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Full text of "The book of the carnation"

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VOL2Xm. HANDBOOKS OF 
PRACTICAL'' GAR DBNING 



BOOK OF 
THE 
CARNATI 



i R.E BROTH 









HANDBOOKS OF PRACTICAL GARDENING XXII 
EDITED BY HARRY ROBERTS 



THE BOOK OF THE CARNATION 




CARNATION, FLORIANA 



THE BOOK OF 
THE CARNATION 



R. P. BROTHERSTON 



TOGETHER WITH A CHAPTER ON 

RAISING NEW CARNATIONS BY 

MARTIN R. SMITH 



JOHN LANE: THE BODLEY HEAD 
LONDON AND NEW YORK. MCMIV 






WILLIAM CLOWBS AK& SOtfS,' UilLTBp, LONDON AND BECCLKS. 



PREFACE 

THERE may be those who will think that if remarkable 
for anything, this little book is remarkable for its omis- 
sions. The writer himself feels that to be so, but the 
exigencies of space have formed an inexorable barrier, 
and he can only hope that, as far as it goes, the matter 
contained in its pages will be found helpful. It will be 
noticed that Picotees culturally have been merged in 
Carnations. The history of the various sections of popular 
Dianthi has received more attention than it usually 
receives. The position held by the Gilliflower in folk- 
lore, e.g. its connection with old-time love affairs, and 
with the Blessed in Paradise, has, however, regretfully 
been passed over for lack of space. 

Thanks are very largely due to the many gentlemen 
who have kindly responded to inquiries made as to special 
questions that have arisen in the course of writing the 
book ; and also to Dr. Masters for permission to make 
use of articles contributed by the writer to The Gardener's 
Chronicle. The Editor asks me to express our indebted- 
ness also to Mr. James Douglas for the loan of some 
interesting illustrations. 

R. P. B. 

November 28, 1903. 



253055 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

PREFACE . . . . . . . v 

I. SPECIES OF DIANTHUS . . . . . i 

II. HISTORY OF THE CARNATION. . . n 

THE NAMES OF THE CARNATION . . 14 

III. THE CARNATION AS A GARDEN PLANT . . 19 

IV. THE CARNATION IN POTS FOR DECORATION . 25 
THE CARNATION FOR EXHIBITION . . 29 
SELECTION OF SHOW CARNATIONS AND PICOTEES 33 

V. " MALMAISONS " . 34 

VI. TREE CARNATIONS ..... 43 

ANNUAL PINKS ...... 47 

" MARGARET " OR " MARGUERITES " 49 

VII. HISTORY OF THE PINK ..... 50 

CULTIVATION OF THE PINK . . -54 

VIII. MULES OR HYBRIDS . . . . .58 

IX. THE SWEET WILLIAM . . . . .64 

THE CARNATION AS A MARKET FLOWER . 67 



viii CONTENTS 

PAGE 

X. PROPAGATION BY SEED . . . , 69 

PROPAGATION BY CUTTINGS . . . . 74 

PROPAGATION BY LAYERS . . ?6 

XI. PESTS AND DISEASES . . . .79 

APPENDIX 
ON RAISING NEW CARNATIONS, BY MARTIN R. SMITH 87 

INDEX . . . . . . , . . 93 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

CARNATION, FLORIANA ..... Frontispiece 
From a drawing by Ethel Roskruge 

TO FACE PAGE 

CHEDDAR PINK (Dlanthus ctesius) ..... 4 
Photo by D. T. Fish 

DlANTHUS DELTOIDES PULCHELLUS .... 6 

Photo by D. T. Fish 

SHOW CARNATIONS AND PICOTEES, 1812 . . . 14 
CARNATION, BOOKHAM CLOVE . * V . . 16 

A CARNATION WALK IN MR. MARTIN SMITH'S GARDEN 20 
Photo by Henry Irving. By courtesy of Messrs. Cassell 

ONE OF MR. MARTIN SMITH'S CARNATION HOUSES . 24 
Photo by Henry Irving. By courtesy of Messrs. Cassell 

FANCY CARNATION, REGENT . . . . .28 

MR. MARTIN SMITH'S TWENTY-FOUR CARNATIONS. 

EXHIBITED 1902 ...... 30 

CARNATION, HORSA ....... 32 

PICOTEE, LADY SOPHIE ..... 34 

WILD CARNATIONS AND PINKS . . 50 

Photo by D. T. Fish 

IX 



x LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

TO FACE PAGE 

PICOTEE, DANIEL DEFOE . . . . .66 

PICOTEE, ARGOSY . . . . . . .68 

PICOTEE, GLEE MAIDEN . . . . . .70 

CARNATION, MRS. CHARLES BARING ... . 72 

A PART OF MR. MARTIN SMITH'S CARNATION GARDEN 86 
Photo by Henry Irving. By courtesy of Messrs. Cassell 



THE BOOK OF THE CARNATION 



SPECIES OF DIANTHUS 

THE genus Dianthus belongs to the order Caryophylleae, of 
which it is the chief member, other well-known members 
of the same order being Silene, Holostea, Cerastium, and 
Lychnis. Dianthus, a classic designation, " Flower 
of the gods," utilized by Linnaeus, forms a very large 
genus of plants, more than two hundred species having 
been described. These inhabit mostly the temperate 
zone, but extend to colder and also to hotter regions. 
They are largely evergreen perennial plants, but a few 
are biennials, and some, dwarf shrubs. With one or 
two exceptions, all may be cultivated in the open air 
in the British Isles ; but as garden plants the species 
worth cultivating are not many; and with the Carna- 
tion, Pink, Sweet William, Indian Pink, and a small 
selection of Hybrids, the following may be accepted as 
comprising all that are worthy : 

D. aggregatus. A large. flowered pink variety introduced 
in 1817. The plant grows one foot in height, and 
flowers in summer. About 1832, there was a double 
variety of this in cultivation as well as the single. The 
type is figured in Sweet's "British Flower Garden," 
vol. ii. p. 1 66. 

D. alpestris was introduced in the same year as the last- 
named. It grows in Alpine pastures, and rarely grows 
higher than six inches. The flowers are red. 

D. alpinus. This is one of the loveliest rock plants ever 
introduced, though by no means the least exacting under 



2 THE BOOK OF THE CARNATION 



cultivation. Indigenous to the Austrian Alps, it was first 
brought to England in 1759, but for a long period was 
found in botanic gardens only, its lowly, unassuming 
habit unfitting it for a place in eighteenth-century flower 
gardens. It is figured in the Botanical Magazine, t. 1205. 
The plant where it thrives spreads into large masses, the 
flowers rising just above the foliage, and two to four inches 
above the soil. The foliage is a shining dark green, which 
in June and July is completely hidden by the flowers. 
The flowers are rose-coloured, spotted with crimson, 
with an inner ring or " eye," the margins of the petals 
being crenated. A variety of soils suited to the plant, 
ranging from peat to loam, has been prescribed by culti- 
vators. It is certain it favours a deep soil always moist, 
but the plant itself to be so placed as to escape damp or 
stagnant moisture settling among the minute cushiony 
foliage. As a pot plant it is easy to manage, and those 
who experience a difficulty in doing it well on the rockery, 
should try it, as also neglectus, caesius, and others of the 
same type, which, cultivated thus, succeed in cold pits 
or garden frames. The plant fortunately is not shy of 
increase, cuttings slipped off with a heel and inserted in 
a sandy compost in properly drained flower-pots emitting 
roots with fair success. The cuttings must be kept closely 
shut up in a cold frame till roots have been formed. D. 
a. ruber is a supposed hybrid between D. neglectus and 
this species. 

D. arenarius. A dwarf European species of no great 
beauty. It is figured in the Botanical Magazine, t. 2036. 

D. asper. This is a pale-flowered low-growing species, 
introduced from Switzerland in 1882. (Syn. D. scaber.) 

D. atro-rubens. A small-flowered species . that grows 
about a foot high. It carries very dark-red flowers in 
heads, and was introduced from Italy in 1802. A figure 
will be found in the Botanical Magazine, t. 1775* 

D. barbatus. The type from which the Sweet William 



SPECIES OF D1ANTHUS 3 

is derived. From the botanist's point of view introduced 
in 1573, but an English garden plant previous to that 
date. 

D. bicolor. This species is so named on account of the 
undersides of the petal being leaden-coloured, the upper 
portion being white. The plant was brought from 
Tauria, in South Russia, in 1816, and grows to a height 
of one foot or more. 

D. crtsius is our English representative of the Alpine 
species. It is found only on limestone rocks at Cheddar, 
in Somersetshire, hence called the Cheddar Pink, and on 
old walls near Oxford, the flowers of the Oxford variety 
being somewhat larger than the Cheddar form, and is 
known as the Oxford Pink. There is a still larger 
flowered variety called D. c. grandiflorus, but the colour is 
not so deep a rose as in flowers of the others. In Ray's 
" Synopsis," the species is said to have been found growing 
in the North of England, as well as on " Chidderoks." 
It is not difficult to cultivate, and, even when flowerless, 
the plant, on account of its densely glaucous-grey foliage 
whence its name, " Caesius " is an object of interest. 
As a pot plant, if plenty of lime rubbish is mixed in the 
compost, it succeeds well ; and it is, indeed, a commend- 
able practice when introducing plants to a rockery to estab- 
lish them previously in pots. The plant abhors moisture 
clinging about the foliage and stems ; an ideal situation 
being on the face of a stone or an old wall. We find it 
first designated the " Mountain Pink," and on account 
of the colour of its foliage Miller named it D. glaucus. 
The Cliff Pink is another of its common names. 

D. callizonus is a somewhat late introduction from 
Transylvania, and flowered first at Kew about the year 
1890. The flowers are much larger than those of 
D. alpinus, brightest rose in colour, or rosy purple, with 
a zone of deep crimson surrounding the centre, which 
is whitish. The habit of the plant partakes more of that 



4 THE BOOK OF THE CARNATION 

of D. plumarius than of the Alpine pinks. It grows 
rapidly, presenting no fastidiousness in regard to cultural 
requirements, though it prefers a fertile soil with shade. 
It is propagated by means of cuttings in the same way 
as D. a/pinus. A beautifully coloured plate of this 
lovely flower appeared in The Garden, vol. Ix. 

Z>. Carthusianorum. A German species allied to 
D. barbatus, and interesting as the supposed plant that 
was largely cultivated as long ago as the sixteenth century 
by the name of " Sweet John," or simply " Johns." The 
name occurs in Lily's " Euphues and his England," along 
with several others, common flowers, roses, violets, prim- 
roses " here wil be Jilly-floures, Carnations, Sops-in- 
Wine, Sweet Johns," and it is described in all the old 
herbals. Wright quotes a stanza that shows it to have 
been a dearly loved flower. 

" The John so sweete in showe and smell, 

Distinct by coloures twaine, 
About the borders of their beds 
In seemlie sight remain." 

Like the Sweet William, it was a common garden plant 
long previous to the date noted by botanists as that of its 
introduction, 1573. Miller states, the "plant had gone 
out of cultivation in his day ; " but traces of it are to be 
found till the end of the eighteenth century. The type 
is figured in Sweet's " British Flower Garden." 

D. Caryophyllus. A little-known species, but interesting 
as the type which produced our long race of Carnations 
and Picotees. The specific name is one of the many 
applied long ago by old botanists to Carnations and 
Pinks. It is figured in Sowerby's " English Botany." 

D. caucasicus. A good garden plant, with large pink 
flowers and dark centre, growing about a foot in height. 
Introduced in 1 803, and figured in the Botanical Magazine, 
* 795- 



SPECIES OF DIANTHUS 5 

D. chinensis. A red flowering species from the East. 
Figured in Botanical Magazine^ t. 28 ; see " Annual 
Pinks," p. 47- . 

D. ctnnabarinus. This is a distinct species, with 
cinnabar red flowers dying off to carmine. It produces 
flowers abundantly, and requires no special treatment. 

D. corymbosus is a pink-flowered species peculiar in the 
blue-tinted anthers it produces. 

D. cruentus. This is a Russian plant, not so desirable 
as D. atro-rubens. It produces its flowers, which are 
deepest crimson, in small crowded heads, which are rather 
showy. The habit of the plant is very straggly. 

D. deltoides. The Maiden Pink, and one of our 
prettiest indigenous flowers. The type is rose-coloured, 
with a dark circle, or eye ; but a white form is not 
uncommon, and on Arthur's Seat, near Edinburgh, a 
variety with white flowers and purple markings is found. 
This was supposed to have been a distinct species when 
first discovered, and was named A glaucus^ a name it 
still retains with the type designation added. The plant 
presents no cultural difficulty, and is easily propagated 
from seeds, and by division in autumn. Its name, Maiden 
Pink, is said by old herbalists to have been given it 
because one flower only was borne on each stem. It 
was also called the Virgin Pink and Small Honesties. 

D. dentosus, the Amoor Pink, is a dwarf - growing 
species from Russia. The flowers are pretty, of a violet 
shade and with a darker centre. The plant begins to 
flower in early summer, and continues in beauty till 
autumn. It requires no special treatment, and is increased 
by means of seeds. 

D. discolor produces large handsome flowers of a pink 
shade, its petals serrated. The throat is white and 
brown spotted. It is a Caucasian plant, and is figured 
in the Botanical Magazine^ t. 1162. 

Z>. ferrugineus is a pale-flowered species of compact 



6 THE BOOK OF THE CARNATION 

habit, introduced from Italy in 1756, and figured in 
Miller's " Figures of Plants." It is still worth growing 
as a variety. Of this there is a sulphur-coloured form, 
which about sixty years ago was known as the "Yellow 
Pink." 

D. fimbriatus. A sufFruticose Iberian species formerly 
cultivated under the name of D. orientatis, and so figured 
in the Botanical Magazine, t. 1069. The flowers are fim- 
briated, rosy in colour ; well worth cultivating. 

D. Fischeri. There are two species known by this 
name. One, the true species, was introduced from Russia 
in 1820, and is figured in Sweet's "British Flower 
Garden." It grows a foot or more in height, with two 
or three flowers in a head, and seems to possess an affinity 
to D. superbus. The flowers are red, but at one time a 
white-flowered variety was in cultivation as well. The 
other is a supposed variety of D. neglectus, with more 
than one flower on each stem, and is altogether more 
robust than that species. It is generally cultivated as 
D. Fischeri. 

D. fragrans is an Austrian species brought to England 
in 1804. It is white-flowered, tinted with purple, with 
fringed petals, and emits an odour of jasmine. Of this 
there is a double variety. 

D. Freyneri is a tiny form growing only two inches 
above the ground. It requires a limestone or chalk soil, 
and is of recent introduction. 

D. gallicus. A dwarf, pink-flowered species from the 
Continent, growing in quantity on the sands at Biarritz 
and elsewhere. It is apt to die prematurely under 
cultivation ; Wooster's " Alpine Plants " contains a 
figure. 

D. giganteus. A purple-flowered Grecian species in- 
troduced in 1828. The plant varies considerably in 
height, but is never less than two feet, and sometimes 
four feet high. It is a cluster-flowered species. 



SPECIES OF DIANTHUS 7 

D. glacialis. A native of the mountains of South- 
Eastern France, and a very difficult plant to cultivate, 
continual wetness at root being essential to its health. 
It was introduced in 1820. A supposed hybrid between 
the above and D. alpinus is usually cultivated in gardens 
as D. glacialis. It flowers in April, and is a desirable 
species. 

D. hispanicus is a very slender-stemmed species, with 
deep crimson flowers an inch and a half across. 

D. Holtzeri. A species from Turkestan that seems to 
possess many characteristics of D. superbus y but with 
darker flowers. 

D. Knappi. A late introduction, growing nine inches 
in height, possessed of flowers of a clear pale yellow, and 
partaking of the character of D. liburnicus. 

D. latifolius. Much like D. barbatus, but larger both 
in flower and foliage. It is figured in Sweet's u British 
Flower Garden." 

D. liburnicus. A strong-growing plant, producing its 
red flowers in heads. Leaves and stems are glaucous, 
hence one of its names is D. glaucophyllus, and it is not 
uncommonly cultivated as D. Balbisii. 

D. monspessulanus. A good border variety, introduced 
in 1764. The flowers are red with petals much 
laciniated. 

D. neglectus. One of the D. alpinus group, but more 
beautiful than that species, with foliage somewhat like 
that of D. c&sius. The underside of the petals are 
greenish-blue. It blooms earlier in the year than D. 
alpinuSy and sometimes succeeds where the last-named 
fails. It grows on the Mont Cenis Alps, and was intro- 
duced in 1869. Treat as D. alpinus. D. neglectus a /bus 
is a rare white form. 

D. pallidiflorus. A showy pale-flowered species from 
Siberia. It is late flowering, and is suitable for the rockery. 
D. pallens is a synonym. 



8 THE BOOK OF THE CARNATION 

D. Pancici is a tall-growing plant, attaining four feet in 
height, and produces flower-heads of a bright crimson 
purple. 

D. penmylvanicus is a variable species, abundant in New 
England, where it is known as the May Pink. 

D. petrous. This species is much like D. fragrans, 
but having somewhat larger fringed flowers, which are 
white. The D. petrous of the Botanical Magazine, 
t. 1204, is pink-flowered. 

D. pinifolius belongs to the D. crenatus type, though 
scarcely so fine as that species. The foliage is somewhat 
like that of the pine tree. It is native to Greece. 

D.plumarius. The Feathered Pink, or Pheasant's Eye, 
is interesting as being the reputed parent of the number- 
less race of Garden Pinks, of the Black and White Pinks, 
and of the Laced or Florist varieties. The double form 
and the double white, as well as a large variety of the 
latter, are very old plants, the two first-named appearing in 
Parkinson's " Garden of Pleasant Flowers." Botanical 
works fix the date of the introduction of the species 
in the year 1629, but it is clear the plant was cultivated in 
England long previous to that date. Gerard knew it well. 
The type-plant is remarkable for its variability from 
seed, and a few special varieties have been perpetuated 
by cuttings. In any form it is a desirable garden plant, 
and, on account of its fragrance, a delightful flower for 
cutting. One of the latest forms appeared a few years 
ago as " Cyclops." The plants varied considerably, but 
all were alike beautiful. About the year 1890 D. plu- 
marius hybridus was first seen. This kind possesses stout 
erect stems, with large blooms of a soft rosy tint, and 
with a crimson zone. D. p. annulatus is an older form 
of the same type. D. moschatus and D. dubius are syno- 
nyms of the type, which grows wild in England on old 
walls, though not truly indigenous ; yet Ray notes how 
common a wild plant it was in his time. 



SPECIES OF DIANTHUS 9 

D. prolifer. This is a very rare English species, con- 
fined to Selsey Island and a few more stations, and known 
to the old botanists as the Child ing Sweet William. 

D. Seguierii. A hardy species from Switzerland, with 
rosy-purple flowers, and suited to border cultivation. 
D. S. collina is a lovely variety that flowers in autumn. 

D. splendeus. A medium-sized flower of a deep crimson 
colour. 

D. squarrosus. A species somewhat like D. plumarius ; 
from Tauria in Russia, 1817. The flowers are white, 
and larger than those of the latter species, but the plant 
less tall. 

D. suavis. A very sweet-scented pink-flowered species 
with glaucous foliage. Suited for rockwork. 

D. superbus, commonly known as the Fringed Pink. It 
is a very old species, being mentioned in Gerard's 
"Catalogue of Plants" (1596), where it is called "Spotted 
Sweet Johns." By Parkinson it is named the " Feathered 
Pinke of Austria," and he remarks it is " like unto the 
Sweet Johns some of them of a purplish colour, but the 
most ordinary with us are pure white and of a most 
fragrant sent, comforting the spirits and senses a farre 
off." The flowers at night emit the most delightful frag- 
rance. The plant grows as high as two feet, and is very 
floriferous ; and though perennial it is apt to die during 
winter when grown in rich garden soil. It is, however, 
easily raised from seeds, which sown in April or May 
produce strong flowering plants the year ensuing. The 
species forms hybrids freely, and not improbably a "strain " 
of D. superbus exists in our present-day Pinks, if not 
also Carnations. D. s. garnerianus^ sometimes called 
" Gardneri" is a very fine variety, with deeply laciniated 
flowers over three inches across. It was raised about 
sixty years ago by the gardener of a Mrs. Gamier, after 
whom it is named, and is a supposed hybrid with D. 
superbus and an Indian Pink for parents. The flower is 



io THE BOOK OF THE CARNATION 

portrayed in the " Floricultural Cabinet," vol. viii. D. 
s. chlnensts was derived from seeds gathered by a mis- 
sionary in China about 1898. The flowers are mauve 
flushed with rose, with narrow petals deeply cut and 
fringed. It sometimes flowers in the open till mid-winter. 
A coloured plate will be found in The Garden, vol. Iv. 
D. Oreades is a synonym. D. s. nanus is a dwarf form 
of the European type that comes true from seeds. 

D. syhestris is a species with red flowers not unlike 
those of D. Caryophyllus, and with long slender stalks. It was 
introduced in 1 7 32, and is figured in the Botanical Magazine, 
t. 1 740. It is one of the several species called D. virgineus. 
D. Boissieri is a large and curious form growing two feet 
in height. 

D. tener. As in so many other instances this name 
has been applied to two plants, the one a form of D. 
alpinus, but true D. tener belongs to the plumarius group, 
and is of a straggly habit of growth. 

D. virgineus. What is now known by this designa- 
tion was introduced in 1816 from the Continent. Its 
flowers are red and of no great beauty. D. deltoides and 
several other species have been at one time or other so- 
called. 



II 

HISTORY OF THE CARNATION 

THE early history of the Carnation is, unhappily, involved 
in obscurity, the very earliest record of the plant dating 
no further back than the beginning of the sixteenth 
century, when Bishop Douglas mentions it among other 
garden flowers. " Jerafleris " no doubt occurs even earlier 
in "The King's Quhair," and Chaucer has been cited 
as proving the Carnation to have been cultivated in the 
reign of the Third Edward ; but all good authorities con- 
cur in identifying Chaucer's plant with the clove-tree 
of commerce. It is, however, safe to assume that the 
Carnation was in cultivation much earlier than we are 
able to trace by any written record, and not improbably 
it was no uncommon plant. Turner's remark in 
" Libellus," where he calls it Incarnation, favours that 
supposition. In a report recorded in " Hakluyt," and 
written in 1568, the word referring to the plant occurs as 
if in common use." Hill, in the "Profitable Arte of 
Gardening" (1574 ed.), describes its cultivation as if he 
were cognizant of the idiosyncrasies of the plant, in the 
contents calling it a " Gilifloure and Carnation." Tusser 
might also be mentioned, and Lyte, as early authorities ; 
but it was not till Gerard published his " Herbal " in 
1 597 tnat tne extern to which the Carnation was cultivated, 
and the great number of varieties that were at that time 
grown in gardens, can be fully gauged. It then bursts 
suddenly upon our ken a fully developed flower, already 

ii 



12 THE BOOK OF THE CARNATION 

divided into two distinct sections, the plants in which 
differed from each other in habit of growth and in cultural 
requirements, but alike in the remarkable range of colours 
embraced in each. Peacham remarks that new varieties 
were introduced from Italy, but Gerard's declaration that 
" every clymate and countrey bringeth forth new sortes " 
is no doubt more consistent with fact. There is evidence 
showing two distinct types to have been early in cultiva- 
tion in South- Western France, and in Silesia yellow- and 
apricot-coloured Carnations were so common that Clusius 
mentions them being sold in the market of Vienna. 
This type of Carnation exercised a powerful effect on 
Carnation-culture in England. Previous to its introduc- 
tion there had existed the greatest difficulty in securing 
seeds off English-grown plants ; but these, what we 
would now call yellow grounds, proved prolific seed- 
producers, and at the time John Parkinson wrote his 
"Garden of Pleasant Flowers " in 1629, English-raised 
varieties were fairly numerous. Parkinson was the first 
to attempt a rough classification of the plant, calling those 
with large flowers and, be it remembered, some were 
as large as expanded damask roses Carnations ; the 
smaller and commoner varieties, Gilliflowers ; the third 
section being the " Orange Tawnies," or yellow section. 
At the time Rea wrote his " Florilege," 1665, the 
taste in Carnations had undergone a marked change, the 
old varieties having given place to sorts imported from 
Holland and Flanders, and which produced flowers some- 
what like our Malmaisons. Rea names three sections, 
red and white, purple and white, and scarlet and white, 
the flowers in each being " well-striped, flaked, marbled, 
or powdered." These were cultivated in pots and pro- 
tected during winter, while the commoner sorts were 
grown altogether in the open, " set on banks or beds." 

In 1683, Rea's son-in-law, Samuel Gilbert, published 
" The Florist's Vade-Mecum," in which is recorded 



HISTORY OF THE CARNATION 13 

important advances in the flower. In addition to the classes 
named by Rea, there were also red and blush, blush and 
white, selfs, tri-coloured, which were obviously yellow 
fancies, and the very first mention of an edged flower, or 
as we would now call it, a Picotee. Its name and descrip- 
tion is perhaps worth recording, " Fair Helena, only edged 
with purple." The fashion in large flowers continued 
to increase, by-and-by to such an extent that those 
sorts alone were esteemed that produced a double bud, 
or an inner pod as it was termed, as is sometimes seen 
in the present-day Malmaison. Very great care and 
skill was expended on the preservation of the earlier- 
formed petals, till those on the inner pod were also 
expanded. The plants cultivated exclusively in pots, 
were disbudded to one bloom on each. From the fact 
that seedlings possessed of calyces that split were alone 
preserved for cultivation, they were popularly known 
as Bursters, ordinary varieties with whole calyces being 
called Whole Blowers, these being disposed of in flower 
borders as unworthy the serious attention of the advanced 
florist. Shortly after the beginning of the eighteenth 
century a quite new disposition of the sections occur. 
These were Piquettes, or Picketees, Flakes, Painted 
Ladies, and Beazarts, or Bizarres. The last named were 
still of the Burster type, and it was not until 1740 that 
the hitherto neglected Whole Blowers ousted these large 
and coarse varieties from chief position. The new type 
of flowers seem to have been introduced from France, 
because they were called also French Flakes. Serrated 
petals were noted at the same time as a serious blemish, 
but these were gradually eliminated, and by the end 
of the century the edges of the petals were perfectly 
smooth. These changes witnessed also the transference 
of the unit of perfection from the flower to the petal. 
The disposal of the marks in Bizarres and Flakes was also 
subjected to clearly defined rules ; and, as a fact, we know 



i 4 THE BOOK OF THE CARNATION 

from existing coloured plates of contemporary flowers 
that a show variegated, they were designated Carnation 
was essentially as it is to-day. Maddocks describes 
Scarlet, Pink, Purple, and Crimson " Bizards," Pink and 
Rose Flakes as the several sections cultivated in 1792. In 
addition to these " is a sort held in high esteem by cultiva- 
tors called Picotee, many of which are very beautiful, and, 
being hardier than the other sorts, are inconsiderable request. 
The colours are principally yellow and white spotted." 
Picotees at this time had not, however, got beyond 
petals with " serrated or jagged " edges. To Maddocks 
belongs the honour of providing a standard for the modern 
Carnation, a standard more or less faithfully copied by 
" authorities " for at least fifty years afterwards. Space does 
not permit a detailed account of the march of the Carnation, 
and what we still call the Picotee, during the last century. 
Yellow Picotees it may, however, be remarked, were 
extremely popular during its first half, and it is only 
lately that flowers with edges so clearly marked, and with 
yellow of so deep a tint in the ground as those grown 
in the thirties and forties, have been produced. The 
white ground Picotees by the same date had become 
equally refined. But it is interesting that, so late as 1 840, 
Picotees were in Lancashire still called " stripes." In the 
late sixties and the seventies Mr. C.Turner produced many 
yellow varieties from a well-habited, stiff-growing variety 
called Prince of Orange; Mr. J. Douglas continued the 
work, while latterly Mr. Martin R. Smith has brought 
them into line with the other sections, the German variety 
German ia having latterly been largely used as a stud-plant. 

THE NAMES OF THE CARNATION 

A short resume of names applied to the Carnation 
seems to be needed, in order to render what has been 
recorded of its history more complete. Carnation, like 



lft 



.,;?', "If -3S ?-V 











SHOW CARNATIONS AND 1'ICOTEES 
From " Temple of Flora," 1812 



NAMES OF THE CARNATION 15 

Picotee, is curiously enough not the English name of the 
plant, but merely an adjective prefixed originally to define 
a variety or a section. The old English name is un- 
doubtedly Gillyflower, in one or other of its numerous 
spellings, the consensus of opinion being that this is 
derived primarily from Caryophyllus. Lawson, in 1618, 
recorded it as July-flower, because it flowered in July, and 
not a few followed his lead both in the name and its alleged 
meaning. " Carnation," by all the old writers, was said to 
be a distinguishing colour name, but the late Dr. Prior, 
finding in Lyte's "Herbal" and Spenser's " Shepheard's 
Calendar " the word " Coronation " applied to the flower, 
thought he had there discovered its earliest form and its 
true meaning a flower employed in making chaplets for 
headwear. However, several instances occur of " Car- 
nation " at an earlier date, and there appears no good reason 
to doubt that authorites like Gerard and Parkinson were 
correct in assuming the designation to be one descriptive 
of the colour of the flower, " Carnation " at that early 
period being applied to distinguish a deep red colour, and not 
always the blush tint of the present day. Picotee is 
easily traceable through many variations to the French 
Picote" "la Carnation Picotee," Hogg calls it and it 
was always applied to spotted flowers, or to those with the 
colour splashed on white or yellow. Another old name 
that continues till to-day is Clove. Just as Carnation- 
Gilliflower distinguished a large red variety, so Clove- 
Gilliflower marked one remarkable for its strong affinity 
in scent to the clove of commerce. The latter, and also 
Geum urbanum^ have indeed been repeatedly confused by 
modern writers with the Clove-Gilliflower, a sweet flower 
dear to ancient dames on account of its spirit-refreshing 
perfume. It was also partaken of at great banquets as a 
kind of pickled salad, and in the reign of Charles II. it is 
first heard of as being used in a liqueur called clove-gilli- 
flower wine. It may be added that the plant known 



1 6 THE BOOK OF THE CARNATION 

to-day as the Old Clove is quite distinct from the " old " 
one, the latter having been a small flower of neat form. 
The Painted Lady section is now cultivated by very few 
in Great Britain, but in Germany it is not at all un- 
common. The flowers in this section are composed of 
petals whitish underneath and coloured above. 

At present the Carnation is divided into several sections, 
of which the following are names and descriptions. 
Bizarres are distinguished by white petals marked length- 
wise with two colours, or shades. These are scarlet, 
crimson, and pink-and-purple respectively, and all Bizarres 
are included under one or other of these designations. 
It has been customary of late years to disparage the 
artificiality of these flowers, but, especially the scarlet 
and the pink-and-purple, Bizarres are really beautiful. 
Flakes differ from Bizarres in having only one colour 
disposed on a white ground. The colours are scarlet, 
rose, and purple, and by these names all Flakes are 
defined. Of late years Selfs and Fancies have nearly 
ousted the above types from gardens, or it might more 
truly be said, they have forced their way into gardens 
where formerly Carnations were hardly to be found. 
Selfs have long been cultivated and very much appre- 
ciated on the Continent, more especially in France, 
and thirty years ago, and even more recently, a 
varied collection of Selfs could be procured only from 
across the Channel. Now, however, English varieties 
are equally popular with exhibitor and gardener, and all 
colours it is possible for the Carnation to assume are 
common. "Self" is equivalent to the French "Uni," 
one colour or shade only in one flower. "Fancies" 
include a large variety of flowers, with markings and 
colours of the most diverse kinds, and as a section it may 
be said to include all those varieties that cannot be 
classed in the other section, or with Picotees. Some of 
the sorts are no doubt bizarre and uninteresting, but 




CARNATION BOOKHAM CLOVE 



NAMES OF THE CARNATION 17 

others are distinguished by markings and colours that 
render them fascinatingly lovely. There being no limit 
to the colours, we find the ground or body colour of all 
shades, from white and yellow to scarlet, and the mark- 
ings are disposed without any of the regularity the florist 
expects in Shows and Picotees. In this section the old 
Flames (French, Flamand) are now included, these possess- 
ing a red ground barred with a darker colour. The Picotee, 
as already noted, is simply a form of Carnation. It has now 
quite lost the distinctive markings that gives it its name 
all Picotees, whether white or yellow grounds, having the 
whole of the petal except a clearly defined coloured margin 
pure white or pure yellow, any spots or bars being 
considered a serious drawback. White Ground Picotees 
are classed as red-edged, purple-edged, and rose- and 
scarlet-edged according to the colour with which the 
petals are margined. These, again, are called light, 
heavy, or intermediate, according to the width of the 
margin. Yellow Ground Picotees have been so recently 
brought into line with the others that there has not been 
time to subdivide them into classes ; but the type is now 
as rigidly and sharply defined as in the White Ground 
section. " Border " applied to Carnations generally 
refers to any variety that succeeds well in the open, and 
which is possessed of certain properties that render it 
suitable for garden decoration. 

Tree, Perpetual or Winter-Flowering Carnations were 
originally a French strain first cultivated fifty years ago. 
They are now, however, wonderfully improved on the 
original type, and included in them are varieties belong- 
ing to other sections. Moreover, Italy, Spain, Germany, 
France and Flanders possess each a strain of Tree Carna- 
tions peculiar to itself, and from among these a few varieties 
have been secured that run alongside later English-raised 
forms. America, too, possesses a distinct strain, and the 
best of these are making a rapid conquest in this country. 

C 



1 8 THE BOOK OF THE CARNATION 

In addition there are strains of what may be termed 
Annual Carnations. Such is the French Grenadin, truly 
a biennial, both single and double, with small flowers of a 
sweet scent, and extraordinarily floriferous. Marguerites, 
which sown in spring flower the same year. The 
flowers are of moderate size, fringed, and very sweet. 
Allied to these are those termed Riviera Carnations, a 
form cultivated by cottagers along the Mediterranean, 
but which has not yet made progress in this country ; and 
last, though not least, the Malmaison section, which is 
treated of separately (v. Chapter V.). 



Ill 

THE CARNATION AS A GARDEN PLANT 

ALL kinds of Carnations and Picotees are amenable to 
garden cultivation ; even the Souvenir de la Malmaison 
existing for years in the open air in quite cold districts. 
In the north of England, and in Scotland, it has long 
been the practice to cultivate even the more refined forms, 
such as Flakes, Bizarres, and Picotees, in the open garden 
for exhibition purposes ; but in treating of the Carnation 
as a garden plant, I shall keep in mind more particu- 
larly its value as a garden flower. Broadly, there are 
two courses open, either to cultivate solely in the 
open, or to preserve plants under glass protection 
during winter and to plant in spring. Of the two 
the former yields much the better results, the vigour of 
the plant being enhanced and its floriferousness vastly 
increased. But it is essential that layers (v. Chapter X.) be 
put down at the earliest moment, the middle of July 
being quite late enough, so that nicely rooted plants may 
be ready for planting any time from the end of August 
till the middle of September. These rapidly become 
established at root, and though little top-growth follows, 
which, indeed, is not wanted, a Carnation that is over- 
taken by winter having a firm grip of the soil is proof 
against upheaval by frost and is little affected by the 
cutting winds of March. Following that, the plant is in 
a position to respond at once to the revivifying influences 
of genial weather, and at every joint young shoots are 

19 



20 THE BOOK OF THE CARNATION 

produced, which develop into flower-stems, so that 
instead of the usual one or two stemmed plant, we 
secure one with eight to a dozen flower-stems. The inex- 
perienced, however, must be warned against permitting 
early layered plants to stand too long after root action has 
fairly been accomplished. The result is widely dispersed 
roots, which have to be broken when lifted for trans- 
planting, so giving one of those cheeks to growth which 
is invariably inimical to the well-being of the Carnation. 

The position selected for the beds is of much im- 
portance. Let it be as elevated as possible, dry under- 
neath, and open to sun and air. It will be found better 
rather to have the beds in open vegetable quarters than in 
borders confined by low trees. As to soil, the plant is 
not inadaptable, and it succeeds in all kinds, so long as 
that which is too heavy is lightened to meet its require- 
ments. Manure, as a rule, ought not to be applied to soil 
for the Carnation itself, any stimulant of that nature 
being better introduced for a previous crop. At the same 
time, that is not always convenient, and therefore to 
meet its wants the manure employed should be thoroughly 
decayed, broken up finely, and as evenly and regularly 
mixed as possible with the soil in course of digging. 
Fresh earth is, of course, always valuable, and in the case 
of very heavy soils, leaf-mould and sand freely incorporated 
with the upper six inches is of much value. Generally, 
too, a bed raised a few inches above the level of the 
surrounding soil is better than one on the flat, and in 
forming the bed, let it be somewhat convex. The 
Carnation likes a rather firm-rooting medium, and there- 
fore previous to planting, and while the soil is dry, have 
it firmly compressed by trampling. 

It often happens that plants cannot be put into the 
positions chosen for them until spring, and in such cases 
they must be wintered under glass, either in cold frames 
or in pits. Under these conditions it is commonly advised 



*v 





Hen ry Irving- 



A CARNATION WALK IN MR. MARTIN SMITH'S GARDEN 
(By courtesy of Messrs. Cassell ) 



CARNATION AS GARDEN PLANT 21 

to plant a pair of Carnations in a three-inch pot, but 
considering it is frequently impossible to plant out until 
April, when growth has some time commenced, it is 
apparent that pots of the above dimensions are deficient 
in capacity. Other good growers select four-inch pots, 
placing one, two, and three layers in these, and the results 
are invariably more favourable. The very best results, 
however, are secured by selecting very strong layers which, 
potted early in September singly in five-inch pots, are little 
inferior to plants set out in early autumn. The winter 
treatment of plants in pots calls for a low tempe- 
rature, abundant ventilation, and no applied moisture, 
either at root or in the atmosphere. If rust or spot 
appears, it is essential that the parts affected be removed 
as soon as noticed, and forthwith destroyed, and flowers 
of sulphur distributed over the plants and their surround- 
ings. With the advent of spring, the soil in the pots 
will require moistening from time to time, but refrain 
from applying water freely. Abundance of air is also 
essential, and green fly must be watched for and destroyed. 
It is usually April before transplanting to the open can 
be effected, and it may be remarked that the soil for 
these may be, to some extent, more enriched than for 
layers rooted in autumn. Let the soil, however, be 
made quite firm, and in planting, do not sink the plant 
any lower than it stood in the pot, deep planting being 
always resented, more or less, by the Carnation. There 
are various ways of arranging the plants, the simplest 
being in rows with the plants singly at a foot to fifteen 
inches apart. When the plants are not very large they 
are sometimes arranged in threes, planted a few inches 
apart, with fifteen-inch intervals between the triplets. 
Wintered in pots one has to treat them according to the 
number in each. The early summer treatment of each 
set is identical : repeated stirring of the surface-soil, ap- 
plications of soot and pigeon-manure, or superphosphate 



22 THE BOOK OF THE CARNATION 

of lime, and the removal of the weaker growths when 
these are produced too abundantly on vigorous plants, 
embrace the main points. By-and-by stakes, either of 
bamboo or the coil-iron stake, so popular of late years, 
must be placed one or more to each plant before the 
flower-stem has grown many inches. Sometimes it is 
necessary to apply water in May, for it is a curious 
feature of the Carnation that though it abhors moisture 
during the winter-season it, on the other hand, languishes 
if it is not applied in dry weather during summer. 
If water is repeatedly called for, it ought not to be 
given pure, but superphosphate, or some other stimu- 
lating material added. During genial summer weather, 
the flower-stems make rapid progress and the little buds 
not infrequently become infested with green fly. A 
little tobacco-powder dusted over these effects a speedy 
clearance, which is important, not so much on account of 
the harm the insects effect, but because, if permitted to 
remain, tomtits are almost sure to discover them, and 
while dining al fresco break over the stems to the great 
loss of flowers by-and-by. Ordinary garden Carna- 
tions are generally not disbudded, but when the more 
refined types are thus cultivated, e.g. Bizarres, Flakes, and 
Picotees, disbudding is essential, and also, it must be said, 
a previous thinning of the flower-stems. Disbudding is 
a more difficult-looking business than it really is, particu- 
larly if the buds are removed while still small, when a 
nimble-fingered operator will disbud a very large collec- 
tion in the course of a few hours. The method consists 
in grasping each bud to be removed between finger and 
thumb, then give it a quick upward jerk, when it comes 
easily out of its socket without in any way damaging 
those left. Three buds left to expand on each stem is the 
greatest number permitted by growers of exhibition flowers, 
but that number may well be exceeded where the terrors 
of the exhibition table do not loom in the near future. 



CARNATION AS GARDEN PLANT 23 

Hitherto, these remarks have been confined to Carna- 
tions cultivated by themselves for bloom, but as garden 
flowers they are also no mean objects from a decorative 
point of view, and the requirements of the present day 
demand that a carpeting of some brighter material than 
their own grass or foliage be provided. As a rule, Carna- 
tions arranged in this way cannot be planted till late 
spring, and it may be said, once for all, that weakly plants, 
either constitutionally so, or those starved in too small 
pots before planting-out, can never give satisfaction. 
Whether in beds by themselves, or in borders of mixed 
flowers, at least, twenty-five plants of a sort should be 
employed, a greater number being, of course, preferable. 
It will be found a great mistake to set the plants too 
close together ; from eighteen inches to two feet apart 
being not unsuitable distances. The varieties that con- 
form to this style are necessarily limited in number, 
first because we must have effective colours, and also 
because the plants must possess as nearly as may be a stiff 
upright habit of growth, while being at the same time 
abundantly floriferous. A new variety, however pro- 
mising it may be, should not, therefore, until proved, be 
employed for decorative effects. 

The plants commonly used as a carpet to Carnations 
are various kinds of Violas. Personally, I dislike these 
for this purpose, because they are never quite satisfac- 
tory, and so dispense with them altogether. Moreover, 
the list of suitable plants is so large that there is no 
excuse for employing any but the very best. Verbenas in 
purple, white, and scarlet, and the lovely pink variety, 
Ellen Willmott, cannot, perhaps, be surpassed for the 
purpose in view, each plant carpeting a large surface. 
The flowers remain bright until the end of the season, 
and the colours go well with Carnations. Verbena 
venosa and the old F. Metindres splendent are also suit- 
able. Another charming plant will be found in Cuphea 



24 THE BOOK OF THE CARNATION 

strigillosa, the varieties of Brachycome iberidifolla are also 
satisfactory, and may be employed either mixed or in 
colours, white being very pretty. Sweet Alyssum is fairly 
satisfactory, though not nearly so much so as its varie- 
gated form. Gazania splendent, dark-flowered Heliotrope ; 
Erigeron mucronatutn, and Madame Grouse Geraniums, 
afford other selections. It needs hardly be remarked that 
layers must not be expected from Carnations arranged in 
this manner, and they must not be planted where either 
hares or rabbits can reach them. Varieties suitable for 
grouping include, Mephisto, deep crimson ; Comet, crim- 
son ; Hon. Adele Hamilton, clear pink ; Hildegarde and 
Trojan, white ; Sir R. Waldie Griffiths, deep apricot ; 
Asphodel rose ; Loveliness, light salmon-rose ; Barras, 
scarlet ; Dundas Scarlet, pure scarlet ; Jeannie Deans 
and Cecilia, yellow ; Chloris and Henry Falkland, yellow 
grounds ; Raby Castle, salmon. A new variety, in 
colouring like Mrs. R. Hole, but of improved habit and 
apparently of better constitution, will be found in Francis 
Samuelson. 



IV 

THE CARNATION IN POTS FOR 
DECORATION 

CARNATIONS and Picotees are extensively cultivated in 
pots for two purposes. The florist finds the plant in 
many respects more conformable to the particular kind of 
cultivation necessary to the production of exhibition 
blooms when cultivated in pots, though, as already stated, 
in the northern parts of the kingdom, culture in the 
open garden is largely conducted in the case even of 
these. Not so long ago only show Carnations and 
Picotees were cultivated in this way ; but, during the past 
few years, classes for selfs and fancies and for the novel 
yellow-ground Picotees having been provided at exhibitions, 
these also have been included among the florist's treasures 
and catered for as pot plants. The other purpose for 
which they are produced in pots is for conservatory 
furnishing, and for the production of flowers for cutting 
during the summer months, gardeners, as a rule, confining 
themselves to a few reliable varieties, but occasionally a 
varied collection is cultivated. The essentials as to 
cultural routine in both cases are very much the same. 
Propagation is almost wholly by means of layers, which 
are generally " put down " in the pots in which the 
plants are growing. Not infrequently as a result of the 
close shading, to which the plants have been subjected on 
account of the flowers, the shoots become etiolated, and 
by no means of a satisfactory type. Withered foliage has 
first of all to be cleared away, the growing points dusted 

25 



26 THE BOOK OF THE CARNATION 

will) tokuco powder t<> destiny any green fly lurking on 
the young foliage, and if rust shows, the tips of the leaves 
cut off. The soil next the inside of the flower-pot is then 
stirred with a pointed stick, a little sandy compost added, the 
tongues (v. Chapter X.) made, the stems twisted to enable 
the layer to be brought down, and each neatly arranged so 
as the whole forms a di< !< just inside the rim of the pot. 
A practice common among gardeners is to layer the shoots 
in the open. For this purpose a piece of vacant ground on 
a warm border is chosen, each plant to be propagated is 
then turned out of its pot and plunged sufficiently deep in 
the soil to bring the shoots to its level. It facilitates opera- 
tions when the layers are made previous to plunging the 
balls in the soil. A compost of sandy peat, or sandy leaf- 
mould should be at hand, and a little of this mixed with 
the soil to hasten root action. Layers treated in this 
manner produce healthier and more sturdy plants than 
those operated in pots and kept under glass to form 
roots. The latter practice, however, can be commended 
when the layers are made as soon as the shoots are fit, 
these yielding quite a different class of plants to those left 
till the blooming season is over. It not infrequently 
occurs, too, that splendid material for pot-culture is secured 
from layers produced from healthy plants grown in beds 
or borders in the open. In any case the inexperienced must 
bear in mind that a strong, healthy layer, to start operations 
with, is worth any extra care expended to secure it. 

It will be more convenient to treat of the Carnation 
for ordinary greenhouse decoration previous to enlarging 
on the florist sections. A good selection for this purpose 
will include : Cecilia, a grand yellow ; Barras, scarlet ; 
Lady Hermione, rose; Agnes Sorrel, maroon; Sir 
Bcvys, crimson maroon ; Benbow, buff; Ensign, blush; 
Herbert J. Cutbush, glowing scarlet ; Lady Mimi, deep 
pink ; Anne Boleyn, salmon ; Loveliness, salmon-pink ; 
Hildegarde, white ; Mephisto, small bloom, deep crimson ; 



THE CARNATION IN POTS 27 

Miss Ellen Terry, very large white ; Lady Nina Balfour, 
blush ; while Duchess of Fife is usually grown on account 
of its lovely pink-tinted flowers. The above are self flowers. 
Of fancies, mostly yellow grounds, Amphion, Lord 
Justice, Hidalgo, Charles Martel, Falca, Eldorado, Paladin, 
Ormonde, Brodick, Ualgetty, a white ground ; Galileo 
Goldylock, Guinevere, and Duchess of Roxburghe, form a 
reliable selection. At one time I cultivated the above 
class of Carnations solely in six-inch pots, one plant in 
each. The newer sorts, however, grow more vigorously 
than old varieties, as, for example, is the case with 
Cecilia, and for single plants seven-inch pots are most 
generally employed, while, for larger and more im- 
posing specimens, two are grown in eight-inch and 
three plants in eight- or nine-inch pots. Starting with 
the well-rooted layer, which should be ready to transfer 
to pots during the first ten days in September, the 
stronger growing sorts, e.g. Cecilia, Barras, Hildegardc, 
and Loveliness, will require pots five inches in diameter, 
while those of the type of Hidalgo, and Mephisto will 
succeed better in those four inches in diameter. The 
pots, as in every instance, must be efficiently drained, 
nothing being better for this purpose than potsherds, broken 
into very fine pieces, to be placed above a flat potsherd 
laid over the hole for drainage. The soil may be 
good fibrous loam with a third of leaf-mould, and one- 
sixth of sand added, and in potting be careful not to 
lower the stem of the plant, while the soil must be made 
moderately firm. Strong plants should be steadied by means 
of a short stick placed to each, and instead of standing the 
pots in the open air, I greatly prefer to place them at once 
in a position where they can be protected from heavy 
rains, and consequently treated as to water at root in the 
most careful manner. The plants must, indeed, be supplied 
with water in quantity only sufficient to keep them in a 
healthy condition without stimulating growth, while during 



28 THE BOOK OF THE CARNATION 

the winter season the supply must be stopped altogether. 
This does not cause a cessation of root action, nor, 
indeed, of a certain amount of activity in the plant itself, 
for examination shows that new roots are being produced 
all the winter, long, and to the experienced eye the stem of 
the plant at the same time increases in bulk. With the 
advent of February, preparation must be made to afford 
the plants more room at root. Seven-inch pots for those 
to be grown singly, and larger ones, as above noted, for 
those to be grown in triplets, and in twos, being clean 
washed and drained in the manner indicated for the layers. 
Potting soil, as a rule, is prepared in advance, the material, 
if it can be procured, being coarsely broken rotted turves, 
with leaf-soil, a little thoroughly decayed manure, some 
artificial manure, and sand to render the whole open. 
A compost that suits Geraniums, Fuchsias, and the 
general type of soft-wooded plants may indeed be safely 
employed for Carnations of the class under review. In 
repotting be careful not to break the ball or meddle with 
the roots, and ram the soil somewhat firmly home. Be 
also exceedingly careful for a while in the application of 
water, so as not to over-moisten the new compost ; but 
once root-action has begun freely, and especially if the 
weather is warm, water must not be stinted. If there 
is a freely ventilated cold pit in which to grow the 
plants they will succeed perfectly; next to that a cold 
frame must be made the most of, but as the reason for 
growing the plants in this way is to secure an earlier 
bloom, anything that retards growth is regrettable. 
Staking the advancing flower-stems, applying manure as 
required, with attention to the early destruction of insect 
pests, are the chief items the cultivator has to see to. 
Once the buds begin to open a light shading is necessary, 
and superfluous buds should be removed at an early stage 
of growth. Lovely blooms, bright in colour and of large 
size, are secured under the treatment just noted. 




FANCY CARNATION REGENT 



THE CARNATION FOR EXHIBITION 29 

THE CARNATION FOR EXHIBITION 

Large numbers of Carnations and Picotees are cultivated 
in pots, as already stated, solely to produce flowers for the 
exhibition table the cultivator having these under con- 
trol in a degree that he does not attain with those planted 
in the garden. The treatment generally is as recorded 
for those cultivated for decorative purposes, with the 
difference that the florist true and simple does not 
cultivate for quantity, but for those qualities that many 
generations of past florists have stereotyped past change. 
There is always an abiding distinction between a gardener 
and a florist, inasmuch as while the former with a due 
amount of care and knowledge produces a crop of bloom, 
the latter has to exercise a rare amount of judgment to 
secure the end he has in view, for unlike the mere gardener 
who cultivates to produce flowers and plenty of them, the 
florist, taking the petal as the unit of perfection, devotes 
his energies to produce a few blooms composed of petals 
as near as possible to the standard of perfection. There 
is, indeed, as much difference between the two cultivators 
as there is between the fisherman who drags the river 
with his net and hauls out all and sundry of the finny 
tribe, and the follower of Izaak Walton, who, using his 
bait as though he loved him, stalks his fish, and hooks 
and lands it. The one has the greater pleasure, the other 
the greater spoil, and so whosoever desires to become a 
cultivator of the show Carnation and Picotee, must be 
content to act the part of the man who woos Nature by 
other than forceful means. From these remarks it will 
be apparent that while absolutely healthy and robust 
plants are essential, the treatment must in some respects 
vary considerably. The florist treats his plants during 
winter in exactly the same manner as described, but he 
is invariably most particular as to the composition of 
his potting soil, and as to the time the plants are set 



30 THE BOOK OF THE CARNATION 

into their flowering-pots, which are, as a rule, eight 
or nine inches in diameter, and contain each three 
plants. After the potting operation has been completed, 
and weather favourable, the pots are placed in the open 
on a hard bottom of cinders, and left there till the 
advancing buds invite removal under cover, where the 
flowers can be protected from the vicissitudes of weather 
and the burning sun. The chief routine treatment 
during summer consists in the application of water, staking, 
tying, insect destruction, and the removal of buds from the 
stems. Some growers leave only one bud on each plant, 
thus securing only three blooms to each pot ; but this 
frequently tends to coarseness and to burst calyces, and I 
believe the tendency among cultivators at present is to 
allow three blooms to each plant. It is the practice, too, 
with some growers to slip a gutta-percha ring halfway 
down the still unopened bud, or to tie a strand of raffia 
round it, and as the bloom expands, the calyx is split and 
turned back to the tie, and the petals in like manner care- 
fully manipulated, so that a much larger bloom than Nature 
unaided could furnish is secured. " Run " and badly 
placed or superabundant petals are removed, and by this 
simple method of dressing the cultivator sees, developing 
under his eye, blooms with few or any of the disqualify- 
ing marks that annoy. If, however, the blooms are 
intended for competition, a different kind of dressing must 
be employed. As already noted, the petal is the unit. It 
ought to be flat, or the outer edge alone somewhat turned 
up, and the tyro will be surprised to find how many 
varieties, otherwise beautiful, do not conform to this simple 
test. The markings, whether a flake or a bizarre Carna- 
tion, a white ground or a yellow ground Picotee, must 
conform as nearly as possible to requirements. Purity of 
ground-colour is essential, and a self-coloured petal, or a 
bizarre with flakes must be removed, as well as all mis- 
shapen, curled, or narrow petals, and as far as possible those 



THE CARNATION FOR EXHIBITION 31 

alone left that are perfect in the section to which they 
belong. Once this has been effected the petals fall to be 
arranged so as to produce a " bloom." The calyx if it 
has not been already split halfway down must now be 
manipulated, at the same time, with a pair of tweezers, 
folding the split parts back. A large circular card is then 
provided, and the stem of the flower thrust through a 
hole sufficiently large not to press in the calyx, and under 
this a smaller card having three half-inch cuts through its 
centre is pressed tightly underneath it, the cut portions 
fitting tightly and holding it in position. The operator, 
then, with a pair of ivory tweezers arranges the outer row 
of petals on the upper card, being careful, however, not 
to overdo size, a second row follows, and so on till the 
centre is reached, three or four neatly arranged petals 
finishing off the bloom. " Dressing " is difficult, but 
any one bearing in mind that every petal of which 
the flower is composed should be so arranged as to 
expose its particular beauties, the bloom, as a whole, being 
a composition of neatly arranged petals, every one as 
perfect as possible, he will be certain to improve the bloom. 
Much care is, however, needed in handling the petals not 
to rub or in any way to damage them. Equally difficult 
with the dressing of the flower is its arrangement in the 
show-board. To the experienced it is simplicity itself 
to distribute the blooms effectively, yet perhaps in no 
instance does the beginner place his blooms before the 
judges to the best advantage. It occurs with all kinds of 
flowers, and at the beginning of his career as an exhibitor, 
instead of trusting to his own judgment, he ought to secure 
the services of some one experienced in staging to set up 
his blooms. The rule that long experience has proved 
best is to arrange the largest blooms in the backmost, and 
the smallest in the front row, the very finest specimens 
always at the left-hand side of the board. Invariably 
name the blooms. 



32 THE BOOK OF THE CARNATION 

The practice of showing Carnations in vases is now 
becoming general, and the need of tact and judgment 
is just as essential with these as in the case of single 
blooms shown on boards. It is a rule that dressing 
must not be conspicuously apparent or, indeed, apparent 
at all ; but the fact remains that the exhibitor who 
prepares his blooms, other things being equal, is the one 
who will* secure the prize. Without the aid of cards 
it is possible to add somewhat to the dimensions of any 
Carnation by a careful arrangement of the petals, and 
its beauty as a flower is invariably enhanced by the 
removal of imperfect petals. A most important point 
is a selection of varieties suitable for exhibiting in this 
way. Those only that stand boldly up should be chosen, 
and those that droop rigidly excluded. Sometimes, too, 
foliage is overdone. Anything that detracts the attention 
of the judges from the flowers is to be deprecated, and 
superabundant foliage undoubtedly has that effect. A 
little is indeed useful in helping to preserve blooms in 
an upright position, but beyond a little the exhibitor 
should not go. It is generally impossible to secure 
several blooms of a sort of equally good quality, but 
much may be effected in staging to show up the better 
blooms. Before closing this portion of the subject it 
may be said that directly a bloom is cut the stem should 
be placed in water, and left so for an hour or two before 
it is subjected to manipulation. 

The undernoted selection of varieties in the several 
sections will be of use to the beginner in exhibiting, 
who will do well to rather cultivate a number of plants 
of reliable sorts than to grow a greater number composed 
largely of second-class flowers. 




CARNATION HORSA 



SHOW CARNATIONS 33 

SELECTION OF SHOW CARNATIONS AND PICOTEES 

BIZARRES. Scarlet : R. Houlgrave, Admiral Curzon, 
Robert Lord, George. Crimson : Master Fred, J. S. 
Hedderly, Lord Salisbury, J. D. Hextall. Pink and 
Purple : William Skirving, Sarah Payne, Edith Annie, 
Arline. 

FLAKES. Scarlet : John Wormald, Sportsman, Guards- 
man, Miss C. Graham. Rose : Merton, Thalia, Rob 
Roy, Mrs. Rowan. Purple : Gordon Lewis, G. Mel- 
ville, Martin Rowan, C. Kenwood. 

WHITE-GROUND PICOTEES. Red edge : Ganymede, 
Brunette, Isabel Lakin, Thomas William, Mrs. Gorton, 
Grace Darling. Purple edge : Muriel, Mrs. Openshaw, 
Amy Robsart, Somerhill, Lavinia, Pride of Leyton. Rose 
and scarlet edge : Mrs. Payne, Little Phil, Mrs. Beswick, 
Lady Louise, N. H. Johnston, Liddington's Favourite, 
Fortrose, Clio, Nellie. 

YELLOW-GROUND PICOTEES. Childe Harold, Gertrude, 
Abbot, Alcinous, Countess of Strathmore, Gronow, 
Countess of Verulam, Kate Coventry, St. Just, Lady 
St. Oswald, Rabelais. (For Fancies and Selfs, v. Chapter 
IV.) 



" MALMAISONS " 

THE popularity of what are now termed Malmaisons, 
and more especially of the queen of the section, the 
pink-coloured Souvenir de la > Malmaison, sometimes 
called Princess of Wales and also Lord Rothschild, is 
little short of marvellous. This is the more striking 
because the Malmaison is admittedly one of the most 
difficult of plants to cultivate successfully during a series 
of years, its erratic behaviour proving a source of the 
greatest worry to gardeners and of distress to garden- 
owners. It is an admitted fact, too, that numbers of 
efficient gardeners literally fail with the plants, and it 
has been remarked that the cultivator who thoroughly 
understands the ways of the Malmaison is yet to 
appear. Those who are unacquainted with the flower 
will naturally want to know why a section that brings 
so much trouble to the cultivator, and about which there 
constantly remains a kind of uncertainty as to what it 
may do next, should still continue the object of solicitude 
and care. The reason is that the three varieties of the 
true Souvenir de la Malmaison surpass all other Carnations, 
not alone in the size, but also in the superbly fascinating 
form of the flower. Joined to that no variety is quite 
so strongly fragrant of the delightful clove perfume. 
The colour of the pink form, moreover, and particularly 
when it assumes its deepest rose tint, is unsurpassed in 
its loveliness. Nothing is more remarkable in connection 

34 







riCOTEE LADY SOPHIE 



" MALMAISONS " 35 

with present day gardening than the fact of one, two, 
three, and more structures in private gardens being 
devoted solely to the cultivation of this one plant, some- 
times solely to the one variety the Pink Malmaison. 

There long remained the utmost uncertainty accom- 
panied by the vaguest guesses as to where and when the 
original Souvenir de la Malmaison with its blush-coloured 
flower originated. It is now clear that it is not nearly 
so old a plant as some have conceived, it having been 
raised from seed by M. Laine, a Frenchman, in 1857. 
Mr. David Thomson cultivated the plant at Archerfield 
in 1864, having received the stock from Mr. William 
Young of Edinburgh. I have been at some trouble 
trying to secure trustworthy evidence as to the time 
when and the place where each of the sports originated, 
and I think I may safely aver that " Lady Middleton " 
appeared at Luffness in East Lothian in the year 1870, 
and the Pink Malmaison a few years later (1875) in a 
garden near Musselburgh. It is a curious trait in con- 
nection with this trio derived from a common stock that 
the last-named is accounted the easiest to cultivate and 
Lady Middleton the most capricious. 

Of late years a large number of new Malmaisons, 
the result of successful cross-fertilization, has been pro- 
duced, at first by Mr. Martin R. Smith, who latterly has 
been joined by others, by whom the varieties have been 
greatly improved. The earliest attempt at increasing 
varieties appears to have been made in Belgium, but the 
flowers were of no great beauty, though in Madame 
Arthur Warocque, a scarlet form, there was a decided 
advance. But it appears that the increase of new 
varieties of Malmaisons has received a great impetus on 
the Continent during the past few years, where, as well 
as in England, there is now a large number of varieties 
in cultivation. 

It will, perhaps, appear strange to growers of the 



36 THE BOOK OF THE CARNATION 

present day to be told that Malmaisons at first were 
propagated solely from cuttings, that the young plants 
were pinched to induce a bushy growth, and that speci- 
men plants were produced without permitting the pro- 
duction of flowers until they had attained the proportions 
desired. I remember the first plant of Malmaison of my 
acquaintance was a large specimen in full flower, with 
the shoots and flower-stems tied to a globe-shaped wire 
frame ! The plant is of course really a tree carnation, 
and there was less difficulty in training it to that form 
than at first sight might appear. By degrees the practice 
of layering superseded propagation by means of cuttings, 
though the older race of cultivators retained the belief 
that plants were less healthy produced in that way. 

Malmaisons from layers are treated somewhat differ- 
ently from other carnations. The general practice is to 
set apart frame-space sufficient to hold the number of 
plants to be manipulated. The plants are then turned 
out of their pots, the ball sunk into the soil, and the 
shoots pegged into some material that will produce roots 
rapidly. Shortly after the emission of roots, the layer is 
severed from the parent plant, permitted to make a nice 
ball of roots, and then transferred singly to flower-pots 
of four or five inches diameter. My own practice during 
the past few years varies somewhat from the above 
method. Acting on the well-recognized principle that 
any check to a Malmaison is by any means to be avoided 
or at least minimized, I have layered the shoots into 
three-inch pots, in this way securing the young plants 
against any check at this stage. There is a little more 
labour involved in carrying out this method, but the 
results, I think, amply compensate. Another system that 
appears to me worth adopting in the north, where growers 
are seriously handicapped in getting layers down suffi- 
ciently early in the year, is that long customary among 
cultivators of ordinary Carnations in pots, who root the 



" MALMAISONS " 37 

layers in the latter. By this means Malmaison shoots can 
be layered some weeks before the plants are in flower, 
and be rooted and potted off before it is possible to have 
them even layered by the present system. It is quite 
possible, of course, to layer shoots at any season of the 
year, but what is referred to at present is the mass of 
summer flowering plants from which the succeeding 
year's stock must necessarily be produced. (For Propa- 
gation, v. Chapter X.) 

It will, perhaps, be most convenient to make the stage 
when the layer is ready to be potted up, the starting-point 
from which to detail the necessary cultural remarks. 
First, as to soil. Experience proves that the Malmaison 
is not at all exacting as to soil. At the same time, a 
fibrous loam, particularly a loam that is naturally friable 
when the fibrous portion has decayed, is best suited to 
its requirements. The compost must by all means be 
what gardeners term open, and sand, to render it so 
beyond suspicion, must be added when necessary. A 
portion of really good peat is in some cases advantageous, 
and some growers like leaf-mould, a material I have 
generally eschewed. As to manure, I cannot advise its 
employment. If, however, considered essential, I would 
use either dry cow-dung, rubbed down to a very fine 
condition, or manure that had lain so long as to become 
rotted almost to a mould, also rubbed down or passed 
through a quarter-inch sieve. In selecting pots, it should 
be remembered that the Malmaison succeeds most satis- 
factorily when not straitened for room at root. True, it is 
possible to produce nice stuff in pots comparatively small, 
but if those of respectively five, six, and seven inches 
diameter are selected, it is found that the strongest plants 
in the end are those in the largest size. In potting up 
layers, four- or five-inch pots are suitable, which ought to 
be drained efficiently by means of very finely broken 
potsherds. Compress the soil moderately firmly, and be 



3 8 THE BOOK OF THE CARNATION 

watchful that little of the stem of the plant is buried. 
During the autumn months it is customary to let potted 
layers stand in the open, but it is an expedient of doubtful 
benefit, and, as a rule, the plants ought to be cultivated 
entirely under glass protection, though affording the 
plants at all times abundance of fresh air. Very careful 
watering is essential, because the object is to induce 
a firm, consolidated growth that will render the plants 
immune to disease. If previous to, or by the beginning 
of, October it is observed that the plants are becoming 
root-bound, they ought to be transferred to larger pots 
those in four-inch to six-inch, and those in five-inch 
to seven-inch ones. In this instance compress the soil 
very firmly, and maintain caution in the application of 
water, till in November, December, and part of January, 
if the condition of thorough coolness with dryness can 
be secured, the plants will be better kept dry at root. 
Growth will recommence at the period last named ; 
but up till the beginning of April great carefulness in 
watering must be observed. Late layers wintered in small 
pots will require repotting early in February, and in the 
same month plants to produce bloom during the next 
winter and spring should be selected and potted in nine- 
inch pots, employing a rough compost, and ramming it hard 
in. By April the treatment of all these plants will be 
identical ; water will be required in greater abundance, 
with the occasional addition of some manurial agent soot, 
pigeon-manure, cow-dung, and various chemical agents 
being employed to stimulate the plants. While the stems 
are " spindling " until the flowers are expanded, the winter 
treatment, as regards water, must be reversed, and the 
plants at this stage on no account permitted to become 
dry at root, or the atmosphere parched. It is essential, 
too, to break the direct rays of the sun off the foliage 
from the end of March onwards, increasing the density 
of the shade when the buds have become sufficiently 



MALMAISONS " 39 

large for the colour to be affected, flowers of deep 
colour being impossible unless the shade is thick enough 
to intercept every ray of sun. The cultivator has to 
make up his mind early in the year whether the stem 
shall carry one bloom only, or perhaps four or five, 
which will be found an ample crop, and, acting on this 
determination, reduce the buds to any of these numbers 
directly they are large enough to manipulate. Large 
blooms five and a half to six and a half inches across, 
borne on long stems, are most often secured by the 
" one plant, one bloom " system. It is also beneficial to 
reduce the young shoots to five or six on each plant, 
though, in the case of plants being grown to produce 
bloom in winter and spring, no shoots, unless those that 
are weakly, should be removed. Moreover, the latter 
ought to have stakes inserted just inside the pots, one for 
each shoot to be tied to. If there is no other affection or 
affliction, there will certainly be aphis, unless unremitting 
attention is bestowed in preventing its appearance. This 
and other matters of a kindred nature is treated of in 
Chapter XI. 

We shall now follow the fortunes of those plants that 
were potted into nine-inch pots, the young shoots of which 
have been tied to stakes, and which, after being cleaned 
and the old flower-stems removed, require the attention 
of the cultivator to induce the production of bloom during 
the off-season. If properly managed, the more forward of 
these will produce flowering-stems during autumn, but the 
larger proportion in spring. Up till October the whole 
should be stood in a structure where abundance of air 
circulates about the plants. From September shading 
should be discontinued, while as regards the application 
of water the soil must be preserved in a healthily moist 
condition, but never either quite dry or, on the other 
hand, saturated. From November till March those in 3 



40 THE BOOK OF THE CARNATION 

quiescent condition will require very little water at root, 
but those it is intended to flower must be placed in a light 
structure in a temperature of fifty to fifty-five degrees, 
and watered as required. The flowers produced during 
this period are not, as a rule, so expansive as summer 
blooms, but they are generally deeper in colour, and are 
never unwelcome. Mostly, too, the plants should be 
thrown away after this forcing treatment. Not in- 
frequently, however, the growths which break freely from 
the stems of these strike root with little loss if inserted as 
cuttings in sandy soil, and kept in a warm temperature till 
the emission of roots. The less forward plants of the 
batch under review, kept perfectly cool during winter and 
spring, produce a succession to the forced flowers by 
merely subjecting them to greenhouse treatment. Large 
specimens of Malmaisons are rapidly produced by re- 
potting plants as required, preserving them meanwhile 
insect free, and all withered or diseased foliage removed. 
Some cultivators prefer old plants to those that are 
younger, but the general apprehension is that yearling 
and two-year-old plants are at once the easiest to control 
and to manage, while from these the very choicest blooms 
are secured. 

The true Souvenir de la Malmaison succeeds well 
planted in borders of prepared soil, and if a plant has space 
to grow it will increase to the size of a bush, and produce 
abundance of blooms. I have repeatedly cultivated young 
plants in this manner, but destroying them once the crop of 
flowers was gathered. In 1903, I had a very fine lot of 
bloom on single stems, that is, one flower to each plant. 
The best method to secure bloom of this kind is to plant 
out healthy young stuff either in autumn or spring, in 
friable soil, in a light, thoroughly ventilated pit. The 
plants need not be more than seven and a half inches apart 
each way, but under this system it is indispensable that 
not one growth more than the flowering-stem is permitted 



" MALMAISONS " 41 

to push, and every bud, with the exception of the centre 
one, removed as it appears. The plants require no 
attention during winter, but when in growth a fair 
supply of water applied to the soil is essential, sticks 
for support must be supplied, and attention to aphis 
attack and disbudding, as already noted, comprises the 
treatment. 

To condense in a few words the essentials of Malmaison 
culture. Be careful at all times against subjecting the 
plants to a check, no matter how slight. Over-watering in 
winter, and, equally, insufficient water in summer, neglect 
to protect the foliage from sun ; aphis, or any other 
parasitic attack left unattended to for even a short time, 
each and all having a more or less enervating influence on 
the plant, the results of which no one can estimate or 
foresee. Every means too must be taken to build up a 
hard, firm growth to pass through the winter free from 
infection or disease, and never on any account should stock 
be propagated from a plant that is known to be diseased 
or infected by eelworm. Change of stock it may be said 
is helpful in securing vigour, as it is in the case of other 
Carnations. 

Malmaisons and also Carnations or various sections are 
successfully cultivated in glass structures, varying in many 
essential points, but the best type of house is undoubtedly 
a span-roof, fifteen to eighteen feet across, with six-foot 
sides, and fitted with ventilating appliances that will 
admit an abundance of fresh air at any season. Piping 
sufficient to dry up damp and to exclude frost is also 
necessary. The inside arrangements should include a 
broad central stage and a side one extending all round 
the structure, and also a roomy pathway. There are 
several methods of shading, the worst, that of obscuring 
the glass permanently with some liquid composition. 
Tiffany is often employed, but the best system is one of 
lath-rollers that while intercepting the sun's rays at the 



42 THE BOOK OF THE CARNATION 

same time admits a large percentage of light. It is, 
however, rather expensive to inaugurate. 

Appended are the names of a few varieties of Mal- 
maisons, which, on the authority of Mr. J. H. Cutbush, 
Barnet, intending cultivators may be assured are the cream 
of the section. The three original forms of Souvenir de 
la Malmaison must, of course, be included. Baldwin, 
dark pink, large ; King Oscar, crimson ; Lord Welby ; 
Mercia, salmon ; Mrs. Martin Smith, rosy-pink, enor- 
mous blooms ; Mrs. Torrens, large salmon-pink ; Mrs. 
Trelawney, dark salmon ; Thora, fine white ; Sault, 
light ; Lady Ulrica, deep rose. In addition note may 
be made of the Queen, which approaches the apricot 
tint of Mrs. R. Hole, and Duchess of Westminster, 
an early flowering kind, of great beauty, with true 
Malmaison foliage, and which may prove exceedingly 
useful for winter flowering. 



VI 
TREE CARNATIONS 

THE so-called Tree Carnation can be traced back beyond 
a hundred years, but it does not appear that it underwent 
improvement until the year 1840, when a French 
gardener, named Dalmais, raised new varieties ; and once 
a break was made, by 1846 many sorts were catalogued. 
These, however, appear to have been tall-growing plants 
of straggly habit, and therefore of no great value ; but 
about 1850, M. Alagetiere, another Frenchman, originated 
a strain possessed of stirFer stems, which proved a vast im- 
provement. Dwarf forms among these are the progenitors 
of the splendid varieties that are every year being increased, 
not only in England, but also in other countries, though 
it would appear that the United States and Great Britain 
are in these to have a fight for supremacy. The long 
stems, one of the chief characteristics of American sorts, 
are being added by English raisers to the finer formed 
flowers of this country. Small flowers are being elimi- 
nated ; and latterly, by judicious intercrossing with the 
larger self Carnations, the long desiderated question of 
size has been fairly met. 

Tree, or, as they are being more generally called, 
Perpetual Carnations, are quite hardy, and during the 
summer months the plants may safely be grown in the 
open air, as is the practice on the Continent and America. 
In Great Britain, or at least the less favoured portions as to 
climate, it is, however, perhaps best to cultivate the plants 

43 



44 THE BOOK OF THE CARNATION 

wholly under glass. Under the protection of a thoroughly 
ventilated pit, the shoots, while they do not become 
etiolated, are without a doubt kept free from such dis- 
eases as spot and rust, the only drawback being the 
repeated assaults of green fly, which must be determinedly 
met and repulsed. Another reason why Tree Carnations 
are best grown wholly in glass structures is the very 
important one that the plants bloom with more regularity 
during winter than those not so favoured, and which 
sometimes fail to bloom until the winter and early spring 
has passed away. Named varieties are almost wholly 
propagated during the three first months of the year by 
means of cuttings, later than which the plants have too 
little time to grow into a serviceable size. Under 
favourable conditions the cuttings produce roots with 
much facility and with few losses, the most important 
factor governing the success of the operation undoubtedly 
being the condition of the cuttings themselves ; those, the 
shoots of plants grown in too high a temperature and 
insufficiently ventilated, or any infected by eelworm or 
rust being almost certain to fail. On the other hand, 
shoots from plants grown in light airy positions, and in a 
temperature of about fifty-five degrees, possess the con- 
ditions that render rapid root emission certain. The 
cuttings ought not to be large, as a fact rather small 
cuttings are most generally satisfactory. Dibbled thickly 
close to the inside rim of four- or five-inch pots in a 
compost of equal parts loam, fine peat, and sand, the pots 
plunged in a mild bottom-heat, with an atmospheric 
temperature not exceeding sixty-five degrees, roots ought 
to be freely emitted in three weeks, after which bottom- 
heat becomes prejudicial, and the pots should therefore 
be placed near the glass for a little time till a small tuft of 
roots has been formed. At this stage the young plants 
must be transplanted, either singly into small pots, or 
they may be " boxed off"/' that is, a number planted out 



TREE CARNATIONS 45 

into ordinary wooden cutting-trays, in which they sooner 
gain strength than in pots. Where no efficient means 
of producing bottom-heat exists, an ordinary dung- 
heated frame may be employed, but the utmost caution 
must be exercised not to overdo the heat, nor ever to 
saturate the cuttings in the steam that is seldom absent 
from the confined dimensions of this type of propagating 
structure. Cuttings root readily also if inserted in a 
shallow layer of sandy compost placed in a cutting-box 
or tray, fitted with a pane of glass as a cover, and placed 
above the heating-apparatus of any forcing-house in opera- 
tion. Where any of these methods is impossible, the 
Continental practice of striking cuttings or layering in 
late summer, will be found an efficient means of producing 
stock. By the latter method the young plants ought to 
be ready to place in three-inch pots in September, those 
that require stopping having the growing point extracted 
at as early a moment as convenient. The young plants 
winter well with Malmaisons and other sections, treating 
them in the same manner till the warmer weather of 
returning spring induces growth, when they will require 
transplanting into larger pots and shortly be in a condition 
to be grown in the same manner as spring-rooted plants. 
Reverting to these, as soon as possible after recovering 
from the effects of propagation and transplanting, a course 
of greenhouse treatment must be substituted for that of 
the hothouse, and by April the young plants will thrive 
best in a pit, where fresh air always plays about them. 
Much the same system as regards repotting and general 
treatment should be pursued as in the case of other soft- 
wooded greenhouse plants, that is, they ought to be re- 
potted previous to the plants being possibly checked in 
growth, the shoots must be stopped once or twice in 
order to induce a bushy habit ; but stopping cannot be 
pursued beyond May or June without endangering the 
winter's bloom. Nice blooming plants, with five to 



46 THE BOOK OF THE CARNATION 

eight flowering-stems each, are produced in pots six 
inches in diameter ; but extra strong plants afforded a 
further shift into eight-inch pots produces a more than 
relative amount of bloom. Ordinary turfy loam, 
lightened with the addition of leaf-mould, a small pro- 
portion of sifted cow-dung, and sand to render the com- 
post open beyond question, forms a suitable rooting 
medium. It is a mistake to try to force plants into bloom. 
The proper method is to time the plants so that buds are 
well forward previous to the advent of winter, when a slight 
accession of heat will bring them on without enervating 
the plants, finally leaving them diseased and worthless. 

The number of varieties in cultivation is quite per- 
plexing, especially if one grows Continental forms, some 
of which are quite lovely, though it must be confessed 
the flowers as a rule are rough and unkempt, as are 
American sorts when compared with English varieties. 
Still it is apparent that the Americans are more and more 
attracting the attention of cultivators, and in a select 
dozen such as the undernoted they cannot be over- 
looked. A first-rate twelve will include America, one 
of the best sorts at present to be had. It is of strong 
growth, with cerise flowers ; Duchess of Portland ; La 
Villette, yellow ground with crimson stripes, and a sweet 
perfume ; Melba, fine pink, with long stiff stems, blooms 
very fragrant ; Mrs. Leopold Rothschild (Madame 
Therese Franco), a very free and lovely variety ; Mrs. 
Lawson (Mrs. Thomas W. Lawson), the long-stemmed, 
deep pink American variety that is now grown every- 
where ; Mrs. S. J. Brooks, a strong clove-scented pure 
white form ; Mr. Edward Smith ; Prosperity, one of the 
finest, rosy ; Royalty, very fine, with long stems ; Winter 
Beauty, said to be an improved Winter Cheer, which, 
however, cannot be left out. In addition, Yule Tide, 
Deutche Brant, General Gomez, Uriah Pike, and William 
Robinson, are sorts that may well be grown too. 



ANNUAL PINKS 47 

ANNUAL PINKS 

Dianthus chinensis y the Indian or China Pink, intro- 
duced in 1713, is now treated as an annual, though an 
earlier race of horticulturists cultivated it as a biennial, 
and sowed the seeds in June and transplanted the seedlings 
when fit to handle into prepared beds, while to strengthen 
the young plants still further flower-stems that pushed 
the same year were rigorously suppressed. Cultivated 
in that way very large plants that flowered in much 
profusion were produced. Latterly, however, the Indian 
Pink, in all its numerous varieties, has been grown as 
an annual. The period during which the seeds may be 
sown with every certainty of the plants flowering the 
same year extends from February, in which month it 
is the general practice to raise plants under glass, until 
the beginning of April, when the seeds are sown in the 
ground where the plants are to flower. This species 
succeeds best when given a fairly fertile soil, the addition 
of some year-old manure, well-rotted, effecting a vigorous 
and floriferous growth. 

The varieties at present in cultivation are very 
numerous, there being many subsections, in each or 
which a wide range of colours exists. The most re- 
markable step in advance occurred about the year 1860, 
when the Japanese variety, D. Heddewigi, was introduced 
from St. Peterburgh, a Mr. Heddewig of that city 
having obtained seeds from Japan a few years previously. 
The flowers are very large, with a range of colour 
embracing white to darkest crimson in both single and 
double forms. In addition to what may be termed the 
type there is another called D. H. laciniatus^ the flowers of 
which possess deeply fringed petals, some very charming 
colours having been produced of late years in this section. 
Yet another break in which the petals are edged with 
white is that called D. H. diadematus, so that in the 



48 THE BOOK OF THE CARNATION 

Heddewigi section alone there are many dozens of single 
and double varieties of which it may be said with truth 
that all possess qualities rendering them worthy cultiva- 
tion. 

Of what may be termed the ordinary Indian Pink 
there exists several subsections, each containing many 
varieties both single and double, but none so showy as 
the Heddewigi class. The double forms, especially the 
white, are, however, of distinct value, and a clustered 
double called D. c. plenissimus is a very desirable form. 
D. c. nanus comprises a large number of varieties that do 
not exceed six inches in height, and in D. c. diadematus 
we have a counterpart of the cut-leaved D. Heddewigi 
diadematuS) but much smaller in all its parts. 

A most distinct large flowering form is that called 
D. c. imperialis^ but this belongs to the hybrid section, 
being the result of a supposed cross between D. chinensis 
and a Sweet William. The Indian Pink is indeed 
remarkable for the beautiful hybrids that have resulted 
from crosses with other species, the very first recorded 
hybrid, Fairchild's Sweet William, which Bradley termed 
a mule and now always called a Mule Pink, having 
appeared about 1715-16, the other parent having been 
a Sweet William. It is also a parent of the gloriously 
brilliant D. Atkinsoni, as well as of others, references to 
which will be found in the chapter in which hybrids are 
discussed. All the Indian Pinks are of much value in 
the flower garden, employed either in massing or as floral 
carpets to plants of a stately growth. They form thick 
masses of foliage and flowers, and continue in bloom 
until stopped by frost. A selection is also suitable for 
providing material for cutting, the double white, Salmon 
Queen, Eastern Queen, and the Heddewigi section 
generally being invaluable in autumn. For this purpose 
the plants should be set in beds allowing each a space of 
about fifteen inches, and there every freedom may be 



" MARGUERITES " 49 

used in cutting without risk of spoiling flower-beds. As 
well as for furnishing vases the flowers with buds are 
charming in bouquets or rough posies. 

" MARGARET " OR " MARGUERITES " 

These are a sweetly scented strain with flowers 
mostly double, the petals of which are deeply crenated. 
Seeds sown in spring under glass protection and grown 
on without check produce nice plants that flower the 
same autumn, and continue well into winter, providing 
a succession of sweet flowers. They have indeed been 
found to flower under favourable conditions six months 
in succession. It is a not uncommon practice to plant 
out the seedlings in May, lifting and repotting them in 
October, a method that while it saves much labour 
during summer at the same time suits the plants. 



VII 
HISTORY OF THE PINK 

THAT it would be rash to conclude the word " Pink," as 
applied to a flower, is derived from a colour is clear from 
the fact that no authority has ever assumed this to be the 
case. Dr. Prior thought it to be a derivative from 
" Pinksten " (Pentecost), meaning fifty days after, from 
the season one species flowers. Older authorities have 
traced the word to a Dutch source, " an eye," and when 
an eye is mentioned by old writers, it must be understood 
the very centre of the flower is not always referred to, but 
rather a ring of another colour encircling the central spot. 
Pink has yet other meanings, one of which Parkinson has 
in his mind in describing a " Nectorin with a pincking 
blossome," the petals in this sort being mere strips, such 
as one sees in the deeply incised petals of Dianthus 
plumariuS) and even more pronouncedly in those of D. 
superbus, so that, without having recourse to the rather 
far-fetched theory of Dr. Prior, one may choose either of 
the other meanings a word indicative of a colour circle 
near the centre of the flower, or one descriptive of 
deeply fringed petals. One thing is absolutely without 
doubt, that up to the end of the sixteenth century the 
Pink was invariably a single flower, the larger single 
Carnations, for instance, on account of not being double, 
coming under that designation. In Tusser's list of flowers, 
first published in 1573, "Pinks of all sorts" occur, and 
in Lyte's " Niewe Herball" of 1578, a fairly lucid 
50 



HISTORY OF THE PINK 51 

description of garden Pinks is given, the figure accom- 
panying the text being a cut of Dianthus superbus. " The 
Pynkes and small feathered Gillofers are like to the double 
or cloave Gillofers in leaves, stalkes, and floures, saving 
they be single and a great deale smaller. The leaves be 
long and narrow, almost like grasse, the smal stemmes are 
slender and knottie, upon which growe the sweete smell- 
ing floures, like to the Gillofers aforesayde, saving cache 
floure is single with five or sixe small leaves, deepe and 
finely snipt, or frenged like to small feathers of white, 
redde, and carnation colour." Elsewhere, Lyte remarks 
there were " divers sortes great and small," and as diverse 
in colours as Carnations, adding they were " called in 
Englishe by divers names, as Pynkes, Soppes in Wine, 
feathered Gillofers and small Honesties." Gerard is the 
earliest authority to introduce us to double Pinks, obviously 
forms of D. plumarius^ of which when Parkinson wrote 
there were two or three. If we are to credit Rea, Pinks 
were of little esteem, and were grown in gardens mostly 
as edgings to flower-beds, and sometimes used in posies 
along with damask roses. Writers on gardening in 
the early part of the eighteenth century, include Pinks 
among other flowers esteemed in gardens. It is at 
this period the Pheasant-eyed Pink first appears. A 
" gardener," writing in 1732, notes the Pink as "a very 
sweet and fine Flower, having a great many Varieties, some 
single, mark'd finely with Red in the Middle, call'd 
Pheasant-ey*d Pink, one sort as large as a Carnation, and 
double, with the Pheasant-eye in the Middle." The same 
authority mentions " a striped Sort, call'd the Old Man's- 
head Pink, which blows all the Winter, if it be sheltered 
in a Green-house." Miller adds other names to those 
noted above, and other writers add to the varieties, 
showing how much this sweet flower was esteemed in 
the early Georgian era. Among the varieties named 
by Miller, is one called Dobson's, which shortly after 



52 THE BOOK OF THE CARNATION 

we find superseded by a New Dobson's, commended as 
the prettiest of the whole tribe, and a sort to use for 
raising new kinds. The colouring of this variety was 
distinct from all others, the centre being deep chocolate 
with an edging of white, the nearest approach of any 
known old variety to what are called the Black and 
White Pinks. A break from these, not impossibly from 
the New Dobson's, occurred about 1770, when James 
Major, gardener to the Duchess of Lancaster, secured 
a seedling with markings to the edgings of the petals 
of the same colour as the centre. This was named 
after his mistress, and so highly was it esteemed, that 
plants of it were sold to the value of j8o. Seed saved 
from the Duchess produced Lady Stoverdale, long con- 
sidered a very fine form of what is termed the Laced 
Pink, the present-day type of the Pink of the florist. 
The muslin weavers of Paisley, in Renfrewshire, as a 
class, were greatly devoted to floriculture, and one or 
more of their number, about 1785, having secured seeds 
of Pinks from London, the plants from which produced 
among others some Laced Pinks, the culture of this 
flower was entered on with such enthusiasm, and attended 
with so great success, that varieties were shortly dis- 
tributed over the country equal and even superior to 
others. These were known as Scotch Pinks, and though 
that name has somehow become attached to " Black and 
White" varieties, or those without a lacing, it is clear 
that the weavers themselves considered their laced pro- 
ductions the more meritorious. During the first half of 
last century, the cultivation of Pinks had undoubtedly 
reached its greatest perfection, since when they have 
gradually declined in favour, and it is doubtful if the 
delightful Black and White section, also called Plain Pinks, 
is now even in existence. Laced Pinks were divided into 
three sections, being according to the depth of colour in 
the markings called dark-laced or red-laced. The 



HISTORY OF THE PINK 53 

markings on these were on a white ground, but there was 
another section called Rose Pinks, in which the .ground 
colour was rose, with the petals marked and laced with a 
darker shade. Of the last-named section is Anne Boleyn, 
a variety raised about seventy years ago, and figured in The 
Florist's Magazine, 1835-36. It is still cultivated alike 
for its beauty as a flower and for its pleasant perfume. 

About 1850, "Lord Lyons," the forerunner of what 
has proved a most useful section, called Border, and also 
Forcing Pinks was secured by a gardener of Bury St. 
Edmunds, named James Clarke, the parents being a seed- 
ling derived from a Laced Pink and Anne Boleyn. i Lord 
Lyons has not yet been surpassed in its colour, purple, 
but the range of colours has been greatly extended, 
latterly, sorts with picotee edges having been produced. 
Even more popular and more useful than these are the 
White Cutting Pinks, the first of which was Mrs. Sinkins, 
derived from a cross between a Clove Carnation and a 
Pink, and than these no Pinks are so largely cultivated at 
the present time. 

Before concluding this chapter^ it may be remarked 
that Loudon, as well as some other early authorities, con- 
sidered the Pink not solely an improved cultural form or 
Dianthus plumarius, as is, perhaps, too rashly assumed in 
these days, but that D. deltoldes and varieties of the Car- 
nation at one time or other contributed to its production. 
A careful examination of the case leaves one satisfied 
that Loudon's conception is largely consistent with fact. 
Carnations, undoubtedly, as in the case of some present- 
day varieties, have played a part in their production, the 
Old Man's-head, for instance, by several old writers 
having been assumed to be more closely allied to a Car- 
nation than to a Pink, and I think it not unlikely that the 
Rose laced forms, of which Anne Boleyn alone remains 
to us, were partly derived from that sort. Nor is it 
unlikely that D. superbus is unrepresented. 



54 THE BOOK OF THE CARNATION 

CULTIVATION OF THE PINK 

In treating of the cultivation of the Pink, it will be 
convenient to divide it into sections, the first of which 
shall be devoted to the florist's type. 

I have been unable to gain any information as to Plain 
or Black and White Pinks being still in existence. To 
many who know these it must be a matter of much 
regret that a flower so attractively marked and withal so 
sweet should have been permitted to become a castaway. 
The plants conformed to the treatment that suited Laced 
Pinks, and if grown for exhibition, it was usual to be 
very particular in protecting the blooms from weather of 
all sorts, and this, generally, by means of glass blurred. 
Named varieties of these, and of Laced Pinks, were wont 
to be propagated almost solely by means of " pipings," 
which a past generation considered gave the best results, 
the month of June being the most suitable time to pro- 
pagate these. They are also increased by means of ordi- 
nary cuttings, and occasionally by layers (v. Chapter X.). 
As the Pink makes its annual growth earlier than the 
Carnation, so it can be propagated correspondingly 
sooner, and in order to gain strong plants, early propaga- 
tion becomes a point of some importance. The plant, 
being absolutely hardy and less affected by the vicissi- 
tudes of winter than the Carnation, is invariably planted 
where it is to flower, the month of September, from a long 
experience confirmed by all cultivators, being eminently 
suitable. Plants not transplanted till later or left till 
spring do not produce the marking called the " lacing " 
in such perfection as do those set at the earliest possible 
moment. Nay, so fastidious is the Pink as to this matter, 
that those spring -planted very frequently refuse to furnish 
a lacing at all ! Though the Pink will thrive in any 
ordinarily fertile soil, it prefers that which has been 
thoroughly cultivated and pulverized, and with which a 



CULTIVATION OF THE PINK 55 

two- or three-inch dressing of decayed manure has been in- 
corporated, applying a portion of the less rough to the layer 
of soil in juxtaposition with the roots. To strengthen newly 
rooted plants previous to setting in beds it is the practice 
to establish them first in nursery beds. Where these can 
be composed solely of fresh material it will be found of 
much advantage. Loam one part, with leaf-mould and 
finely triturated cow-dung in equal proportion forming 
the other part, makes an ideal compost. Place this not 
more than three inches thick on a firm bottom of coal 
cinders, compressing it meanwhile moderately firmly, and 
set the young Pinks in this, at four inches apart each way. 
When ready to transplant, every plant ought to lift with 
a closely netted ball of roots. A foot apart will be space 
sufficient for each in the flowering quarters, and in planting 
care must be taken not to lower the plant into the soil, 
but rather to have it elevated, but to an almost imper- 
ceptible extent, above the surface. If treated as thus 
advised, beyond stirring the surface of the soil, previous 
to winter setting in, nothing further will be required till 
spring, when, on evidence of growth commencing, a 
slight dressing of sifted pigeon-manure, or, if that is 
impossible, some other manurial agent should be sprinkled 
evenly over the surface of the soil. Soot forms a 
suitable fertilizer too, and may be applied later as an 
additional stimulant. For exhibition purposes from one 
to five stems are left on each plant, and these are disbudded 
in due time, never more than three buds being left to 
expand. The older florists were particularly careful to 
tie the calyx of each bloom with a piece of matting in 
order to preserve it intact, and as it was a cause for 
disqualification to exhibit a bloom in this condition, it not 
infrequently occurred that in the excitement of staging 
a tie was overlooked, and the expectant victor became a 
disqualified delinquent. Some good exhibition flowers 
are unfortunately produced by weakly constitutioned 



56 THE BOOK OF THE CARNATION 

plants, and, if the Pink is given a place as a garden flower, 
which it is well fitted to fill, these should be shunned. 
Mrs. Waite and Victory are sorts that are very free and of 
vigorous habit, and for this purpose these, it may be said, do 
not require to be propagated annually. Some of the best 
exhibition varieties are, Boiard, Mrs. Dark, Modesty, 
Device, Harry Hooper, Zoe, Empress of India, Godfrey, 
Minerva, Amy, Reliance, The Rector, and Princess 
Louise. 

What have been termed Garden or Forcing Pinks 
comprise another section. The oldest, and still one 
of the best varieties, is Anne Boleyn, which is best pro- 
pagated by layering. Next in age is Lord Lyons, and in 
various shades of colouring such as Ascot, Paddington, 
and Ernest Ladhams may be mentioned. These are 
increased with facility by cuttings, and a rough-and-ready 
way of securing large clumps consists in pulling an over- 
grown plant into good-sized pieces, when, if operated on 
in September, the pieces will certainly produce roots, and 
grow. As forcing plants, the practice is to grow them on 
in the open like violets, and in autumn to lift with balls 
of soil attached, and to plant in pots five or six inches 
diameter. The best place to stand the plants at this 
stage is in a protected position out-of-doors. Lifted in 
the end of September, or early in October, they are ready 
to place in a pit early in November, where they come on 
slowly, and with the aid of just a little heat in January 
soon produce flowers. What may be called the White 
Flowered section, including Mrs. Sinkins, Her Majesty, 
Albino, and Snowflake, is also amenable to forcing treat- 
ment as above. Their weak point is the hardy nature of 
the plants, which resent the amount of heat a too enthu- 
siastic attendant would like to supply them with. 

As edging plants to divisions in gardens or by the sides 
of walks this class of Pinks is invaluable, and for this 



CULTIVATION OF THE PINK 57 

purpose the old fimbrlata and fimbrlata alba (the White 
Shock) must not be overlooked. It is advisable, too, that 
those who are called upon to produce much material for 
cut flowers should devote space to a selection of these. 
Mrs. Sinkins and the newer forms being annually produced 
possess a distinctly perpetual habit, and flower from June 
to October, so that at any moment we may have in 
our hands a new plant of incalculable value for garden 
decoration all through the summer and autumn months. 
Because established plants flower more profusely than 
young ones, it would be a mistake to replace beds 
still floriferous by those filled with yearlings. As a fact, 
they partake greatly of the nature of perennials, and, as 
an instance, I have a clump of Her Majesty that is at 
least ten years old. It must be added that Pinks of all 
kinds are easy to produce from seeds, the management of 
the flowers as to seed-production being the same as detailed 
for Carnations. They do well sown in the open ground, 
though the protection of a frame will, as a rule, yield 
more certain results. 



VIII 
MULES OR HYBRIDS 

DIANTHUS, as a genus, is remarkable for the facility one 
species crosses with another, thus producing hybrids 
or mules. Every hybrid is of course not a mule in the 
sense of being sterile. If that were so, it would be an 
impossibility to secure seeds off Pinks, which undoubtedly 
have had an admixture of more than one species in the 
various sections, nor can we certainly admit that the Carna- 
tions of to-day are the result of breeding from one only 
species. While the heading of this chapter is " Mules," 
it therefore must not be understood that all the plants 
mentioned are necessarily incapable of seed production. 
Napoleon III., for instance, certainly produces seeds on 
the Continent, and it is invariably called a Mule Pink. 
The name dates from the beginning of the eighteenth 
century, and was the happy inspiration of the botanist 
Bradley to indicate a new type of plant, the parents of 
which were stated to be a Carnation and a Sweet 
William, that was produced in Fairchild's Nursery at 
Hoxton. It has, however, been shown that pollen of the 
latter is impotent applied to a Carnation, or in other words, 
the two do not "cross," and judging from the fact that 
Dianthus chinensis, a species noteworthy for the facility 
it crosses with other species, had been introduced shortly 
previous to the appearance of the new hybrid, and that 
such hybrids were common afterwards, it may, I think, 
be safely assumed that a mistake had been made, and 
58 



MULES OR HYBRIDS 59 

the Indian Pink, instead of the Carnation, was one 
of the parents. At the time this plant appeared as 
a chance seedling, Bradley was deep in the then novel 
discovery of plant fertilization, and he at once pounced 
upon the novelty as a splendid illustration of the correct- 
ness of his theories. Otherwise the history, or perhaps 
any knowledge of the hybrid, might have been lost, as no 
doubt any crosses that may have been effected in earlier 
years were. This plant was known for a long time both 
as Fairchild's Sweet William and the Mule Pink. In 
A Monthly Calender, 1738, "several Varieties" are 
noted, but the authority is perhaps not reliable ; but in 
the year 1770, a Scottish nurseryman indicates as a com- 
panion to Fairchild's mule a fine red double Sweet 
William, of the former of which, he says, it is a variety. 
" Of late years there has been a variety obtained from 
seed with a Sweet William leaf, upon which it has got 
the name of Sweet William Indian Pink." It reproduced 
itself freely from seed. Another old plant was reintro- 
duced, about forty years ago, to general cultivation by the 
late Thomas S. Ware, of Tottenham, by the name of 
Dianthus barbatus magnificus, and became generally known 
as Ware's Sweet William. This plant has been cultivated 
in Scotland for a very long period, one of its names 
being Murray's Sweet William. The plant is sterile, and 
though the foliage is distinctly of the Sweet William type, 
the habit is not the same. It grows to a height of six to 
nine inches, and produces a large number of stems, which 
form broad heads of deep crimson sweet-scented double 
flowers. In some soils it is perennial, though at any time 
it is apt to dry up and die during summer, hence it is 
advisable to propagate young stock annually. September 
is the most suitable time to undertake this operation, the 
base of the leaf growths being then covered with air-roots, 
and all that is necessary to ensure success is to take up a 
few plants, pull them in pieces, and dibble or line these into 



60 THE BOOK OF THE CARNATION 

a bit of newly dug ground, at a few inches apart. As 
the work proceeds, compress the soil firmly. In spring the 
then well-rooted plants are in fit condition to lift, and to 
plant where wanted to bloom. But they may be trans- 
planted at any time, even when in full bloom, without 
affecting the plants injuriously. This is undoubtedly one 
of the gems among hardy border plants, and deserves 
extended cultivation. A recently introduced kind, called 
Prince of Wales, has close affinities to the above. 

The following are mostly of recent introduction, some 
of which are best propagated by means of layers, though 
the majority strike root freely from cuttings or side 
growths slipped off. 

Dlanthus Abbotsfordianus is a double-flowered mule, with 
rosy-purple flowers. Raised in Scotland. 

D. Alice Lee is a very pretty double white form, with 
foliage not unlike a Pink. It is of much value as a low- 
growing border plant, or for planting in the rockery. 

Dianthus Atkmsoni. This is one of the most gloriously 
beautiful of the Mule Pinks, and is supposed to have been 
the offspring of D. chinensis. It was raised about the 
year 1845 by Mrs. Atkinson, of Bacton Hall, Norfolk. 
The flowers are blood-red, one and a half to two and 
a half inches across, borne on slender stems over a foot 
high. It has never been known to produce seeds, and 
flowers so profusely that, like D. Napoleon ///., it is 
difficult to perpetuate, or in many soils to preserve, as 
after flowering the plant is apt to die. Cuttings strike 
root freely if inserted among sandy soil in pots in autumn, 
and kept in a cold frame until rooted. It is, however, 
not always possible to secure cuttings unless one or more 
plants have the flowering stems removed as they shoot 
up, when an abundant crop of young growths will follow, 
and these must be utilized as cuttings. The plant other- 
wise is not difficult to cultivate. 

D. compactus. A good form ; pale rose with crimson. 



MULES OR HYBRIDS 61 

D. Courtoisi. The result of a cross between ). barbatus 
and D. superbus, with brilliant flowers ; makes an excellent 
rock plant, and is a good doer. 

D. Highclere produces single scarlet-crimson flowers. 
A good border flower. 

D. imperialis. A supposed mule between a Sweet 
William and D. chinensis, is generally treated as an 
annual, along with Indian Pinks. It is a very fine thing, 
though it is very variable, and many varieties are in 
cultivation. 

D. Lady Campbell is a clear pink colour, and well worth 
cultivating. 

D. Lady Dixon. Said to be a cross between a Sweet 
William and a Clove Carnation ; is a very desirable plant. 
It was first exhibited in London in 1901, and received an 
award from the Royal Horticultural Society. The flowers 
are red-crimson in colour. 

D. Lucy Ireland is a double crimson variety. 

D. Marie Part has been extensively cultivated for 
many years. The flowers are a pure white, of much 
beauty, and the plant should find a place in all good 
gardens. 

D. Crimson Bedder is a perfectly distinct form, estab- 
lished plants forming cushiony clumps which produce 
during summer an abundance of dark-coloured double 
flowers. This variety is eminently suited for an edging 
plant. It is not known whence it originated, or the 
parents, but in some respects it approaches D. deltoides, 
and is propagated in the same manner by division. 

D. dentatus hybridus is a double-flowered form of no 
great beauty. 

D. Diana. Pale rosy-purple double flowers. 

D. Fettes Mount is a charming free-flowering variety 
of a rosy colour, the flowers being most abundantly 
produced. The foliage is apt to suffer from "spot." 
It is perhaps best increased by means of layers in July 



62 THE BOOK OF THE CARNATION 

and these, when well rooted, should be planted out about 
the middle of September. It was originated by Mr. Potts, 
who also gave to garden lovers the hybrid Montbretia 
Pottsi. 

D. Grlevei. Like the above, this also hails from 
Scotland, having been raised by Mr. James Grieve, and 
is a hybrid, with a Sweet William and a single Laced 
Pink as parents. The flowers vary from white to rose, 
and the foliage is that of a Sweet William. 

D. floribundus is a bright floriferous variety. 

D. Lindsay i was raised by Mr. Lindsay, late of the 
Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, the parents being a Sweet 
William and D. alpinus. It has now become exceedingly 
scarce. 

D. Miss Bateson. Very pale rose. 

D. Michael Foster is an exceedingly showy double 
variety, and valuable for border decoration. The plant is 
free, and easy to cultivate. Assumed D. alpinus X D. 
superbus. 

D. moschatus is a Continental kind, of a distinct shade 
of rosy-lilac, the flowers being exceedingly fragrant. 

D. multlflorus. Of this there are two forms in cultiva- 
tion the one scarlet, the other rosy-pink. 

D. Napoleon HI. This is undoubtedly a gem of the 
first water. The flowers are dark crimson, not large, but 
produced most profusely on wiry stems, which are about 
nine inches in length. The foliage is small and neat. 
Where a number of plants are grouped together, the effect 
when in flower is exceedingly brilliant and effective. As 
a pot plant, too, Napoleon III. is of much value. It is, 
however, unfortunately a difficult plant to preserve unless 
special means are taken to continue a supply of young 
plants, it being so floriferous as to flower itself to death. 
The same method must be pursued as in the case of D. 
Atkinsoni, namely, to set apart a few plants, preventing 
these from flowering, when abundance of shoots will be 



MULES OR HYBRIDS 63 

produced ; these strike root freely, treated in the same 
way as advised in the case of that hybrid. Rust some- 
times attacks the tips of the leaves, which it is advisable 
should be cut off when first observed, in order to prevent 
infection to others. Otherwise, the plant presents no 
difficulties in its cultivation. 

D. Quelteri is another dark-crimson form. 

D. Rose Perpetual is supposed to be a plumarius hybrid. 
The plant is valuable in flowering continuously far into 
autumn. 

Z). Rosetta produces a neat flower of a pinky shade. 

D. Spencer Bickham resulted, about 1900, from a cross 
between D. c&sius and D. deltoides. The flowers are 
deep rosy-crimson, and the plant growing only five inches 
in height is well suited to the rockery. 

D. striatiflorus produces striped flowers, and is a variety 
that has been in gardens during many years. It is, 
perhaps, more bizarre than beautiful. 

Z>. superbus, though bearing the name of a species, has 
nothing in common with that plant. This is a dark- 
crimson double-flowered mule, exceedingly fragrant, and 
possessed of a perpetual habit, and a plant altogether 
worthy attention. 

D. superbus garnerianus. This has already been noted 
in the chapter on Species. It is commonly called 
D. s. Gardneri. 



IX 

THE SWEET WILLIAM 

COBBETT somewhere made a remark to the effect that a 
bed of Sweet Williams was the most beautiful thing that 
one can behold of the flower kind. Though few will 
subscribe to a like enthusiasm, all lovers of simple flowers 
find with him a great attraction in even the commonest 
forms of Sweet William, its delightful perfume alone being 
all-powerful in gaining admirers. While all the old 
authorities rightly considered the plant to be nearly 
related to the Carnation and to the Pink, they by no 
means confined the name to Dianthus barbatus. That 
exuberantly humorous writer, Bulleyne, for instance, in 
"The Boke of Simples," defines the Wallflower as a 
Sweet William, while among Wild Williams are in- 
cluded Silene muscipula, Lychnis Flos-Cuculi, and Dianthus 
prolifer. 

It has never been satisfactorily settled what "William " 
means whether the name of a saint, or, as Dr. Prior 
with some hesitation proposed, a derivative of the French 
CEillet. Unfortunately for the latter view, Sweet 
William is not found in sixteenth-century French as 
"CEillet," but as "Armoire," though, later, CEillet 
d'Espagne appears. Co-existent with this plant is the 
" John," or " Sweet John," which modern authorities 
identify as Dianthus Carthusianorum, but which all the 
old gardeners, including the astute Philip Miller, con- 
sidered only a variety of >. barbatus. But Sweet William, 
6 4 



THE SWEET WILLIAM 65 

pretty as it is as a name, and appropriate as it is applied 
to a flower in itself so sweet, is by no means the only 
appellative belonging to the plant, which was called also 
Tuft Gilliflower, London Tufts, and the altogether 
incomprehensible designation, Tolmeniers, each of these 
representing a self-coloured variety of the Sweet William. 
One, with spotted flowers, was called London Pride, a 
name transferred, according to John Ray, the botanist, to 
Saxifraga umbrosa. 

The earliest form of double Sweet Williams was 
double in the sense of possessing two rows of petals to 
each flower, and of these, if we are to credit Samuel 
Gilbert, the florist, the double Sweet Johns were alone 
worthy esteem. The first variety possessed of a distinct 
eye is noted by Parkinson in 1629, an< * this was dubbed by 
Rea, on account of its rich colouring, " The Velvet Sweet 
William." A peculiar feature of these early forms was 
the tall habit possessed by the plants. How delightful if 
we had a few such to-day ! 

Closely following the advent of the eighteenth century, 
a remarkable impetus to gardening is observable in all its 
branches, and, about the year 1715, appeared the first 
recorded hybrid with a Sweet William as one of the 
parents, to which the name Fairchild's Sweet William 
was given, but better known as a Mule Pink. Flowers 
wholly double were also originated about this period, and 
were extensively cultivated in gardens, as well as in pots 
to adorn " chimneys," or fireplaces, and apartments 
generally. There were also varieties with striped flowers, 
and the inevitable " Painted Lady," which was a double 
form, having a dark centre and a white edge to the petals. 
In MacDonald's "Gardener's Dictionary" (1807) tne 
above and many other kinds are said to be varieties of the 
" Sweet John," and in the same work a plate of a beautiful 
auricula-eyed Sweet William, by Sydenham Edwards, is 
evidence of the advanced condition of the Sweet William 



66 THE BOOK OF THE CARNATION 

a century ago. The latter were called Variegated Sweet 
Williams, and as such can be traced well back into the 
eighteenth century. But the Sweet William has always 
been so common a flower that writers have taken for 
granted that nothing novel could be said about it, and 
consequently we are left very much in the dark concern- 
ing its progress. In Scotland it has long been held in 
great esteem, and fifty years ago or less a number of 
double varieties were cultivated, all of which are now 
non-existent, with perhaps the exception of that sort 
known in England as Ware's Sweet William. 

The Sweet William being a biennial, and under some 
conditions a perennial, seedlings do not flower till the 
second year. Seeds are sown in the open garden in May 
or June, and when sufficiently large to transplant are 
either transferred to the position selected for them to fill, 
or are bedded in nursery lines till required. The plant 
appreciates a fertile open soil, in which large heads of 
flowers are freely produced, remaining in beauty for 
about three months. If seeds are required they will be 
found in quantity in the dried seed capsules. In order 
to perpetuate any particularly fine variety, seeds cannot, 
however, be relied on, and as of late years some distinct 
double varieties have been obtained, it may be noted 
that the basal shoots of the Sweet William produce 
towards autumn abundance of roots. In dry or warm 
positions this propensity should be taken advantage of 
by applying a light covering of soil and leaf-mould, of 
which the stem roots will shortly take possession, following 
which let them be separated from the parent and planted 
where required. In the case of cool soils the above pre- 
caution will generally be unnecessary, plenty of adven- 
titious roots appearing without any extraneous aid. It 
must be noted, too, that the plant, if grown under suitable 
conditions, exists for many years, becomes a perennial in 
fact. It possesses, moreover, the happy quality of not 




PICOTEE DANIEL DEFOE 



CARNATION AS MARKET FLOWER 67 

taking much amiss ; transplantation at any season, even 
when in full flower, requiring, however, a sufficient supply 
of water at root till re-established. 

THE CARNATION AS A MARKET FLOWER 

A short notice of the place this family occupies as a 
market plant may be considered necessary. For up-to- 
date information I appealed to Mr. George Monro, 
junior, who kindly furnished the following details, which 
afford a glimpse of the remarkably limited number that 
are thought worth the market-grower's attention. The 
colours, it will be seen, are distinct, and of their kind as 
perfect as may be had, though the form of the flowers 
are not such as appeal to the florist. During the 
outdoor season the Carnations chiefly brought to market 
are Raby Castle, Mrs. Reynolds Hole, Uriah Pike, and 
Duchess of Fife, of the latter of which I can vouch for 
its fine quality as offered in the streets of London. A 
few years ago I passed in Gracechurch Street a street 
merchant, whose stock-in-trade consisted solely of a 
large bunch of lovely pink Carnations, which I thought 
was the Duchess, but to make sure I put to him the 
question, " What are these ? " Business, alas ! had 
dulled his other senses, and his reply, "A penny each, 
sir ! " contributed nothing to its identification. Germania 
is also produced in great quantities during summer, but 
are grown in glasshouses. During the London season 
the pink Souvenir de la Malmaison (Princess of Wales) 
is very popular. Guernsey used to be a great growing 
centre for these ; but I believe the plants there have 
become badly affected with disease, and the supply 
has accordingly diminished to a great extent. The 
greatest proportion of this variety is said to be sent to 
London from private gardens, and the best samples are 
derived from Scottish growers. During winter and spring 



68 THE BOOK OF THE CARNATION 

the supply is derived chiefly from the neighbourhood of 
Hampton-on-Thames, the sorts cultivated in greatest 
quantities being Duchess of Fife, Winter Cheer, 
"Franco" (Mrs. Leopold Rothschild), White Clove, 
Mrs. Moore, General Buller, and Germania. American 
varieties seem to be gaining in the regard of purchasers, 
and Mrs. T. Lawson is now cultivated largely, while 
it is clear that Royalty, Prosperity and others will soon 
be equally so. Of pinks, Her Majesty is the favourite, 
and Mrs. Sinkins next. 



Ml 




I'ICOTHE - AKGOSY 



PROPAGATION BY SEED 

THE wild flower designated Dianthus Caryophyllus is the 
assumed parent of the long line of Carnations, Picotees, 
and Clove Gilliflowers, an intense obscurity as already 
mentioned resting on their early history ; but it is not a 
little remarkable that all along from the time we have any 
definite knowledge of them, sorts of the finer section, 
alike on the Continent and in England, have been culti- 
vated in pots, vases, or tubs, and protected from inclement 
weather in winter, while alongside these, plants of a hardier 
not by any means always a more robust strain have 
been left to take care of themselves, exposed in the open 
garden to every change of the elements. Theoretically, 
all Carnations are hardy, but it is an incontrovertible fact 
that a necessity exists, and has always existed, for treating 
a certain number as not altogether hardy. Yet, as seed- 
lings, all thrive in the open, though once reproduction by 
other means has been effected a proportion betray a 
constitution demanding protection and care. The plant 
under some conditions is by no means short-lived, and I 
have indeed had seedlings that throve during a number of 
years, the plants extending meanwhile into large clumps. 
The most perfectly adapted, as also the most natural 
method of propagation would accordingly appear to be by 
means of seeds, which, moreover, possesses other com- 
mendable points, being at once the most facile, cheap, 
and rapid method of creating a stock of plants that in 

69 



70 THE BOOK OF THE CARNATION 

their turn exhibit a profuse floriferousness immensely 
ahead of those produced any other way. To the ordinary 
flower-lover, whose tastes are simple, the diversity in 
colour and form, and the exquisite single varieties never 
absent from a batch of seedlings, indicates this as, to him, 
the most interesting phase of Carnation culture he can 
pursue. The seeds sold in England are generally the 
production of German florists, the produce varying very 
much in quality. High-class seeds are naturally expen- 
sive. Even on the Continent it is the practice to cultivate 
seed-bearing plants in pots, and in this country it is 
practically impossible to produce seeds under any other 
conditions. Moreover, fertilization and other processes 
such as harvesting and cleaning are all effected by hand. 
Cheap Carnation seeds should therefore be eschewed, for 
while expensive seeds may prove unsatisfactory, it is 
certain that cheap ones will be so. 

Up till a quite recent period the quality of seedlings 
was largely a question of chance, the fertilization of 
flowers being effected entirely by insect agency. Now, 
however, in all parts of the country enthusiasts carry out 
the process on lines more or less scientific, and that none 
may despair of succeeding it is a fact worth noting that 
some of the more popular and long-standing varieties 
have resulted from the labour of unknown workers. 

The Carnation is bisexual, or possesses in each flower 
an ovary with styles and stigmatic processes, and fertilizing 
pollen-bearers or anthers. If the petals of a bloom are 
carefully removed, there will be found springing from 
the apex of the ovary or seed-capsule, two, and not 
unseldom three, styles, which in some varieties are bent, 
curled, and twisted in a curious manner, those in dark- 
coloured varieties being generally coloured. When in 
a condition to receive the pollen the whole surface of 
the style is erupted, rough in appearance, and covered 
with a clammy exudation that catches and retains any 




PICOTEE GLEE MAIDEN 



PROPAGATION BY SEED 71 

pollen that falls upon its surface. The part the would-be 
raiser of seedling Carnations has to play is to watch for 
this condition, and the development of the anthers, ten of 
which will be found, hidden not infrequently by the petals. 
When ripe the anther-cases burst and set free the pollen, 
which in the Carnation is in the form of a fine dust. It 
attaches itself to anything by which it is touched, a fine 
camel-hair pencil being usually employed to convey it 
from the anthers to the styles of the flower selected to 
bear seed. But the filaments carrying their anthers may 
be wholly removed and the pollen distributed without 
employing any intermediary agent. The pollen, it may 
be added, retains its potency for some time after removal, 
and may be preserved dry to apply to the flowers of any 
variety not yet expanded when the pollen selected for 
cross-fertilization is ready. Some varieties are more 
fertile than others, and occasionally sorts are discovered 
that refuse to be fertilized. But in every case experience 
shows that the Carnation must be treated with much 
consideration in order to induce the production of perfect 
seeds. The plants, as a primary means, must be placed 
in a dry, airy position in a glass structure. It will 
be advantageous also to remove a few petals of those 
flowers in which the anthers are debarred from air and 
light, the old florists making a practice of selecting for 
seeding purposes those flowers only that had few petals. 
Once fertilization is completed the petals shortly wither, 
and when this does not occur it is advisable to repeat 
the process, thereafter removing all the petals. It has, 
too, been long the custom to slice away a portion of the 
calyx as a precaution against moisture lodging round the 
base of the seed-capsule and causing it to rot. The 
greatest care in the cultivation of the plants must con- 
stantly be exercised till the seeds attain maturity, this 
being indicated by the splitting of the apex of the capsule 
when they are ready for removal, drying them thoroughly, 



72 THE BOOK OF THE CARNATION 

and preserving the seeds intact till required for sowing 
the following spring. In selecting flowers the more 
successful raisers do not favour the largest blooms, but 
prefer side ones of perfect form. Those produced on 
drooping stems should be rejected, and plants alone of 
erect growth and of robust though not over-vigorous 
habit chosen for seed-bearers. 

Seeds are sown from February, and with every pros- 
pect of success during April and May, but late sowing 
is naturally productive of plants that are less floriferous 
than those obtained from seeds sown early. I prefer 
ordinary cutting boxes two feet by eighteen inches by 
four inches in depth, to pots in which the soil becomes 
dry more quickly, and requires watering more frequently, 
for seedling raising. Soil should be rather light ; loam, the 
siftings of orchid peat, and sand to preserve it open, form- 
ing a good compost, leaf-mould being substituted for peat 
where the latter is not to be had. Compress the soil 
only to a slight extent, and in sowing allow each seed 
about a quarter of an inch space ; the seeds may of course 
be sown more thickly, but there is always a danger of loss 
from thick sowing, while under ordinary circumstances 
the box space required is not so great as to induce one to 
save on that and court loss in the result. The seeds if 
covered one-eighth of an inch will germinate regularly. 
To this end it is an aid to cover the boxes with a sheet of 
glass, blurring it with whitewash to exclude light. Place 
the seed-receptacles in a structure where a temperature of 
fifty to sixty degrees is maintained, and if water is required, 
dip the box with its contents for a brief moment in a tank 
of water, when sufficient moisture will be extracted to 
moisten all the soil. When germination has been effected, 
remove the glass and give the seedlings access to light and 
air, and while still small transplant them into other boxes 
prepared with a compost of a like nature, setting the seed- 
lings at an inch apart, and compressing the soil somewhat 



C ALi i*'ORi'* 




CARNATION MRS. CHARLES BARING 



PROPAGATION BY SEED 73 

firmly in the process. Once root-action and growth has 
recommenced, remove to a frame, being careful at this 
stage in the application of water. When the plants are 
an inch to an inch and a half high, they ought to be 
transferred to the position selected for their growth out 
of doors, where, if they are to remain to flower, each 
should be accorded a space of eighteen inches each way ; 
but if on the other hand these are to be transplanted to 
their flowering quarters at the end of summer, then half 
that distance apart will be ample. The method of treat- 
ing Carnations in the garden will be found at pages 17 to 
24, and to these the reader is referred for instruction as 
to cultivation of soil and other matters. Meanwhile 
we shall resume operations in early summer, when the 
spindling flower-stalks demand consideration. Frequently 
they are left trailing and twisting about until the buds 
show colour, then stakes are brought out, and an endeavour 
made to attach the draggled stems to these ; but the 
attempt is never so successful as to hide the fact of their 
having been left a prey to forgetfulness. It is much better, 
and wastes less time, that always precious commodity in 
a garden, to attack the plants as soon as the stalks have 
grown a few inches ; and having provided a sufficient 
quantity of short sticks, apply one to each stalk, giving it 
just one tie, and no further attention will be required. 
A more rapid, though less tidy, but withal a perfectly 
efficient method, consists in sticking a quantity of short 
brushwood among the plants, upon which the stems rest. 
When the flowers begin to expand, the hopes of the florist 
begin to rise, and no matter whether none of the varieties 
are quite so good as others in cultivation, there will be 
sure to be some that the raiser would like to perpetuate. 
A few layers should accordingly be prepared of these at 
the earliest moment, though I have known varieties bloom 
so late that it was impossible to root layers the same 
season ; but cuttings may be taken quite late in the year, 



74 THE BOOK OF THE CARNATION 

and reference may be made below for remarks on these 
methods of propagation. Pinks are raised from seeds with 
much less trouble, and may be sown in the open air. 



PROPAGATION BY CUTTINGS 

Pinks are more generally increased by means of cuttings 
than are Carnations, though these too are not infrequently 
propagated by this means. Cuttings are of three kinds. 
There is the cutting that in gardening parlance is broken 
off with a heel. That is, the cutting is originally a short 
side-shoot, which the operator breaks off entire from the 
stem, bringing with it a piece of the latter, which is called 
the heel. This kind of cutting can be more certainly 
induced to emit roots if partly broken away from the stem 
a few days before it is wanted to insert in the rooting 
material. Side-shoots of Malmaisons are generally em- 
ployed in this manner, but any section may be treated in 
the same way. Of Pinks, the garden varieties, Mrs. 
Sinkins, Her Majesty, and others root freely from cuttings 
of this kind, and many of the Mule Pinks and species are 
best propagated in this way. Another kind of cutting is 
produced by a lengthened shoot, severed under a joint, as 
usual in the case of cuttings generally. The two under 
leaves removed, this kind is ready for insertion. Some- 
times, however, and this applies mainly to strong growths 
inserted late in the year, it is found beneficial to split the 
stem up, which, being kept open by some simple wedge, 
is inserted in that way ; while yet another method con- 
sists in putting one half the cut stem in the soil, the 
other half being laid flat on its surface, the idea being to 
provide a large rooting surface. 

Then there is that peculiar sort of cutting called a 
" piping," confined almost solely to Pinks of the laced 
section. A u piping " results when the growing point of a 



PROPAGATION BY CUTTINGS 75 

shoot is pulled out of its socket. They are easily manipu- 
lated. Taking the shoot in the left hand, the operator 
with the other pulls out the " piping," which, it is most 
important, should not be long, but short and soft. That 
is largely essential to success. "Pipings" must on no 
account be allowed to "flag," old-fashioned gardeners 
making it a point to carry a vessel of water with them 
and dropped the " pipings " therein as they were taken. A 
choice position to insert these was near the base of a west 
aspected garden-wall, where after being inserted and 
watered they were left to themselves. " Pipings " strike 
roots very successfully also in ordinary cold frames, shaded 
and kept moist, or, where there are only a few, bell-glasses 
or handlights may be employed as protectors. These are 
efficiently shaded by dipping in water and sprinkling sand 
on the inside. When done with, another dip removes 
the sand. 

With regard to striking Carnations, it depends greatly on 
the season of year propagation is effected. The methods 
adopted in the case of Tree-Carnations are treated under 
that section, but ordinary Carnations, during summer, 
may be rooted in much the same manner as Pinks. In 
autumn the cuttings should be inserted in light soil in 
flower-pots, cutting-boxes, or in cold frames in shallow 
beds, but in all cases success follows cool treatment, the 
soil being kept moist and the frames close, to preserve the 
cuttings from flagging. 

Pinks of the plumarius section and Sweet Williams are 
perpetuated by a kind of cutting that has already emitted 
roots when propagation is effected in September or 
October. Nothing is more simple than this method. 
The plants to be propagated are lifted, and the shoots 
pulled apart, each with its "air" roots forming a little 
plant. These are " lined " into a prepared bed in some 
suitable place in the open garden, where during the 
winter the production of roots proceeds, and by spring 



76 THE BOOK OF THE CARNATION 

each plant is possessed of a nice ball of roots of its own, 
and is in capital condition to transplant elsewhere to 
flower. 

PROPAGATION BY LAYERS 

Carnations are very largely propagated by this method, 
and also Pinks of the Anne Boleyn class, as well as some 
of the Mule Pinks. The earliest mention of the practice 
occurs in Parkinson's " Paradisus," in what is the earliest 
treatise on Carnations extant, where, as " in-laying," the 
method is detailed with much lucidity. The value of 
layering consists in the rapidity and the certainty varieties 
can be increased without weakening the resulting plants, 
because the connection with the parent is not severed 
until the scion has roots of its own abundantly sufficient 
to provide for its wants. A layer may indeed be said to 
be a cutting supported by the parent plant up to the 
moment it is able to provide for itself. In making a 
layer, the operator does not cut the shoot quite through, 
but as near as may be about halfway, then turning the 
face of his knife upwards half an inch or three-quarters of 
an inch in length, more is inimical, splits the stalk in two. 
The tongue, as it is called, thus formed is gently bent 
outwards away from the stem, and being inserted to its 
own depth in the soil and kept in place by a " peg " the 
operation is completed. A few important points must, 
however, be noted. Layers invariably produce roots 
most quickly when the shoots are still soft, and while in 
this condition all parts of the operation can be best 
carried out. In firming the layer in the ground, some 
authorities advise the peg being placed about an inch from 
the tongue, but the proper position is to insert it exactly 
at the point the tongue parts from the stem, pushing it 
obliquely into the ground so as to keep the tongue from 
being moved. Clumsy operators destroy many layers by 



PROPAGATION BY LAYERS 77 

breaking them off the stem when bending down the shoots. 
This can be certainly obviated by pressing short shoots 
back on the stem while the layer is being placed in posi- 
tion, and in the case of long shoots by twisting them quite 
round, when they may be safely placed in any position 
without breaking. In the case of shoots so elevated above 
the soil that they cannot be layered, a simple and efficient 
method consists in bringing the whole plant level with 
the ground, and restaking it so that the layers are not 
raised, but left close to the soil. As to soil for layers, in 
light fertile ground nothing whatever is required, though 
in that of a heavy nature a little leaf soil and sand placed 
where the roots will be formed is of value. Too com- 
monly, material is placed about the stems of the plants 
and the layers inserted underneath this in the ordinary 
soil. Another point is that a short shoot is commonly to 
be preferred to a lengthy one for layering. Once roots 
have been emitted in sufficient quantity to steady the 
plant when the peg is withdrawn, the connection between 
the parent and the layer should be severed, making the 
cut quite close to the layer, where roots, in due time, will 
also be emitted. Metal layering pegs are now sold 
cheaply by horticultural sundriesmen, but in the country, 
where bracken abounds, nothing is better than the stems 
of this fern cut into short lengths, bent in the middle, 
and used in that way. 

A simple form of layer is employed by market-growers 
in the case of Clove Carnations. This consists in making 
a notch in the stem, instead of a tongue, the cut portion 
being pressed down and pinned into the soil, when roots 
are duly emitted. 

In Germany, root-grafting has been attempted as a 
means of strengthening the constitution of weakly varieties, 
the plant used to supply the root-stocks being Saponaria 
officina/ts the common soapwort. Grafting and budding, 



78 THE BOOK OF THE CARNATION 

curiously enough, are very old practices, and are referred 
to by Shakespeare in the Winter's Tale, while des Serres 
gives a detailed account of the method, and the reason of 
resorting to the practice. " Pour meslanger et changer 
les CEillets, Ton les ente en escusson ; en fente aussi ; 
en ceste fa9on, tresrarement : et en quelque maniere 
que ce soit, est necessaire d'y apporter de la curiosite, 
pour la foiblesse de la plante." And then he goes on to 
details ; stating his belief that " Piquassats," flowers white 
with red spots, were produced in this manner, 



XI 
PESTS AND DISEASES 

RABBITS and hares are very fond of Carnations. Efficient 
fencing is the only remedy, but as hares leap a fairly high 
fence, this characteristic of puss must not be forgotten. 
Rats, when abundant, prove destructive during winter, 
especially in the case of pot plants. A vole in one in- 
stance gave me some trouble before it was secured, and 
it was at last caught by means of a Malmaison leaf placed 
in one of those open traps which, on the release of a 
spring, execute the victim instantaneously. 

Sparrows and finches, where they abound, do much 
harm to Carnations by " nibbling " the foliage in early 
summer. It is almost impossible to protect the plants 
by means of netting, which is however a help. In 
addition, repeated dustings of soot applied when the 
foliage is wet, or syringing with extract of quassia, is 
advantageous. 

Pheasants are peculiarly destructive, and are fondest 
of the Carnation and Pink from autumn to early summer, 
when the only certain method of circumventing their 
unwelcome attentions, is to net closely. 

Cuckoo spit is sometimes troublesome. This is the 
larva of an insect, Aphrophora spumaria y allied to green fly. 
It is so common everywhere, that every boy or girl is 
acquainted with the frothy-like envelope that hides and 
protects it. It destroys the stems of Carnations and 

79 



8o THE BOOK OF THE CARNATION 

Pinks, and is itself destroyed by syringing with extract of 
quassia. 

Earwigs in some seasons are terribly destructive. They 
effect their way to the base of the petals, which they 
cut through, and occasionally reduce flowers to the bare 
calyx and seed-pod. As they affect a dry hiding-place, 
bits of dry moss secreted in small flower-pots, or the 
hollow stems of umbelliferous plants, placed where they 
are observed, afford ready means of trapping them. 

Eelworm. In Scotland, eelworm attack is dreaded as 
much as Helminthisporium on Malmaisons is in England, 
where its most deadly ravages are chiefly felt in the cases 
of the Perpetual or Tree section. This destructive pest 
is introduced to the economy of the Carnation by the 
medium of the soil, and as the almost invisible worms 
exist solely on the tissues of the plant, and are protected 
by the epidermis of the leaves, once they have effected a 
lodgment it is impossible to reach them. Badly affected 
plants should in any case be destroyed, but those only 
slightly affected may, by careful treatment, permitting 
them to experience no check to growth, and propagating 
only the healthy tips of the shoots, be restored to a normal 
condition. In America, previous to using soil, it is super- 
heated during thirty minutes by means of steam-heated 
pipes, a process that destroys all living organisms, vegetable 
as well as insect, without lowering its qualities as a rooting 
and feeding medium. Eelworm is Tylenchus devastatrix. 

Eucharis mite has been found lurking in the lower 
parts of Carnation stems. I have had no experience of 
this, the Rhizoglyphus echinopus, except in connection with 
eucharis and amaryllis, when an emulsion of petroleum 
applied very hot has been effective for a time. 

Green fly is particularly troublesome in the case of pot 
plants of all sections, though it is perhaps most destruc- 
tive in the case of Malmaisons, rendering not only the 
foliage of these unsightly and diseased, but in bad 



PESTS AND DISEASES 81 

attacks permitted through neglect, destroying the flowers 
also. Winter-flowering Carnations are best kept free from 
green fly during the winter and spring months by occa- 
sionally fumigating with tobacco-paper, or by means of 
a vaporizer. The last-named is also suitable in the case 
of Malmaisons, though perhaps no more effective aphicide 
exists than ordinary tobacco-powder, dusted into the 
growing points of the shoots, preferably at short intervals, 
in order to prevent green fly gaining a footing ; but 
if applied less regularly, no time should be lost, on the 
discovery of aphis, in using tobacco-powder. In foliage, 
even slightly affected, damage is clearly apparent, but 
in cases where aphis has been permitted to live and 
propagate, if only during a few days, much harm accrues, 
the particular affection resulting having been called 
Stigmanose. This pest is generally not much of an 
affliction to Border Carnations, on which, if it should 
appear, syringing with quassia extract will be found an 
efficient remedy. Tits are so fond of aphis that, in 
hunting for insects, they are apt to break the stems of 
plants, hence though the insect itself is not destructive, the 
birds undoubtedly are. 

Humble Bees. When these are numerous, the harm 
they do is very great. In making a way to the base of 
the bloom they twist and ravel the petals into all shapes, 
and always split the calyx, leaving the bloom a mere 
bunch of rags. They may be debarred from plants 
grown under glass by closing all apertures with hexagon 
netting. 

Maggot is productive of much loss unless watchfully 
repressed. It is the larva of a fly Hylemia nigrescem^ 
and attacks young plants, which the fly seems to select in 
preference to older ones in which to deposit her eggs. 
The attack cannot be prevented, because it is unsuspected 
until the maggot has commenced operations under the 
epidermis of a leaf, whence it finds its way into a shoot, 

G 



82 THE BOOK OF THE CARNATION 

thence to the stem of the plant, where it lives at the 
expense of its host. The maggot happily betrays its exist- 
ence in the leaf by the mark it and all its kind leaves on 
the surface, and if caught at this stage, not much harm 
follows. Once in the stem, however, it is difficult to 
locate, and in any case the mischief it has effected 
is irremediable. Another fly (Phy/oma y sp.) lays her eggs 
on Carnations, the larvae feeding on the foliage and 
stems during winter, but this is a by no means common 
pest. 

Red spider is sometimes troublesome. Treat as 
Thrips. 

Slugs are mischievous in the case of Alpine species, the 
flowers of which they are exceedingly fond of. A stand- 
ing army of thrushes and blackbirds works wonders, and 
as a local remedy, tobacco-powder dusted over the plants 
may be tried. 

Thrips is troublesome mostly on light and dry soils, 
though in dry seasons it is apt to spread all over the 
country. It also attacks pot plants, mostly in those 
instances where the treatment is averse to the Carna- 
tion. In bad attacks of this very lively little insect, the 
flowers are so much damaged as to be worthless. Fumi- 
gating, or vaporizing with Cory and Co.'s lethorion cones, 
dusting the buds with tobacco-powder, and in the case 
of out-door plants syringing with quassia extract or with 
soap-suds to which a very little petroleum has been added, 
are each effective. Thrips, when they appear, admit of 
no parleying. It is known as Heliothrips htemorrhoidalis. 

Wireworm is a terribly destructive foe. It is the well- 
known larvae of three species of beetle, Agriotes ttneatus, 
A. obscurus, and A. sputator, that feed on :the roots of 
plants, those of Carnations proving a favourite morsel. 
Repeated exposure of the soil by digging, and permitting 
no vegetation to grow on the ground for a period, is 
a measure that should be carefully carried out where 



PESTS AND DISEASES 83 

the soil is known to be infested. Sowing rape-dust on 
the surface is said to be a good remedy, but the best 
seems to be mustard-waste scattered among the plants, 
wireworm being supposed to cherish an aversion to 
mustard in any form, living or manufactured. Potting 
soil in which wireworm exists should be spread out 
thinly, and turned from time to time, exposed to frost 
in winter and drought in summer. The measures 
taken to destroy eelworm by extreme heat is equally 
applicable in the case of these, but cannot, of course, be 
effected in the case of beds in the open garden. 

Anthracnose is the American name for a parasitic 
disease of plants which was first noticed on Carnations 
in England in 1902. It is described in The Gardener's 
Chronicle, vol. xxxi., third series, p. 193. "The 
leaves are at first spotted with small purple roundish 
spots. These gradually enlarge and become confluent 
and indeterminate, and at length brownish in the centre. 
Meanwhile, the leaves become sickly and commence to 
die off at the tips." It has been named Glcsosporium 
Dianthi (Cooke). 

Bacteriosis is a name applied in America to a supposed 
disease which has since been found to be the result of 
aphis bite, and now called Stigmanose. 

Gout is a disease long known to cultivators, the 
symptoms of which are a protuberant swelling at the base 
of the stem, followed in most cases by the death of the 
plant. It is now known to be an aggravated form of 
eelworm attack. 

Ring fungus (Helminthisporium echinulatum), com- 
monly known in England as " Rust." It is very 
destructive to Malmaisons, having been known in not 
a few instances to destroy collections in a compara- 
tively short time. It is not at all troublesome in the 
North of England and in Scotland, and in cases where it 



84 THE BOOK OF THE CARNATION 

has been introduced on plants from the South, it seems 
to naturally disappear, and, in any case, by removing the 
affected parts of the foliage it is certain to be stamped out 
without further trouble. The appearance of this pest is 
so characteristic that there is no mistaking it for anything 
else. Its appearance is heralded by a blister-like spot, 
which is followed by a dark-brown snuff-like production, 
which is the fungus in its perfected condition. At this 
stage the spores spread over the foliage of other plants, and 
gain a footing so rapidly that it is impossible to check it 
with any degree of certainty, and in bad attacks it is 
generally conceded that the best plan is to burn the 
plants, and so get rid of all disease and start afresh with a 
clean batch. Removal of the portions of foliage affected 
and repeated washings with some anti-fungoid wash, with 
Bordeaux mixture, or, preferably, with ammoniacal copper 
carbonate solution sprayed, are means that may be taken 
to repress and prevent the spread of this disease. Sufficient 
of the last-named to make fifty gallons of spraying material 
is composed as follows : To five ounces copper car- 
bonate, add sufficient water to form a thick paste. Add 
three pints ammonia to dissolve the copper, and preserve 
the mixture in air-tight bottles. For spraying, add one 
part to a hundred parts of water. The Gardener gives 
this formula 

Water, 9 gallons. 

Strong (26 degrees) Aqua Ammonia, 15 fluid ozs. 

Copper Carbonate, i J oz. 

The copper carbonate is first made into a thin paste 
by adding eight and three-quarter fluid ounces of water. 
The ammonia water is then slowly added, and when 
all the copper carbonate is dissolved a clear, deep blue 
solution is obtained, which does not become clouded 
when diluted to nine gallons. 

Prevention is undoubtedly largely possible if the plants, 



PESTS AND DISEASES 85 

during the winter season, are grown cool, and perfectly 
dry, and at no time subjected to close forcing treatment. 

Rust is general mainly on yellow sections of Carnations, 
rendering the foliage unsightly, and in all cases weakening 
the plants affected. When noticed, the tips of the leaves 
should be cut off along with just a little of the clean 
portion, and the foliage sprayed from time to time, 
choosing a dry day for the purpose. In America another 
parasite, Darluca filma, has lately been discovered growing 
on the rust plant Uromyces caryophyllinum and acting as 
a destructive agent. 

Spot is a fatal affection, not only to many Carnations, 
but to Dianthi species. It is called Septoria (Uredo) 
Dianthi, the ammoniated carbonate of. copper solution 
already mentioned being a sure repressive remedy, though 
a continuance of dull, damp weather renders abortive all 
attempts to stop the disease. Spot is always troublesome 
in low-lying, damp localities, while it rarely appears where 
the air is dry, hard, and bracing, and the situation open 
and exposed. 



APPENDIX 

ON RAISING NEW CARNATIONS 

BY MARTIN R. SMITH. 

To buy seed of your nurseryman and to sow it is a very simple 
process, and may afford a fairly pleasing result ; but to raise a 
really good new variety from seed of your own hybridization is a 
delight not easily forgotten, and in the joy of the new carnation 
born into the world you forget all your past labours and dis- 
appointments. 

I will begin, then, with the raising of the seed. The one 
essential is a greenhouse, for I cannot advise any one to attempt 
to raise seed from plants in the open border. The first point 
is the choice of the class of carnations you wish to propagate. 
Naturally you cannot gather seed from a house of mixed 
carnations and expect good results. There are Flakes and 
Bizarres, White and Yellow Ground Picotees, Fancies and 
Selfs, and I would counsel the beginner to confine himself at 
first to " Selfs." They are hardier as a rule, perhaps better 
seeders, and will give a more generally satisfactory result, for 
the points of excellence are fewer and of less intrinsic im- 
portance. A second-class Self may look splendid in the border, 
whereas a second-class Flake or Bizarre is not worth the trouble 
of layering. 

In selecting the varieties to breed from, the main points to 
consider are size, petal, and calyx. Size is of primary impor- 
tance, for a small Self is not worth wasting labour upon, and 

87 



88 APPENDIX 

there are any number of fine large Selfs now in the market. 
Not a less important point is " petal." The petal should be 
large, firm, flat, and smooth on the edge (not fimbriated). 
Avoid varieties with many small petals in the centre. It is 
certainly better to breed from a flower with too few petals 
than from one crowded in the centre. 

The shape of the calyx is also of much importance. Select 
as parents varieties with a long bud, as opposed to the short, 
dumpy buds too often seen. These short buds always burst, 
and there is no greater disfigurement to a Self than a burst 
calyx. It is a fault also that is almost invariably transmitted 
to descendants. The bud should be somewhat of the shape of 
a Martini-Henry bullet i.e. with a length of about three times 
its diameter. 

As regards colour, you can have every latitude. A really 
good flower may be very valuable to breed from, even if it be 
somewhat poor or dull in colour. Some of the best Selfs I 
ever raised were from " Germania," the well-known yellow 
Self, crossed by a dull " brick-dust " coloured Self. 

It will be found necessary to nail some light netting over 
the windows and ventilators of the greenhouse, as a house full 
of carnations in bloom will attract bees in hundreds, and they 
will fertilize hap-hazard a large proportion of the flowers they 
visit in their search for honey. 

Do not disbud the plants you intend to use for propagating, 
and do not feed them artificially, for you do not require big 
flowers to breed from ; on the contrary, a flower that has been 
pushed into size by disbudding and stimulating food will very 
rarely seed at all. 

It may be necessary to feed a little as the seed is ripening, 
but even this should, if possible, be avoided. 

Begin as soon as your plants show flower, for the early seed 
is always the best ripened. 

Fertilization is effected by taking upon a small camelVhair 
brush a little of the pollen from the stamens of one flower and 
brushing it very gently and lightly upon the pistils of another, 
and the two main points to be considered are, first, whether 
the pistils are sufficiently advanced to receive the pollen, and, 



APPENDIX 89 

secondly, whether the pollen is in a condition to effect fertili- 
zation. 

The pistils are, as a rule, not ready for fertilization until the 
flower has been fully out for a day or two. They will then 
have attained their full growth, and will be found covered with 
minute hairs, which retain and utilize the pollen. It is but 
waste of time to attempt to fertilize pistils that are not thus 
covered. The pistils remain sensitive to the pollen until the 
flower is past its best or has even begun to fade. 

The pollen is ready for use the instant the pollen cells 
crowning the stamens open, and the sooner it is used the better. 
It is, however, above all things essential that it should be 
absolutely dry. It is of little or no use to attempt fertilization 
in damp weather or when the pollen comes from the stamens 
on to the brush " cloggy " or lumpy. It is at its best when it 
comes away in a fine, impalpable powder. The hotter and 
brighter the weather the more certain will be the fertilization 
of the flower, and it stands to reason therefore that no shading 
should be used, and that the middle of the day is the best time 
to select. 

The pollen very rapidly deteriorates, and even by the second 
day will be often found to have turned yellow and to adhere 
to the brush in lumps. It is then useless for purposes of 
fertilization. 

The maturity of the generative organs differs greatly in all 
varieties. In some perhaps the majority the male organs 
the stamens are ready first ; in others the pistils or female 
organs. Again, in some few maturity is almost simultaneous, 
and from such varieties the hybridizer is apt, unless very careful, 
to collect and sow seed " self fertilized," with a very disap- 
pointing result to follow. 

Mrs. Reynolds Hole is an instance of this tendency. It has 
a pendulous habit. The pistils ripen early, and the moment 
the pollen stamens open the pollen falls on the pistils and the 
mischief is done. 

When the flower is crossed a small label should be attached 
to it, giving the date and the name of the pollen used. If the 
fertilization has been successful, it will be found on the second 



90 APPENDIX 

morning earlier if the weather is hot that the flower has 
shut up or collapsed, and you may then mark the label (I snip 
off a corner of it) and consider the cross as "sure." 

In some varieties the evidence of fertilization is given by the 
pistils rotting away, the flower continuing fresh. 

The seed will be fit to gather in six or seven weeks after 
fertilization, and each pod as taken from the plant should be 
placed in a small envelope and marked with the names of the 
parents. These envelopes should be kept in an airy, dry place 
until it is time, later in the autumn, when they are perfectly 
dry, to open them. 

When the petals of the impregnated flower are quite dead, 
it is well to pull them out of the calyx, as they attract damp, 
and may lead to the rotting of the seed-pod. In gathering 
the seed a pod will occasionally appear rotten. Examine it 
before throwing it away, as it may contain one or two seeds 
as yet unaffected, and those will germinate. 

The harvested seed may be taken from the pods during the 
winter months, and stored again in little envelopes endorsed 
with the names of the parents. It will keep thus indefinitely. 
I have sown seed three years old which germinated perfectly. 

I sow my seed towards the end of February in shallow 
pans, and a very sandy soil. In about a month or five weeks 
they are ready to prick off into shallow wooden boxes, with a 
better soil, and here they may remain until they are planted 
out, say, towards the end of May. 

The bed to receive them should be double-trenched, and 
contain in the bottom of it a liberal dressing of rich cow-dung, 
care being taken that the roots of the young plants do not 
come within four or five inches of it. As they grow and make 
their roots, these reach down into the cow-dung, and take from 
it the nutriment they require. The same dung, if put in 
contact with the roots when the young plants are placed 
in their flowering quarters, would kill the greater part of 
them. 

The plants may then be left to take care of themselves 
through the autumn and coming winter. It is well to keep 
pinched back any premature growth. The following summer 



APPENDIX 91 

many of the plants will be almost " bushes," and give a pro- 
fusion of flowers. 

The seed from large Selfs properly hybridized should give 
50, 60, or 70 per cent, of double flowers, and among these 
may be confidently expected some new varieties which will 
amply repay the labour expended on them. 



INDEX 



ANTHRACNOSE, 83. 

BACTKRIOSIS, 83. 
Beazarts, 13. 
Bizarres, 13, 14, 16, 33. 
Bursters, 13. 

CARNATION, I. 

annual, 18. 

border, 17. 

clove, 15, 1 6, 77. 

compost for, 27, 37, 46, 72. 

disbudding, 22, 30, 39, 88. 

dressing, 31. 

exhibition, 29-32. 

garden, 19-21. 

history of, n. 

*' Malmaison," 34-42. 

Marguerite, 49. 

market, 67. 

names of, 14. 

Painted Lady, 16. 

plants to carpet, 23, 24. 

in pots, 25-32. 

Riviera, 18. 

selections, 24, 26, 27, 33, 42, 46. 

self, 1 6. 

show, 33. 

staging, 31. 

vase, 32. 
Coronation, 15. 
Cuckoo spit, 79. 



DlANTHUS, I. 



alpestris, l. 
alfinus, I. 
a. ruber, 2, 



D ianthus continued. 
arenarius, 2. 
asper, 2. 
atro-rubensj 2. 
Battisii, 7. 
barbatus, 2, 64. 

b. latifolius, 7. 
bicolor, 3. 
casiusy 3. 

c. grandijlorus, 3. 
callizonusy 3. 
CartJtusianorum y 4, 64. 
Caryophyllus, 4. 
caucasicus t 4* 
chinensis, 5, 47, 58. 

f. Heddewigij 47. 
cinnabarinus, 5. 
cruentus t 5. 
deltotdes, 5. 
</. glaucus, 5. 
dentosus, 5* 
discolor, 5. 
dubius, 8. 
ferrugineus, 5. 
fmbriatus, 6. 
FiscAeri, 6. 
fragransj 6. 
Freyneri t 6. 
gallicus, 6. 
giganteus, 6. 



glaucophyllus, 7. 
3, 5. 



hybridus, 58-63. 
A:fl/>/>/, 7. 
latifoliusj 7. 
liburnicus, 7. 



94 



INDEX 



D ianthus continued, 
monspessulanus, ~. 
moschatuSf 8. 
neglectus, 7. 
n. albus t 7. 
Qreades, 10. 
orientally 6. 
pollens, 7. 
pallidiflorus, 7. 
Pancici, 8. 
pennsylvanicus, 8. 
petraeusj 8. 
pinifolius, 8. 
plumarius, 8. 
/>. annulatus, 8. 
/>. Cyclops" 8. 
^>. hybridusy 8. 
prolifer, 9. 
scaber, 2. 
Seguieriiy 9. 
5. collina, 9. 
splendeus, 9. 
squarrosus, 9. 
suavis, 9 . 
superbus, 9. 
5. c/iinensis, IO. 
f. garnerianitSf 9. 
j. nanus t 10. 

10 
IO. 

10. 



EARWIGS, 80. 
Eelworm, 80. 

FANCY CARNATIONS, 16, 27 
Fertilization, 71, 88. 
Finches, 79 
Flakes, 13, 14, 1 6, 33. 

French, 13. 
Flames, 17. 

GlLl FLOUR E, II. 

Gillyflower, 15. 

Clove, 15. 

Tuft, 65. 
Gout, 83. 



Green fly, 80. 
Grenadin Carnation, 18. 

HARES, 79. 
Humble Bees, 81. 

INCARNATION, n. 

JERAFLERIS, n. 
July-flower, 15. 

LONDON PRIDE, 65. 
Tufts, 65. 

MAGGOT, 81. 

" Malmaison " Carnations, 34. 

continental, 35. 

compost for, 37. 

disbudding, 39. 

for winter flowering, 39. 

history of, 35. 

layering, 36. 

selection of, 42. 

structure for, 41. 
Marguerite Carnation, 18, 49. 
Mite, 80. 
Mule Pinks, 48, 58, 60, 63, 65. 

ORANGE-TAWNY CARNATIONS, n. 

PAINTED LADIES, 13, 16, 65. 

Picketees, 13. 

Picote, 15. 

Picotee, 14, 17, 19, 25-32. 

selection, white-ground, 33. 

yellow-ground, 33. 
Pink, Amoor, 5. 

annual, 47. 

Black and White, 8, 52. 

Border, Garden or Forcing, 53, 56. 

Cheddar, 3. 

China, 47. 

Cliff, 3. 

Feathered, 8. 
of Austria, 9. 

Fringed, 9. 



INDEX 



95 



Pink continued. 
Indian, 47. 
Laced, 8, 52. 

history of, 54. 

selection of, 56. 
Maiden, 5. 
May, 8. 
Mountain, 3. 
Mule, 58. 

history, 58, 59. 

list of sorts, 59-63. 
Oxford, 3. 
Pheasant-eyed, 51. 
Plain, 52. 
Rose, 53. 
Scotch, 52. 
Virgin, 5. 
Yellow, 6. 

Propagation by cuttings, 74. 
by grafting, 77. 
by layers, 76, 77. 
by pipings, 74. 
by seeds, 69, 90. 



RABBITS, 79. 
Rats, 79. 
Red spider, 82. 
Rust, 83, 84. 

SEEDLINGS, 73, 90. 

Slugs, 82. 

Small Honesties, 5, 51. 

Sops-in-Wine, 4, 51. 

Sparrows, 79. 

Spot, 85. 

Sweet Johns, 4, 64. 

Child ing, 9. 

Spotted, 9. 
Sweet Williams, 2, 64. 

history of, 64. 

cultivation of, 66. 

THRIPS, 82. 
Tolmeniers, 65. 

WHOLE BLOWERS, 13. 
Wireworm, 82. 



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