarcely credible or before heard 
of; " and, in reference to the second, he says, " These 
things I have myself found by experience, and 
observed not without astonishment ; because it seems 
beside, nay, contrary to, the usual course of Nature, 
that, from one and the same animal, an offspring of a 
different species should be generated ; and that one 
and the same creature should procreate in three 
different ways, which yet is manifestly the ease with 
these caterpillars, from what I have briefly related."-}- 
Goedartus alludes to the two species of Ichneumon 
and the Cabbage Butterfly, being all produced, as he 
supposed, from the pupae of these insects. 

• Loudon's Magazine of Nat. Hist. v. p. 106. For an 
interesting account of these parasite insects, see Insect TranS' 
formations, p. 55, 58. 

f Geodartii, Metamorphosis JExper. xl. f . 



From the resemblance of the animal in this condition 
to a mummy, or a child swathed in close trusses, 
which is a practice of many of the northern nations, 
particularly the Laplanders, Linnaeus gave the chry- 
salis this name. 

Plate 1. — Upper Figure. 

Other terms used for this state are the chrysalis, 
and the aurelia ; the former from a Greek word, and 
the latter from a Latin word. Various species of 
lepidopterous insects, previous to this condition, spin 
for themselves a casement of silky filaments, which 
naturalists term the cocoon. In this they lie con- 
cealed, until their final change. 


Papilio lo. — Britain. 


After remaining for some months in the pupa con- 
dition, the skin, or easement bursts, and the creature 
then emerges in its perfect or imago state. This 
terra was employed by Linnaeus, from its having laid 
aside its mask, or swaddling clothes, and become a 
true image of its species. 

Butterflies, in their perfect form, have only six feet, 
ten of those with which it was furnished in its cater- 
pillar state having disappeared. The jaws, also, are 
lost, and replaced by a curled up proboscis, incapable 
of mastication, and only suited for extracting the 
liquid sweets from flowers. The head is totally 
changed in form ; and it has acquired four wings, to 
enable it to make rapid and extensive aerial flights. 
Two long horns project from the upper part of its 
head, and its twelve eyes are replaced by two, which 
are composed of at least twenty thousand convex 
lenses, each supposed to possess distinct and effective 

The internal change of structure is no less asto- 
nishing than that which is presented externally. In 
the caterjjillar, there are some thousands of muscles, 
which are replaced in the iviago by others of a form 
and structure entirely different. Almost the whole 
body of the caterpillar is occupied by a capacious 
stomach. In the butterfly, this changes into an 
almost imperceptible thread-like process ; and the 
abdomen is inflated by two large packets of eggs, or 
other organs, which are not visible in its former 
condition. The caterpillar has two spirally convoluted 
tubes filled with a silky gum, but in the butterfly 


both these have nearly disappeared ; and equally 
wonderful changes have taken place in the structure 
and dispositions of the nerves and other organic 

Such are the extraordinary metamorphoses to which 
this animal is subject. It will be observed, that the 
change from the one form to the other was not direct, 
and that a distinct, and not less singular state 
intervened. After casting its skin several times, and 
even parting with its jaws, and at length, progressing 
in bulk, and attaining its full growth, the caterpillar 
attaches itself to a leaf by a silken filament. In this 
condition its body becomes much contracted ; its skin 
splits once more, and discloses a uniform mass, without 
exterior eyes, mouth, or limbs, and exhibiting no 
appearance of life except when touched, in which case 
it gives indications of existence by a slight motion. In 
this death-like casement, in a state of torpor, it remains 
for months without food. The casement at length 
bursts, and although not longer than an inch, and in 
diameter a quarter of an inch, a butterfly springs into 
existence of dimensions extraordinary, covering a 
surface of nearly four inches square. 

Butterflies and moths, while in the pupa state, are 
enclosed in a membranous skin, with their legs, 
antennae, and wings, closely folded over their breast 
and sides. The whole body is enclosed in an external 
case, or covering of a horny consistence, which pre- 
vents the organs beneath from being so distinctly 
seen through, as may be observed in many other 
species of insects. These pupae are often tinged with 


gold : hence the Roman name aurelke, and the Greek 
term chrysalides. These terms have now been con- 
verted into English words, and, more general in their 
application, signify all pupae, whether gilded or not. 
For general convenience, chrysalises may be divided 
into two great classes ; namely, those devoid of 
angular projections, and those with such projections. 
Each of these present a variety of forms, and possess 
peculiar characters. 

The first, or angular pupse, are confined to Butter- 
flies ; in some of which the head projects into one 
short conical protuberance, as in the chrysalis of the 
common Cabbage Butterfly, and others to which it is 
allied ; others project into a horn ; in a third, the 
head is armed with conical eminences ; some have 
nasiform prominences. 

The second, or conical^ include the nocturnal 
lepidoptera, such as Moths, &c. They are without 
protuberances, and subject to less variety of form. 
Exceptions, however, present themselves in the Goat 
Moth, and Orange-tip Butterfly : the former having 
two points on the head, while the latter is dis- 
tinguished by a fusiform process from the head and 



The order lepidoptera includes Butterflies, Sphinges, 
and Moths. The name of this order was given by 
Linnaeus from the mealy scales with which the wings 
are covered. 

There is much difficulty in determining the different 
organs by which the senses of insects are manifested. 
This arises from the great physical differences which 
exist between vertebral warm-blooded animals, and 
those lower orders of creation without bones, and 
having cold blood ; so that little can be drawn from 
analogy. The subject, therefore, is still in much 
obscurity, notwithstanding the patient investigations 
of Fabricius, Miiller, Wollaston, Kirby, Spence, and 



Most naturalists are now of opinion, that the organs 
of touch, in insects in general, are the antennae and 
palpi, or what have usually been called the feelers. 

Cuvier and Dumeril think that the palpi of insects 
are the organs of touch. While in search of food, 
these are used to try every object which they meet 
with. When walking, they are used to feel the 
ground ; while they are used as hands by the scorpion, 
and sometimes as feet by the spiders. Professor 
Rennie is of opinion, that an important organ of 
touch in insects, which has been altogether over- 
looked by naturalists, is the surface of the wings, being 
minutely furnished with nerves, which appear to him 
expressly formed for that purpose.* He says, — " It 
must be this, indeed, which in a great measure serves 
to direct their flight, as the focus of the eyes appears, 
according to our ideas of senses, to be too short for 
the purpose." The impulses of the atmosphere on 
the delicate and sensitive organs, may, in a great 
measure, assist, but certainly the eyes are the organs 
by which they direct their course. 

In illustration of this doctrine, the Professor 
observes, — " We remarked, for several weeks, near 
St Adresse, in Normandy, a very limited spot, close 
by the sea, to be daily frequented by about half a 
dozen of the Clouded Yellow Butterfly, (Colias 

* Insect Miscellanies, p. 12. 


cdusa, Stephens,) which seemed to make a regular 
circuit, and return again, altogether independent of 
the direction of the wind, against which they often 
made way. Now, as they rose to so considerable a 
height, that they must have lost sight of the ground, 
we conclude, that they guided their flight more by 
the weight of the superincumbent air, than by the 
direction of the wind, — an inference rendered more 
probable, by their never being seen on the heights* 
which there rise steeply from the shore." * 

We are well aware, that the wings of bats are 
analogous to the human hand, but possess a degree 
of feeUng much more exquisite than that organ in 
man. For it is certainly by the nervous sensibility 
of their wings that they are enabled to avoid flying 
against walls, trees, and other objects, in the dark. 
Moths possess this faculty, but in a degree not so 
perfect as bats. It is a well known fact, that all 
insects are extremely sensible of any atmospheric 
change, and that when it is in an electrified state, 
they retire to some sequestered retreat. This is 
especially the practice with butterflies, moths, and 

" The excellence of the sense of touch in many 
insects, " says Dr Darwin, " seems to have given 
them wonderful ingenuity, so as to equal or even 
excel, mankind in some of their arts and discoveries." 
He has beautifully illustrated this in his Temple of 

* Insect Miscellanies, p. 12. 



The wasp, fine architect, surrounds his domes 
With paper foliage, and suspends his combs ; 
Secured from frost, the bee industrious dwells. 
And fills for winter all her waxen cells ; 
The limning spider, with adhesive line, 
"Weaves his firm net immeasurably fine ; 
The wren, when embryon eggs her cares engross. 
Seeks the soft down, and lines the cradling moss ; 
Conscious of change, the silkworm nymphs begin, 
Attach 'd to leaves, their gluten-threads to spin, 
Then, round and round they weave their circling heads. 
Sphere within sphere, and fonn their silken beds. — 
Say, did these fine volutions first commence 
From clear ideas of the tangent sense ? 
From sires to sons by imitation caught. 
Or in dumb language by tradition taught ? 
Or did they rise in some primeval site 
Of larva-gnat, or microscopic mite ; 
And, with instinctive foresight, still await 
On each vicissitude of insect state ? — 
Wise to the present, nor to future blind. 
They link the reasoning reptile to mankind ! — 
Stoop, selfish Pride ! survey thy kindred forms — 
Thy brother emmets and thy sister worms ! * 


As in the sense of touch, analogy leaves us no 
grounds for supporting the doctrine of taste in insects ; 
for if the physiological distinctions in the higher 
animals were held up as tests, then it might be inferred, 

♦ Darwin's Temple of Nature, p. 119. 


a iwiori, that insects had no taste ; for in place of 
the organs being soft, moist, and furnished with 
innumerable papillae, their tongues are rigid, dry, 
and hard. But there can be but little doubt that 
they do enjoy this sense in a considerable degree, 
from the fact that they are very particular in the 
choice of their food ; and most of the butterfly tribe, 
while in their various conditions, will feed only on 
the plant on which they were brought into existence, 
or when in a perfect state, on the nectar of flowers. 

Last autumn, a box and several flowerpots, with 
mignionette, was covered with numerous caterpillars 
of the Papilio rhmnni. I took many of these off*, and 
put them into a tumbler, to feed and watch their 
progress as to growth and time of transformation. 
Wishing to ascertain whether or not they would 
feed on any other plants than that on which 
they had been hatched, I allowed them to consume 
all the leaves, and when I supposed them very 
hungry, supplied them abundantly with lettuce, sour 
dock, and other vegetables ; but they refused them 
all, preferring to gnaw and totally consume the 
epidermis of the dry stalks, rather than take the 
proffered food, which, it would appear, was not their 
native aliment, and they would have died rather 
than taste any other. The moment that leaves of 
mignionette were introduced, they speedily found them 
out, and greedily devoured them. 

De Geer remarked the same thing ; for he found 
that the larva of a Papilio, which inhabited both 
the sallow and poplar, would feed only on the trees 


on which they were hatched ; for those produced 
on the sallow would rather die than eat the poplar, 
while those propagated on the poplar would not eat 
the leaves of the sallow. 

It is well known that the Antler Moth,* which 
devours a considerable variety of grasses, and that to 
such an extent as almost totally to consume some of 
the richest pastures of Sweden, is nevertheless so 
fastidious in its taste, as to reject most scrupulously 
the fox-tail grass, which in flavour so nearly resembles 
other grasses on which it feeds, that the most sensitive 
palate of man is incapable of distinguishing the 
difference. The larva of the Ringlet Butterfly f will 
only feed on the poa ;:(; and the Gate-keeper $ abstains 
from all other food but the dog's-tail grass. || 

If we judge from circumstances, the taste in bees 
does not seem very perfect ; " for," says the elder 
Huber, " contrary to the received opinion, they dis- 
play little choice in collecting honey ; nor do they 
testify greater nicety in the quality of the water which 
they drink, as the most corrupted marshes and ditches 
seem to be preferred to the most limpid streams, nay, 
even to dew itself. Nothing, therefore, is more 
unequal than the quality of honey, the produce of 
one district differing from another, and the honey of 
spring being unlike that of autumn." 

• Charceas graminis of Stephens. 

f Hipparchia hyperantlms of Fabricius. 

\ Poa annua, 

§ Hipparchia pamphilus. 

(I Cynocerus cristatus. 

VOL. r. P 


Although insects appear to have dry, rigid mouths, 
yet they possess the salivary glands, which are neces- 
sary for moistening their food, and fitting it for 
mastication. Professor Rennie has recently made some 
conclusive experiments on this interesting subject. 
He says, "one of the circumstances that first awakened 
our curiosity with regard to insects, was the manner 
in which a fly contrives to suck up, through its 
narrow sucker, (or haustellum,^ a bit of dry lump 
sugar ; for the small crystals are not only unfitted to 
pass, from their angularity, but adhere too firmly 
together to be separated by any force the insect can 
exert. Eager to solve the difficulty — for there could 
be no doubt of the fly's sucking the dry sugar — we 
watched its proceedings with no little attention ; but 
it was not till we fell upon the device of placing some 
sugar on the outside of a window, while we looked 
through a magnifying glass on the inside, that we 
had the satisfaction of repeatedly witnessing a fly let 
fall a drop of fluid upon the sugar, in order to melt 
it, and thereby render it fit to be sucked up, — on 
precisely the same principle that we moisten with 
saliva, in the process of mastication, a mouthful of 
dry bread, to fit it for being swallowed, — the action 
of the jaws, by a beautiful contrivance of Providence, 
pressing the moisture along the channels at the time 
it is most wanted." 

To the investigations of Swammerdam, we are 
indebted for our first knowledge of these vessels ; 
he observed them in the small Nettle Tortoise-shell 
Butterfly ; but he was unable to trace their termina- 


tion ; and cautiously observes, " What the office of 
these vessels is, and whether they may not be salivary 
ducts, I cannot take upon me to determine."* That 
naturalist, as well as Ramdohr, was inclined to 
suppose these the silk reservoirs ; but that they were 
not was proved by Ly onnet, who detected a conspicuous 
pair of salivary ducts in the larva of the Goat Moth ;f 
and in his investigations, he is borne out by the 
dissections which were afterwards made by Heroldt, 
in his minute and satisfactory anatomy of the Cabbage 

Butterflies, in their mature state, have but little 
fluid matter in them ; and, besides, being so much 
exposed to the scorching rays of the sun, in which 
they are continually sporting, are liable to great 
thirst. They are often, therefore, to be seen in 
the act of drinking by the sides of pools of water ; 
particularly in the sultry autumnal months. Mr 
Rennie says, " At Compton Basset, in Wiltshire, I 
once counted about fifty of the small White Butterfly 
(Pontia rapcB, of Haworth,) all assembled within a 
space of a few yards on the sludge which had just 
been left by the water of a pond, partially dried up 
by the sun. What was most remarkable, they seemed 
to have quite lost the pugnacious disposition which 
they were afiirmed to display when they meet with 
their congeners on the wing. At the pond, on the 
contrary, all was harmony among these light winged 

* Sook of Nature, part ii. p. 21. 
f Traits Anatomique, p. 112. 


belligerents, no one disturbing its neighbour, though 
they stood side by side, and ahnost touching one 
another. They were, indeed, too intent on quenching 
their thirst to think of attack or defence. We. 
remarked, in the autumn of 1829, a similar congre- 
gation of the same species of butterfly on the watered 
roads in the vicinity of London. They do not seem 
to be more choice in the qualit}'- of their water than 
bees, who, most naturalists tell us, prefer that which 
is stagnant and putrescent."* 

It is remarkable that some insects feed upon 
substances which are poisonous to other animals ; for 
example, the Caterpillar of the Pajnlio cujndo feeds 
on the leaves of tobacco, which proves a deadly 
poison to most of the mammiferous animals, and 
is even destructive to many of the insect tribes. 


There can be little doubt that the sense of smell 
is enjoyed by most insects in a high degree of 
perfection. Mr Rennie remarked, that, in a narrow 
garden, enclosed with stone walls, about fifteen 
feet high, at Havre de Grace, every butterfly which 
passed over it was sure to visit the blossoms of an 
Alpine blue nettle, (the Centcmrea monianea.^ This is 
the more remarkable, as that flower is knov^n to have 
but little effect on the olfactory nerves of the human 

♦ Reaumur, v. p. 697. 


Species. Now, these butterflies were alive to its 
odour at upwards of twenty feet. This fact is the 
more striking, as the odours of flowers are said by 
M. Le Chat to be much heavier than atmospheric air, 
and therefore but seldom rise in it. We have ascer- 
tained this to be true, from the circumstance, that 
mignionette, although possessing a powerful odour, 
and planted close to a building, can be but faintly, if 
at all, perceived from a window one story high ; 
although on going to the surface of the earth, we 
find the atmosphere surcharged with its fragrance 
at the distance even of from fifty to an hundred yards. 
Mr Rennie remarked that even the Painted Lady 
Butterfly, (^Cynthia cardui,) which always flies at a 
considerable height, alighted on the plants above 
mentioned, thus proving that their perception of 
odours is very acute. 

It is a practice with collectors to entrap the large 
Tortoise-shell Butterfly, {Vanessa polychlorus,) by 
spreading honey on the leaves of a tree which they 
are in the habit of frequenting. 

There is great difficulty in determining by what 
means the organ of smell in insects manifests itself ; 
for, as they do not breathe like quadrupeds, or other 
warm-blooded animals by the mouth, but by an innu- 
merable number of spiracles along each side of their 
bodies, where then can this organ be situated ? The 
theory of smell in the higher animals, is, that it is 
felt by a current of air which is impregnated with 
odoriferous particles passing through a moistened 
channel. This was first most ably described by 



Schneider, nearly two centuries ago.* Reasoning' 
from analogy, we would say that insects enjoy this 
sense by the same process. Hence, Baster, Cuvier, 
Dumeril, and Lehmann, are of opinion, that insects 
perceive odours by means of their breathing holes. 

Blainville says the antennae are the organs of 
smell. He is of opinion that the modification of the 
skin with which they are invested, is in general 
olfactory only in a small degree ; this power appear- 
ing to be more acute in the thickest parts of the 
organs, where it is more soft and tender. A difficulty 
to the establishment of this theory is, that spiders 
have no antennae, consequently do not possess this 
sense, if his doctrine were true. Latreille entertains 
the same opinion ; " for," says he, " the exercise of 
smell consists only of the action of the air impregnated 
with odoriferous particles on the nervous, or olfactory 
membrane, which transmits the sensation. If insects 
are really endowed with an organ furnished with 
similar nerves, and with which air, charged with 
odoriferous particles, comes in contact, such an organ 
may be regarded as that of smell. Should, therefore, 
the antennae present a tissue of many nerves, what 
inconvenience can take place from supposing this 
tissue the medium of transmitting odours ? Would 
not this hypothesis, on the contrary, be more simple 
and more consonant to anatomical principles, than 
that which fixes the seat of smell at the entrance of 
the stigmata ?" 

* De Sensu ac Organo Odoratus. Witteb. 1665. 


Mr Kirby, however, mentions one observation he 
made in his description of the Long-horned Bee 
(Eucera.) " A singular circumstance distinguishes 
their antennae, which, to the best of my knowledge, 
has never been before noticed, and which may 
possibly lead to the discovery of the use of these 
organs. Placed under a powerful magnifier, the last 
ten joints appear to be composed of innumerable 
hexagons, similar to those of which the eyes of insects 
consist." Mr Rennie, in alluding to this fact, says, 
" If we reason from analogy, this remarkable circum- 
stance will lead us to conjecture, that the sense, of 
which this part so essential to insects is the organ, 
may bear some relation to that conveyed by the eyes. 
As they are furnished with no instrument for pre- 
serving and communicating the impressions of sound 
similar to the ear, that deficiency may be supplied 
by extraordinary means of vision. That the stemmata 
are of this description seems very probable ; and 
the antennae may, in some degree, answer a similar 
purpose : the circumstance just mentioned furnishes 
some presumption that they do this, at least, in the 
case of the males ; else why do they exhibit that 
peculiar structure which distinguishes the real 

Ruber's experiments seem to go far to establish 
a different theory. He says, " Let us now inquire 
into the state or organ of this sense, whose existence 
has been so well established. 

* Insect Miscellany, p. 63. 


" Nostrils have not yet been recognized in insects ; 
nor do we know in what part of the body they, or 
any other organs corresponding to them, are placed. 
Probably odours reach the sensorium through the 
medium of a mechanism similar to our own, — that is, 
the air is introduced into some opening at the termi- 
nation of the olfactory nerves ; and hence we should 
examine if the stigmata* do not perform this function, 
or whether the organ we are in quest of be not 
situated in the head, or in some other part of the 
body. With the view of elucidating the matter, we 
made the following experiments : — 

"LA pencil dipped in oil of turpentine — one of 
the substances most disliked by insects — was pre- 
sented successively to all parts of the body of a bee, 
which did not appear in the least affected, whether 
on approaching the thorax, abdomen, or stigmata of 
the thorax. 2. We then took a fine pencil, that it 
might reach every point of the head, and brought it 
near the antennae, the eyes, and protruded tmnk of a 
bee in the act of feeding, but without producing the 
least effect. It was otherwise on carrying it near the 
cavity of the mouth, above the insertion of the pro- 
boscis. At that instant the bee receded, left the 
honey, and, beating its wings, while moving about in 
much agitation, it would have taken flight had not 
the pencil been withdrawn. Having renewed its 
repast, we resumed the application, always carrying 

* Certain apertures, generally called stigmata, appear on 
each side of the body of insects, which naturalists believe to 
be appropriated exclusively to respiration. 


the impregnated portion near the mouth. The bee 
now quitting the honey, fixed upon the table, and 
fanned itself during some minutes. The organ of 
smelling, therefore, seems to reside in the mouth 
itself, or in the parts contiguous. 

" Bees not occupied in feeding appeared more 
sensible of the odour of the turpentine. They were 
affected by it at a greater distance, and speedily took 
flight, whereas, when so engaged with the trunk 
immersed in honey, several parts of the body might 
be touched by the pencil without their withdrawing. 
We inferred, that their attention was either absorbed 
by the smell of the honey, or their organs less exposed 
to the effluvia. This could be ascertained in two 
ways, — either by covering all parts of the body with 
a varnish, and leaving the sensible organ free ; or 
allowing the whole parts to remain untouched, 
excepting that in which the sense of smell was sup- 
posed to reside. 

" The latter method appearing the more practicable 
and decisive, we seized several bees, and, compelling 
them to unfold the trunk, filled the mouth nearly 
with flour paste. When this was dry enough, so that 
they could not rub it off, they were released, and 
none seemed to suffer any inconvenience from it. 
They breathed and moved with the same facility as 
their companions. Honey, however, did not attract 
them, as they neither approached it, nor were they 
affected by odours which, in other cases, are offensive 
to them. Pencils were dipped in the oil of turpentine 
and cloves, in ether, in fixed and volatile alkalis, and 


their points insinuated very near their mouth. But 
the odour of these fluids, which would have occasioned 
a sudden shock to bees in their natural state, had no 
sensible effect on them. On the contrary, several 
mounted on the impregnated pencils, and traversed 
them with impunity : therefore, we held that their 
sense of smelling was obstructed by the paste put 
into their mouths."* 

Humboldt is of opinion, that different parts of the 
body, in the various orders of insects, are adapted to 
the purpose of conveying to their sensorium the 
odours of substances. 

Kirby and Spence, following up the experiments 
of Huber, say that the olfactory sensation is conveyed 
by " the extremity of the nose, between it and the 
upper lip, or under those parts ;" and that it is 
analogous to this sense in mammiferous animals ; and 
conceive that no one can look on an insect without 
coming to this conclusion.-}- But as we are not 
furnished with any experiments by which we are 
made acquainted that insects breathe at all through 
their head, we are at a loss how to account for the 
conviction of these authors. And being still so 
imperfectly acquainted with this part of the insect 
economy, we must leave it to be decided by future 
investigations. If, however, the conclusions of Dr 

* Huber on Bees. Edinburgh Translation, 1821, p. 
J 62— 164. 

f KiKBY and Spence, Introduction to Entomology, iv. 
p. 256. 



Rousseau be correct, — that without the sense of 
smelling", we could have no taste, then it appears 
pretty evident that there must be spiracles in the 
mouths of insects, by which smell is conveyed to the 

Rousseau made some experiments on the human 
species, by which, we think, he was fully warranted 
in adopting his theory. He successively blindfolded 
some young medical students, who were sceptical 
regarding his opinion, and after effectually stopping 
their nostrils, gave them onions to eat, which they 
took for apples, and they supposed camphor to be 


Naturalists are much divided in opinion regarding 
the organs of hearing in insects, and many maintain 
that they are insensible to sounds. The antennae, by 
some, are supposed to correspond to the ears of other 
animals, but as yet no satisfactory proofs have been 
discovered to warrant this conclusion. 

It is well known that insects emit various sounds ; 
but whether these are heard by their congeners, is 
still matter of dispute. We can, however, conceive, 
that if these sounds are not heard, in the strict sense 
of the word, yet it is quite possible that they may be 
perceived by the impulses they produce on the 
atmosphere through the medium of the antennae, ol* 
other organs, which may possess an exquisite sensi- 
bility in this respect. 


After an attentive perusal of all which has been 
written on this subject, we are quite unable to venture 
even an opinion ; and it would only be a waste of 
time to adduce all the arguments which have been 
held on both sides of the question. 


Much difference of opinion exists among naturalists, 
regarding the extent of vision in insects. In the 
instance of bees, Huber says, — " How great is the 
perfection of their organ of sight ! — Since, from a 
distance, the bee recognizes its habitation, amidst an 
apiary of numerous others resembling it, and returns 
in a straight line with great velocity, we must 
suppose that it is distinguished by marks escaping 
our notice. The bee departs, and flies straight to the 
most flowery field. Having ascertained its course, it 
is seen traversing it directly, as the flight of a cannon 
or musket ball. Its collection being made, it rises 
aloft in the air, to reconnoitre its hive ; and returns 
with the rapidity of lightning." * 

On this subject, very opposite opinions prevail ; 
for Wildman maintains, that he has observed bees 
searching for the door of their hive, and frequently 
been obliged to rise in the air again, in order to find 
it. This, according to the views of Dr Bevan, is, 
because they see objects at a distance better than 

* Huber on Bees, Edinburgh Edition, p, 255. 


those that are near, from the contraction of their 
eyes. The experiments of Dr Evans and Sir G. S. 
Mackenzie, both tend to support Wildman's views. 

We are yet but imperfectly acquainted with the 
vision of insects ; and, from the great variety in the 
construction of their eyes, it is no wonder we should 
be so. For example, a centipede has twenty eyes, a 
spider has eight, and a butterfly and its congeners but 
two ; but these two have thirty-five thousand facets 
in each. It may, therefore, seem remarkable, how 
they see but one object ; but it is not a more difficult 
question, than how we see but one object with two 

When the facetted eye of a butterfly is examined 
a little closely, it will be found to have the appear- 
ance of a multiplying glass, the sides, or facets, 
nearly resembling a brilliant cut diamond. 

In the experiments performed by Mr Herschel, he 
describes the impulses received by the eyes of insects 
as analogous to those of sound, as given by Wollaston. 
He says, — " Although any kind of impulse or 
motions, regulated by any law, may be transferred 
from a molecule in an elastic medium ; yet, in 
the undulating theory of light, it is supposed that 
only such primary impulses as occur according to 
regular periodical laws, at equal intervals of time, 
and repeated many times in succession, can affect our 
organs with the sensation of light. To put in motion 
the molecules of the nerves of our retina with sufficient 
efficacy, it is necessary that the almost infinitely 
minute impulse of the adjacent etherial molecule* 


should be often and regularly repeated, so as to 
multiply, and, as it were, concentrate their effect. 
Thus, as a great pendulum may be set in swing by a 
very minute force often applied, at intervals exactly 
equal to its time of oscillation ; or, as one elastic solid 
body can be set in vibration, by the vibration of 
another at a distance, propagated through the air, if 
in exact unison ; even so may we conceive the gross 
fibres of the nerves of the retina to be thrown into 
motion, by the continual repetition of the etherial 
pulses ; and such only will be thus agitated, as from 
their size, shape, or elasticity, are susceptible of 
vibrating in times exactly equal to those at which 
the impulses are repeated. Thus, it is easy to 
conceive how the limits of visible colour may be 
established ; for, if there be no nervous fibres in 
unison with vibrations, more or less frequent than 
certain limits, such vibrations, though they reach the 
retina, will produce no sensation. Thus, too, a single 
impulse, or an irregularly repeated one, produces no 
light ; and thus, also, may the vibrations excited in 
the retina continue a sensible time after the exciting 
cause has ceased, prolonging the sensation of light, 
(especially of a vivid one,) for an instant in the eye. 
We may thus conceive the possibility of other 
animals, such as insects, incapable of being affected 
with any of our colours, and, receiving their whole 
stock of luminous impressions from a class of vibra- 
tions altogether beyond our limits, as Dr Wollaston 
has ingeniously imagined, (we may almost say, 


proved,) to be the case with the perceptions of 


In almost all insects, there is great variety in 
the colour of the males and females ; and in many 
they are so different in form, as to be taken for 
different species. 

In butterflies, the males are usually of a brighter 
colour than the females, and, not unfrequently, of 
totally different colours. Want of experience in 
this department, led the great Linnaeus into an 
egregious blunder ; for he considered them not only 
specifically distinct, but also as belonging to different 
families. His divisions of Trojans and Grecians is, 
in many instances, liable to this objection. The male 
Brimstone Butterfly, {Goneptyrex rhamni,^ is of a 
beautiful sulphur yellow ; while the female is of a 
dirty greenish white. In the Orange-tip Butterfly, 
(^Pontia cardamines,) so named from the fine orange 
spot towards the points of its superior wings, the 
spot is possessed by the male only. The male Argus 
Butterfly, (Folj/onwiatus argus,) has the upper surface 
of the superior wings of a dark mazareen blue ; while 
those of the female are of a deep brownish purple. 

The female butterflies are less frequently to be 
seen than the males, as they conceal themselves in 

* Encyclop<Bdia 3IeiropuHtana, Article Light. 


some quiet retreat. In these situations, they are 
supposed to be discovered by the sense of smell in 
the males, which can be accomplished at a great 
distance. This has long been known to British 
entomologists. For we find, by the writings of Barbut 
and Moses Harris, that they were aware of this fact, 
and practised a mode of catching the males, which 
they termed sembling, from possessing a female of the 
species in confinement. Haworth says, " It is a 
frequent practice with the London Aurelians, when 
they breed a female of the Lappit Moth, {Gaster 
opacha quercifolia,) and some other day flying 
species, to take her in a box with a gauze lid, into 
the vicinity of the woods, where, if the weather be 
favourable, she never fails to attract a numerous train 
of males, whose only business appears to be an 
incessant, rapid, and undulating flight in search of the 
females. One of these is no sooner discovered, than 
they become so much enamoured of their fair kins- 
woman, as absolutely to lose all fear for their own 
personal safety, which, at other times, is effectually 
secured by the reiterated evolutions of their strong 
and rapid wings. So fearless, indeed, have I beheld 
them on these occasions, as to climb up and down the 
sides of the cage which contained the dear object of 
their eager pursuit, in exactly the same manner as 
Honey Bees which have lost themselves, climb up 
and down the glasses of a window." 

After the butterflies, sphinges, and moths, have 
arrived at their perfect, or imago condition, their 
whole business seems to be the fulfilment of that 



universal law of nature, the reproduction of their 
kind. This is prettily told by Darwin, in the follow- 
ing lines : — 

Hence, when the morus,* in Italia's lands. 

To spring's warm leaves its timid leaf expands. 

The silk-worm broods in countless tribes above 

Crop the green treasure, uninform'd of love ; 

Erewhile the changeful worm, with circling head, 

Weaves the nice curtains of his silken bed ; 

Web within web involves his larva form. 

Alike secured from sunshine and from storm ; 

For twelve long days he dreams of blossom'd groves, 

Untasted honey, and ideal loves, 

Wakes from his trance, alarm'd with young desire. 

Finds his new sex, and feels ecstatic fire ; 

From flower to flower, with honey'd lips he springs. 

And seeks his velvet loves on silver wings. 

Mr John Henry Davies, curator of the museum of 
the Portsmouth Philosophical Society, has recorded 
some curious and satisfactory observations on the 
subject.f He says, — " It has been asserted, that the 
males of lepidopterous insects are guided to the 
females by a peculiar instinct ; so that an unimpreg- 
nated female being carried in a wire cage along the 
hedges and other haunts of this tribe, will attract the 
males of that species, so that they may be easily 

" I have never had an opportunity of trying this 

* The mulberry tree. 
•j- Zoological Journal, vol. v. p. 142. 
VOL. T. G 


experiment ; but the following fact, which has lately 
fallen under my observation, leaves me no room to 
doubt the correctness of the assertion, as it proves the 
existence, and exhibits the operation of this instinct 
in a very remarkable manner. 

" Being engaged in adding the British insects to the 
collection of the Portsmouth Philosophical Society, I 
had procured a variety of larvae, (the insects thus 
obtained being generally in a better condition than 
those taken by the net.) They in due time passed 
into the pupa ; and the first which emerged, was a 
female Sphinx convolvuli. On going into my study 
in the evening, I found it fluttering on the floor. On 
lifting it up, it ran up my coat, and several times 
round the collar, before I could place it in safety. I 
went from thence immediately into ray garden, to 
shut some hot-bed lights, where I was occupied about 
ten minutes ; from thence again to my study, where I 
found that two fine males of the Sphinx convolvuli 
had, whilst in the garden, attached themselves to the 
collar of my coat, where the female had previously 

" After this, another female of the same species had 
been produced ; three males found their way into my 
study down the chimney, there being no other mode 
by which they could obtain entrance ; and one of 
them fell into a vase standing under it, where he was 
captured. A few days after, two females of the 
Phal(sna salicis emerged. On the same evening, I 
saw several of that species fluttering against the 


window ; and, on opening it, six males rushed in, and 
instantly sought the females. 

" I state these facts just as they occurred. They 
are certainly curious, and go to prove, that the 
females emit an odour perceptible to the delicate 
olfactory organs of the males at a great distance, who, 
when attracted, are stimulated to overcome every 
obstacle in the way of the fulfilment of the great law 
of nature. After the female has become gratified, 
this effect appears to cease. 

" Precisely similar circumstances took place with 
the PhalcBna neustra, the males presenting themselves 
at the window." 

Professor Rennie says this does not always suc- 
ceed ; for, says he, — " In the spring of 1830, we 
bred a female of the Lime-hawk Moth, (^Smerintkus 
tilicB of Latreille,) and placed her on a small lime 
tree, planted in a garden pot, and left her at full 
Uberty, trusting to the known stationary habits of 
female insects for not losing her. In this we were 
not deceived ; for though the tree consisted only of 
a single stem, of about three feet high, she never left 
it, remaining upon the same leaf sometimes for 
several days without stirring ; and when she did 
move, it was only to perambulate the plant, agitating 
her wings the while, (as she did while stationary,) 
with a sort of tremulous quivering, not very percepti- 
ble, unless closely inspected. It might be, that there 
were no males in the vicinity, though the insect is by 
no means rare around Lee. At all events, she 
remained without a male for about three weeks, as 


the eggs, which she at length laid, proved to be 
infertile ; and she died soon after. In the instance 
of a much rarer insect, the Clear Under-wing, 
(^jiEgeria asiliforvm of Stephens,) having discovered 
a brood in the trunk of a poplar tree, we were 
desirous of securing all that issued from it ; and 
having caught a female, we placed her in a box 
covered with gauze, at the root of the tree, — the 
notion of surrounding the tree itself with gauze, not 
having occurred to us at the moment. As this moth 
is one of the day flyers, we expected to make sure of 
all the males in the neighbourhood ; but, to our no 
small disappointment, not one approached the box, 
though we afterwards enclosed in it another female. 
This was the more remarkable, that, from the protru- 
sion of the pupa cases from the tree, there was 
evidently not only one or two, but a considerable 
number evolved, after the box had been placed there. 
In 1818, having discovered a beautiful male Crane 
Fly, (Ctenophora pectinicornis, of Meiger,) apparently 
just disclosed from the pupa, we carefully examined 
the old willow stump upon which it rested, expecting 
to find more of the same brood. Next day, we 
accordingly observed a female, and imagining it to be 
one of the rare species, {Ctenophora ornata, or 
Jlaveolata,^ we placed her in a gauze-covered box ; 
but no male approached for five days, when a large 
hunting spider found means to introduce himself into 
the box, and made a meal of her. 

" There is one extraordinary fact connected with 
this subject, which is worthy of being prominently 


stated, namely, — that after insects pair, and the 
females deposit their eggs, they very soon die, 
seldom living a few days, sometimes only a few hours 
afterwards ; but should pairing be prevented, their 
lives, and particularly that of the female, may be 
protracted to an indefinite period. Collectors, indeed, 
find it is with the utmost difficulty a female can be 
deprived of her life before laying ; and we have no 
doubt, that the marvellous stories reported of the 
revival of flies and other insects, after long immersion 
in spirits, or after being crushed in shutting a book, 
originated in this circumstance, as well as the 
prolonged life of some insects, which is given on 
good authority." * 

It is a most singular circumstance, in the case 
above quoted, that moths which have not met vdth a 
mate, should live so considerable a time beyond the 
limits ordinarily prescribed by nature ; and it would 
be difficult, on physiological principles, to account for 
it. There are also some instances of butterflies 
continuing their existence even for months, as may 
be instanced in the Peacock Butterfly, the Nettle 
Tortoise-shell Butterfly, and several others, which 
are hatched late in the autumn, and live in a torpid 
state till the spring, when they meet with a mate. 
Had these been hatched earlier in the summer, and 
laid their eggs, they would have died, like most of 
their congeners. 

* Insect Miscellany, p. 217. 



In quadrupeds, birds, and fishes, there are instances 
of extraordinary periodical migrations, principally 
for the purpose of obtaining food in more abundance, 
when it becomes scarce, from the effects of climate 
or other circumstances. In insects, too, there are 
frequent extensive migrations, to account for which 
we find some diflaculty. It is easy to see the reason 
why some species of caterpillars associate, as they, 
for their mutual protection, construct nests wherein 
to retire, both during night and in bad weather. 
The Pajnlio lo and canixia are examples of this : the 
former constructs a nest like the Processionary Moth, 
although differing in some particulars. 

Some insects associate only in their imago state ; 
while others are gregarious in both conditions. 
Others, again, congregate while in their larvae form ; 
which, with a very few exceptions, is the case with 
the numerous tribe of lepidopterous insects. These 


are hatched together, and remain in compact, for the 
purpose of rearing, by their united labour, a comfort- 
able dwelling. 

There have been instances of butterflies associating 
in large bodies ; but for what purpose, no one has as 
yet been able to ascertain. We are informed by Mr 
Knapp, that on a calm summer day, he observed a 
prodigious number of the Papilio brassiccB, or Large 
Cabbage Butterfly, flying from northeast to south- 
east ; and so immense were their numbers, that their 
flight was continuous for upwards of two hours.* And 
Kalm relates in his Travels, f that he noticed this 
remarkable flight nearly half across the British 
Channel. It is recorded by Lindley, in the Royal 
Military Chronicle, that in the beginning of March, 
1 823, in Brazil, there were prodigious flights of white 
and yellow butterflies, which lasted for many days 
Successively. They were not observed to settle any 
where, but proceeded on their course from northeast 
to southeast. So direct was their line of travel, that 
nothing stopped them ; and their progress was 
towards the sea, which was not far off", where they^ 
in all probability, would perish. It is curious, that, at 
the time this flight was observed, no other species 
could be seen ; and this is the more remarkable, as 
the country abounds in a variety of these insects. 

" An extraordinary flight," says Captain Adams^ 
" of small butterflies, with spotted wings, took place 

* Rosel's Amusements of Insects, ii. 135. 
f Kalm's Travels, p. 13. 


at Annamaboo, on the Guinea Coast, after a tornado. 
The wind veered to the northward, and blew fresh 
from the land, with thick mist, which brought off 
from the shore so many of these insects, that for one 
hour the atmosphere was so filled with them, as to 
represent a snow storm driving past the vessel at a 
rapid rate, which was lying at anchor about two miles 
from the shore." 

In the Journal de Rouen, we are informed that 
several persons testified, they had witnessed, at Sotte- 
villes-les-Rouen, a rain of white butterflies, which 
fell in abundance towards the close of the day. This, 
no doubt, proceeded from one of these flights, and 
the insects, in all probability, becoming paralyzed, 
from mounting too high in the atmosphere. 

An extensive migration, but somewhat different, 
was noticed in one of the Cantons of Switzerland. 
Madame de Meuran Wolff, and her family, who were 
residing at Grandson, on the Lake of Neufchatel, one 
day noticed, in the garden, an immense flight of 
butterflies, of the species called Painted Lady, pro- 
ceeding with great rapidity. They flew close together, 
in the same direction, from south to north ; and, 
although repeatedly approached, they exhibited no 
signs of fear, nor were they diverted from their 
straightforward course. This extraordinary flight 
consisted of a column of from ten to fifteen feet in 
breadth, and continued, without interruption, for 
upwards of two hours. Although the garden was 
plentifully supplied, at the time, with melliferous 
flowers, not a single butterfly was seen to alight, but 


all continued to pursue their course, in a low and 
equal manner. What renders this fact the more 
singular is, that from the moment the caterpillars of 
this species are hatched, they lead a solitary life ; 
and even in their perfect, or imago condition, they 
are not observed to be gregarious. 

Professor Bonelli of Turin, however, observed a 
similar flight of the same species of butterflies, in 
the end of the March preceding their appearance 
at Grandson. Their flight was directed from south 
to north ; and their numbers were immense. At 
night, the flowers were literally covered with them. 
Towards the 29th of March, their numbers diminished : 
but even in June a few still continued. They have 
been traced from Coni, Raconni, Lusa, &c. A similar 
flight of butterflies is recorded at the end of last 
century, by M. Louch, in the Memoirs of the Academy 
of Turin, During the whole season, these butterflies, 
as well as their larvae, were very abundant, and more 
beautiful than usual. 

Among the larvae of butterflies which associate 
may be particularly mentioned that of the Papilio 
cinxia. This animal may be found on the leaves of 
the narrow-leaved plantain, on which it feeds. They 
usually associate in families, amounting to about one 
hundred in each. By their united labour, they weave 
a silken tent of a pyramidal form. This contains a 
variety of apartments, is always pitched over the 
plants on which they feed, and answers the double 
purpose of sheltering them from the heat of the sun, 
and from heavy showers of rain, neither of which is 


at all agreeable to their tender frames. After they 
have devoured all the leaves within the verge of their 
covering, they set to work, and construct a new one 
over some other roots of the same plant ; and it not 
tinfrequently happens, that several of these encamp- 
ments are within a few feet of each other. On the 
approach of winter, they construct a stronger tent, 
consisting of one apartment. When the cold weather 
sets in, they retire within it, roll themselves up into 
a sort of ball, and lie huddled together until April, 
when they break up their community, become solitary, 
and continue so, till they assume the pupa condition, 

Where food is abundant, there have been many 
instances of papilionaceous insects performing won- 
derful migrations ; while others limit their excursions 
to a very narrow range. The Forester, (/no statices 
of Leach,) has been observed in vast numbers 
disporting on the north bank of the Serpentine, in 
Kensington Gardens, while not a single one was to 
be seen on the opposite bank, nor even in any other 
spot in the neighbourhood. Professor Rennie, on 
one occasion, observed many hundreds of the Burnet 
Moth, (Anthrocera ^lijjeridukB of Stephens,) on the 
north shore of the Great Cumbrya Island, at the 
mouth of the Clyde, but not on any other part of the 
island, nor on the opposite shore at Largs, although 
he made a round of the island on the same day. He 
also visited the Isle of Bute ; but did not meet with 
a single specimen. 

Harris says, that the Marsh Fritillary (the MelitcB 
artemis of Ochsenheimer) is so extremely local in 


its habits, that it seldom leaves the field on which it 
is bred, although hundreds of them may be seen 
flying low, and frequently alighting on plants. This 
insect was only found by him at Wilsden, near 
Harrow-on-the Hill ; but recent collectors have been 
unable to detect it there. 

These local associations seem rather to be unusual 
to the general law which regulates the motions of 
lepidopterous insects, for almost the whole tribe, 
particularly the papilionaceous genera, seem to rove 
from field to field, without any fixed plan or motive. 
As their wings are usually so ample, we need not 
wonder that the lepidopterous insects are such excel- 
lent fliers. Indeed, they seem to flit untired from . 
flower to flower, and from field to field ; impelled at 
one time by hunger, and another by love or maternal 
solicitude. The distance to which some males will 
fly is truly astonishing. One of the Silkworm 
Moths {Bomhyx paphia of Fabricius) is stated to 
travel sometimes more than a hundred miles in this 

The most beautiful of all the British butterflies, 
the Purple Emperor, (^Papilio iris of Linnaeus,) when 
he makes his first appearance, fixes his throne on the 
summit of some lofty oak, from whence, in sunny 
days, unattended by his empress, who does not fly, 
he takes his excursions. Lanching into the air, 
from one of the highest twigs, he mounts often to so 
great a height, as to become invisible. Hence his 

* Linncean Transactions, vol. vii. p. 40. 


synonymous name of the Purple Highflier. When 
the sun is at the meridian, his loftiest flights take 
place ; and, about four in the afternoon, he resumes 
his station of repose.* 

The large bodies of the Hawk Moths (^Sphinx) 
are carried by wings remarkably strong, both as to 
nerves and texture, and their flight is proportionally 
rapid and direct. That of butterflies is by dipping 
and rising alternately, so as to form a zigzag line, 
with vertical angles, which the animal often describes 
with a skipping motion, so that each zigzag consists 
of smaller ones. This, doubtless, renders it more 
difficult for the birds to take them as they fly ; and 
thus the male, when paired, often flits away with the 
female, f 

* Ha worth's Lepidoptera Britannica, i. p. 19. 
f KiRBV and Spence, ii. p. 355. 



It has been the will of Providence to place around 
man, in this sublunary world, many animals, which 
we cannot suppose to have been formed for his good. 
Among these is a host of insects, which lay waste 
the most valuable of our culinary vegetables, and 
others direct their ravages to the fairest and most 
delightful of our flowers. 

In dry summers, the Caterpillar of the common 
Cabbage Butterfly often proves destructive to whole 
gardens, consuming every thing which is green ; to 
prevent which, no effectual means have been devised. 
They feed indiscriminately on the leaves of turnips, 
cabbages, greens, and other plants. What vegetable 
can be more agreeable and wholesome than brocoli V 
and how often have we seen its foliage ravaged, in 
the autumn, by numerous hordes of the caterpillar of 
the Cabbage Butterfly ! 



The larvae of the Papilio rapcB are often found 
insinuated into the bosom of the flowers of cauli- 

The caterpillar of the Hawthorn Butterfly (Papilio 
craUBgi of Linnaeus) was very destructive to the 
foliage of fruit trees, in some parts of Germany, in 
the year 1791.* 

Dr Bright, in passing through the district of 
Kormond, in Lower Hungary, says, — " I observed an 
extensive forest of oak, apparently six weeks later in 
its vegetation than any we had passed. On inquiry, 
it appeared that it arose from the ravages of a destruc- 
tive species of caterpillar (probably that of the Papilio 
hetulce) stripping the whole forest of its leaves ; 
which, the peasants told me, was here no uncommon 
occurrence. I find agricultural writers in Transyl- 
vania speaking frequently of this circumstance, and 
their fruit nurseries, in particular, seem to suffer 
greatly from these insects." 

* RosEL, i. chap 2, p. 15. 



Creative Wisdom has endowed this tribe of 
jinimals, like many others, with certain means of 
defence suited to the condition in which they are 
placed. Several larvae of butterflies will bite very 
sharply, — these are distinguished, by having at their 
head a semicoronet of strong spines ; while others have 
singular anal organs, which may have a similar use. 

A numerous host of these little animals escape 
from birds, and other assailants, by their being so 
like in colour to the plants which they inhabit, or the 
twigs of shrubs and trees, their foliage, flowers, and 
fruit, that their devourers cannot readily see them. 

The brilliant colours with which many of the 
Papilios are invested, is, in all probability, another 
means of defence, rather than a mere ornament, — 
they may dazzle their enemies. The radiant blue 
of the upper surface of the wings of the gigantic 
butterfly so prevalent in Brazil, the Papilio menelaus, 
or Silver-blue Butterfly, (see plate 20) which, from 


its size, would be a ready prey for any insectivorous 
bird, may by its splendour, which, we are told, is 
inconceivably bright, produce an effect upon the sight 
of such birds, which would give it no small chance of 
escape. Latreille has a similar conjecture with 
respect to the Golden Wasps. 

The long hairs, stiff bristles, and spines, and also 
the hard tubercular prominences with which many 
caterpillars are clothed, may also be intended for 
their protection. That these are really the means of 
defence, is rendered more probable by the fact, that, 
in several instances, the animals so distinguished, at 
their last change of skin, previous to their assuming 
the chrysalis condition, appear with a smooth skin, 
without any of the hairs and spines for which they 
were before remarkable. Mr Kirby has a small lepi- 
dopterous caterpillar from Brazil, which is thickly 
beset with such sharp, strong, branching spines on 
the upper surface, as would enter the epidermis of 
the finger, and would furnish it with effective weapons 
against enemies less formidable than man.* 

Madam Merian has figured an enormous cater- 
pillar of this kind — which, unfortunately, she could 
not trace to the perfect insect — by the very touch 
of which, she says, her hands were much inflamed, 
and the inflammation was succeeded by the most 
excruciating pain. 

The chrysalids are protected by other contrivances 
equally effectual. 

* Kirby and Spence, Intr. ii. p. 226. 



Lepidopterous insects, like other animals, are 
subject to malformations. We have on record accounts 
of some curious lusus naturcB of these tribes. 

Such insects are often termed hermaphrodite 
insects. They frequently prove very puzzling to 
inexperienced collectors ; and are often supposed 
distinct species. The above term is completely 
mfsapplied, and we are not aware of any specimens 
entitled to this appellation having been found. 

Many instances of lusus natures in this order of 
insects might be adduced, but we consider the follow- 
ing as sufficient to show the extent of the phenomenon. 

In the collection of insects belonging to Professor 
Germar are the following curiosities : — 

1. Papilio atalanta. The left side male, the right 
side female. The left pair of wings is smaller, and 
more deeply indented than the right ; and the left 
antenna shorter than the right. 

VOL. I. H 


2. Papilio antiopa, — of which the right side is male, 
and the left side female. The right antenna is much 
shorter than the left. 

3. Papilio phcebe. The left side is male, and the 
left antenna shorter than the right ; and the left pair 
of wings smaller, but the colour and margin the same 
as the right. Hinder part of the body the same as 
the male. 

Mr H. S. Smith, of Leeds, an excellent and zealous 
entomologist, has in his possession a singular hisus 
natures of the Peacock Butterfly, which he took in 
1827, that is entirely destitute of eyes on the inferior 
wings, as well as of the dark ground they are placed 
on, and the light coloured circle that surrounds them. 



This is the third Order of Insects, according to 
the Linnsean classification. 

The insects of the order which contains the various 
kinds of Butterflies, Sphinges, and Moths, have all 
four wings, covered with scales, or a sort of farina ; * 

* These scales are so very minute, that they are taken 
for extremely fine dust. When, however, they are examined 
through a powerful lens, the scales are found to be placed in 
the most perfect order, and, where there is a diversity of 
colour, not unlike mosaic work of the most exquisite descrip- 
tion. It cannot but be extremely pleasing, to the contemplative 
mind, to draw a comparison between the finest productions of 
human art, and those of the Divine Architect. Comparisons 
have been made between the irregularity that appears in the 
finest needle, when examined by a microscope, and the won- 
derful accuracy of the sting of a bee or a wasp ; and the 
unequal contexture of the finest cambric, when compared 
with seme natural productions. The comparison instituted 


they have a mouth with palpi, a spiral tongue, and a 
body set with hairs. The scales resemble feathers ; 
they lie over one another, in an imbricated manner, 

between mosaic and the scales on the wings of papilionaceous 
insects, is not less interesting. 

Mosaic work is of very ancient invention, but the moderns 
have greatly improved the art. Pictures of various subjects 
are formed of it, of amazingly fine workmanship ; imitations 
of buildings, trees, ground of various kinds, and distant moun- 
tains; and the human figure, both singly and in groups. These 
are produced by small pins, of variously coloured glass, stuck 
into a kind of paste. They are so minute in many cases, that we 
can hardly discern them to be an arrangement of an infinite 
number of particles of glass ; they rather look like a picture 
painted with the finest co'ours, harmoniously blended together. 
The calculation made by Keysler is, that a piece of eighty 
square feet, if perforated with tolerable care and delicacy, 
would employ eight artists the space of two years. 

A small piece of the wing of Papilio lo, (the Peacock 
Butterfly,) a quarter of an inch square, was cut out, and placed 
under the third magnifier of an opaque microscope, when 
seventy rows of scales were counted, and ninety in each row. 
Consequently, there were six thousand three hundred scales 
on one side of this small portion of wing ; so that the square 
inch of a wing must contain the astonishing number of one 
hundred thousand seven hundred and thirty- six scales. The 
number of glass pins in a square inch of mosaic being only 
eight hundred and seventy, the coarseness of such a picture, 
compared w^ith the mosaic of the wing of this insect, is in the 
proportion of one hundred and fifteen at least to one ; that is, 
such a picture is one hundred and fifteen times coarser than 
this natural mosaic. 

The Peacock Butterfly is one of medium size, and the scales 
on it are in proportion to its size. "What then n^ust be the 


or like the tiles on a roof ; the shafts towards the 
body of the insect, and the expansion towards the 
end of the wing, reflecting often the most beautiful 
colours. The eyes are reticulated and large ; and, 
besides these, some have two or three stemmata, 
situated on the forehead. The palpi have from two 
to three articulations ; they are hairy, standing out- 
wards, and sometimes a little upwards. Butterflies, 
with their spiral tongues, suck the nectareous juices 
of flowers ; but, in general, they need little food ; 
some, indeed, whose tongue is very short, seem to 
take no nourishment at all. They have, on each 
side, nine spiracula, or organs of respiration, of which 
one is situated on the thorax, the other eight on the 
segments of the abdomen ; the last segment is without 
any. The principal function of the perfect insect 
is to propagate its species, for which purpose the 
female, from a peculiar instinct, deposits her eggs on 
such plants, and in such places, as afford the proper 
nourishment to the larva when excluded ; after which 
both sexes soon cease to live. 

proportion if we compare with it some of the smaller Butterflies 
whose whole dimensions are not a quarter of an inch? 

The wing of a Peacock Butterfly, prematurely taken out of 
a pupa, was subjected to the same mode of investigation, when 
it was found to be nine and a quarter times finer than that of 
the perfect insect ; and that the square inch contained nine 
hundred and thirty-one thousand eight hundred and eight 
scales to the square inch. So that this natural mosaic must 
be above ten hundred and sixty three times finer than the 
mosaic of the boasted pictures of modern Rome, where inge- 
nuity, animated by zeal, has exerted its utmost efforts. 


Of this order Linnaeus forms three genera, namely, 
Papilio, Sphhix, and Phaksna ; which are called in 
English, Butterflies, Hawk Moths, and Moths. 

The French authors have sub-divided this order 
into a variety of famiUes, tribes, and genera ; but to 
enter into these would occupy a space far beyond 
our limits. I therefore confine myself to the Lin- 
naean arrangement. 

The first genus to be considered is that of Papilio, 
or what, in our language, is termed Butterfly ; which 
Dr Johnson says is so named because it first appears 
in the beginning of the season of butter. According 
to Dr Webster, it is much more probably derived 
from the colour of a yellow species, which is the most 

The varied and splendid tints of Butterflies, and 
their generally elegant and graceful forms, afford 
ample means for contemplation and admiration. Miss 
Jarmyn has justly observed, that the tribes of 
these animals, which inhabit the tropics, are at least 
equal in the brilliancy of their general colour to 
those of the birds of the same countries. Linnaeus, 
alive to all the dazzling splendour of Butterflies, 
emphatically says — " See! the large, elegant, painted 
wings of the butterfly, four in number, covered with 
delicate feathery scales! With these, it sustains 
itself in the air a whole day, rivaling the flight of 
birds, and the brilliancy of the peacock. Consider 
this insect through the wonderful progress of its 
life, — how different is the first period of its being 
from the second, and both from the parent insect ! 


Its changes are an inexplicable enigma to us : we 
see a green caterpillar, furnished with sixteen feet, 
feeding upon the leaves of a plant ; this is changed 
into a chrysalis, smooth, and of golden lustre, hanging 
suspended to a fixed point, without feet, and sub- 
sisting without food. This insect again undergoes 
another transformation, acquiring wings and six feet, 
and becomes a gay butterfly, sporting in the air, and 
living by suction upon the honey of plants. What 
has Nature produced more worthy of our admiration 
than such an animal coming upon the stage of the 
world, and playing its part there under so many 
different masks ? " 

It is no wonder that mankind were early struck 
with these wonderful phenomena, and that the 
ancients should have considered a butterfly as an 
emblem of the human soul. It has afforded much 
scope for poetry, and served to heighten the beauty of 
allegorical fictions : here is an example of the latter :— 

Now on broad pinions from the realms above, 
Descending Cupid seeks the Cyprian grove ; 
To his wide arms enamour'd Psyche springs, 
And clasps her lover in aurelian wings.* 

* Darwin's Temfie of Nature, 

Genus PAPILIO. — Linsmvs. 

Generic character. — The antennae growing thicker 
at the extremities, in general, club-shaped, or capi- 
tated ; the wings, when at rest, erect, and meeting 
upwards. The species all fly by day. 

This genus comprehends those insects called in 
English Butterflies, which fly by day. The first pair 
of legs in some of them are short, and used rather as 
hands for cleaning themselves, than as feet for walking. 
Their flight is in general quick. The caterpillars 
have all sixteen feet, and are for the most part prickly. 
Some, however, are smooth, others set with short 
hairs ; some have a sort of tail, and others have two 
blunt horn-like feelers on the head. 

Linnaeus divides this genus into six families. The 
names of the first, being mostly exotic, he has taken 
from those of the Trojan and Grecian chiefs ; those 
of the others, as most of them are European, and 
their history and habits better known, are taken 
chiefly from the plants on which the caterpillars feed. 


I. Equites. — Those whose upper wings are longer 

from the posterior angle to the apex, than from 
the angle to the base. Their antennae are often 

' filiform. 

They are subdivided as follows : — 

A. Troes ; often black, with bloody spots on 
the breast. 

B. Achivi; without the bloody spots ; an 
ocellus at the angle of the tail. 

II. Heliconii. — With quite entire and narrow 
wings, which are sometimes naked, especially 
towards the extremities ; the upper ones oblong, 
the under ones very short. 

III. Parnassii. — With quite entire wings; the 
upper ones rounded. 

IV. Danai. — With entire wings. 

A. Candidi; with white wings. 

B. Festivi ; with wings variously coloured. 

V. Nymphales. — With indented wings. 

A. Gemmati ; the wings ocellated. 

a. ocelli, in all the wings. 

b. ocelli, in the upper wings. 

c. ocelli, in the under wings. 

B. Phalerati ; the wings without ocelli. 

VI. Plebeii, — Small ; the larva generally contracted. 

A. Rurales ; the wings with obscure spots. 

B. Urbicoke; the wings with spots, which are 
often pellucid. 



Papilio lo. — Britain. 


Papilio lo, Merian's Ins. Eur. i. 226. Alh. Ins. pi. 3. 
Wilk. Pap. 55. pi. 3. a. 2. Harris' Aurelian, pi. 8. 
f, k, i. — Vanessa lo, Latreille. 

Specific character. — The head, throat, and abdomen 
of this splendid butterfly are of a deep reddish brown, 
and covered with pretty long hairs. The wdngs are 
angular, and considerably indented at their posterior 
margins, and surrounded by a broad black band, the 
superior ones being of a high toned brown, approach- 
ing to red, with large compound eyelets, reddish in 
the centre, and the inner half of the outer circle of a 
rich golden yellow, the outer half being of a fine sky 
blue, with several dark spots in it. These eyelets are 
bounded on their inner sides by a triangular semi- 
lunar black patch, beyond which is a wedge-shaped 
patch of rich yellow, bounded with an abbreviated 
black band ; on the exterior margin is a transverse 
band of golden yellow, thickly punctured with black ; 

Papilio lo. — Britain. 


in the centre of the wing are two pretty large sky- 
blue spots. The lower wings are of a pale reddish 
browTi, with the margins considerably indented, and 
a deep, black, broad border, with sub-caudal wings. 
There are on each of the lower wings a large oval 
sequilaterous eyelet, of deep black, surrounded by an 
ash-coloured ring, bounded on its outer extremity by 
another ring of black : the spots on the centre are 
deep blue, with a white semilunar one at top. 

This insect is subject to considerable variety, in 
some of which the margins are deep brown. The 
under side of this butterfly is almost entirely black. 

The caterpillars of the Papilio lo are produced from 
eggs which are deposited in the spring of the year 
on nettles. The larvae are of a fine deep black, thickly 
beset with sharp spikes, and finely powdered with 
minute white specks. The belly legs are of a tawny 
brown, and the others black. They live in society, 
and are seen in the early part of summer feeding on 
nettles. Shortly after the little animals are hatched, 
they begin to spin for themselves a large and com- 
modious web, into which they fly for shelter on the 
approach of rain, which the exquisite sensibility of 
their nervous system enables them to foresee a con- 
siderable time previous to its falling ; they therefore 
may be depended on as excellent prognostics of 
changes in the state of the atmosphere. They also 
take refuge under this covering during the night. 

When they have attained their full growth, which 
is about the beginning of July, they seek out some 
proper place where they can safely assume their 


chrysalid form. In the performance of this change, 
they suspend themselves vertically, with the head 
downwards ; and the pupa, thus pendent, continues 
for about twenty days, at the end of which time the 
insect becomes perfected, bursts from its shell, expands 
its wings, and flies away. 

The Peacock Butterfly is to be found all over 
Europe, especially in the more temperate parts of it. 
It is not uncommon in the south of England, but it is 
extremely rare in the north. During the winter it 
conceals itself, and does not die until it has deposited 
its eggs in the ensuing spring. 

This Papilio, also the P. urticcB, atalanta, poly- 
chloros, and several allied species, soon after emerging 
from the chrysalis form, when they take their first 
flight, discharge a few drops of a reddish coloured 
fluid, which is sometimes of the intensity of blood. 
In situations where these insects are numerous, it has 
had the appearance of a shower of blood, and, by 
early writers, was considered the precursor of some 
extraordinary event. Ovid commemorated an occur- 
rence of this kind among the prodigies which took 
place after the death of the great dictator, in the 
following passage : — 

Saepe faces visae medlis ardere sub astris : 
Saepe inter nimbos guttae cecidere cruentae. 

Which has been thus translated, — 

With threat'ning s'gns the lowering skies were fill'd, 
And sanguine drops from murky clouds distill'd. 

The explanations of the appearance of blood on the 


earth, are historically divided into four distinct 
periods, — namely, first, the theocratic, or period of 
miracles ; second, the period of the Hippocratic 
school ; third, the physical, or natural historical ; 
and, fourth, the atmospherical, or cosmical. 

The first of these periods extends from the com- 
mencement of history, down to the time of Cicero, 
the Roman orator. In the second, the admissibility 
of miracles began to be questioned ; and a belief in a 
crude and veiled condition of atmospherical and 
terrestrial moisture began to be prevalent. The third 
period w^as commenced by Peiresc of Aix. And the 
fourth was established by Chladnei, who was afraid of 
the encroachments of natural historians, in accounting 
for these phenomena. 

In the first period, we have recorded in the Books 
of Moses the most ancient accounts of these miracles, 
— that of the blood-coloured water from Egypt, which 
was an immediate operation of the Almighty, and 
performed by Moses in the presence of Pharaoh. The 
Nile became red and fetid, the fishes died, and all the 
waters of Egypt were changed in the same manner.* 

Homer took advantage of appearances of a similar 
kind — the showers of bloody rain which had been 
observed previous to, and at his time — alluding to 
them with enlivening eff'ect, and representing them 
as a direct encroachment of the gods on the established 
laws of nature. 

The Greek and Roman classics frequently make 

* Exodtis, chap. vii. verses 19, 20, 21. 


mention of the Red Sea, as deriving its name from the 
red colour exhibited by its waters at different periods, 
owing to the showers of blood, which they considered 
as the immediate operations of supernatural powers, 
and as direct violations of the established laws of 
nature. Cicero was the first to question the preter- 
natural origin of these phenomena, and endeavoured 
to account for them by physical means. The red 
colour of water he accounts for from its holding in 
solution a mixture of red coloured earthy ingredients, 
and the express traces of blood drops on plants and 
stones to the bloody colouring of moisture. 

From the time of Cicero till the beginning of the 
seventeenth century, we have many records of such 
natural phenomena ; but no accurate or philosophical 
investigations of them have been offered. There was 
an absurd doctrine supported by the Hippocratic 
believers, among whom was the physician GarcaeuSj 
who, in 1568, says, blood-rain is rain boiled by the sun. 

The aim of Chladnei was, the advancement of the 
study of truly cosmical and atmospherical bodies. 

It would be foreign to our subject, although 
extremely interesting, to introduce, in chronological 
order, the sudden overflowings of rivers with red or 
bloody water which have taken place, without any 
previous rain of that colour ; or of lakes and stagnant 
waters which have been suddenly or gradually coloured, 
without any previous red rain. But we may mention, 
that modern discovery has led to a belief, that all 
these can be accounted for as arising from the water 
containing innumerable animalculse, of the order called 


by naturalists infusory animals. In the year 1797, 
Girod Chantron observed a pond in France to be of 
a blood-red colour. He examined it accurately, and 
found, that the water, which appeared to be of a 
brilliant red colour, the shade of which was between 
cinnabar and carmine, was not itself actually red, but 
assumed this appearance from innumerable animalculae, 
which were not visible to the naked eye, but which 
could be distinctly seen by the aid of a microscope.* 
Captain Scoresby mentions, that, in 1 820, he observed 
the water of the Greenland Sea striped alternately 
with green and blue, and that those particular colours 
were produced by animalculae, of such extreme 
minuteness, that he reckoned, in a single drop of 
water, 26,450 animalcules ; hence, reckoning 60 drops 
to a drachm, there would be in a gallon a number 
equal to one half of the population of the globe. 
This coloured water, to the extent of six degrees of 
latitude, formed one-fourth of the surface of the 
Greenland Sea.f Although this observation does 
not belong to the bloody colour of water, yet it 
clearly indicates the abundance of microscopic organic 
beings in water. 

The meteoric substances, which are usually colour- 
less, — such as dew, snow, rain, and hail, have been 
said to fall blood-red from the atmosphere. 

In Stowe's Chronicle^ we have two accounts of 
showers of blood ; he says, that, in the reign of 

♦ Bullet, de Sc. Nat. a. 6. 

f Scoresby 's Arctic Regionsj vol. i. 


Rivallo, 766 years before Christ, " it rained bloud 
three dayes ; and then a great mortalitie caused almost 
desolation." He afterwards writes,* " Brithricus, of 
the blood of Cerdicus, was made king of the West 
Saxons, (about a. d. 793,) and ruled seventeen yeares. 
In his time it rained blood, which, falling on men's 
cloathes, appeared like crosses." f 

There are two passages in Homer, which, however 
poetical, are applicable to rain of this kind ; and the 
accounts of the bloody sweat on some of the statues 
of the gods, mentioned by Livy, must be referred to 
the same phenomena ; as the predilection of those 
ages for marvel, and the want of accurate investiga- 
tion in the cases recorded, as well as the rare 
occurrence of these atmospherical depositions in our 
own times, incline us to include them among the 
bloodred drops deposited by insects. 

Many accounts of occurrences of this kind are 
recorded, but erroneously investigated, as related in 
Roman history, prior to the birth of Christ. Dio 
Cassius, in particular, considered, that the bloodrain 
which fell in Egypt in the time of Octavian, must be 
recorded as a thing very remarkable, because it never 
rained in Egypt. This however is a mistake. 

We are told that, in the year a. d. 65, during the 
reign of Nero, bloodrain fell, which tinged the rivers 
with a red colour. Two other instances are recorded 
in the tenth century ; one in the eleventh ; two in 
the twelfth ; one in the thirteenth ; two in the 

* Page 9. f Page 31. 


fourteenth ; one in the fifteenth ; and five in the 

The circumstances under which these isolated 
incidents happened, are not related, — whether these 
showers fell from clouds, or whether there were an 
abundance of clouds in the atmosphere at the time : 
nor are we informed if these red showers were 
actually seen falling, or whether they were merely 
observed on the ground, and hence concluded to be 
drops of red rain which had fallen. These accounts 
have, for the most part, been accompanied with such 
superstitious notions, and additions so manifestly false, 
that we venture to account for them by phenomena 
within the reach of physical science. 

It is no new discovery that insects are the cause of 
showers of blood, for Sleidan mentions, that, in the 
year 1533, a great part of Germany swarmed with 
immense multitudes of butterflies ; and that they 
sprinkled the leaves of plants, buildings, and clothes, 
with blood coloured drops, as if there had been 
showers of blood.* 

M. de Reaumur was the first who recorded a satis- 
factory and philosophical explanation of this pheno- 
menon. An extensive shower of this kind took place 
at Aix, in France, in the beginning of July, 1608, 
which threw the people of that place into the utmost 
consternation. It fell in the suburbs, and extended 
for several miles round the town. The celebrated 
M. de Peiresc, a philosopher who, with his varied 

* MouFFET, Insect. Ann. Theatrum, p. 107. 
VOL. T. I 


acquirements, had studied the habits and economy of 
insects, was consulted on this momentous occasion. 
On examination, he found the walls of a cemetery 
near the place, as well as those of several villages, 
spotted with large drops of a blood-red liquid. A 
short time prior to this, he happened to pick up a 
large chrysalis, which he had carefully laid up in a 
box. Soon after its metamorphosis into the butterfly 
state, he found that it had emitted a drop of blood- 
coloured liquor on the bottom of the box, of the size 
of a French sol. On comparing this with the spots 
on the stones in the roads, and in the fields, he found 
that they were identically the same ; and he then 
unhesitatingly pronounced that they proceeded from 
the same cause. His opinion was strengthened by 
having observed, that prodigious numbers of butterflies 
disported in the air at the time. He farther noticed, 
that these miraculous drops of what the people 
supposed bloody rain, were never found in the middle 
of the town, and appeared only in places bordering 
on the country ; and that they were not to be found 
on houses higher than the ordinarj^ flight of butterflies. 
M. de Peiresc explained the phenomenon to many 
curious and learned individuals, and established it as 
an incontrovertible fact, that the imagined shower of 
blood was in reality but the drops of a red liquid 
emitted by the butterflies. The same idea seems to 
have been entertained by Swammerdam, though he 
does not appear to have verified it from personal 

Reaumur mentions an instance of a gardener at 


Rouen being much terrified by digging up some of 
the singular cases of the leaf-cutter bees. These he 
considered as the results of witchcraft, and as foreboding 
some dreadful calamity. He exhibited them to the 
priest of the parish, who advised him to proceed 
immediately to Paris and shew them to his master. 
But the gardener had more sense than his pastor, and 
went first to the eminent naturalist NoUet with them. 
He knew well what they were ; and, while the 
astonished gardener eyed him with superstitious awe, 
Nollet opened one of the cases and pointed out the 
grub it contained, and thus dispelled his apprehen- 

In the year 1780, Romberg noticed a shower of 
blood, that had excited universal attention, and which 
he could the more satisfactorily shew to be produced 
by the flying forth and the casting of bees, as the 
phenomena in the place around the beehives them- 
selves were remarkably striking. From this fact it 
is evident, that the appearance is attributable to 
other insects as well as the lepidoptera. 

We have many other records of showers of blood, 
which, no doubt, may be referred to the same source ; 
and it is worthy of remark, that these are invariably 
stated to have taken place in warm seasons of the 
year, when the papilionaceous tribes are most 

This provision in the physical habits of butterflies, 
is analogous to a similar process in other animals, 

* Reaumur, vi. p. 99. 


and affords a satisfactory explanation of what has 
been looked upon as a prodigy, and as fearful prog- 
nostics of some approaching direful event. That 
which historians recorded as preternatural, is now 
stripped of its terrors, and is ranged among cir- 
cumstances which happen in the common course of 
nature. These appearances, both in ancient and 
modern times, in the hands of wicked men, had a 
wonderful influence in farthering their base designs 
over the superstitious. 


Papilio /,rr<JC£E. — Britaix. 



Papilio UrticcB. — Britain. 

Plate hi. 

Papilio Urticae, jLinn. Si/st. Nat. ii. p. 777. No. 167. — 
Wilk's Pap. 66. pi. 3. a. 5. — Vanessa Urticae, Latreille. 

This is one of the most beautiful papilionacegus 
insects of Britain. The ground colour of its wings is 
red, the upper wings are marked with alternate 
abbreviate bands of black and pale orange, or golden 
yellow, on the exterior margin. There are three black 
spots on each wing, and mottled at top, the under 
one large, oval, with a yellow spot at its base ; the 
posterior margins of both superior and inferior wings 
have a broad black band, edged with yellow at their 
outer extremity, and, in their centre, a catenated 
fascia of blue ; these margins are considerably 
indented ; body, head, and antennae, black ; the 
former being thickly set with dark brown hairs ; 
lower edge of the segments, brown. 

The Papilio urticce makes its first appearance in a 
winged state about the middle of April. It is a short 
lived insect ; it lays its eggs in the beginning of May 
in great numbers on the higher stalks of nettles, and 
dies very shortly afterwards. 


The eggs of this insect are covered with a moist, 
glutinous substance, by means of which they adhere 
firmly to the plants on which they are deposited. 
About the middle of May, the young caterpillars 
emerge from this envelope, and may be observed, of 
a light green colour, congregated and moving about 
on the tops of the nettles, under a web of exquisitely 
fine fibres, which covers the whole tops of the plant, 
and is taken for a spider's web — to which it has a 
strong resemblance — by those unacquainted with the 
history of insects. It is not long before they cast 
their first skin, at which time they shift to a fresh 
part of the plant, and leave behind them their old 
covering, adhering to the web. On acquiring their 
third skin, they again change place, but still keep 
under the protection of their web. In this change 
they become black ; after which they quickly increase 
in bulk, and are soon so large, that the community 
are forced to separate into distinct companies. They 
undergo, altogether, six changes of skin while in the 
caterpillar state, in the last of which they become 
solitary, living a retired life, quite remote from each 
other ; and, in this condition, they make such ravages 
among the nettles, that nothing remains on the plants 
to which they attach themselves but the fibres of the 
leaves and stalks. These caterpillars are frequently 
80 numerous, and so thickly studded on the plants, as 
to give them the appearance of being covered with 
black velvet. 

The larvae of the Nettle Tortoise-shell Butterfly 
arrive at their full size about the beginning of June, 


when they throw out from their tails a web, by which 
they suspend themselves under the leaves, or on the 
stalks of nettles, and are transformed into chrysalids. 
These are at first of a green colour ; but, in the 
course of two or three days, they change either into 
a bright golden yellow, or greenish brown, approach- 
ing nearly to bronze green. In this condition they 
continue for about twenty days, when they burst 
from their casement, and assume the perfect, or 
butterfly state. 


Papilio Hipheus. — China. 

Papilio Ripheus, Gmelin's Linnceus, p. 2235 — Fabr. Mant, 
Ins. p. 6, n. 43 Cramer, Pap. 33, t. 385. f. a. b. 

The superior wings are golden green, paler 
towards their interior margins, and clouded with large 
longitudinal patches of black. The colour deepens 
to a brilliant verdigris green, as it approaches the 
exterior margin. Inferior wings, golden green, ver- 
digris green at their anal margin, and with large 
clouds of black. Near the centre, in each, is a large 
undefined spot of deep carmine, with two black spots 
in the middle. Each of these wings is furnished 
with three acute points, and three caudate wings. 
The body is quite black ; the antennae are subulate. 
When extended, this butterfly measures, from the tip 
of each wing, five inches and a quarter. 

The caterpillar of this species is unknown ; but, 
in all probability, it bears a strong resemblance to 
that of the Fajnlio leilas, M'hich has been figured in 
Madam Marian's Surinam Insects. 

Besides the extreme rarity of this species, it may 
be reckoned the most beautiful of this splendid tribe. 
It is a native of China, and various other places oi 
the East. 


Papilio Ripheut. — China. 


4».' ^) 



Papilio Hector. — India. 



Papilio Hector Ikdia. 


Papilio Hector, Linn. Syst. Nat. p. 744. — Shaw's Nat. 
Miscellany, pi. 271. 

This Papilio is wholly of a deep velvet black, 
the upper wings clouded with cleft patches of 
pale ochre yellow, and the centre and lower parts of 
the under wings, head, and tail, with crescent-shaped 
regular patches of bright scarlet ; and with an edge, 
or fillet of white round the whole margins. Inferior 
margin with a caudate wing. 

The Hector Trojan is a native of India, but of rare 
occurrence, and measures four and a half inches 
from tip to tip of extended wings. The antennae are 
very long and slender. 

The strong contrast of the deep black and scarlet 
of this insect, gives it a striking effect. 



Papilio Amphrysius. — Java. 


Papilio Amplirysius, Marian's Ins. Surinam, t. 72? — Cra- 
mer, t. 219, f. A — Shaw's Nat. Miscellany, pi. 650. 

The upper wings are black, with yellow streaks, 
and slightly indented. The lower wings are yellow, 
with a broad vandyked border of black, and conside- 
rably indented. The upper part of the body is deep 
black ; and the segments, or anular process, is yellow. 
The eyes are scarlet. 

Although this butterfly has but two colours, yet, 
from the strong contrast of these, it is a beautiful insect. 

The Amphrysius Butterfly is a native of the islands 
of Java and Amboyna, and measures upwards of five 
inches and a quarter from the extremity of one wing 
to that of the other. 

Papilio Amphn/sius. — Jata, 






Papilio Crcvneriaiius. — Java. 



Papilio Cramerianus. — Java. 


Papilio Iphigenia, Cramer, Desc. de Papillons, pi. 67, fig. d.e. 
— Papilio Cramerianus, Shawns Nat. Miscellany, pi. 852. 

The wings are scalloped and black. Upper wings, 
with three sesquilaterous blue bands, and variously 
spotted with the same colour. They have also six 
oblong spots of white, partly edged with pale blue, 
and a quadruple macular band of bluish white on the 
posterior margin, and a large triangular scarlet spot 
on each. The under wings have a very large white, 
transverse, and lunated band, edged with shining 
blue. Next the lower posterior margin, there is a row 
of white semilunar spots, above which is an undulated 
belt of blue ; and still higher up, a macular band 
of the same colour. Under surface of the wings, 
variously clouded, streaked, and spotted with black. 
The colour, orange and gray. The body is brown, 
and black in the middle. The eyes are red ; and the 
antennae slender, with large club shaped points. 

This elegant butterfly is a native of the island of 
Java, and measures four inches, with extended wings. 



Papilio Galanthus. — Surinam. 


Papilio Galanthus, Turton^sJ^inn. iii. p. 58. — Cramer, Desc. 
de Papillons, iii. pi. 25, fig. d. e. 

The surface of the upper wings of the Galanthus 
Butterfly is scarlet ; the posterior margins, which 
are scalloped, have a pretty broad margin of deep 
black, which extends upwards of half an inch on the 
anterior margin ; and nearly close to the tips are two 
white spots. There is a large and broad articulate 
band extending nearly across the wings ; the under 
wings are black, with a broad articulate band of 
scarlet. The body is black, and the eyes scarlet. 
The antennae are very slender. 

The strong contrast of the intense black and the 
scarlet, renders this a very striking insect. It inhabits 



Papilio GaUmt/'ius Surinam. 



Papilio Ampliinome — Surinam. 


Papilio Amphinome. — Surinam. 


Papilio Amphinome, Marianas Ins. of Surinam, pi. 7. 
— Cramer, Desc. de Papillons, pi. 54, fig. e. f. 

The wings of this insect are indented, black, and 
clouded with bluish green above ; the upper pair 
marked, both on the upper and under sides, with a 
large, broad, white band, which extends across the 
wings towards their tips, from the anterior to the 
posterior margin, in an oblique direction ; the inner 
margins are of a raw umber colour. Under side of the 
upper wings, black, clouded with the same green as 
the upper surface ; the lower wings are black, variously- 
clouded, and marked with scarlet : aU the posterior 
margins have a border of semilunar green spots. 

The caterpillar is three inches long, of a dusky- 
colour, with three longitudinal green spots, extending 
from the one extremity to the other ; the head is 
furnished on its coronal surface with eight long horn 
like spines, and the tail with two. It feeds on the 
Plumeria rubra, changes into a chrysalis in June, and 
emerges the complete butterfly in the month of July. 

Inhabits South America, and Surinam. 



Papilio Atys. — Surinam. 


Papilio Atys, Cramer, Desc. de PapiUons, pi. 269, fig. e. r. 
— Shaw's Nat. Miscellany, pi. 951. 

The wings of this pretty Papilio are black, with the 
body, and centre of the wings, of a rich and clear 
verdigris green, spreading in streaks from the body 
through the black ; near the anterior margin on each 
wing are two ovate black spots, blue in the middle : 
there are two caudate appendages on the base of the 
lower wings, which terminate in a circular nob. The 
eyes are scarlet. 

The Papilio atys is a native of Surinam, and is 
represented in the plate of the natural size. 


Papilio Atys. — Surinam. 


Papilio Marst/as. — Sovru Amehic4. 



Papilio Marsi/as. — SovTH America. 


Papilio Marsyas, Zinn. Syst. Nat. p. 788 — Shaw's Nat. 
Miscellany, pi. 888. 

The wings are entire ; the anterior and posterior 
margins have a very broad band of black, while the 
area of the upper wings is of a rich azure blue, 
softening, as it descends, into a fine deep straw yellow. 
The lower wings are of a pale bluish green, with two 
long slender caudate wings on each, furnished at the 
points with round knobs ; above the lower edges are 
crescent-shaped black spots, surmounted by a round 
black spot, at the outer side of which is placed an 
upright club-shaped black spot. The body is black ; 
straw brown on the centre. 

This beautiful little Papilio is a native of South 
America. It is figured of the natural size. 


Papilio Priamus. — Amboyna. 


Papilio Priamus, Linn. Syst. Nat. ii. p. 744. No. I. — 

Clerk, Icon. Ins. Var. t. 17 Shaw's Nat. Miscellany, 

pi. 15. 

This superb butterfly has the upper surface of its 
wings of a brilliant green, shaded of a paler colour 
towards the upper and lower discs of the superior 
wings ; all the Mings have a black margin entirely sur- 
rounding them ; in the centre of the upper wings are 
two large longitudinal black patches, which occupy 
nearly the half of them ; on each of the lower wings 
are four large circular black spots, and a golden yellow 
square spot close to the edge of the upper surface ; the 
head, and upper part of the back, are black, the latter 
with a large oval spot in its centre, the upper half of 
which is green, and the under half yellow, and two 
smaller green spots beneath it ; the eyes are bright 
fawn colour ; the abdomen is of a pale chestnut ; the 
inner edges of the wings are pale brown ; the antennae 
are thickened at the top, but taper to a point. 

Linnaeus considers this to be the most beautiful of 
all the papilionaceous tribe of insects. He says, " It 
is by far the most august of all the Papilios, being 


Pnpiho Priamus. — Amboyna. 


all over of a silky appearance ; and it may be doubted 
whether Nature has produced any object more beauti- 
ful amongst insects." 

The Imperial Trojan is a native of the island of 
Amboyna, and it is regarded as one of the most 
curious and valuable of butterflies. Nothing can 
exceed the richness of the green colour, which, in 
particular lights, is not only of an appearance far 
superior to the finest satin, but has also a golden 
tinge diffused through it, which forms the most beau- 
tiful contrast with the deep blue green on the rest 
of the wings. 

The Papilio Priamus measures upwards of seven 
inches and a half from the tip of one wing to that of 
the other, and stands foremost amongst the Linnaean 
division of the large butterflies, which are divided 
into the two sections of Trojan and Grecian Warriors, 
or Equites. These two sections of butterflies are 
distinguished from all others by the remarkable shape, 
or outline, of their upper wings, which are larger, if 
measured from the hinder comer to their anterior 
extremity, than from the same point to their base. 
The Trojan Equites have generally red, or blood 
coloured spots on each side of their breasts. The 
prevailing colour, also, of this division is black. 

VOL. I. 



Papilio JEneas. — Cochin China. 


Papilio ^neas, Linn. Syst. Nat. ii. p. 747. No. 16. — 

Gmelin's Linn. p. 2233 Shaw's Nat. Miscellany, 

pi. 512. fig. 1. 

The whole upper surface of the wings of the 
iEneas Butterfly is black ; in the centre of the superior 
wings is a large, irregular, bright green patch ; the 
under wings have each five oblong-oval crimson 
radiated spots ; the upper wings are slightly, and the 
under ones deeply, indented on their posterior mar- 
gins ; the body is black, furnished on each side with 
a row of crimson spots ; on the shoulders, there is a 
crimson triangular spot ; the head and eyes are 

This rare and splendid butterfly is a native of 
Cochin China. It measures four inches and an eighth 
in breadth. 

Papilio /En <-«*. — C oc H i N- C H i n A . 



Papilio Anchises. — Surinam. 




Papilio Anchises. — Surinam. 


Papilio Anchises, Ijinn. Syst. Nat. p. ] 46. — Seba Mus. 
iv. pi. 7, f. 27, 28. — Merian, Ins. Surinam, pi. 17. 

The whole upper surface of the wings of this 
Papilio, as well as the body, is black ; the posterior 
margin of both upper and under wings considerably 
indented, with a row of white semilunar interrupted 
white spots along the margin of the upper wings, and 
a white continuous, narrow border on the lower ones ; 
on each of the upper wings is a large patch of pure 
white, and the under wings have each six oblong-oval 
upright spots of crimson ; on the internal margin of 
the wings, parallel with the crimson spots, are two 
small white dots on each wing ; the tail is ciliated, 
and the antennae thick at the base and tapering to 
a point, the tips being lance-shaped. The breadth of 
the buttemy, when the wings are extended, is five 
inches and three quarters. 

According to Madam Merian, a small species of 
lemon grows in the woods of Surinam, rising to the 
height of a tall apple tree, but with leaves and flowers 
of not more than half the size of the common kind. 


On these trees are found great numbers of the cater- 
pillars of the Anchises Butterfly, collected together 
in groups, and adhering to each other like snails. 
Their colour is brown, the annulations being inter- 
sected by numerous white longitudinal stripes ; and, 
when touched, they protrude from their front a pair 
of soft, yellowish horns, as if to defend themselves, or 
to attack their enemies. Madame Merian kept some 
of these caterpillars on lemon leaves till the 20th 
March ; at that period they changed into a chrysalis, 
out of which, on the 2d of April, proceeded the 




Papilio Aitdromachtis. — South America. 



Papilio Andromachus.— SovTH America. 


Papilio Andromachus, Shaw's Nat. Miscel. pi. G&b.—Linn. 
Syst. Nat. p. 14A.— Cramer, Des. dePapillons, pi. 66, f. 

A. B. 

This large and curious insect is of a dull fawn 
colour, fulvous at the posterior margin, within which 
is a broad, black, doubly vandyked band, and a lai^e 
triangular patch of black, extending from the insertions 
of the wings three-fourths across them ; they are 
slightly indented ; the under wings have a greatly 
broader black band than the upper ones ; it reaches 
to the very margin, with a double row of equidistant, 
oblong, fawn-coloured spots within the edge, and a 
single row of four round spots, of the same colour, 
towards its upper extremity ; the body is dark brown ; 
the antennae are very long and slender. 

This insect is an inhabitant of the warmer parts of 
South America. It is of a large size, extending, from 
the tips of the wings, to six inches and three quarters. 



Papilio Cardamines. — Britain. 


Papilio Cardamines, iin«. Syst. Nat. ii. 261, n. 85 Wilks' 

Pap. ii. p. 50, tab. a, 5. — Pontia Cardamines, Latreille. 

The wings are rounded, white ; with the edges 
very slightly scalloped ; posterior margin, black, with 
a row of white spots near the edge ; within the black 
edge is a large patch of orange, having a black spot 
in the middle ; under side of the wings, marbled with 
green ; the under wings are white, marbled with 
grey, and an interrupted black border on their outer 
margin ; the body is white, with an oval black mark 
on the back, and triangular black patches on the 
segments of the abdomen ; the eyes are green, and 
beneath each a small circular spot of red. 

The female has no orange tip to the wings. The 
specimen from which our figure is taken was foreign, 
and is nearly double the size of those found in Britain. 

This pretty butterfly is also called the Lady of the 
Woods, and may be taken in great abundance in the 
month of May. The caterpillar is common in May 
and June ; is of a deep reddish brown colour, and 




Papilio Cardamines. — Britain. 



feeds on shepherd's purse, (thlaspi bursa pastoris,) 
common lady's smoke, {cardamine pratensis.) Harris 
says it also feeds on wild cole. 

The caterpillar changes to a chrysalis about the 
end of June, and it is not till the following May that 
it becomes a butterfly. 



Papilio Adonis. — Surinam. 


Papilio Adonis, Linn. Syst. Nat. p. 744. — Cramer, Descr. 
de Papillons, pi. 61, fig. a. b. 

The wings on the whole upper surface are of a 
bright Antwerp blue, and slightly denticulated ; the 
extreme points of the upper wings are black, and 
the lower angle of the under ones the same ; towards 
the points of the upper are two white spots on 
each ; the under surface of the wdngs is gray, clouded 
with undulated patches of pale brown and dark gray, 
with five ocellated, fawn-coloured spots. 

The breadth of the extended wings is four inches 
and a half. 

This highly beautiful insect is a native of Surinam. 



Papilio Adonis. — Surinam 



Fajjiiki Hippolkoe. — Bun a in. 



Papilio Hippothoe. — Britain. 


Papilio Hippothoe, Zinn. Syst, Nat. ii. p. 793, n. 264. 
— Donovan's Brit. Ins. pi. 217. 

The whole upper surface of the wings has a 
brilliant red copper lustre, as well as the body ; all 
the wings have an external border of deep black, and 
the upper ones a row of oblong, transverse, equi- 
distant, black spots within the border, and two black 
spots near the centre of the wings ; the border on the 
lower wings is vandyked at its upper edge ; a black 
longitudinal line runs along the centre of the body ; 
the lower wings are semi-swallow-tailed. 

The under surface of the upper wings is brownish 
ash colour, ocellated with black, having a broad cream- 
coloured border ; the lower wings are grayish blue, 
and ocellated with black ; exterior margin, of same 
colour, within which is a broad border, or fillet, the 
colour of the upper wings, with a row of equidistant 
black round spots on each side ; body, beneath, fewn 

This is the largest of the Copper Butterflies which 
is found in Britain ; it is not uncommon in Scotland. 
The female is larger than the male, and with a greater 
number of black spots on the wings. 



Papilio Hyale. — Britain. 


Papilio Hyale, Linn. Syst. Nat. ii. 764, n. 100. —Fav. So. 
1040 — Donovan's Brit. Ins. pi. 238. 

The Hyale Butterfly extends two inches and a 
quarter from the tips of the wings ; the antennae are 
short ; the head, throat, and abdomen are of abrowTiish 
yellow ; the superior wings are of a yellow orange ; 
on the upper wings, a black, on the lower, an orange 
spot in the centre, and a deep irregular border of 
black on the margin. The female has a row of yellow 
or white spots in the centre of the border, which 
in both sexes is fringed. 

This insect has been described by several authors, 
English as wdil as foreign, and the naturalists of 
Germany have generally noticed it. In Britain, 
insects of this order seem to be, in general, peculiar 
to our country ; but the Clouded Yellow Butterfly 
appears to be found in almost every part of Europe, 
and is said to abound also in Africa and America, 
differing a little, of course, with the locality. 



PapHio Ilyale. — Britain. 


Its breadth, in England, rarely exceeds two inches ; 
but, influenced by a warmer climate, they are found 
of a much greater size. Northern countries do not 
seem to be so congenial to the growth of papiliona- 
ceous insects, as more southerly latitudes. In Britain, 
the Papilio hyale, is considered rare, although it has 
occasionally been abundantly found in Kent and the 
neighbouring counties. In the year 1 793 it abounded 
in these districts. The fly is to be taken in autumn, 
but seldom after August. 



Papilio Menelaus. — South America. 


Papilio Menelaus, Linn. Syst. Nat. p. 749. — Merian's Ins. 
Sur. pi. 53. — Cramer, Des. de Papillons, ii. pi. 21. 

The upper surface of the wings of the Silver Blue 
Butterfly, is of a brilliant verdegris blue ; the ante- 
rior margin has a broad black band, in which are five 
oblong-ovate transverse white spots ; round the whole 
posterior margin is a narrow black border, the margins 
being indented ; the body and eyes are black ; the 
whole under surface of the wings, clouded with 
brown, and marked with large ocellated spots ; the 
antennae are short, and thickening towards the points, 
which are club-shaped ; extent of the wings, five 
inches and three quarters. 

So uncommonly bright and brilliant is this superb 
insect, that it can be but faintly expressed by the 
utmost efforts of artificial colouring, and may serve as 
an instance, amongst many others, of the inimitable 
beauty which Nature alone can produce. 

Linnaeus, in his description of this splendid insect, 
observes, that the blue on the upper surface is so 
polished and lively, that scarcely any other natural 



Papilio 'MeveUrf4. — South AaiERirA. 


object can come in competition with it. On the 
contrary, the under surface of the same animal exhibits 
an example of a species of beauty, resulting from a 
varied combination of the plainest and most sober 
colours, the ground colour being brown, slightly 
streaked with higher shades, and marked by several 
very large ocellated ferruginous spots, with dark rings 
and white pupils. 

Dr Shaw says, — " If it were not almost bordering 
on temerity to attempt a reason for this striking 
difference between the two surfaces of the same 
insect, one might suppose that this sobriety of colour- 
ing on the lower side, is intended, in some measure, 
to secure the animal, when sitting at rest with its 
wings closed, from the depredations of birds, which 
are less likely to be attracted in this state, than by 
the full lustre of its expanded plumage." 

It is a native of South America ; the caterpillar is 
very large, and of a yellow colour, thickly beset with 
black spines. 



Papilio Iris. — Britain. 


Papilio Iris, Linn. Syst. Nat. p4. 76. — Harris's Aurelian, 
p. 5, pi. 3 — Shaw's Nat. Miscel. pi. 862. 

The antennae are club-shaped ; the wings are 
indented, purple above, changing to brown in different 
lights ; they are darker round the edges, the depth of 
tone being nearly black ; the upper wings have seven 
distinct white spots, the largest of which is triangular, 
which joins to a sesquilaterous white band, crossing 
them in a diagonal direction ; in the centre of the 
lower half is an annulet of bright orange, with an 
internal ring of black and white in the centre ; the 
head and body are dark raw umber brown ; the eyes, 
orange ; the whole under surface of the insect is 
black, brown, and white. 

The Papilio Iris is esteemed among the most 
beautiful, and placed with the rare, of the British 
Lepidoptera. The cursory reader may not perceive 
that superiority, particularly as many of the minute 
insects infinitely excel it in real beauty and richness 
of colouring ; but the scientific will be ever ready to 
give it the first place as a British Butterfly. 



Papilio Irii. — Burr vix. 


It derives the title of Purple Highflier, as it very 
rarely descends to the ground ; except in some few 
instances, having hitherto been only captured in 
elevated situations ; and even those instances have 
been after a strong wind or heavy fall of rain. The 
tops of the loftiest forest trees afford it an asylum ; 
and in the caterpillar and chrysalis state, it is preserved 
from the wanton cruelty of man, by the almost 
inaccessible height of its habitation. The larvae feed 
on the sallow, (salix caprea.^ They are obtained 
by beating the branches of the tree with a pole 
twenty or thirty feet in length ; in which case it is 
a necessary precaution to cover the ground beneath 
with large sheets, to a certain distance, lest the larvae 
should fall and be lost among the herbage. 

The caterpillar is hatched about the end of May or 
beginning of June ; and in the beginning of July, it 
passes to the chrysalis condition ; and undergoes its 
final change into the imago, or perfect butterfly, in the 
end of that month, or in August. 

The great difficulty and trouble in rearing the 
caterpillar of this Papilio, even after it has been found, 
and the still greater difficulty of taking the butterfly, 
has stamped a valuable consideration on it, and par- 
ticularly so when the colours are bright and the insect 
in a perfect condition ; and, therefore, a high price is 
obtained for it when in a good state of preservation. 
The male is smaller, but more beautiful than the 
female, the upper side of the wings of the female 
not being enriched with that vivid change of purple, 
which the male possesses in such an eminent degree ; 


but, on the other hand, Nature has, to a certain extent, 
compensated for this in the female, as the under side 
of her wings are far richer, in the various tints of 
colour, than those of the male. They are both beauti- 
fully spotted, mottled, and covered with brown, black, 
white, and orange. The chrysalis is of a very delicate 
texture, much resembling the white pupa, and is 
tinged in several parts with a very lively purple hue, 
which is transmitted from the wings of the enclosed 
insect, and bears the characteristic mark of a Papilio, 
by being suspended from the tail, with the head 



Papilio Cinxia. — B R ita i n. 


Papilio Cinxia. — Britain. 


Papilio Cinxia, Zinn. Syst. Nat. ii. p. 784, No. 206. — 
WiWs Pap. 58, tab. 3, a. 8. — Donovan^ s Brit. Ins. pi. 

The wings are indented, and of a bright chestnut 
brown colour, clouded with black ; the margin with a 
row of oblong white spots ; the under side is fulvous, 
with three whitish bands across the lower wings, 
marked with black spots. 

The larva is black, beset with spines and tufts of 
the same colour. The sides are marked with a 
double row of white spots ; and the feet are red. It 
is found on the long plantain in April. It becomes 
the perfect insect in May. This is the rarest of the 
British Fritillary Butterflies, if we except the PapUio 
Lathonia, the Queen of Spain Butterfly. 

VOL. t. 



Papilio Archippus. — America. 


iPapilio Archippus, Fabr. Ent. iv. p. 49 — Cramer, 
Papillons, pi. 206, fig. 8, e. f. 

The centre of all the wings is deep fulvous brown, 
surrounded by a black band, which is thickly- 
studded with irregularly shaped white spots and dots. 
At the outer extremity of the upper wings there are 
two large oblong fulvous spots, and several others of 
yellow and purple. The body is black, and dotted 
with white on the back. 

The extent of this insect is four inches and an 
eighth. The antennae are rather short and slender 
for the size of the butterfly. It inhabits Carolina and 

The caterpillar is white, with transverse bars of 
dark brown. It feeds chiefly on the leaves of the 
Asclepias carassavica. The pupa is of a pale green, 
with several bright golden yellow spots. 


Papilio Archippus. — America, 




Papilio rentuthiis. — Cochin-China. 


Papilio Peranthus. — Cochin China. 


Papilio Peranthus, Gmeliti's Linne, p. 2232. — Shaw's Nat. 
Misc. pi. 512, fig. 2. 

The upper and under wings of this insect are 
black, with an area of yellow green around the body, 
and a macular band of transverse oblong-ovate olive 
green spots in centre of the black, on the upper wings, 
which are entire. The lower wings are considerably 
scalloped, or indented, with two broad caudate 
wings. The body, head, and eyes are black ; and the 
antennae are short, in proportion to the size of the 
insect, which measures nearly four inches and three 
quarters in breadth. 

This insect inhabits Cochin China, and is more 
remarkable for the singularity of its general form, 
than for its beauty. It is exceedingly clumsy 
and heavy in its appearance. 



PapUio Machaon. 


Papilio Machaon, Linn. Syst. Nat. ii. p. 750, No. 33. — 
WaWs Pap. tab. 47, fig. 1, a. 1. — Donovan's Brit. Ins. 
pi. 209. 

The upper surface of the wings is of a fine deep 
straw yellow. Upper wings long, in proportion to 
the under ones ; their whole exterior margins are 
furnished with a broad black border, near the outer 
edge of which is a double row of longitudinal spots 
of the same colour as the wings, within which, 
on the upper wings, are corresponding fasciculi of 
small dots. Towards the external margin are two 
large oblong patches of black, in the middle of which 
are blotches of azure blue. Under wings, consider- 
ably indented ; in place of the bundles of dots, are 
corresponding blotches of azure blue ; and at the 
anterior angle of the lower wing, on the border, is £l 
scarlet circular spot. Under wings, bushy. 

The body is black, blue in the centre, having a 
longitudinal central line, extending nearly to the 
point of the tail. 



Papilio AffwAaon. — Britain. 


This Papilio and the Papilio podalirius, are the 
only two species of Swallow-tail Butterflies that have 
yet been found in Britain. Both are very scarce ; 
but the present less so than its congener. Harris says 
it feeds on wild fennel and carrots. He mentions 
that one he found, remained in the chrysalis state 
from the 23d September, till the 15th May following ; 
and another, that changed July 14th, produced a 
butterfly on the 10th of August. He adds, that the 
species was found in the meadows of Bristol and 

This insect is common on the Continent of Europe. 



Papilio Aniiopa. — Britain. 


Papilio Antiopa, Linn. Syst. Nat. ii. p. 776, No. 169. — 
Maxima Nigra, Wilk's Pap. 58, tab. 2, a. 10. 

The wings are angulated, of a rich purplish brown, 
with a pale straw-coloured exterior marginal border, 
within which is a fillet of black, with a row of 
equidistant blue eyes in the middle ; on the anterior 
margin of the upper wings, are two straw coloured 
spots, and nearer the body a double row of little 
punctated spots of the same colour. The body is 
burnt umber bro^Ti, the eyes scarlet, and the antennae 
claviform. The under side of the butterfly is of a 
blackish brown, with irregular dark streaks. The 
yellowish border is visible on that side. 

This beautiful insect is found in every part of 
Europe. In Germany in particular it is very common j 
and no less frequent in America. Britain is the only 
country where it is esteemed a rarity, although some 
seasons it is found abundantly in England ; but its 
appearance is neither annual nor periodical; hence 
its value by English collectors. 


Papilio Antiopa. — Britain. 


There have been several instances of this insect 
being found in different parts of the country in mild 
seasons, as plentifully as the Peacock or Admirable 
Butterflies ; in the summer of 1 793, in particular, they 
were in some places as numerous as the common 
White Butterfly. 

But, as a proof that its appearance does not alto- 
gether depend upon the temperature of the weather, 
there have been many of our hottest seasons, which 
are most favourable to the propagation of all kinds of 
insects, in which not a single specimen of the Cam- 
berwell Beauty was to be met with. 

It is from the uncertainty of the appearance of 
this Papilio, that we have such varied accounts of its 
scarcity and abundance. It must have been long 
known to the British lepidopterist ; yet it received 
the name of Grand Surprise from Harris, or some of 
the Company of Aurelians, of whose society he was a 
member. This name was evidently intended as a 
significant expression of their admiration, not of the 
beauty of the insect, but of the singular circumstance 
of the species remaining so long in those very places 
where the most diligent researches of preceding 
collectors had been made in vain. Of their unwearied 
industry they were well persuaded ; and were, there- 
fore, unable to account for the appearance of a 
numerous brood of large insects, which must have 
remained concealed many years, or been lately 
transported to those places. 

Harris, in his Aurelian, calls it the Camber well 
Beauty ; and, in his list of English Butterflies, 


Hawk Moths, and Moths, he uses the name Grand 
Surprise. We mention this circumstance, as it 
appears very inconsistent, that he should make use 
of these two names indiscriminately in the several 
editions of both works. We still find it, in the 
Aurelian, Camberwell Beauty, and in the other, 
Grand Surprise ; from which it might readily be 
inferred, that he meant two distinct insects, were it 
not for the addition of the Linnean name, Papilio 

The English specimens differ from those of other 
countries, in the colour of the light exterior border of 
the wings. In the former, that part is very pale 
straw yellow, or, in some instances, inclining to dirty 
white. In the latter, it is of a deep yellow, marked 
and spotted with brown. Fabricius, who notices this, 
says they are varieties ; but this variation we consider 
the result of local habitation alone. 

The caterpillars feed on the willow ; and are 
generally found on the highest branches of the tree. 
They change from this state to that of the chrysalis, 
in July. 



Papihu Rhamni. — Britain. 



Papilio Rhamni. 


Papilio Rhamni, T.inn. Syst. Nat. ii. 765, No. 106 

Donovan's Brit. Ins. pi. 145. — Goneptyrex Rhamni, Lat. 

The wings are angulated, sharp at the dimidiate 
margin; the colour, a bright sulphur yellow, with 
a small crimson spot in the centre of each ; the head 
and antennae, deep crimson, the eyes and body, bluish 
gray ; the under side, pale yellow, the exterior margin 
being of a deeper colour, with equidistant small spots 
of pink ; centre of the wings, with pale crimson spots. 

The Brimstone Butterfly is common in many 
places in the month of June. In its caterpillar state, 
it is very seldom taken ; and when in the chrysalis 
condition, it is generally so concealed among the 
herbage, that it is almost impossible to be discovered, 
from its green colour according so well with the sur- 
rounding leaves. In this state it is suspended by the 
tail ; but has such muscular strength, that if touched, 
it can throw itself upright immediately, in the same 
manner as the pupa of the Fhalcena pentadactyla. 
The caterpillar feeds chiefly on buckthorn, whence it 
has received the specific name of Rhanmi. 

The male alone is of a vivid yellow. The female 
is of a dull greenish white. 



Papilio A.rion. 


Papilio Arion, Linn. Syst. Nat. ii. p. 789, No. 230 

Donovan's JBrit. Ins. pi. 184. 

The whole upper surface of this insect is of a fine 
deep blue. The exterior margin in both wings has a 
border of deep black; the upper wings, a row of 
equidistant, and the under ones a row of triangular 
blue spots. On the centre of each wing is a lunated 
black spot, betwixt which and the border on the 
upper wings is a row of four oval black spots, and 
on the lower wings, under the lunated spot, is a row 
of similar shaped black spots, six in number. On the 
outside of the black border, is a very narrow edge of 
white, which is fringed. The body is purple above ; 
and the whole under surface of the insect is pale 
brown, studded thickly with black spots. 

The Mazarine Blue Butterfly is a very scarce 
insect in this country ; and it does not appear to be 
much more common in any other part of Europe. 
We are as yet totally ignorant of its larvae. 



Fapilin /Jr/o??. — Britain. 


Papiiio BoHna. — Ambovna. 



Papilio Bolina. 


Papilio Bolina, Cramer, Des. de Papillons, pi. 205, fig. a. b. 
— Shaw's Nat. Misc. pi. 953. 

The wings are of an intense black, denticulated 
with a vandyked border of white. On each side 
of the wings is a large, circular, violet spot, soften- 
ing into white in the centre. The upper wings 
have, besides, two pale blue spots towards their 
extreme points. The body is peach colour ; the head 
is black, with four eyelet spots; and the eyes are 
scarlet. The antennae are long and slender. The 
under surface is variously clouded, streaked, and 
mottled with black, brown, orange, and blue. The 
extent of the wings is four inches. 

The Bolina Butterfly inhabits the island of 
Amboyna. There are several varieties of this insect. 



Papilio Betulce. 


Papilio Betulae, Linn. Syst. Nat. ii. 220. — Donovan's Brit. 
Ins. pi. 250 — Hisperia Betulje, Fabricius Ento. Syst. 

The wings and body are of a rich, high-toned, 
reddish brown, with a large semilunate patch of 
rich orange on the upper wings, slightly clouded with 
brown on its upper disc. The lower wings are 
furnished with short caudate wing appendages, of a 
bright orange colour. The under surface of the 
wings and body is of a fulvous colour, the upper 
wings having a border of dark broMH in their interior 
margin ; also, a large sesquilaterous band, and a 
circular spot of dark ash colour, surrounded by a 
white margin. The lower wings have two long 
sesquilaterous fasciae, extending nearly across their 

The male of this species is distinguished by the 
orange spot on the upper wings, the female being 
devoid of it. The larva is remarkable, on account of 
its being so broad and flat. It is of a dull green, 
streaked, with a row of short hairs extending along its 


Papilio JJetulce. — Britain. 


back. It is found in the months of May and June, 
on the alder and sloe, on which it feeds ; and changes 
to the chrysalis condition in the first week in July. 
The pupa is of a burnt umber-brown colour, and 
changes to the perfect insect in August. 




Papilio CassicE. 

Papilio Cassiae, Shawns Nat. Misc. pi. 791. 

The upper surface of the wings is of a bright 
cinnamon brown, and considerably indented, with a 
broad, scalloped, sesquilaterous, bright golden-yellow 
band, traversing both the upper and lower wings. 
At the exterior margin, it is of a deep saffron, or 
golden-yellow, gradually softening into the prevailing 
tint. The body is of the same colour as the wings. 
On the upper wings, towards their tips, are two pale 
blue roundish spots. This Papilio measures four 
inches and a half in breadth. The caterpillar is 
large, being three inches in length. It is of a pale 
willow-green above, with transverse broad bands. 
A longitudinal fillet of blue extends from the head 
to the tail, banded on each side by crimson ; beneath 
which is another longitudinal band of rich yellow, 
bounded on its lower extremity by a white band. 
The belly is deep olive green. The head is green, 
furnished with two ciliated appendages, like antennae, 
and two hooked teeth-like processes. On the coronal 



Papilio CassicB. — Surinam. 


surface, are three upright horns of green, tipped 
with crimson. The tail has two long horn-like 
appendages. This caterpillar feeds on the different 
twigs of the cassia tree, and changes to the chrysalis 
in the month of May. It is an inhabitant of Surinam. 

The chrysalis is two inches long, beautifully clouded 
with brown, pink, and cinnamon. 

The Cassia Butterfly emerges from the chrysalis in 
June, and may be regarded as one of the prettiest 
of its species, from the richness and harmony of its 




JPapilio Deiphobus. 


Papilio Deiphobus, Zinn. Syst. Nat. p. 744 Cramer, 

Des. de Papillons, i. p. 64, pi. 40 Shaw's Nat. Misc. 

pi. 540. 

The upper wings are deep brownish black, slightly 
indented, and marked with two acute triangular 
patches of crimson on the shoulders. The lower 
wings are deeply indented, and clouded with white, 
crimson, and black ; furnished with two large caudate 
wings. The body, head, and eyes, are black. The 
antennae are rather slender, with large knobs at their 

This insect measures six inches and a half in 
breadth. It inhabits India. The different specimens 
are observed to vary occasionally in their colours. 




Papilio Deiphobtts. — lamx. 




Papilio Corydon. — Britain. 


Papilio Corydon. 


Papilio Corydon, Donovan's Brit. Insects, pi. 236. — Hesperia 
Corydon, Fahricius, JSnto. Syst. iii. 

The whole upper surface of the wings and body of 
this butterfly are of a pale silvery blue, with a broad 
black fringed margin ; that of the lower wings with 
a row of central equidistant blue rings, or eye-like 
spots. The under surface of the insect is of a grayish 
brown, with a black margin, having a double row of 
white spots in the centre. All the other parts of the 
wings are ocellated. 

This is an exceedingly local British butterfly, and 
has only been found on the Chalk Hills, between 
Dartford and Rochester, particularly on a long range 
of hillocks, leading from Dartford to the wood of 
Darent-Home. This butterfly has been called the 
Chalk-Hill Blue Butterfly. We believe it has not 
been found in any other part near London. The 
larva is unknown. It appears in its winged state in 
the first and second week of July. 

VOL. I. M 



Papilio Phorcas. 


Papilio Phorcas, Gmelin's Linn. Syst. Nat. p. 2239. 
Cramer^ Desc. de Papillons, i. pi. 2, f. b. c. 

The upper surface of the wings, the body, head, 
and eyes of this Papilio are black, and a large cloud 
of a bright green runs through the centre of the 
upper and under wings, the latter of which are 
furnished with caudate wings, and macular bands of 
green, about an eighth of an inch from the margins ; 
the upper wings have a large and small green spot 
near their points. The under side of the body is the 
same as the upper, but paler in the colour. 

This is a fine insect ; it is a native of Africa, and 
is said to be not uncommon at Sierra Leone. It 
measures four inches in length. 



Papilio Phorcas. — Sierra Leone. 





Papilio Mannorea Britain. 



Papilio Marmorea. 

The Marmoreas, Harris Aurelian, pi. 11, fig. k. — Hipparchia 

Galathea of Latreille. 

The upper surface of the wings are black, beauti- 
fully marked with various shaped spots of white and 
yellow ; there is a belt of white and black square 
spots surrounding the posterior margins of both 
wings, and on the lower one are two annulated eye- 
like spots. 

The eggs of this insect are dropped separately 
amongst grass, and are of a yellowish colour when 
first deposited, but become afterwards of a clear 

The caterpillar feeds on grass, and lives through 
the winter. It gets full fed in the beginning of 
June, and then changes into a chrysalis ; in which 
condition it remains twenty days, when it emerges 
the perfect butterfly. 

The female differs considerably from the male, the 
lower wings being of a tawny orange colour. 

Although there is but little variety of colour in 
this insect, yet it is very beautiful, and may be 


considered as one of the most interesting of British 
lepidopterous insects.* 

* Professor Rennie says, that a species of mite, or bug, 
( Leptus phalangii of Degeer) infests this insect ; and that he 
particularly remarked it in the year 1830, at Havre de Grace. 
So thickly studded were some of the poor animals with these 
troublesome parasites, that they were hardly able to fly, from 
the exhaustion caused by the little bloodsuckers ; and so 
])ertinaciously did they maintain their hold, that several of them 
adhered to the PapOios even after they were placed in the Pro- 
fessor's cabinet. It is a remarkable circumstance, that although 
the Ringlet Butterfly, {Hipparchia hyperanthus,) was very 
abundant at the same time, and their food and habits are 
similar to those of the Galathea^ not one of the parasites was 
to be found in some hundreds which he caught expressly for 
tlie purpose of ascertaining the fact.f The common Humble 
Bee is infested by a parasitic mite, wliich often proves the cause 
of its death ; but it has been observed, that, differently fi-om the 
mites above mentioned, they always quit the bee before death, 
or at least the instant it dies. 

t Insect Trans, p, 28. 




Papilio Q uercus 15 r i r a l\ . 



Papilio Quercus. 


Papilio Quercus, Gmeliri's Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 2341.— 
Donovan's Brit. Ins. pi. 460. — Hesperia Quercus, Fdbri- 
cius, Sp. Hist. ii. p. 118, No. 527. 

The wings are of a deep bistre brown, the upper 
ones having a large triangular patch of bright blue 
towards their junction with the body; the posterior 
margins of both wings are of a pale fawn colour, and 
fringed ; the lower wings have small caudate wings ; 
the under surface is of an ash colour, with three 
macular bands, and an eye-like spot of rich green 
near the lower angle of the under wings ; the body 
is bright yellow beneath. 

The female has no patch of blue on her upper 
wings, and differs, in the colour being more inclined 
to purple, than it is in the male. 

The larva is very fat, of a beautiful rosy colour, 
with a yellow stripe along its sides, and in the middle 
of each aunulation is a minute round dot of green ; 
the loM er surface is also yellow. It feeds on the oak, 
and is to be found in the caterpillar state in June. 
The chrysalis is glossy, of a ferruginous colour, with 
three dorsal lines of brown dots ; it changes to the 
perfect butterfly condition in July. 



Papilio Helena. 


Papilio Helena, Linn. Syst. Nat. p. 748. — Cramer's Desc. 
de Papillon, pi. 22, f. \. — Shaw's Nat. Miscellany, 
pi. 77. 

All the Mings of the Helena are black, with alter- 
nate radiations, rendered visible by the play of light ; 
the upper wings are very slightly indented, and the 
lower ones considerably so, with a large patch of 
bright golden yellow on each ; the body is light burnt 
umber brown ; the antennae are rather short and 
slender, with pretty large knobs at their tips. 

The Papilio Helena is a South American insect, 
and principally found in Surinam. It is considered 
as one of the most striking of the exotic butterflies, 
and is distinguished by the deep velvet black of its 
wings, which are marked by a few lighter stripes, 
accompanying the fibres ; while the lower wings are 
ornamented by a very large spot or patch of the 
richest golden yellow, traversed by several veins of 


Papilio Helena. -^vnisA^u 



PapUio Ccerulea — Fetnale Britain. 


Papilio CcRTtdea. 


PapUio Argus, Harris Aurelian, p. 75, pi. 39, fig. l-Linn. 
Si/st. Nat. p. 789.-Polygommatus Argus, Latreille. 

The ^v■ings of the Cerulean Butterfly are of a 
deep azure blue, as also the body ; the under wings 
have a very broad band of dull crimson at their lower 
margin, which reaches nearly to their centre ; thi. 
band is spotted with circular and triangular black 
dots ; the whole posterior margins of both wmgs are 
surrounded by a white edge. ^ \ .u^ 

The female differs considerably from the male, the 
upper side being of a dark brown colour. 

The under side of the wings are handsomely 
bordered with eye-like spots ; the other parts of the 
wings are of an ash colour, besprinkled all over with 
small ocellated spots, or circles. 

This butterfly emerges from its chrysahs about the 
beginning of June. It is found in several parts of 
Britain, but not in great abundance. ^ 


disposed in a semilunar manner, and thus forming a 
longitudinal waved line on each side within the two 
rows of red spots. The anterior part of the head is 
furnished with tentacula, furcated when completely 
spread out, and which the animal can advance or 
retract at pleasure. The pupa is slightly foUiculate, 
somewhat ovate, and of a bluish colour. 

This large and beautiful butterfly is an inhabitant 
of various parts of Europe, and is found also in the 
more temperate parts of Siberia. It is inserted among 
the British Papiliones, on the authority of Mr 



Papilio Furcillata. 

Vanessa furcillata, Say's American Entomology, vol. ii. 
pi. 27. 

The wings are angular, with a common fulvous 
band, and two fulvous spots on the superior ones ; 
beneath, brown, with black lineations. The supe- 
rior wings are black above, with a broad fulvous 
sub-marginal band, which is bifid at the costal 
margin, having the exterior division terminated 
by a white spot, and the inner division by a 
pale yellow one ; between the band and the base 
of the wing, are two fulvous transverse spots ; 
costal rib near the base with yellow variegations ; 
inferior wings above, black, with a broad fulvous 
sub-marginal band, and on the black margin is a 
series of six or seven small sub-lunate purplish opha- 
lescent spots ; all the wings beneath are blackish, 
with very numerous transverse blacker lineations, 
some of which are undulated, and deep velvet black ; 
a common pale brownish sub-marginal band, also 
with the blackish lineations ; the antennae are yellow 
at the tip of the club ; venter, dull whitish. 

This pretty species of butterfly was observed by 
Mr Say several times in the northwest territory, 


Papilio Furcillata. — VyiTED States. 


during the progress of the late expedition under the 
command of Major S. H. Long, over that region. 
In the vicinity of Fort William, an establishment of 
the Hudson Bay Fur Company, it frequently 
occurred in the month of September, whilst the party 
remained at that place. It is closely allied to the 
Polychloras and Urtica of Europe, but is sufficiently 
distinct from either. 

The larvae of the genus Vanessa live on plants of 
little altitude, and are often gregarious ; they are 
armed with numerous, long, rigid, dentated spines, 
which, like the quills of the hedgehog, constitute 
their only defensive weapons. The chrysalids are 
attached to a fixed object by the tail, and in this 
reverse posture quietly wait the period of their final 
emancipation and perfection. 



Papilio Brassic<B. 


Papilio Brassicae, Linn. Syst. Nat. ii. p. 759, No. 75. 
Donovan's Brit. Ins. pi. 446. — Pontia Brassicae, Latreille. 

The wings are rounded and entire, of a pale 
yellowish white ; the posterior margins fringed ; the 
upper wings have a large patch of black at their tips, 
and three large black spots, the upper ones being near 
the centre, and the other beneath ; the lower wings 
have a single black spot in the centre of their anterior 
edge ; the female marked with two black spots ; the 
body is black above, and yellow underneath. 

The larva is of an ashen-gray above, and cream 
colour beneath, with a central line of yellow down its 
back, the colour of its back and belly being divided 
by a yellow line ; the head is black ; the whole upper 
surface is thickly speckled with irregular punctated 
black dots. 

In dry seasons, favourable to the growth and 
increase of these pernicious insects, the larvae become 
very injurious to our gardens, and would be infinitely 
more so, were it not for the number of small birds 
which prey upon them, and thus lend their friendly 
aid to destroy these rapacious intruders. They feed, 




Papilio Brassic<e. — Britain. 


for the most part, on cabbages, and some other of our 
culinary plants, which renders them more injurious to 
the kitchen garden than any other. We have seen a 
garden, with many hundreds of cabbages completely 
devoured by these caterpillars. They are of the 
number of those known in England by the trivial 
name of grub, and in the perfect or winged state, they 
are distinguished by the less ambiguous epithet of 
Large Cabbage Butterfly. 

From the astonishing fecundity of these insects, it 
may be wondered that they do not, in the course of 
time, completely overspread the face of the earth, and 
totally consume every green plant. This would 
certainly be the case, if the Omnipotent had not put 
a check to their progress. There is a genus of little 
insects, called by naturalists the Ichneumon, which 
always oviposits within the body of other insects, or 
their larva or pupae. Different species have assigned 
to them particular insects, and the parent Ichneumon 
will lay her eggs no where else ; she searches for 
these caterpillars with unremitting assiduity, till she 
is successful. In these caterpillars the eggs are 
deposited, and are hatched ; there they continue 
during their larva state, preying upon the vitals of 
the animal ; they pass to the pupa condition, and 
eventually emerge the perfect insects. Some idea 
may be formed of the service rendered to mankind by 
these Ichneumons which prey upon noxious larva, 
from the fact, that out of thirty individuals of the 
common Cabbage Caterpillar which Reaumur put 
into a glass to feed, twenty-five were fatally pierced by 


the Ichneumon globatus, which had totally consumed 
their intestines. * I do not, however, give this as an 
average of the numbers destroyed by their means. 
The following interesting observations by the Rev. 
Mr Bree, which are of a recent date, may serve to 
shew the more probable numbers which suffer by this 
means : — " Towards the end of June last,-|- 1 observed 
a brood of the caterpillars of Pontia brassicce, amount- 
ing in number to twenty-four, feeding on the cabbages 
in my garden. I placed them in confinement ; and, 
as they were nearly full grown, they soon commenced 
preparing for their transformations. By the first of 
July, nine out of the twenty-four had turned to the 
chrysalis state, and the remaining fifteen produced 
the silken clusters of pupae of Microgaster glomoratas. 
I mention this circumstance, not at all under the idea 
of its being any thing new or extraordinary ; for I 
am aware, on the contrary, that it is one of every-day 
occurrence, and my object is to arrest the attentiori 
to the enormous extent to which the destruction of 
Pontia brassicce is effected by the Microgaster. Nine 
caterpillars only, out of the twenty-four, came to 
maturity as butterflies ; the remaining fifteen (i. e, 
nearly two thirds,) were destroyed by the parasite. 
Now, if the present instance is to be taken as a fair 
average example of what usually occurs, (and I see 
no reason why it may not,) we should have had this 
season, were it not for the ravages committed by the 
Microgaster, almost two-thirds more of this already 

* Reaumur, ii. p. 419. f 1830. 


very abundant butterfly than we now have. In the 
course of a few seasons, supposing no other ' prevein- 
tative cheek' to come into operation, the Cabbage 
Butterfly would increase in a kind of geometrical 
proportion ; our gardens would soon be absolutely 
devoured and laid waste by the caterpillars ; and it 
would scarcely be possible to walk abroad without 
being smothered by the winged insects. So greatly 
are we indebted to this apparently contemptible little 
parasite, (whose operations are unheeded by all but 
naturalists, and of whose very existence the generality 
are perhaps scarcely aware,) for keeping down the 
increase of an insect, which would otherwise become 
a serious and alarming evil. 

" I may observe, that, though the Cabbage Butter- 
flies did not come forth from the chrysalis till July 
18th to 20th, the silken pupae of Microgaster pro- 
duced swarms of the winged insects by the 12th, 
ready to go forth and commence their destructive 
operations on fresh broods of caterpillars. 

" The Cabbage Butterfly appeared to me to be 
unusually abundant, between London and Dartford, 
the first week in August ; I observed them even 
hovering about the stalls and green grocer's shops in 
the outskirts of London, attracted, no doubt, by the 
cabbages and other vegetables exposed for sale. 

" Subsequent observation induces me to believe, 
that I have by no means overrated the ravages of the 
Microgaster, but that what is stated above, may be 
considered as no more than an average example of its 
destructive powers. The chalk cliffs at Dover abound 


with the wild cabbage, (Brassica oleracea,') which, as 
might be expected, affords food to an immense num- 
ber of the Cabbage caterpillars ; and, accordingly, 
the butterfly is exceedingly abundant in that neigh- 
bourhood. The latter end of September I saw many 
caterpillars creeping about the cliffs, and undergoing 
their transformations. I remarked, that those which 
were infected by the Microgaster, far exceeded in 
number those which would arrive at the chrysalis 
state. I have also had occasion to make the same 
remark at Matcham, in Surrey. I may add, that on 
the 25th of September, I observed at Dover many 
specimens of Microgaster in the winged state, adhe- 
ring to the pupa, from which they appeared to have 
just emerged ; and the same also at Matcham, on the 
8th of October. The flies thus produced at this late 
season of the year, would, no doubt, attack the later 
broods of Cabbage caterpillars, which are often to be 
met with so late as the end of October, or even in 
November. The large and continuous supply of this 
little parasite throughout the summer and autumn, so 
long as its services are required, is one of those wise 
and beneficent provisions, which cannot but excite 
our admiration."* 

If we compare the myriads of caterpillars that 
often attack our cabbages and broccoli, with the small 
number, comparatively, of butterflies of this species 
that usually appear, we may conjecture that they are 

* Loudon's Magazine of Natural History, No. XXIIL for 
January, 1832. 



commonly destroyed in some such proportion, — a 
circumstance that will lead us thankfully to acknow- 
ledge the goodness of Providence, in providing such 
a check to prevent the total destruction of some of 
our most useful and esteemed culinary plants. 

The larva of the Large Cabbage Butterfly appears 
in spring, and, indeed, throughout the greater part of 
the summer, as there are two or more broods every 

The chrj'salis is of a rich yellow, clouded with 
gray, and speckled with crimson dots. 

The appearance of the Large Cabbage Butterfly 
on the wing, in a morning, is considered generally as 
an unerring prognostic that the weather will clear up, 
and the day eventually prove fine. 

The caterpillars of the Cabbage Butterfly, like 
various other species, have a particular mode of 
climbing, which is either by a sort of ladder or single 
rope of their own construction. There are few 
persons who have lived in the country but must have 
noticed the larva of this insect climbing up a wall, or 
over the glass of a window. If this process is closely 
observed, on the square which the animal is traversing, 
it will be noticed, that the creature leaves a visible 
tract behind it, like a snail. If this is examined with 
a microscope, it will be seen that it consists of little 
silken threads, which it has spun in a zigzag direction, 
forming a rope-ladder, by which it ascends a surface 
it could not otherwise adhere to. The silk which 
comes from these spinners is a gummy fluid, which 

VOL. 1. N 


hardens in the air, so that they have no difficulty in 
making it stick to the glass. 

Many caterpillars that feed upon trees, particularly 
the Geometers, have often occasion to descend from 
branch to branch, and sometimes to the ground — 
especially previous to their assuming the pupa 
condition. Had they to descend by the trunk, 
supposing them able to traverse with ease its rugged 
bark, what a circuitous route must they take before 
they accomplish their purpose! Providence, ever 
watchful over the welfare of the most insignificant of 
its creatures, has gifted them with the means of 
attaining these ends, without all this labour and loss 
of time. From their own internal stores, they can 
let down a rope, and prolong it indefinitely, which 
will enable them to travel where they please. Shake 
the branches of an oak, or other tree, in summer, 
and its inhabitants of this description, whether they 
are reposing, moving, or feeding, will immediately 
cast themselves from the leaves on which they 
are stationed ; and, however sudden the attack, 
they are nevertheless provided for it, and will all 
descend by means of the silken cord alluded to, 
and hang suspended in the air. Their name. 
Geometer, was given them because they seem to 
measure the surface they pass over, as they walk, 
with a chain. If one is placed on the hand, it ^^ill 
be felt to draw a thread as it moves. When they 
move, their head is extended as far as they can reach 
with it ; then, fastening their thread there, and 
bringing up the rest of their body, they take another 


Step, never moving without leaving the clue behind 
them, the object of which, however, is neither to 
measure nor to mark its path that it may find it 
again, but thus, whenever the caterpillar falls, or 
would descend from a leaf, it has a cord always ready 
to support it in the air, by lengthening which, it can 
with ease reach the ground. Thus it can drop itself 
without danger from the summit of the most lofty 
trees, and ascend again by the same method. As the 
silky matter is fluid when it issues from the spinners, 
it should seem as if the weight of the insect would be 
too great, and its descent too rapid, so as to cause it 
to fall with violence upon the earth. The little 
animal knows how to prevent such an accident, by 
descending gradually. It drops itself a foot, or half 
a foot, or less, at a time, then, making a longer or 
shorter pause, as best suits it, it reaches the ground 
at last without a shock. From hence it appears, that 
these larvae have power to contract the orifice of the 
spinners, so that more of the silky gum shall issue 
from it, and to relax it again when they intend to 
resume their motion downwards ; consequently there 
must be a muscular apparatus to enable them to effect 
this, or at least a kind of sphincter, which, pressing 
the silk, can prevent its exit. From hence it also 
appears, that the gummy fluid which forms the thread 
must have gained a degree of consistence even before 
it leaves the spinner, since, as soon as it emerges, it 
can support the weight of the caterpillar. In 
ascending, the animal seizes the thread with its jaws, 
as high as it can reach it ; and then, elevating that 


part of the back that corresponds with the six perfect 
legs, till these legs become higher than the head, 
with one of the last pair it catches the thread, from 
this the other receives it, and so a step is gained ; 
and thus it proceeds till it has ascended to the point 
■where it wishes to reach. At this time, if taken, it 
will be found to have a packet of thread, from which, 
however, it soon disengages itself, between the two 
last pair of perfect legs.* To see hundreds of these 
little animals pendent at the same time from the 
boughs of a tree, suspended at different heights, some 
working their way downwards and some upwards, 
affords a very amusing spectacle. Sometimes, when 
the wind is high, they are blown to the distance of 
several yards from the tree, and yet maintain their 
threads unbroken, f 

* Reaumur, ii. p. 375. 

f KiKBY and Spence, ii. p. '2S4. 


I'ainlio Apatunna Java. 



Papilio Apaturina. 


Aconthea Apaturina, HorsfielcCs Descriptive Catalogue of 
Lepidopterous Insects, in the Museum of the £ast India 
Ckrmpany, part ii. — Zoological Journal, vol. v. p. 68, 
pi* iii. fig. 1 ; 1, A. 

The upper wings are velvet black, with a double 
row of white dots along their disk, with two sub- 
lunar white patches next the oval margin, which is 
sub-crenated ; within these are three white spots, 
with a sub-lunar patch below ; all these patches are 
half covered with pale royal blue ; and a solitary 
blue spot near the anterior margin, and approach- 
ing the sesquitertious margin. The lower wings 
are black, and sub-crenated, with a very broad 
band extending nearly half the length of the wing. 
About an eighth of an inch from the oval margin, is 
an articulate white band, with a macular band of 
black ; close to its side, the sesquitertious margins 
are hirsute, of a pale umber colour ; body, black ; 
antennae, long. When the wings are expanded, it is 
about two and a half inches broad. 

The native place of this butterfly, as far as Dr 
Horsfield has ascertained, is the island of Java. 


The metamorphosis of the genus Aconthea is verj' 
remarkable, and strikingly illustrates the analogy 
which exists between the forms of the individuals 
of the class Ametabola, and the larvae of diurnal 



Papilio Paphiu. — Britain. 


Papilio Paphia. 


PpiHo Paphia, Zinn. Si/st. Nat. ii. p. 786, No. 209.— 
WiWs Pap, 57, 2, a. 1,~ Donovan's British Insects, 
pi. 247. 

The wings are fulvous, or bright yellow, con- 
siderably indented on their posterior margin ; the 
upper surface is elegantly spotted with black. The 
under side is striped with a silvery metallic lustre. 

The Papilio paphia is one of the most elegant of 
the British Papiliones. In size, colour, and general 
appearance of the upper side, it is very similar to 
Papilio agala ; in the under side, it is extremely 
different. Both these butterflies are remarkable for 
that peculiar shining appearance of polished silver 
with which a few of the European Fritillary Butterflies 
are ornamented ; but, in Papilio agala, this silver is 
disposed in distinct splashes, or spots ; while, in 
Papilio paphia, it appears in transverse streaks. 
These streaks are finely softened into the red and 
olive green of the wings, and produce altogether a 
singular and charming effect. It is from the latter 
circumstance the early English collectors termed this 
the Silver-wash Fritillary. 


The caterpillar of this butterfly is found on th(? 
grass in May. It is of a plain yellowish brown, with 
several longitudinal stripes of dark brown ; it is also 
thickly beset with barbed spines, a quarter of an inch 
in length ; and has, in particular, two of a remarkable 
form on the first annulation next the head. It 
remains in the chrysalis condition twenty or twenty- 
one days, and appears in the winged state early in 


Pupilio Atidromacha. — VtiiTEtt States. 


Papilio Andromacha. 


Papilio Andromacha, I^inn. — Maniola Andromacha, ^cAranA. 
— Satyrus Andromacha, Latreille. — Hipparchia Andro- 
macha, Fabricius, Say. — Oreas Marraorea Andromacha, 

The wings are brown, with sub-marginal blackish 
spots ; beneath, paler sub-perlaceous, with a series 
of ocellet spots ; the body above and the superior 
surface of the wings ate brown ; the anterior wings 
beyond the middle, with a broad paler band, bifid 
below, and including a series of four fuscous oval 
spots, or epupillate ocellae, of which the second, and 
sometimes the third, are small, and the posterior 
one largest ; between the band and the exterior 
edge is a single narrow pale line, sometimes obso- 
lete ; exterior edge, alternately white and black ; 
the posterior wings with a narrow, fuscous angu- 
lated line across the middle, in which is a series 
of fine fuscous epupillate ocellae, with a yellow iris, 
the third smallest, then the fifth, and the first largest ; 
exterior margin, slightly tinged with rufous, and vrith 
one or two fuscous lines ; beneath it is perlaceous, 
with a brown narrow band before the middle, and 
another rather beyond the middle ; beyond which is 
a broad lighter periaceous band, in which, on the 



superior wings, are four epupillate ocellae, the two or 
three anterior ones, small ; and on the inferior wings 
are six ocellate spots, consisting of a fuscous spot 
surrounded by a yellow line, and having a white 
pupil ; first spot, distant ; third, small ; fifth, double ; 
exterior margin with a yellow line. 

This Papilio frequents Arkansaw, in the United 
States ; and it seems probable that it also inhabits 
the southern Atlantic States, as Hubner has given a 
plate of the insect. It has not been found so far 
north as Pennsylvania. 

The caterpillar of the Andromacha Butterfly is 
doAvny and bimucronate behind ; the pupa suspended 
by the tail ; it is angulated, and bimucronated on the 



Papilio Nicippe. — United States. 



Papilio Nidppe. 


Papilio Nicippe, Cramer^ table 210, fig. c. d. — Herhat. Nat. 
Ins. part v. p. 176, pi. 107, fig. 3, 4. — Pieris Nicippe, 
Schrank, Say, vol. ii. pi. 30. — It is the Colias and 
Pontia of Fabricius, and Gonepteryx of Leach. 

The wings are slightly crenate, fulvous, and the 
terminal margin black brown ; upper pair of wings 
with a black abbreviated line above the middle, on 
each pair ; the inferior pair with abbreviated ferru- 
ginous lines and spots. 

The black terminal margins of the upper wings 
extend along the costal margin, nearly to the middle ; 
the black transverse line on this pair of wings is very 
short, and consists of two curvatures ; this curvilinear 
line appears also on the inferior surface, which is 
yellow, very slightly tinged with fulvous on the disk, 
with a blackish point at each indentation of the edge, 
and an oval, bright, fulvous spot near the base ; the 
black terminal margin of the inferior wings has a 
prominent undulation in the middle ; the inferior 
surface of this pair of wings is yellow, marked by 
numerous brownish, or ferruginous, abbreviated, trans- 
verse lines ; a minute black point in the centre of the 
wings, and two or three more obvious, irregular. 


undulated, ferruginous, oblique lines ; head and 
thorax above, blackish ; antennae beneath, white, 
with black incisures ; the feet are whitish ; the abdo- 
men is black, each side furnished with a yellow line j 
the venter with yellow incisures. 

This insect is said by Cramer to inhabit Virginia, 
in the United States ; but it is also found in Pennsyl- 
vania, and in all the southern states. It is subject to 
some little variations ; the fine fulvous spot near the 
base of the inferior surface of the upper wings is 
sometimes white ; and the oblique lines under the 
inferior wings differ considerably in width and dis- 

The genus Pieris of Schrank is one of the many 
genera into which the extensive genus PapUio of 
Linnaeus has been separated. The generic character, 
as restricted by this author, is as follows : — The feet 
are nearly equal ; the nails of the tarsi, very apparent, 
bifid, or unidentate ; the inferior wings dilated beneath 
the abdomen, so as to form a groove. 

These butterflies are natives of various regions of 
the globe ; some of them are very frequent in almost 
every field, and must have been noticed by the most 
casual observer, flitting, in a devious direction, over 
the herbage ; and, on meeting with a companion, 
mounting aloft in the air, with a hurried and irregular 
movement. Some species occasionally alight, in great 
numbers, on moist places on roads. 

The caterpillar is destitute of the retractile tentacula 
of the neck ; and the chrysalis is of an angulated 
form, attached to a fixed object by a thread passed 
around the body, the head being upwards. 




Papilio Ulytses. — Asia. 



Papilio Ulysses. 


Papilio Ulysses, Linn. Si/st. Nat. p. 748. — Fabr. Spec. 
Ins. ii. p. 13. — Cramer, Descr. de Papillons, ii. pi. 121. 
— Shaw's Nat. Misc. pi. 92. 

Both the upper and under wings of this insect are 
black ; from the body, extending over three-fourths 
of the wings, it is of a fine verdigris blue, radiating 
towards the posterior margins ; the upper wings are 
entire, and the under wings deeply indented, with a 
margin of white semilunar spots, and a large caudate 
wing at the lower extremity of each wing. The body 
is black, changing into green with iridescent radiance ; 
the lower surface of the wings has seven ocellated 
spots. The antennae are short in proportion to the 
size of the insect, which measures five inches and a 
half in breadth. 

This insect is of uncommon beauty. The wings 
are of the deepest velvet black ; while the area, or 
middle part of each, is occupied by a very large 
proportion of the most brilliant and iridescent blue, 
and which terminates in a radiated manner round the 
edges. This insect also affords an excellent example 
of the caudated Papilios, in which the lower wings 


are furnished with a pair of appendages resembling 
tails. It is an Asiatic insect. The ground colour 
in some specimens is rather brown than black. The 
under surface is black, tinged with rufous, large near 
the tips ; and the edges of the lower pair are orna- 
mented by a series of ocellated spots, of a reddish 
colour, tinged with blue, and edged with black and 



PapUio Virgaurece. — B«i iain. 


Papilio VirgaurecB. 


Papilio Virgaurese, Linn. Syst. Nat. p. 793, No. 253 

Donovan's Br. Ins. pi. 172. 

The wings are angulated, the upper side of a fine 
brown, or red copper colour, with a black margin ; 
under side, light brown, with several white spots, 
some having a black spot near the centre. 

A specimen of this rare insect has been taken at 
Cambridge. It has always had a place in the cabinets 
of the principal English collectors ; but we cannot 
learn by whom it was first discovered in this country. 
This and the Hippothae have been frequently con- 
founded with each other ; but, on comparison, a 
material difference will be discovered. 

Harris has made one error, which is of importance 
to the English collector to correct ; he says, " the 
Papilio virgaurecB, copper, feeds on grass, found in 
June and August in meadows ; is shining copper, 
spotted with black." From this it appears he could 
mean no other than the common Copper Butterfly, 
which is found in June and August in meadows. 

Papilio Statira. 

Papilio Statira, Cramer, Desc, de Papillons, pi. 120, fig. 
c. D. — Colias Statira, Swainson's Ulus. 2^1. 

The wings are diluted yellow, or fulvous ; the 
anterior with a black border and central dot, which, 
beneath, is ferruginous ; posterior beneath, each with 
two unequal snowy spots ; palpi lengthened. 

Swainson says this insect is only to be found in 
Brazil ; and thinks that Godart and Latreille have 
erroneously considered it as a variety of Colias 
juguthina, which he considers as a native of India 



Papilio Statira. — Brazi l. 




Papilio Licards. — Si;iunam. 



Papilio Licarsis. 


Papilio Licarsis, Cramer, Descr. de Papillons, pi. 63, fig. c. 

This remarkable butterfly is black ; the upper 
wings have two sesquilaterous light blue bands, 
which are continued through the under wings, which 
are much elongated, with very long caudate wings ; 
about the centre of the anterior margins of which, 
they are deeply indented ; there are two transverse 
light blue spots a little way above the caudate 
wings ; and near the middle, at the inner margin, 
are similar spots of scarlet, and also one on each 
side of the anterior margins of the upper wings, 
close to the body ; antennae, short and erect ; along 
the posterior margins of the caudate wings, are 
narrow bands of white ; body, very short. 

This very uncommon butterfly is a native of 
Surinam, and is, perhaps, one of the most curiously 
formed of the papilionaceous tribe. 

VOL. I. 


Papilio Helenus. 

Papilio Helenus, Zinn. Syst. Nat. ii. p. 745, No. 4. — 
Cramer, Desc. de Pap. ii. p. 90, pi. 153, fig. a. b. 

The upper wings are black, and entire ; the lower 
ones also black, and scalloped, with black caudate 
wings ; round the posterior margin of the lower wings 
are semilunate white spots ; in the centre of the wings 
are large spots of straw yellow, and at the lower 
nner margins are two semilunate spots of scarlet on 
each wing. The body is of a deep blackish brown. 

This curious butterfly inhabits India and China, 
and is said to be found in the island of Amboyna. 



Papilio Helenm. — India. 







Papilio Phlcg-ia. — Surinam. 



Papilio Phhgia. 


Papilio Phlegia, Seha, iv. tab. 34, fig. 7, 8 — Cramer, Desc. 
de Pap. iii. p. 9, pi. 197, fig. f. 

r The upper and under sides of this pretty butterfly 
are black, as well as the body, with a wedge- 
shaped transverse patch of reddish orange extending 
from the body half across the upper wings, and a 
small one, the same shape and colour, on the under 
wings. The back has five spots of the same colour, 
and the segments of the body on each side are spotted 
with this colour ; eyes scarlet, with a spot of the 
same colour below their outer upper surface. All the 
other parts of both wings are spotted with white, 
those on the upper wings are irregular in the centre, 
and forming a double row near the margins ; the 
under wings are radiated. 

The male differs from the female in having the 
black borders of the upper wings crossed by two 
narrow transverse bands of a reddish brown colour. 

This interesting species is a native of Surinam, 
where it is said to be rather rare. 



Papilio Melius, 


Papilio Helius, Cramer, Desc. de Pap. iii. p. 10, pi. 198, 
fig. 13. 

The wings are entire, and black, as well as the 
body ; the lower ones have very large patches of 
scarlet on each ; the body is bluish black ; the eyes 
are scarlet ; and the antennae, short and erect. The 
under surface of the wings is black, and iridescent 
green. The abdomen is marked with yellow rings 
beneath. It is a native of the West Indies. 

This Papilio, although small, is nevertheless very 
pretty, from the strong contrast of colour which it 


Papilio Helm,<!. — East Indies. 



Papilio Almathea. — Surinasi, 



Papilio Amalthea. 


Papilio Amalthea, Linn. Syst. Nat. ii. p. 779, No. 174. — 
Cramer, Desc. de Papillons, iii. p. 29, pi. 209, fig. a. b. 

The upper wings are entire, and the under ones 
indented at their posterior edges, with sub-caudate 
wings, curiously directed obliquely outwards at their 
points. The insect is black ; within the whole posterior 
margin there is a double row of white spots, with eight 
other irregularly placed white spots on both wings ; 
a sesquilaterous divided band of deep crimson passes 
over the middle of both upper and under wings, with 
several spots of the same colour on the upper wings. 
The body is dark reddish brown, the whole of which 
is surrounded by a broad band of the same colour, 
extending from the anterior margin of the upper 
wings, to the lower inner angle of the under ones ; 
a transverse narrow band of the same colour runs 
from the body half way along the exterior margin ; 
the eyes are scarlet ; and the antennae short. 

The general aspect of this Papilio is rather uncom- 
mon. It inhabits Surinam, and was first figured by 
Madame Merian. 



Papilio Eutrepe. 


Papilio Eutrepe, Cramer, Desc. de Papittons, iii. p. 89, 
pi. 246, fig. D. 

Both the upper and under wings and body of this 
species are black ; they have an articulate band of 
rich fawn colour, with which, in all the wings, are a 
number of oblong oval and lineated spots of a bluish 
white colour, very transparent ; a row of similar spots 
is disposed along the centre of the back, one on 
each segment ; on the upper part of the body are 
four white and two fawn coloured spots, with a \vhite 
one on the centre of the head. 

The under surface of the wings in all respects^ 
resembles the upper side, but the under part of the 
body is white. 

This Papilio is a native of Surinam. 



Papilio Eutrepe. — Surinam. 



Fapilio Syncellm. _ Surinam. 


Papilio Lyncellus. 


Papilio Lyncellus, Cramer, Desc, de Papillons, iv. p. 86, 
pi. 334, fig. A. B. 

The superior surface of the wings is of a rich 
verdigris blue, of fine satiny lustre, and thickly set 
with black bands ; the posterior margins are black, 
in the middle of which is an interrupted row of 
high-toned fawn coloured spots ; segments of the 
body, fawn colour ; back, blue, the same as the wings ; 
the eyes are of a bright scarlet, and the antenna short 
and straight. 

The Lyncellus Butterfly is one of the rare insects 
of Surinam. 



Papilio Charlotta. 


Papilio Charlotta, Leach's Zool. Miscel. p. 23, pi. IL 

The upper surface of the wings is of a rich fawn 
colour, covered with various patches of dark brown ; 
the exterior margin has a scalloped band of the same 
colour, with a row of longitudinal dots in its centre, 
and a macular fascia inside of it ; body, same colour 
as the wings ; under surface of the upper wings 
nearly the same colour as the upper surface, fading 
into a sulphur yellow towards their acute angle, with 
a macular band of silver spots. Under wings beneath 
sulphur yellow, with macular bands of silver ; body 
covered with a thick coat of ubated hairs ; the antenna 
rather long, with pretty long knobs on their extre- 

This curious and pretty Fritillary was discovered 
by the Rev. Dr Charies Abbot, in Bedfordshire, and 
was named by Dr Leach, who first figured it, in honour 
of the late Princess Chariotte. 

The Papilio Charlotta stands next to the Papilio 
Aglaia in the Linnaean system. 




Papilio Cliarlotta. — Britain. 



Pnpilio Ludovica. — Surinam. 



Papilio Ludovica. 

Papilio Ludovica, Cramer, Desc. de Papillons, iv. p. 17, 
pi. 297, fig. E. 

The external sides of the upper wings of this 
insect are black, with various small patches of fine 
yellow ; and a large band of the same colour bounds 
the black, within which, and extending over the body 
and lower wings, is a fine chestnut colour ; the 
lower wings have a marginal band of black, with a row 
of white dots in the middle, which are continuous in 
the upper wings ; the upper part of the back has four 
small round dots of white ; the eyes are scarlet ; and 
the antennae long and slender. The under surface 
of the wings corresponds in every respect with the 
upper surface. 

This is one of that tribe which is so remarkable for 
its oblong transverse shape ; the body is also singularly 
formed, being excessively small at the commencement 
of the segments, and gradually bulging till about the 
middle one, from whence it abruptly tapers to the tail, 
which is short. 

It is a native of Surinam. 


Papilio Selise. 


Papilio Belise, Cramer ^ Desc. de Papillons, iv. p. 171, pi. 
376, fig. E. F. 

The upper wings are black, with an oblong spot 
of white towards their posterior margin, and two 
small spots near the lower angle of the wdngs. There 
is a large crescent-shaped white band, which occupies 
nearly the whole under wings ; the disks terminate 
about the centre of the upper wings ; this is sur- 
rounded with a broad edge of beautiful clear light 
blue, near the lower edge of which is a transverse 
fillet of black, and the lower posterior margin of the 
under wings is bounded by a white band. The body 
is dark brown, and the eyes scarlet. 

This very pretty insect is a native of Surinam. 



Papilio Belise Surinam. 



Papilio Cleona. — Amboyna. 



Papilio Cleona. 


Papilio Cleona, Cramer, Desc. de Papillons, iv. p. 178, 
pi. 377, fig. F. 

The wings and body of this handsome Papilio are 
black, with large, variously shaped spots of yellowish 
green, and three umber coloured spots towards the 
lower edge of the under wings ; the whole posterior 
margins of the wings are surrounded by a double row 
of white dots. 

At the extremity of the abdomen are two tufts of 
hair shaped like brushes, which seem peculiar to 
some butterflies, but are of rather rare occurrence. 
The back has six white dots. 

The Cleona Butterfly inhabits Amboyna, and is 


Papilio Ricine. 


Papilio Helicon, Linn. Syst. Nat. ii. p. 756, No. 63.— 
Papilio Ricine, Cramer, Desc. de Papillons, iv. 174, pi. 
378, fig. A. B. 

The upper and under wings and body of this insect 
are black ; the upper wings entire, and the under 
ones slightly scalloped. In the centre of the upper 
wings are large oblong upright spots of rich yellow, 
and smaller ones of the same colour towards the 
extremity ; the interior margin is of a beautiful crimson 
colour, extending over half of the lower wings ; on 
the back there are two yellow dots behind the head, 
with a horse-shoe-shaped mark beneath them, below 
which are four small dots of the same colour ; the 
segments of the body are spotted with yellow on each 
side. The eyes are scarlet. 

This insect inhabits America : the caterpillar feeds 
upon the Ricinus palma christi. The anterior pair of 
feet are short, as is the case with all those butterflies 
with oblong wings, which foreign naturalists distinguish 
by the name of narses. 




Papilio liiciiii. — America. 


We close our description of these sparkling, but 
short-lived beings of the sunbeams, with the following 
beautiful verses from the pen of Mrs Hemans : — 



I stood where the lip of Song lay low, 
Where the dust was heavy on Beauty's brow ; 
Where stillness hung on the heart of Love, 
And a marble weeper kept watch above ; 

I stood in the silence of lonely thought. 
While Song and Love in my own soul wrought ; 
Though each unwhisper'd, each dimm'd with fear, 
Each but a banish'd spirit here. 

Then didst thou pass me in radiance by, 
Child of the Sunshine, young Butterfly ! 
Thou that dost bear, on thy fairy wing. 
No burden of inborn suffering. 

Thou wert flitting past that solemn tomb, 
Over a bright world of joy and bloom ; 
And strangely I felt, as I saw thee shine, 
The all that sever'd thy life and mine. 

Mine, with its hidden mysterious things 

Of Love and Grief, its unsounded springs. 

And quick thoughts, wandering o'er earth and sky, 

With voices to question Eternity ! 

ThinCy on its reckless and glancing way, 
Like an embodied breeze at play ! 
Child of the Sunshine, thou wing'd and free. 
One moment — one moment — I envied thee. 




Thou art not lonely, though born to roam, • 
Thou hast no longings that pine for home ! 
Thou seek'st not the haunts of the bee and bird 
To fly from the sickness of Hope deferr'd. 

In thy brief being no strife of mind, 
No boundless passion, is deeply shrined ; 
But I — as I gazed on thy swift flight by, 
One hour of my soul seem'd infinity ! 

Yet, ere I turn'd from that silent place. 
Or ceased from watching thy joyous race. 
Thou, even thou, on those airy wings, 
Didst waft me visions of brighter things ! 

Thou that dost image the free soul's birth, 
And its flight away o'er the mists of earth, 
Oh ! fitly thou shinest mid flowers that rise 
Round the dark chamber where Geiiiua lies. 


Printed by Andhew Shortbeeo, Thistle Lane. 

^ U 

i ; ( 


University of Toronto 








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