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THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 
OF CALIFORNIA 



PRESENTED BY 

PROF. CHARLES A. KOFOID AND 
MRS. PRUDENCE W. KOFOID 



a; 



THE 



BOOK OF THE CAT 



BY ... 



FRANCES ,SIMPSON 



WITH 12 COLOURED PLATES, AND NEARLY 
350 ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE TEXT FROM 
PHOTOGRAPHS AND DRAWINGS 



CASSELL AND COMPANY, LIMITED 
LONDON, PARIS, NEW YORK AND 
MELBOURNE. MCMIII 

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 



S 



CONTENTS, 



CHAPTER PACE 

I. CATS OF THE PAST ... i 

II. CATS OF TO-DAY . . 18 

III. CARE AND MANAGEMENT . . 37 

IV. HOUSING OF CATS ... . 49 

V. EXHIBITING ......... 61 

VI. THE POINTS OF A CAT ........ 96 

VII. LONG-HAIREI) OR PERSIAN CATS . . . , . .98 

VIII. SOME NOTABLE CATTERIES ....... 101 

IX. BLACK PERSIANS . ....'. .112 

X. WHITE PERSIANS . ....... 118 

XI. BLUE PERSIANS ..... . .125 

XII. SILVER OR CHINCHILLA PERSIANS . . . . . 137 

XIII. SILVER TABBY PERSIANS. ....... 165 

XIV. SMOKE PERSIANS ..... . . 178 

XV. ORANGE PERSIANS ..... .187 

XVI. CREAM on FAWN PERSIANS ..... .201 

XVII. TORTOISE-SHELL PERSIANS . . . . . 2O8 

XVIII. TORTOISESHELL-AND-WHITE PERSIANS . ... 212 

XIX. BROWN TABBY PERSIANS . . 2I S 

XX. "ANY OTHER COLOUR" PERSIANS .... 231 

XXL NEUTER CATS .... . 237 

XXII. MANX CATS . . .244 

XXIII. SIAMESE CATS . 254 



iv THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 

CHAPTER PAGE 

XXIV. SHORT-HAIRED CATS ........ 274 

XXV. SHORT-HAIRED CATS (continued) ...... 282 

XXVI. SOME FOREIGN CATS ........ 297 

XXVII. CATS IN AMERICA . . . . . ... . 303 

XXVIII. MAINE CATS ......... 325 

XXIX. CAT PHOTOGRAPHY FOR AMATEURS ...... 332 

XXX. REARING OF KITTENS ........ 337 

XXXI. COLOUR BREEDING ..... . 344 

XXXII. THE PLACE OF THE CAT IN NATURE ..... 350 

THE DISEASES OF CATS, AND THEIR TREATMENT . . . .358 

INDEX .......... 377 



LIST OF COLOURED PLATES. 



BLACK PERSIAN . . . . . . . Frontispiece 

BLACK AND WHITE PERSIAN CATS .... To face t>age 116 

BLUE AND CREAM PERSIANS . . . . . . .126 

BROWN TABBY AND SILVER PERSIANS . . . . . .160 

SMOKE AND ORANGE PERSIANS . . . . . . .186 

TORTOISESHELL AND ToRTOISESHELL- AND- WHITE PERSIANS . . . 2IO 

SILVER TABBY AND ORANGE AND 'WHITE PERSIANS . . . .234 

MANX AND SIAMESE . . . . . . . .252 

BLUE AND WHITE SHORT-HAIRED CATS . . . . . .274 

BROWN TABBY AND ORANGE TABBY SHORT-HAIRED CATS . . . 288 

TORTOISESHELL TOM, AND SILVER TABBY SHORT-HAIRED CATS . 294 

FOREIGN CATS . . . . . . . . . 300 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



" White to Move " i 

Mummy of a Cat ..... i 

The God Cat 2 

An Egyptian Wall-Painting: The Ador- 
ation of the Goddess Pasht . . 2 
The Worship of Pasht in the Temple of 

Bubastes 3 

Mummified Kitten .... 3 
A Cat God of Egypt .... 3 
Puss as a Retriever : An Egyptian Wall- 
Painting 4 

An Egyptian Toy Cat .... 5 

A Mineral Lusus 6 

Puss in Warfare ..... 7 

A Group of Cats in Pottery ... 9 
Tomb of a Cat which belonged to 

Madame de Lesdiguieres . . 10 
The Printer's Mark of Melchior Sessa 

of Venice 12 

A Cat in Heraldry 12 

A Merchant's Mark .... 12 

Alice and the Cheshire Cat ... 13 

A Study 14 

Madame Ronner at Work ... 15 
"Crystal," the property of Mrs. Finnic 

Young 16 

Lady Alexander's " Brother Bump " . 17 

Sleeping Beauties 18 

Miss F. Simpson's " Bonnie Boy" . 18 

Kitten at Work and Play ... 19 

Kitten belonging to Mrs. Owen . . 20 

The Antiquaries 21 

" Kepwick Violet " and " Kepwick 

Hyacinth " . . . . .22 

Miss Savery's Blue Persian Kitten . 23 

A Pair of Short-haired Brown Tabbies . 23 

Cat Calendar 24 

Cat Calendar 24 

Cat Calendar ..... 25 

Mr. Harrison Weir .... 26 

Mr. Louis Wain ..... 27 

Lady Marcus Beresford ... 28 

Litter of Siamese Kittens ... 29 

" Puck III." 30 

Mrs. Clinton Locke and ber Siamese 

Kittens "Calif" and " Bangkok " . 31 

The Cat's Playground .... 32 
Royal London Institution fcr Lost and 

Starving Cats .... 33 

The Cart of the R. L. 1 34 

The Hon. Philip Wodehouse's " Silver 

Saint " 35 

A Bevy of Blues belonging to Miss 

Savery 35 

Cats' Tombstones at the Dogs' Ceme- 
tery, Hyde Park .... 36 
Tabbies up a Tree, .... 37 



Blue Persian belonging to Her Majesty 

the Queen 37 

Three Little Maids .... 39 

A Perilous Perch 4 

Mrs. Hardy's Neuter " Pharaoh " . 41 

" The Raiders " Caught ... 43 

Kittens belonging to Miss Bromley . 45 
Neuter Pets owned by Mrs. Hastings 

Lees 4 6 

Carolling ...... 48 

In a Playful Sort of Way ... 49 

A Musical Party 5 

The Ideal Cattery .... 53 

A Litter Box 55 

A Useful Cat House .... 55 

A Portable Hutch . . . 56 

Lethal Chamber, R.L.I. . . . 57 

Spratt's Travelling Basket ... 58 

A Useful Cat Basket .... 58 

A Gang of Poachers . . * 59 

Waking Beauties 61 

Richmond Cat Show : Arrangement of 

Tents 65 

Mrs. Gregory's ' ' Skellingthorpe Patrick ' ' 67 

" Inquiry" 67 

Richmond Cat Show : Judges at Work 69 
Type of Cage at the Richmond Cat 

Show .71 

Mr. C. A. House 72 

Mr. T. B. Mason 72 

The Toilet 73 

Blue Persian Kittens .... 74 

Kits with a Taste for Flowers . . 75 

Two Kittens bred by Miss Williams . 75 

Richmond Cat Show : The Ring Class 77 

Minding Shop 7 8 

Thieves 79 

Mrs. Drury's Brown Tabby " Periwig " 80 

Miss Simpson's " Cambyses " . . So 

A Litter of Blues 81 

Judging in the Ring at the Crystal 

Palace 83 

Miss Kirkpatrick's Blue Kittens . . 84 
" Rose of Persia " . . . '85 

Mischief 88 

Our Play-room 89 

Mr. F. W. Western .... 91 

Officials of the N.C.C.C. ... 92 

Sandy Stealing the Milk ... 94 
Silver Cats belonging to Mrs. Clark of 

Ashbrittle .... 95 

The Points of a Cat .... 96 

Tailpiece 97 

Blue Persians belonging to Mrs. Wells 98 
"Gentian," owned by Lady Marcus 

Beresford 99 

Mrs. Herring's " Champion Jimmy " . 100 



PAGE 
The Hon. Mrs. McLaren Morrison's 

Cattery 101 

Scenes at " Bishopsgate " . . . 103 
A Sleeping Box at Lady Decies' Cattery 104 
Lady Decies Visiting her Pets . . 104 
Mrs. Mackenzie Stewart's Cattery . 105 
The Imitation Tree, Mrs. Clarke's 

Cattery 106 

Mrs. Clarke's Cattery .... 107 

The Hon. Mrs. McLaren Morrison . 108 
Mrs. Collingwood and "James II." . 109 
A Morning Meal at Bossington . . in 
Black Persian " Johnny Fawe " . .112 
"Champion Menelik III." . . .113 
Kitten Bred by Miss Kirkpatrick . . 115 
Mrs. Little's Black Persian " Colleen " 115 
The Carol Singers . . . .116 

"Jungfrau" ...... 118 

Mrs. McLaren's White Persian ' ' Lady- 
smith " 119 

Mrs. Pettit with her White Persians . 121 

"Crystal" 122 

" White Butterfly " . . . .123 

" Musafer" 124 

"Jack" and "Jill" . . . .125 

The Artist 128 

Blue Kittens bred by Miss Kirkpatrick 129 
Mrs. Robinson's Blue Kittens . . 129 
Mrs. Wells's Cattery . . . .130 

"Rokeles Kissi " 131 

Scared 132 

Cast of the Cat Club Medal . . .133 
Miss G. Jay's Cattery . . . .134 
Rev. P. L. Cosway's " Imperial Blue" 135 
" Un Saut Ptrilleux " . . . .136 
"Jack Frost" . : . . .137 

"StarDuvals" 138 

" The Absent-Minded Beggar " . . 138 

"Omar" 139 

Three Pretty Silvers . . . .140 
" Shah of Persia " . . . .141 

" Fulmer Zaida " 142 

' ' Troubadour '^ 143 

A Perfect Chinchilla (two views) . . 145 
Mrs. Balding's " Silver Lambkin " . 146 
Mrs. Balding's " Flume Tod " . . 147 

"Sea Foam" 148 

Mrs. Wellbye's " Silver Lotus " . . 149 
Mrs. Wellbye's " Silver Dossie " . . 150 
Mrs. Wellbye's Silver " Veronica ' . 151 
Two Views of Woodheys Cattery . . 153 
" Silver Blossom " .... 154 
" Silver Blossom's " Two Buds . . 155 

"Wild Tom" 156 

" Fur and Feather " . . . .158 
" The Silver Lambkins " . . . 159 
" Jupiter Duvals " .... 161 



VI 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



" The Elder Miss Blossom " 

" Dolly Daydream " 

" I want to go home ! " 

" The Marquis of Dingley " . 

Miss Leake's Summer Cattery 



PAGE 
162 

163 
164 

'65 
166 



Silver Tabby Kittens owned by Princess 

Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein . 167 

" Beautiful Duchess " .... 168 

Winter Quarters at Dingley Hill . . 169 

In the Studio 171 

Miss Cope's " Starlet ". . . .172 

A Pair of Silver Tabbies . . .173 

" Thames Valley Silver King " . . 174 
" Roiall Fiuffball " . . . .177 

Mrs. Stead's Smoke Litter by " Ranji " 178 

" Jo " and " Tiny " .... 178 

Miss Bartlett's Two Smoke Kittens . 179 
Mrs. James's Cat Houses at Backwell . 181 
Mrs. Stead's Smoke Persian "Cham- 
pion Ranji "... . . . 182 

" Champion Backwell Jogram " . . 183 

Mrs. Sinking' Smoke Persian "Teufel" 185 

"Lucy Claire" 186 

Mrs. Singleton's " Orange Girl ". . 187 

"Puck" 188 

"Swagger" 188 

" Benjamin of the Durharns " . . 189 

"Toirington Sunnysides" . . . 190 

"Lifeguard" 191 

One of Mrs. Neate's Outdoor Catteries 

at Wernham 192 

"Curiosity" 193 

Mrs. Neate's Cat Houses (two views) . 194 

"Musing" 197 

" Out in the Cold " .... 199 

" Higher Education " .... 200 

Mrs. Clinton Locke's Cream Kitten . 201 

A Creamy Smile . . . . . 201 

Mrs. Norris's Cream Kitten . . . 202 

" Kew Ronald" and " Kew Laddie" . 203 

Miss Beal and her Kittens . . . 204 

Mrs. D'Arcy Hildyard's Cream Kittens 204 

" Miriam of the Durhams " . . . 205 

" Champion Romaldkirk Admiral " . 206 
Mrs. F. Western's " Matthew of the 

Durhams" ..... 207 
" Topsy of Merevale" . . . 208 
Miss H. Cochran's Tortoisesheil " Bru- 
nette" 209 

Miss Sargent's " Topsy " . . . 210 
Miss Kate gangster's " Royal Yum 

Yum" 2ii 

" Peggy Primrose " . . . . . 212 

Miss Yeoman's " Mary II." . . . 213 

"At Home". ..... 214 

Miss Simpson's " Persimmon " . . 215 
Miss Mellor's " Lady Sholto " . .216 

" Champion Crystal " (American) . 217 

A Room in Brayfort Cattery . . 218 
Miss Whitney and her Neuter Brown 

Tabby 219 

"Brayfort Princess", and "Brayfort 

Fina "...... 220 

" Lonsdale Chrysalis " and " Lonsdale 

Moth" 221 

Mrs. D'Arcy Hildyard's " Sulpherland " 222 

"Pioneer Bobs" ..... 223 

"LornaDoone" 225 

" Birkdale Ruffle " 226 



PAC;E 

" Birkdale Ruffiie's " Cattery . . 227 

Brown Tabby "Goozie" . . . 229 

A Trio of Tabbies .... 230 

A Picturesque Group .... 231 

A Grotesquely-marked Kitten . . 232 

" Lockhaven Colburn " . . . 233 

"The Conquest of the Air " . . . 234 

"Grace before Meat" .... 235 

" Marcus Superbus," a Silver Smoke . 235 

" Blue Robin " 236 

Miss Kirkpatrick's " Chili" . . . 237 
" KingCy "... .237 

Miss Chamberlayne's "Belvedere Tiger" 238 

" Benoni " 239 

Miss Adamson's Chinchilla Neuter . 240 

" Nigel the Raven " .... 241 

Madame Portier's Neuter " Blue Boy " 242 

Rascals ....... 243 

Type of Manx Kitten .... 244 

" Golfsticks " 245 

Specimen of a Manx Tabby . . . 246 

Orange Manx 248 

Mrs. H. C. Brooke's Manx " Katzen- 

jammer " 249 

" Ballochmyle Bell Spitz " . . . 250 
Manx Cat . . . . . .251 

Mr. Ward's Manx " Silverwing " . . 253 

A Litter by "Tachin" .... 254 

The Garden Cattery at Bishopsgate . 255 
Mrs. Roberts Locke, with " Calif," 

"Siam," and " Bangkok " . . 256 
"Si" . . . . . . .257 

" Tiam-o-Shian " .... 257 

"It" 258 

Mr. Ratcliffe's Siamese . . . 259 

Lady Marcus Beresford's " Ursula" . 260 

Miss Armitage's " Cora " . . . 262 
Pair of Siamese belonging to Mrs. 

Armitage 263 

Mrs. Robinson's " Ah Choo " . . 265 

" Champion Wankee ". . . . 265 

"Mafeking" 266 

The late " King Kesho " . . . 267 

Lady Marcus Beresford's " Cambodia " 268 
Pugs Paying a Visit to the Siamese, 

Mrs. Hawkins' Cattery . . . 269 

" Romeo " and " Juliette " . . . 271 

A Cosy Corner 273 

" Ashbrittle Peter " .... 274 

" Ballochmyle Blue Queen ". . . 275 

Mrs. Carew Cox's Blue male " Bayard " 276 

" Sherdley Michael " .... 277 

" Sherdley Alexis " .... 277 

"Sherdley Sacha I." and " II." . . 277 

Maria 278 

Mrs. Carew Cox's " Yula " . . . 279 

Lady Alexander of Ballochmyle . . 280 
" Champion Ballochmyle Brother 

Bump " 281 

Short-haired Tabby Kittens . . . 282 

Another View of Lady Decies' Cattery . 283 

Lady Decies' " Champion Xenophon" . 284 

An American Begging Cat . . . 285 

" Ebony ol Wigan " .... 286 

Sleeping and Waking Tabbies . . 287 

A Black-and-White Britisher . . 288 

" Champion Ballochmyle Otter ". . 289 

" Champion Ballochmyle Perfection " . 290 

Mrs. Barker's " Tyneside Lily " . . 291 



PACE 

Two Views of Briarlea Catteries . . 292 

A Corner of the Bossington Catteries . 293 

Tortoisesheil Male " Samson " . . 294 

Mrs. A. M. Stead's Brown Tabby . . 295 

Mrs. Collingwood's "James II." . . 295 

" Ben My Chree" .... 296 

liurmese Cat ..... 297 

Mexican Hairless Cats .... 299 

African Cat 300 

Manx and Abyssinian .... 301 

Geoffrey's Wild Cat .... 302 

" The Storm King" .... 303 

"Rado" 303 

The Old Fort Cattery .... 305 

Mrs. Colburn and her White Persian 

" Paris " ..... 306 

Brushwood Catterv .... 307 

Miss Johnston's " Persimmon Squirrel " 308 

A Reception Room in aChicago Cattery 309 
Mrs. E. N. Barker . . . -311 

" Silver Hair " and " Tiptoe " . , 312 

Miss Ward's " Robin ". . . . 313 

Three Little Grandchildren of " Per- 
simmon "..... 314 

An American Beauty . . . 317 

"Champion Miss Detroit" . . . 318 

" The Commissioner " .... 319 

" Ajax " ...... 321 

Orchard Ridge Cattery . . . 322 

Mrs. Charles A. White . 323 

" The Blessed Damozel "... 324 

" Tobey," a Maine Trick Cat . . 325 

" Henessey" 326 

" Blue Danube " 327 

" Leo," owned by Mrs. Martin . . 329 

" Yellow H. I4th Beauty" . . . 330 

Mrs Bagster's " Demidoff " . . . 331 

A Snapshot 332 

Amateur Photographers . . . 334 

Playing at Work 335 

In the Studio 336 

Tabitha's Afternoon Tea . . . 337 

A Happy Mother 338 

Mrs. Bonny's " Dame Fortune" . . 339 

"Derebie" 339 

A Litter of Eight belonging to Mi.ss 

Savery 341 

" Star of the Spheres" and "Son of Roy " 342 

The Foster-Mother .... 343 

The Foster-Mother in Action . . 343 

" Arrived Safely " 344 

"Patricia" 345 

Miss Goddard's Pair of Kittens . . 346 

" Lollypop" 347 

Three Little Americans . . . 348 

" Holmlea Thistledown " . . . 349 

Brain of Cat 350 

Skull of the Great Sabre-toothed Cat . 351 
Superficial Flexor Tendons of a Cat's 

Left Foot 352 

Bones and Principal Ligaments of a 

Cat's Toe 352 

Pads of Cat's Left Forefoot . . . 352 

Skull of a Cat 353 

Skeleton of a Cat 351 

Skeleton of a Cat 355 

A Cat's Eye 3S 6 

Tongue of a Cat 357 

Giving Medicine 358 



INTRODUCTION. 



FANCIERS have long felt the want of a work dealing in a popular manner 
with cats, and it was therefore with great pleasure that I undertook to 
write THE BOOK OF THE CAT, and to give the results of a long ex- 
perience in as simple and interesting a form as possible, so that the book 
might be instructive to cat fanciers, and also readable to that portion of the 
community which loves cats for themselves and not only for their prizes and 
pedigrees. It is possible that the beautiful reproductions in this work may 
result in the conversion of some cat haters, who, seeing the error of their ways, 
may give poor puss a corner in their hearts. Dogs are more essentially the 
friends of men, and cats may be considered as the chosen allies of womankind. 

In the past, as I have endeavoured to show, many noted celebrities of the 
sterner sex have shown a sympathetic feeling for the feline race. At the present 
time the number of men fanciers on our cat club lists and exhibitors at our 
shows tends to prove that the cat is gradually creeping into the affections of 
mankind, even in this busy work-a-day world. I have given a full description 
of the various breeds, and have suggested advice as to the feeding, housing, 
and general treatment of cats. The chapters on the management of shows, 
containing also simple rules for the guidance of exhibitors, will, I trust, prove 
useful and instructive. 

In my work I have received most valuable assistance, for which I am deeply 
grateful, from Mr. H. Gray, the well-known veterinary surgeon, whose chapter 
on the diseases of cats will, I am sure, be very interesting to breeders and 
fanciers. To Mr. H. C. Brooke I must tender my sincere v thanks for his 
chapter on foreign cats, and to Mr. E. N. Barker for his excellent survey of 
the American cat fancy, and to Mrs. Pierce for her notes on Maine cats. Mr. 
Robert Holding's chapter on the anatomy of the cat, with its excellent diagrams, 
forms a valuable addition to the work. To Mrs. S. F. Clarke I am greatly 
indebted for the number of clever photographs with which she has so kindly 
supplied me. 

To many of my " catty " friends I offer grateful thanks for interesting items, 
paragraphs, and pretty photographs ; and last, but not least, I have to thank 



viii THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 

that veteran, Harrison Weir, for his kindly encouragement, and I feel I cannot 
do better than quote from his letter, received on the completion of my work- 
enclosing a few remarks for my preface : 

" Miss Frances Simpson has kindly dedicated her labour of love, the fascinating 
BOOK OF THE CAT, to me, and truly the honour is great. Words cannot 
convey my feelings, but out of its fulness the heart speaketh Thanks ! I 
carry my mind back to the long, long ago, when the cat was a god or ideal, 
and worshipped. Then later, ' our gentle Will ' called it ' the harmless, 
necessary cat,' and that it has ever been, and more than that to many. It 
is a lonely home without a cat ; and for awhile and I hope for long cats are 
the fashion. Thirty years ago it was apparent to me that cats were not valued 
at their true worth, and then I suggested a show of cats! Let anyone try to 
start anything new, though novelty is said to charm ! Many were the gibes, 
jokes, and jeers that were thrown at me then. But nothing succeeds like 
success. Now, if I may without offence say a few words as to present-day 
shows, it is that they have not answered my expectations. Why ? Because 
particular breeds are catered for and run after. Why such breathless talk all 
about long-haired cats, be they blues or silvers ? This is not cat breeding. 
I want, I wish, and, if I live, I hope to see far more of the ' harmless, necessary 
cat ' at our shows ; for a high-class short-haired cat is one of the most perfect 
animals ever created. 

" Far more I might, and perhaps am expected to add ; but my life's work is 
well-nigh done. He who fights honourably the good fight sinks at last. Miss 
Frances Simpson has rendered me her debtor ; and others, beside myself, will 
tender her grateful thanks for her work in the cause of the cat and for the 
welfare of the fancy. Adieu ! " 

Mr. Harrison Weir's words are precious to me, and now that my " labour 
of love " is ended I can only re-echo his wish and express a hope that the 
many pages I have devoted to the " harmless, necessary cat," whose fireside 
friendship I have enjoyed all the years of my life, may awaken and arouse a 
greater interest in and admiration for these gentle, complex creatures, who in return 
for a little understanding will give a great deal of love. 

FRANCES SIMPSON. 
KENSINGTON, 

August, 1903. 




ihoto: Mrs.,S.f. Uarke 



' WHITE TO MOVE. 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



CHAPTER I. 



CATS OF THE PAST. 




origin of the cat has 
J_ puzzled the learned, and 
the stock from whence it 
sprang is still, in the opinion of 
some, a mystery for the zoologist 
to solve. 

Historians tell us that the 
feline race came into existence 
about the same time as the horse. 
Reference is made to the cat in 
Sanskrit writings over 2,000 years 
old, and still earlier records are 
found in the monumental figures, 
inscriptions, and cat mummies 
of ancient Egypt. These care- 
fully-preserved relics of the past 
MUMMY OF A assist us in answering the ques- 
tion as to how this least tameable 
of animals became domesticated. 
There are many legends con- 
cerning Puss and the manner in which she first 
sprang into existence. A surprising account of 



CAT. 

(At the British 
Afuseittii. ) 



the cat's creation is found in the works of an 
Arabian naturalist. It is as follows : "When 
Noah made a couple of each kind of animal 
enter the Ark, his companions, as well as the 
members of his family, said to him, ' What 
security can there be for us and for the animals 
so long as the lion shall dwell with us in the 
same vessel ? ' The patriarch betook himself 
to prayer and entreated the Lord God. Imme- 
diately fever came down from Heaven and 
seized upon the king of beasts, so that tran- 
quility of mind was restored to the inhabitants 
of the Ark. But there was in the vessel an 
enemy no less harmful this was the mouse. 
The companions of Noah called his attention 
to the fact that it would be impossible for them 
to preserve their provisions and their clothes 
intact. After the patriarch had addressed re- 
newed supplications to the Most High, the lion 
sneezed, and a cat ran out of his nostrils. From 
that time forth the mouse became so timid that 
it contracted the habit of hiding itself in holes." 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 




THE GOD CAT. 
(/''rani an old Wood-cut.} 



So runs the legend, and in an old Italian 
picture representing the departure from the 
Ark we may observe a big brindled cat lead- 
ing the procession of animals with an air of 
dignity and self-satisfaction. According to 

the Arabic scholar 
Damirei, there was no 
cat in the Garden of 
Eden. It is a singular 
fact that nowhere in the 
canonical books of the 
Old Testament nor in 
the New Testament is 
the cat mentioned, and 
if we take into con- 
sideration the number 
of books connected 
with the life, manners, 
customs, and religions 
of the Egyptians, this 
omission is the more 
striking. The only 
Biblical reference to 

cats occurs in the Book of Baruch, chap, vi., 
v. 22. This is a letter by Jeremy to the Chil- 
dren of Israel, who were taken captive by 
Nebuchadnezzar to Babylon. Some Hebrew 
scholars have asserted that the animals that 
prowled and cried among the ruins of Babylon 
were jackals, and not cats. 

But however much the origin of the feline 
tribe is wrapped in mystery, we are certain 
that more than 3,000 years ago the cat lived 
and was loved along the banks of the Nile. 
The ancient city of the Pharaohs paid her 
homage ; she was admitted into the ranks 
of sacred animals, she was worshipped in the 
temples. Jewels were placed in her ears and 
necklaces about her neck. Figures of cats 
were kept in the home and buried in the tomb. 
Trinkets representing both the goddess and 
the cat were worn upon the person, to indi- 
cate special devotion on the part of the wearer. 
There seems but little doubt that the ancient 
and well-beloved cat of the Egyptians was 
a barred or marked animal, answering to some 
extent to our homely tabby. Paintings and 
statuettes of this type frequently occur, and 



therefore we may it take for granted that the 
Egyptians, who were so realistic and true to 
Nature when dealing with the animal world, 
would have presented cats of other species had 
they existed. 

According to the historian, animal worship 
was first introduced into Egypt by Chores, the 
second king of the Second Dynasty. 

The Egyptians made gods of many living 
creatures of all kinds, amongst others the 
bull, the crocodile, the ibis, the hawk, the 
beetle, and the asp ; but the cat appears to 
have held the highest place in their hearts. 
Not only was it preserved from injury, 
beloved and venerated during life, but at 
its death it was buried with all respect, 
and everyone mourned for it with out- 
ward and visible signs of grief, even to 
the extent of shaving off their eyebrows. 
The Egyptian's idea of a correct burial 
involved mummification, so that all the parts 
might be preserved and thus kept from 
annihilation against the day of resurrection. 
A rich man's cat was very elaborately 
mummified. Different coloured stuffs were 







AN EGYPTIAN WALL-PAINTING : THE ADORATION 

OF THE GODDESS PASHT. 

(.British Museum.) 



CATS Of THE PAST. 



twisted round and round the 
body, forming curious patterns 
in two colours. The head 
would be carefully encased and 
sometimes gilded ; the ears 
were always standing upright. 
These curious mummies look 
something like bottles of rare 
wine done up in plaited straw. 
Sometimes the mummy would 
be enclosed in a bronze box 
with a statue of a cat seated 
on the top. Mummies of cats 
with painted faces have been 
found in wooden coffins at 
Bubastes, Specs, Artemidos, Thebes, and 
elsewhere. Here is an illustration of a kitten 
brought to me from the Boulak Museum. 
The picture gives but little idea of the care 
and neatness which must have been em- 
ployed in wrapping up the dear little dead 
bodies. The linen used is of the finest. The 
ears of the tiny kitten are each separate and 
distinct, and the muzzle of the creature shows 
distinctly through the delicate wrappings. 
Scarcely a good museum in the country now 
that has not some specimens of cat mummies. 
In some of these we notice that eyes have 
been added after the 
mummy has been en- 
cased and the embalm- 
ment completed. Most 
of the cats that died in 
the far-away time were 
thus embalmed and 
sent for burial to the 
holy city of Bubastes, 
near Thebes, on the 
banks of the Nile. 

The Temple of Bu- 
bastes, according to 
Herodotus, was the fair- 
est in all Egypt, and 
here special reverence 
was paid the cat. The 
local goddess of this 
city was Pasht, who was 
represented as a woman 





MUMMIFIED KITTEN. 



(hi the poisession of 
Miss Simpson.) 



THE WORSHIP OF PASHT IX THE TEMPLE OF BUBASTES. 
(British Mjtscitm.) 



with a cat's head. Cats were kept in the temples 
sacred to them, and doubtless the head cat of 
the Pasht's temple was a very splendid speci- 
men, who, living the life of great luxury, would 
be buried with the pomp and magnificence 
of a royal personage. 
It was at Bubastes, 
on the banks of the 
Nile, that an annual 
festival in honour of 
the goddess Pasht was 
held. We are not told 
whether the cats took 
any part in the proceed- 
ings. From the towns 
and villages within hail, 
pleasure parties were 
sent in boats up and 
down the river to the 
city, and on their pas- 
sage the men and wo- 
men who crowded these 
boats made merry all 
the long summer day. V A CAT GOD OF EGYPT . 

The WOmen Clashed (From Hit British Museum.) 

their cymbals and 

danced, and the men played on their flutes. 
Seventy thousand people, it is said, assembled 
at this feast, and they sacrificed victims and 
drank a good deal of wine. Perhaps the cats 
were treated to an extra dish of some dainty 
to mark this red-letter day in the annals of 
their patroness and goddess. 




THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



A curious custom, which probably had its 
origin in these pilgrimages to the sacred shrine. 
had until recent years survived amongst the 
Egyptian Moslems, who when they were start- 
ing on their way to Mecca always set apart 
one camel for the conveyance of several cats, 
and some ancient dame was told off to take 



Beni Hasan, one hundred miles from Cairo. 
A few years ago some excavations were made 
near this town, and thousands of little mummied 
bodies were found that had rested peacefully 
for centuries. Their graves were desecrated, 
their burying-ground plundered, and tons and 
tons of mummied forms were carted 'away to 




PUSS AS A RETRIEVER : AN EGYPTIAN WALL PAINTING. 
(At tilt British Museum.) 



charge of the precious animals. She was 
honoured with the title of " Mother of Cats." 
Her office was not an enviable one, and prob- 
ably it was found that a woman was unable 
to wrestle satisfactorily with the refractory 
travellers, for at a later date a man was 
substituted to carry the pussies to the 
Holy City. 

Thebes appears to have been a favourite 
burying-place for cats, and also a place called 



the neighbouring fields to serve the useful, 
if not romantic, purpose of manure ! Accord- 
ing to Horopollo, the cat was worshipped in 
the temple of Heliopolis, because the size of the 
pupil of the animal's eye is regulated by 
the rising and waning of the sun. Plutarch, 
however, states in his treatise on " Isis and 
Osiris " that the image of a female cat was 
placed at the top of the sistrum as an emblem 
of the moon. " This," says the historian, 



CATS OF THE PAST. 



" was on account of the variety of her fur, 
and because she is astir at night ; and further- 
more, because she bears firstly one kitten at 
a birth, and at the second two, at the third 
three, and then four, and then five, until the 
seventh time, so that she bears in all twenty- 
eight, as many as the moon has days. Now 
this, perchance, is fabulous, but 'tis most true 
that her eyes do enlarge and grow full at the 
full moon, and that on the contrary they 
contract and diminish at the decline of the 
same." 

Among other fables of classic naturalists 
and historians may be mentioned the follow- 
ing by Herodotus : " If a fire occurs, cats are 
subject to supernatural impulses ; and while 
the Egyptians ranged in lines with gaps between 
them, are much more solicitous to save their 
cats than to extinguish the fire, these animals 
slip through the empty spaces, spring over the 
men's shoulders, and fling themselves into the 
flames. When such accidents happen, pro- 
found ,grief falls upon the Egyptians." 

Whether these frenzied cats did or did 
not commit suicide is open to doubt, but that 
they would plunge fearlessly into water is an 
acknowledged fact. This is attested by paint- 
ings representing sporting scenes in the valley 
of the Nile. Men and women used to go out 
on fowling excursions in a boat to the jungles 
and thickets of the marsh land, or to lakes in 
their own grounds, which abounded with wild 
fowl, and there among the tall reeds knock 
down the bird with a stick. Into these happy 
hunting grounds they took a cat who would 
jump into the water and retrieve the game 
as it fell. There is a painting taken and 




AN EGYPTIAN TOY CAT. 
(At the British Museum.) 



brought from a tomb in Thebes, which is now 
in the British Museum, and Wilkinson, in his 
" Manners and Customs of Ancient Egyptians," 
writes as follows : "A favourite cat sometimes 
accompanied the Egyptian sportsmen on these 
occasions, and the artist intends to show us, 
by the exactness with which he represents 
the animal seizing the game, that cats were 
trained to hunt and carry the water-fowl." 

One of the earliest representations of the 
cat is "to-be-found in the Necropolis of Thebes, 
which contains the tomb of Hana, who prob- 
ably belonged to the Eleventh Dynasty. There 
is a statue of the king standing erect, with his 
cat Bouhaki between his feet. The large 
basalt statues, of which there are so many in 
the British Museum, both seated and stand- 
ing, are examples of great interest. They 
have mostly the disc of lunar divinity above 
their heads and the royal asp above the 
forehead. 

M. Champfleury, in his delightful book, 
" Les Chats," gives a good deal of information 
regarding the cats of ancient Egypt, and men- 
tions the existence of funerary statues of 
women which bear the inscription Techau, 
the cat, in token of the patronage of the god- 
dess Bast. Frenchmen occasionally call their 
wives ma chattc without attaching any hier- 
atic association to that term of endearment. 

According to ancient documents in the 
Louvre, we are enabled to surmise the name 
by which the cat was known in Egypt. It was 
Mau-Mai', Maau, or Maon. A tablet in the 
Berlin Museum, bearing the representation 
of a cat, dates from 1600 B.C., and another, 
two hundred years older, has an inscription 
in which the word " Mau " appears. 

Amongst old Egyptian images in bronze 
and earthenware, we may often find the cat 
crouching with the symbolic eye, emblem of 
the sun, engraved upon its collar. In the 
British Museum there is a curious example of 
a toy in the shape of a wooden cat with inlaid 
glass eyes and a movable lower jaw well lined 
with teeth. 

There is a tradition that Cambyses devised 
a scheme for the capture of the town of Peluse, 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



which, if true, is one example among many things and domestic animals belonging to 

of the devotion of the Egyptians to cats. It children were buried with them, 
was in the fourteenth year of his reign that From some of the oldest Indian fables we 

this king of Persia tried to effect an entry into learn that the cat was domesticated in that 

Egypt, and he is said to have hit upon a clever country at a very early period. Her first 

strategy. Knowing that the garrison of the appearance into China would seem to have 

town was entirely comprised of Egyptians, he been about 400 A.D. There is a curious 

put at the head of his army soldiers each carry- ancient Chinese saying to the effect that 

ing in their arms a cat. The Egyptians, " A lame cat is better than a swift horse 

alarmed lest they might injure the sacred when rats infest a palace." 
animals when destroying their enemies, con- Amongst the curious freaks in the natural 

sented rather to be vanquished. But for world are mineral lusus. These are stones, 

their scruples they might perhaps have agates, or marbles, which, by the action of 

repulsed the invaders, for the Persian soldiers the soil, air, or water during thousands of 



could not well have done their 
share of the fighting while clasp- 
ing in their arms restless and 
terrified cats ! 

It is strange that the cat 
was almost neglected by the 
Greeks and Romans. It is true 
that Grecian art working on 
such grand sweeping lines might 
fail to follow the insignificant 
yet graceful curves of the cat. 
Therefore no Greek monument 
is adorned with a figure of 




A MINERAL I.USUS. 
(FrotH aft old Engraving) 



years, have assumed various 
forms, which we may interpret 
to represent human heads, trees, 
animals, and so forth. This 
illustration of a mineral lusus 
is taken on a reduced scale 
from a book by Aldrovandus, 
an Italian naturalist of the 
seventeenth century. The figure 
of the cat occurs, he says, in a 
slab of marble. It was also re- 
produced by Athanasius Kircher, 



the Jesuit, who copied many of 

the idol of Egypt, and Homer never gives a Aldrovandus's engravings, 

passing mention of the cat. Among the I think the most casual observer would 

Greeks the cat was sacred to the goddess pronounce this illustration to be the repre- 

Diana. Mythologists pretend that Diana sentation of a cat ; and if, as we are led to 

created the cat in order to throw ridicule upon believe, this and other figures are really the 

the lion, an animal supposed to have been result of natural causes, we can only marvel 

called into existence by Apollo with the in- at the wonderful correctness of outline and 

tention of frightening his sister. This he form in which through countless ages the 

followed up by producing a mouse, which substances comprising the specimen have 

Hecate's cat immediately ate up. A cat was arranged themselves. 

often emblazoned on the shields and flags of We have no record that the cat became 
Roman soldiers. That the cat was known at domesticated in Great Britain and France 
an early period in Italy we have proof in before the ninth century, when it would 
the curious mosaic in the Museum at Naples, seem that she was by no means common, and 
which depicts one pouncing upon a bird, considered of great value ; for in the time of 
The date of this has been fixed at about one one of the old Princes of Wales, who died in 
hundred years prior to the Christian era. In 948, the price of a kitten before it could see 
the Bordeaux Museum there is a tomb of the was fixed at a penny, after it had captured a 
Gello-Roman period with a representation of mouse, twopence ; and if it gave further 
a girl holding a cat in her arms and with a proofs of its usefulness it was rated at four- 
cock at her feet. In those days the play- pence. This same prince, Howel the Good, 



CATS OF THE PAST. 



issued an order that anyone who stole or killed 
a cat that guarded the prince's granary was 
to forfeit a milch ewe, its fleece, and lamb, or 
as much wheat as when poured on the cat 
suspended by its tail (the head touching the 
floor) would form a heap high enough to cover 
the top of the tail. 

This is not only curious, as being an evi- 
dence of the simplicity of ancient customs, 
but it goes far to prove that cats were not 
aborigines of these islands. The large price 
set on them if we consider the high value of 
specie at that time 
- and the great 
care taken of the 
improvement and 
breed of an animal 
that multiplies so 
quickly, are almost 
certain proofs of 
their being little 
known at that pe- 
riod. No doubt wild 
cats abounded in 
our islands, and this 
creature is described 
by Pennant as be- 
ing three or four 
times as large as 
the house cat. The 
teeth and claws are, 
to use his expres- 
sion, " tremendous," and the animal is alto- 
gether more robust. The tail of the wild cat is 
thick and as large at the extremity as it is in the 
centre and at the base ; that of the house cat 
tapers to the tip. This ferocious creature, 
well named the British tiger, was formerly 
common enough in the wooded and mountain- 
ous districts of England, Scotland, and 
Wales, but owing to the attention paid 
to the preservation of game it has gradually 
become almost if not entirely exterminated. 
In olden times, when wild cats were hunted 
and captured, the principal use they were put 
to was to trim with their fur the garments of 
the ladies in the various nunneries scattered 
over the land. A writer of the Middle Ages 



says : " The peasants wore cat skins, badger 
skins, &c." It would appear that lambs' ana 
cats' skins were of equal value at that period. 

Harrison Weir, in his work on cats, tells 
us that in 1871 and 1872 a wild cat was ex- 
hibited at the Crystal Palace by the Earl of 
Hopetoun ; he also mentions that as late as 
1889 Mr. Edward Hamilton, M.D., writing to 
the Field, gives information of a wild cat being 
shot at Inverness-shire. He states : " A fine 
specimen- of a wild cat was sent to me on 
May 3rd, trapped on the Ben Nevis range. Its 

dimensions were : 
"from nose to base 
of tail, i foot; height 
at shoulders, i foot 
2 inches." In July, 
1900, a paragraph 
to the following ef- 
fect appeared in the 
Stock- Keeper : 



" The Zoological 
Society have just ac- 
quired a litter of wild 
cats. This is the only 
instance where a 
whole litter has been 
sent to the Gardens. 
It was taken not far 
from Spean Bridge, 
Inverness-shire." 




PUSS IN WARFARE (vide p. 8). 
(From a ittfi Century MS.) 



The late Professor Rolleston, in an article 
on the " Domestic Cats of Ancient and 
Modern Times " (Journal of Anatomy and 
Physiology), has well explained much of the 
confusion about cats in former writers and 
their so-called interpreters. He shows how 
loosely now, as long ago, the word " cat " 
and its classic equivalents may be employed. 
Just as we still speak of civet cats and 
martens. Up to the beginning of this 
century the wild cat was wrongly thought 
to be the original of the tame species. Yet 
apart from more exact evidence this is shown 
to be an error if we note the value set upon 
domestic cats in former centuries. The Rev. 
Dr. Fleming, in his " History of British 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



Animals" (1828), points out some of the 
distinctions between the two species. He 
also alludes to the spotted variety, termed 
the Cypress Cat, as noticed by Menet, who 
wrote the earliest book on British Natural 
History in 1667. 

" It is a curious fact," says Mr. J. E. Her- 
ting, an eminent naturalist, " that in Ireland, 
notwithstanding reports to the contrary, all 
endeavours to find a genuine wild cat have 
failed, the so-called ' wild cat ' of the natives 
proving to be the ' marten cat,' a very differ- 
ent animal." 

In the early Middle Ages, according to 
tradition, cats were utilised in a strange man- 
ner. The illustration on p. 7 depicts a German 
fortress which it was desired by the enemy to 
set on fire. Not being able, one may suppose, 
to effect this by treachery, the foes pressed 
into their service both biped and quadruped. 
On the back of the pigeon and cat alike, a 
flask of inflammable matter is attached, and 
furnished with a time fuse to ignite at the 
proper moment. There is a broad road for 
the cat to travel, and we must presume that 
the gate of the fortress was left open for her 
entrance. The pigeon would be supposed 
to cut the cord of the flask with her beak 
when just over the magazine and let it drop 
at an auspicious moment. This cut is reduced 
from a coloured drawing in an unpublished 
manuscript volume dated 1575, in which is a 
great variety of illustrations of fireworks for 
war and recreation. 

It is strange that the cat, which was an 
object of worship and adoration to the Egyp- 
tians, should, during the long, dark years of 
mediaeval history, be looked upon as a diabol- 
ical creature. The only pleasant legend handed 
down to us from the r "Middle Ages is that of 
" Dick Whittington and his Cat." There are 
records to show that this worthy citizen was 
thrice Lord Mayor of London, and we have 
always been led to believe that it was to his 
cat he owed his wealth and prosperity. At 
all events, so long as London is London, 
Whittington will ever be associated with his 
cat. 



Innumerable are the legends that gather 
round the cat during the Middle Ages. It 
was believed that the devil borrowed the coat 
of a black cat when he wished to torment his 
victims. Sorcerers pretended to cure epilepsy 
by the help of three drops of blood taken from 
the vein under a cat's tail. At numerous trials 
for witchcraft, puss figured as the wicked as- 
sociate of the accused. Cats were offered by 
sorcerers as oblations to Satan, and they were 
flung into the fire at the Festival of St. John. 
All praise to Louis XIII., who as the Dauphin 
interceded for the lives, of these poor pussies 
thus annually sacrificed. It was thought to 
bring good luck to a house if a cat were cooked 
alive in a brick oven, and in Scotland she was 
roasted before a slow fire as a means of divin- 
ing the future. 

The mania of witchcraft had pervaded all 
ranks, even the holy profession, whose duty 
it should be to preach peace and goodwill. 
Hundreds of wretched old women were sent 
out of life " in a red gown " (the slang of that 
day for being burnt " quick " or alive), after 
undergoing the most excruciating tortures to 
make them confess the impossibilities for which 
they suffered. 

In 1591, when King James of Scotland was 
crossing from Denmark, a great tempest arose 
at sea. This was supposed to have been 
caused by a " christened cat " being placed 
in the vessel by witches. The following is an 
extract from an old pamphlet : " Againe it is 
confessed that the said christened cat was the 
cause that the Kings Majestie's shippe had 
a contrarie wind to the rest of the shippes in 
his companie, for when the rest of the shippes 
had a fair and good winde, then was the winde 
contrarie and altogether against his Majestie." 
Thus, in the past as in the present day, blame 
was laid upon the poor harmless puss, where 
no blame was due. 

In an old book called " Twenty Lookes 
over all the Roundheads of the World," pub- 
lished in 1643, we read : 

" In the Reigne of Oueene Mary (at which time 
Popery was much exalted) then were the Round- 
heads (namely, the monks and friars) so odious 







1 

'i <3 



o I 

02 

O 

" 



10 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



to the people, that in derision of them a cat was 
taken on a Sabbath day, with her head shorne 
as a Fryer's and the likenesse of a vestment cast 
over her, with her feet tied together, and a round 
piece of paper like a singing Celse between them ; 
and thus was she hanged in a gallows in Cheap- 
side, neere to the Crosse, in the Parish of St. 
Matthew. Which cat, being taken down, was 
sent to Doctor Pendleton (who was then preaching 
at St. Paul's Cross), commanding it to be shown 
to the congregation. The Round-head Fryers 
cannot abide to heare of this cat." 

At the coronation of Eliza- 
beth there is an account 
given, in the Hatton corre- 
spondence, of an effigy of the 
Pope being carried through 
the streets and afterwards 
burnt with several live cats, 
which, we are told, '' squalled 
in a most hideous manner " 
as soon as they felt the fire. 

After a famous French 
trial in the seventeenth cen- 
tury, a woman condemned as 
a murderess was hung in an 
iron cage over a slow fire, and 
fourteen poor unoffending cats 
were made to share the same 
fate. It is difficult to con- 
ceive by what train of thought 
civilised beings could arrive 
at such a pitch of wicked and 
horrible cruelty. Why should 
a gentle, shrinking, graceful little creature be 
thus made the savage sport of devils in human 
form ? 

There seems, however, to have been one 
haven of rest for poor persecuted pussy during 
the Middle Ages, and that was in the nunneries. 
Here, at least, she would be kindly treated, 
let us hope. It is said that this fact has 
something to do with the cat's traditional 
association with old maids. 

And now let us quit this dark page of his- 
tory, where the shameful treatment of an inno- 
cent race makes the lover of the poor pussies 
sorrowful and indignant. It was in France 




TOMB OF A CAT WHICH BELONGED 
TO MADAME DE LESDIGUIERES. 



that, after the period when the cat was given 
over to the ways of the witch and the sorcerer, 
we find her yet again taking her proper place 
in the home and the heart of the highest in the 
land. Writers of natural history and others 
frequently denounce the cat as an animal in- 
capable of personal attachment, yet puss has 
wooed and won the friendship and affection of 
many notable men. 

Cats, the most politic, the most polite, and 
in proportion to their size the 
most powerful of beasts real- 
ising almost literally Napo- 
leon's favourite maxim, " Iron 
hand in velvet glove " have 
the permanent fame of being 
loved by that most eminent 
of Frenchmen, Cardinal Riche- 
lieu, who delighted to watch 
the frolics of a number of kit- 
tens by which he was gener- 
ally surrounded in his leisure 
hours. In this tendrcsse he- 
resembled a still more famous 
Churchman ! A cat went to 
sleep once, we are told, on the 
sleeve of Mahomet's robe. 
The hour of prayer arrived, 
and he chose rather to cut 
away his sleeve than to dis- 
turb the slumbers of his be- 
loved Muezza. 

Chateaubriand makes fre- 
quent mention of the cat in 
his " Memoires." He received a present of 
a cat from the Pope. Moncrieff wrote a 
series of quaintly worded letters on cats, 
and the book has some curious illustra- 
tions. In this we read of the pussies of many 
grand dames of the French Court of that day. 
We give an illustration taken from this book, 
which represents the tomb of a cat which be- 
longed to Madame Lesdiguieres, and bears this 
inscription : 

UNE CHATTE JOLIE. 
Sa maitresse qui n'aima rien 
, L'aima jusques a la folie. 
Pourquoi le dire ? On le voit bien. 



CATS OF THE PAST 



ii 



Moncrieff had to suffer an immense amount 
of ridicule on account of his charming " Lettres 
sur les Chats," which the author himself calls "a 
gravely frivolous book." Victor Hugo had a 
favourite cat ho called " Chanome," and 
Gautier's cat slept in his bed, and always kept 
him company at meals. Petrarch loved his 
cat as he loved his Laura. Dr. Johnson u^>ed 
to indulge his cat Hodge with oyster^ which 
he would go out himself to purchase. Chestei- 
field provided for his cat in his will. Sir Walter 
Scott's love of dogs did not prevent him de- 
lighting in the company of a " conversable 
cat," and Hunse, of Hunsefield, seems to have 
possessed a large share of the great man's 
affection, and when he died his master wrote 
thus to Richardson : " Alack-a-day ! my 
poor cat, Hime, my acquaintance, and in some 
sort my friend of fifteen years, was snapped at 
even by that paynim, Nimrod. What could I 
say to him, but what Brantome said to some 
ferraillcur who had been too successful in a 
duel : 'Ah, mon grand ami, vous avez 
tue mon autre grand ami.' " Amongst famous 
French novelists several have been cat lovers, 
especially Dumas, who in his " Memoires" makes 
notable mention of " Le Docteur." Cowper, 
Shelley, Wordsworth, Swinburne, and Matthew 
Arnold all wrote lovingly of cats. But Shake- 
speare, although he makes forty-four distinct 
mentions of cats, never has a good word for 
poor pussy. In " All's Well that Ends Well " 
he gives vent to his dislike. Bertram rages 
forth : 

" I could endure anything before me but a cat, 
and now he's cat to me." 

In " Cymbeline " occurs this passage : " In 
killing creatures vile as cats and dogs " ; and 
in " Midsummer Night's Dream " Lysander is 
made to exclaim : " Hang off, thou cat, thou 
burr, thou vile thing." 

Romeo cries out : 

" Every cat and dog 
And little mouse, every unworthy thing." 

From these quotations alone we may infer 
that, at any rate, dogs and cats were not favour- 



ites with the great bard. There is only one 
mention of cats in Dante. He compares to 
cats the demons who, with their hooks, claw the 
"barterers" (i.e. abusers of their office as magis- 
trates), when these sinners try to emerge from 
the hot pitch wherein they are punished. He 
says of one of these wretches : " Tra male gatte 
era venuto il sorco." (Inf. XXII., 58.) Trans- 
lation: "Among wicked cats the mouse 
came." 

In the " Westlosthcher Divan " of Goethe, 
written in his old age, but full of youthful spirit 
and of the freshest allusions to Eastern things, 
the cat is called one of the four " favoured 
beasts/' i.e. animals in a state of grace, admit- 
ted into Paradise, in a verse very near the end 
of the poem, which being literally translated, 
reads thua : 

" This cat of Abuherriras " (a friend of 
the prophet Mahomet) ''purrs about the 
Lord, and coaxes. Since he is ever a holy 
beast whom the Prophet stroked." 

Robert Listen, who, as everyone knows, 
was the leading London surgeon in the middle 
of the nineteenth century, was passionately 
attached to his cat, and used to introduce 
it to his guests at the dinner parties 
which, according to the custom of a past 
generation, he gave his medical friends. On 
these occasions the cat would gravely walk 
round the dinner table during dessert to be 
admired by the guests in succession, and it 
once happened that the top of its tail got into 
the wineglass of Dr. Anthony Todd Thoruson, 
Listen's famous colleague at University College 
Hospital. This man promptly struck the 
animal. Listen was so enraged that he started 
from his seat and denounced his guest in lan- 
guage more forcible than elegant. 

Jeremy Bentham, who introduced by their 
names to Lord Brougham the cats seated on 
chairs round his table, deserves honour, not 
only as the foremost of modern jurists but 
also because, in his " Principles of Morals and 
Legislation," he had expressed better than 
others the claims of brutes to kind treatment. 

The great scholar and eminent writer, St. 
George Mivart, has given the world a wonder- 



12 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



fully comprehensive work on the Cat, and has 
used the maligned feline as his type for an in- 
troduction to the study of back-boned animals. 
It is he who remarks : " We cannot, without 
becoming cats, perfectly understand the cat 
mind." 

Perhaps the unkindest picture given to us 
of a cat is from the pen of the naturalist 
Buffon. " The cat " (says this unsympathetic 
student) " is an unfaithful animal, kept only 
from necessity in order to suppress a less 
domestic and more unpleasant one, and 




THE CAT IN HERALDRY. 
(From Frank's Collection of Book Plates.) 

although these animals are pretty creatures, 
especially when they are young, they have a 
treacherous and perverse disposition, which 
increases with age, and is only disguised by 
training. They are inveterate thieves ; only 
when they are well brought up they become as 
cunning and flattering as human rascals." 

Chateaubriand, referring to these scathing 
remarks, says: " Buffon has belied this animal. 
I am labouring at her rehabilitation, and hope 
to make her appear a tolerably good sort of 
beast." 

A charming reference to the ways of cats 
occurs in a curious and interesting book by a 




THE PRINTER'S MARK OF MELCHIOR SESSA, 
OF VENICE. 

(From a Print at the British Museum.) 

once famous Jesuit, Father Bougeant, who 
lived in the first half of the eighteenth century. 
There is an English translation of this work, 
which has passed also into other languages and 
several editions. This is the passage trans- 
lated : 

" Such is one of those big-whiskered and well- 
furred torn cats, that you see quiet in a corner, 
digesting at his leisure, sleeping if it seems good 
to him, sometimes giving himself the pleasure of 
hunting, for the rest enjoying life peaceably, 
without being troubled by the events which agitate 
us, without tiring his mind by a thousand useless 
reflections, and little caring to communicate 
his thoughts to others. Truly it needs only that 
a female cat (une chatte) come on the scene to 




A MERCHANT S MARK. 
(From a Print at the British Museum.) 



CATS OF THE PAST. 



derange all his philosophy ; but are our philos- 
ophers wiser on such occasions ? " 

The cat, as the emblem of independence 
and liberty, has been used in heraldry, statuary, 
and signboards. In the sixteenth century a 
well-known firm of printers named Sessa, at 
Venice, adopted the device of a cat surrounded 



Maison du chat qui peche." In the Lombards' 
quarter of Paris, " Le Chat Noir " was for- 
merly a familiar figure above restaurants and 
confectioners. In England we often come 
across " The Cat and the Fiddle " as a sign- 
board to old country village inns, and in 
Cassell's " Old and New London " a writer 



by curious ornamentation, and Dibdin in one of says : " Piccadilly was the place in which ' The 



his works tells us that whenever you see Sessa's 
cat you may be sure the book is a good one and 
worth reading. Ever 
since the days when 
the Romans carried on 
their banners the de- 
sign of a cat, this com- 
bative and courageous 
animal has been a fa- 
vourite symbol of war- 
riors and nobles. The 
wife of King Clovis, 
Clotilde,had a cat sable 
upon her armorial 
bearings, springing at a 
rat, and on the famous 
Katzen family's shield 
was a cat holding a 
mouse in its mouth. 
In Scotland the Clan 
Chattan was known by 
the emblem of a wild 
cat with the significant 
motto, " Touch not the 
cat, but " (meaning 
without) " the glove." 
Their chief was called 
Mohr au chat, or the great wild cat. 

M. Champfleury, dealing with cats in 
heraldry, tells us that the French Republic 
resumed heraldic possession of the cat and 
added it to its glorious shield of arms ; and 



ALICE AND THE CHESHIR1 
CAT. 




Cat and Fiddle ' first appeared as a public- 
house sign. The story is that a Frenchwoman, a 

small shopkeeper, had 
a very faithful and 
favourite cat, and that 
in lack of any other 
sign, she put over her 
door the words : ' Voici 
tin chat fidele.' From 
some cause or other, 
the ' Chat Fidele ' soon 
became a popular sign 



in France, and was 
speedily Anglicised into 



From ''AH<e's Adventurer in Won- 
derland,'' by Lewis Carroll. 

(By permission of Messrs. Maaitillan & 
Co., Limitttt.} 



' The Cat and Fiddle,' 
because the words form 
part of one of our most 
popular nursery 
rhymes." 

Many are the popu- 
lar traditions, maxims, proverbs, and super- 
stitions connected with the cat. In olden days 
her every movement was looked upon as a sign 
of ill-omen or of good luck. Old nurses would 
drive a cat out of the bedroom with much sig- 
nificance of manner, that it might not " suck 
the child's breath." There is a superstition 
that a cat will not remain in a house with an 
unburied corpse. 

M. Presse d'Aveunes gives an account of 
a curious cat superstition. " When a woman 
gives birth to twins, boys or girls, the last 



an illustration is given in his book of the re- born of the two, whom they call ' barecy ' 

publican painter's figure of Liberty holding a (sometimes both), has at times, and it may 

pike surmounted with a Phrygian cap, and at be all its life long, an irresistible craving for 

her feet is seated a cat. particular eatables ; and in order to satisfy 

In past, rather than in present, days the more easily its gluttonous desires, it assumes 

cat was used on signboards, especially in the shape of different animals, and espe- 

France. We read of " La Maison du chat cially that of the cat. During the trans- 

pelote " (i.e. which rolls itself up), and " La migration of the spirit into another shell, the 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



human body is as a corpse, but when the 
spirit has satisfied its desires it retakes its 
proper form." 

He continues : " Having one day killed 
a cat which had made inroads upon my 
larder, a druggist of the neighbourhood came 
to me in a great fright and entreated me to 
spare all animals, for he said he had a daughter 
who had the misfortune to be a ' barecy,' and 
that she was often in the habit of assuming 



part in little rhythmical dramas, cunningly 
presented to the drowsy child, who falls asleep 
with a familiar image parading fantastically 
through his brain." French nursery rhymes 
are much prettier than English. For instance, 
this bald and commonplace statement is not 
calculated to catch the attention of the juvenile 
mind : 

" Great A, little A, bouncing B, 
Cats in the cupboard, and can't see me." 




A STUDY. 
(From the painting by Madame Ronner.) 



the shape of a cat in order to eat the sweet- 
meats served at my table." 

Milton tells us " that when the cat washes 
her face over her eares, we shall have a great 
store of raine." A cat sneezing is supposed to 
bring luck to a bride on her wedding day. 
Sailors have in all times been prone to super- 
stition as regards cats. A black cat's appear- 
ance on the ship foretells disaster, but if a 
cat should disappear overboard the greatest 
consternation is caused amongst the crew. 

Very plentiful are the nursery rhymes, fairy 
tales, and stories concerning cats a good-sized 
book would not contain them. " The cat," 
says M. Champfleury, " is the nurse's favourite 
and the baby's earliest friend. It plays its 



How much softer and daintier are the fol- 
lowing lines : 

"A, B, C, 

Le chat est alle 
Dans la neige ; en retournant 

II avait les soulicrs tout blancs." 

In passing, I should say it is strange that to 
the French a cat is always masculine, and to 
the English feminine. 

In the days of good Queen Anne the story 
of pussy's venturesome journey to London 
was put into verse, and what child has not 
listened eagerly to these lines from that time 
down to our present day ? 



CATS OF THE PAST. 



" ' Pussy-cat, Pussy-cat, 

Where have you been ? ' 
' I've been to London 
To see the Queen.' 

" ' Pussy-cat, Pussy-cat, 

\Yhat did you do there ? ' 
' I frightened a little mouse 
Under her chair.' " 

In " Alice in Wonderland " Lewis Carroll 
has given the world " a childish story " which 
will never cease to 
delight both young 
and old. In this we 
read of the "Che- 
shire Cat " which 
grinned down upon 
the guests assem- 
bled at the royal 
croquet party, and 
having incurred the 
anger of the Queen, 
was in danger of 
having its head cut 
off by order of the 
infuriated monarch. 
The other volume 
by the same author 
" Alice Through 
the Looking-Glass " 
opens with a de- 
scription of the way 
in which Dinah the 
cat washed her chil- 
dren's faces : 
" First she held the 
poor thing down by 
its ear with one 

paw, and then with the other paw she rubbed 
its face all over the wrong way, beginning at 
the nose." Then follows an animated con- 
versation between Alice and the kitten. All 
the world knows of the love Lewis Carroll had 
for children, and I can assert he had an affection 
also for cats, for when a child he spoilt and 
petted me and my kitten. I only wish I could 
remember the deliciously impossible stories he 
was wont to tell me of fairies, goblins, and 
pussy-cats. 




MADAME RONNER AT WORK 
(Photo: Alexandre^ Brussels.) 



Harrison Weir, in his book on cats, has 
gathered together a number of curious cat 
proverbs. Some are very familiar, such as : 
" A cat may look at a king " ; " Care will kill 
the cat " ; " When the cat is away the mice will 
play," and a very significant one is : " When 
the maid leaves the door open the cat's in 
fault." The quaint saying, "When candles are 
out all cats are gray " is a very expressive one. 
When we consider the cat in art, it is among 

Eastern painters we 
find the most deli- 
cate and skilful 
studies. Next to 
the Egyptians, the 
Chinese and Japan- 
ese have excelled in 
the artistic treat- 
ment of animals. 
In many of the 
Dutch interiors 
given to us by Flem- 
ish artists, the do- 
mestic cat may be 
seen curled up on 
the hearth, or sit- 
ting erect, bearing 
somewhat the ap- 
pearance of being 
stuffed with bran. 

In many of the 
early Italian sacred 
pictures we find the 
cat depicted, but 
great painters, like 
Titian, Velasquez, 
and Murillo, seem 
to have preferred the dog as an adjunct to their 
portraits. Raphael and Salvator both con- 
sidered puss a worthy subject for their brush. 
In M. Champfleury's interesting book on cats 
he gives a facsimile from the powerful pencil 
of Mind, whom Madame Lebrun has termed 
" the Raphael of Cats." The attitudes are so 
true to nature that the cat seems alive. Mind 
was a native of Berne, and in 1809, on account 
of a scare of madness amongst cats, eight hun- 
dred were put to death. This was a heart- 



i6 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



break to the cat-loving painter, who, however, 
managed to save his favourite pet Minette from 
the wholesale massacre. 

Very quaint reproductions of cats have been 
made in the following wares : Whieldon, Salt 
Cilaze, Agate, and Staffordshire. With Chinese 
and Japanese cat figures we are all familiar ; 
they are grotesque rather than beautiful. 

Coming down to the cat artists of the present 
day, we would mention Madame Henriette 
Ronner, who has justly deserved the great repu- 
tation that she has acquired in her own country 
as well as ours. It is in depicting kittens in 
their ever-vary- 
ing moods that 
MadameRonner 
most excels. 
Whether play- 
ing havoc with 
antique lace, as 
in " Un Bout 
de Toilette," 
scattering an 
artist's materi- 
als, as in " Mis- 
chief," or drag- 
ging jewels from 
a casket, her 
kittens are 
instinct with 
vitality, and are 
portrayed in a manner implying knowledge of 
their anatomical structure, as well as in a most 
appreciative perception of their youth and 
beauty. Most lovers of cats are acquainted 
with Madame Ronner's artistic volume con- 
taining so many faithful and lovely reproduc- 
tions of several of her best pictures, and an 
interesting account of her life and work written 
by Mr. M. H. Spielmann. 

Another famous painter of cats is M. Eugene 
Lambert, who may be said to divide the honours 
with Madame Ronner in portraying with fidelity 
and artistic taste the feline race. Among 
English animal painters we have none who can 
come anywhere near to these two celebrated 
French artists in their marvellous delicacy of 
touch andsubtle skill in depicting cat and kittens. 




" CRYSTAL," 
THE PROPERTY OF MRS. FINNIE YOUNG. (Photo: C. Reid, Wishaiu.') 



In these latter days who is there amongst 
us, young and old, who has not enjoyed 
a hearty laugh over the comical cats of 
Louis Wain ? In his particular line, he 
is unique, for no one has ever portrayed 
cats in such various attitudes and with 
such deliciously expressive countenances. The 
adjectives and adverbs of the Cataract of 
Lodore would not suffice to describe the 
varied emotions of these funny felines. A 
Christmas without one of Louis Wain's 
clever m catty pictures would be like a 
Christmas pudding without the currants ! 

To Harrison 
Weir cats and 
cat lovers owe 
a debt of grati- 
tude. He has 
done much to 
raise the stand- 
ard of the feline 
race, and in his 
excellent book 
called "Our 
Cats," he thus 
writes in his 
preface : 

"Long ages of 
neglect, ill treat- 
ment, and abso- 
lute cruelty, with 
little or no gentleness, kindness, or train- 
ing, have made the cat self-reliant ; and from 
this emanates the marvellous powers of 
observation, the concentration of which has pro- 
duced a style analogous to reasoning, not unmixed 
with timidity, caution, wildness, and a retaliative 
nature. But should a new order of things arise, 
and it is nurtured, petted, cosseted, talked to, 
noticed, and tamed with mellowed firmness 
and tender gentleness, then in but a few genera- 
tions much evil that bygone cruelty has stamped 
into its wretched existence will disappear, and 
it will be more than ever, not only a useful, ser- 
viceable helpmate, but an object of unceasing 
interest, admiration, and cultured beauty, and 
thus being of value, it will be profitable." 

It was Harrison Weir who instituted and 
carried out the first Cat Show held at the 



CATS OF THE PAST. 



Crystal Palace in 1871, and since then he has 
taken an active part in the cat world. Of late 
years, however, he has been failing in health, 
and it was suggested that some testimonial 
should be offered to him in his declining years 
by his many admirers and cat-loving friends. 
Our Cats, that popular weekly publication, 
opened a list in their columns, the result being 
a handsome piece of plate, which the veteran 
F.R.H.S. was asked to accept. In his reply 
acknovyledging the gift, he writes : " Kindest 
and best wishes to those warm-hearted and 
truly unforgetful friends who have contributed 
towards the very handsome testimonial." 
Then he goes on to allude to the first cat show 
and to his prophecy regarding the growing 
popularity of the cat family : " Did I expect 
the outcome to be what it is ? Yes, and no. 
I fully expected large shows and more of them, 
and a ' Cat Press,' and in the papers cat 



columns for the universal and worthy favourite 
cat. But in another way I am disappointed, 
and that is for the neglect of the short-haired 
English cat by the ascendancy of the foreign 
long-hair. Both are truly beautiful, but the 
first in intelligence, in my opinion, is far in 
advance of the latter." Therefore, with a hope 
that Harrison Weir may yet live to see the 
English short-haired cats still more widely 
loved and appreciated, and given better classi- 
fication at^otir shows, I will pass on to my 
chapter on present-day cats and cat clubs. 
and the many other institutions and societies 
which are the outcome of the rapid strides 
that have been made in the cat fancy since 
the day when Harrison Weir was laughed 
at by his incredulous and astonished rail- 
way companion as they travelled together 
to the first Cat Show held at the Crystal 
Palace in 1871. 




LADY ALEXANDER'S " BROTHER BUMP." 

CHAMPION SHORT-HAIRED BLUB. 



i8 




SLEEPING BEAUTIES. 
(.Photo: Mrs. S. Francis Clarke.) 



CHAPTER II. 



CATS OF TO-DAY. 



THE term " Cat " is applied in its widest 
sense to all feline animals. The follow- 
ing are the various names by which the 
cat is known in different countries, and it is 
curious to note that, with two exceptions, 
they all begin with a " C " or a " K," and 
differ very little in pronunciation : Irish and 
Scotch, Cat ; French, Chat ; Dutch, Kat ; Dan- 
ish, Kat ; Swedish, Katt ; 
German, Katti or Katze> ; 
Italian, Gatto ; Portuguese 
and Spanish, Gato ; Polish, 
Kot ; Russian, Kots ; Turk- 
ish, Keti; Welsh, Cetti; Corn- 
ish, Katt ; American, Katz. 
In the English house and 
home we call her " puss," 
and it is the name which ap- 
peals most to our hearts. 
No woman likes to be called 
a " cat," but to be likened to 
a puss or pussy is suggestive 
of something or someone soft 
and pretty, with gentle, win- 
ning ways. Archbishop 
Whately has said that only 
one English noun had a true 
vocative case, " Nominative, 




MISS F. SIMPSON'S " BONNIE BOY. 

(Photo: Gunn &* Stuart, Richmond.') 



cat ; vocative, puss." I do not think that in 
any other country there is a pet name for the 
cat, just as there is no word in any foreign 
language that breathes the same tender 
truth to the hearts as " home." Puss and 
home ! The terms seem so closely connected 
with each other, and suggest peaceful hap- 
piness and restful repose. 

Truly, the history of 
the cat has been a strangely 
chequered one. Perhaps, 
because she is such a secret, 
complex, and independent 
creature she has remained 
somewhat of a puzzle to 
humankind, and is therefore 
to a great extent misunder- 
stood ; but those who will 
take the trouble to consider 
the cat and try to understand 
her, will find that puss is- 
none of those things she has 
been accused of being. It 
is only those who are in 
constant contact with cats 
who understand how intelli- 
gent they really are ; al- 
though their intelligence is 



CATS OF TO-DAY. 



quite in a different mould from that of the 
dog. I may mention that the household cat 
outnumbers, it is said, the household dog in 
London by the proportion of four to one. This 
fact may be accounted for by the non-taxation 
of cats. The question of the taxation of cats 
has very often been raised, and I do not think 
that anyone who really values his cat would 
object to pay a yearly tax ; but the proposal 
is as unpractical as it is ridiculous, and it is 
certain that taxation would not help in 
exterminating the poor, disreputable, half- 
starved members of the feline tribe, who have 
no fixed abode and whose only means of exist- 
ence is by plunder. 

The figure and number nine seems to be 
an important one in connection with cats. 
There is a popular saying that a cat has nine 
lives. The expostulating tabby in Gay's 
Fables says to the old beldame : 

" 'Tis infamy to serve a hag, 
Cats are thought imps, her broom a nag ; 
And boys against our lives combine, 
Because, 'tis said, your cats have nine." 

Cats probably owe this reputation to their 
extraordinary powers of endurance, and cer- 
tain it is that they have a greater tenacity 
to life than any other animal. At the Batter- 



sea Home a dog and a cat have been placed 
in the lethal chamber, and it was observed 
that the dog died in five minutes, whereas 
the cat breathed for forty minutes longer. A 
short time ago I received the following letter 
from a cat fancier : 

" At ii p.m. two kittens, a few hours old, were 
placed in a pail of water, and left there for rather 
over ten minutes. Seeing them at the bottom 
with their months open, it was taken for granted 
they were dead ; the bodies were then trans- 
ferred to the ashpit, and early next morning they 
were discovered to be alive and quite chirpy. 
Restoring them to the mother, they have grown 
nice, strong, healthy little kits, and have just- 
left for comfortable homes." 

In Thistleton Dyer's interesting book on 
" English Folk-lore," reference is made to- 
this subject. " Cats," he says, " from their 
great suppleness and aptitude to fall on their 
feet, are commonly said to have nine lives ; 
hence Ben Johnson, in ' Every Man in his 
Humour,' says, ' 'Tis a pity you had not ten 
lives a cat's and your own.' ' 

" In the Middle Ages a witch was empow- 
ered to take cat's body nine times," so writes 
an eminent old zoologist. 

The "cat-o'-wme-tails" is a dreaded object 
to some light-fingered and heavy-handed 
miscreants. I have heard a magistrate 
remark that he considers this form of pun- 
ishment the best way in which to give hints 




" AT WORK AND PLAY 
(Photo: C. Reui, Wis 



20 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



to the wicked. Garrotting was virtually stamped 
out by its use. Wife-beating would be less 
common if the brute-husband were treated 
to a taste of the cat-o'-nine-tails. This imple- 
ment of torture consists of nine pieces of cord 
put together, and in each cord are nine knots. 
Consequently every stroke inflicts a large 
number of long and severe marks not unlike 
the clawing and scratching of a savage cat, 
producing crossing and re-crossing wounds. 

In my long and varied 
experience of cats, I have 
noticed that more of 
these creatures succumb 
to the common enemy at 
about nine years of age 
than at any other period. 
We have heard of cats 
attaining the age of 
twenty years, but the 
following account sur- 
passes all previous re- 
cords of longevity in 
the feline world : 

To THE EDITOR OF THE 
Stock-Keeper, 

Sir, Seeing you have 
a column in your paper de- 
voted to cats, I thought it 
might interest your read- 
ers to hear that in our vil- 
lage there is a cat thirty- 
one years old. She is quite 
lively, and looks like living 
a few more years. It 
belongs to a poor widow, who told me she had 
it as a kitten when she married. (Her hus- 
band lived twenty-seven years, and has been 
dead four.) 

Newbury, Bucks. W. B. HERMAN. 

It is strange that the poor dead bodies of 
cats have often been used as objects of foolish 
and vulgar so-called sport. Dead cats and 
rotten eggs were, and are sometimes still, con- 
sidered legitimate missiles to make use of at 
borough and county elections. 

All sorts of stories are related of pussy's 
superhuman intelligence, but the most uncanny 




KITTEN BELONGING TO MRS. E. S. OWEN, 

DETROIT, MICHIGAN. 

BY "KlNG OF THE SILVERS" "BLESSED DAMOZEL." 
(Pflota : Albany Art Union, New York.} 



one of very recent date I will refer to here. 
It may be remembered that in the winter of 
1901 a vessel named the Salmon was wrecked. 
On the morning of the accident, this vessel 
was lying alongside the Sturgeon, and her 
two cats, who had all their lives shown the 
most perfect contentment with their home 
and surroundings, made desperate efforts to get 
on board the Sturgeon. The crew drove them 
off again and again, and the ship's dog attacked 
them, but they would not 
be deterred, and when 
the Salmon at last cast 
off, the two cats landed 
with one frantic and final 
spring on to the Sturgeon's 
deck. It seems absurd 
to argue that those cats 
knew of the coming dis- 
aster, yet why should 
they take such a sudden 
and utterly unreasonable 
aversion to the ship which 
had always been their 
home ? And why should 
they insist on making 
their way to another 
vessel from which they 
had been so inhospitably 
repulsed ? 

We have many proofs 
of the extraordinary ex- 
tent to which a cat's 
sense of hearing and smell 
are developed. On my 
voyage out to Australia flying fish would some- 
times fall on to the deck. The cats that are 
always somewhere about the ship might be 
comfortably curled up asleep below, but the 
peculiar sound would fetch them up in a greal 
hurry, and they would rush to secure the prize. 
The crew used to amuse themselves sometimes 
by trying to imitate the noise in various ways 
to deceive them ; but the cats were not to be 
" had " they could distinguish the peculiar 
thud of the flying fish from all other sounds. 

Various theories have been put forward to 
account for the marvellous instinct which a 




THE ANTIQUARIES. 

(From t/ie painting by Madame Runner.) 



2* 



22 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



cat possesses, enabling her to find her way 
home although miles and miles of untraversed 
country lay between her and the place from 
which she has been taken. It is contended 
that a cat which is conveyed in a bag or blind- 
folded will have its sense of smell in full exer- 
cise, and will, by this means take note of the 
successive odours encountered on the way, 
and that these will leave in its mind sufficient 
information of the route so as to make it an 
easy matter for the animal to find its way back 
again. Be this as it may, many of us can state 
facts which are 
even stranger 
than fiction of 
mysterious reap- 
pearances of cats 
who, with a hom- 
ing instinct as 
true as any car- 
rier - pigeon, re- 
turn to the haven 
where they would 
be. 

The instinct 
of maternity is, 
perhaps, more 
largely developed 
in the cat than in 
any other animal. 
No creature 
shows such anx- 
iety for the safety and welfare of her offspring 
as she does, and often her natural timidness will 
give place to bold and fearless courage when 
her little ones have been in any difficulty or 
danger. Mivart tells us of a cat that plunged 
into a swiftly running stream and rescued her 
three drowning kittens, bringing them one by 
one in safety to the shore. During a fire in a 
London theatre, which took place a few years 
ago, a poor cat with her family was left for- 
gotten at the back of the stage. Three times 
the faithful mother rushed into the flaming 
building and reappeared each time with a kitten 
in her mouth. But alas! with fatal persistence 
the devoted creature returned to rescue the 




KEPWICK VIOLET AND " KEPWICK HYACINTH 

BLUES BELONGING TO THE HON. MRS. MACLAREN MORRISON. 

(Photo : J. R. Clarke, Think.) 



was proved, for after the fire was extinguished, 
the charred bodies of mother and child were 
found lying side by side. 

A clever writer has stated that " the human 
race may be divided into people who love cats 
and people who hate them ; the neutrals being 
few in numbers." This is very true. There 
are also differences of opinion as to whether 
cats are desirable inmates of a household or 
not, but there can be no question as to the great 
utility of these animals, and it is only natural 
to suppose that they were created for the pur- 
pose of suppress- 
ing rats and mice 
and other ver- 
min. There is a 
popular notion 
that if a cat is 
petted and well 
fed she will be- 
come less useful 
as a mouser. 
This is a fallacy, 
for the cat's in- 
clination is to 
hunt the mouse 
or rat, not for 
food, but for 
sport, and an ani- 
mal that is en- 
feebled byneglect 
and starvation is 

not in the best condition to successfully catch 
its prey. This love of sport is not, however, 
inherent in all cats, but is hereditary in the 
feline tribe as it is in the human race. 

It may not be generally known that the 
Government pays annual sums for the purpose 
of providing, keeping, and feeding numerous 
" harmless, necessary cats " in their public 
offices, dockyards, and stores, thereby attest- 
ing to the worth and capability of pussy's 
services. 

In the National Printing Office in France 
a considerable number of cats are employed 
in keeping the premises clear of rats and mice 
which would otherwise work havoc amongst 



remaining one, and that she reached the spot the stock of paper always stored in large 



OF TO-DAY. 



quantities. In Vienna, cats are placed on mice. Now rarely one is nibbled, and every 
active service in the municipal buildings. At morning dozens of lifeless bodies are cleared 



many of our great rail- 
way stations there is a 
feline staff engaged in 
the various warehouses 
and offices. The farmer 
will readily admit the 
usefulness of puss in 
his barns, stables, out- 
houses and fields 
Farmers are notori 
ous grumblers, but they 
would have gr ater 
cause for discontent 
and disappointment if 
rats and mice were al- 
lowed to live and thrive, 
and breed and multiply 
on their premises. The 
newly sown peas and 
corn stacks would suffer 




MISS SAVERYS BLUE PERSIAN KITTEN. 
(Photo: H Warschaiuski, Si Leonards-on-Sea.) 



away. Curiously 
enough these dead mice 
have their tails eaten 
off, for apparently this 
cat has a weakness for 
the appendage, whereas, 
usually the head is 
considered the delicate 
morsel amongst the fe- 
line race. It seems that 
although the cat is left 
alone with all the flut- 
tering birds at night, 
she never has attempt- 
ed to molest them in 
any way. 

I lately had occa- 
sion to visit one of our 
London theatres during 
the daytime, when it 



to a terrible extent, and the broods of ducklings was empty ; and observing a big brown cat 
and chickens would speedily vanish if puss did walking about amongst the stalls, I made 
not keep a vigilant eye and silently but surely some remark about him to the official who 



fulfil the duties of her 
calling. 

In the live stock de- 
partment of the Army 
and Navy Stores in Lon- 
don, an orange Persian 
cat may be seen 
strolling about 
amongst the 
cages of birds 
of every sort. 
The attendant 
informed me 
she had been 
on the premises 
three or four 
years, and had 
saved the com- 
pany a " tidy 
sum." Previ- 




accompanied me. He 
said they found it quite 
impossible to get along 
without a cat ; they had 
tried, but the place be- 
came overrun with mice. 
During pussy's 
occupation of 
the empty play- 
house plenty of 
bodies were dis- 
covered, but 
never a live 
mouse had been 
seen disporting 
itself. 

The cats in 
Gove r n m e n t 
service in Ame- 



A PAIR OF SHORT-HAIRED BROWN TABBIES. 
(Photo: T. Fall, Baker St., W.) 

rica are very 

ous to obtaining ner services the packets of numerous. The army has a regular corps of 
bird-seed disappeared like magic, for they them kept at the commissary depots of the 
were demolished wholesale by the swarms of great cities. It is customary for the officer 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



in charge of each depot to submit to the 

War Department a request for an allowance 

for the cats of meat and milk. 

More than three hundred cats are 

in the employ of the Post Office 

Department, distributed among 

about fifty of the largest offices. 

The New York City office expends 

sixty dollars annually in cats'- 

meat. At Pittsburg, there is a 

"cold-storage" breed of cats, 

which has special qualifications 

for enduring extreme cold. These 

cats are short tailed, with long 

and heavy fur, and their eyebrows 

and whiskers are extraordinarily 

long and strong. It is said they 

do not thrive when transferred 

to an ordinary atmosphere. 

The following extract from the 
Daily Mail of February ist, 1902, 
gives us an account of a most 
exemplary, well trained, and up- CAT CALENDAR. 

to-date cat, and opens up a fresh (.By kind permission of Ra 
field for the utility and agility of 
our domestic pets not an absolutely fresh 
field indeed, if one recalls the fact that Puss 
was already a " retriever " in ancient Egypt. 




A PING-PONG CAT. 

Hunting for balls is un- 
doubtedly the one great draw- 
back to ping-pong. Might I 
suggest a novel and easy 
method of accomplishing this 
difficult and unpleasant task ? 

My cat is now an expert in 
the art of finding ping-pong 
balls. Immediately the ball 
touches the floor the cat is 
after it, and brings it from its 
hiding-place to the side of the 
table at which I am playing, 
thus saving me from unneces- 
sary exertion. F. S. W. 




CAT CALENDAR. 

(By kind permission o/ Raphael Tuck &> Co.) 



The thought suggests itself that pussy's teeth 
and claws might work serious havoc amongst 
the ping-pong balls, and that some of these 
would be produced in a mutilated condition. 



Of all animals the cat appears most to re- 
sent being taught or trained to do tricks. Puss 
has a natural antipathy to be 
forced to do anything, or remain 
anywhere against her will. Hence 
the few exhibitions of really clever 
performing cats in comparison 
with the marvellous feats achieved 
by dogs. It has been stated that 
the cat is the hardest animal to 
teach ; it takes years to train a 
cat to perform some simple trick 
which a dog would learn in as 
many weeks. Once a cat is trained, 
it becomes a very valuable pos- 
session. We have all seen the 
Happy Family, consisting of 
monkeys, guinea-pigs, canaries, 
pigeons, and mice, whilst a cat 
is seated demurely in the midst 
of this incongruous assembly. No 
doubt some training was required 
to cause puss to disregard the 
natural instincts of her race. 

The cat is a most cleanly crea- 
ture, and perhaps more particular about her 
appearance than any other animal. As Miss 
Agnes Repplier, in her delightful book. " The 
Fireside Sphinx," says: 
"Pussy's adroitness is 
equalled only by her deli- 
cacy and tact. Her clean- 
liness and her careful atten- 
tion to her toilet show re- 
spect for herself and for us." 
One of the strangest 
and most profitable trades 
in London is the wholesale 
and retail business of horse- 
meat for cats. In barrows 
and carts the hawkers of 
this horse-flesh cry their 
wares throughout the city 
and suburbs, and find a 
ready sale for them. It is stated that 
26,000 horses, maimed, or past work, are 
slaughtered and cut up every year to feed our 
household pets. Each horse means on an 



CATS OF TO-DAY. 



average 275 pounds of meat, and this is sold 
by pussy's butcher in half pennyworths skew- 
ered on bits of wood. The magnitude of this 



birthday. His occupation was also given 
' mouse-catcher, worker on his own account.' " 

A description of the ordinary domestic cat 



trade can be estimated by the fact that it keeps i s hardly necessary, but before I pass on to 
constantly employed thirty wholesale sales- mention matters of general interest concern- 
men. I may here mention that a cats'-meat i ng ca ts of to-day, I will give a quotation from 
men's supper was organised last year in London a Board School boy's essay, which speaks for 
by the editor of Our Cats, assisted by Mr. Louis itself : 

"The house-cat is a four-legged quadruped, 
the legs as_usual being at the corners. It is 



Wain and others ; and a most 
entertainment was given at the City of New 



York Restaurant. The applications for tickets what is some times called a tame animal, though 



were so numerous that 400 men had to be re- 
fused ; and when the 250 guests were seated, 
it was clearly proved that 
every available inch of 
accommodation had been 
utilised. Having been 
present, I can testify to 
the excellent supper and 
entertainment provided 
for the cats'-meat men 
of London. 

The most casual ob- 
server cannot have failed 
to remark the wonderful 
development of late years 
in " Catty " Christmas 
souvenirs, thus giving 
proof of the growth of 
love and admiration for 
pussy. We have cat al- 
manacks, cat calendars, and cat annuals, and 
I can testify to the innumerable Christmas 




CAT CALENDAR. 

{By kind permission of Raphael Tuck d- 3 Co.) 



it feeds on mice and birds of prey. Its colours 
are striped, it does not bark, but breathes through 
its nose instead of its mouth: 
Cats also mow, which you 
have all heard. Cats have 
nine liveses, but which is 
seldom wanted in this 
country, coz' of Christian- 
ity. Cats eat meat and 
most anythink speshuelly 
where you can't afford; 
This is all about cats." 

Perhaps my readers 
may think that after 
such a lucid description 
of the subject in hand, 
further comments are 
unnecessary ! 

I will proceed, how- 
ever, to give a glance 

round at the Cat Fancy in general before men- 
tioning particulars of Clubs and Cats of the 



cards with designs of cats of all sorts and present day. The question has often been 
conditions which have found their way into asked whether the Cat Fancy will ever be- 
my hands expressive of good wishes at the come as popular and fashionable as the breed- 
festive season. ing of dogs, poultry, and birds ? I think this 
The official mind would probably frown at question may be answered in the affirmative, 
the suggestion that the census returns should when we consider that during last year a dozen 
be enlivened with incidental humour. How- and more large cat shows have been held in 
ever, after the last census, the following state- different parts of England and Scotland, to 



ment appeared in the press : 

" An enumerator in going over a return paper 
found that the household cat had been included 
as a member of the family. It was described 
as ' Jim,' the relationship to the head of the 



say nothing of numerous mixed shows where 
a section for cats was provided. Every year 
the number of fanciers increases, and although 
this particular hobby is almost entirely 
confined to the gentler sex, yet it is really sur- 



family being ' lodger.' The entry then stated prising to find how many more men are be- 
that he was of the male sex, single, aged one last ginning to take an interest in the pussies, and 



26 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



are keenly excited in the winnings of the 
household pet or the king of the cattery. As 
a friend once said to me, " You know what 
men are ; if only the cats win prizes, my hus- 
band does not mind, but it is a different 
matter if I return from a show with no award ; 
then he declares we must get rid of all the 
cats ! " I am afraid that cat fanciers must 
be looked upon as a rather quarrelsome set, 



interest has been manifested, better classifi- 
cation given, and a larger number of cats 
exhibited. It was, therefore, considered ad- 
visable to have some definite organisation, 
and the National Cat Club was instituted in 
1887, with Mr. Harrison Weir as president. I will 
now proceed to give a list, which I believe to be 
complete and correct, of the various other clubs 
and societies in England and America which 



and there is no doubt that petty jealousies have been organised and which are all at this 
and spiteful gossip retard in many ways the 
development and im- 
provement of the fancy. 

Another question 
that is often asked is 
whether cats can be 
made to pay or, in 
other words, whether 
cat breeding is a profit- 
able undertaking. 
From my own experi- 
ence, which has ex- 
tended over a number 
of years, I can unhesi- 
tatingly say I have de- 
rived not only much 
pleasure but a good 
deal of profit from 
keeping cats, and also 

I have started many MR . HARRISON WEIR. 

friends in the fancy (piuto-. c. E. corke, smenoaks.) 

who have gone on and 

prospered. The dangers that beset begin- well, near Bristol, 
ners are many, and the chief difficulty is to 
know how to limit the number of our pussies 
and so avoid overcrowding, or retaining poor 
stock which will not prove creditable or profit- 
able. Cat keeping on an extensive scale means 
a large outlay, followed by constant and un- 
tiring attention. I do not intend, however, 
in' this chapter to enter into any details as to 
the care and management of cats, for this and 
other subjects connected with their interests 
will be fully dealt with later on. 

In my preceding chapter I alluded to the 
first Cat Show held at the Crystal Palace in 
1871. This exhibition of cats has become 




present time in thoroughly good working order. 

LIST OF CAT CLUBS 
AND SOCIETIES. 

The National Cat Club, 
founded 1887. Hon. sec., 
Mrs. A. Stennard-Robin- 
son, 5, Great James Street, 
Bedford Row, London, 
W.C. Annual subscrip- 
tion, i guinea. 

The Cat Club, founded 
1898. Hon. sec., Mrs. 
Bagster, 15 A, Paternoster 
Row, London, E.G. An- 
nual subscription, 
i guinea. 

The Northern Counties' 
Cat Club, founded 1900. 
Hon. sec., Mrs. Herbert 
Ra.nsome, Altrincham. 
Annual subscription, IDS. 
The Silver and Smoke 
Persian Cat Society, 
founded 1900. Hon. sec., 
Mrs. H. V. James, Back- 
Annual subscription, 55. 

Black and White Club. Hon. sees., Miss Kerswill 
and Miss White Atkins. Entrance fee, is.; annual 
subscription, 45. 

The Blue Persian Cat Society, founded 1901. Hon. 
sec., Miss Frances Simpson, Durdans House, St. 
Margaret's-on-Thames. Annual subscription, 55. 

The Siamese Club, founded 1900. Hon. sec., 
Mrs. Baker, i3,Wyndham Place, Bryanston Square, W. 
Annual subscription, 4.5. ; to working classes, 2s. 6d. 
The Orange, Cream, Fawn and Tortoise-shell 
Society, founded 1900. Hon. sec., Miss Mildred Beal, 
Ronaldkirk Rectory, Darlington. Annual subscrip- 
tion, IDS. 

The Chinchilla Cat Club, founded May, 1901 . Hon. 
sec., Mrs. Balding, 92, Goldsmith Avenue, Acton. 
Annual subscription, 53. 

The Short-haired Cat Club, founded 1901. Hon. 



an annual fixture, and year by year greater sec., Mrs. Middleton, 67, Cheyne Court, Chelsea. 



CATS OF TO-DAY. 



27 



The Scottish Cat Club, founded 1894. Hon. sec., 
J. F. Dewar, 2, St. Patrick Square, Edinburgh. An- 
nual subscription, 53. 

The Midland Counties Cat Club, founded at 
Wolverhampton, 1901. Hon sec., Miss Cope, 136, 
Bristol Road, Birmingham. Annual subscription, 53. 

The British Cat Club, founded 1901: Hon. sec., 
Sir Claude Alexander, Faygate Wood, Sussex. Sub- 
scription, 53. 

The Manx Cat Club, founded 1901. Miss Hester 
Cochran,Witchampton,Wimborne. Subscription, 53. 

The Beresford Cat Club (Chicago), founded 1899. 
President, Mrs. Clinton Locke ; corresponding secre- 
tary, Mrs. A. Michelson, 220, 
East Sixtieth Street, Chicago. 
Annual subscription, resident 
members, 2 dollars ; non-resi- 
dent, i dollar. 

The Chicago Cat Club, 
founded 1899. President, Mrs. 
Leland Norton, Drexel Ken- 
nels, Drexel Boulevarde, 
Chicago. 

The Louisville Cat Club, 
founded 1900. Corresponding 
secretary, Miss E. Converse. 
Annual subscription, 50 cents. 

The Pacific Cat Club, found- 
ed 1900. Corresponding secre- 
tary, Mrs. A. H. Brod, 114, 
Brodcrick Street, San Francisco. 
Annual subscription, i dollar. 

The Atlantic Club, founded 
in New York, 1902. Correspond- 
ing secretary, Dr. Ottolengui, 
So, West Fortieth Street, New 
York. 




MR. LOUIS WAIN. 
(Photo : Lascelles & Co.) 



Since the formation of the National Cat 
Club, many changes in its constitution have 
taken place. On the retirement of Mr. Harri- 
son Weir from the presidency, Mr. Louis Wain 
was appointed, and still holds the office. The 
N.C.C. is fortunate in having so energetic a 
hon. sec. and treasurer as Mrs. Stennard- 
Robinson, whose name is so well known in the 
" doggy " world. The following is a list of 
officers of the National Cat Club at the time 



V ice-Presidents. The Right Hon. the Countess 
of Warwick, The Viscountess Maitland, The Mar- 
chioness of Dufferin and Ava, The Countess of 
Aberdeen, The Lady Hothfield, Lady Willoughby, 
Lady Reid, The Hon. Mrs. McLaren Morrison, The 
Lady Granville Gordon, Lady Decies, The Hon. Mrs. 
Baillie, Madame Ronner, Mr. Isaac Woodiwiss, Mr. 
Sam Woodiwiss. 

Committee. Louis Wain (President), Lady Decies, 
Lady Alexander, The Hon. Mrs. McLaren Morrison, 
Mrs.Vallance, Mrs. Balding, Miss Hamilton, Dr. Roper, 
Mrs. Herring, Mrs. Ransome, Mrs. G. H. Walker. 
Hon. Sec. and Treasurer. Mrs. A. Stennard j 
Robinson, 13, Wyndham Place, 
Bryanstone Square, W. (Tele- 
graphic address "Bow-wow, 
London.") 

The National Cat Club was 
organised (i) to promote hon- 
esty in the breeding of Cats, so 
as to ensure purity in each dis- 
tinct breed or variety ; (2) to 
determine the classification re- 
quired, and to encourage the 
adoption of such classification 
by breeders,, exhibitors, judges, 
and the committees of all Cat 
Shows ; (3) to maintain and 
keep the National Register of 
Cats; (4) to assist the Showing 
and Breeding of Cats, by hold- 
ing Cat Shows under the best 
sanitary conditions, giving 
Championship and other prizes, 
and otherwise doing all in its 
power to protect and advance 
the interests of Cats and their 
owners. 

The National Cat Club.is also a Court of Inquiry 
and Appeal in all matters relating to Cats, or affect- 
ing the ownership of Cats, and so saves the expense 
to its Members of litigation. 

The National Cat Club founded its Stud Book 
some twelve years ago, and it is the only reliable source 
of information concerning the pedigree of Cats. The 
Registration Fee is is. for the Register of Names, 
but for the Stud Book the fee is 55. for Approved 
Cats exhibited under N.C.C. Rules. 

The two principal shows of the National 



of writing, and a summary of the objects for Cat Club are held annually at the Botanical 



which the Club was organised : 



THE NATIONAL CAT CLUB. 
Patron. H.H. Princess Victoria of Schleswig 



Holstein. 

President.- 



-Her Grace the Duchess of Bedford. 



Gardens in connection with the Ladies' Kennel 
Association in June, and at the Crystal Palace 
in October. In 1901 the total number of cats 
shown at the Palace was 601, and the entries 
numbered 1,021. There were 106 classes 



28 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



provided for long- and short - haired cats. 
The following is the definition of the classes : 

DEFINITION OF CLASSES. 

Open Classes. Open to all Cats, Prize-winners or 
Novices. 

Limit Classes. For Cats of any age that have not 
won Three First Prizes. 

Novice Classes. For Cats of any age that have 
never won a First Prize 
at any Show. 

Special Novice Cats. 
For Cats or Kittens 
over 6 months that have 
never won a Prize of 
any sort at a Crystal 
Palace Show. 

Neuter Classes. For 
Gelded Cats. 

Stud Classes. For 
Male Cats that have 
sired Kittens which are 
entered a ad on exhibi- 
tion in this Show. 

BtoodQuenn Class. 
For Queen Cats whose 
Kittens are entered in 
this Show. 

Selling Class. For 
Cats of any colour or 
Sex to be sold at a price 
not exceeding 3 guineas 
in Long - haired or 2 
guineas in Short : haired 
and Foreign. 

Ring Class. For Cats 
shown in collar, and lead. 

Kitten. Classes. 
Single entries to be over 
3 months and under 8 
months, unless other- 
wise stated. 

Brace. For 2 Cats, age over 6 months. 

Team. For three or more Cats, age over 6 months. 

No Cats can be entered in brace or teams unless 
also entered in one other class. 

The money prizes in each class are First, 
i ; Second, ros. ; Third, 53. The list of 
special prizes, including Challenge Trophies 
and medals, numbered 262 at the last Crystal 
Palace Show in 1901. 

In addition to the two regular fixtures of the 
N .C.C. , other catshows are held in different places 
in connection with the Club and under its rules. 




LADY MARCUS 
(From a painting by 



The National Cat Club reigned alone until 
1898, when Lady Marcus Beresford started 
and founded the Cat Club. This ardent cat 
lover has done more for pussy than anyone in 
the fancy. She is most lavish in her generosity 
and unwearying in her efforts to promote the 
welfare of the Club. It was Lady Marcus who 
first started the idea of holding cat shows in 

aid of charity. The 
Cat Club's first show, 
held at St. Stephen's 
Hall, Westminster, in 
1899, was in aid of the 
Children's Guild of 
the Deptford Fund. 
In 1900 the fami- 
lies of the soldiers 
and sailors who had 
fallen in the Trans- 
vaal were benefited 
to a large extent by 
the proceeds of the 
show. In 1901 the 
Children's Hospital, 
Great Ormond Street, 
was the charity se- 
lected to receive a 
handsome donation 
of 100. The West- 
minster shows have 
always been splen- 
didly managed, a 
noticeable feature 
being the wonderful 
array of beautiful 
special prizes offered 
for competition. The following is the list of 
officials connected with the Cat Club : 

THE CAT CLUB. 
(Founded by Lady Marcus Beresford.) 

The objects of the Club are the general good of the 
Cat, the promoting of true breeding of Cats, the hold- 
ing of a Winter Show, so that Cats may be exhibited 
at their best, and taking other steps that shall be for 
the welfare of the Cat. 

The annual Subscription is i is., payable on 
election, and on the ist of January in each succeed- 
ing year. 



BERESFORD. 
Edward Hushes.) 



CATS OF TO-DAY. 



29 



A Stud Book and a Register of Cats are kept by 
the Club. 

Presidents. Lily, Duchess of Marlborough : Edith, 
Duchess of Wellington ; Lord Marcus Beresforu. 

Vice-Presidents. Isabella, Countess Howe ; Vis- 
countess Maitland, Viscountess Esher, Lady Ridley, 
Lady de Trafford, The Hon. Mrs. Bampfylde, Lady 
Lister, Lady Gooch, Mrs. Barnet, Mrs. Alfred files, 
Mrs. Walter Campbell, Mrs. Chaine, Mrs. George 
Dawkins, Mrs. Gary Elwes, Mrs. C. Hill, Mrs. King, 
Mrs. Nicholay, Mrs. Tottie, Mrs. Pestoa Whyte, 
Lord Walter Gordon Lennox, A, E. Bateman, Esq., 
Colonel Chaine, Henry King, Esq. 



and required to register their cats in each 
club if they exhibit at the respective shows. 
It would be a great benefit to the cat world 
in general and to the exhibitor in particular 
if some arrangement could be made whereby 
one independent register should be kept, 
and that both clubs might work together 
and assist each other in endeavouring to 
scrutinise and verify all entries made in the 
joint register, so that inaccuracies should be 
detected and fraud prevented. 




LITTER OF SIAMESE KITTENS. 

BELONGING TO LADY MARCUS BERESFORD. 

(Photo.: T. Fall, Baker St., W.) 



Committee. Lady Marcus Beresford, Mrs. Vary 
Campbell, Mrs Dean, Mrs. Paul Hardy, Mrs. C. Hill, 
Miss Anderson Leake, Mrs. R. Blair Maconochie, 
Mrs. Neild, Mrs. Simon, Mrs. Mackenzie Stewart, 
Mr. L. P. C. Astley, Mr. Gambier Bolton, Rev. P. L. 
Cosway, Mr. W. R. Hawkins, Mr. E. W. Witt. 

Hon. Treasurer. Lord Marcus Beresford. 

Hon. Secretary. Mrs. C. J. Bagster, 15 A, Pater- 
noster Row, London, E.G. 

There is really ample room for two parent 
clubs, as the Fancy is making such rapid strides, 
and, no doubt, well-appointed shows with good 
classification do a great deal to benefit breeders 
and assist fanciers. Between the National 
Cat Club and the Cat Club there is one point 
of serious disagreement, namely, as regards reg- 
istration. At present members are expected 



The Northern Counties Cat Club is affiliated 
with the N.C.C., and has quite a large number 
of members. This enterprising club holds 
two shows in Manchester every year, which 
hitherto have been capitally managed by the 
energetic hon. sec. As a natural sequence a 
Midland Counties Club has lately been started, 
having its working centre at Birmingham. No 
doubt arrangements will be made for holding 
a cat show in this or some other equally central 
Midland town. 

The Scottish Cat Club is in a flourishing 
condition, and has been steadily working up 
members since 1894. A show is annually held 
in Edinburgh, and fanciers over the border are 
taking a much keener interest in cats. 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



In America the fancy has gone ahead in a 
wonderful way. It was in 1895 that the first 
cat show of general interest was held at Madison 
Square Gardens, New York. There had pre- 
viously been some private attempts to have 
exhibitions of cats in connection with poultry 
and pigeon shows. In 1896 an American Cat 
Club was organised, which did some good work. 
Then Chicago started a Cat Club in January, 

1899, and this was followed by a most success- 
ful enterprise on the part of Mrs. Clinton Locke, 
who founded the Beresford Cat Club, called 
after Lady Marcus Beresford, 

and now numbering about 
200 members. In January, 

1900, the club held its first 
big show. The classification 
was of a most comprehensive 
nature, and the list of special 
prizes a very liberal one. 
This show is now an annual 
fixture, and the Cat Club of 
England sends medals and 
prizes to be competed for. 
Many of the best cats ex- 
hibited at these shows have 
been exported from Eng- 
land, and Americans are 
very keen in trying to pro- 
cure the very best possible 
stock high prices in many 

cases being offered to induce English fanciers 
to part with prize-winning specimens. 

The following is a list of officials of the 

BERESFORD CAT CLUB OF AMERICA. 

Officers. 

Mrs. Clinton Locke, 2825 Indiana Ave., (President); 
Mrs. Charles H. Lane, 5323 Madison Ave., (First Vice- 
President} ; Mrs. F. A. Howe, 3041 Grand Boulevard 
(Second Vice-President) ; Mrs. A. A. Michelson, 220 
E. 6oth Street (Corresponding Secretary) ; Miss L. C. 
Johnstone, 5323 Madison Ave. (Recording Secretary) ; 
Mrs. Elwood H. Tolman, 5403 Madison Ave. (Trea- 
surer). 

Directors. 

Mrs. J.H.Pratt, 5816 Rosalie Court; Mrs. Lincoln 
Nicholson, Lee Centre, Illinois ; Miss Louise Fergus, 




"PUCK III. 

THE PROPERTY OF THE PRINCESS VICTORIA OF 
SCHLESWIG-HOLSTEIN. 



At the Cat Show held in January, 1902, as 
many as 75 classes were provided, and it is 
plain to see from these that Americans have 
not the same antipathy for broken colours 
that is, cats with white markings as we have 
in England, as there are classes specially for 
orange and white, and black and white cats. 
In another part of this work I shall refer to 
varieties and breeds of cats existing in America 
which differ from those in England. The 
Beresford Cat Club have an extremely well 
arranged stud book and register, which is pub- 
lished annually. I am sure 
that the Cat Fancy in Ame- 
rica has a great future before 
it, and we cannot help being 
greatly struck with the earn- 
estness, thoroughness, and 
enthusiasm with which 
Americans have taken up 
this hobby. When we con- 
sider the great distances in 
the States and the paucity 
of good stud cats, and the 
few opportunities of exhibit- 
ing at well organised shows, 
we cannot fail to admire the 
energy and enterprise dis- 
played by our American 
fellow-fanciers. 

Specialist Clubs for Cats 

are of very recent growth. The first was 
started by an ardent breeder of silver Persians 
in 1900. It was then called the Silver Society, 
and it included smokes and silver tabbies. The 
title of this society has since been changed to 
the Silver and Smoke Persian Cat Society. In 
the following year Blue Persian Breeders be- 
stirred themselves and formed a society for this 
most popular breed. In the same year the 
Orange, Cream, and Tortoiseshell Society, the 
Siamese Club, and the Chinchilla Club were in- 
augurated, also a Manx Club came into exist- 
ence, and two clubs for short-haired cats were 
started. Particulars concerning these special- 
ist societies and their objects will be found in 



3220 Sheridan Road ; Mrs. Blanch P. Robinson, 

6, Langley Place ; Mrs. Vincent E. Gregg, 736 North future chapters on the various breeds of cats. 



Park Avenue. 



It will be noticed bv the list of clubs given 



CATS OF TO-DAY. 



that for brown tabby and black and white 
Persians no societies have as yet been formed, 
but doubtless ere long these varieties will be 
gathered into the fold of specialist clubs. 

A good deal of discussion has taken place 
in"catty circles as to the desirability of having 
specialist societies, but I am sure a vast and 
marked improvement has taken place in the 
different breeds since their formation, and the 
fact of publishing a standard of points has 
certainly assisted breeders in coming to a more 
correct idea of what constitutes a good cat of 
a particular breed. The 
number of challenge prizes, 
medals and specials offered 
by these societies at various 
shows act as an incentive to 
exhibitors, and thus entries 
increase and competition 
becomes keener. Specialist 
cl,ubs are not altogether 
popular with the parent 
clubs, who regard them with 
rather a suspicious and 
jealous eye. They think 
that exhibitors may join 
these less expensive socie- 
ties and yet continue to 
show and win prizes with- 
out subscribing to the club 
that holds the show. No 
doubt there is something 
in this, and specialist clubs 
should be ready and willing not only to 
offer prizes for which their members only can 
compete, but they ought also to guarantee 
classes, and perhaps give a donation towards 
the expenses of the show. 

There have been quite a number of catty 
cases in our courts of late years, and these 
generally seem to cause considerable amuse- 
ment to the legal as well as to the public mind. 
At a recent trial, where a lady was wrongfully 
accused of starving a Persian cat, the magis- 
trate, wishing for information, inquired of the 
witness (who was a veterinary surgeon) how 
long a cat could live without food. The reply 
was, " I am sure I could not say, sir, for cats 




MRS. CLINTON LOCKE AND HER SIAMESE 
AND " BANGKOK." 



KITTENS "CALIF 



are the funniest animals we have to deal with." 
And it is very true that these creatures, being 
so complex, require to be specially studied, 
and our principal veterinaries, who lead busy 
lives, are just a little superior to the many ail- 
ments and infirmities of these too often despised 
animals. It is therefore a subject of satis- 
faction for cat fanciers that two clever and kind 
animal-loving men have taken up the doctoring 
of cats, and_by personal experience are learn- 
ing " pretty pussy's ways " in sickness and 
in health. Mr. Ward, of Manchester, and 
"Salvo," of Hertford Heath, 
are now two household 
names in the cat fancier's 
vocabulary. To the many 
excellent remedies prepared 
by these clever specialists I 
shall refer later on in my 
work. Suffice it here to say 
that when in doubt or diffi- 
culty about your pussy's 
state of health I would re- 
commend you to write to 
either of these common- 
sense practitioners. 

The cat literature of the 
present day has been 
steadily on the increase. 
The first paper to supply 
special cat columns was 
Fur and Feather, which, 
as its title infers, treats be- 
sides of birds, rabbits, poultry, cavies, mice. 
This weekly paper has a large circulation 
amongst the various fanciers. In 1899 Our 
Cats was started, and is widely read by the 
ever-growing circle of cat lovers, and claims the 
unique distinction of being " The only news j 
paper in the world solely devoted to cats." In 
both these papers there are stud advertise- 
ments of cats and a register of visits of queens 
and births of kittens. 

In America the chief organs in the cat 
world are The Cat Journal, The Pet Stock 
News, and Field and Fancy. 

And now a few words on those most ex- 
cellent institutions which should appeal to the 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



hearts of the animal loving public I mean the 
homes for poor stray and starving cats. It is 
a mercy that there are now several of these 
refuges in our great metropolis. I have per- 
sonally visited Gordon Cottage at Argyle Road, 
Hammersmith, and the London Institution in 
Camden Town. The objects of both these 
institutions are practically the same, namely : 
(i) To receive and collect homeless and 
diseased cats and painlessly destroy them. 



have been taken in. Not a day passes without 
several wretched cats having to be destroyed 
at once on admission, and 80 per cent, are 
destroyed within twenty-four hours of admit- 
tance. No charge is made to the poor, and only 
is. 6d. for a painless death in the lethal cham- 
ber is asked from those who can afford this 
most merciful mode of destroying life. The 
dead cats are cremated at the Battersea Dogs' 
Home at a charge of 3d. each body. A motor- 




THE CATS PLAYGROUND : ROYAL LONDON INSTITUTION FOR STARVING 

CATS AT CAMDEN TOWN. 
{Photo: Cassell &> Company. Limited.') 



(2) To provide a temporary home "for 
lost cats. 

(3) To board cats at a moderate weekly 
charge. 

The Camden Town Institution to which Her 
Majesty the Queen has graciously given Her 
Patronage, was founded by Mrs. Morgan in 
1896, and up to the end of 1901 has received 
the enormous number of 47,212 lost and 
starving cats. The average received weekly 
is 300, and in one day as many as 91 cats 



car is employed to go round and collect stray 
cats, and will call at any house if due notice 
has been given to the hon. manageress. It is 
estimated that the number of cats in London 
is close upon three quarters of a million, of 
which from 80,000 to 100,000 are homeless. It 
is during the summer months, when house- 
holders leave town for their holidays, that poor 
pussy is forsaken and forgotten, and no pro- 
vision being made for her, she is forced to take 
to the streets, where she seeks in vain to stalk 



CATS OF TO-DAY. 



33 



the wily London sparrow or pick up any scraps 
from the gutter. The humbler folk very fre- 
quently manifest vastly greater solicitude for 
the Tom or the Tabby of their hearths than do 
their social superiors. All lovers of cats owe a 
debt of gratitude to those truly noble ladies 
who have begun and carry on such a merciful 
work in our midst. To attempt to alleviate 
suffering must appeal to all ; and even those 



In our sister isle there is a Cats' Home, 
established sixteen years ago by Miss Swifte 
in Dublin, and she has most gallantly carried 
out the beneficent objects with which she 
started her humane work. No doubt she and 
other founders of similar institutions have had 
to suffer a considerable amount of ridicule, 
for with many human beings the cat is 
regarded as little deserving of commiseration 




ROYAL LONDON' INSTITUTION FOR LOST AND STARVING CATS. 

(Photo : Cassell & Company, Limited.) 



who have an instinctive dislike to harmless 
cats cannot fail to see the immense benefit 
to be derived by the public at large from 
the noble endeavour to clear our London 
streets, squares, parks, and empty houses of 
these poor forlorn and friendless creatures. 

At. the Battersea Home for Lost Dogs there 
are also splendid arrangements for stray cats, 
and at a very small charge per week cats can 
be ^ taken in to board. The catteries are 
capitally arranged, and the feeding is ex- 
cellent. 



or kindness. It is, however, a sign of increased 
justice and benevolence that these homes for 
cats do exist and obtain public support, al- 
though the funds received are, according to 
all accounts, very inadequate to meet all 
the expenses. This must surely be partly 
because these splendid institutions are so 
little known to the general public. 

Our American cousins are not behindhand 
in their laudable endeavours to cope with the 
question of lost and starving cats, and an 
institution similar to our Battersea Home was 



34 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



started in the early 'eighties in the district 
of Boston, and is called the " Ellen M. Gifford 
Sheltering Home for Animals." The lady 
giving her name to this humane institution 
left a large sum of money to endow the home, 
and over the office is a tablet bearing the 
following extract from one of Miss Gifford's 
letters about the time the home was opened : 



It was as early as 1874 that this institution 
was founded, and in 1889 it was reorganised 
and incorporated as the " Morris Refuge for 
Homeless and Suffering Animals," having for 
its motto " The Lord is good to all, and His 
tender mercies are over all His works." 

The efforts of the charitable ladies who so 
ably assisted in the establishment of these in- 




THE CART OF THE ROYAL LONDON INSTITUTION FOR LOST AND STARVING CATS. 

(Photo: Cassell & Company, Limited.) 



" If only the waifs, the strays, the sick, the 
abused would be sure to get entrance to the 
home, and anybody could feel at liberty to bring 
in a starved or ill-treated animal and have it 
cared for without pay, my object would be 
attained. March 27, 1884." 

According to Miss Helen Winslow, the 
authoress of " Concerning Cats," there is 
another institution in Philadelphia which does 
not limit its good work to tending cats and 
dogs, but cares for all living and suffering 
animals, bringing relief to the unfortunate 
creatures by means of a painless death. 



stitutions have been followed by others, and a 
proposal to found a home for animals in 
Montreal has, I believe, proved successful. 
Miss Winslow tells us that there are several 
cat asylums and refuges in the Far West, and 
a Sheltering Home at Brighton, Mass. In 
1901 a Cat Refuge was started in Chicago by 
a well-known cat-lover, Mrs. Leland Norton, 
and probably, as time goes on, some further 
organised attempt will be made to deal with 
the question of lost and starving cats in 
American towns. 

The love of the cat still lingers in Egypt, 



CATS OF TO-DAY. 



35 



in 




and I have been told that free rations to starv- 
ing cats are dealt out every day at the Palace 
of the Cadi and the Bazar of Khan Kheleel ; 
also that a cats' home has been founded 
Cairo for the lodg- 
ing and feeding of 
homeless cats. 

There was a re- 
port that in order 
to cope with the 
innumerable lost 
and starving cats 
the American Legis- 
lature had decided 
to enforce a bill for 
licensing cats, but 
if such a law came 
into existence in 
any country the re- 
sult would surely 

be that thousands of cats with good homes 
would be thrust out into the streets, and that 
rats and mice would multiply to an alarming 
extent. It is estimated that in New York city 
alone 60,000 cats depend for their daily food 
on gar- 
bage and 
the mice 
and rats 
that they 
capture. 
Therefore, 
if each cat 
catches 
three mice 
or rats a 
week, the 
sum total 
am ounts 
to over 
9,000,000 
a year ! 

I have often wondered why some of our 
numerous "distressed ladies" do not set up 
private homes for the care of cats. A really 
comfortable country home for cats is an 
enterprise in which many a woman, who is 
hopelessly at sea for some means of earning 



THE HON. PHILIP WODEHOUSE S " SILVER SAINT. 
(Photo : Clarke & Co., Norwich.) 



an honest livelihood in this overcrowded 
work-a-day world, might thus combine 
pleasure with profit. Many fanciers feel the 
difficulty and well nigh impossibility of leaving 

their catteries for 
any length of time, 
and few have a per- 
manent and respon- 
sible caretaker on 
the premises. An 
opening, therefore, 
presents itself not 
only for boarding 
homes for cats, but 
for temporary helps 
who could be en- 
gaged by the week 
or month to take 
charge of the cat- 
tery during the ab- 
sence of the owner. Of course, such a person 
should have had experience with cats and kit- 
tens, and above all should be an animal lover. 
To dwellers in any of our large cities the 
sojourn in some country place would come as 

a boon and 




A BEVY OF BLUES BELONGING TO MISS SAVERV 
(Photo : ll'aschenki, St. Leonanls-on-Sea.) 



a blessing, 
and if the 
owner of 
thecattery 
is fully as- 
sured of 
the capa- 
bilities of 
the care - 
taker, then 
all anxiety 
of mind as 
to the wel- 
fare of the 
pets would 
be allayed. 

There is a secluded corner in Hyde Park 
known as the Dog's Cemetery, and amongst 
the many headstones I noticed two or three 
erected in memory of lost pussies who have 
been privileged to rest in this quiet burying 
ground. 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



When we see poor pussies packed into dirty 
cages in the shops of dealers of beasts and 
birds in our great metropolis, and when we 
are made sad by the sight of the wretched 
starving cats of our streets, we can breathe 
no better wish for them than a speedy 
deliverance from their life of misery, even if 
it be to embark with the grim ferryman in 
their free transportation to the Feline 
Elysium. 

" There shall the worthies of the whiskered race, 
Elysian mice o'er floors of sapphire chace, 
'Midst beds of aromatic marum stray, 
Or raptur'd rove beside the milky way." 

A French writer of the early part of the 
eighteenth century, a famous Jesuit Father, 
suggests a very strange theory on the old idea 
as to the nature of the soul of animals. I am 
sure that the question of a future existence for 
those pets who during so short a time in this 
world have been our faithful and loving com- 
panions must have often entered into the 
hearts and minds of true animal lovers. 

A wise and good man a writer of some of 
our most beautiful hymns, and who passed to 
his rest within the last year wrote and gave 
me these lines when he lost his faithful dog : 



SANCHO : AN OLD FRIEND. 
A large brown Irish retriever : buried in 
the Vicarage Garden of St. Paul's, Hagger- 
ston : a stone to his memory is on the school 
wall, with this inscription : 

" In the centre of this lawn lies 

SANCHO, 

a gentleman in all but humanity ; 
thorough-bred, single in mind, true 
of heart ; for seventeen years the 
faithful and affectionate friend of 
his master, who loved him, and now 
for him ' faintly trusts the larger 
Hope ' contained, it may be, in 
Romans viii. 19-21. 

He died April 26, 1883." 

NOT sparse of friends the world has been to me 
By grace of GOD sweetness and light to life 
Their love has given ; many a stormy strife, 

Many a pulseless torpor, on my sea, 

Through them their presence or their memory 

Have been or stilled or quickened ; and to thee, 
My Dog, the tribute, as the term, is due, 
My Friend ! not least of all dear, near, and true 

These seventeen years and through the years to be 

Sure in my heart of immortality. 

Must this be all ? I' the great Day of the LORD, 
Shall aught that is of good and beauty now 

Be missing ? Shall not each gift be restored ? 
Paul says " the whole creation " why not thou ? 




CATS' TOMBSTONES IN THK DOGS' CKMETKKV, HYDK PARK. 
(Photo : Cassell & Co., Ltd.) 



37 




TABBIKS UP A TKKK. 



1'hotc: C. Reitt, Wishaia. 



I 



CHAPTER III. 

CARE AND MANAGEMENT. 

N the care, management, and feeding of haps with rice or Freeman's Scientific Food, 

raw meat twice or three times a week cut up 
into fairly small pieces, horse-flesh (if obtained 



cats no hard and fast rule can be laid 
down, for the dispositions and constitu- 



tions of these animals differ just as much as from a reliable source) twice a week. Lights, 

clo those of human beings. Fanciers must liver, or sardines may be given occasionally, 

therefore learn to treat their cats individually Sloppy food in any large quantity should be 

and not collectively ; they must study their avoided ; but oatmeal well boiled, cornflour, 



character and make allowances for the fads 
and fancies of the feline race. I am convinced 
that a varied diet is the best for cats, and 
fanciers should bear in mind 
the importance of regularity in 
the hours of feeding, whether 
two or three or four times a 
day. Fresh water should al- 
ways be supplied, and un- 
finished food should not be left 
standing about. For one or 
two pet cats the scraps 
from the table given with 
judgment will probably 
suffice ; but in the case 
of a large cattery with 
several inmates, some sort 
of system in feeding is 
necessary. I would sug- 
gest that the chief meal 
for two days a week 
should be fish, mixed per- 




BLUE PERSIAN. 



3* 



PRESENTED BY Miss PATTERSON TO HER MAJESTY 
THE QUEEN. 



arrowroot, and several of the well-known 
foods, such as Neave's or Mellin's, make a 
nice change. Spratt's biscuits of various 
kinds, soaked and mixed with 
stock, are relished by some 
cats. Vegetables should be 
given frequently, and grass 
supplied, as green food purifies 
the blood and keeps the bowels 
in good condition. Persian 
cats require special attention 
as regards their coats, and 
should be combed and 
brushed regularly, and, if 
the fur becomes matted, 
the knots should be cut 
away. Avoid washing 
your cats ; there are other 
means of cleansing their 
coats, particulars of which 
will be given in the 
chapter on exhibiting. 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



FEMALE CATS AND KITTENS. 
As regards the management of female cats, 
it is necessary to start from the time when 
they first arrive at maturity, viz. when they 
are first capable of becoming mothers. This 
usually takes place or they " come in season," 
as it is called after they are seven or eight 
months old ; and though cases have been 
known when this has happened before six 
months, it is very unusual. It may there- 
fore be laid down as a rule that if a kitten 
exhibits extraordinary high spirits, racing and 
tearing about, it should be carefully watched, 
and not allowed its freedom without super- 
vision, either out of doors or in the house. 
Queens may be known to be in season by 
several symptoms, such as rolling on the ground, 
rubbing up against furniture, increased affection 
for their owners, and often by the curious cries 
they utter, at times by a soft note of invitation, 
at other times by shouts of impatience or dis- 
tress which resound through the house. Cats 
should not be mated until they are nine or ten 
months old at least ; twelve months is a better 
age, though if they are insistent it will not do 
to put them off more than three times, as 
there are records of cats who, having been kept 
back on account of extreme youth, have been 
seriously ill or have never had families at all. 
On the other hand, it is possible these cats 
may have had the reproductive instinct abnor- 
mally strong, though for some cause or another 
they would always have been unfertile. Pow- 
ders are sold to quiet cats who are considered 
too young to become mothers, and two or three 
small doses of bromide have a decidedly calm- 
ing effect. This drug should, however, be 
given with caution, as it is a dangerous one 
in unskilled hands. Cats come in season about 
every three weeks during the spring and 
summer ; but in the autumn and early winter 
months nature seems to intend that they 
should rest ; therefore, as soon as the year has 
turned, and in very mild winters even before 
Christmas, no time should be lost in selecting 
the best sires for the various breeding queens, 
and arrangements made with their respective 
owners, so that as soon as ever a queen is 



ready she may be mated without delay, as 
some cats go off in two or three days, while 
others are not safe for a fortnight. If possible, 
it is well to select a stud cat near at hand, 
especially if your queen is timid and frightened, 
as a long railway journey may upset her. 

It is most essential that female cats 
should be freed from worms before being 
allowed to mate or breed, otherwise the kittens 
will probably fall victims to these pests by 
sucking in the disease with the mother's milk. 
Most cat fanciers know the symptoms which 
are suggestive of worms ; and whenever there 
is a reasonable suspicion of their presence, then 
it is best at once to resort to some of the many 
remedies to be obtained from veterinaries and 
cat specialists. 

A cat's period of gestation is nine weeks, but 
this is often extended to a day or two longer, 
so that it is best to expect a litter about nine 
weeks from the date of the queen's return 
from visiting the stud cat. An experienced 
breeder will most likely see symptoms of a cat 
coming in season, and will then do well to 
give a worm powder. Salvo's No. 3 powder 
may be given one morning, and the cat sent 
off the next day quite safely. Visiting queens 
should be despatched as early in the morning 
as possible and insured, to save delay on the 
road, with the owner's name and address in- 
side package, also the name of the cat, as poor 
pussie will be far happier if on her arrival' she 
hears herself called by her pet name. Tull 
instructions should be sent as to the return 
journey ; also it should be stated if the cat 
is kept out of doors or indoors, and what food 
she is accustomed to have, number of meals 
per diem, etc. If going a very long journey 
the queen should not be nailed into a box, or 
padlocked, as occasional delays occur, and 
the railway authorities will feed and look after 
an insured cat if packed in a hamper or box 
where they can get at the occupant. Boxes 
or hampers with skeleton lids are by far the 
best on this account. If the weather is very 
cold and a basket is used, it should be lined, 
and round the sides brown paper is an addi- 
tional safeguard against draughts, for which 



CARE AND MANAGEMENT. 



39 



all stations are proverbial. A very delicate 
cat or young kitten finds great comfort in 
winter from a hot-water bottle placed inside 
the hamper for it to rest against. Queens 
should have a good meal an hour or two before 
starting, as they often arrive upset with the 
journey, and in their strange new home will 
not at first touch any food. Do not put any 
food in the travelling basket. It is not well 
for a queen to mate just after a heavy meal. 

Fish and warm milk, if these agree with the 
queen, or a small meat meal, may be offered 
after a long, cold journey, and, if eaten, the 
queen should be allowed to rest an hour or 
two before introducing her to the stud cat. 

After mating, a queen should be kept quiet 
for a few days on her return home, as much 
apart from other cats as possible ; but no un- 
easiness need be felt if the visit does not seem 
to have quieted the queen, as she will settle 
down in a few days and cease to think about 
her mate. With regard to treatment of cats 
in kitten, some queens are gentle and quiet, 
and very careful of themselves, others are 
exceedingly bad-tempered, fighting and quar- 
relling, while some amuse themselves by climb- 
ing up high places and jumping down, be- 
having in such a wild and excitable fashion 
that they not only endanger their own lives, 
but run the risk of bringing maimed and 
deformed offspring into the world. Cats such 
as these should be kept isolated, if possible, 
or at most with only one 
other quiet queen, and 
all high shelves or tall 
articles of furniture 
should be removed. It 
is always well to be very 
careful in handling cats 
in kitten. They must 
never be lifted up by 
their fore legs, but when 
absolutely necessary to 
move or carry them, both 
hands should be used to 
do so, one being placed 
under the body by the 
shoulders to carry the 



weight, while the other hand gently supports 
the hind-quarters ; but the less a cat is 
lifted about the better. All medicines should 
be given quietly and quickly, so that there 
may be no struggling. The cat's head should 
be grasped firmly with the left hand, the 
fingers and thumb on each side of the 
corners of the mouth, and forced back on 
the shoulders with a firm pressure ; this 
will cause~heT to open her mouth, when medi- 
cine can be popped quickly down the throat 
from a spoon held in the right hand. In the 
case of a very restless cat, it is advisable to 
have an assis'tant in administering medicine. 
Amateurs would do well to practise giving 
water in a spoon to queens who are in health, 
so that they may become used to this simple 
method of administering medicine. Cats in 
kit require three or four meals daily of nour- 
ishing food raw meat from four to six ounces 
night and morning, and fish and scraps and 
vegetables or biscuit, etc., for the midday 
meal. Half a teaspoonful of cod-liver oil on 
their food two or three times a week is very 
good for the queens in cold weather ; but 
if sickness ensues, of course the oil must be 
discontinued. Never suffer dianhce-a to go on 




THREE UTTLE MAIDS. 
(Photo: E. Landor, Ealing.) 



4 o 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



unchecked. This applies to all cats and kittens 
of whatever age, sex, or condition, but is 
especially dangerous when a cat is in kit or 
nursing her young. Mr. Ward and Salvo 
prepare powders which will stop the diarrhoea, 
and if persevered with will restore the bowels 
to their normal condition. Change of diet is 
also very helpful. If the diarrhoea is very 
violent or persistent, or if no medicine can be 
procured, a small quantity of powdered chalk, 
as much as will lie on a sixpence, may be given 
every hour or two, three or four times ; but 
the primary cause, of which diarrhoea is only 
a symptom, should be sought out, and if not 
discoverable, the advice of a cat doctor should 
be obtained. 

Persistent diarrhoea (if not the accompani- 
ment of diseases, such as inflammation of the 
bowels, etc.), is usually caused by indigestion 
or worms, and sometimes by a stoppage of fur 
or food imperfectly digested, which nature 
in this way tries to get rid of ; and if this is 
the case, or there is even reason to suspect 
it may be, a dose or two of warm salad oil, 
a teaspoon ful every two hours, will often 
bring away the obstruction. Cats in kitten 




A PERILOUS PERCH. 

(1'hoto: C. Reid, Wishaw.) 



frequently suffer from constipation, for which 
also warm salad oil is far better than castor 
oil, as the latter is irritative to the bowels, and 
though acting as an aperient, the after effects 
are increased costiveness. Warm salad oil, 
given a few hours before the birth of kittens, 
is helpful to the mother. For at least a week 
before the kittens are expected, a nice cosy 
bed should be prepared in some retired spot ; 
and, to a novice, the caution would not be 
amiss do not let a cat in kitten sleep on your 
bed, or she will either have her kittens there, 
or will drag the poor little things into the bed 
the first chance she gets. If a box is to be 
made ready for the cat, it should be of a fair 
size (about twenty-six inches by eighteen 
inches), and should be placed on its side, and 
a bit of wood about three inches deep nailed 
on to the bottom of the side, standing up to 
keep the bedding in its place and the kittens 
from rolling out. This box may be placed 
on a table or two chairs, so arranged that the 
cat can step in and out from another chair. 

The floor of the box should be covered 
with several thicknesses of flannel or blanket 
in the winter and paper in the summer. Avoid 
coloured materials, as the dye will come out 
if they get wet. A bolster may be placed at 
one side of the box stuffed with straw, or hay 
or paper torn up very small, to support the 
cat's back ; but should the weather be very 
cold and the mother delicate, a hot-water 
bottle covered with flannel may be used instead, 
and is a great comfort. A covering should be 
thrown over the box, which may 
be pulled down to hide the in- 
terior, as cats love to be screened 
from observation ; and also it is 
very essential that the tiny 
babies should be kept al- 
most in the dark for the 
first fortnight, after which 
time, when their eyes are 
open, the covering can be 
raised in the day and low- 
ered at night in cold weather. 
This box must be placed on 
the ground as soon as the 



CARE AND MANAGEMENT. 



kittens can walk about, but retaining the ledge 
already referred to, which will keep them from 
ground draughts to a great extent. A nice little 
box with run attached is the best house for a 
cat and kittens ; but as these cost about 253. 
each, a number of them become costly and 
beyond the means of some breeders. The 
bed described is the next best thing, far better 
for shy queens than a box or basket used in 
the ordinary way. An empty drawer makes a 
good place, but the kit- 
tens should be moved out 
of it as soon as they can 
see, as it is rather too 
dark and close after the 
blind period is past. 

A cat should sleep 
in whatever bed is ar- 
ranged for her for at 
least a week before the 
kittens are expected, and 
when that day arrives 
the queen should be 
carefully watched, as 
some cats will have their 
kittens anywhere if not 
looked after. For the 
sake of those new to the 
fancy, it may be as well 
to remark that cats 
become very restless, 
walking about some- 
times purring loudly, and 
looking in cupboards and dark corners, while 
occasionally the first noticeable indication that 
the event is about to come off is that the fur 
behind is wet, and if this should be the case 
no time should be lost in carrying the cat most 
carefully to her bed, as the kittens may then 
be expected any moment. Some animals like 
to be left entirely alone while giving birth to 
their young ; others, especially pets, prefer 
to have their owners near to them ; but if 
there is any uncertainty it is better to leave 
her to herself. 

Experienced breeders will know that should 
the labour be dry or very prolonged it is a 
great help to a cat to pass the hand firmly 



MRS. HARDY'S NEUTER " PHARAOH 

(Photo : Schutk's Photographic Galleries.) 



and slowly down the side during an expulsive 
pain, as the pressure will help the mother and 
hasten the birth of the kittens. 

After the first is born, the rest come compara- 
tively easily. Very occasionally there is a cross 
presentation ; but as only those really com- 
petent should attempt to do anything in this 
case, no time should be lost in sending for the 
nearest cat doctor or veterinary. After the 
first kitten~has arrived the birth of which is 
usually heralded by a 
loud cry of pain from 
the mother some milk 
should be made hot, and 
as soon as the new baby 
has been cleaned the 
mother will gladly drink 
this ; but on no account 
should cold or even luke- 
warm milk be given the 
same day, or, indeed, for 
two or three days. Nov- 
ices are sometimes start- 
led at seeing the cat eat- 
ing a lump of something 
which they fear may be 
a kitten ; but there is 
no occasion for alarm, 
as it is merely the after- 
birth, the consumption 
of which is probably 
Nature's provision for 
affording sustenance to 
the mother," as an animal in a wild state 
could get no food for at least several hours 
after the birth of its offspring. If a cat is 
wild or shy, it is better to leave her alone (with 
the exception of offering hot milk from time 
to time) until all the kittens are born, and 
they should not be examined or handled for 
some days. 

With a gentle queen the first kitten may 
be taken away when the second is born, 
well wrapped up in warm flannel and put 
by the fire, and so on, always leaving one 
kitten until the last is warm and dry, when 
the others should be returned to the mother. 
This plan is most necessary in cold weather 




THE BOOK OF THE CAT-. 



(especially if the kittens are born out-of-doors), 
for if the labour is easy and quick it is quite 
impossible for the queen to dry one kitten 
before the advent of the next, and by the time 
they are all born they are frequently stone 
cold, and so wet that the mother gives up 
the attempt to dry them in despair ; and 
many kittens, thought to be stillborn, have 
died in the night in this way. Kittens quite 
cold and nearly dead have been restored (and 
have lived to a good old age) by being taken at 
once to the fire and warmed and dried, and 
though at first life may appear extinct, time 
and patience will work wonders. If the kittens 
are taken away from the mother at birth as 
described above, it is a good opportunity for 
destroying any that are not wanted, because 
of sex or colour. When the litter is given to 
the mother she should be offered milk again, 
and should after: that be left alone several 
hours; but she will most likely welcome a 
few kind words and loving pats as a reward 
for- all- she has 'gone through, and will then 
cuddle down; contentedly with her little ones. 
; In giving milk do not take the mother out, or 
even make he'r get .up to drink it, on the day 
of her confinement ; ; if' she cannot reach it 
comfortably, Taise her head and shoulders with 
one hand; until 'she can reach the saucer held 
itt the"0trfer~canvenicntly, and do not be in a 
hurryV'as she knows' well the temperature the 
milk ought to" be, arid will not take it if too 
hot or too cold. Milk should be given night 
and morning, and offered during the day, for 
some days after the kittens are born. Cats 
that never like it at other times are thankful 
for it when nursing ; but, on the other hand, 
cats that have been fond of milk will turn away 
from it at" these times. Queens usually come 
out every few hours for food, and their meat or 
ordinary meal should be ready for them, as 
they will want to eat it quickly and return to 
their little ones. After the second or third day 
a warm, clean blanket should be substituted 
for the one on which the kittens were born, and 
it is well to do this when the mother is present, 
as some cats resent interference during their 
absence. 



As soon as the kittens are about a week old, 
a finger should be passed over their eyes, and 
if there is a little ridge on the lids, the eye 
should be moistened with eye-lotion twice 
daily with a camel-hair brush. If, after ten 
days, they do not open as is usual, the eyes 
should be sponged with warm water, as in this 
case they must have become glued together 
with mucus, which should be cleared away, 
and the eye moistened with eye-lotion, taking 
care a little goes well into the eye. The lid 
should then be smeared with olive oil to pre- 
vent adhesion. It is this adhesion of the lids 
which causes inflammation, and the eyes must 
be frequently attended to, so that they may 
be kept open, avoiding any very strong light. 

If the kittens are born indoors in the summer, 
windows should be kept open during the day, 
and when the little creatures are about a fort- 
night old put them out in the sunshine for an 
hour or so daily. The mother must be as well 
fed as she was before the kittens were born, but 
carefully notice if she suffers from diarrhoea, 
for if this is the case, and change of diet does 
not cure it, you may be certain that she is 
nursing too many kittens, and if some of them 
are not speedily removed you will lose them all. 

If a foster-mother can be procured, by all 
means have one, accompanied by one of her 
own kittens if possible. Make a cosy bed 
for her, warming the blanket, and leave her 
in it till night, when, if she seems settled down, 
give her two or more kittens as the case may 
be, removing her own the following night. 
Do not attempt to interfere with the kittens 
while the mother is away, and act very gently, 
talking to, and stroking her so that she may 
not resent your interference. If no foster- 
mother can be procured, Mr. Ward, of Man- 
chester, has a clever little appliance which he 
claims can be used instead of a foster-mother. 

Some fanciers may take upon themselves 
the task of bringing up the kittens by hand, 
and in that case wrap them up in warm flannel, 
keeping them by the fire by day, and giving 
them a hot bottle at night, feeding with 
weak milk and water about every two hours 
(this should be about half and half), with a 




O jjj 

D -S 

< "3 

U <0 

5.1 



44 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



teaspoonful of lime-water to each cup of milk 
and water. It should be given warm, not hot, 
and the milk scalded, not boiled. In London 
or large towns unsweetened condensed milk 
is better than cow's milk, as the colouring or 
preservative acids used by dairymen in the 
latter is very injurious to kittens. This con- 
densed milk should be much diluted, and 
flavoured with small quantities of salt and 
sugar. If too strong or too sweet, the food 
will cause diarrhoea. Kittens will soon learn to 
suck out of an eggspoon ; but do not give too 
much at once, or force the food down their little 
throats when they object to take any more. 

At about five weeks old the kittens will 
begin to lap and possibly to eat. Many 
fanciers are delighted if they will eat and drink 
before a month old, and some make the serious 
mistake of trying to coax the little ones to eat 
solid food at this tender age. Such persons 
do not stop to think how weak are all the 
digestive organs of these tiny creatures. The 
milk of the mother supplies all that is needful 
for their growth and well-being until such time 
as Nature makes itself heard in her demands 
for further nourishment, and if substantial 
food is given to them too soon, or too strong, 
it merely goes through the stomach, passing 
out into the bowels undigested, decomposes, 
and forms slimy mucus which is the hotbed for 
worms, even if it does not set up inflammation 
of the bowels. More kittens die from worms 
and consumption of the bowels than from any 
other complaint, and much of this loss of life 
is directly traceable to strong food at too tender 
an age. 

Lung disease, gastric catarrh, gastro-enter- 
itis, are all directly or indirectly set up 
by the non-assimilation of food ; hence the 
supreme importance of giving nourishment 
which can be digested easily. After six weeks 
scraped raw beef may be given (if the kittens 
want to eat) three times daily in very small 
quantities, about half a teaspoonful to start 
with, and they may have warm milk and water 
with lime in it. This should be followed by 
Mellin's, or Benger's Frame Food, as directed 
for infants. It is advisable not to allow kittens 



to overload their stomachs, but to feed them 
about four times daily. If healthy they will 
eat eagerly, but not ravenously ; a kitten who 
is greed}' and precipitates itself into the saucer 
in its anxiety to get its dinner may be suspected 
of worms, and when about eight weeks old 
a course of Salvo's No. I powders may be given 
with safety. 

As soon as the kittens are about a month 
old, a shallow tin of dry earth or ashes (I do 
not recommend sawdust) should be provided 
for them, and it will well repay their owners 
to spend some portion of the day with the 
little ones and lift them into the earth-pan 
when necessary. If this is done two or three 
times, the lesson is probably learnt for life. 
Kittens are naturally clean, and will get out 
of their beds, and run about crying loudly 
for some accommodation for their wants ; 
and if this is neglected the seeds of dirty habits 
are sown, and the poor untaught little ones 
reap a sad harvest of cuffs and sometimes 
kicks from servants, who naturally dislike the 
trouble caused by dirty house pets. Even 
in catteries cleanly habits in cats are much 
to be desired. If a cat or kitten gets into 
dirty ways, it should never be beaten and put 
into the tin, but should be gently stroked and 
coaxed into good habits. Those who only 
keep one or two queens will find that if they 
spend a few minutes playing with the kittens 
before their meals, they will be well rewarded 
by the quicker growth and better digestion 
of the little ones ; but, of course, this is out 
of the question in a large cattery. 

In summer, kittens should be combed daily 
with a small tooth comb, as the insects which 
inhabit their coats not only worry them and 
cause them to scratch out their fur, but they 
convey disease from one to another, to say 
nothing of sucking out so much blood that 
the poor little creatures become absolutely 
anaemic, and in this state they fall an easy prey 
to the first disease that attacks them. Fleas 
were formerly treated as irritating but other- 
wise harmless insects ; but we are assured on 
the best authority that they are a dangerous 
medium of disease, and that tape-worms are 



CARE AND MANAGEMENT. 



45 



generated in dogs and cats by their means. 
The poor animals, wildly resenting the annoy- 
ance of these pests, hunt for them with teeth 
and tongue, and, swallowing their enemy, may 
also swallow a number of undeveloped tape- 
worms, which in their larval or grub state are 
secreted in the abdomen of the flea. Tape- 
worms are said to undergo certain metamor- 
phoses or transformations, and require to 
pass through the body of some other creature 
than the one they exist in in their mature 
state of being. 

It is a great mistake to keep kittens 
in heated rooms, and 
worse still to allow 
them to be close to a 
fire by day and then to 
let the room get cold 
at night. An even 
temperature, cold and 
dry, is better than sud- 
den changes ; cats and 
kittens love warmth 
and comfort, but, at 
the same time, all ex- 
tremes of heat and cold 
are bad. Never neglect 
the first symptoms of 
illness ; note the signs, 
and if you are not able 
to dose the invalid 
yourself send off a wire 

to some competent cat doctor describing the 
form the indisposition has taken, and while 
waiting for medicine no harm can be done by 
giving as much carbonate of soda as will lie on 
a threepenny-bit in a little water two or three 
times daily. Salvo has lately advertised a 
medicine which is said to be very valuable for 
giving on the first signs of a cat or kitten 
being out of sorts, and which, he says, will take 
down fever, stop colds, and modify attacks of 
bronchitis, pneumonia, etc. ; and for such 
fragile little beings as kittens fanciers would do 
well to keep this medicine by them. People 
often say that their cats and kittens seem ill 
or out of sorts, and allow this sort of thing to 
go on quite calmly for a week or so, when one 




KITTB;NS BELONGING TO MISS BROMI.EV 



day they wake up to the fact that the poor 
creature is very seriously ill, and they then 
send off in a hurry for medicine which fre- 
quently arrives too late ; and the sufferer may 
be beyond all human aid. 

Double pneumonia, which is perhaps the 
quickest and most fatal of all diseases, is not 
so sudden but that it is ushered in by various 
symptoms, beginning often a week before the 
attack becomes acute. An animal will seem 
cold, will creep near the fire, or sit in the fender, 
mope about, refusing to play, sit in a hunch 
with its back up, or is very sleepy and stupid ; 
the fur is rough ; there 
may be sickness, and 
the evacuations are of 
a bright yellow colour ; 
perhaps it has not quite 
finished its meals for a 
few days ; and the nose 
is hot and dry, and, if 
taken up, the cat feels 
hot and dry all over. 
When there are several 
of these symptoms, no 
time should be lost in 
administering the reme- 
dies named above every 
hour or two until suit- 
able remedies can be 
obtained ; but do not 
rely upon them alone, 

or think if you give them persistently they 
will pull the" animal through the illness, for 
they will not, special remedies being needed 
for special symptoms and for various stages 
of disease. No two animals are exactly alike, 
and the experienced cat doctor will prescribe 
carefully for each individual cat in the same 
way as a physician will give different prescrip- 
tions to suit the needs of different patients. 

One thing should never be neglected, and this 
is keeping up the strength from the first with 
beef-tea, eggs and milk, Brand's Essence, 
or animal Kreochyle a teaspoonful every 
hour. As soon as an animal has refused 
two meals, begin feeding with spoon, as it 
will have so much more strength with which 



4 6 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



to battle against disease if fed up well from 
the first. 

People who desire to sell kittens for profit 
will do well to part with them at about two 
months old, before they start teething, for at 
this period of their little lives fresh troubles 
begin. Occasionally they suffer from fits, 
but though these are sometimes caused by 
cutting their teeth, they are oftener due to the 
presence of worms. If the gums are swollen 
and inflamed, a quarter of one of Steedman's 



in noxious gases which escape through the 
skin, causing eczema, or in many cases pro- 
ducing inflammation of the bowels or enteritis. 
Nothing needs more careful attention than 
the diet of kittens, and nothing is so little 
studied. It would be no exaggeration to say- 
that all disease, apart from outside or acci- 
dental causes, such as draughts, cold winds, 
contagion, etc., is in the first place set up 
by undigested food, and even what may be 
railed external causes would often not be harm- 




N'KUTER PETS OWNED KY MRS. HASTINGS LEES. 
(Photo: The Royal Central Photo Co., Bournemouth.) 



teething powders will soothe them, or a few 
doses of bromide, as prescribed before for 
kittens desiring to mate too early, may be 
given, and excitable kittens should be kept 
quiet. If kittens are troubled with diarrhoea, 
all starchy food should be avoided, as it is 
never easily digested by animals. The reason 
of this is not far to seek, when we know that 
the saliva partly digests starch, while the 
juices of the stomach act directly on meat. 

Animals, instead of masticating their food. 
by which means the saliva acts vipon it, often 
bolt it, and it goes into the stomach and is 
passed out into the large bowel practically 
undigested, where it decomposes, working off 



ful to an animal if the digestive organs were 
in proper working order. Remember, it is 
not the quantity of food a kitten takes that 
benefits it. The secret of its health and well- 
being is in the quantity it digests. A kitten 
should only digest certain things in certain 
proportions, and whatever remains undigested 
produces irritation, and in this case the kitten 
cannot possibly develop, and is generally 
weakly and fretful. 

Those who have never cared much for cats 
will be interested and amused if they bring 
up a family of kittens, and the love and trust 
of the little creatures will well repay them 
for all their care. 



CARE AND MANAGEMENT. 



47 



STUD CATS. 

A male cat should not be allowed to mate 
under a year old, and if you wish to keep your 
stud in good condition do not allow more 
than two, or at most three, lady visitors a 
week. There is no doubt that a really reliable 
stud cat is a very profitable possession. The 
most essential recommendations are a sound 
constitution and absolute health, combined 
with a good pedigree and a list of prize-win- 
ning progeny. It is necessary to exhibit your 
stud cat at the best cat shows from time to 
time, and thus to keep him before the public. 
It is also advisable to advertise him in the 
cat papers, and it is often useful to have a 
photograph to forward to fanciers who may 
be unable otherwise to obtain any idea of 
your cat. Needless to say that for stud pur- 
poses a cat should possess the highest possible 
qualifications of the breed to which he be- 
longs, and a massive frame and broad head 
are most desirable in all stud cats. It is a 
good plan to allow the visiting queen to be 
within sight of the male for a short time 
before she is put in the stud cat's house, and 
for this purpose it is convenient to have a 
small movable pen or hutch to place where 
the two pussies can hold catty conversation, 

A stud cat cannot, for many and obvious 
reasons, be allowed his full freedom ; but it 
is essential that his dwelling place should have 
as long and roomy an exercise ground as pos- 
sible. It is also possible with some male cats 
to tether them out-of-doors for a short period 
during the day, in which case great care should 
be taken to have the lead only as long as will 
permit of exercise within a safe distance of 
dangerous pitfalls or spreading trees and shrubs. 
The best time for mating is about one hour 
atter feeding. 

It is most important that stud cats should 
be in good coat at the time of mating, and that 
they should be free from worms. 

The usual fee for a visit to a stud cat is 
i is., and this should be sent at the same 
time as the request for permission to send a 
queen. A second visit is generally considered 
allowable if the first one has proved unsuccess- 



ful. An additional amount of food may be 
given to a cat whilst he is being used at stud, 
and always remember to provide grass in 
some form or other in your stud cat's house. 

There is no universal remedy for all cats, 
neither can there be any rule for feeding them. 
Different cats need different treatment, and 
those which are kept in a captive state, as are 
stud cats, should not be fed on the same lines 
as those tfrnt are allowed full liberty. 

NEUTER CATS. 

Opinions differ as to the best period for a 
cat to be made neuter, but it is generally 
considered advisable to have the operation 
performed between the ages of five and eight 
months. A male cat can be kept as a house- 
hold pet till he is about nine or ten months 
old without any unpleasantness, but after that 
period he must be relegated to an outside 
cattery or stud house. It is cruel to put off 
gelding a cat till he shows signs of wishing to 
mate, A duly qualified veterinary ought to 
be employed, and an anaesthetic used. The 
cat should be kept on a low diet for a day or 
two before 'and after the operation. It is very 
seldom that any evil effects ensue, and after 
a few days the puss is quite himself again. 
Neuter cats grow to an immense size, and the 
Persian varieties develop great length of fur, 
which is generally not shed so frequently or 
to such an extent as in the males and females. 
Neuter cats are very docile, and generally 
rather lazy- and listless ; for this reason they 
are not accounted such good mousers. 

Female cats can also be rendered sexless, but 
in their case the operation is more likely to be 
attended with dangerous results. I have 
heard it stated that a female cat ought to be 
allowed one litter of kittens before being oper- 
ated upon. There are not. many very fine 
neuters on exhibition at our shows, and this 
fact may perhaps be accounted for by reason 
of fanciers picking out weedy and altogether 
below the mark specimens of their litters to 
be gelded because they do not consider them 
worth keeping to breed from. In this way 
several poor specimens of neuters are to be 



4 8 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



seen with indifferent markings, white spots, 
incorrect coloured eyes, and long noses. For 
a home pet there is, of course, nothing to come 
up to a fine neuter cat who will not roam, who 
does not attract amorous females, and who 
is content to lie for hours stretched out on 
the drawing-room rug or the kitchen hearth, 
the admired of all admirers. From the lips 
of many rioted breeders of Persian cats who 
have been troubled by wandering males and 



prolific females, I have heard the exclamation, 
" I shall end by keeping only neuters ! " 

Cat owners in general, and lovers of neuters 
in particular, might do worse than agitate for 
more consideration to be extended to these 
grand pets at our leading shows, and I cannot 
help thinking that a neuter club or society 
might be formed to assist in this and other 
objects connected with the general improve- 
ment of our neuter cats. 




CAROLLING. 

(Photo : Mrs. S. F. Clarke.) 



49 




' IN A PLAYFUL SORT OF WAY. 
(Photo: E. Landof, Baling.) 



CHAPTER IV. 



HOUSING OF CATS. 



' T^HE proper housing of valuable stock 
J_ is the first essential subject to be 
studied by the beginner in the cat 
fancy, and one requiring both careful thought 
and attention. For I do not hesitate to say 
that, of all the domestic animals, the cat is 
the most difficult to keep healthy and happy 
in the unnatural condition of total or partial 
confinement. Belonging to the ferae, its ori- 
ginal and savage nature still shows glimpses, 
not wholly tamed, in its independence of 
character and its roving habits ; while yet 
its civilised side shows the keenest appreci- 
ation of the comforts to be found in the 
home life. A house cat that enjoys its free- 
dom to go out as it pleases, to climb the 
garden walls, and anon to lie in purring con- 
tentment before the kitchen hearth, is a 
creature ailing little. It is the pedigreed pets, 
in their luxurious prisons, that too often fall 
a prey to disease. To establish a cattery, 



therefore, that shall be a pleasure and a pride 
to the owner, and not a source of worry and 
grief over perpetual illness amongst the in- 
mates, it is necessary in the very first incep- 
tion to study the chief needs of cat nature. 

Let us consider these in order. How our 
typical healthy cattery may be best arranged. 
It must be dry was ever a cat yet seen of 
choice sitting in the wet ? It must have 
ample space, both of houses and runs, and 
inducements for exercise a well-branched 
dead tree sunk in the gravelled run is good, 
besides divers posts, shelves, and benches. 
Let the aspect be bright, with lots of sunshine. 
A cat is a devotee of the sun it is the life of 
young growing things, and the greatest de- 
stroyer of disease germs ; and it is very easy 
by coverings or the growth of climbing plants 
to provide temporary shade during the height 
of summer. For this last, nothing is better 
than that most useful and least fastidious king 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



of climbers, the Virginian creeper, as it bestows 
its leafy shade just when required, and har- 
bours no damp, as the growth of thick, tall 
trees is apt to do. 

Lastly, let the outlook of the cattery be 
cheerful. Do not select a spot so far from 
the house life that the attendant who feeds 
and cleans is practically the only person the 
cats see in the twenty-four hours. A cat 



cat fancier is fortunate enough to be able to 
disregard expense, he can indulge in brick 
houses with every appliance for comfort and 
elegance of construction. For others, who 
can supply a working plan, an intelligent local 
carpenter (when found) can do much. Occa- 
sionally, also, it is possible to convert a portion 
of existing stabling to very efficient uses. But 
I must advise the beginner, as regards this 




A MUSICAL PARTY. 
(Photo : E. Landor, Ealing.) 



loves to observe, preferably from some secure 
high perch, whence it may see all that passes 
to exchange greetings with the dogs, the 
gardener, the maids, the tradesmen coming 
to the door, and thus fill its imprisoned hours 
with interest. If you disregard this, and put 
your cats out of sight in some back yard, they 
will mope badly, and also grow very stupid. 

These principal requirements being borne 
in mind, individual fancy of building and 
arrangement may follow. Every breeder of 
experience has his own ideas of best design, 
according to means and circumstance. If a 



last suggestion, to be careful. If the stabling 
is modern, and possesses the main requisites 
I have already spoken about (of dryness, and 
space, and cheerful light), then all is, and will 
be, well. But if, as is often the case, the stable 
of temptation is old, perhaps unused for some 
years, is dark, with more than a suspicion of 
damp, and a very certain habitat of rats, then 
our fancier is emphatically warned against 
making any trial of it. short of pulling down 
and rebuilding. Let him rest assured, it 
would in the end mean the loss of money, 
time, care, and, most likely, breeding stock 



HOUSING OF CATS. 



too, and certain ill-health among the poor in- 
mates. I know a case in point where a cat 
fancier thus utilised a stable. A converted 
portion of old stabling that looked most de- 
sirable, and kept scrupulously clean, was 
used for a number of young kittens. Very 
soon a peculiar and most violent form of skin 
disease appeared amongst them, at first as 
mere scurfy patches, but swiftly assuming the 
form of contagious fever, which spread with 
frightful rapidity, infecting every cat with 
whom they came in contact. Not until after 
many deaths, and the most cruel sufferings 
of those- who struggled through the disease, 
was it at last discovered to be acute blood 
poisoning, produced by the exhalation of sewer 
gas from an old sewer running underneath 
the floors. Rats were probably responsible, 
either by gnawing through the pipes, or coming 
up into the cattery, themselves stricken with 
the foul disease. 

The site of the cattery selected, the pre- 
paration of the ground may be advisable, 
certainly on all clay soils. To ensure perfect 
dryncss, the top soil should be removed a foot 
or so and filled in with brick rubble or builders' 
rubbish. On this foundation, cement con- 
crete or asphalt may be laid down. Person- 
ally, for runs and floors, I prefer the cement ; 
it is easier to keep clean a bucket of water 
can swill it from end to end, while it dries 
much faster than the asphalt. Asphalt in 
outside runs is apt to soften in the summer 
sun, and depress into holes, and within the 
houses the smell of the tar remains strong 
for some months. The cost of the two is much 
about the same, but in very damp situations 
the asphalt is preferable, as it prevents all 
ground-damp rising through. 

Now to plan out a medium-size cattery that 
shall be simple in construction and not ruin- 
ous to the modest beginner, let us suppose we 
have at our disposal a fair length of brick 
wall say 60 to 70 feet in length facing 
south, on slightly sloping ground. Our first 
proceeding will be to level and render damp- 
proof by a foot of rubble, as heretofore sug- 
gested, a strip n feet wide and about 45 feet 



along the wall, and to surface this strip with 
cement or asphalt. Upon this, and against 
the wall, we will erect our houses, a long 
wooden shed with lean-to roof, divided into 
three main divisions by matchboarding par- 
titions, and with a smaller house at either end, 
as shown in plan. 

A, the sleeping-room ; B, a playroom for 
queens and kittens ; and C, the third apart- 
ment for kittening, or cats it is desirable to 
isolate awhile. The smaller houses at the 
outside ends reserved for stud cats. D, doors 
from one apartment to another of wood. The 
outside woodwork is of i-inch feather-edged 
matchboarding, well-seasoned deal, a roof 
of wood, felted and tarred, being preferable 
to the use of corrugated iron, which is very hot 
in summer and very cold in winter ; an annual 
dressing of sand and tar keeps the felt water- 
tight for many years. Allow good wide eaves, 
and have gutter pipes all round. Inside, line 
the walls with wall felt, and limevvash ; or an 
inner lining of i-inch matchboarding, allow- 
ing a two-inch space to be packed with saw- 
dust, keeps the house very warm and dry. 

For the brick back wall, .j-inch matchboard- 
ing should be sufficient as lining. The dimen- 
sions of the sleeping-room, A, are 12 feet long 
by ii feet wide, and a wire frame partition with 
door subdivides this again into two equal 
parts. ! Against the back wall, at a height of 
about 20 inches from the floor, runs a broad 
shelf 4 feet wide, having inch-mesh wire net- 
ting frontage, half to open on hinges, and 
movable wooden partitions sliding in a slot ; 
these for the sleeping-pens, each 4 feet deep by 
3 feet wide, two on either side the wire frame 
partition, or convertible into one 4 feet by 
6 by removal of sliding wooden division. 
It will be warmer for the occupants if these 
pens are roofed in at a height of 3 feet. Cover 
the bench with oilcloth before putting up the 
divisions. This can be washed over daily if 
necessary, and will dry in a few moments, thus 
avoiding the dangers of scrubbing wood in 
damp weather. As nothing offensive can soak 
in, a pure atmosphere is preserved, and risk 
of infection is greatly minimised. 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



A comfortable sleeping box or basket should 
be provided for each pen, filled in winter with 
plenty of sweet hay, and in summer with sheets 
of newspaper or brown paper. A cat loves to 
repose on paper, and it has the advantage of 
being cheaply renewable and easily burnt after 
a day or two's use. Never use old packing 
straw for bedding. It is frequently full of 
infectious germs, and many skin complaints 
have been traced to its use. Neither are 
cushions, blankets, old bits of carpet, matting, 
etc., to be recommended. They are apt to 
become damp in prolonged wet weather, and 
retain both dirt and odour. A sanitary tin 
to hold dry earth or sawdust should be placed 
in each cat house, emptied and washed out 
every morning by the attendant, when the 
floors are also swept out cr washed over. 

A fair-sized window, to open, must be in 
the front, and a door, the upper half of which 
might also be of glass, to open out into a gravel 
run. Outside wooden shutters for cold nights 
are a great help in keeping the house warm, and 
should be provided. 

Having arranged our first room, the playing 
room, B, next must come under consideration. 
This being the central division, the felt lining 
could here be dispensed with, and instead the 
boards can either be plainly stained and var- 
nished which is also easy to keep perfectly 
clean or Willesden damp-proof paper might 
be nailed over the walls. This paper, made 
at the Willesden Company's works, Willesden 
Junction, N.W., is made in several good 
colours for interior lining, and a house so hung 
looks very comfortable, and shows to advan- 
tage such mural decorations as show prize 
cards, photos of winners, etc. The frontage 
of this room is to be entirely glazed, in small 
panes set in a wooden framework, with a 
6-inch high weather board at floor to protect 
from draughts, the glass protected on the 
inside by wire netting fastened over it. A 
window here to open outwards with a bolt, 
and fairly high up, to ensure fresh air in rainy 
weather without the wet and damp driving 
in on a level with the cats ; a half-glass door 
also to run, but no outside shutters will be 



here needed, the cats net occupying this room 
at night. Cover the asphalt floor with lino- 
leum or oilcloth, and put up some shelves 
15 inches wide, fairly high up, but within 
leaping distance, against the walls ; a mov- 
able bench too, to place the cats upon fcr 
brushing and attending to them. Old chairs 
that can be spared from the house might end 
their service here ; or if the luxury of a plain 
wicker chair could be permitted, and furnished 
with one or two cushions in washable slip 
covers, it would be as pleasant for the owner 
when making her visits as for the pussies them- 
selves. A ball for the kittens, a reel hanging 
from a string, will stimulate healthy romps, 
even amongst the staid grown-up cats, when 
weary of indoor dozing. 

Room C C is primarily intended for the 
interesting occasions when new little prize- 
winners are -expected. This is subdivided by- 
wire as in sleeping-room, but the partition three 
feet from back wall should be of wood, to ensure 
privacy to the anxious mother, and to temper 
the light ; oilcloth on floor. 

For the littering nests themselves I describe, 
and advise my friends to make trial of, the 
following plan. Have a sort of shallow 
wooden box, or tray with sides, made about 
4 feet 6 inches long by 24 inches high and 
4-inch sides. This is stained, varnished, and 
mounted on wooden feet at the four corners 
about two inches high ; a good bed of hay 
is put in it, the box is put in a quiet 
corner away from the light, and a truss of 
new straw placed upright at one end of ^he 
box, leaning against the angle of the wall. A 
little of the straw at the bottom may be 
pulled out to suggest the idea of a hole to 
the cat ; but as a rule she takes to the noticn 
brilliantly, and will set to work to dig out a 
nest for herself with the greatest zest. In 
this the kittens are born, safe in a cosy nest 
at the end of a tunnel of straw. There is ample 
ventilation; they ore protected from all 
draughts, so that doors may be left open 
to the fresh air with impunity ; and they rnv 
in the dark, as kittens naturally should be till 
they walk out into the daylight of their own 



54 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



desire to explore the world. Then the rest 
of the tray forms a glorious playground for 
the first week or two, when one adventurous 
mite finds out he can climb up the shallow 
sides, and tumble out on a large strange world 
of floor and trot after mamma. A well-known 
fancier tells me she has not had one litter with 
weak or bad eyes since she adopted the straw 
truss plan. 

One of these trays might be placed each 
side of the wooden partition, and if necessary 
to shut a nervous or surly cat up with her 
family, one might be enclosed in a wire front- 
age with door, as the sleeping-pens were ar- 
ranged. Let there be a good large window in 
this room, as the kittens, when running about, 
will want all the sunshine and air possible. 
This run should be of asphalt, for dryness and 
warmth, with plenty of play places arranged 
in it. An old barrel with the bottom knocked 
out affords great games, also the tree I have 
before spoken of ; a tree-stump or two, or a 
heap of dry brushwood stacked in a corner, 
will supply those climbing and hiding holes 
kittens so greatly enjoy, and afford protection 
from winds. 

A grass run and a gravelled one are designed 
in the plan, each having access to the other, and 
will allow the cats ample exercising ground 
according to weather. An oval flower-bed in 
the centre of the grass plot, planted with 
some evergreen bushes, is a good idea. It 
affords shelter, and the cats can dig in the dry 
earth. For the benches in the gravel run, an 
old outhouse door, painted and mounted on 
stout legs, makes a very good one, which the 
cats love to sit upon. 

The stud houses are simple : a wired-in 
space of 12 feet by n feet contains a house wiih 
lean-to roof 4 feet by 8 feet long, iitted 
with sleeping bench and box, wired win- 
dows, door for attendant, and small trap- 
door for cat. En passant, all doors should 
be fitted with good locks, and locked up 
after feeding at night is done. The stud 
run is gravelled, but a border of grass might 
be left on two sides grass is such a necessity 
for cats in confinement, and they prefer to 



select it growing for themselves. The design 
here suggested is capable of either modification 
or extension. The plan can be enlarged to 
any extent. For instance, if desired, an 
attendant's cottage could be built at one end 
instead of the stud house, and comprise a 
special kitchen, and also an upper room, fitted 
with convenient pens for a hospital for the sick 
members a very necessary adjunct to the 
cattery, as a sick cat should be at once re- 
moved from its healthy companions and kept 
in a place quite apart. More stud houses 
could be arranged at an angle on one side of 
the chief runs, or, if only a very few cats are 
intended to be kept, one of the divisions could 
be dispensed with, perhaps, and the dimensions 
of the other two made smaller. But whatever 
your ambitions may be, great or small, when 
you are about it have the work well done. 

The heating of catteries is a rather vexed 
question, many famous breeders affirming that 
stock raised without it are healthier and 
harder ; others maintaining that a certain 
amount of heat is a necessity for producing a 
good coat. A very experienced breeder once 
told me the heaviest-coated kittens she ever 
bred were reared over some hot-water pipes, 
: n a temperature of 70 ! With adult cats 
having partial freedom and allowed to come 
into the house in severe weather, and 
with stud cats, I consider the no-heat plan 
decidedly the best ; but I do not think it 
possible to rear young stock during the colder 
part of the year in an outdoor cattery without 
artificial heat. It is the damp of the English 
winter which proves so fatal, and damp can- 
not be kept out of the very best constructed 
houses except by the admission of dry heat. 

Kittens that are cold will not play, and if 
you see them huddled together on a cold day 
looking listless and uneasy, instead of romping, 
be sure it is fire heat they need. 

A thermometer should hang in each house, 
and the heat be carefully regulated by that, a 
minimum of 48 and a maximum of 55 being 
suggested. In houses where a flue is practic- 
able, a stove of the Tortoise pattern is to be 
recommended, but it needs a high guard around 



HOUSING OF CATS. 



55 



it. For a long range of brick-built houses, an 
outside flue and boiler, with hot-water pipes 
running the length of the cattery, would be 
found of most service, as it maintains an even 
and medium warmth throughout, keeps the 
building perfectly dry, 
and can be stoked with 
less trouble. In small 
wooden houses, very 
excellent results are 
given by the use of an 
oil stove with hot- 
water apparatus, such 
as are supplied for 
small greenhouses. 
The lamp will usually 

burn twenty -four hours without attention, 
is un-get-at-able by the cats, who can neither 
singe their tails nor knock it over during 
the wildest gambols, and if kept clean and 
looked to with care will not cause the slight- 
est odour. A quart of paraffin in one of these 
oil stoves will burn 
twenty - four hours, 
and heat a building 12 
feet by 10 feet to 50. 
Now, in concluding 
this little discourse 
upon catteries, the 
final word of advice 
is always to remem- 
ber the importance 
of absolute cleanliness. 
There should never 
be the least offensive 
smell in the cattery, 
and if such be noticed 
on entering the 
houses in the morn- 
ing, discover the cause and remedy it at 
once. And do not rely solely upon disinfect- 




A LITTER BOX. 




A USEFUL CAT HOUSE. 



sote in any quantity, or carbolic, I do not 
approve of, except in cases of illness of an 
infectious type, when stronger measures are 
obligatory. 

Xo dirty food dishes, no unchanged water, 
no soil of any kind, 
should ever be left 
about on flooring or 
bedding. Let your 
cattery be kept 
as scrupulously clean 
and sweet as a hos- 
pital, then will your 
cats thrive and kit- 
tens be healthy and 
sturdy. 

Do not elect to start a cattery unless you 
yourself intend to bestow both time and 
trouble upon it. In this, as in every other 
occupation or hobby, the one golden rule 
is, " Whatsoever thy hand findeth to do, 
do it with all thy might." 

APPLIANCES. 

In the preceding 
section on the cat- 
tery proper, I have 
not spoken of the 
very useful variety of 
portable houses 
which are now made 
a speciality of many 
firms, considering 
them more or less as 
accessories to the well 
appointed cattery. 
But in small town 
gardens, where space 
is valuable and it is 



not convenient to 

build a large permanent structure, it is quite 
possible to succeed extremely well when two 



ants to do this. Too frequently this is but or three cats only are kept by using these 

overcoming a bad smell by a stronger, the evil portable houses. They also have the advan- 

remaining. A good and non-injurious disin- tage of being removable and a " tenant's 

fectant should always be used in the water for fixture" in the event of leaving one's house, 

the daily cleansing of pans and floors, etc. A very good house is one built by 

Camphaleyne or Salubrene are both safe and Messrs. Boulton and Paul, of Norwich (see 

effective, but disinfectants that contain creo- illustration). It is a very pretty and well 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



designed structure, and would be exceedingly 
ornamental in a sheltered corner of the garden. 
In putting up, however, it should be stood 
upon brick piers to raise it at least four inches 
from the ground, or the wooden flooring would 
soon show damp. Cats kept in these small 
houses, it must be understood, should have 
their liberty at least a portion of every fine 
and dry day, the runs being wholly inadequate 
for a cat to be shut in continuously without 
further scope for exercise. 

Another illustration is a handy portable 
hutch, intended to be used chiefly in a house or 
room, although it is also convenient for penning 
young kittens out-of-doors on a sunny day. the 
wire run prevent- 
ing their straying 
away. It consists 
of a sleeping-box 
and small wire run 
hooked on, and 
can be made at 
the cost of a few 
shillings. 

The sleeping-box 
is 24 inches long 
by 17 inches wide 
and 22 inches high, 
is raised three 

inches from floor by a false bottom, and has 
a large door at back opening with a brass 
catch. In front, two side-pieces reduce the 
entry to 12 inches. A handle screwed on the 
top of the box is convenient for carrying. 
The run is 3 feet 6 inches by 24 inches-, made 
in four sections, two sides, top and end piece, 
all fitted and hooked together with i-inch 
mesh wire netting that it may be easily taken 
apart for carrying or storing away. It makes 
a useful sleeping-pen, too, for young toms that 
are inclined to quarrel together, and so have to 
be shut up separately at night. All the wood- 
work is stained and varnished, and a square 
of oilcloth laid on the floor of the sleeping-box. 

The next appliance to be considered is a 
somewhat gruesome adjunct to the cattery, 
and belongs to the darker side of our hobby. 
In spite of every care, illness and death must 




A POKTABLK HUTCH. 



enter now and again, when we are fain to retire 
worsted from the conflict with disease, and 
the wisest and kindest thing to do is to put 
our pet to sleep. The illustration given on 
the opposite page depicts a lethal box, as used 
at the Royal London Institution for Lost and 
Starving Cats at Camden Town, and is capable 
of holding twelve animals at a time. 

Mr. Ward, the well-known feline specialist 
of Manchester, has patented a lethal box 
of more moderate dimensions. Mr. Ward, 
not yet having an illustration of it, kindly 
writes me the description as follows : " The 
box inside is 15 inches by 12 inches by 
12 inches. A sheet of glass is inserted in the 

lid, so that the 
operator in a y 
watch the process. 
The vapour coal 
gas passed through 
chloroform enters 
through a tube at 
end. Two minutes 
is sufficient time." 
Fanciers, I 
think, will agree 
that this simple 
peace-giving box 
is not among the 

least of Mr. W'ard's kindly ministrations to the 
cats he loves so well. Few amongst us can 
bear to see unmoved the terrible last pains of 
a pet who in its days of health delighted us 
with its beauty. 

Feeding utensils we turn to next. For 
them nothing is more satisfactory than the 
unbreakable enamelled ware in white or blue 
except, perhaps, for the water pans, for 
which it is scarcely weighty enough, and it 
not infrequently happens that a gay and 
frolicsome company of kittens will knock 
against them, sending them spinning, and 
the water is spilt upon the floor. 

The circular, heavy glazed earthenware 
dishes, spittoon-shaped, and generally in- 
scribed " Pussy," are excellent, and cannot 
be overturned. 

Besides the plates and saucers for feeding, 



HOUSING OF CATS. 



57 



let the cats have also a saucepan of their own, 
a deep stewpan-shaped one. of blue enamel, 
large enough to cook a sheep's head with 
biscuits. Cook will be far less prone to grum- 
ble at the necessary cooking for the cats I 
speak here of a small cattery, when no attend- 
ant is kept if her saucepans are not pressed 
into the service. 

But see that all are kept scrupulously clean, 
nothing " left over " 
in thesaucepan to be- 
come sour or tainted 
in hot weather ; 
and after each meal 
is cooked, the sauce- 
pin should be boiled 
out with soda and 
scoured clean. 

Earth tins. A 
great mistake made 
in these necessary 
items is having them 
too deep. I have 
seen an old zinc foot- 
bath supplied to two 
months old kittens 
with quite six inches 
of sawdust in it, and 
the owner wondered 
why she could not 
teach her kittens to 
be cleanly in their 
habits ! 

A 4 inch deep tray 
is quite deep enough, 
and this should not 
be tilled more than 

Uvn thirds full, or the cat rakes so much earth 
out on the floor. Neither do they require to 
be very large, as their weight when filled with 
soil makes them very cumbersome to move, 
and they get the more quickly knocked out of 
shape. The best size is about 17 inches by 
14 inches and 4 inches deep, made in stout 
galvanised iron, with a rim round the edge, 
and these might be painted some light colour 
with Aspinall's enamel paint. (I advocate 
" light paint." as any dirt stains are seen at 




I.KTHAL CHAMUKK, ROYAL LONDON INSTITI'TION 
HOME FOR LOST AND STARVING CATS. 
(Photo : Cassell & Company, Limited.) 



once.) They will then last free from rust, and 
can be washed out every morning. Two or 
three tins of smaller size say, 12 inches by 
8 inches by 2 1- inches are suggested for kittens, 
or for placing in small pens in an emergency. 
Baking tins answer this purpose. 

After washing, it is well to stand these trays 
in the air to sweeten, as if they smell disagree- 
able the cats will not u~e them. 

Messrs. Whiteley 
supply these zinc 
tins, or they can be 
made by any local 
ironmonger to di- 
mensions given. 

Hot - water appli- 
ances. These are 
very necessary in the 
cattery, and should 
by no means be for- 
gotten. 

Many a sick cat's 
life has been saved, 
and the critical 
corner in an illness 
turned, by the timely 
comfort and strength 
bestowed by the hot- 
water bottle or bag, 
or even a brick made 
hot in the oven and 
wrapped up. In the 
event of winter lit- 
ters, too, a hot-water 
bag should be always 
in readiness, in case 
it is advisable to 

remove the first-born kittens from the mother 
for a few hours. Heat will restore a seemingly 
dead kitten, as I have said before. The 
outside dwellers also, how they appreciate 
on a bitter winter's night the hot bottle or 
wrapped up hot brick to keep them cosy ! 

I know a luxurious stud cat who has a 
hot-water tin made to fit his sleeping box, 
which is filled by the maid every cold night and 
slid beneath his hay bed. Assuredly, there is 
no greater safeguard against winter's chills and 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 




SPRATT'S TRAVELLING BASKET. 



changes of temperature than to provide for 
your pets sleeping warmly and comfortably 
at night. The hot-bottle plan has many 
advantages over the heating of the sleeping 
houses by stove or lamp during the night. It 
is better for the animals themselves, as the air 

is not ex- 
hausted, and 
they are not 
so prone to 
take a chill 
going from 
heated air to 
the outside 
rawness of 
a w i n t e r's 
morning. It 
is much safer, 
and it is also 
much more 
economical. 

Personally I prefer the indiarubber bag to 
the old-fashioned stone bottle, and in the 
smaller sizes (which are quite large enough) 
are not much more expensive than the latter. 
If not filled too full, and wrapped in a wash- 
able cover flannelette is very good it can 
be laid flat under the hay, and the cat will 
remain upon it all night. In the case of a 
sick cat the cover should always be of flannel, 
to avoid any chill as the bag grows colder. 

Then, in our list of appliances, proper travel- 
ling baskets must come under consideration. 
I say " proper " advisedly, for how hetero- 
geneous is the collection of hampers, .boxes, 
baskets I had almost added bundles one 
sees brought in by the officials during the re- 
ceiving hours before a big show ! Every 
variety of package, very many of which are 
exactly what they ought not to be. Some 
unnecessarily elaborate, polished wooden cases 
with brass fittings handsome and durable 
no doubt, but far too cumbersome, and by 
their very weight inflicting much jar on the 
occupant when moved about ; while others 
are a disgrace to anyone pretending to care 
about a cat or even to know what a cat is, 
many deserving to be straightway brought 



under the notice of the Society for the Pre- 
vention of Cruelty to Animals. 

I have seen big heavy cats jammed into 
margarine hampers, a thin wicker receptacle 
whose sides slope inwards like a flower-pot, 
where the animal must have suffered agonies 
of cramp in a veritable chamber of " little 
ease." Others are sent weary distances in 
shallow, rough grocery boxes with a few holes 
bored for ventilation, subject to be thrown 
about in transit, first on one side then oil the 
oth'er, the lid perchance nailed on, giving 
thereby much extra trouble to the penning 
officials. Little wonder if the cat arrives 
bruised, shaken, frightened nearly to death, 
and very probably wild and savage. 

Now, as evil is wrought bv want of thought 
(and common sense) as well as want of heart, 
I have thought it well to comment on these 
very wrong and stupid ways of sending our 
cats on their journeys before advising better 
arrangements. 

Here are two illustrations of excellent 
travelling baskets, which fulfil pretty nearly 
all requirements for cats travelling singly. 

The first is made by Messrs. Spratt, and 
has an inner skeleton lid, which is much to be 
recommended when sending a vicious or very 
timid cat that is likely to make a bolt on the 
basket being opened. 

The second, bee- 
hive shaped, is de- 
signed by Mrs. Paul 
Hardy, of Chobham. 
It is of strong white 
wicker, the lid fas- 
tening with a rim of 
about two inches 
deep over the body 
of the basket, aper- 
tures in the rim 
allowing the wicker 

loops of the fastenings to project ; when the 
cane stick is thrust through these the basket 
is absolutely secure not a paw can get out. 

This beehive shape has several advantages. 
The cat can stand up and stretch itself at ease, 
when tired of lying down. The handle being 




A USEFUL CAT HASKET. 




1 

Q 

H 



I 

5 

o 
F 






g 



X 

J 

tn 

o 
u 
ffi 
u 

1 






to 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



at the apex, it is carried even by porters 
without the cat being tilted off its legs ; whilst 
the dome top prevents any other package being 
piled upon it a disadvantage the flat-typed 
hamper always has. I line my baskets out- 
side with brown paper or oil baize up to the 
rim, and inside with curtaiji serge, leaving the 
lid free for ventilation. TTien, with plenty of 
hay at the bottom of the basket, the cat will 
travel from one end of England to the other in 
comfort and safety, with no danger of taking 
cold even if left about draughty platforms or 
in parcel offices. This basket is made by 
Messrs. Bull, of Guildford, at a very moderate 
cost, and lasts for years. 

These baskets are, of course, intended for 
one cat only, or a pair of kittens. A really 
safe and capable travelling arrangement for a 
litter with the mother has yet, I think, to be 
devised. I have seen none I think good. 
The double compartment hamper I much dis- 
like. The handles are perforce at each end, 
necessitating two carriers who never do it 
so the hamper is dragged by the porter or 
official with one end tilted (the other cat being 
nearly upside down), is leant up against other 



luggage, or dropped flat with a bang. \Vith 
young kittens inside this leads to fatalities. 

A label for the travelling basket seems an 
insignificant item to mention, but an efficient 
one is as important as that proverbial nail fcr 
whose absence the horse and the kingdom were 
lost. 

I have just made the acquaintance of a 
first-rate label, devised and sent out by a Mr. 
Foalstone, at sixpence per dozen, from the 
Aerefair Engineering Works, near Ruabon. It 
is a stout linen label, printed " Valuable Live 
Cat " in big block letters ; below is " Urgent " 
in red a good idea, red being more likely to 
attract the casual eye of the railway official. 
Spaces are left below for line of travel, via, etc., 
and date and time of despatch. It is revers- 
ible, so the sender can fill up witli the return 
address if necessary. I always prefer to fasten 
the label down at both ends, flat to the basket : 
it is less likely to be torn away than when left 
hanging loose from one eyelet. 

It is by due attention to the details that 
cat fanciers can to some extent mitigate the 
dangers and risks that must necessarily attend 
the transit of live stock by rail. 



6i 




WAKING BKACTIKS. 
(Pholo: Mrs. S. F. Clarke.-; 



CHAPTER V. 



EXHIBITING. 



MONGST cat fanciers there is a laudable 
ambition not only to breed good stock 
but to exhibit it. Certainly there is 
vastly more gratification and satisfaction in 
obtaining high honours for cats and kittens 
that we have bred ourselves, rather than for 
those specimens which money has purchased. 
If we consider that our cats have sufficiently 
good points to merit their being entered for 
a show, we must bear in mind that all the 
beauty and form and feature will be thrown 
away unless our pussies are in good show 
condition. For exhibition purposes condition 
means everything, and this is more especially 
the case with the long-haired breeds. A 
first-class specimen whose coat is ragged and 
matted cannot fail to suffer in the judges' 
estimation when compared with another 
cat, of inferior quality perhaps as regards 
points, but yet in the pink of condition, with 
its coat well groomed, its eye bright, its fur 
soft and silky. In the present day many of the 
sp imens penned are so close together in point 
of breed merit that a very little turns the scale 
one way or the other. I have often said to 
myself, when judging a class of cats, "This 



exhibit would be a winner but for its condi- 
tion," and I have had to put it down in the 
list. There is no doubt that with long-haired 
cats a fine full coat will cover a multitude of 
sins, but it cannot alter a long nose or pool- 
shape and bad-coloured eye ; and in urging 
the importance of condition, I at the same time 
deprecate the awarding of prizes to cats that 
have nothing to recommend them but their 
pelage. Seeing, therefore, that a handsome 
specimen may go to the wall for the lack of 
attention on the part of the owner, it behoves 
all cat 1 fanciers and would-be exhibitors to do 
everything in their power to make their cats 
look their very best, so that their pets may be 
things of beauty in the show pen. In the dog, 
rabbit, and pigeon fancy a great deal more 
attention is given to condition than amongst 
cat fanciers, who need waking up to the fact 
that nothing goes so far to propitiate a judge 
as superb show form and general good appear- 
ance. There may be standards of points for 
the guidance of the awards, but assuredly a 
common-sense judge will look with disfavour 
on a specimen with excellence of breed and 
correct colour of eye if his coat is draggled and 



62 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



matted, his tail dirty, and his fur soiled. We 
have only to run our minds back to the various 
exhibits of well-known fanciers at our large 
shows, and we shall find that the most per- 
sistently successful exhibitors have been those 
who have sent their cats to the shows in the 
best condition. Some fanciers, wishing to 
help on entries at a show, will exhibit their 
Persian cats when quite out of coat. This is 
a mistake ; send your entry money if you like 
to the secretary, but keep your coatless cats at 
home. As regards the short-haired breeds, 
these cats should have coats with a gloss and 
brilliancy like that of a well-groomed horse, 
shining like satin ; a spiky appearance in the 
fur denotes poor condition in both long and 
short breeds. 

In getting cats ready for exhibition owners 
should look to their comforts in every way. 
Their houses and beds should be kept clean, 
their coats combed and brushed daily. At- 
tention shouid be paid to their ears, for if these 
are neglected a cat will continually scratch 
them, and thus injure its appearance by tear- 
ing out its fur. Some fanciers are in favour 
of washing their cats, but when we take into 
consideration the usually delicate constitutions 
of Persian cats, and the restless, impatient 
nature of these animals, it behoves us to try 
to find some other effectual means of cleansing 
their coats, which in the case of white and 
silver cats are naturally easily soiled. Experi- 
ence has taught me that very good results can 
be obtained by damping the coats with a soft 
cloth dipped in a weak solution of ammonia 
and water. Follow this up by rubbing some 
white powder into the fur and well fingering 
the parts that are at all greasy. Pears' white 
precipitated fuller's earth is the best prepara- 
tion, and is perfectly harmless. To clean away 
the powder use a fairly soft brush, and after 
this process has been gone through several 
times your cat will be fit for show. Another 
method of cleaning long-haired cats is to 
heat a quantity of bran in the oven. Put it 
into a large bowl or footbath, and stand the 
puss in it. Rub the hot bran well amongst the 
fur for some minutes, and afterwards carefully 



brush it out. This treatment will give a soft 
and silky appearance to the coat, but for light- 
coloured cats the powder is more cleansing. 

Cats require to be educated to the show pen, 
and it is very necessary in some cases to give 
a course of training. For this purpose it is 
well to obtain a similar pen to those used at 
shows, and to place your puss in this for an 
hour or two daily. In time he will learn to 
come and sit and look out of his temporary 
prison, and when lie makes his d/'but he will 
not spoil his chances by crouching at the back 
of the show pen, or vex his would-be admirers, 
who may have recourse to the use of an um- 
brella or stick to make the exhibit move into 
a more convenient and conspicuous position. 

Taking it for granted you have decided to 
send your cat to a show, the first step is to 
register it in the club under whose rules the 
show is to be held. At present the National 
Cat Club and the Cat Club both require 
separate registration, the charge being one 
shilling. It is, however, to be hoped that the 
earnest wish of all cat fanciers and exhibitors 
will ere long be fulfilled, and that one register 
will be kept by an independent person, so that 
pedigrees can be verified and mistakes rectified, 
and the confusion caused by a double regis- 
tration will cease to worry and perplex the 
cat-loving community. Registration forms 
are supplied by the secretaries of the respective 
clubs, and you must fill in the particulars of 
your cats as set forth on the forms, a sample 
of which is here given, together with the regis- 
tration rules of the National Cat Club : 



REGISTRATION. 

The registration rules of the National Cat Club are 
as follow : 

I. Every Cat exhibited at a show under National Cat Club 
Rules must (except such as are exhibited exclusively in Local 
Classes, or exhibited in Classes exclusively for litters of 
kittens), previous to the time of entry for such show, have 
been entered in a registry kept by the National Cat Club at 
their offices. A charge of is. each shall be made for regis- 
tration. In such registry shall be inserted the name and 
breed of the cat, and its breeder's name, the date of birth, 
names of sire and dam, and of grand-sires and grand-dams, 
and if the dam was served by two or more cats their several 
names must be stated. If the age, pedigree, or breeder's 
name be not known the cat must be registered as breeder, 



EXHIBITING. 



age or pedigree " unknown," any or all, as the case may be. 
If the name of a cat be changed, or an old name re-assumed, 
such cat must be again registered and identified before 
exhibition in its altered name. 

2. A name which has been duly registered in accordance 
with Rule i cannot be again accepted for registration of a cat 
of the same breed, without the addition of a distinguishing 
number, prefix, or affix, for a period of five years, calculated 
from the first day of the year next after the one in which 
the name was last registered ; but the name of a cat after 
publication in "Our Cats" and the Stud Book, or which has 
become eligible for free entry therein, cannot again be 
assumed. 

N.13. The name of a cat that has become eligible for free 
entry in the Stud Booh in any year shall not be changed after 
the 3ist of December of that year. 

Cats do not receive a number on registration. Numbers 
are only assigned to Prize Winners or cats entered in the 
Stud Book on its publication, on payment of a fee of Five 
Shillings, in addition to One Shilling for registration. 

The application for registration must be made on a 
form as follows : 

XIMDKK OK BREED AS PER LIST IN MARGIN _COLOUR 

I wish to register the following (Sex) by the name of 

Previously registered by the name of 



The various varieties as recognised by the Club are 
as follow : 



Signature af Oancr 
(Mr., Mrs. or Miss) 

Address 



LATE OWNER (if any) 
SIRE 



I G. SIRE 



OWNER 01- SIKE 



DAM 



DAM 



OWNER OF DAM 
DATE OF BIRTH 



} G. SlRE_ 

_JG. DAM_ 



NAME & ADDRESS OF BREEDER 



NOTE. If this name cannot be registered, I select one of the 
following, and nama them in the order named : (i) 



Only one cat must bo entered on one form, which 
must be forwarded with a remittance of one shilling to 
-Mrs. A. Stennard Robinson, Hon. Sec., at 5, Great 
James Street, Bedford Row, London, W.C. 



LONG-HAIRED CATS. 

15. BLACK. 

16. WHITE. 

17. BLUE. 

18. ORANGE. 

19. CREAM. 

20. SABLE. 

21. SMOKE. 

22. TABBY. 

23. SPOTTED. 

24. CHINCHILLA. 

25. TORTOISESHELL. 

26. BlCOLOUR. 

27. TRICOLOUR. 



SHORT-HAIRED CATS. 

1. SIAMESE. 

2. BLUE. 

3. MANX. 

4. FOREIGN. 

5. TABBY. 

6. SPOTTED. 

7. BICOLOUR. 

8. TRICOLOUR. 

Q. TORTOISKSHELL. 

10. BLACK. 

11. WHITE. 

12. SABLE. 

13. TICKS. 

14. ABYSSINIAN. 

It will be seen that you are requested to 
give more than one name, and it is very 
desirable in the first instance to select an 
uncommon one, which may be considered your 
cat's exhibition title, but you will doubtless 
have some short pet name for home use. A 
prefix, probably the name of the town or 
village in which you live, can be used to 
specially identify your cat. For this an 
extra charge is made. It is well to fill 
in the pedigree as far as possible, and every 
exhibitor should strive to obtain correct 
particulars of date of birth and name of breeder 
of 'the cat to be exhibited. It is a pity to 
label your cat " unknown," if with a small 
amount of trouble exact details can be ob- 
tained. At any rate, it is important to 
state the names of the two parents. The 
age of kittens should be counted by months 
that is, say, from the 2Oth to the 20th. 
Having registered your cat, you receive a 
notification of such registration, and whether 
you are intending to exhibit or not it is 
very necessary and advisable that your cat 
should be duly registered in at least one of 
the parent clubs. 

A separate fee is charged for each cat or 
kitten in each class, and the amount must be 
forwarded at the same time as the entry is 
made. The following is a copy of the entry 
form used at the Cat Club's Show at Brighton 
in 1901, and I may mention that the fee for 
registration has since been raised from 6d. 
to is. : 



6 4 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



ENTRIES CLOSE MONDAY, NOVEMBER 4th, igoi. 

BRIGHTON CHAMPIONSHIP SHOW OF THE CAT CLUB, 

TO BE HKLD AT 

MELLISOVS HALL, WEST STREET, BRIGHTON, 

ON WEDNESDAY AND THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 13 AND i 4 TH, 1901, 
Under the Exhibition Rules of The Cat Club. 

RULE AS TO REGISTRATION OF NAMES OF CATS AND KITTENS. 

Every Cat or Kitten exhibited at a Show under The Cat Club Exhibition Rules MUST 
be Registered at the Cat Club. Fee 6d. 

Every Cat or Kitten which may have changed ownership since Registration MUST, 
before Exhibition, be Transferred to its new owner in the books of The Cat Club, 
Fee One Shilling. 

To change the name of a Cat or Kitten, when allowable, the fee is One Shilling. 
See The Cat Club Exhibition Rules, Nos. i to 6, in the Schedule. 



CERTIFICATE OF ENTRY. 



E f)U'fbj_) <ffrt'ttf)J that the Cat or Kitten to be exhibited by me as below is bona. H 
Jide my property, and I enter it at my own risk, subject to the Exhibit on Rules of The -* 
Cat Club, and the Regulations of this Exhibition as arranged by the Committee- 



Has this Cat been Registered at The Cat Club (see note abovc)- 

Hns this Cat been Transferred (if purchased) to yourself as owner in Iht 
books of The Cat Club (sec note above) 

Name of Exhibitor (in full) 

(Title, Rev., Mr., Mrs., or Miss. (See Rule 3.)" 

Address 

Name oT Cat or Kitten (as registered at The Cat Club) 

(If in Stud Book, add number.) 



Breed- 



Colo 



See *" 

Exhibition^ 

Rules tl 

. 1166 j5 

of The ,l ? <Sire 
Cat Club &- 



in the & 
Schedule. .5 



Price . 



Date of Birth 



Sex - 

(Male, Female or Neuttr.) 



lireeder- 



D 



Prizes won - 



(If for Sale.) 



Dale - 



N.B. No MILK will be given to any Cat or Kitten unless specially requested 
here Water will be provided otherwise. 



Class as per Schedule. 



No. 



Also Entered in Classes num- 
bered as per Schedule. 

Nos. 



Please not to write in this 
space 



Kindly fill in the amount en- 
closed for Fees, &c., as 
under : 



Cheque 



Post Office 
Order ... 

Postal Order... 
Cash 



Total 



No Entries will be accepted without Fees. Postage Stamps taken Thirteen to the Shilling. 

Exhibitors are particularly requested to write distinctly, and also to be careful to name correctly the Class in which they 

intend to exhibit their Cat or Cats. 
All Correspondence and Entries to be addressed to Miss F. SIMPSON, Durdans House, St. Margaret's-on-Thames. 



The exhibiting rules should be carefully 
studied, and intending exhibitors must pay 
great attention to the classification set forth 
in the schedule so as to determine the correct 
class in which to enter their cats. If there 
remains any cloubt in the mind of the novice, 
then it is best to consult some reliable and 
well-known breeder, giving a full description 
of the cat you wish to show. 

It is a grievous disappointment if through 
ignorance or carelessness a good specimen is 
labelled " Wrong class." 



It is always stated in the schedules that the 
entries close on a particular date, and that 
after tin's none can or will be received. Ex- 
perience proves, however, that this is often 
not a law of the Medes and Persians, for the date 
is frequently of an elastic nature, and thereforr- 
it is always worth while for an intending 
exhibitor to write requesting that, if possible, 
his entry may be received, although it is im- 
wardcd after the advertised time of closing. 
Many exhibitors are not aware that by pay- 
ing an extra shilling they can generally secure 



EXHIBITING, 



a double pen for their cats. It is not usual 
for the secretary of a show to send a receipt 
for entries and fees, as the tallies and labels 
which are forwarded later serve as an acknow- 
ledgment for these. When by any chance 
labels, etc., are not received in time to be 
used by exhibitors, or they are lost or mis- 
laid, then the hampers should be addressed 
to the secretary of the show, and a note of 



is taken into consideration in judging, and 
perhaps a large litter of six may take over a 
smaller litter of three, even though the quality 
of the trio is in advance of the larger family. 
As regards pairs of kittens, I would say select 
two kittens as near alike as possible in colour, 
size, and quality ; they need not be of the 
same litter, but it is as a " pair " they will be 
judged, so if one exhibit is much inferior to 




RICHMOND CAT SHOW : ARRANGEMENT OF TENTS. 

(Photo: Cassell & Compan", Limited.) 



explanation enclosed. The entry can then 
be looked up, and the pen number discovered. 
If cats are entered in joint names, then it is 
desirable that the owners should let the secre- 
tary know to whom to send the labels and 
tallies, as if these are only forwarded a day 
or two before the show to the partner who 
does not keep the cat, complications may 
arise. If litter classes are provided at a show, 
it is well for the intending exhibitor to send 
the whole litter, as the number of the family 



its fellow then the value of the pair is seriously 
diminished. A defective eye or damaged tail 
will tell against a cat or kitten in the show 
pen, therefore it is useless to throw away 
entry fees upon these blemished, though per- 
chance dearly loved, creatures. 

The question of ribbons to suit the colours 
of the various cats is one deserving of con- 
sideration. Many exhibitors make the mistake 
of using broad ribbons and making very 
big bows, but both long and short haired 



56 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



cats present a neater appearance with narrow 
ribbons, and the bow should be stitched in the 
centre, so that it cannot come undone and thus 
give a dishevelled appearance to the puss. 
The metal tallies will hang more gracefully 
roimd the neck if a slip ring is ran through 
the hole of the tally and then the ribbon is 
put through the ring. Cushions and hang- 
ings for the pens are not at all desirable, even 
if they are permitted. They collect germs 
and become offensive, and moreover it is 
much better that all exhibits should be placed 
on the same footing namely, a bed of hay 
or straw. 

If owners are unable to accompany their 
exhibits to the show, it is more than ever 
necessary that secure, comfortable, and safe 
travelling boxes or hampers should be used 
for the transit of the cats. It is not advisable, 
nor is it generally allowable, for more than one 
cat to be sent in a hamper to a show. 

The question of hampers and travelling 
appliances has been dealt with in a previous 
chapter, but I would earnestly impress upon 
exhibitors not to send their cats away on 
journeys, long or short, in tumble-down 
hampers and unsafe packing cases. Whether 
hampers or boxes, I would here suggest that 
whichever is used let the fasteners be secure 
and yet easy to manipulate. Straps should 
be attached to the box or hamper, as in the 
confusion and hurry of show work these, if 
left loose, may get mislaid. The labels should 
be so arranged that they may be conveniently 
turned over for the return journey, where, 
on the reverse side, ought to be the owner's 
name and full address. It is most important 
that these should be distinctly written. I 
recommend all exhibitors to insure their cats 
when sending them to a show. The charge 
is 3d. for every i, and having paid our money 
we take our chance, which is perhaps a less 
hazardous one than if this precaution had 
been neglected. 

The arrangements, or rather want of ar- 
rangements, as regards the transit of live stock 
on our railways leave much to be desired, and 
therefore it behoves fanciers and exhibitors 



who value their cats for their own sakes and 
for their intrinsic worth, to do all in their power 
to mitigate the discomforts of a journey and 
the risks that must necessarily attend the 
conveyance of live stock by rail. Some fanciers 
make it a rule never to exhibit unless they 
themselves can take and bring back their 
cats, and though this necessarily entails a 
great .deal of trouble and some expense, yet 
there is an immense satisfaction in feeling our 
pets are under our own supervision. There 
is also an advantage in penning your own 
cats, and if you arm yourself with a brush and 
comb you are able to give some finishing 
touches to pussy's toilet previous to the judges' 
inspection and awards. Let me recommend 
a metal comb, and a brush such as is used for 
Yorkshire terriers, which has long penetrating 
bristles, but is neither too hard nor too soft. 

Disqualification of cats or kittens at shows 
may arise from various causes. First, if the 
cat has not been registered, or if it can be 
proved that the animal has not been in the 
possession of the exhibitor for fourteen days 
before the show, or if a wrong pedigree has 
been given, or the date of birth of a kitten 
is incorrect. Any attempt at " faking " will 
disqualify an exhibit, and in some cases the 
too free use of powder on white and silver cats 
is a disqualification in the eyes of some judges. 
Exhibitors have been known to dye the chins 
of tabby cats and treat white spots on self- 
coloured cats in the same manner. Such 
" faking," as it is popularly called, is always 
risky, as well as a most undesirable operation, 
and if resorted to ought not to be passed over 
by a judge who might detect the artifice and 
yet lack the moral courage to expose the 
offender. Let me warn exhibitors against 
the evil practice of over feeding their cats 
at shows. It is so much better for a cat 
to starve for two days than to overload its 
stomach with the plentiful supplies brought 
by an over-anxious exhibitor. The sanitary 
arrangements at present existing at cat shows 
do not allow of such a course, and if one meal 
of raw meat and plenty of fresh water is sup- 
plied by the show authorities pussy will fare 



EXHIBITING. 



67 




MRS. GREGORY'S " SKELLIXGTHORPE PATRICK." 

(Photo : . W. J. Smith, Lincoln.) 

much better than being stuffed with a variety 
of dainties brought in paper bags. 

Whilst the inmates of your cattery are 
attending shows it is a good opportunity to 
give an extra cleansing and airing to their 
houses, and on their return be careful to 
destroy the hay or straw contained in the 
hampers or boxes, and thoroughly disinfect 
these, leaving them out in the open air for a 
day or two before packing them away. It 
is generally advisable to give a slight aperient 
to grown cats after they come back from a 
show, for it often happens that these cleanly 
creatures refuse to make use of the scanty 
accommodation provided for them in the 
show pens, and thus complications may arise 
unless attention is paid to their wants on 
their return. If many cats are kept, and 
some are sent to a show, on no account allow 
these to mix with your other animals on their 
return. It is a wise precaution to keep then 
apart for a few days, more especially if you 
have young kittens to consider. 

The prize cards should be returned in the 
hampers when sent back to exhibitors. If 
these are soiled or broken on their arrival, 
a request to the secretary asking for fresh 
ones will probably be attended to. 

Every member of a cat club and exhibitor at 



a show has a right to lodge a complaint with 
the secretary and committee of the club under 
whose rules the show is held, if an injustice 
has been done to an exhibit in the opinion 
of the exhibitor. According to the rules a 
deposit has to be paid, which can be reclaimed 
unless the complaint is considered " frivolous." 

Show promoters cannot afford to give their 
money away without some return or pro- 
visional stipulation, and therefore fanciers 
must not complain if when a class does not 
fill it is either amalgamated or only half the 
advertised prize money is given. This latter 
plan is by far the more satisfactory. There has 
probably never been a show of any live stock 
held where complete satisfaction has been 
given ; but, generally speaking, " grumbling " 
is a most mistaken and pernicious habit, and 
exhibitors should strive to become good losers. 
If they cannot learn this lesson, then the 
remedy remains in their own hands, and they 
had better keep their cats at home rather 
than run the risk of being disappointed them- 
selves and of causing unpleasantness to others. 
If a judgment is obviously wrong, then the 
triumph is with the best cat, and we should 
take our defeat in a sportsmanlike manner. 

In July, 1902, a cat section in connec- 
tion with the annual dog show was held in 
the Old Deer Park, Richmond. This proved 
a great success, and entries numbered over 
three hundred. A 
fdw words in de- 
scription of this 
show may be ap- 
propriate here, 
especially 
in view of 




" INQUIRY. 
(Photo : Mrs. S. F. Clarke.) 



68 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



the photographs (specially taken) which illus- 
trate this chapter. 

Its chief features were the twenty-five 
entries in the litter classes and the ring 
class for neuters only. Objection is often 
made to litter classes, and yet these are 
certainly the most attractive. I think that 
double pens should be provided, and special 
food ought to be supplied for the little ones. 
It stands to reason that very young kittens 
cannot be fed like the grown cats, and it is only 
natural that if big pieces of meat are thrust 
into the pen for the mother the hungry little 
creatures will make a rush for it. They bolt 
down the hard lumps, and these remain un- 
digested in their tender little stomachs. It is 
not to be wondered at if gastritis, inflamma- 
tion, and other distressing ailments supervene. 
It is much better to let the mother do with- 
out her usual meat rations and content her- 
self with good, nourishing baby food, such as 
Mellin's or Ridge's, rather than run the risk 
of providing her with such which will injure 
her little kittens. With ordinary supervision 
no evil consequences should ensue from the 
introduction of litter classes, especially at 
a one day show. It is not, however, advis- 
able to have litter classes at shows held during 
the winter months. But in perfect, warm 
weather no fatalities will be reported. Cer- 
tainly the mothers with their families prove 
a great attraction, and as woollen balls, at- 
tached from the top of the pens, are provided 
for the amusement of the kittens, they de- 
light themselves and their audience with -their 
playful frolics. 

The ring class for neuters only was an inno- 
vation and proved very successful, and although 
some of these pet pussies declined to show 
themselves off to the best advantage, yet 
they did not " go " for each other as is some- 
times the case when .the males are within 
measurable distance of each other. The illus- 
tration given is from a photo specially taken 
for this work, and shows the judges deliberat- 
ing on the respective merits of the neuter cats. 
On this occasion a famous Blue Persian owned 
by Madame Portier carried off the honours. 



He behaved very well on the lead, and his 
grand shape and wonderful coat made him 
an easy first. 

Another illustration shows the judges at 
work awarding the special prizes, which in 
many cases have to be decided conjointly. 
Miss Frances Simpson and Mr. C. A. House are 
comparing notes and determining which of the 
first prize kittens is deserving of the special 
for the best in the show. On this occasion 
Mrs. Bennet, a well-known breeder of Blue 
Persians, was awarded the coveted prize. 

A general view of one of the rows of pens 
is given, but on this particular occasion no 
covering was supplied for the benching, and, 
therefore, the aspect of the show pens leaves 
much to be desired. The travelling baskets 
being placed under the pens, these should be 
hidden from the public gaze in order to give 
a neat and tidy appearance to the show. The 
best material for this purpose is red baize. 
The custom of allowing exhibitors to pen their 
own cats enables them to give their pussies 
a final brush up before they are subjected to 
the critical examination of the judge. Our 
illustration represents Mrs. Peter Brown, a 
well-known breeder of Blue Persians, attending 
to the toilet of her beautiful " Bunch," who 
on this occasion repeated her successes at 
the Botanic Gardens, and carried off the 
highest honours in the Blue Female Persian 
class (see page 73). And now to pass on to 
another portion of our subject. 

JUDGING. 

A standard of points for all long and short 
haired cats was drawn up by a sub-committee 
of the Cat Club, of which I was a member ; 
but since specialist clubs have come into 
existence, having each their own list of points, 
nothing much has been seen or heard of the 
Cat Club's standard. It is just as well to 
have some definite lines upon which fanciers 
and exhibitors may base their ideas, and so 
aim at, if they cannot attain to, the height 
of perfection set forth in these standards. 
They are really not meant for judges, because 
I venture to assert that a judge is no judge 




RICHMOND CAT SHOW : JUDGES AT WORK. 
(I'hoto : Cassell & Company, Limited.) 



7 o 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



if he requires anything besides his own per- 
sonal conviction, experience, and common 
sense when called upon to decide the various 
points in the different breeds. A good judge 
of old china will not search for the mark to 
know whether the specimen is Chelsea or 
Worcester. He will tell you "it is marked 
all over" that is. he knows a good bit of 
stuff, even if it should not have the gold 
anchor of Chelsea or the square mark of 
Worcester ware. So it is with a good all- 
round cat. It appeals at once to the eye of 
the connoisseur, just as a worthless specimen 
is at once put out of the ranks of winners. 

It is the greatest error not to have thorough 
confidence in oneself when undertaking to 
judge cats, or, in fact, in judging any animal, 
or any thing. No one should undertake to 
judge if they wish to seek the counsel of others. 
The}' must have the courage of their own 
convictions, and, although some amount of 
training may be required, I think that judges 
are born, not made ; and people who have not 
a keen power of observation and a faculty 
of coming rapidly to a fixed conclusion can 
never hope to become satisfactory or com- 
petent judges. There are many cat fanciers 
on whose judgment of a cat I should implicitly 
rely, and who know a good specimen when 
they see it, but if placed before a row of twenty 
or thirty cats of a breed they seem to 
lose their heads and get hopelessly confused, 
and then the reporter says, " We could not 
follow the awards." There is no doubt that 
judges of cats are severely handicapped. 
Firstly, cats are such terribly timid, shrink- 
ing animals that when dragged out of their 
pens with great difficulty for the doors are 
most inconveniently small they often strug- 
gle so violently that, for fear of hurting the 
animal or of its escaping, the judge will swiftly 
restore it to its resting place without having 
obtained much satisfaction from his cursory 
examination. Unless judging pens are pro- 
vided, there is really no chance of making 
fair comparisons between two cats which may 
appear of almost equal merit. How is a judge 
to decide on the form of limbs and general 



build of a cat when holding it in his arms or 
seeing it huddled up at the back of its pen ? 

An agitation is now on foot for having cats 
judged in a ring, and, no doubt, in time this 
will be the order of the day at our shows ; 
but fanciers will have to train up their cats 
in the way they should go namely, when 
quite young they mus't be accustomed to a 
lead and also be constantly brought out 
amongst strangers. As an example, I would 
refer to the starting gate recently introduced 
into this country on the racecourse. It was 
no use to attempt it for the old stagers, but 
trainers soon accustomed the two-year-olds 
to the innovation, and I believe many, if not 
all, the objectors are now converted to the 
new system of starting racehorses. 

In judging a class, I first go round and mark 
the absent cats ; then I note down those that 
could not under any circumstances take a 
prize. If there is a large class say, of twenty 
to thirty specimens I mark off all poor and 
seedy-looking cats until the number is re- 
duced to about eight or ten ; then I begin to 
search for the winners. At this point I take 
out each specimen, and, if no judging pen is 
provided, I get someone to assist me, and 
by bringing out two cats at a time I can make 
comparisons and note down any remarks in 
my book for further reference. It often 
happens that one particular cat will stand 
out prominently from all the rest in a class, 
and then there is no difficulty about the first 
award. It is always well to give a " reserve " 
and to distribute but not too freely the 
V.H.C., H.C., and C. cards. It does not do 
to make these too cheap, and scatter them 
all over the class. V.H.C. might be awarded 
to a cat in splendid coat, but which failed in 
head and eyes ; H.C. to another specimen 
with hardly any coat and poor head, but 
correct in eye ; and C. to a promising young- 
ster without any serious fault, only with no 
striking point of merit. A good judge must 
thus weigh the pros and cons and have a 
reason to give himself or anyone else for each 
degree of merit, from first prize to the humble 
C. And here I would mention that there is 



EXHIBITING. 



a nice and a very nasty way for an exhibitor 
to question a judge's award. To be attacked 
suddenly with the query, " Why have you 
not given ray cat a prize ? " is quite enough 
to make a judge retire into his shell and refuse 
any explanation ; but if asked to kindly give 
a reason why a certain animal has failed to 
win, and to explain why one specimen, appar- 
ently a fine cat, should be lower than another, 
I am sure any judge would gladly give the 
inquirer the benefit of his larger experience 



specimens ; and if he has withheld others in 
a poor and badly filled class then there is no 
extra burden put on to the funds of the club. 
A great deal should be left to the discretion 
of the judge, and in the matter of special 
prizes, if one is offered for, say, the best long- 
haired white cat, and only one or two specimens 
are on show, and these are neither of them 
good types of tin's breed, then the judge should 
be empowered to withhold the prize. Such 
a course may be an unpopular one, but I am 




TYPE OF CAGE AT THE RICHMOND CAT SHOW. 
{Photo : Cassell & Company, Limited.) 



and the reason for his awards. It is a mistake 
for a judge to distribute the full complement 
of prizes in a class when and where the /ex- 
hibits are not possessing of sufficient merit. 
A first prize cat should be a good specimen of 
its kind, and it is much better to withhold this 
award than to give it to a poor representative 
of his breed. It also reflects discredit on a 
ludge, for an exhibitor wishing to boast of 
his honours may publish that his " Tommy 
Atkins " took first under so-and-so, when 
perhaps there were only two cats in the class. 
It is quite legitimate for a judge to ask per- 
mission of the show authorities to award an 
extra prize in a large class with several fine 



sure it is the correct and fairest one, for it is 
a farce to award first prize and specials to an 
inferior animal just because he happens to be 
without other competitors. Anyone who has 
judged the large classes of blues and silvers 
which now appear at our principal shows will 
bear me out in my suggestion that such classes, 
numbering perhaps thirty and more exhibits, 
should be subdivided according to age. Such 
an arrangement would be welcomed by judge 
and exhibitor alike. At the Crystal Palace 
Show in 1901 the blue kittens numbered 
thirty-nine in the class, male and female, the 
age limit being three to eight months. How 
could a judge be expected to satisfactorily 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 




MK. C. A HOUSE, 

EDITOR OF " FUR AND FEATHER." 

(Photo: A. & G. Taylor.) 

award three prizes in such a huge class ? And 
I know that many superb specimens on this 
occasion had to be content with a V.H.C. card, 
which it would have gone to my heart as a 
judge to place on their pen. 

If there is a prize offered for the best cat in 
the show, the judge or judges have not to con- 
sider which is their favourite breed or which 
is the most fashionable colour, but just which 
cat is the best possible type, which specimen 
is the nearest perfection, and which is exhibited 
in the best all-round show condition. In long- 
haired classes the length and quality of' coat 
and fulness of ruff go a long way towards a 
high place in the awards, and, as I have before 
remarked, condition is a most important factor 
in the judges' estimation. In the self-coloured 
classes of blues and blacks a judge should 
make diligent search for white spots on throat 
or stomach. Formerly cats thus blemished 
were relegated to the "any other" class, but 
it has been wisely decided by both clubs that 
cats with white spots should be judged in their 
own classes, and that this defect should count 
as a point or points against them. This is as 
it should be, for to place self-coloured cats in 



an " any other colour " class seems absurd. They 
are black and blue cats in spite of a few white 
hairs, and should be judged as such. They 
may never aspire to a first prize, at any rate 
at a large show ; but surely a really fine black 
or blue cat, with correct eyes, grand head, and 
good shape, even with the unfortunate spot, 
should and ought to score over a poor specimen 
with green eyes and long nose. In the tabby 
classes a judge will first consider the ground- 
work and markings, and to these premier points 
special attention should be given, as there is 
a tendency to breed tabby cats which are 
barred only on heads and legs, the body mark- 
ings being blurred and indistinct. It is not 
unlikely that in due time the "any other colour" 
class will no longer form part of the classifica- 
tion at our large shows. Formerly this used 
to be the largest class of any, but nowadays the- 
entries are becoming small and beautifully less. 
It is not worth while for a fancier to keep these 
specimens they do not fetch any price, they 
are not valuable as breeders, and it is quite a 
toss up whether they can win in such a mixed 
company. I remember the time when blues 
were entered in the " any other colour " class, 
and when blue tabbies were more numerous 




MR. T. Ii. MASON. 
(Photo: C. L. Eastlake, Leeits.) 



EXHIBITING. 



73 



than silvers or blues. It is really a most diffi- 
cult task for a judge to give his awards at a 
local show where all sorts and conditions of 
cats are placed in the one class. Such an 
arrangement is good for neither man nor beast. 



and the sarcasm of the reporter will be poured 
out upon him. No doubt it is a grave mistake 
to reverse one's own awards, and yet judges 
are but mortal, and " to err is human." It 
is hard when cat fanciers take to judging the 




THK TOILET. 

MRS. PETER BROWN AND HER PRIZE CAT. 
{Photo : Cassell & Company, Limited.) 



And then, again, at our large shows it behoves 
a judge to be very level-headed to cope with 
the numerous brace, team, and novice classes, 
for one cat may be entered in all these, be- 
sides being in the open cat and kitten class ; 
and woe betide the unfortunate judge who 
makes a slip, for the wrath of the exhibitor 



judges and their judgments. A judge may be 
absolutely ignorant of the owners of the cats, 
and thus utterly unbiased ; yet there will not 
be wanting those who will pick holes in their 
characters, and see in their awards clear proof 
of personal spite and party favour. The in- 
tense suspiciousness of some fanciers and the 



74 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



readiness with which they impute low motives 
to others is greatly to be deplored. 

I will here quote from an article by Mr. C. A. 
House, the well-known editor and judge of 
live stock. Under the heading of " The 
Judging of Cats," Mr. House says: "All my 
awards are based on the idea that each breed 
possesses a distinctive fea.- 
ture, and that distinctive 
feature must be the one to 
which most consideration 
is given. After the chief 
features come others, such 
as shape, coat, colour, etc., 
and the premier awards 
should be given to cats 
possessing the best all- 
round properties. . . . 
Selfs, above all things, 
should be pure in colour. 
For instance, a blue should 
be blue, and a black, black. 
Yet a little rustiness of 
colour should not be al- 
lowed to outweigh a host 
of other good properties. 
Colour, however, is hard 
to breed rich and pure, 
and should at all times be 
more highly valued than ' 
size, or even coat. The 
same with markings. Only 
those who have tried to 
breed markings know how 
difficult it is to get them 
anything approaching per- 
fection. Nothing is more 
fleeting than marking, and nothing more tanta- 
lising to the breeder. Summing up the matter, 
my own opinion is, and has been for years, that 
the cat fancy has been hindered and hampered 
by judges judging the exhibits because they 
belong to so-and-so, or had won so-and-so 
under so-and-so. ... I was much amused 
at one incident at Westminster where a big 
champion had suffered defeat. The fair owner 
was heckling the judge, and he in reply to her 
remarks made this answer : ' It makes no 




BLUE' PERSIAN KITTENS 
(Photo: Mrs. S. F. Clarke.) 



difference to me had the cat belonged to the 
Queen herself ; I should then have done the 
same. I don't judge cats on what they have 
previously won or because they belong to any 
particular person. I judge them on their 
form at the time, and it makes no difference 
to me if a cat has won fifty firsts or none at 
all.' This reply was more 
than the exhibitor had 
bargained for, but all 
honest-minded fanciers 
must acknowledge the 
judge was right. What is 
sadly needed in the cat 
fancy to-day is more of 
this sturdy, unflinching 
determination to judge 
cats and not their own- 
ers. Cat exhibitors have 
much to learn yet, and 
the sooner the morale of 
the judging arena is raised 
the more healthy will the 
fancy become and the 
more quickly will it ad j 
vance." 

Another of our well- 
known judges, Mr. T. B. 
Mason, writing on the same 
subject, says:- "In my 
judging engagements I 
have very often come 
across exhibits with good 
coloured eyes, but not the 
correct shape. A small eye, 
however good the colour 
may be, will give the cat 
a disagreeable, sour expression. With this shape 
of eye we generally see a narrow, long face, 
which should keep any exhibit out of the prize 
list in good competitions. Let it, however, be 
clearly understood, I do not want eyes to have 
undue weight in the general conditions of cat 
judging ; but they are important, and as such 
ought to have due and careful attention at 
the hands of breeders and judges alike. Two 
things in the judging of short-hairs weigh 
heavily with me, namely, pale colours and 



EXHIBITING, 



75 



light-marked heads and white lips. 
These defects, in my opinion, ought to 
put out of the money those that possess 
them in good competition. I perfectly 
agree with Mr. House about the stand- 
ards. They are useful both to the breeder 
and judge ; but for the judge to take the 
standards and try to judge by them at 
any show would be foolish indeed. All 
judges are expected to know the varieties 
they are called upon to judge, and to 
have the faculty to weigh up the good 
points and defects of the specimens be- 
fore them, and place them accordingly." 



MANAGEMENT OF SHOWS. 

Now to turn our attention to the manage- 
ment of shows, and upon this question I feel 
I am fairly competent to give an opinion, as I 
have acted as show manager and as show 
secretary to some of our largest exhibitions 
in London and at Brighton. The office is 
indeed no sinecure, and very few fanciers, 
exhibitors, or visitors have any idea of the 
enormous amount of forethought required, to 
say nothing of physical and secretarial labours, 
to make a big show run smoothly. The re- 
sponsibility also is great, for a conscientious 





KITS WITH A TASTE FOK FLOWERS. 
(Photo : Mrs. S. F. Clarke.) 



TWO KITTKXS BRED BY MISS WILLIAMS. 
(I'lwto : H. Jenkins, Lovesto/t.) 

manager feels he has valuable live stock in his 
temporary possession, of which he has, so to 
speak, to render up account. There are many 
mixed shows held throughout the country 
where a cat section is given, and it is to be 
regretted that in most, if not all cases the 
poor pussies are badly provided for and 
generally go to the wall. At a dog and cat 
show everything goes to the dogs ! Secre- 
taries wishing to promote successful cat sec- 
tions at their mixed shows should secure 
some well-qualified person to have entire 
control of this department. It is certainly 
true that, of all live stock, cats require the 
most consideration and supervision, and yet 
to the masculine mind of a show secretary 
it would appear that the cats can look after 
themselves. There is no doubt that the first 
step towards making a show successful is to 
engage the services of a competent, 
energetic, and painstaking manager 
and secretary. It is also very de- 
sirable to appoint a really good 
working show committee, the 
members of which should 
each undertake some partic- 
ular duty in connection with 
the show. For instance, one 
member might superintend 
the feeding, another could 
be responsible for obtaining 
promises of special prizes, 



7 6 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



another devote him- or herself to verifying the 
prize tickets placed on the pens, and so on. A 
system of advertising a show must be decided 
upon by the show committee, and notices sent 
to the various journals which are circulated 
amongst fanciers. The class and prize tickets 
must be ordered in good time either by the 
secretary of the club or the manager of the 
show. 

The best time of the year for a show as 
regards the appearance of Persian cats is in 
December or January. Then, if ever, these 
particular cats should be in the best show con- 
dition. As regards kittens, the early summer 
or autumn is the best period, as spring kittens 
will then be ready to make their bow to the 
public. It is much to be regretted that the 
two principal shows of the National Cat Club 
namely, the Botanic Gardens and the 
Crystal Palace Shows should be held re- 
spectively in June and October, when Persian 
cats are in poor coat. 

Quite three months before the date of the 
show a managing secretary will start work. 
Catalogues of previous shows must be collected 
together, in order to ascertain the names and 
addresses of likely exhibitors. 

Special prizes are now a great feature at all 
cat shows, and a good deal of extra work is 
entailed by writing to obtain promises of these 
for the various breeds. If possible, it is well 
to appoint someone who is in touch with those 
who are likely to become donors, and to hand 
over this department. I would advise anyone 
undertaking this branch of the show to have a 
book, and to head each page with the respective 
classes of long and short haired breeds, and 
then when a special is received say, for the 
best black Persian cat to place this on the 
page set apart for specials for this particular 
breed. Keep a separate list for kittens, and 
decline to accept specials given in the form 
of stud visits or for cats bred from such-and- 
such a sire ; these savour too much of self- 
advertisement. There are so many specialist 
societies nowadays, and as these provide their 
own specials the show executive is consider- 
ably relieved of the duty of obtaining prizes. 



Of course, there are always a certain number 
of challenge cups, medals, and specials given 
by the club holding the show, and care should 
be taken to distribute these fairly amongst the 
various classes. It is usual and advisable to 
limit the competition of the majority of these 
special prizes to the members of the club. 
I do not approve of a special prize being 
offered for the best cat in the show, as it 
is almost impossible for the judges to arrive 
at a satisfactory decision, and considerable 
heartburnings are generally the result of 
such a competition. A very useful mode of 
assisting a show is by guaranteeing classes ; 
and I would suggest yet another plan, namely, 
to subscribe so much towards the expenses of 
the show. These are necessarily heavy, and 
it has been stated that no cat show can ever 
be made a paying affair. 

As regards the specialist societies, I think 
it seems the correct thing that the club in- 
tending to hold the show should instruct its 
secretary to write to the secretary of each 
specialist society to ask if he is willing to 
support the show by prizes or by guaranteeing 
classes, and to name the latest date for re- 
ceiving particulars of the support to be given. 
The specialist societies have their own judges, 
and it is only natural when they are offering 
handsome prizes that a claim should be made 
for first-class judging in the interests of the 
breed. It is therefore essential, as matters 
at present stand, for one of the judges from 
the list of the specialist club to be selected 
to give awards in the classes connected with 
the society. It is important to obtain as full 
a list as possible of special prizes from societies 
and outside donors in good time for insertion 
in the schedule, as a tempting list will ensure 
a better entry. In the schedule the exhibition 
rules of the club should be printed, and in 
addition there should be a list of arrangements 
in a prominent position setting forth details 
as to the opening and closing of the show, the 
time up to which exhibits are received, the 
earliest hour at which they may be removed, 
and the prices of admission. The names of 
the judges, with their respective classes, should 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



be clearly set forth, and it should be mentioned 
whether classes will or will not be amalgamated 
or cancelled. A few advertisements of stud 
cats and trade notices should be obtained, 
as this means grist to the mill and helps to 
pay for the printing of the schedules and 
catalogues. 

The question of classification is an all- 
important one, and needs the consideration of 
a careful show committee, well versed in the 
ways of cats and of fanciers. A list of the 
classification used by one or two big cat clubs 
has been given. Of course, at smaller shows 
it is often impossible to give separate classes 
for several breeds or to divide the sexes ; but 
my remarks in this chapter will refer to the 
customs and arrangements of large shows, 
such as those held by the National Cat Club 
at the Crvstal Palace, and the Cat Club at 
Westminster. I do not think it is good policy 
on the part of a show committee or manage- 
ment to amalgamate classes. It is much 
better to advertise in schedules that when 
entries are fewer than, say, four or five, then 
the judges are empowered to withhold any 
of the prizes ; or, again, in the case of a very 
small class, half prize money might be awarded. 

Having decided on the classification, and 



given as liberal and attractive a one as is 
possible and practicable, it is well to consider 
the number of schedules likely to be required, 
and then start addressing the wrappers. In each 
schedule must be inserted two or three entrj 
and registration forms. The entry forms, 
with fees, are returned to the secretary, and 
the registration forms to the person who 
keeps the register of the club holding the 
show. And here I would remark on the mis- 
take it is to have two registers for cats. It 
is very confusing for exhibitors, and a double 
expense, as the National Cat Club and the 
Cat Club each charge a shilling. Then, again, 
as the National Cat Club has recently passed 
a rule disqualifying all cats exhibited at Cat 
Club shows, the confusion is worse confounded. 
Some fanciers having large catteries divide 
their exhibits and send to both National Cat 
Club and Cat Club shows ; but this ne\ 
registration rule falls heavily on cat fancier 
who are keen to exhibit their specimens ant 
anxious for the pleasure of obtaining prizes, 
and desire to profit by showing their stud 
cats or having an opportunity of disposing 
of their stock. The National Cat Club show 
since the passing of this rule have suffered 
considerably, both from lack of entries anc 
by the absence of some of the fine 
champion cats that, having beer 
exhibited at the Cat Club show ii 
January, were thus debarred from 
appearing at the Botanic Gardens and 




" MINDING SHOP." 
(Photo: C. Reid, Wishaw.) 



EXHIBITING. 



79 



Crystal Palace shows. How much 
simpler and better it would be if 
both clubs could and would agree 
to have one register kept by an 
independent person, not necessarily 
a cntty individual, and that the 
fees should form the salary of such 
a person. A small fee might be 
charged when reference was de- 
sired by fanciers as to the pedigree 
of any cats. If the secretary of a 
.-how happens to be acquainted 
with the members of the cat fancy, 
lie will be able to use his discretion 
as to the number of entry and 
registration forms needed. In 
some cases, where he is sending to 
a well-known breeder and possessor 
of a large cattery, more numerous 
forms will be required. Schedules should be 
sent out quite a clear month in advance, 
and the entries should close about ten days 
before the date of the show. The secretary 
will have a book in which he will note down 
each entry as it is received, placing it under 
the correct class heading, and, of course, 
these can only be numbered up when entries 
close. The entry forms should be filed and 
kept for reference. Then comes the work of 
arranging and writing the labels, and placing 
these with the tallies, entrance tickets, and 
removal orders in envelopes and addressing 
them to the exhibitors. These should be 
posted four clear days before the show. 

During this time the secretary will be able 
to compile the catalogue for the printer, and 
arrange to have an instalment of copies the 
night before the opening day of the show, also 
to draw up the judges' books. Letters should 
be written to the judges and veterinary sur- 
geons acquainting them with the hour at 
which they are desired to present themselves 
at the hall, and a complimentary pass ticket 
should be enclosed. A pass should also be 
sent to the representatives of the Press, to the 
veterinary surgeon, and to those who may 
be giving their services as stewards. Dis- 
tant exhibitors will write requesting catalogues 




" THIEVES." 

(Photo: Mrs. S. F. Clarke.) 

to be forwarded to them, and a list should be 
kept. A secretary will do well to provide him- 
self with strong cord, scissors, brown paper, 
writing materials, labels, telegraph forms, 
stamps, and other useful articles. 

In these days of specialist clubs it is neces- 
sary for the secretary to have a list of members 
of each society supporting the show, as the 
prizes being confined to members the judge 
will have to refer to the secretary's office for 
information before making his awards. 

The day before the show will be fully occu- 
pied in superintending the arrangement and 
putting up of the benching and pens. A con- 
veniently sized glass case should be ordered 
for the special prizes, and this must be placed 
in a prominent position. The prizes should 
all be distinctly labelled with the donor's 
name and the breed of cat for which each is 
offered. The case should be one which locks 
up, and then it is not necessary to have any 
supervision of the contents. It is best for 
some two members of the show committee to 
undertake the arrangement in the case of the 
special prizes. Two men should be engaged 
to take the tickets and money at the entrance 
gate, and in the sales office a clerk will be 
required to receive purchase money and give 
receipts. At a large show it is necessary to 



So 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



employ four or six stewards to collect 
the judges' slips as they complete each 
class, and take them to those in the 
office appointed to write out the tickets. 
These same stewards should also un- 
dertake to place them on the pens. 
And here let me say how much better 
it would be if some arrangement 
could be made for the prize tickets to 
be fixed in a rack at the top of the pen, 
instead of being thrust between the 
wires, where a large number almost 
hide the cat, and frequently they are 
torn down by the inmates of the pen. 

A good manager will have all in order well 
before the hour when the cats are received, 
and if the veterinary engaged is in attendance 
the cats can be examined and, when passed, 
placed at once in their proper pens. It is very 
important to entrust the work of penning to 
those who are used to handling cats, and no 
better men can be found than those employed 
by Messrs. Spratt, who, as everyone knows, 
are the universal providers at cat shows, as 
at every other live-stock exhibition. It is a 
question whether hay or straw is best for 
bedding. I incline towards the latter if it 
is the fine wheaten straw, as hay, if it becomes 





MISS SIMPSON'S " CAMBYSES." 

(Photo : Gunn & Stewart, Richmond.) 



. p| 

MRS. DRURY'S BROWX TABBY, " PERIWIG." 

(Photo : Kerby & Son, Ipswich.) 

at all damp, will stick to the long-coated cats. 
I also prefer dry earth at the back of the pens 
to sawdust, for the same reason. I trust we 
may ere long be able to provide something 
better in the way of a cat pen than those at 
present in use. The doors should open the 
full height of the cage and two-thirds of the 
width, so that the cat can be more easily taken 
out. 

There is no doubt that, considering the 
peculiar nature of cats, some more adequate 
arrangement should be made in the sanitary 
accommodation. The earth scattered at the 
back of the pen amongst the bedding is not 
all that could be desired. What we want is a 
false bottom, and an earth pan or tray sunk 
in it about two inches deep, on the plan of the 
bird cage, so that it can be drawn out and 
fresh earth supplied, and replaced. Greater 
care should be paid as regards the security 
of the fastenings of the pens, and the wires of 
some of them are too wide apart, so that young 
kittens can easily make an exit. It is well 
known that cats have extraordinary powers of 
escaping whenever and wherever escape is 
possible. 

I disapprove as strongly as do the cats 
of any disinfectant being sprinkled or placed 
inside the pens. Each pen must, of course, 
bear a number ; but instead of the different 
classes being numbered, it is much better to 
have them named, and the large placards fixed 
high about the pens by means of split sticks 
of Japanese bamboo. Thus anyone seeking 



EXHIBITING. 



81 



the bine or the brown tabby class will have 
no difficulty in locating it, even without a 
catalogue. 

It is very important that all exhibits should 
be examined by a qualified veterinary surgeon 
before being penned, and if a cat is seriously 
ill the owner should be at once communicated 
with and the specimen returned. If it is a 
doubtful case, perhaps a running eye or high 
temperature, then the cat should be placed 
apart in a properly arranged, and if possible 
warmed, hospital room to be again examined. 
Remember it is always better to disappoint 
one exhibitor by refusing his 
cat, than to disgust every- 
body by bringing their 



china saucers instead of the usual tins, and 
these are decidedly better in every way. A 
one-day show is no doubt best for the cats, 
but for the exhibitors and the executive a 
two-days show is really preferable. If the 
exhibits are allowed to be penned up till 
eleven o'clock on the morning of the show, 
the judging ought to be got through and the 




A LITTER OF BLUES. 
(Photo: E. Landor, Eating.) 



carefully trained and dearly loved pets into 
contact with disease. It is necessary to 
appoint an official to check off each exhibit 
as it is passed, and in the event of pro- 
nounced illness or some other objectionable 
feature to make a note of this for future 
reference. 

As regards the feeding of exhibits, I am in 
favour of raw beef or cooked meat cut into 
small pieces or else put through a mincing 
machine, and water to drink. For many 
reasons it is not desirable to provide milk ; it 
is apt to turn sour, and it certainly more easily 
collects germs of disease, and so may prove a 
fruitful source of evil. 

The Cat Club started the idea of having 



tickets placed on the pens in two hours with 
a competent staff, and the show opened at 
one or 1.30. 

A smart secretary will arrange with his 
printer to have a list of awards printed 
with the utmost speed directly after the class 
judging is finished. This can either be given 
in the catalogues themselves or a separate 
sheet inserted in the catalogues. A large 
board ought to be hung in a conspicuous and 
convenient position, and the list of class 
winners and the winners of special prizes 
entered on it. This is better than having the 
slips pinned upon a board. They are .of ten very 
indistinctly written, and are apt to get torn 
down. Let the closing hour on the first night 



82 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



be eight or nine o'clock, when the hall should 
be cleared and the pens covered over. I con- 
sider one good feed of raw meat ought to suffice 
during the day, with fresh water continually 
supplied. The hour for opening on the second 
day may be ten o'clock, and before then the pens 
ought to be cleaned out, fresh straw given 
where needed, and disinfectant sprinkled up 
and down the passages between the rows of 
pens not in them. Careful attention to these 
points will ensure the show being free from 
disagreeable odours by the time the public are 
admitted. It is a wise plan to arrange and 
announce that the show closes, say, at five p.m. 
on the second day, so that exhibitors can, in 
many cases, get home with their cats the 
same night. It is unreasonable to ex- 
pect to be allowed to depart before the time 
fixed, even though in some cases half an hour 
would save a train. As regards a one-day 
show, it is almost impossible for a secretary 
and manager to get through the necessary 
work and to open in anything like time. 
There must be a scramble, and for the ex- 
hibitors to be obliged to present themselves 
and their cats at some unearthly hour in the 
morning is very trying and most inconvenient. 
Then a two-days show is, of course, an ad- 
vantage as regards the entrance money. The 
Cat Club used to have a stringent rule against 
exhibitors penning their own cats, but at the 
Westminster Show this rule was amended, 
and cats could be penned by their owners or 
representatives on the night before the show, 
but not in the morning. No evil result 
followed this concession on the part of the 
authorities, and therefore I trust this very 
natural desire on the part of the exhibitors 
to see their precious pussies safely into their 
temporary quarters may always be permitted 
at Cat Club shows. 

In order to facilitate the work of the judges, 
it is well to have their books carefully and 
clearly arranged, and this especially applies 
to the list of special awards. I instituted a 
plan at Westminster Show, in 1901, which gave 
great satisfaction, but which entailed a lot of 
extra work for the secretary. I am sure, 



however, this special arrangement lightened 
the labours of the judges, and hastened the 
appearance of the special prize cards on the 
pens. I had separate books for the special 
awards, and carefully cut out of the schedules 
the prizes pertaining to each judge. Thus, if 
Mr. A. had black, white, and blue long-haired 
classes, every challenge medal and special 
offered for these cats I arranged in order on 
one side of the page, with the numbering as 
it appeared with them in the schedule. So 
in the left-hand page would be, say, " Special 
No. 10, for best long-haired black," and on 

the right-hand page " Awarded to No ," 

leaving a blank for the judge to fill in the 
number of the winner. Any prizes that had 
to be awarded in conjunction with other 
judges, such as for best long-haired cat in 
the show, I made a note of to this effect. Let 
me add that I gummed the printed portions 
relating to the prizes, cut from the schedule, 
into the judging books, so the judges needed 
neither schedule nor catalogue to refer to. 
In preparing judges' books it is very helpful 
to place male and female (M. and F.) after 
each catalogue number in the mixed kitten 
classes, to avoid reference for the special 
awards ; and this should also be done in the 
catalogue itself, as very often the name of the 
kitten does not indicate the sex, and would-be 
purchasers are obliged to make inquiries. 

I am always an advocate for having selling 
classes for cats and kittens at shows, where 
the price should be limited to 5 55. in the 
long-haired classes, and 3 33. in the short- 
haired classes. It would be an assistance if 
someone who understood cats, and was also 
a good salesman or saleswoman, undertook to 
preside over the selling classes. The 10 per 
cent, commission deducted by the show 
authorities is a material help, and often a little 
pressure and persuasion, combined with useful 
information, will decide a wavering purchaser. 
A class I should like to see introduced into 
our shows is one for kittens bred by exhibitors. 
I am of opinion that more encouragement 
should be given to fanciers to keep the best 
of their litters for exhibition. Lady Marcus 



EXHIBITING. 



3 



Beresford had the happy inspiration of start- 
ing breeders' cups for competition at Cat Club 
shows, and special prizes are often given for 
the best kitten bred by exhibitors. But these 
are tiresome awards for a judge to make ; he 
is obliged to make inquiries from someone 
with a catalogue, and even this reference will 
not always suffice. It is always pleasant to 
win prizes, but an additional pride would 



neuters alone should be eligible, or at any 
rate until we have trained our young cats to 
behave properly on a lead. There need be 
no necessity for the neuters to be entered and 
penned in the show, but they could be charged 
a higher fee for the ring class ; and I believe 
that many owners of neuters would not object 
to their precious pets being on exhibition for 
ten or twenty minutes, led by themselves 




JUDGING IN THE RING AT THE CRYSTAL PALACE. 
(Photo : Russell & Sons, Crystal Palace.) 



naturally be felt if, in a large class of kittens 
bred by well-known exhibitors, the son or 
daughter of our own breeding should be 
awarded first and special. 

With respect to a ring class, which is 
often held at some of the National Cat Club- 
shows,' I cannot say that it is very interesting 
to see a collection of toms, females, and 
neuters, long- and short-haired, being dragged 
along by their anxious owners, whilst the 
puzzled judges try hard to decide which of 
the motley and mixed assembly is most worthy 
of honours. I think that for a ring class 



into the ring, but who will not let them be 
cramped up in a pen for two days. Neuters 
are always at a disadvantage in the show 
pen they are generally too large and too 
lazy to be properly seen, and a ring class for 
these specimens would be a very attractive 
feature at our cat shows. A row of chairs 
should be placed round, and sixpence a seat 
charged. It is quite absurd to mix up the 
sexes, and dangerous to allow torn cats to 
come within fighting distance of each other. 
At a recent show great excitement was caused 
in the ring by the sudden attack of one famous 



8 4 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



stud cat on another, and it was lucky that 
nothing worse than a torn and bleeding ear 
was the result of this onslaught. Another 
class I should like to see at some of our large 
shows, and certainly at the summer N.C.C. 
Show, is a class for stud cats, which should be 
judged quite irrespective of coat, and- special 
attention directed to form of limb, size of 
head, and massive build in awarding the 
prizes. This might not be an attractive class, 
but it would be an instructive one, and give 
the veterans a chance of proving of what stuff 
they are made. A young untried male will 
often take all the honours in his class, and the 
stud cat of a busy season is forced to take a 
back place, probably on account of services 
rendered. Anyhow, this idea might be 
carried out as regards the two largest classes 
namely, those for silver and blue Persians. 
In former days there used to be classes at 
some of the shows in which the cats were 
judged by weight, but these have wisely been 
done away with. 

The question of open judging at cat 

shows has fre- 
quently been 
discussed in 
catty circles, 
and several fan- 
ciers have given 
their opinions 
on this subject. 




MISS KIRKPATRICK'S BLUE KITTENS. 

(Photo : E. Landor, Eating.) 



Mrs. Neate, a well-known fancier, writes thus 
in Fur and Feather : " It would indeed be a 
step in the right direction if cat shows were 
run on (as far as possible) the same lines as 
dog shows. Much of the absurd mystery that 
at present envelops our cat shows would 
vanish if exhibitors were permitted to be 
present during the judging, and I feel sure 
that the majority of cat fanciers would not 
be so wanting in etiquette and good taste as 
to hinder the judges or any of the officials 
in discharge of their onerous duties." No 
doubt there is much truth in these remark 1 - ; 
but, at the same time, I do not think fanciers 
take sufficiently into consideration the very 
timid, shrinking nature of the cat when they 
advocate open judging. It is often most 
difficult for a judge to properly examine a cat. 
even when he or she is quietly going round 
giving the awards ; it would be still more 
trying to man and beast if a collection of 
strangers were pressing forward on all sides. 

What I consider is more practical than 
open judging for cats is that some arrange- 
ment should be made so that judges may be 
enabled to compare the points of the various 
exhibits, and for this purpose I consider that 
judging pens on movable tables should be 
provided at all shows, as were adopted by 
the Cat Club at Westminster. By these 
means the work of the judges would be much 
simplified, and the cats more satisfactorily 
and quickly judged. 

Supposing a special prize or medal is offered 
for the best cat in the show, then I think it 
-is interesting and instructive to have the first 
prize winning cats placed, if possible, in pens, 
and to arrange for the award to be given in 
public during the show by the judges in con- 
junction with each other. Such a plan was 
adopted at the last Manchester Cat Show, 
and much satisfaction was expressed at this 
innovation. 

Having given some suggestions as to the 
classification, I would again refer to points of 
management in shows. At the closing hour 
on the second day the hall should be cleared, 
and only exhibitors or their representatives 



EXHIBITING. 



allowed to remain. An efficient staff of attend- 
ants should at once set to work to assist in 
packing up the cats belonging to those ex- 
hibitors who intend taking them away. After 
these have all left, then the manager should 
direct his attention towards those exhibits 
that should be started by the night mails. 
The catalogue must be consulted, and a good 
way is to mark with a cross on the pen tickets 
those cats that must be packed up ; and, having 
previously ordered the railway vans at a 
certain time, the precious packages should 
be sent off as speedily as possible. Those 
exhibits left over till the following morning 
should be fed again and started at daybreak. 

There is a sense of immense relief when 
the last hamper has been fastened down and 
seen off the premises. And here let me say 
how much exhibitors can contribute towards 
the speedy and safe despatch of their pets, 
if only they will provide substantial and well 
appointed travelling baskets or boxes. Amidst 
all the hurry and confusion of packing up 
an immense amount of extra trouble is given 
by having to lace up a hamper with string, 
or nail down a box that has no other means 
of being made secure ! I speak from ex- 
perience, and therefore I plead for more 
consideration to be extended to the show 
manager and his assistants, and, above all, 
to the poor pussies themselves. 

At every show that is held there are a 
number of exhibitors who try the patience 
and courtesy of the manager or secretary, 
or both, by requesting to be allowed to 
remove their cats before the advertised time. 
Of course, it is only natural that those 
fanciers residing at a distance should wish 
to make tracks home and catch early trains 
tor their own comfort and convenience and 
the welfare of their pussies. But, looking at 
' the matter from a secretary's and a visitor's 
point of view, it is certainly hard that per- 
haps some of the best prize cats should be 
absent from their pen whilst the public are 
paying their money at the gate ; but, having 
made a rule, it is best to stick to it, and no 
cat should be taken away till the fixed hour 




"ROSE OF PERSIA. 

(I'hoto: Landor, Ealing.) 

under any pretext whatever, unless a vet- 
erinary certificate of illness is obtained. 

It is always open to the management to 
advertise an earlier hour for the removal of 
exhibits on payment of a certain sum, but 
this should be made a substantial fine, especi- 
ally in the case of a prize-winner. A lower 
figure might be named for other exhibits. As 
regards cats or kittens purchased at the show, 
it is certainly an inducement and incentive 
to buyers if there is a rule that these exhibits 
may be removed at any time. 

According to the rules of the two leading 
clubs a certain fixed time must elapse before 
the prizes are sent out. In some cases this is 
a most uncertain and unfixed time, and many 
complaints have been made through the cat 
papers of the long drawn-out period between 
the prize being won and the prize being re- 
ceived. No doubt, immediate distribution of 
prizes after the show would lead to complica- 
tions, for objections might be lodged within 
the given time allowed by the rules, and such 
objections would have -to be brought before 
the committee of the club ; therefore it is 
obvious that successful competitors must 
allow, say, a month to elapse before showing 
signs of impatience. It is then the manager's 
business to send the money awards, and the 



86 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



secretary of the club is generally accountable 
for the distribution of the : ' specials," which 
certainly call for a special acknowledgment 
from the recipient to the donor of these prizes. 

As regards the financial aspect of a cat show, 
the first important point is to make the entries 
pay for themselves that is. supposing your 
prize money in each class is i, ios., and 55., 
then you need twelve entries at 35. to carry 
you through. And here let me remark that, 
considering the character of our first-class 
shows and the value of the special prizes 
offered, I am inclined to think that entry 
fees are too low, and that they should be more 
in accordance with the fees charged at dog 
shows. It is always advisable to make a 
difference between members of the club hold- 
ing the show and outsiders. Thus, if 55. is 
the entry fee for members, then 6s. or 75. 6d. 
might be charged to non-members. New 
recruits to a club are often gained by this 
arrangement. The usual commission on sales 
is 10 per cent., and then there is the gate 
money, which somehow is generally disap- 
pointing, for truly the outside public are not 
partial to cats, nor attracted to exhibitions of 
the feline race. I have always contended that 
exhibitors themselves ought to be charged an 
entrance fee say, half - price admission on 
presentation of their exhibitor's pass, which 
in many cases would only be sixpence, yet 
one or two hundred of these small coins would 
materially assist the exchequer ; and surely no 
cat fancier would grumble at this tax on their 
resources when the}' consider how much 
trouble and expense is entailed in providing 
them with a favourable opportunity of ex- 
hibiting their pets, and with a possibility of 
winning golden guineas and silver trophies. 

Another plan is to advertise in schedules 
that exhibitors of more than, say, two entries 
would be allowed a free pass. Fanciers will 
be tempted to send additional cats, and thus 
swell the entries, in order to secure their free 
admission ticket. I do not think it would be 
a bad plan to have a " Contribution Column " 
on the entry forms for members' and exhibitors' 
voluntary donations towards the expenses 



of a show which, if well managed, is worthy of 
the utmost support from the cat-loving com- 
munity. 

" Every mickle makes a muckle," and it 
should be the earnest desire of each individual 
member of a club to do something, however 
small, towards keeping a balance on the right 
side of their treasurer's accounts. 

BUYING AND SELLING. 

I believe that a Bow Street magistrate once 
asserted that anyone owning a stud dog or 
selling a dog was, in the point of law, a dealer. 
I do not know if the same decision would 
apply in the cat world. Anyhow, there are 
few fanciers who do not desire at some time 
or other to dispose of their cats and kits ; and, 
again, there are many who keep stud cats, yet 
cannot be considered dealers in that sense 
of the term. The best way to set about 
trying to sell our surplus stock is to advertise 
in the cat papers, in which case it is advisable 
to fully and fairly describe our animals and 
to name the price required. If profit is to be 
considered, it is not advisable to keep kittens 
more than eight weeks. Very soon after this 
period they begin to lose their flumness and 
grow leggy in appearance. There is also the 
risk of illness and death. It is better, there- 
fore, to be willing to accept a moderate sum 
for kittens at eight weeks old rather than to 
keep them to see how they turn out. It is 
a clear case of " a bird in the hand is worth 
two in the bush." 

I have always thought that there is a good 
opening for any enterprising person well 
versed in cat lore and cat fanciers to start 
an agency in London, where cats and kittens 
might be sent on approval, for would-be 
purchasers to call and interview them. There 
might be a system of messengers who would 
meet cats and see them off at London stations. 
In connection with such a cat agency a register 
might be kept of cats for sale or cats wanted and 
arrangements made as at the Army and Navy 
Stores for having a certain number of animals 
on view. These could be boarded at so much 
per week, and commission charged on the sale. 



EXHIBITING. 



A list of names and addresses of those willing 
to receive cats as boarders would be very useful, 
and many ladies who do not choose to advertise 
could and would, I am sure, avail themselves 
of the means of letting fanciers know they 
could undertake the charge of pets during their 
owners' absence from home. Many and fre- 
quent are the letters I receive on this subject, 
especially as the summer vacation approaches. 

A day and hour for the visit of an experi- 



In these days, when competition is so keen 
and occupation so difficult to obtain, the idea 
of starting a cat agency should commend 
itself to some who, being in touch with mem- 
bers of the cat fancy, and wishing for lucrative 
employment, might embark on this novel 
undertaking. Needless to say, it would be 
most desirable to have the cat agency in a 
central part of London, and in close proximity, 
if possible, to some of the main railway stations. 



Breed and Sex 
Colour 



THE BLUE PERSIAN CAT SOCIETY PEDIGREE FORM. 
Breeder 



Date of Birth 



Name of Cat 



PARENTS. 



GRAND-PARENTS. 



GREAT GRAND-PARENTS. 



GREAT GREAT GRAND-PARENTS. 



Sire. 



Dam. 



{. 



Prizes Won, Remarks, &c.__ 



These Forms, at 8d. per dozen, can be obtained on application to Miss !'. SIMPSON, Hon. Sec., 9, Leonard Place, Kensington, W. 



enced veterinary might be arranged, so that 
country fanciers could send or bring their 
sick cats for advice. All sorts of cat appli- 
ances might be on sale. It would be con- 
venient to have a writing-room for the use 
of fanciers, where correspondence on catty 
matters could be carried on. Perhaps a tea- 
room could be added, and bedrooms, if space 
was available, for fanciers coming up to attend 
London shows. Anyhow, a list of suitable 
rooms might be kept which could be personally 
recommended. 



I think that, if only as a means of assisting 
fanciers in the purchase and disposal of their 
cats and kittens, this idea of an agency might 
be successfully worked. Many breeders be- 
come very disheartened at the inability to 
find purchasers for their kittens. A com- 
plaint was recently made by a lady living in 
the Isle of Wight. She writes : " No one 
seems to care for breeding in this island, and 
people are not willing to give more than about 
five shillings for pedigree kittens." No doubt 
fanciers living in the country and away from 



88 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



any catty centre have but little opportunity 
of finding a sale for their surplus stock. I 
would suggest photography as one means of 
making known the perfections of their pussies. 
A start in the right direction has been made 
by Mr. Landor, of Ealing, whose clever pictures 
of kittens are so well known. He is willing to 
take portraits of pretty, fluffy kits and good 
cats on special terms, provided he retains the 
copyright of such photographs. It is always 



into particulars, and, if possible, to send a 
photograph. It is best to give the faults and 
failings as well as the good points, so that 
disappointment and disagreement may not 
follow between the purchaser and seller. 
Buyers should endeavour to learn something 
about the person from whom they purchase 
their cats ; and it as well to ask not only for 
age and full pedigree, but whether the cat has 
been exhibited, and if it has taken any honours, 




" MISCHIEF. 

(Photo: Mrs. S. F. Clarke.) 



handy to have a good photograph to send by 
post when endeavouring to dispose of our pets, 
and by such means fanciers may be spared 
the trouble and risk of sending their valuable 
kittens on approval. 

Naturally, for unknown cat fanciers it is 
more difficult to effect sales through advertise- 
ment, and in their case it is necessary to offer 
to send on approval at buyer's risk and cost ; 
and if an application is made from an entire 
stranger, then the purchase money should be 
deposited in the hands of some reliable and 
independent third person. Some fanciers en- 
tirely decline to send their cats on approval, 
and then it is very requisite to enter fully 



and at which shows. It sometimes happens 
that valuable animals may be picked up for 
low prices at shows ; but there is always a risk, 
and this is especially the case . with young 
kittens, who more easily contract any disease. 
In buying a cat or kitten it is always advisable 
to make inquiries as to the way in which it has 
been fed, so as to continue the same regimen 
for at least a few days. The pedigree of a 
cat or kitten should be sent at the time of 
purchase, and it is much easier to fill this in 
on a properly drawn out form, and certainly 
it is pleasanter to receive the particulars thus 
intelligently written out. I give a copy of 
the forms I drew out for the use of blue Persian 



EXHIBITING. 




OUR PLAY-ROOM. 

(From a Painting by Madame Ronney.) 



members, but these can, of course, be used 
for cats of any breed. 

Here let me quote from an article in that 
excellent American paper, The Cat Journal, 
headed " Unreasonable Buyers." The writer 
says :~-" One of the most difficult things with 
which the cat seller has to contend is the 
unreasonable buyer. There are buyers who, 
rinding a cat to suit them, pay the price and 
are satisfied. There is, however, another class 
that it is best to let alone. They are never 
satisfied, and blame the seller for everything 
that happens either on the road or after the 
kitten is received, and many of them also 
think if they are sharp they will be able to buy 
a $100 kitten for $10 or 15, and when they 
get such a kitten and they discover that it 



is not worth $100, they are disgusted, and 
have a lot to say about unfair dealing, etc. 
If a kitten that has been a pet is taken from 
its surroundings, and sent on a long journey, 
the rattle and the unusual conditions of such a 
trip places her in a state of nervous terror, so 
that she very rarely shows off to good advan- 
tage in her new home. The purchaser, if a 
true cat lover, will appreciate all the trouble 
of poor little pussy, and give her the tender- 
est treatment and coax her to make the best 
of her new surroundings. It is a very rare 
thing for a kitten to come from the box after 
a long journey looking just as the new owner 
expected. Tired, homesick, and frightened, 
she will not eat, and is altogether a pitiable 
looking object. It is always advisable to put 



90 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



a new arrival in a room by herself, with a com- 
fortable bed and conveniences, entirely away 
from the rest of the cats and kittens, and 
allow her to become acquainted with the 
members of the family gradually. Do not 
allow other cats to come bothering around 
till the new member of the family is entirely 
acquainted with its surroundings. Especially 
be very cautious in introducing two male 
cats. 

" Sellers must be very cautious in sending 
out their stock, and buyers must not expect 
too much. Give the new member of the 
family a little time to know things before you 
write your letter of complaint. Be sure you 
are not expecting too much for the price you 
paid." 

The question has often been asked, " Can 
cats be made to pay ? " and, naturally, 
novices in the fancy wish to know the best 
way in which to make a good start. 

Here I would say how much may be done 
by well-known and influential members of any 
fancy if they will give themselves a little 
trouble in helping the novice, who, after all, 
is the backbone, so to speak, of every fancy, 
and hence it is very essential that beginners 
should start on the right lines and with reliable, 
and therefore profitable, stock. Speaking from 
experience in the cat fancy, I can say that 
several persons have come into the ranks and 
gone out of it again, in many cases through 
sheer disgust because of the deceptions prac- 
tised, and of which they, as novices, have 
been made the victims. I hold that if begin- 
ners are to be retained as members of a fancy, 
they should be treated kindly and liberally 
by the experienced fancier, especially when 
it is a question of purchasing stock. It is 
much to be lamented that novices are fre- 
quently treated in a reverse manner, and 
fanciers (so-called) seize upon an opportunity 
of getting rid of superfluous and often inferior 
specimens to those who are unable to discover 
good from bad in the cats offered to them. 

At the same time, it is a pleasing fact that 
there are many true fanciers in the feline 
world who, having made their names as breeders, 



prize-winners, and perhaps judges, put them- 
selves out to give valuable advice, and often 
spare no pains in endeavouring to obtain good 
stock for the novice at reasonable prices. 

Another question often asked is, " Does 
showing pay ? " In answer to this query, I 
give an extract from the pen of the clever 
weekly correspondent of Fur and Feather, 
" Zaida," who says : " To those who keep 
their cats for pleasure, who really love them 
and can afford to despise the small ' takings ' 
available, keep your cats at home and do not 
show. Expense does not count with this class 
of exhibitor, but risk to the welfare of their 
best-beloved pussies undoubtedly does. To 
those who are trying to make money by their 
cats, we would urge : harden your hearts, 
learn how to show, where to show, and when 
to show ; and recognise the expense, risk, and 
trouble involved as part of the unavoidable 
outlay which is to bring in a certain return. 
Undoubtedly, a show is a heavy expense, and 
will always leave you out of pocket. Even 
if you conduct it on the most selfish terms 
the ' give-nothing ' and ' take-all-you-can ' 
system you will be exceptionally lucky if you 
clear your expenses. You cannot expect to 
sell your kittens well if you do not exhibit. 

"If you possess a stud cat, he must be seen 
and known before you can hope to have a de- 
mand for his services. Your own eye must be 
continually trained by comparison of your own 
stock with the prize specimens of others. In 
short, if you wish to make money, you must 
spend money. On the other hand, never ex- 
hibit except at first-rate shows, and never be 
tempted to show an animal out of condition. 
If you can afford to buy animals already well 
known in the show world, cats of renown, 
for whose offspring there will always be a 
keen demand, you may possibly abstain from 
exhibition. This plan, however, involves a 
very large initial outlay. Then, again, the 
happy people who have won their laurels, 
whose names are always associated with first- 
rate animals of a particular breed, they, 
indeed, can afford to rest in peace, and show 
no more. Other people will buy their kittens, 



EXHIBITING. 



and do their exhibiting for them, and also do 
that mournful nursing and burying that too 



third visit gratis cannot be expected even if 
there is no result. A fee once paid for a visit 



often follows a show. Undoubtedly, it is fas- is not returnable. It is sometimes a matter 
cinating to show successfully ; but, on the of arrangement between fanciers to have the 
whole, we think the most enjoyable shows choice of a kitten instead of the mating fee, 
are those where one goes to look at other 
people's exhibits and leave one's own at home." 
A few words as to the stud fees and arrange- 
ments for visiting queens will not here be out 



but this transaction does not commend itself 
unless the parties are on very friendly 
terms. A clear understanding should be ar- 
rived at on all occasions between the sender 



of place. The usual fee for the services of a and the receiver, and thus any after unpleas- 
stud cat is fixed at i is., but some fanciers antness may be avoided. It is catty etiquette 
are willing to accept less, especially if their to forward the fee when sending the queen j 

or, at latest, immediately 
on her return. A label 
for the return journey 
should be fixed inside the 
lid of the hamper. This 
is a saving of trouble to 
the owner of the stud, and 
is also a means of identi- 
fication. 

In selecting a young 
kitten for purchase out of 
a litter, take note of the 
size of head and width 
between the ears. In self- 
coloured kits look out for 
white spots, and avoid 
those with long tails. 
Fanciers should strive to 
resist the temptation of 
buying too many cats and 
kittens of different breeds. 



cat is not a well-known 
prize-winner. A higher 
charge is often made if 
the railway journey has 
to be followed by a cab 
fare, or if the owner, hav- 
ing a valuable stud cat, 
does not wish to encourage 
many visitors. The car- 
riage of the queen should 
always be defrayed by the 
sender, and if a telegram 
and return insurance is 
desired, then these sums 
expended should be re- 
funded to the owner of 
the stud cat. It is de- 
sirable to announce the 
despatch or intended des- 
patch of a queen, as it 




MR. V. W. WESTERN, THE SECRETARY 

OF THE SANDY CLUB SHOW. 

(Photo : Kingham, Bedford.) 



may not be convenient 

to receive her. The usual time to keep a To the novice and the beginner I would say, 

visitor is from three to six days, and then Buy two or three good specimens, carefully 

the owner of the stud cat should give notice selected ; these will be worth quantities of 



of the return. In case the first visit proves 
unsuccessful a second visit is usually allowed 
by courtesy without any extra payment, 
but this must not be taken as a matter of 
course, and it is best for the owner of the 
queen to ask permission to send again. If 
through a mistake in the time of sending a cat 
apparently fails to mate during two visits, it 
can only be by the kindness of the stud cat's 
owner that a third visit is permitted for the 
one fee. If, however, the queen has been 



doubtful ones, which, as a matter of fact, 
have, as a rule, no value at all. Seize every 
opportunity which comes across your path 
of seeing and examining well-bred, prize-win- 
ning cats, and attending shows. The cleverest 
fancier and most successful breeder can im- 
prove himself by observation and education. 

Do not be offended if you are told by those 
who have had a larger and longer experience 
in the fancy, and who are really experts, that 
you have made a mistake in any purchase. 



known to have mated on each occasion, a If you resent their criticisms, you may, and 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



probably will, accumulate much rubbish as a 
monument of your own conceit. A great deal 
may be learnt from books, but more from 
observation. Above all, do not, when you 
have acquired some knowledge, form too 
high an estimate of your own powers and of 
your own cats ; a true fancier is always ready 
nay, anxious to learn, well recognising that 
ignorance alone claims to be omniscient. 

LOCAL SHOWS. 

As an example of the ever-increasing interest 
shown in cat sections at local shows, the fol- 
lowing account, kindly supplied to me by Mr. 
F. W. Western, the secretary, will be of in- 
terest : 

" Sandy Show has long since outgrown in 
size and importance the title it bears, viz. 
' The Exhibition of the Sandy and District 
Floral and Horticultural Society.' Tne first 
schedule, issued in 1869, catered for plants, 
flowers, fruit, vegetables, poultry, and cage 



birds. In 1880 pigeons were introduced, and 
in 1883 rabbits were added. Later, in 1899, 
dogs put in an appearance with four classes. 
It was not, however, until 1894 that our friend 
' pussy,' in whom we are especially interested, 
made her debut at Sand}', and as we look at 
the schedule for that year we are driven to 
the conclusion that none but a philosopher 
could have drawn up such a classification for 
our pets. The trouble which we now fre- 
quently experience at a cat show of being 
' wrong classed ' could not well arise on that 
happy day in August 1894, when eight catteries 
were represented in the one and only class, viz. 
' Any variety, any age, male or female.' But 
if our pets made a modest bow to the public 
in that year, they have lived to be proud of 
their position. In the succeeding year three 
classes were provided, bringing together 31 
cats. From this date the cat classes have 
shown substantial improvement. The year 
1900 found Sandy with five classes and 41 




OFFICIALS OF THE N.C.C.C. 
(Photo: Mrs. G. H. Walker.} 



EXHIBITING. 



93 



entries. By this time the cat fancy throughout 
the country had come into prominence ; clubs 
had been established, and specialist societies 
were springing into existence. With a leap 
forward the cat section of the 1901 show num- 
bered 20 classes. This was far too bold a bid 
for popularity to be lightly esteemed. The 
support was obtained of the Cat Club, the 
Silver Society (to-day the Silver and Smoke 
Persian Cat Society), the Short-haired Cat 
Society, and the Siamese Club. 

" Generous aid was given by many individual 
lovers of cats, and fifty special prizes, in addi- 
tion to the class prize money, were offered. 
The show was attended with success, both 
as regards the number (about 150) and the 
quality of the exhibits. From a public point 
of view, moreover, the result was most gratify- 
ing. 

" The cat tent was crowded throughout the 
day, and this section was acknowledged on 
every hand to have been one of the best features 
of the show. 

" With such success attending their first 
earnest venture in cats, it is not surprising to 
find that the committee resolved still further 
to increase the classification. In August 1902, 
therefore, 32 classes were arranged, of which 
21 were guaranteed. Special prizes numbered 
85, and the cat section had the support of all 
the specialist societies. 

" With such attractions the splendid entry 
of 1901 was eclipsed, and at the very worst 
time of the year for cats as many as 266 
entries were made. Long-haired cats were 
decidedly well represented, and in the blue 
kitten class 21 specimens were penned. In 
the short-haired classes some noted winners 
appeared. 

" Ring classes were provided, and proved a 
g^reat attraction to the public. The local 
classes were proof that Mrs. F. W. Western 
has succeeded in interesting some of her 
friends in the hobby, and the specimens to 
which the honours fell would have done well 
in the keenest competition." 

Mention was made in the list of clubs on a 
previous page of theNorthern Counties Cat Club, 



which was founded in 1900. The committee 
decided on holding a one-day kitten show 
in September of that year, and the judges 
selected were Miss D. Champion, Miss Frances 
Simpson, Mr. T. B. Mason, and Mr. L. P. 
Astley. Entries came up well, numbering 154, 
and this novel undertaking was in every way 
a great success. The Northern Counties Cat 
Club kitten show is now an annual fixture, 
and on October ist of 1902 a really splendid 
exhibition of promising youngsters was held 
at Bellevue, Manchester. Twenty-two classes 
were arranged, and over fifty specials offered. 
Entries were twenty in excess of the pre- 
vious year, and would have been still higher 
in number had not sickness prevented several 
well-known silver breeders from exhibiting. 
The litter class numbered 17, and these, with 
the splendid blue classes, were the chief glory 
of the show. There were 18 pairs of blue 
kittens and 40 entries in single blue kittens, 
and it was most noticeable how few of these 
specimens failed in eyes. There were rows 
of gleaming orange orbs that rejoiced the 
heart of the Hon. Sec. of the Blue Persian Cat 
Society. 

The kitten show of 1902 may fairly be classed 
as another success for the Northern Club. 

A similar show for cats and kittens is held 
annually in December in Manchester by this 
enterprising club. I am indebted to Mrs. G. H. 
Walker for the group of officials and mem- 
bers of the Northern Club. The photo was 
taken by Mrs. Walker at the Manchester 
kitten show of 1902. 

In connection with the dog show of the 
Ladies' Kennel Association, an exhibition of 
cats is now held annually at Harrogate under 
the rules and patronage of the National Cat 
Club. The first venture in this popular and 
fashionable water resort was made by Mrs. 
Stennard Robinson in 1901, when entries 
came in splendidly ; but rain descended most 
disastrously, and seriously interfered with 
the success of the show and the attendance 
of visitors. In 1002 the weather proved 
most favourable, but the cat section suffered 
considerably as regards numbers of exhibits in 



94 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



consequence of the date clashing with that of accept with pleasure the scheme submitted to 

the Sandy Show, held also on August 28th. the public by the secretary of the S.S.P.C.S." 

On this occasion the Hon. Mrs. McLaren The Scottish Cat Club, which has Lady 

Morrison was advertised as judge, but owing to Marcus Beresford for its President, holds its 

ill-health her place was taken by Mrs. Stennard annual show during the winter months, and 

Robinson, and Mr. J. B. Townend, of the its exhibition follows closely on that of the 

National Cat Club, undertook the manage- Midland Counties. 

ment. The Midland Counties Cat Club held Under the list of winter shows mention 
its first show in Birmingham. The classifica- may be made of the following, where, in 
tion was on a liberal scale, and several of connection with other live stock, cats play 
the classes were guaranteed. Several of the a more or less important part : Peter- 
specialist clubs supported this first venture of borough, Sheffield. Hounslow, Kendal, Bedford, 



the Midland Counties 
Cat Club. A new 
departure in the 
matter of shows 
may shortly be 
attempted, and a 
scheme has been 
submitted to the cat 
world by the Hon. 
Sec. of the Silver 
and Smoke Persian 
Cat Society, that the 
specialist societies 
should combine and 
hold a show in the 
West of England. 




SANDY STEALING THE MILK. 

THE PROPERTY OF Miss HARPER. 
(Photo: B. Tugwcll, Haywards Heatlt.) 



Caterham, Hinck- 
ley. Hamilton, Don- 
caster, Yarmouth, 
Stratford -on- Avon, 
Bristol, Haverford- 
west, Stockton, 
Cheltenham, Taun- 
ton, Epsom, Hex- 
ham, Lark hall. 
Stirling. 

In this list I have 
made no mention of 
the great champion- 
ship show of the 
National Cat Club, 
held annually at the 
Crystal Palace in 
October, to which 
the whole of cat 
creation looks for- 



Each society is to 
be asked to bear a 
part in the expenses, 
and secretaries will 

probably hold a meeting to consider the best ward with awe and longing. This is one 

ways and means of carrying out such an of the greatest events in the cat world, 

undertaking. It is not intended that such a and is always eagerly looked forward to by 
show should be in any opposition to those . fanciers in all parts of the British Isles, 

held by the parent clubs, and registration in In the schedule for the exhibition in 1902 

either of these clubs will be enforced ; but, to no fewer than 216 special prizes were offered, 

quote the words of a well-known fancier and Many of these were given by the following 

supporter of the specialist societies, "It is specialist clubs, who generously supported 

simply a way of escape from the enforced this annual fixture : The Blue Persian Cat 

division of interests, and a means for permit- Society, the Silver and Smoke Persian Cat 

ting the cats of all club persuasions to meet Society, the Chinchilla Cat Club, the Orange, 

on equal ground. As matters now stand, Cream and Tortoiseshell Society, the Siamese 

open competition is a thing of the past, Cat Club, the Manx Cat Club, and the British 

and the sooner it becomes a possibility again Cat Club. 

the better for the cat fancy. On this ground, The names of the judges acting on this 

therefore, we think all unbiassed minds will occasion were as follow : Mrs. Greenwood, 



EXHIBITING. 



95 



Miss Forestier Walker, Miss G. Jay, Miss 
Cochran, Miss F. Simpson, Mr. Louis Wain, 
Mr. Sam Woodiwiss, Mr. C. A. House, and 
Mr. Jung. 

In our latter-day shows the work of the 
judges is considerably augmented by the 
numerous specials that have to be awarded 
amongst the winners in the well-filled classes, 
and as regards the Crystal Palace show of 
1902, the patience and skill of the judges making 
these awards were taxed to the uttermost. 

The Cat Club's show has been held for three 
years in succession at St. Stephen's Hall, 



Westminster Aquarium, about the beginning 
of January, and it is at this season that the 
really finest exhibition of Persian cats is 
witnessed, for at no other time are long-haired 
cats in such grand coat and good condition as 
in the middle of winter. 

It is no wonder, therefore, with so many 
shows held throughout the length and breadth 
of the land, that the cult of the cat is becoming 
more and more widely known and appreciated, 
and that the fancy is really assuming such 
proportions that there can be no doubt of 
its permanent position amongst us. 




SILVER CATS BELONGING TO MRS. CLARK, OF ASHBRITTLE. 



9 b 



CHAPTER VI. 



THE POIXTS OF A CAT. 



BEFORE entering upon the distinctive 
breeds of cats, of which I propose to 
treat fully in the ensuing chapters, I 
would draw attention to the accompanying 
diagram of a cat, and will proceed to point 
out the general contour of the animal, whether 
long or short haired. 

Having given a table of reference, I will 



be set straight in the head, not slanting 
like those of a Chinese. In the Persian 
varieties a fringe of overhanging fur greatly 
improves and softens the expression. The 
colour varies in different breeds, but in green, 
orange, or blue eyes, purity and depth of 
colour should prevail. Very often an orange 
eye is spoilt by an inner rim of green, and a 




take the points of the cat as arranged in 
order : 

No. i, Ears : These should be small, and . 
rounded at the tops, carried somewhat for- 
ward, and not wide open at the base. In the 
Persian varieties especially the inner surface 
should be hidden by a growth of fur extend- 
ing from the face, termed ear tufts. It is a 
beauty in the cat to have the ears set well 
apart, giving an appearance of greater width to 
the head. The outer portion of the ears should 
be evenly covered with soft, short, downy fur. 

No. 2, Eyes : These ought to be round, 
large, and full. A small, beady eye is a 
great disfigurement in a cat. The eyes should 



blue eye is weakened by a paler shade of 
blue, giving the appearance of an opal. 

No. 3, Skull : Should be broad, with width 
between the eyes and ears. 

No. 4, Cheeks : Well developed. 

No. 5, Face and nose : These should be 
short ; if the contrary, a " snipey " appearance 
is given to the cat, which quite spoils the 
expression. 

No. 6, Chest : Should be full and broad. 

No. 7, Neck : Short and full. 

Nos. 8 and 9, Shoulder and fore arm : 
These call for no special remarks ; but in 
male cats especially firm and massive limbs 
are most desirable. 



POAVTS" Of A CAT. 



97 



No. 10, Paw : A large, broad paw, with 
short but not stumpy feet. In the Persian 
varieties the tufts are an additional beauty. 

Nos. ii and 12. Body and back : There 
is a diversity of opinion as to whether a cat 
should be long in the body or of cobby build. 
I incline to the latter as regards beauty of 
form, but I am of opinion that female cats 
with long bodies are the best breeders. All 
cats should be low in the legs. 

No. 13, Tail or brush : In both breeds this 
should be short rather than long, and in the 
Persian varieties broad and spreading. The 
tail should be carried almost on a level with 
the body, and slightly curving upwards to- 
wards the end. A too-tapering tail is a defect. 

Nos. 14, 15, and 16 call for no further 
remark beyond the desirability of symmetry 
in form. 

The foregoing list of points in a cat may be 
of some service to novices in the fancy, but 
it is necessary to add that, as in all animals, 
condition is a very important factor. A cat 



may be perfect in all points, and yet if in 
either the long- or short-haired varieties the 
coat lacks softness of texture, and in Persians 
the fur is matted or draggled, such specimens 
cannot expect to find favour in the eyes of 
a critical judge, or even an ordinary lover of 
cats. In short-haired breeds there is an un- 
mistakable gloss on the coat of a cat that is 
in good health. A spikey appearance of the 
fur always denotes poor condition, and greatly 
detracts from the charms and chances of our 
pets or show cats. A great deal depends in 
keen competition upon condition. It turns the 
scale in a vast majority of instances. There- 
fore, as great attention should be paid to 
this point as to those set forth in the list I 
have given. 

A small yet distinctive feature in a cat is 
the whiskers, and these vary in colour, accord- 
ing to the breed. They should be strong and 
yet sensitive, and curving slightly inwards. 
It is supposed to be a sign of strength if a 
cat's whiskers attain a great length. 




(Photo: C. Reid, Wisha-u.) 




A BLUE PERSIAN BELONGING TO MRS. WELLS. 
(Photo : Ward, Hounslow.) 



CHAPTER VII. 

LONG-HAIRED OR PERSIAN CATS. 



IN classing all long-haired cats as Persians 
I may be wrong, but the distinctions, 
apparently with hardly any difference, 
between Angoras and Persians are of so fine a 
nature that I must be pardoned if I ignore the 
class of cat commonly called Angora, which 
seems gradually to have disappeared from our 
midst. Certainly, at our large shows there is 
no special classification given for Angoras, and 
in response to many inquiries from animal 
fanciers I have never been able to obtain 
any definite information as to the difference 
between a Persian and an Angora cat. Mr. 
Harrison Weir, in his book on cats, states that 
the Angora differs somewhat from the Persian 
in that the head is rather smaller and ears 
larger, fur more silky with a tendency to 
woolliness. 

It is, however, my intention to confine my 
division of cats to long-haired or Persian cats, 
and short-haired or English and foreign cats. 
In both these breeds there are " self-coloured," 
" broken-coloured," and " any other coloured " 
varieties. 



In the foregoing references to the diagram 
of the cat I have touched upon the points of 
the animal, which are practically the same as 
regards the form of body and limb in both long- 
and short-haired breeds of cats. 

In comparing the dispositions of these two 
breeds, I think it is generally allowed that 
Persian cats are not so amiable, or so reli- 
able in their temper, as the short-haired varie- 
ties. I am inclined to think, however, that 
they are more intelligent, and have a greater 
instinctive desire to make themselves at home 
in their surroundings. They are apparently as 
keen hunters of prey as the short-haired cats. 
When we come to the question of stamina and 
general health, I certainly think the Persian 
must, so to speak, " go to the wall." 

It is a common belief that, in human beings, 
if the hair grows long and thick it is a sign 
of great strength and a good constitution : 
but as regards cats the longer the coat the 
weaker the animal. This I have specially 
noticed in Persian kittens, and have remarked 
that little mites with unusually long fur are 



LOXG-HAIRED OR PERSIAN CATS. 



99 



the most difficult to rear, and suffer from ex- 
treme delicacy. Perhaps in-breeding amongst 
Persian varieties has been more carried on 
than with the short-haired breeds, which are 
allowed a greater freedom of choice, and there- 
fore are the result of natural selection. 

Apart from the question of health and 
strength, Persian cats require a great deal 
more care and attention on account of the 
long fur. In the spring Persian cats begin 
to shed their coats, and this process continues 
through the summer months, and it is not 
till about October that the new fur begins 
to grow again. Persian cats may be con- 
sidered in their finest condition during the 
months of December and January. It is a 
wise provision of Nature that during the 
coldest months these somewhat delicate cats 
should have their warmest clothing. It has 
often been a matter of surprise that cat shows 
should ever be held in the summer, when 
long-haired pussies present a most unkempt 
and moth-eaten appearance. In this con- 
dition they arc not likely to win converts to 
the cult of the cat ; but from an educational 
point of view these unclothed specimens give 
the judge an opportunity of displaying his 
ability, for it needs a really capable judge, 
with experience, knowledge, and good common- 
sense, to allow for absence of coat, and to 
place the awards accordingly. Under summer 
skies shape and bone will have their innings, 
whereas a grand winter coat may hide a 
multitude of sins that even the eagle eye of 
the most astute judge may fail to discover. 

At the same time, for a breed 
of cats called " long-haired " the 
coat ought to demand the greatest 
consideration ; for what is the 
good of the most perfect shape 
in a Persian cat, if it is exhibited 
out of coat and almost like an 
English short-hair in a class set 
apart for long-haired specimens ? 
No doubt many breeders of 
Persians have been led through 
disappointment to join the ranks 
of short-hair breeders, for it is 



indeed very vexatious and tantalising, after 
having entered a grand-coated cat a month 
before a show, to find your precious pet 
persistently scratching out her fluffy frill and 
shedding the chief glory of her breed before 
the eventful day when you had hoped to reap 
golden awards. 

As regards Persian kittens, the change of 
coat takes place between the ages of three and 
six months. In some cases long-haired kittens 
will -east their fur to such an extent as to 
present the appearance of an uneven short- 
haired specimen, whereas in others the shed- 
ding process is so gradual that the transition 
stage from a kitten to a cat is hardly more 
discernible in the long- than in the short-haired 
breeds. Any severe illness may cause the 
fur to come out of Persian cats at any season 
of the year, and the growth of the new coat 
will be retarded by poor condition of the skin. 
In both long- and short-haired cats, as in other 
animals, the teeth are the chief guide in 
deciding the age, and a kitten may be said to 
become a cat after six months, when the adult 
dental process is completed, and the second 
set of teeth has become established. And 
here I would quote from Mr. John Jennings' 
interesting book on " Domestic or Fancy 
Cats" hi-support of. my twofold classification: 
" Of the many varieties or breeds of the cat 




GENTIAN',' ' 



OWNED BY LADY MARCUS BEKESFORD. 

(I'liolo : B. Landor, Eating.) 



100 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



with which we are now familiar, it must be 
remembered that, however crossed, selected, 
re-crossed, domesticated, or what not, we 
have but two breeds on which the super- 
structure of what is known to-day as the 
' classification of varieties ' has been reared 
viz. the long-hair or Eastern cat, and the short- 
hair or Euro- 
pean. The 
term ' breed ' 
is even here 
used advisedly, 
for whatever 




MRS. HERRING'S " CHAMPION JIMMY." 

(Photo : W. Morice, Lewisham High Road.) 

the outer covering or coat, colour, or length of 
fur, the contour of each and all is practically 
the same. 

Nor is this confined to mere outline. Take 
the skull, for example, which measured in 
the usual manner with shot, making due 
allowance for difference in size, is not only 



similar in the different varieties of either 
long- or short-hair, but even in the wild cat 
the anatomy is similar, the slight variation 
being in a great measure explained by its 
different conditions of life and diet, and is in 
unison with the fact of how even the ordinary 
domestic cat will undergo a change in taking 
up a semi-wild, outdoor existence." 

At the present time there is no doubt that 
long-haired cats are the more popular, and, 
judging by the entries at our large shows, the 
numbers may be taken as four to one. A 
slight reaction has set in since short-haired 
societies have been formed, but the fascina- 
tion for fluffy pets and pretty pussies will, 
I think, always predominate, for the less at- 
tractive points of the English domestic cat 
do not appeal so strongly to the heart and 
the eye of the general public. 

It may be remarked by the readers of ' : The 
Book of the Cat " that very few pictures of 
short-haired cats are reproduced ; and it is 
just because the long-haired pussies are so 
much more attractive that they are brought 
into greater prominence in this work. It is 
more difficult to obtain nice photographs of 
short-haired cats, probably because the owners 
of these less expensive pets do not think it is 
worth while to spend their money or to go to 
any trouble over having a good picture taken. 
As regards the coloured plates appearing in 
this work, care has been taken to instruct the 
artists to bring out as prominently as possible 
the special points of the cats, long- and short- 
haired. It is the first time that coloured 
plates of the different kinds of cats have been 
attempted ; and it is hoped that, as types of 
each breed, these will prove useful to fanciers 
and instructive to the cat-loving public. 



101 




THE HON. MRS. MCLAREN MORRISON'S CATTERY AT KEPW1CK. 



CHAPTER VIII. 



SOME NOTABLE CATTERIES. 



BEFORE entering upon a description of 
the various breeds, it may be interesting 
to my readers to give a short account, 
with illustrations (photographs for which have 
been specially taken for this chapter), of the 
catteries of some well-known fanciers who 
have not confined themselves to any special 
breed or variety. 

Lady Decies' catteries, at her pretty summer 
residence at Birchington-on-Sea, are indeed 
most perfect in their arrangements, and every 
detail for the comfort and well-being of the 
inmates is considered. The stud cats have 
separate single houses, with good-sized wired- 
in runs, and luxurious and cosy sleeping apart- 
ments in the rear. 

The main cattery is in a sheltered portion 
7* 



of the grounds, and will accommodate a large 
number of cats. The runs are arranged with 
boxes, benches, chairs, and ladders, and the 
sleeping places, built of brick, are most com- 
fortably fitted up. By a system of wooden 
blinds the strong sea breezes and the bright rays 
of the summer sun can be regulated. There 
are side blinds and top blinds. The floors of 
the spacious catteries are wood, covered with 
cork carpet, and they are raised about a 
foot from the ground, so that there is a free 
current of air passing under the boards, thus 
securing absolute freedom from any damp. 

In the house there are three rooms set apart 
by Lady Decies for her pussies. In two of 
these the queen mothers have their families, 
and the other is used as the cats' kitchen. 



IO2 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



The beds for the cats are specially designed 
by Lady Decies. The walls of the cats' rooms 
are adorned with pictures by Louis Wain, 
and there is a display of prize cards won by 
Lady Decies' famous cats. " Zaida," so well 
known as the winning silver female, is the 
privileged occupant of Lady Decies' boudoir, 
and here the aristocratic little lady makes her- 
self at home on the soft cushions and couches. 

The famous " Lord Southampton " is now 
in the possession of Lady Decies, and resides 
in one of the up-to-date catteries at Beresford 
Lodge. He was purchased at a very high 
price. Since his change of ownership he has 
not frequently appeared in public, but in the 
past he was a noted winner. It is, however, 
as a silver sire that he attained his success 
and made his name. It is well-nigh im- 
possible to mention his numerous winning 
children. His name in a pedigree is a safe 
guarantee for quality and colour. 

The two Siamese cats have warm quarters 
in the stable cottage. 

Lady Decies' pets comprise both long- and 
short-haired cats. Among the latter " Xeno- 
phon " is generally considered as the best 
specimen of a brown tabby, and has a long 
prize-winning record. A woman and a boy 
are kept to attend to the wants of these aris- 
tocratic animals. 

The Bishopsgate cattery may be said to 
have won a worldwide renown, and those who 
have been privileged to visit the ideal residence 
of Lady Marcus Beresford will agree with me 
that it is impossible to give any idea either 
by photography or description of the delight- 
ful dwelling places set apart for the pussies 
belonging to this true lover and fancier of the 
feline race. 

There is the cat cottage, where the attend- 
ant has her rooms, and where the other apart- 
ments are especially fitted up for the cats. 
Here the Siamese have their quarters, and the 
sun streams in at the windows, which face due 
south. Opposite to the cottage, as may be 
seen in the illustration, are some of the cat 
houses, and in the centre is the kitchen. The 
cat attendant stands at the door, and some 



of the pussies are having their mid-day meal. 
The celebrated " Blue Boy II." occupies a 
house, and in the background is a grass run, 
securely wired in, which is used as a play- 
ground for the pussies. In the hot summer 
weather this is shaded by the lovely spreading 
beech trees of Windsor Park. 

The stud cats' houses are splendidly ar- 
ranged with sleeping places and nice large 
runs. The space in the centre in front of 
these runs is used as an exercise ground for 
the females and kittens. The garden-house 
cattery is, indeed, an ideal one, being a bower 
of roses in the summer-time, and in winter 
an ivy-clad retreat. This house is divided 
into two apartments, and these are generally 
used for the queen mothers and their families. 
On the shelves along the windows the pussies 
sit and sun themselves. 

Truly the lives of inmates of the Bishops- 
gate catteries are spent in peace and plenty, 
and when their little span of life is over they 
find a resting place under the shadow of the 
grand old trees, and a little white tombstone 
with a loving inscription marks the spot of 
pussy's last long sleep. 

Lady Marcus Beresford has had almost 
every breed of cat under the sun at her cat- 
teries, but of recent years she has specially 
taken up silvers, blues, and Siamese, and a 
grand specimen of each of these varieties is 
in the stud at Bishopsgate. Amongst some 
of the celebrated cats owned by Lady Marcus 
Beresford I may mention " Lifeguard," a 
grand orange of massive build ; " Tachin " 
. and " Cambodia," two imported Siamese with 
perfect points ; " Cora," a tortoiseshell-and- 
white of great beauty, and " Kismet," a brown 
tabby of exquisite shape, both imported ; and 
" Cossy," a smoke that has found a home in 
America. At the present time three of the 
most notable inmates of the Bishopsgate cat- 
tery, representing blues, silvers, and Siamese, are 
"Blue Boy II.," "Beetle," and "King of Siam." 

One of the largest catteries in Scotland, 
where the fancy grows apace, is owned by 
Mrs. Mackenzie Stewart, of Seagate House. 
Irvine. Mrs. Stewart has possessed several 



104 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 




A SLEEPING BOX IN LADY DECIES 1 CATTERY. 
(Photo : Cassell & Company, Limited.') 

notable cats of different breeds. Her blue 
stud cat "Ronald" has made himself a name 
in the south of England as well 
as in the north. Mrs. Stewart 
has had silvers, creams, brown tab- 
bies, and is now the owner of the 
celebrated black . stud cat " Dick 
Fawe," who has sired many -winning 
kittens. The severe weather of this 
part of Scotland seems to suit these 
Persian cats, for a healthier, hardier 
set of pussies one could not wish to 
see than those disporting themselves 
in the pleasantly situated catteries 
of Seagate House. Mrs. Mackenzie 
Stewart is a most enthusiastic fancier, 
and often takes the long journey down 
South to bring her pets to the Lon- 
don shows. She has acted as judge 
in Scotland and England, and a con- 
tingent from the Seagate cattery is 
generally to be seen and admired at 
most of our large shows. 

To old fanciers and exhibitors the 
name of Mrs. H. Warner is familiar. 



It was as Mrs. Warner, in 1889, that 
the Hon. Mrs. McLaren Morrison first 
exhibited a black cat called "Imp" 
at the Crystal Palace Show ; and as 
black cats are said to bring luck, this 
puss took a first, and, thus encouraged, 
his owner commenced her " catty " 
career. In the following year, I note, 
by the catalogue, that Mrs. H. Warner 
had fourteen entries, and amongst 
these were two imported cats and 
the celebrated black Persian " Satan," 
who departed this life in 1902. As 
late as 1897 this superb fellow, with 
glorious orange eyes, won everything 
he could (in spite of his age) at the 
Crystal Palace. There remains a 
worthy son of this worthy sire at the 
Kepwick cattery, named " Lucifer." 

It was in 1890 that Mrs. McLaren 
Morrison, then Mrs. H. Warner, made 
her name as an exhibitor of white 
Persians ; for no less than six of this 
breed put in an appearance and gained prizes 
at Sydenham. Mrs. McLaren Morrison writes : 




LADY DECIKS VISITING HER PETS. 

(Photo : Cassell & Company, Limited.) 



SOME NOTABLE CATTERIES. 



" I have always been lucky with black cats, 
both long- and short-haired ; but I especially 
love white Persians, and, in fact, at one time 
I owned a ' white cattery.' I may say I still 
have some good specimens namely, ' Muse- 
fer,' ' Queen of the Pearls,' and ' Lily.' I love 
the imported cats, and always get them when 
I can. I have nine now at Kepwick. One 
of these hails from Patagonia and one from 
Afghanistan. My cat- 
tery at one time was 
twice again as full as 
now ; but my losses 
have been great, and 
I have reduced the 
numbers so that I 
may give more atten- 
tion to the young 
stock. 

" It is only recently 
I have really gone in 
for orange Persians, 
encouraged by the 
wins of ' Puck ' at the 
Botanical. I love this 
beautiful variety, but 
consider the queens 
of this breed very deli- 
cate. I have owned 
some fine blues at 
different times, and 
purchased for 25 a 
beautiful fellow, bred 
from ' Beauty Boy,' 
at the Crystal Palace 
many years ago ; but, 

alas ! he came home only to die. Fore- 
most amongst my blues ranked my late 
Champion ' Monarch,' who held the Beresford 
Cup. Of late years I have taken up silvers. 
My first Chinchilla was Champion ' Nizam,' 
ancestor of such cats as ' St. Anthony ' and 
' Ameer.' I bought ' Nizam ' at the Crystal 
Palace in the early days of silvers, and he only 
took second prize, because, I was assured, he was 
' too light ' for first. I have a few Russians. 
I am most devoted to my pussies, and have 
tried to persevere in breeding good stock in 



this time, however, 




MRS. MACKENZIE STEWART'S CATTERY 



the face of very great difficulties. I do not 
much care about running the risk of showing, 
but a true fancier likes to support all well- 
arranged cat shows." 

Mrs. Collingwood, of Leighton Buzzard, is a 
most ardent lover of cats, but it is only of 
recent years that she has been before the 
public as a fancier and exhibitor. During 
many have been the 
honours showered on 
the lucky inmates of 
the Bossington cat- 
tery. 

Mrs. Collingwood 
has great difficulty, 
so she tells me, in 
keeping her number 
of cats down to about 
thirty ! She likes 
these to be equally 
divided between long- 
and short-haired pus- 
sies ; so there are 
all sorts and varieties. 
Blues have been great 
favourites, and Mrs. 
Collingwood is on 
the Blue Persian Cat 
Society Committee. 
" Royal Bobs," a big, 
massive blue male, 
has done a lot of 
winning. He was 
bred by the Princess 
Victoria of Schleswig- 
Holstein. His sister 

" Jill " also inhabits one of the twelve cat- 
houses distributed over five acres of the 
Bossington grounds. These smaller houses 
are mostly on wheels. The larger houses are 
kept for females and their families, and some- 
times a corner of the hay-loft is set apart for 
a nursing mother. The male cats have their 
liberty during the morning, and then the 
females enjoy their afternoons out. Mrs. 
Collingwood does not keep a stud cat, but there 
are neuter pets that have their run about the 
house, and have their meals in a corner of the 



io6 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



dining-room. Mrs. Collingwood intends going principal shows this enthusiastic lady is a 
in strongly for smokes in the future ; and prominent figure, and in the quantity and 



although possessed of extremely good short- 
haired cats, this ambitious fancier is desirous 
of breeding a perfect silver tabby and a like- 
wise equally perfect orange tabby. " James " 
is a beautiful specimen of a silver tabby, and 
during this year alone has won eight first 
prizes. At Altrincham he had the honour of 
claiming championship 
and silver medal for the 
best cat in the show, 
beating all the long- 
haired cats that gener- 
ally carry off this coveted 
prize ; and at the Crys- 
tal Palace he was the 
admired of all admirers, 
with a number of prize 
tickets covering his pen. 
I know many cat-loving 
people, but I do not 
think I have ever seen 
greater devotion shown 
to the feline race than is 
displayed at Bossington. 
Mrs. Collingwood is ever 
ready to support cat 
shows by entries, by 
guaranteeing classes, and 
by giving handsome 
prizes. Her cats are 
always shown in the 
pink of condition, and it 
is seldom they appear THE IM "' A * TREE, MRS. CLARKE'S CATTERY 







in the pens unless their 
devoted mistress is in attendance. Mrs. Col- 
lingwood kindly had the accompanying photo- 
graphs specially taken for this chapter. 

Perhaps no name is better known in the cat 
world than that of Mrs. Herring, of Lestock 
House, Lee, who has for nearly twenty years 
been a prominent fancier and breeder of both 
long- and short-haired cats. Mrs. Herring is 
a member of the National Cat Club Committee, 
and also belongs to several of the specialist 
clubs, and is a member of the Cat Club and 
the Northern Counties Cat Club. At all the 



(fhoto: Mrs. S. F. Clarke.) 



quality of her exhibits she generally leads the 
way. 

At some of our large shows Mrs. Herring has 
entered from 25 to 30 cats ; and I have known 
and seen these arrive with their mistress in a 
large omnibus or van. It is no light under- 
taking to prepare such a number of pussies 
for show, and then to 
convey them carefully to 
the place of exhibition. 

Mrs. Herring started 
with a short-haired sil- 
ver tabby called "Chin," 
and then turned her 
attention to long-haired 
brown tabbies ; and al- 
though every variety of 
cat, both long- and 
short-haired, may be said 
to have existed from 
time to time in the 
Lestock catteries, yet it 
is with tabbies perhaps 
that Mrs. Herring has 
chiefly made her name 
and fame. Champion 
"Jimmy " was a superb 
specimen of a well- 
marked silver tabby, and 
he carried everything 
before him in the show 
pen. He passed away in 
1900, and I do not think 
we shall see his like again. 
Amongst many celebrities in the feline 
world which have been born or bred, or have 
found their habitation at the Lestock cattery, I 
may mention " King Saul," the noted tortoise- 
shell torn who still holds a unique position at 
our shows, and won the Coronation Cup at 
the Botanical show. " King Alfred," a long- 
haired silver tabby, and " King David," a 
massive blue, are also well-known winners 
of the present day. Mrs. Herring bred some 
sensational silver tabby long-haired kittens, 
and two of these " The Duchess " and 



SOME NOTABLE CATTERIES. 



TO? 



''Princess Lestock " were exhibited re- 
spectively at the Westminster and Crystal 
Palace shows, and both were speedily claimed 
at the high catalogue price. " Floriana," a 
huge, handsome long-haired brown tabby, who 
formerly belonged to Mrs. Herring, has recently 
found a home in America. Siamese and 
Russian cats have not been strangers to this 
cattery, where sometimes the number of 
inmates has been over forty ! Within the 
last few years Mrs. Herring has had to reduce 
her stock, owing to the complaints of neigh- 



us how she manages in her town residence 
at Louth. Here are her notes. 

BREEDING BLUE PERSIANS IN LIMITED SPACE. 

"The successful breeding of blue Persian cats 
in a space so limited that a grass run or green 
trees are things to be desired rather than at- 
tained, requires nice judgment and great care. 
The space at my command for cat keeping and 
breeding purposes is only a back yard, some 
14 yards long by 6 yards wide. This very 
limited space is further curtailed, on one side, 




MRS. CLARKE S CATTERY. 
(Photo: Mrs. S. F. Clarke.) 



hours, who showed no sympathy with the 
feline race, and some excellent, well-arranged 
cat-houses had to be removed, as they some- 
what encroached on a neighbouring garden 
wall. It must have been a trying time, and 
the weeding-out process a most difficult one, 
for such a really warm-hearted and devoted a 
fancier as Mrs. Herring, whose pussies are all 
pets, and who personally supervises her cat- 
tery at Lestock House. 

It is not given to all, particularly in large 
towns, to have at their disposal such an 
amount of waste space as their more fortunate 
brethren of the country. I have therefore 
asked Mrs. S. F. Clarke, whose cat photographs 
have been a delight to all our readers, to tell 



by my husband's laboratory ; while the cat- 
tery and its covered run cut off another strip 
at the end, of 7 yards by 2 yards, reducing the 
ground available for open air exercise and run 
to a patch about 18 feet by 12 feet, and a 
nagged portion some 21 feet by 6 feet. 

' The space between the front of the labora- 
tory and the nagged path being occupied by a 
small independent house and covered run, is 
very useful either for isolation or a.s a separate 
home for growing kittens. The boundary 
wall is supported by 4-foot wire netting sup- 
ported by 3-foot iron stanchions, thus allowing 
a free edge at the top of about 12 inches to be 
bent inwards and left loose. This I find a suf- 
ficient safeguard against my own cats getting 



io8 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 




out or strange cats getting in a very important 
matter at all times, but especially so at certain 
periods, if breeds are to be kept pure and pussy 
not allowed to make her own arrangements. 

"If I were 
asked for the 
very best design 
for building, fit- 
ting up, and fur- 
nishing a small 
cattery, I fear 
I could only 
answer that re- 
quirements dif- 
fer so in indi- 
vidual cases 
that it is im- 
possible to draw 
a hard-and-fast 
line that will 
meet all circum- 

THE HON. MRS. MCLAREN stances. Here 

MORRISON. is a photo of my 

(.Photo .- Esmi Callings, Hove.) OWn(p.I07). It 

is the outcome 

of my personal experience, and answers my re- 
quirements fairly well. It is a lean-to structure, 
about 7 yards long by 2 yards wide. The back 
and one end is formed by the north and west 
boundary walls, while the east end joins the 
dwelling-house, thus giving it a south aspect 
and complete shelter from north and east 
winds. It is divided into two unequal por- 
tions, the smaller (east) portion, 6 feet by 6 
feet, forming the cat-house proper ; the longer 
portion is the covered run. The front of the 
house is built of i-inch wood, with a lining of 
wood leaving an air space of about 3 inches 
between the outer and inner surface of the 
front and dividing partition. The roof is of 
corrugated iron, with a ceiling of wood about 
4 inches below. This arrangement of double 
walls and roof secures reasonable warmth in the 
winter, but not quite sufficient coolness for 
mothers and kittens during the height of the 
summer. So the roof is then covered with a 
large white sheet hooked to the wall about 12 
inches above the roof and carried over a rail 



in front about the same height, and there 
securely fastened. This arrangement insures 
not only a reasonable temperature, but also a 
never-ending source of exercise and amuse- 
ment for both cats and kittens, some gambol- 
ling above, while others hide beneath the sheet. 
An ordinary sun blind along the front com- 
pletes the summer arrangements. The front 
of the covered run is closed in with inch mesh 
wire netting from ground to roof, fitted on the 
inside with removable shutters, 18 inches high, 
and, above these, removable window-sashes, 
closing in as desired. These are held in place 
with turn-buttons, so they are easily removed 
or replaced in a couple of minutes, a great con- 
venience in wet or changeable weather, and 
proving very cosy in the winter. The run is 
fitted with shelves for the cats to lie upon, a 
table, sleeping boxes, earth pans, two chairs, 
and an artificial tree covered with cork, which 
is a source of great pleasure when the cats 
are confined by bad weather to the run. The 
open run consists, as before mentioned, of a 
space about 18 feet by 12 feet ; this is covered 
with gravel (which in such limited space should 
be renewed at least once a year), with the 
exception of a strip some 18 inches wide 
by 6 feet long on the west side, and two small 
corners on the east side, reserved for grass. 
This grass reserve, which is most important 
for the keeping of Persian cats in good health, 
is renovated every spring with fresh lawn seed, 
and should either of the patches suffer unduly 
from special attentions from the pets, it is 
wired in so as to protect it until it recovers. 
By this plan my cats secure a supply of grass 
all the year round. In the centre of the gravel 
space I have another artificial tree (see photo), 
about 8 feet high ; it is as great a favourite 
as the one in the run, and as it is hung with a 
loose cord, a few ping-pong balls, etc., it is a 
never-ending source of fun and frolic. To 
supplement the ground space, I place ladders 
leading to the tops of the roofs of the out- 
buildings and cattery, which afford extra 
space for exercise and a charming, interesting, 
and envious outlook for the cats into my 
neighbour's garden. It is surprising how soon 



SOME NOTABLE CATTERIES. 



IOQ 



the kittens learn to climb up and enjoy the 
roofs. 

" The sleeping house contains two wired-in 
runs going round two sides, about 2 feet by 
12 feet long, containing nest-box, earth pan, 
etc. These are very useful for keeping a queen 
and litter of small kittens in. There are also 
two smaller wired-in runs, 2 feet by 6 feet, 
fitted like the larger ones, so that a cat may be 
shut up at any time if necessary. The queens 
sleep in the smaller runs in the winter. Be- 
neath the runs a small cupboard is very useful 
for odds and ends of all kinds. 

"In so limited a space cleanliness is of the 
utmost importance. The house and runs should 
be swept out, and the earth pans should be 
changed, washed, and disinfected every day. 
The question of supplying dust for the pans 
may prove a source of anxiety to the breeder 
confined to a limited space. In winter the 
dwelling-house fires supply about sufficient 
ashes daily ; in summer I am compelled to 
fall back upon sawdust, which answers the 
purpose very well, only entailing a little extra 
litter in the runs and more grooming of the 
coats. Whatever the difficulty in this direc- 
tion, it must be overcome and the pans daily 
changed. The floors and shelves, both in cat- 
house and covered run, should be washed with 
hot water containing some disinfectant at 
least once a week, and the wired-in runs for 
cats and kittens thoroughly done out with 
hot Sanitas distemper every time they are re- 
quired for fresh occupants. All bedding should 
be changed at least once a week, and as little 
of it used as possible in summer. All plates, 
etc., used for food must be thoroughly washed 
after each meal. 

" In a space such as I have described my cats 
have to be kept, for they are allowed into the 
dwelling-house by special invitation only ; but 
they each receive this treat at least once during 
the day. 

"As to the number of queens : two or three are 
ample where space is so limited. Where the 
fresh air run is a back yard, blues are the very 
best of all colours, as with a daily grooming 
they always look clean and presentable. In a 



space such as we are considering I would not 
on any account recommend the keeping of a 
stud cat. The want of necessary exercise 
would be cruelty to it ; and the very limited 
surroundings unfair to those who might wish 
for his services. 

" It is of imperative importance that the 
queens you commence with be of pure blue 
pedigree ; if prize-winners so much the better, 
as their kittens will sell more readily. 

" When mating, be sure that your queen is in 
perfect health, and do not mate her too young 
in my opinion twelve months is young 
enough, in the interest of mother and family. 
See that the stud cat chosen be also of the 
best possible strain. That he be a noted prize- 
winner is of less importance than that he 
should be able to produce kittens that will win. 
He must have size, bone, strength, soundness 
of colour, 
length of 
coat, and 
good eyes. 
These are 
indispens- 
able require- 
ments if good 
blues are to 




MRS. COLLINGWOOD AND "JAMES II. 
(Photo : Alice Hughes, Cower Street.) 

be produced. He should especially be strong 
in those points where your queen may be 
somewhat weak ; thus if the queen be de- 
ficient in length of coat or frill, or in colour, 



no 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



shape, or boldness of eye, see that, the selected 
stud-cat excels in those points, and so, as far 
as possible, correct and balance the points 
required between the parents. One must not 
expect to find perfection in any one cat. By 
using care, judgment, and forethought in 
mating our pets, we shall go a good way towards 
establishing in our strain the points necessary 
to build up the perfect blue Persian. 

" All my kittens have been born in a Japanese 
dress basket, with the lid standing on its side 
and the bottom half thrust into it cradlewise. 
The outside of the basket proper is trimmed 
with a flounce, which helps to keep out 
draughts ; over the top is thrown a small 
cloth table-cover, which covers, at will, the 
whole or part of the opening, thus making the 
little one's house a pretty thing to lock at. 
When any one of my queens is about to have 
a family I ' flee-flea ' her, which I consider 
most essential for the future comfort of both 
mother and kittens ; then I bring her into the 
house three or four days before the expected 
event. For the time being the expectant 
mother becomes the house cat. I let her find 
her own bed, which has already been prepared 
for her, by carefully closing all other places she 
might be likely otherwise to choose. When 
her time comes I stay with her during her 
trouble ; but never interfere unless it is abso- 
lutely necessary. 

" A few encouraging words, and the fact that 
one is near, seems to give her comfort. If a 
queen shows much exhaustion, I give a little 
Brand's Essence with a few drops of brandy in a 
spoon ; but if all goes smoothly I let well alone. 
There is no need to press food upon the mother ; 
she will not require it until some time after the 
births are complete. A little warm milk or 
gruel offered between the births may sometimes 
prove a comfort ; but many queens will not 
touch it. For about three weeks, that is to 
say until the little ones creep out of their beds, 
I keep the queen and her family in the dwelling- 
house with me, changing her bed every other 
day. After the first week I make it a rule to 
handle the kittens at least once a day, and if 
the queen has more than three to bring up I 



begin, at two weeks old, feeding them three 
times a day with a few drops of warm sweet- 
ened milk from a spoon, increasing the quan- 
tity very gradually as they grow. I never 
wake the kittens to feed them sleep is as 
necessary as food ; but always arrange to 
feed them just after the little ones wake ; they 
are then hungry, and that is the best time to 
assist and relieve the mother. It is surprising 
how soon the kits enjoy being fed and look out 
for the friendly spoon. 

" As soon as the little ones can get out of their 
bed they must be introduced to a shallow tin 
filled with ashes or earth. I prefer ashes to 
sawdust for very little kittens, and I find at a 
month old they will regularly use it. This early 
lesson in cleanliness is invaluable, as later on, 
with reasonable care, they never forget it. 
When the kittens are from three weeks to a 
month old I remove them, with the mother 
(or foster-mother), to their own little run in 
the cattery, where I visit them three or four 
times a day. When they grow stronger, and 
as early as the weather will permit, they are 
introduced to the open-air run, the sunshine, 
and the other cats. 

" I begin the grooming as early as possible, 
daily brushing the little things in their bed or 
on my lap ; it improves the fur, and the more 
they are groomed the sooner they get to like and 
enjoy it. When grooming kittens two or three 
months old, I generally have three or four try- 
ing to get under the brush at the same time, 
endeavouring to push the favoured one out of 
the way. I am strongly of opinion that the 
frequent handling of kittens does not do them 
any harm, but does tend to improve their 
temper and increase their gentleness. When 
I have callers the kittens are invariably 
fetched, introduced to, and fondled by the 
visitors, so that they become not the least 
afraid of strangers ; as a result, when they go 
to new homes they come out of their basket 
without fear, making themselves immediately 
at home, much to the comfort of themselves 
and their new owners. 

" The best time to dispose of kittens is at 
about eight weeks old. Breeders with limited 



SOME NOTABLE CATTERIES. 



space must sell young and quickly, keeping 
only the one or two of the season thev may 
either wish to show or turn into next year's 
brood queens. To get overcrowded is to 
court disease and disappointment, so sell early 
for the best price you can get ; but sell you 



must, even if the price does not seem any- 
thing approaching the true value of the kittens. 
The first loss will be the known loss most 
certainly far less than that involved in the risk 
of keeping one or two more kittens than youi 
space should accommodate." 




A MORNING MEAL AT BOSSINGTON. 
(Photo: A. J. Anderson & Co., Luton.) 



112 




BLACK PERSIAN " JOHNNIE PASTE, OWNED BY DR. ROPER. 

(Photo: Lavender, Bromley.) 



CHAPTER IX. 



BLACK PERSIANS. 



1VTEVER have these truly handsome cats 
i.\ received the amount of admiration and 
attention which they deserve. There 
are fewer breeders of black Persians than of 
any other variety, the two most noted fanciers 
being Dr. Roper and Mr. Robert Little. Both 
of these gentlemen have owned and exhibited 
very handsome specimens ; Miss Kirkpatrick 
has also bred some lovely black kittens. The 
entries in the black classes at our shows are 
almost invariably the smallest ; but as a 
specialist club for black and white Persians 
has been started, it is hoped more encourage- 
ment will be given to the breeders of these 
handsome self-coloured cats. 

As in the other self-coloured cats, the chief 
point is absolute uniformity of colour through- 
out. It is fatal for a black cat to have a brown, 
rusty tinge ; it should be a glossy jet black, 
betraying no bands or bars in the full light, 
and having no undercoat of a lighter shade, 
and, above all, no spot or tuft of white hairs 
on the throat. This latter is a very common 
fault amongst black cats, and it is one which 



takes away enormously from the value of the 
specimen, for either show or breeding purposes. 
In some other varieties of Persian cats two, 
or even three, colours for eyes are permissible ; 
but a really good black cat must have the full 
round eyes of deep orange, and very attrac- 
tive are these gleaming orbs, shining forth 
from their dense black surroundings. When 
black cats are changing their coats they often 
present a very rusty appearance, and newly 
born kittens are sometimes like balls of brown 
fluff. These, however, frequently grow up 
the very best-coloured blacks. This breed is 
very strong and healthy, and often grow into 
large, massive cats. A tortoiseshell female is 
a splendid mate for a black male, and some 
of the most noted blacks have been bred in 
this way. Two brown tabbies will generally 
produce one, if not more, good blacks in a 
litter. 

Black cats have been found very use- 
ful to breeders of silver tabbies and smokes 
for this reason that these two breeds re- 
quire to have their markings and colourings 



BLACK PERSIANS. 



intensified. That is, a silver tabby with dark 
grey markings is not a true type, and a smoke 
with an upper coat of cinder colour does not 
represent the true smoke. Therefore the 
introduction of a black cross is often a great 
advantage to these breeds. There is certainly 
not much demand for black kittens, and we 
never hear of very high prices being asked or 
given for these, or, indeed, for full-grown cats. 
But as " every dog has his day," so, perhaps, 
there is a good time coming for blacks ; and 
certainly beginners in the fancy might do worse 
than to provide themselves with a thoroughly 



grey or blue is seen it is a great defect. The 
nose should be black, and the pads of the feet 
also. 

I do not remember having seen or heard of 
an imported Persian black cat. In an article 
on imported cats in Our Cats the writer 
(whose name is not given) says: "White cats 
with blue eyes are not often to be obtained 
from abroad, neither are the blacks warranted 
to possess the amber eyes voted correct by 
up-to-date cattists. I know cf a black queen 
straightHrwn the land of cats and the palace 
of the Shah himself ; it had the most glorious 




CHAMPION " MENKLIK III. (AMERICAN). 
THE PROPERTY OF MRS. BOND, WASHINGTON. 



good black queen, for, anyhow, in exhibiting 
the chance of honours is very much greater 
than when competing in classes in which there 
are so many entries, as in the case of blues and 
silvers. 

For very obvious reasons black cats are 
the very best animals for those living in 
London or near large towns. They can never 
present a dirty appearance, and, therefore, in 
this particular they will always score over the 
whites, creams, and silvers. To keep their 
coats glossy and bright black cats should be 
well brushed and groomed. They will repay 
tor this care and attention. Our American 
cousins call self-coloured cats " solid," and 
as applied to blacks this is especially expres- 
sive, for a black should not have a suspicion 
of any other colour than a dense black. If, 
when the coat is blown apart, a shading of 
8 



emerald eyes it is possible to imagine as 
different from the ordinary run of green as 
flaming amber is from faded yellow. This 
cat, a Persian among Persians, had a coat as 
black as the proverbial jet perfectly black 
throughout long and straight, of fine, silky 
texture, but not giving one the impression of 
massiveness that is such a prominent feature 
of the type of imported cat. Moderate in size, 
slightly built, with an expression so foreign that 
it amounted to weirdness. this cat could with 
a dash of imagination have been worked up 
into the incarnation of a spirit, a soothsayer, 
the veiled beauty of a harem, a witch, snake 
charmer what you choose ; but always re- 
main something far apart from prosaic England, 
something tinged with romance and the 
picturesqueness cf the mystical East. This 
black cat was undoubtedly a typical Persian. 1 * 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



As there is such a dearth of good black cats 
in England, it is a pity some enterprising 
breeder does not try to import a really splendid 
specimen, which might bring luck to himself 
and the fancy. 

In looking back to the old catalogues of 
Crystal Palace shows, I find the same scarcity 
of blacks exhibited as at the present day. In 
1886 the black male class is marked " no 
entry," and in 1889 Mrs. H. Warner (now the 
Hon. Mrs. McLaren Morrison) makes the sole 
and only entry of " Imp " in the black class. 
It was in the following year, however, that 
this same well-known lady fancier exhibited 
" Satan," a black that was never beaten whilst 
it lived. It was the most remarkable of 
unapproachable excellence I can remember 
a veritable triton among minnows. 

In many of the accounts of our largest 
shows I remark such paragraphs as these : 
" Good blacks with orange eyes were con- 
spicuous by their absence." Or again: "The 
black classes, as usual, were poorly filled." It 
is, therefore, high time that this beautiful 
breed should receive more attention at the 
hands of fanciers, and that not only beginners 
but those who are well known in the cat world 
should take up blacks, and, as the expression 
goes, " run them for all they are worth." At 
present Dr. Roper's and Mr. R. Little's black 
Persians have it all their own way. Mrs. 
Lenty Collins frequently has a look in with 
her wonderful big-eyed " Forest Beauty," and 
Mrs. Crowther, in the North, is faithful to this 
her favourite breed of cats ; but we want 
some more dusky beauties to swell the ranks 
of black Persians. 

As everyone knows, a vast deal of super- 
stition is connected with a black cat. This is 
what Harrison Weir has to say on the subject : 
" It is often said, 'What's in a name ? ' The 
object, whatever it is, by any other would 
be the same ; and yet there is much in a 
name. But this is not the question at issue, 
which is that of colour. Why should a black 
cat be thought so widely different from all 
others by the foolish, unthinking, and ignorant ? 
Why, simply on account of its colour being 



black, should it have ascribed to it a numberless 
variety of bad omens, besides having certain 
necromantic power ? In Germany, for in- 
stance, black cats are kept away from children 
as omens of evil ; and if a black cat appealed 
in the room of one lying ill, it was said to 
portend death. To meet a black cat in the 
twilight was held unlucky. In the ' good old 
times ' a black cat was generally the only 
colour that was favoured by men reported to 
be wizards, and black cats were said to be 
the constant companions of witches ; and in 
such horror and detestation were they then 
held that when the unfortunate creatures 
were ill-treated, drowned, or even burned, 
very frequently, we are told, their cats suffered 
martyrdom at the same time. It is possible 
that one of the reasons for such wild, savage 
superstition may have arisen from the fact of 
the larger amount of electricity to be found 
by friction in the coat of the black cat than of 
any other ; experiments prove there is but 
very little either in that of the white or the 
red tabby cat. Be this as it may, still the fact 
remains that, for some reason or other, the 
black cat is held by the prejudiced ignorant 
as an animal most foul and detestable, and 
wonderful stories are related of their actions 
in the dead of the night during thunderstorms. 
Yet, as far as I can discover, there appears 
little difference either of temper or habit in 
the black cat distinct from that of any other 
colour, though it is maintained by many 
even to this day that black cats are far more 
vicious and spiteful, and of higher courage, 
and this last I admit. Still, when a black cat 
, is enraged and its coat and tail are well ' set 
up,' its form distended, its round, bright, 
orange eye all aglow with anger, it certainly 
presents to even the most impartial observer, 
to say the least of it, a most ' uncanny ' 
appearance. But, for all this, their admirers 
are by no means few ; and, to my thinking, a 
jet-black cat, fine and glossy in fur and elegantly 
formed, certainly has its attractions." 

But although black cats are supposed to be 
harbingers of evil under some conditions, yet 
in others they are credited with miraculous 



BLACK PERSIANS. 



iii 




K1TTKX BRED BV MISS KIRKI'ATKICK. 

(Photo : K. Landor, Baling.) 

healing powers. In Cornwall, sore eyes in 
children are said to be cured by passing the 
tail of a black cat nine times over the part 
affected ; and in some parts of the country 
the presence in the house of a black cat is 
both an antidote and a cure for epilepsy. 

1 think that most cat fanciers are inclined 
to believe in the possible luck that a stray 
black cat may bring them, and perhaps be 
more inclined to take in a stranger of this 
particular breed than one of another colour. 

There is an old Scotch proverb that says : 

" Whenever the cat o' the house is black, 
The lasses o' lovers will have no lack." 

The celebrated '' Fawe " strain of black 
Persians is well known in the fancy. Dr. 
Roper has sent me some notes on his famous 
prize-winning cats, together with some useful 
information regarding the breed with which 
his name has become associated : 

" For many years black Persians were a 
most popular breed ; but, like fashions, for 
the time being other colours, I regret to see, 
are obtaining more notice from fanciers. For 
years I plodded away to breed what I con- 
sidered a perfect black Persian ; at last my 
labours were crowned with success. \Yhat 
can equal a richly coloured, heavily coated, 
deep orange-eyed black ? 

" In breeding blacks, like any other colour, 



it is essential you should procure the best of 
stock, and be prepared to give a fair sum for 
such, otherwise you are almost sure to be dis- 
appointed in your results, and, maybe, retire 
as a fancier of this colour and try some other ; 
but you will meet with the same fate if you 
hold the same views as to expense. A black 
Persian should be perfect in colour, with 
absence of white hairs, cobby in shape, short 
in leg, tail bushy and not too long, eyes large 
and deep-orange, a good broad head, ears short 
with tufts and well set apart, short face, coat 
long and silky. 

" Having stated the points, I will now give 
my experience of breeding. 

" In my opinion, it is most important the 
sire should be a black, and one of his parents 
a black, whatever colour the queen is. I have 
had greatest success in breeding from a black 
sire and a tortoiseshell queen. Through this 
cross you may get either blacks or tortoise- 
shells. As an instance I quote ' Johnnie Fawe ' 
(black) and Champion ' Dainty Diana ' (tor- 
toiseshell). From these I have bred many 
good blacks, amongst them ' Dick Fawe,' 
' Lady Victoria,' and other good ones ; also 
good tortoiseshells, three of them having taken 
championships. Blacks may also be bred 
from a black and a blue, or two blacks in 
this case, cross the sire with one of his pro- 
geny, which I have found very successful. I 
admit there are other ways of breeding blacks, 
but in my experience the three ways I have 







MRS. LITTLE'S BLACK PERSIAN " COLLKKN." 

(I'lio/o: D. Kn/tle, Beckenlmm.) 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



suggested have proved to be the most satis- 
factory. 

" In breeding, to be sure of success so far 
as the eyes are concerned, if possible it is better 
that both parents should have orange eyes, 
the deeper the better ; but it is most essential 
the sire should have good orange eyes. Not- 
withstanding the queen's eyes being light 
amber, by crossing with a good orange-eyed 
sire the kittens are very likely to have good- 
coloured eyes, but not vice versd. As an in- 
stance, I once purchased a very handsome 



the age of six months. I remember once giving 
away a kitten at three months old which I called 
iron grey and thought would or could never be 
black. Six months after I saw my friend, who 
thanked me very much for the lovely black 
kitten. Two months after seeing him I saw 
the cat : there were no white hairs, and the 
colour was a perfect black. This last Rich- 
mond show I showed a black kitten, aged seven 
months ; it took a first, a second, and a special. 
At three months old I thought it was going to 
be a smoke. It was claimed by the Hon. 




THE CAROL SINGKRS. 
(Photo : E. Laniior, Ealing.) 



black queen, perfect in all points with the 
exception of the eyes, which were very light 
amber. I mated her to ' Dick Fawe,' who had 
the deepest orange eyes I have yet seen in a 
black ; the kittens developed orange eyes. I 
have mated in the opposite way, and the result 
has been unsatisfactory so far as the eyes have 
been concerned, and if breeding for show the 
colour of the eyes is most important. The late 
Mr. Welburn, a well-known judge, once said 
in one of his reviews of blacks at a large show 
(I think it was the Crystal Palace), ' I scarcely 
think that eyes alone should carry an award, 
yet it is always best to uphold the desired pro- 
perties so hard to obtain.' 

" Having bred a litter of black kittens, it 
is unwise to make up your mind what colour 
they are going to be until they have attained 



Mrs. McLaren Morrison. I have a kitten 
now, aged three months, perfectly bronze in 
colour and a grey frill. I have no doubt at 
seven months old it will be a perfect black. 
I have given these illustrations in order that 
.those who are thinking of going in for blacks 
should not give up all hope of the kittens be- 
coming black until the age I have stated. 

" I breed my kittens from January to July, 
and find they do much better in the catteries, 
all of mine being separate ; and I find Spratt's 
movable runs most useful. In showing blacks 
they should be brushed and rubbed with a 
Selvyt cloth daily one month previously and 
kept free of matted hair. The application of 
Brilliantine or American Bay Rum in small 
quantity brushed on gives a perfect gloss to 
their coats." 








w' 
H 

< 
o 



CO 

K 

U 
0. 

W 



Q 
O 

n 



n8 



CHAPTER X. 

WHITE PERSIANS. 



A GREAT change has taken place of late 
years in the quantity and quality of these 
beautiful cats, for whereas formerly blue 
eyes were considered quite a rarity, now it is 
seldom we see any yellow-eyed white cats 
exhibited at our principal shows. The most 
perfect type of a white Persian is assuredly 



with human beings, they are extremely 
fiery with their fellows. There are two 
points peculiar to white cats they are 
frequently stone deaf, and they very often 
have odd-coloured eyes. Certainly the deaf- 
ness is a drawback, and in selecting a white 
cat care should be taken to ascertain if the 




JUNGFRAU, SIRE AND GRANDSIKK OK MANY AMERICAN WINNERS. 
(Photo: W. F. Arnold, Oak Park, III.) 



to be found amongst the imported cats ; there 
is a certain beauty of form and silkiness of 
fur which is not possessed by the specimens 
bred in this country. They are also generally 
distinguished by unusually long coats, round 
heads, tiny ears, and wonderful toe tufts. 

One of the most lovely white imported cats 
was exhibited by Lady Marcus Beresford at 
the Westminster Cat Club Show in 1900. The 
best judges declared that there was not a 
fault to find with " Nourmahal," but her career 
was a short one. These imported cats are 
often of a rather savage disposition, and, 
although they can be sweet-tempered enough 



specimen is possessed of sound hearing. Need- 
less to say, there are many ways of arriving 
at the solution of what is really a mysterious 
dispensation of Providence, for why should 
one particular breed of the feline race be so 
constantly minus this useful sense ? Then, 
again, as regards the quaint arrangement of 
different-coloured eyes. One might not be so 
surprised if the eyes of white cats were some- 
times pink, for their noses are pink, and the 
cushions of their feet, and, as in human beings, 
we might expect to have albinos amongst 
cats, namely white with pink eyes ; but 
Harrison Weir states he has never seen pink- 



WHITE PERSIANS. 



iig 



eyed whites, although it has been asserted 
that they exist. This peculiarity, however, 
of odd eyes seems only to be found in white 
cats, the two colours being blue and yellow. 
Occasionally white cats have wonderful sea- 
green eyes ; and, although these are decidedly 
very uncommon, no colour is so com- 
pletely in accord with the purity of the coat 
as eyes of heavenly blue. The tone should 
be not so much of a sapphire as of the deep 
forget-me-not blue. One of the drawbacks 
to white Persians is the difficulty of keeping 
them in spotlessly clean condition. This is 
absolutely impossible if they are living in or 
near a town, and certainly a white cat soiled 
is a white cat spoiled. 

As regards the mating of blue-eyed white 
cats, I have been told by experienced breeders 
of this variety that kittens with blue eyes are 
just as frequently bred from odd-eyed parents, 
or, at least, when one of the parents has dif- 
ferent-coloured eyes. It is easy to tell whether 
the baby blue eyes are likely to retain their 
colour or turn yellow. If at about three 
weeks or a month old the blue becomes tinted 
with green, then surely but sadly may we 
make up our minds that these kittens have 
not a distinguished career before them, 
for they will see and be seen with yellow eyes. 
It is a pity to try mating white cats with 
any other variety, as broken - coloured cats 
will probably be the result. It frequently 
happens that white kittens, when quite young, 
have smudges of grey on their heads ; these 
gradually disappear. In America white cats 
seem prime favourites, and the demand ex- 
ceeds the supply for importation of white 
Persians with blue eyes. At the last Beres- 
-ford Cat Club Show the entries in the white 
classes were very large. The classification 
included and provided for golden- and blue- 
eyed whites, and these were subdivided ac- 
cording to sex, and all the classes were well 
filled. Mrs. Clinton Locke's "Lord Gwynne" 
is a noted white stud cat on the other side of 
the water, as is also Mrs. Colbourn's '' Paris." 

The devotees of the white cat in our own 
country are not many in number. I may 



mention Mrs. Finnic Young and Miss Hunt, 
who are perhaps the most successful breeders 
of whites in Scotland ; and in the south we 
have Mrs. Pettit, whose tribe of blue-eyed 
whites I had recently the pleasure of seeing. 
No' more lovely specimens could be imagined, 
and I counted more than a dozen long-coated, 
full-grown, bonnie blue-eyed beauties, walking 
about in the woods surrounding Mrs. Pettit's 
dwelling-place near St. Leonards - on - Sea. 
The illustration shows Mrs. Pettit surrounded 
by eight of her pretty white pussies. Mrs. 
Westlake, Mrs, Xott, Miss White Atkins, and 
Miss Kerswill are all successful and enthusi- 
astic breeders of white Persians. 

Several well-known fanciers keep one white 
cat amongst their flock. I may mention the 
Hon. Mrs. McLaren Morrison, the owner of 
" Musafer," a famous imported puss, and Lady 
Decies, the former possessor of " Powder Puff," 
who has recently been presented to H.H. Prin- 
cess Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein. There is 
always a keen demand for white kittens, 
either as pretty pets or, if with correct-coloured 
eyes, for breeding purposes, and, doubtless, 
when more encouragement is given to this 
beautiful variety, there will be an increase of 
fanciers of the white cat, whose praises have 
been sung in fairy tales, nursery rhymes, 




MRS. MCLAREN'S WHITE PERSIAN " LADVSMITH." 

(.Photo: C. Reid Wishaw.) 




w 



WHITE PERSIANS. 



121 



and by novelists who have a weakness for 
describing interiors with a beautiful white 
Persian cat reclining on the hearthrug. 

I am indebted for the following notes on 
white Persians to Miss M. Hunt, whose beau- 
tiful white cat " Crystal " appeared on an 
earlier page, and by an unfortunate mistake 
was stated to be the property of Mrs. Finnie 
Young : 

" The blue-eyed white Persian is, I consider, 
one of the most interesting to breed, and, in 
my experience, no more delicate or difficult 
to rear than any other Persian. 

" I have had them now for nearly four years, 
and, I think I may say, with a good deal of 
success. I bought ' Crystal ' in 1898, when 
four months old, and she certainly has 
been a good investment. Out of the sixteen 
white kittens she lias had, ten of them have 
been blue-eyed. 

" The very best kitten I owned was never 
exhibited ; he went to Mrs. Champion, who 
considered him the best and healthiest kitten 
for his age she had ever seen. Unfortunately, 
he died suddenly shortly after she had him. He 
was by Champion 'White Friar' ex ' Crystal,' 
and was one of the same litter as ' Jovial 
Monk,' which did so much winning for Miss 
Ward, who purchased him from me at the 
Crystal Palace, where he took first. ' Crystal ' 
herself has only once been beaten by a white 
cat, and that had not even blue eyes ; but she 
was in splendid coat, and ' Crystal ' was quite 
put of coat. Most judges are agreed, I think, 
that ' Crystal ' is the best blue-eyed white 
female in the country. 

" The colour of the eyes of white kits can be 
told much earlier than in any other colour ; 
some I can tell as soon as they are open, others 
I am not quite sure of till they are about a 
fortnight old. The eyes are generally bright 
blue from the beginning, without a shade of 
kitten grey in them. I do not think that both 
parents having blue eyes makes much differ- 
ence to the number of blue-eyed kits in the 
litter. If one parent is blue-eyed and the 
other odd-eyed the result is often just as good. 
I know of a green-eyed queen which had a 



litter of three by Champion ' White Friar '- 
all were blue-eyed. 

" As to deafness, I cannot account for it at 
all, as it often appears, though both parents 
have perfect hearing. 

" Since Mrs. Finnie Young and I purchased 
' White Friar ' in 1900, whites have become 
much more plentiful in Scotland, and the com- 
petition is now very keen indeed up North. 
' White Friar ' has had a very successful 
career_ since he came into our hands, both as 
sire and on the show bench, and can still hold 
his own against all comers. He has won 
sixteen first prizes since 1900, besides cham- 
pionships and numerous specials." 

Mrs. Champion, whose name is well known 
in " catty " circles, and who has now left these 
shores for America, did a great deal to estab- 
lish a thoroughly good strain of white, blue- 
eyed Persians. Her celebrated " White Friar " 
(now in the possession of Mrs. Finnie Young 
and Miss Hunt) is justly considered the finest 
male specimen in the fancy. Certainly he 
could only have been beaten by his son " White 
Tsar," bred by Mrs. Champion from her 
"White Witch." This cat, which assuredly 
would have had a notable career, was sold by 
Mrs. Champion for 20 to Mrs. Colbourn, in 
America. He arrived in poor condition and 
died shortly afterwards. I remember seeing 
an absolutely perfect white Persian kitten at 
Mrs. Champion's. It was by " White Friar " 
ex "Crystal." He had startling deep blue 
eyes, tiny ears, and broad, round head, and at 
nine weeks old his coat measured nearly three 
inches across. Alas ! though healthy and 
strong, this proved too perfect a specimen for 
this world, and " Crystal Friar " succumbed 
to the epidemic of gastritis then raging amongst 
our feline pets. Referring back to celebrated 
white Persian cats of the past, I well recollect 
the marvellous size and splendid coat of Mrs. 
Lee's " Masher." who took the cat world by 
storm when exhibited at the Crystal Palace in 
1890. This enthusiastic fancier paid 21 for 
" Masher," whose show career was shortened 
by an accident. This cat was remarkable in 
those days, if only for his grand blue eyes. 



122 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 




" CRYSTAL. 
THE PROPERTY OF Miss M. HUNT 
(I'hoto : C. Reid, Wishaui.) 

The well-known breeder and judge Mr. 
A. A. Clarke, whose name is more closely 
connected with blue Persians, once owned 
a famous female called " Miss Whitey." I 
remember that this really remarkable cat was 
exhibited in 1887 at the Crystal Palace, and 
again in the following year, when at four years 
old she took first prize and silver medal in a 
strong class of nine females. It seems to me 
that these cats, as I recollect them, appeared 
half as large again as the present-day champion 
winning whites ; but whether this was in con- 
sequence of more profuse coat or a generally 
bigger build of animal I cannot at this distance 
of time pretend to determine. 

Amongst the well-known prize-winners and 
stud white Persian cats of the present day I 
may mention Miss White Atkin's massive- 
limbed " White Knight," whose broad skull is 
especially remarkable in a show-pen, and com- 
mends itself to the notice of the judge. Miss 
Harper's " Blue-eyed Wanderer " has great 
quality and lovely texture of coat. He was in 
truth a wanderer in the streets of a London 
suburb, and, although labelled " breeder and 
pedigree unknown," he has almost always 
held his own in the white classes at our largest 



shows. Mrs. Westlake, Mrs. Pettit, Mrs. 
Finnic, and Miss Hunt are all possessed of 
imported white cats, which have proved 
worthy ancestors of many prize-winning kittens. 
There have not been any very notable female 
white cats exhibited since the appearance of 
Lady Marcus Beresford's " Nourmahal," with 
the exception of Miss M. Hunt's " Crystal " 
and Mrs. Pettit's most lovely " Piquante 
Pearl," bred by her from her stud cat " King of 
the Pearls " and " Beautiful Pearl." This cat 
is as near perfection as possible, and has 
, carried off highest honours whenever exhibited. 
Mrs. Pettit began breeding white Persians in 
1896, and has kept faithful to this breed ever 
since. This enthusiastic breeder always accom- 
panies her exhibits, and her precious Pearls 
are never seen at the smaller mixed shows. I 
have always heard that white kittens are 
difficult to rear, and Mrs. Pettit, who should 
be well qualified to give her testimony on this 
point, says : " Without a doubt blue-eyed 
white Persians are the most delicate cats in 
existence." A well-known authority on cats, 
writing to one of the cat papers, says : "What 
a change has taken place in our white classes, 
long- and short-haired ! A few years ago 
white cats with green or yellow eyes frequently 
were prize-winners, and a blue-eyed white was 
looked upcn as a rarity. Now blue eyes have 
it all their own way, and judges are becoming 
more and more exacting as to the depth of 
tone and quality of the blue tint. If we could 
obtain a white Persian with the glorious eye 
of the Siamese, it would be a treasure indeed." 

A gentleman who has lived for ten years in 
Assam says that he never saw in that part of 
India any long-haired cats except blue-eyed 
whites. He also gives an amusing account of 
the usual way of obtaining a cat cf this variety 
fcr a pet. It is as follows : " You give in- 
structions to a native, who offers to procure 
you one at a certain price, but gives you no 
idea where or how he means to procure it. 
In about a week's time he appears with the 
cat and claims the money. Things progress 
favourably with your new possession for a time, 
but suddenly and unaccountably your puss 



WHITE PERSIANS. 



123 



disappears. You are calling on some friend 
or acquaintance, and, to your surprise and 
astonishment, there on the armchair lies, 
curled up, your cat ! ' Thus it will be seen 
that the wily native makes a small income 
out of one cat, by stealing or enticing it 
away from the original purchaser and calmly 
re-selling it to one of the neighbours." 

Mrs. Clinton Locke, the president of the 
Beresford Cat Club, has owned some beautiful 
white Persians which she has imported from 
time to time. This ladv writes thus to Our 



Mrs. Westlake, writing from Camden Town, 
says : 

" My acquaintance with white Persian cats 
began some years ago, when I imported a 
white female as a pet. I was so delighted 
with her that, although for a London resident 
white cats would seem the least desirable, I 
decided to import two blue-eyed whites for 
breeding purposes. It was a litter from these 
two cats that tempted me to take up exhibit- 
ing, _This litter consisted of all blue-eyed 
kittens, the tone of the blue being exceptionally 




" WHITE BUTTB:RFLY." 

THE PROPERTY OF Miss WHITE ATKINS. 
(Photo: E. E. Lipputt, Leamington.) 



Cats : ' The first white Persian I ever owned 
was brought to me many years ago from 
Persia by a distinguished traveller, and its 
eyes were amber, showing that the white cats 
brought from their native land have not 
always blue eyes. The descendants of this 
cat, mated to both amber and blue eyed cats, 
have thrown blue eyes. Two odd-eyed cats 
have also given blue-eyed kittens ; but a pair of 
blue-eyed cats has by no means always thrown 
blue eyes with every kitten in the litter." 

One of our most persistent and consistent 
breeders and fanciers of white Persians is 
Mrs. Westlake, and therefore I am glad to be 
able to put forward a few of her experiences 
as to the peculiarities of the breed. 



deep. Since then I have, of course, often had 
a different tale to tell, and odd-eyed kittens 
have sometimes predominated. This curious 
freak of nature connected with white cats 
seems unaccountable. The two colours are 
generally yellow and blue, but I have seen 
green and blue. I have also remarked on the 
very brilliant tone of the one blue eye. 

" There is a popular belief that almost all 
blue-eyed cats are deaf. All I can say is 
that I have never had a blue-eyed white 
that was deaf. I have, however, often come 
across those that were stone deaf, and others 
with defective hearing. Again an unaccount- 
able freak. 

" White Persian cats have been declared 



124 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



to be the most difficult to breed and delicate to 
rear. My opinion is that the delicacy is much 
more in their coats than their constitutions ; 
that is, of course, in comparison with other 
foreign varieties, none of which are as hardy 
as the British. 

" A few remarks as to the cleansing of 
white cats may be useful. As a dweller in 
London, I need scarcely say that unless I 
occasionally gave personal attention to my 
pussies they would not always be in the show 

condition that I 
would desire. 
Some fanciers 




IMPORTED BLUE-EYED TOM, ' MUSAFER. 
(Photo: V. R. Clarke, Think.) 

wash their white Persians, but I have 
come to the conclusion that this treatment 
tends to coarsen the soft silkiness of the 
fur ; and therefore, for this reason, and also 
because there is a risk of cats catching cold, 
especially in winter, I advocate dry cleaning, 
and suggest the use of Pears' white precipitated 
fuller's earth. One plan is to place the cat 
on a large sheet or towel, mix a little ammonia 
in warm water, dip your hands in this, and 
pass them over and over the fur, letting it 
become thoroughly moistened but not wet. 
Then well sprinkle the coat with the powder, 
and by keeping the animal in front of the fire 
the fur will soon become quite dry. Then rub 



with a soft towel, and finally brush thoroughly 
with a clean and not too hard brush. Your 
efforts will be rewarded with success, and 
though puss may be considerably bored during 
the process, she will not resent it so much as a 
tubbing. I find that white females are far 
more diligent as regards their toilet than the 
males, who seem always to have more of the 
Eastern languor and indolence in their nature. 
I have remarked and no doubt it is more 
noticeable in the white breed that as soon 
as young kittens are beyond their mother's 
control they exhibit a marked antipathy to 
keeping their coats in anything like decent 
condition. Sometimes they will 
make a feeble attempt at washing 
themselves; but something will 
excite their attention, and cff they 
will go, or perhaps in sheer fatigue 
will fall asleep during the toilet. 
Thus white kittens will very soon 
present a most unkempt appear- 
ance, and the poor mother gazes 
sadly at them as though the 
cares of a family were too much 
for her, and she no longer wishes 
to own what was once her pride 
and }oy a spotless litter ! 

It has been stated that white 
cats are wanting in expression, 
probably because of the lack of 
markings to give character to the face ; but 
breeders of whites will nevertheless agree 
with me that they have even greater force of 
expression, not being assisted by any markings. 
I have found white cats to be most affectionate, 
and very conservative in their tastes. I have 
owned some white Persians with light sea- 
green eyes, and although these are not correct, 
yet I must say they were strikingly beautiful 
and very uncommon. I have been offered 
high prices by Americans and others for my 
imported white female, but my ' blue-eyed 
darling ' will, I think, end her days with 
her devoted mistress in dear, dirty, old 
London." 



12- 



CH AFTER XI. 



BLUE PERSIANS. 




JACK AM) 

(I'linto: II. Warsclikanki, 
St. Leonanis-on-Sea.) 



A FAMOUS pub- 
1 i s h e r once 
gave the fol- 
lowing advice to a 
young author: 
" Never take it for 
granted that your 
readers have any 
previous knowledge 
of your subject, but 
credit them with 
ordinary intelli- 
gence." To all fe- 
line fanciers the 
heading of this 
chapter is a familiar 
household term, but to novices in the cat 
world and to outsiders the term " blue " as 
applied to a cat may sound rather absurd. 
Truth to tell, the name is misleading, and yet 
the same is used in describing certain breeds 
of domestic animals, such as dogs, rabbits, 
etc. There is also a fur much used for trim- 
mings of ladies' jackets, etc., called blue fox, 
and this is very much akin to the colour and 
texture of the fur of the blue Persian cat, 
which, however, varies in tone from a dark 
slate to a pale lilac-blue. 

It is over twenty years ago since I ex- 
hibited the first " blues " at the Crystal Palace 
Cat Show, and they created quite a sensation, 
for no one seemed to have seen any cats of 
this peculiar shade before. Some called them 
grey or lilac, and others London smoke or 
slate colour. One of my pair of blue kittens 
was quickly claimed at catalogue price, and I 
bought in the other, fearing I should lose her 
also. She, in her turn, became the mother of 
many celebrated blues. In those early days 
of the fancy blue Persians were entered in 
the " any other variety " class, and most of 
the specimens exhibited were in reality blue 



tabbies. For some years this state of things 
continued ; but Mr. A. A. Clarke, so well 
known as one of the pioneers of the National 
Cat Club, and as a breeder, exhibitor, and 
judge,- agitated with other fanciers, myself 
amongst the number, to obtain a better classi- 
fication for the self-coloured blues, and in 1889 
the schedule at the Crystal Palace Show con- 
tained a class for " Blue self-coloured with- 
out white." For some time this breed of cats 
was termed " self blues," in contradistinction 
to the many blues with tabby markings which 
were formerly so very common in the fancy. 

In 1890 it was decided to divide the sexes 
in the blue cat classes, and let the kittens 
compete with black and white. The result was 
an entry of eight in each class, my famous 
" Beauty Boy " taking first in the male, 
and Mrs. H. B. Thompson's celebrated 
" Winks " first in the female division. At 
Brighton in the same year the " self-blue " 
class was adopted with success. 

The famous blue stud cats of that period 
were Mr. A. A. Clarke's " Turco," Miss Bray's 
" Glaucus," and my own " Beauty Boy." 
Amongst other exhibitors of blues about this 
time I may men- 
tion Mrs. Warner 
(now the Hon. 
Mrs. McLaren 
Morrison), Mrs. 
Vallance, Mrs. 
Wells, Mrs. Hunt, 
Mrs. H.B.Thomp- 
son, Mrs.Ellerton, 
and Miss F. Moore. 
In 1891 blues 
came very mucli 
to the fore, and 
the entries at the JILL. 

Crystal Palace THE PEOTERTY F Miss B* 

(I'hoto: H. tISarsclikarski, 
numbered 15 St. I.conards-on-Sea.) 




126 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



males and 17 females. At Cruft's Show in 
the year 1894 a grand blue, called " \Voo- 
loomooloo," was exhibited by Mrs. W. R. 
Hawkins, and this cat became one of the most 
famous of stud cats. Many of the finest blues 
of to-day are descended from this noted sire. 
Mrs. H. B. Thompson's " Don Juan " was 
for many years greatly in request as a stud 
cat, and many beautiful blues claim him as 
their ancestor. 

A little later " Moko " became famous as 
the sire of a sensational kitten exhibited by 
Mr. C. W. Witt at the Westminster Show of 
1900. " Moko " was sold at a high figure to 
Mrs. Barnett, and is now in the possession of 
Mrs. Singleton, of Yeovil. Mr. A. A. Clarke 
was considered the best judge of this variety, 
and at the Palace and Brighton he did much 
to encourage the breed by offering handsome 
special prizes in the blue classes. 

It is true that the prize-winning cats of 
ten and fifteen years ago would have had but 
a poor chance in the present-day competi- 
tions, chiefly for the reason that cats of the 
past could look at a judge with bright green 
eyes and yet be awarded the highest 
honours. Nous avons changJ tout cela, and 
now a blue cat without the much-to-be-desired 
orange eyes fetches but a small price, and is 
at a great disadvantage in the show-pen. 
An up-to-date judge may, however, be led 
into giving too great a prominence to this 
point and thus sacrifice soundness of colour, 
shape, and form. Then, again, I remember 
when a white spot on the throat of a blue 
Persian was not considered a serious defect ; 
now a few straggling white hairs will cause 
anguish to the owner, and a judge will promptly 
put down the specimen for this blemish. 

Blue cats with white spots used to be rele- 
gated to the " any other colour " class ; but 
recently both the National Cat Club and 
the Cat Club have wisely decided that such 
cats should be judged in their own classes. 
However, I think that owners of these speci- 
mens would do well to keep them away from 
the show bench, where the competition in 
blues is now too keen to give any chance for 



defective cats to have a look in. I may men- 
tion that the nose of a blue Persian is a few 
shades darker than its fur, and the toe-pads 
yet a little darker. 

As will be seen from the standard of points 
for blues, which will be found later on in 
this chapter, the highest marks are given for 
soundness of colour. There is a tendency to 
breed very light blues, and popular fancy 
favours this particular type. I am inclined, 
however, to prefer a good sound medium blue 
as being the best and safest for breeding 
purposes. The lovely pale blues are beautiful 
to look at, but are seldom absolutely sound in 
colour. Blues, whether dark or light, should 
be the same tint throughout, so that when the 
coat is blown apart the colour at the roots 
is the same as at the tips. A white under- 
coat is a serious blemish, and this often 
appears when silver blood may be traced 
in the ancestry of a blue cat. We have 
quite dropped the term of self-blue, and yet 
this well expresses the uniformity of colour 
which is so desirable. As tiny kittens blues 
frequently exhibit tabby markings ; but fan- 
ciers need not worry over these apparent 
defects, for as the coat grows the bars and 
stripes are no longer visible. 

It also sometimes happens that a kitten 
exhibits quite a light ruff, but this is generally 
shed with the second coat, and eventually 
disappears. There are some cats erroneously 
called blues by novices in the fancy, but which 
in reality are blue smokes. These have pro- 
bably been bred from blues and smokes, and 
thus the type of each is seriously damaged. 
If it is desired to breed sound-coloured blues, 
then it is undesirable to cross them with any 
other colour save and except blacks. I have 
found good results from mating blues and 
blacks, more especially with a view to obtain- 
ing the deep amber eyes of the black Persians, 
which, for some reason or other, are generally 
larger, rounder, and deeper in colour than 
what we can produce in blues. Certainly all 
broken breeds and tabbies should be avoided 
when mating blues. I have heard of white 
cats being bred with blues to get a pale tint 




CO 

I 7 

S? 

8j 



w .> 
g 



n 



CO 



BL UE PERSIANS. 



12': 



of blue ; but white toes, chests, and spots have 
often been the results of such experiments. I 
have bred blue Persians ever since I took up 
the fancy, which is longer ago than I care to 
remember, and I have found them strong and 
hardy cats, requiring no special food, and 
enjoying the best of health without any 
cosseting or coddling. I do not consider that 
blues usually obtain any great size or weight, 
nor are they generally massive in build or 
profuse in coat. 

Ten or fifteen years ago I used to have my 
blue kittens bespoken for about 5 each before 
they were born ; but nowadays, when blues 
are so plentiful, one must be content with 
lower prices, and the average sum for a good 
blue kitten is three guineas. Still, I am sure 
that for beginners in the fancy, wishing to 
combine pleasure and profit, there is no better 
investment than a good sound blue queen 
with orange eyes. The demand for blue 
kittens is really larger than for youngsters of 
any other breed. They make superb pets, 
but it is to be regretted that blue neuters are 
generally spoilt with green eyes, doubtless for 
the reason that the possession of good orange 
eyes tempts the owner or purchaser to reserve 
the specimen for stud or breeding purposes. 

As one of the first breeders and exhibitors of 
blue Persians I feel I am in a position to speak 
with authority, and I am of opinion that no 
breed has made such rapid strides, either in 
improvements or popularity, as blues. In 
this statement I am supported by our best 
professional judge, Mr. T. B. Mason, who, 
writing to me on the subject, says : "I find ten 
good blues at the present time to one we came 
across two or three years ago. I am of opinion 
that in no colour of cats have we seen more 
distinct progress than we see in blue Persians.'' 
Such a statement, coming from our most 
able and ubiquitous judge, is a valuable one. 
Mr. Mason has had a large experience in cat 
judging during the last few years, and his 
duties take him north and south, cast and west. 

As regards the breeding of blues, I consider 
that to obtain the true sound colour blues 
should only be bred to blues. 



I have often, however, observed that a 
kitten of unsound colour is to be found in 
litters bred from two sound-coloured blues ; 
the kitten may have a white undercoat or be 
full of white hairs, or have a shaded ruff ; but 
experienced breeders will soon discover that 
such blemishes are but temporary, and that the 
ugly duckling of a family may develop into 
the flower of the flock. It is, therefore, very 
interesting to make experiments and to keep 
an apparently worthless specimen to see what 
it turns~irito when the first months of infancy 
are passed and the kitten coat has been shed. 

I have known a young blue of sound colour 
completely transformed in this particular by 
a severe illness. Her fur became a sort of 
pepper-and-salt mixture a sprinkling of white 
and dark grey ; but this same cat, contrary to 
the prophecy of an able judge, has again 
changed her coat, and is now a perfectly sound 
blue, even from tip to root. It was evident 
that her illness had affected her coat, and that 
when she regained her usual health she re- 
covered her correct coat. As regards the eyes 
in blues, it is not possible to give any exact time 
for the change in colour from the baby blue to 
the dreaded green or hoped-for orange. This 
change takes place gradually, and sometimes 
the period extends till a kitten is almost a cat. 
There are many blue cats with what may be 
called indefinitely coloured eyes; that is, neither 
orange, nor yellow, nor green. This most un- 
satisfactory state of things may be generally 
accounted for by a circle of green round the 
pupil, which, according to the time of day, will 
be wide or narrow. Thus it is that cats with 
this defect are sometimes described with 
" good yellow eyes," and advertised as such, 
and then, when received by the purchaser, a 
glint of green is plainly visible in the inner 
circle. The perfect eye in a blue should be 
. absolutely unshaded ; and there are two dis- 
tinct types of eyes, namely, the golden eye 
'and the orange eye. The former resembles a 
golden coin in tint, and the latter has the dash 
of red which is to be seen in copper. Both 
these coloured eyes are correct, and much to 
be admired in blue Persians, and no doubt 



128 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



as time goes on we shall find it will be the rule 
and not the exception to see these perfect 
eyes amongst the blues of the future. It must, 
however, be borne in mind that in the point 
of eyes cats throw back, and two parents with 
good orange eyes may yet produce one or 
more kittens with pale eyes of yellow or green- 
ish hue. Although I have dilated at length 
on the superiority of the orange eye in blues, 
I do not wish it to be thought that a weedy, 



white (which is no colour), and this is the more 
curious because black mated with white gener- 
ally produces either one colour or the other, 
or breaks black and white or white and black ; 
the blue being, as it were, a weakened black 
or a withdrawal by white of some, if not all, of 
the brown or red, varying in tint according to 
the colour of the black from which it was bred, 
dark grey, or from weakness in the stamina 
of the litter. When once the colour or break 
from the black is acquired, it is then 
easyjto go on multiplying the different 
shades and varieties of tint and tone, 
from the dark blue-black to the very 
light, almost white grey. If whole- 




THK ARTIST. 

(Photo : Mrs. S. F. Clarke.) 



boneless cat, even with eyes of deepest hue, 
would find favour in my sight ; for in blues, 
as in all breeds of Persians, what we ought to 
seek after most earnestly are good massive 
limbs, plenty of bone, and broad skulls. There 
are too many Persian cats of hare-like propor- 
tions, and we really want some of the type of 
a good old English tabby introduced into the 
more aristocratic long-haired breeds. 

It will be interesting to up-to-date breeders 
of blues to hear what the veteran cat lover and 
fancier Harrison Weir had to say about them 
fifteen years ago. In his well-known bcok, 
" Our Cats," he thus alludes to the breed : 

" Blue in cats is one of the most extra- 
ordinary colours of any, for the reason that it 
is a mixture of black (which is no colour) and 



coloured blues are in request, then parti- 
colours, such as white and black, or black and 
white, are best excluded." 

Many of our leading cat fanciers "go in" 
exclusively for blues, and keep faithful to 
this one breed alone. I give a list of these, 
and trust I may be pardoned if I have left 
out the name of any enthusiastic breeder and 
lover of blues and blues alone : Mrs. Hill, 
Mrs. Wells, Mrs. P. Hardy, Mrs. H. Ransome, 
Mrs. Bennet, Mrs. Mocatta, Mrs. S. F. Clarke 
(Louth), Mrs. Cartwright, Mrs. Gregory (Lin- 
coln), Mrs. H. B. Thompson, Mrs. O'Brien 
Clarke, Miss Jay, Miss Bennet, Miss Messer, 
Miss Patterson, Miss Goddard, Rev. P. L. 
Cosway, Mrs. Swanson, Mrs. Curwen, Mrs. 
Duffin, Mrs. W. M. Hunt, Mrs. Slingsby, Mrs. 



BLUE PERSIANS. 



129 




BLUE KITTENS BRED BY MISS KIKKl'ATKICK. 

(1'hoto : E. Landor, Ealing.) 

Singleton, Miss Savery, Mrs. Eustace, Mrs. 
Hitchcock, Miss Hooper, Miss Violet Hunt, Miss 
Humfrey, Mrs. Kennaway, Mr. H. Maxwell, 
.Mrs. Ponder, Miss Rigby, and Mr. C. W. Witt. 
There are, of course, a large number of 
fanciers who, amongst other breeds of cats, 
keep one or two blues, and several keep 
blues and silvers only. I think I may safely 
say that blue Persians have the largest 
number of admirers, and certain it is that at 
all our large shows the blue classes are the 
best filled. At the Cat Club Show held at 
Westminster in 1899 the number of entries 
in the blue female class was a record one 
there were no less than 48, and the blue males 
mustered 42. 

Seeing, therefore, how popular this 
breed had become, in April, 1901, I 
founded and started the Blue 
Persian Cat Society, a book of 
v rules was drawn up, and the 
following ladies and gentlemen 
appointed as officials of the 
society : 



Vice-Presidents : Viscountess Gort, Lady Danvers, 
the Hon. Mrs. Maclaren Morrison, Mrs. Collingwood, 
Mrs. W. M. Hunt, Miss Violet Hunt, Mrs. Clinton 
Locke, Mrs. Lionel Marks, Mrs. Herbert Ransome, 
Mrs. Mackenzie Stewart, Mrs. H. B. Thompson, Mrs. 
Woodcock, Sir H. Jerningham, K.C.M.G., Sir B. 
Simpson, K.C.M.G., Rev. P. L. Cosway, Frankfort 
Moore, Esq., R. Stoiks, Esq. 

Committee : Mrs. Baldwin, Mrs. Russell Biggs, 
Mrs. Bishop, Mrs. P. Brown, Mrs. P. Hardy, Mrs. 
Collingwood, Mrs. H. L. Mocatta, Miss H. Patterson, 
Mr. Gambier Bolton. 

Hon. Treasurer: Mr. Russell Biggs, i, Garden 
Court, Temple. 

Hon. Secretary : Miss F. Simpson, 9, Leonard Place, 
Kensington, W. 

Judges : Lady Marcus Beresford, Mrs. P. Hardy, 
Mrs. W. M. Hunt, Miss G. Jay, Miss K. Sangster, 
Miss F. Simpson, Mr. C. A. House, Mr. T. B. Mason, 
Mr. F. Norris, Mrs. Mackenzie Stewart, Miss E. 
Goddard, and Miss Kirkpatrick. 

The chief objects of this society are as 
follow : To promote the breeding and exhibit- 
ing of blue Persian cats ; to define precisely, 
and to publish a description of, the true 
type of blue Persian cat, and to urge the 
adoption of such type on breeders, exhibitors, 
and judges, as the only recognised and un- 
varying standard by which blue Persian cats 
should be judged ; the improvement of the 
classification, and, if necessary, the guarantee- 
ing of classes for these cats at shows supported 
by the society ; the selection of specialist 




BLUE PERSIAN CAT SOCIETY. 

Founded April 241/1, IQOI. 
Presidents : Viscountess Maitland, 
Mrs. Maconochie, Miss Gertrude Jay. 







MRS. ROBINSON S BLUE KITTKNS. 

(Photo: J. Joyner, Cheltenham.) 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



judges to make the awards at such shows. 
The annual subscription to the Blue Persian 
Cat Society is five shillings, payable by each 
member on election. At the general meeting 
of the society, held in April, 1902, the number 
of members on the books was 183, and the 
honorary secretary reported that during the 
past year twelve cat shows had received the 
support of the society, and numerous hand- 



Members should not be deterred from showing 
their cats if they do not come up to the high standard 
set forth in the above definition. 

It is true that very few, if any, blue Persians 
come up to the high standard here given, 
but still there is a very marked improve- 
ment in the breed during the last year or two. 
The number of green-eyed blues are steadily 
and surely decreasing, and the colour of the 
coat and size of head are points 
that have been carefully attended 
to. In reading the list of blue cats 
placed at stud in the columns of 
the cat papers we cannot help 
being impressed with the enor- 
mous strides made of recent years 
in this breed of cats alone. In a 
recent copy of Our Cats I counted 




MRS. WELLS' CATTERY. 
(I'hoto : Cassell & Company, Limited.) 

some challenge prizes, badges, 
and specials had been offered for 
competition. 

The following is the standard 
of points drawn up by the com- 
mittee of the Blue Persian Cat 
Society and approved of by the 
members of the society : 

STANDARD OF POINTS FOR BLUE PERSIAN CAT. 

Coal (30). -Any shade of blue allowable ; sound 
and even in colour ; free from markings, shadings, 
or any white hairs. Fur long, thick, and soft in 
texture. Frill full. 

Head (25). Broad and round, with width be- 
tween the ears. Face and nose short. Ears small and 
tufted. Cheeks well developed. 

Eyes (20). Orange ; large, round, and full. 
Body (15). Cobby, and low on the legs. 
Tail (10). Short and full, not tapering. 



twenty-five stud advertisements of blues, and 
this does not nearly represent the entire number 
of blues used for stud purposes by fanciers. 
This breed of Persians has become very popular 
in America, and several fine cats have been 
exported, and have carried off the highest 
honours at the New York Cat shows, held 
under the auspices of the Beresford Cat 
Club. 

Mrs. Clinton Locke, the president of the 
club, is an enthusiastic breeder and admirer 



BLUE PERSIANS. 



of blues, and has possessed the finest speci- 
mens among American fanciers. 

The names of two good " all-round " judges 
appear on the blue Persian list, namely, 
Mr. C. A. House and Mr. T. B. Mason, and 
exhibitors of this special breed as, indeed, 
of any other may feel quite sure that their 
precious pets will receive justice at the hands 
of these two careful adjudicators. 

Mr. E. Welburn, also a blue Persian judge, 
was long known and respected in the fancy, 
and his death in 1902 
was a great loss to 
the cat world. Two 
silver bowls have been 
subscribed for by his 
many admirers in 
memory of this upright 
judge, and these are 
competed for annually 
at the two largest 
shows of the National 
Cat Club and the Cat 
Club. 

Miss Jay and Miss 
Frances Simpson have 
frequently given their 
services as judges at 
some of the shows 
which have received 
the patronage of the 
Blue Persian Cat 
Society. 

In conclusion, I would say that I am very 
hopeful of being able at some future time to 
hold a show for blue Persians, and by divid- 
ing and subdividing to give an attractive and 
liberal classification. 

I have pleasure in giving a short account, 
with illustrations, of some of the catteries 
belonging to blue breeders. 

Mrs. Wells, of Isleworth, was one of the 
first exhibitors of blue Persians, and has been 
faithful to this breed for many years. She has 
wonderfully well-planned catteries, and, having 
plenty of space at her command, the cats are 




" KOKELES KISSI." 

BRED BY MRS. BENNET. 

(Photo: H. Warsclikowski, St. Leonards-on-Sefi.) 



able to enjoy lots of liberty in large wired- 

in runs, planted with shrubs, and with an orange eyes, but no judge could pass over 



abundance of grass. Mrs. Wells' blues are 
noted for their wonderfully fine coats. Her 
stud cat " Blue Noble " has sired many noted 
winners, and " My Honey," a lovely queen, 
has the deepest orange eyes I have ever seen. 
Mrs. Wells takes the greatest interest in her 
cats, and each and all are pets ; in fact, so 
great is the care and devotion bestowed upon 
them that Mrs. Wells is very seldom persuaded 
into exhibiting any of her beautiful blues, and 
never lets- them attend any shows unless she 

herself is able to ac- 
company them. 

Mrs. Wells' cottage 
is situated in a most 
rural district of Isle- 
worth, and one might 
fancy oneself miles and 
miles away from the 
busy haunts of men. 
At the time the photos 
illustrating these cat- 
teries were taken Mrs. 
Wells had eighteen 
blue kittens, besides 
several grow n-u p 
representatives of her 
favourite breed. At 
one time Mrs. Wells 
was bitten with the 
silver fever, and began 
to breed this variety ; 
but the litters did 
not give satisfaction, and she determined to 
return to blues with what success can be 
learnt from a visit to the gardens at 
Isleworth. 

Miss Gertrude Jay started cats in 1891, 
and her name will always be connected with 
blues. Nothing has ever been exhibited to 
compare with her wonderful female " The 
Mighty Atom " as regards beauty and shape 
of head. This cat, now, alas ! no more, 
swept the board wherever it was shown. Twice 
she carried off the highest honours for best 
cat in the show at the Crystal Palace. It is 
true that this grand specimen lacked the 



132 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



such a perfect type of cat, despite her one 
fault, and thus " The Mighty Atom " reigned 
supreme. " Trixie " and " Doris," two of 
Miss Jay's noted blues, have also both won 
specials for the best cat in the show at the 
Crystal Palace. Miss Jay is fortunate in hav- 
ing some descendants of these precious cats 
in the luxurious catteries at Holmwood (of 
which an illustration is given). Many lovely 
blues may be seen revelling in the well- 
appointed houses set apart at the end of the 
long terrace for their special use. Miss Jay 
about a year ago retired from the cat fancy, 
and withdrew her name from the two clubs ; but 
she is still a vice-president of the Blue Persian 
Cat Society, and often acts as judge. Her 
name always draws a good entry, and, as 
a well-known fancier once remarked to me, 
" You can be sure of getting your money's 
worth when Miss Jay has the handling of the 
classes." The following few remarks from 



the cat that I would soonest have given to me 
that day, with the object of showing it again 
at once. The point to be decided is the best 
cat that day. It is no use beginning to think 
which cat will be the best in a month's time 
or which cat might have been best a month 
ago ; it is there that day which is best ? And, 
to my mind, if I award first to the cat I would 
rather have, with the one object of continu- 
ing to show it, that surely must be the best cat 
in my opinion, and to that cat the first card 
goes. And so on through the class, only giving 
one V.H.C., one H.C., and one C., unless the 
class is a very large one. I know some judges 
who say commended cards are very cheap, and 
they please the exhibitors. True ; but are you 
not pleasing them in a wrong way by making 
them think their cat is better than it is ? " 

Mrs. Herbert Ransome is well known in 
the feline world as a successful breeder of 
blue Persians, and as the hard-working secre- 




'' SCARED." 

Two BLUES BELONGING TO LADY MARCUS BERESFORD. 
{Photo : Cassell & Company, Limited.) 



Miss Jay on her method of judging will be 
read with interest : 

" I fear my way of judging is unlike most 
other people's, because I do not judge by 
points unless it comes to a close fight between 
two cats. Of course, I consider shape and 
colour first, and then I mark all those un- 
worthy to be in any prize list ; next get to 
work with the remainder, and this I do, as I 
say, unlike most other judges, for I pick out 



tary of the Northern Counties Cat Club, and 
more recently as the editor of Our Cats. 
Her two blue stud cats, " Darius " and " Darius 
III.," have earned a great reputation, not only 
in the show-pen, but as the sires of many lovely 
prize-winning kittens, notably " Orange Blos- 
som of Thorpe," owned by Mrs. Slingsby, of 
Ouseburn, Yorkshire. 

It is only of recent years that the name of 
Mrs. Paul Hardy has become known in the 



BLUE PERSIANS. 



133 



feline world as a breeder of blue Persians. Mrs. several Scottish shows. Later he came under 

Hardy was a member of the Cat Club Com- the notice of Mrs. Mackenzie Stewart, into 

mittee, but on her removal to some distance whose hands he passed, and received a good 

from London she resigned her post. To her deal of favour at the hands of the judges, 

the Cat Club is indebted for a very beautiful From Mrs. Stewart he passed into the possession 

design of a medal which, in silver and bronze, of the late Dr. Longwill, and was sire of the 




CAST OK THE CAT CLUB MEDAL. 
DESIGNED BY MRS. P. HARDY. 



is competed for at the Westminster and other 
shows (sec illustration). 

Her first adventure into the domain of 
cat-keeping was in the case of a very fine blue 
cat named "Juliet," whose first few litters 
were not a great success, so that sensible 
cat took matters into her own hands. She 
chose for her mate the raggedest black torn 
she could find, and though, of course, the 
results of this mesalliance were not at all satis- 
factory from the show judge's point of view, 
in later years, when suitably mated, " Juliet " 
did not once throw back to a wrong-coloured 
kitten. I am not sure that I can follow Mrs. 
Hardy to the logical conclusion of her deduc- 
tions from this fact, but I think it is worthy 
of notice by those extremists who hold the 
view that an incorrect mating in the first 
instance spoils a queen for the rest of her 
life. 

It was at the Crystal Palace show of 1897 
that Mrs. Hardy exhibited her first litter from 
her blue stud " Wooshoo," and she was then 
awarded a first, a special, and two or three 
silver medals. Another famous cat in Mrs. 
Hardy's establishment was a blue, named 
" Mark Antony," who met with success at 



famous Crystal Palace winning female blue, 
" Dolly Gray," in 1902. 

Mrs. Hardy's success has not been achieved 
without some set-backs, more particularly of 
recent years, since her cattery has been en- 
larged, and she has had to fight her way 
against disease and death. Her own account 
is so vivid that I quote it, so that fanciers 
in a like evil condition may fight for the lives 
of their pets to the last : 

" I was singularly free from illness of any 
kind amongst them, and I lived for some time 
happy in the belief that the Persian puss was 
in no wise different from her short-coated 
sister in the robust possession of nine lives ; so 
I added cat unto cat, and bred for show ; when 
swiftly Nemesis overtook me. I showed five 
full-grown cats at the first Westminster show, 
and twenty-four hours after the show was over 
my best blue queen, a young beauty whose 
proud owner I had been only for one brief 
month, died of acute pneumonia. A few days 
later influenza showed itself amongst the 
others, and all four were down with it. 

" What a time I had, with the experiences 
of a ward-nurse ! But I pulled them through, 
all but one young kitten of four months, in 



134 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 




MISS G. JAY'S CATTEKY. 
(Photo: W. Field, Putney.) 



whom acute laryngitis developed, and so she 
had to be put to sleep. 

" ' Wooshoo ' was given up by the vet., as he 
piled so many complications into his system 
one after the other, developing bronchitis, 
gastritis, and jaundice on the top of the 
original complaint. Poor fellow, for twenty- 
four hours he lay unconscious, but I kept his 
heart going by doses of pure alcohol every two 
hours, while I fought the disease with hot 
fomentations, medicated steamings, and other 
proper remedies. 

" For just one month I had to hand-feed him, 
and then one afternoon it occurred to him he 
might try his minced oyster by himself, greatly 
to my joy and triumph ; and when he feebly 
washed his face afterwards I felt like setting 
the church bells ringing ! 

" I am convinced, in serious cat illness, it is 
the night nursing that does the trick and deter- 
mines whether your patient is to live or die. 
It is somewhat of an effort, I admit, to have to 
arise two or three times in a night (nearly 
always in the bitter weather, when these 
epidemics occur), and, in my case, to be obliged 



to dre?s and go out of doors to the stable- 
yard, with a dimly burning lantern. 

" In every cat lover's career there must be 
some such saddening memories. Saddest when, 
after the efforts of the night, and you have left 
hopeful the morning will bring improvement, 
you return in the early dawn to note on enter- 
ing a sign that causes youi heart to beat 
heavily your patient's bed is empty ! 

" You know what that means, and look round. 
Yes, there in a corner, flat, stiff, and draggled, 
where he has crawled in the last uneasy seeking 
for air, is your poor pet, still for ever ! " 

Mrs. Hardy, in connection with illnesses, has 
some advice to offer as regards medicines which 
she has tested herself, and which I think will 
be of service to my readers : 

" While not intending to say anything 
authoritatively upon the subject of remedies 
for various cat ills, all of which will be most 
ably and exhaustively gone into by the writer 
of later chapters in this book, I might perhaps 
mention one or two things of which I have 
had personal experience, restoratives rather 
than drugs, which I now keep always at hand. 



BLUE PERSIANS. 



" One is a preparation of beef called ' Soma- 
tose.' It is sold in i oz. or 2 oz. tins, is in the 
form of a fine soluble powder, and has this 
advantage over certain beef essences that it 
will keep good any length of time, and has 
not to be used up directly the tin is opened ; 
while it is no more expensive, and a little will 
go a long way if used as directed. 

" I make it by putting some boiling water 
into a saucer, sprinkling about a teaspoonful 
on the water, and allowing it to dissolve 
slowly till cold, when it would look like weak 
tea. It is a most powerful restorative and 
stimulant, and given cold in teaspoonful doses 
can be retained in the worst case of stomach 
irritation. 

" A second good thing is Plasmon powder. 
I was recommended to try this by a cat lover, 
for a case of dyspeptic sickness of a chronic 
character. For delicate kittens it is most 
valuable, and I believe the very worst cases of 
diarrhoea or dysentery can be cured, and the 
patient saved to grow up strong and healthy, 
if a diet of Plasmon jelly, given cold, with 
alternate meals of Somatose, also given cold, be 



persevered with until the bowels are normal. 
Never give milk in any form, either plain, 
boiled, or in puddings, to a cat that is suffer- 
ing from looseness of the bowels. Another 
little hint I may be allowed, perhaps, to give : 
Don't wait for illness to come before you train 
your kittens to take medicine from a spoon. 

" I teach all my youngsters to drink easily 
from a spoon, beginning with something nice 
sweetened milk or the .like, going on to 
cold water and, when necessary, a drop or two 
of Salvo's Preventive in it. Then, when it 
becomes necessary for a real nasty dose, they 
are not in the least nervous of the spoon before- 
hand, and the dose is down and gone before 
they discover anything unusual. Never have 
I to wrap cloths round any of my cats, or get 
people to hold them by main force ; but some 
cats will nearly turn themselves inside out when 
a spoon is held to their mouths ! All the fault 
of early training. Badly brought up ! You 
must be very patient with a young kitten ; 
never do anything in a hurry. When once you 
have gained a cat's confidence it will let you 
do anything to it." 




REV. p. L. COSWAY'S " IMPERIAL BLUE. 



(Photo: G. &J. Hall, Wakeficld.) 




" UN SAUT PERILLEUX." 
(From a Painting by Madame Ronner.) 



137 



CHAPTER XII. 

SILVER OR CHINCHILLA PERSIANS. 




' JACK FROST." 

BREO nv MRS. Mix, OLO FORT 

BATTERY, NEW YORK. 
(Photo: A. Lloyd, Amsterdam, N.Y.) 



PERHAPS no 
breed or variety 
of cat has been 
so much thought 
about, talked about, 
and fought about in 
the fancy as the sil- 
ver or chinchilla 
Persian. If blues 
are a new variety, 
then silvers are of 
still more recent 
origin. Years ago 
this cat did not exist 
that is to say, we 
should not recognise the silver Persian of to- 
day as the silver of bygone times, for the 
simple reason that the only class of silver 
in the fancy formerly was the silver tabby. 
In those days there were self-coloured cats 
and tabby, or marked cats, and broken- 
coloured cats. Previous to the introduction 
of a Chinchilla class at the Crystal Palace in 
1894, the class for silver tabbies included blue 
tabbies " with or without white," and it is 
curious to read in the old catalogues of the 
Crystal Palace shows the titles given to the 
various cats by the owners, some describing 
their cats as "chinchilla tabby," "light grey 
tabby," "silver grey," "silver chinchilla," 
" blue or silver striped." We may infer that 
these cats were either blue tabbies or 
silver tabbies, or something betwixt and 
between. I distinctly remember the large 
number of cats which in these enlightened days 
we should find it difficult indeed to classify. 
It is often said, " What's in a name ? " But 
still, in trying to describe a particular breed 
of cat, it is as well to endeavour to find 
a term which expresses as nearly as pos- 
sible both the colour and the appearance of 



the animal. There has been a great deal of 
discussion as to the correct name by which 
these delicately tinted Persians should be 
called. 

The National Cat Club began by classify- 
ing them for the Crystal Palace show in 1894 
as Chinchillas, and they have kept to this, 
although it is really a most misleading title, 
as the cats are quite unlike the fur which 
we know as chinchilla, this being dark at the 
roots and lighter towards the tips. Now, cats 
of this variety ought to be just the reverse. 

It is difficult to give a correct idea of the 
real colour and appearance of these cats. The 
fur at the roots is a peculiar light silver, not 
white, as one might imagine, until some pure 
white is placed beside it, and this shades to 
a slightly darker tone a sort of bluish lavender 
to the tips of the coat. The Cat Club intro- 
duced the term " self silver," but this is 
suggestive of one colour only, without any 
shadings whatever. Another class, called 
" shaded silvers," was added ; but then, again, 
tabby markings are not shadings. Formerly, 
blues used to be called " self blues," but this 
is entirely done away with, and now we never 
think of using this term, and speaking of them 
as blues we understand there should be the 
one and only colour. 

Surely, then, the simplest term and the 
most descriptive of these beautiful cats is 
" silver," pure and simple, for whether dark 
or light they are all silvers, and so we should 
have blues and blue tabbies, orange and orange 
tabbies, silver and silver tabbies. 

Then comes the question of what is nearest 
perfection in this variety of cat, which has 
come upon us of late years, evolved from the 
silver tabby and the blue. The ideal silver, to 
use the words of a well-known breeder of these 
cats, should be the palest conceivable edition 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



of a smoke cat, with fur almost white at the 
roots and palish silver grey at the tips, and 
as free from markings as a smoke. I do not 
go the length of declaring that silvers cannot 
be too light, for I think that it is the delicate 
tips of silvery blue that lend such a charm 
and give such distinction to this variety. 
Without these delicate tippings a silver cat 
would look inartistic and insipid. There has 
been of late quite a rage amongst silver 
breeders to produce a totally unmarked 
specimen ; but fanciers would do better to 
endeavour to obtain a light shaded silver free 
from tabby markings with the broad head 
and massive limbs, which at present are 
qualities not often met with in this variety. 
I am quite aware this is a most difficult task, 
but we must remember that " all good things 
come hard," even in breeding cats, and if it 
were not so half the interest for fanciers 
would be gone. 

Having, therefore, considered what a per- 
fect silver cat ought to be, I will give a 
description of the type of cat generally bred 
and exhibited as a silver. I read the following 
account in one of our daily papers, evidently 
written by a non-admirer of these lovely 
cats : " The chinchillas are very fashionable, 
and very difficult to breed in perfection. 
They took their name from a supposed like- 





1 THE AHSKXT-MIXDKI) BEGGAR. 

OWNED BY MRS. NEILD. 
(I'lioto : E. Lamtor, Ealing.) 



" STAR DUVALS." 

SILVER PERSIAN OWNED AND BRED BY Miss MEESON. 
(Photo : F. Parsons, Southend-on-Sea.) 

ness the fur bears to that of the chinchilla. 
But the chinchilla cat, as at present in request, 
bears no resemblance to the little rodent. 
Most of the exhibits are of a dirty white, 
tinged with lavender, with a quantity of 
marks and stripes on the face, body, and 
paws." Now this is not a pleasing picture, 
and one that would be considered libellous 
by a silver breeder. It is, however, true that 
at present our silvers are too full of tabby 
markings, and in many cases the 
undercoat is not silvery white, but 
light grey or pale blue. There are 
many silver cats with dark spine 
lines and shaded sides, but they are 
heavily barred on the head and legs, 
and the tail is frequently almost 
black. It is a case of tabby blood 
which needs breeding out of the 
silvers, and which, no doubt, will be 
obliterated in time, so that two dis- 
tinct types of silvers will only exist 
the delicately tipped or shaded silvers, 
and the richly marked and barred 
silver tabbies. Just as in the case of 
the blue Persians it took a long 
while to eradicate the tabby markings 



SILVER OR CHINCHILLA PERSIANS. 



which showed the existence of tabby blood, 
so amongst silvers the bar and stripes need 
to be carefully bred out, and we shall hope, 
in the good time coming, to have not self 
silvers, but a very near approach to this 
namely, a perfectly unmarked but yet not 
wholly unshaded silver cat. 

There is a greater delicacy amongst silver 
cats, and more difficulty in rearing the kittens, 



ance, and noses are too long. However, great 
improvement is taking place, and with the 
numerous stud cats now at the disposal of 
fanciers, there ought to be no difficulty in 
making a suitable selection. 

The question as to the correct colour of eyes 
for a chinchilla or silver cat is still a vexed 
question. In self-coloured cats the broad line 
is clearly laid down blue eyes for whites, 




" OMAR." 

THE PROPERTY OF Miss A. POLLARD 
(Copyright 1901 G. Hitler, Elizabeth, N.Y.) 



than in any other breed, and this may be 
accounted for by the immense amount of in- 
breeding that was carried on indiscriminately 
at the beginning of the rage for silver cats ; 
y also the desire to obtain lightness of colour 
caused breeders to lose sight of the grave 
disadvantages of loss of bone and stamina. 
Therefore it is that among the silver cats 
exhibited at our shows we seldom find massive 
limbs or broad heads or full cheeks. There 
is a tendency to hare-like proportions, and 
the faces have a pinched and snipey appear- 



orange for blacks, and orange for blues ; but 
when we come to the more nondescript cats 
such as silver and smoke and tortoiseshell 
there seems to be a wider margin given, and 
the line drawn is not so hard-and-fast. Still, 
I think it is always well to have some high 
standard of perfection in each breed, so that 
fanciers may breed up to it, and to my mind 
the bright emerald green eye is the ideal for a 
silver cat. I have seen very fine amber eyes 
which could not fail to attract admiration ; but 
if these are admitted, then all sorts of eyes, 



140 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



not amber but wishy-washy yellow, will be the 
inevitable result. So many silver cats have 
eyes that may be described as neither one 
thing nor the other. Often one hears the re- 
mark, " Oh ! but if you see So-and-so's eyes 
in the right light they are a 
lovely green." But viewed by 
the ordinary eye of a critical 
judge, they appear an uncertain 



There is one rather peculiar feature in the 
eyes of some silver cats. This is the dark 
rim which often encircles the eye. This rim 
decidedly enhances the beauty of the eye, 
and makes it look larger than it really is, 




THREE PRETTY SILVERS. 
(Photo: C. Reid, Wishatv.) 

yellow. Therefore it is best to set up a 
standard, and I think it is becoming an almost 
undisputed fact that silver cats of perfect 
type should have green eyes, and by green 
let it be understood that the deeper the tone 
the better will they accord or contrast with 
the pale silvery coat. 

I would here impress upon fanciers the 
great importance of striving to obtain the 
large, round, full eye, which gives such ex- 
pression to a cat's face. How many of our 
silvers of to-day are spoiled by small, badly 
shaped or half-open eyes ! I do not think 
sufficient importance is attached by our 
judges to this point of size of eye. Many 
are carried away by the correctness of colour, 
and fail to deduct a sufficient number of 
points for a beady, badly shaped small eye. 

Colour is fleeting, and with age our cats 
may lose the brilliancy of green or orange, 
but bold large eyes, placed well apart and not 
too deeply sunk, will be lasting points in 
favour of our pets. 



and also throws up the colour. 
Light, almost white, ear-tufts and 
toe-tufts are adjuncts which go to 
make up a perfect silver cat. The 
nose is of a dull brick red, darkening slightly 
towards the edges. 

Few Persian cats suffer so severely during 
the process of shedding their coats as silvers, 
and they present a most ragged appearance 
at this period of their existence. The lovely 
fluffy light silver undercoat almost disappears, 
and the top markings stand out very dis- 
tinctly, so that a cat that in full feather 
would be considered a light, unmarked speci- 
. men will appear streaked and dark after the 
coat has been shed. As regards the silver 
kittens, it is a curious fact that these, when 
born, are often almost black or, at any rate, 
generally very dark in colour, resembling 
smokes. It is seldom that a silver kitten is 
light at birth, but gradually the markings and 
shadings will lessen, and perhaps just the one 
mite that was looked upon as a bad black will 
blossom forth into the palest silver. In this 
respect, silver kits are most speculative, but 
in another they are cruelly disappointing, for 
a kitten at three months old may be a verit- 



SILVER OR CHINCHILLA PERSIANS. 



141 



able thing of beauty, and ere it has reached 
the age of eight months, bars and stripes will 
have, so to speak, set in severely, and our 
unmarked specimen of a silver kit develops 
into a poorly marked tabby cat. I may say 
that if the kittens are going to be really pale 
silvers they will in the majority of cases have 
very pale faces and paws, with little or no 
marking, whilst the body will be fairly even 
dark grey perhaps almost black. In a week 
or two a change takes place, as the under- 
coat begins to grow, and it will be noticed 
that the kittens become more even in colour, 
the contrast between their light face and dark 
backs will not be nearly so accentuated, and 
by the time they are nine or ten weeks old 
they will look almost unmarked. The reason 
for this is that the dark fur they are born 
with is really only the extreme tips of the 
hair, and as their coats grow in length this 
shading becomes more dispersed. 

And here I will allude to the so-called three- 
fold classification which was part of the scheme 
of the Silver Society, founded by Mrs. Cham- 
pion in 1900. At the inaugural meeting Mrs. 
Stennard Robinson took the chair. Voting 
papers had previously been distributed 
amongst the members, asking for their votes 
on the question of establishing three classes 
for silvers namely, chinchillas, shaded 
silvers, and silver tabbies. The votes 
recorded were fifty-four in favour of 
the threefold classification, and nine 
against it. So this was carried by a 
large majority, and the question of 
points discussed and settled as follows : 

CHINCHILLAS. 

As pale and unmarked silver as possible. 
Any brown or cream tinge to be considered 
a great drawback. Eyes to be green or 
oi'ange. Value of points as follows : 

Head . . . . . . . . . . 20 

Shape . . . . . . . . ..15 

Colour of coat . . . . . . 25 

Coat and condition. . . . . . 20 

Colour, shape, and expression of eyes 10 
Brush. . . . . . . . 10 

Total . 100 



After much discussion, Lady Marcus Beres-. 
ford moved, and Mrs. Champion seconded, 
the following definition of Shaded Silvers : 

SHADED SILVERS. 

Colour : pale, clear silver, shaded on face, legs, and 
back, but having as few tabby markings as possible. 
Any brown or cream tinge a great drawback. Eyes 
green or orange. Value of points : 

Head 20 

Colour of coat . . . . . . . . 25 

Coat and condition . . . . . . 20 

Colour, shape, and expression of eyes 10 
Shape . . . . . . . . ..15 

Brush . . . . . . . . 10 

Total 100 

From this list it will be seen that for colour 
the highest points are given, and that eyes 
may be green or orange. But during the 
two years which have elapsed since the forma- 
tion of the Silver Society, there has been a 
decided desire on the part of breeders for 
green eyes only, and certainly our best qualified 
silver judges are not partial to any other 
coloured eyes in this variety. In an article 
on the colour of eyes in silvers, " Zaida " of 
Fur and Feather writes : " Eye colouring 
threatens to become a matter of fashion. 
Some eight years ago we received from a first- 
rate fancier and exhibitor a letter respecting 
a chinchilla cat, which later became a great 




" SHAH OF PERSIA. 
THE PROPERTY OF MRS. ANNINGSON. 



142 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



prize-winner. ' It is useless,' wrote this lady, 
' to think of exhibiting her on account of her 
green eyes.' What a change of opinion has 
marked the flight of eight years ! " 

It will be observed that, as regards the 
description of chinchillas and shaded silvers, 
there is a distinction and yet no very great 
difference, and herein lay the difficulty of 
retaining these two classes at our shows. The 
lightest silvers were deemed eligible for the 
chinchilla class, and then came the question 
for exhibitor and judge to draw the line be- 
tween the two so-called varieties, and to decide 
what degree of paleness constituted a chin- 
chilla and what amount of dark markings 
would relegate the specimen into the shaded 
silver class. The cat world became agitated, 
exhibitors were puzzled, and judges exasper- 
ated. There were letters to the cat papers 
on the " silver muddle." Show secretaries 
were worried with inquiries. I recollect a 
would-be exhibitor writing to me sending 
a piece of her silver cat's fur, and asking 
whether her puss should be in the chinchilla 
or shaded silver class ; but even with her 



knows a black or white or brown tabby, but 
how can we exhibitors discern between the 
number of shadings on our silver cats as to 
which class they belong ? Do kindly air my 
grievance, and oblige." 

It was quite pathetic to see the faces of dis- 
appointed exhibitors at the Westminster show 
of 1901, when several beautiful creatures who 
had travelled many a weary mile to be penned 
and admired were rewarded with a " Wrong 
Class " ticket only. They were either too 
light or too dark for the class in which their 
owners had entered them, and all hope of 
honour and glory and golden coins and silver 
cups vanished into thin air ! At one show I 
recollect a cat was accounted by the judge a 
chinchilla and a shaded silver, and he came 
off very well with special prizes for both 
varieties. No doubt he really was either one 
or the other, or both ! 

It was no wonder, therefore, that a reaction 
set in, and exhibitors and judges felt alike that 
something must be done, and that, at any rate 




" FULMEK ZAIDA." 

SILVER, OWNED BY LADY DECIES. 

(Photo : E. Landor, Baling.) 



lengthy description and the sample before me, 
I dared not venture an opinion, and I used 
generally to reply to such letters by saying 
I did not know in which class to enter my 
own silver cat, and so I was going to keep 
him at home. 

One correspondent, appealing through the 
columns of the papers, wrote : " Everyone 



for a time, it would be better to have only the 
two classes for silvers and silver tabbies, and 
that specials might be given to encourage the 
lightest cats. The abolition of the threefold 
classification was therefore taken into consider- 
ation when the Silver Society was broken up 
by the departure of Mrs. Champion to America, 
and the Silver and Smoke Persian Cat Society 



SILVER OK CHINCHILLA PERSIANS. 



came into existence, with Mr. H. V. James tinted silvers is the palest. We shall gradually 



as Hon. Secretary. 



but surely breed out the tabby markings if 



The following are the objects of the fanciers will, so to speak, nail the right colour 



Society : 

The title of this Society, which (under the name of 
The Silver Society) was founded in July, 1900, is 
" THE SILVER AND SMOKE PERSIAN CAT SOCIETY." 

The objects of the Society 
are : 

i. To improve the breeds of 
long-haired silver (or chin- 
chilla), shaded silver, sil- 
ver tabby, and smoke 
coloured cats and kittens, 
male, female, and neuter. 

2. To guarantee extra classes 
for these breeds at shows 
supported by 
the Society, 
when neces- 
sary. 

3. To offer prizes 
for the said 
breeds at shows 
supported by 
the Society. 

4. To hold shows 
independently, 
or in conjunc- 
tion with other 
Societies or 
Clubs when it 
shall be deemed expedient by the members. 

5. To elect specialist judges to make the awards 
at shows supported by the Society. 

6. To establish and maintain a standard of 
points for the above-mentioned breeds. 




TROUBADOR. 
SILVER, BRED BY MRS. E. N. BARKER. 



to the mast and keep on striving to breed 

U P to ^ e P el "f ect type. 

To quote Mr. C. A. House : " What is 
wanted is for breeders to work on standard 
lines, and not push forward 
with such persistency their 
own pet particular whims. 
All that is required is for 
breeders to be determined 
to breed honestly and con- 
sistently for what the stand- 
ard advocates, and leave 
severely alone all ex- 
cesses and exaggerations. 
Let us have chinchillas 
free from markings by all 
means, but let us keep 
our shadings, our silver 
colour, remembering that 
pure silver is of a bluish 
tinge, and is not the 
whitey-brown article some 
would have us accept as 
the ideal in chinchilla 
cats." The same author- 
ity, writing on the threefold classification, 
says : " I have always maintained that the 
threefold classification in silvers was a mis- 
take, and the majority of breeders, I am 



pleased to know, are coming round to that 

It was in March, 1902, that voting papers view. My opinion, when first enunciated, was 

on this burning question were sent out to not popular. With some it is not to-day, 

members of the new society, with the follow- But many who at one time could not see the 

ing result : For the threefold classification, 20 ; force of my arguments now do so, and there 

against, 32. Therefore, by the wish of the is a more general feeling that the craze for self 

majority, it was decided to give up the three- silvers is not conducive to the welfare of the 

fold classification for the present. silvers as a breed." 

The Silver and Smoke Persian Cat Society Amongst the well-known breeders, fanciers, 
is now in a most flourishing condition, with and exhibitors of silvers in the present day, 
about 150 members. It is the fervent hope I may mention Lady Marcus Beresford, who 
and earnest endeavour of each and all of the owns some beautiful specimens of the cele- 
fanciers of silvers in the society to breed a brated " Lord Southampton " strain. A hand- 
perfectly unmarked specimen, and with perse- somer type of silver female cannot be met 
verance we may in time puzzle the judge to with than " Dimity," bred by Miss Cochran, 
decide which cat in a large class of lightly and presented by her to Lady Marcus Beres- 



144 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



ford. Lady Decies is the proud possessor of 
the incomparable " Zaida," whose record of 
wins is a marvellous one. As all the cat 
world knows, " Zaida " is accounted the light- 
est and most unmarked specimen in the fancy. 
Mrs. W. R. Hawkins has bred some wonder- 
fully good silvers, and was the owner of 
" Sweet Lavender," which has been acknow- 
ledged as one of the best of this breed that 
ever existed. The following are the principal 
silver breeders : The Hon. Mrs. McLaren 
Morrison, Mrs. G. H. Walker, Mrs. Neild, 
Mrs. Russell Biggs, Mrs. Wcllbye, Mrs. Martin, 
Mrs. T. Drake, Mrs. Cubitt, Mrs. Marriott, 
Mrs. Balding, Mrs. Poole, Mrs. Ormerod, Mrs. 
Fawsett, Miss White Atkins, Miss Snell, Miss 
Horsman, Miss Dell, Miss Meeson, The Hon. 
Philip Wodehouse, Miss Chamberlayne. 

During the last few years a very large 
number of silver cats have been placed at 
stud, but we may regard three cats as the 
founders of the breed or as the pillars of 
the silver strain namely, " Silver Lambkin." 
" Lord Southampton," and " Lord Argent." 
To these worthy ancestors a very large pro- 
portion of the silvers of to-day can trace their 
lineage. But this noble trio is naturally being 
superseded by such stud cats as " Silver 
Starlight," "Tintagel," " Cambyses," "The 
Absent-minded Beggar," " Pathan of Dingley," 
"Jupiter Duvals," "St. Anthony," "Rob 
Roy of Arrandale," " The Silver Sultan." and 
many others. There is, therefore, now no 
excuse for in-breeding, which used to be 
carried on to a great extent when so limited 
a number of sires were forthcoming. To in- 
discriminate and injudicious in-breeding may be 
largely attributed the great delicacy amongst 
silver cats. There is no doubt that the 
number of fatalities among silver kittens is 
far in excess of that of any other breed. Then, 
again, the size of silver cats compares unfavour- 
ably with others, and they are wanting in 
muscle and bone. We do not want huge, 
coarse, heavy silvers, but breeders and judges 
sometimes show an utter disregard for size 
and strength, and the consequence is we see 



a number of ladylike looking studs that fail 
miserably in these very essential points. 

Breeders should aim at the happy medium 
between the liliputian and the leviathan, but 
not be content unless their silver studs turn 
the scales at 10 Ib. As regards the mating 
of silvers, a broad line to lay down is to avoid 
tabby markings. It is for this reason that 
smokes have been wisely selected by most 
breeders as the best cross for a silver. It is 
more than probable that in many cases some 
nondescript sort of kittens will be the result. 
These sort of light smokes are exceedingly 
pretty cats and make fascinating pets, but 
they are useless for breeding purposes or 
exhibiting. I have known of some handsome 
specimens that have wandered from class to 
class, only to be disqualified in each and 
either, and it was a case of, " When judges 
disagree, who shall decide ? " 

Several experiments have been tried of 
crossing a white Persian with a silver in order 
to get pale coloured kittens, but this appears 
seldom to succeed unless the whites have 
silver blood in them. Some breeders have 
tried blues with silvers, but there is the danger 
of introducing the grey blue undercoat which 
gives such a smudgy appearance to a silver 
and is suggestive of a badly coloured smoke. 
It does not at all follow that the mating of 
two light silvers will produce light coloured 
and unmarked kittens, yet this cross and the 
smoke are the safest. It must be a work of 
time, as we have before said, to breed out the 
tabby markings of many generations. 

The name of Mrs. Balding is as well known 
to breeders of silvers of the past as it is at 
the present day. In the past, however, it was 
as Miss Dorothy Gresham this enthusiastic 
fancier won her laurels. I well remember the 
sensation caused by the appearance in the 
show pen of the " Silver Lambkins " at the 
Crystal Palace in 1888. To breeders, ex- 
hibitors, and cat fanciers generally the follow- 
ing account of chinchillas from the earliest 
days, specially written for this book by Mrs. 
Balding, should be exceedingly interesting : 



SILVER OR CHINCHILLA PERSIANS. 



" There is probably no variety of long- 
haired cat which has caused so much dis- 
cussion, notwithstanding that, with the ex- 
ception of the light-coloured reds, which have 
been designated ' creams,' the chinchilla is 
the cat which has most recently gained dis- 
tinction as a separate variety. The notoriety 
which the. chinchilla enjoys has been in great 
part brought about by the delicacy of its 
appearance and the difficulty that has been 



tabbies. They must, however, not be alto* 
gether despised, as they have been the stepping- 
stones which have led to the creation of the 
chinchilla. 

" It is something like twenty years ago that, 
amongst the competitors in the classes for 
long-haired tabbies at the Crystal Palace and 
other important shows, was occasionally to be 
seen an alien with the ground colour of the 
silver tabby, but with very few stripes on 




TWO VIEWS. 

(Photo: E. Landor, Baling.) 



experienced in the production of a perfect 
specimen. Many cats are called chinchillas 
and are exhibited as such, often winning 
prizes, but very few indeed are of the pale 
silver tint, with bright emerald eyes, and with 
no bars or stripes on the legs or head. 

" The chief subjects that have been under 
discussion in connection with the chinchilla 
cat have been the colour of eyes and the shade 
of the coat ; but, with regard to the former, I 
think it must be acknowledged that green is 
a more suitable accompaniment to silver than 
yellow or orange, and, as regards the latter, 
that silver, with dainty sheen evenly distri- 
buted, is more to be desired than a patchy 
grey, dull in hue and unattractive to the 
eye. As a matter of fact, these shaded grey 
specimens are in reality only ill-marked silver 
10 



the body. These cats were evidently sports 
from the silver tabby, so much so that the 
class for that section was the only one open 
to them ; and, although they invariably 
showed great quality, breeders were loth to 
exhibit them in the medley of different 
coloured tabbies, where one of their chief 
beauties the absence of stripes became a 
disadvantage. Their only chance of dis- 
tinction lay in putting in an appearance at 
provincial shows, where the authorities were 
sometimes to be induced to attach two cat 
classes to the rabbit division one for long- 
haired of any colour, and the other for short- 
haired. In this indiscriminate assemblage, 
no colour having been stated, chinchillas when 
present wrought great havoc, although it 
cannot be denied that the judges of the day 



146 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



gave precedence to a well - marked silver 
tabby. 

" Amongst these outcasts was a cat of 
striking beauty, whose like has not been seen 
again. This was ' Sylvie,' of unknown pedi- 
gree, owned by the late Mrs. Christopher, at 
whose death she became the property of the 
late Miss Saunders, of Peterborough. A 
beautiful portrait of this exquisite chinchilla 
is given in Mr. Harrison Weir's book ' Our 
Cats.' When judging at the Crystal Palace in 
1886, this connoisseur and judge of world- 
wide repute awarded her first prize, medal, 
and special for the best long-haired cat, 
getting over the difficulty of her silvery, 
unmarked coat by calling her a very light 
blue tabby, though the puzzle was to find the 
tabby. 

" Another chinchilla of the early 'eighties 
was Miss Florence Moore's ' Queenie,' who 
would, had chinchilla classes been provided at 
that time, have been loaded with champion- 
ships and honours. In colour she was as 
light as any of our present-day celebrities, and 
might easily, from her freedom from markings, 
have earned the dubious compliment of the 




MRS. BALDING S " SILVER LAMBKIN. 
(Photo : E. Landor, Ealing.) 



uninitiated so highly prized by owners of 
chinchillas of being mistaken for a grubby 
white. Miss Florence Moore, who later on 
had one of the best and largest catteries in 
the country, bred ' Queenie ' from her ' Judy,' 
winner of many first prizes, a heavily marked 
silver tabby of Mrs. Brydges' noted breed, 
and ' Fez,' a light silver cat with indefinite 
stripes. 

" Mrs. Brydges can claim the distinction 
of having owned, something like half a cen- 
tury ago, some' of the first long-haired cats 
ever imported into England. A coincidence 
worthy of note is that though there is no 
record of her having bred or possessed a 
chinchilla, two never-to-be-forgotten pairs of 
chinchilla kittens Miss Florence Moore's 
' Chloe ' and ' Dinah,' winners of first and 
medal on three successive occasions at the 
Crystal Palace, Brighton, and Bexley, 1887 
(they being the only chinchillas at any of 
these shows), and Miss Gresham's ' Silver 
Lambkins,' who swept the board in 1888, 
winning the specials at the Crystal Palace from 
forty-six pairs of other competitors of all 
colours could in each case trace descent to 
the Cheltenham stock ' Chloe ' and ' Dinah,' 
through the afore-mentioned ' Judy ' and the 
' Silver Lambkins,' through their sire ' Rah- 
man,' also bred by Mrs. Brydges. 

" Still more remarkable, these two couples 
of youthful prodigies were first cousins, on 
the other side of their pedigrees, the noted 
"Fluffy II.' and 'Beauty' being bred by 
Mrs. Vallance. 

" ' Chinnie,' the Mother of chinchillas, is 
familiar in name to every breeder of this 
lovely variety, and the following letter, of 
the early 'eighties, relating to her birth and 
buying, will perhaps prove interesting to the 
up-to-date silver fancier. It is copied from 
the original in the possession of Mrs. Val- 
lance. One guinea appears to have been a 
price to talk of in those days. Now, one 
would be tempted to hide the fact of such a 
small amount, and if a specimen were offered 
to us at this low figure we should certainly 
desire it to be sent on approval. 



SILVER OR CHINCHILLA PERSIANS. 



147 



- THE VICARAGE, SANDAL MAYNER, 
NEAR WAKEFIELD, 

October 141/1, 1882. 
' To Mrs. VALLAXCE. 

' MADAM, The kitten I have to sell is quite 
pure bred. The mother I bought for \ is. when 
quite a kitten from prize parents. The father is 
one we bred partly from Mrs. Radford's breed and 
partly from a splendid torn cat that was found 
living wild at Babbicombe, and that we had in our 
possession for some months, but unfortunately he 
is lost again now I am afraid permanently. I 
think this kitten promises to be very like the mother. 
She is very handsome and has good points brush, 
ear tips, and so on but I consider her rather small. 
But the kitten may be finer, as the father is a large 
cat. Miss Grant's are related to ours on the father's 
side, but Mrs. Radford's very distantly, if at all. 

' I do not think these Angora kittens are delicate. 
We have never failed in rearing them. The more 
new milk they have, and the better feeding, the finer 
cats they are likely to make. We do not have much 
trouble in keeping ours at home, as we live some dis- 
tance from the village. We always give ours their 
principal meal at 6 p.m., and keep them shut up in 
a hay-loft until next morning. If you have a box 
wherever the kitten lives, with sifted sand or cinders 
in it, kept in a corner, you will find that the best 
way to ensure habits of cleanliness. If I hear nothing 
from you to the contrary I will send the kitten on 
Wednesday morning, igth, by the early train from 
Derby station ; and if you are not satisfied with 
the kitten I am willing for it to be returned within 
a day or two, if the return journey is paid and I am 
let know beforehand when to expect it. 

' I remain, yours truly, 

' GRACE HURT.' 

A letter redolent of lavender and old-world 
deliberation, but words of wisdom for all that. 
The reported delicacy of long-haired cats would 
trouble us less if we had more of the new milk 
and hay-loft system. Raw meat, raw eggs, 
new milk, fresh air, grass, and water are the 
sole ingredients required to rear the most 
valuable kitten. 

' Chinnie's ' size is another interesting 
point. She grew to medium weight, but was 
remarkable for symmetry of form rather than 
bulk. 

" Some of the loveliest chinchillas are small, 
but 'Nizam,' 'Tod Sloan,' 'Ameer,' 'Silver 
Lambkin,' ' Laddie,' ' Lord Argent,' ' Silver 
Mist,' ' Cherub,' and ' St. Anthony ' stand out 




MRS. BALDING S "FLUFFIE TOD. 

as being as large, or larger, than any cats of 
other colours, and the majority of them have 
also the purity of colour, broad heads, and 
short legs so often lacking in large cats. The 
legginess and want of quality which frequently 
accompanies size doubtless cause our leading 
judges to deem it of little account. 

" The name chosen by Mrs. Vallance for 
her new acquisition proves that even in those 
early days the term chinchilla was in vogue. 
' Chinnie's ' wins were third Maidstone, 
Sittingbourne, V.H.C. Oxford, Maidstone. 
Her charming little mate ' Fluffy I.,' a very 
pure silver with undecided tabby markings, 
also showed the quality of coat and cherub 
face for which their descendants have been 
unsurpassed. He was bred in 1883 by Miss 
Acland from imported cats, and won first and 
medal at Maidstone, Cheltenham, and Ealing, 
second Ryde, V.H.C. Crystal Palace, Oxford,, 
and Lincoln. His career ended in 1886, when 
he disappeared. Tradition whispers he was 
destroyed in the village. 

" In April, 1885, ' Chinnie ' produced a 
litter by ' Fluffy I.,' two members of which 
' Vezzoso ' and ' Beauty ' have earned un- 
dying fame in the annals of chinchilla history. 
' Vezzoso,' a marvel of lavender loveliness, in 



148 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 




" SEA FOAM." 
THE PROPERTY OF MR. LAUGHTON. 

his one brief year of existence won first in the 
open class and silver medal for best in show 
Albert Palace, 1885, first Louth, Maidstone, 
second Frome, third Lincoln. 

"In fatal 1886 ' Vezzoso,' who belied his 
exquisite appearance by being very un- 
domesticated, like his maternal grandfather 
the wild cat of Babbicombe, roamed to 
return no more. ' Lost in the woods ' is his 
epitaph. 

" An even more tragic fate befel ' Fluffy II.,' 
the 1886 son of ' Fluffy I.' and ' Chinnie,' who 
after winning first Crystal Palace, first and 
silver medal for best in show Brighton, second 
Albert Palace and Ealing, and siring the two 
before-mentioned kittens of the year, died in 
1887 from the effects of an accident in which 
he was internally injured. Thus within little 
more than a year Mrs. Vallance lost three of 
the most promising young cats anyone could 
possess. At the time their owner scarcely 
realised their value, and allowed them absolute 
freedom, with such sad results. 

" But undoubtedly the best result of the 
' Fluffy ' and ' Chinnie ' alliance was ' Beauty,' 
from whom, as already stated, came the 
' Silver Lambkins.' As a kitten she became 



the property of Miss Howe, of Bridgyate, 
near Bath, and later, by a breeding arrange- 
ment with the Miss Greshams (now Mrs. 
Bridgwater and Mrs. Balding), had three 
remarkable litters of chinchilla kittens, the 
first by ' Rahman,' who shortly afterwards 
strayed from home and was lost. This was 
the litter which produced four queens, in- 
cluding the two ' Silver Lambkins,' and 
which (with the exception of one renamed 
' Mimi,' who went to America with her owner) 
all unfortunately died. 

" The second of Bridgyate ' Beauty's ' 
litters was by Mrs. Shearman's 'Champion 
Perso,' a magnificent light smoke with re- 
markable coat and wonderful mane, winner of 
a large number of first and special prizes. In 
this lot was a torn kitten destined to be a pillar 
of the chinchilla stud book, the ' Silver 
Lambkin,' named after his deceased half- 
sisters. The chief beauties of this remarkable 
cat are his size and muscular frame, the length 
and thickness of coat, and the enormous frill 
inherited from 'Champion Perso,' which spreads 
Elizabethan like round his shoulders and falls 
to his feet in front, a cascade of silvery white 
fluff several inches long. To ' Perso ' may 
be traced in some degree ' Silver Lambkin's ' 
success as the sire of unmarked cats, and to 
' Beauty ' their pale colour, green eyes, and 
perfect shape, which have won for her de- 
scendants by ' Lambkin ' upwards of 150 
first prizes. 

" At the time ' Silver Lambkin ' was bred 
there was no chinchilla stud cat, and no one 
had thought of trying to breed chinchillas, 
for whom, as before stated, there was no 
encouragement at shows or at home. 

" The third litter which brought further 
fame to ' Beauty ' was by ' Bonny Boy,' who 
in the early 'nineties was placed second in the 
class for silver tabbies at the Crystal Palace, 
but was considered by admirers of chinchillas 
to be the best cat in the whole show an 
honour, however, which came to him a month 
later when at Brighton he was awarded the 
special for the most perfect specimen of the 
Persian breed in the exhibition ; he had 



SILVER OR CHINCHILLA PERSIAA T S. 



149 



previously been claimed at Sydenham, by the 
Hon. Mrs. McLaren Morrison, at his catalogue 
price of 6 6s., and was afterwards renamed 
' Nizam.' 

" The only information that could be ob- 
tained about this beautiful cat was that he 
was exhibited by Mrs. Davies and that he 
came from Wales. Report suggested that he 
was imported, but there is no evidence of any 
chinchilla cat having been sent from abroad. 



the first prize to a heavily marked silver tabby, 
thus totally ignoring the desired object. 
This occurred at the Crystal Palace in 1893 
or 1894. The two first classes ever given for 
chinchillas were this one and that given at 
Cruft's first cat show at Westminster, held 
in March, 1894. 

" The next that was heard of ' Twin ' was 
that she had suc- 
cumbed from the 




MRS. WELLBYE'S " SILVER LOTUS." 

{Photo : E. Lamlor, Eating.) 



" ' Beauty's ' litter by ' Nizam ' consisted 
of one male and four females, two of which, 
as ' Twin and I 'so named because they 
were so exactly alike won first prizes and 
medals wherever shown. Another was sold by 
me to Mrs. Martin, which, as ' Lambkin Queen,' 
was the foundation of the afterwards noted 
cattery at High Wycombe. 'Twin' eventually 
went to Mr. Lawton, who renamed her ' Queen 
of the Mist.' Mated with 'Silver Lambkin' 
she produced ' Sea Foam,' the first chinchilla 
to win a prize in a class solely confined to cats 
of the colour. There was an amusing coin- 
cidence about this win, inasmuch as after 
considerable trouble had been taken to get a 
separate class for chinchillas, the judge gave 
10* 



effects of swallowing a needle. ' I,' registered as 
' I, Beauty's Daughter,' remained the whole of 
her lifetime at The Lodge, Penge, where, when 
paired with the pale blue ' Champion Bundle,' 
' Southampton Duchess ' was the result, the 
latter the mother of the ' Silver Lambkin's ' 
most sensational son ' Champion Lord South- 
ampton,' who was sold by Mrs. Greenwood 
for 60, when he became the property of 
Lady Decies, this being probably the highest 
price that has ever been given in England for 
a cat of any variety. 'Champion Lord South- 
ampton,' who has been a very great winner, is 
remarkable for the lightness of colour and slight 
markings of his kittens, this being undoubtedly 
due to the strain of blue in his blood. Many 



150 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 




MRS. WELLBYE S 

(Photo : E. L 



beautiful cats own him as sire, notably Miss 
Leake's ' Seraph,' Mrs. Bluhm's ' Silver Sultan,' 
Mrs. Neild's ' Absent-minded Beggar,' Miss 
White Atkins' ' Tintagel,' Mrs. Tyrwhitt 
Drake's ' Musa,' Mrs. Rickett's ' Empress 
Josephine,' Mrs. Earwaker's ' Buxton Cloud.' 
Mrs. Geo. Walk- 
er's 'Woodheys 
Fitzroy,' Mrs. 
Barnes' ' Nour- 
mahal,' winner 
of the Chinchilla 
Club challenge 
for the best kit- 
ten, 1899, and a 
daughter of 
' Champion Ful- 
mer Zaida,' 
shown by Lady 
Decies at the 
Crystal Palace 
in 1901, also 
' Green - eyed 
Monster.' 

" Whilst speaking of ' Tintagel ' it may be 
remembered that he sired a charming, litter 
exhibited by Mrs. Poole, which were first at the 
National Cat Club show at the Crystal Palace, 
and one of which won as a single kitten at 
the Botanic Gardens in 1902. 

" Other famous progeny of ' Silver Lambkin ' 
are ' Silver Mist,' ' Watership Caesar ' (who won 
the gold medal at Boston, U.S.A., for the best 
cat in the show, 1902), ' Silver Tod Sloan,' 
'Silver Owl,' Mrs. Bluhm's 'Silver Lily,' 
' Silver Squire,' and ' Mowgli,' the last named 
bred by Mrs. Dunderdale, but later the property 
of Mrs. Smyth, of Forest Hill, one of the 
most enthusiastic admirers of chinchillas, who 
has in her possession the stuffed figure of 
' Beauty.' 

" A chinchilla that gained a considerable 
notoriety was ' Sweet Lavender,' the property 
of Mr. Hawkins. This was a beautiful speci- 
men, very light in colour. The latter was 
also a distinctive feature of the Hon. Mrs. 
McLaren Morrison's ' Ameer,' a son of ' Lamb- 
kin Queen,' who stands prominently forward 



SILVER " DOSSIE. 
andor, Ealing.) 



as one of the most perfect of his kind. Mrs. 
Martin's ' St. Anthony,' whose name appears 
in the pedigrees of several winners, is a brother 
of ' Ameer.' 

" As the sire of Lady Decies' ' Champion 
Fulmer Zaida,' the most lovely chinchilla 

* female that 
has ever been 
seen, 'Silver 
Laddie,' who is 
now unfortun- 
ately gone to his 
happy hunting- 
grounds, can 
claim to have 
been one of the 
most noted of 
sires, more par- 
ticularly as he 
was also the 
father of many 
others of great 
value, promi- 
nent amongst 
which were Miss Horsman's 'Aramis,' Miss 
Snell's ' Starlight,' ' Silver Cherub,' ' Lady of 
Quality ' (one of the most perfect chinchillas 
ever bred), 'Charterhouse Pixie' (the dam of 
'Tod Sloan'), and numberless others. 

" Not only as a chinchilla, but when com- 
peting with all breeds of cats, both long and 
short haired, ' Champion Fulmer Zaida ' has 
proved her excellence, and has on more than 
one occasion secured the cup at the Crystal 
Palace for the best cat in the whole show. 
She was bred by Mrs. Bluhm, one of the pioneers 
of chinchillas, and, it is stated, has now won 
136 first and special prizes, and that Lord 
Decies has refused 90 for her. 

" ' Zaida ' has also produced some first-class 
kittens, amongst which was Miss Stisted's 
' Pearl,' the owner of the latter pretty queen 
being a most devoted admirer of the chin- 
chilla and sparing no expense to further its 
interests. 

" Mrs. Bluhm's strain of chinchillas are all 
very light in colour, and show great quality, 
which may also be said of those of Mrs. Wellbye, 



OR CHINCHILLA PERSIANS. 



whose ' Silver Lotus ' and ' Veronica,' daughters 
of ' Silver Squire ' and ' Dossie,' did so much 
winning in their day. 

" Miss Meeson has also shown considerable 
enthusiasm in her endeavour to reach the 
ideal, her best efforts having resulted in 
' Jupiter Duvals,' of wide fame. 

" Two clubs have been formed in connection 
with the chinchilla cat one, the Silver Society, 
embraced other coloured cats besides the 
chinchilla, this eventually becoming the Silver 
and Smoke Persian Cat Society. It was owing 
to this club encouraging shaded, or marked, 
silver cats and orange eyes that the Chinchilla 
Club was formed by Mrs. Balding. This 
Club has the honour of having as patron 
H.S.H. Princess Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein, 
who owns and exhibits some beautiful chin- 
chillas, and Lord Decies as vice-president. 

" The Chinchilla Club gives its support and 
specials, besides guaranteeing classes at any 
show whose management apply The con- 
ditions on which the specials are presented 
is that the cats to which they are awarded 
must be the property of members of the club, 
prize-winners in their respective classes, and 
registered cats. 

" The club prizes usually consist of half a 
guinea in each class, and the more coveted 
Special of the club's badge for the best chin- 
chilla of either sex. Badges were selected in 
place of the ubiquitous medal, because most 
of the dainty professional beauties very soon 
obtain a considerable number of the latter, 
and smart little badges were more appre- 
ciated. 

" The club's present challenge trophy for 
chinchilla kittens is a solid silver model of 
' Silver Lambkin,' offered by the hon. secretary 
for competition amongst its members ; it is 
also open to members of the National Cat Club, 
in acknowledgment of the compliment paid 
by the latter to the original in choosing his 
statuette to surmount their challenge cup. 
The little history of the origin of this special 
has never appeared in print before, and as 
I was not present at the committee meeting 
referred to, ' I tell the tale as 'twas told to me.' 



When the challenge cups of the National Cat 
Club were designed in 1897, it was decided that 
the beauty and interest attached to them 
should be enhanced by immortalising on each 
the most representative cat of the long-haired 
and short-haired varieties. For the latter the 
great ' Xenophon ' was chosen without hesi- 
tation. Then came the more difficult task 
of deciding upon a recipient for the distinction 
from the long-haired ranks, which claim so 
much oi-the beauty and wealth of winnings 
of the cat world as to render the singling out 
of one a matter of consideration. To hasten 
the termination of the discussion Mrs. Stennard 
Robinson sent for a collection of cat photo- 
graphs which had been left to her by the late 
Miss Portman, the well-known ' Kara Avis ' of 
the Lady's Pictorial. Amongst these the hon. 
secretary of the N.C.C. pointed out one with 
no name attached as the most beautiful 
photograph of the lot. This was recognised 
by most of the committee as being ' Silver 
Lambkin,' so the honour fell to him. 

"By some error at the makers' the long- 
haired cat was placed on both challenge cups, 
and it was determined by the club that the 
superfluous model which had to be removed 
and replaced by ' Xenophon ' should be 

mounted as a 
letter-weight 
and given as a 
challenge prize 
for kittens, 
to be won 
three times 
before be- 




.\IRS. WKI.LUYK'S SILVER " VERONICA.' 

(Photo : E. Landor, Eating.) 



152 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



coming the property of the winner. After 
some keen competition, covering about half a 
dozen shows, Mrs. Martin won it outright in 
1899, when it was replaced by the present 
exactly similar model. 

" The endeavour of the Chinchilla Cat Club, 
of which all the leading breeders and most 
successful exhibitors are members, is to 
continue the work that has been done to 
improve chinchillas, and to produce a new 
variety the colour of the palest shade of the 
fur (dyed) known as ' blue fox,' or a very light 
shade of pigeon blue. Without doubt such a 
result can be obtained by careful selection and 
' the little more.' Darwin's words on the 
subject of selection are attractive to all 
owners of live stock. He says : ' Improvement 
is by no means due to crossing different breeds. 
All the best breeders are strongly opposed 
to this practice, except sometimes amongst 
closely allied sub-breeds. And when a cross 
has been made, the closest selection is far 
more indispensable even than in ordinary 
cases. If selection consisted merely in 
separating some very distinct variety and 
breeding from it, the principle would be so 
obvious as to be hardly worth notice ; but 
the importance consists ' in the great effect 
produced by the accumulation in one direction 
during successive generations .of differences 
absolutely unappreciable by an uneducated 
eye. Not one man in a thousand has the 
accuracy of eye and judgment sufficient to 
become an eminent breeder. . . . Few would 
readily believe in the natural capacity and 
years of practice requisite to become even a 
skilful pigeon fancier.' 

" The Chinchilla Cat Club is also prepared 
to encourage cats of new colours, which should 
now be not so very difficult to produce, con- 
sidering the points that have been brought out 
in those varieties that were well known, the 
latter showing that it is possible to breed to a 
standard if judgment is used in the endeavour 
to do so. Some of us remember the time 
when a blue cat, either long- pr short-haired 
(now the largest classes), was a rara avis when 
Mrs. Lee's ' Meo ' was the only Siamese at 



the Crystal Palace show, smokes an equal 
oddity, blue eyes in a white cat a comparatively 
unnoticed point, and cream - coloured cats 
entirely unknown. 

" The colour of the chinchilla has been bred 
in various ways. In bygone days, when 
chinchilla cats were flukes or freaks and few 
and far between, methods which would now 
be considered somewhat eccentric were re- 
sorted to by the first breeders of the colour. 
The useful tortoiseshell, from which black, 
red, cream, or tabby cats can be got, was 
pressed into the service, and, paired with a silver 
or light blue tabby not too clearly marked, 
would occasionally, amid the multi-coloured 
kittens for which tortoiseshells are proverbial, 
throw a medium chinchilla or light silver tabby, 
which with careful selection might, a generation 
or two later, develop into something approach- 
ing a good chinchi la. 

" But it is, perhaps, more difficult to foretell 
with cats than any other animal what the 
result of pairing will be with anything like 
certainty. This particularly applies to the 
ordinary English cat, as it is impossible to guess 
at the mixture of different-coloured creatures 
which have preceded it, and any of which 
may influence the progeny of its descendants. 
A fancier who would produce any particular 
specimen must, amongst other gifts, be 
equipped with the patience of biblical cele- 
brities and prepared to wait seven years, as 
one enthusiast actually did before arriving at 
the fulfilment of his desires in the shape of a 
well-marked tabby kitten. 

" With pedigree cats, of course, the chances, 
of unexpected traits reappearing in their pro- 
geny are considerably lessened, and, given 
desirable connections on both sides of some 
years' standing, the personal attributes of a 
coming litter may be predicted more or less 
successfully. One of the loveliest of smokes 
the correct black, with white undercoat, with- 
out the shadow of a stripe was from a brown 
tabby queen, from brown tabby parents, and 
a chinchilla bred from a chinchilla dam and 
smoke sire. Again, a brown tabby with 
white paws, whose appearance did not suggest 




SOUTHERN CATTERY, SHOWING ENTRANCE TO INFIRMARY AND INDOOR CATTERY. 




MKS. WALKER VISITING HER PETS. 
TWO VIKWS OF WOODHEYS CATTKKY. 



154 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



the bluest of blood, mated with the same 
chinchilla sire, produced in a litter three chin- 
chillas and two faintly marked silver tabbies, 
which would nowadays have been styled 
' shaded silvers ' by followers of the dubious 
hue. Needless to say, these instances are not 
given to encourage the idea of breeding chin- 
chillas from brown tabbies, but as illustrations 




11 SILVER BLOSSOM. 
OWNED BY MRS. WALKER. 
(Photo : Finiilow & Co., High Wycombe.) 



that just as the results of pairing a cat with 
one of nondescript pedigree cannot be guessed, 
so in an animal carefully bred for generations 
so indelibly have the characteristics of the 
breed or variety been stamped upon it 
by past ancestors that it is practically im- 
possible for them to become obliterated or 
submerged. 

" Thus the type once fixed survives, though 
it be by the aid of the most incongruous con- 
nection, such as a brown tabby. Had the 
latter been the patrician bred from progenitors 
of her colours, and the chinchilla been the one 
of doubtful lineage, the result must, of course, 
have been reversed, and the kittens, in all 
probability, would have followed the brown 
tabby strain. If neither parent cat when 
of distinct varieties can boast a particularly 



dominant strain, the offspring naturally par- 
takes of the peculiarities of both. 

" Colour, in chinchillas, is the most import- 
ant point. It should be of palest silver, lav- 
ender tint, and lighter in fact, practically 
white at the roots. There should be no dark 
blotches or stripes or brown tint on the back 
or about the nose. A rusty hue is, however, 
sometimes caused by the action of the sun 
or wind. As regards bars or stripes on head, 
these should be as few and light in colour as 
possible, with a view to breeding them out 
altogether in the future. 

" The coat should be long and thick, of fine, 
soft texture, much thicker and longer round 
the neck, forming a decided frill and mane, 
the latter reaching well down the fore legs. 
It should also be longer on the hinder 
part of the thighs, forming culotte, and very 
bushy on the tail, which should be short and 
wide. The legs should be slightly feathered, 
with tufts of hair between the toes. There 
should also be tufts in the ears, which should 
be very small and set low. 

" The head should be wide at the forehead 
and short in the muzzle, well filled up below 
the eyes, giving it a round appearance. The 
eyes large and luminous, in colour emerald 
green with black lids. Green and yellow 
mixture is permissible, but not so picturesque 
as the green ; yellow in the eyes is not desirable. 
In shape the chinchilla should have a level 
back, and be only slightly long in the couplings. 
The legs should be short, with round paws, 
the latter well padded. When in full coat the 
hair should nearly reach the ground and the frill 
envelop the back of the head, making a very 
fascinating whole." 

The following is the standard of points as 
drawn up by the Chinchilla Cat Club. It is 
also used in America as a basis for criticism : 

i . Colour of Coat. Palest silver, laven- 
der tint preferred, nearly white 
at roots. No dark stripes, blotches, 
or brown tint. Darker tips to the 
long hairs give the coat an appear- 
ance of being lightly peppered 
with a darker shade. The whole 



SILVER OR CHINCHILLA PERSIANS. 



155 



appearance of the cat to be very 
pale 30 

2. Coat. Long and thick . . . . 20 

3. Texture of Coat. Fine and soft . . 10 

4. Tufts of hair inside and round the ears 

and between the toes . . . . 10 

5. Head. Broad and round; forehead 

wide, ears small and set low, nose 
short . . . . . . 25 

6. Shape. Back level, not too short ; 

legs short, paws round ; brush 
short, wide, and carried low . . 20 

7. Eyes. Large, luminous, and green 

in colour (if green mixed with 
yellow, 5 points only allowed) . . 10 

4 

To breeders of silver Persian cats an article 
by Mrs. Neild will be valuable and instructive. 
Mrs. Neild has made, so to speak, a speciality 
of silvers, and owns two noted silver studs 
the " Absent-minded Beggar " and " Lord 
Hampton." There are always some good sil- 
ver queens, and very frequently some choice 
kits, disporting themselves in the well-arranged 
catteries at Hart Hill, Bowdon, where Mrs. 
Neild has a kennel of Borzois and a cattery 
of silvers. 

This is what Mrs. Neild says regard- 
ing the breeding and rearing of silver 
Persian cats : 

" Perhaps of the many varieties of 
Persian cats and, indeed, they are 
a goodly number as they now 
appear on our show cata- 
logues and schedules the sil- 
vers may claim their owners to 
be the most sporting of cat 
breeders. Certainly, to breed 
successfully it is essential that 
one should possess the not too 
common virtues of unlimited 
patience and perseverance. 
Also experience is necessary. 

"A common occurrence among even old 
hands is to assign a kitten one of a new 
litter under inspection, as being of ' little 
good except as a pet ' ' to be sold at a small 
sum to a good home,' and a few weeks later 
discover this same kitten to be the pick of the 
litter. In short, the old, old story of the 
ugly duckling incessantly repeats itself in our 



catteries, certainly in those devoted to silver 
cats. Therefore I suspect fanciers who have 
succeeded (all honour to the few !) and those 
who mean to succeed in breeding silver Persian 
cats of possessing a larger stock of patience 
and of having acquired a larger experience 
than their brothers and sisters whose love 
has turned towards the blue, black, or white 
pussies. 

" With these last three one may be tolerably 
sure always taking for granted some know- 
ledge of fairly pure coat colour, and at a 
very early age the best kittens of the litter 
may be picked out those having greatest 
breadth of skull, smallest ears, etc. But the 
silver litters are a veritable surprise packet, 
and remain so for an irritatingly long period. 
Personally, I have found that those kittens 
which, when born, have very pale almost 
white unbarred faces and fore legs are ulti- 




" SILVER BLOSSOM'S " TWO BUDS. 

(Photo: Mr;. G. H. Walker.) 

mately those which grow palest. I take no 
notice of the colour of the coat on the back, 
sides, hind legs, or tail, even if striped, as 
frequently happens, for all these markings 
generally vanish if as I before said the face 
and fore legs are unbarred. I must, however, 
own to one kitten who was born jet black. 
She was by Mrs. Champion's ' Lord Argent ' 



156 



Tllf: BOOK OF THE CAT. 



and a shaded silver queen of my own breeding, ah ! happy accompaniment greater cousti- 

When a montli old I dubbed her a very bad tutional vigour. 

smoke ; at three months she was coatless a " We are, I believe, too apt, if owning a 
most indecent little person, having shed her pale queen, to mate IKT with the palest known 
coat more completely than I had ever seen stud, disregarding other very important con- 
in cat or kitten. When, after a provokingly siderations in the all-absorbing wish to breed 
long period, she again consented to appear the wonderful ' dirty white ' king or queen of 
clothed, her dress was of palest silver, un- silvers. Sometimes this atom (verily so) of 
adorned by any markings except a very faint perfection does make its appearance, and is 



smudge on her forehead and which, alas, 
spoilt her for show a darker tinge on her 
broken tail. How 
is it that to our best 
some accident al- 
ways happens ? So, 
as I could not ex- 
hibit her, I sold her 
to a delightful home 
in the North of Eng- 
land, and her en- 
t liusiastic owner 
wrote to me a few 
'weeks since that 
her big babies by 
'Lord Hampton' 
were as pale as the 
mother, who herself 
grew steadily of a "wii.n TOM." 

SII.VKK, HRKU r.v MRS. G. 11. WAI .M ;;. 
(I'ltoto: Mrs. G. 11. Walker.) 




enthusiastically greeted. But what of the 
mite itself? A tiny, sickly scrap of a kitten, 

constantly ailing. 

refusing to grow or 
to Weigh, exeept at 
a rate of less than 
halt the average 
blue kitten of its 
own age. But ex- 
traordinary care 
Lvps the mite alive 
until one day some 
chance draught or a 
maid's carelessness 
ends our careful 
nursing, and tin- 
poor owner of that 
' lovely dirty white 
kit ' at last realises 
that this other 
good-bye means it 



fainter silver. 

" Unfortunately, 

silvers more than any other breed of cats lack may be wiser to mate that same pale queen 

bone, caused, of course, by the unavoidable to the strongest, hardiest, biggest-boned stud 

in-breeding practised when this variety of cat possible to be found among our silver studs, 

was first introduced and so enthusiastically even if he is rather barred. 
welcomed, and when but one or two fanciers " Now mark. From the result of this 

owned a cat of such shade. Another article mating, keep the best of the female kittens 



on this subject, by a lady who may really and marry her if possible, not betore 
claim to have established this breed, will is eighteen (at any rate, fifteen) months 
explain to the reader more than it is in my old to a stud unrelated, sturdy, of un- 



power or province to declare. 



doubtedly splendid health, for preference 



To go back to the subject of our small paler than herself, and boasting grand head 

silvers, in-bred to delicacy. We should now and the essential tiny ears and short 

remember how many good sires, absolutely nose. Then you may dream your dreams 

unrelated and within easy reach, are placed with a chance of their resulting in a golden 

at our disposal. Therefore, surely there reality. 

can be no possible excuse if in a compara- " If breeders would but spend rather more 

tively short time we do not manage to own thought when they select husbands for their 

silvers big in bone and limb, and owning pussies, they would be indeed repaid. I am 



SILVER OR CHINCHILLA PERSIANS. 



157 



not speaking, of course, to the fortunate few 
who have won their laurels, and of whom I 
would I might learn ; although I rather 
suspect their secret of success is but the 
result of continual study, coupled with ex- 
treme care. Would not an enormous increase 
of size and weight soon become evident in 
the occupants of our catteries if, when a 
queen was about to be mated, her owner 
would first carefully study the list of points 
provided by the Silver and Smoke Persian 
Cat Society (previously quoted in this work), 
jotting down those good qualities to which 
she believes her queen may lay claim, and 
then selecting that sire possessing the points 
most wanting in her own cat of course, never 
forgetting relationship ? The old rule about 
in-breeding is ' once in, twice oat,' as all old 
fanciers know ; but where silver Persian cats 
are in question, I would most strongly urge 
that this adage be disregarded, and, as a rule, 
avoid in-breeding entirely until a stronger race 
of silver cats is established, cats with frames 
equal to those big blue beauties we see at 
our shows. I think that in a comparatively 
short time of course, always avoiding tabby 
blood, breeding chiefly for bone our silver 
cats may be very different to those of to- 
day, those who own too fairylike limbs to be 
beautiful. 

" A word about our famous sires and, by the 
way, we may congratulate ourselves on having 
within reach so many beauties. Often I have 
letters asking for advice as to which stud 
such and such a queen shall visit ; and, in 
addition to the above suggestions, I would 
remind the owner that length of journey 
should be taken into consideration, and the 
fact that if the chosen sire is extremely popular 
it may be that a better result may be gained 
if the queen is sent to one not so much in 
request, especially if the owner of the stud 
cat has not been warned before of the visit of 
your pussie. However, most owners of stud 
cats are extremely careful in limiting the 
number of visitors, and few object to keeping 
Sir Thomas free for a week beforehand if 
given due notice. 



" Do let me urge all whom it may concern 
to keep Madame in close confinement for 
several days after her return home. Indeed, 
in the interest of the owner of both stud and 
queen this is of vast importance, and many a 
disappointment is due to this seemingly small 
neglect. Puss does not always return as one 
would wish, however great the care given her 
whilst away on her holiday, and may take 
her matrimonial affairs into her own paws 
with results^ most unsatisfactory to everyone 
but herself. When the kits arrive, do not if 
you have reason to expect valuable kittens as 
a result of the mating leave more than two 
or three with the mother (I am, of course, 
speaking of silver kittens) for reasons I 
shall directly state. By far the best plan is 
to procure (some time before the birth of 
both litters) a good big English cat as foster 
mother, one known to have brought up a 
previous litter not an old cat. The usual 
method of substituting her foster for her 
own babies is to take away the mother cat 
for a few minutes of course, out of sight 
and, removing one of her own kittens, rub 
the little silver baby with the hay of the nest 
and against the other kittens so that the 
strange smell sense of all others so wonder- 
fully developed in animals may not raise 
suspicion in the foster mother. Then the 
next day remove one or two more. 

" May I, at this point, plead that the little 
kittens taken from their mother for your 
benefit should not be drowned ? If they 
must be sent along the silent road to 
the Quiet City, let it be done mercifully 
and by chloroform. Such wee things may 
rest easily in a big biscuit box, the lids 
of which usually close tightly, and about 
I oz. of chloroform poured on a piece of 
flannel or sponge laid on a small saucer 
by their side will send them painlessly to 
sleep. 

" The reason I strongly advise that the 
English foster should nurse the best of the 
litter is but an echo of the old cry, ' Want of 
bone.' Fed by the sturdy British puss, the 
delicate tiny balls of silver fluff will gain 



158 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 




''FUR AND F E A T H E R." 

(Photo : Mrs. S. F. Clarke ) 



greater strength, and be mothered for a 
longer period than would be possible with 
their real parent. 

" It is necessary to remember that, al- 
though the foster mother needs extra food 
when nursing just as in the case of the 
silver mother more caution must be exer- 
cised when beginning the more liberal diet, 
for very probably, if this is forgotten, a 
liver attack which will also affect the 
precious kits will be the result of her un- 
usually liberal fare. Remember, also, to 
inquire of the owner of your foster as to how 
she has been fed. With this knowledge, com- 
mon sense and careful watching of cat and 
kittens will quickly show if it would be better 
to increase or diminish her meals either in 
quantity or quality. It is of enormous value 
to bespeak the foster mother, if possible, 
four or five weeks before the birth of the 
kittens, for then it will not hurt to give her 
what is almost certain to be necessary i.e. 
a worm powder. 

" I always allow my mother pussies as 



much milk as they like (although, as a rule, 
my cats drink water), but it should be boiled, 
and one tablespoonful of lime-water added 
to each half-pint. When I once urged this 
care of the foster mother to a friend who 
owned two kittens she was extremely anxious 
to rear, I was laughed to scorn, and assured 
that such fussiness about a strong English cat 
was more than foolish. Yet I would remind 
breeders who are inclined to agree with the 
above opinion that on the perfect health of 
your head nurse rests the future of your 
much-prized litter. On her depends their 
growth, their first chance of throwing off 
their natural delicacy. Mr. House, in one of 
his articles lately published in Fur and Feather, 
advises that kittens should be kept with and 
fed by their mothers as long as sixteen weeks. 
In my humble opinion this is too great a 
strain on any Persian cat, but there may 
be great wisdom in keeping the kits with the 
mother or foster for as long as it is possible 
without overtaxing the cat. The same 
authority speaks of a relay of foster mothers. 



SILVER OR CHINCHILLA PERSIANS. 



159 



I confess this puzzles me, for I should imagine 
that the food supplied by the second mother 
would be too weak in quality (as Nature 
provides it shall be of different quality to suit 
the age of all and every kind of baby) for 
the big kits after that of the first foster, and 
I should have also imagined the second foster 
would refuse to nurse kits so much bigger 
than those she had just left. 

" When my kits are four weeks old I give 
them raw lean beef scraped, not chopped 
beginning with half a teaspoon ful daily, then 
the same quantity twice daily, then three times 
a day; and at the same time teach them to 
lap, using a plate, which, being shallower than 
a saucer, causes less choking and fear to the 
little things." 

Mrs. G. H. Walker, of Woodheys Park, is 
the chief supporter of the Northern Counties 
Cat Club, and is a member of the National 
Cat Club Committee. For several years she 
has been a well-known breeder and exhibitor 
of silver Persians, and has a most excellently 
planned cattery, which I had the pleasure of 
seeing when on a visit to Woodheys Grange. 
Mrs. Walker kindly had some views taken, 
specially for reproduction in these pages. I 
consider the arrangements for the pussies' 
comfort and well-being as 
complete as it is possible to 
make them. The floors of the 
outside catteries, which face 
south, are cemented, so that 
they can be washed over 
every day. The roofs are 
boarded, and then covered 
with galvanised iron, so that 
all the rain runs away easily. 
The spacious apartments are 
fitted with benches and 
ledges, and trunks of trees 
and leafy shrubs are planted 
in the ground for the cats' 
special amusement and ex- 
ercise. The kennels which, 
for the purpose of photo- 
graphing them have been 
placed outside are the cosy 



sleeping dens of the pussies. There is a. 
maid in attendance on these fortunate cats, 
and the man who looks after the kennels, 
of dogs also gives a helping hand. 

In one of the pictures will be seen a stair- 
case, and this leads to three charmingly 
arranged rooms. All the appliances and 
utensils connected with the animals are kept 
in one of these apartments. Another is set 
apart for mothers and their families, and a 
third is kepjt in case of illness for an isolation 
ward. In one of the loose boxes near at 
hand the cooking for the pussies is carried 
on, and there is a larder specially for the 
cats' food. Mrs. Walker devotes much of 
her time to looking after her pets, and great 
has been her sorrow over the untimely death 
of some of her treasured pussies. After 
one of the large shows, infection crept into 
her cattery, and worked most cruel havoc. 
Such losses as Mrs. Walker sustained were 
enough to damp the ardour of the most 
enthusiastic cat lover and fancier ; but the 
lady of Woodheys Grange bravely faced 
the situation, and after a period of sad 
reflection she once again resumed her hobby 
with renewed interest. At the Northern 
Counties Cat Show at Manchester in 1902 




"THE SILVER LAMBKINS." 

By " RAHMAN " ex " BEAUTY." 



i6o 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



Mrs. Walker exhibited a really wonderful 
silver kitten. I say wonderful, for this 
youngster, bred from the owner's " Wood- 
heys Fitzroy " and " Countess," was the most 
unshaded and unmarked specimen of a silver 
I have ever seen. This unique specimen will 
be watched with interest by silver fanciers. 
May his shadings ever grow less ! 

The average number of inmates of this 
cattery is about thirty, but at one period 
of Mrs. G. H. Walker's catty career the silver 
fever ran high, and there were sixty-three 
cats and kits within the precincts of the 
spacious and luxurious catteries of Woodhey? 
Grange. 

Mrs. Martin, of High Wycombe, who has 
often acted as judge, has been a most successful 
breeder of silvers, and the progeny by " St. 
Anthony," her noted sire, have distinguished 
themselves by winning over one hundred prizes. 
" St. Anthony " has retired into private life, 
but he will always be remembered if only by 
his two children " Silver Dove " and " Fascin- 
ation." Mrs. Martin says, " I am all in favour 
of the male being older than the queen in 
breeding silvers ; also select a good-coated stud 
cat, short in the legs. Eyes are a worry just 
now. Of course, I like green best, but if a 
cat is good in all points but colour of eye, this 
should not upset an award. I find that if a 
kitten is born almost self silver, it will develop 
into an indifferent silver tabby later ; but if 
the body is dark, and head and legs light and 
clear, you may hope for a very unmarked 
specimen in due time." 

Mrs. Wellbye's silver cats " Dossie," " Silver 
Lotus," and " Veronica " were at one time 
well-known winners, and for length of coat and 
beauty of eye have seldom been surpassed. 
Mrs. Wellbye is a most astute judge of silvers, 
and her remarks on this her favourite breed 
will be read with interest : 

" This handsome variety of the Persian 
ranks high in the estimation of cat lovers ; 
indeed, its ardent admirers consider it the 
creme dc la creme of the cat world. And why 
not 1 Surely there is nothing to compare 
with a lovely young chinchilla Persian in full 



coat. Its very daintiness and seeming pride 
in itself is quite charming. One is reminded 
of a pretty child dressed out in its party frock, 
for puss appears to know it is well dressed 
and desirous to show her charms to the 
best advantage. She dances, pirouettes, and 
throws herself into the most graceful and 
entrancing attitudes, until we feel in sympathy 
with the Egyptians of old and are willing to 
fall down and worship our adorable pets. We 
all love beauty, but to those who love cats 
there is something beyond even beauty, for 
only they who keep and care and treat them 
well know the comfort these little creatures are, 
and the happiness they can bestow by their 
sweet caressing ways, perhaps more especially 
to those whose hearts are starved of human 
love, but still to all whose sympathies are 
wide of the varieties of silver cats. I will first 
treat of the chinchilla. 

" The Crystal Palace show of 1895 or 1896 
was the first I remember with a class for 
chinchillas ; previous to that, I believe, they 
were not recognised as such, but were shown 
with the silver tabbies. Strictly speaking, the 
name chinchilla is a misnomer as applied to 
these cats. The soft grey coat of the little 
animal called the chinchilla, whose lovely 
fur is so much prized as an article of ladies' 
dress, differs diametrically from the cat so 
called. 

" The fur of the chinchilla is dark at the 
roots, and shades quite pale grey at the tips. 
The cat's fur, on the contrary, is absolutely 
pale grey, almost white at the roots, but 
tipped with black at the outer edges. 

" The points as laid down by the Silver 
Society are as follow : ' Chinchillas should be 
as pale and unmarked silver as it is possible 
to breed them.' 

" The aim of the breeder of this variety, 
therefore, is to obtain a cat with none of the 
markings of the original stock (the silver tabby), 
the dark tippings to be slight and faint. 

" Breeders have found this ideal most dim- 
cult to obtain ; although some kittens are born 
pale all over, with no markings; in a few weeks 
or maybe months the hope of the family 




ul 
CU t 



g 



ffl 
ffl 



O 

Pi 

a 






SILVER OR CHINCHILLA PERSIANS. 



161 



is no more, for the lighter the kitten the more 
delicate. ' Whom the gods love, die young.' 
Or, again, if the cherished one lives over its 
baby troubles, and starts on the change from 
its first, or kitten coat, to the second coat, too 
often do the markings appear, the shadings 
get darker, or fine black hairs are seen amongst 
the pale grey. Some of the best chinchilla 
kittens have been born quite dark, and with 



full coat (the fur being from three to seven 
inches long on the tail sometimes as much 
as nine inches) the tiny neckings are lost in 
wavy, tossing, billowy coat. But let the 
coat become damp, however slightly, it will 
be seen that the dark edges are clearly in 
evidence. 

" As, however, breeders could not always 
produce the pale shade of silver, the litters, 




" JUI'ITER DUVALS." 

OWNED AND BRED BY Miss S. MEESON. 

(Photo : F. Parsons, Smithend-on-Sea.) 



tiny stripes all over. At a month or six weeks 
these marks have disappeared, and later the 
coat has become an even silver. 

' The breeder must not even then build 
high hopes. Again change may occur. There 
is no cat which varies so much ; it is quite 
chameleon-like in this respect. 

" A few years ago the Cat Club adopted 
the name of ' self silver ' as applied to the 
chinchilla another misnomer, as a self silver 
should have no tippings or shadings, and the 
silver cat has not been bred that had fur 
the same shade throughout from roots to tips. 

'The slight dark edging to the fur con- 
stitutes to most people the charm in these 
silvers. Sometimes it is almost imperceptible 
to the casual observer ; or when the cat is in 
11 



even with the most careful mating, being 
generally assorted in good, bad, and in- 
different so far as colour was concerned, 
many fine cats dark silvers had no place 
assigned to them. 

" It was then suggested that a class should 
be given at the shows to be called ' shaded 
silver,' the points according to the Silver 
Society being as follows : 

" ' Shaded silvers should be defined as pale, 
clear silver, shaded on face, legs, and back, 
but having as few tabby markings as possible/ 

" The dark or shaded silvers, it was under- 
stood, should have pale, clear undercoats ; 
but instead of the fleckings of the self silver 
(so called), the dark edges ran a considerable 
way into the fur. The shaded silver is a 



152 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 




THH ELDER MISS BLOSSOM. 
SILVER, OWNED BY Miss HORSMAN. 

handsome cat, but too often much marked on 
the face and barred on the legs, a defect most 
difficult to overcome. Many cat fanciers 
describe the shaded silver as a ' spoilt tabby.' 
" The third in the group of silvers is the 
silver tabby. The points are here stated : 

" ' The colour of a silver tabby should be 
a pale, clear silver, with distinct black mark- 
ings.' 

" This variety ought in equity to have been 
mentioned first, as it is the original stock, but 
it has been overshadowed by the superior 
attractions of the chinchilla. (Silver tabby 
enthusiasts will perhaps pardon this eulogy of 
my favourite breed.) There is not the slight- 
est doubt this handsome cat, the silver tabby, 
has suffered materially from the craze for the 
newer variety, and consequently the type has 
not been kept pure. They have been mated 
over and over again with cats of less markings 
in the hope of breeding chinchillas, until at 
the present day there are very few silver 
tabbies true to type. 

" The position of the silver tabby in the 
feline scale is very peculiar. As a Persian it 
is, of course, necessary that its coat should be 
long and fine, whilst as a tabby it is desirable 



that the markings should show up to advan- 
tage. How to reconcile the two is the puzzle, 
for the longer the coat the less the markings 
are evident, as the stripes are merged in the 
flowing coat, so that we sometimes see at the 
cat shows exhibits woefully out of coat placed 
in the first rank, as the markings are much 
more distinct. It follows, then, in this variety 
of the silver, a long coat is distinctly a dis- 
advantage when competing at shows. 

" Having now obtained three types for 
silvers, and the Cat Club willing to give 
classes for them at the great shows held in 
St. Stephen's Hall, Westminster, the outcome 
was looked forward to with much interest. 
But it was one thing to get four types, and 
quite another matter to get silver breeders 
to understand the fine distinction ; conse- 
quently, the cats were entered in self silver, 
shaded silver, and silver tabby classes in- 
discriminately. The result was, of course, 
muddle and confusion, many exhibitors having 
the mortification of finding ' Wrong Class ' 
on the cat pens. 

" At a recent show held at Westminster 
under the auspices of the Cat Club, the judge 
was asked by the Honorary Secretary to go 
round the classes first, and if any exhibit was 
wrongly placed to re-classify before judging. 
This worked satisfactorily so far as disqualifi- 
cation was concerned. 

" At this show, however, the judge was con- 
fronted with another difficulty, it being found 
that most of the cats in the classes for shaded 
silver had deviated materially from the stand- 
ard of points laid down by the Silver Society. 
Instead of the clear, pale undercoat, the fur 
was a dark grey right down to the skin. The 
majority of these cats were quite dark, and, 
rightly speaking, were not silvers that is, if 
one bears in mind the metal so named. It is 
difficult to say in what class they could be 
placed, unless a new class was created, to be 
called ' clouded or oxydised silver.' If we go 
on to these subdivisions we shall not know 
where to stop. Self silver or chinchilla, 
shaded silver, clouded silver, and silver tabby 
a truly appalling problem for the bewildered 



SILVER OR CHINCHILLA PERSIANS. 



163 



judge to decide, for the majority of exhibitors 
would not appreciate the variations. 

" It may come to this eventually, but at 
the present time the threefold classification 
leads to much confusion, for as nearly or 
very nearly all silver cats are more or less 
tabby marked, so will exhibitors be in doubt 
as to the class to which their cats rightly 
belong. 

" It is a question if the introduction of the 
shaded class at shows has not done more harm 
than good, for as previously we saw very few 
of the dark silvers it not being worth breeding 
the variety when there was no class in which 
to show them so now the tendency of ex- 
hibits, as anyone who attends shows can see, 
is to run to darkness rather than light ; and 
breeding for colour, purity of colour, and ab- 
sence of markings has received a set-back, for 
with some judges colour is nothing, and prizes 
will be showered upon a ' spoilt tabby ' if it 
happens to have, perhaps, a broader head or a 
bulkier body good points, as everyone will 
allow, but points which the common or garden 
cat may possess ; and we do not pit our dainty 
chinchillas against all and sundry. 

" Without wishing in any way to detract 
from the good qualities which the more plebeian 
branches of the cat tribe undoubtedly possess, 
it is impossible not to award the palm for 
grace and beauty to the highly bred aristo- 
cratic chinchilla. Coal and iron are useful, 
but we give our admiration to diamonds and 
pearls." 

Before closing the chapter on silvers, I will 
allude to the Cat Club show held at St. 
Stephen's Hall, Westminster Aquarium, in 
January, 1903. On this occasion there was 
quite a record entry in the male silver class, 
which contained twenty-one cats. The list 
was headed by Mr. J. F. Dewar's handsome 
"Father O'Flynn II." Many well-known 
prize winners had to be content with a V.H c. 
card in this class of quantity and quality. 
The females numbered eighteen, and here again 
a noted winner was awarded the highest 
honours. Miss Chamberlayne's "Cap and 
Bells " is very pale and pure in colour, and 



carries a soft, silky coat. In the silver kitten 
class the sexes were not divided, and Miss 
Ford's lovely kittens scored first and third. 
A sweeter face and rounder head than that 
possessed by " Silver Button," the first prize 
winner, would be difficult to find, and Miss 
Ford may be congratulated on having bred 
such a gem. Mr. T. B. Mason judged the silver 
classes at this show, and he doubtless experi- 
enced some difficulty in testing the colour of 
the exhibits in the bad light of St. Stephen's 
Hall, more especially as on the opening day of 
the show a dense fog hung over the city. 
Another difficulty which must present itself 
to our most capable judges is the awarding of 
specials offered for silvers and shaded silvers. 
Perhaps the easiest way out of this difficulty 
is to give the shaded silver prizes to the darkest 
cats ; but all are shaded, even the palest, and 
therefore some judges might justify them- 
selves if they awarded both sets of specials 
to the one cat. At this show Lady Marcus 
Beresford offered three special prizes in each 
silver cat class for the palest specimens, one 
of these in the male class being won by her own 
handsome "Beetle," a son of the famous 
; 'Lord Southampton." The classification for 
silvers at the specialist societies' show at Bath, 




"DOLLY DAYDREAM." 
(Photo: E. Landor, Baling.) 



164 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



which followed close after the Westminster 
show, was the largest that has ever been given, 
consisting of classes for novices and breeders, 
in addition to the ordinary division and sub- 
division for cats and kittens. The sensible plan 
of a ring class for neuters only was adopted. 



Members of the specialist society for the 
encouragement of silvers must on this occasion 
have felt proud of the liberal classification and 
of the long list of handsome special prizes 
offered for their favourite breed of long- 
haired cats. 




I WANT TO GO HOME. 
(Photo: E. Landor, Baling.) 



165 




"THE MARQUIS OF DINGLEY. 

SILVER TABBY, OWNED BY Miss ANDERSON LEAKE. 

(Photo : Cassell & Company, Limited.) 



CHAPTER XIII. 



SILVER TABBY PERSIANS. 



^ I A HERE can be no question that a really 
_L good silver tabby will carry off the 

palm even from the most exquisite 
unmarked silver cat, and in this assertion I 
feel I have the support of all our professional 
judges, for with the " mere man," it is well 
known, the pale silvers do not stand high 
in favour. Men call them " wishy-washy," 
insipid, and wanting in expression, and are 
generally displeased at this sport in the fancy 
that has spoiled the handsome silver tabbies 
of years gone by. 

No doubt there is just cause for complaint, 
for the inter-breeding of silvers with silver 
tabbies has undoubtedly done much to destroy 
the clear defined markings which in tabby 
cats is their chief glory. Now, of course, it 
is easily understood that these tabby markings 
in a long-haired cat cannot be so distinct as 
those that appear to such advantage in the 
short-haired breeds. " The better the coat 
the weaker the markings," may be said of 
Persian silver tabbies, and judges have been 

11* 



known to give the highest award to an out- 
of-coat specimen just because the markings are 
more evident than in a cat in full pelage. 
Harrison Weir states that " Tabby is not a 
Persian colour," and goes on to say, " Nor 
have I ever seen an imported cat of that 
colour." His definition of a silver tabby 
reads thus : " Markings : Jet-black lines, not 
too broad, scarcely so wide as the ground 
colour shown between, so as to give a light 
and brilliant effect. When the black lines are 
broader than the colour space, it is a defect, 
being then black marked with colour, instead 
of colour with black. The lines must be 
clear, sharp, and well-defined, in every way 
distinct, having no mixture of the ground 
colour. Head and legs marked regularly, 
the rings on the throat and chest being in no 
way blurred or broken, but clear, graceful, and 
continuous ; lips, cushions of feet, and the 
backs of hind legs, and the ear points, black." 
And here it will be interesting to give the 
discussion which took place and the list of 



i66 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



points drawn up at the inaugural meeting of 
the Silver Society in 1900, and which standard 
is still adhered to in the present Silver and 
Smoke Persian Cat Society : 

SILVER TABBIES. 

At the meeting of the Silver Society, discussion 
arose as to whether the markings on silver tabbies 



Head and expression 
Colour and markings 
Colour of eyes . . 
Coat and condition 
Shape 
Brush 

Total 



25 
25 

5 

2O 

10 
IOO 




MISS LEAKE'S SUMMEK CATTKKY. 

(Photo : Cassell & Company, Limited.) 



should be broad or narrow. Lady Marcus Beres- 
ford proposed that Miss Leake and Mrs. Herring 
should be asked to express an opinion, both being 
breeders of prize winners. Miss Leake said she 
thought there were two distinct types of cats, the 
one with broad markings, the other with narrow 
stripes, and that both were correct silver tabbies, 
the superior beauty of either being a matter of per- 
sonal opinion. Mrs. Herring agreed, and said the 
markings should be a dense black. Miss Leake con- 
sidered they should be black at the tips, but shading 
to light at the roots. Mr. Abbott objected to the 
word " dense," as black was black, and the word 
" distinct " was substituted. Finally the following 
was resolved : The colour of a silver tabby should 
be a pale clear silver, with distinct black mark- 
ings, any brown or cream tinge to be considered 
detrimental. The eyes should be orange or green : 



The adoption of the preceding descriptions and 
scale of points as a whole was carried unanimously. 

As regards the eyes of a silver tabby, Harrison 
Weir says " deep bright yellow." The Silver 
Society gives an option of " orange or green " ; 
but the mandate of present-day fashion and 
personal bias is in favour of green eyes for 
silver tabbies. From an artistic point of view, 
there is no doubt emerald green is a better 
contrast to silver than yellow or orange. 

The Rev. R. Maynard, whose name has for 
many years been connected with silver tabbies, 
recently complained in the papers of the 
tendency to breed green eyes in this variety. 
He writes : "In former days we never had 



SILVER TABBY PERSIANS. 



167 



anything to do with a cat that had green eyes, 
and now that so much is being done to improve 
the feline race, why should we try to think 
the green eye right and even desirable ? " 
Another authority says : " The fiat has gone 
forth that silver tabbies are to have green 
eyes. Happily there still remains room for 
a difference of opinion on the subject, for the 
oldest and most perfect breeds of silver tabbies 
have always been distinguished by their deep 
hazel eyes." 

This vexed question of eyes, certainly 
outside the " self " classes, ought not to be 
one of such vast importance. As Louis Wain 
aptly writes when complaining of this undue 
proportion of points, " Everyone, judges and 
exhibitors alike, are bitten by the craze for 
the ' correct coloured eyes.' ' It is a fault 



tabbies, of long- or short-haired cats. In 
judging a class of tabbies, first and foremost 
in the judge's estimation must rank the mark- 
ings, and in Persian tabbies coat must next 
be taken into consideration. I have always 
thought that judging long-haired tabby cats 
in a ring class would be specially welcomed 
both by judges and exhibitors, for it is when 
a good cat of this breed runs or walks the 
beauty of his markings can be seen and 
admired^ -Then the dark spine lines will 
show up to advantage, the side markings 
will stand out, and the bars on the legs and 
the rings round the neck may be clearly dis- 
cerned. I think it is not to be wondered at 
that fanciers who have bred tabby cats are 
not easily satisfied as regards selfs and silvers. 
A friend of mine declared, " I always miss the 
stripes which give a tabby cat such a sweetly 
expressive countenance." Yet in spite of the 
beauty of the silver tabby, there are very few 
fanciers of this variety, and to those wishing 
to take up Persians I could not recommend a 
more interesting field for speculative breeding. 




SILVER TABBY KITTENS OWNED BY H.H. THE PRINCESS VICTORIA OF SCHLESWIG-HOLSTEIN. 

(Photo : E. Landor, Baling.) 

that judges are prone to commit, and truly The number of good show specimens can be 

one point ought not to be allowed to outweigh counted on the fingers of one hand. Silver 

others, and it is just this balancing of merits Tabby classes at our shows are full of nonde- 

with a mingling of common sense that makes script cats with shaded silver bodies and 

the good all-round judge, whether of self or markings only on legs and head. 



i68 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



When judging the silver tabbies at the 
Crystal Palace in 1902, I was greatly struck 
with the number of cats and kittens which 
ought really to have been marked " Wrong 
Class," for some of these were absolutely 
wanting in any definite marks at all ; some 
had faint grey pencilling on the head and legs, 
but not a sign of the dense mottling on the 
sides. It is, no doubt, disappointing to 
exhibitors to have their specimens labelled 
" Wrong Class," or for really lovely kittens 
to be passed over without even a card ; but 
it is only by thus treating exhibits so lacking 
in the essential point of the class for which 
they are entered that fanciers will learn 
to discern between the genuine article and 
what may be called a spurious one. These 
pretty nondescript silvers, which are neither 
one thing nor the other, should be disposed 
of as pets ; but to enter them at our shows 
in classes for tabbies is only throwing away 
money and risking the animals. No cat has 
come nearer to the perfect ideal of a silver 
tabby in our day than Lady Pink's " Shrover 
II.," now gathered to his fathers. He 
possessed the wonderfully clear silvery white 
ground with distinct dark markings, and was 
always the admired of all admirers at our 
leading shows. Lady Pink is not without 
some worthy descendants of her famous 
" Shrover II.," and writes to me thus : " I 

have a smoke male 
by 'Shrover II.,' 




" BEAUTIFUL DUCHESS." 
OWNED BY MRS. G. H. WALKER. 



and hope to show him at Westminster. 
'Shrover III.' is just like his father 'Shrover 
II.,' but I shall not exhibit him, as I am too 
afraid of losing him. I have suffered man y 
losses after shows. ' Shrover III.' is a fine, 
big fellow, even better marked than his father, 
with long silky, wavy coat, lovely eyes, and 
a perfect temper." 

Mrs. Herring has bred some fine silver tabbies, 
notably " Duchess Lestock," a sensational 
kitten at the Westminster show of 1900, when 
she was claimed at a high price by Mrs. G. H. 
Walker, of Woodheys Park. Mrs. Herring's 
" King Alfred " was the sire of " Shrover II.," 
and is quite " one of the best." Miss Anderson 
Leake is justly celebrated as a most enthusi- 
astic and successful breeder of silver tabbies, 
and is our greatest authority on this variety. 
As far back as 1887 " Topso of Dingley " was 
exhibited by Miss Leake at the Crystal Palace. 
This cat was said to be of Irish descent, but 
his ancestors were sunk in oblivion. Not so, 
however, his progeny, for the winnings of his 
son " Champion Felix," owned by Miss F. 
Moore, of Beckenham, are fresh in the minds 
of those who, like myself, can remember 
beautiful cats of bygone years. In 1889 
Miss Leake entered " Topso " and two toms 
in a class for " blue or silver tabbies, with or 
without white." " Felix " was also in this 
class, as a winner of the Challenge Cup. Miss 
A. Leake's " Abdul Zaphir " and the present 
representatives of the breed " Abdul Hamet " 
and " Marquis of Dingley " are house- 
hold names amongst silver tabby fanciers. 
Miss Derby Hyde has long been faithful 
to this breed, and " Thames Valley Silver 
King " and " King Alfred " have often 
had to fight it out together at our shows, 
sometimes one being favoured by the 
judge and sometimes the other carrying 
off the honours. Miss Cope has recently 
been bitten with the silver fever, and her 
tabby kittens are always to the fore. 
Her "Roiall Fluffball" took first and seven 
specials at Westminster in 1901, and her 
"Silver Tangle" is a well-known winner. 
Mr. Furze, another Midland fancier, is also 



SILVER TABBY PERSIANS. 



169 




WINTER QUARTERS A']' DIXGI.KY HILL. 
(Photo: Cassell & Company, Limited.) 

making a speciality of silver tabbies, and the 
Hon. P. Wodehouse possesses a fine silver 
tabby female in " Silver Saint." Mrs. 
Slingsby owns " Don Pedro," a beautiful 
specimen, and Miss Meeson has bred some 
good silver tabbies as well as silvers. But 
the ranks need filling, and with the assist- 
ance of the society now in existence the 
classification at shows will become more 
liberal, and instead of silvers and browns being 
often placed together at our smaller shows, 
separate classes are guaranteed, for it is cer- 
tainly most unfair on judge and exhibitor to 
place these two very distinct breeds together. 
" Comparisons are odious," we are told, and 
certainly it is hard on the brownies for the 
more brilliant silvers to be placed side by side 
in competition. As regards the mating of 
silver tabbies, the essential point to try and 
breed for is markings, and it behoves the fancier 
to endeavour to find a sire with bold, dis- 
tinct tabby markings, and if it is desired to 
strengthen the colour, then a black is not at 
all a bad cross. There are two distinct kinds 



of tabbies the blotched and the pencilled 
varieties ; and it is a matter of choice which is 
considered the handsomest. But it does not do 
to mate these two varieties together. A well- 
known authority on breeding silver tabbies 
writes thus in Fur and Feather: "A great 
deal has been said as to the disadvantage of 
crossing chinchillas with silver tabbies, but 
we think this applies more to the detriment 
of chinchillas than of tabbies. Provided the 
tabby, on one side, is of a very decided type, 
the chinchilla, having come originally from 
the same stock, may not prove a bad cross. 
Miss Cope's ' Silver Tangle,' for instance, 
one of the best-marked silver tabby queens, 
is the child of the chinchilla ' Silver Chieftain,' 
and of a queen bred from a silver tabby sire. 
A good young queen, belonging to Mr. Hoddi- 
nott, was bred from ' Lord Argent ' and a 
tabby mother. ' Champion Felix ' was bred 
from ' Topso,' a heavily marked tabby, and 
' Lady Pink,' a cat that would nowadays have 
been called a light shaded silver with white 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



markings. ' Climax ' came of the same 
parents, and both have broad dark markings, 
and transmitted them to their offspring. The 
union of two strongly marked silvers is not 
always a complete success. A brown tabby 
makes a most excellent cross, and some of the 
purest and best silvers we have seen have been 
obtained in this way. Of course, you must 
be prepared for a brown tabby kitten or two ; 
but you need not fear sandy smudges and 
yellow noses. The colour seems to be con- 
centrated in one or two examples, and leaves 
the silver free. In short, in colour breeding 
we must be content with one or two perfect 
specimens in a litter, and, retaining them, try 
again for yet further perfection." 

'The cat fancy needs some new sensational 
cat to appear on its horizon, and if only a 
perfect silver tabby, male or female, could be 
penned at one of our leading shows a great 
impetus would be given to this variety, and 
a thoroughly good strain might be established. 
Then we should not read such remarks as 
these from the pen of the reporter : " The 
silver tabbies, we regret to say, were only a 
shade of days that are gone. There is room 
for an enterprising enthusiast in this breed. 
The beautiful clear silver colour with deep 
black markings seems to be quite a thing of 
the past. Who will revive them ? " And 
echo answers, " Who ? " 

From such an authority as Miss Anderson 
Leake the following article on silver tabbies 
will be of great interest, and the photos of 
her cattery at Dingley Hill, Bradfield, near 
Reading, have been specially taken to illus- 
trate these notes : 

" Possibly amongst the rarest of our long- 
haired cats may be classed the really well- 
marked silver tabby. Twenty years ago he 
existed, and was, indeed, more commonly met 
with than to-day. For at that time chinchillas 
were practically unknown, save for a few 
scarce specimens, and the silver cats of that 
day were more commonly called ' grey ' 
Persians, and were nearly always tabbies. 
But with the popularity of the pale chinchillas 
began the downfall of the heavily marked 



tabby. Instead of breeding for the preserva- 
tion of markings, everyone worked their hard- 
est to breed out markings, -and real tabby 
kittens were almost unsaleable. Those that 
were produced were very frequently ventured, 
and sold at a low price for pets. The lightest 
specimens in a litter were preserved for breeding 
purposes, and rarer and rarer became the 
deeply marked silver tabby. But at last the 
tide has turned, and people are beginning to 
realise that there is a character, a beauty, 
and a contrast of colouring in a good tabby, 
which lend to them a charm all their own. 
Added to this, they are exceedingly rare and 
difficult to produce. 

" Competent judges agree that to breed 
regular, symmetrical, and well-coloured mark- 
ings is no easy task, for contrast is the grand 
point in a silver tabby. His ground coat 
from tip to tail should be pure pale white 
silver. On this light silver ground-work lie 
the most beautiful even dark mottlings, 
dark to the point of blackness. These mark- 
ings are most difficult to describe. A dark 
stripe runs the whole length of the spine. 
Then comes a light stripe on either side, then 
two more dark stripes, but these are broken 
just behind the shoulder by a transverse bar 
of light silver, and widen on the shoulder into 
considerable sized patches. The markings on 
the sides are not stripes, but patches, elliptical 
in shape, generally three in number, and 
partially encircled by dark stripes. The 
shoulder is particularly heavily barred and 
striped, as are also the hind quarters. The 
legs are barred throughout their length, the 
face should be dark, with dark tufts, and the 
back part of the hind legs from the knee 
downwards is black, as in a Southdown sheep. 
" The head is most beautifully pencilled, 
the cheeks possess double or treble swirls, the 
eyes are outlined by dark rims ; on the fore- 
head the lines form a complete triangle, 
which is repeated at the nape of the neck. 
The chest is encircled with a perfect dark ring, 
called the ' Lord Mayor's chain,' but this is 
concealed when the large light frill is in full 
beauty, as is also the neck triangle. The 




g 

S 

D 
H 
n 



I 

o 

m 



X .= 
H = 



172 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 




MISS COPE'S " STARLET-, 

whiskers often contain all the different shades 
of colour found in the coat. The ear tufts 
should be long and light. The tail is generally 
ringed from trunk to tip, but this is not notice- 
able after kittenhood, owing to the great 
length of the hair. Also the hair to the root 
is much darker in colour on the tail than on 
the body. 

" The correct colour for the eyes of a silver 
tabby is neither green, orange, nor yellow, 
but hazel a deep nut-brown. This shade 
of eye is very difficult to obtain, and it 
fades with age ; but once seen, its beauty and 
suitability to the colouring of the cat will 
never be denied. Many of the most noted 
prize-winners have not possessed this coveted 
hazel eye. The nose is by preference dark, 
but this, so far, has not been considered as a 
point. 

" Not only evenness and regularity of 
markings go to the making of a good tabby, 
but sharpness and depth of colour in the dark 
parts, and clearness of colour in the light 
parts. A great deal has been said of late 
regarding the depth of the black markings ; 
but it is quite as necessary to insist on the 
purity of the silver tone. No suspicion of 
brown must be tolerated, neither any blue nor 
grey tone. 

"There is no question that, as a tabby, a 
long-haired cat is handicapped by his length 



of coat. There are some people who would 
rob him of his crowning glory in order that 
his beautiful striping may the better appear. 
But surely it were better for them to confine 
themselves to short-haired cats if they can- 
not appreciate the marvel of long-haired tabby 
markings. For marvellous they truly are, 
when we consider that the dark marks are 
only formed by tips to the hair of some quarter 
of an inch in length. When the coat is quite 
short these tips are massed together, and the 
blackness is, so to speak, concentrated. When 
the hair is at its full length of from two to 
four inches it can be readily understood that 
the long floating locks mix and mingle with 
the paler coat, and some distinctness of 
marking is lost. The massive frill and the 
long light shoulder tufts give the cat a very 
pale frontage ; and if he be placed in a show 
pen side by side with a cat whose coat is 
just coming, whose marks show up, in all 
probability he will take a second place. No 
stroking, blowing of the coat, or other device 
will show off a tabby cat. He must be made 
to get up and walk. Then the long coat falls 
apart, the spine lines reveal themselves, the 
side patches fall into place, and bars, stripes, 
swirls, and rings all are to be seen. Even 
then you will not see them all at once, but 
as he moves and turns one by one the points 
will show themselves. As a show cat, a 
tabby is not a success, for his period of perfect 
beauty is exceedingly short. When he pro- 
poses to moult he changes colour, and if you 
are unwise enough to exhibit him at this stage 
ominous whispers of 'Brown tabby blood' 
will pass from mouth to mouth. For a 
thorough good rusty brown shade, commend 
me to a moulting silver tabby. Then a little 
later he completely loses his side markings, 
and you must wait until the new coat makes 
its appearance before you can venture him 
in the show pen. In the first beauty of that 
new coat, when the hair is about an inch long, 
he is a dream of colour contrast, and some- 
how suggests such ineffable cleanliness ! 

" How to breed silver tabbies is a moot 
point. One thing is certain, that if we expect 



SfLl'KR TABBY PERSIA A 'S. 



173 



whole litters of well-marked kittens we shall 
be grievously disappointed. Personally, we 
have had the best results from pairing two 
marked cats slightly related and of good silver 
pedigrees. A smoke of silver origin is another 
good cross, but the sire should always be a 
tabby. The blacker the kittens are at birth 
the better. There is no sign of light under- 
coat, but generally narrow pencillings of 
silver are to be seen, and face and paws are 
fairly light. The kittens which at birth show 
contrast of dark and light rarely turn out good 
tabbies. The markings, as a rule, become too 
faint. At a month old the light markings 
should widen and develop, and at three months 
old the full beauty will be seen. Before the 
change to cat coat, many of the kittens be- 
come more shaded than marked, and up to 
the sixth or eighth month there is always a 
possibility of their proving disappointing. If, 
however, after this age the markings return, 
harden, and develop, they will endure for 
ever, except during periods of moulting. In 
extreme old age both the purity of colouring 
and distinctness of markings are lost. Ex- 
posure to the sun considerably injures the 
colour of the silver tabby cats, giving 
them a brown tinge. We believe exhibitors 
of magpies never allow their birds to enjoy 
the rays of the sun for a similar reason, 
but it is a question whether it is not 
wiser to study the beneficial effects of a 
sun-bath on the health of our cats rather than 
the slight detriment to their coats caused 
by its enjoyment. I have said nothing about 
size and shape. The silver tabby should be 
a large cat, with good bones, and very heavily 
coated. The old-fashioned cats were very 
long, low on the legs, and a trifle narrow in 
head. Nowadays we have remedied this 
defect, and the modern cats are decidedly 
more cobby than their progenitors. The 
ears should be set wide apart, and be small 
and not too sharply pointed. If only fanciers 
will now devote themselves to the production 
of such cats as I have tried to describe, we 
shall soon see the silver tabby classes at our 
shows filled with typical animals, instead of, as 



is too often the case, with spoilt silvers, too 
heavily marked to be called chinchillas, too un- 
evenly or lightly marked to be correct tabbies." 

I have mentioned Miss Cope as a breeder 
of silver tabbies. Her remarks on her favour- 
ite breed are as follows : 

" There is no doubt that until quite re- 
cently interest in this fascinating breed had, 
to a great extent, died out, owing to the 
craze for chinchilla breeding. But I hope 
their day-is-coming again. There is a marked 
improvement already shown in the silver 
tabby classes at the best shows. 

" Mr. St. George Mivart, in his celebrated 
book, asks, ' What is a cat ? ' But even so 
simple a question as that appears from his 
statement to be more easily asked than 
answered. The same may be said of the 
question, ' What is a silver tabby ? ' I will 
endeavour to answer the question by giving 
my own idea of what may be considered to 
be a perfect type of a silver tabby. The 




A PAIR OF SILVER TABBIES. 

(Photo: E. Landor, Baling.) 



174 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



chief point of a silver tabby should be clear- 
ness and distinctness of markings ; the 
sharper they are the better. My ideal cat 
would have the two spine stripes clear and 
well denned from shoulder to base of tail, 
set off by the ' epaulet ' behind each front 
leg. On each side of the body should appear 
what may be called the horseshoe ; both sides 
should match exactly. The hind-quarters 
well barred. The fore-legs should also be 
barred, each in symmetrical correspondence 



the hazel eye, enhanced by dark rims. Hap- 
pily, latitude is allowed in this direction in 
the standard drawn up by the Silver Society, 
which decrees the colour shall be the green 
or orange. But with all these, my ideal 
silver tabby must have perfect shape of body, 
so far as it is possible to obtain it, as well as 
luxuriance of coat. The long, thin-bodied, 
snipy-headed, spindle-legged cat is an abomin- 
ation. The ideal cat must be cobby, with 
short, thick legs, the head broad and massive, 




MISS DERBY HYDE'S 
'THAMES VALLEY SILVER KING. 

(Photo: E. Lander, Eating.) 



with the other. The double cheek swirls, the 
markings on the forehead, which may be 
easily imagined to take the shape of a lyre, 
the shaded eyebrows and whiskers, and dark 
outlines to the eyes, all these give a character 
to the face not found except among tabbies. 
More or less conspicuous will be the dark 
lines across the chest, known as the ' Mayor's 
Chain.' Occasionally some more favoured 
animal is found to have two such lines. The 
beauty of all these markings is thrown up 
by the ground colour of the coat, which should 
be a clear bright silver. The whole effect, if 
one may so describe it, is like a piece of elabor- 
ately wrought black lace on lustrous silvery 
silk. The colour of the eyes is somewhat a 
vexed question. Some fanciers prefer green. 
Personally, I think nothing is more lovely than 



ears small, well tufted and set wide apart, 
the nose short and wide at the tip, the tail 
short and wide at the extreme end I con- 
sider a pointed tail very undesirable. The 
coat of the ideal silver tabby should be long 
- and thick, and the texture as silky as possible. 
" Having described my ideal silver tabby, 
the next question is how to get it. When I 
succumbed to the fascination of the long- 
haired beauties some years ago, I resolved to 
breed only from the very best stock obtain- 
able, and I have unflinchingly adhered to 
this rule. I would like to impress upon any- 
one starting this delightful hobby that it is 
absolutely a waste of time and money to 
attempt breeding from any but the best. 
The observance of this principle will save 
many disappointments, much heart-burning, 



SILVER TABBY PERSIANS. 



175 



and not a little money. Having made up 
one's mind which breed one admires most, 
it is far better to keep to that particular 
variety, and win success worth having, 
than to dabble in a variety of breeds with 
only a moderate amount of success. To a 
rigid observance of these principles I owe 
any honours in the show pen which have 
been awarded to me. It is of little use taking 
up the breeding of long-haired silver tabbies 
unless one is possessed of unlimited patience 
and perseverance. It is sometimes very dis- 
appointing to find the kitten one fondly hoped 
would prove a coming champion merging 
into a shaded silver exquisite in colour and 
as far as head, shape, and coat are concerned, 
but none the less not a silver tabby. Here 
comes in the study of pedigree. It by no 
means follows that the mating of two tabby 
parents will result in a litter of pure tabby 
kittens, unless both sire and dam are of pure 
silver tabby lineage. Hence purity of pedigree 
on both sides is of great importance. 

"If there is a trace of chinchilla blood in 
the ancestry it is certain to manifest' itself at 
odd times in the progeny. Nevertheless, do not 
despise your shaded silver, if it be a queen, 
providing all other points are perfect. As 
Miss Leake says and I quite agree with her 

' You no longer have a show specimen, but 
you have a cat that, crossed with a heavily 
marked cat, will probably provide you with 
splendid silver tabbies.' This, however, can 
scarcely be called the true science of breeding, 
as the progeny of two such cats may hark back 
to some of the original characteristics. 

" My own practice is to mate silver 
tabby with silver tabby invariably, and of 
the purest pedigree I can find. I should 
never breed from a sire that I knew possessed 
a brown tabby ancestry. I would far rather 
choose a good black sire, and in this way 
strengthen the markings. Of course, one 
would not expect a mating of this kind to 
produce a litter of champion silver tabbies ; 
but if I secured one well-marked kitten I 
should feel quite repaid. On the general 
question of breeding, Mr. C. A. House, who 



is no mean authority, and whose suggestions 
I have often followed with advantage, re- 
cently said : ' If I were asked to pick out in a 
certain cattery a pair of silver tabby Persians 
which would be likely to make a good match, 
I should proceed on lines similar to the follow- 
ing : Shape and size with quality of coat 
I should expect the dam to possess. Marking, 
colour, length of coat, colour of eye, and 
strength of bone, I should demand in my 
sire. This is, of course, if I were selecting 
from cats whose ancestry was quite unknown 
to me. My reasons for so doing are because 
in nine times out of ten the sire influences 
the outward characteristics of the progeny, 
while in like ratio the dam exercises her 
influence over those points which are more 
hidden. The dam has far more to do with 
shape than is generally supposed, and I 
would rather breed from a bad-headed male 
than a bad-headed queen. Quality of coat 
must always be looked for in the queen.' 

" With regard to in-breeding I have no 
hard-and-fast rules to lay down. The whole 
matter, in spite of what one and another 
may say, is too experimental and speculative 
for anyone to dogmatise. The authority I 
have just quoted remarks on this matter : 
' It sometimes happens that a fancier puts 
together two animals which excel in some 
particular property, yet not one of their 
progeny is above the standard of mediocrity, 
so far as that property is concerned.' Ex- 
perience has shown me the importance of 
studying the weak points of the dam. These 
I try to remedy in selecting the stud cat. 
But with all my care I sometimes find ' the 
best laid schemes . . . gang aft agley.' 

" For the successful keeping of cats and 
rearing of healthy kittens, my prescription 
begins and ends with two words liberty and 
fresh air. I have found cats can stand any 
amount of cold, providing, of course, they 
have never had artificial heat previously. 
Two things must be carefully guarded against 
damp and draught. These are fatal. Kit- 
tens so reared will be healthier, grow better 
coats, and will be much better able to stand 



176 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



the wear and tear of show life. My own cats 
live in wooden houses, raised at least one 
foot from the ground, the size at least seven 
and a half feet by five and a half feet. Each 
house is fitted with an inner wire door, as 
well as the outer wooden one. Along the 
entire length of the upper part of one side is 
a wire netting window, with a broad shelf 
fitted beneath. This opening has also a 
sliding shutter fitted with glass panels. I 
am thus able to give ventilation at will, or 
fasten them up securely in bad weather. In 
one corner of the house is a cosy sleeping 
box : in another corner an equally cosy 
chair. All cats love a chair. Cats kept out- 
side, when they are admitted to the house, 
invariably find out the most comfortable 
corner of the most comfortable chair. In 
such a house as I have described, kittens can 
be successfully reared ; there is ample room 
for them to scamper round should a wet 
day keep them in. Unless it is absolutely 
raining all my cats have the run of a large 
garden the whole day, and are only shut up 
at night. I never coddle my kittens, but 
try to bring them up as naturally as possible. 
" I am sometimes asked how it is my 
kittens attain such good proportions. The 
secret, if secret there be. lies in this I never 
allow my mother cats to nurse more than 
two kittens after the first week. If a foster 
cannot be found, I select the two I consider 
the most promising, and the lethal chamber 
claims the rest. Some may consider this 
foolish. I can only say I would far rather 
rear two thoroughly healthy kittens than 
five or six little puny things that will require 
weeks of care and attention, and then fail 
to reach the end in view. Baby silver tabbies, 
I must admit, are not altogether things of 
1 beauty and of joy. More often than not they 
are dark and uninteresting. The time to 
decide which is the best marked kitten is 
while the coat is comparatively short. When 
compelled to make a selection, I usually give 
the preference to the darker kittens. Ex- 
perience has taught me that the lighter kittens, 
so attractive in themselves, even at that 



early stage, and whose colouring is so ex- 
quisite at eight or nine weeks old, are apt to 
prove deceptive in the end, and often develop 
into shaded silvers." 

To Miss Cope's last statements I can add 
my testimony, but I will also mention a curious 
case coming under my direct notice and re- 
garding my own silver stud cat. " Cambyses " 
is by " Mowgli " (a noted pale silver of " Silver 
Lambkin " strain) and a handsome silver tabby 
unknown to fame, being a house pet. When 
I became possessed of " Cambyses," then five 
months old, he was a decided silver tabby, 
taking after his mother ; he has since shed all 
his markings, except faint grey pencillings on 
head and legs, and is one of the lightest silvers 
at stud. When mated to smokes and silvers 
I have not known or heard of any tabbies in 
the litters ; but on one occasion, when crossed 
with a silver tabby, he had some very densely 
marked tabbies. I have remarked that this 
beautiful breed of Persians has not been taken 
up by American fanciers in the same enthu- 
siastic manner as have blues, orange, and 
especially silvers. In an account given by 
Field and Fancy of the Beresford Cat Club 
show in New York, January, 1903, I find 
mention made that over 125 long-haired cats 
were entered, and that in the silver classes 
alone there were thirty-five entries, almost as 
many as were entered in the whole long-haired 
section of the previous year. The smoke male 
class was cancelled, but eight females of this 
breed put in an appearance. No mention is 
made of silver tabbies. Amongst the winners 
of the challenge cups offered by the Atlantic 
Cat Club, a silver tabby called " Queenie," 
owned by Mrs. Wagner, carried off the trophy. 
Miss A. Leake, of silver tabby fame in the 
English fancy, has exported some of her stock, 
and no doubt our American cousins will not 
let this beautiful breed remain long neglected, 
but some enthusiastic fancier will establish a 
strain on the other side of the herring pond. 

At the Westminster Cat Club show of 1903, 
held about the same time as the Beresford 
New York show, the entries in the three classes 
provided for silver tabbies numbered twenty- 



SILVER TABBY PERSIANS. 



177 



seven, which is an increase on previous years, who is the best-marked silver tabby that is 
but with two or three exceptions quality was now before the public. Miss Cope must 
lacking. No new names appeared in the cata- be proud of having bred so fine a specimen 
logues, and Miss Anderson Lecke and Miss by Miss Anderson Lecke's " Abdul Hamel 

of Dingley," whose picture appropriately 
Roiall forms the heading of this chapter on silver 



Cope carried off the highest honours. 
The winner in the female class was 
Fluff ball," whose portrait appears below, and tabbies. 




" ROIALL FLUKKBALL." 
THE PROPERTY OF Miss COPE. 
(Photo: E. S. Baker & Son, Hirminxh 



12 



I 7 8 




MKS. STEAD'S SMOKK LITTER BY " RAXJL" 

(Photo : Russell & Sons, Baker Street.) 



CHAPTER XIV. 



SMOKE PERSIANS. 




I 



T is only 
within re- 
cent years 
that smoke 
Persian cats 
have really 
come into no- 
tice at all, and 
even now these 
lovely cats may 
be said to be 
sadly neglected 
in the fancy. It 
was not till the 
year 1893 that 
they were con- 
sidered suffici- 
ently popular 
to deserve a 

class to themselves. They were formerly 
relegated to the " any other colour " class, and 
very often at smaller shows this is where we 
find the smokes penned. A really good smoke 
is a thing of beauty, and it seems certain that 
as the fancy expands and the Silver and 
Smoke Cat Society looks after their interests, 



1 JO " AND " TINY " (SMOKES). 
(I'hoto: Cross, Brooklyn, N.Y.) 



a good time will be in store for breeders of 
this handsome variety. 

Smokes may therefore be called a new 
breed, and it is a very distinctive one, made 
up, as it were, of the three self colours 
black, white, and blue. It is a shaded cat 
without markings, the fur being pure white 
underneath and gradually assuming almost a 
black tone on the outer coat. The face, 
paws, and back down to the tip of the tail 
are the darkest parts, shading to a dark grey 
down the sides and on the under part of the 
tail. A very great beauty in smokes is the 
light frill and ear tufts, which lend an air of 
much distinction to this breed. The great 
failings in many smokes is the appearance of 
tabby markings ; these especially mar the 
beauty of head and face, and take away from 
their value in the show pen. The tail should 
be quite free from any rims of light and dark, 
and should have the upper part an even dark 
colour, and underneath a cinder grey. Some 
smokes are so dense in the surface coat as to 
be really black cats with white under-coats, 
having none of the modulated grades of dark 
and light grey. These cats are often minus 



SMOKE PERSIANS. 



179 



the light ear tufts and ruff, and therefore 
cannot be regarded as correct smokes. Then, 
again, there are light smokes which might 
almost be called silver smokes very beautiful 
cats to look at, but far removed from the 
ideal smoke. 

Perhaps at some future time there may be 
a special classification for these cats, which 
are now without an abiding place at our 
shows. It is most important that the coat 
of a smoke should be long and of the true 
Persian flakiness, otherwise the chief beauty 
of the contrast between the light under-coat 
and dark outer-coat is not seen to full advan- 
tage. 

I think I may say without fear of con- 
tradiction that, of all long-haired breeds, 
smokes present the most altered and abso- 
lutely dishevelled appearance when out of 
coat. The glory of the light frill disappears, 
and multitudes of lines and streaks can be 
plainly discerned. Then a very rusty brown 
tinge appears on the back, and the rich, 
glossy black surface coat vanishes. I owned 
a lovely smoke cat once that at certain times 
of the year and, I may say, for most part 
of the year was nothing better than a bad 
black, his only claim to the title of smoke 
being the general appearance of a dark cat 
that had spent his life in an ashpit. But 
when " Pepper " was in full feather, he was 
a joy to behold. 

It is curious that when the kittens are 
first born they appear almost a dead black, 
with no trace of a white under-coat. This 
appears gradually as the kittens grow, and 
at three weeks old the lighter coat becomes 
visible. Their faces and paws should be 
intensely black when born, as the tendency 
in smokes is to get lighter and not darker. 
If a kitten is born with the appearance of 
a smoke it will generally turn into what 
I have termed a silver smoke later on. 
As with black kittens, so with smokes : they 
are often very rusty in appearance, but this 
will disappear with their kitten coat. This 
also applies to tabby markings, though, of 
course., if there is any tabby blood in the 



strain the markings may be retained. For this 
reason it is most undesirable to mate smokes 
with tabbies ; neither is it advisable to select 
a blue as a cross. The blue tinge destroys the 
purity of the white under-coat, which is one 
of the glories of a perfect smoke. It is a 
case of " like to like " in breeding smokes, and, 
failing this, choose a good black sire for your 
queen with amber eyes. This is especially 
advantageous if your queen should be light 
in colour and throw light kittens ; but if she 
is already too dark, mate with a chinchilla, 
avoiding, if possible, a green-eyed one. 

Above all things shun, as you would Sin, 
tabbies of any colour, and let your choice 
fall on a heavily coated sire. I have been 
told by smoke fanciers that it is much more 
difficult to breed a good smoke female than 
a male, and that the latter sex predominates 
in litters. 

I will here give the officially approved table 
showing the proportion of marks which should 
be awarded for points 
of smokes. This is as 
drawn up by the Silver 
and Smoke Persian Cat, 
Society, which has Mrs. 
H. V. James, 
our principal 
breeder of 
smokes, as 
Honorary 
Secretary : 




MISS BARTLETT'S TWO SMOKE KITTENS. 

(Photo-. E. Landor, Baling.) 



i8o 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



SMOKES. 

Smoke cats should be black, shading to smoke 
(grey), with as light an under-coat as possible ; light 
frill and ear tufts ; eyes to be orange. 

Value of points : 

Head and expression . . . . 20 

Colour of eye . . . . . . ..15 

Colour of under-coat . . . . . . 10 

Absence of markings . . . . . . 15 

Coat and condition . . . . 20 

Tail . . . . . . . . 10 

Shape . . . . . . . . 10 

Total .-. . . . . loo 

I think there are no fanciers or breeders of 
smokes who feel that any option should be 
given as to the colour of eyes in this breed, for, 
as in the black cats, the eyes should be amber 
or light golden. However, I must confess 
that brilliant green eyes are to be preferred 
to the pale yellow, which too often spoil the 
beauty of many of the smokes now exhibited. 
I should never place an indifferent smoke 
with orange eyes over a good specimen with 
eyes of emerald green. In the early days of 
the fancy, smokes were entered in the " any 
other variety " class, and were sometimes 
called Smoke Blues or Smoke Chinchillas. 

In 1891 Miss Manley (now Mrs. Strick) ex- 
hibited a fine smoke called " Bayadere." 
Amongst the names of our oldest smoke 
breeders who still continue to breed I may 
mention Mrs. Cartwright, of Upwood. In 1895 
this lady showed smokes at Cruft's show bred 
from her "Timkins." The Upwood cats are 
very pure in colour, having the dense outer 
coat very white at the roots. At one time the 
Lindfield smokes held their own everywhere, 
Miss Molony winning first at the Crystal 
Palace in 1893 with " Lindfield Bogie." Mrs. 
Bluhm, better known as a silver breeder, also 
owned about this time a famous smoke female 
called " Smuttie." 

Mrs. Robert Little has for years combined 
the breeding of smokes with blacks. In 
1897 " Namouska," a smoke female, won 
first at the Crystal Palace, and her descendants 
continue their career as first-class smokes. 
In more recent times the following are noted 



winners : Lady Marcus Beresford's " Cossey," 
Mrs. H. V. James's " Backwell Jogram," 
Mrs. Sinkins' " Teufel," Mrs. Stead's " Ranji," 
Mrs. StillwelPs "Victoria," Miss Snell's 
" Dusky Girl," Mrs. Collingwood's " Minouche," 
Rev. P. L. Cosway's " Maritana," Mrs. 
Neild's "Silver Soot," Mrs. Hamilton's 
"Bulger," Miss Rose's "Judge." Perhaps 
the most consistent and successful breeder 
of smokes now in the fancy is Mrs. H. V. 
James, who started in 1893, and has been 
faithful to this breed ever since. I have 
had the pleasure 'of visiting Mrs. James's 
smoke cattery, and I felt that the lovely 
old-fashioned garden surrounding the Grange 
at Backwell was truly an ideal place for 
successfully rearing live stock of any kind, 
and all the pussies were pictures of robust 
health. I am glad to be able to insert the 
following valuable article on smoke Persians 
from the pen of Mrs. James, who is certainly 
our best authority on this breed. 

" Before entering upon the distinctive points 
of smokes, I will give a short account of my 
smoke cattery, and how I first took up this 
breed. It is curious to look back and see 
what mere chances govern our actions. I 
have all my life been devoted to Persian cats 
of one colour or another, but never intended 
to go in for any special breed. However, in 

1893 I purchased a blue kitten, which, on its 
arrival, appeared far from well. The man 
who sold it offered, if it died, to replace it. 
In a few days I was in a position to accept 
this offer, for the kitten succumbed, and 
another which was also supposed to be a 
blue was sent to replace it. As time went 
on this kitten darkened, and, much to my 
disgust, turned to a deep cinder colour. In 

1894 there was a grand West of England Cat 
Show held at Bristol, and, to please an old 
servant who had taken great care of the 
kitten, I entered ' Jubilee.' I was not much 
up in cat showing then, but ' smoke ' 
seemed to answer the description of the 
kitten better than any other colour ; so into 
the smoke class he went, and, to my surprise, 
carried everything before him. This started 




w 



C/J 
D 

O 



12* 



182 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



my career as an exhibitor. I showed ' Jubilee ' 
again at Graft's and Brighton the next year, 
where he again carried off firsts, and was 
described as the best smoke cat seen since 
the days of the famous ' Mildew.' 

" At the Palace in 1894, I bought a smoke 
female kitten from Miss Bray as a mate for 
'Jubilee.' This mating proved successful, 
and I had several grand litters of smokes, 
most of which, I am sorry to say, went to 
swell the ranks of neuter pets, being given 
as presents to my friends. In time I learnt 
wisdom, however, and kept my smokes my- 
self. ' Jubilee's ' career as a show cat was 
unfortunately cut short after his Brighton 
win in 1894. He escaped one night, and in 
a fight with another cat had his ears so torn 
that I was unable to exhibit him again. A 
year later, when I was away from home, he 
was let out one day, and never returned, 
having, I expect, been trapped in the woods. 
At that period my smokes nearly died out, 
as I had only one litter a few weeks old by 
' Jubilee.' Of the two smokes one was pro- 
mised, and the other I kept, and he is still 
alive as ' Champion Backwell Jogram.' So 
I think I may consider I have had my share 
of luck, though, like most breeders, I have 




MRS. A. M. STEAD'S SMOKE PERSIAN 

(Photo: E. N. Collins, S. Norwood.) 



" CH. RANJI.' 



had my bad times, and have lost sometimes 
as many as twelve cats and kittens in a few 
days from distemper, and once or twice a 
very promising female has strayed into the 
woods and been seen no more. I hope, how- 
ever, that for some years, at least, ' Jubilee's ' 
descendants will continue to flourish, as there 
are a number of ' Jogram's ' kittens scattered 
over England, and several have left these 
shores for America. 

" In mating my smoke queens I have several 
times tried a black sire, and have always been 
successful in getting good smokes from this 
cross. 'Jubilee II.' is an example, being by 
' Johnnie Fawe,' Dr. Roper's famous black 
Persian. I have only once years ago tried a 
blue cross, but the result was a mixed litter of 
blacks and blues. I have found that all the 
blue queens mated with 'Jogram' have had 
chiefly blacks. Smokes may be considered a 
very hardy breed, perhaps from the fact 
that there has been little in-breeding so far. 
'Jogram' lives in an unheated wooden house 
all the year round, and has never even had a 
cold. Kittens will also stand the same treat- 
ment. 

" And now I will endeavour to give my 
ideas as to the points which go to make up 
a perfect smoke. A good smoke is perhaps 
one of the most beautiful of the many beau- 
tiful breeds of long-haired cats, a bad smoke 
one of the plainest. The novice for whom 
this article is principally written may there- 
fore be glad to have a clear definition of a 
smoke to start with. 

" The definition drawn up by the Silver 
Society when it first started reads as follows : 
' A smoke cat must be black, shading to smoke 
(grey), with as light an under-coat as possible, 
and black points, light frill and ear tufts ; 
eyes to be orange.' But the word ' black,' 
having sometimes led novices to suppose that 
a black cat possessed of a white under-coat 
is a smoke, it would be perhaps safer to say 
' a smoke is a deep cinder-coloured cat shading 
to grey, with a white under-coat,' etc. In 
order to distinguish the difference between 
black and the true cinder-colour of the smoke, 



SMOKE PERSIANS. 



183 



it is an excellent plan to keep a sound 
black cat in a smoke cattery. 

" Smokes are, comparatively speaking, one 
.of the newer breeds of long-haired cats, and 
arose from the crossing of blues, blacks, and 
silvers, and appeared as a freak in litters of 
blues or silvers, and, being beautiful, were 
kept by their owners. No serious attempt, 
however, was made to breed them until 
quite recently. If beauty and a hardy con- 
stitution count for much, they should be 
more popular even than they are at present ; 
but no doubt the extreme difficulties of 
breeding a good, unmarked shaded cat deter 
many breeders from taking them up. With 
a whole-coloured cat it is fairly plain sailing 
when a strain, sound in shape and bone, has 
been established ; but with a shaded cat it 
is quite another matter. Litter after litter 
of kittens appear, grand in shape, strong in 
limbs, apparently perfect in shading. In a 
few months the kittens moult, and the shading 
becomes perhaps a hopeless jumble of light 
and dark. Where it should be dark it has 
turned light, and vice versa. Still worse, the 
shading disappears, and the markings the 
bugbear of all smoke breeders appear, show- 
ing traces of the far-away silver tabby an- 
cestors. These markings have perhaps been 
lying dormant for a generation, and appear 
as a reminder of the silver tabby origin of 
the smoke. 

" To all smoke breeders who wish to succeed 
I would say, ' Never part with a well-shaped 
smoke until at least a year old, lest you find 
you have, in rejecting the apparently ugly 
duckling and keeping the gem, thrown away 
the substance for the shadow.' On the sub- 
ject of mating, there is much to be said. 
I am afraid many owners of smoke queens 
mate with any coloured cat which takes 
their fancy in the hopes of getting something 
in the litter besides smokes. 

" I have sometimes heard owners say, 
' Oh ! I mate my smoke queen with all sorts 
of colours. She always has one or two good 
smokes in each litter.' That mav be true, 
but if a smoke strain is to be built up, you 




" CHAMPION 
BACKWELL JOGKAM. 



are making a fatal mistake. The kitten thus 
bred goes to a new home and is expected to 
produce smokes as good as herself. She is 
mated with a smoke male, and when the 
litter arrives there are perhaps no smokes, 
she having thrown back to her sire, so as a 
breeder she is useless. Smoke to smoke must 
be the rule, except in special cases when, for 
instance, the queen is on the light side ; then 
a cross with a black may be found to be 
necessary. Or the queen may be too dark 
and given to breeding black kittens. Then 
the choice should fall on a silver as free as 
possible from silver tabby relations. On no 
account must a tabby of any colour be chosen 
or a sire with any white. A blue should also 
be avoided, as the under-coat is liable to take 
the blue shade and become blurred instead 
of white at the roots. 

" Orange eyes are much prized in smokes, 
and I believe, from my own experience in 
breeding smokes for the last ten years, that it 
is from the mothers that the kittens get their 
eye colour. If the queen has pale green eyes 
you may mate her with all the orange-eyed 
sires in the kingdom, and the eyes will still 
be pale. But if the queen has deep orange 
eyes, the kittens will inherit them also, even 
should the sire have only pale eyes. 

" Thanks to careful mating by some of our 
smoke breeders, smokes are not the flukes 
they once were, and a smoke queen, well 



184 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



mated, may now be relied upon to produce 
whole litters of smoke kittens. As a rule, the 
kittens at birth are quite black, and remain 
so for a week or so ; and my experience has been 
that if a kitten shows any trace of grey at 
birth, it will grow up too light. There are, 
however, a few well-known queens who throw 
almost silver kittens, which remain so for 
weeks, and then shed this kitten coat for a 
darker one ; so no hard-and-fast rule can be 
laid down as to what a smoke kitten should 
look like when born. Try in - breeding for 
coat to avoid the sleek or woolly-coated 
smoke, and aim at getting a cat with a coat of 
the true Persian flakiness described by Mr. 
Harrison Weir in his book on Persian cats, 
otherwise the chief beauty -the light under- 
and dark outer-coat is not seen to advantage 
as the cat moves. One point to be remem- 
bered in this breed is that the new coat grow- 
ing is dark just at the roots. These marks, 
when the smoke is changing coat, have often 
been mistaken for tabby markings, so for 
this reason it is most unwise ever to show a 
smoke when out of coat. Wait until your 
cat is in full coat before accusing it of having 
tabby markings. 

" There is a fashion in smokes, as in every- 
thing else ; and at present in England the 
very dark smokes -are the rage, .but in America 
the light ones are more sought after. That 
grand cat ' Watership Caesar,' who was con- 
sidered too light for English taste, was last 
year bought by the late Mrs. Thurston and 
taken to America, where he carried off all the 
smoke honours, also taking the prize for the 
best cat in the show. The same happened to 
Lady Marcus Beresford's ' Cossey,' a lovely 
cat of the lighter type. The tide may turn, 
however, even in England, where the 
slightly lighter smokes may share the honours 
with their darker brothers. It is better, 
however, to be on the safe side and breed for 
the darker smoke, as the lighter are apt to 
lose the smoke characteristics and overstep 
the line which divides them from a shaded 
silver." 

Mrs. Sinkins, to whom I have alluded as a 



smoke breeder, owns a splendid stud cat called 
" Teufel " that has made a name for himself 
as a first prize winner. This cat is as nearly 
a perfect specimen as it is possible to find. 
Mrs. Sinkins has written a few notes on 
smokes. 

" I must consider myself honoured in being 
asked to write about smoke Persians in 'The 
Book of the Cat,' as I am, comparatively 
speaking, a beginner in the cat fancy, only 
having kept Persians for three years or so. 
I began by buying a well-bred queen in kitten, 
and she presented me with two chinchillas 
and a perfect smoke female, which I named 
' Teufella,' and showed at Westminster in 
1899. She carried all before her, winning 
everything in her class, and was claimed at 
once at catalogue price. From a silver half- 
sister of hers I then bred ' Teufel,' whose 
picture is in this issue, and who is a great 
pet, being extremely sweet-tempered and 
affectionate. His chief characteristics are his 
absolutely unmarked black face and the lovely 
white under-coat, so desirable in a perfect 
smoke, and for which he received a special this 
spring (1902) at Westminster. I hope some 
of his descendants will take after him in 
these respects and make smokes increasingly 
popular. 

" In my opinion, it is a fatal mistake to 
mate smokes with blues, as they then lose 
this white under-coat. I think one obtains it 
best by mating a smoke-bred smoke cat with 
either a silver-bred smoke or else with a silver 
cat, as unmarked as possible, who possesses a 
smoke ancestor. Some day I should like to 
try mating a black with a pale silver, just as 
an experiment. 

" As to eye colour, there can be no two 
opinions. The deeper the orange, the better. 

" I do not find smokes at all delicate, no 
more so than the common or garden cat. All 
my queens have entire freedom, one in par- 
ticular being a first-rate ratter and mouser, 
even catching moles sometimes. And they 
live out of doors in unheated houses all the 
year round, even in the most severe winter. 

" It seems hard that all Persians should have 



SMOKE PERSIANS. 



185 



to pass through an ' ugly ' period luckily a 
short one when they change their coats, 
looking ragged and certainly not their best. 
Smokes and blacks then show the brown tinge 
even worse than chinchillas, as it gives them 
the poverty - stricken appearance of rusty 
moulting though I must say ' Teufel ' has 
so far been the exception, taking all honours 
at one show when in full moult. 

" However, their good time fully corn- 



standard up to which I try to breed. I find 
the kittens go through several stages before 
they approach this perfection. For instance, 
a kitten I had in the spring of 1902 lightened 
considerably, and developed markings on the 
face, but at eight months old he was nearly 
up to the standard. A litter of six I have 
recently bred were entirely unmarked at 
birth, being, in fact, quite black. Five are 
now medium-coloured smokes, and one a very 




MRS. SIXKINS' SMOKE PERSIAN '' TEUFEL." 



pensates for the shabby period, and a typical 
smoke, with his large orange eyes set in his 
black face, with light ear tufts and frill, his 
white under-coat showing with every move- 
ment, is a thing of beauty hard to beat, and 
I feel sure the smoke variety has a great 
future before it." 

Mrs. Stead, the owner of " Champion 
Ranji " and " Rhoda," a winning smoke 
female, has kindly given me her opinion on 
smokes : 

" My ideal of perfect smoke cats is that 
they should be black, shading to smoke grey, 
with as light an under-coat as possible, light 
frill and ear tufts, eyes orange. This is the 



dark one, with beautiful light under-coat. I 
strongly advise all breeders not to despair of 
colouring until their kittens are fully grown. 
Permanent markings are, of course, very 
detrimental, and there is always great anxiety 
as to the final colour of the eyes. If, however, 
both parents are good in this respect, the 
result is generally satisfactory." 

The following article on smoke cats in 
America is taken from Field and Fancy of 
October, 1902 : 

" Smokes, with us, will probably rank with 
the silvers, and are destined to always hold a 
measure of popularity, though we have not 
such a very strong lot ; in fact, we may say 



1 86 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT, 



that good smokes are never so numerous any- 
where as to become a nuisance, and we may 
fairly congratulate ourselves at this stage of 
the game upon what we have had and bred. 

" Opinions differ as to what is a smoke, and 
at times we have to be rather lenient in the 
judging of these cats, for they are apt to be 
off colour too light or too streaky. No one 
has yet, in America, taken up the colour 
solely to breed smokes and nothing else, 
which seems a pity, for they can be bred and 
kept with blacks, and each sets off the other, 
and when visitors come to the cattery the 
contrast is made more apparent. 

" Those not conversant with the colour are 
apt to think anything smoky is a smoke 
exhibition cat, and no doubt, when good, 
those cats with dark faces and paws and light 



bodies are very handsome, but more often 
than not they are streaky and are smoke 
tabbies. After mature consideration and 
after seeing a good many, we, as well as other 
breeders, still think that unless the ' South- 
down ' cats, as some have called them, are 
very good we had better stick to the old 
definition of a smoke, and demand them dark 
enough. 

" A really dark, rich smoke without marks 
is, without doubt, one of the richest in colour- 
ing of all our long-hairs, and the stars are 
few. One may go away from the original 
definition of a smoke, but when brought face 
to face with a good one it forces one to con- 
fess that this is the genuine article, and, when 
in grand condition, a thing of beauty and a 
joy for ever." 




" I.UCY CLAIRK." 
OWNED BY MRS. CLINTON LOCKE. 




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MRS. SINGLETON'S " ORANGE GIRL. 

(Photo : J. G. Christopher, Crcwkerne.) 



CHAPTER XV. 



ORANGE PERSIANS. 



IN the short-haired varieties, these cats 
are sometimes called red tabbies ; but 
I do not think the term gives such a 
true idea of the correct tone of colour, which 
should be just that of a ripe orange when in 
perfection. As I write I have in my mind's 
eye the mass of bright colour presented by a 
pile of oranges in a greengrocer's shop, and 
this is the tone that is to be desired in our 
orange cats. There is a dash of red in the 
ideal orange cat, suggestive, perhaps, of the 
blood-oranges with which at Christmastide we 
are familiar. Anyhow, an orange cat should 
be as far removed as possible both from sandy 
or yellow or, as I have heard them called, 
lemon-coloured cats. 

I have left out the term " tabby " from the 
heading of this chapter, and I think advisedly ; 
for in the Persian varieties the markings are 
gradually but surely vanishing, and orange 
cats may be said to stand in the same relation 
to orange tabbies as shaded silvers do to silver 
tabbies. I mean that most of the orange 



Persians now exhibited have shaded bodies, 
with tabby marking on head, face, and paws. 
The body markings, never very strong in 
Persian tabbies, are even less distinct in the 
orange than in the silver varieties. It may 
therefore be said that in judging this breed 
as they are represented in the show pen to- 
day, colour is taken into consideration first, 
and tabby markings are of less account. As 
regards other distinctive features of this breed, 
I may say that it is the exception, and not the 
rule, to find good round heads and short noses. 
The longest faces I have ever seen in any 
felines have been those possessed by orange 
Persian and short-haired cats. I have really 
sometimes felt quite sorry for a magnificent 
puss of this colour whose nose was so self- 
assertive that every other point, however 
excellent, seemed to be lost sight of, and that 
nose with the accentuated terminus stood out 
with distressing prominence. Until the year 
1894 the classification at the Crystal Palace 
was " brown or red tabby, with or without 



iSS 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



white," and the descriptions given in the 
catalogue by some owners on entering their 
cats read " brown and red," " red-marked 
tabby," " spotted red tabby," " sandy Persian." 
In 1895 orange and cream cats were placed 
together in one class. 

A specialist society for orange, cream, fawn, 
and tortoiseshell cats was founded in 1900, 
and although the number of members is small, 
yet they have proved a strong body of staunch 
supporters of these breeds, and a really 
astonishing amount of good work has been 
done by these few enthusiasts. The classifica- 
tion at the large shows has been greatly 
supplemented, and, whereas before the forma- 
tion of the society the sexes were never 
separated, now this energetic little club asks 
for, obtains, and often guarantees extra 
classes. The result, therefore, to breeders of 
orange and cream cats is much more satis- 
factory, and males and females have their 
respective classes ; and right well have they 
been filled. It was in 1900 that classes for 
creams were introduced at shows. At the 
Richmond show in 1902 there were thirteen 
entries in male and thirteen in female orange 

and c r e a m 
classes, the 
sexes, but not 





Photo] 



lal. 



" SWAGGEK." 

BRED BY MRS. VIDAL. 



11 PUCK," SON OF MKS. VIDAL's " BLLWAYDA.' 



THE PROPERTY OF MRS. MOXON. 
(Plwto: E. D. Percival, Ilfracombe.) 



the colours, being divided. This was really a 
splendid testimony to the efforts of a specialist 
society of less than two years' standing. It 
is such a short time ago that orange, cream, 
and tortoiseshell cats were relegated to the 
" any other colour " class, even at our largest 
shows ; now it is often remarked by reporters 
in the cat papers that the well-filled cream and 
orange classes were the chief attractions of 
the show. 

I will here give a copy of the circular issued 
by the honorary secretary inviting members 
!to join, and the points for orange cats, as 
drawn up by the specialist society, which were 
decided upon at the inaugural meeting : 

ORANGE, CREAM, FAWN, AND TORTOISE- 
SHELL SOCIETY. 

LONG AND SHORT HAIRED. 

As societies have been lately formed to promote the 
interests of one or more colours in the cat world, it 
has been thought by a few fanciers of orange, cream, 
fawn, and tortoiseshell cats that there is an opening 
for a society for the purpose of encouraging the breed- 
ing of these colours. The objects of such a society 
would be : 

(i) To secure better classification for these varie- 
ties at the different shows. 

(2} To encourage fanciers to breed and show these 
colours by offering special prizes, etc. 

(3) To improve the type of cat bred. 

(4) To secure recognition for all shades of orange, 



ORANGE PERSIANS. 



189 



cream, and fawn ; and, inasmuch as many fanciers 
disagree as to the merits of the different tints for 
eyes, to encourage the breeding and showing of 
specimens with green, orange, hazel, and blue eyes. 

Miss Mildred Beal, Romaklkirk Rectory, Darling- 
ton, has undertaken to act as hon. sec. to the society, 
and will be glad to hear from any fanciers who may 
wish to support it. 

November, 1900. 

ORANGE SELF OR TABBY POINTS. 

Colour and marking. Colour to be as bright as 
possible, and either self or markings to be as distinct 
is can be got. 25. 

Coat. To be silky, very long, 
and fluffy. 25. 

Size and Shape. To be large, 
not coarse, but massive, with 
plenty of bone and substance ; 
short legs. 20. 

Head. To be round and broad, 
with short nose, ears small and 
well opened. 15. 

Eyes. To be large and full, 
and bright orange or hazel. 5. 

Condition. 10. 



It will be noticed that the 
heading of these points is 
"orange self or tabby"; but, 
as I have pointed out, the 
cats exhibited as orange Per- 
sians are neither self-coloured 
nor can they be called tabby. 
So it remains to be seen 
which type of cat will in due 
course be the established one. 
I incline towards a self-coloured orange in 
the Persian breeds, and a very handsome cat 
this would be of just one tone of bright even 
colour, perhaps slightly lighter on the flanks 
and stomach, under the tail, and with a frill 
of paler tone. In fact, very much the type of 
a smoke cat, in two shades of brilliant orange. 
At the same time, if real orange tabbies can be 
bred with the distinct body markings these 
should be encouraged. 

At the Cat Club shows it has been custom- 
ary to give the classification for orange cats 
marked or unmarked, so that then the judge 
may not have to take tabby markings into 
consideration, but give his awards according 




' BENJAMIN OF THK DURHAMS 

THE PROPERTY OF MRS. D'ARCY HILDYARD. 
(Photo: Burgess, Market Lavington.) 



to colour and other points of excellence. It is 
the same when a class is given for sable or 
brown tabby, silver or shaded silver. In such 
classes it would be unfair to consider either 
the tabby markings in the one or the amount 
of shadings in the other. Of course, it is 
possible that in time orange cats may be bred 
to such perfection that two distinct classes 
will be given, namely " orange " (selfs) and 
" orange tabby." In former years blues 
(selfs) and. blue tabbies were included in one 
class, but gradually blue 
tabbies have been disappear- 
ing from our midst. If, 
therefore, orange tabbies I 
mean, of course, long-haired 
cats should likewise be- 
come extinct, our browns 
and silvers would be the sole 
representatives of tabbies in 
the long-haired varieties. 

As regards the eyes in 
orange Persians, the stand- 
ard given in the foregoing 
list of the specialist society 
is "bright orange or hazel." 
I should prefer the terms 
" golden bronze or hazel," 
as there is a special shade of 
gold with a dash of bronze 
or brown which seems to 
tone best with the bright 
coats of these cats. Cer- 
tainly the pale yellow or greenish-yellow eye 
is not desirable better a bright green eye. I 
often wonder if ever fanciers will be fortunate 
enough to breed an orange Persian with bright 
blue eyes, such as are seen in whites and 
Siamese. I have heard of a short-haired 
orange cat with blue eyes, and sometimes I 
have been told by a fancier of the Persian 
tribe that they had bred an orange, and its 
eyes had not turned from the deep kitten blue 
at four months, so they were fondly hoping 
they were going to astonish the cat world ; but 
their hopes were dashed to the ground, for 
surely and sadly a change came o'er the colour 
of that cat's eyes, and it was a case of the 



igo 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



blue that failed ! I once noticed an advertise- 
ment in one of our cat papers which announced, 
" For sale, a unique orange Persian male with 
perfect deep blue eyes " ; but I also remarked 



Orange cats make a splendid foil for other 
varieties. This is especially the case as 
regards blues and blacks ; the contrast in 
colour enhances the beauty of each. I know 



that the age of this unique specimen was not one lady who, having an eye to the artistic, 




" TORRINGTON SUNNYSIDES." 

THE PROPERTY OF MRS. G. W. VIDAL. 

(Photo: G. W. Vidal.) 



given, and 'I did not think it was worth while 
to write and inquire. 

The texture of coat in this breed ought to be 
particularly soft and silky, and is often of great 
length and thickness. The kittens when born 
are usually dull in colour, and gradually 
brighten as they grow older. As is well known 
to cat fanciers, orange females are rarer than 
orange males, so their market value is higher. 
There is, therefore, always a flutter of excite- 
ment on the arrival of a litter, and too often 
fate has decreed that all are males ! 



keeps a blue and an orange neuter, and a lovely 
pair they make. I think the largest cat I ever 
saw was an orange neuter that simply filled 
the show pen with a mass of bright colour but 
he had a white shirt front and white gloves ! 
As regards mating orange cats, they make 
a good cross with blacks and tortoiseshells ; and 
if a brown tabby lacks the admired tawny or 
golden tint, then an orange may assist to 
brighten and improve the general tone, and do 
away, perchance, with that drabbiness which 
is so undesirable in a brown tabbv. 



ORANGE PERSIANS. 



191 



I do not think orange cats have ever been 
very popular, and I have remarked at shows 
that a certain number of people refuse to give 
anything but a passing contemptuous glance 
at the classes which contain what they call 
" those yellow cats." 

A very common defect among orange Persian 
cats is the white or very light chin. Some- 
times there is the still more damaging blemish of 
a white spot on the throat, spreading, perhaps, 
further down the chest. It is very rare to find 
an orange that has really a dark under-lip, and 
chin level in tone with the body colour. The 
white lip is a bugbear to breeders and exhi- 
bitors, for Nature repeats itself, and judges 
make notes of the defect ; and in these up-to- 
date catty days of specialist clubs and standards 
of points a cat full of quality failing in one 
particular is too often a white elephant, if 
desired for anything more than a pet. I have 
observed that orange cats will sometimes 
develop a light or nearly white chin in their 
old age. I never consider a white spot or tuft 
of white hairs such a blemish to a cat if these 
are on the stomach, as compared with the same 
defect on the throat. Such a spot would not 
be so likely to be handed down to successive 
generations ; and, of course, a blemish that 
has to be sought for in an obscure part of the 
body is not such an eyesore in a self or tabby 
cat. I have often observed orange cats with 
very light hair underneath which has almost 
approached white ; but such defects are some- 
times only temporary, whereas a white spot on 
the throat or a white chin remains once and 
for ever. 

In the early days of the fancy, orange cats 
were decidedly more tabby marked than they 
are in the present day. A noted one of this 
type was " Cyrus the Elamite," born in 1889, 
and bred by Mrs. Kinchant, an enthusiastic 
fancier at that and later periods. In 1893 and 
1894 Mr. Heap exhibited a handsome orange, 
" Prince Charlie," at the Crystal Palace. He 
also owned another, called " Prince Lyne," of 
the same breed, the celebrated tortoiseshell 
" Queen Elizabeth " being the mother of both 
these cats. " Puff " was exhibited by Mrs. 



Spackman in 1894 ; this orange cat was not 
much marked, and " Lifeguard " was bred 
from him. It was about this date that un- 
marked orange Persians became more fashion- 
able. Among females, " Lifeguard's " sister, 
" Goldylocks," owned by Mrs. Marriott, was 
one of the very best queens ever shown. Mrs. 
Foote, who is still well known in the fancy, 
had several beautiful orange females, notably 
"Marigold," "Buttercup," and "Cowslip." 
With these-cats Mrs. Foote tried to breed un- 
marked creams and oranges, " Ripon," a noted 
cream, being the sire. She built up several 
storeys of her catty castle, but then sold them 
to Lady Marcus Beresford. " Trilby," litter 
sister to " Zoroaster," a famous cream, was 
one of the brightest and deepest coloured 
orange females or, indeed, orange cats that 
has ever been seen. 

Coming down to the present day, I may re- 
mark that the number of orange cats placed at 
stud is very limited. A great loss to the ranks 
of male orange Persians was " Lifeguard," for- 
merly the property of Lady Marcus Beresford. 
This cat was almost unmarked, of a beautiful 
bright shade, and had an unusually round head 
and short face, with Ion? silky coat. He was 




" LIFKGUAKn." 

FORMERLY THE PROPERTY OF LADY MARCUS BERESFORD. 
(Photo -. E. Landor, Ealing.) 



192 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



purchased by Miss Cartmell, who is well known 
as an enthusiastic breeder of orange Persians, 
but who never exhibits. This lady has been 
very successful in breeding numerous fine 
female orange cats, and many a winner has 
been born to blush unseen in the Barham 
Cattery, near Canterbury. 

Another noted winner and stud cat is 
"Torrington Sunnysides," of whom a portrait 
is given. This cat is the property of Mrs. 



Vidal, and sent out to Mr. Storey in Chicago. A 
son of " Torrington Sunnysides " has also found 
a home in a Chicago cattery. " Red Knight " 
was sent by the writer to Mrs. Colburn, 
and in an article in the American Field and 
Fancy mention is thus made of him : " ' Red 
Knight,' an orange male, with deepest orange 
eyes, was imported from England. He is a 
very good type, and has sired some beautiful 
kittens, notably two by Miss Adams' ' Daffodil,' 




ONE OF MRS. NEATE S OUT-DOOR CATTERIES AT WEKNHAM. 



G. H. Vidal, and has done a lot of winning. 
His colour is exceptionally good, and he has 
sired several prize kittens, some of which have 
been sent out to America and gained distinc- 
tion over the water. " Torrington Sunny- 
sides " has a most luxurious house in the 
spacious garden surrounding Mrs. Vidal's 
residence at Sydenham. The photograph is by 
Mr. G. W. Vidal, who dislikes taking orange cats, 
because the tone is so difficult to reproduce 
in photography, Mrs. Davies, of Caterham, 
has owned some good orange cats. Her male 
" Hamish " was a grand specimen, but was 
only twice exhibited, when he gained highest 
honours. He was then purchased by Mrs. 



very fine specimens of pure orange, with cobby 
bodies, wide heads, tiny ears set far apart, 
and beautiful coats. They have been fed on 
1 Force," and Miss Adams is going to call the 
male ' Sunny Jim.' Another son, seven 
months old, of the same parentage, is the largest 
cat ever seen for his age, and if he continues 
growing will certainly be enormous." 

One of Mrs. Vidal's orange kittens, " Puck " 
by name, is now owned by Mrs. Moxon, of 
Ilfracombe, from whom I have obtained a 
photograph for reproduction. 

A few notes on orange Persian cats by Mrs, 
Vidal will be interesting to my readers : 

" It is difficult to imagine a more gorgeous 



ORANGE PERSIANS. 



193 



colour than a really good orange lying full 
length in the sun. There is, however, rather 
a prejudice against them, chiefly because some 
people persist in calling them ' sandy ' or ' red,' 
both of which names are quite misleading. I 
have several times had people say to me when 
visiting my cattery, ' I have always thought 
I did not like sandy cats, but I have never 
before seen a cat of such a lovely colour as the 
one you have just shown me.' Six years ago, 



it is very rarely seen. The absence of markings 
usually means absence of the rich orange colour 
so much admired. Any white on chin or bib 
is, of course, a blemish, and for breeding or 
show purposes such an animal is perfectly 
useless. 

" An orange stud cat is a very useful animal 
to have in a cattery, for crossing with him will 
improve many colours, viz. tortoiseshell, brown, 
grey, and sable tabbies ; while if he is mated 
to a blue_ queen the kittens, if orange, are 
beautiful in colour brighter, I think, than if 
two orange cats are mated together.. In 




CURIOSITY. 
(Photo: Mrs. S. F. Clarke.) 



when I first took up cat rearing, it was rare to 
see any orange cats at the shows, but now they 
and the creams form one of the most beautiful 
classes, and they have a specialist society of 
their own and an energetic secretary in Miss 
Mildred Beal. 

" There are two classes of oranges, one which 
has the ordinary tabby markings, more or 
less distinct, and the other which is ' necked ' 
all over the back in small patches, and which 
is usually not nearly so bright in colour as the 
so-called ' tabby ' markings. The correct thing 
is to breed a totally unmarked orange ; and, 
although many people claim this for their pets, 
13 



mating with other colours it is a toss-up what 
colour will predominate, but the only way 
to ensure all orange kittens is to mate with 
orange queens, when, according to my experi- 
ence with my stud cat (' Torrington Sunny- 
sides '), the results are all orange. Mated with 
tortoiseshells the orange kittens are very good ; 
but mated with blacks the strongest colour 
carries the day, and the kittens are mostly 
black or tortoiseshell, seldom orange. Silvers, 
chinchillas, and smokes should, of course, 
never be mated with oranges, as the result 
would be. a horrible mixture ! Orange queens 
were at one time very rare, and even now 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



194 

are not plentiful, being 
delicate and difficult to 
rear. 

"The time at which the 
kittens change the colour 
of their eyes from the 
baby blue to orange varies 
a great deal in individual 
animals, from seven to 
twelve weeks. When the 
eyes are very deep blue, 
they change to bright rich 
orange or hazel ; but if of 
a pale blue, they change 
very quickly to a poor 
yellow, and never get the 
rich dark orange which 
the deeper blue get. Therefore rejoice when 
you see your kittens with deep blue eyes. 
Some of our kittens have had the most lovely 
deep blue eyes, and great has been our sorrow 
as we found the inevitable change coming on. 
If I could only manage to get some kittens with 
the permanent blue eyes that the best white 
cats have, I should indeed be proud ; but 
thinking of the kittens with terrible white 
chins and under -coats, which would crop 
up in every litter and would have to be 
drowned, quite deters me from sending my 
orange queens to white studs with blue 




MRS. NEATE'S CAT HOUSES. 




ANOTHER VIEW OF MRS. NEATK S 
CAT HOUSES. 



eyes ! All who have been accustomed to 
frequent the show pens will remember 
Miss M. Beal's splendid old orange queen 
' Jael,' who up to the last, although 
nearly fourteen years old, always took first 
prize, and was a very good specimen of what 
an orange queen should be- of a bright rich 
orange, without any suspicion of light under 
her chin or chest (the usual weak point), and 
having the splendid head, short nose, and good 
cobby shape which all breeders strive for. 
Short-haired orange cats are often seen about 
our towns and villages, and are always 
called 'sandy,' but are not, 
I think, held in much ac- 
count. They are distinct from, 
the so - called ' red tabby,' 
which is a recognised colour 
in our shows." 

Among the prize - winning 
females of the present day I 
must not forget to notice Mrs. 
Singleton's "Orange Girl," bred 
from Miss Beal's noted strain. 
This cat has had many honours 
showered upon her during a 
very short career, and as there 
must always be a scarcity of 
queens in this breed, this fine 
specimen is a valuable posses- 
sion. 



ORANGE PERSIANS. 



195 



So long as there are two cat clubs and two 
registers there will be a confused multiplicity 
of names, and so yet another orange male 
called " Puck " inhabits the cat world. This 
handsome fellow is owned by the Hon. Mrs. 
McLaren Morrison, to whom I had the pleasure 
of awarding first prize and many specials at 
the Botanic show held in June, 1902. His vivid 
colouring and well-shaped limbs and splendid 
eyes will always make him a conspicuous 
specimen in the show pen. Alas ! his photo- 
graph does him but scant justice. Quite a 
surprise packet appeared at the Crystal Palace 
show of 1902 by the appearance of a very 
handsome young male in " William of Orange " 
exhibited by Mrs. Stillwell, and bred from 
Dr. Roper's noted black " Johnnie Fawe " and 
tortoiseshell queen " Dainty Diana." This 
cat was awarded first and many specials, and 
was claimed by Lord Decies at catalogue price. 
As " William " was not a year old when he 
won his laurels, it may readily be believed that 
he has a distinguished career before him, and 
may add another to the long list of winners 
owned and exhibited by Lady Decies. No 
orange male cat is better known in the fancy 
than that splendid fellow " The King's Own," 
belonging to Mrs. Neate. He has had a most 
successful career, and may be considered as 
nearly self-coloured an orange as any yet 
exhibited. 

Mrs. Neate is a devoted admirer of this breed 
and also a great cat lover, and has recently 
started an arrangement for boarding cats, and 
truly I know of no place better adapted for 
successful cat keeping than the home of Mrs. 
Francis Neate, at Wernham, near Marlborough ; 
situated as it is in the very heart of the country, 
a mile from any other house, her cats can enjoy 
their liberty with perfect safety. 

A large range of brick-built and slated out- 
houses has been converted into catteries and 
comfortably fitted. All have wooden floors, 
wire doors, and large runs attached. A number 
of portable houses and runs are dotted about 
the kitchen garden and meadows. An empty 
cottage serves as an isolation hospital, or place 
of quarantine for cats returning from shows. 



A herd of pure-bred goats supply the inmates 
of the cattery with milk, and rabbits, which 
abound, form their staple food when in season. 
The largest of the outhouses is fitted with a 
Tortoise stove, carefulty guarded. The pride 
of Mrs. Neate's cattery is, of course, the famous 
orange stud "The King's Own." He is the sire 
of the two winning orange queens " Mehitabel 
of the Durhams " and " Glory of Prittlewell." 

Fitting mates for him are " Wernham 
Titmouse "^(tortoiseshell-and-white), " Evening 
Primrose " (a cream daughter of " Cham- 
pion Midshipmite " and " Hazeline "), also 
" Mimosa " (an orange bred by Miss Cartmell 
from " Richmond Bough " and " Mistletoe ") ; 
these occupy the house adjoining the stables. 

" Champion Bundle " and " Betsy Jane," a 
lovely little blue with glorious orange eyes, are 
the only blues of the establishment. Latterly 
Mrs. Neate has reduced her own stock of breed- 
ing queens, and makes a speciality of receiving 
cats during the holidays. Judging by the 
number of cat fanciers who sent their pets to 
Mrs. Neate during the summer of 1902, it is 
certain that a great want has been most 
efficiently supplied. Not only does Mrs. Neate 
give personal supervision to her catty boarders 
and visitors, but they have splendid caretakers 
on the premises. These custodians are Mrs. 
Neate's big St. Bernard and a chow-chow, who 
jealously guard the Wernham cattery. These 
dogs are on the very best terms with the 
feline inmates, and the strange pussies very 
soon appear to settle down to an amicable 
cat-and-dog life. The accompanying photo- 
graphs, as will be seen, were taken in the depth 
of winter. These brick-built houses, slate 
roofed and with wooden floor, are splendidly 
adapted for keeping the cats snug and warm 
during the cold weather. One of the buildings 
illustrated is 25 feet by 15 feet, and has three 
windows. This house is provided with large 
table, shelves, and chairs, and cosy sleeping- 
boxes. An outside wire run, of the same 
length and width as the building, is erected for 
an exercise ground in summer weather. 

Mrs. Neate has kindly supplied me with a 
few notes on orange Persian cats : 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



" It was in 1897, at Boscombe show, that I 
claimed the winner in a class of twenty-six 
kittens, my now well-known orange Persian 
stud ' The King's Own.' The same year, at 
the Crystal Palace, I purchased a lovely orange 
female kitten sired by Mrs. Pettit's ' Champion 
King of Pearls ' and the tortoiseshell-and-white 
' Dainty Doris.' From her I fondly hoped to 
establish a breed of blue-eyed oranges, which 
feature would be charming in the variety ; but 
alas ! she came home to sicken and die, as so 
many another valuable kitten has done, and I 
have never since been able to obtain an orange 
of either sex sired by a blue-eyed white. 

" It is most difficult to breed oranges without 
white lips and chins ; the pink nose, too, is a 
feature in the breed that I do not like. 

" I have found crossing an orange male with 
a cream female the surest way to breed sound- 
coloured specimens of both sexes and varieties, 
e.g. ' Mehitabel of the Durhams ' (a really rich- 
coloured unmarked orange queen, and quite 
free from the objectionable light shading on 
lips and chin) ; she was bred by Mrs. D'Arcy 
Hildyard from her cream female ' Josephine 
of the Durhams ' and ' The King's Own.' Again, 
from a blue male and a tortoiseshell queen you 
are more certain of breeding good oranges 
(though seldom of the female sex) than from 
mating tortoiseshell and orange together ; in 
the latter case more often than not black 
kittens predominate in the litter, and there is 
rarely, if ever, an orange female amongst them. 

" Mrs. Vidal's famous orange stud ' Torring- 
ton Sunnysides ' was a son of my light blue 
' Champion Bundle ' and a tortoiseshell dam 
' Torrington Owlet,' herself of an orange 
strain. Mrs. Walford Gosnall's ' Rufus ' (whose 
name discloses his colour) was also the result 
of this union. ' Red Ensign,' the orange kitten 
who won first and three specials at Westminster 
in 1902, was bred by me from ' Champion 
Bundle ' and ' Mimosa,' an orange queen of 
cream breeding, and with his litter brother 
' Scarlet Lancer ' took first and silver medal 
for the best pair of kittens. The latter is now 
the property of Miss Cartmell, and has grown 
into a fine cat. Unfortunately for the cat 



fancy generally, ' Red Ensign ' was claimed at 
the show, and is now a house pet. 

" The best orange kittens I have bred were 
from my ' Wernham Titmouse,' a tortoiseshell- 
and-white who owns an orange dam, and ' The 
King's Own ' ; the whole litter were females, 
and redder than any oranges I have seen. 
These never lived to see a show, and their death 
was one of the greatest disappointments I 
have experienced in my career. The demand 
for good orange and cream females is greater 
than the supply ; in fact, these colours are 
decidedly ' booming,' and better classification 
is given for them at our principal shows. 

" At the Crystal Palace show of 1898 there 
were only four entries in the open class for 
orange and cream males, and four of the same 
varieties in the female class, compared to the 
ten entries in orange and cream male classes 
and the same number in the female classes at 
the Cat Club's show, held at Westminster, 
1902. These facts speak for themselves of the 
increased interest now taken in these varieties. 

" Unlike some of the warmer tinted of us 
humans, orange cats of both sexes are particu- 
larly sweet tempered, showing great attach- 
ment to their owners. They are of strong 
constitution and attain to great size, being at 
present free from the in-breeding that is practised 
amongst many other varieties of our show cats. 
A small piece of sulphate of iron in the drinking 
water will enrich the colour of orange and 
tortoiseshells, besides being an excellent tonic, 
especially during the moulting season. 

" Orange Persian cats do not, as a rule, make 
good photographs, as they lack expression 
compared to the short-haired tabby varieties 
of this colour." 

The Misses Beal, of Romaldkirk, near Dar- 
lington, have long been associated with orange 
and cream cats. " Jael " was quite unique 
as an orange female, and at fifteen years of 
age could yet win in her class by reason of her 
grand colour, perfectly shaped head, short face, 
and tiny, well-set ears. Such a cat stands out 
in any breed, and such a cat may never again 
be bred. " Jael " died in 1902, after a long 
and successful career. 




3 
1} 



e 

b. 



13* 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



Miss Beal's male orange " Minotaur " is one 
of the most beautiful cats of this breed now 
exhibited, and has quite the best round head 
and face, with sweetest expression. These are 
qualities too often lacking in orange cats. 

Miss Beal's name is, perhaps, more closely 
associated in the cat world with cream cats, 
and in my next chapter on this breed she has 
kindly supplied some notes. 

Another fancier of both orange and cream 
cats is Mrs. D'Arcy-Hildyard, and to her I 
am indebted for the following notes on orange 
Persian cats : 

" Until comparatively lately I confined my- 
self entirely to the breeding of creams, and my 
efforts were attended with considerable success, 
both in multiplying the number of cats of 
that colour I bred thirteen one year and in 
filling the classes given for cream females. I 
was particularly lucky in breeding many 
creams of the gentler sex. 

" The birth of the Orange and Tortoiseshell 
Society fired me with ambition to start breed- 
ing oranges. I was much fascinated with the 
colour, though I hate their being penned beside 
the creams at shows, as they completely take 
all colour out of the lighter animals and give 
them a washed-out appearance. I started by 
crossing my cream queen 'Josephine of the Dur- 
hams ' with Mrs. Neate's famous ' The King's 
Own.' This proved a most satisfactory cross, 
the results being three rich-coloured unmarked 
orange kittens, one male and two females. I 
sold one female to Miss Scratton, of Prittlewell 
Priory, and it has, I hear, grown into a very 
handsome cat ; the other two I kept, and they 
won all before them at Manchester Kitten Show, 
1901, and were shown at Slough after, where 
the male was claimed. The remaining one, 
' Mehitabel of the Durhams,' I kept, and she 
won me many prizes last winter, and being 
mated this year to ' Champion Romaldkirk 
Admiral ' has presented me witli a litter of 
two creams and an orange. Certainly creams 
and oranges cross well, and often I think 
produce a brighter and deeper tone of colour 
than is obtained from other shades. I have 
lately purchased an orange torn, and by cross- 



ing him with ' Hazeline,' one of my cream 
queens, have got a splendid litter of seven pure 
oranges. This, I think, proves that the cream 
and orange cross is good, and that they breed 
very true. Oranges bred by crossing other 
colours seem to me rather spasmodic, if I may 
use the term. When breeders try crossing 
an orange and a tortoiseshell they very often 
get blacks and blues as well as oranges ; on the 
other hand, from a blue and a tortoiseshell cross 
sometimes an orange is obtained. But they do 
not seem able to count exactly on the results. 

" Reliability is what I claim from the cream 
and orange cross. I emphatically believe in 
mating creams to creams if you wish to get a 
good pale colour and few markings, and 
oranges and creams crossed have certainly 
produced good specimens of both colours for 
me. I speak from my own experience. 

" I hope to do great things by trying a 
cross between my orange torn ' Benjamin ' 
and ' Mehitabel.' Miss Winifred Beal's ' Mino- 
taur ' was the result of a cross between a 
cream and a tortoiseshell. Her well-known 
' Garnet ' is the daughter of a cream and a 
blue. At present there is, to my mind, no 
orange female on the show bench to compare 
with the late ' Jael,' owned by Miss Mildred 
Beal, whose brilliant colour and perfect head 
with its tiny ears made her hold her own at all 
the shows up to within two months of her death 
at quite a venerable age ; but I hope in 
the future, as oranges become more popular 
and breeders work hard at producing good 
specimens, we may see her like again. I was 
. much taken at Richmond show with Mrs. Sin- 
gleton's 'Orange Girl,' and also with the kitten 
of that colour exhibited by the same lady at 
Manchester. Every year, I think, shows that 
the general world is becoming more alive to the 
beauties of orange and cream cats, as proved 
both by the large increase in entries of these 
colours at the principal shows and the great 
demand for kittens when any are offered for 
sale. Undoubtedly breeders owning creams 
should stick to them, if they wLh to produce 
good oranges see the many splendid speci- 
mens sired by ' Midshipmite ' and ' Admiral.' 



ORANGE PERSIANS. 



199 



" It is a hard matter to say decisively what 
tint orange kittens should be when born, i 
have known them enter the world a bad cream, 
and gradually grow redder till they develop 
into the brilliant colour we all look to see in a 
cat of orange hue. Personally, I prefer them 
born a dark shade ; they usually lighten and 
brighten a little, but on the whole I think that 
is the more satisfactory of the two. It is 
distinctly discouraging to see a washed-out 



" I think the time is approaching when the 
orange and cream cats are going to be among 
the most attractive classes at our bigger shows. 
Already the classes are much better filled than 
when I first joined the fancy, and you always 
find an admiring crowd in front of their pens. 
I wish, though, that a nice sprinkling of blues 
could always be placed between the two 
colours at shows. The close company of the 
oranges is so excessively unbecoming to the 




OUT IX THE COLD. 

(Photo : E. Lnndor, Eating.) 



looking kitten when you are expecting a bright 
orange one. 

" Fanciers differ about the eyes which are 
supposed to be correct in this breed. Hazel 
eyes are universally acknowledged to be the 
right thing. Personally, I admire green, or 
rather eau-de-nil eyes, as giving more contrast 
to the colour of the coat, but you do not often 
see them. I have always wished to breed a 
cream with blue eyes I do not mean the baby 
blue, but the colour -that Siamese have and 
only the other day I sold a kitten three months 
old with brilliant blue eyes of this tint, and 
shall be anxious to know whether they change 
in time or not. 



creams, while when you see the three colours 
together they are especially lovely. To see 
cream and orange cats at their best they should 
be at large in the country and running about 
on the green grass." 

In 1902 an Orange and Cream Cat Club was 
started by a few enthusiastic breeders of these 
varieties over in America. The Misses Beal, 
Mrs. Vidal, and Miss Frances Simpson were 
elected as honorary members. The follow- 
ing is an extract from Field and Fancy, the 
American weekly paper : 

ORANGE CATS. 

There is very little doubt that this is a colour that 
has from the beginning of the fancy in America been 



20O 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



very popular, and has had a very strong hold upon 
the American love for colour. But, of course, as is 
generally the case with the popular ones, the supply 
has never been too plentiful, and probably never will 
be as regards the queens, for they only appear once 
in a while, according to what seems to be one of 
Nature's rules, that the queens should be tortoise- 
shells. 

The Orange and Cream Club is probably destined 
to do a great deal for the variety, which is one of the 
colours from which it takes its name. Breeding 
orange cats opens quite a field, for in attaining your 
end you can at the same time indulge in other colours, 
for undoubtedly a cross with a tortoiseshell will be 
found necessary to keep the colour sufficiently 
intense, and at other times it may be quite as well 
to throw in a little black. The tendency for the 
queens to be tortoiseshells may possibly be somewhat 
overcome in time, but these inherent traits in colours 
in animals and birds are often so strong that they 
have a knack of reappearing even after several 
generations. We occasionally see queens of the 
orange colour, and these are usually high quality 



ones, both in colour and type ; but the orange 
queens are not destined to at present make heavy 
classes by themselves. Though the standard calls 
for orange eyes, it is a curious coincidence that the 
most consistently successful cat of recent times has 
been Miss Beal's " Jael," who had green eyes ; but 
so good was her colour, so good her type, that she 
generally won when exhibited. 

The struggle carried on in the British Isles for some 
years to breed these cats without marks has been 
hardly a success, and there have not been very many 
evolved of that colour that were really without marks, 
and it is a great question if in this craze for absence of 
marks they have not been passing by a lot of good 
cats. As far as we personally are concerned in the 
matter, we see little to be gained by the absence of 
marks in the orange cats. If the colour had been 
very prolific in numbers it might have been a good 
idea to try and split up the classes, but they were 
never too well filled, and there is room still for plenty 
more, though we cannot complain so much at th& 
representation that they have had in America last 
season, either in numbers or quality. 




HIGHER EDUCATION. 
(Photo : Mrs. S. F. Clarke.) 



201 



CHAPTER XVI. 



CREAM OR FAWN PERSIANS. 




T 



MRS. CLINTON LOCKE S CREAM 
KITTEN. 



VHIS may be 
said to be 
the very 
latest variety in 
Persian breeds, 
and one which 
bids fair to be- 
come very fash- 
ionable. The 
term " cream " 
describes exactly 
what is the de- 
sired tint of these 
cats, but few and 
far between are 
the specimens 

which are pale and even enough in colour to 
be correctly described as creams. No doubt, 
in times past now and again a cream cat 
would be seen exhibited in the " any variety " 
class, but then they might be designated as 
freaks or flukes. Now, however, fanciers of 
these cats have a system in their matings, and 
therefore, as a result, there is a breed of cats 
established which until late years were not 
recognised or classified. 

It is true that the cream Persians seen in the 
show pens are often much darker than is implied 
by the name, and, indeed, are really fawn- 
coloured. The great thing, however, is to 
obtain an even tint throughout, whether dark 
or light, and to avoid any patches, streaks, or 
tabby markings. I think the very pale creams 
are more dainty and fascinating than the darker 
cats, but the lighter the coat the more difficult 
it is to obtain perfect uniformity of colour. Of 
course, there will always be a certain amount 
of shading in cream cats that is, the spine-line 
will be slightly darker, shading off on the sides 
and under the stomach and tail. I think that 
creams are making more rapid strides towards 
attaining the " almost unmarked " stage than 



are silvers. Certainly, good creams of to-day 
are very slightly barred on head or legs or tail, 
and this cannot be said as regards some of 
our best silver cats. This is probably to be 
accountgd_for by the cautious and wise dis- 
crimination used in mating creams by selecting 
blues or tortoiseshells, and thus avoiding 
tabby-marked cats. It is a peculiarity of 
cream cats that the eyes are generally almond- 
shaped, and are set rather slanting in the head. 
It is rare and a great treat to see bold, round, 
owl-like eyes in cream cats. These in colour 
should be golden or hazel, the brighter the 
colour the better. I will here give the points 
of cream or fawn cats, as drawn up by the 
specialist society : 

CREAM OR FAWN. 

Colour. To be as pure as possible without marking 
or shading, either paler or darker, dulness and white 
to be particularly avoided. All shades from the 
palest fawn to be allowable. 25. 

Coat. To be very long and fluffy. 25. 

Size and shape. To be large not coarse, but 
massive, with plenty of bone and substance ; short 
legs. 20. 

Head. To be round and broad, with short nose, 
ears small and well opened. 15. 

Eyes. To be large and full, and bright orange or 
hazel in colour. 5. 

Condition. 10. 

Much has 
been done 
by this en- 
ergetic spe- 
cialist so- 
ciety to get 
a better 
classifica- 
t i o n f o r 
creams at 
our shows ; 
and p e r- 
haps,astime A CREAMY SMILE. 




2O2 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



goes on and a larger number of fanciers take 
up these breeds, a distinct classification will be 
given for creams and fawns. It may always be 
a little difficult to draw the line between the 
two ; but such a division of colours would, I 
think, give satisfaction to the breeders of both 
creams and fawns, for at present judges are 
more inclined to give 
a preference to the 
palest - coloured cats, 
perhaps because more 
beautiful and more 
difficult to breed. 

In the former breeds, 
more especially blues 
and silvers, that I have 
described in this work 
it would have been 
impossible to name all 
those cats that were 
noted in the fancy, for 
the simple reason that 
their name is legion ; 
but it is different in a 
breed like creams, for, 
as I mentioned in the 
beginning of this 
chapter, in times past 
it was a case of only here and there a 
cream Persian appearing on the scene, then 
vanishing perhaps to America, or else being 
purchased for a pet and retiring from public 
life. These " sports " in the fancy were not 
seriously taken up, and no one thought of 
trying to establish a strain ; so that one can, 
as it were, put one's finger on the cats of this 
variety, if not so easily in the present day, 
certainly in the past. 

The first recorded cream Persian in cata- 
logues or stud books is " Cupid Bassanio," 
born in 1890, bred by Mrs. Kinchant ; no 
pedigree is given. He was a big, broad- 
headed, heavily coated cat, with a good many 
marks and shadings, and was sold to Mrs. 
Preston Whyte, and passed on to Miss Norman. 
In the same year Mrs. Kinchant exhibited 
cream kittens at Brighton. " Ripon " was 
another well-known cream of imported parents 




MRS. F. NORRIS S CREAM KITTEN 
(Photo: E. Lander, Baling.) 



(a blue and an orange). This cat was pur- 
chased from Mrs. Foote by Lady Marcus 
Beresford, and eventually disappeared when 
in the possession of Miss Cockburn Dickinson. 
Mr. McLaren Morrison in 1893 owned a pale 
cat called " Devonshire Cream." In the follow- 
ing year Miss Taylor bred a splendid speci- 
men from " Tawny," 
her noted tortoise- 
shell. This cat, called 
" Fawn," was an ab- 
solutely self - coloured 
fawn with brown eyes, 
and would do some 
winning if alive now 
to compete in our 
up-to-date classes for 
cream or fawn. It was 
in 1895 that Miss Beal 
first exhibited some of 
her creams, upon 
which at that time she 
did not set much store, 
more interested as she 
was in blues ; but of 
her now celebrated 
strain more anon. 

One of the best- 
known creams of late years is " Zoroaster," 
bred by Mrs. Bagster from her tortoiseshell 
"Pixie." This was a remarkably large pale 
cat with glorious eyes, but he was a good deal 
patched in colour when I saw him at Mrs. 
Mackenzie Stewart's cattery. Mrs. Cartwright 
bred a well-shaped light cream, " Upwood 
Junket," by " Timkins," a blue, and a daughter 
of " Cyrus the Elamite." Mrs. Davies, of 
Caterham, has often had creams in her posses- 
sion, notably " Lord Cremorne," quite one of 
the palest seen in the show pen. Two noted 
creams now placed at stud are Mrs. Norris's 
" Kew Ronald " and Mrs. Western's " Matthew 
of the Durhams." Both these cats arc bred 
from Miss Beal's famous " Heavenly Twins." 
Regarding " Matthew," a reporter in Our Cats 
thus writes after the Botanic show of 1901 : 
" Creams are, we prophesy, the coming cats. 
There seems to us great possibilities in this 



CREAM OR FAWN PERSIANS. 



203 



variety. ' Matthew of the Durhams ' 'is one 
of the cats we would bring forward in support 
of this view. Eminently aristocratic, breath- 
ing an air of refinement, this cat might be the 
petted darling of a princess whose cats are all 
selected by a connoisseur." Mr. Western is 
justly proud of his purchase, for he claimed 
this fine cat at the Sandy show, 1901, when he 
was exhibited by Mrs. D'Arcy Hildyard. 
" Matthew " has on four separate occasions 
taken second to his father ".Admiral's " first. 
He has sired some lovely creams, notably 
" Wynnstay Myrtle," also owned by Mrs. F. 
Western. This female is one of the best of her 
breed, and is sure to have some influence over 
the creams of the future. At the Crystal 
Palace show of 1902, where she was awarded 
first and many specials, she was the admired of 
all admirers. As a rule, cream females have 
been very much behind the males in quantity 
and quality. 
Almost the 
first two were 
bred by Miss 
Hester Coch- 
r a n e from 
"Cyrus the 
Elamite" and 
"Brunette." 
"Creme d'Or" 
is quite one of 
the best, and 
was owned by 
Mrs. Wellbye, 
who sold her 
to Mrs.Xorris. 
This cat de- 
clined to enter 
into any mat- 
rimonial alli- 
ance for some 
time, but at last presented her owner with a 
family by " Darius," Mrs. Ransome's noted 
blue. Two of these cats, " Kew Laddie " and 
" Kew Ronald," are well known in their 
different spheres. " Kew Laddie " I pur- 
chased to send out to Mrs. Clinton Locke, 
in Chicago, and she presented him to the 




honorary secretary of the Beresford Club, Miss 
Johnstone. This lady exhibited " Laddie " 
at the big Chicago Cat Show, where he 
won high honours, and in a letter received 
from Miss Johnstone I learn he is growing a 
grand fellow and, in fact, is quite la creme de 
la creme in catty society over the water. 

The picture of a perfect kitten on the opening 
page of this chapter represents a cream female, 
" Jessica Kew," bred by Mrs. Clinton Locke 
from " Lockhaven Daffodil," sired by Miss 
Johnstone's " Laddie Kew." Mrs. Clinton 
Locke is justly proud of this lovely kitten, and 
writes: "Jessica is the finest kitten I have 
ever seen ; all her points are perfect. She was 
five weeks old when this photo was taken. 
Her grandfather was my ' Victor,' an orange, 
her great-grandmother a tortoiseshell - and - 
white." 

I have mentioned Mr. F. Norris as a breeder 

of creams and 
the owner of 
the handsome 
pair of cats 
illustrated on 
this page. He 
has kindly 
supplied me 
with the fol- 
lowing notes : 
"Cream cats 
are of a mod- 
ern colour in 
Persians, but 
are now being 
more freely 
bred and find- 
ing numerous 
supporters. 
There are, 
however, very 
for size and 
The great 



KEW RONALD AND "KEW LADDIK. 

(Photo : E. Lamior, Baling.) 



few good ones in the fancy, 

colour are difficult to obtain. 

failing with them is that, although they are 

called cream cats, the best and soundest 

coloured ones are really of a fawn shade. So 

many show markings, patches, or shadings, 

whereas the colour should be one shade and 



204 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 




sound throughout ; better be a little dark in 
colour rather than shade from cream to white, 
as is the case with so many specimens ex- 
hibited. 

"For one grand-headed and good-eyed cot 
you see a dozen snipy, long-faced ones with 
curious slit eyes, instead of a short, snub head, 
with glorious big round golden eyes. 

" In my opinion, to get the short head, good 
eye, fine body shape, and short legs, it is best 
to mate a cream with a good cobby blue. From 
my experience nothing beats a blue, although 
you can mate them with a red, tortoiseshell, 
or black. Mating two creams together 
I do not advocate, unless one of them 
has a distinct out-cross in the first 
generation to totally different blood. 

"All the creams shown are descended 
from Miss Beal's two brothers ' Romald- 
kirk Admiral ' and ' Romaldkirk Mid- 
shipmite,' and to keep the colour, 
breeders have bred in and into them 
again ; and that is why they have 
lost so much in type and character, 
which would have been improved by 
using an out-cross. 

" I have heard people say, ' Cream 
females will not breed.' If they only 
studied the question a minute, they 



would know the reason well enough, 
which is that they have been too much 
in-bred. If breeders will only try the 
blue cross more, they will, I am sure, 
be pleased, and we shall see a better 
cat being shown. Breeding from blue 
you will get pure creams and some 
cream and blue mixed. Keep the blue 
and cream females, and when old 
enough mate them to a cream, and 
you will get some fine sound-coloured 
cream kits. 

" It is very curious that there has 
been nothing yet bred in males to beat 
the twin cats ' Admiral ' and ' Mid- 
shipmite.' 

" In females the best I have seen is 
' Miriam of the Durhams,' who has a 
lovely body and coat, but is long in face 
and has those bad-shaped eyes. ' Creme d'Or ' 
runs her close, as she has such a good head, 
with perfect eye, but is a wee bit long in the leg." 
Miss Beal's females "Calliope" and "Mignon- 
ette " were both noted prize-winning cream 
females. Mrs. D'Arcy Hildyard has been most 
successful in her endeavours to breed creams 
from creams, and a letter from her in Our Cats 
of April, IQOI, will be interesting to breeders 
of this variety : 

BREEDING OF CREAMS. 

SIR, Being much interested in the breeding of 
creams, I should like to say a few words on the 




MRS. D'ARCY HILDYARD'S CREAM KITTENS. 

(Photo : E. Yeoman, Barnard Castle.) 



CREAM OR FAWN PERSIANS. 



205 



subject and state my experience. Though only a 
novice, I have up to date succeeded in breeding 
twenty creams two in 1899, thirteen in 1900, and 
seven this year. I began by mating my mixed blue 
and cream queen " Senga " to a cream torn " D'Arcy," 
which I bought from Mr. Hutchinson, of Egglestone. 
From this pair I got four kittens, all females two 
cream and two marked blues. I kept the creams 
" Josephine " and " Hazeline," winners at Westmin- 
ster as kittens, first and second special and medal, 
1900. Later on in the year I mated them, " Hazeline" 
to Miss Beal's " Midshipmite," " Josephine " to her 
" Admiral." Both litters were entirely cream, 
" Josephine " producing six kittens, " Hazeline " pro- 
ducing five, two of which I have kept. " Matthew " 
and " Miriam of the Durhams " both won as kittens 
at Manchester, and " Miriam " has since taken first 
and specials at Barnard Castle, Westminster, and 
Reading. " Matthew " is growing into a very hand- 
some cat, and I hope to exhibit him at the Botanic. 
On Saturday last, April ijth, " Hazeline " again 
kittened and produced five creams, having again been 
mated to " Midshipmite. ' This I think distinctly 
proves that good ci earns can be got from a pair of 
the same colour. On April i4th " Senga " also pre- 
sented me with two more creams, also two marked 
blues, this time the result of a mating with Miss 
Beale's " Romaldkirk Toza." 

AGNES D'ARCY HILDYARD. 

Mrs. Barton Collier has two good creams, 
"Bruin" and "Dolly of Brough." Again 
these cats are from Miss Beal's strain, the male 
being a fawn and the female quite one of the 
palest of creams. 

Miss H. Cochran, who formerly took a great 
interest in this breed, writes : " I should be 
inclined to mate a pale cream male or female 
with a white, and the progeny with an un- 
marked orange, or vice versa. I had a litter 
from ' Buttercup ' and ' Zoroaster,' consisting 
of two oranges, two fawns, and a cream. The 
fawn and creams were females, but all died in 
their youth. I made other attempts with 
similar crosses, as I had been told it was im- 
possible to breed cream queens, and in the first 
year all the creams were queens, and the males 
red ! My idea was to select a male of the 
required colour, and mate a queen of suitable 
breeding with him, then to mate the resulting 
queens with their own father. I believe this 
plan would have been a success if I had followed 
it up. My idea is that the natural males are 




"MIRIAM OF THE DURHAMS. 

(Photo: . yeoman, Barnard Castle.) 

the fawns and oranges, and that their com- 
plementary queens are the blue tortoiseshells 
and the ordinary tortoiseshells. No harm is 
ever done to a cream or orange strain by cross- 
ing with black, and it may do much good to 
the latter by deepening the colour of the 
oranges, and promoting patchiness as opposed 
to streakiness in the tortoiseshells." 

I have made frequent mention of Miss Beal's 
noted creams during my chapters on orange 
and cream cats. These two celebrated cham- 
pions are commonly known in the fancy as the 
" Heavenly Twins," their registered names 
being " Romaldkirk Admiral " and " Romald- 
kirk Midshipmite." They are really fawn 
Persian cats, very sound in colour, well made, 
big boned, and are always exhibited in the pink 
of condition, and at all seasons of the year 
are in marvellous coat. Certainly, the cold 
climate of the Romaldkirk cattery, which is 
situated 730 feet above the sea level, must, 
anyhow, suit this variety of Persian cat. I 
suppose the day will come when these well- 



206 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



tried and well-seasoned veterans will have to 
retire from public life and make way for some 
of their already noted offspring. In the North, 
South, East, and West these " Heavenly Twins" 
have reigned supreme, and Miss Beal must 
almost have lost count of the number of prizes 
won by them, which, I think I am safe in 
saying, would give an exact record of the 
number of times exhibited. In response to my 
request, Miss Beal has sent me some notes re- 
garding her cattery arrangements, She says : 
" Most of the houses 
old farm 



are 



buildings 




round about our stable 
yard, and I have recently 
utilised an old granary 
which is over the coach- 
house. This is about 40 
feet long, and has a room 
at one end, with five win- 
dows and good ventilation 
above. In addition I have 
three big cat houses and 
a loft, where most of the 
queens reside . ' Middy ' and 
' Admiral ' (the ' Heavenly 
Twins ') have small wooden 
houses, felted inside and 
out, with wired runs and 
concrete floors. 

ic I have the use of two 

laundries and a tool-house fitted with fire- 
places, and these I reserve in case of illness." 

There are no cats exhibited in better coat 
and condition than those that come from the 
Romaldkirk cattery, and the Misses Beal may 
be justly proud of their splendid specimens 
of creams, oranges, tortoiscshells, and blue 
Persians. Miss W. Beal has kindly supplied 
me with a short article on cream and fawn 
Persians : 

" The cream and fawn Persian was a few 
years ago looked upon as a ' sport,' and when 
cream kittens appeared in an orange strain 
they were considered spoilt oranges, and were 
either given away, sold for a few shillings, or in 
many cases destroyed as useless. Now, how- 
ever, it is very different ; there is a growing 



CHAMPION ROMAI.DK1KK ADMIKAL. 
(Photo: G. W. Vidals.) 



demand for cats and kittens of this colour, and 
at the big shows they usually have two classes, 
i.e. male and female, for them. They were 
certainly slow in coming into general favour, 
owing, I think, to the following facts : First, 
that the specimens formerly exhibited failed 
very noticeably in head, being very narrow in 
face arid long in nose ; secondly, that cream 
females were practically unknown ; and, thirdly, 
that a show, where they are generally seen, 
is emphatically the worst place to see cream 
Persians to advantage, as 
the journey and being in 
a town, etc., takes off the 
spotlessness of their coat 
and dulls their colour, and 
the dingy grey of the pens 
and the yellow of the straw 
combine to spoil the effect 
of their colour. 

"The place, without 
doubt, to see creams to 
perfection is the country, 
where against a background 
of vivid green lawn their 
pure, soft colouring is in- 
deed a thing of beauty, 
and rarely fails to com- 
mand admiration. The 
colour is rather difficult 
to describe, and there are 
two distinct tones of colour bred, the one 
which is generally seen and is so far most 
successful at shows being a cream rather deep 
in shade, almost buff, with a distinct pink 
tinge about it, which is very different from the 
washed-out orange or sandy colour some people 
imagine it to be. The other tone of cream 
colour is much paler in shade, but, instead of 
the pink, it inclines to a lemon tinge, and, 
though paler, it is, as a rule, more ' flaky ' and 
uneven than the darker shades, and it is also 
very apt to fade into white underneath. 

" Nearly all the best-known creams are bred 
in the first place from orange and blue strains, 
though creams have appeared as freaks in 
many colours silvers, tabbies, etc. ; but I be- 
lieve the present strains sprang from crossing 



CREAM OK FAWN PERSIANS. 



207 



blue and orange, and you can generally rely on 
getting some creams by crossing a tortoise- 
shell, cream, orange, or blue tortoiseshell queen 
with a blue sire. But, so far, reversing the mat- 
ing, i.e. a blue queen with a cream or orange 
sire, is not successful from the cream breeders' 
point of view, though very good from that of 
those breeders who want blues, as the kittens 
generally excel in purity of colour. Cream 
females are now fairly common, and so in a 
few years there ought to be a well-established 
strain of cream-bred creams ; but, as in all 
other breeding for colour, people are apt to 
get surprises for instance, one strain of cream 
females mated to a cream sire invariably 
produces whole litters of creams, while another 
strain, more cream-bred than the first named, 
mated to the same sire produces equal numbers 
of creams and orange-and-creams. If people 
wish to start breeding creams, and cannot 
afford a cream female, it is a good plan to buy 
a well-bred nondescript coloured female, either 
blue-and-cream, tabby, tortoiseshell, or any- 
thing that has cream or orange about it, and 
if it is properly mated there are nearly sure 
to be one or two creams : thus a cream strain 
can be gradually built up. 

" There are several things to be remembered 



in trying to breed good creams. One point to 
be aimed at is to keep the colour as level as pos- 
sible, whether it be of a dark or light shade, and 
to keep it pure, not tinged with blue or dull. 
Among other faults to be bred out are the light 
lip and chin, which are very common defects, and 
the long head, which is still seen sometimes, 
though creams have improved vastly in this 
respect in the last few years. Creams have 
been taken up greatly in America as well as 
oranges, and there they seem to be formidable 
rivals in -popularity to the silvers, which have 
so far over here outdone them in that respect. 
" One great point in favour of creams is their 
hardiness, for they do not possess the delicate 
constitutions which seem to belong to most of 
the other very pale varieties of Persians. With 
other coloured cats blues, silvers, etc. 
creams make a splendid contrast, and with 
oranges add greatly to the effect of a group. 
They also cross well with several colours 
blue, black, tortoiseshell, etc. for breeding ; 
and many breeders think the result of the 
growing fancy for these colours, i.e. cream and 
orange for, though so different, they are hard 
to deal with separately will be that they will 
be better catered for at shows as to classes, and 
more extensively bred than they are at present." 




MRS. F. WESTERN'S " MATTHEW OF THE 

DURHAMS." 
(Photo: E. Yeoman, Barnard Castle.) 



208 




" TOPSY OF MEREVALE." 

THE PROPERTY OF MRS. BIGNELL. 

(Photo: O, Hardee, Chislelmrst.) 



CHAPTER XVII. 



TORTOISESHELL PERSIANS. 



MANY years ago, when I first took up 
the cat iancy, I used to think tor- 
toiseshells ugly and commonplace, and 
I am afraid even now I have not that 
admiration for the breed which I feel a 
really good specimen of this variety ought 
to inspire. To begin with, it is seldom that 
a true type of long-haired tortoiseshell is 
seen or exhibited, and perhaps this may 
account for the breed being so much neg- 
lected. They are not taking-looking cats, 
and make a poor show in the pen. I have 
often remarked, however, that this is a favourite 
breed with the sterner sex, and that our pro- 
fessional men judges will almost invariably 
pick out a tortoiseshell when judging an " any- 
other colour " class, and give it some mark of 
distinction. This may be accounted for by 
the fact that, of all varieties, a really good 
tortoiseshell is most difficult to breed, and 
therefore any specimen approaching perfection 
should be encouraged. There are splashed and 
sable tortoiseshells. and tortoiseshell tabbies, 
all handsome cats of their kind, but not the 
genuine article. Real tortoiseshells may be 
called tricolour cats, for they should bear three 
colours, like a tortoiseshell comb, on their 



bodies, namely black, red, and yellow, in 
distinct patches or blotches, solid in colour and 
well broken up, with no trace of stripes, bars, 
or tabby markings. A brindling effect is to 
be avoided, and a white spot on chin is a great 
blemish. It is most undesirable that the black 
should predominate, in which case the specimen 
will lack brilliancy. The three colours should, 
if possible, be pretty evenly distributed over 
the body, legs, and tail, and should not run 
into each other. The red and yellow may 
preponderate over the black with good effect. 
A blaze, so called, up the face is considered 
correct, and this should be of the red or yellow, 
and in a straight line from the nose upwards. 
This is a very distinctive feature in the breed, 
and one that judges will look for in a good 
show specimen. It is incorrect for the tail to 
be in any way ringed with the colours. The 
texture of the coat is often coarser and more 
hairy in this breed, and it is not usually so long 
and flowing as in other varieties of Persian 
cats. There is no difference of opinion as to 
the correct colour for the eyes of tortoiseshells. 
They should be a bright golden or orange, and 
these seem in perfect harmony with the colour- 
ing of the coat. Tortoiseshells never attain 



TORTOISESHELL PERSIANS. 



209 



any great size, and may be called a small 
breed of Persian cats. I give the list of points 
as drawn up by the specialist society : 

TORTOISESHELL. 

Colour and marking. The three colours black, 
orange, and yellow to be well broken and as bright 
and well denned as possible ; free from tabby mark- 
ings, no white. 30. 

Coat. To be silky, very long, and fluffy. 20. 

Size and shape. To be large not coarse, but 
massive, with plenty of bone and substance ; short 
legs. 25. 

Head. To be round and broad, with short nose, 
ears small and well opened. 15. 

Eyes. To be large and full, and bright orange or 
hazel in colour. 5. 

Condition. 10. 

They are quite one of the most interesting 
from which to breed, and experiments can be 
tried successfully in crossing a tortoiseshell 
queen with black, cream, orange, and blue 
cats. The litters will often be a study in 
variety. I have known one family to consist 
of a black, a white, a cream, an orange, and 
a blue ! The owner of such a litter would 
have something to suit all comers. A really 
good tortoiseshell queen may, therefore, be 
considered a valuable property. And what of 
a tortoiseshell torn ? A mine of wealth would 
such a possession be to any fancier. Among 
short-haired cats a tortoiseshell torn is a rare 
animal, but I do not think a long-haired speci- 
men has ever been seen or heard of. Several 
experiments have been tried, but it remains 
for some skilful and scientific breeder to solve 
the problem of the manner and means to be 
employed to produce males of this breed. The 
classification at our smaller shows for tortoise- 
shells is generally of a meagre and discouraging 
description. There are so few specimens that 
executives of shows fight shy of giving a class 
for even tortoiseshell and tortoiseshcll-and- 
white together. So tortoiseshells are mixed 
up in the " any other colour " class, and there- 
fore this breed can seldom, if ever, be really 
judged on its own merits, or comparisons made 
between the different specimens that are ex- 
hibited. At our largest shows there are classes 
provided, which, however, are poorly filled. 
14 



Tortoiseshells may be said to have had 
no past. There are no celebrities in feline 
history save and except " Queen Elizabeth," 
and not only was she the finest of her breed, 
but she also made her name famous by severely 
injuring Mr. W. R. Hawkins, who was examin- 
ing her when making his awards ; and I have 
good reason or rather bad reason for recol- 
lecting her, on account of her fixing her teeth 
into my hand when I was removing her from 
her basket to pen her at the Westminster show 
in 1899. It seems that she had a great objec- 
tion to travelling, and resented making an 
exhibition of herself in public ! She was a 
grand specimen, however, and, besides always 
carrying off highest honours herself, she was 
the mother of many prize-winning orange and 
tortoiseshell cats, amongst others " Prince 
Charlie," "Prince Lyne," and " Mattie." I 
have failed to obtain a photograph of this 
celebrated cat ; and, even had I succeeded, 
a tortoiseshell makes a tetribly poor picture 
when reproduced in photography, for the 
reason that the yellow comes out only fairly 
light, the orange appearing as dark as the 
black patches. 

Miss H. Cochran had a dear old pet puss 
called "Brunette," a dark tortoiseshell, and 
from her were bred 
some of the first 
cream females ever 
exhibited. The 
Hon. Mrs. 
McLaren 
M orrison 
has a good 
tortoise- 




Miss H. COCHRAN'S TORTOISESHELL " BKUXETTK." 



210 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 




" TOPSY. 

OWNED BY Miss SARGENT. 

(Pltoto : J. P. Bennett, West Norwood.) 

shell, " Curiosity " by name. The best three 
specimens now before the public are Dr. Roper's 
" Dainty Diana," Miss M. Beal's " Pansy," Miss 
Kate Sangster's " Royal Yum Yum," and Mrs. 
Bignell's " Topsy of Merevale." As regards 
the last-named, Mrs. Bignell has kindly sup- 
plied me with particulars of " Topsy's " 
litters when mated with different-coloured cats. 
" Topsy's " first litter in 1896, when mated 
to the " Duke of Kent " (a blue), was two 
creams and two smokes. When mated to 
" Johnnie Fawe " (a black) her kittens were 
all of the father's dusky hue. Again, when 
crossed with another blue m'ale her litter con- 
sisted of two orange males and a tortoiseshell 
female, and again to the same cat one black 
male and two orange males. "Topsy" is a 
noted prize-winner, and one of her smoke 
children, " Lucy Claire," went out to Chicago, 
and is considered the finest smoke specimen in 
the American fancy. Dr. Roper's "Dainty 
Diana " is one of the best-known tortoiseshells, 
and her colouring as good as any exhibited ; 
she is the mother of many winners. Miss 
Kate Sangster, who is a great admirer of this 
breed, writes : " My ' Champion Royal Yum 
Yum ' was bred from a black and a tortoise- 
shell, and her grandsire was a cream. She is 
over .seven years old, and has had twenty- two 
kittens, namely, five cream, five blue, five 
orange, four black, and three tortoiseshell." 



Miss Mildred Beal, who with her sister is 
so well known in connection with cream and 
orange cats, is also the owner of some fine 
tortoiseshells. " Wallflower " (well so named) 
is the mother of a noted prize-winning cream 
called " Sunlocks." " Pansy," Miss M. Beal's 
special pet, is a well-known tortoiseshell. 
" Snapdragon," another prize-winner, was ex- 
'ported to America, where quite a number of 
the Romaldkirk cats have found their home. 
We need a few more enthusiastic admirers of 
tortoiseshells like Miss M. Beal to take up this 
rather despised breed and follow in her foot- 
steps. Some notes by the owner of " Pansy " 
will be of interest : 

" Even fanciers who will go into raptures 
over the blue, orange, cream, or silver members 
of the establishment have no admiration to 
spare for a tortoiseshell, however striking its 
record of prizes may be ; and yet to those who 
breed and understand them there is something 
very fascinating about these quaint creatures, 
though the taste for them is certainly an 
acquired one. 

" Among non-catty people great ignorance 
prevails as to what colour a tortoiseshell cat 
really is. Many people, if asked to describe 
a tortoiseshell cat. would say that it was a sort 
of sandy colour all over ; others imagine that 
the ' chintz ' cat, as it is called in the North 
white with black and red patches has a right 
to the name. So let it be said at once that 
three colours, namely, orange, yellow, and 
black, and these only, enter into the composi- 
tion of the true tortoiseshell. There must be 
no white, neither should there be any trace of 
tabby markings, though this is very difficult 
to attain. The three colours should be patched 
or ' broken ' all over the cat, and the more 
distinct each separate colour is in these patches 
the better. Brilliancy of colour is another 
point which breeders have to consider ; many 
tortoiseshells have far too large a proportion 
of black in their colouring, which gives them 
a dingy and uninteresting appearance, and is 
sure to go against them in the show pen. The 
eyes should be orange, and in other points, 
such as shape, head, and texture of coat, the 




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TORTOISESHELL PERSIANS. 



211 



standard is the same as for the other varieties 
of long-haired cats. 

" One curious fact in connection with long- 
haired tortoiseshells, which is well known to 
fanciers, may be mentioned, namely, the non- 
existence of the male sex. Among short- 
haired tortoiseshells toms are exceedingly rare, 
though one or two do exist ; but an adult long- 
haired male appears to be absolutely unheard 
of. The writer knows of one male kitten born 
some years ago, but it was either born dead 
or died in very early infancy. Darwin's 
theory that the orange torn and tortoiseshell 
queen were originally the male and female 
of the same variety is borne out by the fact 
that until recently orange females were also 
rare. Of late years a good many of these have 
been bred and reared, and therefore, if the 
Darwinian theory be correct, it seems hard to 
believe that the tortoiseshell torn must be 
regarded as unattainable. If the difficulty 
has been successfully overcome in the one case, 
why not in the other ? Breeding with this 
object in view is very slow work, for some 
tortoiseshell queens will produce litter after 
litter without a single kitten of their own 
colour, and a family con- 
sisting entirely of tortoise- 
shells would be as wel- 
come as it is rare. But it 
would be a pity to despair 
of breeding the long 
looked for torn ; if he ever 
does make his appearance, 
he will be hailed with 



sufficient interest to gratify any quantity of 
feline vanity. 

" At present, breeders hardly seem to recog- 
nise the great value of a tortoiseshell queen 
for breeding almost any variety of self-coloured 
cat. If the queen is mated to an orange, a 
cream, or a blue torn, she will be very likely to 
produce at least one or two really good speci- 
mens of the same colour as the sire, and some- 
times a far larger proportion of the litter will 
' favour ' him. Much, of course, depends upon 
how the queBn herself is bred, and this no doubt 
accounts for disappointment in some cases. 

" Tortoiseshells compare very favourably 
with the other varieties of long-haired cats in 
the matter of intelligence. The writer knows 
one which enjoys the well-earned reputation 
of being the cleverest thief in the cattery. 
Nothing is safe from her nimble paws ; she has 
often been known to remove the lid from the 
saucepan in which the meat for the cattery 
supper had been placed, and make off with the 
contents ; and if the cook's back should be 
turned for only half a minute, woe to to- 
morrow's dinner or to anything else tempting 
which may chance to be within reach ! 

; ' Though tortoiseshells may 
be distinguished for brains, some 
of them certainly fail consider- 
ably in temper. They seem to 
find it most difficult to keep the 
peace with the other members 
of the cattery. I sincerely hope 
thisbreedwill receive more atten- 
tion from fanciers in the future. 




MISS KATK SANGSTKK'S " ROYAL YUM YUM." 

(I'lwto: W. V. Amey, Lanilpoft.) 



212 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

TORTOISESHELL-AND-WHITE PERSIANS. 

cats, both long- and short-haired, shell-and-white should be. She was not a 

-L have always had a great fascination white-and-tortoiseshell, as so many now seen 

for me. One of my first Persian pets in the show pen might be called. In these 

was a tortoiseshell-and-white, with a gorgeous cases the white predominates, and in reality 

coat, stand-out frill, and wide-spreading tail, the four colours should be about equally 




PEGGY 



She was so stately and dignified that we 
called her "The Lady Mayoress." In those 
days cats were of no account, and shows 
were non-existent. My pretty pet roamed at 
will and made her own matrimonial arrange- 
ments : the kittens were consequently mostly 
consigned to the bucket. 

With my present knowledge of the feline 
race, I realise that " The Lady Mayoress " 
was a grand specimen of what a tortoise- 



OWNED BY Miss TEKKILL. 

(Photo: W. Baker, Birmingham.) 

distributed. The patches of black, red, and 
yellow should cover the back, head, and tail, 
leaving the chest and paws and part of the 
hind-quarters white. There should be patches 
of the three colours on each side of the face, 
with a white blaze up the nose. 

As in the tortoiseshells, so in this breed it is 
better for the brighter colours rather than 
the black to predominate. I believe an old- 
fashioned name for this breed was chintz cats. 



TO R TOISESHELL-AND - WHITE PERSIANS. 



213 



I think they might also be called patchwork 
cats ! There is a. great deal in the manner 
in which the colours are distributed on either 
side of the head, for expression in a cat goes 
n long way, and if the patches are badly 
placed and unevenly distributed the effect 
may be displeasing, and perhaps grotesque. 

Harrison \Yeir, in writing of this breed, 
says: "In a good tortoiseshell - and - white 
there should be more white on the chest, belly, 
and hind legs than is allowable in the black- 
and-white cat. This I deem necessary for 
artistic beauty when the colour is laid on in 
patches, although it should be even, clear, and 
distinct in its outline ; the larger space of white 
adds brilliancy to the red, yellow, and black 
colouring. The face is one of the parts which 
should have some uniformity of colour, and 
yet not so, but a mere balancing of colour ; 
that is to say, there should be a relief in black, 
with the yellow and red on each side, and so 
in the body and tail. The nose should be 
white, the eyes orange, and the whole colouring 
rich and varied, without the least ' tabbiness,' 
either brown or grey, or an approach to it, such 
being highly detrimental to its beauty." 

This is another of the breeds of long-haired 
cats that may be said to have no history in the 
fancy, and I doubt if tortoiseshell-and-whites 
will ever be taken up seriously. There will 
always remain the difficulty of obtaining good 
mates for the queens, as males in this variety 
are almost as rare as in the tortoiseshells. It 
would seem that the corresponding males to 
tortoiseshells and tortoiseshell-and-whites are 
orange and fawns. I do not remember ever 
having seen or heard of a long-haired tortoise- 
shell-and-white torn cat ; and as regards notable 
females, these have never at any time been 
numerous, and few really good specimens have 
been exhibited. 

The most perfect type was Lady Marcus 
Beresford's " Cora," an imported cat of great 
size and beautiful shape. Her colouring and 
markings were lovely, and her round snub 
face and short nose lent great charm to this 
unique specimen. It was a grievous loss to 
her owner and the fancy when poor " Cora " 
14* 




MISS YEOMAN , S TOKTOISESHELL-AXD-WHITE 

" MARY II." 
(Photo: D. Pym, Streatlmm.) 

suddenly developed dropsy, and succumbed to 
this rather unusual complaint amongst cats. 
Mrs. Davies possessed a fine tortoiseshell-and- 
white named " Chumly," and Mrs. Bamp- 
fylde's " Susan " was a good type. Many of 
the cats exhibited have either too much or 
too little white, and often there is a grave sus- 
picion of tabby amongst the black and orange. 

Coming down to the present-day cats, I may 
mention Mr. Furze's " Beauty of Birming- 
ham " and " Peggy Primrose," both of which 
he disposed of after shows where they were 
exhibited. There is no doubt these cats are 
very taking in the show pen, where darker 
feline beauties are at a considerable dis- 
advantage. 

I have had a difficulty in obtaining any 
good photographs illustrative of these cats, 
for, as with tortoiseshells, the colouring cannot 
be successfully portrayed by any grada- 
tions in tone, so that the orange and black 
both appear dark on a white ground, and 



214 



THE BOOK OP 1HE CAT. 



thus the individuality of the breed is lost. 
It is different in painting, when it may be 
generally noticed that artists choose to depict 
these broken-coloured cats in preference to 
the self-coloured ones. In Madame Ronner's 
lovely pictures, of which several adorn these 
pages, it will be remarked that almost all 
the fascinating fluffy kittens are patched in 
colour. 

As I have remarked, one of the reasons why 
these cats have not been seriously taken up 
by fanciers is the difficulty experienced in 
selecting suitable mates that will be likely to 
perpetuate the breed. In fact, this is not 
possible with any degree of certainty. Tor- 
toiseshell - and - whites may be crossed with 



black or orange cats, and it is a toss-up what 
the progeny may be. Creams are sometimes 
bred by mating with blues, but there is alwaj'S 
the danger of white spots and white toes. I 
once mated a pretty tortoiseshell - and - white 
with my silver " Cambyses," and the result 
was a good pale silver and an almost un- 
marked cream. Considering all things, I can- 
not prophesy any future for this breed in the 
fancy ; in fact, I think there is every chance 
of these really pretty pussies disappearing 
from our midst. At the Westminster show 
of 1903 there was only one solitary entry in 
the tortoiseshell-and-white class ! This was 
Miss Yeoman's " Mary II.," whose portrait 
appears on the foregoing page. 




AT HOMK. 

(From a Painting by Madame Ronner.) 



21 = 




MISS SIMPSON'S BROWN TABBY " PERSIMMON. 



CHAPTER XIX. 

BROWN TABBY PERSIANS. 



MY first prize-winning kitten was a brown 
tabby, exhibited many years ago at the 
Crystal Palace. He became my stud 
cat " Rajah," called after an Indian prince 
who was visiting us at that time. " Rajah " 
was wholly and devotedly attached to the 
lady of his choice, namely, my blue Persian 
" Mater." These two names occur in the 
pedigree of many a prize-winner of the present 
day, and very numerous were the lovely litters 
I reared from this eminently respectable pair 
of Persians. I never knew either " Rajah " or 
"Mater" troubled with a day's illness, and if 
one of their kittens had died such an event 
would have caused as much astonishment as 
grief. But I must return to my tabbies. 

I cannot explain it, but certain it is that 
of all the feline race (blues not excepted) the 
warmest corner in my heart has always been 
kept for the brown tabbies. There is some- 
thing so comfortable and homely about 
these dear brownies they seem to have more 
intelligent and expressive countenances than 
any other cats, and I am firmly of opinion 



that no Persian cats are so healthy and 
strong as brown tabbies. They are a hardy 
race, and as such I have frequently recom- 
mended novices in the fancy to start with a 
good brown queen, and with ordinary care they 
may reasonably expect to rear litter after 
litter without the difficulties and disasters that 
one hears of in connect on with the bringing 
up of Persian kittens in general. 

I know there is a kind of idea that brown 
tabbies are a common sort of cat, and this 
breed is often spoken of in a most dis- 
paraging way. Then, again, the ignorant in 
the cat world have an extraordinary notion 
that tabbies are always females ! Perhaps 
because we sometimes hear a meddlesome or 
gossiping woman called a "tabby" and I 
had a dear old friend who always bade me 
beware of " tabby bipeds " among catty com- 
munities ! 

The word "tabby" is supposed to have had 
its origin in a certain street in Bagdad called 
"Atab," which was chiefly inhabited by 
weavers of a particular kind of material called 



2l6 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



" Atabi." This is what Harrison Weir says on 
the subject : " The word ' tabby ' was derived 
from a kind of taffeta, or ribbed silk, which 



tabbies the splashed or heavily marked, and 
the barred or ticked. I think the former the 
handsomer breed, with the well denned and 



when calendered, or what is now termed evenly balanced side markings, the dark spine 

' watered,' is by that process covered with line (not too wide), the clear rings round the 

wavy lines. This stuff in bygone times was chest (commonly called the " Lord Mayor's 

often called ' tabby,' hence the cat with lines chain "), the paws ringed in graduated bars to 

or markings on its fur was called a tabby cat. the foot. On the head and face the markings 

Certain it is that the word ' tabby ' only should be very clear and distinct, the narrow 

referred to the marking or stripes, not to the dark head lines running symmetrically till 



absolute colour, for in 
'Wit and Drollery 'is 
the following : 

Her petticoat of satin, 
Her gown of crimson 
tabby. 

Be that as it may, 
I think there is little 
doubt that the fore- 
going was the origin 
of the term. Yet it 
was also called the 
brindled cat, or the \ 
tiger cat, and with V 
some the grey cat 
' graymalkin.' ' We 
are told also by the 
same authority that 
tabby cats in Nor- 
folk and Suffolk were 
called cyprus cats, 




MISS MELI.OK'S BROWN TABBY " LADY SHOLTO.' 

(Photo: N. N. Stat/iam, Matlock Bridge.) 



they join the broad 
spine-line. The ruff 
should be of the light 
shade, and ears of the 
same tone lend great 
distinction to this cat. 
As in the other tabby 
breeds, the browns are 
terribly addicted to 
white chins ; in fact, 
I think it is certainly 
rarer to find a brown 
tabby without this 
blemish than an 
orange, more pains 
having been taken to 
eradicate the evil in 
orange tabbies. There 
is no denying the fact 
that brown tabbies 
are a very neglected 



cyprus being a reddish-yellow colour, so that breed, and at present the only one, except 

the term may have applied to orange as well tortoiseshell - and - white, that is not taken 

as brown tabbies. The term " tiger cat " is, I up by a specialist society. This is a crying 

believe, often used in America, and it well shame, and it remains for some ardent admirer 

describes the true type of a brown tabby. The of the dear brown tabbies to form a club, 

groundwork should be of a bright tawny shade, and to try to breed really good specimens of 

with a dash of burnt sienna, the markings a the golden-brown order ; not the drab or grey 

dark seal brown almost black. As regards animals that are so frequently seen at our 

the colour of eyes in brown tabbies, I prefer shows, and which are very far removed from 

the golden or orange ; but some of the finest the genuine article. 

cats in this variety have possessed the green I do not think that any breed can produce 

eye, and some fanciers are disposed to prefer such fascinating kittens. They have such re- 

this colour, which I think should be the markably intelligent expressions, and, as a rule, 

speciality of the silvers. Anyhow, a good the sturdy cobby shape and broad heads of 

brilliant green is preferable to a washed-out brown tabbies are very conspicuous. This breed 



undecided yellow. 



should distinctly be massive in build, with 



There are two distinct types of brown plenty of bone and muscle ; in fact, with 



BROWN TABBY PERSIANS. 



217 



brown tabbies the larger the better, if well whether near or distant, this beautiful breed 
proportioned. With the sterner sex brown will gain all the admiration and attention that 
tabbies are decided favourites, and I cannot help it deserves. There is a distinct kind of brown 
noticing that the very few fanciers who have tabby, so called, which may better be de- 
taken up this breed amongst the gentler sex scribed as sable. These cats have not the 
are what might be termed strong-minded. regular tabby markings, but the two colours 
I have also remarked that when once are blended one with another, the lighter sable 
fanciers start breeding brown tabbies they tone predominating. At the Crystal Palace 




"CHAMPION CRYSTAL. 
OWNCD BY C. H. JONES, PALMYRA, N.Y. 



continue, and this cannot be truly said of 
other breeds silvers, for instance ; but I would 
fain see a steady increase to the ranks of 
breeders of brown tabby Persians, and more 
encouragement given at shows. I know that 
as matters now stand fanciers complain they 
cannot get any market for their tabby kittens, 
and that classification is poor at shows and 
prizes scarce. It is all too true, but surely it is 
a " long lane that has no turning," and as every 
dog has its day, so perhaps in the future, 



Cat Show of 1902 the class was for brown 
tabby or sable. I was judging, and, considering 
the mixed entries, I felt that markings must 
not be of the first importance, and so awarded 
first and second to Miss Whitney's beautiful 
sable females, the third going to a well-marked 
though out of condition brown tabby. These 
sable-marked cats are rare, but still more beau- 
tiful would be a cat entirely of the one tawny 
colour a self sable, without markings. " The 
most suitable factors to obtain this colour," 



218 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



so writes Mrs. Balding, " would probably be 
tortoiseshell - and - sable tabby, as free from 
marking and as red in ground colour as 
possible. A cross of orange, bright coloured 
and as nearly as obtainable from unmarked 
ancestors, would be useful. Some nine years 
ago I purchased a dimly marked bright sable 
coloured cat, ' Molly,' shown by Mrs. Davies 
at the Crystal Palace, with a view to producing 
a self-coloured sable cat ; but ' Molly ' unfor- 
tunately died, and I abandoned the idea." The 
nearest approach to a self-sable I have ever 
come across was a cat I obtained for the 
Viscountess Esher, which had, alas ! been 
neutered. He was almost unmarked, and of 
the colour of Canadian sable, with golden eyes 
a most uncommon specimen. 

Another species is the spotted tabby, but I 

have never seen a true specimen in Persians. 

Some brown tabbies are ticked or spotted on 

the sides, but they have the spine line and 

ings on neck, head, and tail. 



Very few and far between have been good 
brown tabbies in the history of the fancy. 
Amongst the males two names may be said 
to stand out conspicuously Miss Southam's 
" Birkdale Ruffie " and my own " Persim- 
mon." Both these cats, of quite different types, 
have gone to their rest. 

As regards the famous Birkdale strain, the 
following account, kindly supplied to me by 
Miss Southam, will be of interest : 

" There is no doubt that, until quite recently, 
.our old friend the tabby has been deliberately 
placed in the background, and regarded in the 
show world with an indifference which has 
proved an unmistakable stumbling block to the 
improvement of this particular breed. 

" Nor is this very much to be wondered at, 
when we take into consideration the hideous 
combination of the drab, colourless browns, 
dowdy greys, and indistinct markings which 
had hitherto constituted the chief charms of 
the typical tabby. Instead, it would appear 




A ROOM IN BKAYKOKT CATTERY. 
(Photo : W. Lawrence, Dublin.) 



TABBY PERSIANS. 



219 



that the commonplace and unattractive grey 
was openly encouraged, rather than otherwise ; 
for, although the silver tabby was provided 
with a classification of his own, only one class 
was relegated to " brown and grey tabbies," 
either colour being considered equally worthy 
of carrying off premier honours ! 

" It was at this period, when the nondescript 
tabby was reigning supreme, that Champion 
' Birkdale Ruffie ' made his debut in the show 
world, my sister, Miss Emily Southam, being 
the first to bring the sable tabby into prom- 
inence. \Yhether, however, it was that the 
public was not sufficiently up-to-date to ap- 
preciate the sudden departure from the usual 
sombre colours with which it had hitherto 
been satisfied to a brilliant sable, or whether 
he was particularly unfortunate in his choice 
of judges, it is difficult to say ; at any rate, it 
was not until four years after his first appear- 
ance in the show pen that he met with the 
justice that his many beautiful points so 
richly deserved. In fact, after exhibiting him 
at several shows, where he was deliberately 
passed over for other and most inferior cats, 
he being in the pink of condition, my sister 
was so annoyed at the treatment he received 
that she simply burnt the schedules which 
poured in upon her and kept him at home, 
determined he should not be further insulted 
by such flagrant injustice ! 

" It was at the \Yest of England Cat Show 
in 1894 that ' Birkdale Ruffie ' scored his first 
real success I believe under Mr. Gresham 
winning two first prizes in the open and novice 
classes and two specials. Here at last his 
beautiful sable colouring, his dense black 
markings, and wonderfully expressive face 
were appreciated. 

'' The year 1896 was the occasion of his 
sensational win at the Crystal Palace show. 
He simply swept the board, carrying every- 
thing before him first prize, championship, 
several specials, and the special given by the 
King (then Prince of Wales) for the best 
rough-coated cat in the show, the prize being 
a handsomely framed portrait of the King 
with his autograph attached. Mrs. Vallance 




MISS WHITNEY AND HER NEUTER 

HROWN TABBY. 
(Photo : W. Lawrence, Dublin.) 

was judge. Again, in 1897, he was shown with 
great success at the Crystal Palace, winning 
first prize, championship, and special. 

" This was the occasion of ' Birkdale 
Ruffie's ' last appearance before the public, 
as it was during the following month my sister 
was taken dangerously ill, and for this reason 
his pen at the Brighton show was empty. 
After her death we determined to subject him 
no more to the trials and discomforts of the 
show pen, so ' Ruffie,' who was now seven 
years old and a great pet, both for his own 
sake and that of his mistress, only too gladly 
retired into the privacy of home life, spending 
the cold winters by the fireside in his own 
little snug retreat, and in the long summer days 
lying under his bower of shady hops, lazily 
watching his facsimile, his little son ' Master 
Ruffie,' growing up more beautiful each day 
and ready to take up the thread of his father's 
famous career in the exhibition world. 



22O 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



" Into the latter ' Master Ruffie ' made his 
debut without any of the numerous anxieties 
encountered by his celebrated parent. The 
way was paved for him, and when he appeared 
at the Crystal Palace show in 1899, in all the 
full glory of his youth and beauty, it was 
difficult for the judges to realise that it was 
not their old favourite who was now confront- 
ing them through the wires ! 

" ' Master Ruffie ' has only been shown on 
two occasions in 1897 as a kitten, and in 
1899 at the Crystal Palace, when he returned 
home with his box literally filled with cards, 
his winnings including three first prizes, four 
specials, and a championship. 

" I am sorry we can manage to get no really 
good photo of ' Master Ruffie.' Time after 
time we have attempted it in studios, out of 
doors, by means of professionals and amateurs 
including many kind relatives and friends 
with their ever-ready little Kodaks ! ' Master 
Ruffie ' steadfastly refuses to face the camera. 
Again and again the button is pressed in 
vain, and only the glimpse of a vanishing tail 
upon the negative is all we have to show as 
' Ruffle's ' portrait ! 

" But we have only to look at ' Birk- 
dale Ruffle's' picture, and we have ' Master 
Ruffie ' too ! The only difference between 
them is that the. latter is a very cobby 
little fellow, being perhaps shorter in the 




MISS WHITNEY'S " BKAYKOKT PRINCESS. 

(Photos: W.Lawrence, Dublin.) 



legs, which makes him appear to be a some- 
what smaller cat than his father. In fact, at 
the Crystal Palace show he was pronounced 
by the judges to be perfect in every point. 

" ' Birkdale Ruffie ' was noted for the ex- 
treme beauty of his expression ; he had cer- 
tainly one of the most characteristic faces ever 
seen in a cat, and his son inherits the same. 
The former was constantly the subject of 
sketches in the illustrated papers, those by 
Mr. Louis Wain being especially lifelike. 

" Some of ' Master Ruffle's ' descendants are, 
I believe, in the possession of Miss Witney, 
and have met with great success in the show 
pen. 

" Our cattery is built on the principle of 
shepherds' huts, each house having a separate 
wire run, with shrubs planted, and a thick 
wall of ivy in the background, which gives a 
picturesque appearance to the whole of the 
little colony. In summer a mass of luxuriant 
hops makes a welcome shade from the hot 
sun. 

" The houses are warmed by gas stoves, on 
which the cats love to sit, purring contentedly, 

and with the pretty 
curtained windows, car- 
pets, wickerwork arm- 
chairs, and cosily cush- 
ioned benches, I think 
' Master Ruffie ' and his 
seven feline playmates 
have a pretty easy time 
in this tempestuous 
world ! 

' The one bone of 
contention is that the cats have 
appropriated the sunniest cor- 
ner of the garden, their houses 
having the much desired south- 
ern aspect, which our gardener 
looks at with longing eyes for 
his beloved peaches and early 
peas. Happily, he bears the 
little occupants no grudge, and 
when we go from home takes 
over the whole of the cattery 
into his charge." 




BROWN TABBY PERSIANS. 



221 



Here let me give a few details of my dear from the country to London obliged me to 

departed puss. "Persimmon" was a well- board him out. 

known character in the fancy, and had the "Persimmon" sired some splendid kittens, 

distinction of being a champion in the National which whenever shown proved themselves 

Cat Club and the Cat Club. It was in 1899 worthy of their sire's long prize - winning 

when, judging at Brighton, I was greatly taken record. At the Crystal Palace show of 1902 




" LOXSDALE CHRYSALIS AND " LONSDALE MOTH. 

BRED BY MRS. GREGORY. 
(Photo: W. G. Lai'is, Bath.) 



with a wonderful-headed brown tabby that 
came under my awards. I gave him first 
in his class, and when later I obtained a 
catalogue and saw his price was a very reason- 
able one, I purchased him, and I may say 
I never made a better bargain, in or out of 
the cat fancy. " Persimmon " (as I after- 
wards called him, in memory of the Derby 
winner) was bred by Mr. Heslop, of Darlington, 
that astute and clever cat fancier ; and his 
grandsire was " Brown Prince," a noted 
Northern prize-winning tabby. I have never 
seen such a wonderful head as that which 
made " Persimmon's " chief glory. 

His face was very round, and his nose 
quite a snub, and he was blessed with tiny 
ears and short tail. His shape was perfect, 
but the markings on his back were rather too 
heavy, and alas ! he had a white under-lip. 
But, taking him all round, he was a grand 
specimen, and a most lovable puss. He fretted 
himself to death when a change of residence 



Miss Whitney exhibited two of his progeny 

a superb neuter "Persimmon Laddie," 

who covered himself with glory and his 

cage with cards, and a beautiful kitten 

that had previously won at Manchester and 

has since been purchased at a high figure by 

a lover of the brownies. At the Specialist 

Show at Bath in January, 1903, " Persimmon 

Laddie " was again to the fore, and won in 

the open and ring classes. " Persimmon " was 

a great loss, for good brown tabbies are 

rare. I hope, however, to purchase a fine, 

well-grown son of my dear old " Simmy," and 

as "Persimmon II." I trust it may be a case 

of "like father like son," and that by-and- 

by we may find quite a long list of brown 

tabby Persians " at stud " in the columns of 

the catty papers. 

I think I may with truth assert that brown 
tabbies arc more appreciated, 'and that better 
specimens are produced in the North than in 
the South of England. I have mentioned 



222 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 




MRS. D'ARCY HILDYARD'S " SULPHURLAND. : 

(Photo: BoxeH & Co., Scarboro'.) 

Mr. Heslop as having owned some splendid 
specimens, and at one time he used to exhibit 
quite a number at our Southern shows. Miss 
Eggett, of Manchester, has a grand tabby of 
the golden order named " Cleopatra." Mrs. 
Whittaker has some nice specimens, and 
Mrs. Mackenzie's "Cleo" was much admired 
at the Westminster show in 1900, when she 
took first in her class. Mrs. Ricketts has 
always been partial to the breed, and Mrs. 
Stead's " Timber " has done some winning. 
Miss Gray's " Lady Babbie " was one of the 
finest brown queens that used to visit " Per- 
simmon," and another was Miss Meeson's 
" Jolie," whom I used greatly to admire. 
Miss Derby Hyde exhibits a wonderful copper- 
coloured brown tabby called " Maraquetta," 
who, if only possessed of a good head and 
shorter face, would be a splendid specimen. 
Mrs. Davies formerly owned " Susan," a cat 
now in the possession of Mrs. G. Wilson, very 
good in colour and markings, but failing in 
head and face. Mr. Western, of Sandy, has 
a good male in " Wynstay Monarch." In 
the West of England Mrs. Hellings and Mrs. 
Gregory are admirers and breeders of brown 
tabbies. 

Mrs. Gregory, of Bath, started breeding 
brown tabbies in 1899. Her female (a black) 
she mated to her stud cat " Azor," and, 
curiously enough, all the litters have consisted 
of brown tabbies, the kittens numbering 



sixteen in all. When, how- 
ever, " Queen Caterpillar " 
was mated to Mrs. Gregory's 
blue Persian, her kittens were 
all black. 

A picture of two pretty 
brown tabby kittens bred by 
Mrs. Gregory appears in this 
chapter. I am happy to say 
that Mrs. Gregory intends 
to continue breeding brown 
tabbies, and has kept a 
handsome specimen from one 
of her recent litters to per- 
petuate the strain. Mrs. 
Drury, of Graffham, is very 
faithful to the brownies, and in her lovely 
old-fashioned cottage near Petworth she is 
always surrounded by several of her pet 
pussies. She writes as follows : 

" When first I received a margarine basket, 
and out of it came a little brown fluffy kitten, 
I knew no more about Persian cats than the 
man in the moon in fact, he probably knew 
more, as he is frequently the only witness to 
their nocturnal gambols. I had heard of such 
things as Persian cats, yet never remember 
having seen one. However, kind friends soon 
gave me a helping hand, and as time went on 
and my fluffy kitten became a fluffy cat, being 
passionately fond of animals, I soon found out 
the very fascinating ways of dear ' Miss Wiggs,' 
so named because the fur on her head in her 
kitten days would stand erect, and it is the 
only name she condescended to answer to. 
She has been and is so still, in spite of all her 
maternal cares and five years' experience 
one of the healthiest pussies imaginable, and 
has never had one day's illness since she came 
into my possession, though I believe, in her 
babyhood, distemper nearly carried her off ; 
and all her children have been equally healthy 
in fact, I have never lost one of her kittens, 
which is, I imagine, almost a unique experi- 
ence. 

" ' Miss Wiggs ' came from a blue father and 
a silver mother, but has, with one exception, 
always had brown babies, even when mated to 



BROWN TABBY PERSIANS. 



223 



a silver. The varied beauties of blues, silvers, 
whites, and blacks have never taken such a hold 
upon me as compared with the fascination of 
the browns, and it is quite a wonder to me 
more fanciers do not breed them. Nothing 
looks handsomer, to my mind, than a rich brown, 
tabby male with tawny markings, like a young 
lion, and judging from my experience they 
amply repay any trouble taken by their loving 
ways and robust health. I have a son of 
' Miss Wiggs ' and poor old ' Persimmon ' now, 
who follows me like a little dog, even out in the 
road, and goes for a walk running by my side. 

" Perhaps what would astonish a stranger 
most on coming to see me is the way my catty 
family lives in peace and contentment with 
the dogs, and very often I find two or three 
kittens in the dogs' basket very busily occupied 
cleaning my little bull-terrier. It is a point of 
honour amongst the happy family that they 
never touch each other's food, and very rarely 
is this broken, and not infrequently we see 
three, and perhaps four, cats sitting round the 
dog while he eats his dinner, waiting for any 
leavings, and the same with the dog. Persians 
have the reputation of being bad mousers. 
' Miss Wiggs ' makes quite the exception, and 
on one occasion caught and killed two mice 
at the same time ; one she held 
in her paws and the other in 
her mouth. Young rats also 
she has many times brought in, 
to show what a useful little 
person she is, and her children 
follow in her footsteps. 

" In a great measure I at- 
tribute my brownies' good 
health to the open-air life they 
lead. From early morning to 
when darkness approaches they 
have the run of a large garden, 
even on a wet day. They go 
in and out of the houses as 
they like ; never sleep indoors, 
always in a very dry little out- 
side cattery in summer on 
benches, and in winter in nice 
boxes with straw. 



" Perhaps, financially, blues or silvers may 
be greater successes, but brownies have been 
my first love and will always remain so. I 
am only sorry I cannot show what a lovely 
head and sweet face dear ' Miss Wiggs ' has, but 
she absolutely declines to be photographed. 

" In time I hope more fanciers may realise 
how rich in colour and markings a good brown 
tabby is, and then we may hope to see this 
beautiful breed brought more to the fore at all 
the leading shows. 

" As ' Mis? Wiggs ' has been the foundress 
of my cattery, perhaps a short description of 
her would not be amiss. She is a ticked tabby 
that is to say, she has not the broad, dark 
stripes with tawny splashes ; her ground colour 
is a beautiful golden brown, and down the 
back and sides are pencilled stripes, more like 
the markings on a silver. Round her face, 
nose, and ears she has most lovely golden brown 
shades ; eyes are green they used to be 
amber ; her head is very broad and well shaped ; 
and her expression is very sweet. 

"When mated to a silver, as she has been 
twice, the litters have been equally divided 
two silvers and two brownies ; but both silvers 
and browns in that case had broad dark and 
light markings, in no way resembling the ticking 




' PIONEER BOBS. 

OWNED BY Miss M. WASHBURN, SMITH'S FALLS, ONT. 
(Photo: E. F. Briggs, Smith's Falls, Ont.) 



224 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT; 



of the mother. But when mated to poor old 
' Persimmon ' the kittens have been equally 
divided, always two resembling the maternal 
side exactly, and two following out ' Per- 
simmon's ' beautiful splashes. When mated 
to a brown tabby all the kittens were brown. 
She has never thrown a black ; but her 
daughter, whose father was ' Abdul Zaphir,' 
and who I also mated to ' Persimmon,' had 
two blacks and two very dark tabbies in her 
litter. ' Wiggs ' has in all her five litters had 
only two females. Her average is four or five . 
kittens ; she looks after them entirely herself, 
and has never been the worse for so doing ; 
but I do not allow her more than one family 
a year, and until the kittens can lap she is fed 
every two hours." 

The best-marked brown tabby I have ever 
seen was Lady Marcus Beresford's' " Bas- 
sorah," who was unfortunately given away 
and lost. Her markings looked like oil paint- 
ing, they stood out in such distinct relief- 
Another specimen of a different type was 
imported by Lady Marcus Beresford, namely 
" Kismet." She was of the ticked order, with 
small pencilled markings, very compact and 
cobby in shape. Mrs. Herring has always 
possessed good brown tabbies. To begin with, 
" Adolphe," who used formerly to win every- 
thing till his son, " Prince Tawny Boy," 
stepped into his shoes, to be displaced later 
by his own son, " Prince Adolphe," and his 
exquisite daughter, " Floriana," now in 
America. Another good son of " Adolphe's " 
was Mrs. Bonar's " Lord Salisbury." To go 
back as far as I can recollect, there was Mr. 
Horrel's " Nero," and Mrs. Pearce's " Juliet " 
and " Rosebud," also Miss Malony's " Lind- 
fields Lion " and the Hon. Mrs. McLaren 
Morrison's " Cetewayo " and " Mazawattee," 
this latter a really wonderful cat which was im- 
ported by Mrs. Davies at the same time as the 
celebrated " Nizam," and reported to be his 
brother. Anyway, he resembled him greatly 
in everything but colour. 

For sables we, of course, go to the Birkdale 
strain. I remember the incomparable " Birk- 
dale Ruffie " in his full glory at the Crystal 



Palace a mass of red-brown fur, of the style 
of "Persimmon Laddie," but with more dis- 
tinct markings and a very keen, almost fierce, 
expression ; in fact, he looked like a wild 
animal ! 

Then " Master Ruffie " appeared as a kitten, 
and later as a mild edition of his sire. From 
this celebrated strain Miss Whitney's lovely 
sables are descended. This enthusiastic fan- 
cier has kindly written some notes on her 
favourite breed. Her cats are all pets, and 
lead a life of luxury in their town and country 
houses on the other side of the Irish Channel. 
Miss Whitney says : 

" I am pleased to see that brown tabbies are 
coming to the front again, after being such a 
long time in the background. It now rests 
with fanciers of this charming variety of the 
feline species to improve them in all points. 
We hear often that they should be a rich tan 
in ground colour, clear and dense in markings, 
profuse in coat, ruff and frill, large round head, 
small ears, and no white lip. I should con- 
sider this a perfect specimen ; but where is such 
to be had ? I do not say it will not be obtained, 
but up to this I have never seen it. Now 
what we are to endeavour is to breed up to 
this high standard. This will take time, no 
doubt ; but, above all, do not let us give up 
everything for markings, though they are very 
essential. 

" My idea of a brown tabby is that it 
must be of a rich tawny ground colour. How 
could a brown tabby be called a brown if 
it is only a greyish drab ? I should prefer to do 
without such perfect markings, but to have 
the more desirable rich colour, and, above all, 
plenty of coat, ruff, and frill ; if it has not 
these latter qualities, it could not be called a 
Persian, which must have an abundance of 
fine soft-textured coat. If we only breed for 
marking, why not mate to a ' short-hair,' 
which is more likely to be perfect in that point ? 
But then, where would be our true Persian ? 
Now, as to white lip, I have never seen a good 
brown tabby without it, but I hear that there 
are such, though they fail in colour. I would 
prefer the well-coated cat with good colour 



BROWN TABBY PERSIANS. 



225 



and markings and a white lip to one that 
failed in these other points and had no 
white lip (I do not mean when it extends to a 
white throat). Now if we happen to breed a 
good kitten without a white lip, and should 
strive to mate her to a really well-marked 
stud cat, even should he fail in colour per- 
haps we might get even one kitten nearly 
reaching perfection as the result. It would 
reward the patience, expense, and time ; but 
we need never expect a pro- 
fusely coated cat to show as 
distinct markings as an in- 
feriorly coated one will. I 
breed nothing but brown tab- 
bies, but cannot say I have yet 
obtained perfection. I have, 



I feel sure I shall remain faithful to them to 
the end of my career as a cat fancier. At 
present I have not a cat of any other colour 
. in my cattery. 

" I still have ' Ruffle,' who is now a very 
large neuter, splendidly marked, but per- 
haps not quite up to the standard in other 
points for the English show bench. ' Bray- 
fort Fina ' is, I may say, a sable tabby, being 
particularly rich in colour all throughout 
indeed, more often of an auburn 
4an than brown. She is very 
profuse in coat, carrying a long 
body-coat and a big ruff and 
frill. She is a very large cat, 
with plenty of bone, and well 
made, with a fine-shaped head. 




" LOKNA DOONE." 
BUED BY MRS. ELLIS, TORONTO. 



however, secured coat and colour, and expect 
to attain the other desirable points in the near 
future, as we must all persevere, but always 
let us breed up to the standard of the true 
Persian. 

" I first became interested in cats by being 
given a nice brown tabby Persian kitten, which 
I called ' Ruffle,' and got very fond of him ; 
but as he seemed lonely I thought of getting 
another kitten as a companion for him, so I 
then purchased a pretty little silver tabby 
from Miss Cochran ; but after some time, of 
all the varieties I saw, none pleased me so well 
as the brown tabbies. This breed I have gone 
in for altogether during the past few years, and 
15 



She was once mistaken for a male by a well- 
known judge. ' Fina ' was bred by Miss 
G. Southam, and is by ' Master Ruffie ' ex 
' Bluette,' her sire being a son of the famous 
' Champion Birkdale Ruffle.' 

" She was already a winner when I pur- 
chased her, and has since won many times, 
including second and special at Bristol, 1899, 
in a mixed sex class, being beaten by a male. 
At Belfast, in 1900 the following year she was 
beaten out of first by her sister, ' Brayfort 
Princess.' She then took second at West- 
minster, 1902 ; first at Reading, and first 
and championship at the Crystal Palace, 1901 
and 1902. Again first at the Bath Specialist 



226 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



Show in the same year, where her gorgeous late ' Champion Persimmon ' ex ' Fina.' He 
colouring was called in question and an un- _ won first and special at the kitten show in 
supported protest was made that she was dyed ! October, 1902, and first and two specials at 




" BIRKDALE RUFFIE." 
(Photo : J. A. Kay, Soulhport.) ' 



She is a most successful breeding cat, her 
produce being usually winners. Her sister, 
' Brayfort Princess,' is also a sable tabby, and 
carries an immense coat, ruff, and frill ; it is 
denser than ' Fina's,' and I. fancy but for the 
latter ' Princess ' would have been more heard 
of as a winner, as, except on one or two occa- 
sions, she has been usually beaten by 'Fina.' 
" ' Brayfort Persimmon Laddie ' is by ' Cham- 
pion Persimmon ' ex ' Brayfort Fina.' He made 
his public appearance at Bristol when he was 
four months old, taking first and special in a 
tabby kitten class and third in novice, against 
an entry of twenty-five adults ; then he won 
first and special in kittens, and second in open 
to his mother's first at Belfast in 1900 ; also he 
took first and special for best long-haired 
neuter at Manchester in 1901 ; first, Liverpool ; 
and first and two specials at the Crystal Palace, 
1902. He is too well known to comment on. 
He is a wonderful sable colour, and is superb 
in coat. ' Brayfort Sable Boy ' is also by the 



the Crystal Palace show, 1902 ; his wins speak 
to his merit. 

" I find all my cats very strong and healthy, 
and even in the coldest winter they never have 
artificial heat. I attribute having never lost 
a pet after a show to taking them away at 
night. Unless something very unforeseen 
occurred, nothing would induce me to leave 
a cat of mine in a show. 

I have found mating to a good brown 
tabby much the most successful. I tried 
mating to an orange, but did not like the 
results. I always mated to the late ' Cham- 
pion Persimmon,' and had never fewer than 
six kittens in a litter sometimes eight all 
strong and healthy. Twice only have I lost 
any, and on these occasions the fault lay with 
the foster mothers. 

" In the spring and summer my cats get 
a run out in the garden every day; the two 
neuters go on leads, but the females have 
their liberty ; indeed, unless I were present 



BROWN TABBY PERSIANS. 



227 



' Fina ' would not leave the house. Their 
rooms look out on the grass terrace, so they 
can come in or out as they please till their 
breakfast time, which is at about ten o'clock. 
They are groomed every morning between 
8 and 8.30 o'clock, winter and summer, 
and always fed regularly. Their sleeping 
houses, as in photo, are about four feet long, 
lined round with oilcloth, so they can be 
washed when necessary. In the winter the 
bedding is hay, and in summer, shavings. The 
houses are sufficiently long to allow for sanitary 
boxes during the breeding time. I find Hall's 
washable distemper very nice for the cattery 
walls, and it looks so bright and fresh. The 
floor-covering is linoleum." 

In America brown tabbies are beginning to 
find favour, and several good specimens have 
been exported. " Arlington Hercules," who 
took first at Westminster in 1901, was shipped 
to Mrs. Sarmiento and Mrs. Cutler, and I sent a 
"Persimmon" kitten out by Mrs. Robert Locke 
to Mrs. Clinton Locke, the president of the 
Beresford Club. He was passed on to her 
honorary secretary, and in Field and Fancy of 
December, 1902, the following notice appears : 



" Miss Lucy Johnstone is the fortunate owner 
of ' Persimmon Squirrel,' a son of the noted 
brown tabby ' Persimmon,' who lately died. 
Good brown tabbies are very scarce, and she 
should congratulate herself on this possession, 
as, according to all accounts, he is destined to 
make a good hit." 

Another American lady, Mrs. Gotwalts, of 
Pittsburg, wrote to me for a brownie, and 
I sent her one bred by Mrs. Bignell, and 
the cat has, I believe, had some good litters. 
The most famous brown tabby, however, over 
the herring pond was Mr. E. N. Barker's won- 
derful " King Humbert." This cat arrived 
in America in 1885, and made a considerable 
stir in catty circles. Mr. Barker is said to 
have refused a thousand dollars for him from 
a New York millionaire. I remember when 
Mr. Barker was over, acting as judge at the 
Westminster Cat show, he sought, but did 
not find anything to beat his noted brown 
tabby now gone to its last home. Mr. Barker, 
writing of this breed, says : 

"If I were asked suddenly why I admire 
brown tabby Persians, the liking must 
be partly attributed to face markings and 




BIKKDALE RUFFIE S " CATTERY. 



228 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



colour, and to one who grows accustomed to 
these they are fascinating and add to the 
general beauty of the cat, and seem natural and 
as though they ought to be there, and one is 
not so overweighted with a sense of continual 
sameness as may be apparent in a whole colour. 
I must confess, personally speaking, I have 
become used to bars and stripes. I miss them 
when I contemplate a self-coloured Persian. 

" I once had a good many brown tabby 
Persians, and people did not fancy them, 
as they said, 'They are so like ordinary 
cats ' a great mistake ; but by gentle 
persuasion I managed to get one or two 
adopted. One lady some time afterwards 
candidly confessed, ' I could not now be satis- 
fied with any other kind, I should miss the 
stripes so much on the face.' That is just it ; 
in a tabby you have a little more than your 
neighbours, who go in for self-coloured cats, 
and, though for the time being they are not 
quite so fashionable, you can chuckle to your- 
self if you own one, and feel quietly superior 
to fashion and the common herd, and hold your 
tabby still closer to your heart, and purr 
softly to yourself with 'satisfaction at its 
possession ; for I think one may say that for 
good all-round, everyday, reliable qualities, 
the brown tabby stands pre-eminent. 

" His constitut'on being good, he is not 
peevish ; he stands cold and heat, change 
of climate and surroundings, better on an 
average than any. Brown tabbies should have 
the under-coat a good golden hue, the markings 
black, clear, and distinct, rather too many 
than too few. A good-shaped body, lots of 
bone, a bold head, red nose, golden eyes, well 
marked on the chest, and no light colour on 
the lips and chin. These cats may with 
advantage be a good size. With care, the 
under colour may be bred to a grand copper 
colour ; a grey hue in brown tabbies is most 
undesirable." 

As regards brown tabbies in America, " King 
Humbert " and his children have always held 
their own. " Humbert " was bred in England, 
and as he is now dead I may be allowed to say 
that when fit and in good condition a better- 



coloured and smarter show cat never stood in 
a pen or outside, and he loved to show himseli 
off. The best kitten bred from him was 
" Jasper." He was very short in leg, and 
quite lost in coat, his feet being hardly visible." 

To the readers of that very excellent 
American publication The Cat Journal the 
handsome portrait of " Crystal," the brown 
tabby, is very familiar. The editor, Mr. 
C. H. Jones, writes thus to me : '" I am 
sending you some pictures as promised. The 
large photo is ' Champion Crystal,' son of 
' Humbert,' a beautiful cat as to type and 
disposition. A peculiar thing about ' Crys- 
tal's ' kittens is that they do not show very 
long hair till they are several months old." 

And now a few remarks as regards the 
mating of brown tabbies. I have tried 
several experiments, but if I were wishing 
to breed fine specimens I should continue 
to mate brown tabbies with brown tab- 
bies. Such mating frequently results in a 
black or two, and these are generally good 
ones. The orange cross is sometimes success- 
ful in introducing a brighter tone, but I confess 
I have not had very good results from these 
attempts. I have on several occasions mated 
blues to my brown tabby stud, and although 
blue tabbies have appeared in the litters, I have 
also obtained blues with very grand heads, 
plenty of bone, and massive build. My famous 
" Beauty Boy," a well-known winner and sire 
of bygone days, was bred from " Rajah " (a 
brown) and "Mater" (a blue). I have been 
told by silver breeders that a brown tabby cross 
with chinchillas has often proved advantageous. 
It might be imagined that the silvers would 
be tinged with brown or streaked, but I have 
been assured this is by no means usual, and 
that the litters consist of good brown tabbies 
and equally pure silvers. 

A well-known breeder of silvers says : 
" Although it may be incorrect to cross silvers 
and browns, it is often most successful. My 
first torn was a brown tabby with a white 
chin, and being mated with a silver queen the 
kittens were good browns and exquisite silvers, 
and there were lots of winners amongst them. 



BROWN TABBY PERSIANS. 



229 



Many of the silvers were very pure in colour, 
with lovely markings. My old ' Climax,' 
whose pedigree was pure silver (' Topso ' and 
' Lady Pink '), was the sire of the noted 
brown tabby ' Birkdale Ruffie.' ' 

Before closing my article, I would remark 
that the brown tabby and sable, though often 
classed together, must not be confounded. 
The brown tabby is supposed to be the common 
ancestor of all our cats, and hence the tendency 
to revert to that colour, as in the case of the 
blue Rock pigeon. This being the case, 
surely we should have brown tabby cats 
more nearly approaching perfection than any 
other colour. They appear in very unex- 
pected places in a litter of chinchillas or 
blacks, or among our oranges, and sometimes 
where no brown ancestor can be traced. In 
the brown tabby there seems to be little or no 
inclination to lose the markings, as in other 
tabbies ; rather the contrary, for they overdo 
themselves sometimes, and form into solid 
black patches, thus causing the dark saddle, 
which is a serious fault in this breed. Query : 
Would generations of in-breeding produce a 
self brown, as with oranges and chinchillas ? 
I rather doubt it, as I think the common 
ancestor would, so to speak, " chip in " and 
assert himself. 

As regards the sables, I may remark 
that they are late in maturing and do not 
acquire their marvellous colouring till about 
the second year. Anyway, they rarely make 
a sensation on their first appearance. As I 
write I am thinking of " Persimmon Laddie," 
who seems to have developed his glorious 
copper coat in the course of a year, and when 
seen at the Crystal Palace show of 1902 was 
a"s near perfection in the matter of colouring 
as could be desired. I hope that in time this 
breed of Persians may find more admirers, and 
that with patience and perseverance a really 
good strain of grand-coloured, dark-chinned, 
and above all splendidly marked brown tabby 
cats may be seen at our shows. 

In America, as will be seen from the follow- 
ing extract from Field and Fancy, the brownies 
are making good headway : 
15* 



BROWN TABBIES IN AMERICA. 

The brown tabby cat, whose fate seemed to hang in 
the balance for some time, is now, in America, on the 
road to social prominence, and daily we hear of the 
progress of the breed, so that the classes next winter 
seem to promise greater results than ever. From all 
over we hear of brown tabbies being bred and reared, 
and, what is more, finding homes at remunerative 
prices. In looking at the reasons for the popularity 
of the browns we do not have far to seek, for when 
once well tried, these cats wheedle their way into your 
affections by the strength and vitality they display, 




BROWN TABBY GOOXIE. 

as a rule ; and the general average being level in their 
temper, with plenty of common sense, as well as bold, 
lovable cats, are very satisfactory to deal with. 
Besides these attributes, when bred properly, their 
colour is most fascinating, and has a faculty of grow- 
ing upon one, and weaker colours seem tame by 
comparison. 

So far as we can say, that as regards the brown 
tabbies, the whites and orange, there have been more 
concentrated efforts to breed good ones by design 
than in any of the colours, though the silver breeders 
are now coming up. 

Taking a general look at our cats of this colour, we 
have little to be ashamed of, and the stock is good 
enough to make the nucleus of a fine lot of show cats, 
for they inherit their goodness from several genera- 
tions of the colour, which is much to the point. 

Our breeders will find that to breed good tabbies 
they will have to keep to blood lines, select the best- 



230 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



marked ones, and not switch about in search of 
all sorts of blood crosses ; for the way to breed tabbies 
is to keep to the colour and get the marks, which too 
many crosses with solid-coloured cats are liable to 
spoil. After a time the purely bred and carefully 
bred strains will stand out and perpetuate themselves, 
and the chance-breds will go to the wall. 

It has been surmised that the reason why the 
browns are so hardy is that possibly they more 
nearly approach the natural colour of cats in a wild 
state, and are perhaps not quite so artificial ; but 
the number that will be bred of superlative colouring 
to fill the standard from a show point of view will 
never be too numerous to command high prices, and 
the greater the competition the greater the value of 
the variety, as we see in our dogs. For it is in the 
popular breeds that the prices rule the highest, and 
the scarce ones seldom realise the same figures, 
because there is not the same keen competition to 
get the best. 

When we look back we can call to mind quite a 
few good brown tabbies in the last seven years, and 
not very many bad ones, and for uniform quality our 
browns have been the equal of any colour. 

Breeders should be careful to select those with the 
brown or red body colour, and with the stripes as dis- 
tinct as possible. In our own experience with the 
colour we have found three varieties, and these are 
best described as they appear at birth. No. i is 



the cat with a narrow band down the centre of the 
back, and thin, narrow lines radiating therefrom. 
These marks may be very distinct when the cat is 
young, but are not strong enough for a long-haired 
cat, and the marks are lost when the coat grows. 
Though these cats are not the best of exhibition cats, 
they are very useful to breed to those too heavily 
marked. No. 2 is the cat that is heavily marked and 
carries too much black, and is often too grey in his 
body colour, but these, by being carefully bred to 
other colours, may throw the desired cat ; or No. 3, 
the cat with the orange body colour and the distinct 
black marks covering about a third of the surface 
of the cat. This latter we hope to see in greater 
numbers now that an organised effort is being made 
to breed the colour true. 

A great many of our browns are clear of one great 
fault, which is the light chin and throat, and it is 
to be hoped that this will be continued. 

Another fault that wants improving, and which is 
the prevailing fault in one of our prominent strains, 
is a rather sour green eye, and this has been the cause 
of some of them having to take a back seat on occa- 
sions. Last yeSar was fortunately a great educator 
for some of our best breeders, and they are now 
experimenting along the right lines, and are aware, 
when they lose, why it is so. As the years roll on 
those who do learn will not expect to win over better 
cats just because they think they ought. 




A TRIO OF TABBIES. 
(Photo: C. ReiJ, Wishaw.) 



231 




A PICTURESQUE GKOUP. 
(Photo: E. Landor, Baling.) 



CHAPTER XX. 

ANY OTHER COLOUR " PERSIANS. 



IN the early days of the fancy all sorts and 
conditions of cats were entered in this 
class. Blacks, whites, and tabbies were 
considered important enough to have classes 
assigned to them ; then the rest were all huddled 
and muddled together in the "any other vari- 
ety " class. Even in these days it is no easy 
matter to place the awards in a mixed class ; 
but formerly the judge must have felt puzzled 
over the prizes, and probably finally gave the 
highest awards to the breed of cat which he 
most admired. I do not mean anything per- 
sonal ; but, as I write, I recollect a very large 
class in 1887 at the Crystal Palace, two years 
before a class for blues was instituted. Mr. 
A. A. Clarke was judging, and a female blue, 
" Fanny," which I had given to Mrs. W. M. 
Hunt as a birthday present, was awarded first. 
She was a beautiful specimen, and but for her 
green eyes would have been a remarkable cat 
even in these up-to-date days of the fancy. 
Whereas, therefore, for many years this " any 
other variety " class was the largest in the 
show, it has gradually become beautifully less 



and rightly so, for by degrees the various 
breeds have been improved, and the number 
of specimens have increased, and the execu- 
tives of shows have gone with the times and 
provided separate classes for each breed as 
occasion seemed to arise. So orange and cream 
cats are no longer relegated to what we now 
call the " any other colour " class, and tortoise- 
shells and tortoiseshell-and-whites are sepa- 
rately dealt with ; therefore it is only tabby- 
and-whites, nondescript smokes, blue tabbies, 
and black-and-whites that are received into 
the fold of the somewhat despised " any other 
colour " class. Blues and blacks with white 
spots used to be entered in this class, but of 
recent years both cat clubs have wisely decided 
that such cats must be entered in their own 
classes, for a blue is a blue and a black a black, 
and having a blemish does not alter their 
breed, but takes so many points away from 
them ; and, of course, their chances of success 
even with every other quality is small indeed 
when in competition with pure self-coloured 
cats. 



232 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 




A GROTESQUELY MARKED KITTEN. 
(Photo: E. Landor, Baling.) 

I am of opinion that ere long the " any other 
colour " class, at least at our principal shows, 
will cease to exist, and mismarked cats, white- 
spotted cats, and doubtful smokes will no 
longer be considered worth entering, and fan- 
'ciers owning such specimens will make up their 
minds to keep their pets at home. 

For instance, Mrs. Boutcher, a silver 
breeder, owned a magnificent cat, a son of 
" Lord Argent." He was a superbly shaped 
and grandly coated animal, and was neither 
a silver nor a smoke in fact, what might be 
termed a silver smoke. His face was dark, 
and tail and paws, and his body was a pale 
silver-grey, shaded to almost white at the 
roots. His owner entered him in the " any 
other colour " class one year, and he was 
disqualified by the judge ; then he was next 
located in the smoke class, but as a different 
judge was making the awards he was again 
marked " wrong class." This noble " Lord 
Sylvester " was the cause of much correspond- 
ence in the cat papers, and discussion ran high 
as to what manner of cat he was. One of our 



ablest judges now, alas ! no longer in our 
midst wrote thus in Our Cats of December 
1900 : 

SIR, In your issue of the 24th I notice at the 
meeting of the Silver Society Mr. Boutcher asked the 
opinion re the decision of myself at the Palace as 
against that of Mr. House at Brighton. In defence 
of my own award, I unhesitatingly say that, in 
the same classification as at the Palace, " Lord 
Sylvester's" class was the A.O.C., in which I 
fearlessly awarded him first prize. Of course, Mr. 
House has just as much right to his opinion as I have 
to mine ; but, whether right or wrong, / do know 
" Lord Sylvester " is not a smoke, both on my own 
knowledge of colour and of that set forth in the 
standards. I am, yours truly, E. WELBURN. 

Surely this is the common-sense view to 
take. A year later " Lord Sylvester " was 
purchased by Mrs. Champion, and travelled 
out with her to America, where, no doubt, this 
splendid animal receives all the admiration he 
deserves, in whatever class he is entered on 
the other side of the herring pond. 

Since writing these lines I have read an 
article in Field and Fancy on the New York 
Cat Show of January, 1903, and the following 
mention is made : " In the ' any other colour ' 
' Lord Sylvester ' was to the front, looking 
splendid." 

As regards the advisability of doing away 
with the " any other colour " class, I will quote 
from a letter written by that well-known 
fancier Mr. W. R. Hawkins : " Why should 
one class in a show be given up to the bad 
specimens or mismarked cats of each colour ? 
Surely the intended use of the ' any other 
colour ' class was that when any definite colour 
had no class of its own it should not be ex- 
cluded from the show, but take refuge in the 
' any other colour ' class ; for instance, at 
the Brighton show (1900) we had no class for 
cream, orange, or tortoiseshell. They were, 
therefore, shown in the ' any other colour ' 
class, and being good cats of definite breeds 
were a credit to the class, and in no way a dis- 
grace. But what do we often see ? A blue 
with a white spot or some other freak winning. 
I say this is absolutely wrong, and that a blue 
with a white spot is in reality a bad blue, and 



OTHER COLOUR" PERSIANS. 



233 



should not be encouraged. In the same way, 
a tabby-and-white is a bad tabby, and ought 
not to go to a show at all, but even if shown 
has no right in the ' any other colour ' class, 
according to my ideas." 

There is one cat that is fast vanishing from 
our midst. I mean the black - and - white 
Persian, and yet I confess an evenly marked 
specimen is a handsome animal. By black and 
white I mean the ground should be black, 
dense and glossy ; the feet, chest, and nose 
white, with a blaze of white coming to a point 
up the centre of the face. The eyes of such a 
cat should be orange. 

Another type is the white-and-black cat, but 
unless the black patches are evenly balanced, 
especially in the face, the effect is not pleasing 
(see illustration, page 232). Harrison Weir 
gives particulars of some curiously marked 
cats coming under his notice " one entirely 
white with black ears ; another white with a 
black tail only ; another had the two front 
feet black, all else being white." 

I cannot say I have any leaning towards 
tabby-and-white cats, or orange-and-white, 
these being the least attractive of any in the 
fancy. Blue-and-whites are seldom seen, but 
the photos on pp. 234-5 represent some sweetly 
pretty kittens of this variety. Their sire was 
' Yani," a noted blue owned by Miss E. God- 
dard, and their mother a black-and-white. Blue 
tabbies, so common fifteen or twenty years ago, 
are no longer to be seen, at least only here and 
there at shows, and they have really no value 
beyond being pretty pets. A cat that has done 
some winning and has sired some lovely kittens, 
but must, strictly speaking, be considered an 
"any other colour" cat, is "Blue Robin," 
formerly the property of Miss H. Cochran, and 
now in the possession of Mr. C. W. Witt. This 
is a blue cat with a tabby-marked head. He 
was bred from blues and silvers, and his chin, 
ear tufts, and eyebrows are silver, and his 
nose pink. As will be seen from his picture, 
on page 236, he has a grand head and beautiful 
expression. I am indebted to Miss Hester 
Cochran for the following notes on " any 
other coloured " cats : 



" The cats known as ' A.O.C.'s ' or ' any 
other colour,' because they are of a colour 
for which no class is provided, are hard to 
write about, because they have no history. 
They are not bred from A.O.C.'s, and A.O.C.'s 
are not bred from them. They are either 
pedigreeless or, more commonly, the result of 
indiscreet crossing of two definite colours, as, 
for example, when the owner of a white queen 
wishes to breed a litter of blue kittens. More 
rarely they result from a cross which' has been 
resorte4 to to fix some special point, as when a 
white and a blue with particularly massive 
heads or wonderful orange eyes have been 
mated with a view to producing a strain noted 
for their eyes. Years ago the classes were 
interesting, as they introduced all new colours. 
" I remember an A.O.C. class at the Crystal 
Palace not many years ago containing seven 
entries, all good smokes ; soon after smoke 
classes were given, and then chinchillas 
began to appear in this class. These cats 
being specially provided for, creams were the 
most noticeable A.O.C.'s ; but now the blue 
tabbies and broken-coloured cats that is, 

some colour and 
white usually 
occupy the A.O.C. 
class. Notable 
instances of cats 




" LOCKHAVKN COLBUKN.' 1 

A GOOD EXAMPLE OF PERFECT BLACK-AND-WHITE MARKINGS. 
(Photo : Koehne & Bretsinan, Chicago.) 



234 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



with white spots were 'Cain,' 'Nankipoo,' and 
' Kingfisher,' all grand blues with this blemish. 

" In 1892 Mrs. Pattison's exquisitely shaped 
and coated orange-and-white ' Chicot ' (pedi- 
greeless), then shown as tabby with or without 
white, established a record by winning as best 
in show at the Crystal Palace. Other tabby - 
and-white cats have done well. 
Miss Malony used to show some 
good ones ; the best, ' Lindfield 
Sweet William,' was a blue tabby- 
and - white, very massive and 
heavily coated, son of the smoke 
' Lindfield Bogie.' Mrs. Pearce, 
of New Barnet, also used to win 
with tabby-and-white cats, and 
Mr. Law's ' Buffer ' was a cele- 
brity in his day, but whether 
he was a brown tabby or an 
A.O.C. is doubtful ; he was later 
known as 'Leopold.' The Hon. 
Mrs. McLaren Morrison had a 
really good silver tabby with 
white feet in ' Kepwick Silver 
King ' ; and later Miss Snell's 
grand-headed 'Wonderland' 
made a small sensation. 

" Another good cat which won 
in an A.O.C. class is Lady Mait- 
land's ' Cheeky Blue,' a lovely 
blue with a sprinkling of white 
hairs on her body. Blue and smoke tortoise- 
shells are freaks, and not really exhibition 
cats at all, but are by some people considered 
useful for breeding. Personally, I do not 
think they are capable of producing anything 
which a definitely coloured cat of proper 
ancestry cannot produce as well or better. 
When cream queens were unavailable they had 
to be used, but now they are becoming un- 
necessary. Perhaps the best is Miss W. Beal's 
' R. Fluffie.' Mrs. D'Arcy Hildyard's ' Sengo 
of the Durhams ' was another. Miss Taylor's 
' Tawney ' began life as a blue with a few 
yellow marks, and wound up as a good tor- 
toiseshell, though a trifle too red. Mrs. 
Cunliffe Lee's 'Tiger,' a kind of yellow-brown, 
more ticked than marked, and principally dis- 




THE CONQUEST OF THE AIR. 

(Photo : E. Lamior, Baling.) 



tinguished by his great coat, made his mark 
in the A.O.C. classes. 

" Of blue tabby cats which have won well 
(mostly bred from blues and silver tabbies) 
there is a long list. They became common 
through the craze for blues, as silver queens 
were sent to blue toms. Later the desire for 
chinchillas started them afresh, 
as blue queens were sent to chin- 
chilla toms. 

" Mrs. Herring's 'Braemar' was 
a son of ' Cceruleus ' by ' Turko ' ; 
' Upwood Dew ' and ' Camera ' 
are from the ' Timkins ' strain ; 
Miss Jebb's ' Julius Caesar,' Miss 
Rae's 'Romanoff,' Miss Nicholay's 
' Sacho,' and Miss Jay's ' Holm- 
wood Skittles ' were all celebrated 
cats. Some of these have thrown 
beautiful kittens, both blues and 
chinchillas ; and as a makeshift, 
when a correctly coloured cat of 
the required pedigree is unavail- 
able, they may, when judiciously 
mated, be found useful ; but good 
breeders will part with all mis- 
marked kittens for pets. The 
best and most definitely coloured 
A.O.C. I ever saw was Mrs. 
Davies' ' Sin Li,' a deep self- 
coloured chocolate - brown cat. 
He was supposed to be one of three Swiss 
mountain cats imported to this country, and 
he was a most handsome and interesting 
animal. Unfortunately, he died young, leaving 
no progeny. Another interesting A.O.C. cat 
I have seen was a short-haired neuter, red, 
with black stripes and white paws and chest. 
In the future I hope to see a variety of strange 
cats in the A.O.C. classes, but at present they 
are very uninteresting. Good suggestions for 
future colours are red, orange, blue, or white 
with black stripes, chestnut-brown self- 
coloured, and black with white tips to the fur. 
So far as I can see, it should be possible by 
crossing with various foreign breeds to produce 
in a few years' time cats of all these colours." 
One of the finest " any other colour " cats 




CO 

2 

33 
w 



Q 
Z 

w 
o 

2 



O 

Q 

2 





03 



K 
U 



"ANY OTHER COLOUR" PERSIANS. 



235 



of the present day is now in the possession of 
Miss Moxon, of Ilfracombe. " Cinder " was 
purchased from Mrs. Davies, who has a rare 
faculty of picking up uncommon-looking cats. 
Miss Moxon writes : " I am sending you a 
detailed description of ' Cinder,' who is a 
difficult cat to describe, and is quite the hand- 
somest cat I have ever seen. By ' handsome ' 
I mean striking, as she attracts everyone's 
attention, and very often visitors to our well- 
filled cattery have not a glance to spare for 
our other specimens." The following is the 
description of this very uncommon long-haired 
cat : 

" ' Tors Side Cinder,' winner of many prizes, 
including second Brighton A.O.C. kitten class, 
1899 ; first A.O.C. kitten, medal, and two 
specials, Westminster, 1900 ; first and special 
for best cat in show, Maidstone, etc. 

" ' Cinder ' was described to me by the 
lady from whom I bought her in 1901 as ' a 
very peculiar colour a kind of tortoiseshell 
creamy smoke.' She has a dark seal-brown 
mask and ears, except for one creamy orange 
(tortoiseshell) splash above left eye, and 
another under chin. These give great expres- 





GRACE BEFORE MEAT. 

(Photo : E. Lamtor, Eating.) 



" MARCUS SUPERBUS," A SILVER SMOKE. 

OWNED BY Miss SHAW. 
(Photo : Mo/at, Edinburgh.) 

sion to her face. Head exceptionally fine, 
considerable breadth of skull, small tufted 
ears, short broad face, very sweet expression. 
Round orange eyes, for which she has won 
more than one special. Fine outstanding frill 
of a creamy smoke colour ; fur on 
chest very long and feathery, of a 
creamy, bluish smoke shade, with a 
pale cream knot in centre. Seal spine 
line, splashed with creamy brown, 
shading gradually lighter to shoulder 
knots and side puffs, which are of a 
rather darker tint than the frill. 
Paws and legs of a dark seal-brown ; 
waistcoat and knickers of a bluish 
cream. Splendid thick brush upper- 
side to match spine line, under-side of 
a bluish cream shade. Slightly bluish 
tint all over, distinct under-coat of 
palest cream shading to soft creamy 
blue." 

American fanciers have always shown 
a partiality for broken-coloured cats, 
and orange-and-white and blue-and- 
white cats have classifications given 
for them at the leading shows. In 
England there is a marked antipathy 



236 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



to these cats, chiefly because they have little 
or no value for breeding, though they un- 
doubtedly make pretty pets. As a sign of the 
times, I may mention that at the Westminster 
show in 1903 the three " any other colour " 
classes for males, females, and kittens had 
to be cancelled, no entries having been made. 



Speculative, but, I must add, persevering 
fanciers might derive interest and amusement 
from trying to breed out - of - the - common 
specimens. A black-and-white, spotted like 
a Dalmatian hound, or a cat marked with 
zebra stripes, could doubtless be produced in 
time by careful and judicious selection. 




" BLUE ROBIN." 
(Photo: Witcomb & Son, Salisbury.) 



237 



CHAPTER XXI. 

NEUTER CATS. 




MISS KIRKPATKICK S 

" CHILI." 
(Photo: E. LanJor, Ealing.) 



T has been my experience 
in the past year or two 
that the demand for 
neuter cats, or, in other 
words, household 
pet pussies, is on 
the increase ; and 
I am inclined to be- 
lieve that if some 
fanciers made a 
speciality of these 
cats they might do 
a thriving trade. 
As it is, owners of 
male kittens do not 
care to undertake 

the trouble and responsibility of having them 
gelded, or doctored, as this process is some- 
times called, and novices in purchasing are 
always very anxious that the operation should 
have taken place before they become possessed 
of their pets. A selling class for neuters at 
our large shows would not be at all a bad idea, 
but the age should be limited to eight months, 
or at most ten months, as it is only natural 
that purchasers should desire pussies before 
they reach the prime of life, so that they may 
grow up as pets in the home. For reasons 
that are easily understood, it is necessary, if 
you wish to have a house pet of unimpeach- 
able manners, to have your male cat doctored 
when he arrives at years of discretion. 

For my own part I consider between five 
and eight months the best time for a cat to 
be gelded, but I have often known successful 
operations taking place much later. It is. 
however, most important that the torn should 
not previously have shown any desire to 
mate. In all cases a cat should be kept 
on low plain diet for two or three days 
before being neutered, and it is more humane 



to pay the extra fee for the use of an an- 
aesthetic. 

I have been told on good authority that if 
a female cat is to be made neuter she ought 
to be allowed to have one litter before the 
operation is performed. Neuter cats are 
essentially for the " one cat " person. They 
undoubtedly make a grand show when ex- 
hibited, but those who are possessed of 
these pet pussies are generally very dis- 
inclined to let them run the risks and dis- 
comforts of a show pen. I have advocated 
having neuters shown only in the ring, on the 
lead. If this course were adopted, I think 




" KING CY." 

SILVER NEUTER BELONGING TO Miss AVERY JONES. 
(Photo : F. Bromhead, Ciijton.) 



23S 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



owners would not mind exhibiting their 
precious cats, as they could be sent or taken 
home after their turn round. Certainly neuters 
are the only cats that ought to be led into the 
ring, and in this way their fine proportions 
and generally heavy coats can be seen and 
judged to the best advantage. It is too often 
a practice with fanciers to have the worst of 
the litter kept for a pet and made neuter, and 
therefore we see many blues with light green 
eyes, and cats with the blemish of a white 
spot, in the classes set apart for gelded cats ; 
and if a beautiful, almost perfect, neuter is 
exhibited, fanciers are apt to protest at what 
they consider is " a grave mistake." From 
the lips of some noted and over-wrought 
breeders of Persian cats I have heard the ex- 
clamation, " I shall go in for neuters only ! " 
This has been called forth, perhaps, by a 
succession of failing litters or by a rampageous 
stud cat that 
has fought 
with the 
neighbour's 
torn or has 




MISS CHAMBERLAYNK S " BELVEDERE TIGER. 
(Photo : J. A tkins, Upper Norwood.) 

wandered off on amorous thoughts intent, 
perhaps never to return, or on returning to 
bring disease to the cattery. Certainly, for 
a thoroughly comfortable domestic pet there 
is nothing like a neuter cat. They are more 
affectionate, and with children more docile, not 



less keen in catching rats and mice, and they 
are proverbially very clean in their habits. One 
great advantage that neuters have over the 
other long-haired breeds is that they retain 
their lovely coats nearly all the year round. 
In spite, however, of the many points in favour 
of neuter cats, they are nevertheless rather 
looked down upon in the fancy. Certainly, at 
our shows no cats are more attractive to visitors 
than the big burly neuters, and I would fain 
see a better classification for these really fine 
animals. 

A specialist society was started in 10,01 by 
an admirer of these cats, but either through 
lack of energy or want of enthusiasm the work 
was not carried on, and the club died a natural 
death. It remains for some other fancier with 
a love for pet pussies to start a society, for 
as it is the neuters fare badly at our shows, 
the classes provided never numbering more 
than two, and the special prizes being few and 
far between. Formerly neuters were judged 
by weight, and I remember some specimens 
exhibited at the Palace that really looked like 
pigs fatted up for market. It was in 1886 
that the classification for neuters at the Crystal 
Palace show ran thus : " Gelded cats, not 
judged by weight, but for beauty of form, 
markings, etc." Happily, therefore, this state 
of things has been abolished, and though 
neuters should be big, massive cats, yet they 
need not, and should not, be lumps of inert 
fat and fur. It is true that a big show cat 
appeals to the non-exhibitor, and visitors to 
our shows are always greatly impressed with 
huge animals over filling their all too small 
pens. The heaviest and biggest neuter I have 
ever seen was possessed by Mrs. Reay Green. 
This enormous silver turned the scale at 20 Ib. 
I believe the record weight at the Crystal 
Palace was 25 Ib. It is a libel to say that 
neuter cats are lazy and uninteresting. I 
have always possessed a neuter, either a blue 
or a brown tabby, and these beloved pets have 
ably fulfilled their duties as mice-catchers of 
the establishment. My " Bonnie Boy," who 
but recently joined the noble army of neuters, 
is as keen as a knife, and will sit for hours 



NEUTER CATS. 



239 



watching a likely hole, and never a mouse 
escapes his clever clutches. He kills them in- 
stantly, and then amuses himself for hours 
dancing about and throwing his dead prey with 
wild delight into the air. Then, again, he is, 
I am sorry to say, just as destructive with the 
poor London sparrows, and many a time I 
have had to chastise my pet for stalking the 
game in our little back garden. 

Miss H. Cochran, writing of neuters, says : 
" There are, without doubt, a great number 
of people who like to keep a cat, especially a 
Persian, for a pet pure and simple one that 
will be the admiration of all, and of service in 
ridding the house of mice and rats. They will 
attain a greater size, and in nine cases out of ten 
retain all the pretty habits and antics of their 
kittenhood. Neuter cats are often very trouble- 
some in a large cattery ; they fight with each 
other and with the queens, which have a poor 
chance against their superior size. I think 
they do it for fun." 

In Fur and Feather "Zaida" thus writes of 
neuters : 

Undoubtedly it is a crying mistake for neuter cats 
to be allowed to compete in open classes, but per- 
sonally I should be delighted to see more classes for 
them at shows, and much greater interest taken in 
them. Sometimes one is tempted to think the 
ordinary run of cats has deteriorated in general 
beauty, remembering the splendid animals, both 
English and foreign, which we used to see in friends' 
houses in our childhood ; but the real explanation 
lies in the fact that formerly " house " cats were 
almost entirely kept as pets, and handsome kittens 
were obtained for the purpose. Nowadays anything 
not good enough for breeding from is made a neuter, 
and fanciers undoubtedly look on them with a certain 
contempt. Why should this be more the case with 
cats than with horses ? For a perfect household pet 
the neuter cat holds its own, if only the public would 
universally acknowledge it. But too often every 
purchaser of a kitten starts breeding, and multiplies 
a race of weedy, ill-kept animals, who do little credit 
to their owner. A cat with kittens is undoubtedly a 
charming sight ; but a female cat is more or less of 
a worry, and is, besides, only in coat for a very short 
time each year. Then a torn cat roams, fights, and 
is often objectionable, but the stay-at-home cat is 
always a thing of beauty, never requires periods of 
seclusion, will mouse and rat with the best, and be 
a credit to any establishment. In short, we should 



like to see more of them, not fewer, and a neuter 
class for every colour in a show. In many a house- 
hold cats are now disliked through the ill-advised 
action of some member of the family in starting 
breeding with more zeal than knowledge, and without 
proper convenience. If a lovely neuter, or even 
two or three, reigned in their glory, there would be 
an end to the trouble, to the groans of the other 




" BEXON'I." 

THE PROPERTY OF Miss COTTOR. 
(Photo: F. Wallace, Dalkeith.) 

members of the family, to the " wasn't .engaged to 
wait on cats " of the servants. 

In the schedule of the Beresford Cat Club 
show, held at New York, January, 1903, the 
classification for gelded cats reads thus : 
" Class 25, neuter, white or black ; Class 26, 
neuter, blue or smoke ; Class 27, neuter, ' any 
other colour ' ; Class 28, neuter, any colour 
tabby with white." It will be seen, therefore, 
that in America a much more liberal classi- 
fication is given for long-haired neuters, and 
for short-haired there are three classes pro- 
vided. I do not know, nor have I heard of, 



240 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



any remarkable American neuters, and no 
photographs have been received by me for 
reproduction in this work. 

If we go back some years in the fancy, I 
remember Miss Sangster's " Royal Hector," a 



twenty-eight first prizes and many specials, 
and his championship before he was a year old. 
I had an offer of 20 for him. The greatest 
honour ' Blue Boy ' received was a caress from 
her Majesty, then Princess of Wales. 




MISS ADAMSON S CHINCHILLA NEUTER. 



blue of great celebrity ; also same owner's 
" Royal Bogey," a handsome black with a 
white star. Miss Boddington's cobby, woolly- 
coated white " Ba Ba " appeared later in 
exquisite form, winning well till he was eleven 
years old. At this same period Mrs. Herring's 
little smoke " Ally Sloper" and Miss Molony's 
big, heavily coated black " Uncle Quiz " were 
noted winners. 

Then we come to Mrs. Willman's " Charlie," 
a fine blue of " Beauty Boy " strain, and Miss 
Knight's " Albion Joey," one of the finest 
neuters ever exhibited, a huge smoke with the 
roundest of heads, a trifle marked and not 
good in eye, but a glorious animal. 

A little later came Madame Portier's " Blue 
Boy," and, as I have received some notes from 
the owner of this magnificent cat, I will give 
them : " I am very proud of my ' Blue Boy,' 
born on St. Patrick's Day, 1895. He has won 



" I often take my pet out for a walk on a 
collar, and he is quite easily led, and people 
often stop and ask if it is really a cat. I send 
you his photo for reproduction in ' The Book of 
the Cat.' " One of " Blue Boy's " wins was 
at the Richmond show, 1902, where he was 
greatly admired for the dignified way in 
which he comported himself on a lead. In 
these up-to-date days, however, " Blue Boy " 
has to run the gauntlet with superior coloured 
eyes, but in shape, size, and coat he holds his 
own. Miss Kirkpatrick's " Chili," now no 
more, was a beautiful creature a silver} 7 
smoke, almost a smoke tabby, with a wonder- 
ful fleecy coat and grand frill. Mrs. Reay 
Green has always been the proud possessor of 
superb neuters " Mosca," a blue ; " Abdul 
Zephir," a chinchilla ; and later " Ajax," 
who has done some winning. Viscountess 
Esher also has quite a cattery of neuters. I 



XEL'TER CATS. 



241 



procured for her a sable, almost unmarked and 
very rich in colour, a white with limpid sea- 
green eyes, and a Siamese with perfect points. 
Miss Cochran's " Patpaw " (now in the posses- 
sion of Viscountess Esher), a son of the cele- 
brated tortoiseshell " Tawney," is rather small 
for a neuter, but full of quality, with wonderful 
orange eyes. " Persimmon Laddie," owned by 
Miss Whitney, is, perhaps, the most perfect 
specimen that has been seen in the pen of the 
neuter classes. He is not a brown and not a 
tabby, but a sable ; and, having the blood of 
the " Birkdale Ruffies " and " Champion Per- 
simmon " in his veins, it is no wonder he 
carries all before him. No photograph can 
do him justice. 

Mrs. Boyce's " Fur " could beat any male 
chinchilla now on the show bench ; for in 
colour, shape, and head he is well-nigh per- 
fect. Mrs. Millar's " Lord Bute " is a 
monstrous black, and in spite of his green 
eyes is generally in the prize list ; but in 



honours, and Miss Chamberlayne's " Tiger " is 
a handsomely marked brown tabby. Miss 
Meeson's " Fluff Duvals," another brownie, 
won first at the Crystal Palace and Brighton, 
and after a second at Westminster came home 
to die ! Miss Averay Jones has a splendid 
chinchilla neuter " King Cy," a possession too 
precious to be risked at any exhibition. 

So much for the long-haired pet pussies, and 
we will take a glance at past and present short- 
haired neuters. A lovely coated cat was 
" Tiger of-K-epwick," owned by Mrs. MacLaren 
Morrison, a brown tabby, as his name denotes. 
Then Mrs. Butler's orange, which for many 
years won at the Crystal Palace and Brighton. 
Mr. Lane had a good yellow-eyed white, 
" Leonidas." Mrs. Herring owned a well- 
marked brown tabby in " Sir Peter Teazle." 
Of late years the most remarkable short-haired 
neuters have been Miss Cartwright's really 
lovely Siamese " Chote " and Lady Alex- 
ander's blues, " Brother Gamp " and " Tom 




" NIGEL THE RAVEN." 

MRS. MELLER'S SHORT-HAIRED BLACK NEUTER. 

Mrs. Curtis's " Baron Bonelli " he met Gamp," who are rarely, if ever, defeated, 

more than his match at the Crystal Palace in A richly coloured orange tabby neuter, 

1902. This black cat (a son of " Johnnie " Red" Eagle," also hailed from the same cat- 

Fawe ") has all the good points of " Patpaw," tery. 

including his gorgeous eyes, and he is very large. In judging neuters, I think it is rather a 

Miss Holmes' " Blue Tut " has won many mistake to go too much by points. I consider 
16 



242 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



size should be a most important factor, also 
coat and general effect. Of course, in close 
competition points would come into question ; 
but I really think that a large, heavily 
coated neuter, whose colour was a trifle un- 
sound, or whose markings or eyes were below 
par. should not be placed below a small mean- 
looking cat who, however, excelled in these 
points. 

Louis Wain, writing on a general survey of 
the Crystal Palace show of 1900, referring to 
the neuter class that he judged, says : 
"Neuters have suffered somewhat through 
the extended schedule of the ' whole ' cats. 
At one time it was quite a usual thing for 
exhibitors to have their' cats neutered to pre- 
serve the natural beauties of a fine cat, and 
very often a really handsome cat was neutered 



because he stood no chance in a class of twenty 
or thirty cats, and yet would take first as a 
neuter in a class of six or eight. The neuter 
classes have not grown as have the other class* -. 
As ' home ' cats neuters should be encouraged, 
and I feel sure that many are kept at home 
in fear of the dreaded ' blues,' which are 
usually unbeatable." Mr. Wain also com- 
plains of the poor classification for neuters at 
our shows, and on this particular occasion he 
states that the cats were such extremely fine 
animals that they needed classes of their own 
for him to do justice to their merits. Cer- 
tainly there ought at least to be three classes 
provided for neuters at our large shows, viz. : 
Neuters, self-coloured (blue, black, and white) ; 
neuters, tabby, " any colour " ; and neuters, 
" any other colour." 




MADAME POKTIKKS NEUTER "BLUE BOY. 

(I'lioto : Hana, London.) 




RASCALS. 

(/>o;;i Pointing by Madame Henriette Ronncr.) 



244 



CHAPTER XXII. 

MANX CATS. 



THESE quaint cats are rapidly and surely 
coming into notice in the fancy. As a 
breed they are intelligent and affection- 
ate, and, I believe, splendid sporting cats. 
They are undoubtedly great favourites amongst 
the sterner sex, perhaps because they are such 
keen and plucky ratters. As a breeder of 
Persian cats, and having become used to the 
beautiful wide-spreading tails of these cats, I 
confess there is something grotesque and un- 
finished, to my eyes, in the Manx, and from 
choice I should not care to keep these tail- 
less pussies as pets. They do not appeal to 
me and to my sense of the beautiful. Having, 
therefore, never kept or bred Manx cats, I feel 
diffident in writing about them ; but I have 
carefully studied those exhibited, and have 
also had opportunities of judging of their 
points whilst visiting friends who have fallen 
victims to the fascinations of these curious 
felines. I know a good Manx when I see one, 




TYPE OF MANX KITTEN. 
(Photo: Russell & Sons, Windsor.) 



and to prove this assertion I will tell an inci- 
dent in connection with a prize-winning Manx 
of to-day. A friend of mine living in London 
took compassion on a little stray black kitten 
who came crying for food. She fed him, and 
repeatedly tried to find poor pussy's owner, 
but in vain. I was appealed to to know what 
had better be done, and when I saw the little 
black fellow I strongly recommended my 
friend to keep it and exhibit it at the next 
large show, as I considered he would go in and 
win easily. She followed my advice in the 
latter respect, but placed too low a figure on 
" Nig," as she declared sne did not wish to go 
in for Manx. I warned her he would be sold, 
and sure enough that clever and astute judge 
of cats of uncommon breeds, Mrs. H. C. 
Brooke, snapped him up at catalogue price ; 
and since then he has blossomed forth into a 
champion, and as " King Clinkie " has taken 
highest honours whenever shown. It is only 
just to state that Mrs. Brooke most generously 
handed over some of her winnings to " King 
Clinkie's " former owner. 

I will therefore proceed to give my opinion 
of Manx cats, but with all due deference to 
my fellow fanciers who have had personal 
experience with the breed. I think I have 
judged every species of cat, long- and short- 
haired, except Manx ; but if I were given a 
class of this breed upon which to adjudicate, I 
should first closely examine their tails, or, to 
be more correct, the place where the tails 
ought not to be ! I remember in former times 
stump-tailed cats, called Manx, used to win 
comfortably at shows, but in our up-to-date 
times I should make a black mark in my 
judging book against those cats with a stump 
or an appendage, or even a mere excrescence. 
I do not fear contradiction when I state that 



MAXX CATS. 



245 



a Manx cat of the true type should have no 
particle of tail only a tuft of hair, which 
ought to be boneless. 

The next point for which I should search 
would be the length of hind quarters, which 
lends such great individuality to this breed 
of cat. Xo doubt the lack of tail in itself 
makes a cat's hind legs look long, but we 
want more than that ; we need a very short 
back, so that from the point of the quarters 
to the hocks there is a continuous and de- 
cided outward slope. In fact, the hind legs 
stand right back from the body, like a well- 
trained hackney's in the show ring. Coat I 
should next consider, as this differs, or should 
differ, considerably from both the long- and 
short-haired breeds. It should bear more re- 
semblance to the fur of a rabbit, being longer 
and softer than that of our common or garden 
cats. I think a good-shaped round head as 
desirable in a Manx as in other breeds. As 
regards colour, the most common would seem 
to be tabbies, either silver, brown, or orange, 
and often there is a mixture of white. Self- 
coloured Manx seem to be much rarer, and 
Harrison Weir tells us he does not recollect 
having seen a white Manx. 

As regards the colour of eyes in Manx cats, 
it is the custom to say that they do not matter 
in this breed ; but, nevertheless, a cat that 
has the correct colour of eye must necessarily 
beat an animal that has just the opposite to 
what is set forth in the standard for short- 
haired English cats. 

A lady friend of mine, who was brought up 
in the Isle of Man, has told me that she always 
understood that Manx cats came from a cross 
with a rabbit, but if this supposition is correct 
it seems too strange to be true that cats and 
rabbits should only form matrimonial alliances 
in the little island off our coast ! It would 
appear more probable, therefore, that a foreign 
breed of cat was brought to the island, and the 
following article from the pen of Mr. Gambier 
Bolton gives his ideas on the subject : 

" In the Isle of Man to-day we find a rock 
named the Spanish Rock, which stands close 
into the shore, and tradition states that here 
16* 




" GOLFSTICKS. 

OWNED BY Miss SAMUELS. 

(Photo: Albert Hester, Clapton, N.E.) 

one of the vessels of the Spanish Armada went 
down in the memorable year 1558, and that 
among the rescued were some tailless cats 
which had been procured during one of the 
vessel's voyages to the Far East. The cats 
first swam to the rock, and then made their 
way to the shore at low tide ; and from these 
have sprung all the so-called Manx cats which 
are now to be found in many parts of Great 
Britain, Europe, and America. 

" The tale seems a bit ' tall,' and yet the 
writer feels so satisfied of its truth that he 
would welcome any change in the name of 
this peculiar variety of the domestic cat to 
sweep away the idea that they sprang from 
the Isle of Man originally. 

" Any traveller in the Far East Japan, 
China, Siam, and the Malay region who is a 
lover of animals must have noticed how rarely 
one meets with a really long-tailed cat in these 
regions, for instead one meets with the kink- 
tailed (i.e. those with a bend or screw at the 
tip of the tail), the short kink-tailed (i.e. those 
with a screw tail like the bull-dogs), the forked- 
tailed (i.e. those having tails which start quite 
straight, but near the tip branch out into two 
forks), and finally the tailless (or miscalled 
Manx) cats ; and the naturalist Kgempfer states 



246 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



definitely that the specimens of this breed 
now so common in parts of Russia all came 
originally from Japan. Again, anyone who 
breeds these tailless cats, and keeps the breed 
quite pure, must have noticed how they differ 
in appearance and habits from the common 
short-haired cats. They are, and should be, 
much smaller in size ; the coat should be 
longer and more ' rabbity ' ; the ' call ' is much 
nearer that of the jungle cat of the East than 



" Kink-tailed, screw-tailed, fork-tailed, and 
absolutely tailless cats have all been exhibited 
at British shows of recent years, and the writer, 
from a personal knowledge of nearly all breeds, 
has no hesitation in recommending the latter 
as companions, their quaint and doglike ways 
making them general favourites whenever they 
are met with. 

" There are at present six distinct types of 
Manx, or ' rumpy,' cats being exhibited at our 




SPECIMEN OF A MANX TABBY. 

(Photo: C. Reid, Wishaw.) 



that of the ordinary cat ; and their habits, like 
those of the Siamese cats, are much more dog- 
like. In all these points they keep closely 
to what the writer firmly believes to be their 
original type, the domesticated cats of the Far 
East. 

" The photographs illustrating this article 
give some idea of the general appearance of 
these delightfully quaint little creatures, and 
one notices immediately the great point that 
all judges look for, viz., the high hind quarters, 
which is so typical of the tailless breed of 
cats, the few hairs, which represent the spot 
where the tail should be, constantly appearing 
even a few hours after birth, although there is 
not a sign of a caudal appendage beneath them. 



shows, viz. : The long straight-backed cat, the 
long roach-backed cat, the long straight- 
backed cat with high hind quarters, the short 
straight-backed cat, the short roach-backed 
cat, the short-backed cat with high hind 
quarters. The last type is the correct one, the 
first is the worst and commonest type, the 
others are intermediate and should be judged 
accordingly. 

" Manx cats should always be judged in a 
good, large, empty pen, and never in their own 
pens, or when held by the judge. 

" Coat. Exactly the opposite to the ordinary 
domesticated short-haired cat. A long and 
open outer coat and a soft, close under coat 
is the correct thing." 



MA XX CATS. 



247 



At one time, we may presume, the Manx 
cat was kept pure in the Isle of Man ; but, 
alas ! the natives, with an eye to the main 
chance, have been led into manufacturing a 
spurious article, and many more tailless cats 
and kittens than ever were born have been 
sold to tourists eager to carry home some 
souvenir of the island to their friends on the 
mainland. I have been told that the landing 
pier is a frequent resort of dealers in so-called 
Manx cats, where the unwary traveller is way- 
laid and sold ! On some out-of-the-way farms 
on the island I believe none but tailless cats 
have been kept for generations, and some 
genuine specimens may thus be picked up, if 
the tourist gives himself the trouble to go off 
the beaten tracks. 

The following letters which appeared in Our 
Cats, in the issue of June 3Oth, 1900, will be 
read with interest. They were written by two 
gentlemen of prominent position in the Isle 
of Man, but as they did not wish to be identi- 
fied as authorities on cats their names were 
not given : 

[LETTER I.] 

Castletown, Isle of Man, 

1 2th July, 1898. 

I received yesterday your letter respecting Manx 
cats. I fear I am unable to aid you much in your 
inquiries as to the Manx cat, for any personal in- 
formation I can give. 

When I was a boy there was a kind of tradition 
that the tailless cat was brought here by the Spanish 
Armada. We have a headland called " Spanish 
Head," where it has been believed that some tailless 
cats escaped and took refuge here, and that from 
such cats all the so-called Manx cats have been 
derived. During my life I have frequently met 
persons who have travelled in Spain, and I think I 
have always asked from such persons if they had 
ever met with tailless cats there, but I never met 
anyone who had seen them. I never heard any other 
(traditional) origin of the Manx cat alleged. They 
are very common here, but not so common as cats 
with tails. Both cats with and cats without tails 
associate together. In my own house we have always 
kept cats, and in almost every litter of kittens there 
are some with and some without tails. I have two 
tailless cats now one is a kitten of a few weeks old. 
It has no sign of a tail, but is (as designated here) a 
pure rumpy. The mother is one also, but she has 
a little fur tuft. I have frequently seen kittens 



having a very small " rudimentary tail," such as one 
or two bones. 

I have seen, I think, Manx cats of most of the 
colours mentioned by you, but the most common are 
the grey or tabby. 

I have never heard of wild cats found here, and I 
do not think there is any tradition about them. 

A few years ago I had a very fine torn cat (bred in 
my own house), black all over, and with no sign of 
a tail. I lost it. I presume it was stolen by some 
tripper. Trippers are frequently on the look-out for 
Manx cats, and I fear that many tailed kittens are 
deprived^of their tails to meet the demand. 



[LETTER II.] 

Ramsey, 

i /th July, 1898. 

Thank you for letting me see the interesting 
letters about Manx cats. I suppose the Society 
wants to have a standard by which to judge them. 
. . . I am sure we should all be interested to hear 
what they have to say on the subject, and we may 
be able to add some general information. 

To take the questions in order I should say that 
grey tabby (barred, not spotted) is the most natural 
and correct, if one may so speak. I think it is cer- 
tainly most common. I have known tortoiseshell, 
black-and-white, black, white, and perhaps others, 
which I now forget. The eye, so far as I know, is 
the same as in the common English tabby. 

Certainly we have cats with tails the rumpy being 
the rare form. Perhaps one in a litter, and one or two 
of them with half-tails. 

As to what they are supposed to be, I have of 
course heard the Spanish Armada story. My own 
belief is that they have originated in a sport, e.g. as 
we find in dogs and fowls, and have been perpetuated 
as curiosities, and in modern times on account of 
their commercial value. 

I do not know that there is any type which can be 
said to be more true than another with regard to size 
and shape of head, etc. The height at the hind legs 
is perhaps more apparent than real, caused by the 
abrupt ending, without the falling tail as in ordinary 
cats. 

Professor Owen made a preparation, which may be 
seen at the British Museum, showing the bones (if any) 
of the tail. I think in a perfect specimen there 
should be no bones. Of course, there are all degress 
of stumps. 

It is only of recent years that any English 
fanciers have tried to breed true Manx 
cats. Miss Samuel has been very success- 
ful in establishing a strain which again 
and again breeds true to type. The " Golf- 



248 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



sticks " and " Kangaroo," two noted winners, 
are owned by her. In former days Miss 
Bugden's " Gorrie," Mr. Woodiwiss's " Manx 
King," "Pickles," "Belle," and "Beauty," 
all good cats, accounted for most of the prizes. 
Miss Jay, whose name is more familiarly known 
in connection with blue Persians, has always 
been partial to Manx cats, and used to exhibit 
at the Crystal Palace. The last time I visited 
the Holmwood cattery I was much struck with 
the number of tortoiseshell Manx cats running 
about the stable yard. Miss Jay has quite a 
family of these ; but, needless to say, they 
are all of the female sex ! Mrs. Herring has 
not been unmindful of this breed, and has 
exhibited some good 
specimens. Miss 
Dresser has owned 
Manx cats for many 
years and shown 
some good ones. 
Her "Belle Mahone" 
and " Moonlight " 
were nice tabbies, 
free from tail, and 
" Bonhaki Junior" 
was a very fine- 
shaped silver tabby- 
and-white ; but, un- 
fortunately, he had 
a stump which al- 
ways kept him back. 
Mrs. Mosely has ex- 
hibited some good 
blacks. Lady Alex- 
ander owned several 
prize-winning Manx, 
but these have 
passed into the 
hands of Miss Hester 
Cochran. The best of 
these are " Balloch- 
myle Bell Stump," 

a curiously spotted tabby, absolutely tailless. 
" Bell Spitz " and " Strathcona " are also 
good specimens in Miss Cochran's possession. 
Mr. Gambier Bolton owned and bred some 
fine cats. " Manx Primrose," a black, and 




ORANGE 
OWNED BY MRS. 
(rlwto : S. S. F 



" D-Tail," a silver tabby, won respectively 
first and second at the Westminster show in 
1902. It is so usual to see " Breeder and pedi- 
gree unknown " after almost all the entries in 
the Manx classes that these two cats were dis- 
tinguished by having a certified pedigree. It 
was a grievous loss when " D-Tail " disappeared 
very mysteriously from his home in St. John's 
Wood. " Manx Silverwing " passed from Mr. 
Bolton's possession to that of Mr. Foulstonc's, 
and was later purchased by Mr. A. Ward, the 
well-known cat specialist. As will be seen 
from the illustration on page 251, this puss is 
almost a spotted tabby. 

Lady Marcus Beresford has lately shown a 

great partiality for 
Manx. I think I am 
right in stating that 
the first one that in- 
habited the Bishops- 
gate a>tlery was a 
beautiful white called 
"Mona,' ; that I 
procured lor her. 
This fine specimen 
was brought from 
the island direct, 
and proved herself 
a splendid ratter ; 
but, alas ! she did 
not live long to en- 
joy the luxuries of 
her new home. 
There are, however, 
no fewer than five 
Manx now at 
Bishopsgat c 
"Jack," a silver 
tabby; "Patch," a 
tortoiseshell; 
"Satanella." a 
black female ; and 
" Stumps," a brown 
tabby male. The most recent addition is 
" King Clinkie," whom I Inve before men- 
tioned as being owned by Mrs. H. C. Brooke. 
Does he ever think of his former struggling 
existence, now that his ways are those of 



MANX. 

CLINTON LOCKE. 
inley, Chicago.) 



MANX CATS. 



249 



pleasantness and peace ? One of the latesc 
of the specialist clubs is the Manx Club, 
formed by Miss _^ Hester Cochran in 1901, 
with an annual subscription of IDS. ; this- 
has been reduced to 55., and the members 
in the beginning of 1903 numbered about 
twenty. The club has, as far as possible, 
devoted its limited funds to guaranteeing a 



THE PROGENY' OF A TAILLESS CAT OF THE ISLE OF MAN. 

A cat brought from the Isle of Man (felis catus 
anura) to S. Germain en Lave, of which the pedigree 
is unknown, was mated with ordinary long-tailed 
cats, and among twenty-four kittens the four fol- 
lowing different kinds appeared : 

I. Kittens with ordinary long tails. 
II. Kittens with short and stump tails. 
III. Kittens without tails, like the mother. 
IV. Kittens without the least sign of a tail. 




MRS. H. c. BROOKE'S MANX, "KATZEXJA.MMKK.'' 

(Photo: A. R. Picket!, Be.rley Heath.) 



better classification for Manx cats at the prin- 
cipal shows, and when unable to afford a 
guarantee has given special prizes for competi- 
tion. The efforts of this small body of fanciers 
have been substantially rewarded by the great 
improvement in the quantity and quality of 
the Manx cats exhibited during the last 
eighteen months. Miss H. Cochran, who has 
given up all other cats for Manx, is the hon. 
secretary, and Lady Alexander hon. treasurer. 
Committee : Lady Alexander, Miss H. Cochran, 
Mrs. Herring, and Miss White Atkins. No 
doubt in time the officials and members ot 
the Manx Club will be able to acid to their 
number. 

The following is translated from a para- 
graph in a German weekly paper called Mutter 
Erde, and appeared in Our Cats of March 
ist. 1900 : 



The comparison between the influence of the sire 
and that of the dam on the young is interesting : 



1 litter. I kitten like the mother. 

2 6 kittens, 5 like the mother, I like the father. 

5 3 .. - 2 " 

3 i ,,2 

4 i ,.3 



It will be seen that the influence of the mother 
predominates. 

Manx cats may be considered shy breeders, 
and constantly the litter will consist of one 
kitten only ! I have been told that they are 
excellent mothers ; but, in the words of a 
Manx fancier, " they only care to have one 
family a year, many queens won't breed at 
all, and heaps of males are very funny and 
take no notice of their wives ! " Another 
breeder of Manx informs me that these cats 
seem entirely fearless with dogs, and that her 



250 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



canines arid felines live together in perfect 
amity. I believe Mr. H. C. Brooke once ex- 
hibited a Manx in the same pen as a bull-dog 
at the South London Bull-dog Show of 1893. 
And now, having mentioned Mr. Brooke's 
name, I am pleased to say that this well- 




BALLOCHMVLE BELL SPITZ. 

OWNED nv Miss HESTER COCHRAN. 

known and successful fancier of Manx, as well 
as foreign, cats has kindly written an article 
on this variety, which is his pet speciality : 

" On this breed I think I may claim to write 
with some authority, as I have kept it for a 
number of years, and it has always been my 
favourite breed of cat. I believe I may, with- 
out boasting, say that I have of late years been 
of some service to the breed, by constantly 
agitating for the Manx classes to be entrusted 
to judges who take some interest in the variety ; 
for it is a lamentable fact that there are num- 
bers of people, good judges of the more popular 
breeds, who are quite willing to adjudicate 
upon the Manx classes without possessing the 
slightest qualifications, and these usually 
merely judge the Manx as a tailless cat, which 
is all wrong. During the last few years I 
am glad to say that the National Cat Club, at 
almost all its shows, instead of tacking the 
Manx classes on to the list of any all-round 
judge, has appointed capable judges ; and 
whilst, of course, no judge has ever succeeded 
in pleasing all concerned (except when there 



was only one entry in the class), the awards at 
these shows have always been reasonable and 
sound, and free from the absurdities which too 
often sicken fanciers and render the judge 
ridiculous at other shows. When we find an 
all-round judge openly stating that a Manx 
is but a tailless cat, and that he could manu- 
facture perfect specimens, it is high time that 
that judge's name, however excellent a judge 
he may be of other breeds, should be inscribed 
upon the tablets of every Manx fancier's 
memory, and when he again officiates he 
should be saved the trouble of going over cats 
which he neither likes nor understands. 

'"What is a Manx but a tailless cat ? ' 
some may ask. Well, a cat with, perhaps, 
an inch of tail, though in my opinion unfit 
to win a prize, may possibly be really a 
better Manx, more calculated to do good to 
the breed, than an absolutely tailless cat. It 
may possess more Manx character, and this 
Manx character is a thing not ' understanded 
of the people ' ; and here it is that those judges 
score who have taken a real interest in and 
studied the breed. A cat may have a couple 
of joints of tail, crooked or straight, and yet 
be a pure Manx ; though, as we strive for per- 
fection, I consider that such cats should be 
relegated to the stud, or at most only be placed 
' in the money if the competition be very weak, 
and then never awarded any high prize. 

" If breeders of Manx were more careful, 
there should be no difficulty in obtaining 
litters without any tail whatever. No cat 
can be a really typical Manx who is long-cast 
in the body. A short, cobby body is an essen- 
tial in a show Manx. So also is a round, short 
skull. These points are usually noticeable 
when the kittens are young ; as they grow 
older they disappear, frequently to return 
when the cat has outgrown its kittenhood. 
But the most important Manx property is the 
great length of hind leg, which absolutely 
marks the typical Manx as a cat quite distinct 
from a tailless cat ; with this should be coupled 
a round, guinea-pig-like rump, round as an 
orange, which, of course, can only be obtained 
when there is absolutely no tail. Even a tuft 



MANX CATS. 



of gristle or hair, as found in many of the best 
specimens, though in itself but a very trifling 
defect, detracts from this typical ' rumpy ' 
appearance, by giving a more or less angular 
appearance to the hind quarters, unless, that is, 
it be situated so far back between the hip- 
bones that it in no way projects. As typical 
specimens showing this rumpy formation to 
perfection, I may mention the late ' Champion 
and Premier Katzenjammer,' and ' Balloch- 
myle Bell Stump,' probably two of the best 
ever seen in this respect. Had these two been 
mated, what glorious progeny should have 
resulted. Now these two cats, whilst possessing 
the round rumpy formation to perfection, did 
not excel so much in length of hind leg, and 
for superlative excellence in this property we 
must turn to another celebrated couple, the 
late silver tabby ' Champion and Premier Bon- 
haki ' and 'King Clinkie,' who has just passed 
into the possession of Lady Marcus Beresford, 
and who at the age of about fifteen months 
has already twice won championship awards. 
Now, these two cats exhibited the great length 
of hind leg which gave them when in motion 
the desired comical rabbity action ; but 
in roundness of rump they lost to the 
other two, being somewhat more an- 
gular. 

' To gain absolute perfection we re- 
quire roundness of nlmp united to great: 
length of hind leg. These are the great 
characteristics of the Manx, to which 
every Manx judge worthy of the name 
will attach the greatest importance. Then 
come other body properties shortness of 
back, general cobbmess, roundness of 
skull, small ears, shortness of face ; then, 
last of all, colour. And here it is that 
the average all-round judge goes astray, 
for in too many cases he attaches too 
much weight to colour, a good instance 
of which occurred when ' Ballochmyle 
Bell Stump,' above referred to, whose 
colour, though quaint, is not very pleasing, 
was placed below a long-cast cat of a taking 
'Colour, but in no wise a typical Manx. 

"As I before remarked, colour should be 



considered last. I think a good black is the 
nicest colour for a Manx, and, of course, the 
eyes should be of the colour sought for in 
ordinary black cats. A pure blue-eyed white 
is very pretty, and also very scarce. Tabby- 
and-white I personally do not care for. Silver 
tabbies are uncommon and very handsome. 
Tortoiseshells are also pretty and quaint. 

" The fur of the Manx should be just a little 
longer and softer than that of the ordinary 
short-haired cat. Now and then we see long- 
haired -Manx advertised, but these are, of 
course, mongrels or abortions, and by no means 
Manx cats. 

" What is the origin of the Manx ? That is 
a question which in all probability will never 
be answered. The theory that it originated 
from a cat (or cats) having lost its tail by 
accident I do not consider worth a moment's 
consideration. Such a cat might well have 
tailless progeny, but that would have nothing 
to do with the abnormal length of the hind 
legs, which in good specimens is patent to the 
most superficial observer, and which makes 
the gambols of a couple of Manx a comical 




MANX CAT. 

(Photo: Gambier Ballon, F.Z.S. [Rcgil.].) 

sight calculated to excite laughter in the most 
mournfully disposed person. 

" Quaint is the old versified explanation, 
which I remember hearing some years ago. 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



It ran, if I remember rightly, somewhat like 
this : 

Noah, sailing o'er the seas, 

Ran high and dry on Ararat. 
His dog then made a spring, and took 

The tail from off a pussy cat. 
Puss through the window quick did fly, 

And bravely through the waters swam, 
Nor ever stopped, till, high and dry, 

She landed on the Isle of Man. 
Thus tailless puss earned Mona's thanks, 
And ever after was called Manx. 

" The most feasible explanation, in my 
opinion, though of course it can be but a 
theory, is that these cats were originally im- 
ported from the East. Asiatic cats of domes- 
tic varieties show remarkable variety in the 
shape of their tails, as witness the kinks often 
found in the tail of the Siamese cat, and the 
knot tails of other varieties. This subject will 
be referred to again in a subsequent paper. 

" It is also noticeable that many Manx, like 
the Siamese, are very dog-like in their habits, 
showing extreme affection for their owners. 
Poor old ' Katzen jammer,' for instance, would 
follow me to the railway station, and many a 
time on my return, from town have I found him 
sitting in the middle of a field waiting for me, 
and on seeing me he would accompany me 
home just like a dog. 

" To return to the question of the Manx 
cat's tail, this should, of course, be like snakes 
in Iceland absent. What we want is for the 
spinal column to come to an end high up on 
the back, so that on placing the finger where 
the tail would begin a hollow or depression is 
felt. This is the perfection, but it is not always 
obtainable in even the very best specimens. 
Next to be desired is when only a little tuft of 
gristle and hair, with at most a suggestion of 
a twisted and withered bone, is present. Then 
comes a distinct caudal vertebra, if twisted 
or abnormal in shape so much the better ; but 
in my opinion more than two joints should not 
be allowed in show specimens at all, though 
such cats, as. I remarked above, may be valu- 
able at stud for breeding from. But I see no 
reason, if Manx breeders would pay more 
attention, and incompetent judges were barred, 



why absolute taillessness should not be 
attained in ninety-nine kittens out of each 
hundred. I have bred many, but none have 
had the crooked stumps we often see in other- 
wise good specimens. 

" I do not care for large Manx, which gener- 
ally look coarse. Here, again, the all-rounder 
often goes astray, and unduly favours a large 
cat. 

" I can heartily recommend the Manx as a 
pet, and the quaintness of his movements are 
certainly a recommendation. My cats are all 
house pets, so that I can watch them and enjoy 
their company ; the ' cattery ' cat is abhor- 
rent to me. I cannot understand why so few 
people go in for rationally breeding this quaint 
variety. I had hoped that the recent purchase 
by his Majesty of two couples of the breed 
might have given it a fillip. 

" To illustrate the breed, I may perhaps 
be accused of egotism in giving the portrait 
of one of our own cats, but as he is dead it 
is less invidious than if living specimens were 
selected, and as they were awarded the very 
highest prizes by the very greatest authorities 
they may safely be taken as near perfection. 
The silver tabby ' Champion and Premier 
Bonhaki ' was bred by Mr. Jungbluth, one of 
the keepers of the monkey house at the Zoo. 
He made his debut at the Botanic Gardens as a 
kitten, when he was much admired by the then 
Princess of Wales, and Mr. Wain awarded him 
the championship. This success he followed up 
by winning four others under various j udges,and 
died at the early age of twenty-seven months. 
' Champion and Premier Katzenjammer ' was 
bred at home ; he did not commence his show 
career till late, and then he had to meet 
' Bonhaki,' after whose death, however, he 
was unbeaten, and had earned his champion 
title at the time of his death from gastritis last 
year, which robbed me of one of the most 
affectionate ' pals ' man ever had, and I am 
not ashamed to own that many and bitter 
were the tears I shed over his grave. 

" In conclusion, I would advise Manx fan- 
ciers to do their best to accustom their cats 
to seeing strangers, to being handled, and to 




Q 
W 



w 

>. 

g 



I 

O 

Q 
2 



n 

q 



2 

5 

O 



00 



MANX CATS. 



253 



the show pen ; for when a cat is nervous and 
crouches in a heap it is most difficult to see 
whether the desired shape of hind quarters and 
rabbity action are present. They can best be 
seen when the cat holds itself fearlessly and 



boldly; and when a judge has a large number 
of classes to get through in a short space of 
time, in very likely an ill-lighted building, he 
cannot spend half an hour coaxing each cat 
to show its action." 




MR. WARDS MANX " SILVERWIXG. 

(Photo : H. Glacier, Longzight.) 




A LITTKR BY TACHINY 

OWNED BY LADY MARCUS BERESEORD. 

(Photo : J. Fall, Baker Street.) 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

SIAMESE CATS. 



I HAVE often remarked at our cat shows 
that strangers in the fancy will inquire 
and ask to be directed to the Siamese 
class, and many and varied are the exclama- 
tions of surprise and admiration expressed 
-by them on seeing, perhaps for the first 
time, a row of Siamese cats seated in their 
pens. Nor is it always necessary to direct 
visitors to the Siamese classes, for generally 
these animals will betray their whereabouts 
by the unique tone of their voice, which is 
distinguishable at a great distance. 

There is certainly a great fascination about 
this peculiar breed of cats, which is yearly 
becoming more popular and fashionable. But 
fanciers are also learning a lesson in the school 
of experience, where frequently the fees are 
high, that they dare not trust their valuable 
specimens on the show bench. Siamese cats 
seem to be more sensitive than even the most 
delicate of long-haired breeds, and if attacked 
by any of the ills that catty flesh is heir to 
they do not appear to have any stamina to 
bear up against the ravages of the disease. 
Their recuperative powers are almost nil, and 
they rarely pull through a severe illness. I 
have never kept Siamese myself, but I have 



had many opportunities of observing them in 
sickness and in health. I have seen grown-up 
specimens go out like the snuffing of a candle 
with acute pneumonia, almost before one has 
realised they were even ailing. These creatures 
are quite human in the way they look at you 
with those bonnie blue eyes, and when you 
talk to them they seem to answer in their 
croaking voice. I can well understand what 
companionable cats these may become, and tc* 
fanciers of this unique breed other cats must 
appear lacking in interest and wanting in 
intelligence. 

From time to time there have been discus- 
sions in our cat papers on Siamese cats in 
general, and on their kinked or kinkless tails 
in particular. It is certain that those cats 
known to us as royal Siamese are not the only 
species in Siam, the common cat of the country 
being tabby or black. So many of my friends 
who are fanciers and breeders of Siamese have 
kindly supplied me with interesting facts con- 
cerning this variety, that I do not intend to 
enter into any details, but will state that in 
1902 a Siamese Cat Club was started by several 
enthusiastic admirers of this breed, and the 
members have certainly done much to improve 



SIAMESE CATS. 



255 



the classification at shows, by offering prizes 
and guaranteeing classes. 

The following is a list of the officials of the 
specialist club, with a standard of points for 
royal Siamese cats : 

President. Mrs. Vary Campbell. 

Vice-Presidents. The Lady Decies, Mrs. Vyvyan, 
Miss Sutherland, The Hon. Mrs. McLaren Morrison, 
Mrs. Chapman, and Miss H. Cochran. 

Committee. Mrs. Parker-Brough, Mrs. Carew Cox, 
Miss Derby Hyde, Mrs. C. B. Robinson, Mrs. A. 
Spencer, Miss Forestier Walker, Mr. Gambier Bolton, 
and Mr. C. W. Cooke. 

Hon. Treasurer. Mrs. Parker-Brough, Springfield, 
Kettering. 

Hon. Secretary. Miss Forestier Walker. 
Hon. Auditor. Conrad W. Cooke. 



STANDARD OF POINTS FOR THE " ROYAL " SIAMESE 
CAT. 

Body Colour. As light and even as possible, cream 
being most desirable, but fawn also admissible, with- 
out streaks, bars, blotches, or any other body mark- 
ings. 

Points, i.e. mask, ears, legs, feet, and tail, dark 
and clearly defined, of the shade known as " seal " 
brown. 

Mask. Complete, i.e. connected by tracings with 
the ears, neither separated by a pale ring (as in 
kittens) nor blurred and indistinct, the desideratum 
being to preserve the " marten face," an impression 
greatly aTcTecT by a good mask. 

Eyes Bright and decided blue. 

Coat Glossy and close lying. 

Shape. Body rather long, legs proportionately 
slight. 

Head. Rather long and pointed. 




THE GARDEN CATTERY AT BISHOPSGATE. 
(Fhotoi: Casse/I & Company, Limited.) 



256 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



General Appearance. With points emphasised 
above, a somewhat curious and striking looking cat, 
of medium size ; if weighty, not showing bulk, as 
this would detract from the admired " svelte " appear- 
ance. In type, in every particular, the reverse of 
the ideal short-haired domestic cat, and with properly 
preserved contrasts of colour, a very handsome 
animal, often also distinguished by a kink in the tail. 

Remarks. While admit- 
ting that blues, blacks, 
whites, tabbies, and other 
coloured cats may be also 
cats of Siam, these being 
common to all parts of the 
world, this club recognises 
only as Siamese cats those 
cats the points of which 
conform to the above 
standard, and is, in fact, 
desirous of encouraging the 
breeding of those particular 
cats first made known to 
British fanciers as the 
-' royal " Siamese. 

The points of the 
" chocolate " Siamese are 
the same as above, with 
the exception of body 
colour. 

VALUE OF POINTS. 

Body colour 

Shape 

Coat 

Head 

Eyes 

Mask 

Density of points 



20 
IO 
10 
IO 
2O 
15 
15 




MRS. ROBERTS LOCKE, WITH 

AM) " BANGKOK." 
(Photo: S. S. Finlcy, Chicago.) 

75 of the above marks 

shall not be eligible for the club's challenge prizes 

and medals. 



Total . . . . 100 
Any cat failing to obtain 



It was shortly after the formation of the 
Siamese Cat Club that the following letter 
appeared in Fur and Feather: 

POINTS OF THE SIAMESE. 
The committee of the Siamese Club wish to draw 
attention to the unfortunate diversity of opinion 
concerning Siamese cats expressed in articles which 
appear from time to time in some of the papers which 
devote a portion of their issue to cat news. One great 
object of the Siamese Club is to encourage the dis- 
tinct breeding of the royal cat of. Siam and also of the 
chocolate cat of Siam both beautiful in their own 



way, but recognised as distinct breeds. The Siamese 
Club is young, and not infallible ; but, containing as 
it does most of the principal breeders and exhibitors, 
its committee would like to record their opinion on 
some few points which have appeared in the Press, 
in order to avoid a silence which might be construed 
as consent. With regard to colour, they cannot agree 
that a royal can be too light in body colour, nor can 

they endorse " we like a 
rich cream body, choco- 
late saddle, and the points 
glossy black, shading away 
to chocolate." Another 
paper advises the mating 
of royal Siamese with the 
chocolate variety. It is 
true that the young kittens 
are very pretty, but after 
six months old quickly 
become dark and blurred. 
The great beauty of royal 
Siamese is the contrast 
between the sharply de- 
fined, deepest brown mark- 
ings and a body of as 
light a cream as possible. 
A third paper gives the 
information that an exhibi- 
tor known to it has bred 
prize - winning Siamese 
from a cross between a 
white cat with blue eyes 
and a Siamese queen. It 
also mentions another case 
where such crossing has 
produced good Siamese 
kittens, and thinks "that 
many other people have, 
with more or less suc- 
cess, followed the same 
tactics. The above ex- 
periment has often been tried, purposely and acci- 
dentally, but no case is known to the writers where 
the result has been anything like Siamese, the kittens 
always favouring the English parent. All Siamese 
are born white, and therefore if the children of one 
white parent died quite young such a mistake might 
be natural. It certainly would be very unfair to 
sell such kittens, as their progeny would inherit, and 
might pass on, an English parentage, not even neces- 
sarily white. A white is, or may be, merely an albino 
variety. (Signed). A. Forestier Walker, Jean A. 
Spencer, May Robinson, L. Parker-Brough, S. E. 
Backhouse, Constance Carew Cox. 

Miss Forestier Walker and Mrs. Vyvyan 
were amongst the first to introduce Siamese cats 



SIAMESE CATS. 



257 



into England, and they have always owned a 
direct descendant from the first and famous 
" Tiam-o-Shian," and many 
are the prize-winners they 
have reared and shown from 
this celebrated strain. Miss 
Forestier- Walker has fre- 
quently acted as judge of 
Siamese, and took a very 
active part in the formation 
of the specialist club for this 
breed. She has kindly fur- 
nished me with the follow- 
ing notes, and given me 
some photographs of Mrs. 
Vyvyan's cats : 

" Siamese cats were first 
introduced into England 
about twenty-five years ago, 
but were not often seen until 
a few years later. Among 
the earliest were those 
belonging to Sir Robert 
Herbert, Lady Dorothy 
Nevill, the Rev. S. Baring-Gould, Mrs. Cun- 
liffe Lee, Mrs. Vyvyan, and myself. Since 
then they have become fairly common. 

"There are two 
distinct varieties 
in the present day. 
(i) The ro3'al cat 
of Siam, cream- 
coloured in body, 
with sharply de- 
fined seal - brown 
markings on head, 
ears, legs, feet, 
and tail ; eyes a 
decided blue. 
The cats generally 
become darker 
after two years 
old, but where 
great care has 
been taken in breeding the true royal cats 
keep the light colour longer. In any case the 
body colouring should be even, not blotched 
or striped. The larger, lighter-coloured cats 
17 




THE PROPERTY OF W. MARGETSON, ESQ. 
(Photo: H.J. Comley, Stroud.) 




TIAM-O-SHIAN I \ 
OWNED BY MRS. VYVYAN. 
(Photo : Speight, Kittering.) 



have china or ultramarine blue eyes ; the 
more slender, darker cats have deeper-coloured 
eyes. (2) The chocolate cats 
are deep brown in colour, 
showing hardly any mark- 
ings, and have blue eyes. 

" All Siamese kittens are 
white when born, but in a 
few days slight markings 
appear on tail, ears, and 
paws, and by four months 
old the markings are dark 
and complete, excepting 
those which connect the face 
and head ; these are seldom 
perfect before eight months 
old. 

" The tails are sometimes 
straight, which is not a fault ; 
but a knot or kink in the 
tail is a peculiarity of the 
breed, and therefore desir- 
able. In England it has 
been asserted that this is a 
defect, but in Siam it is highly prized, and 
cats from the royal palace which have been 
given bv the King as presents of value to 

important people 
have had this dis- 
tinction. In the 
East a cat with a 
kinked tail fetches 
a higher price. 

" The Siamese 
have a great affec- 
tion for animals, 
and there is no 
doubt that the 
cats are much val- 
ued, those in the 
royal palace hav- 
ing been kept ex- 
ceptionally pure. 
" There is a 
legend that the light-coloured cats, with blue 
eyes, represent silver ; the dark cats, with 
yellow eyes, gold ; and that the possessor of 
both will always have plenty. This rather 








THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



gives the idea that originally the eyes of the 
pure chocolate cat were yellow, and that 
the present variety has been crossed with the 
royal cat. 

" Mr. Young, of Harrogate, had some years 
ago a chocolate cat with yellow eyes. 

" Another belief is that they receive the 
souls of their owners at death, and it is well 
known that the King of Siam 
had one on board his yacht 
when visiting Europe a few 
years ago. 

" It is a great mistake to 
mix the varieties, as the result 
after they become adult is a 
blurring of the markings and 
a patchy coat. 

" The males are extremely 
powerful, and will kill strange 
cats and fight dogs. They are 
devoted to their wives and 
children, and to their owners. 
They are exceedingly intelli- 
gent. With the dogs of the 
house they will be on excellent 
terms. 

" The litters vary in size, 
but four to five is the usual number. The 
kittens are difficult to rear, as they suffer from 
worms and teething, but after seven or eight 
months old there is little danger. Some 
people think a meat diet best, but I find it 
satisfactory to bring them up on lighter food, 
such as Ridge's food, milk, gravy, and fish, 
until they begin to cut their teeth, when 
meat is required. 

" A pair from the Palace were given to Mrs. 
Vyvyan and myself in 1884-5, and we have 
been very careful in breeding, mating when 
possible with such good cats as Mrs. Lee's 
celebrated ' Meo,' Miss Moore's ' Siam,' Mrs. 
Harrington's ' Mechi,' etc, and have bred in 
consequence the famous ' Tiam-o-Shians ' II., 
III., and IV., ' Polyphema,' ' Susa,' ' Kitya 
Kara,' ' Goblin,' ' Champion Eve,' ' Mafeking,' 
' Vishuddha,' ' Ah Choo,' ' Suzanne,' and many 
others." 

Among fanciers and importers of Siamese 




OWNED BY LADY MARCUS BEKKSFORD. 
(Photo : Russell & Sons, Windsor.) 



cats in the past, I may mention the Hon. Mrs. 
McLaren Morrison, Lady O'Malley, Lady 
Decies, Mrs. Brodie, Mr. Temple, Mr. Gambier 
Bolton, Miss Moore, Mrs. Elliott Hill, Mrs. 
Cunliffe Lee (owner of the celebrated " Meo "), 
and Mrs. Carew Cox, who later in this article 
will give some account of her " King Kesho " 
and the breed with which her name is still 
associated. Mrs. Herring has 
exhibited good specimens from 
time to time. Mrs. Chapman's 
" \Yally Pug " used to cross 
the Irish Channel to visit 
English cat shows. Mr. Young 
and Mr. Inman, both of Har- 
rogate, favoured this breed, 
and had some lovely cats. 
Mrs. Nield owned a charming 
little female named " Mintha- 
mee " ; and Miss Sutherland, 
who lives in the south of 
France, used to breed a lot 
of good Siamese from her 
imported " Prince of Siam." 
Several of her breeding have 
been sold in England, and 
have won at shows. Mrs. 
Patton Bethune has often exhibited, and is an 
ardent admirer of the breed. Mrs. Parker 
Brough, in whose care " Tiam-o-Shian IV." is 
placed by Mrs. Vyvyan, is well known as a 
Siamese breeder, as is also Mrs. Spencer, of 
Eye Vicarage, who exports quite a number of 
cats ; one of her breed owned by Mr. E. 
Ratcliffe is a beautiful animal. Mrs. Vary 
Campbell, the president of the Siamese Club, 
is a generous supporter of the breed. Mr. and 
Mrs. W. R. Hawkins have always had some 
fine specimens ; and Mrs. Hankey, Miss H. 
Cochran, Miss Derby Hyde, and Miss Armitage 
are among others who owned some notable 
Siamese cats. Mrs. Backhouse's " Champion 
Eve " was a distinguished prize-winner, and 
Mrs. Robinson's " Ah Choo " was chosen as 
a model for the medal of the Siamese Club. 
But it is chiefly as the owner of the celebrated 
" Champion Wankee " that Mrs. Robinson is 
known in the cat fane}' in general, and among 



SIAMESE CATS. 



259 



Siamese breeders in particular. " Wankee " 
was the first Siamese to win the title of " Cham- 
pion." He was bred in Hong-Kong, his mother 
' Xims " being a stolen palace kitten. 
" Wankee " was six months old when he 
arrived in England : and was born in Sep- 
tember, 1895. He has won over thirty prizes, 
but was never shown till June, 1898, there- 
fore losing the time in which most Siamese 
cats gain their honours namely, between six 
months and two years, when they are pale in 
colour of coat. 

Many are the prize kittens he has sired, too 
numerous to mention. Mrs. Robinson, who 
is a member of the National Cat Club com- 
mittee, has frequently acted as a judge of 
Siamese, and has kindly written the following 
account for this chapter : 

" One of the most beautiful of the short- 
haired cats is undoubtedly the royal cat of 
Si am, and the breed is greatly increasing in 
popularity ; but is never likely to be common, 



they get dark there is a tendency to call them 
chocolates. I know of only one real chocolate 
Mr. C. Cooke's ' Zetland Wanzies ' so con- 
sider them more likely to be a freak than a 
distinct variety. 

" Of the royals there seem to be two types 
in England : the one rather a small, long- 
headed cat, with glossy, close-lying coat and 
deep blue eyes, and with a decided tendency 
to darken with age is generally the imported 
cat or having imported parents ; the other is 
a larger^ort, with a rounder head, a much 
thicker, longer, and less close-lying coat, and 
the eyes a paler blue (these cats do not darken 
as much or as soon as the other type, and have 
generally been bred for several generations in 
England). 

" The kittens are born absolutely white, and 
in about a week a faint pencilling comes round 
the ears, and gradually all the points come. At 
four or five months they are lovely, as gener- 
ally they retain their baby whiteness, which 




MR. RATCLIFFE'S SIAMESE. 

(Photo: Hartley, Burnley.) 



as the cats are delicate in this country. The 
best description is that drawn up by the 
Siamese Cat Club in their standard of points. 
The points of the chocolate Siamese are the 
same as the royal, with the exception of 
body colour, which is a dark rich brown all 
over, thus making the markings less noticeable. 
All Siamese cats darken with age, and when 



contrasts well with their almost black ears, 
deep brown markings, and blue eyes. Some 
kittens are much longer than others in getting 
dense, these making the lightest cats. 

" This breed is said to be kept very care- 
fully in the palace in Bangkok hence the title 
' royal ' and is by no means the common 
cat of Siam. One gentleman (a missionary), 



26o 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



who had lived there fifteen years, had during 
that time seen only three. A few years ago 
there was a pair of these cats in the Zoological 
Gardens at Bangkok, but they were very poor 
specimens. 

" They have occasionally been given by the 
King as presents of great value, and several 
pairs have come to England in this way ; also 
kittens have undoubtedly been stolen from 
the palace from time to time. 

' There is a legend that these cats were kept 
exclusively and with great care in the King's 
palace, as resting places for royal souls. The 
Siamese are Buddhists, and consequently 
believe in the transmigration of souls ; but 



has sent me some charming photographs of 
her pets. She writes : 

" I have very few cats at present ; I lost so 
many beautiful Siamese last year, and I think 
I made rather a mistake in having their skins 
made into mats ! ' Cora,' the mother of my 
Siamese cats and kits, is still a beauty, and I 
really think she improves with age ; and 
though her eyes are not all I could wish for in 
colour, yet her kittens have always had the 
desired tone of blue. I have now a lovely 
daughter of ' Cora ' and ' Champion Wankee,' 
aged nine months. When she was a few hours 
old I put her to be fostered by our old English 
garden tabby, who makes her headquarters in 







LADY MARCUS BERESFORD S " URSULA. 
{Photo : E. Landor, Ealing.) 



with the growth of Western ideas and Western 
scepticism I doubt this being admitted. 

" They are very intelligent, almost doggy in 
their ways, and very affectionate, but not 
universally friendly. The males are great 
fighters, and freely use their terrible voices ; ' 
but they are well suited for house pets, as they 
seem happiest with their human friends. 

" The first specimens were brought to 
England about twenty-five or thirty years ago, 
and Mr. Harrison Weir says that among those 
who possessed them were Lady Dorothy Nevill, 
whose cats were ' imported and presented by 
Sir R. Herbert of the Colonial Office. The late 
Duke of Wellington imported the breed, also 
Mr. Scott of Rotherfield.' " 

Miss Armitage, of Chaseleyfield, Pendleton, 



the greenhouse. This kitten has never had a 
day's illness. She leads a wild life, catching 
birds and mice, and nibbling the tips oft the 
ferns much to the gardener's annoyance. I 
am hoping to send her to our next National 
Cat Club show, if I can catch her that day, 
but she is generally up a tree when wanted ! 

" I find the way to succeed in breeding and 
rearing Siamese kittens is to only keep a few. 
I strongly believe in putting them forth into 
cottage homes. Distemper spreads like wild- 
fire amongst this breed, and it is heartrending 
to lose whole litters at once. It is strange how 
much stronger the females are than the males. 
I have never lost a female kitten yet ; but, 
alas ! many a promising male." 

I remember a beautiful male bred by Miss 



SIAMESE CATS. 



261 



Armitage that she exhibited at one of the 
Manchester shows. "Sam Sly" was as near 
perfection as possible, and after taking 
everything in the way of prizes, medals, and 
championships this fine fellow came home and 
died ! Mrs. Spencer, of Eye Vicarage, to whom 
I have alluded as a Siamese fancier, has bred 
so many large litters of kits that I wrote to 
ask if she would kindly give me and my 
readers the benefit of some of her experience 
in rearing young Siamese. She writes in 
reply : 

" My ' Royal Siam ' came from the royal 
palace, and I consider him a splendid specimen. 
I did not breed from him until he was between 
three and four years old, which may be one 
of the reasons why all the kittens by him are 
so wonderfully strong and healthy. He has 
never ailed anything since I have had him. 
I have never placed him at stud, but have 
allowed a few friends to send their queens to 
visit him. Neither have I ever exhibited him, 
for he is far too precious a pet to be allowed 
to run any risks. My queen ' Princess Mai- 
mowne ' is also a fine strong cat, a daughter 
of Mrs. Carew Cox's ' King Kesho ' ; and many 
are the prize-winners bred from these two. I 
heat my catteries during the day in winter, 
and at night in cold weather I give the^cats a 
hot stone bottle in their sleeping boxes, for it 
is the damp and cold of our English winter 
nights which are so dangerous. The windows 
of my catteries face south, and this is import- 
ant in rearing Siamese. I always allow my 
cats an abundance of fish ; this I give mixed 
with bread soaked in water twice a day, with 
another meal of something different, thus 
making three meals a day. I boil all the milk. 
Sometimes I give a little cod-liver oil over 
their food with very beneficial results. If the 
kittens have bad colds or any trifling ailment, 
I indulge them with a little finely cut up raw 
beef. I have been breeding Siamese for over 
five years, and I have only lost one kitten of 
my own rearing. I think the reason of my 
success is that I never pass over the most 
trifling symptom of illness, and it is very neces- 
sary to take the temperature of Siamese at 
17* 



the slightest sign of sickness. I send a great 
number of kittens away to purchasers, and I 
am most particular in the way I pack the kits 
for their journey. The basket outside should 
be covered with thick brown paper, leaving 
just a square piece in the lid for ventilation. 
Inside I line with new house flannel, and place 
a soft cushion at the bottom, and if very cold 
weather I put an indiarubber hot-water 
bottle under the cushion. If the cats have to 
pass through London, I arrange with the 
District Messengers Company to meet the 
cat and convey it to its destination or to 
another station. Thus dangerous delays are 
avoided at a very little cost." 

As everyone knows, Lady Marcus Beresford 
has always been especially fond of Siamese 
cats, and many splendid specimens have 
inhabited the Bishopsgate cat cottage. At 
present "King of Siam" and "Khoula," and 
a quaint little female called " It," represent 
this breed. In the days gone by "Tachin" 
and " Cambodia " were the admired of all 
admirers, and I doubt if ever a more perfect 
pair has landed on these shores. These cats 
were given to Lady Marcus Beresford twelve 
years ago by the late Lord William Beresford, 
who brought them straight from the palace 
at Bangkok. Lady Marcus writes : 

" I never once had any trouble or anxiety 
with them dear, gentle, friendly little people, 
so clever and attractive. I have never seen 
any I have so admired. They had many fine, 
healthy litters, scattered about now amongst 
various friends. My success all round was 
great with them no illness of any kind, till one 
day a fiend poisoned both ' Tachin ' and ' Cam- 
bodia,' and some of their six months kittens. 
I have replaced them with some bred in 
England ; and my opinion is that, as a rule, 
the imported ones are much the stronger. A 
pair of Siamese imported from the temple at 
Bangkok I purchased from Mrs. Vary Campbell, 
and had the great misfortune to lose them. 
They differed from the royal Siamese, being 
darker and having a more pointed head 
and face, and their eyes were larger and 
fuller. 



262 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



" I consider that Siamese cats are much 
cleverer than other breeds, and with patience 
can be taught several clever tricks. I in- 
tend to go in more largely for them in the 
future." 

Several of Lady Marcus Beresford's Siamese 
found their way into Mr. and Mrs. Hawkins' 
possession, and were exhibited from time to 
time, always gaining great distinction. Mrs. 
Hawkins possesses a daughter of "Tachin," 
and so hopes to keep up this unique strain. 
Mrs. Hawkins has some of the best arranged 
and very solidly built catteries at Brighton, 
of which I give an illustration. These are 
specially adapted for the breeding of Siamese 
and silvers, the two varieties which find 
favour at Shalimar. A long experience with 
Siamese enables Mrs. Hawkins to write with 
authority, and I give her notes as given to 
me for the benefit of my readers : 

" The first thing you have to consider with 
regard to these animals is that when newly 
imported they are naturally delicate, and must 
be hardened off, so to speak, just as our 
delicate foreign birds have to be ; that is to 
say, you cannot treat them at first as you would 
our ordinary fireside cats. If you are for- 




MISS AKMITAGE S " CORA. 
(I'lioto : Salmon Sr Katchan, New Bond Street, W.) 



tunate enough to pick up newly imported ones, 
even if you have to pay a good price for 
them, they will prove a good investment ; and 
perhaps you may be able to get some from one 
of our numerous cat fanciers, though they are 
very scarce at present and difficult to obtain. 
My advice is to get the best possible pair, and 
let them breed in the spring in the house, if 
you can let them have a spare room, which 
need not be warmed in any way. Leave the 
mother quietly with the kittens ; and, having 
provided a warm bed and bedding for them 
previously, leave them to nature as much as 
possible, just going in now and then to see 
that all is going on all right, and giving the 
mother warm milk, etc., and coaxing her to 
get used to you. 

"Siamese cats are particularly gentle and 
affectionate, and if you are kind to them 
they soon get to know and love you. It 
is a pity their nature is not more copied 
by human beings then we should not 
have so much dissension and wrangling in 
our cat fancy. But this is a digression ! 
As the kittens get on it is as well to have 
a warm place outside prepared ready for 
them ; but do not put them out too soon, 
and if any show the slightest suspicion of 
cold they must be brought! in and allowed 
to get over it completely before being turned 
out in the garden or outhouses, with the 
others. 

" My own Siamese kittens were born in a 
cat house in my garden at Brighton, but 
they were June kittens, so by that time we 
were having very nice weather. The father 
and mother I had as kittens ; I pulled them 
through their baby ailments successfully, 
and as soon as the weather was pro- 
pitious and sunny I put them in 
their outside houses. Siamese and 
chinchilla kittens (both of which 
I go in for) must be hardened off 
gradually. They are just like Eng- 
lish children brought from abroad, 
who have to be carefully nurtured 
at first and trained to get used to 
our English climate. 



SIAMESE CATS. 



263 



" What we want is to establish a really 
healthy, strong strain of Siamese in England, 
and by following the above suggestions I 
think it is possible to do it not without 
difficulty, as, of course, it takes a little time 
and trouble (like everything else), but what 
is worth having is worth trying for. 

" I may say I won with my Siamese at 
Brighton shows every time I exhibited them, 
and am now starting breeding them again ; and 
I think that everyone who will have the 
patience to go in for this charming variety will 
find themselves well repaid, as the kittens 
command 5 to 10 each if successfully reared, 
and sometimes more. Of course, 
one must keep a careful watch 
over their diet, and not over-feed 
(this is a great point, as they will 
contract skin diseases if you do) ; 
but all these things apply as much 
to all cats, and I cannot see why 
Siamese should be more difficult 
to breed and establish thoroughly 
in England than other cats. One 
of mine, a female, is out now (and 
has been all the winter) in a brick 
cat-house, and is perfectly well. 
I have been told Siamese are so 
delicate that people cannot rear 
them. This is often the fault of 
the people themselves, for if they will not 
take a little trouble over animals they cannot 
expect to make money by them. By this 
I do not mean fussing and worrying your 
servants over them. Look after them your- 
selves, see that they are all right every day 
(a good feed twice a day is quite sufficient), and 
then your Siamese will soon be as healthy and 
strong as your other cat?. All the points of a 
good Siamese are so well known that I need 
not touch upon them here. Start with a good 
strain, be careful, be patient, and you will be 
rewarded in the end." 

I have mentioned Mrs. Parker Brough as a 
breeder of Siamese cats, and I am indebted to 
her for the following account of her favourite 
breed : 

" A peculiarity of royal Siamese is that the 



kittens are born quite white, and at about 
fourteen days the points begin to look rather 
grey, turning at two months to a deep seal- 
brown, while the rest of the body usually 
remains white or cream for at least a couple 
of years (the whiskers and claws remain white). 
The colouring process resembles nothing so 
much as that of a meerschaum pipe. There 
are distinct varieties of Siamese known to 




1'AIk OF SIAMESH BKI.ON'aiXG TO MRS. ARMITAGE. 

(Photo : Salmon & Batchan, New Bond Street, W.) 

fanciers the palace or royal cat, the temple 
cat (chocolate), and there is likewise the 
common cat of the country, which is also 
found within the palace. The points of the 
chocolate cat are identical for shows with those 
of the royal except body colour, but the im- 
ported chocolate is often dark chocolate, with 
blue eyes, stumpy tail with a marked kink, 
short legs, and heavy, thick body. There are 
not many chocolates exhibited, owing to the 
preference given to the royal variety. 

"It must be understood that there is no defin- 
ite royal breed as such, but the palace breed 
seems to have originated by selection. The 
Siamese as a nation are lovers of anything 
quaint or uncommon, and the white-bodied 
cats in Bangkok seem to have been given to, or 
bought by, the inhabitants of the palace, until 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



they have established a breed of their own, and 
reproduced the cat that fanciers know to-day 
as the royal cat of Siam. This should explain 
a point which has given rise to much contro- 
versy, as travellers agree that other cats than 
royal Siamese are to be found inside the palace, 
yet the King and Prince Damurong have given 
from time to time royal Siamese to friends, 
naturally choosing for a present the cat that 
has the most value in their eyes. That is to 
say, that the term ' royal Siamese ' or ' royal 
cat of Siam ' is a descriptive term applied to a 
particular variety of cat, and should imply no 
more than this. We have a parallel case in 
' King Charles spaniels.' The temple cat is 
under the care of the Jan priests, who have 
the greatest reverence for animal life, and 
whose temple is a sanctuary for all animals. 

'' Those who have kept Siamese will readily 
understand that, given a climate to suit them, 
only one breed of cat would be left in the 
temple i.e. the Siamese, for this breed is dis- 
tinguished as much by its pluck and activity 
as by hatred for any other breed of cat. The 
common cat of Siam is very much the same as 
anywhere else, except that the Malay kink in 
the tail is to be found in many of them. Until 
recently the Siamese was but little known in 
Europe, but occasionally was to be found in 
the various zoological gardens. At present 
there is a fine female specimen to be seen 
at the Zoo at Frankfort-on-the-Main, having 
been purchased from the King of Roumania. 
One or two are to be seen at Berlin, and we 
understand some are to be seen at the Hague. 
London has the first one it has had for six 
years, but it is not shown owing to its want of 
condition. 

" A point on which the Siamese fancy is 
divided is whether the ideal cat should have 
a kink in the tail or not. The Club remains 
neutral. ' Champion Wankee ' has a decided 
kink, looking, in fact, as though the tail had 
been caught in a door in his early youth. 
' Tiam-o-Shian IV.,' on the contrary, has none. 
This kink is a peculiarity of the animals of the 
Malay Peninsula, and sometimes is so marked, 
as to make the tail appear like a corkscrew, 



though others of the same litter may have quite 
straight tails. There is a peculiarity in breed- 
ing Siamese i.e. the rarity of female kittens 
in a litter, the average seeming to be five males 
to two females. This may be due to the 
artificial lives so often led by these cats ; and, 
if so, corroborates the theory of Herr Schenk, 
the Austrian doctor, of the probabilities of 
sex at birth. Three of the most noted male 
cats exhibited in England have been Mrs. 
Robinson's 'Champion Wankee,' Mrs. Vyvyan's 
' Tiam-o-Shian IV.,' and Mrs. Parker Brough's 
' Koschka.' Probably Mrs. Backhouse's 
' Champion Eve ' and Mrs. Vyvyan's ' Poly- 
phema ' were the best females exhibited. 
' Koschka ' was, perhaps, the finest cat we 
ever saw, having eyes of the most glorious blue 
imaginable. ' Koschka ' died after the West- 
minster show of 1900. Owners run a great 
risk in sending their Siamese (especially kittens) 
to shows, as in addition to being more liable to 
take cold, are apt to fret themselves ill at being 
separated from their mistresses. Many fanciers 
are leaving off showing Siamese for that reason 
for instance, the Siamese classes were can- 
celled at the Westminster show of 1903 owing 
to lack of entries. 

" It is hard to say how they should be kept 
and how they should be fed. Some Siamese 
thrive by being treated just the same as 
ordinary cats, but they are few and far between. 
We have known cats which have been allowed 
to run about in the snow, and in and out of 
draughts, and remain perfectly healthy ; and 
others, who seem quite strong as long as they 
are taken care of, catch cold and die if they 
get their feet wet. However, if their cattery 
is kept constantly at a temperature of 50 
degrees, and they are fed on scraped beef, milk 
(without boracic acid or preservative), water, 
and vegetables they seem to do better than 
under any other conditions. Personally, we 
have two catteries indoor and outdoor. The 
indoor one is fitted up with ' foster-mothers,' 
as used for chickens, on legs about three feet 
from the ground. We find this very necessary 
owing to the draughts on the floor. The rooms 
can be quickly warmed to any temperature 



SIAMESE 'CATS. 



205 



required, even in the depth of winter. We 
like our grown-up cats loose about the house, 
but it is impossible to allow kittens their full 
liberty when there are many of them, as they 
are bound to get into mischief and do much 
damage to the furniture, climbing up curtains 
and breaking ornaments on mantelpieces and 
scratching leather, etc. Of course, they are 
allowed downstairs a portion of every day 
when their mistress is able to look after them. 
They are most fascinating, frolicsome little 
creatures. The outdoor catteries for use in 
summer consist of a house and greenhouse, 
with covered runs leading from them, and so 
arranged that any or every cat can be isolated 
at will. These arrangements have taken a 
great deal of anxiety off our shoulders. 

" This breed is certainly the noisiest, least 
dignified, most intelligent, and most active of 
all the cats. They are dog-like in their 
nature, and can be easily taught to turn back 
somersaults, and to retrieve, and in the country 
take long walks like a terrier. 

" If they think it is meal-time and they 
fancy themselves neglected, they cry like 
children. The points of the perfect royal 
Siamese lie in the eyes, which should be a most 
perfect blue, and the contrast between the 






MRS. ROBINSON'S " AH CHOO. 

BKKD BY MRS. VVVVAN. 
'Photo: E. Landor, Baling.) 



MRS. ROBINSON S " CHAMPION WANKEE. 

(Photo : E. Landor, Ealing. 

seal-brown of the paws, mask, and tail and 
the white or cream of the rest of the body, 
which should not be disfigured by bars or 
blotches. Age should be taken into considera- 
tion in judging this contrast. There are many 
beautiful kittens shown that we never hear of 
again after they have grown up, age having 
blurred their coats, thereby making the con- 
trast less defined. 

" For travelling short distances there are 
few better travelling cases than a Canadian 
cheese box, with holes bored in the side. They 
are cheap (say 4d.), light, and damp and 
draught proof, and can be burnt after once 
using." 

It will be gathered from the accounts given 
by Siamese fanciers that these cats, though 

delicate, with the exercise of care may be 

reared like ordinary ones of other breeds. 

Miss Cochran is very emphatic on this 

point. She says : 

" If Siamese are treated like common 

English cats, given plenty of fresh air and 

proper food, they are hardy and healthy ; 

and by proper food I mean a meat diet 

raw shin of beef, and as often as possible 



2 66 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



any kind of bird with the feathers on, or 
fowls' heads and mice. The fur and feathers 
act as a mechanical vermifuge. If the Siam- 
ese cats are coddled, they will certainly die. 
They have naturally rather delicate lungs, and 
for these fresh air is absolutely necessary ; 
a close, hot atmosphere and heated rooms 
are fatal." 

Mrs. Carew Cox I have alluded to as one of 
the pioneers of the Siamese fancy, and she 



penetrating eyes appear to see so far and so 
much, whose intelligence seems almost human, 
and who seldom stay with us for long. Unfor- 
tunately, these cats are difficult to rear, the 
constant damp of our climate affecting their 
lungs and producing frequent colds and coughs, 
lowering vitality and causing debility. 

" There are two recognised varieties of this 
breed- the royal and the chocolate. The 
former is certainly the most beautiful in appear- 




"MAFEKIXG. 

THE PROPERTY OF MRS. VyvyAN. 
(Photo: E. Lamtor, Baling.) 



still remains an ardent admirer of this breed, 
and often acts as judge. She has kindly 
written a very valuable article specially for 
this work, and I have therefore great pleasure 
in giving her interesting experience in this 
chapter on Siamese : 

" Only those who possess Siamese can under- 
stand how reluctantly a lover of this breed 
takes up a pen to endeavour to do justice to its 
characteristics it is like attempting the impos- 
sible. One feels one must step softly so to 
speak in the presence of these wonderfully 
fascinating creatures, whose thoughtful yet 



ance, the seal-brown points sometimes black 
in adults relieving the pale but rich cream 
colour of the rest of the body, and the brown 
mask forming a grand setting for the superbly 
blue eyes. The mask on the face should circle 
well above the eyes, but should not extend 
into the ear space ; the cream colour should 
be in evidence beyond the circle ; the cars 
should be seal and well and distinctly put on 
i.e. the seal or brown should not merge into 
the cream ; the legs, feet, and tail should be 
of the same shade of seal, the darker the 
better. The tail of a Siamese cat has been 



SIAMESE CATS. 



267 



the subject of considerable discussion and 
argument, some preferring the straight tail and 
some the kinked. The former is surely the 
most to be desired for appearance sake ; but 
the latter undeniably adds to the quaint and 
foreign appearance of the cat, and in Hong- 
Kong preference is given to them and higher 
prices paid for ' kinks.' The eyes should be 
large and luminous, of a bright shade of true 
blue, appearing flame-coloured at night or by 



retained her pale colouring and her well- 
defined points to the last, and was the mother 
of many very beautiful kittens. Male cats are 
generally larger than females, and possess 
voices, which demand instant attention. 

" The chocolate Siamese are of a rich choco- 
late or dark seal, with still more intense points. 
These cats usually possess eyes of rich amber. 
I have Miss Forestier-Walker's kind permis- 
sion to utilise the following most interesting 




THE LATE " KING KESHO." 
(Photo : Phillips, Croydon.) 



artificial light ; good specimens are often 
spoilt by small eyes, pale in colour. There 
appear to be two distinct types the compactly 
built, short in body, short on legs, and round 
in head ; and the long-bodied, long-faced, 
lithe, sinuous, and peculiarly foreign-looking 
variety. I am informed that the small cats 
are held in great esteem in Siam, some of the 
females being quite liliputian. It is a matter 
for regret that as the cat ages the beautiful 
clear cream colouring becomes cloudy and dark. 
There have been exceptions to this rule : the 
late ' Polyphema,' owned by Mrs. Vyvyan, 



and hitherto unpublished extract from a 
letter received by her in October, 1902 : 
' I am very pleased to write and give you 
the following information re Siamese cats. 
During a stay of some thirteen years in the 
Straits Settlements I have visited Siam on 
several occasions, and on one of these visits 
the present King of Siam gave a friend of mine 
a pair of cats. These cats were what the King 
called palace cats, were very valuable and 
perfect specimens, with short twisted tails. It 
may also interest you to know that the Siamese 
have a superstition about their cats, and like 



268 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT, 



to have both breeds in their houses i.e. the 
dark, coffee-coloured ones with yellow or 
golden-coloured eyes, and the cream-coloured 
with blue or silver eyes. The idea is that the 
yellow-eyed cats will bring gold and the blue- 
eyed silver, hence if you have both breeds 
there will always be plenty in the house.' 

" I advocate that all kittens should be 
reared by healthy English foster-mothers, and 
am convinced that if breeders would adopt 
this plan we should in time succeed in establish- 
ing a far stronger breed of cats. As matters 
now stand, the kittens inherit 
and develop any ailment or 
weakness to which their 
mothers may be subject, so 
that from the very commence- 
ment of their existence they 
have but little chance of be- 
coming strong and healthy 
enough to withstand our cli- 
mate of many moods. 

" Plenty of sun and air they 
require, but damp and draughts 
are fatal. All young kittens 
should be encouraged to take 
exercise ; empty cotton reels 
cause hours of amusement, 
also a rabbit's foot tied on 
to string or otherwise ; corks 
of any description must be 
avoided. Large bones should 
be given when the kittens are two months old 
they assist the growth of teeth ; small ones, 
such as of game, chicken, or fish, are danger- 
ous. The best and safest of all is a bullock's 
foot boiled down and pulled apart ; these bones 
will occupy kittens for a considerable time. 

" Worms cause an enormous mortality 
amongst Siamese, and are, I feel convinced, at 
the root of nearly every ailment from which cats 
or kittens suffer ; therefore, however reluctant 
one may feel as to giving medicine to young- 
sters of tender age, it is better to do this 
than to run the risk of these odious parasites 
establishing themselves, for they are most 
difficult to dislodge permanently. I have used 
Saunder's worm powders with considerable 




LADY MARCUS BERESFORD S 

" CAMBODIA." 
(Photo : E. Laniior, Baling.) 



success. Of course, the dose for kittens must 
be administered in minute quantity- just a 
small pinch given in warm olive oil early in 
the morning after an all-night fast. In giving 
the powder to adults I always enclose it in 
capsules. In cases of weakness or exhaustion 
a few drops of brandy or whisky in a tea- 
spoonful of warm milk works wonders. It is 
often necessary to give some sort of tonic after 
medicine of this description. 

" Siamese kittens should be well fed ; not 
much at a time, but little and often lean 
scraped beef or mutton, veget- 
ables, stale bread and gravy, 
boiled fish, rabbit, raw eggs, 
milk (previously boiled); in fact, 
anything light and nourishing. 
The remains of a meal should 
never be left on the floor. 
These kittens' digestions are 
not strong, and their intestines 
are most delicately formed. 

' The colour of the eyes of 
Siamese kittens should be well 
determined at eight weeks. 
They are most interesting and 
playful at this age ; a tunnel 
made of newspapers will afford 
endless amusement, and after 
a long and energetic game oi 
play they will sleep for hours. 
It is not desirable to lift 
or handle them more than can be avoided 
whilst they are very young. In cases of 
bad colds or coughs, a simple but usually 
effective remedy is a mixture of three penny- 
worth of oil of almonds and three pennyworth 
of syrup of violets, mixed by a chemist a 
quarter of a teaspoonful thrice daily (it is abso- 
lutely necessary to shake the bottle thoroughly 
before administering the medicine). For an 
adult an eggspoonful three times daily may 
be given. Cod-liver oil is always safe (also 
the best olive oil), and helps to build up the 
constitution. As a tonic I know of nothing to 
equal half-grain (coated) quinine pills, given 
early each morning for a few days now and 
again. In cases of bronchitis, Carvill's Air 



SIAMESE CATS. 



269 




and to effect a perma- 
nent cure the treatment 
must be very persistent. 
" I do not know when 
Siamese were first intro- 
duced into England, but 
Lady Dorothy Nevill 
possessed some several 
years ago. Sir Robert 
Herbert imported some ; 



PUGS PAYING A VISIT TO 
THE SIAMKSK. 

Purifier (about a tea- 
spoonlul) should be 
placed in boiling water, 
and the cat or kitten 
made to inhale the 
steam several times 
daily, and particularly 
the first thing in the 
morning and the last 
at night. 

" For adults suffer- 
ing from bad throat 
complaint and total 
refusal of all food I 
have found no remedy 
to equal the following 
prescription, if given 

in time. I have administered it with great 
success to numberless cats : Forty drops 
Calvert's pure carbolic acid, two drachms 
spirits of wine, six ounces pure water. Not 
quite half a teaspoonful to be mixed with 
a teaspoonful of warm milk, poured down 
the throat three times daily ; for very young 
cats a smaller quantity of the mixture should 
be given. I doubt if it would be advisable to 
give it to young kittens. Even if the cat does 
not swallow the whole dose, it acts beneficially 
as a mouth-wash and disinfectant, apparently 
removing an unpleasant taste and re-establish- 
ing the power to smell the loss of this sense 
often preventing a sick cat from eating. Weak 
eyes, sickness, and diarrhoea are tedious ail- 
ments to which all kittens are very subject, 




MRS. HAWKINS CATTKRY. 



and Miss Forestier-Walker and her sister (Mrs. 
Vyvyan), who have owned and bred many 
beautiful specimens, first made acquaintance 
with this breed in 1883, and soon afterwards 
were presented with ' Susan ' and ' Samuel ' 
direct from the palace at Bangkok. 'Tiam-o- 
Shian I.' also came from Bangkok. All these 
cats had kinked tails. From 'Susan' and 
' Tiam - o - Shian I.' mated with Mrs. Lee's 
' Meo,' Mr. Harrington's ' Medu,' and Miss 
Moore's ' Siam ' descended, amongst others, 
the following well-known and typical cats : 
' Bangkok," Tiam-o-Shian II.,' ' Goblin, "Kitza 
Kara,' 'Queen Rhea,' ' King Wallypug,' ' Prince 
of Siam,' ' Tiam-o-Shian III.,' 'Adam,' 'Eve,' 
'Cupid,' 'Mafeking,' ' Rangsit,' 'Vishuddha,' 
' Tiam-o-Shian IV.,' ' Suzanne,' ' Ah Choo,' 



270 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



' Tornito,' and ' Evangeline.' In awarding 
prizes in the Siamese classes at the Cat Club 
show at Westminster in 1901 1 found ' Suzanne ' 
quite the best cat present, and upon referring 
subsequently to a catalogue was not surprised 
to find that Mrs. Vyvyan was her owner. 
' Champion Wankee ' for a long time held his 
own in the show pen, and has sired some very 
good kittens ; but, of course, as is usual, age 
has darkened him. 

"Mrs. Robinson's 'Ah Choo '. and Mr. 
Cooke's ' Zetland Wanzes ' are well-known 
cats of to-day. Lady Marcus Beresford's 
' King of Siam ' is imported, has glorious 
eyes of sapphire-blue, and sires exceptionally 
good kittens ; he is short on the leg, has a coat 
like satin and an excellent constitution. ' Royal 
Siam,' the property of Mrs. Spencer, of Eye 
Vicarage, Suffolk (who has bred some of the 
best kittens I have ever seen), is a superb 
creature with eyes of deepest blue ; he was 
given to a friend of Mrs. Spencer in Siam, 
is a genuine royal palace-bred specimen with 
bright blue eyes, a handsome cat with, strictly 
typical points, and he is never ill ! Miss 
Harper's (late) ' Curly Tail,' a daughter of 
' King Kesho,' was an excellent example of 
the breed, all her points were very good ; 
unfortunately her life was not of long duration 
she died a victim to dropsy. It is so long 
ago since I first possessed a Siamese kitten that 
I cannot remember from whom I purchased 
her ; she was a very perfect little creature, 
absolutely adorable with her quaint way? 
appealing and yet assertive nature. 

" After her death from rapid decline I 
tried to put aside all thoughts of securing 
another, and not until September, 1893, did 
I again fall a victim to the attractions of this 
breed, purchasing a female of about one year 
old from Zache, of Great Portland Street. I 
named her ' Yuthia ' ; she was supposed to 
have been imported, had very expressive blue 
eyes, and she lived until February, 1899. 

" In October, 1893 immediately after the 
Crystal Palace show I became the owner of 
' Kitza Kara,' a very perfect male, bred by 
Miss Forestier-Walker, which won first prize 



and several medals and specials. He also- 
carried all before him at Bath in March, 1894. 
Unfortunately, he died that year from con- 
gestion of the lungs. 

" ' King Kesho,' the well-known male (sire 
of many beautiful kittens), I bought from 
Mr. Forsgate in 1894 ; he claimed descent from 
the Duchess of Bedford's, Mrs. Seton-Kerr's, 
and Miss Forestier-Walker's cats ; he had 
large bold eyes of a glorious shade of blue, 
and very dark points ; he won many prizes 
and specials, but died in 1897. ' Lido,' a male 
bred by Mrs. Chapman and sired by ' Champion 
Wankee,' was descended from some of the 
best of his time ; he was of the long-bodied, 
narrow-faced type, most graceful in his 
movements. 

"Amongst the many females I have pos- 
sessed, ' Cameo ' was one of my best, her 
pale body colour being relieved by intensely 
dark points ; this little pet died suddenly in 
July, 1896, from failure of the heart's action. 
' Koko ' was a very large cat, comparatively 
coarse in appearance for one of this variety ; 
she won the Duchess of Bedford's special at 
Holland Park in 1896, for the best adult 
Siamese. ' Princess To-To,' 1900, bred by 
Mrs. Bennet, became a great favourite ; no 
words of mine could ever do justice to her re- 
markable individuality, her fascinating moods, 
her expressive little face and sense of the comic. 
She loved to be sung to sleep, closing her 
eyes with an unmistakable air of enjoyment and 
confidence, and clearly requesting an encore 
when the song ceased. I taught her to dance, 
and every night at ten o'clock she frantically 
enjoyed prancing round the room on her 
hind legs. 

" Alas, that these little companions to whom 
we are permitted to become so deeply attached 
should be only lent us to brighten our weary 
way for so short a period ! ' To-To ' was 
always very delicate, and after lying at death's 
door on several occasions she finally entered 
in ; with her very last breath she crept into 
my arms to die. ' Yolanda,' the female I now 
own, was presented to me by Mrs. Hankey, and 
bred, I believe, by Mrs. Foote. She is a small 



SIAMESE CATS. 



2',L 



cat with very blue eyes, and has recently had 
a litter of five kittens by Lady Marcus Beres- 
ford's ' King of Siam ' ; these kittens all 
possessed the gloriously blue eyes to which 
both of their parents can lay claim. 

" ' Attache ' (a neuter) was given to me 
in October, 1900, when six months old, by 
Mrs. Spencer, of Eye Vicarage, Suffolk ; he 
is a very large and powerful creature, with 
massive limbs, and an unconquerable an- 
tipathy to all other cats of any description, 
excepting only my Russian neuter, whose 



things, which he keeps under one particular 
cushion, hunting them out when he feels 
inclined to play ; for so large a cat he is 
remarkably athletic, and as yet his health 
has caused me no anxiety. 

" It is highly desirable that all who own 
cats should keep a few simple medicines 
always at hand. Personally, I am never 
without the remedies previously alluded to. 
Delay, in neglecting to note and treat at the 
very commencement certain symptoms of ill- 
ness, often proves fatal, whereas a ' stitch in 




"ROMEO" AND "JULIETTE." 

THE PROPERTY OF MRS. VARY CAMPBELL. 
(Photo : J. Clat>pcrton, Galashiels.) 



presence he tolerates. So great is his aver- 
sion to even the semblance of a cat, that 
he has attacked a life-size print of an as- 
sertive-looking Persian that acted as a stove 
ornament in the room he occupied during the 
summer months, scratching it several times 
across and across, and then retiring behind it, 
evidently to watch the effect from another 
point of view ! He has large and luminous 
eyes, in whose unfathomable depths linger 
many and varied expressions ; he is of a 
peculiarly jealous disposition, capable of in- 
tense devotion. In spite of his living the 
life of a recluse, he is by no means a victim 
of ennui, possessing his own special play- 



*ime saves nine,' and may even save one of the 
nine lives that a cat is (or was) supposed to 
possess." 

The love of Siamese cats has not seemed as 
yet to have developed in America, and speci- 
mens of the breed are few and far between. 
Lady Marcus Beresford sent out two good cats 
to Mrs. Clinton Locke, and I believe several 
fine litters have been reared, and some fine 
exhibits appeared at recent shows. I give 
an illustration of some of these pets, with 
Mrs. Robert Locke, on page 256. 

In the foregoing remarks of noted breeders 
of this variety many useful hints are given, 
and some peculiarities of the breed mentioned. 



272 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



I would, however, draw attention to a curious 
and rather remarkable fact in connection with 
Siamese cats. 

When they are ill, a sprinkling of white hairs 
invariably appears all over the face and head. 
The bright blue of the eye vanishes, leaving it 
a sort of pale opal colour. It often takes 
many weeks before the cat regains its ordinary 
appearance. Harrison Weir, in his allusions 
to Siamese, tells us that he had observed a 
great liking of these cats for " the woods," 
and goes on to describe them as not passing 
along like an ordinary cat, but quickly and 
quietly creeping from bush to bush ; nor do 
they seem afraid of getting their feet wet 
like the feline tribe in general. The male 
Siamese will take a most friendly and parental 
interest in the welfare of madame's family ; 
indeed, he shows a great liking always to have 
the company of a lady, and frets greatly when 
left alone. 

The males are, however, antagonistic to 
others 'of their sex, and fight with a terrible 
persistency. I have heard of a stalwart fellow 
who, being allowed his liberty, cleared the neigh- 
bourhood of all other wandering toms. When 
made neuter, Siamese become most charming 
home pets, and can be taught to do tricks 
more easily than other cats. The sole objec- 



tion to a Siamese house cat is the trying 
nature of its unmelodious voice. Siamese are 
rather prolific breeders, the litters being gener- 
ally large ones, and the females, as a rule, in 
the minority. 

I do not believe that Siamese will ever be- 
come common in England, for many reasons. 
These cats are expensive to purchase, difficult 
to rear, and fanciers are afraid to risk them 
in the show pen ; but in spite of these draw- 
backs, I think, as time goes on, and the Siamese 
Club extends its labours, we shall see and hear 
more of these really curious creatures, for what 
we call the royal Siamese bears no resemblance 
to any other cat, and the distinguishing 
differences, being so great, tend to make the 
breed one of our best show cats and a clear 
class to itself, for the Siamese of the purest 
blood should not be crossed with other cats. 
We have heard of " any other colour " Siamese, 
but these cats of varied hue claiming to be 
Siamese are but the offspring of a cross. We 
have been told of black and blue and tabby 
Siamese ; but the fanciers of Siamese look 
askance at these freaks, and feel that it is 
worse than useless to attempt to produce 
any other variety than that which we have 
learned by custom to designate the Royal 
cat of Siam. 




A COSY CORNER. , 

{From a Painting by Madame Ronncr.) 



18 



274 




" ASHBRITTLE PETER.' 
THE PROPERTY OF MRS. E. A. CLARK. 



CHAPTER XXIV. 



SHORT-HAIRED CATS. 



IF a census could be taken of the cats in 
England, or even in London, I suppose 
the proportion of short-haired cats to 
long-haired cats would be about ten to one. 
In the cat fancy, however, the breeders of 
Persians in comparison with those of the 
short-haired varieties are far more numerous. 
In former days, when cat shows were first 
held at the Crystal Palace, the premier position 
was given to the short-haired breeds. On 
reference to the catalogues up to 1895 I find 
the following heading at the commencement : 
" Class I. Short-haired Cats : He Cats, Tortoise- 
shell or Tortoiseshell - and -White." Then 
followed the rest of the short-haired varie- 
ties, including Siamese, Manx, and blue (self 
colour). 

The long-haired breeds, therefore, in those 
days had to play second fiddle, so to speak. 
It was in 1896, when the National Cat Club 
took over the Crystal Palace shows, that the 



place of honour was given to the long-haired 
or Persian cats ; and now, as all the world 
knows or, at any rate, all the cat world 
at every show the short-haired cats are in a 
very small minority. 

At one time not so very long ago there 
was a danger of these breeds becoming 
an unknown quantity at our shows. This 
would have been a grievous pity ; so some 
champions of the household or homely puss 
arose, and Sir Claud and Lady Alexander 
founded in 1901 the British Cat Club, to 
encourage the breeding, exhibiting, and kind 
treatment of these cats. The subscription 
first started at 55., but was reduced to 2s. 6d., 
so as to try to get. members of the poorer 
classes to join and take an interest in the 
welfare of pussy. A goodly number of 
members' names are now on the list, and much 
has been done in supporting shows by offer- 
ing specials chiefly in money and in the 




W 



u 

Q 
H 

K 

X 
O 

I I 

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(Q ^ 

H ^ 

K* 

K ~ 
W ^ 

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Q ^ 
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o 

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Id 
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H 



SHORT-HAIRED CATS. 



275 



generous guaranteeing of classes. The hon. I do not think such cats are to be found 

secretary and treasurer is Sir Claud Alexander, now in our midst, and so I presume this 

Faygate Wood, Sussex. There is a Scottish species of long-haired cat has died out. 

branch of this club, of which the secretary is Anyhow, the term " Russian," when now 



Miss Leith, Ross Priory, Alexandria, N.B. 

It was also in 1901 that the Short-haired 
Cat Society was founded by Mr. Gambier 
Bolton, whose name is so well known in the 
animal world. At most of the principal shows 
this society is represented, and some hand- 
some challenge cups and prizes are placed for 
competition. The hon. secretary is Mrs. 
Middleton, 67, Cheyne Court, Chelsea, and the 
annual subscription is 55., and 2s. 6d. to work- 
ing classes. 

In considering the short-haired breeds, I 
will divide them into three sections viz. 
selfs or whole colours, broken colours, and 
any other distinct variety. The Siamese 
and Manx cats I have dealt with in previous 
chapters, and foreign cats will have a corner 
to themselves later on ; so I propose to deal 
first with those interesting short-haired self- 
coloured cats formerly called Russian or Arch- 
angel, and which in America are termed 
Maltese. 

There has been a good deal of discussion 
lately as to the points desirable in these cats, 
which of recent years have clearly be- 
come a species of British cats, and there- 
fore are rightly classed as such at our 
shows, instead of as Russians. Yet this 
latter name sticks to the variety, and no 
doubt there are still some real foreign 
short-haired blues to be found, differ- 
ing, however, in type from those we 
have become accustomed to breed and 
exhibit in England. Harrison Weir and 
John Jennings, in their book on cats 
in the early days of the fancy, deal 
with cats called Russians amongst the 
long-haired breeds, and these are de- 
scribed by them as larger in body and 
shorter in leg than Persians, with a 
coat of woolly texture interspersed with 
wiry, coarse hairs. In colour we are 
told they were generally dark tabby, 
the markings being rather indistinct. 



used, is meant to designate the self-coloured, 
smooth-haired cat with which we are all 
familiar. Certainly, the best blues I have 
always remarked are those that have been 
bred in England, or that, at least, can boast 
an English sire or dam ; and, after writing 
right and Jeft to breeders of British cats, I 
have had a difficulty in obtaining any really 
good photographs. I cannot, however, com- 
plain of the pictures of blue short-hairs 
which illustrate these pages, and which 
have been really showered upon me. I have 
failed, however, to be able to illustrate 
the difference between the foreigners and 
Britishers. 

That there are two distinct types of these 
blue cats is apparent to anyone who observes 
the specimens exhibited at our shows. The 
foreign or imported variety have wedge- 
shaped faces, and are longer and larger in the 
head, with prominent ears ; otherwise, in 
colour and coat, they are similar to those bred 
in England, and which partake of the same 
formation as an ordinary British cat. In 




" BALLOCHMYLE BLUE QUEEN. 
BELONGING TO LADY ALEXANDER. 



276 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



describing the correct texture of coat of 
these short-haired blues, I would compare 
it to plush, for the hair does not lie softly 
on the slope, but has a tendency to an 
upright growth, and yet the coat should not 
have any suspicion of coarseness or rough- 
ness to the touch. We know the difference 
between silk and cotton plush, and it is to 
the former I would liken the correct coat of 
these blues. Needless to say that, as in all 

self - coloured 
cats, the 
colours 
should be ab- 
solutely even 
of a bluish 
lilac tint, - 
without any 
sootiness or 
rusty shade. 
As in other 
breeds of 
"selfs," the 
y o u n g k i t- 
tcns exhibit 
distinct tab- 
by markings, 
but these 
vanish as the 
coat grows, 
and many a 
ringed tail 
which may 
have caused 
distress to 
the breeder 
will as time 

goes on be proudly held aloft without a 
suspicion of any blemish. The blues now 
exhibited appear generally to fail in eye, the 
colour being yellow, and often green or greenish- 
yellow ; whereas a special feature of this breed 
should be a deep orange eye, round and full. 
Another fault which is sometimes apparent 
is too thick a tail, which is suggestive of a 
long-haired ancestor. The following is an 
interesting letter from Mrs. H. V. James 
which appeared in Fur and Feather : 




MRS. CARKW COX S BLUE MALE 
" BAYARD.'.' . ' 



BLUE RUSSIANS. 

I am very interested in the discussion on blue Russians, 
as years ago I had a perfect type of a blue Russian, 
which had been imported. When Russians were 
judged as Russians it won well at shows, so you may 
like to have a description of the cat which is, 1 
believe, a correct one, according to several authorities 
on Russian cats. A real Russian should be longer in 
the leg than the English blue. The head is pointed 
and narrow ; the ears large, but round ; tail long, full 
near the body, but very tapering. According to the 
English taste, it is not a pretty cat, and only excels 
over the British blue in the colour and quality of its 
coat, which is much shorter and softer than the latter. 
The true colour is a real lavender-blue, of such softness 
and brilliancy that it shines like silver in a strong 
light. The eyes are amber. I think it a great mis- 
take to give " Russian " in our show classification 
now, as these are really almost extinct in England, I 
believe, and our principal clubs have been wise 
enough to drop the title for " Short-haired Blues," 
in the same way that " Persian " has been dropped 
for " Long-haired Cats." The last time I showed my 
Russian was at the first Westminster show, in a class 
for Russians. She was, however, beaten by the 
round-headed British blue, although she was, 1 
believe, the only Russian in the class. In iqoi the 
class was altered to " Short-haired Blues," which 
was more correct, as few of the blues shown then had 
anything of the Russian about them, either in shape 
or coat. As hese classes are no-* arranged, it would 
be unfair to judge them except by the standard of our 
own short-haired cats, and I think that if a club wants 
to encourage Russians it should give the extra class, 
" Blue Russian," and let it be judged as such. I 
must own it is disappointing for a Russian owner, who, 
seeing " Russian Blue " only given in the schedule, 
enters his cat accordingly, and gets beaten by a short- 
haired blue failing in just the points that the Russian 
is correct in. I know my feelings after Westminster, 
1899,' when my Russian was described as " grand 
colour, texture of coat, failing to winner in width of 
head. and smallness of ears." The blue short-hairs 
now shown are, I know, far more beautiful with their 
round heads and shorter legs ; but, unfortunately, 
the beautiful is not always the correct type. As 
British cats, however, they are both beautiful and 
correct, so why not drop the Russian name alto- 
gether ? I had a most amusing talk with a blue 
Russian (?) owner the other day, and a good laugh 
with him over the ancestors of his " Russian " 
blues. ANNIE P. JAMES. 

At the Crystal Palace show of 1902 Mr. 
Woodiwiss judged the blue classes, and awarded 
first to a cat having the English type of head. 
He gave as his reasons that although he 



SHORT-HAIRED CATS 



277 



considered the long nose and thin head the right 
shape for a Russian, yet, he added, "I am not 
here to judge on those lines; I have to judge 
according to the standard, which gives prefer- 
ence to round head, neat ears, and short nose ; 
and, although I really believe Mrs. Walker's 
blue ' Moscow ' to be the nearest in type to 
those I have seen in Eastern countries, yet 
according to our English breeders' standard 
it is out of it, and I can only give it reserve." 
Mr. Mason, our ablest judge of all classes of 
cats, upheld Mr. Woodiwiss in his awards, and 
makes the following remarks in Fur and 
Feather of February, 1003, in reporting on the 
Manchester show : "I hope exhibitors and 
breeders of short-haired self-blues will take 
my remarks in the spirit in which they are 
written. I am glad to see that the Manchester 
committee named the 
classes ' Blues (Male) ' 
and ' Blues (Female).' 
To call them Russians 
is a mistake, seeing 
that a very large num- 
ber of those exhibited 
are crosses from some 
other varieties. To 
all intents the self 
blues, as we find them 
to-day, have little of 
the Russian blood in 

them. Then why call them Russian ? Why 
not ' self blues," and judge them on the same 
lines as the British short-haired cats ? What 
I want to obtain is a uniform type. To go 

for two op- 
posite types 
in one class 
of exhibits 
cannot be 
right or ad- 
vantageous 
to breeders or 
exhibitors." 

Breeders of 
short - haired 

blues have 

"SHKRDLEY MicHAKi.." ncverbeen 

18* 



manyin num- 
ber, nor has 
there ever 
appeared any 
startling ly 
good speci- 
men in the 
show pen. 
Mr. Woodi- 
wiss kept and 
e x h i b it_e d 
several line 




SHERDLEV ALEXIS. 




SHERDLEY SACHA II." " SHERDLEY SACHA I." 




specimens 
"Blue Boy," 

" Blue King," and " Blue Queen." The two 
latter have been passed on to Lady Alexander. 
Mr. Mariner, of Bath, is an old exhibitor and 
great enthusiast of this breed. Mrs. Mjddleton, 

Mrs. Herring, Mrs. 
Crowther, Miss Butler, 
Mrs. Illingworth, and 
Mrs. Pownall have all 
from time to time been 
possessed of fairly good 
Russians so called. 
Mr. Cole used to show 
a lovely fat-faced cat 
called "Muff," but she 
had green eyes. Mr. 
Dewar's " Firkins " 
and Mr. McNish's "St. 
Juan " are blues that have made their name. 

The three principal breeders at the present 
time of these cats are Lady Alexander, Mrs. 
Michael Hughes, and Mrs. Carew Cox. It is 
at the Crystal Palace shows that an oppor- 
tunity is given of admiring the fine team of 
blues from the Faygate cattery. " Brother 
Bump " has won a first prize whenever he has 
appeared in the show pen, and, curiously 
enough, each time under a different judge. He 
is a full champion, and special prizes have been 
showered upon him. Besides this handsome 
fellow, Lady Alexander owns another male 
" Blue King " and two good females. 

At Sherdley Hall, in Lancashire, there is 
quite a colony of blues owned by Mrs. Michael 
Hughes. 



278 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



The cats are reared in outside and unwarmed 
houses, with ample wired-in runs. All the 
Sherdley cats are prize-winners. I am able to 
give illustrations of " Alexis Michael " and the 
two " Sachas." The first named has been 
quoted as a typical British blue. 

Mrs. Carew Cox is a most ardent supporter 
and successful breeder of short-haired blues. 
As she has had a long and varied experience, 
I asked her to send me some notes. I have 



effaced before they are many weeks old. In 
one case a kitten (now a large neuter) had 
until five months of age two broad black 
stripes down his back on either side of his 
spine ; they were so decided in appearance 
that it seemed very doubtful that they would 
ever disappear. However, at six months old 
he was a perfectly self-coloured cat ! This is, 
of course, most remarkable and unusual, and 
amongst all the many kittens of this breed 



pleasure in publishing them for the benefit of that I have reared for the past thirteen years 



my readers : 

" Blue short-haired cats many of them 
imported from Northern Russia make very 
desirable pets, presenting, as they do, a neat, 
smart, ' tailor-built ' appearance all the year 



there has never been another presenting a 
similar appearance. 

" The eyes of a Russian should be golden 
in colour, or deep orange. To procure deep- 
coloured eyes, experiments have been made in 



round, and possessing the great intelligence crossing Russians with Persians, but the results 
usually to be met with in all short-haired so far as I have seen have not proved satis- 
breeds. They have the advantage over many factory, and to an experienced eye the cross is 



other varieties in that they are, as adults, 
strong, healthy 
cats not at all 
liable, as a rule, 
to pulmonary at- 
tacks. Kittens, 
however, require 
both care and 
patience to rear 
successfully, and, 
strange to say, 
attain sounder 
constitutions 
when brought up 
by healthy Eng- 
lish foster-moth- 
ers. Females 
are more difficult 
to rear t han 
males. A Russian 
cat should be of 




" MARIA. 

OWNED BY MRS. WOODCOCK. 
(Photo: S. Richardson, Standish.) 



perceptible. I believe there is no really recog- 
nised standard 
of points for this 
breed, which un- 
til quite recently 
was c o m p a r a- 
t i v e 1 y little 
known. I note 
that there is a 
very fair demand 
for Russians 
at the present 
time chiefly, 
strange to say, 
from the North 
of England. The 
shape of the head 
in many of those 
imported is more 
pointed than 
round ; indeed, 



an even shade of blue throughout, even the some have long, lean, pointed heads and 
skin itself being often in fact, generally of faces, with big ears. The backs of the ears 



a bluish tinge. There should be no stripes 
or bars, and for exhibition purposes there 
should be no white patches. Kittens f re- 



should be as free from hair as possible ; some, 
I remark, are entirely devoid of hair on the 
upper parts of their ears at least, if there is 



quently have body markings when very young, any, it is not perceptible^ to the naked eye. 
also rings on their tails; but in pure-bred Others, again, have ears covered with peculiarly 
specimens these defects generally become fine, close, silky hair. Some imported blues are 



SHORT-HAIRED CATS. 



279 



very round in face and head, with tiny ears, 
and eyes set rather wide apart. These are 
surely the prettiest, and are generally given 
the preference at shows ; but, of course, it 
cannot be denied that the long-faced variety 
present the most foreign appearance, more 
especially when this type also possesses a lithe 
and rather lean body. The whiskers, eye- 
lashes, and tip of nose should 
all be dark blue. 

" The coat should be short 
and close, glossy, and silver}' ; 
sometimes it is rather woolly 
and furry, Nature having 
evidently provided these cats 
with their warm, close coats 
to enable them to resist the 
severities of their native 
climates, short-haired blues 
existing also in the north of 
Norway, Iceland, and I am 
told in some parts of the 
United States. Many years 
ago some blues (with faint tabby markings) 
were imported from the north of Norway ; 
these were called ' Canon Girdlestone's 
breed.' I owned two very pretty soft -looking 
creatures. Blue-and-white cats have been 
imported from the north of Russia, and are 
particularly attractive when evenly marked. 

" Some blues are far paler in colour than 
others. Amongst my kittens are frequently 
some very beautiful lavender-blues ; I have 
remarked that these are rather more deli- 
cate in constitution than those of darker 
hue. As these cats advance in years they 
frequently become a rustv brown during the 
summer months, or when acquiring a fresh 
coat ; this discoloration asserts itself prin- 
cipally at the joints of legs and feet. The fur 
of a very old cat becomes dull and rough, 
losing the soft and glossy appearance identical 
with the blue Russian in his prime. 

; ' There are some people who appear to 
wish to assert that there is an English breed 
of blues, and I have been told strange tales of 
unexpected meetings in country villages with 
cats of this colour, whose owners declared that 




MKS. CAKEW COX S " YUI.A. 



both parents were English bred. As, how- 
ever, it is not always possible to identify the 
sires of household cats, I venture to doubt 
these assertions. It is sometimes possible to 
breed blues from a black English female mated 
to a Russian male. This experiment does not 
always succeed, as some blacks never breed 
blues, although mated several times consecu- 
tively with Russians. A white 
English female mated to a 

<blue male simply produces 
white kittens at least, this 
has been my experience. Cats 
imported from Archangel are 
generally of a deep, firm blue 
throughout ; the eyes and 
ears rather larger than those 
of English cats, the head and 
legs longer. In many of the 
Russian peasants' cabins can 
be seen a curious coloured 
print (executed in Moscow). 
It represents the burial of 
the cat after a dramatic fashion, and derives its 
origin from a very interesting Russian legend. 
The cat is represented as slate-coloured. 

" It is often impossible to decide the ulti- 
mate colour of a kitten's eyes until it is four 
months old. They vary very much, some- 
times giving one the impression that they are 
green, and perhaps a few days aftei wards one 
discovers them to be yellow ! As these cats 
become better known they naturally increase 
in popularity, and I should not be surprised 
to hear of several well-established kennels 
of this breed in the immediate future. 

"It is man}' years ago since I first made 
acquaintance with this breed ; but I find I 
made no notes at the time, so cannot give full 
particulars. In 1889, however, I purchased a 
smooth blue, whose owner declared her to be 
a Siamese she certainly resembled a puma- 
shaped Siamese in her body outline and move- 
ments and I believe I entered her in the stud 
book as such. ' Dwiua ' won many prizes at 
Crystal Palace and other shows in ' any 
variety ' classes, was a most faithful creature, 
reared many families, and lived until June, 



280 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



1901. In 1890 I owned a very pretty soft- 
looking blue female she was, in fact, a blue 
tabby (one of Canon Girdlestone's breed) ; 
also a male of the same variety. They had 
evidently been the victims of tape-worm for a 
considerable period, and finally succumbed 
owing to the presence of these odious parasites 
in overwhelming numbers. That same year 
' Kola ' a very pretty blue-and-white female 
became mine. She was imported from Kola, 
and after changing hands more than once 
whilst at sea she was finally exchanged at the 
London Docks for a leg of mutton ! A very 
lovable little cat was 
'Kola,' with very 
round face and very 
soft fur. She lived 
until November, 1900, 
and evidently died 
from old age, becom- 
ing feeble and tooth- 
less, but quite able to 
enjoy the soft food 
that was specially pre- 
pared for her. These 
two old pets ' Dwina ' 
and ' Kola ' were a 
great loss, after twelve 
and ten years' com- 
panionship. ' Ling- 
popo ' an extremely 
beautiful blue was 
imported from Arch- 
angel, very sound in 
colour, rather long in face and legs, sleek, sinu- 
ous, and graceful, peculiarly lethargic in her 
movements, and dainty in her deportment. I 
bought her in 1893, when she was seven months 
old. Unfortunately, a disease of the kidneys 
carried her off when in the flower of her exist- 
ence. ' Moscow ' (1893) was a very successful 
blue Russian sire of many kittens ; he won 
many first and special prizes ; he died in 1897, 
during my absence from home. In 1895 Lady 
Marcus Beresford presented me with a very 
handsome kitten a male with a very thick 
yet close coat, and very compact in shape. 
' Olga ' came to me in 1893 or 1894, and still 




LADY ALEXANDER OF BALLOCHMYI.E. 
(Photo: Lafayette, Ltd.) 



lives ; she was imported, and has been a great 
winner in her time, but is getting an old cat 
now. She is the mother of my stud cat 
' Bayard,' who was born in 1898, and whose 
sire was ' King Vladimir.' ' Fashoda ' was 
born in 1896, and was imported ; she is a 
large, strong cat, and a winner of many prizes. 
' Odessa ' is a daughter of ' Fashoda ' by 
' Blue Gown.' ' Yula ' came to me in 1901, 
and was imported from Archangel. ' Sing 
Sing ' (neuter) is the cat that as a kitten 
had the peculiar black stripes down his spine 
alluded to previously He was born on Easter 

Monday, 1899, a son 
of 'Fashoda' and 
' Muchacho.' He has 
two toes off one of 
his hind feet the re- 
sult of a heavy weight 
falling upon his foot 
when a kitten ; he 
suffered greatly from 
shock, and every day 
foi three weeks he 
paid visits to the 
doctor, who dressed 
his foot, having previ- 
ously amputated the 
toes. The little fellow 
had a sad time, but 
he does not miss his 
toes now. 

" ' Muchacho,' the 
stud cat that has sired 
so many winning kittens, is a son of Mrs. 
Herring's (late) ' Champion Roguey ' and my 
(late) ' Lingpopo.' I sold him as a kitten, but 
after two people had had him I again became 
his owner, and now he will never leave me 
until he is called to the ' happy hunting 
grounds ' that I hope, and think, must be 
prepared for all faithful creatures somewhere 
' beyond the veil.' " 

In America the classification given for these 
cats at the Beresford Cat Club show is " Blue 
or Maltese," but I have not heard of any ardent 
fanciers of this breed over the water. More 
will be written on the so-called Maltese cat by 



SHORT-HAIRED CATS. 



281 



one well qualified to give information later 
on in this work. 

I have always been told what delightful pets 
these blues become, being extremely intelli- 
gent and affectionate. Mrs. Bagster, the Cat 
Club's hon. secretary, owns a splendid fellow 
one of Mrs. Carew Cox's well-known strain. 
At the time of writing there is no specialist 
club for short-haired blues, but they are 
included in the list of the British Cat Club, 
founded by those ardent supporters of the 
short-haired breeds, Sir Claud and Lady Alex- 
ander. No standard of points has been drawn 
up for these cats, but the following definitions 
are descriptive of the two types exhibited at 
our shows : 



BRITISH BLUE (SHORT-HAIR). 

Head. Round and flat, with good space between 
the ears, which are small and well set on. 

Shape. Cobby in build, round quarters, and good 
in bone substance. 

Coat. Short and close, of sound blue colour 
throughout. Legs and feet shade lighter in colour, 
with no bars or markings. 

Eyes. Deep orange in colour. 

RUSSIAN BLUE. 

Head longer in formation, has space between the 
ears, more prominent in ears, and well-tapered face ; 
fairly round under the cheek bone, thin, falls away 
under the eye. 

Comes out rather longer in back. Less bone sub- 
stance. 

Colour same as the British short-hair, with no bars 
or markings. 

Eyes deep orange colour. 




BALLOCHMYLE CHAMPION BROTHER BUMP." 



282 




_ - - 



SHORT-HAIKED TABBY KITTENS. 
(Photo: C. Reid, Wishaw.) 



CHAPTER XXV. 



SHORT-HAIRED CATS. 



\ ND now I will take a general glance over 
j~\ the other short-haired breeds commonly 
called English or British cats. 

As regards points, these are the same as in 
the long-haired varieties. I give a list as 
drawn up by a sub-committee of the Cat Club 
for the use of fanciers and judges : 

SHORT-HAIRED CATS. 

White. Colour, pure white. Eyes, blue. 

Black. Colour, pure and rich black ; no white: 
Eyes, orange. 

Torioiseshell. Colour, patched yellow, orange and 
black ; no stripes ; no white. Eyes, orange. 

Torioiseshell and White. Colour, white, patched 
with yellow, orange and black ; no stripes. Eyes, 
orange. 

Silver Tabby. Colour, silver grey, marked with 
rich black stripes or bars; no pure white. Eyes, 
green or orange. 

Spotted Tabby. Colour, any shade of light colour, 
evenly marked with spots of a darker shade or black ; 
no stripes ; no pure white. Eyes, orange, yellow or 
green. 

Brown Tabby. Colour, golden brown, marked with 



rich black stripes or bars ; no white. Eyes, orange 
or green. 

Orange or Red Tabby. Colour, light orange or red, 
with darker stripes or bars ; no white. Eyes, hazel, 
or golden brown. 

Tabby and White. Colour, any shade of tabby with 
white. Eyes, orange or green. 

N.B. Where more than one colour is given for the 
eyes, the first one is to be preferred to the second or 
third. 

The Sub-Committee, FRANCES SIMPSON. 

GAMBIER BOLTON. 

It will therefore be seen that texture and 
length of coat are really the distinguishing 
points between the two varieties. It is just 
as grave a mistake for a Persian cat to have 
a short, close coat as it is for one of British 
type to possess any of that woolliness or length 
of fur which denotes a mesalliance. The com- 
monest species of all short-haired cats may be 
said to be represented by broken-coloured 
specimens that is, orange-and-white, tabby- 
and-white, and black-and-white. These sorts 



SHORT-HAIRED CATS. 



283 



of cats we most frequently see about our 
public streets and in the homes of country 
cottagers. At our shows this type of cat 
which would be classed as " any other 
colour " is fast disappearing from our midst. 
In America I observe that a class is still 
specially reserved for orange-and-white cats, 
and it would seem that this is rather a favourite 
breed with our cousins over the water. 

A good black, with rich glossy coat and deep 
amber eyes, is, to my mind, one of the choicest 
of our short-haired breeds. These cats are 
often marred by the white spot at the throat, 
and, of course, green eyes predominate to a 
very great extent. As in the long-haired cats, 
blue-eyed whites are coming much more to the 
fore, and on the show bench, at least, we do 
not see many other specimens with yellow or 
green eyes. 

Our British tabbies orange, brown, and 



silver are always well represented at the 
principal shows, and of late years competition 
has been much keener in these classes. It is 
when we come to markings that the long- 
haired breeds must take a back seat, so to 
speak ; and the British puss has an easy walk- 
over. In the short, close coat, the broad or 
narrow bands of the darker colour show up in 
grand relief on the ground-work of a rich, 
though paler, shade. The rings round the 
neck and_tail, and the bars on the legs are seen 
to great perfection. It will be easily under- 
stood, therefore, that markings in short- 
haired tabbies claim the first and greatest 
consideration, and that these should be sharp 
and distinct, great care is needed in mating and 
breeding. 

A serious and rather common defect amongst 
silver tabbies is a tinge of brown about the 
face generally on the nose. Orange-tabby 




ANOTHER VIEW OF LADY DECIES' CATTERY. 

(Pfcoto: Cassell & Company, Limited.) 



284 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



females are rarer than males. The peculiar 
species known as spotted tabbies is becoming 
very rare, and whereas formerly some of this 
breed were generally exhibited at large shows, 
we now seldom see them. Spotted tabbies are 
usually brown or silver. I do not recollect 
having heard of an orange-spotted tabby. The 
spots should be spread uniformly over the 
body, feet, and tail, and if on the face so much 
the better. A perfect specimen should not 




(Photo: E. Landor, Baling.) 

have a suspicion of a stripe or bar anywhere. 
Harrison Weir considers that 'the spotted tabby 
is a much nearer approach to the wild English 
cat and some other wild cats in the way of 
colour than the ordinary broad-banded tabby. 

Amongst writers on cats : such as Harrison 
Weir and Mr. Jennings priority of place is 
given to the tortoiseshell cat, and this breed 
heads their list of short-haired breeds. So also 
formerly in the Crystal Palace catalogue, to 
which I have before alluded, tortoiseshells lead 
the way. Here, again, the patchy nature of 
the three colours-is or, at least, ought to be 
the distinguishing feature, and the long-haired 
cat of the same variety loses some of its indi- 
viduality by reason of the length of fur, causing 
a mingling or blurring of the colours. 

It is a strange fact in natural history, which 
no one has attempted to explain, that the 



tortoiseshell torn is a most rare and uncommon 
animal. A number of clever fanciers and 
breeders have used their best endeavours and 
patiently persevered in the fruitless attempt 
to breed tortoiseshell male cats. In my long 
experience I have never known of anyone who 
has succeeded, and those specimens that have 
been exhibited from time to time have been 
picked up quite by chance. I recollect, many 
years ago, at the Crystal Palace show, seeing 
the pen of a short-haired cat 
smothered with prize cards, 
and the owner of the puss 
^^^ ^ standing proudly by, in- 

forming inquirers that it was 
a tortoiseshell torn that lay 
hidden behind his awards. 
This man had been paid a 
shilling by a London cook 
to take away the trouble- 
some beast out of her area ! 
He had taken it away to 
some purpose, and his sur- 
prise at finding himself and 
his cat famous was amusing 
to behold. 

A very beautiful cat is the 

English tortoiseshell - and - 
white when the colours are 
well distributed, the red and black showing up 
so splendidly on the snowy ground-work. I 
must sav I far prefer those cats to the tortoise- 
shells, which are often so dingy in appearance. 
In this breed the male sex is conspicuous by 
its absence. The two breeds that have made 
great strides of late years amongst long-haired 
cats namely, creams and smokes are very 
rarely met with in the short-haired varieties. 
I know, however, of a silver tabby that, when 
mated to a black, throws smoke kittens. These 
are quaint and pretty, with bright green eyes. 
The under-coat is snowy white, and gleams 
through the dark outer fur, giving a very 
distinguished appearance. It is a pity some 
fanciers do not seriously take up the breeding 
of cream short-haired cats, as I think they 
would repay any trouble spent over them. 
They should, of course, be as pale and even 



SHORT-HAIRED CATS. 



285 



in colour as possible, without any markings, and 
with deep amber eyes. I can only recall one 
or two, and these not at all perfect specimens. 

Amongst our present-day fanciers of short- 
haired cats I may mention Sir Claude and Lady 
Alexander, who have splendid specimens cf 
many of the breeds. Mrs. Collingwood has 
recently almost discarded Persians for the 
British beauties, being specially partial to silver 
and orange tabbies. Lady Decies for many 
years owned the invincible " Champion Xeno- 
phon " a brown tabby of extreme beauty 
who died in 1902. There are several fine short- 
hairs at the spacious catteries at Birchington. 

Mrs. Herring's name has always been associ- 
ated with " Champion Jimmy," the noted silver 
tabby, and she is also the owner of " King- 
Saul," one of the few tortoiseshell toms that 
appear at our shows. Many other specimens 
have been bred by this well-known fancier. 
Mr. Harold Blackett has a trio of famous 
prize-winning silver tabbies, and Mrs. Bonny 
is a noted breeder of browns and silvers. 
This enthusiastic fancier writes : " For many 
years past I have devoted myself to the cult 
of the British tabby cat ; it has been my one 
hobby. Really good specimens of browns and 
silvers are scarce. Certainly silvers have in- 
creased in numbers during the last few years, 
and the quality has improved. They are 
difficult to rear, more especially the males." 
Mrs. Bonny's celebrated brown female tabby, 
" Heather Belle," died in 1903. A silver tabby, 
" Dame Fortune " her daughter by . Mrs. 
Collingwood's " Champion James II." created 
quite a sensation at the Westminster and other 
shows. Miss Derby Hyde has always been 
faithful to short-haired, blue-eyed whites. Mr. 
Kuhnel is noted for his gorgeous-coloured and 
finely marked orange tabbies. Many breeders 
of Persians keep one or two short-haired 
specimens, and I cannot help believing that, 
as time goes on, we shall have a larger number 
of fanciers taking up British cats. 

Harrison Weir, in comparing the two varie- 
ties, writes : " I am disappointed at the 
neglect of the short-haired English cat, by the 
ascendancy of the foreign long-hair. Both are 



truly beautiful, but the first, in my opinion, is 
far in advance of the latter in intelligence. 
In point of fact, in animal life, in-that way it 
has no peer; and, again, the rich colourings 
are, I think, more than equal to the softened 
beauty of the longer-coated. I do not think 
that the breeding of short-hairs is yet properly 
understood." 

A correspondent writing to Our Cats, com- 
plaining of the classification for short-hairs at 
shows, say_sj " All fanciers of that beautiful 
animal the British cat feel how they are handi- 
capped when they receive schedules of the 
various shows and compare the classification 
of short- and long-haired cats. Far better it 
would be honestly to announce a ' foreign cat 
show,' with a rider that a few English may 
compete if they choose. 'Tis a pity, in many 
ways ; for, given a little encouragement, the 
standard of the poor, everyday, homely pussy 
would be raised, and we would not see so much 
wanton cruelty and neglect attached thereto." 




AN AMERICAN BEGGING CAT. 
(Photo: A. C. Hopkins.) 



286 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 




" EBONY OF WIGAN. 
OWNED uy Miss JOAN WOODCOCK. 
(Photo : S. Richardson, Stcmdish.) 

In America short-hairs have not " taken 
on," and at the various shows the specials 
offered are as small in number as the entries 
made. I never hear of. any exportations of 
British cats to American fanciers ; but perhaps 
some enthusiast of the breed will start a short- 
haired cattery. There is certainly room for 
such an enterprise, and the sturdier Britisher 
would more easily resist the trials of an Atlantic 
trip and the terrors of a three days' show. 

I have been fortunate in obtaining -the kind 
assistance of two of our best authorities on 
short-haired cats namely, Mr. H. E. Jung 
and Mr. T. B. Mason. Some notes by these 
competent judges will be read with interest. 

Mr. H. E. Jung says : 

" It is a matter of regret that this variety at 
shows is not so fully represented as it should 
be, taking into consideration the large number 
of cat exhibitors. There is no doubt that the 
prettier long-haired variety secures greater 
support from the lady exhibitors. 

" In addition to the characteristic of being 
a native production of the British Isles, they 
have certainly a great advantage in their racy, 
workmanlike appearance, which is lacking in 
the long-haired variety. What is handsomer 
than a sleek-coated black, with its grand, 



golden-amber eyes ; the workmanlike spotless 
white, with its clear blue eye ; the aristocratic 
silver, with its rich tabby markings, its soft 
emerald or orange eye ; or the pale, lavender- 
hued blue, with its coat of velvet-like texture ? 

'' Thanks to such enthusiastic breeders as 
Lady Alexander, Mrs. Herring, Lady Decies, 
Mr. Sam Woodiwiss, Mr. R. P. Hughes, Mr. 
Kuhnel, Mr. Louis Wain, and several 
others, we are not likely to allow the English 
short-haired variety to deteriorate. I myself 
think there has been a great improvement in 
the specimens penned the last few years. The 
fault we must guard against is the loss of size 
and stamina, which can only be averted by 
judicious mating. The increasing number of 
shows in America, the Colonies, and even on 
the Continent, should stimulate breeders of the 
short-haired variety to extend their catteries, 
for no doubt in a few years there will be a 
strong demand for the English-bred, short- 
haired cat. Up to the present only in England 
has anything like a systematic rule been fol- 
lowed out, which is most essential : in fact, 
the only course possible to obtain good speci- 
mens is to follow out a system of breeding as 
near perfect as possible for, as in everything 
else where breeding is concerned, the old 
maxim of ' blood will tell ' holds good. 

" The stud books should be kept up to date, 
and stud registrations should be followed out, 
just as in the dog world. I can imagine 
many of my readers who do not take up cats 
as a hobby saying, ' The ordinary common 
garden cat suits my purpose ; he is affectionate, 
he catches mice, and that is all I require.' 
But how much more satisfactory it is to be 
able to say, ' My cat is blue-blooded, has an 
aristocratic pedigree, is handsome ; he goes to 
shows, perhaps wins, and he is still affectionate ; 
he also catches the mice as well as his brother 
of lower birth and less striking appearance.' 
You must also bear in mind he does not require 
any daintier feeding. I consider it is always 
pleasanter in cat, dog, or horse to own a dis- 
tinguished-looking animal than an ill-bred, 
ungainly one that neither pleases nor satisfies 
the eye. 



SHORT-HAIRED CATS. 



287 



" I would here remark upon the absence of white I have ever seen penned, winner of nine 



men who take up breeding cats as a hobby, 
and yet the short-haired variety is essentially 
a man's breed. They require very little 



first prizes and championships, the property 
of Lady Alexander. This cat has held her 
own in her class for the last seven years a 



grooming and attention compared to the long- most remarkable feat. 



haired varieties. 



Silver tabbies I must certainly class 



" Several of the most prominent judges of among the most aristocratic of the breeds. 



cats are also recognised authorities in the dog 
world. I may mention the late Mr. Enoch 
\Ydburn ; Mr. F. Gresham, the keen, ' all- 
round ' judge ; Mr. L. P. C. Astley, also at 



Fanciers will tell you how difficult it is to 
obtain a good one. Either the tabby mark- 
ings are not clear, nor sufficiently defined, 
the black is jjot dense enough, the butterfly 



home both in one or the other ; Mr. Sam markings are not distinct, or the eyes are not 



of the correct colour. To get anything like a 
perfect type in silvers is a great feat, and only 
the outcome of judicious mating. One of the 
great faults of many silvers on the bench to- 
day is that they are deficient in size, and unless 



Woodiwiss, the well-known fancier and expert ; 
Mr. Lane, who also adjudicates on both breeds ; 
and Mr. Louis Wain, to whom we are indebted 
for those delightful pictures depicting cat life. 
" Tortoiseshells are most difficult cats to 
breed. Either they come too dark or too 
light, or the colours are not sufficiently well 
blended. One of the singularities of the 
breed is the nearly entire absence of males 
in every litter ; in fact, I remember the 
saying was that a tortoiseshell torn was as 
scarce as the dodo. At the 
present time, however, we 
have two good toms viz. 
'Champion Ballochmyle 
Samson,' winner of no fewer 
than twelve first prizes and 
championships, the property 
of Lady Alexander, and 
' Champion King Saul,' 
winner of numerous cham- 
pionships and first prizes, 
owned by Mrs. Herring. 
Both these males are very 
good, and whenever they 
have been penned together 
it has always been a difficult matter for me to we attend to this I am afraid that shortly we 
decide the winner. In females, ' Ballochmyle are likely to produce a diminutive type which, 
Bountiful Bertie ' (sire, ' Champion Balloch- of course, is greatly to be avoided. I hardly 
myle Samson '), also the property of Lady think this breed is sufficiently supported, 
Alexander, winner of several firsts and cham- taking into consideration the richness in colour 
pionships ; ' Fulmer May,' the property of and markings of the silver tabby. 
Lady Decies, winner of many firsts they are " Among the many winning males, ' Cham- 
both grand females, of the right colour and pion Jimmy ' stands out very prominently, 
type ; the tortoiseshell-and-white ' Champion having won numerous championships and 
Ballochmyle Otter,' the best tortoiseshell-and- first prizes ; he was the property of Mrs. Herring. 




SLEEPING AND WAKING TABBIES. 

(Photo : T. Fall, Baker Street, W.) 



288 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



Others of note were ' James II.,' the property 
of Mrs. Collingwood ; ' Sedgemere Silver King,' 
owned by, Mr. Sam Woodiwiss. Prominent in 
the female classes were the noted queen, 
' Champion Shelly,' owned by Mr. H. W. 
Bullock, shown some years ago ; by that 
noted sire, ' King of the Fancy,' owned by 
Mr, Sugden. It is notable he sired both 
' Champion Jimmy ' and ' Champion Shelly.' 
'Silver Queen,' winner of many firsts and 
specials, the property of the Hon. Mrs. McLaren 
Morrison ; ' Sedgemere Silver Queen.' owned 
by Mr. Sam Woodi- 
wiss; 'Silver Queen,' 
the property of Mr. 
Harold Blackett ; 
and that grand fe- 
male, ' Sweet Phillis,' 
the property of Mrs. 
Herring. 

" Very few good 
brown tabbies are 
benched,, and breed- 
ers, I am afraid, get 
very disheartened at 
the : result . of their 
efforts. I despair to 
think of the litters I 
have seen, and not 
a good one amongst 
them. The rich 
bro\vn sable colour 
is . very seldom met 
with, and now that the world-renowned cham- 
pion of champions, ' Xenophon,' is no more, 
we have only ' Flying Fox ' and ' King of Lee ' 
anything like the type you expect in this hand- 
some breed. Of ' Champion Xenophon ' I am 
afraid we can truly say, ' We shall ne'er look on 
his like again.' His wonderful colour, mark- 
ings, and size approached the ideal short-haired 
cat. I believe he was either bred by Mr. 
Heslop, or came under his keen eye, and, like 
a good many others, was brought down south 
by that fancier to make a name. 

"He was claimed by Mr. Sam Woodiwiss, 
who showed him for some years, and he 
secured for his owner numerous champion- 




A BLACK-AND-WHITE BKITISHKR. 
(Photo: A. IVarschcan'ski, St. Leonards-on-Sea.) 



ships, first prizes, and specials, afterwards 
changing hands and becoming the property of 
Lady Decies. still following up his winning 
career after an unbroken record of ' second to 
none.' I think I am correct in saying this 
cat has won more money and specials than 
any short-haired cat ever exhibited. 

" Red tabbies, again, are one of the difficult 

varieties to obtain. The dense, dark red tabby 

markings against the light red ground is only 

the result of judicious mating and breeding. 

" Among the many notable males, ' Bal- 

lochmyle Perfection,' 
the property of Lady 
Alexander, winner of 
some 100 first prizes, 
championships, and 
specials, the sire of 
' Champion Balloch- 
myle Goldfinder' and 
' Ballochmyle No 
Fool ' (the mother of 
'Ballochmyle Red 
Prince '), stands out 
very p r o m i n e n t ly. 
' Champion Perfec- 
tion,' despite his ten 
years, has still the 
grand dense mark- 
ings and colour as of 
old. In ' Ballochmyle 
Perfection' we have 
a chip of the old 
block. Then a later red tabby, Mrs. Colling- 
wood's 'Clem,' is a good-coloured red. Mr. 
Kuhnel, of Bradford, for many years held 
his own in this handsome breed in fact, most 
of the present-day winners can be traced, from 
that fancier's cattery. 

" Blues (self-coloured). There seems to 
be a great difference of opinion as to the 
shape and make of head of these cats. Some 
judges look for a round, full head of the 
English-bred cat; others, the long head of 
the Eastern variety. I think that difference 
arises to a great extent according to where 
these cats originally came from. I have 
heard the opinions of some who give Arch- 




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SHORT-HAIRED CATS. 



289 



angel as the port of origin ; others, Malta. 
If the cat originated from Archangel, one 
would naturally expect a long head of Eastern 
type. The specimens, however,, from Malta 
have certainly the round head and more of 
the English-bred type. The chief points, in 
my opinion, apart from the shape of head, is 
body colour, shape, colour of eye, and closeness 
of coat. They are no doubt a very handsome 
breed. In colour they are a light blue, with a 
delicate lavender bloom pervading the whole 
coat. 

" Of the many good ones that come to 
my memory, ' Moscow ' (Russian-bred), a big 



difficult fault to breed out. It is noticeable 
that the females in this breed are so very 
small, and in marked contrast to the toms. 

" The chief points one desires in this breed 
are closeness of coat, size, and a distinct light 
blue eye (not washy). Among the numerous 
winners are ' Ballochmyle Snow King,' formerly 
owned by Mr. Sam Woodiwiss, and now the 
property of Lady Alexander ; ' Ballochmyle 
Billie Blue Eyes ' and ' Biddy Blue Eyes,' the 
property of Mrs. Herring. 

" BJackiy ~I am sorry to say, are some- 
what neglected, considering how striking they 
are. The dense black coat, the contrast- 













" CHAMPION BALLOCHMVLK OTTEK," TORTOISKSHKLL-AND-WH1TE. 

OWNED BY LADY ALEXANDER. 



winner, owned by Mrs. Carew-Cox ; ' Champion 
Ballochmyle Blue King,' winner of seven 
championships and first prizes, owned by Lady 
Alexander; ' Champion Brookside Iris,' late 
owner Mrs. Pownall ; ' Blue Boy,' owned by 
Mr. Sam Woodiwiss ; ' Ballochmyle Brother 
Bump ' and ' Ballochmyle Sister Goose,' the 
property of Lady Alexander a big winner. 

" White English cats appear to have lost 
less in size than many others, as two of the 
largest winners of to-day viz. ' Ballochmyle 
Snow King ' and ' Ballochmyle Billie Blue 
Eyes ' will testify. The white retains the 
racy, workmanlike character of the true 
English-bred cat. One fault is very prevalent : 
they lean very much towards a broken coat 
(a good many of the white cats penned to-day 
have this failing) ; it is, no doubt, a very 
19 



ing grand amber eye, should always find a 
weak spot in the heart of every exhibitor of 
the short-haired varieties. The points we 
look for are chiefly closeness of coat, the black 
of great density, pure amber eyes set in a 
good round head topped with small ears. I can 
well imagine my readers will say, ' A pure 
amber eye how is it to be got ? It is such a 
rarity.' I know, however, that by careful 
mating it is not only possible, but most 
distinctly certain, as Mr. R. J. Hughes, 
the late owner of that lovely female ' Amber 
Queen,' one of the best-eyed cats I have seen, 
can testify. He, in fact, has bred many of 
the best-eyed winners of late years : ' Amber 
Queen,' winner of numerous firsts and cham- 
pionships, the property of Miss Una Fox ; 
' Ballochmyle Black Bump,' owned by Lady 



290 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



Alexander, and formerly the property of Mr. 
Hughes ; ' Sedgemere Black King,' winner of 
several championships and first prizes, origin- 
ally owned by Mr. Sam Woodiwiss. 

" An explanation may be deemed due to 
my readers for having included blues amongst 
the English types, but as the clubs have 
recognised this breed, and sanctioned their 
being catalogued amongst the English exhibits, 
I felt justified in adopting this course ; more 




" CHAMPION BALLOCHMVLE PERFECTION. 
OWNED BY LADY ALEXANDER. 

particularly as the country of origin still 
remains a matter of speculation." 

Mr. T. B. Mason's name is a household 
one in the cat fancy, and 'this most popular 
judge has been kind enough to set down 
some of his many experiences, and a little 
of his universal knowledge, for the benefit of 
my readers. 

" For more than twenty-five years I have 
taken a very great interest in all our minor 
pets, so the breeding and exhibiting of cats 
has had a large share of my attention. I look 
at the past, and compare it with the present, 
and I am more than satisfied with the progress 
made and the high-water mark of excellence 
attained. In the 'eighties, when that noted 
North Country breeder the late Mr. Young, of 
Harrogate, was hard at work laying the 
foundations of markings and colour in the 
silver tabby, orange tabby, and the tortoise- 
shells, which has resulted in making the strains 



of the North Country short-hairs so far ahead 
of all others, he had little or no idea that in so 
brief a time the cat fancy would develop into 
such an important one as it is at the present 
time. In recent years we have seen the 
National Cat Club, the Cat Club, and a great 
many specialist clubs formed for the special 
object of breeding cats to perfection in colour 
and markings. Standards have been made and 
issued by noted breeders, who have met 
together and have exchanged 
ideas, so that at the present 
1 time we have standards that 
are ideals of perfection. 
Shape, colour, markings, coat, 
and colour of eyes for each 
separate variety are all plainly 
stated. All this interest, to- 
gether with the holding of 
many big shows in different 
parts of the kingdom, have 
brought into prominence a 
great host of fanciers, includ- 
ing many ladies holding high 
1 positions in the best class of 

society. No wonder, then, 
that there should be a call for 
a standard work dealing with all varieties of 
cats. In the few remarks I have to make 
on short-haired cats I shall take the self 
colours first. They are, I believe, our oldest 
variety ; the black or the white cat is to be 
found in many a household. In some parts 
of the North when I was a boy it was said 
to be a sign of good luck to have a sound- 
coloured black cat, with a coat like a raven's 
wing, with not a white hair to be found 
in it. If you have one like this in your 
home, with a good round head, neat ears, and 
rich orange eyes, let me ask you to take great 
care of it. If you reside in a district where 
shows are held either in connection with the 
local agricultural society or in the winter 
time in the town hall in connection with the 
local fanciers' society by all means enter it, 
and you will find you have an exhibit of 
real value. We possess grand examples of 
first-class blacks in Lady Alexander's ' Black 



SHORT-HAIRED CATS. 



291 



Bump,' Lady Decies' ' Charcoal ' and ' Sham- 
rock,' Mrs. Nott's ' King of Blacks,' and many 
other present-day winners. In self whites 
Lady Alexander's ' Snow King,' ' Billie Blue 
Eyes,' and ' Snow Bump ' ; Mrs. Western's 
' Prickly Pearl ' ; and the Hon. A. Wodehouse's 
' White Devil ' are about the best living, and 
in condition and coat hard to find fault with. 
The eyes of the self white must be a rich- 
coloured blue. The shorter and fuller you 
can get both the self black and the self white 
the better will be the chances of their winning 
prizes ; a long, coarse coat, big or badly set- 
on ears, and long, thin, snipy faces are little 
or no good in the show pen. In your breed- 
ing arrangements you do not need at this time 
of the day to make many experiments. In 
breeding self whites the great aim is to obtain 
shape and colour of eyes. So many good sires 
are to be obtained that if you are deficient in 
bone, shape, or colour of eyes, you can with 
careful mating obtain these in some cases 
with the first cross. My opinion is that in 
breeding whites no other colour should be 
mixed with them. In the breeding of blacks 
you are altogether on another matter. It is a 
well-known fact that the cross with the self 
blue is a most distinct advantage. It not only 
gives tone and soundness to both the blue and 
the black, but it also adds lustre. 

" For a long time we have called the 
self blues Russians. No doubt they, in 
the first instance, came from the East ; but 
since they were imported into this country 
they have been mixed in a great measure with 
self blacks, and in some cases with long-haired 
blues, to get strong, short, round heads, so 
that at the present time we have very few 
pure-bred Russians in this country. 

' My advice to those who are breeding self 
blues or self blacks is, by all means put one 
cross of blacks in the blues, especially if the 
black has orange eyes. It is in eyes that most 
of our self blues fail. Let me, however, give 
here a word of warning. Do not mix the 
colours too often, or you will get the blues too 
dark or nearly like black. If yon get one 
cross of the black and blue, use it as it should 



be used, by mixing the offspring well to- 
gether. I know a great many breeders are 
not in favour of this in-breeding. This is, 
without doubt, their loss. In all branches 
in-breeding is the sure road to success. 

" To go outside at every cross, or too 
often, brings with it a lot of trouble and 
disappointment. To all my advice is, having 
got the strains of noted sires in your youngsters, 
so mix them that all the good and little of the 
bad points will come out as the result of your 
breeding. That you will not get all winners 
is a sure conclusion, but my experience is 
and it is formed after thirty years' breeding of 
fancy pet stock that in this way you are 
more likely than in any other to breed winners. 
Anyone who has seen Lady Alexander's 
' Brother Bump,' Mrs. Hughes' ' Alexis,' Miss 
Butler Ayton's ' Blue Bell ' and ' Blue Stock- 
ings,' Mrs. Carew-Cox's ' Fashoda,' and Mrs. 
Dewar's ' Firkens ' cannot but fall in love with 
this colour. All that is needed to make this 
one of our most popular varieties is uni- 
formity in shape. In my opinion these cats 
should be judged on the same lines as our self 
blacks and self whites. 

" I now come to the tabbies silver, orange, 
and brown. What a 
lovely variety they 
are, and what a fine 
picture any of the 




MRS. BAKKKK'S " TYXESIDE LILY." 

(Photo : E C. Fanner, Bedford.) 




MISS HARPER'S CATTERY, BRIARLEA, HAYWARD'S HEATH. 




ANOTHER VIEW OF BRIARLEA CATTERIES. 
(Photo: E. Harper.') 



SHORT-HAIRED CATS. 



293 



three colours makes if they are seen in full coat 
and .clear markings ! In silvers the old-time 
champion ' The Silver King ' was without a 
doubt the foundation of most of our present-day 
winners. Mrs. Herring's ' Jimmy,' the noted 
female 'Shelly,' and a host of others that at 
the moment I cannot remember are worthy of 



' Belle of Bradford,' Mr. Thompson's ' Red 
Rufus,' and Mr. Kuhnel's ' Coronation King,' 
all of them getting close on the standard both 
in colour and markings. 

" In browns the old champion ' Xeno- 
phon ' is, to my mind, the best tabby of 
any colour ever seen in the show pen ; his 




- 



A CORNER OF THE BOSSINGTON CATTERIES. 
(Photo: A. J. Anderson & Co., Litton.) 



the great deeds of the past. In the present day 
champions are to be found Mrs. Collingwood's 
' James II.,' Mrs. Herring's ' Sweet Phyllis,' 
Mrs. Bonny's ' Heather Belle ' and ' Dame 
Fortune,' Mrs. Turner's ' Masterpiece,' Mrs. 
Western's ' Princess,' and last, but not least, 
Mr. Blackett's noted team, including ' Silver ' 
and ' Silver Star.' In the orange we have a 
strong lot, including Lady Alexander's capital 
team ' Perfection,' ' Red Prince,' ' Miss Per- 
fection,' and ' Mother Pop ' Mrs. Temple's 
' Dr. Jim,' Mrs. Collingwood's ' Clem ' and 
19* 



picture is before me as I pen these lines. I 
well remember giving him the first and 
special for best cat in the show ; since that 
time how many times he has won the cham- 
pionship I cannot say. His loss will be 
great, both to the fancy and also to Lady 
Decies. ' Flying Fox ' (the property of Messrs. 
Ainsley and Graham), Mrs. Pratt's ' Tommy 
Jacks,' and Mrs. Oliver's ' Danefield Vera ' are 
all good ones ; but in this colour of tabbies 
the competition is not half so keen as it is in 
silver and orange. 



294 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



' One standard governs all the three colours. 
The ground or body colour must be pure, 
and clear from any other colour. In a great 
many well-marked ones I meet in the show 
pen the rusty brown tinge on nose, ears, 
and brindled in the body markings puts 
them out of the prize list. It is a great mis- 
take to cross the silver tabby with the brown 
tabby or with one that has in its pedigree the 
brown tabby blood. If the black markings 
need a darker shade, my advice is use for once 
the self black. If you 
do not get the desired 
effect the first cross, 
the youngsters mated 
together have been 
known to breed some 
really good ones. By 
all means, if possible, 
get into your silvers 
green eyes. I am 
aware that the stand- 
ard says green or 
orange eyes ; but in all 
cases where the com- 
petition is very keen 
the orange eyes are a 
distinct disadvantage. 

" In the breeding of 
the orange tabby you 
need to be very care- 
ful. The use of the 
tortoiseshell has been 

found to be very advantageous ; in fact, some 
of our best orange tabbies have been bred 
from the tortoiseshells. The mixing of these 
two varieties, if done carefully, will bring 
success on both sides ; but care should be 
taken not to bring too much of the tortoise- 
shell into the orange, or, on the other hand, 
carry too much orange into the tortoiseshell. 
The pale yellow eye in an orange is a great 
point against it winning in the keen competi- 
tion which we have at the present time. 

" The eyes must be a very rich orange, 
to match the body colour, which should 
be two or three shades lighter than the 
markings. 




OWNED BY LADY ALEXANDER. 
(Photo : Russell & Sons, Crystal Palace.) 



" In the browns we have two distinct 
colours the sable colour and the old brown 
colour. The old cat that I have referred to 
of Lady Decies' was a sable tabby. No doubt 
this colour is the more taking of the two, but 
both are useful, and the old brown coloui 
must not by any means be overlooked in our 
liking for the sable colour. In all the colours of 
tabbies we find that the chief bad points are 
the white lips in the sables mostly, the white 
spots in the chest in our orange, and the rusty 

mousy colour in our 
silvers. The colour of 
eyes, too, in our 
browns and sables is 
far from what it ought 
to be. Some eyes are 
a pale green, some a 
pale yellow. All this 
p roves that the 
breeders at times go 
too far in the out- 
crossing, and bring in 
with it faults that 
crop up when those 
crossings are nearly 
forgotten. 

" In the breeding of 
browns nothing more 
is needed than what 
we have namely, 
the sable colour ones 
and the old coloured 

browns. The blending together of these 
two colours will put any breeder on the high- 
way to success. I am more than surprised 
that this variety is not stronger than it is 
at the present time. I am sure, of all the 
race and colours of tabbies they are the easiest 
to breed, and yet we find they are the fewest 
in number at our big shows. In looking for 
a real good tabby, do not miss the chest, feet, 
and tail. We have a great lot of good cats if 
body markings and colour were all that was 
needed, but when it comes to the ringed tail, 
the rings around the chest, and the markings 
right down to the toe ends, then they ' come a 
cropper,' as we say in the North. 




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SHORT-HAIRED CATS. 



29: 



' ; One more important point before I finish. ' Champion King Saul.' Females are very 
What a painful task it is to the judge to find strong, and well represented in Mrs. Pratt's 



very good all-round ex- 
hibits that have plain 
head markings. The face 
and cheeks are right in 
ground colour ; and the 
pencil markings on the 
fore-face, running into 
the markings behind the 
ears, and those on the 
cheeks are of the faintest 
colour, and in many cases 
broken. Such head 
markings and colour spoil 
many otherwise really 
good cats. 

" I now come to the 
tortoiseshells a mixture 
of orange and black. I 
have dealt with mixing of 
colours in my remarks on 
the orange tabbies. All 




MRS. A. M. STEAD'S BROWN TABBY. 

(Photo: E. N. Collins, South Norwood.) 



' Tib of Rochdale ' and 
Messrs. Graham and 
Ainsley's ' Sunine.' 

" The tortoiseshell-and- 
white is a most lovely 
and taking variety, com- 
monly called the 'chintz- 
and-white ' in our home- 
steads. Very few and 
far between are good 
specimens to be found, 
and yet in the show pens 
these tri-colour cats have 
a great advantage over 
their fellow-felines. Lady 
Alexander has exhibited 
some splendid tortoise- 
shell - and - whites, ' Bal- 
lochmyle Otter ' being 
one of the best (see illus- 
tration, page 289). A very 



I need say here is, mind that in your tortoise- common drawback in this variety is the mix- 
shells you do not get the orange markings, ture of tabby with the orange and white, 
The most successful breeder in the North of instead of the patches of black. I feel sure 



this variety the 
late Mr. Young, of 
Harrogate made 
tabby markings in 
a tortoiseshell a dis- 
qualification in the 
show pen. The pre- 
sence of any white is 
also a very great 
drawback, and this 
is often found in 
small patches on the 
chest or on the belly. 
You can have both 
too light and too 




-MRS. COLLINGWOOD S '' JAMKS II. 
(Photo : Russell & Sons, Crystal Palace.) 



if this variety were 
only taken up more 
we should see a 
remarkable advance- 
ment both in mark- 
ings and in colour. 
The patches white, 
orange, and black 
in an ideal specimen 
should be, if possi- 
ble, about equal in 
number, and well 
placed on the body, 
head, and feet ; they 
look very charming 
when you see a 
really good one. I 



much orange colour, 

or you can have 

them too dark or too much black. Equal hope a few more fanciers and breeders of 

colours and well mixed is about the right short-haired cats will be coming forward, so 

thing, with good orange eyes. At the present that the number exhibited at our shows may 

time we have Lady Alexander's and Mrs. steadily increase." 

Hei ring's males ' Champion Samson' and In this hope I do most heartily join, for 



2Cj6 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



although my name is mostly connected with 
the long-haired breeds, I am such a lover of 
all cats that I feel as anxious for one variety 
as another to obtain friends and favour. It 
is specially in the South of England that the 
interest in our short-haired breeds is on the 
wane, and it behoves all fanciers to strive to 
assist in keeping alive the love of the British 
cat in our midst. 

In 1902 Sir Claud and Lady Alexander 
most generously guaranteed the whole of 
these classes, and although they themselves 
made a very numerous entry, yet there was a 



deficit to pay of several pounds, a thing which 
ought not to be. 

I find that the Manx, Siamese, and blues 
are generally able to take care of themselves 
at shows, or they have clubs and secretaries 
who look after their interests; but the " common 
or garden " puss needs a kindly hand to assist 
in drawing him to the front, for, as that well- 
known lover of " the domestic cat," Harrison 
Weir, writes, " Why should not the cat that 
sits purring in front of us before the fire be 
an object of interest, and be selected for its 
colour, markings, and form ? " 




" BEN-MY-CHREE." 

OWNED BY Miss G. E. SILLAR. 

(Photo: J. W. Thomas, Colwyn Bay.) 



297 




BURMESE CAT. 
(Photo: E. Latuior, Baling) 



CHAPTER XXVI. 



SOME FOREIGN CATS. 



IT is not intended in the following notes to 
enter into a description of the various 
beautiful and interesting wild felines, for 
although some of these such as the Ocelot, 
the Geoffrey's Cat, and the Wild Cat are not 
infrequently seen in the pens at our leading 
shows, such matter really comes more within 
the province of a natural history than of the 
present work. 

Two varieties alone may justly claim some 
slight attention here, these being the Egyptian 
cat (Felis maniculata] and the European wild 
cat (F. catus). It might reasonably be 
imagined that our common cat was derived 
from the last-named, considering that at one 
time it was a common animal all over England, 
as well as on the Continent. The untamable 
ferocity of this variety which is probably the 
least amenable of all living creatures has 
doubtless prevented its ever having been 
domesticated, and the high value which, as 
we learn from old writings, was placed upon 
the domestic puss at a time when the wild cat 



was a common animal in England, plainly 
show that F. catus was not the ancestor of 
jF. domestica, although the two will freely inter- 
breed. Many years ago, for instance, the old 
Spanish wild cat which used to be kept at the 
Zoological Gardens in the so-called aviaries, 
now occupied by the civets, mated with his 
cage mate a tortoiseshell-and-white queen - 
and of these cross-bred kittens both Sir Claud 
Alexander and the writer of these lines pos- 
sessed specimens. 

It is usually assumed that the Egyptian or 
Caff re cat is the progenitor of the majority of 
the domestic cats. This is the variety which 
was domesticated, revered, and embalmed by 
the ancient Egyptians. It is found over the 
whole of Africa, and it is quite easy to under- 
stand how, with its eminently tamable dis- 
position, it gradually spread over Europe. Our 
so-called Abyssinian cats, to which reference 
will be made later on, bear a very striking 
resemblance to this handsome variety of cat. 

The domestic cats of other parts of the 



298 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



world, however, are undoubtedly derived from 
the smaller wild cats of the- countries in ques- 
tion. Thus it is probable that several varieties 
have a share in the creation of the Indian 
domestic cats, of which Blyth distinguished 
two varieties. The fulvous variety he con- 
sidered to be derived from the Indian jungle 
cat (F. chaus), a fulvous cat which in its high 
legs, shorter tail, and slightly tufted ears 
and it is worthy of note that some of the best 
Abyssinians have large and slightly tufted ears 
marks the approach to the lyncine group. 
The spotted kinds he traces to the leopard cat, 
the desert cat, and the rusty-spotted cat. 

A most extraordinary variety, of which next 
to nothing appears to be known, is the hairless 
cat, and we cannot do better than quote in 
extenso the description given by the owner of 
what, if his surmise should unhappily prove 
to be correct, was the last pair of these peculiar 
animals, a portrait of which we give. 

Albuquerque, New Mexico, 

February ^rd, 1902. 
MR. H. C. BROOKE. 

Dear Sir, Yours of January aoth is at hand. In 
answer would say my hairless cats are brother and 
sister. I got them from the Indians a few miles from 
this place. The old Jesuit Fathers tell me they are 
the last of the Aztec breed known only in New Mexico. 
I have found them the most intelligent and affection- 
ate family pets I have ever met in the cat line ; they 
are the quickest inaction and smartest cats I have ever 
seen. They are fond of a warm bath, and love to 
sleep under the clothes at night with our little girl. 
They seem to understand nearly everything that is 
said to them ; but I have never had time to train 
them. They are marked exactly alike with mouse- 
coloured backs ; with neck, stomach, and legs a, 
delicate flesh tint. Their bodies are always warm 
and soft as a child's. They love to be fondled and 
caressed, and are very playful ; will run up and down 
your body and around your waist like a flash. 
" Nellie " weighs about eight pounds, and " Dick " 
weighed ten pounds ; but I am sorry to say we have 
lost " Dick." We have never allowed them to go 
out of the house, as the dogs would be after them. 
They were very fond of our water spaniel, and would 
sleep with her, " Dick "~was a sly rascal, and would 
steal out. One night last year he stole out, and the 
dogs finished him. His loss was very great, as I may 
never replace him. The Chicago Cat Club valued 
them at 1,000 dollars each. They were very anxious 



for me to come on with them for their cat shows, but 
I could not go. They were never on exhibition ; as 
this is a small city, I feared they would be stolen. I 
have made every endeavour to get another mate for 
" Nellie," but have not been successful. I never 
allowed them to mate, as they were brother and 
sister, and I thought it might alter " Nellie's " beau- 
tiful form, which is round and handsome, with body 
rather long. In winter they have a light fur on back 
and ridge of tail, which falls off in warm weather. 
They stand the cold weather same as other cats. They 
are not like the hairless dogs, whose hide is solid and 
tough ; they are soft and delicate, with very loose skin. 
" Nellie " has a very small head, large amber eyes, 
extra long moustache and eyebrows ; her voice now 
is a good baritone, when young it sounded exactly 
like a child's. They have great appetites, and are 
quite dainty eaters fried chicken and good steak is 
their choice. Have never been sick an hour. The 
enclosed faded picture is the only one I have at 
present ; it is very lifelike, as it shows the wrinkles 
in its fine, soft skin. " Dick " was a very powerful 
cat ; could whip any dog alone ; his courage, no 
doubt, was the cause of his death. He always was 
the boss over our dogs; I have priced " Nellie " at 
300 dollars. She is too valuable a pet for me to keep 
in a small town. Many wealthy ladies would value 
her at her weight in gold if they knew what a very 
rare pet she is. I think in your position she would 
be a very good investment to exhibit at cat shows 
and other select events, as she doubtless is the only 
hairless cat now known. I have written to Old 
Mexico and all over this country without finding 
another. I would like to have her in some large 
museum, where she would interest and be appreciated 
by thousands of people. Trusting this will reach you 
in safety, I am, very truly yours, F. J. SHINICK. 

We can only add, whilst deeply regretting 
that Mr. Shinick did not mate his cats, the 
earnest hope that we may hear that he has 
discovered the existence of other specimens. 
Should it prove that a parcel of street curs 
are responsible for this curious variety becom- 
ing extinct, even such confirmed dog lovers as 
ourselves are almost tempted to acquiesce in 
a universal and everlasting muzzling order ! 
It is to be regretted that no information is given 
as to whether the dentition of these cats was 
abnormal and imperfect, as is the case with 
the Mexican hairless dogs. 

Very curious and handsome is the Indian 
cat " Indischer Fiirst," exhibited by Mrs. H. 
C. Brooke. His most striking peculiarities 




3 



< 

u 

X 

a 



300 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



are the length and slenderness of his limbs, 
the extreme shortness of his coat, and his 
thin and tapering tail, which reminds the 
observer of that of a pointer. His ears are 
small, but as a kitten they were of enormous 
size, and with his long and pointed head gave 
him a most weird appearance. The voice of 
this cat is very variable, and far more resembles 
the raucous call of the Siamese than the voice 
of any European cat. 

This cat has had a very adventurous exist- 
ence. He, with his litter sister, was originally 
stolen from a hotel in Bombay by an English 
sailor. On the way home he twice fell over- 
board, but, more fortunate than his com- 
panion, was safely rescued. He also suffered 
shipwreck in the Sobraon on Yung Yung 
Island. On arriving nearer home he dis- 
appeared, and was only after several days' 
absence discovered in the bowels of the ship, 
as black as the coal amongst which he had 
been sojourning. His last exploit was to fall 
in the docks, after which the sailor handed him 
over to a shoemaker at Leytonstone, where he 
was discovered by his present owner. After 
he had twice escaped from bondage and aston- 
ished the natives of that place by perambulat- 
ing the housetops, lamenting in the tones of 




AFRICAN CAT. 
(Photo: E. Landor, Ealing.) 



a lost soul, his owner arrived at the conclusion 
that he had no convenience for restraining 
him, and at last yielded to persuasion, and 
handed him over to his present proprietors 
for consideration of sundry gold coins of the 
realm and a kitten with seven toes on each 
foot. 

It is a very remarkable thing that the Asiatic 
cats are so subject to abnormal formations of 
the tail. The Siamese cats, as is well known, 
very frequently possess kinked tails. In 
Burma also cats are found some tail-less, 
some with crooked or twisted stumps. These 
cats, when spotted, are very striking ; when 
of an ordinary colour they simply recall an 
indifferent Manx. 

Japan also possesses tail-less cats ; but 
those with ordinary caudal appendages also 
occur, and are probably the most numerous. 
There is said to be a variety of Chinese cat 
which is remarkable for its pendent ears. We 
have never been able to ascertain anything 
definite with regard to this variety. Some 
years back a class was provided for them at a 
certain Continental cat show, and we went 
across in the hope of seeing and, if possible, 
acquiring some specimens ; but, alas, the class 
was empty ! We have seen a stuffed specimen 
in a Continental museum, which was a half- 
long-haired cat, the ears being pendent down 
the sides of the head instead of erect ; but do 
not attach much value to this. 

We have seen specimens of a very tiny 
domestic cat, full-grown individuals of which 
weigh only about three pounds. Those we 
saw came from South America. 

A cat called the Mombassa cat, from the 
East of Africa, is said to have a short coat of a 
wiry texture. There are, of course, no cats 
indigenous to Australia. An American writer 
gives it as his opinion that a certain strain of 
Australian cats is derived from imported 
Siamese cats. A specimen we possessed last 
year, which was born on a ship during the 
passage from Australia, and which exactly 
resembled its dam, certainly had every appear- 
ance of being of Eastern origin. It had the 
marten-shaped head, and a triple kink in the 




CO 

H 

O -> 
2 > 

H "a 

5 

Q . 

2 ^o 



< i 

M 

Z 5 

3 | 

s - 



SOME FOREIGN CATS. 



301 



tail ; its voice also resem- 
bled that of the Siamese. 
In colour it was grey, 
with darker spots. 

A very taking variety 
is the Abyssinian. A 
good specimen should 
very strongly resemble 
what one might well ex- 
pect the Egyptian cat to 
become after generations 
of domestication. Since 
the death of " Sedgemere 
Bottle " and " Sedgemere 
Peaty " there have been 
no cats penned of such 
superlative merit as were 
these two specimens. The 
photograph of " Sedgemere 
Peaty " which we give 
hardly does justice to the 
cat. The colour of an 

Abyssinian should be a sort of reddish-fawn, 
each individual hair being " ticked " like that 
of a wild rabbit hence the popular name of 
" bunny cat." The great difficulty in breed- 
ing these cats is their tendency to come too 
dark and too heavily striped on the limbs ; 
the face should be rather long, the tail short 
and thick, and the ears large. These points 
are well shown by " Little Bunny Teedle Tit," 
first in the Abyssinian class at the 1902 
Crystal Palace cat show, though in colour she 
was not the best penned. The Abyssinian 
should not be a large, coarse cat. A small 
cat of delicate colouring and with the above- 
mentioned body properties is by far to be pre- 
ferred to the large, coarse, dark specimens one 
sees winning under some all-round judges, 
merely because of their size. 

More than any other varieties have the 
foreign cats suffered from the negligence of show 
committees and the awful judging of all-round 
judges, plus the equally awful reports fur- 
nished by all-round reporters ! At the best, 
knowledge of the different varieties of foreign 
cats is absolutely in its infancy. It should be 
the aim of large shows to provide, whenever 




MANX AND ABYSSINIAN (" SEDGEMERE PEATY " ON THE RIGHT). 

(Photo : A. R. Dresser.) 



possible, judges for these interesting strangers 
who do really take some interest in them. I am 
bound to say that of late years the National 
Cat Club has done its best to meet the wishes 
of owners in this respect, and with gratifying 
results, as witness the good classes at the 
Crystal Palace show, where there were no 
fewer than eleven Abyssinians penned a 
record number ! 

The Cat Club, on the other hand, has persist- 
ently neglected them, having on almost every 
occasion handed them over to some all-round 
judge who knows little and cares less about 
them, with the natural result that exhibitors 
are disgusted. Take, for instance, the last 
show, when a very dark, almost sooty Abys- 
sinian was placed above a very fair specimen 
merely because the latter had about a dozen 
white hairs on its throat ! The value of the 
winner may be gauged from the fact that its 
owner, a lady well known in the cat world, 
expressed her intention of having him neu- 
tered and keeping him merely as a pet. The 
same judge, in dividing the prizes amongst the 
Manx cats, appeared to think the colour of the 
throat of far more importance than the shape 



302 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



of the hindquarters in this section. Again, 
of what value does the reporter flatter himself 
his writings can be when we read in a so-called 
critique of a spotted Geoffrey's cat and of an 
ocelot that they are " pretty tiger-marked 
specimens " ? We wonder if the gentleman 
ever saw a tiger. 

There is much that is fascinating much, nay 
almost all to learn, the most beautiful colours 



and arrangements of markings to be studied, 
by those who will devote their attention to 
foreign cats. To the search for something 
new we owe the beautiful Siamese. Will no 
one pay some attention to the other varieties 
of the feline tribe from distant lands ? They 
are well worth it, and the addition of more 
foreign cats at our shows would be interesting 



and instructive. 



H. C. BROOKE. 




GEOKFROY S WILD CAT. 
(Photo : Cassell & Company, Limited.') 



303 




" THE STORM KING." 

OWNED BY Miss C. WALLACE. 

(Photo : Lewis Studio, East Brady, Pa,) 



CHAPTER XXVII. 



CATS IN AMERICA. 




A 



W 



REVIEW of 

the cat fancy 
in America 
carries us over so 
vast an expanse of 
territory, that it is 
not easy at one 
fell swoop really 
to do it justice. 
The only way that 
seems feasible is to 
take the fancy by 
districts ; and as the 
cat fancy exempli- 
fied by shows may 
be said to have 

arisen in the east, this district should, I think, 
have the pride of place, though it has for a 
time to give way to the reign of the cat further 
towards the setting of the sun. 

On referring to Mrs. Pierce's notes, it will 
be seen that Maine had its cat shows long 
before we had some of us come to America. 
The cat fancy as it is now in America may 
have been said to have sprung into a steady 
existence with the first show held in the 



"RADO. 

BLUE, OWNED BY MRS. KRESS. 
(Photo: Branch, Minneapolis.) 



Madison Square Garden, New York, on May 
8th, 1895. This show was organised by Mr. 
James T. Hyde, an Englishman, who has been 
closely identified with the horse shows at the 
Garden for many years, and the idea of hold- 
ing a cat show came to him suddenly, from 
having attended the Crystal Palace show. 

The first cat show in New York was a great 
success from the time the doors opened till its 
close, though the temperature which was for 
part of the time as high as 96 degrees was 
hard upon the cats, especially those that had 
just come from England. When we returned 
home the morning after the show there was a 
white frost ! Part of the judging was done 
and well done by the late Dr. Huide- 
koper, who had picked up a good deal of his 
cat lore while a medical student at Paris and 
Edinburgh and in London. Miss Hurlburt and 
Mr. T. Farrer Rackham were the other judges. 

In regard to this show which marks the 
beginning of the cat fever in America, that spread 
outside of the State of Maine I think I ought 
to point out what was chiefly remarkable, and 
the parts of the show that were destined to bear 
upon the future. In the first place, the prize 



304 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



for the best cat in the show was won by a 
brown tabby a native, or, as some people 
designate them, Maine cats. This cat was in 
every way a good one ; but he was a gelding, 
and, of course, in May, much ahead of the 
breeding cats as to plumage ; but, still, there 
was little dissatisfaction at the awards. Of 
English cats there were not more than about 
eight, and several died soon after ; and of all 
those shown at this our first show the only ones 
that have really made any mark or real im- 
pression upon the cat fancy in America may 
be mentioned " King Humbert," " Topaz," 
"Minnie," and "The Banshee." The first- 
named were all brown or grey tabbies, the last 
a white. Cats bred from these are still win- 
ning, and their descendants keep their names 
green in the annals of present-day stud books. 

White cats had always been popular in 
America, and the first show produced speci- 
mens as good as, or even better than I have 
ever seen in this city ; up to now, in fact, 
we have never had anything to beat "Ajax," 
who made his first and last bow to the public 
here. 

No other shows occurred for some time till 
the autumn, when an exhibition was held at 
Newburgh, sixty miles up the Hudson River, to 
be repeated the next year, with the New York 
show of 1896 in between. At this latter great 
improvement had been made in colours and 
varieties ; and, in fact, all concerned had 
made considerable advance in the meantime 
as to knowledge of different varieties of cats. 

At the second show in New York a club was 
formed, intended to be the National, but it 
died, and affairs were in a comatose condition as 
regards shows in New York until the consent of 
Mr. Crawford, the manager of the poultry show, 
was obtained for the holding of a cat show in 
January, 1902, in the concert hall which opens 
out of the main hall at Madison Square. This 
show, though a small one, was well attended, 
and though the entries only numbered about 
no, the quality of many of the cats was very 
much ahead of the five years before, and the 
classes of silvers were good enough for any 
country. The impetus gained by this show 



and the results obtained were not over- 
estimated by those who promoted the show, 
and the bringing together of many staunch 
breeders who had sprung up in the meantime 
made it possible to organise the Atlantic Cat 
Club, which has gathered such headway in the 
year of its existence that it is becoming one 
of the most powerful factors in the American 
cat fancy. The show held at Madison Square 
in 1903, with the fine collection of challenge 
cups and the many other valuable specials, 
speaks to the gathering interest and the strength 
of the fancy in the district, and the club is 
being every day still further strengthened ; 
and, if the treasury balance is any indication, 
the future of the Atlantic Cat Club will be 
very marked, especially as many people of 
wealth and influence are being enrolled upon 
the books and are becoming most enthusiastic 
upholders of the cat in New York. 

In discussing the eastern affairs, we must 
not leave out the Boston shows, which have 
been a steady factor for some years, and gave 
opportunities to the more northern cats to 
meet and compete together. These shows 
have been kept alive by Mr. T. Farrer Rack- 
ham, to a great extent, and from the opening 
of the cat fancy up to now he has been a 
steady promoter of the interests of the cat, 
and has steadily worked to keep up the interest. 

In thinking of the breeders of the eastern 
portion of this continent we have to range over 
a good deal of territory, and even the State of 
New York alone takes us quite out west, and 
from Mrs. Conlisk (who lives at Gowanda, and 
who owns " Bitterne Silver Chieftain " and 
a daughter of " Whychwood," besides " Silver 
Belle," who came from England lately) our 
thoughts drift down to Pittsburg to Mrs. L. 
T. Hodges, who is making a speciality of 
smokes and silvers, and has commenced well 
by winning in kittens at Cleveland with 
"Wahanita," "Southampton," and "The 
Dusky Pilgrim" a capital smoke, since sold 
for 50. Mrs. Mix, although in New York 
State, lives 180 miles to the westward of New 
York City ; but, still, the effect the cats that 
she has imported from England have had upon 



CATS IN AMERICA. 



305 



the young stock and the future of our cats in 
certain lines has been very marked. As a 
sire of good ones no cat has exceeded " King 
of the Silvers," and his children have been 
picked on several occasions for best in show, 
and the influence that these may have in the 
future cannot yet be fully estimated. The 
winnings of this cattery have been many, but 



under the care of Mrs. Hall, and these at the 
present time are doing a great deal of winning, 
not so much by cats purchased as by home 
bred ones. For instance, I may mention 
" Lord Lossie," who has some of the cream 
of the English blood in his veins ; and lately 
has come to this cattery " Sir Robert," the 
black, a winner at the Crystal Palace, and 




THE OLD FORT CATTERY. 



as the home of good breeding stock and as the 
practical founder of a strain for the future 
this cattery is destined to rank very high in 
our annals. At the Old Fort cattery reside 
" King of the Silvers," " Jack Frost," " Tortie 
Diana Fawe," " Lady Lollypop," and many 
other good ones, and from this cattery to many 
parts of the country have gone cats that for 
type and quality have not been excelled. 

Not far from here at Saratoga is the 
summer residence of Dr. Ottolengui's cats, 
20 



who repeated his triumphs at other shows 
here. " Dollie Button," a black daughter of 
" Persimmon," is largely aiding this cattery 
as a mother and a show cat. 

Dr. Ottolengui's advent into the fancy in 
January, 1902, as secretary of the Atlantic 
Club gave an impetus to things in general that 
only future times can show the full effect. The 
cat fraternity needed an organiser and a 
worker to bring it together, and he was found 
just at the right time. 



306 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 




MRS. COLBURN AND HER WHITE PERSIAN " PARIS." 
(Photo: F. Schnabd, Chicago.) 

Miss Lincoln, of Worcester, Massachusetts, 
has done quite a little work for the good of 
the majority ; but has not had the best of 
luck with her cats so far, and Mrs. A. G. Brown, 
of Melrose, Massachusetts, -is a steady breeder 
of whites and other colours, and she has in her 
cattery " His Majesty," the white that has 
won many prizes and is the sire of winners. 

Mrs. Neel, at Urbana, New York, estab- 
lished a cattery, and has been a very hard 
worker in the cause, doing good from her 
experience in a medical way, by writing 
for the papers, by upholding the shows 
often a good distance from home and by 
the general support she has afforded to all 
who made use of the help she was willing to 
give. 

Whilst in this direction I must not forget 
Mr. C. H. Jones, who commenced as a breeder 
and exhibitor, though his business kept him 
away from home a great deal ; yet the fever 
grew upon him until he started a newspaper 



called The Cat Journal, which, no doubt, 
is one of the principal factors in keeping up 
the interest in the cat in general. Though on 
account of Mr. Jones's other business engage- 
ments it is not possible for him to report shows, 
he brings out this paper monthly at great 
personal cost to himself and with little chance 
of profit on anything like a fitting scale at 
present ; so that we may say that, consider- 
ing the work of the paper is done after busi- 
ness hours and is largely supported by his own 
purse, we cannot help but think that it is 
most probable the cat family never found a 
more enthusiastic and disinterested devotee 
in the whole course of its history. Mr. Jones 
gave up his exhibition cats, and yet for sheer 
love of the race and from motives of pure 
humanity he still continues to move heaven 
and earth for their support, and must always 
be reckoned one of the foremost exponents of 
the cat in America, and one of the staunchest 
friends the cat ever had. 

Among fanciers in the vicinity of New York 
must be enumerated Miss A. L. Pollard, who 
has imported and bred a few good cats, and 
has made a name for herself with " Omar," 
by " St. Anthony." Miss Pollard's place is 
situated at Elizabeth, New Jersey, about fifteen 
miles from New York, and so is practically in 
the metropolitan district. " Purity," the white 
which was so successful in England, and the 
tortoiseshell " Woodbine," are factors in this 
cattery, which is quite a large one, and very 
well arranged. The crops of kittens have 
been most successfully reared and distributed, 
in fact with more success than many of our 
fanciers have been able to show. 

Mrs. W. S. Hofstra, the president of the 
Atlantic Cat Club, lives on Long Island, the 
other side of New York, and devotes herself 
to her Siamese and Persians, and has had a 
very decided influence in the development of 
the club over which she so ably presides. 

The Lindenhurst Cattery at Ridgefield, New 
Jersey, is also becoming prominent, and in 
Brooklyn the Misses Ward have done very 
good work and have reared some fine cats and 
kittens. The keynote of this establishment 



CATS IN AMERICA. 



37 



has been " Robin," an orange tabby son of 
" Persimmon," who seems to breed back to 
his sire, and begets a good many brown tabbies 
as well as oranges. 

We must not leave New York State without 
remembering Mrs. F. L. Norton, of Cazenovia, 
who has built one of the most beautiful cat- 
teries in America, and has spared no expense 
or trouble to stock it with good cats ; and here 
reside " Sussex Timkins," " Sweetheart," and 
many others known to fame. 

Mrs. Champion, now settled at Hart Park, 
New Brighton, Staten Island, New York, with 
her two daughters, is doing a great deal for 
the cats of America, and the two Misses 
Champion will probably have to do for some 
time a good deal of the judging for us. Mrs. 
Champion's cats did well at the first New 
York show at which they made their appear- 
ance, and "Lord Argent," "Silver Flash," 
" Argent Puffy," "Moonbeam II., "and " Lord 
Silvester " are becoming household words. 



" Argent Moonbeam II." was best in the 
show of January, 1903. 

Mrs. Gotwalts, of Pottstown, Pennsylvania, 
must not be omitted from the eastern con- 
tingent, for she has the nucleus of a good 
cattery, and owns a son of " Blue Boy II." 
called " Amesh," and she has some " Per- 
simmon " blood in the cattery, and also some 
of the smoke blood of the " Backwell " strain 
obtained from Mrs. Harold James. Mrs. 
Gotwalts keeps fine cats, and is very fond of 
breeding "her own, in which she takes much 
pride. 

Mrs. Brown, of Millerton, New York, has 
bred and kept cats for some time, but does not 
favour the shows much. 

Washington has come to the fore of late, 
but has not within her borders many regular 
breeders outside of Mrs. 
Hazen Bond, who exhibited 
with a good deal of success 
during the season of 1901- 




BRUSHWOOD CATTERY. 

(Photo: F. Schnabel, Chicago.) 



308 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT: 



1902, and Miss Eleanor Burritt, who most 
successfully brought to a termination a good 
show in Washington in December, 1902 ; arid 
this will, no doubt, be followed by others in 
years to come. 

Our travels in search of cats do not take us 
very far south, for in these regions the fleas 
alone make the rearing of cats in anything 
like numbers an impossibility. Mrs. B. M. 
Gladding most pluckily tried it at Memphis, 
Tennessee, but has been obliged to give it up, 
though she was one of our most promising 
cat lovers. 

The Connecticut cats bid fair to be quite a 
factor in the American race for prominence in 
catty matters, and within the borders of Con- 
necticut we have to record a few breeders. 
In 1903 we have a show at Stamford, 
Connecticut, which is an important place, and 
where the show now begun might assume quite 
extensive proportions ; for at Stamford are 
many large country houses, and it is a centre 
that can well afford to have the best of every- 
thing. 

Connecticut has within her borders the 
possibilities of future greatness, and is at 
present emerging from comparative obscurity, 
though always having had some good fanciers. 
Miss Lucy Nicholls was, for a time, perhaps 
one of the best known, but she died in the 




MISS L. c. JOHNSTON'S " PERSIMMON SQUIRREL." 

(Photo: Finlcy, Chicago.) 



spring of 1902. Dr. Frank Abbott is stirring 
up the fanciers of Connecticut, and a little 
while from now there would probably be a 
good deal more to say about this region, which 
holds such breeders as Mrs. Copperberg, Miss 
Anna Marks, Mrs. Ida Palmer, and others. 

I leave the Maine and the northern division 
to Mrs. Pierce, who was born there, and has 
known this region and its history for many 
years, and who can cover it so much better. 

Mrs. M. B. Thurston was much missed as 
an exhibitor, as for a time she was very suc- 
cessful, but more with cats she bought than 
with cats she bred. 

Miss K. L. Gage, of Brewster's, New York, 
is not now so prominent as of yore, but 
still for a time was energetic in disseminating 
good cats, and was the owner of the silver 
tabby " Whychwood," who bids fair to leave 
a name behind him. 

The New York show of 1903 revealed to us that 
we are making steady progress in long-haired 
silvers, and the probability is that at the 
present time, if we could make up a team of 
four or five of our best and take them to 
England, we should give a good account of 
ourselves. 

At this show the blacks, thanks to recent 
importations, were much better than hereto- 
fore ; and Miss Hurlburt's " Eddie Fawe," 
Dr. Ottolengui's "Sir Robert "a previous 
winner at the Palace and Miss Lincoln's 
" Jack Fawe " made a trio that we may be 
proud of. 

The blues were a decided improvement on 
last year, and so were the whites ; and Miss 
Pollard had " Purity " and the blue-eyed 
" Fairy " put down in splendid shape, and 
won well. 

Orange cats are always pretty popular in 
America, and are, owing to Miss Ward and 
Mrs. Copperberg, coming well up to the front. 

In the silvers Mrs. Champion's " Argent 
Moonbeam II." carried all before him in males, 
and Mrs. Conlisk took first in queens with 
"Silver Belle" a big one and a good one. 
The " Blessed Damozel " is perhaps our best 
queen, and there is really nothing to beat her 



CATS IN AMERICA. 



309 



in the female division ; but 
she was not put down for 
competition, as her owner 
does not approve of a four 
days' show. Mrs. Mallorie 
had a big strong silver 
"Silver Glen" second to 
"Argent Moonbeam II." 
The silver tabbies are coming 
along well, and so are the 
smokes, and one "TheDusky 
Pilgrim," a son of " The Pas- 
sionate Pilgrim," who has 
been altered was sold for 
50. " The Passionate Pil- 
grim," a very light and mas- 
sively built cat, promises to 
be a great loss to breeders, as 
he is an almost complete out A RECEPTION ROOM IN A CHICAGO CATTERY. 

cross, but he has left severa (Photo-, s. E. wngu, Chicago.) 

good kittens. Mrs. Mix, who 
was judging, brought out some beautiful not placed second as a matter of its import- 




Jack Frost " ance, but simply comes in in chronological 
order. The first show to be held there was 



silvers, and her home-bred 
was a notable cat. 

" Arlington Hercules," the brown tabby, three years after the first in New York, and 

made his first appearance in New York, and was promoted and managed by Mrs. Leland 

was very much admired. Prices ran high for Norton ; and this show was such a decided 

good cats, especially smokes and silvers, as success that a club was formed, called the 

these are new to Americans. The blue colour Chicago Cat Club, which held together for 

they are more familiar with from the long some years, but was in the end dwarfed by its 

acquaintance with the short-haired blues or rival the Beresford Cat Club. This came into 

Maltese ; but there is no denying the fact being in 1899, and grew to such dimensions 

that the blues are always dangerous when it that the club soon numbered over 300 members, 

comes to judging for specials, for in their all- and reached in January, 1902, to the highest 

round quality they show the care that has place by far of any American cat club, having 



been bestowed upon them in England. 



at the show in Chicago over 250 cats, which 



Old " Tortie Diana Fawe " is still our best was at least 100 in excess of any show ever 

tortoiseshell, without much apparent chance held up to that time in America, 

of being deposed. Not the least important work done by this 

Mr. H. T. Draper an old Londoner, who club was the inauguration of a stud book, 

has exhibited short-hairs steadily since 1895 which has now three volumes, and contains 

is still with us, and taking prizes as a record of nearly all of the cats that have 

before ; he has been a very steady supporter been factors in the development of the fancy 



of the short-hairs for years. 



DISTRICT NO. 2. 

District No. 2, that we shall consider next, 
is the city and region of Chicago, which is secretary (Miss L. C. Johnstone), and it is 
20* 



in America. No doubt a greater part of the 
success of the Beresford Club has been brought 
about by the energy and management of Mrs. 
Clinton Locke, aided by the corresponding 



3io 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



impossible to compute the work they have 
done. The mass of information collected in 
the stud books will always be the basis for 
the future, and on this may be built the stud 
book in use by the whole of America. 

The vicinity of Chicago has been the centre 
of the cat fancy in America, and in this city 
and its vicinity there have been more steady 
breeders and more people who have selected, 
bred, and reared the best cats they could 
obtain, so that, of course, the shows have 
been the biggest and best ever held in America. 
The one striking feature of the Chicago shows 
has always been the white long-haired cats. 

Of late another club has started, called the 
Orange and Cream Club, which may be said 
to have had Chicago for its birth-place, and 
this club flourishes and prospers. 

We can best gauge the Chicago division by 
looking over the breeders and taking a glance 
at the shows, and as I was judge there at 
the show of 1901 and also in 1902 I have had 
the opportunity to make acquaintance with 
many of the owners and many of the cats. 
If we turn back to the Beresford Cat Club 
stud book we find among the officers of the 
year many of our best known breeders, and 
I commence with Mrs. Clinton Locke, the 
president. It must not be imagined that 
this was her first attempt at cat breeding, 
for she had been a breeder of long-haired cats 
for years, and I must sav I had heard of 
Mrs. Locke many years before I ever had the 
pleasure of meeting her, and her cats were well 
known before the advent of cat shows. Mrs. 
Locke has made a name with several colours 
and breeds, and has imported and bred 
Persians, Siamese, Russians, etc., and the 
last two shows displayed the fact that she 
held a strong hand in most of these. ' % Mel- 
rose Lassie" a blue sent over in 1900 from 
England by Miss Frances Simpson, and who 
developed into a beautiful quality cat with 
lovely orange eyes was the best at the Chicago 
show in 1901. This cat the next year was 
not shown for competition, and the premier 
honours went to her kennel mate " Lupin," 
and these two when mated together have 



produced several winners. " Lupin " was bred 
by Miss Beal, and is by " Romaldkirk Mid- 
shipmite " ex " Daisy Belle," by " Romaldkirk 
Toga." " Lupin " was selected at Romald- 
kirk by myself when a promising kitten of 
six months, and to say that he fulfilled his 
promise is sufficient, for he grew in size and 
stature, and retained his beautiful golden 
eyes. He is now owned by Mrs. White. 

The winning kitten of the 1901 show was 
from the two ("Melrose Lassie " and " Lupin"), 
and Dr. Ottolengui's two winning queens in 
1902 "Lady Lola" and " Isis " are bred 
from the same two. It is curious to watch 
how blood will tell, for in the winning blue 
male at Washington, December, 1902, we 
had some of the same blood again in " Lord 
Lossie," by " Lucullus " ex " Dollie Dutton," 
who was by " Persimmon," " Lucullus " being 
a son of " Lupin " ex " Lucy Claire " late the 
property of Mrs. Falconer Sinclair, and known 
in England as " Baby Flossie." Among other 
celebrities of Mrs. Locke's cattery were " Lord 
Gwynne " the white imported from England 
through the kind offices of Mr. A. A. Clarke 
and this cat at once made a name for himself 
as the sire of " True Blue," " Mars," " Prosper 
Le Gai," and many other good cats. " St. 
Tudno " and " Blackbird " were two blacks 
that did well for Mrs. Locke, and " St. Tudno " 
sired the winning black in 1902, who very 
nearly annexed the prize for best in show. 
The " Beadle," another of Mrs. Locke's blues 
that must not be forgotten, was a cat bred by 
Mrs. Dean, and he did yeoman service in 
his time, and has left many promising young 
ones. Mrs. Locke has been the owner of 
good Siamese, and from " Siam " and " Sally 
Ward " she bred " Calif " and " Bangkok," 
who carried all before them at the Chicago 
show of 1902, and were the best pair I have 
seen this side the water, and would have 
given a good account of themselves anywhere. 

Mrs. Locke's Russians " Blue Royal " and 
" Schuyla " were respectively obtained from 
Mr. Towlerton, of Wakefield, and Mrs. Carew- 
Cox, and have passed into other hands after 
winning many prizes. Among other Chicago 



CATS IN AMERICA. 



ladies who have been very prominent in cat 
breeding for many years we must not forget 
Mrs. Cratty, who built up a beautiful strain of 
whites from a pair she obtained in Switzer- 
land twelve years ago. Mrs. Cratty has now 
given up breeding, finding the rearing of 
kittens too great a tax upon her powers ; but 
as a consistent and steady breeder, instead 
of simply a buyer and 
exhibitor of other 
people's efforts, she 
will be much missed. 

Mrs. W. Eames Col- 
burn has at the pre- 
sent time probably one 
of the largest and 
most successful cat- 
teries in America. In 
1901 she made a repu- 
tation with her cat 
" Paris," which was 
bred by herself, and 
which, besides winning 
in the strongest of 
company, has been a 
most successful and 
prolific sire of white 
kittens, a good many 
of which have taken 
honours on the bench. 
Mrs. Colburn also pos- 
sesses two very fine 
blacks "Blackthorn," 
which she imported 
from Asia, and "Black- 
berry Fawe," sent to 
her from England by Miss Frances Simpson. 
Many people who have visited the cattery of 
late are heard to speak enthusiastically of the 
quality of the inmates and of the perfection 
of the appointments and the way the cattery 
is fitted up. Miss L. C. Johnstone, the ever busy 
secretary of the Beresford Club, has been a pro- 
minent exhibitor, and has taken many honours 
with "Blue Flash," "Persimmon Squirrel," 
and " Kew Laddie." " Blue Flash " grew into 
a beautiful cat, taking at the Chicago show, 
1902, the special for best queen in the show. 




MRS. E. N. 

ONE OF THE PIONEERS OF T 
(Photo : J. Hiibner, 



Mrs. Jerome H. Pratt has usually been an 
exhibitor at the Chicago show. She won her 
championship with " Sir Henry Irving," a 
very richly marked silver tabby by "Whych- 
wood," who was by " Charlbury Silver King." 
Mrs. Tolman has always been an energetic 
officer of the Beresford Club, and is very 
energetic at the shows, and in cats her fancy 

runs to creams, of 
which she has brought 
out several winners. 
Mrs. L. Nicholson (for- 
merly Mrs. F. Fisk 
Green) has been a 
prominent and good 
supporter of past 
Chicago shows. 

Mrs. F. W. Story has 
been known as a suc- 
cessful breeder of 
orange cats and some 
whites, and in having 
obtained possession of 
the fine orange "Ham- 
ish " will, no doubt, 
find herself in a few 
years in the position 
of being a prominent 
breeder of this colour. 
" Bunch," the former 
stud cat belonging to 
this cattery, did good 
service in his . day, 
and is responsible for 
a few winners ; but 
the absence of any 
details in the American catalogues of the shows 
makes it difficult to arrive at a very accurate 
estimate of all his performances. 

In speaking of Chicago we shall have to 
include Miss Hazelton, who has turned out 
several winners, all descended from " Sap- 
phire," that she bought of Mrs. Barker in 
1896. Mrs. Fred E. Smith has been one 
of the shining lights among the Chicago 
breeders, and has been a consistent winner at 
Chicago shows ; she now holds a strong hand 
in the white division, and was fortunate 



BARKER. 

HE AMERICAN CAT FANCY. 
Rutherford, N.J.) 



312 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



enough to pick up on the Pacific coast a fine ones, but the principal wins in the highest 



male in " Light of Asia," who was imported 
from Asia. " Swampscott," another good cat, 
makes his appearance every year, and usually 
finds himself in the prize list, and he has the 
most fascinating way of turning up in splendid 
coat at most of the shows. This cat is a 
pure Maine cat, if we may so call him ; but as 
an example of vigour 
and good health, year 
after year, he stands 
pre-eminent. Mrs. 
Smith is now building 
up a strain of silvers 
of her own composing, 
which may be very 
valuable to the atten- 
uated strains of the 
ordinary breeder, who 
is only too glad to 
welcome something 
that will be an out- 
cross and will not 
spoil the silver colour. 
Mrs. C. E. S. Blinn 
is another breeder who 
is always present at 
the shows, and whose 
cats usuallv find their 




1 SILVER HAIR " AND " TIPTOE. 

OWNED BY MRS. PIERCE. 
(Photo : Howland, Cincinnati.') 

way into the prize list. 

Mrs. Blinn is a consistent ' breeder who does 
not always make herself very prominent, but 
she obtains the results on the quiet. 

Mrs. Blanche Robinson has bred several of 
her own prize-winners, and her black " Othello," 
of which we spoke previously, is more than a 
good one. The name of Mrs. McKenzie will 
always be associated with " Prince of Orange," 
whose name will designate his colour, and this 
cat is a hard one to beat in any orange class, 
for he is very rich and deep in tint. 

In 1902 there were two shows held in 
Chicago by the Beresford Cat Club, one in 



of the specials were made by imported cats. 
The advent of some nice new whites was 
welcomed, as usual, and "Toddles" is an addi- 
tion to our list of white males, and is a nice 
cobby sort, bred from "Light of Asia." "Little 
Miss Eiger," one of Mrs. Cratty's breeding 
and own particular strain, won in the blue- 
eyed white queens. 
" Lupin " kept on his 
winning career, and 
took the prize for the 
best in show once 
more, and this, under 
judges who had never 
seen him before, seems 
to endorse the esti- 
mate made of him 
heretofore. " Melrose 
Lassie," shown this 
year again for com- 
petition, took the first, 
prize in blue queens. 
Blacks, taking the 
open and novice to- 
gether, came out 
strongly, and black 
seems to be one of our 
strongest colours. 
" Prince of Orange " 



is still invincible at this show in orange 
males, and the orange queens are coming 
along nicely. Mrs. Sarmiento's " John Bull," 
in much better form than last year, again 
sweeps the deck in the silver class. The 
silver tabbies still continue to prosper. "Arling- 
ton Hercules " went down, for the first time, 
at this show, largely on a question of eye 
colour. 

Smokes in the year gone by have not made 
much advance in the West, and this year the 
cream females outnumber the males, and a 
descendant of " Kew Laddie " takes the eye 



December, 1902, or just a month earlier than of the public with colour, coat, and points. 



usual, really representing what would have 
been, in the natural course, the 1903 show. 



Mrs. C. A. White, who in the spring bought 
Lupin " and " Melrose Lassie," was most 



This show did not reveal to us any very successful at this show, and is probably des- 
great changes ; there are a few new home-bred tined to be one of our successful breeders, 



CATS IN AMERICA. 



313 



and with the co-operation of her husband (Dr. as regards getting to several shows a year, for 
White), who is very clever with animals, the Detroit is accessible to Cleveland, Rochester, 
assistance she will receive will very largely Cincinnati, and Chicago, all of which are 



help to bring her to the front. 



good shows ; so this gives the Detroit fanciers 



Mrs. White is the lady who is organising the chance to come out at several shows 
a home for deserted dogs and cats, with besides their own in the course of the winter. 



At Detroit reside several of our most enter- 
prising and successful breeders and exhibitors ; 
for the Detroit fancier is not content simply to 



a hospital attached, and on a scale and 
with a foresight that is certainly remark- 
able. Considering that Dr. White is the 
head of the Veterinary College in Chicago, stay at home and only take part in the one 
the benefit that may accrue to the dogs and local show of the year, but is to be found 
cats in the future from the opportunity of at a good many, even so far away as New 
humane study that this will give will be York. In the list of these we place Mrs. F. J. 
incalculable. This, when put alongside of the Sarmiento and Mrs. Dwight Cutler, who own 



horrible revelations that we are treated to 
anent vivisection, may, I hope, have the 
effect of swinging the balance the other way, 



the well-known cats " Arlington Hercules," 
*' Bar Abdul," " Marriame," " Dingley Belle," 
" Champion Floriana," " Brownie Pink," etc. 



and help to show the rash experimenters that The history of these and their wins is written 

there are people in this world who recognise on the sands of time and will not be lost for 

the individuality of the animal creation, and many years, and they represent the enterprise 

that we who use them for our own ends and of buying and importing the best English 

have crowded them out of their place in strains and taking care of them. 
Nature to a certain extent should at the same Mrs. Owen, at the Owena Cattery, has been 

time look at the other side of the picture, and an important factor at many shows for the 

should consider the debt we owe to them last two years. Mrs. W. M. Chapman is well 

during their short lives that humanity, known to show-goers, and has won a good 



practised towards 
the dumb animals, 
is nothing more than 
their just due. 

A great many of 
the same cats won 
at Chicago at this 
last show, " Lupin " 
being again best cat 
in show, and among 
the younger brigade 
the most remarkable 
was a lovely cream 




MISS R. WARD S " ROBIN. 
(Photo : Gardner & Co., Brooklyn, N.Y.) 



many honours, and 
rather in a way not 
too common here 
that is, by breeding 
her own cats. This 
has been done with 
skill and patience ; 
for Mrs. Chapman 
has selected the 
parents with fore- 
thought, and has not 
been one of those 
who has paid large 



kitten owned by Mrs. Locke, which is by sums for breeding stock. The keynote, more 



Kew Laddie." " Toodles," a white son of 
Light of Asia," was the best white. 

DISTRICT NO. 3. 



or less, of this strain has been a fine brown 
tabby obtained from Canada some years ago 
viz. "Prince Rupert," who goes back in his 
pedigree to cats owned by Mr. A. A. Clarke, 



District No. 3, which we shall assign to the and also to some imported by Mrs. Cumber- 
Detroit contingent, is certainly one of our land, of Port Hope, Ontario, 
most important. The Detroit fanciers are Mrs. W. J. Stanton deserves mention in 
situated more in a central position that is, the Detroit list as a breeder of short-haired 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



orange-and-tortoiseshells, with and without 
white, and I must say I watch this lady's 
career with interest, for she has brought out 
several winners in her specialities, and is 
probably destined to make things interesting 
in the short-haired division. 

Mrs. N. C. Ellis is another of the Detroit 
breeders likely to be heard of at show times, 
and Mr. and Mrs. Franklin have both made a 
name for themselves with cats of their own 
breeding. We must not. forget Mrs. Hemen- 
way, who was the owner of " Royal Bengal," 



" Queenie " was the sensation of the Cleveland 
show in 1902, and is destined to win a great 
deal more in the future. 

Mrs. Ferris has developed a faculty for 
bringing out good orange and brown tabby 
cats. Mrs. C. F. Russell, Mount Pleasant, 
Michigan, is also well known. Mr. G. G. 
Brown, of East Cleveland, Ohio, deserves more 
than a passing mention, for though not a 
cat breeder, he has made it his business for 
two years to organise and carry through two 
of the best shows in the country at Cleveland, 




THREE LITTLE GRANDCHILDREN OK ' 
OWNED BY MRS. HOFSTRA. 
(Photo: Maiceau, New York.) 



PERSIMMON. 



a fine brown tabby, and several good orange 
cats bred by herself. 

Cincinnati is our next point of interest, 
though I have not had the opportunity of 
meeting so many of the Ohio breeders as I 
should like, but this is destined, I feel sure, 
to be one of the prominent fancier sections in 
the future. In passing through Ohio we must 
never forget that Ohio has the two important 
shows of Cleveland and Cincinnati, and holds 
within her gates Mrs. E. R. Pierce, whose 
tastes run to orange and creams ; Mrs. Chas. 
McCloud, of Marysville, Ohio ; and Mrs. Wag- 
ner, of Sandusky, who brought a very fine lot 
of long-haired cats to Cleveland this year. 
Mrs. Wagner is well known, and has been for 
some time a breeder of blacks ; her silver tabby 



which have been of material help to the 
fancy, and did a great deal of good. What 
cats are kept at the Brown homestead are 
short-hairs and some nice Manx, but in other 
lines, such as poultry and dogs, Mr. Brown is 
hard to beat. 

Mrs. D. E. Peters, of North Baltimore, 
Ohio, has owned quite a few good cats, in- 
cluding some that came from Romaldkirk, 
but of late she has signified her intention of 
selling out. 

Indianapolis, though rather south-westerly, 
is more in this division, and contains a good 
many cats and some breeders, though they 
have not been able up to now to come to shows 
and meet the more northern and eastern cats. 
Miss N. H. Wilson, whose prefix is " Spokane," 



CATS IN AMERICA. 



315 



is well known ; and so is the cattery of 
Mrs. Ida M. Shirk, who has carried on 
the business under the name of the Linden 
Cattery. 

DISTRICT NO. 4. CANADIAN CATS. 

The two pioneers of the cat in Canada i.e. 
the two who were most prominent as breeders 
when I went to the first Canadian shows 
were Mrs. Cumberland, of Port Hope, Ontario, 
whose prefix or affix of " Demain " bespeaks her 
early efforts. Even earlier than Mrs. Cum- 
berland, the cats belonging to Mr. A. Burland, 
an Englishman, attained prominence, and the 
blood that he brought from England mostly 
from Mr. A. A. Clarke is now diffused into 
or among many of our best-known catteries. 

We had a dim suspicion in fact, more 
than a dim suspicion that there was tucked 
away in Canada more than one good cat ; and 
so, being in Toronto, we made an exploration, 
thanks to the help of Mrs. Ellis and Mr. Boyd. 

Our first visit was to the Pioneer Cattery, 
where we found the ravages of gastritis had 
been severely felt only the week before, and, of 
course, some of the very best, including some 
we had portrayed lately, had succumbed. The 
most noted inmate was " Marie," a cat of 
good type, very sound and in good condition, 
with capital eyes of a good, rich orange she 
should breed something good ; and we hope 
we can say it without offending anyone 
this cat, old as she is, is the peer of any 
brown tabby put down in America last year, 
and we only hope she will live to breed one 
more good litter, which should be retained 
to perpetuate the race. 

It was only a short walk to Mrs. Mallock's, 
who is rejoicing in the possession of a very cute 
young black male, capital in style, with a 
lovely coat and colour, named " Furzo," bred 
by Mr. Empey, of Montreal. 

After lunch we drove to see Miss Cox, who 
has the same nice white male we saw there 
six j'ears ago, and he has done yeoman service 
in the meantime. " Cadi," a young brown 
tabby male, is a year old, and a credit to any 
cattery. Miss Cox is also the possessor of a 



nice white queen by " Fluff," who is respon- 
sible for some of the good kittens. 

We next journeyed to the home of Mrs. 
Bell, who has one queen and two very strong 
kittens. Mrs. Bell, however, intends to 
strengthen her cattery soon by the acquisition 
of some good queens. 

Leaving Mr. and Mrs. Bell, we journeyed to 
the ferry and went over to the Island, getting 
a glimpse of the beauties of Toronto and 
a fine view of the water front and the sub- 
urban attractions. We landed at the house 
of Mrs. McAdley, and were introduced to 
the grandest lot of brown tabbies we ever 
remember to have seen, outside, perhaps, 
Mrs. Cutler's, which we should not like to 
compare, not having seen them. We may 
safely say that nothing so good was shown 
last year as Mrs. McAdley's. At the head 
of the list is " Prince," a grand old cat, 
imported from Ireland seven years ago, and 
there are few cats extant to-day, or ever 
were, that can take his measure. His head 
is magnificent, and he is short on the leg, 
has plenty of bone, grand colour, no weak 
colouring around the lips or chin, and, what 
is more, he sires the right sort. " Paddy," 
his daughter, is the peer of any brown tabby 
queen we have seen in the ring for a long time, 
and we saw nothing to beat her in England 
two years ago. 

Mrs. Ellis has adopted the kittens, and 
these will not pass out of Canada under 
pretty stiff figures, and wherever they appear 
in the show room they will have to be reckoned 
with by the very best. 

We got back to our hotel at n p.m., after 
a most enjoyable day among enthusiastic and 
painstaking fanciers, and we had unfortunately 
to leave out one house for lack of time. Another 
cat enthusiast who has some good Romaldkirk 
stock to sell viz. Miss Cottle journeyed 
over from Kingston on purpose to have a 
catty talk at the dog show. We feel sure 
that the Canadian contingent will have to be 
reckoned with in the future as breeders, and 
in brown tabbies are a hard proposition. As 
soon as they get hold of some better cats of 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



the other colours they will be up with us, 
though we do not see some of the best of the 
other colours, notably Miss Cottle's and the 
Montreal blacks. 

DISTRICT NO. 5. 

California is a district by itself, which can 
never be in active touch with the east, and the 
future cat of California may probably be the 
Siamese, for the demand for them is growing 
everyday, and the climate favours them. Cali- 
fornia is too warm to coat the long-hairs, and 
the vermin are too promiscuous in most parts to 
make the rearing or caring for the long-hairs a 
pleasant occupation. Mrs. C. H. Hoag and 
Mrs. C. E. Martling have been two of the most 
energetic in promoting the cat as a fancy in 
California, and several shows have been held, 
but at present in the language of the slang 
" there is not much doing," except in Siamese ; 
so that in taking a look over the past from a 
high point and looking down, we cannot say 
that up to now we can point to many families 
or strains that have yet made their mark in 
America ; that is, a mark that is very con- 
spicuous, for there has not been time. 
But still there are signs of strains that will 
be matters of history, and there are families 
that may be called distinctive, because the 
descendants win under different judges with 
sufficient regularity to make this noticeable. 

Some of these I have sketched in my other 
notes ; but probably the most far-reaching 
of the families that win in all colours is the 
" Humbert " strain, which emanates from 
Mrs. Barker's " King Humbert," imported 
in 1895. Not only did this cat sire a lot 
of winners himself, but cats with the " Hum- 
bert " blood to the third and fourth gen- 
eration, such as " Prince of Orange," etc., 
are still winning all over the country. Judg- 
ing by present appearances, the " King of 
the Silvers " family, coupled with his sire 
" Bitterne Silver Chieftain," is forging to the 
front, and is marking out a path of its own 
as regards winnings in public. One cat 
" The Blessed Damozel," bred by Mrs. Barker 
in England, and by " Champion Lord South- 



ampton " ex " Peggy," by " Champion Silver 
Mist," is making a big reputation through 
her children, and the second generation is 
now beginning to win as did the first. This 
blood is very successful wherever found, and 
this is, no doubt, largely owing to the kittens 
by " King of the Silvers," though " The Pas- 
sionate Pilgrim," who goes back through his 
sire to " Whychwood," is as good as anything 
Mrs. Barker has yet produced ; and this is 
saying a good deal, for she has bred a great 
many winners in many colours, and the effect 
of cats imported or bred by her is seen at 
every show we go to, and the ramifications 
of blood lines spread over America would 
make a book in itself. 

The very best cats from England will win 
here every time they are shown in good trim, 
and in picking cats for best in show the greater 
part of the prizes go to English cats, or to 
cats bred from English parents. The crossing 
of the natives with the English is very suc- 
cessful in some cases, and, no doubt, the 
changes of blood will in the future work to 
the good of the majority, for in size, shape, 
and coat many of the American cats are very 
good, but fail in type and quality. 

The cat fever in its present form may be said 
to be so comparatively new as an industry 
that it has not been easy to give a comprehen- 
sive view of the whole. Some exhibitors have 
come up suddenly, and after seeming to have 
carried all before them have disappeared as 
suddenly as they came, while others have kept 
on right through, though these are few by 
comparison with the great possibilities. We are 
now passing through the early days of organisa- 
tion, and the future is not always too clear ; 
but, still, I have tried to give the most pro- 
minence to those who have braved the light 
of day and have supported the shows, and 
this, really, is the only practical test of where 
we any of us stand. If I were to enumerate 
all I have heard of, and the many people who 
are interested in, the cat in America, there 
is no doubt but that a good deal more space 
than I have at my command would be used 
two or three times over ; and such is the size 



CATS IN AMERICA. 



317 



of the country that it is only possible to give would not make many mistakes if the classes 

a light sketch of the whole ; and I do not were not too big for them. Of course, the 

expect that I shall, or anyone else could, fact must be recognised here, as elsewhere, 

begin to do justice to, or could in any way that a judge improves with experience, and 

really gauge, the number of people interested I hazard the opinion that the fewer cats he 

in cats in America. In ten years' time I owns the better he may judge, though I per- 

expect to see cities that now bring together sonally prefer for my own stock a judge who 



perhaps 100 cats, then 
having shows contain- 
ing hundreds ; for in 
most places, even 
where shows have been 
held, we have hardly 
scratched the surface, 
and in perhaps only 
one out of 100 import- 
ant and possible towns 
have we ever had a 
show. The extent of 
the possibility of the 
future can only be 
slightly grasped by 
those who have 
touched the fancy, 
but those of us who 
have worked for many 
years at it see signs of 
growth now that may 
increase the fancy as 
a snowball will grow 
the further you roll 
it the faster it grows 
in proportion. We 
are only just waking. 
The future alone can say whether we shall 
succeed ; but we must face the fact that in 
America the cat fancy, as a whole, is an im- 
possibility, and that cats as exhibition cats 
can only, as a rule unless belonging to rich 
people meet each other in competition if 
within reasonable distance of each other. 

JUDGING IN AMERICA. 

In 1900, I arn not afraid to say, we had 
not more than two judges capable of judg- 
ing a small show correctly all the way 
through. To-day we have a great many 




AN AMERICAN BEAUTY. 
(Photo: A. Lloyd, Amsterdam, New York.) 



has at some time bred 
the variety. I cannot 
say that I have found 
the judging of cats in 
America a very diffi- 
cult matter, up to 
now, for classes have 
been, as a rule, small, 
and in most cases 
the winners stood out 
well ; and though, no 
doubt, there have 
been differences of 
opinion upon what I 
have done, I have not 
had many qualms of 
conscience over past 
doings. The weakest 
spot in the American 
cat shows has been 
the tendency of own- 
ers to over-estimate the 
value of their cats in 
many cases, and the 
disappointment of de- 
feat comes sometimes 
severely upon very 
enthusiastic people ; but there is no hope for 
a fancier who cannot surfer defeat and come 
again for some more, so I think we need not 
waste our tears upon these, for they were 
never destined to succeed. Want of quality 
is another weak spot we have to contend 
with, and this often comes from the eye not 
having been trained to the best. Size as a 
factor of beauty is another fetish we have to 
destroy with a rude hand, but our people are 
apt pupils, and those who stay in the game are 
very anxious to be on the right track, though 
it will take some a few years longer to learn 



breeders who could do very fair work, and the give and take, to withdraw gracefully, 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



and to admit that there may be another side 
to a question. My own position to-day is that 
I am as much interested in the fancy as ever, 
but I do not find the necessity for doing the 
work in so severe a manner now, for there are 
so many capable of carrying on what has 
been done, and the future is pretty well assured ; 
so that for the health of the fancy at large 
it is better that too much should not be 



called a " beast," I hope posterity will say 
I was a " just beast." 

It might be as well to refer to the score 
card to show where in cases such as we have 
had to contend with it has done a great deal 
of good. One hundred points make perfec- 
tion, and the question arose in one's mind 
before using the score card as to whether the 
budding exhibitor would be for ever crushed 




"CHAMPION MISS DETROI T." 

OWNED BY MRS. GROSE AND MRS. OWEN. 
(Photo: D. D. Spellman, Detroit.) 



monopolised by two or three pairs of hands, and 
some of us old-timers who- began in 1893 and 
1894, and before that, are allowing the younger 
blood to take its share of the tasks. 

In judging cats, as in other stock, it seems 
to me that one of the greatest criterions as 
to the success of our efforts as judges is the 
success in many cases of cats or kittens bred 
from those we have put in the front rank. 
And only time can tell the force of what we 
have done. If in the future I see cats doing 
as well as they are this season, bred from 
those I have put in the prize list, and judged 
by other judges, then shall I feel repaid for 
work done in the past, and not until then can 
I be sure I have been right. It would be 
impossible to go back through the last eight 
years and their troubles and experiences, and 
though in many cases I know I may have been 



by finding that the cherished one came out 
of the score card ordeal with about 75 points 
instead of the possible 100 ; so that when it 
has been selected by a club for a show I have 
warned the owners of the danger ; but to the 
everlasting credit of our fanciers I may say 
that I have not had to register a kick because 
of a low score, and many even novices 
were more than pleased with a score of eighty. 
If I may point out a failing in English judging 
and we see the same thing here in the dog 
fancy the criticism is left to the reporter, 
who has not the time or the opportunity for 
finding the real faults nor the space at com- 
mand to do justice to the exhibits. 

The task of explaining to exhibitors why 
their animals have lost is not an agreeable 
one ; but in a land like this, where nearly 
all have been beginners, this has been an 



CATS IN AMERICA. 



319 



absolute necessity, and the dose must be 
swallowed or no progress is made, and, as in 
the case of the score card, no doubt the having 
to give a reason is likely to keep us from 
giving prizes to one point at the expense of 
all the rest. Two great factors we have had 
to consider here are type and quality, the two 
weakest points in our cats ; and if we had 
run to extremes in eye colour we should have 
made no progress in type or perhaps quality. 
Great stress has been laid upon markings in 
tabby cats, with very good results, and we 
are rapidly accumulating a good lot of tabbies 
especially in the Detroit district, where 
tabbies are popular, which is a thing to be 
grateful for. We have never thought it well 
here to discourage the orange tabbies for the 
sake of unmarked orange, and we have some 
very good orange tabbies whose number is on 
the increase ; and if the plain orange can range 



as is the case with Madame Ronner and the 
Continental fanciers ; and, if so, there seems 
to be no reason for discouraging them, and 
we may as well first make up our minds to 
the fact that, in trying to force English ideas 
down the throats of the people of another 
country with too violent a hand, we may do 
a lasting injury to the fancy at large. 

Another thing I might refer to, and that is 
that the average American exhibitor does not 
favour giving prizes to long-haired cats when 
out of coat, and the strength of the fancy and 
its future popularity lies in presenting to the 
public the cats in their best dress, and this 
mostly is the only logical way we can give out 
the principal prizes and appeal to the good 
sense of those who come to see them ; for the 
general public, when not experts, can only 
judge from appearance. The strength in 
England lies in the fanciers themselves, who 




'THE COMMISSIONER. 
(Photo: Arthur, Detroit.) 



up beside the orange tabbies, all well and 
good. But I shall be an advocate, if there is 
a danger of one hurting the other, of making 
separate classes, for we do not want to drive 
out the good orange tabbies, which are very 
popular, and the average American who loves 
an orange cat at the present moment does not 
care whether it is marked or unmarked. 
Cats with white hair are much in favour, 



have the opportunity of seeing so much more 
and of learning. Our future here lies in being 
able to gather recruits by presenting the cats 
to them in as perfect a form as possible, and 
therefore we have to depend upon the public. 
Our shows have to be in the winter, when the 
cats are in coat, and the dangers of exposure to 
the weather are very great, all of which is a 
good deal to the disadvantage of the fancier. 



320 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



MALTESE CATS. 

A great deal of interest has been taken in 
England in the subject of blue cats in America, 
which are often called Maltese, and really among 
the rank and rile of the public this is the name 
they go by. So celebrated had some strains 
become that off-coloured cats bred from these 
cats are sometimes called Maltese, and the 
idea seemed to have gained considerable 
ground that this was a separate breed ; but 
evidence of this fact is very much lacking in 
most parts, and in travelling over a good deal 
of the country and finding them thousands oi 
miles apart, I must confess that I have never 
been able to trace the origin of these cats nor 
to find out any reason for their numbers. 

I have been led to think that they are 
the same, or were the same, in the beginning 
as the blue Russian or Archangel cat, and 
that they were brought to this country many 
years ago, and that the name was given them 
by sailors or others. The tradition possibly 
has been handed down in the same way as the 
name of Angora has remained fastened to the 
long-hairs with the average public here, and 
will be many more years in dying, for the band 
of fanciers who know better is but a drop in 
the bucket in this great land. No doubt the 
name of Maltese moved with the cat to the 
west as families moved, for in the case of 
native-born Americans the migration west 
has been often gradual : thus some moved, 
we will say, as far as Ohio, their sons and 
daughters moved to Illinois, and the next 
generation went still further, and the much- 
prized Maltese cat drifted on with his 
name. 

Probably a good many of the so-called 
Maltese are just blue specimens of the ordin- 
ary short-haired cat ; and, in fact, there has 
never been anyone of my acquaintance who 
had any ideas as to points or type ; but the 
colour was the feature to be looked at. We 
find Maltese cats of the short and cobby 
type besides the long and more extended 
species, but the latter predominate, and I 
am inclined to agree with some English judges 
that the fairly long cats with a cleaner cut 



head are the purer type of blue cat. On some, 
when judging, I find very good heads with 
clean-cut features, round, well-developed cheeks, 
with fairly long bodies, very even in colour. 
No doubt the preponderance of blue cats 
before the advent of the cat shows was largely 
owing to the selection of blue kittens in the 
litters, which left a great many blue sires to 
roam the streets by night and sire blue kittens. 

In many cases I have found families who 
had never heard of cat shows that had strains 
of blue or Maltese cats, and took pride in keep- 
ing the strain as pure as possible. And one 
great factor is that the blues have always had 
the name of being excellent mousers, and were 
valued as such. Besides this supposed strong 
point in their composition, they have always 
had a reputation for great intelligence and 
of being good-tempered and reliable about 
the house with children and young folk. 

Like the Plymouth Rock fowl, the Maltese 
cat has been one of the institutions of the 
American continent, and there seems to be 
some ground for believing the original tradi- 
tion connected with the name Maltese 
that the Maltese cat came from the East 
and was treasured as something out of the 
common, and fell among friends. Some are 
light and some are dark, and some have 
the white spot on the chest, but on most 
there is not much evidence of tabby mark- 
ings ; neither do you see this in the young 
kittens in the same way as the Russians 
are said to be at an early age. I have seen 
five and six pure light blue kittens in a litter, 
and the father and mother were both of the 
same colour. 

In quite out-of-the-way places you will, 
upon going to judge the short-hairs, find some 
blues, and often with deep brown eyes ; and 
if I were to make a comparison between the 
average American blue and what I saw in 
England as Russians, I should say the American 
cats are mostly lighter in colour, and do not 
have quite so glossy coats. Perhaps if taken 
up and selected for a few generations, these 
features would come out more strongly. 

One of the worst features of the popularity 



CATS IN AMERICA. 



32! 



of the Maltese, from the point of view of the 
breeder of long-hairs, has been that the blue 
colour has been so common that when the 
blue Persian was introduced he was not, in 
this country, considered peculiar. Among 
the Maine cats, so called, the blue or Maltese 
colour was not at all uncommon, and plenty 
of this colour are to be found. Some people 
who bred them obtained their stock from Paris, 



them ; but, still, the fact is pretty evident 
that short-haired blues have been a popular 
colour for a long time, and there are so many 
that everyone, whether cat fancier or not, is 
quite used to the colour. The native-born 
American, as a rule, calls this cat the Maltese, 
and the name, as I said before, will cling for 
many a day to come. In judging these cats, 
I must say that the proportion of small or 




"AJAX," BLUE-EYED WHITE. 

OWNED HY MR. W. J. STEVENS. 
(Photo: Coleman, Westfield, Mass.) 



and no doubt the Chartreuse blue of olden 
times had a good deal to do with many of these. 

The oldest blue cat I ever saw was one 
reared on a farm ; he had always lived out of 
doors, more or less, and was the farm cat. 
His age was twenty-four years, and as he was 
born at the same time as the oldest son, who 
was also twenty-four years old, the evidence 
was pretty good that the age was correct. 

It must not be supposed from this that blue 
cats are so numerous as to overshadow other 
colours in North America, for we have short- 
hairs in all the common colours, and lots of 
21 



short, round-headed cats is small, and that 
these in America, at least are not the most 
common type of blue cat ; and I, personally, 
in judging have usually inclined to the more 
lengthy cat with longer face and bigger ears, 
though I think it is possible to find plenty 
without absolutely mean-looking heads. We 
do not want a ferret's head on a cat, for there 
is a happy medium. 

WILD SPECIES. 

We cannot leave the American exhibition cats 
without saying a word upon the wild species, 



322 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



some of which find their way into the show- 
rooms on more than one or two occasions. 
Of course, the cougar or mountain lion our 
biggest species is out of court on account of 
his size ; but still, if history is to be believed, 
this fine animal was never injurious to man, 
and has not been known in recent times to 
attack man, though he is fitted by size and 
strength to do a great deal of damage. The 
next in order is the lynx, and though this 
animal is pictured as very fierce, there is as 
much evidence to show, in other ways, that 
if taken young and domesticated, the lynx 
is amenable to reason and is very intelligent, 
full of humour, and not afflicted with excessive 
nervousness. I have seen specimens exhibited, 
and one in particular that was the constant 
playmate of a little child ; and this cat spent 
four days in a show playing most of the time 
with all the children that came along, and 
was the coolest and most unconcerned cat 
in the hall. Evidently the lynx shares the 
great brain power of the cat family which 
those who are well acquainted with cats 
are willing to concede to them, added to a 
calmness of temperament foreign to some of 
our so-called domesticated breeds that ought 



to have inherited by how, perhaps, more 
savoir faire under show conditions. 

When on a ranch in the wilds with a few 
cats and dogs, where quarters were limited, 
I could never see that there was a natural 
antipathy between cats and dogs, for the 
bitches would rear kittens and vice versA, and 
the friendship was great between them so 
much so that they would play together for 
hours, and there was no danger in leaving 
dogs and cats together, shut up in the house, 
when we were absent. In later times I have 
had twenty cats or more running around with 
as many dogs, and never had a cat killed, and 
only two or three occasions when any trouble 
started. The supposed antipathy between 
cat and dog seems to be an acquired taste in 
a certain measure, and personally I do not 
believe in the antipathy being natural or a 
fact, for the two will live together in peace 
if not set upon each other by man. 

From a few observations I believe the lynx 
is capable of domestication ; of course, his 
size precludes his being numerous, but in this 
variety there are possibilities as yet not suffi- 
ciently tried out. 

Of other cats, in contradistinction to this, 
we may mention that beautiful cat the ocelot. 
This cat is fairly plentiful, and is not very 




MRS. CLARENCE HOUCK S CATTERY, 
"ORCHARD RIDGE," NEW SCOTLAND, N.Y. 



CATS IN AMERICA. 



323 



difficult to obtain when young ; and though 
they are so handsome and can be reared and 
left to run about the house till a year old, as 
they arrive at ma- 
turity they become 
what the ladies call 
" impossible." The 
ocelot with increas- 
ing age grows hope- 
lessly savage, and 
will kill anything put 
in his cage that he 
is capable of hand- 
ling, and even to his 
keeper 'he is a prob- 
lem. This evidence 
is not hearsay, but 
is from one who tried 
for a long time to do 
something with these 
beautiful animals. 
They are, when in 
condition, one of our 
handsomest speci- 
mens of the cat 
tribe. 

One of the most 
fascinating little cats 
I ever judged was a 
little Marguay cat 
from Brazil, exhib- 
ited by the Zoological 
Society of Chicago, 
and though quite small and delicate-looking, 
it seemed perfectly healthy, and, as in the 
case of the lynx, was as tame and affec- 
tionate as possible, and seemed delighted to 
be noticed and handled. I cannot help think- 
ing that if obtainable and kept pure this would 
make one of the most beautiful of exhibition 
cats. Small, of a reddish-brown colour, and 
clearly spotted all over, with beautifully 
shaped and small ears, which are black-and- 
white, this cat is gentle, sweet, sizeable, 
and possible as a pet. I have never seen it 
excelled by anything among the cat tribe ; 
and having handled this cat a good many 
times during the show, I may say it was one of 




the tamest and best-natured cats I ever came 
across in the show-room, and certainly the most 
beautiful short-haired cat possible to imagine. 

On one or two 
occasions we have 
had Australian cats 
exhibited, and they 
were funny little 
beasts, sitting up 
like a. squirrel, and 
with much the same 
shape of head. When 
genuine they are 
most quaint, but do 
not seem to live long 
here. A very clever 
fake was carried out 
with these cats at 
some of the early 
shows or, rather, I 
should not say with 
these cats, but an 
imitation of these 
cats. When the sup- 
ply became limited, 
someone became 
clever enough to aug- 
ment the number by 
shaving the long and 
ragged native short- 
hairs, and so well was 
it done that they not 
only won prizes, but 
on one occasion one was bought by a judge 
after winning, when to his purchaser's disgust 
a month or two later he turned out to be an 
ordinary yellow torn with his coat on ! 

The Australian cat fell into disfavour after 
a few of these experiences, and it has not 
been possible to resuscitate him. 

We often hear of the Pampas cat of South 
America being in certain catteries, but so far 
at the shows none have been produced, and 
I am inclined to think these also are of the 
impossible brigade on account of their savage 
disposition. It is a pity that some enter- 
prising fancier does not try to tame these 
wild species. 



MRS. CHARLES A. WHITE. 

AN AMERICAN CAT FANCIER. 

(Photo : Bolls, Chicago). 



3-24 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



SOME OF THE DIFFICULTIES IN AMERICA. 

Our English readers will, no doubt, wonder 
at a good man}' things wo do in America ; 
but, never having*had the experience of our 
conditions, they would not be able to appre- 
ciate what it is that keeps the fancy back. In 
the first place, on this continent anything 
except poultry shows and dog shows is an 
unknown quantity, and many of those who 
take up the cat fancy with enthusiasm are 
perfectly innocent of any show experiences, 
and have few to teach them ; so that until a 
show or two has been held in a certain neigh- 
bourhood our affairs are apt to be a little 
mixed. For instance, the common idea of a 
tortoiseshell cat is as often as not a heavily 
marked tabby of the brown tabby persuasion, 
or it may be an orange tabby, or it may be a 
mixture of many colours. Until a show has 
been held in a town, very few of the inhabitants 
know whether they have good cats or not, and 
they are as likely to bring the bad as the good. 
The idea has prevailed to a large extent that 
it is very expensive to get up shows, and so 
the only opportunity made use of has been 
when a poultry show is being held and the 
promoters of this are asked for a little space, 
which they may grant, as the cats are found 



to be very conducive to a gate ; but the draw- 
back of this arrangement is that in most cases 
the poultry people want to make as much 
money as possible, and so keep the cats penned 
for four or five days, which in many cases 
means death to the cats. 

The cost of the hall being so great, and the 
prize money being consequently kept down 
to try to balance things, with the entry fees 
also put away up, which, all added to the 
travelling long distances and the added ex- 
pense of hotel bills, makes the lot of the 
American cat exhibitor not too rosy, and it is 
something to wonder at that the fancy has 
ever developed at all. 

Distance from place to place is another 
factor, and when you read in England of the 
New York and then the Chicago show the 
week after, yon hardly realise that they are 
1,000 miles apart, and that if living in New 
York and you want to show in Chicago it may 
cost you 20 in travelling expenses alone. 

Another thing show committees have to 
face is the expense of the judge, and the 
difficulty of finding suitable sires within 
reasonable distance is one of the many draw- 
backs with which American fanciers have to 
contend. 




" THE BLESSED DAMO/.EI.. 
OWNED AND BRED BY MRS. E. N. BARKER. 
(Photo: Jo:. Hubner, Rutherford, NJ.) 



325 




" TOBEY," A MAINE TRICK CAT. 
OWNED BY Miss CHAPLE. 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 



MAINE CATS. 



FROM my earliest recollection I have had 
from one to several long-haired cats of 
that variety often called Maine cats. As 
to how and when they came, I would say, like 
Topsy, they just " growed," for their advent 
reaches far back beyond the memory of the 
oldest inhabitant. 

Our own family circle was never complete 
without one or more cats not always long- 
haired, but that variety always held the place 
of honour. 

As early as 1861 my younger brother and 
myself owned jointly a beautiful long-haired 
black, pointed with white ; he bore up for 
several years under the remarkable name of 
" Captain Jenks of the Horse Marines." I 
have no recollection of his earlier history or 
advent. I fancy, however, that these cats 
came into Maine much in the same way and 
about the same time that they did in England. 

The Maine people having had them so long, 
it is difficult to arouse any great enthusiasm 
21* 



about them there. They are much like other 
people they go into heroics over things they 
know less about. 

Not until the craze for long-haired cats 
struck the West did they think much about 
selling cats ; their very best would be given 
to their dearest friends. When I think of 
the number of beauties that I have had given 
me on my return visits because I would be 
good to them, it makes me wish for the good 
old times when the little dears were beyond 
price in " filthy lucre." 

I think the first really important develop- 
ment of the cat fancy that took deep and 
lasting root in me occurred in 1869, when I 
saw for the first time a pair of blue-eyed white 
Persian kittens that landed, to say the least, 
free of duty, in a sailmaker's pocket, from a 
foreign vessel, which put into a seaport town 
for repairs after a severe storm. 

This Mr. P , being a great lover of 

cats, while on board the vessel making repairs, 



326 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



admired a beautiful white Persian cat with 
a family of kittens, belonging to the cook, 
who gave him a pair of them. They grew and 
were nursed with tenderest care, the female 
developing much the better quality in hair ; 
but females were not highly prized at that 
time. 

They were both kept two or three years to 
get a good male for a gelding. I was told 
that they destroyed all the female kittens ; 
but at last they were rewarded, and then the 
original pair were sent to a relative in the 
country. 

From that time on long-haired blue-eyed 
white kittens sprang up in most unexpected 
places. At intervals they have appeared 
and almost disappeared several times for 
want of care in "breeding, but with this draw- 
back they will still frequently come forth in 
the same fine type. 

I owned a very fine specimen called " Dot," 
who became a noted winner, and who came 
from this strain about eleven years after the 




" HKNNESSY. " 
OWNED BY MRS. HALL, BELFAST, MAINE. 



kittens landed. I think he was quite as good 
a specimen of Persian as the one that came 
from the original kittens. They were both 
cat show winners at the same time, although 
" Baba " (or " Babie ") was in his dotage 
when " Dot " was in his prime. We were 
not thinking of pedigrees then, but merely 
who had the best cat. 

"Baba" at that time belonged to Mrs. 
Mason (formerly Mrs. Philbrook), and won the 
cup over everything in the Boston show. 
" Dot " was not at the Boston show, but won 
first in his class at Bangor, Maine, which was 
held at about the same time. 

" Dot " was sent to the Bangor show to 
please Mr. Robinson, owner of " Richelieu," 
who had the management of it, and without 
the slightest thought of winning. He brought 
home a gorgeous silver butter-dish, elaborately 
inscribed, which sat about at least ten years 
before being given to the cook. Oh, that 
I had it now, that its picture might grace 
these pages ! 

For intelligence and affection " Dot " was 
by far the superior cat. I have never seen his 
equal. Although deaf, his other senses were 
so keen that we hardly realised he did not 
hear. He would answer to the slightest 
beckon, and was always watching for a call. 
He was quite proud of his beauty, and never 
failed at his mistress's receptions to speak to 
each person present before taking his seat in 
the window. 

At one time some office girls who passed 
our house every day on the way to their work 
told me he was usually on the gate-post at 
seven o'clock in the morning to salute them 
and wave his plume to them. Each one 
stroked his head, said " Pretty kitty ! " and 
passed on. He then took his morning roll on 
the lawn, and was ready for his breakfast. 

His benevolence and tender feeling for cats 
of low degree was displayed by his keeping a 
cat two winters ; his protege was an example 
of the sad-eyed forlorn cat (one sad eye, the 
other closed beyond repair) ; spirit completely 
broken by neglect. As soon as the weather 
became cool, " Dot " would usher his sad 



MAINE CATS. 



327 



friend into the kitchen every morning and ask 
for breakfast for him, then sit back on the rug 
the while, and with utmost satisfaction 
expressed in song watch the tramp cat eat 
it. Where he kept his friend when he was not 
eating we knew not ; he was invisible. 

He also excelled as a traveller, making 
several short journeys. When with me he 
scorned a basket, much preferring to sit on 
the seat and look out of the window and inci- 
dentally entertain the other passengers by his 
unusual privileges in cat travelling. 

He developed an unusual taste for moisture, 
often sitting on a garden bench through a heavy 
shower, while his frolics in a light snowfall 
were most entertaining. 

Taking him all in all, I have not yet seen 
a finer pet cat. We sent him to rest in the 
happy hunting grounds at the age of ten 
years. 

I would like to say a few words here in 
regard to American cat shows. We are con- 
tinually hearing it stated, or seeing it written 
by the clubs and those who are new to the 
fancy, " The first cat show ever held in this 
country," and so forth, was, we will say, 
according to their light, some three years ago. 
That is true so far as clubs go, but large cat 
shows were held spasmodically in all the 
large and some small eastern cities as far back 
as the 'seventies. 

I have a photograph of " Richelieu," 
owned by Mr. Robinson, of Bangor, Maine, 
who had won first in his class at Boston, 
New York, and Philadelphia previous to 
1884, when he was shown at Bangor, Maine, 
in a limited show of the one hundred best cats. 
He was a silver or bluish tabby, very lightly 
marked ; about seven years old at the time ; 
weight about twenty pounds ; he was, as his 
picture shows, rather a coarse-grained variety ; 
a drug store cat. 

I know nothing of his early history ; but 
his owner had the cat fad a well-developed 
case and travelled from city to city to show 
his cat, much as we are all doing now twenty 
years later. 

At that time Maine, near the coast, was 




. '' IH.UK DANUBE." 

BRED BY MRS. E. R. PIERCE. 

rich in fine specimens of the long-haired cats. 
That was before they began to sell. I have in 
mind their brown tabbies. 

We often hear it said by people who know 
them not that the Maine cats are unhealthy, 
that they have worms ; and I have to admit 
it, and that they sometimes die like other cats ; 
but here is one that didn't until he had 
rounded out his full seventeen years. 

On page 329 is a picture of " Leo," brown 
tabby, born 1884, died 1901 ; presented to Mrs. 
Persis Bodwell Martin, of Augusta, Maine, by 
Mrs. E. R. Pierce, when he was six months old. 

He lived a life of luxury and ease, having 
his meals served by his mistress's own hand in 
the upper hall, where he chose to spend his 
time for the later years of his life. 

If I may be permitted, I would ask com- 
parison between the picture of " Leo " and 
any thoroughbred brown tabby first, colour 
of muzzle, length of nose, size and shape of 
eyes, breadth of forehead,' size of ears, length 
of hair in the ears, and on the head. In body 
markings " Leo " would fall off, as his hair 



328 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



was so extremely long that the markings 
became somewhat confused. 

They have had some extremely fine brown 
tabbies in Maine. In the summer of 1900 
I bought " Maxine " there the mother of 
" Young Hamlet," who won over his sire 
" Prince Rupert " the first year he was shown. 
She was, or is, very much the type of the 
" King Humbert " stock, though she has no 
pedigree whatever. 

It is one of Nature's own secrets how they 
keep bringing forth now and then, not 
always these fine types. 

I have before me a most interesting letter 
from a Maine lady, one of my contemporaries. 

I will first explain that Maine at that time 
was one of the largest ship-building States in 
the Union, residents of the seaport towns and 
cities being often masters of their own float- 
ing palaces, taking their families with them to 
foreign countries, and having in many towns 
quite social sets, like the army set or official 
set in other sections. 

Mrs. Thomas, to whose letter I refer, was 
the daughter of the late Captain Stackpole, 
who commanded his own ship for many years, 
taking his wife and little daughter with him. 
That was before our Civil War. She says : 

" I was always very fond of cats before they 
had to have a pedigree. In my younger 
days, en route for California, we stopped at 
Juan Fernandez, and I got a little wild cat. 

" Later on, when in Europe, I got a Manx 
cat from the Isle of Man ; it was a great 
curiosity, and not considered very handsome, 
with its bob-tail, and hind legs so much longer 
than the front ones. It came to an untimely 
end by running up a flue, and was smothered 
to death. 

" The wild cat did not flourish on condensed 
milk, and lived but a short time. Bad luck 
has followed me right along, but I keep right 
on like an old toper, and don't know enough 
to stop." 

In writing of her own cat, the mother of 
" Swampscott," she says : 

" I cannot tell you much about my cat's 
pedigree only that her great-grandfather was 



brought to Rockport, Maine, from France ; he 
was a blue-eyed white." 

This line of whites, while in the same 
locality, are quite distinct and unrelated to 
the first whites mentioned, of which " Dot " 
was given as a type. 

But her reference to her early exploits with 
Manx cats clears the air as to how these dif- 
ferent varieties first got root in Maine. This 
instance is only one in many where pets of 
every variety were bought in foreign ports to 
amuse the children on shipboard ; otherwise, 
as in one case I can call to mind, the children 
would make pets of the live stock carried to 
supply the captain's table with fresh meals 
chickens, lambs, etc. until it would be 
impossible to eat the little dears after they 
were served by the cruel cook. 

Therefore birds of plumage and singers, 
cats, dogs, and even monkeys, found their way 
to nearly all the coast towns many more in 
the past than at this time, when sailing vessels 
have passed their usefulness as money-making 
institutions, and those that do go out are 
not commanded by their owners ; paid cap- 
tains, as a rule, cannot take their families 
with them, and the supply of cats from that 
source has been cut off for many years, so 
those we find there now can safely be called 
natives. 

Up to this point I have been writing of the 
cats of the long, long ago, and perhaps only 
interesting to myself, being as full of plain 
facts as Gradgrind. 

Before coming down to some of the fine cats 
of the present day, I will say that I am told 
by an eye-witness that on a little island quite 
well off the coast which is inhabited by only 
three families, and where a few gentlemen 
have a quiet nook to fish in summer, 
they found pure white Persian cats with 
the most heavenly-blue eyes. So far as 
is known, no other cats are on the island. I 
had the promise of a pair last year, but cruel 
fate had visited them in their sheltered nook, 
and the kittens that year died. The promise 
still holds good, and I do not want to believe 
it a " fish story." Time alone can finish it. 



MAINE CATS. 



329 



I really know nothing of the cats that are 
said to be found on the islands ; but no doubt 
they are much the same as those found all 
along the New England coast. 

For a long time the long-haired cats seemed 
to be confined mostly to the coast towns and 
cities ; but the giving their best to " their 
sisters and their cousins and their aunts " 
have spread them inland, as well as scattered 
them over nearly every State in the Union. 
They thrive as well as any other long-haired 
cat. No doubt they do still better in Maine, 



very like it while at their summer home on 
the coast of Maine. The fad is contagious, 
and if they have the fever running very high 
they send back east to their "handy-man" 
to get them a long-haired cat, and these cats 
become popular. Clubs are formed to discuss 
points and exchange knowledge, shows become 
a necessity, large premiums are offered, numer- 
ous valuable specials become a feature, cats 
must be found to fit them, the home market 
at a low figure is looked over, many Attic 
treasures are brought out, and have often 




" LEO." BKOWX TAIiBY. 

OWNED BY MRS. P. MARTIN. 

(Photo : Bunion, Hallowell.) 



but the difference comes from the fact that 
they have the freedom of living a natural 
life, without dopes or over-coddling. Their 
offspring are beautiful, because they are from 
their own choosing, and not from compulsory 
mating often distasteful, no doubt. 

About 1895 or 1896 the cat fad struck the 
Middle West. The time was ripe for its 
development. The high, the low, the rich, 
the poor have all felt its force, as the real love 
of animal pets is no respecter of persons, and 
this fancy has made the whole world kin. 

A few people who had never seen a cat show 
in their native land " go across," attend a 
cat show, or pick up a cat at a bargain on the 
streets of London ; they " fetch " it home, 
and, lo ! their neighbour has seen something 



tipped the scales in favour of the Yankee cat. 
We all turn green with envy. Before another 
show we must import a ready-made winner 
at any cost ! In the meantime, the demand 
for the home-grown article is increasing, and 
prices are getting much inflated, the dealers in 
large cities keeping their buyers busy in the 
New England field during the fall and winter 
months. But the stock of kittens has been 
looked over by the summer residents or 
visitors ; the real cream disappeared with 
the first frost to some winter homes in the 
big cities ; the dealers get what is left at 
almost any price they please to pay, many of 
the specimens being indifferent, and some, 
no doubt, mongrels. 

In the last few years I have known less of 



330 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



the Maine cats, except through the shows and 
a few that I have owned myself, which have 
not been shown much or proved remarkable 
in any way ; but among the gems that have 
shown out with more or less brilliancy when 
on the bench we find " Cosie," a brown tabby, 
taking first and special for best cat in show 
in New York, 1895. Mrs. Lambert brings 



now somewhat scattered, but all showing 
great, strength, form, bone, and sinew. 

Mrs. Chapman's ' ; Cusie Maxine " a fine 
type of brown tabby, dam of " Young Ham- 
let," who won over his sire " Prince Rupert " 
was also a Maine cat. 

Mr. Jones, of The Cat Journal, has from 
time to time had some fine brown tabbies of 




"YELLOW H. 14 BEAUTY." 

OWNED BY MRS. STAPLES. 



out " Patrique " in New York in 1896 blue, 
and a nice one. 

"King Max" first brought out by Mrs. 
Taylor won in Boston first in 1897-98-99, only 
to be beaten by his sire " Donald " in 1900. 

Mrs. Mix has shown a fine Persian type 
from Maine called the " Dairy Maid." I 
believe she has also " Imogene," from the 
same place a tortoiseshell. 

Mrs. Julius Copperberg's " Petronius," of 
whom we all expected great things, was from 
a line of creams coming well down from a 
fine cream brought from some Mediterranean 
port by one Captain Condon about fifteen 
years ago. I have secured for friends several 
kittens from his cat's descendants, which are 



the Maine stock, winners at some of the 
larger shows. 

A fair representative of the whites, who has 
acquitted himself well at the various shows 
in competition with large classes, is " Swamp- 
scott," owned by Mrs. F. E. Smith, of Chicago. 
He comes from Mrs. Georgia Thomas's white 
cats at Camden, Maine, his maternal great- 
grandsire coining from France. 

" Midnight " a younger black cat, winning 
second at Cincinnati to a cat from New Hamp- 
shire in better coat, and second in Chicago 
in 1901 in large classes has since become a 
gelding and pet of Mrs. J. J. Hooker, of Cin- 
cinnati. He comes from a line of blacks 
owned by a retired sea-captain named Ryan, 



MAINE CATS. 



331 



who had at one time four generations of black 
cats. They loved their cats like babies, and 
for years looked for people suitable to give 
their kittens to. I have been the flattered 
recipient three times in the last dozen years 
of these beautiful black diamonds. 

" Antonio," a gelding, now owned by Mrs. 
A. B. Thrasher, of Cincinnati, Ohio, is also a fine 
representative of this stock. See photograph. 

In the last few years, since cats there are 
at such a premium and old age getting nearer 
every day, these good people have hardened 
their hearts, and now sell like others to the 
highest bidder. 

I can also think of " Peter the Great," a 
neuter cream and white, owned by Mrs. Carl 
Schmidt, shown at Detroit, Michigan, 1901. 
Also "Black Patti " originally owned by 
Miss Ives and " Rufus," both Maine cats, 
now owned in Detroit, and winners in some of 
the Middle West shows ; and many, many 
other winners whose place of nativity is a 
sacred secret with their owners, which we will 
not wilfully expose to public gaze until our 
native cats have been accorded the place that 
is due to them. 

I would like to tell you of some of the hand- 
some geldings in Maine. No cat is too good 
for a pet with them. They may be seen on 
nearly every lawn or stoop ; but as that is a 
little out of the province of this story I will 
only describe one a beautiful smoke owned 
by Dr. and Mrs. E. A. Wilson at their beau- 
tiful home in Belfast, Maine. He is now ten 
years old ; his mask and feet are black, or 




nearly so ; his hair is very dark, rather brown- 
ish at the tip, but as white as snow at the skin. 
I have begged them to show him at Boston 
or New York. The answer is always the 
same : " Not for any amount of money or 
prizes. ' Tags ' wouldn't like it ; he would 
be unhappy. Wouldn't you, ' Tagsie ' ? " 

The smokes have not been well developed 
there yet. In a letter lately received in 
regard to that variety, I am told that one of 
the regular agents said he found only about 
one in 200. The silvers and chinchillas are 
not common. The strong colours predomi- 
nate, whites, blacks, blues, orange, and creams, 
tabbies also being well divided and distributed 
along the coast, and for quite a distance back, 
perhaps sixty miles or more ; but I have not 
known of -their appearing to any extent in the 
northern portion of the State, which is less 
thickly settled. 

Having had this fancy from my infancy 
and before it became a fashion, I took kindly 
to all the new developments. I have since 
had some experience with imported and kennel- 
bred cats, and from time to time had oppor- 
tunities of seeing the best we have in our 
shows, and I fully believe that cats that have 
their freedom, as most of the Maine cats have 
for the greater part of their lives, are healthier 
than kennel cats can be. The cool climate and 
long winters, with clean air full of ozone, is 
what is needed to develop their best qualities, 
and, with a few years of careful breeding for 
types, they would be able to compete quite 
successfully in an international cat show. 

F. R. PIERCE. 



MRS. BAGSTER'S (i DEMIDOFF." 

(Photo : Cassell & Company, Limited.) 



332 




A SNAPSHOT. 

(Photo : E. Landor, Baling.) 



CHAPTER XXIX. 



CAT PHOTOGRAPHY FOR AMATEURS. 



\ LL lovers of the cat who are also amateur 
_~A_ photographers must have seen with 
envious admiration the lovely cat pic- 
tures by Madame Ronner, the more racy and 
amusing sketches by Louis Wain, and the 
many beautiful photographs which so greatly 
enhance the instructive and pictorial value of 
this " Book of the Cat." 

To the amateur wishing to take up this 
fascinating, though somewhat difficult, branch 
of photographic art, I venture to offer a few 
suggestions. 

The subject naturally divides itself into two 
distinct branches the commercial and the 
artistic. By the " commercial " I mean all 
photographs taken with the special aim of 
showing the shape and points of the cat from 
the fancier's, owner's, or purchaser's point of 
view. In the " artistic," I include all those 
pictures where the cat is used as a model only. 

In either kind of work almost any sort of 
camera and lens will do, providing it will 
yield a fair definition and admit of rapid 
exposures. If one possesses a portrait lens 



all the better. At all events use a lens which 
will give you good definition at a large aper- 
ture. A good make of roller-blind shutter is 
an important accessory, with a sufficient length 
of tubing to the pneumatic release to enable 
one to move about freely while holding the 
ball and to get close up to the cats while 
making either time or instantaneous exposures. 
The camera stand should be very firm and rigid. 
I like best to work in the open air, my 
studio being the small open run of my 
cattery. If the light is too direct or strong 
I diffuse it by stretching light blue art 
muslin curtains above the table or stand 
upon which the cats are arranged. These 
curtains run with rings upon cords stretched 
from the boundary walls on each side, so that 
they may be moved in any way the lighting 
may require. For background a dark plush 
curtain will be found useful. Avoid figured 
backgrounds, as they detract from the value 
and crispness of the cats and accessories. An 
example of what I mean will be seen in my 
picture on page 158 of the present work, 



CAT PHOTOGRAPHY FOR AMATEURS. 



333 



where the feathers in the hat, one of the motives 
of the composition, are almost lost in the 
scrolls of the curtain used for background. 

Three things are absolutely necessary to 
successful photography of cats for either com- 
mercial or artistic purposes time, patience, 
and an unlimited number of good quick plates. 
Of all animals the cat is possibly the most un- 
satisfactory sitter should we attempt by force 
to secure the pose we desire. By coaxing we 
can generally get what we wish. Patience is 
the keynote of success. Before commencing, 
make up your mind as to what points you 
wish to show ; then pose your cat gently and 
wait patiently until the pose becomes easy. 
She may jump down or take a wrong pose or 
go to sleep a dozen times or more, but never 
mind, give plenty of time. It is here where 
patience tells. Wait and coax until you see 
just what you desire, then release the shutter 
and make the exposure. At this point never 
hesitate or think twice especially with kittens 
or the desired pose may be gone, and will 
possibly cost you hours of waiting again to 
secure it. 

Before photographing a cat for its general 
appearance or for any special points, it is 
essential to have it thoroughly groomed and 
got up as carefully as for show. Speaking 
generally, the coat of a long-haired cat should 
never be roughened ; it altogether spoils the 
shape of the animal, and does not in any way 
improve the appearance of length, quality, or 
texture of the coat. In all cats where their 
markings are one of their chief points such 
as tabbies and tortoiseshells, etc. this rough- 
ening should be specially avoided. There is, 
possibly, one exception to this advice, and 
that is in the case of smokes, where it may be, 
and sometimes is, desirable to turn back a 
small patch of the fur to show the quality 
and purity of the silver under-coat. In such 
cases the turning back must be done only for 
this purpose, and in such a natural way as 
not to interfere with the general flow of the 
fur or the shape of the cat. In posing a cat, 
it is well to remember its faults as well as its 
good points, so that the former may be hidden 



as much as possible and the latter displayed 
to the best advantage. Let us take this some- 
what extreme example : A friend has a 
domestic pet a so-called Persian, but with 
weasel head, long back legs and tail, large 
ears, small eyes, short coat, but some slight 
pretence to a frill. What can we do ? To take 
him in profile will result in a very sorry carica- 
ture of the noble Persian ; so we coax pussy 
to bend her back by sitting on her hind legs, 
and so partly hiding them as well as apparently 
shortening her back, inducing her also to curl 
her long and scanty tail round her feet. We 
brush out the ear tufts, if she has any, and 
press up the fur at the base of the ears, for 
this will tend to make them look smaller. 
Having placed the camera well in front of and 
nearly on a level with the cat, so as to fore- 
shorten the nose and head, while showing 
what frill there is, a sharp squeaking sound will 
make pussy open her eyes to their full extent ; 
we press the ball, the exposure is made, and 
we have secured a fairly presentable photo- 
graph of our friend's perchance charming pet, 
yet most indifferent Persian cat. 

A few good examples of cats taken for the 
purpose of showing points should prove use- 
ful, especially to the novice, and many such 
examples are to be found in this present work 
on the cat for instance : p. 29, " Litter of 
Siamese Kittens"; p. 100, "Champion Jimmy"; 
p. 138, "Star Duvals"; p. 139, "Omar"; 
p. 145, "A Perfect Chinchilla"; and p. 150, 
" Dossie." With these examples and the many 
others that are to be found scattered through 
the pages of " The Book of the Cat," the 
would-be photographer of the cat for her show 
points should have little difficulty in setting 
up a standard to work to, and by patience 
and perseverance succeed in attaining it. 

Turning now to the more artistic side of 
cat photography, we find our real difficulties 
begin, for in photographing for the showing of 
points we seldom have to deal with more than 
one cat at a time. It is when we attempt 
deliberately to pose two or more cats or 
kittens, to carry out a preconceived idea, that 
our real troubles begin, and also that the 



334 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



patient skill of the amateur wins its best 
reward. Looking through the pages of " The 
Book of the Cat," we find many good examples 
of how the cat should be used in picture 
making. The reproductions of Madame 
Ronner's charming pictures show how they 
may be handled with palette and brush ; but, 
alas ! here we photographers labour under an 
immense disadvantage. However artistic our 
taste, however good and pretty our intended 
composition may be, we cannot, as the artist 
with pencils and brushes can, make individual 
sketches of pussies in the different positions 
needed and bring them together in the finished 
picture. Whether we use two or more cats, 
they must each be kind enough to take the 
pose we desire simultaneously ; hence our 



and so hope to make a picture. Accident does 
occasionally present us with something worth 
having, but far more often it offers us results 
only fit for the waste-paper basket. 

Before commencing, be sure you have an 
idea to work out in your picture, and of the 
lines you hope to follow in giving it expression. 
If possible, make a rough sketch no matter 
how rough of this idea, showing the position 
not only of the cats, but also of the accessories 
needed. Be careful to keep the composition 
simple and not to overcrowd it. This sketch 
will greatly assist you in arranging your pic- 
ture and posing your cats. Before you 
attempt to pose the cats it is absolutely neces- 
sary that all accessories should be fixed so 
that they cannot be knocked over, or the cats 




AMATEUR PHOTOGRAPHERS. 
(Photo: Mrs. S. F. Clarke.) 



greater difficulty. However, the illustrations 
on pages i, 37, 49, 88, 128, 199, and many 
others indicate the wide field open to the photo- 
grapher with a little taste and vast patience. 
In this class of photography it is of no use to 
go to work in a haphazard fashion, snap- 
shotting our cats in all kinds of positions, trust- 
ing to mere luck to yield something worth 
keeping ; then to give a sounding title to it, 



will get frightened arid be useless as sitters for 
a long time to come. That cats are nervous 
should never be forgotten, and any chance 
of startling them strictly guarded against. 
When your background, table, and accessories 
are all in their places, put your camera in 
position, arrange the picture on the ground- 
glass, and see that you get all well within the 
size of the plate i it is safer to have the picture 



CAT PHOTOGRAPHY FOR AMATEURS. 



335 



on the ground-glass a little smaller than the 
plate will allow, as, if one tries to get it to its 
utmost size, one may find in developing that 
one of the models has moved back on the 
table an inch more, perhaps, than calculated 
upon, and as a result have half a cat on one 



The rough sketch of the cat in the basket 
was first prepared, and the brush attached to 
it in such a manner that it would move freely 
up and down for about an inch or so ; then 
it and the rest of the accessories were firmly 
arranged upon the table. The cat. in the 




PLAYING AT \V O K K . 
(Photo : Mrs. S. F. Clarke.) 



side instead of a whole one. The background, 
however, should be large enough to fully cover 
the ground-glass. Focus the foreground and 
nearer accessories, stop down to F. 8, set the 
shutter to about ? V to vo second (accord- 
ing to light and nature of subject), insert the 
slide containing the rapid plate, draw the 
flap under the dark cloth, and if at all windy 
tie this last to the camera. Now you are ready 
for the cats and a suitable moment of light. 
As I have already remarked, I do my photo- 
graphing out of doors. I therefore choose a 
bright warm day, when there are plenty of 
fleecy clouds about ; so that by taking advan- 
tage of their position in front of the sun, and 
by the help afforded by my muslin curtains, 
I am able to modify the harsh contrasts 
incidental to working in broad daylight. 

' The Artist " (page 128) was, perhaps, one 
of the most difficult subjects I have attempted. 
Without apparent life and go such a subject 
would be worthless. 



basket was then made to take her place, but 
keep in she would not ; as soon as the brush 
moved to attract the artist paw, out she would 
jump ; so for the time she was allowed to run, 
until the artist was posed and an endeavour 
made to infuse life into him by moving the 
brush. But it was "no go " ; sit down he would, 
until the introduction of a feather woke him 
up. His companion was then slipped into 
the basket ; but, alas ! success was not yet. 
For about two hours we had to begin over and 
over again, when at last the pose of both 
kittens was obtained simultaneously and the 
picture taken in ^V of a second. Such a sub- 
ject with the kitten tamely sitting at the 
handle of the brush would not in any way 
have realised my intention. 

I must again point out the great convenience, 
especially in this class of work, of the extra 
length of tubing, which allows you, while hold- 
ing the release in one hand, to pose your models 
with the other, and then expose without the 



336 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



fatal loss of time that would be entailed by 
having to step back to the camera or by giving 
the word to an assistant. 

A subject suggestive of a picture will often 
turn up when least expected and, at the time, 
impossible to take. I always make a note of 
these, and they come as a basis for future use 
and to be worked out at leisure. " Thieves " 
(page 79) was suggested by noting the fond- 
ness of two of my kittens for melon, " Amateur 
Photographers " by a group of kittens playing 
round some photo frames put out to print, 
and " Mischief " (page 88) by a frolicsome 
kitten overturning a small bottle of ink and 
playing with the little black pool. 

Isochromatic plates should be used in all 
cases where there are mixed colours in the 
cats' furs, as in tortoiseshells, brown tabbies, 
etc. ; mixtures of red, black, and yellow cannot 
be truly rendered with ordinary plates. The 
only extra precaution necessary in their use is 
absolute freedom from actinic light in the dark 
room. Double ruby glass in the window, or, 
if artificial light is used, an extra thickness of 
red tissue paper round the developing lamp, 
will answer the purpose and make everything 
safe. With this little extra care, nice crisp 
negatives are obtained, while the relative value 



of the red, yellow, and black seen in our 
furry friends are well defined in the resulting 
picture. 

Cat? used as models should, if possible, be 
in the pink of condition the prettier the 
model the more pleasant the picture. The 
best time to photograph a cat is about one 
hour after a light meal. Immediately after a 
meal most cats want to wash and sleep. A 
hungry cat or kitten makes the worst of sitters ; 
its thoughts are too much turned towards the 
inner man. Never overtax your cats, give them 
plenty of rest during a sitting, and never lose 
your temper and attempt by force to secure a 
pose ; it only frightens the cats, and can never 
result in satisfactory work. Time and patience 
should always in the end achieve what you 
desire. 

Artistic photography having been for some 
years a pleasant and recreative hobby with me, 
I can assure my friends who keep cats for 
pleasure, and those who find pleasure in the 
camera, that by uniting the two hobbies they 
will discover a field of enjoyment and artistic 
possibilities which neither pursuit alone can 
afford. To all such the preceding notes are 
offered as humble finger-posts, indicating rather 
than assuring the road to success. 

LUCY CLARKE. 




IN THE STUDIO. 
(.Photo : Mrs. S. F. Clarke.) 



357 




TABITHA S AFTERNOON TEA. 
(Photo : C. Reid, Wishaw, N.B.) 



CHAPTER XXX. 



REARING OF KITTENS. 



IT may truly be said that the subject most 
interesting to cat fanciers is the successful 
rearing of kittens, and pages might be 
written on what to do and what not to do in 
order to bring up a family of kits in health and 
strength. Experience teaches us many tilings, 
and certainly during the number of years I 
have been breeding Persian kittens I have had 
ample opportunity of judging what food suited 
the little mites best, and which was the surest 
method of bringing up a wholesome litter of 
kittens. I am sure that in the olden days 
there was less delicacy amongst Persian kittens 
than at this present time. 

"With the advent of the first family the 
anxieties of the novice begin. Perhaps a 
goodly sum has been risked in the purchase of 
a pedigree queen, or else with much careful- 
ness and taking thought a valuable kitten has 
been reared to happy matronhood. So far 
well ; the trouble has been slight, but the 
account book shows all on the debit side. 
Now, as we gaze upon the tiny blind bobbing 
atoms, over which the mother croons and 
22 



purrs with pride, here is the investment that 
has to swell our credit column. And ignor- 
ance here spells loss. 

If a large number yearly are successfully 
raised, a still larger number sadly " pass out," 
and might claim the baby's plaintive epitaph : 

" Since I am so quickly done for 
I wonder what I was begun for ! " 

Neither does the comfortable law of the 
" survival of the fittest " seem to hold good 
here. At least, Nature and the exhibitor arc 
at variance in their ideas of such, for always 
it is our choicest, our sure and certain cham- 
pion, that slips our too eager grasp. 

Here is our experimental nest of champions ; 
they are but two days old, and in this early 
stage of their existence the less they are 
handled and examined and the mother inter- 
fered with, the better. 

Attend to two things darkness and fresh 
air ; and leave them alone till they introduce 
themselves of their own accord to your notice. 

Shift on to a clean nest the second day after 



338 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT, 



birth. It is safer not to do so before, as I 
have known a belated kitten arrive twenty- 
four hours after the rest of the family, and in 
the case of an excitable or inexperienced 
mother she will by then be more composed, 
and can be coaxed out to feed while the 
change of bed is being made. Hay, short and 
sweet, is the best bedding much better than 
blankets or cushions. Many fanciers use boxes 
turned on their sides and curtained. These, 
while giving the necessary darkness, are not 
sufficiently ventilated ; the air in them 
cannot circulate freely, and becomes stuffy 
and foul, vapours ascend, and the wood 
becomes unsanitary 
in a very short time. 

Bad eyes follow as 
a matter of course, 
and the anxious, 
worried novice won- 
ders "how they can 
possibly have taken 
cold when they have 
been so guarded " 
from fresh air ! 
and seals them up 
still more! If, A HAPPY 

therefore, a box is 

used, let there be holes for ventilation, or 
arrange for the covering to reach only partly 
over the top. 

In an outside cattery or attic or room guard 
against too much light and any draught, but 
let in the outside air by keeping the window 
open during the day. If winter kittens are 
to be reared, heat the room to an average 
of 55 degrees, and have the window open, 
taking precautions naturally against rain 
or snow beating in. 

When the kittens reach the age of three 
weeks, they will require some food beyond 
that provided by the mother, who, if nursing 
a large family, is perhaps showing signs of 
wear. It is when the process of weaning 
begins that trouble generally arises. 

I am inclined to put down the growing 
delicacy of Persian kittens to the injudicious 
feeding with solids at too early a period of 




their existence. I never used to allow my 
kittens meat until they were about four or 
five months old, and during the period of 
weaning from their mothers it is most essential 
that all food given such as Mellin's, Ridge's 
and Benger's should be made very thinly at 
first, so as not in any way to try the tender 
digestions of the little creatures. 

I believe that most of the ills that kittens' 
flesh is heir to, proceed from indigestion. The 
tendency in fanciers is to overload the stomach 
of the wee kittens, forgetting that it is not the 
amount of food eaten that nourishes the tiny 
creatures, but the quantity they are able to 

digest, and this must 
necessarily be small 
for some weeks after 
they have learnt to 
feed themselves. 
Another mistake 
that is made is 
giving milk that is 
too rich. In large 
towns we generally 
get our milk watered 
for us, but in the 
MOTHER. country the milk is 

richer, and needs 

mixing with warm water. It is not so im- 
portant in the country as in London and other 
large towns to have the milk boiled, but 
it is at all times and in all places a wise 
precaution. In preference to risking the 
town dairy milk, flavoured with boracic, and 
most deadly to the systems of both kittens 
and babies, I advise a good brand of Swiss 
milk such as Nestle's being employed, or, 
better still, Plasmon powder, made to a jelly 
according to directions on packet, and one 
teaspoonful of this jelly thinned out with hot 
water and sweetened. Do not give raw meat 
till the teeth are fairly through and they can 
bite sharply ; then give it scraped with a blunt 
knife, not cut ; and remember that raw meat 
is three times as digestible and nourishing as 
cooked meat one tiny meal of meat a day, a 
teaspoonful per kitten to begin with. Do not 
give them fish while under three months old. 



REARING OF KITTENS. 



339 




MRS. BONNY'S " DAME FORTUNE. 
(Photo: L. R. Stickclls,Cmnbrook.) 



Rice is a very indigestible food for kittens, water added to a saucer of any liquid is very 
especially cold ; but rice-water, strained from advisable, as it strengthens the limbs and 
rice boiled to a pulp and given quite cold, is use- forms bone. If a kitten under a month or six 
ful in checking diarrhoea. 
Melox is a most useful food 
for kittens of ten weeks 
old and upwards, soaked 
for an hour or two in a 
little good gravy, and given 
crumbly (not sloppy), and 
a little scraped raw meat 
mixed with it. For younger 
ones a tablespoonful of red 
gravy from a cooked joint, 
poured over some bread- 
crumbs, proves an appetis- 
ing meal. 

Small meals at short in- 
tervals are infinitely better 
than heavy meals at long intervals, and if 
a young kitten is left for many hours till half 
famished, it will in all probability eat too 
much and suffer in consequence. From four 
to ten weeks six or seven 
meals in the twenty-four 
hours are none too many. 
I am presuming that till 
that age they will be with 
their mother at night, 
which will do away with 
the necessity of providing 
food between 9 p.m. (when 
the last meal should be 
given) and 8 a.m. Give al- 
ways a light and warm meal 
for the breakfast. After 
ten weeks lessen to five 



meals, after three months 
four, and give four till six 
months old, when they may 
be fed as adults, unless one 
should be delicate or has 
been through severe illness. 

The best test of a properly thriving kitten 
is its weight, and i Ib. for each month of 
age is a fair average, occasionally exceeded 
by very big-boned and robust kittens. For 
young growing kittens a teaspoonful of lime- 




M R S. BO NNY S ' DKREB1 K 

(I'lioto : L.R. Slickells, Cranbrook.) 



weeks old is unfortunate 
enough to have a severe 
illness, whether epidemic 
or accidental, my advice 
is to chloroform it. At 
so tender an age the con- 
stitution rarely recovers 
from the strain. 

Although this article has 
no intention of encroach- 
ing upon that treating 
specially of diseases, our 
aim and object being to 
rear such healthy sturdy 
families of kittens that 
they shall never have any 
diseases, yet, en passant, it might not be 
amiss to remark what a valuable medicine for 
the first symptoms of distemper is Pacita, a 
herbal medicine that can be obtained in both 
powder and pill form. 
The latter is to be pre- 
ferred, as, the smell being 
very nasty, kittens rebel 
against it. Half of No. i 
size pill is sufficient for a 
kitten under three months, 
to be given fasting in the 
morning an hour before 
food for three mornings. 
It reduces fever and clears 
the system in a wonderful 
manner. 

The question of outdoor 
exercise must now be dis- 
cussed. 1 speak of summer 
kittens only. Winter kit- 
tens viz. those born from 
November to February- 
are, I think, a mistake. Out 
of season, like forced green peas at Christmas, 
they have not a good start in life ; the damp 
and darkness of those months is very deterrent 
upon young life. Nature's plan of arranging 
for the new lives to come chiefly in the spring 



340 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



when days are lengthening and sunshine lias 
power, is the wisest. They grow with the 
days, and have the summer to romp through 
and grow big and strong before the leaves fall. 
It is a mistaken policy that of exposing to 
risks under the intention of hardening. We 
must remember that the Persian cat is an 
exotic, and that the present system of breeding 
for coat and show points does not tend to 
make the race hardier ; on the contrary, 
probably the constitution is more delicate than 
in its native country, imported cats invariably 
boasting a vigour and hardihood that our 
pedigree specimens sadly lack. It is not cold 
that injures ; frost and snow can be borne by 
grown-up Persians with impunity, and even 
enjoyment. It is the damp that kills, and 
upon consideration we shall see that this is 
largely a question of coat. 

Look at your English sleekly groomed puss 
as she comes leaping across some dewy field in 
the early morning, pressing through a thick, 
wet hedge. She gives herself a shake ; examine 
her fur : not a dewdrop has adhered, hardly 
are her pads damp. Now pick up your 
Persian gentleman who has taken a slight 
hunting stroll through the same ground : his 
stomach fur is soaked, clinging like wet linen 
to him ; his " knickerbockers " are disreput- 
able, his frill clammy ; and it will take him 
a good hour to get himself clean and respect- 
able once more. The soft woolly under-coat 
of the Persian holds water like a sponge, where 
the close short coat of the British cat shakes 
it off as from duck's feathers. This is the true 
secret of the delicacy of the Persian. So in 
rearing kittens, let your first care be, avoid 
damp. 

A sick kitten generally forgets its manners, 
however carefully it has been trained to the 
use of the dry earth or sawdust box ; it seems 
to feel too bad to care how it behaves, so due 
allowance must be made at the time ; but in 
health, cleanly behaviour must be insisted upon 
from the time they begin to trot about their 
nursery. Begin by placing a very shallow 
tray of nice dry fine earth in one or two corners 
that the kittens seem to have a predilection 



for ; it may even be necessary to put them 
in all four corners for a little while to convince 
some obstinate or dullard member of the 
family. 

A cat's confidence is harder to win than a 
dog's, but once you have gained it the animal 
will trust you implicitly, and will bear pain or 
nasty dosing at your hands without resentment. 
I think kittens should be handled from early 
days. I do not advocate a valuable kitten 
being sent up to a humar nursery, to be 
hugged flat or carried head downwards by the 
too-adoring occupants ; but kittens should be 
thoroughly accustomed to human society and 
to being picked up, caressed, and handled. 
It will make their subsequent show career tar 
less of a terror, and greatly augment their 
chances of success ; and in the case of all 
male cats, whether for stud or neuter, it is very 
convenient to train them to walk on a lead. 
Begin by using a light ribbon, and two kittens 
led together on separate leads will come more 
willingly than one. The first lessons in walks 
might terminate at the feeding dish, so that 
the kits would quickly associate this new 
form of exercise with something to eat. 

It sometimes happens that young kittens 
are too early bereft of maternal care from some 
cause or other. Mr. A. Ward, of Manchester, 
has invented an artificial foster-mother (see 
page 343). This consists of a glass vessel 
covered with flannel, and having indiarubber 
teats. This is filled with warm milk and 
water, and the kittens help themselves ! 

It is only of comparatively recent date 
that any serious attention has been given to 
the successful breeding of Persian kittens. 

A demand has arisen for animals that 
approach perfection, according to a recognised 
standard of points, and it may not be un- 
profitable to devote a few pages to the con- 
sideration of how these can be best obtained. 

Formerly a long-haired cat was not much 
thought of unless he really deserved his name, 
but nowadays coat is rather at a discount on 
the show bench. 

Points, points, points colour of eyes, colour 
of coat, shape, expression, and what not 



REARING OF KITTENS. 



341 



these are all considered first, and length and 
beauty of coat are rather apt to be overlooked. 
The amateur cat lover should provide him- 
self with a female cat or kitten of fine health 
and luxuriant coat, and treat it precisely like 
any other " well done by " domestic pussy. 
Probably by the time she is twelve months 
old she will have insisted on matrimony. This 
is worth a little consideration and trouble, 
but if the choice lies be- 
tween a healthy, hardy long- 
haired torn at large in your 
own neighbourhood 
and a pedigreed 



trophies, and have to be won four times before 
becoming the property of the exhibitor. 

Over against the mistaken motto of " Hap- 
hazard " we must place the password of 
"Selection" if we would become successful 
breeders. Selection clever, thoughtful, pains- 
taking selection lies beneath all real success. 
I am not denying that excellent results are 
obtained occasionally by accident, but these 
happy flukes want follow- 
ing up if any permanent 
good is to be effected. 

Having a queen 
of a given colour, 




A LITTER OF EIGHT, BELONGING TO MISS SAVEKY. 
d'hoto: H. Warschawski, St. Leonanls-on-Sea.) 



prisoner at a distance, I should recommend 
the local monsieur. 

What you want is physique and a fine 
appearance, and you are more likely to get 
them in this way. 

Many owners of Persians have been quite 
content to rear saleable kittens of average 
merit, and trust for their show reputation to 
fine animals bought from others. 

To encourage breeders special prizes are 
offered at shows to those who win a first 
prize with a cat whose mother was in the 
exhibitor's possession at the time of the 
kitten's birth. They are very handsome 
22* 



you should, as a rule, mate her only with a cat 
of the same colouring, and be especially careful 
not to cross self-colours with tabbies. 

Now selection, as too often understood, 
means just this : A male cat makes a great 
sensation at a show and wins many prizes. 
He is the right colour, therefore to him you 
will send your queen. What can be simpler ? 
Why this fuss about the difficulty of breeding ? 

But' you are a novice, and know nothing of 
the value of the pedigree owned by the winning 
monsieur. It is not so much he himself as 
his inherited tendencies you have to consider, 
for assuredly they will reappear in his children. 



34-2 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



An old hand will tell you, " Yes, a grand head, 
but where he got it from is a miracle, with 
such parents "; or, "Colour? Yes, first-rate, 
but he was the only one clear from sandy 
in the litter." Well, what can a bewildered 
novice do ? Remember, you have to try to 
cap each of your queen's defects with a cor- 
responding virtue in her mate. If she is 
snipey in face, make head a chief point ; if she 
fails in colour, lay great stress on colour ; 
and so on. My advice is, do not send her to 
a new star who has but just arisen in the sky 
of the cat world until you know a little more 
about your business. Mark your catalogue 
at shows. Study the cats and kittens whose 
points please you and who are filling the prize 
lists, and then notice their sire's name. When 
you find the same name repeated again and 
again, and always attached to animals of con- 
sistent merit, you will not do far wrong to 
choose the owner for your queen's mate. 

But after having exercised all possible care 
in the selection of a male cat, we must not 
expect the litter of kittens to be perfection. 
All breeders know that there is, as a rule, one 
kitten in each litter which far surpasses its 
fellows in beauty. 

Perhaps one will possess the type of head 

you so covet, but 
the colour is in- 
ferior. Another 




" STAR OF THE SPHERES " AXD " SON OF ROY. 

BRED BY Miss E. A. CHAMBERLAYNE. 

(Photo : Russell & Sons, Baker Street.) 



has colour or markings to perfection, whilst 
the head is poor. Well, then, they must be 
mated with an eye to remedying these defects, 
and a near relative possessing these strong 
points will be likely to prove the most success- 
ful cross ; for in-breeding careful, cautious, 
and judicious is another secret of the success- 
ful breeder. But cne word of caution to the 
novice : Never be persuaded to breed from 
an unhealthy animal, be his or her points what 
they may, and never allow your queens to 
mate when thoroughly debilitated and out of 
health ; for this lies at the bottom of the diffi- 
culty experienced in carrying out the next 
point we have to consider i.e. the successful 
rearing of kittens. If cat fanciers could learn 
this lesson, we should hear far less of infant 
mortality. 

For the ordinary mode of kitten rearing it 
is essential to have proper out-door quarters, 
and, if possible, quarters isolated from each 
other. There is nothing more suitable than 
the portable houses so readily obtained ; but 
these must be on a dry foundation. 

Sunshine, fresh air, and wholesome food 
are the essentials of a kitten nursery. More- 
over, there must never be many young things 
kept together. Otherwise, some imlucky day 
you will find a sad-faced kitten looking down 
its nose, and in two or three days more your 
whole tribe will be down with distemper and 
your hopes for the year shattered. 

I know it sounds brutal, but I cannot re- 
frain from saying that sentiment is 
the ruin of successful kitten rearing. 
Some tiny morsel develops a skin 
trouble, has chronic diarrhrea, bad 
eyes or snuffles, and we tenderly nurse 
it for many weary weeks and perhaps 
save it. 

A victory ? Yes, if the morsel 
were a gem of great value, one of 
the " surprise babies " in colour or 
shape that now and again visit every 
cattery, it may have been worth pay- 
ing the cost. For pay we shall have 
to, make no doubt of that. Your 
kitten nursery will never be quite so 



REARING OF KITTENS. 



343 



healthy again, and in spite of all precautions 
you will very probably carry sickness to your 
other stock. I would never breed from un- 
healthy animals, and I would at once destroy 
a very sick kitten of tender age. 

Lethal boxes rob the act of inhumanity, 
and you will probably have one little tomb- 
stone to erect instead of a dozen ! 

One great feature of success is the boarding- 
out system. Any woman really fond of cats 
who will take a kitten into the bosom of her 
family and rear it is a perfect boon. Of course, 
she must be well paid, but if she is successful 
you can afford to be liberal. 

In these cases it is better only to put out 
your choice specimens that you wish to attain 
some age before sale or to keep for stock. The 
others should be sold off at about eight to ten 
weeks old at moderate prices. 



Far more of the trouble with kittens comes 
from defective digestion than from any other 
cause, and I suspect we frequently overload 
their little inte- 
riors. When 
nature makes 
the small cat 
turn away from 
its dinner, we 
fall into a panic 
and pour~beef 
essence down 
its throat. Pro- 
bably a short fast was all that was required, 
and it is a mistake to force food until 
some hours have elapsed. In fact, healthy 
surroundings and common -sense treatment 
are the main secrets of successful kitten 
rearing. 




THE " FOSTER-MOTHER. 
(Photo : H. Glacier, Longsight.) 




THK " FOSTER-MOTHER IN ACTION. 
(Photo : H Glacier, Longsight.) 



344 




(Photo: E. Lanitor, Baling.) 



CHAPTER XXXI. 



COLOUR BREEDING. 



/^>OLOUR breeding is a most fascinating 
V_^ pursuit ; but, unfortunately, the average 
cat fancier lacks the -patience to follow 
it out to a satisfactory conclusion. 

There is no doubt that by judicious cross- 
breeding new colours could be produced, and 
I think that they will be produced in time. 
I have seen a chocolate-brown cat and a yellow 
cat with black stripes, and no doubt they will 
appear again ; also chestnut-brown cats and 
white cats striped with black may be bred. 

The point which I wish to discuss on this 
occasion is not so much the experimental cross 
as the cross which is desirable to improve 
existing colours. I do not consider that a 
white cat should be crossed with any other 
colour. There is no advantage to be gained 
in this case by crossing, as we already have 
white cats good in bone, substance, head, 
shape, etc., and no other colour of cat possesses 
blue eyes. I do not for a moment suggest 



that good white cats have not been bred from 
coloured parents, but this is unnecessary and 
undesirable, because there is a risk of intro- 
ducing coloured patches and smudges and 
yellow or green eyes, and there is no correspond- 
ing advantage to be gained. In the same way 
I do not consider that it is a good thing to 
breed from white cats with yellow or odd eyes. 
Blue-eyed kittens have been bred from two 
yellow-eyed parents, and frequently when one 
parent has yellow or odd eyes the kittens are 
all blue-eyed, but this can in no way be 
depended upon. 

Black cats are a little more difficult to 
handle than whites, because a white is neces- 
sarily white, while there is sometimes a diver- 
sity of opinion where a black is concerned. 
The most important point to keep before us 
in black-breeding is the colour of eyes. 
Whatever we cross with we must be careful 
that we do not lose the orange eyes, for they 



COLOUR BREEDING. 



34! 



are most elusive, and we are, theretore, some- 
what limited in our selection of suitable crosses. 
A smoky or dirty black is an abomination, 
and for this reason I consider that from the 
point of view of the black cat all crosses with 
blues, smokes, or silvers should be avoided ; 
in any case a good silver would be impossible 
because of its green eyes. A rusty black is 
undesirable, but a rusty kitten usually makes 
a better-coloured cat than a smoky one, though 
there are notable exceptions to this rule. A 
good orange-eyed tortoiseshell or red tabby, or 
an orange, are all suitable mates for a black. 
A curious thing I have noticed is that the best 
blacks are bred from bright clear-coloured 
cats, and that dull colours, such as smokes, 
blues, and fawns, do not, as a rule, produce 
good - coloured kittens. For this reason I 



colour I do not approve, because we have 
many different blue strains, among which can 
be found all the different points which are 
desired. Comparisons are odious, but it I 
refer to the Bath show of 1903 I can explain 
what I mean. " Skellingthorpe Patrick " is 
a beautiful cat in all points except eyes, 
but " Don Carlos " and several other blue 
males in the class had glorious orange eyes. 
I have often heard that crossing a blue with 
a white will produce very pale blue kit- 
tens ; I have not found this to be so, and 
it seems unlikely, for mate a black cat with 
a white one as often as you like, and you may 
wait a lifetime before they breed a blue kitten ; 
therefore why should a dark blue and a white 
produce a pale blue kitten ? Sometimes cross- 
ing with a black is recommended " to get the 




" PATRICIA," HROWN TABBY. 
BRED ny Miss FANNY EI.I.IS, TORONTO. 



should prefer blacks bred from an orange-eyed 
silver tabby to those bred from a dark brown 
tabby. On the whole, a brightly coloured 
tortoiseshell will be found to throw the best 
blacks. 

Of the crossing of blues with any other 



orange eyes," but it must be remarked that 
the proportion of black cats with good orange 
eyes is quite as low as that of blues. When 
this cross is resorted to, let the black parent 
be the male, as otherwise the kittens may very 
likely all be black. 



346 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



It is the misfortune of the smoke cat that 
it has been indiscriminately and unintelligently 
crossed with the black and the silver tabby, 
and, worst of all, with the blue. Strangely 



cross with whatever is least likely to introduce 
stripes i.e. a self-coloured cat, or preferably a 
shaded one. Of course, any tinge of red or 
brown is to be avoided, and, therefore, the only 



enough, there seems to be some close affinity shaded cat left to us is the smoke, and a green- 



between the smoke and the silver tabby, 
and it should be our object, as far as possible, 



eyed smoke is certainly the safest cross we can 
get, as it is sufficiently akin to the chinchilla 



to keep them apart. To this connection is to obviate the risk of a violent out-cross. The 



attributable the prevalence of green eyes and 
leg and face markings among smoke cats. In 



black is, I think, the next best cross, for it is 
just possible that the colours may not inter- 



crossing smokes there are many difficulties to fere with one another, and that we shall get 



contend with. We must keep the light under- 
coat, but avoid markings ; we must have the 
black face and legs 
and retain the light 
frill ; and we must 
have orange eyes. 
All crosses with tabby 
must be avoided, or 
we shall never get rid 
of face pencillings ; 
but judicious crosses 
of black, blue, or 
(best of all) chinchilla 
may be of service. 
A black cross is 
better than blue be- 
cause, though either 
endangers the under- 
coat, it will intensify the black mask and legs. 
The one advantage of a blue cross is that it 
will, sooner than any other, help to eliminate 
markings ; but the blue kittens from such a 




MISS GODDARI) S PAIR OF KITTKXS 
(rhoto : E. Ltitutor, Ealinx.) 



pure black and clear silver kittens of course, 
a green-eyed black must be used. Third on 

the list comes the 
white ; but this 
cross makes for ab- 
sence of markings, 
and therefore de- 
mands great caution, 
as thereby the black 
noses and e y e 1 i d s 
which add so much 
to the charm of a 
chinchilla may be 
lost and the result be 
merely a dingy, dirty 
white cat. This ani- 
mal, though not par- 
ticularly attractive 

in itself, is, I need hardly say, invaluable 
for crossing again either with a clear-coloured 
chinchilla, a black, or even a blue. 

A blue cross is, as a rule, rather objection- 



cross must be sternly rejected, as their colour able, because it seems to produce a muddy, 



will never be satisfactory. The chinchilla is 
the best cross for the smoke so far as colour 
is concerned, and an orange-eyed chinchilla 
should be of service for breeding smokes with 
light frills and good under-coats. A cross of 
chinchilla may with advantage follow a black 
cross. 

We now get to the subject of chinchilla 
breeding ; it is a matter of common know- 
ledge that chinchillas were produced as the 
result of careful in-breeding, and, therefore, 



dull colour, but there is no doubt that it 
may occasionally be resorted to with success. 
I should suggest that the blue parent (a green- 
eyed one, of course) should be the sire, as 
when the reverse is the case the kittens are 
frequently blue tabby. 

I do not think any colours besides those I 
have mentioned should be crossed with chin- 
chillas, though I must confess that chinchilla 
kittens occasionally turn up most unexpectedly. 
I recollect a very pale one appearing in a litter 



until the breed is more firmly established, any whose sire was a cream of brown tabby and 
sudden outcross is likely to cause a reversion cream parentage, and whose dam was a pale 
to the barred ancestors. The idea, then, is to blue bred from a blue and a blue tabby. There 



COLOUR BREEDING. 



347 



may have been silver tabby blood in the 
strain, but certainly no chinchilla. For all 
this I do not recommend a cream or tortoise- 
shell cross, as the chances are all against the 
kittens being any good, and it is laying up a 



understood, I have no fault to find ; I can 
forgive him even his white chin, because he is 
such a magnificent animal ; but he is not a 
tabby, and should not be shown as such. 
In the brown tabby we want dense black 



store of disappointments in the next genera- markings on a clear golden-brown ground. 



tion. We have all possessed cats which, 
though beautiful in themselves, never threw 
a kitten worth keeping. 
I had a little cat my- 
self bred from two chin- 
chilla parents. The 
dam was a well-known 
winner, and her ances- 
try was, I knew, irre- 
proachable, and the 
sire's appeared to be 
equally so, though I 
was told afterwards 
that he often sired 
brown tabby kittens. 
But my queen (herself 
a prize-winner), no 
matter how she was 
mated, invariably 
threw brown tabby 
kittens. 

We now come to the 
very fascinating subj ect 
of tabbies, and I may 
as well say at once that 
any amount of crossing 
is for the present de- 
sirable and even neces- 
sary, but it must be 




1 LOLLYPOP 



The black is there right enough, but it wants 
breaking up." A cross of strongly marked 
red tabb}' is the thing ; 
not a " self - orange," 
mind you that would 
only make things 
worse but the best- 
coloured red, with a 
dark chin, that can be 
found. When the 
markings want intensi- 
fying, as may be the 
case after the red cross, 
we must mate with a 
black ; but I do not 
think this will be neces- 
sary, as brown tabbies 
rarely "wash out " as 
silvers do. It is curi- 
ous to note that many 
years ago I bred quan- 
tities of beautifully 
marked silver tabbies 
and brown tabbies from 
a brown tabby sire and 
a sandy, silver tabby 
dam, both of unknown 
pedigree. The silvers 
were clear and pure in 



ONE OK LADY MARCUS BERESFORD S 
SILVERS. 

(Photo: IL. Lamior, Euling.) 



done systematically and under a careful and colour, with capital black markings, and the 



experienced eye. The novice* is likely to fail 
because he does not understand the essential 



browns had good rich colouring. This is a 
cross I should certainly hesitate to recom- 



points of a tabby. Let him keep before his mend, but there are possibilities concealed 



mind the fact that if two distinct black stripes 
run the whole length of the spine and if the 
chest markings are good there is not likely to 
be much wrong with his cat's other markings. 



therein, and it is worth an occasional experi- 
ment with the sole object of rescuing the 
degenerate tabby markings. 

It is a curious fact that while the tabby is 



In the brown tabby, the markings have supposed to be the common ancestor of all 

become too heavy, they have run together and our cats, the tabby markings should be the 

spread into a heavy black saddle ; while the most difficult point to retain in the pedigree 

ground colour has lost warmth and white chins cat. 

are prevalent. With the " sable " cat, be it A brown tabby cat with a good-coloured 



THE BOOK OF THE CAT. 



chin should always be retained to breed from, 
even if it fails in some other points. 

It is, I know, the general opinion that the 
craze for chinchillas has ruined the silver tabby, 
but I do not feel convinced that this is so. I 
am of the opinion that the constant breeding 
of silver tabby to silver tabby will eventually 
result in the production of poorly marked cats. 
Let me give an example : " Felix Mottisford " 
was a very heavily barred son of " Champion 
Felix," and " Patz " was also heavily barred 
and bred from silver tabbies. Two of their 
kittens were " Silver Midget " and " My 
Fairy." " Midget " was a prettily marked 
silver tabby, but much lighter than her 
parents, and showed a strong tendency to 
throw unmarked kittens. " Fairy " was cer- 
tainly a silver tabby, but her markings were 
entirely on the surface, and as she grew older 
faded away until she was more shaded than 
barred. Mated with a blue, she produced four 
chinchilla kittens ; mated with " Lord South- 
ampton," there were two well-marked silver 
tabbies and two chinchillas (this litter included 
" Dimity " and " Abbess of Broomholme ") ; 
mated with " Silver Lambkin," there was one 
chinchilla kitten " Fitz Eustace" and the 
rest were silver tabbies ; by " Tuan," a much 
more marked cat, the kittens were all chin- 




THKEE LITTLE AMERICANS. 



chillas (" Tuan," I may mention, was a distant 
cousin of " Fairy ") ; by " Silver Lustre " 
there were two chinchillas and two silver 
tabbies. I then parted with her, and she 
afterwards had, by " Silver Chieftain," a litter 
of silver tabbies and chinchillas, including 
" Silver Tangle " and " Silver Sprite." After 
that date I have no record of her doings, but 
it can be seen that she certainly showed an 
inclination on her own account towards chin- 
chilla kittens, and this, I take it, was the result 
of the continued mating together of silver 
tabby cats. I do not consider any other cross 
than black is admissible in a silver tabby strain, 
but the introduction of black blood is neces- 
sary from time to time if markings are to be 
retained. I go so far as to say that a cross of 
green-eyed black in every third generation 
would be a wise precaution. 

The red tabby, the orange, and the tortoise- 
shell are rather hopelessly mixed up at present. 
The self-orange (so called) did not exist a few- 
years ago, but of late a premium has been put 
on absence of marking, and a lot of cats with 
self-coloured or shaded bodies and striped faces 
appear in the orange classes and win all the 
prizes. I have no fault to find with the shade 
of colour of these cats ; they are a beautiful 
bright clear orange, but if they are to be self- 
coloured the face markings 
must go. Crossing with blue 
gets over this difficulty, but 
we- immediately lose bright- 
ness of colour and get dull 
yellows and fawns. Tortoise- 
shell is a safe cross, but the 
ancestry of the tortoiseshell 
must be carefully inquired 
into, and one bred from black 
and tortoiseshell is best, or 
we can go direct to the black. 
Tabby cats or any of a blue- 
or grey colour should be- 
avoided in this connection. 

Clear, pale yellow creams 
may be bred from oranges and 
tortoiseshells ; but these must 
not be confounded with the 



COLOUR BREEDING. 



349 



fawn-coloured cats, often called creams, which 
are more common and easy to breed. Though 
creams and fawns occasionally appear in the 
same litter this is generally 
the fault of their ancestors, 
and can be accounted for if 
the pedigree is known on both 
sides. As a matter of fact, 
I have never seen one of 
these clear yellow creams 
which was not descended, 
however remotely, from 
Mrs. Kinchant's strain. Ex- 
amples of the colour I mean 
are "Cupid Bassanio," 
"Zoroaster," " Dairy Maid," 
" Mistletoe," and a few of 
their descendants. 

To breed fawn creams is, 
comparatively, a simple mat- 
ter, as a cross of blue and 
orange will almost invari- 
ably produce some fawn 
kittens, especially if the dam 
is blue. When the dam is orange or tortoise- 
shell there will often be a number of blue 
tortoiseshell kittens which are valueless. 
Some people like them to breed fawn creams 
from, but I have never found them more use- 
ful for this purpose than a correctly coloured 
tortoiseshell. 

Tortoiseshells are entirely neglected by 
fanciers nowadays, and are only used as a 
stepping-stone to more fashionable colours. 
There is no doubt that a tortoiseshell can be 
got to breed anything ! I knew a queen which 
bred magnificent blacks, blues, creams, oranges, 
fawns, and smokes, whether mated to a blue, 
a cream, or a smoke, and I believe she also 
threw chinchilla kittens to a chinchilla sire. 
To breed tortoiseshells for the show pen we 
must not indulge in any haphazard matings. 
The fault of the tortoiseshells is, as a rule, that 
the red and yellow has run all over the black, 
and instead of having a clear patchwork of red, 
yellow, and black, we have a blur containing 




" HOLMLEA THISTLEDOWN. 
OWNED BY MRS. KEEP, SYDNEY, NEW SOUTH WALES 



a preponderance of yellow. The obvious 
remedy is our old friend the black. All the 
best tortoiseshells are bred from blacks, and 
a black and a red tabby or 
orange will generally throw 
some good tortoiseshells. To 
produce tortoiseshell-and- 
whites cross a tortoiseshell 
with a black-and-white rather 
than with a white, but avoid 
red tabby, as a tortoiseshell- 
and - white cat frequently 
shows tabby markings for 
this breeding. 

The red tabby has nearly 
died out among long-haired 
cats, though it flourishes in 
the short-haired variety, but 
by crossing a brown tabby 
with an orange it might be 
revived. No doubt there 
would be a few mis-marked 
kittens in the litter, but the 
chances would be in favour 
of a good red tabby, and the colour could 
then be preserved by crossing with black 
and tortoiseshell only. 

Of course, it is no use trying experiments in 
cross-breeding in the hope of obtaining definite 
results unless we are satisfied as to the pedi- 
gree of the cats employed for at least two 
generations, or all our calculations may be 
upset. For example, when breeding for 
chinchillas, if we used a black bred from 
a brown tabby mother the results would be 
disastrous. 

A point to be carefully noted in cross- 
breeding is to select a cat with eyes of a colour 
desired in the breed which he is destined to 
improve, whether those eyes would be correct 
in his own family or not. This suggests a use 
for our rejected green-eyed blues and blaeks 
and our orange-eyed silvers. 

My notes, as may be observed, are on the 
subject of long-haired cats, but they will be 
found equally applicable to short-hairs. 

HESTER COCHRAN. 



33 



CHAPTER XXXII. 

THE CAT'S PLACE IN NATURE : ITS ANCESTRY, CLASSIFICATION, STRUCTURE, 

AND DISTRIBUTION. 



T a very remote period in the history 
of animal life when the struggle for exist- 
ence was rife, the carnivorous and pre- 
daceous animals (to which the existing cat 
belongs) occupied a position in the scale of 
creation as important as the one they hold to- 
day. We find locked up in the rocks of the 
tertiary and recent pleistocene formations the 
bones and teeth of these ancient cats along 
with those of the animals upon which they 
lived. 

These ancestors of our cat had a tolerably wide 
geographical distribution, and they apparently 
differed considerably in size, as do the different 
members of the existing cat family. The 
crested cat (F. crestata) was probably as large 

as a tiger more re- 
cent remains having 
a closer affinity to 
existing cats are 
found plentifully in 
caves and in the 
deeper beds of 
rivers and lakes 
almost all over the 
British Islands. 

Probably the most 
remarkable of these 
extinct cat-like 
creatures is the 
Machcerodus, the 
skulls of which 
(Fig. ii.), with por- 
tions of its skeleton, 
associated with the 
bones of other ani- 
mals, have been 
found in the cave 

deposits in Brazil, North and South America, 
India, Persia, many parts of Europe, as well as 
in the British Islands viz. Kent's Cavern, 




B 



FIG. I. BKAIN OF CAT. 

A, Right hemisphere of cerebrum ; 
B, Cerebellum ; c, Medulla 
oblongata ; D, Olfactory bulb 
(nerve of smell) ; K, Convolu- 
tion, or Gyrus ; F, Fissure. 



Creswell bone caves, and other places. The 
skull, which is very typical and cat-like in 
form, is remarkable for the extraordinary 
development of the upper canine teeth, which 
in some species exceed seven inches in length. 
The Machoerodus was about the size of a lion. 
The ancestors of our cat were certainly more 
specialised in parts of their organisation. The 
nearer we approach the recent forms a greater 
uniformity in structure prevails, until we get 
in the existing cat-like group