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JUN 12 1914 

BX 5945 .H35 1913 

Hart, Samuel, 1845-1917. 

The book of common prayer 





GENERAL EDITOR — The Rev. Arthur R. Gray, Edu- 
cational Secretary of The Board of Missions ; sometime 
Chaplain of the University of the South. 

A. C. A. Hall, D.D., LL.D., Bishop of Vermont 

"It is at once most comprehensive and most condensed; and its dealing with some 
of the difficult and important questions of our time, such as the Resurrection, the In- 
carnation, and especially the Atonement, is a remarkable piece of clear theological 
statement and logical argument." — Rt. Rev. W. C. DoANE. 

Samuel Hart, D.D., LL.D., Dean of Berkeley Divinity 

"It is admirably adapted to the uses of students of theology, and is, beyond com- 
parison, the best book of its kind for the reading of Churchmen in general." — Dr. 
George Hodges, Dean of the Episcopal Theological School. 

APOLOGETICS, by the General Editor. 

"Distinctly pragmatic, but also thoroughly theistic." — Dr. W. P. DuBoSE. 

"This volume has many excellencies; but the chief of them is its masterly exposure 
of the claims of Naturalism." — Princeton Theological Review. 

TO 476 A.D., by the Very Rev. Chas. L. Wells, Ph.D., 
Lecturer in History, McGill University, Montreal ; some- 
time Dean of Christ Church Cathedral, New Orleans. 

" Compact, clear, and admirably arranged. ... A boon alike to men preparing 
themselves for examination and to the general reader." — Tht Church Times (London). 

"Adapted for lay use; .... the layman . . . will find this a book ... fit to set 
him on the way towards the mastery of Church History." — The Expository Times. 

ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY from 476 a.d., by the 
Rev. Wilson Lloyd Bevan, Ph.D., Professor of History 
and Economics, University of the South. (Shortly.) 

THE OLD TESTAMENT, by the Rev. Loring W. 
Batten, Ph.D., S.T.D., Professor of the Literature and 
Interpretation of the Old Testament, General Theological 
Seminary. (In preparation.) 

THE NEW TESTAMENT, by the Rev. William H. P. 
Hatch, B.D., Ph.D., Adjunct Professor of the Literature 
and Interpretation of the New Testament, The General 
Theological Seminary. (In preparation.) 

ECCLESIASTICAL POLITY, by the Rev. George Wil- 
liam Douglas, D.D., Canon of the Cathedral of St. John 
the Divine, New York. (In preparation.) 

CHRISTIAN ETHICS. (To be arranged for.) 

,*# In uniform volumes, 12-mo. cloth, printed on imp^rttd 
English Paper, price $1.30 per volume, post prepaid. , 




</y-' BY 





Copyright, 191 3 

By The University Press of 

Sewanee Tennessee 


THE object of this series is to provide for the 
clergy and laity of the Church a statement, in 
convenient form, of its Doctrine, Discipline and 
Worship— as well as to meet the often expressed de- 
sire on the part of Examining Chaplains for text- 
books which they could recommend to candidates 
for Holy Orders. 

To satisfy, on the one hand, the demand of general 
readers among the clergy and laity, the books have 
been provided with numerous references to larger 
works, making them introductory in their nature; 
and on the other hand, to make them valuable for use 
in canonical examinations, they have been arranged 
according to the canons of the Church which deal 
with that matter. 

It is the earnest hope of the collaborators in this 
series that the impartial scholarship and unbiased at- 
titude adopted throughout will commend themselves 
to Churchmen of all types, and that the books will 
therefore be accorded a general reception and adopted 
as far as possible as a rtorm for canonical examina- 
tions. The need of such a norm is well known to all. 

And finally a word to Examining Chaplains. They 
will find that the volumes are so arranged that it will 


be possible to adapt them to all kinds of students. 
The actual text itself should be taken as the minimum 
of requirement from the candidate, and then, by 
reference on their part to the bibliographies at the 
end of each chapter, they can increase as they see fit 
the amount of learning to be demanded in each case. 
It has been the endeavor of the editor to make these 
bibliographies so comprehensive that Examining 
Chaplains will always find suitable parallel readings. 
If in any way the general public will be by this 
series encouraged to study the position of the 
Church, and if the canonical examinations in the 
different dioceses can be brought into greater har- 
mony one with another, our object will be accom- 

Arthur R. Gray. 


THE primary purpose of this volume is to guide 
Candidates for Holy Orders in their study of 
the History and the Contents of the Book of Common 
Prayer as it has been set forth for use in the Amer- 
ican Church. To this end, I have followed the 
method of familiar lectures, such as can be 'inter- 
rupted by question and answer; assuming through- 
out that the reader has an acquaintance with the 
Book, but that he wishes to be informed as to its 
origins, its principles, its purposes, and some of the 
details of its phraseology and use. I have endeav- 
ored, therefore, to answer the questions which such 
a reader might be minded to ask, and to suggest to 
him lines of inquiry for more thorough study. It 
will be evident that in such a method many matters 
will receive attention which are of comparatively 
little importance, and liturgical scholars will see 
that this book lacks balance and perspective; but I 
hope that the defect will be in part excused by some 
little addition to its interest and to its practical 
usefulness. Moreover, in such a hand-book it is 
frequently necessary to express an opinion; but it 
should not be thought that the present writer con- 
siders all his opinions of equal value, or indeed that 


he would attach undue importance to any opinion of 
his own. It must be left to the reader to distinguish 
between opinions and statements of historical or theo- 
logical facts. 

There are few books as interesting or as valuable 
as the Book of Common Prayer. "The difficulties that 
people find with the Prayer Book," says the author of 
Ecclesia Discens, "are mainly due to their not using 
it as it was intended to be used, systematically and 
continuously. In one sense it is hard to master, be- 
cause it contains a great deal that is worth learning. 
A practical acquaintance with the year of worship 
which it provides and with some of its occasional 
offices is a liberal education in the things necessary 
to salvation. * ' 

In the second edition the writer has been able to 
correct some errors, availing himself of the kindly 
criticisms of friends. The Index has been much 

S. H. 

Berkeley Divinity School, 
St. Luke's Day, 191 2. 



I. Introductory i 

The English Prayer Book 5 

The American Prayer Book 17 

II. The Preliminary Pages of the Prayer Book: 

Title, Ratification, Preface 35 

Concerning the Service of the Church 36 

The Psalter 39 

Lessons of Scripture 42 

Hymns and Anthems 47 

The Calendar, with Tables and Lessons 48 

Tables and Rules 53 

III. Morning and Evening Prayer 64 

The Creed of Saint Athanasius 96 

IV. The Litany 100 

V. Special Prayers and Thanksgivings 11 1 

The Penitential Office 115 

VI. The Collects, Epistles, and Gospels 117 

Coincidence of Holy Days 133 

VII. The Holy Communion — I: 

History of the Office 138 

VIII. The Holy Communion — II: 

Commentary on the Office 166 

The Communion of the Sick 202 

IX. The Ministration of Baptism: 

Public Baptism of Infants 209 

Private Baptism of Children 219 

Baptism of those of Riper Years 222 

X. The Catechism 227 

Questions and Answers on the Church 232 


XI. The Order of Confirmation 230 

XII. The Solemnization of Matrimony 244 

XIII. The Visitation of the Sick 254 

XIV. The Burial of the Dead 261 

XV. Other Offices : 

The Churching of Women 271 

Forms of Prayer to be Used at Sea 272 

The Visitation of Prisoners 273 

Thanksgiving-day 273 

Family Prayers 274 

XVI. The Psalter 275 

XVII. The Ordinal 278 

Consecration of a Church ; Institution of Min- 
isters 287 

Index 291 








THE Prayer Book, or rather the Book described 
by its title as "The Book of Common Prayer, 
and Administration of the Sacraments, and other 
Rites and Ceremonies of the Church, . . . together 
with the Psalter or Psalms of David", really con- 
sists of five books, which had never been brought 
together within one cover until the time of the Eng- 
lish Reformation; in fact, it is only in the English 
Church and those connected with it that the five 
books are to-day customarily printed and bound to- 
gether. These constituent parts of our Prayer Book 
are called, in the anglicized form of their Latin 
names, the Breviary, the Processional, the Missal, 
the Manual, and the Psalter. The last named is 
really a book of the Bible, arranged for use on the 
successive days of the month, and bound up with the 
service-books — a provision made almost necessary 
by the fact that it is used in Church in an old trans- 
lation which is rarely printed elsewhere. In regard 


to each of the other parts of the volume a few words 
may be said. 

The Breviary, so called because it was originally a 
compendium or concise arrangement of devotional 
offices, contained the services for the several hours of 
each day of the week, modified for special days of 
the Church's year, with the Calendar and rules for 
their use; it also contained the Psalter, the several 
Psalms being distributed according to the places in 
which they were to be read. The present Roman 
Breviary is in four good-sized volumes, one for each 
season of the year. The parts corresponding to it in 
our Book are the general rubrics, with calendar and 
tables, and the Order for Daily Morning and Even- 
ing Prayer. 

The Processional was a book of Litanies, so called 
because Litanies were often sung in procession. 
Our Litany, with the special Prayers and Thanks- 
givings and the Penitential Office, corresponds to 

The Missal contained the service used at the cele- 
bration of the Mass or Eucharist, including the 
Collects, Epistles, and Gospels, the psalms or verses 
sung in connection with them, the Prefaces, and cer- 
tain variable prayers for different days. The Order 
for the Holy Communion, with the Collects, Epis- 
tles, and Gospels, as of old, corresponds to this. 

The Manual included all the services which we 
call Occasional, as they were used by the priests, in- 
cluding also that for Confirmation as being a paro- 


chial service. To it corresponds the offices for Bap- 
tism and those which follow. 

After the Psalter there is placed in our Book — 
though really it is another book bound up with the 
former — what was called a Pontifical: that is, a col- 
lection of offices used by Bishops. It includes with 
us the three Ordination services, with their Litany 
and Communion Office, the form for the Consecra- 
tion of a Church, and that for the Institution of a 

The Articles of Religion are, in accordance with 
long-established custom, bound with the Prayer 
Book; but they have their own title-page and are 
not a part of the Prayer Book at all. 

It may be interesting to note that both the Breviary 
(as indeed its name denotes) and the Missal were 
made up of more than one earlier book. The 
Lessons, extracts from Homilies, and other readings 
for the daily offices were contained in the Legenda; 
the Antiphons and other sung parts in the Antiph- 
onal; the complicated rules for reading the ser- 
vices in the Ordinal or Directorium, which latter, 
from the great number of large black letters on its 
pages, contrasting with the white of the paper, was 
called in Latin 'Pica' ('magpie'), anglicized into 
'Pie'.^ The Missal was also used in distinct parts: 
the Sacramentary contained what was said or sung by 
the celebrant, and his assistants had the Epistle- 

^ This gave name to ' pica' type and perhaps to printers' ' pi '. 


book or Apostle and the Gospel-book for their parts 
of the service. There was also a Gradual-book for 
the choir, containing the gradual psalms sung be- 
tween the Epistle and the Gospel, and a Troper 
with later additions to the musical part of the 
service. We are familiar in our Church with 
Litany-books and Altar Services; our Bishops have 
Ordinals with other services which they use; and in 
England separate Epistle-books and Gospel-books 
have been printed. 

All the services contained in the ancient books 
mentioned as in use in the Western Church — and 
the Eastern Church has in principle the same offices — 
continued to be used in England throughout the 
reign of King Henry VIII, who died early in 1547. 
Before that time, the translation of the Bible known 
as the Great Bible and first published in 1539 (an 
edition of Coverdale's translation of 1535), had been 
placed in the churches. In 1543 it had been ordered 
that Lessons of Scripture should be read in English 
at Matins and Vespers, and announcement had been 
made that a reformation of the service-books was to 
follow; and in the next year, as will presently be 
noted, an English Litany had been set forth. But 
no other actual changes had been made, except that 
the name of the Pope and the name of St. Thomas ^ 
Becket had been erased from the books. But 
schemes for revision were in hand, which led to the 
publication of the first English Prayer Book in the 
next reiffn. 


The English Prayer Book* 

The Book of Common Prayer has been used by 
some twelve generations of men and women and 
children in England; it has been carried into all the 
colonies of English people everywhere; it was used 
on this continent as soon as English Churchmen set 
foot on it, and it has been constantly used in our land 
since the settlement of Jamestown in 1607, when the 
book itself was not sixty years old. To-day there are 
about two million copies of the book in the churches 
and homes of the United States; its words are on 
the lips of Christian people all over the world, and 
its thoughts are in their hearts, and we feel sure that 
it will be used and that its influence will extend as 
long as there shall be English-speaking Christians on 
the earth, and that we can hardly doubt will be until 
the Church shall come to the end of her earthly his- 
tory and the Lord shall return from heaven. 

We belong to a Church which teaches us to use a 
book now, in nearly every part, three hundred and 
sixty years old; a book which comes from a date 
hardly a century after the invention of printing and 
not much more than a century and a half after the 

*The writer does not apologize for using, at the beginning of 
this and the following chapter, parts of A Short History of 
the Book of Common Prayer^ which he wrote in 1899, at the 
request of the late Mr. George C. Thomas, for the use of the 
teachers and scholars of the Church of the Holy Apostles, 
Philadelphia, in commemoration of the 350th anniversary of 
the first English Prayer Book. 


discovery of America; a book which is not older than 
the English Bible, to be sure, but is sixty years 
older than the translation which is now read in our 
churches ; a book with which some people have found 
fault, of course, but which has gained a stronger and 
stronger hold on the affection and esteem of those 
who have really come to know it. It is worth our 
while to know such a book well, and to learn what we 
can about it. 

There had been Christians in the country which is 
now called England, from an early date; and those 
Christians had held the same creeds, had had the 
same ministry, and had used practically the same 
forms for daily worship and ministering the Sacra- 
ments, as Christians in other parts of the world. 
There never was a Church without some kind of a 
Prayer Book. It would have its beginning in the 
teaching of Apostles or of men who stood very near 
to them ; additions would be made to it by good men 
as they found out what was needed ; and so it would 
grow to be a part of the religious life of the people. 
But there was no printing in those days, and very 
few people could read and write; so that for the most 
part the use of a service-book was a matter of hearing 
and of memory. Then again, the missionaries who 
brought Christianity to the British Isles — whether 
those of earlier days who found the Britons in pos- 
session, or those beginning with Augustine in 597 
who converted the Anglo-Saxons by whom the 
Britons had been in part displaced — spoke Latin, 


which was for a long time the only civilized language 
for Western Europe; and the services of the Church 
were kept in Latin, the people watching the priest 
to know what he was doing, rather than listening to 
what he said, except when he preached in the lan- 
guage which they used and understood. Thus it 
came about that there was no 'Common Prayer', 
no response in any service except by a few who were 
trained to repeat the necessary Latin words; and 
what was worst of all, the people could not understand 
the Word of God when the Lessons or any other part 
of the Bible was read in church. They were indeed 
taught in English — and this should be thankfully 
remembered — the Creed, the Lord's Prayer, and the 
Ten Commandments, with some of the Psalms and 
some of the Collects; and there were service-books 
in English, called 'Primers' or 'First Books', which 
became more common after the invention of printing, 
but very few were able to use these. Thus, as only 
priests and monks could understand the daily services, 
the common people were not expected to go to them ; 
and the rules for finding the parts of the services 
became very complicated and hard to follow and the 
Lessons from the Bible became very short and dis- 
connected. On Sundays and Holy-days the people 
went to church for the service of the Holy Commun- 
ion, or the 'Mass' as it was then commonly called; 
and probably most of them could follow the service 
after they became used to it; but they did not join 
with the priest in its words, and they rarely received 


the Sacrament. And still further, as there had 
crept into the Church errors of one kind and another, 
about which we read in the history of those times, 
the services came to be in some things different from 
what they had once been and what they ought to 
have been. 

Among the changes in England at the time of the 
Reformation, one of the most important was the 
adoption of a Book of Common Prayer in the lan- 
guage of the people. The first service to be put into 
English was the Litany; this was set forth by 
Archbishop Cranmer under the authority of King 
Henry VIII in 1544. Within a few years Henry 
died and was succeeded by his son, the boy king 
Edward VI. In his reign, early in the year 1548, 
there was published "The Order of the Commun- 
ion" in English, which was to be used on and after 
the Easter of that year. It did not displace any 
part of the Latin service of the Mass; but it pro- 
vided that after the priest had consecrated the bread 
and wine and had received the Sacrament, he should 
say a service of preparation for the communicants 
and then should administer to them both of the con- 
secrated elements, using in all an English form of 
words. This new service had in it what we now 
have in the Exhortation and Invitation ("Ye who do 
truly"), the Confession and Absolution, the Comfort- 
able Words, and the Prayer of Humble Access 
("We do not presume"), and the administration in 
both kinds with the former half of the sentences now 


used, followed by a Benediction. This great and 
important act, giving to the people in their own 
tongue a service for the full reception of the 
Eucharist, prepared the way for an act still greater. 
The Archbishop and those who were associated with 
him continued their work, and soon had ready for 
the printers a complete Book of Common Prayer. 
It was duly authorized and first used on Whitsun- 
day, which was the ninth day of June, in the year 


This Prayer Book did not have in it, nor did it 
need to have, much that was new. Its compilers 
had the old service-books, and in particular that 
form of the Latin service-book known as the Use of 
Sarum (Salisbury), which had been most widely fol- 
lowed in England since about the year 1180; and in 
these books was much which had been used from the 
beginning: Collects which even then were a thousand 
years old. Epistles and Gospels which^had been in 
use nearly as long, besides the Book of Psalms for 
worship and all the rest of the Bible for Lessons; 
and for the ministration of the Sacrament and other 
holy rites they wished, as indeed they felt it their 
duty, to follow the custom of the Church in her best 
and purest days, with adaptation to the needs of the 
time. And for their assistance they had before 
them, besides the Latin services with which they 
were familiar, the Greek Liturgies and the ancient 
Spanish services, the plans for reformation of the 
daily services proposed by the Spanish Cardinal 


Quinones'and studied by Cranmer, and suggestions 
from the reforming Archbishop of Cologne, Hermann 
by name, and from other German sources. 

In the use of this material the compilers were 
guided by three principles. First, they wished to 
put the services into English, so that all could under- 
stand them and read them (or at least commit their 
parts understandingly to memory), and thus use 
them; and this was largely, if not entirely, done by 
Archbishop Cranmer himself, who had wonderful 
skill as a translator from Latin and a writer of Eng- 
lish. Secondly, they were determined to make the 
services simple, in order that they might be 'under- 
standed' and readily followed and learned, and also to 
make them instructive, especially by providing for 
large readings from God's Word. And thirdly, they 
felt it their duty to correct errors of doctrine and of 
practice which in course of time had found their way 
into the service-books and into the manner of using 
them. The result was, as has been said, the Prayer 
Book of 1549, often called the First Book of Edward 
VI, which with some changes, but very few of real 
importance, is still used in the English Church and 
in our own. The detailed history of the several of- 
fices, as well before the adoption of this first English 
Book as after it, will be best given later on, as each 
office comes under consideration; but a general state- 
ment as to the several revisions may be made here. 

'Commonly called ' Quignon' by English writers. 


First, we must note that in the present English 
and American Books, Morning and Evening Prayer 
from the Lord's Prayer through the third Collect, 
the Litany, the Collects with the Epistles and 
Gospels, and the Occasional Offices (beginning with 
that for the Ministration of Baptism and perhaps 
making an exception of the Burial Ofifice) have not 
been greatly changed from the services of 1549; while 
the Ordination services remain almost exactly as 
they were set forth in 1550. As to the Communion 
Office, it was modified in several important particu- 
lars in 1552, and in the English Church has been 
little changed since that date except in the Words of 
Administration ; our Church has taken the Prayer of 
Consecration from the Scottish Liturgy. 

The cause for the next revision, which followed 
within four years, was that there early grew up an 
influential party which held and taught that the 
Reformation had not gone far enough when the first 
Prayer Book was adopted, and insisted on the need of 
greater changes in things religious and devotional 
than had yet been made; while others were pushing 
for a return to some things which had been aban- 
doned ; and in those troublous times the leaders did 
not always feel sure that they had been working 
along the right lines. A revision was ordered, and 
changes were made, some of them in the direction of 
the Reformation on the Continent, but almost all in 
reality affecting rather the form than the doctrine of 
the earlier Book. It will be well to remember that in 


this book the penitential introduction was prefixed 
to Morning and Evening Prayer, the Ten Com- 
mandments were placed at the beginning of the 
Communion Office, and this service and those which 
follow were put practically into their present form; 
the one notable exception being that at the ad- 
ministration of the Holy Communion the words pro- 
vided were the second half of the present forms: 
"Take and eat this . . . ", "Drink this in remem- 
brance . . .", what is now the former half having 
been prescribed in 1549 but omitted in 1552. This 
second book was to come into use on All Saints' Day 
in 1552; but there was delay at the printers, and it 
can hardly have been used at all; for Edward died 
in July, 1553, and his sister Mary who succeeded 
him held to the Roman obedience and put a stop to 
the work of reformation. For the five cruel years of 
her reign the use of the English Prayer Book was 
forbidden by law. The great Queen Elizabeth, 
Edward's and Mary's sister, came to the throne in 
1558; and in the following year the Prayer Book was 
again published and came at once into general use. 
It was the edition of 1552, modified by bringing to- 
gether at the administration of the Holy Communion 
the words provided in the first and the second Books of 
Edward VI, so as to give the forms now used, and 
with scarce any other changes ; yet under the Queen's 
influence, though it was the Book of 1552, there 
seem to have been retained with it some of the 
usages and spirit of that of 1549. 


The Puritan influence, strongly opposed to Epis- 
copacy and the Prayer Book, was held in restraint 
during her long reign, and necessary opposition to it 
strengthened the convictions of English Churchmen. 
When her successor, James I, came to the throne in 
1603, a conference of Churchmen and Puritans was 
held under the presidency of the king at Hampton 
Court; but the king threw the weight of his learning 
and his pedantry against the insurgent party, and 
the new edition of the Prayer Book in 1604 practically 
differed from the preceding only in the addition to 
the Catechism of the questions and answers as to 
the Sacraments. James died in 1625, and in the 
troublous times of his son, Charles I, the combined 
influence of Presbyterianism and Puritanism, aided 
by the King's unwise attempt to force a Prayer Book 
on Scotland in 1637 and by his other blunders, led to 
the apparent overthrow of the Church of England. 
Archbishop Laud was beheaded ; in 1645 an ordi- 
nance of Parliament established Presbyterianism and 
abolished the Book of Common Prayer and forbade 
its use in public or private; in 1649 the king, who 
always kept faithful to the Church, was brought to 
the block; and the Presbyterian establishment re- 
mained in force till the end of the Commonwealth in 
1660. After the accession, or rather restoration, of 
Charles II in 1661, a debate was held at the Savoy 
Palace in London between twelve divines of the 
Church of England and twelve of the opposing party, 
who brought almost innumerable objections against 


the Prayer Book, verbal and rubrical and doctrinal. 
It led to the recognition that the system of the 
Church and that of the Puritans were irreconcilable, 
and that the logical place of the latter was not as 
dissenters but as separatists. A thorough review of 
the Prayer Book was undertaken, however, by the 
authorities of the Church; the book was carefully 
edited; in the Prayer for the Church in the Com- 
munion Ofifice an explicit oblation and a commemo- 
ration of the departed were inserted ; a large number 
of minor changes, nearly all editorial, were made; 
and the Standard Prayer Book of the Church of 
England for nearly 250 years has been the edition of 
1662. No alteration has been made in the Book 
since that date, except the necessary changes of 
names in the prayers for the sovereign and the royal 
family and the provision (in 1871) of new tables of 
Lessons; some permission for shortening the daily 
services has been given by authority of Convocation 
and Parliament (1872), but the rubrics remain as 

An attempt at revision was made in 1689 as part 
of the scheme of comprehension under William and 
Mary, but the report (not printed till 1855) was 
never presented to Convocation; there is a reference 
to it, but based on no accurate knowledge of its con- 
tents, in the Preface to our Prayer Book. In 1879 
the Convocations of Canterbury and York proposed 
amendments to the rubrics in reply to 'Letters of 
Business' from the Crown ; but no action was taken 


on their recommendations. Quite recently 'Letters 
of Business' have been again issued for this purpose; 
and at this writing (1912) a report from an influential 
Committee is under discussion with a view to some 
such revision as was accomplished in our Church 
seventeen years ago. 

In English works on the Prayer Book, and elsewhere, the 
reader will find frequent references to two rubrics which are not 
in our American Book, the ' Ornaments Rubric ' and the ' Black 

The Ornaments Rubric stands just before the beginning of 
Morning Prayer, and is now in these words : " And here it is 
to be noted, that such Ornaments of the Church and of the 
Ministers thereof at all times of their ministration, shall be re- 
tained and be in use, as were in this Church in England, by the 
authority of Parliament, in the second year of the reign of 
King Edward the Sixth." The word 'ornaments', as applied to 
a church, includes what we should call 'furnishings', such as 
altar-cloths and candlesticks ; and as applied to ministers, it in- 
cludes vestments. 

The first Book of Edward VI contained directions as to the 
dress of the clergy, including a surplice at matins and evensong 
and " a white alb plain with a vestment [which seems to mean 
a chasuble] or cope." The second Book forbade the use of 
alb, vestment, and cope, but ordered for priests and deacons a 
surplice only. In Elizabeth's Book of 1559, the Ornaments 
Rubric, as far as the ornaments of the minister were con- 
cerned, took the present form ; the reference to the ornaments 
of the church was inserted in 1662. This rubric has been and 
still is in England the occasion of great controversy, the ques- 
tion really being whether the Prayer Book requires the use of 
what are known as the 'eucharistic vestments'. The opinions 
of men learned in ecclesiastical and statute law have been 
diverse ; there is a lack of agreement as to the meaning of the 
date ; and some have held that the rubric was modified by other 
legal action taken in Elizabeth's reign. It is to be feared that 


some opinions and some decisions of courts in the matter have 
been affected by prejudice ; and to most of us it seems that 
over-great importance has been attached to the interpretations 
of the rubric. It can hardly be held to have any legal or 
canonical weight in this country ; and a commentary on the 
American Book may be excused from expressing an opinion as 
to its application. 

The Black Rubric stands after the rubrics at the end of the 
Communion Office, and is really a declaration in defence of the 
requirement that communicants shall receive the Sacrament 
kneeling. It is printed in italic, Hke the rubrics ; but when the 
rubrics are printed in red ink, as they ought to be by reason of 
their name which expresses ancient custom, this remains in 
black ; hence it is called the Black Rubric. It was first placed 
in the Book of 1552, and was again inserted in its present form 
in 1662. Although evidently not written by a careful theologian, 
it is of value as distinguishing between the right meaning of 
kneeling at the reception of the Sacrament and a possible per- 
version of it. Our Church has lost nothing, except a cause of 
endless controversy, by its omission. 

It may be well to note that in the American Prayer Book 
proper there is no mention of ministerial vestments ; and that 
in the Ordinal it is simply provided that persons to be or- 
dained deacons or priests shall be " decently habited ", and 
that a Bishop-elect when presented to the Presiding Bishop 
shall be "vested with his rochet" and before the ' Veni Creator' 
shall " put on the rest of the Episcopal habit." The only allu- 
sion to vestments in our Canons is the provision that a lay- 
reader " shall not wear the dress appropriate to clergymen 
ministering in the congregation" (Canon 22, § iii). In this 
lack of rubrical or canonical provision, we fall back upon the 
law of custom ; and it is certainly a fair question how far the 
lawfulness of custom may be interpreted for us by the Orna- 
ments Rubric of the English Church. 


The American Prayer Book 

In this country, as soon as Englishmen began to 
make settlements, they brought with them the Prayer 
Book. The first use of the Book within the present 
limits of the United States appears to have been in 
1579, when the chaplain of Sir Francis Drake read 
prayers at the time of a landing on the Pacific coast 
near the site of San Francisco; but the first perma- 
nent settlement at which it was used was Jamestown 
in Virginia, where services began with the beginning 
of the colony in 1607. The adherents of the Church 
of England in the several colonies held different 
relations to the civil authority, but they all acknowl- 
edged the somewhat shadowy authority of the Bishop 
of London as their Diocesan and used faithfully the 
Prayer Book of the English Church. In some 
places — the most notable instances being in Con- 
necticut — copies of that book were the Church's 
first and most effective missionaries. As no Bishop 
came to visit the colonies, the services for Confirma- 
tion and Ordination could not be held; but the other 
services were constantly used, the only variation 
noted being that some clergymen omitted the exhor- 
tation to the sponsors of children baptized, that they 
should bring them to the Bishop to be confirmed. 

After the Declaration of Independence, the united 
parishes of Christ Church and St. Peter's in Phila- 
delphia were the first to direct the omission of the 
Prayers for the King and Royal Family of Great 


Britain; in other places like action was soon taken; 
and presently Prayers for the United States and for 
Congress were read in many churches. But a con- 
siderable part of the clergy, especially in the north- 
ern colonies, were strong adherents of the Crown, 
and held that they were still bound by the oath of 
allegiance which they had taken at their ordination. 
Some of these, under pressure of circumstances, 
ceased to minister at all in public, or contented 
themselves with reading from the Bible, preaching, 
and saying the Lord's Prayer; some found safety 
within the British lines; and a few, in spite of 
threats and actual violence, continued to read the 
services in their churches without alteration or omis- 
sion. But as soon as the war was practically over,* 
Churchmen throughout the land began to consider 
the problems which confronted them, and in particu- 
lar those which were involved in the necessary ar- 
rangements for public worship under the new condi- 
tion of affairs and for securing the Episcopate. 

Action was first taken in Connecticut, where on the 
25th of March, 1783, Samuel Seabury was elected 
Bishop and sent to ask for consecration in England 
or Scotland. He was consecrated in Aberdeen in 
November, 1784; when he returned to his diocese 
in the following year he gave instructions to his 
clergy as to the necessary changes in the services, 

*The cessation of hostilities was proclaimed April 19, 1783, 
but the treaty of peace was not signed till September 3 of that 


and a year later, in 1786, he set forth for his Diocese 
the Communion service as used by the Scottish 
Bishops who had consecrated him. Before this 
time, however, delegates from seven Southern 
States, as they were then called (for 'Southern' 
meant New York and all south of it, the division 
being at Byram River), had met in Philadelphia 
near the end of September, 1785; and it was one of 
the 'fundamental principles' enunciated in the call 
for this meeting that they should "adhere to the 
Liturgy" of the Church of England "so far as shall 
be consistent with the American Revolution and the 
Constitutions of the respective States." This Con- 
vention of 1785 drafted "an Ecclesiastical Constitu- 
tion for the Protestant Episcopal Church in the 
United States of America"; adopted a petition to 
the English Archbishops and Bishops that they 
would grant the Episcopate to the Church in this 
country; agreed to a few alterations in the Prayer 
Book due to the change in the form of government, 
and also appointed a committee to consider "such 
alterations in the Liturgy as it may be advisable to 
recommend for the consideration of the Church here 
represented." A large number of changes in all 
parts of the Prayer Book were reported; and the 
Convention agreed to "propose and recommend" 
them, leaving the question of their adoption to an- 
other Convention. 

This revision (if it may be so called) was largely 
the work of the Rev. Dr. William Smith, formerly of 


Pennsylvania and Provost of the University, but then 
of Maryland ; and the publication of a book embodying 
the proposed changes was left to him with the Rev. 
William White (afterwards Bishop of Pennsylvania) 
and the Rev. Dr. Wharton of Delaware. The Book, 
known as the 'Proposed Book', was published on the 
first day of April, 1786.' It was at once seen to have 
proposed too many and radical changes; no one seems 
to have thought it satisfactory; and it was used but in 
a few places and for a short time. The English Bish- 
ops wrote that they were grieved to observe some of the 
changes which had been made in the forms of wor- 
ship, and particularly that the Nicene Creed and the 
Athanasian Creed had been omitted altogether, and 
that the clause "He descended into hell" had been 
omitted from the Apostles' Creed ; and they more 
than intimated that they would take no steps to 
grant the Episcopate to the Church in the United 
States until these matters were corrected. Another 
Convention of delegates from the 'Southern' States 
met in October, 1786; it voted unanimously to re- 
store the Nicene Creed, making it an alternative for 
the Apostles', barely adopted a motion to restore the 
clause as to the descent into hell, and negatived a 
proposal to replace the Athanasian Creed. The 
English Bishops were satisfied with this action, and 
on February 4, 1787, in the Chapel of Lambeth 

^It was reprinted in England with the label, "American 
Prayer Book", and is sometimes quoted as having an authority 
which it never possessed. 


Palace, Dr. William White was consecrated Bishop 
of Pennsylvania, and Dr. Samuel Provoost Bishop 
of New York. 

The next Convention — it was really the first Gen- 
eral Convention — met at Philadelphia in the autumn 
of 1789; a complete union of the Church in all the 
States was effected on October 2nd ; the Convention 
was organized in two Houses, and action was at once 
taken in regard to the Prayer Book. Bishops Sea- 
bury and White (Bishop Provoost being detained at 
home by sickness) began to propose amendments to 
the English Prayer Book ; the House of Deputies, 
with Dr. William Smith presiding, appointed 
committees to propose new formularies, but all was 
done here also on the lines of the English Book; the 
"Proposed Book" was not mentioned, and had little 
influence on the result. 

The work, though it was accomplished in two 
weeks, was not careless or hasty. The two Bishops 
and those of the deputies who specially had the 
matter in hand — such men as Dr. Smith and Dr. 
Parker of Massachusetts — had long had both the 
principles and the details of an American revision 
under consideration. Many minor changes were 
made in the use of words and phrases liable to be 
misunderstood or lacking in precision; a desire to 
avoid repetitions, to shorten some of the services, and 
to provide for special needs, accounts for other 
changes; and in some cases, few of them involving 
any principle, concession was made to objections 


which were not very reasonable. It is not possible 
here to name any but the most important of the par- 
ticulars in which this first American Book differed 
from the English/ The most serious oraisssion was 
that of the Magnificat and the Nunc Dimittis, to- 
gether with the latter part of the Benedictus; valua- 
ble additions were the prefixing of Habakkuk ii. 20, 
Malachi i. 11, and Psalm xix. 14, 15, to Morning and 
Evening Prayer, and the insertion (though dis- 
cretionary) of our Lord's Summary of the Law after 
the Ten Commandments; there was also an advantage 
in the insertion of a service for Thanksgiving-day 
and of Family Prayers; and the Form for the Visi- 
tation of Prisoners, not in the English Book, was 
taken from the Irish Prayer Book of 171 1. 

But the most important of all things at this revision 
was the adoption, in the Order for the Holy Com- 
munion, of the Scottish form of the Prayer of Conse- 
cration, with a single modification, itself in the 
direction of primitive usage, proposed at this time 
by deputies from Maryland. The Churchmen in 
New England, and especially in Connecticut, had 
beome familiar with it from Bishop Seabury's office, 
now in use for some three years; and when Bishop 
Seabury, following a promise made to his consecra- 
tors as well as his own convictions, proposed that it 

* A full account of them will be found in the article on the 
American Prayer Book in Frere's Procter's New History of 
the Book of Com?non Prayer, pp. 243 fi.; they will also be 
readily seen, of course, in a comparison of the two Books. 


be substituted for the English form, he found that 
Bishop White did not oppose it. There was some 
objection to it, we are told, when it began to be read 
in the House of Deputies; but Dr. Smith, himself 
(by the way) a Scotchman, reproved those who found 
fault with something which they had not heard, and 
thereupon read the prayer with so impressive a tone 
and manner that it was accepted "without opposition 
and in silence". Thus there was provided for the 
Church in the United States a Prayer of Consecra- 
tion for the Holy Communion which conformed to 
the usage of the primitive Church by containing 
an explicit Oblation and an explicit Invocation of 
the Holy Spirit after the recital of the Words of 
Institution ; a gift of untold value and, it cannot 
be doubted, a bond of unity in this Church for all 

The new Prayer Book went into use October i, 
1790. The Ordinal was set forth in 1792, the first 
service read from it being that of the Consecration of 
Bishop Claggett of Maryland, on whom hands were 
laid by Bishops White, Provoost, and Madison, of 
the direct English succession, with Bishop Seabury, 
who had been consecrated in Scotland. In 1799 the 
Form of Consecration of a Church, based on that 
drawn up by Bishop Andrewes of Winchester in 
1620, and a Prayer to be used at the Meetings of 
Convention, were added to the Prayer Book; and in 
1804 an office of Institution of Ministers, already 
adopted in Connecticut and New York, was also 


added. The Articles of Religion were adopted in 
their American form in 1801. 

The only change made in the Prayer Book or 
Offices, after their adoption as above stated, until 
the year 1886, with the exception of modifications in 
the Tables of Lessons in and after 1877 and the cor- 
rection of a few manifest errors, was the change of 
'north' to 'right' at the beginning of the Communion 
Office, which was made in 1835. The House of 
Bishops, however, on several occasions expressed 
their formal opinion upon matters as to which the 
rubrical directions were not sufficiently clear, or for 
which (as for the proper postures in certain parts 
of the Communion service) there were no rubrical 

In 1826, a proposal made by Bishop Hobart, of 
New York, for the authorization of shortened ser- 
vices, was approved by both Houses of the General 
Convention; but it found so little favor in the 
Church at large that it was quietly dropped at the 
next Convention. In 1853, the Rev. Dr. William 
A. Muhlenberg and others presented to the Bishops 
a memorial asking that provision be made for a re- 
laxation of the obligation of the rubrics in certain 
cases. It led to much discussion, but to no immedi- 
ate results, except a declaration from the Bishops 
that Morning Prayer, the Litany, and the Order for 
the Holy Communion were separate services; that 
on special occasions the clergy might use any parts 
of the Bible and the Prayer Book at their discretion, 


and that the Bishops might set forth forms of service 
under peculiar circumstances. Other proposals for 
the modification of rubrical requirements were made 
in 1 868 and later years; but the plans suggested or 
proposed were not adopted. 

At the General Convention of 1880, a resolution 
introduced by the Rev. Dr. William R. Huntington,' 
then of Massachusetts, but later of New York, was 
adopted, providing for the appointment of a joint 
committee to consider and report whether, at the end 
of the first century of the work of the fully organized 
Church in the United States, there was occasion for 
"alterations in the Book of Common Prayer in the 
direction of liturgical enrichment and flexibility of 
use". This committee presented a report in 1883, 
together with the 'Book Annexed' showing the 
Prayer Book as it would appear if all the additions 
and alterations proposed by it should be adopted. A 
large number of these proposals, with some others 
introduced by individual members, were approved; 
and, as required by the Constitution, the Dioceses 
were notified of them that final action might be taken 
at the next Convention. In 1886, the Convention 
had before it the 'Book Annexed as Modified', show- 
ing the Prayer Book with all the changes which had 
been approved three years before. When the matter 

' His death, while these pages were in writing on the 26th day 
of July, 1909, calls for a tribute of affectionate esteem from one 
whose privilege it was to work with him and to learn from him 
in liturgical matters. 


came to a vote, eighty-four resolutions of addition or 
amendment were adopted, and some twenty-five 
substitutes for other proposals were sent to the next 
Convention ; it was also agreed that a Book of Offices 
should be prepared, to contain forms for occasions 
for which no provision was made in the Prayer Book. 
In 1889, seventeen resolutions of amendment were 
finally adopted, and some fifty more received for pre- 
liminary approval; the plan of a Book of Offices was 
allowed to drop. And in 1892, forty-three additions or 
alterations were finally adopted, nearly all — as was in- 
deed the case at the preceding Conventions — by a prac- 
tically unanimous vote. Then a Standard Prayer Book, 
embodying all the changes made, with a careful revis- 
ion of the text, was set forth. All editions printed since 
that time have been made to conform to the Standard ; 
and, with the possible exception of the Authorized and 
Revised Versions of the English Bible, there is no book 
in the world more carefully printed than our Prayer 
Book; while the editing of its text, being more mod- 
ern, is better than that of the Bible itself. 

It remains to speak of the more important of the 
changes made in our Prayer Book by the action com- 
pleted in 1886, 1889, and 1892.* By far the larger 
part call for no notice here, having to do with correc- 
tions of the rubrics or the readjustment of some of 
the less frequently used services. 

* In the latter part of this Book, changes made at any time in 
the course of the last revision are generally attributed to 1893, 
the year of the publication of the Standard. 


Provision was made for shortening Morning and 
Evening Prayer, for omitting the Commandments 
and the long Exhortation in the Communion Office, 
and for abbreviating some of the Occasional Offices, 
all under carefully stated conditions. A large num- 
ber of invitatory sentences, not penitential, was pre- 
fixed to Morning and Evening Prayer; Magnificat 
and Nunc Dimittis, with the omitted verses of 
Benedictus, were restored ; the full number of 
versicles was placed after the Creed at Evening 
Prayer, and a new Prayer for the Civil Authority 
was provided for the same service. In the Litany, 
a petition for more labourers was provided; the 
Penitential Office was inserted (three of its prayers 
had been in the former Book); and three occasional 
Prayers — for Unity, for Missions, and for Fruitful 
Seasons (Rogation prayers), and one occasional 
Thanksgiving, for a Child's Recovery from Sick- 
ness, were added. Collects, Epistles, and Gospels 
were provided for a first Communion on Christmas- 
day and on Easter-day and for the festival of the 
Transfiguration; the title of the Sunday next before 
Advent took the place of that of the Twenty-fifth 
Sunday after Trinity; and several needed rubrics were 
inserted. In the Communion Office, besides the per- 
mission to omit the Decalogue except once on each 
Sunday, and the Exhortation after it has been read 
on one Sunday in the month, it was required that 
the Nicene Creed be said on the five great festivals 
of the year; five new Offertory sentences were pro- 


vided ; the Sanctus and the Prayer of Consecration 
were printed in paragraphs; and the Warnings 
were placed after the Blessings and Collects. A form 
of presentation of candidates and a Lesson (the latter 
for discretionary use) were inserted in the Confirma- 
tion Office; some of the omitted clauses were re- 
stored to the exhortation in the Marriage Service; 
and three additional prayers were placed at the end 
of the Burial Office. Note should be made also of 
the provision of twenty selections of Psalms instead 
of ten, and of Proper Psalms for ten days to which 
they had not been assigned before.* 

It is this Prayer Book, according to the use of the 
Church in the United States, received from the 
English Church, adapted to our needs in this Re- 
public in 1790, again carefully revised with reference 
to possibilities of service for a new century in 1892, 
offered to all the people of the land by the Church 
whose special use it is, which forms the subject of 
the notes and comments in the following chapters. 

*The days newly provided with Proper Psalms are the First 
Sunday in Advent, the Circumcision, the Epiphany, the Puri- 
fication, the Annunciation, Easter-even, Trinity Sunday, the 
Transfiguration, Michaelmas, and All Saints' Day. 



A few books are almost necessary for any study of the 
Prayer Book. Such are : — 

Bishop Barry's Teacher's Prayer Book, in its American edi- 
tion ; and — 

The English Prayer Book of the present reign. 

And with these it is very desirable to have — 

Bright and Medd's Latin version of the English Prayer Book 
and the American Communion Office, which gives the original 
of Collects, Canticles, etc., and the Epistles and Gospels and 
the Psalms from the Vulgate ; also — 

The First Prayer Book of Edward VI (1549), accessible in 
cheap form in Everyman's Library and in The Ancient and 
Modern Library of Theological Literature. There are also 
editions of the Prayer Book of 1549 with the Order of Com- 
munion of 1548 and the Ordinal of 1550 (wrongly given as 1549), 
one published by Rivingtons in 1869 and one edited by Dr. 
Morgan Dix and published in New York in 1881. (The 
Ancient and Modern Library has also the Second Book of 
Edward VI and the EHzabethan Book.) 

The successive editions of the English Prayer Book, with the 
Scottish Book of 1637, have been reprinted in Pickering's 
sumptuous edition ; they are given in parallel columns in Keel- 
ing's Liturgies Britantiica, a very valuable book but not often 
offered for sale. 

In the Parker Society's Publications is a volume containing 
the two Edwardine Books with the Order of Communion of 
1548; they are also published in Card well's Two Books of 
Common Prayer. The Litany of 1544 can be found (of all 
queer places) at the end of the Parker Society's volume lettered 
" Private Prayers Queen Elizabeth." 

McGarvey's Liturgies Americance (Philadelphia, 1895) gives 
in parallel columns the editions of the American Book with the 
non-English sources, and some useful notes. 


Of the numerous works on the whole Prayer Book, historical 
and explanatory in character, the following may be specially 
mentioned : — 

Wheatly (Charles), Rational Illustration of the Book of 
Common Prayer. An old book with much material from still 
older writers, but very interesting and with much out-of-the- 
way information. 

Palmer (William), Origines Liturgiccs, or Antiquities of the 
English Ritual. Now out of date, but it gave an inspiration 
to all modern study of the Prayer Book. 

Lathbury (Thomas), A History of the Book of Common 
Prayer and other books of authority. 

Stephens (Archibald John), The Book of Common Prayer, 
with notes, legal and historical. 3 volumes. 

Procter (Charles) and Frere (W. H.), A New History of 
the Book of Common Prayer, with a rationale of its offices. A 
well-known book of a former generation, rewritten (1901) in 
the light of recent scholarship, and the best general book on 
the subject. It contains (pp. 234-252) a pretty full history of 
the American Prayer Book by the writer of this volume, and 
throughout the commentary has notes on the differences be- 
tween the English and the American Books. 

Burbridge (Edward), Liturgies and Offices of the Church. 
Particularly good as to origins and the connection with Greek 
and Latin sources. 

Campion (W. M.) and Beamont (W. J.), The Prayer Book 

Daniel (Evan), The Prayer Book, its History, Language, 
and Contents. 

Blunt (John Henry), The Annotated Book of Common 
Prayer. A book of wide learning, giving Latin originals and 
the Vulgate Psalter ; but not recently revised. There is also a 
compendious edition, without the Latin, having a monograph 
on the American Prayer Book by the present writer. 

PuUan (Leighton), The History of the Book of Common 
Prayer (in the Oxford Library of Practical Theology). Full, 
and with recent material ; better arranged than Frere's Procter. 
It has a chapter on the Scottish, American, and Irish Books. 


Maude (J. H.), A History of the Book of Common Prayer 
(in the Oxford Church Text Books). A good small Manual, 
but with some misprints. 

Procter (F.) and Maclear (G. F.), An Elementary Introduc- 
tion to the Book of Common Prayer. 

S. P. C. K. Prayer Book Commentary for Teachers and 
Students, by various authors. A great deal of valuable ma- 
terial in small space. It has a Concordance to the Prayer 
Book and a Concordance to the Psalter. 

Luckock (H. M.), Studies in the History of the Book of 
Common Prayer. 

Uearmer (Percy), The Parson's Handbook. It contains 
" Practical Directions as to the Services according to the Eng- 
lish Use " as interpreted by the author. 

Parker (James), An Introduction to the History of the Suc- 
cessive Revisions of the Book of Common Prayer. 

Parker (James), The First Prayer Book of Edward VI com- 
pared with the successive Revisions ; also, A Concordance to 
the Rubricks. 

Butler (Clement M.), History of the Book of Common 

Garrison (J. F.), The American Prayer Book. Bohlen 
Lectures, 1887. 

Temple (Edward L.), The Church in the Prayer Book. An 
American book ; instructive and devotional. 

Huntington (William R.), Short History of the Prayer Book. 

Coxe (Bishop A. C), Thoughts on the Services. New edi- 
tion, edited by Bishop Whitehead. 

The " Proposed Book " of 1785, with the omission of the Visi- 
tation of the Sick and the Articles, was reprinted for the Re- 
formed Episcopal Church in 1873. 

The history of the English Prayer Book is treated in the 
volumes named above, and at least incidentally in all histories 
of the Enghsh Church. Those the titles of which follow next 
have specially to do with principles and origins : — 


Freeman (Philip), The Principles of Divine Service. Very 
learned and valuable ; deals specially with the English Daily 
Offices and Communion Service. 

Duchesne (Mgr. L.), Christian Worship: Its Origin and 
Evolution ; a Study of the Latin Liturgy up to the time of 
Charlemagne. Of great and w^ide learning ; absolutely neces- 
sary for the careful student. (Translated, S. P. C. K.) 

Pullan (Leigh ton). The Christian Tradition: Chapter V, 
on the Genius of Western Liturgies. 

Here may be noted also, Daniel (H. A.), Codex Liturgicus 
Ecclesicp. UniverscE. Vol. I, Roman ; Vol. H, Lutheran ; Vol. 
Ill, Reformed and Anglican ; Vol. IV, Oriental. 

Warren (F. E.) Liturgy of the Ante-Nicene Church. Of 
wide scope and very instructive. 

Warren (F. E.), Liturgy and Ritual of the Celtic Church. 

The following bear specially on the direct sources of the 
English Book : — 

The Roman Breviary, Missal, etc. 

The Sarum Breviary, Missal, etc. ; also other English uses. 

The Marquess of Bute's translation of the Breviary into 
English is of great use. 

Mozarabic Service-books. 

The Quignonian Breviary (Cambridge, 1888; Henry Brad- 
shaw Society, 1908, 191 1). The second volume of the later 
publication (the Second Recension) contains a life of Cardinal 

Maskell (William), Monumenta Ritualia Ecclesice Angli- 
cana. Valuable and interesting. It contains, among other 
things, an Ancient Primer in English. 

Maskell (William), The Ancient Liturgy of the Church of 
England, according to the Uses of Sarum, Bangor, York, and 
Hereford, and the modern Roman Liturgy, arranged in parallel 
columns. Contains also the Liturgy of St. Clement in Greek. 

Gasquet (F. A.), and Bishop (E.), Edward VI and the Book 
of Common Prayer (1890). Gives Cranmer's schemes for re- 
forming the services before 1549, and many other details not 
before published. 


Cardwell (Edward), History of Conferences and other Pro- 
ceedings connected with the Revision of the Book of Common 
Prayer, 15 58- 1690. 

The Order of Communion of 1548 has been reproduced by 
photography for the Henry Bradshaw Society (1907). This 
Society has also published the excessively rare Clerk's Book of 
1549, with notes. 

The black-letter Prayer-Book of 1636, with manuscript 
changes made in it for the Book of 1662, has been reproduced 
by photography ; as has also the manuscript book appended to 
the Act of Parliament of 1661, which is the present English 

The Book of Common Prayer interleaved with the proposed 
Revised Liturgy of 1689 (1855). 

The Convocation Prayer Book, being the Book of Common 
Prayer with altered rubrics as recommended by the Convoca- 
tions of Canterbury and York in 1879. 

Dowden (Bishop John), The Workmanship of the Prayer 
Book ; also, Further Studies in the Prayer Book. Very inter- 
esting and helpful. 

The services contained in Peter Hall's Reliquice LiturgiccB 
and Fragmenta Liturgica deserves to be examined by careful 
students of liturgical history ; his reprints are not always exact. 

For the history of the American Prayer Book, the Journals 
of General Convention should be consulted ; also, Bishop 
William White's Memoirs of the Episcopal Church, which is 
an original authority of great value ; Chapter VI in the second 
volume of Bishop W. S. Perry's History of the American Epis- 
copal Church, on the Prayer Book as ' Proposed ' and finally 
Prescribed, with parts of later chapters ; and notices in other 
histories. See also the notes to the present writer's facsimile 
edition of Bishop Seabury's Communion Office. 

The Reports of the Committee on Liturgical Revision (1883- 

1892) will be found in the Journals of General Convention ; 

the Book Annexed and the Book Annexed as Modified show 

the changes proposed ; and a number of pamphlets published 



at the time show the progress of the work and the arguments 
for and against its continuance. The report of the committee 
appointed to prepare a Standard Book, containing much his- 
torical matter, is printed as an appendix to the Journal of the 
General Convention of 1892. 

The occurrence of the 350th anniversary of the first English 
Prayer Book in 1899 gave occasion for the publication of sev- 
eral historical sketches of the book. 

For the origins of the American Communion Office, see be- 
low. Bibliography of the Communion Service. 

A Concordance to the English Prayer Book, by the Rev. J. 
Green, was published at London in 185 1 ; and a Concordance 
to the American Prayer Book, by the Rev. J. Courtney Jones, 
was published at Philadelphia in 1898. 



Title, Ratification, Preface 

THE Title-page, as has indeed been already 
noted, declares what the Book contains, and 
names by its formal title the Church which has set it 
forth. Strictly speaking, a 'rite' is a service, and a 
'ceremony' is an observance in a service; in the 'rite' 
of the burial of the dead the casting of the earth is a 
'ceremony' ; but it may be questioned whether the 
words here were not meant to be synonymous. The 
Table of Contents enumerates twenty-nine items, the 
order of which ought to be familiar to all who use 
the Book ; it ends with the Psalter. Then follow in 
italic the titles of the three items of our 'Pontifical' 
and, separated from them, the title of the Articles. 

The Ratification gives the sanction of authority to 
the Book for the members of the Church which set it 
forth. It might have been thought that the thorough 
revision of the Prayer Book in late years, including 
the insertion of not a few things which were new, 
would have called for a new ratification; but such 
was not the opinion of the legal authorities. There 
is, therefore, nothing in the Book to show that it is 
not exactly as it was established and ordered to be 
put into use in the year 1790; and in future years, if 


not at present, there will be need of something 
like 'higher criticism' to determine the dates of the 
several parts of a volume which bears but one date. 

The Preface, presumably from the pen of Dr. 
William Smith, is a well-worded statement of the 
principles on which our forefathers in the Faith un- 
dertook and carried out this important part of the 
task which the circumstances of the "critical time of 
the Republic" and the Church in the Republic laid 
upon them. It should be carefully read. 

Concerning the Service of the Church 

The two pages following the Preface contain cer- 
tain general directions, after the manner of rubrics,' 
as to the Service of the Church and the use of the 
Psalms and of the Lessons of Scripture; the tables 
of Proper Psalms and of Selections of Psalms, in- 
cluded in these pages, are repeated at the beginning 
of the Psalter. 

While the normal Prayer Book service for any 
Sunday includes the Order for Morning Prayer, the 
Litany, and the Order for the Administration of the 
Lord's Supper or Holy Communion; and while for 

^ The word ' rubric', originally meaning in both Latin and 
English red earth or ochre, came to be applied to the parts of a 
book which were written or printed in red, and in particular to 
the headings or titles of laws ; thence it passed to the directions 
in liturgical books for the conduct of the services and the use 
of the several parts, which were customarily written, and later 
printed, in red. In ordinary Prayer Books, instead of being in 
red ink, rubrics are now printed in italic type. 


all days other than Sundays, Morning Prayer is pro- 
vided, with the Litany on Wednesdays and Fridays, 
and Evening Prayer for every day in the year; 
and while, moreover, there is special provision for the 
administration of the Holy Communion on any day,* 
yet our Church states here that the three morning 
services "are distinct, and may be used either 
separately or together"; and by the proviso, "that 
no one of these services be habitually disused", she 
certainly implies that it is lawful to use on any 
morning one or two only of the services named. 
And while the normal order of the services is cer- 
tainly, first Morning Prayer, then Litany, and then 
Holy Communion, there is no requirement that this 
order shall be followed ; indeed, the second clause 
under the head "Concerning the Service of the 
Church" gives permission for the use of the Litany 
after Evening Prayer. It belongs to practical Pas- 
toral Theology rather than to Liturgies to decide in 
each case what is the best order of services for a con- 
gregation and what are the hours at which they may 
most profitably be held; and it belongs also to the 
clergyman of the parish or congregation to decide, 
subject to the counsel of his Bishop, as to the inter- 
pretation, for himself and his people, which he will 
give to the proviso just quoted. It may be well to 
note that nothing in the paragraph under considera- 

''See the first rubric after the heading of Collects, Epistles, 
and Gospels. 


tion allows any omission in any service other than is 
permitted by the rubrics of that service. 

The proviso in this paragraph certainly cannot 
override the requirement in the first rubric after the 
Collects at the end of the Communion Office, which 
provides that upon every Sunday and other Holy-day 
there "shall be said all that is appointed at the Com- 
munion, unto the end of the Gospel, concluding with 
the Blessing"; that is to say, assuming that there is 
a clergyman to officiate, the former part of the Com- 
munion Service, with the Epistle and Gospel, must 
be said at some time on each Sunday and Holy-day. 

Although permission is given for reading the 
Litany after the Collects of Evening Prayer, it must 
be remembered, as just noted, that this is not its 
normal place. Yet sometimes advantage may well 
be taken of the opportunity to say the Litany at 
Evening Prayer, as when in a small congregation the 
only week-day service in Lent is after noon, or when 
it is desirable for some other reason to have a 
separate Litany service as an act of supplication, 
with or without a sermon. 

The third clause provides for what were once 
called 'Third Services', for special congregations or 
for special occasions, and its wording, with a fourfold 
restriction, should be carefully noted. "Subject to 
the direction of the Ordinary" does not mean that 
the Ordinary need be asked for approval in every 
case, but that the minister is not to arrange a ser- 
vice if the Ordinary has given other directions for it. 


The Ordinary {Judex ordinarius, judge by reason of 
his order or position) is the Bishop, or if there is no 
Bishop the person who exercises the "ecclesiastical 
authority", that is, generally under our canons, the 
President of the Standing Committee of the Diocese. 
The fourth clause requires that, on any special Fast 
or Thanksgiving day or other special occasion, if 
the Bishop sets forth a form of service, that form is 
to be followed. If the Bishop does not set forth a 
form of service, the minister (see below) may select 
Lessons at his discretion. 

The Psalter 

The instructions as to the reading of the Psalms 
are simple, and carry out the rule adopted in the first 
English Prayer Book, of a monthly instead of a 
weekly recitation of the Psalter. The direction in 
our Prayer Book before the last revision, that in 
February the Psalter "shall be read only to the twenty- 
eighth or twenty-ninth day of the month", is doubt- 
less still binding by the rule of common sense. It is 
convenient, when there is daily service, in months 
with thirty-one days, to read selections at Evening 
Prayer on the thirtieth and at Morning Prayer on 
the thirty-first day, and then to end the month with 
the Psalms which lead to the great doxology of 
Psalm cl. 

The Proper Psalms are never to be displaced by Se- 
lections. Until the last revision our Book followed 
the English in assigning Proper Psalms to none but 


the four great feasts and the two great fasts of the 
year; the English Book had none assigned to Ash- 
Wednesday and Good Friday until 1662, and had and 
still has no provision for displacing inappropriate 
Psalms by others chosen from varied Selections. The 
ten Selections of our Book of 1790 and the twenty 
Selections of 1892, with the Proper Psalms on sixteen 
days, have greatly added to the richness and appro- 
priateness of our services, as also to their adapt- 
ability to places, times, and men's manners. Some- 
times at Evening Prayer the Psalm for the fifteenth 
day of the month is too long, or one of those for the 
thirteenth or the twenty-second day cannot be read to 
edification ; or at Morning Prayer we may find the 
Psalm for the thirteenth day coming into a penitential 
service, or the Psalms for the tenth day falling on (say) 
the first Sunday after Easter. The thoughtful clergy- 
man will look carefully at the Psalms as well as at the 
Lessons which he is to read, and will secure on all 
special days as great a unity in the service as he can; 
while yet he will not forget that the Psalter is in its 
entirety a great mirror of human life, and that there 
is a vast power of instruction and of worship in its 
regular and unbroken use. 

It may be convenient to note the times or occasions 
for which the several Selections of Psalms are specially 
appropriate: — 

The First, for Saints' Days; 

the Second, made up from the ancient Com- 
pline Psalms, for a night service ; 


the Third, for Saints' Days, or for Ascension- 


the Fourth, for Thanksgiving-day or Harvest 

the Fifth, for the Holy Communion; 

the Sixth, for a penitential service; 

the Seventh, consisting of one Psalm of distinct- 
ively Old Testament mould, may 
do for some memorial occasions ; 

the Eighth serves for a solemn service of peni- 


the Ninth, for Christmas or Epiphany-tide; 

the Tenth and Eleventh are generally suitable to 
replace an unsuitable Psalm ; 

the Twelfth is well adapted to a Parochial or 
Church anniversary; 

the Thirteenth is suitable for a missionary service ; 

the Fourteenth, for an ordinary service in Lent; 

the Fifteenth, for a service of thanksgiving; 

the Sixteenth, for Palm-Sunday or Easter-tide; 

the Seventeenth, Eighteenth, and Nineteenth, 
while differing in tone, may all be 
classed as general ; while 

the Twentieth is a special doxology. 

Note. — As has been said, and as will be specially noted when 
we come to the study of the Daily Offices, the theory of the 
Breviary was and is that the Psalter is to be read through once 
in each week and that (with a few exceptions) each Psalm is to 
be read but once. But the substitution of offices for the dead 
or offices in honor of the Virgin Mary for the regular services, 
and the introduction of numerous Saints' days having special 
Psalms assigned to them, practically overthrew the original 


scheme ; the Breviary to-day provides for the constant use of 
Proper Psalms and Selections of Psalms, as we should call 
them ; and projects of reform have been made in modern 
times " by which the recitation of the whole Psalter would be 
rendered possible at least several times in the course of the 
year" — and this, when the theory is that it is to be recited 
fifty-two times in a year. 

Lessons on Scripture 

In the historical sketch of the Daily Services, pre- 
fixed to the notes on Morning and Evening Prayer, it 
will be noted that one of the most important of the 
changes made in those services when the Prayer 
Book was set forth in English was the provision for 
large readings of Holy Scripture in two Lessons' 
each day from the Old Testament and two from the 
New, and the exclusion of all Lessons from the 
writings of the Fathers or from legendary histories. 
That rule has been preserved in the English and the 
American Prayer Books, to the great edification of 
those who use them. As first appointed in 1549, 
the Lessons consisted almost invariably of whole 
chapters, and nearly everything in the Old Testa- 
ment and the Apocrypha (except Chronicles) was 
read once a year. The Gospels and Acts were read 
through three times a year for the Second Morning 
Lessons, and the Epistles twice a year for the 
Second Evening Lessons; the book of Revelation 
was not read at all in course. This order was broken 

^This is 'lections', 'readings'. 


by the provision of special Lessons for certain of the 
Holy-days which had a place in the Calendar; but, 
except for some changes in these special Lessons, 
the tables of 1549 remained unchanged in England 
until 1871. 

In the first Prayer Book there were very few Proper 
Lessons; in fact, the continuous reading of Scrip- 
ture was unbroken on Sundays except on Easter-day, 
Whitsunday, and Trinity-Sunday; and no one of 
these days had all four of its Lessons assigned, so 
that very incongruous chapters must have been often 
read. In 1559, proper First Lessons were assigned 
to each Sunday in the year, Isaiah beginning to be 
read at Advent and Genesis at Septuagesima; the 
historical books served till about the middle of the 
Trinity season, and chapters from the Prophets and 
from Proverbs were assigned to the rest, while there 
were no proper Second Lessons on Sundays except 
on the three first mentioned ; and these tables also 
remained unchanged until 1871. In this year the Eng- 
lish tables were recast; tables of Daily Lessons, the 
general plan of which is followed by our own present 
tables, were adopted; while a choice of two First 
Lessons was given for each Sunday evening, and 
proper Second Lessons were assigned to Septuages- 
ima, the Sunday next before Easter, and the First 
Sunday after Easter. Thus on all Sundays in the 
year except six, the Second Lessons in the English 
Church are still those for the day of the month — a 
provision which has something indeed in its favor, 


but which would not commend itself to many who are 
in the habit of using our Book. 

The Tables of Lessons in our Book of 1790 were 
taken from the Proposed Book of 1785, and seem to 
have been the work of Dr. William Smith, in consul- 
tation with Bishop White. They gave us for eighty 
years a far more satisfactory and instructive course 
of Sunday and week-day Scripture reading than the 
Church of England had. In the Old Testament 
Lessons many chapters were divided, and many 
less edifying passages were omitted ; and the exclu- 
sion of the Apocrypha made room for all which it 
was thought best to read from the canonical books. 
In the Second Lessons, the division of chapters in 
the Gospels and the Acts — none was divided in the 
Epistles — called for a full reading of all the New 
Testament twice a year, except that the Revelation 
was not read at all. All Holy-days were given 
proper First Lessons, and chapters from the 
Apocrypha served for a large part of those; and 
some Holy-days had proper Second Lessons. And 
all Sundays had four Proper Lessons, the scheme of 
this arrangement being practically the same as that 
in our present tables, with Isaiah beginning at Ad- 
vent and Genesis at Trinity-Sunday ; only the First 
Lessons for the last Sundays after Trinity were 
taken from the Proverbs. After the adoption in 
England of the tables of 1871, permission was given 
by the General Convention for their use in our 
Church ; but they were not found in accordance with 


the principles of selection to which our clergy and 
people were accustomed. 

Our present Tables of Lessons date from 1883, and 
(as far as they were new) they were largely the work, 
it is believed, of Bishop Lay of Easton. Few changes 
were made in the Sunday Lessons, but those for 
Holy-days were nearly all selected anew, and the 
Calendar Lessons were entirely rearranged, the lines 
being those suggested by the English tables of a 
few years earlier, but the details being quite different. 
There were larger omissions from the Old Testament 
than before, by which room was made for Lessons 
from the Apocrypha on nineteen days in November; 
in the former half of the year the Gospels were 
appointed for Second Lessons at Morning and the 
Acts and Epistles at Evening, while in the latter half 
of the year this arrangement was reversed ; and place 
was kept on the thirteen last free days of the year for 
the whole of the book of Revelation.* A Commis- 
sion of the General Convention has now (1912) in 
hand a new revision of the Tables of Lessons. 

The general rubrics as to the use of the Lessons, 
found on page viii of the Prayer Book, should be 
carefully noted. The phrase 'Movable Holy-days' 
occurs here for the first time; it means those which 
do not fall always on the same day of the month, and 
therefore 'move' in the civil or Roman calendar; and 

*The English tables strangely omit three chapters of this 


it includes all Sundays and all Holy-days, such as 
Ash-Wednesday, Good Friday, and Ascension-day, 
which depend directly upon Easter and move with 
it. It hardly needs to be noted that in the fourth 
paragraph "the Lesson from the Gospels appointed 
for that day of the Month" does not mean the Gospel 
appointed for the Communion Service for that day. 
The provision in the fifth paragraph, applicable to 
any week-day which is not a Holy-day, gives to the 
minister the opportunity of selecting the most edify- 
ing lessons, when there are but one or two week-day 
services between Sundays; yet he needs to remem- 
ber that a variation from the appointed order may 
disturb those who are in the habit of reading all the 
Lessons at home, and also that sometimes strange 
or unfamiliar passages of Scripture have a message 
peculiarly their own. 

It may be noted here that the Table of Proper 
Lessons for the Forty Days of Lent and for the 
Rogation and Ember-days (page xi of the Prayer 
Book) is not obligatory; these Lessons "may be 
used in place of those appointed in the Calendar", 
but it is not required that they be so used. And 
the writer trusts that he may be pardoned for ex- 
pressing his opinion that they are not very satis- 
factory, at least as far as those specially provided for 
Lent are concerned.* And on the Ember-days in 

"The Lessons for Ash-Wednesday and Holy Week are the 
same as those in the required tables. 


December it seems ill-advised to break in on the 
reading of Isaiah and Revelation for any other 
passages, even if technically more appropriate. But 
criticism here, as elsewhere, may well be held in 
suspense for the present. 

The question as to the Lessons to be read when a 
Sunday and a Holy-day concur will be considered 
under the head of Collects, Epistles, and Gospels. 

Hymns and Anthems 

The note as to 'Hymns and Anthems' declares in 
what places Hymns and Anthems may be sung; 
namely, "before and after any Office in this Book, 
and also before and after Sermons." It does not 
require that a Hymn or Anthem shall always be sung 
wherever it is lawful to sing it; and the judgment of 
the best 'ritualists' (that is to say, students of ritual 
and of liturgical use) seems to be calling for less 
singing of Hymns, at least before and after ordinary 
services, than has been the custom of late. The use 
of other Hymns than those in the authorized Hymnal 
and other Anthems than those in the words of Holy 
Scripture or of the Book of Common Prayer, is not 
explicitly forbidden here; but, in the judgment of the 
writer, there is a moral obligation not to use others, 
unless indeed it can be shown that some uses of 
them (as, for instance, at the receiving of alms) are 
extra-rubrical. As to this, a note will be made when 
the rubric in the Communion Office is reached. 


The Calendar, with Tables of Lessons 

The Table of Lessons for the several months (on 
pages xii-xxiii inclusive) is in reality, as the Table 
of Contents shows, "The Calendar, with Tables of 
Lessons." The Calendar occupies three columns — 
in March and April, four columns. In one of those 
columns are the numbers of the days of the month; 
in second, the Sunday Letters; in a third, the names 
of the immovable Holy-days; and in the prefixed 
column for March and April are the Golden Numbers. 

The Dominical or Sunday Letters are the first 
seven letters of the alphabet ('A' being printed as a 
capital, to catch the eye more readily), placed in 
succession against the numbers which indicate the 
day of the month and repeated throughout the Calen- 
dar. If the year begins with Sunday, then every 
day in the year against which the letter *A' stands is 
Sunday; if January 4th is the first Sunday, then 'd' 
is the Sunday Letter of the year and every day 
marked 'd' is Sunday. Conversely, if we know the 
Sunday Letter of a year, we can easily determine the 
day of the week on which any date in the civil 
year falls; as for instance, if we know that the Sun- 
day Letter of the year 1890 was 'g', we see that the 
4th day of July in that year was a Wednesday, inas- 
much as the letter of that day is 'c', and 'c' follows 
three letters after 'g'. But a leap year has two Sun- 
day Letters, the 29th day of February moving all the 
later days of the year one step back in the week; 


thus, if 'd* is the Sunday Letter with which the year 
begins, February 29th will be Sunday, and the next 
Sunday will be March 7th, which has the letter 'c', 
so that this will be the Sunday Letter for the rest of 
the year. 

The letters marking the first days of the several 
months in succession ('A' for January, 'd' for Febru- 
ary and March, *g' for April, etc.) may be remem- 
bered as the initial letters of the words of the jingle:— 

"At Dover Dwells George Brown, Esquire, 
Good Christopher Fipps, And David Fryer." 

If we know that the Sunday Letter of a year was 
'e*, we can tell from this that June in that year began 
on Sunday; February, March and November, on 
Saturday ; September and December, on Monday, etc. 
This Sunday Letter is commonly used in almanacs to 
mark the Sundays. 

The Calendar in our Prayer Book contains only 
those immovable Holy-days for which services with 
Lessons, and Collect, Epistle and Gospel, are pro- 
vided. That in the English Book contains a large 
number of other names, and formerly had some as- 
tronomical and legal notes, such as, 'Sol in Gemini*, 
'Dog Days', 'Term ends'. Some of the days still 
marked are more or less familiar to us, as St. Valen- 
tine on February 14, St. David (the Welshman) on 
March i, St. George on April 23 (Shakespeare's 
birthday), St. Swithun on July 15, St. Etheldreda 
on October 17; some are the days of great doctors 


of the Church Universal, as St. Gregory the Great, 
St. Jerome, St. Augustine; some commemorate men 
whom we should call distinctively British saints, as 
St. Alban, St. Boniface, St. Edward the Confessor; 
some are days for one reason or another especially 
held in honor or serving to fix dates, as Lammas on 
August I, Holy-Cross Day on September 14, O 
Sapientia (the first pre-Christmas antiphon) on 
December 16; one, 'Evurtius, Bp.', on September 7 
(the name being a misprint for 'Enurchus'), inserted 
in 1604, was evidently intended to make Queen 
Elizabeth's birthday a holiday; while for some in- 
sertions and some exclusions or omissions, as of St. 
Patrick's Day, no reason can now be assigned. Im- 
perfect as this part of the English Calendar is, it cer- 
tainly serves to keep in mind some thought of the 
continuity of the Church and the Communion of 
Saints. These days thus noted are called 'Black- 
letter Days', as having their names printed in black 
when the days of observance (for which special ser- 
vies are provided) are printed in red as the rubrics 
are; when black ink is used for all, a difference in 
type marks the two classes. The names of festivals 
in our Calendar are the same as the red-letter days of 
the English Calendar, with the addition of the Trans- 
figuration on August 6, which we inserted and 
provided with a service at our revision of 1892. 

The numbers in the prefixed column in the Calen- 
dar for March and April are the Golden Numbers, 
and mark the days of the full moon within the period 


by which Easter is determined; in a complete as- 
tronomical calendar of this kind they would be in- 
serted throughout the year. They extend from i to 
19, because after nineteen years the full moons 
fall on the same day of the month ; * the numbers will 
be found set against the years in order in the table 
on page xxvi of the Prayer Book. Now the Golden 
Number of the year igoo is i, and the full moon with- 
in the Paschal period of that year fell on April 14; 
the number i therefore is set in the Calendar against 
April 14, and on that day there will be a full moon in 
all years removed from 1900 by any multiple of 
nineteen years, as 1919, 1938, 1957, 1976, 1995, etc. 
The full moons of any year are eleven days behind 
those of the preceding year; therefore 1901, which has 
2 for its Golden Number, had a full moon on April 3, 
and therefore 2 stands against April 3 in the Calen- 
dar; it shows that the full moon of 1920, 1939, etc., 
will be on that day. Again 1902, the Golden Num- 
ber of which was 3, had a full moon eleven days 
further back, on March 23; the number 3 stands then 
against that day, and gives the full moon for 192 1, 
1940, etc. To go back eleven days more for 1903, 
to March 12, would carry us out of the Paschal 
period ; we therefore pass into the next lunar month 
and find a full moon thirty days later, or on April 11, 

* There is a slight error in this statement, if a long period of 
time is involved ; but the error will not amount to more than 
one day in the three centuries 1900-2 199. 


and set against that day the number 4. Thus we 
proceed till the number 19 stands against March 27, 
and gives us the full moon for the years 191 8, 1937, 
1956, etc. Now knowing the Golden Number of a 
year, which is a very easy thing to remember in this 
century, if we also know the Sunday Letter we can 
readily discover the date of Easter; for Easter-day is 
the Sunday next after the full moon which falls upon 
or next after the twenty-first day of March, which 
is the vernal equinox. The date, therefore, against 
the Sunday Letter next after the Golden Number of 
a year is Easter for that year.' 

The rule for the date of Easter and the rule for 
determining it by the use of Golden Number and 
Sunday Letter are carefully stated on pages xxiv 

' If the reader happens to have before him a Prayer Book 
printed before 1900, he will find all the Golden Numbers but 
two removed by one day from those given above and in more 
recent Prayer Books. The reason is that the error in the cycle 
of nineteen years, partly relieved by the extra day in leap-year, 
had accumulated so that this change was necessary in the year 
1900 ; it had been provided for, as later changes are provided 
for, by a rule, the full explanation for which must be sought in 
such essays as Professor DeMorgan's in The Interleaved 
Prayer Book, or articles in the (Roman) Catholic Encyclo- 
paedia. The average period from full moon to full moon, or 
new moon to new moon, is a little less than 29^ days : lunar 
calendar months are therefore considered as having alternately 
twenty-nine and thirty days, and a lunar year of twelve months 
is assigned has 354 days, eleven less than an ordinary solar year, 
as noted in the text. For the rules as to intercalary months, the 
larger treatises must be consulted. 


and XXV of the Prayer Book under the heading which 
is next to be considered. 

Tables and Rules 

First stand rules for determining the date of the 
Movable Feasts and Holy-days, that is to say (as 
above noted), those which change their place from 
year to year in the civil or Roman calendar. The 
rule for the date of Easter, already quoted, is that 
which has prevailed in the Church from the time of 
the Council of Nicaea or Nice in the year 325. From 
the very first, Christians had observed the Lord's 
Day or Sunday as "an Easter-day in every week"; 
and there can be no doubt that the annual com- 
memoration of the Resurrection at the Passion-tide 
was also very early observed. But while most Chris- 
tians kept the annual Easter on the first day of the 
week, there were others who held that the com- 
memoration should be on the fourteenth day of the 
lunar or Jewish month, on whatever day of the week 
it fell. Against these latter, called Quartodecimans, 
or Fourteenth-day men, from their practice, the 
Council decided that the Christian Paschal or Easter 
should always be kept on a Sunday; and as Alexan- 
dria was the centre of astronomical learning, it was 
agreed that the Bishop of that city, the only Bishop 
who at that time had the title of Pope, should by 
'Festal Letters' notify the Christian world, year by 
year, of the date at which the great festival should 
be observed. 


It was soon found desirable to arrange the dates 
for a series of years according to a table or cycle; 
and the cycle of nineteen years, which we still use 
with its nineteen Golden Numbers, came into gen- 
eral use. Owing to the fact that no number of years 
possesses an exact number of lunations, and to the 
further fact that the motions of the moon in the 
heavens are not precisely uniform, these tables do 
not always place the full moon upon the day on 
which it is in exact opposition to the sun; in other 
words, the full moon of this "ancient ecclesiastical 
computation" is not always on the same day as "the 
real or astronomical full moon". The divergence, 
however, is rarely so large as to attract the attention 
of anyone but an astronomer, and never as large in 
ratio as is the divergence in some parts of the year 
between the sun-time as shown by a dial and the 
mean-time as kept by our clocks and watches ; these 
latter give correct sun-time on only four days in each 
year, and are sometimes more than a quarter of an 
hour or a hundredth part of a day away from it. It 
is far more convenient, therefore, to follow a settled 
rule which can be readily applied for years in 
advance, and to neglect any minor inaccuracy into 
which it may lead. 

Moreover, the moon of the heavens is the full 
moon at the moment of absolute time at which she is 
exactly opposite the sun as viewed from the earth, 
or is removed from him i8o degrees in longitude, 
and this can be determined to a fraction of a second; 


whereas all that is needed for the ecclesiastical full 
moon is that it be assigned to a day, "the fourteenth 
day of a lunar month". Now in 1903 the moon was 
in opposition to the sun, that is to say, there was an 
astronomical full moon, by New York time, on 
Saturday, April 11, at about half-past seven o'clock 
in the evening; this was also the day given by the 
Prayer Book tables for the ecclesiastical full moon ; 
so that there was no question that in New York — 
and for that matter, as can readily be seen, any- 
where on this continent — Easter was to be observed 
on the following day, Sunday, April 12. But 
when it is half-past seven o'clock in the evening on 
the 75th meridian of west longitude, a little west of 
New York, it is half-past twelve o'clock in the morn- 
ing of the next day on the meridian of Greenwich 
near London ; and thus in 1903, if Easter had 
been determined by the moon of the heavens which 
was not full in England till Sunday, April 12, the peo- 
ple of that land would have been obligedto defer their 
Easter observance to the next Sunday, April 19, and 
the two great branches of the Anglican Church would 
have had variant calendars for a large part of the year. 
But the Golden Number rule had decided that the 
Paschal or Easter full moon was everywhere on April 
II, and therefore Easter itself was everywhere ob- 
served on April 12. Such examples present them- 
selves from time to time, and show the advantage 
of tables, proving that the provision for their use 
is by no means arbitrary. 


The question may be asked, why the full moon 
is said to be on the fourteenth day of the lunar 
month, if the full moon is mid-way between two 
new moons and the period of a lunation is on the 
average about twenty-nine and a half days. The 
answer is that new moon and full moon for the 
purposes of a lunar or Jewish month were both 
determined by observation; that the new moon 
cannot be seen until about a day and a half after 
it has passed the sun, while the day of full moon 
can be readily observed ; and that therefore it is 
a shorter period from visible new moon to visible 
full moon than from visible full moon to visible new 
moon, and the full moon may be expected to 
occur on the fourteenth day of the month which 
begins on the day when the new moon is first seen 
in the heavens." 

Easter-day is shown by the tables to control the 
Church's year from Septuagesima, nine weeks before 
it, to Trinity-Sunday, eight weeks after it; and 
in fact, by affecting the numbering of the Sundays 
after Trinity, it controls the year until the Sunday 

• There is abundant material in the encyclopcedias and else- 
where for the study of the Calendar. Some historians call the 
ancient British Church, which did not keep Easter by the same 
rules as the Church of Rome, Quartodeciman. This is a mis- 
take ; the British Church kept Easter on Sunday, but it used an 
ancient cycle, less accurate than the new cycle which had come 
into use at Rome, and thus sometimes had a day for Easter 
differing from that which was observed in the imperial city. 


next before Advent. Christmas, which is an im- 
movable feast, and is kept by the Roman calendar, 
controls the year from Advent-Sunday until the 
stopping of the Sundays after Epiphany by Septua- 
gesima. Advent-Sunday, elsewhere called the First 
Sunday in Advent, is the fourth Sunday before 
Christmas; and, when it does not fall on St. 
Andrew's Day (November 30), it is the nearest 
Sunday to that day; its range is, therefore, from 
November 27 to December 3, inclusive. 

The Table of Feasts includes: all Sundays; five fes- 
tivals of our Lord ; two of the Blessed Virgin (which 
are really also in honor of our Lord); twelve days 
which bear the names of eleven original Apostles (in 
two cases two Apostles being commemorated on the 
same day) and of St. Matthias, St. Paul, and St. 
Barnabas ; two in honor of the Evangelists who were 
not Apostles; the Nativity of St. John Baptist, St. 
Stephen's Day, All Saints' Day, Holy Innocents' 
Day, and the Feast of St. Michael and All Angels, 
with the two days next following Easter and Whit- 
sunday. Of these the Sundays, Mondays, and Tues- 
days, amount to fifty-six in number, or in years be- 
ginning with Sunday, or leap-years beginning with 
Saturday, to fifty-seven; the Ascension-day comes 
always on Thursday ; and the remaining twenty-five 
may come on any day of the week. We have there- 
fore eighty-two or eighty-three feast days appointed 
in each year. As may be readily computed, the 
number of appointed days of abstinence in each ordi- 


nary year is ninety-five or ninety-six. But in each 
year some immovable feasts will concur with Sun- 
days or days of abstinence, reducing the total (on an 
average) to about 169; so that there are about forty-six 
per cent of all the days in the year, on which the 
Church bids us to special devotion." 

Our Church appoints but two Fasts, the First 
Day of Lent, commonly called Ash- Wednesday, and 
the Friday of the week before Easter, known to 
English-speaking people as Good Friday. But she 
designates "Other Days of Fasting" under four 
heads. These are: (i) The Forty Days of Lent, 
which, as is readily seen, do not include the Sundays 
in Lent; (2) The Ember-days at the four seasons of 
Spring, Summer, Autumn, and Winter; (3) The 
three Rogation-days preceding Ascension-day, which 
festival, it is noted, is for English-speaking people 
Holy Thursday ; (4) The weekly remembrance of the 
Lord's Passion and Death on Fridays, an exception 
being made in the case of Christmas falling on that 
day of the week. 

Something will be said of Lent in a later chapter.^* 
The Ember-days, days of the ynib-rene or 'around- 

'Dr. Denslow tells me that in the thirty years ending with 
1910, there were 103 concurrences with Sundays and 113 with 
days of abstinence. He has enabled me to correct the former 
statement on this page. For further notes on the Sundays and 
Saints' Days, with some account of the history of the Church 
Year, the student is referred to the chapter on the Collects, 
Epistles, and Gospels. 

^°See Chapter VI, on The Collects, Epistles, and Gospels. 


running' or 'circuit', so called by our Anglo-Saxon 
ancestors from the regular order in which they come, 
must have been at the first, as it would seem, days 
of prayer with special reference to the seasons of 
the year; in Latin they are called Quatiior Tempora, 
'the four times', 'the four seasons'. But they be- 
came days of fasting in preparation for the quarterly 
ordinations and of prayer for those who were to be 
admitted to Holy Orders; and about the year iioo 
they were settled according to the rule which still 
holds. They are the Wednesday, Friday, and Satur- 
day after the First Sunday in Lent and after Whit- 
sunday (here alone in the Prayer Book called Pente- 
cost), and (to put the statement precisely) the 
Wednesday next after the 14th day of September 
(Holy-Cross Day) and that next after the 13th day of 
December (St. Lucy's Day), with the following Fri- 
days and Saturdays ; for all three days in each case 
must be in one week. The winter Ember-days 
always fall in the week of the third Sunday in 
Advent. In accordance with ancient custom, the 
stated days for Ordination are the Sundays af- 
ter the Ember-days; that is to say, the Second 
Sunday in Lent, Trinity Sunday, the Sunday in 
the Trinity season next after the Wednesday fol- 
lowing September 14, and the Fourth Sunday in 

Some account of the Rogation-days, which in part 
serve as a preparation for the Feast of the Ascension, 
but are especially days of prayer for a blessing on 


the fruits and other produce of the earth, will be 
found among the notes on the Litany." 

A paragraph added to the Tables of Feasts and 
Fasts designates the First Thursday in November, or 
such other day as shall be appointed by the civil 
authority, to be observed as a Thanksgiving-day. 
This appointment, with a service, was made in the 
Proposed Book of 1785, and was the first provision for 
a thanksgiving for the fruits of the earth to be ob- 
served throughout the country. As is well known, 
the New England States had an established custom 
that the governor should in the autumn appoint a 
day of public thanksgiving and prayer; and the 
custom had spread to the other States in the north- 
ern part of the country, but without any uniformity 
as to the day. In these States the Prayer Book ser- 
vice was used on the appointed days; and in the 
Southern States, which had no Thanksgiving-day 
designated by their governors, the first Thursday in 
November was observed by Churchmen. It was in 
the time of the Civil War that the President of the 
United States first appointed an autumnal Thanks- 
giving-day for national blessings; and from that time 
on, the last Thursday in November has been annually 
appointed by the President (and also, in some of the 
States which had the old custom, by the governors), 
and has been observed throughout the country." 

"See Chapter IV, on The Litany. 

^'See W. DeL. Love's "Fast and Thanksgiving-days of New 


The tables which follow owe their careful and lucid 
arrangement to the Rev. Dr. Francis Harison, who 
prepared them for the revision of our Book in 1892. 
Those of practical use and of constant service are on 
pages xxvi and xxvii, being a list of Easter-days 
from 1786 to 2013, and a table which from the 
date of Easter in any year gives information as to 
other movable days and changeable numbers in 
that year. The two General Tables are of use for 
chronologists and curious investigators; the first 
helps us to find the Sunday Letter as far as the 
year 5000, etc., and the second determines the place 
of the Golden Numbers in the Calendar as far as 
the year 8500. 

It may be worth while to note that we cannot work 
backward from these tables further than the date of 
the Change of Style, as it is called — in countries of 
the Roman obedience 1582, in England 1752 — with- 
out making allowance for that change, Whitaker's 
Almanack (English) prints annually a table of Easter- 
days and Sunday Letters for the years 1500-2000, 
which allows for the change of style; it is well 
arranged and of much interest. 

The reader may care to have at hand a few facts 
as to dates with reference to the Calendar. The earli- 
est possible Easter date is March 22, if a full moon 
falls on March 21 and that day is Saturday; the 
latest possible Easter date is April 25, if a full moon 
falls on March 20 and the next on April 18 and that 
day is Sunday. The following table shows the years 


when Easter has recently fallen or will soon fall on 
days at or near the extremes : — 

March 22, 1818 (not again till 2285). 

23, 1845, 1856, 1913. 

24, (not since 1799), 1940. 

25, 1883, 1894, 1951. 

April 23, 1848, 1905, 1916 (not again till 2000). 

24, 1859 (not again till 2011). 

25, (not since 1736), 1886, 1943. 

There was but one Sunday after the Epiphany in 
1799, 1818, 1845, 1856; this will be the case again 
in 191 3, and then not till 2008. 

There were six Sundays after the Epiphany six 
times in the last century: 1810, 1821, 1832, 1848, 
1859, 1886; the years in this century for the same 
number are 1905, 1916, 1943, 1962, 1973, 1984, and 
then 2000. 

The reason for a divergence between the Eastern 
Church (that of Greece and Russia) and our own 
in the date of Easter is not that they have a dif- 
erent rule, but that their Calendar is still of Old 
Style and is thirteen days behind ours. In 1907, 
the full moon fell on our March 28, and our 
Easter was the following Sunday, March 31; but 
by their reckoning the full moon named fell on 
March 15, before the equinox, and they waited 
for the next full moon on their April 15; this day 
being Sunday, their Easter was postponed till their 
April 22, which was our May 5 ; and thus they 


were five weeks behind us in the observance of 
the festival. 


The bibliographical references for this chapter must be to 
books already named at the end of the last chapter, and to 
encyclopaedia articles on chronological subjects. 

The late Rev. Dr. Samuel Seabury (grandson of the Bishop) 
wrote a book on the Theory and Use of the Church Calendar ; 
and in Appendix IV to the Journal of the General Convention 
of 1 87 1 is a very learned and exhaustive paper on the Paschal 
Cycle by the Rev. Dr. F. A. P. Barnard, then president of 
Columbia College. 



THE Orders for Daily Morning and Evening 
Prayer, traditionally called 'The Divine Office', 
stand first in the Prayer Book, and rightly precede 
the sacramental offices for which they are a prepa- 
ration. Their origin is partly from 'natural piety', 
partly from the night vigils of the early Christians, 
and party from community or monastic life. The 
preparation for them in ante-Christian times may 
perhaps be traced to the daily morning and evening 
sacrifices of the temple, but more certainly and 
directly to the synagogue worship of the Sabbath- 
eve and Sabbath, and of two (or perhaps more) other 
days in the week; and also to the private prayers of 
devout men "in the evening and morning and at noon- 
day" (Psalm Iv, i8), or sometimes "seven times in a 
day" and "at midnight" (Psalm cxix. 164, 62). The 
synagogue worship, consisting of Psalms with a les- 
son from the Law, to which later a lesson from the 
Prophets was added (see Acts xiii. 15), with perhaps a 
sermon or exhortation based on what had been read, 
and mingled thanksgivings and prayers called 'Bene- 
dictions', corresponded in a way to our family devo- 
tions rather than to our Church services ; so that it is 
hardly an exaggeration to say that Morning and Even- 
ing Prayer have grown out of family and private wor- 


ship. We read at the first of no general gatherings of 
Christians except to "break the bread" of the Eucha- 
rist, though occasion was taken at such gatherings to 
hear the preaching of the word (see Acts xx. 7) ; but 
it would seem not at all improbable that in their 
houses they would assemble in smaller groups for 
prayer and praise. By the third century, as the 
pressure of persecution was removed, it was possible 
to hold in common a service for the eve and the 
morning of the Lord's Day which had displaced the 
Sabbath — perhaps it was first held on Easter-even 
and Easter-day. And when, a century or two later, 
many Christians began to live in communities, they 
were able and glad to have common prayers often; • 
besides those of evening and night and morning, they 
could meet for them at intervals in the busy part of 
the day. Thus there grew up, largely under the in- 
fluence of the Benedictine rule, the eight (or seven) 
regular — "canonical" — hours of prayer, binding on 
members of religious communities and a model for 
all Christians. In their order, they were thus named : 
Vespers at sunset. Compline at bedtime, Nocturns 
or Matins at midnight or early dawn. Lauds at 
sunrise. Prime at the beginning of work. Tierce at the 
third hour or the middle of the morning, Sexts at the 
sixth hour or midday. Nones at the ninth hour or the 
middle of the afternoon.* The daily eucharistic office 

^The chief meal of the day was at nones ; the meal has now 
slipped back to midday, and carried the word ' noon ' with it. 



was regularly held after Prime. Matins was the 
longest service and generally passed directly into 
Lauds, so that the number of services came to be 
reckoned as seven. 

The origin of these services is to be found in the 
ideas suggested by the titles assigned to them. Thus 
to the private prayers, which seem to be the instinct of 
personal religion, we trace Compline and Prime; and 
these, it must be noted, were said in the dormitory 
and not in the church, being bedside rather than 
chapel services, and were very short; Vespers and 
Matins, with Lauds, belonged to the vigils which 
treated every day as in a sense a Lord's day; while 
the three day-offices, as they were called, belonged 
especially to the community, and they too were 
short, like our noonday prayers for Missions. 

It is not possible here to trace the history of the 
Divine Ofhce; it may be read in books named at 
the end of this chapter. Beautiful in their ideal, the 
services of the seven hours could not be maintained 
except in monastic establishments and in 'collegiate' 
churches which had a large staff of clergymen; and 
we have seen in our own times a similar retro- 
gression, for the survival of public daily prayers has 
been chiefly in cathedrals and other large churches 
and in colleges. The whole number could never 
have been customarily attended by men and women 
outside of the communities, and even the monks and 
the clergy soon began to say the services one after an- 
other "by accumulation" ; combining them into two 


or at the most three, and repeating them in private, 
as is the custom in the Roman Church to-day. 

In this way it came to pass that the Psalter 
was read through in order once a week ; there were 
also daily Lessons from Scripture and the Fathers 
or other sources, along with the Canticles and the 
Creed and a few familiar prayers. These, of course, 
were all in Latin; but at least as early as the year 
1400 there were English 'Primers' for those who 
could read or could learn from the reading of others, 
containing a translation of a great part of the con- 
tents of the Latin offices. Still, there was little 
"common prayer" left from the more ancient offices; 
the amount of Scripture in the Lessons had become 
very small; and the rubrics and rules for the services 
had grown so complicated that "many times there was 
more business to find out what should be read than 
to read it when it was found out." 

The first definite plan for a revision of the daily 
offices included in the Breviary came from a 
Spanish Cardinal, by name Quinones (often called 
by the English Quignon), whose work was pub- 
lished in 1535. It was a simplification of the ser- 
vices then in use, providing for a weekly reading or 
singing of the Psalms, the continuous reading of 
both the Old Testament and the New, the simplifica- 
tion of the rubrics, and the removal of much non- 
scriptural matter which was not to edification; all 
was still kept in Latin. Eight years later, in 1543, 
Henry VIII being still king, Cranmer began a re- 


vision in England, on the lines of Quignon's work. 
He soon carried it farther than the Spanish Cardinal 
had done; and in 1547, early in Edward VI's reign, 
he had ready a scheme for reducing the daily ser- 
vices to two, repeating therein the Psalter once a 
month, and reading the Lessons and saying the 
Lord's Prayer in English; the Lessons being ar- 
ranged so as to go through the Old Testament once, 
and the New Testament three times, in each year. 
Out of this grew very soon, and with true Anglican 
instinct, the order for Morning and Evening Prayer 
in the first English Prayer Book of 1549. Cranmer 
and those who were associated with him in the work 
did not originate these services: they did not really 
compile or arrange them ; but they translated, sim- 
plified, revised, and in the right sense of the word 
popularized services that had long been in use, and 
provided for large readings from the Word of God, 
for which the people were an-hungered. The Les- 
sons of Scripture which (except for single verses called 
'capitula') had all been read at Matins, were soon 
made four for each day, and distributed between morn- 
ing and evening. If we keep in mind that the Morn- 
ing and Evening Prayer of 1549 were almost exactly 
the parts of our services which begin with the Lord's 
Prayer and end with the Collect for Grace and that 
for Aid against Perils, we can readily see how they 
were taken from, and thus preserve, five of the older 

Our Morning Prayer is Matins with Lauds and 


Prime. From Matins come the Lord's Prayer with 
its versicles, the standing Invitatory Psalm xcv 
(Venite), the appointed part of the Psalter in order, 
a Lesson (now taken always from the Old Testament), 
and the Te Deum as the Church's response to God's 
prophetic Word.' To Lauds belonged Benedicite (in 
the new Book said only when Te Deum was omitted, 
that is, in Lent); Benedictus (now sung in response 
to the New Testament Lesson as a thanksgiving for 
the Incarnation); the versicles, and the Collect for 
the day or the week taken from the eucharistic ser- 
vice; and the Collect for Peace. To Prime belonged 
the Creed and the Collect for Grace. 

In like manner, Vespers and Compline were com- 
bined in Evening Prayer or Evensong, the service 
being assimilated to that of the morning for sim- 
plicity's sake. To Vespers we may assign the 
Psalms and the Magnificat, together with the Ver- 
sicles, the Collect from the eucharistic service, and 
the Collect for Peace; while to Compline belong 
Nunc Dimittis, the Creed, and the Collect for Aid 
against Perils; a Lesson, as just noted, was also ap- 
pointed for each service. No provision was made 
for continuing the day-offices of Tierce and Sexts 
and Nones, except as their Psalms were read in 
order at morning and evening; they were wisely left 
to private devotion. 

' In the Latin office, Te Deum had been the respond to the 
ninth Lesson at Sunday Matins. 


In 1552, the penitential preface of Sentences, Ex- 
hortation, Confession, and Absolution was prefixed, 
corresponding to private devotions which had been 
said before the offices; Te Deum and Benedicite were 
made interchangeable; and Psalms were provided 
as alternatives for Benedictus, Magnificat, and Nunc 

In 1662, the Prayers for the King, the Royal 
Family, and the Clergy and People, and the Prayer 
of St. Chrysostom, with 'The Grace', were added; 
and in this form these services stand in the English 
Book to-day. Thus it is very easy to trace their 
several parts back to their originals; and the reasons 
for the modifications made in them are readily seen. 

In this country, when the Prayer Book was first 
set forth after the Revolution, in 1789-90, three non- 
penitential sentences were prefixed to both Morning 
and Evening Prayer; an alternative form of abso- 
lution was inserted from the Communion Office; the 
Venite was made to consist of seven verses of Psalm 
xcv and two verses from Psalm xcvi ; Benedictus 
was reduced to four verses; the Nicene Creed 
was made an alternative for the Apostles' ; the 
number of versicles after the Creed was reduced 
to two with their responses; Magnificat and Nunc 
Dimittis were omitted, and alternatives from the 
Psalter were provided for Cantate and Deus Mis- 
ereatur; and finally, the Prayer for all Conditions 
of Men and the General Thanksgiving were brought 
into both services from their English place in the 


Special Prayers and Thanksgivings. In the revision 
which ended in 1892, a large number of special Sen- 
tences, corresponding to the ancient Invitatories, 
were prefixed; the full Benedictus was restored, as 
were also Magnificat and Nunc Dimittis; omitted 
versicles (but without the Lord's Prayer) were 
replaced after the Creed at Evening Prayer; and 
permission was given for the shortening of both ser- 
vices, under certain carefully stated conditions. 
Both in 1790 and in 1892 there were rubrical and 
other minor changes, some of which will be noted 

Our daily services have, therefore, for their central 
part, the recital of the Psalms as an act of meditation 
on the varied aspects of life in its dependence on 
God, and the reading of God's Word for His honor 
and for man's instruction. This meditation and in- 
struction are introduced by an act of repentance, and 
lead to hymns of thanksgiving and the public pro- 
fession of faith in the great truths of revelation; and 
on this follow in turn a few simple petitions for the 
worshippers, for the Church, and for all in authority, 
with a thanksgiving for God's many mercies. 

Attention has been called to the rubrics which 
regulate the use of the offices at different times. It 
should be carefully noted : 

I. That at Morning Prayer on Sunday, unless the 
Holy Commuion is immediately to follow, nothing 
must be omitted until after the Prayer for the Presi- 


dent; and if neither the Litany nor the Holy Com- 
munion is to follow, none of the prayers which stand 
after that for the President may be omitted. The 
Holy Communion, in the rubrics quoted, evidently 
means the whole service with the celebration of the 
Sacrament, and not the preliminary part "unto the 
end of the Gospel", known as the Ante-Communion. 
And permission to omit is not a command to omit; 
it may sometimes be well to read the penitential in- 
troduction of the service, even if a part or all of the 
congregation will be presently called to another con- 
fession in the Communion Office. 

2. That at Morning Prayer on week-days, unless 
the Holy Communion is immediately to follow, noth- 
ing may be omitted until the end of the Collect for 
Grace; but on any week-day the short bidding form, 
"Let us humbly confess", may take the place of the 
exhortation. On any week-day Morning Prayer may 
end with the Collect for Grace and 2 Cor. xiii. 14. 

3. That at Evening Prayer on Sundays, the whole 
service must be said to the end of the Collect for 
Aid against Perils; the bidding form is printed as an 
alternative for the exhortation, and may be used on 
any day. 

4. That Evening Prayer on week-days may begin 
with the Lord's Prayer after one or more of the sen- 
tences and may end with the Collect for Aid against 
Perils. The rubric seems to require at least one 
more Prayer; but there is no doubt that 2 Cor. xiii. 
14 is a 'Prayer of Benediction'. 


Again it may be noted that 'may' is not 'shall', 
and that on many occasions it is well either to begin 
Evening Prayer with the Confession, as when there 
is but one week-day service, and that in the evening, 
or to read all the prayers as printed, as when the 
Sunday evening congregation is practically different 
from that of the morning. 

The opening sentences are in three divisions: 
general, specific, and penitential. Some of the sen- 
tences assigned to special days or seasons may well 
be used at other times: thus, 'From the rising of 
the sun' is suitable for Saints' days or for missionary 
services or when the Holy Communion is to follow; 
'This is the day' and 'If ye then be risen' are suit- 
able for any Sunday; 'Seeing that we have a great 
High Priest' and 'Christ is not entered' may well 
be read on Thursday; 'O send out thy light' is 
always appropriate. The careful ministrant will 
also select a penitential sentence that suits the 
thought of the day; the three from Psalm li are 
suitable for Friday; 'Enter not into judgment', 
for Advent; 'Rend your heart', for the earlier part 
of Lent, and 'To the Lord our God', for the lat- 
ter part of that season; 'I will arise' is not inappro- 
priate even on a festival; the first and the last are 

The purpose of the Exhortation is evident; it is 
based on the penitential sentence just read, and first 
calls for a moment's meditation upon the purposes 


of assembling in God's house; and secondly, it re- 
minds us that we ought not to enter upon His 
worship without confession of our sins and the as- 
surance of His forgiveness and acceptance. The 
Confession is called 'General' as distinguished from 
specific; it is public, not private. The congrega- 
tion is to say it 'after the Minister', that is to say, 
following his lead from clause to clause; and to this 
end capital letters are inserted, to show when each 
rhetorical clause begins; before each such capital as 
'According', 'And grant', 'That we may', there 
should be a distinct suspension of the voice. There 
ought also, that the connection of the words may be 
plainly felt, to be a semi-pause before 'declared unto 
mankind' and before 'live a godly', and no such 
pause after the word 'godly'. The old custom, and 
one still followed in some places,' was for the minis- 
ter to say each clause alone and for the people to 
repeat it after him ; this was changed in our Church 
by advice of the House of Bishops in 1835. A like 
use of capitals is seen in the Lord's Prayer, the 
Creed, the Confession in the Communion Service, 
the next to the last prayer in the Penitential Office, 
the Prayer after the exhortation based on the Gospel 
in the Baptismal Offices, and two long answers in 
the Catechism. 

'Amen', at the end of the Confession, is printed 
in roman type; at the end of the Absolution it is in 

'This is done frequently when services are intoned. 


italic type.* An italic 'Amen' is a response, to 
be said by the people after a prayer or thanksigving 
said by the minister; it is never to be said by the 
minister, not even at the end of 'The grace of our 
Lord'. A roman 'Amen' is a part of the prayer or 
formula which it closes, and is to be said by the 
person or persons who have said that which precedes ; 
thus, at the end of the Confession or the Lord's 
Prayer or the Creed both minister and people are to 
say it ; at the end of the second part of the Gloria 
Patri, the people alone; at the end of the Baptismal 
formula, the minister alone; at the end of the 
formula at laying on of hands in Confirmation or 
Ordination, the Bishop alone is to say the 'Amen'. 

The Declaration of Absolution is to be said by the 
priest alone. If a deacon or a lay-reader is reading 
the service, no priest being present, he passes at 
once from the Confession to the Lord's Prayer. 
The distinction in the use of the terms 'Minister' 
and 'Priest' is carefully observed in our Prayer Book, 
with one or two possible exceptions which will be 
noted. The former includes a deacon or, in those 
services which a layman may canonically read — 
Morning and Evening Prayer, the Litany, and the 
Order for the Burial of the Dead — a lay-reader. 

The English Book has in this place but the first of 
the two forms of absolution, technically known as 

*In the rubric after the first Absolution it is in roman be- 
cause the rubric is in italic, and thus in this one place the rule 
is reversed. 


Declarative; the other, called Precatory, was brought 
here in the American Book from the Communion 
Service, to which it properly belongs. It seems to 
have been thought that, being less formal in phrase- 
ology, it was less definite in meaning than the other; 
but in fact the Church has always held that a preca- 
tory absolution is the most solemn and authorita- 
tive. It is so with benedictions: "God bless you" 
is more solemn and means more than "In God's 
Name I bless you." The English Book has a third 
form of absolution, called Indicative, to be used at 
the Visitation of the Sick, "if the sick person hum- 
bly and heartily desire it" ; it is of mediaeval origin, 
and has been omitted from our Book, the ancient 
precatory absolution being retained, as will be noted 
in due time. 

Matins, it will be remembered, properly begins 
with the Lord's Prayer. This is to be said here and 
in the corresponding place at evening by minister 
and people together; and the same rule is to hold 
"wheresoever else" this prayer "is used in Divine 
Service." The meaning of this phrase, which 
seems to apply to every recurrence of the Lord's 
Prayer in the Prayer Book, is made doubtful by the 
custom, practically universal in England and at least 
prevalent with us, that the minister alone says this 
prayer at the beginning of the Communion Office; 
near the close of that office, the people are bidden to 
repeat it with the minister. The people are also in- 
structed to say the Lord's Prayer with the minis- 


ter in the Litany, and in case of imminent danger 
at sea, but nowhere else. A rubric at the end of 
the Communion Office in the English Book shows 
that 'Divine Service' includes that office; and it 
is the opinion of the present writer that this 
rubric bids the people always to say the Lord's 
Prayer with the minister. Whether custom in one 
particular place overrides the rubric must be consid- 
ered when we come to the study of the special place. 

It is interesting to trace the versicles with their 
responses to their source, which is usually in the 
Psalms. "O Lord, open thou" is from Psalm li, and 
may be a survival of a private act of penitence before 
the beginning of public worship. In the old offices 
it was said but once a day, at the beginning of 
Matins; and it was followed here, as still in the 
English use, by words which began each of the other 
offices, taken from Psalm Ixx. i: "O Lord, make 
speed to save us; O God, make haste to help us." 
The Gloria Patri (which both in Latin and in Eng- 
lish has an interesting history) is said as from lips 
which the Lord has opened; and upon it follows 
v^ith a response, "Praise ye the Lord", a translation of 
the Hebrew 'Hallelujah', which in the form 'Alle- 
luia' stands here in the Roman service, for use except 
from Septuagesima to Easter, when a Latin para- 
phrase is substituted for it. 

The Venite stands as the great Invitatory Psalm, 
of practically daily use in the Christian Church. It 
is called an 'Anthem'; yet not in the older sense of 


'Antiphon', of which the word is a corruption (and 
as to this see in notes on the Litany), nor in the 
later sense of a 'set piece' of music bringing out the 
meaning of words by repetition, but apparently as 
made up in our Book of parts of two Psalms, in 
accurate phrase a cento. On Easter-day there are 
three anthems in place of the Venite, selected from 
passages in St. Paul's epistles; on Thanksgiving- 
day, nine verses selected from Psalm cxlvii take its 
place; when Morning Prayer is read in prison (see 
page 312 of the Prayer Book) Psalm cxxx, De Pro- 
fundis, is read instead of Venite; on the 19th day 
of the month, unless a Selection is used, the Morn- 
ing Prayer form of the Venite is omitted. 

There is no rubric as to the manner in which the 
Psalms for the day of the month, the Proper Psalms 
on certain days, or the Selections allowed for use on 
other days, shall be said or sung. Custom has ruled 
that when they are read, the minister shall read one 
verse and the people shall reply with the next, and so 
on.' When few people could read, it would appear 
that the minister read the Psalms as he did the 
Lessons, the people sitting, sometimes with their 
hats on, but rising and removing their hats at each 
Gloria; it was a complaint of some puritanically in- 
clined people, that they were obliged to rise and un- 
cover themselves too often because of the frequent 

^In a few places Psalms are read, and in more places sung, 
by half-verses, in accordance (it is thought) with Hebrew use. 


occurrence of the Gloria; and it was a part of the 
reply that it was "seemly that at all times women 
should be covered and men dis-covered" in the 
church. Later there was in many places a dialogue 
between the parson and the clerk in reading the 
Psalms; apparently it is not known when the present 
custom began to prevail. No authority has decided 
how the Gloria at the end of Canticles and Psalms 
should be read ; on the whole, it seems best that the 
minister should always read the former clause, the 
people responding with the second; but it is not un- 
liturgical that it shall be said 'full', that is, by 
minister and people together. 

Our rubric requires the Gloria Patri only at the 
end of the whole portion or selection of Psalms for 
the day. It is, however, very rarely omitted after 
the Canticles — except that the Te Deum never has a 
Gloria'' — and is usually read or sung after each 
psalm. The English Book especially requires it not 
only at the end of each Psalm but also after each 
portion of Psalm cxix ; our Book having no such re- 
quirement or permission, and a proposal to insert it 
having been rejected in General Convention at the 
time of the later revision, it seems incorrect for us 
to use the Gloria with this Psalm except at the end 
of each morning's or evening's portion. The per- 
mission to sing Gloria in excelsis at the end of the 

'Is this because the Te Deum is not taken directly from the 
Bible ? 


Psalms in Morning or Evening Prayer is peculiarly 
American, but by no means contrary to ancient use, 
as will be seen in the notes on that venerable hymn 
where it occurs in the Communion Office. 

Te Deum Laudamus is confessedly the greatest of 
uninspired hymns, if indeed we ought to deny the 
title of inspired to that which is largely composed of 
the words of Scripture and has been for ages used 
in the lofty praises of the Church. The legend that 
it was composed by St. Ambrose and St. Augustine 
on the occasion of the baptism of the latter, a.d. 
387, is without historical foundation. A recent 
editor of the works of Niceta, Bishop of Remesiana 
in the region now known as Servia about the year 
400, Dr. A. E. Burn, is confident that he has traced 
the authorship, or at least the compilation, of the 
hymn, to this little-known man. At any rate, it can 
be with great confidence traced back very nearly to 
his time. Its structure should be studied, if pos- 
sible, in the original Latin. It consists of three 
strophes, the first and the second each containing 
four verses and leading to a doxology, while the 
third, after four (or perhaps five) verses, leads to a 
petition for a share in the glory of the saints. After 
these strophes follow verses or 'little chapters' of 
Scripture and versicles which are common to the 
conclusion of this hymn and others. The words are 
in a rhythm, not metrical in the classical sense, but 
following the general form of the ancient Saturnian 
verse which reappeared in late Latin and gave rise 


to our ballad or common metre. Each of the four 
verses of the strophes begins with a form of the pro- 
noun of the second person, Tu, Te, or Tibi ; thus: — 

1. Te Deum laudamus : te Dominum confitemur. 

2. Te aeternum Patrem : omnis terra veneratur. 

3. Tibi omnes angeli : tibi caeli et universae potestates ; 

4. Tibi cherubim et seraphim '' : incessabili voce procla- 

mant : 

Upon this follows the doxology, taken from Isaiah, 
"the hymn of praise ever ascending to God the 
Father from all that He has made" : — 

5. Sanctus, sanctus, sanctus : Dominus Deus Sabaoth ; 

6. Pleni sunt csli et terra : majestatis gloriae tuas. 

The second division is the hymn of praise of the 
Universal Church inspired by apostles, prophets, and 
martyrs, and framed in a doxology to the Holy 
Trinity, thus: — 

7. Te gloriosus : apostolorum chorus ; 

8. Te prophetarum : laudabiHs numerus ; 

9. Te martyrum candidatus : laudat exercitus. 

10. Te per orbem terrarum : sancta confitetur ecclesia : 

11. Patrem immensas majestatis ; 

12. Venerandum tuum verum unigenitum Filium ; 

13. Sanctum quoque Parachtum Spiritum. 

It is to be noted that apostles, prophets (that is, 
those of the Christian Church), and martyrs, are 

'These words are the Hebrew forms of the plural of 
' cherub' and ' seraph'. The English Book has ' cherubin ' and 
' seraphin', which are the Aramaic form adopted by Greek 


placed in the order of their number, and to this cor- 
respond the words 'chorus', 'numerus', and 'exer- 
citus'. Now 'numerus' was a word often used of a 
'band' of soldiers, and the 'candidati' were the 
picked troops of a body-guard, and it may be thought 
that 'chorus' has the sense of 'cohors' ; so that the 
three phrases prepare for the thought of the Church 
militant, which ever confesses the Triune God.' 

In the third division of the hymn, the assembled 
Church sings its creed of faith in the Divinity, the 
Incarnation, the Death and Resurrection, the Ascen- 
sion and Return, of her Lord, and bases on it an 
earnest prayer for present help and for a share in the 
glory of His saints. 

14. Tu rex gloriae, Christe ; 

15. Tu Patris sempiternus es Filius. 

16. Tu ad liberandum suscepturus hominem : 

non horruisti virginis uterum. 

17. Tu devicto mortis aculeo : 

aperuisti credentibus regna caelorum. 

18. Tu ad dexteram Dei sedens in gloria Patris : 

19. Judex crederis esse venturus. 

20. Te ergo quaesumus tuis famulis subveni : 

quos pretioso sanguine redemisti. 

21. Sterna fac cum Sanctis tuis gloria munerari. 

'Sedens', in verse 18, seems a better reading than 
'sedes', and 'numerari' (to be numbered) is quite 

*0n this supposition, the translation 'noble' is well justified, 
but it is hard to illustrate 'goodly', and the explanation is 
therefore only suggested as possible. 


certainly an ancient miswriting or misprint for 
'munerari' (to be rewarded). 

Here the hymn proper ends. But there have been 
added to it the old 'capitellum' for the Te Deum, 
Psalm xviii. lo (verses 22, 23), and the correspond- 
ing words for the Gloria in excelsis, Psalm cxlv. 2 
(verses 24, 25). The remaining verses are Antiphons 
of not infrequent use, "Vouchsafe, O Lord", and "O 
Lord, have mercy", being found very early at the end 
of the Gloria in excelsis as a morning hymn, and "O 
Lord, in thee" (Psalm Ixxi. i) having been the open- 
ing clause of a prayer after the Gloria. In two of 
the recent musical settings of the Te Deum for a fes- 
tival occasion the somewhat sombre ending has been 
relieved by the repetition of the opening strain "We 
praise thee, O God", at the end. 

The translation of this great hymn deserves care- 
ful study, for which help will be found in Bishop 
Dowden's "Studies in the Prayer Book." We may 
note here the three changes made in the American 
Book from the English: 'adorable' for 'honourable', in 
verse 12; "Thou didst humble thyself to be born of 
a Virgin", in verse 16 (a fine example of Bishop 
White's rhythmical power, but should it not be the 
Virgin,?); and 'be' for 'lighten' in the next to the 
last verse, which has the advantage of being literal 
and unemphatic (the Latin is 'fiat'). 

The alternative for the Te Deum is Benedicite 
omnia opera, taken from the Song of the Three Holy 
Children — Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, or 


(to use the Greek forms of their Hebrew names) 
Ananias, Azarias, and Misael — as it is given in the 
additions to the Book of Daniel in the Apocrypha. 
It may be called an expanded paraphrase of Psalm 
cxlviii. To gain a full understanding of this hymn 
it should be recited or sung, after the first two intro- 
ductory verses, in triplets, bringing together the 
Heavens, the Waters above, the Powers of the Lord; 
Sun and Moon, Stars, Showers and Dew; Winds, 
Fire and Heat, Summer and Winter; Dews and 
Frosts, Frost and Cold, Ice and Snow ; etc. The 
omission of "O Ananias, Azarias, and Misael" in 
the American Book has reduced the last section to a 
couplet. The hymn ends with Gloria Patri, which 
anciently had here a special form. Since 1552, there 
has been no rubric directing the use of Benedicite at 
any time; but there is a prevalent custom to follow 
the rule of 1549 and use it in Lent. It may be con- 
sidered whether it may not well be used, as Dean 
Burgon suggested, when the first Lesson is the 
opening chapter of Genesis or some other passage 
telling of God's works in nature, or after some 
remarkable phenomenon in the natural world, such as 
an eclipse or a storm, or at Rogation-tide, or in har- 
vest; it is appropriate for Thanksgiving-day. 

Benedictus at Morning Prayer and Magnificat and 
Nunc Dimittis at Evening Prayer, the songs of 
Zacharias and the Virgin Mary and Simeon, being the 
'evangelical canticles' and a commemoration of the 
Incarnation, are normally used each day; and in the 


judgment of some ritualists, they should never be 
displaced by their alternatives unless these occur in 
the second Lesson or in the Gospel of the service. The 
Church, however, has made no such rule; and Jubi- 
late is sometimes specially appropriate, as in the 
Epiphany season or after Lessons from the Acts of 
the Apostles which tell of the extension of the 
Church among the Gentiles. So also, Cantate may 
well be sung after many of the Lessons from the 
historical books of the Old Testament, and Deus 
Misereatur, which is by no means a penitential Psalm 
(in the English Book it has a place in the marriage 
service), follows well upon some passages in both the 
Gospel and the Epistles. A connection with an- 
cient use is observed if either of the Gospel canticles 
is used at Evensong. 

The recital of the Creed follows naturally after 
listening to God's Word and thanking Him for its 
teaching and before entering upon solemn acts of 
prayer. For the history of the Apostles' Creed 
(which is the baptismal symbol of the Western 
Church), and that called the Nicene (which is the eu- 
charistic symbol and, except for the words "and the 
Son" following "who proceedeth from the Father", 
the formal confession of the faith of the Church 
Catholic), reference must be made to books specially 
treating of the subject. Creeds were not of old said 
in public worship. In the Liturgy or Communion 
Office the Nicene Creed was first introduced about 
the year 500, and to this day the Roman Church does 


not say the Creed at every mass; in the daily offices 
the Apostles' Creed must have been first used at a 
somewhat later date. Permission to say the Nicene 
Creed in the daily offices is peculiar to the American 
Book; it originated apparently from the desire to say 
the Nicene Creed before the celebration of the 
Communion and at the same time to avoid the 
duplication of Creeds in the one continuous service, 
which was the custom; this being done in Morning 
Prayer, Evening Prayer was conformed to it. The 
rubric before "the Creed called the Nicene" in the 
Communion service, which requires that that Creed 
shall be said on the five chief festivals of the year, 
would seem to direct, or at least suggest, that if for 
any reason there is no celebration of the Holy Com- 
munion on those days (for instance, when a layman 
is reading the service), the Nicene Creed should be 
said in the assigned place at Morning Prayer. The 
beginner in theology should be asked to note in re- 
gard to the phraseology of this Creed: (i) That the 
preposition in the phrases "God of God", etc., means 
'deriving from' or 'proceeding from', and should have 
strong emphasis; (2) That 'very' is an adjective and 
means 'real' or 'true'; (3) That the relative pronoun 
in "By whom all things were made" refers to the Son, 
'by' having the old sense of 'through'; (4) That, as 
the punctuation shows, 'The Lord' and 'Giver of life' 
are two distinct titles of the Holy Ghost. 

In both of the Creeds the traditional division into 
twelve articles is marked b}' placing either a colon or 


(in two cases) a full stop at the end of each article. 
In the Apostles' Creed, the word 'again' in "he 
rose again from the dead" (omitted in our Book until 
the last revision), sometime needs explanation, and 
some readers need to be cautioned against emphasiz- 
ing it. It does not mean 'a second time', but like 
the prefix in the Latin resiirrexit or the Greek 
aveajr], it denotes a return ; in Biblical English it is 
used for the modern adverb 'back' ; and in common 
talk it still has a like sense: "I and the lad will go 
yonder, and come again" ; "The man fell, but picked 
himself up again." 

In the 'Proposed Book' of 1786, the Nicene Creed, 
as well as the so-called Athanasian (see page 96), 
was omitted entirely, and the clause "He descended 
into hell" was dropped from the Apostles' Creed. 
The English Bishops objecting, not unreasonably, 
to this action, in 1786 the Convention (not yet 
'General') voted to allow the use of the Nicene Creed 
and to restore the Apostles' to its full form. In the 
General Convention of 1789, which set forth the 
Prayer Book in the form in which it went into use 
the following year, this clause was added to the 
rubric before the Apostles' Creed: "And any 
Churches may omit the words, 'He descended into 
heir, or may, instead of them, use the words 'He 
went into the place of departed spirits', which are 
considered as words of the same meaning in the 
Creed." At the last revision the permission to omit 
was withdrawn, and the rubric took its present form. 


The reason for the rubric was, and to some extent is, 
the misunderstanding by many persons of the word 
'heir in the sense which it has in the English Bible, 
always in the Old Testament and frequently in the 
New, as also in the Creed; and those who framed it 
felt that the difficulty was so real that it called for a 
distinct explanation, and might become so serious 
in some places that explanatory words should be sub- 
stituted for those which were not understood, or 
even that a clause introduced into the Creed at a 
comparatively late date, and really adding nothing to 
the faith, should be by competent authority omitted. 
That competent authority was recognized as in 'any 
Churches' ; and 'any Churches' in the ecclesiastical 
phraseology of the day meant 'any dioceses' ; for the 
doctrine of diocesan rights was in most quarters 
firmly held at the first. The right, then, was re- 
served to any diocese to make the omission or the 
substitution mentioned in the rubric, and the right 
of making the substitution still remains. That right 
has never been exercised, and quite certainly never 
will be exercised; but it has been, and doubtless still 
is, a great advantage to the Church to be able to ex- 
plain in clear words and in a conspicuous place the 
meaning of a phrase which, by reason of a change in 
the use of a word, has been a stumbling-block to 

The Creeds are said by minister and people to- 
gether, that each may profess the common faith ; in 
the Eastern Church the pronoun was in the plural, but 


now all say *I believe'. And in the Creed all stand, 
partly no doubt from reverence, and partly as being 
Christ's soldiers on duty, professing each day their 
allegiance to Him and to the truth which He 
taught. The custom that those worshippers who are 
so placed in church that they do not ordinarily face 
the east, should at the Creed set their faces with the 
rest of the congregation towards the sun-rising, is 
thought to be ancient;' that of turning at each 
Gloria, it may be noted, has not the same antiquity. 
The custom of doing reverence at the name of Jesus 
by bowing the head, though nearly universal, is not 
known to have been followed in England before the 
thirteenth century. 

After the mutual salutation of minister and people, 
in words the full meaning of which has been dulled 
for most of us by thoughtless repetition, we pass to 
prayer. Our Book has omitted the Lord's Prayer 
with the three-clause litany preceding it, which 
stands here in the English Book; and having at first 
reduced the number of 'suffrages' or versicles with 
their responses in both services to two, still keeps 
the two most spiritual petitions in Morning Prayer, 
but has restored the others (in part modified) in 
Evening Prayer. These suffrages are said by way of 
anticipation or preparation for the collects or prayers 
that follow them. The Litany, as will .be soon 
noted, gives us two examples of the ancient way of 

'But cf. Frere's Procter on this custom, page 391. 


saying a prayer: first, its general intent was ex- 
pressed in a versicle and response, and then the 
minister said 'Let us pray' and recited the full 
prayer, the people responding with 'Amen'. The 
collection of suffrages in our Evening Prayer is like 
that with which the people were familiar of old at 
'bidding the bedes' ; and in this phrase it must be 
remembered that 'bede' or 'bead' meant originally a 
petition; 'to bid bedes' is to offer petitions; 'to tell 
bedes' is to count prayers. We may assign the last 
petition, "O God, make clean", to the Collect for the 
day; and the first, "O Lord, show thy mercy", to the 
Collect for Grace or for Aid against Perils; "Give 
peace in our time" will then be a preparation for the 
Collect for Peace; and the second and third and fourth 
will be seen to belong with the prayer for the Civil 
Authority, that for the Clergy and People, and (per- 
haps) that for All Conditions of Men, respectively. 

At Morning Prayer, the application must be more 
general, and the two suffrages may well be referred 
to the work of the Son of God in redemption and 
that of the Holy Spirit in sanctification. 

The use of the Collect for the day in the daily ser- 
vices is as a memorial of the eucharistic service of 
the preceding Sunday or of the morning; it links the 
petitions which are to follow with the great act of 
worship and prayer of the week or of the special 
time." If, as provided in the second rubric after the 

'See Chapter VI, beginning. 


general heading of Collects, Epistles, and Gosi^elf-, 
the Collect appointed for any Sunday or other Feast 
is used at the evening service of the day before — an 
old and edifying custom — the Collect serves to 
introduce the thought of the morrow and to prepare 
for its observance. If, as in Advent or Lent, the 
Collect for the season is said with another Collect in 
the Communion Office, both should be said in the 
daily services; or if when a Sunday and a Holy-day 
concur, both of their Collects are said in the one 
service, both should be said in the other also. 
Our Book, wisely and with true instinct, bids us 
omit the variable Collect at Morning Prayer if it is 
presently to be said at the Holy Communion. This 
variable Collect was said of old at Lauds, and to 
Lauds belonged also the Collect for Peace; the 
Collect which follows was taken, with the Creed, 
from the office of Prime. The careful student 
will note the beauty of the ancient second and third 
Collects, and that the two Collects for Peace differ as 
praying for peace in the active service of God and 
for the peace of rest in Him ; and if he has the Latin 
before him, he will learn from ^' quern nosse vivere, 
cui servire regnare est'' the meaning of an obscure 
phrase in the prayer at morning, which confesses 
that the true life of man consists in the knowledge 
of God. 

In the English Book, the Litany is ordered to be 
said after the Collect for Grace, and it contains ex- 
tended petitions for the Sovereign and for others in 


Civil Authority. In our Book the Litany has but 
one general petition for all Christian Rulers and 
Magistrates, and the place assigned it in the morn- 
ing service is after the Prayer for the President. 
The reason for the change of place is said to have 
been that President Washington, whose home was at 
some distance from Pohick Church and from Christ 
Church, Alexandria, while always at service in the 
morning, did not often attend in the afternoon ; and 
it was thought seemly to provide that this prayer 
should be read when he was present. There is no 
provision in our Book for an 'Anthem' during the 
prayers in the morning; but the use of a hymn 
before the Litany is allowed by the general rubric 
before the Tables of Lessons. In our Evening 
Prayer we have the rubric, which admits of a 
diversity of interpretations, "In places where it may 
be convenient, here followeth the Anthem"; the 
English Book reads after the third Collect, both 
morning and evening, "In Quires and Places where 
they sing, here followeth the Anthem." Both seem 
to authorize a somewhat elaborate musical 'perform- 
ance' in this place; custom certainly interprets a 
hymn as permissible; but both Books seem to expect 
some restraint in the use of the permission given. 

The Prayer for the President and all in Civil Au- 
thority is taken from the English Prayer for the 
Sovereign, inserted at the end of the Litany in 1559; 
that for the Clergy and People first appears in the 
Litany of 1544, and then in the Litany of 1559; both 


were put into their present place, as has been already 
noted, in 1662. The Prayer for all Conditions of 
Men was probably composed by Peter Gunning, 
Bishop of Chichester and of Ely, who died in 1684; 
it is thought to be in its present form an abridgment 
of a long prayer intended to take the place of the 
Litany; but this may be no more than an inference 
from the use of the word 'finally'. The General 
Thanksgiving was written by Edward Reynolds, 
Bishop of Norwich, who died in 1676; he should 
not be confused, as is constantly done, with John 
Rainolds, or Reynolds, the learned puritanical divine, 
president of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, who 
was prominent among the translators of the Author- 
ized Version. The word 'General', in the title of 
the Thanksgiving, is opposed to 'special' or 'specific' ; 
it does not imply that it is to be said audibly by the 
whole congregation — a practice for which there is 
no authority. The Prayer of St. Chrysostom was 
translated for the Litany of 1544, and was first 
printed in Morning and Evening Prayer in 1662; 
its history will be given in the chapter on the 

In the daily service — the Divine Office — we are 
using a precious part of our inheritance in the wor- 
ship of the early Church, and are continuing steadfast 
in the prayers of Apostles and apostolic men. In 
Morning and Evening Prayer we have universal ele- 
ments, contributed by natural piety and by churchly 
custom, tested by the experience of the ages, cast 


more than three centuries and a half ago into a form 
adapted to the genius and the needs of English- 
speaking people, and in our own land twice rever- 
ently revised with reference to the changing needs of 
Christian people; and we are under obligations to 
hold to the treasures of the past and to commend 
them to the men of new generations. It is the Eng- 
lish-speaking Churches alone which provide an order 
for daily Common Prayer; on the English-speaking 
Churches rests the responsibility of continuing its 
use and of profiting by it and commending it. 


General Works, and Roman, Sarum, and Quignonian Brevi- 
aries, as noted at end of Chapter I. 

Englisli Primers, in the Parker Society's publications ; to 
whicli add — 

Littlehales (Henry, editor). The Prymer, or Prayer Book of 
the Lay People in the Middle Ages. 

Baumer (Dom S.), History of the Breviary. In German and 
a French translation. This book has been called "monu- 
mental ". 

Batiffol (Pierre), History of the Roman Breviary. In French 
and an English translation. Learned and full and interesting. 

Baudot (Dom Jules), The Roman Breviary. Rather a popu- 
lar book, based on the two preceding. 

Neale (John Mason), The Breviary, Roman and Galilean, 
in Essays on Liturgiology. The vi^hole book is well worth 

Neale (John Mason), Notes on the Divine Office. Histori- 
cal and mystical, learned and quaint. 

Hallam (R. A.), Lectures on the Morning Prayer. Excellent 
for homiletical use. 


For the Canticles, consult Julian's Dictionary of Hymnology. 
But for the Te Deum, Bishop John Wordsworth's article in the 
Dictionary should be balanced by Burn's Niceta of Remesiana 
and by the same author's book next cited. 

For the History of the Creeds : — 

Burn (A. E.), An Introduction to the Creeds and to the 
Te Deum. Very full and learned. 

Gibson (Bishop C. S. G.), The Three Creeds (in the Oxford 
Library of Practical Theology). 

Swete (H. B.), The Apostles' Creed. 

McGiffert (A. C), The Apostles' Creed. 

For an account of the office-books of the Eastern Church, 
consult Neale's General Introduction to his History of the 
Holy Eastern Church, Vol. II. 

A brief but complete synopsis of the Daily Divine Worship 
of the Orthodox Church is found in the Euchology, done 
into English by G. V. Shann (Kidderminster, 1891). 

Note. — In the English Prayer Book, the so-called ' Creed 
of St. Athanasius ' or 'Athanasian Creed', or 'Athanasian 
Hymn ' or (from its initial words in Latin) ' Quiaitique vuW or 
more accurately ^ Qutcmnque vult\ stands before the Litany, 
with a rubric requiring that it be read at Morning Prayer in- 
stead of the Apostles' Creed on thirteen specified days, includ. 
ing the five great festivals. It was for a long time believed to 
have been written by the great theologian whose name it bears ; 
but it is certainly of Latin composition and written after the 
time of St. Augustine, though earlier than the year 500, and in all 
probability it was framed by some writer in the south of Gaul. 
It combines in itself, as has been said, a creed, a canticle, and 
a sermon on the creed ; and it has also at the beginning and the 
end minatory or warning clauses. Its purpose was evidently 
to serve in a time of danger to Christian souls, lest in deny- 
ing the Faith under pressure of persecution they should deny 
their Lord and their God. Not being used by the Greek 
Church in any of its offices, it cannot be rightly called a Catho- 
lic Creed ; and though in some ways it gives a helpful state- 
ment of the Catholic Faith, yet by reason of its form, the number 


of phrases which call for explanation, the insufficiency of some 
definitions, and the awkwardness and inaccuracy of its trans- 
lation, it is not well fitted for public recitation. Our Church 
was quite within her rights, and in the opinion of many of us 
acted very wisely, in omitting it from the Prayer Book ; Bishop 
Seabury would have preferred that it should be retained in the 
Book without any requirement as to its use. The Creed 
follows, as it stands in the English Prayer Book, with a dec- 
laration as to its meaning and interpretation adopted by the 
Convention of Canterbury in 1879. 

The Confession of our Christian Faith, commonly 


Quicunque vult 

Whosoever will be saved : before all things it is necessary 
that he hold the Catholick Faith. 

Which faith except every one do keep whole and undefiled : 
without doubt he shall perish everlastingly. 

And the Catholick Faith is this : That we worship one God 
in Trinity, and Trinity in Unity ; 

Neither confounding the Persons : nor dividing the Sub- 

For there is one Person of the Father, another of the Son : 
and another of the Holy Ghost. 

But the Godhead of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy 
Ghost, is all one : the Glory equal, the Majesty co-eternal. 

Such as the Father is, such is the Son : and such is the 
Holy Ghost. 

The Father uncreate, the Son uncreate : and the Holy Ghost 

The Father incomprehensible, the Son incomprehensible : 
and the Holy Ghost incomprehensible. 

The Father eternal, the Son eternal: and the Holy Ghost 

And yet they are not three eternals : but one eternal. 

As also there are not three incomprehensibles, nor three un- 
created : but one uncreated, and one incomprehensible. 


So likewise the Father is Almighty, the Son Almighty : and 
the Holy Ghost Almighty. 

And yet they are not three Almighties : but one Almighty. 

So the Father is God, the Son is God : and the Holy Ghost 
is God. 

And yet they are not three Gods : but one God. 

So likewise the Father is Lord, the Son Lord : and the Holy 
Ghost Lord. 

And yet not three Lords : but one Lord. 

For like as we are compelled by the Christian verity : ^o 
acknowledge every Person by himself to be God and Lord ; 

So we are forbidden by the Catholick Religion : to say, There 
be three Gods, or three Lords. 

The Father is made of none : neither created, nor begotten. 

The Son is of the Father alone ; not made, nor created, but 

The Holy Ghost is of the Father and of the Son : neither 
made, nor created, nor begotten, but proceeding. 

So there is one Father, not three Fathers ; one Son, not three 
Sons : one Holy Ghost, not three Holy Ghosts. 

And in this Trinity none is afore, or after other ; none is 
greater, or less than another ; 

But the whole three Persons are co-eternal together : and 

So that in all things, as is aforesaid : the Unity in Trinity, 
and the Trinity in Unity is to be worshipped. 

He therefore that will be saved : must thus think of the 

Furthermore, it is necessary to everlasting salvation : that 
he also believe rightly the Incarnation of our Lord Jesus 

For the right Faith is, that we believe and confess : that our 
Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, is God and Man ; 

God, of the Substance of the Father, begotten before the 
worlds : and Man, of the Substance of his Mother, bom in the 
world ; 

Perfect God, and perfect man : of a reasonable soul and 
human flesh subsisting ; 



Equal to the Father, as touching his Godhead : and inferior 
to the Father, as touching his Manhood. 

Who although he be God and Man : yet he is not two, but 
one Christ ; 

One ; not by conversion of the Godhead into flesh : but by 
taking of the Manhood into God ; 

One altogether ; not by confusion of Substance : but by 
unity of Person. 

For as the reasonable soul and flesh is one man : so God 
and Man is one Christ ; 

Who suffered for our salvation: descended into hell, rose 
again the third day from the dead. 

He ascended into heaven, he sitteth on the right hand of 
the Father, God Almighty : from whence he shall come to 
judge the quick and the dead. 

At whose coming all men shall rise again with their bodies : 
and shall give account for their own works. 

And they that have done good shall go into life everlasting : 
and they that have done evil into everlasting fire. 

This is the Catholick Faith : which except a man believe 
faithfully, he cannot be saved. 

Glory be to the Father, and to the Son : and to the Holy 
Ghost ; 

As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be : world 
without end. Amen. 

Synodical Declaration of the 
Synod of Canterbury 

"For the removal of doubts and to prevent disquietude in 
the of the Creed commonly called the Creed of St. Athana- 
sius, it is hereby solemnly declared — 

'That the Confession of our Christian Faith, commonly 
called the Creed of St. Athanasius, doth not make any 
addition to the faith as contained in Holy Scripture, but 
warneth against errors which from time to time have 
arisen in the Church of Christ. 


"That as Holy Scripture in divers places doth promise life 
to them that believe, and declare the condemnation of 
them that believe not, so doth the Church in this Con- 
fession declare the necessity for all who would be in a 
state of salvation of holding fast the CathoHc Faith, and 
the great peril of rejecting the same. Wherefore the 
warnings in this Confession of Faith are to be understood 
no otherwise than the like warnings of Holy Scripture ; 
for we must receive God's threatenings, even as His prom- 
ises, in such wise as they are generally set forth in Holy 
Writ. Moreover, the Church doth not herein pronounce 
judgment on any particular person or persons, God alone 
being the Judge of all." 



THE word 'Litany' is Greek, Xtraveia, from 
the verb Xlaao/xat or XiTTO/xai, to * petition ' 
or 'pray' ; but the Litany of our-service books is 
distinctively Western in its history and its use. It 
corresponds in definition to the Latin rogatio and 
in sense to preces. The 'Lesser Litany' — Kyrie 
eleison, Christe eleison, Kyrie eleison ("Lord have 
mercy, Christ have mercy. Lord have mercy") — is 
indeed still said in Greek in the Latin services, a 
reminder of the time when the Church at Rome 
worshipped in Greek and an Apostle used the Greek 
language in addressing it; and there are still in the 
Greek liturgies the so-called 'Deacon's Litanies', 
like English bidding-prayers, in which the deacon 
makes mention of the persons or things for which 
the people should pray, and a response of Kyrie 
eleison is made to each clause. 

But neither of these is exactly what we mean by 
the word. Our Litany, though doubtless influenced 
by such forms as these, is traced back at Rome and 
in Gaul to popular services of supplication in times 
of special distress and danger, said or sung in pro- 
cession. The name specially associated with these 
services is that of Mamertus, Bishop of Vienne in 
the Rhone valley, who about the year 470 called his 


people to special devotions of this kind on the three 
days preceding the festival of the Ascension. "Men's 
hearts were failing them for fear and for looking 
after those things which were coming upon the 
earth." The barbarians were invading the Empire, 
there were earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, fam- 
ine and pestilence, present danger and fear for the 
future. Thus the prayers or 'rogations' began with 
processions about the fields and the desolated country ; 
at Rome and elsewhere like customs grew up, 
appealing to the people because they could readily 
take an intelligent part in them, and assuming that 
definite form which is still preserved. We are told 
that they were specially encouraged at Rome by St. 
Gregory (about the year 590); and when St. Augus- 
tine and his companions entered Canterbury on a 
Rogation-day in 597, they were singing a 'litany' or 
'procession'. A Litany of the Saxon Church has 
been preserved for us, of date before 1000, showing 
the antiquity of most of our petitions; and we have 
also a vernacular English Litany of date about 

From the very popularity (perhaps we may say, in- 
formality) of these services, corruptions crept into 
them. They had been, as ours are now, specially 
addressed to Christ by those whom He had redeemed ; 
but about the eighth century petitions to the departed 
saints that they would pray for their suppliants were 

' It can be found in Maskell, Monumenta Ritualia, ii. 223. 


introduced; and after a time, a Litany meant little 
more than 07'a pro nobis, said after each name in the 
recitation of a long roll of saints, some biblical, some 
historical, some obscure, some occasionally imaginary. 
This 'invocation', it may be noted, has never found 
its way into the text of the Roman Breviary or Mis- 
sal, except in hymns and antiphons; and it has 
been abridged in the authorized Roman Litany, 
though in it fifty-two saints and angels are still in- 
voked — not asked to do what none but God can do, 
but asked to pray to God for us on earth, presumably 
as having nearer access to Him than we can have. 

The Litany is the first service in our Prayer Book 
which was put into English, the only service which 
dates in its English form from the reign of King 
Henry VHL In 1543 a special 'procession' had 
been enjoined from fear of famine and distress; 
among other things, war had broken out both with 
Scotland and with France. The King sent a com- 
mission to Cranmer, bidding him draw up a Litany 
in English, and possibly making some suggestions 
in the form of a preliminary draft. In the next 
year, 1544, Cranmer had the Litany ready and it 
was set forth for use. Whatever the King, had 
suggested, the work was the Archbishop's through- 
out. It is evident that he used material from the 
current Latin form, from a similar service set out 
by Luther, and from the Greek Liturgies. And 
in the Litany, Cranmer, as a translator, compiler, 
composer, and master of English, was at his very 


best; he framed a universal service, a 'general sup- 

The transitional character of the time of composi- 
tion is shown by the fact that not all invocation of 
saints was omitted, while yet the breach with Rome 
was irrevocably made; the doctrinal reformation, we 
may say, was incomplete, though the political ref- 
ormation was assured: 'Saint Mary, Mother of God', 
'All holy angels and archangels', 'AH holy patriarchs 
and prophets . . ,' were asked to 'pray for us,' and a 
little further on was the petition, "From the tyranny 
of the Bishop of Rome and all his detestable enormi- 
ties. Good Lord, deliver us." In another and more 
pleasing way, the introduction of new petitions bears 
testimony to the sense of spiritual need awakened by 
better acquaintance with the Scriptures. Every 
reference to God's Word is new; as the prayer to be 
kept 'from contempt of thy Word and Command- 
ment', the prayers that the clergy may have 'true 
knowledge and understanding of thy Word', that the 
people 'may hear meekly thy Word' and may 'receive 
it with pure affection', and that we may 'amend our 
lives according to thy holy Word.' So also a deep 
spiritual sense is shown by the insertion of petitions 
that magistrates may 'execute justice and maintain 
truth', that God's people may be kept 'from hardness 
of heart', and that they may 'love and fear' Him. The 
combining of several petitions under one response, 
with which some critics find fault, seems to the 
present writer to be one of the most praiseworthy 


features of Cranmer's work. The use of 'Good 
Lord', in addressing our Saviour Christ, is to be 
noted as peculiarly English. 

Few changes have been made in the Litany since 
its compilation. The invocations of angels and 
saints were omitted in 1549, when the service was 
put into the first Prayer Book ; the petition against 
the tyranny of the Bishop of Rome was omitted in 
1559, under Queen Elizabeth; the petitions against 
rebellion and schism were inserted in 1662, after 
England had had experience of both. In the prepa- 
ration of our American Book, the State petitions, as 
they may be called, were omitted; at the last revi- 
sion the petition for labourers in the harvest was in- 
serted, a suggestion to that effect having been made 
in Reformation days by Hermann, Archbishop of 
Cologne. A few marks of quaintness remain in 
the use of words, especially in the English Book; 
hardly any in our Book call for notice, except that 
few people know that the 'kindly fruits of the earth' 
mean the 'natural' fruits, those which each green 
thing bears 'after its kind.'- 

A few other words and phrases call for brief note. 
In the first petition, 'the Father of Heaven' means 
practically 'heavenly Father' ; the Latin is Pater de 

^'Kind* is the participle of the verb 'kin'; 'kind' people 
are related people, and related people are, or ought to be, kind 
to each other. ' Kindly ' is often a very good translation for the 
Latin pius^ as meaning that which does its natural duty ; e.g., 
pius Apneas, pia testa. 


ccelis Dens; and in reading there should be a semi- 
pause after 'Father'. 'From all inordinate and sinful 
affections' replaces the English 'From fornication 
and all other deadly sin' (see Colossians iii. 5), and 
practically means the same. 'Sudden death' means 
death unprepared for. 'Prosperity' in the last depre- 
cation is in the English Book 'wealth', that is, the 
state of 'weal'; in England they pray for the Sov- 
ereign, 'grant him in health and wealth long to live' 
(compare in Psalm Ixvi. 12, "Thou broughtest us out 
into a wealthy place"). ^ 'To love and fear thee' re- 
places 'to love and dread thee'; and 'after', it needs 
hardly be said, means 'according to', which has 
actually been substituted for it later on. 'Finally to 
beat down' seems to mean 'to beat down finally' or 

An analysis of the Litany is made comparatively 
simple by the careful way in which it is printed in 
our Book. It begins with Invocations of each 
Person of the Godhead and of the Holy Trinity; 
which, by the way, should always be said by the 
minister first and then repeated by the people. 
Then follows the 'Remember not, Lord,' addressed 
to Christ, which is the ancient Antiphon (see below) 

^It is said that Bishop Seabury did not wish to make the 
change in these two places ; and that when he assented to it, 
he said to Bishop White : " I trust that you will not hence- 
forth speak of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, but will 
call it the Common-prosperity of Pennsylvania." 


to the Penitential Psalms, and stands as such at the 
beginning of the Visitation of the Sick. This intro- 
duces the Deprecations, or petitions to be delivered 
from specified evils and dangers, — physical, moral, 
and spiritual ; and these lead to the Obsecrations, or 
prayers appealing to the successive acts in our 
Lord's redemptive work from the Incarnation to the 
Pentecostal gift; to which succeeds one more most 
earnest and far-reaching Deprecation. 

We pass then to Intercessions, that is prayers for 
others or for ourselves in connection with others; and 
the Church thereby helps us to bring all, in all their 
varied needs, before their common Intercessor in the 
heavens, quickening thereby our devotion and widen- 
ing our sympathies, and leading to the prayer that all 
may be brougnt to repentance and forgiveness and 
amendment of life. One earnest petition to the Son 
of God leads to the Agnus Dei, repeated with a two- 
fold response for peace and for mercy. Then after 
'O Christ, hear us', come the three petitions of the 
Lesser Litany and the Lord's Prayer said without 
the Doxology. 

The portion of the service which follows is full of 
what Archbishop Trench called 'fossil history', 
showing a composite structure and the survival of 
earnest supplications in time of distress. As was 
said in speaking of the versicles which follow the 
Creed in the daily service, we have here two ex- 
amples of versicle and response, distinctly marked 
by 'Minister' and 'Answer', followed by 'Let us pray' 


and a full prayer. That which begins *0 God, 
merciful Father', dates from about the year 800, and 
is the old prayer against distress of soul and persecu- 
tion, from which latter (we may well remember) 
many Christians are suffering to-day. Owing to a 
misunderstanding, 'Amen ' is not printed after this 
prayer, as it should be, and 'O Lord, arise', is there- 
fore said as if it were a response to what precedes. 
In point of fact, it is not this at all, but belongs to 
what follows, thus giving the only full example of a 
Psalm with its Antiphon remaining in our Prayer 
Book.* Here the Psalm is the forty-fourth, of 
which but one verse is recited, but the whole of 
which is suggested (as the whole of P.salm xxii was 
suggested by our Lord's use of its first verse on the 
Cross); the Antiphon is said before and after it to 
show its application to the present needs of the 
Church and God's ability to supply them, and then 
the Gloria of the Psalm is said, seemingly out of 
place in a Litany but rarely omitted at the end of a 
Psalm. ^ Then follow four pairs of 'preces', taken 
from the old Roman Litany against the evils of war 
which was said for some now unknown reason on 

*An Antiphon is a phrase or clause, said before and after a 
Psalm or Canticle (sometimes abbreviated in the former case), 
as giving the key-note of the sense in which the Psalm or Can- 
ticle is used or the interpretation which is to be put upon it. 

•' Maude, in his handbook, holds that ' O Lord, arise', is here 
not an antiphon, but a respond ; the ditference is rather one of 
name than of fact. 


St. Mark's Day.* Another ancient prayer is intro- 
duced in the ancient way, and the Litany is then 
brought to an end, as may be seen by noting how 
it is printed at the end of the Prayer Book for use at 
Ordinations. The General Thanksgiving is printed 
here for convenience, to make sure that in the normal 
service the element of thanksgiving shall not be 
omitted. And the Prayer of St. Chrysostom stands 
where Cranmer placed it in 1544, apparently to lead 
the devotions on from the Litany to the service of 
the Holy Communion. 

This Prayer of St. Chrysostom was taken from the 
ancient Greek Liturgy which bears the name of the 
'golden-mouthed' Patriarch of Constantinople (John 
was his name, and Chrysostom his title), and also in 
the earlier Liturgy of which this is an expansion and 
which bears the name of Basil; it cannot in fact be 
traced back to either of those Fathers, but it is as old 
as the ninth century. In these Liturgies — it must 
be remembered that the word 'liturgy', when accu- 
rately used, means the service for the Eucharist — 
the prayer stands near the beginning and in close 
connection with the 'Deacon's Litany' mentioned 
above. It may well have been that Cranmer, look- 
ing into this part of the Liturgy of St. Chrysostom 

* Perhaps ' O Son of David ' is a misreading for ' O Son of 
the living God', FILIDEIVIVI in abbreviation being mis- 
taken for FILIDAVID or FILIDVD ; but the phrase as 
it stands is in the Gospels on the lips of the Syrophoenician 


as he was preparing his Litany, was struck with the 
beauty and appropriateness of the prayer which 
served to lead the way to the solemn office that was 
to follow, and thus translated it with great felicity 
into words which have become familiar. It was 
not until 1662 that it was placed at the end of Morn- 
ing and Evening Prayer; and until that time it may 
have kept in the minds of worshippers its original 
meaning as an introductory prayer, the expression 
of a wish that God would guide and accept the 
'desires and petitions' which His servants were 
about to present, especially as the Litany usually 
preceded the Communion Service. For us it has 
become a customary closing prayer, and it signifies 
now that we put our petitions, imperfectly framed in 
our minds and expressed in our words, into the 
hands of the great Intercessor, that He may fulfil 
them as is best for us ; and we venture to ask con- 
fidently for no more than we know He wishes to give 
us, "in this world knowledge of His truth, and in 
the world to come life everlasting." 

'The Grace' was first introduced into the English 
Prayer Book in 1559. Its place in the Greek Litur- 
gies is at the very beginning of the central part of 
the service or 'Anaphora', where it introduces the 
words 'Lift up your hearts'. It has now become a 
customary 'final Prayer of Blessing'. 

The appointed Litany-days are Sundays, Wednes- 
days, and Fridays: Sundays, as being the days when 
the largest congregations can be bidden to this great 


act of supplication and intercession; Fridays, as 
being the weekly commemoration of the Passion; 
and Wednesdays, possibly as thought to be related 
to the betrayal of our Lord. Of old, Wednesdays 
and Fridays were called 'station-days', that is 
days when the Christian soldier was to think him- 
self specially on duty, for statio in Latin means a 
soldier's 'post'. The Litany should also be said on 
Rogation Monday and Tuesday and Ember Satur- 
days. When the allowed permission is taken to 
omit a part of the Litany, as is constantly done 
on ordinary occasions, the words 'Let us pray' 
should be said before the prayer 'We humbly beseech 
thee'.' The Litany is always said at Ordinations, 
and in England at the Coronation of a Sovereign. 

The use of the Litany-desk or fald-stool (that is, 
'folding-chair') placed below the chancel or choir, 
that the Litany may be said 'in the midst of the 
Church' among the people, is ancient. And in 
cathedral and other elaborate services, the parts 
printed in roman type are sometimes sung by two 
clergymen or lay-clerks together, except where the 
word 'Minister' (in the English Book 'Priest') is 
printed.** The Litany is also occasionally sung with 
the choir in procession." 

' The omitted part of the service should not be called the 
' Lesser Litany ', for it is more than that, but the ' discretionary 
part of the Litany'. 

* In Ely and Exeter Cathedrals, we believe, it is the regular 
practice for two lay-clerks to sing it together. 

'See Karslake (W. H.), The Litany of the English Church. 
(London, 1876.) 


THE 'Prayers and Thanksgivings upon Several 
(that is to say, separate or distinct or special) 
Occasions' need not be noticed at length. In 
accordance with the general rule of worship, that 
what is particular in statement should follow what 
is general, the special prayers are read last among 
the prayers and the special thanksgivings follow the 
General Thanksgiving. It may well be noted that 
the rubrics placed in the section devoted to 'Special 
Prayers and Thanksgivings' are as obligatory as 
any others. It is a duty to the State as well as to 
the Church that our congregations should pray for 
Congress 'during their session' ; and it would seem 
that this requires that it be read on each Sunday 
when the largest congregation is assembled, and 
at least twice or thrice a week when there is daily 
service. The Prayer for a General or Diocesan Con- 
vention should be constantly read while the Conven- 
tion is sitting; and on no account should the Ember 
or Rogation Prayers be omitted on any of the days 
to which they are assigned. On the other hand, the 
permission to insert in the Prayer for All Conditions 
of Men the clause, 'especially those for whom our 
prayers are desired', enables the minister to ask for 
special remembrance of the sick or suffering or 


afflicted on frequent occasions without too often 
repeating the special prayers. In a small congrega- 
tion, where everyone is known and when a case of 
serious sickness or a death calls for everyone's sym- 
pathy, the special prayers mean more than in a large 
congregation, where their application does not come 
home to all with the like emphasis. It is the opin- 
ion of the writer that the minister may make 
changes in the words just quoted, printed as they 
are in italic, at his discretion; as for instance, 
'especially the sick person', 'especially the family in 
affliction', or even 'especially thy sick servant the 
Governor of this State', or 'thy sick servant John 
Jones'. And it would seem that no reasonable ob- 
jection could be made to the minister's saying before 
the prayer, 'The prayers of the congregation are 
desired for a sick man', or 'for John Jones, in his 
sickness' ; this seems less awkward and more direct 
than, as was once the custom in some places, to use 
this form of 'bidding' before the words, 'The Lord 
be with you'. 

The Prayer for Congress is modified from the 
English Prayer for the High Court of Parliament. 
It stood in the Proposed (American) Book of 1786, 
while Congress was the only federal branch of gov- 
ernment, so that its use antedates by four years the 
provision of a prayer for the President of the United 
States. By a strange irony of history, the Prayer 
for Parliament is traced to the pen of Archbishop 
Laud, who in 1625, when he was Bishop of St. 


Davids, set forth in an "Order of Fasting" a form 
of prayer for that body which some twenty years 
later sent him to the block, as the first man in Eng- 
land condemned to death by an ordinance of Parlia- 
ment. The Prayer for Convention is framed upon a 
rhetorical passage at the end of the Homily for Whit- 
sunday; it was set forth in 1799. In this, 'the Coun- 
cil of the blessed Apostles' means that of which we 
have a record in Acts xv. The Prayer for the Unity 
of God's People, placed in cur Book at the last revis- 
ion, is taken from the service at the end of the Eng- 
lish Prayer Book for use on the anniversary of the 
accession of the Sovereign; it seems to date from 
Queen Anne's reign. That for Missions is peculiar 
to our Book, and was also inserted at the last revision; 
it is one of the prayers in the collection published by 
the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, and is, 
with a slight modification. Bishop Cosin's prayer for 
India. The six Prayers which follow are from the 
English Book, with some modifications; they date 
respectively from 1549, 1549, 1552, 1559, 1662, and 
1604. The second Ember Prayer was brought here 
from the Ordinal; the first (specially appropriate, as 
it would seem, to the earlier part of the week) was 
written by Bishop Cosin, whose influence on the re- 
vision of the English Bcok (1660- 1662) was both wise 
and strong. The Prayers for Fruitful Seasons, well 
suited for haying and harvest, or for any time of 
anxiety for the crops, as well as for the historic 
Rogation-tide, are not in the English Book, and date 


with us from 1892: the first is the only thing for 
which we are (at least directl}') indebted to the pro- 
posed English revision of 1689; the second is Ameri- 
can. None of the Prayers which follow are in the 
English Book, except that for a Sick Child, which 
stands there in the Visitation of the Sick; they date 
with us from 1790. The attribution of all or some of 
them to Bishop Jeremy Taylor is a mistake. Those 
for a Sick Person, for Persons under AfHiction, and 
for Persons going to Sea, have added much to the 
helpfulness of our services.* 

The first of the Special Thanksgivings has been 
brought to its present place from the Churching 
Office. The four which follow, and the next but one 
after them, date from 1604, when they were called 
'An enlargement of thanksgiving for divers benefits, 
by way of explanation' ; that for Restoring Public 
Peace at Home was inserted appropriately in 1662, 
when the use of the Prayer Book, forbidden by law 
for fifteen years, had been resumed; its suggestion 
came from Bishop Wren, a stern royalist." The 
three Thanksgivings at the end are peculiar to our 
American Book; the first and the third date from 
1790, and the second from 1892. 

' The words in italics in these prayers, it needs hardly be 
said, are to be modified in gender and number according to the 
facts of each case. ' Condemnation', in the heading of the last 
prayer, means condemnation to death. 

^ ' Outrage ' means ' outbreaking" ; and ' seditious " is used in 
its Latin sense of ' civil disturbance', trouble and war at home. 
'Apparent', in the preceding Thanksgiving, means 'evident'. 


The Penitential Office 

The Penitential Office for Ash-Wednesday is the 
survival of the ancient public acts of penitence with 
which the Church entered upon the solemn season of 
Lent. All its parts, with the exception of one short 
prayer, are in the service called in the English 
Prayer Book, "A Commination, or denouncing of 
God's anger and judgments against sinners, with 
certain prayers, to be used on the first day of Lent, 
and at other times as the Ordinary shall appoint." 
It dates from 1549, and consists of a brief exhorta- 
tion, the recital of curses contained in Deuteronomy 
xxvii and others, to each of which the people 
respond 'Amen', and a long homily made up of 
passages of Scripture, leading to the Miserere and 
Prayers. In our Prayer Book of 1790, the service 
was omitted, but the three prayers beginning with 
*0 Lord, we beseech thee' were placed after the 
Collect for Ash-Wednesday, with a rubric directing 
their use on that day at the end of the Litany. In 
1892, the Psalm and versicles were replaced, the 
prayer 'O God, whose nature and property' was 
brought in from another place in the English Book, 
and, the comminatory part of the service being still 
excluded, the service became a Penitential Office. 
Its great solemnity, as well as its historic use, seem 
to limit it to occasions which may be reckoned with 
Ash-Wednesday as times of public penitence. There 
is no rubric as to the way in which the Psalm is to 


be said ; it seems most natural that it should follow 
the custom of the Psalter in the daily offices. The 
use of Psalm li here and of the six others in Morning 
and Evening Prayer on Ash-Wednesday, brings all 
the Penitential Psalms into the services of that day. 
The High-priestly blessing from Numbers vi given 
here in the first person plural as a benedictory 
prayer — in the Visitation of the Sick it is in the 
second person singular, and is thus a blessing — pro- 
vides a form which may be used by a lay-reader or a 
deacon at the close of a service, or at family prayers, 
or on other occasions. 



WE pass now to the Collects, Epistles, and 
Gospels, which belong to the part of the 
Prayer Book corresponding to the Missal, as they 
have their place in the service of the Holy Commun- 
ion ; though the Collect for the day is also repeated 
in Morning and Evening Prayer, as indeed it was 
formerly used in the daily offices. Something must 
be said of the Collects and their history, of the 
selection and arrangement of the Epistles and Gos- 
pels, and of the titles of certain days and portions of 
the Christian year. 

The New English Dictionary gives this definition 
of the word Collect as a liturgical term, enclosing part 
of it in quotation marks: "A name given to 'a com- 
paratively short prayer, more or less condensed in 
form, and aiming at a single point, or at two points 
closely connected with the other,' one or more of 
which, according to the occasion and season, have 
been used in the public worship of the Western 
Church from an early date; applied particularly to 
the prayer, which varies with the day, week, or 
octave, said before the Epistle in the Mass or Eucha- 
ristic service, and in the Anglican service also in 
Morning and Evening Prayer, called for distinction 
the Collect of the day." 


The Collect in itself is, as the description says, 
distinctively Western in its form and use; there is 
nothing corresponding to it in the Oriental Litur- 
gies. The word 'Collect' does not occur in the 
present Roman service-books, though it has worked 
back from England, at least into France, as a popular 
name. It is found in old Latin books in the forms 
*collecta and ^collectio" ; the Gregorian Sacramentary 
once calls the prayer ' oratio nd collectam' and twice 
Uollecta' ; the Galilean books, as Mr. Warren tells 
us, earlier used Uollectio' , and later 'collecta. 
' Collecta' is formed on the same principle as the 
classic 'vindicta' and ^repulsa\ and means a gathering 
of the people, either for worship at the place to 
which they come or to go to the place appointed for 
worship; the Collect then was the prayer 'ad col- 
iectani , 'atthe assembling'. 'Co/lectio', on the other 
hand, seems to scholars to .show that the prayer 
called by that name was a concise summing up of 
what had been already said more fully. A writer of 
the fifth century tells us that, after the monks had 
knelt in private devotion, they stood up while the 
officiant in words 'collected the prayer'. As to the 
idea that the Collect was so called from 'collecting' 
into a prayer the teaching of the Epistle and the 
Gospel, Dr. Bright says that it is "purely imagina- 
tive." Though at present we find the word 'collectio' 
in older manuscripts than the word 'collecta\ it seems 
to the present writer that 'collecta from ^ad collectani* 
must be the older form, and that we may safely say 


say that our Collects were so called as appointed for 
the use of a congregation gathered together. 

The Collects in our Prayer Book are for the greater 
part taken from three ancient Sacramentaries, or 
liturgical service-books, of the Western Church ; 
those not so taken have been framed on the same 
model, for which it would seem that we are indebted 
to Leo the Great, Bishop of Rome (440-461). The 
oldest Sacramentary bears his name; the others are 
called by the names of Gelasius and of Gregory the 
Great, also Bishops of Rome (492-496 and 590- 
604). It must be noted, however, that the earliest 
known manuscripts of these documents date from 
about the years 550, 700, and 800 respectively, and 
that the only known Leonine manuscript is not com- 
plete. Bearing this in mind, it will be interesting 
to see how far back we can trace the eighty-six Com- 
munion Collects in our Book. 

The Collects first found in the Sacramentary of St. 
Leo, as it has reached us, are seven ; those for the 
3rd Sunday after Easter and for the 5th, 9th, loth, 
12th, 13th, and 14th Sundays after Trinity. 

The Collects first found in the Sacramentary of 
St. Gelasius are twenty-one ; those for the 4th Sun- 
day in Advent, the first Communion on Christmas 
Day, the Innocents' Day, the Sunday before Easter, 
Good Friday (the second Collect), Easter-day, the 4th 
and 5th Sundays after Easter, the Sunday after 
Ascension, and the ist, 2nd, 6th, 7th, 8th, nth, 15th, 
i6th, 18th, 19th, 20th, and 21st Sundays after Trinity. 


The Collects first found in the Sacramentary of St. 
Gregory are twenty-nine; those for St. Stephen's 
Day, St. John Evangelist's, the Epiphany, the ist, 
2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th Sundays after the Epiphany, 
Septuagesima, Sexagesima, the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 
5th Sundays in Lent, Good Friday (the first Collect), 
Ascension-day, Whitsunday, Trinity-Sunday, the 
3rd, 4th, 17th, 22nd, 23rd, and 24th Sundays after 
Trinity, the Sunday next before Advent, the Conver- 
sion of St. Paul, the Purification, the Annunciation, 
and the festival of St. Michael and All Angels. 

The rest, twenty-nine in number, were composed 
expressly for the Anglican Prayer Books : namely, in 
1549, those for the ist and 2nd Sundays in Advent, 
Christmas-day, the Circumcision, Quinquagesima, 
Ash-Wednesday, the 1st Sunday in Lent, Good 
Friday (the third Collect), the first Communion on 
Easter-day (apparently), the ist and 2nd Sundays 
after Easter, and all the Saints' Days not already 
mentioned, except St. Andrew's; in 1552, that for St. 
Andrew's Day; in 1662, those for the 3rd Sunday in 
Advent, the 6th Sunday after the Epiphany, and 
Easter-even — this latter based on the Collect in the 
Scottish Prayer Book of 1636 (the Collect for St. Ste- 
phen's Day was also enlarged at this time); in 1886, in 
the American Book, that for the Transfiguration.^ 

' Besides these Communion Collects, the second and third 
Collects at Morning and Evening Prayer, with 'Assist us 
mercifully', at the end of the Communion Service, and 'O 
Lord, we beseech thee', in the Penitential Office, and also the 


The reason why so many of the Saints' Day 
Collects were newly written for the Book of 1549 
was that the old Collects contained reference to the 
merits or the intercession of the Saints. The work 
of Cranmer in translating the Collects is worthy of 
careful study. A few of them he put into English 
almost word for word from the Latin, as, for in- 
stance, that for the twenty-first Sunday after 
Trinity; but in more he expanded the somewhat 
stem idiom of the Latin into the freedom of good 
English rhetoric, as in that of the second Sunday in 
Lent, a literal translation of which would be: "O 
God, who seest that we are bereft of strength ; Guard 
us inwardly and outwardly; that we may be fortified 
in body against all adversities, and cleansed in mind 
from evil thoughts; through our Lord." ' 

The Epistles and Gospels which we use' have come 
to us, with but few exceptions, from the 'Comes', 

Collect (or Prayer) for the Clergy and People, are traced to the 
Gelasian Sacramentary ; the Collect for Purity at the beginning 
of the Communion Office, and the Collects beginning ' We 
humbly beseech thee', ' Direct us, O Lord', and ' O God, whose 
nature and property', to the Gregorian ; while the second, 
fourth, and fifth at the end of the Communion Service, and the 
Collect for the Communion of the Sick were composed for the 
Prayer Book of 1549. 

'From Dr. Bright's essay on the Collects in the S. P. C. K- 
Commentary, to which reference should be made for a thor- 
ough and interesting discussion of the Collects as translations 
and paraphrases. 

■* Since 1662, they have been read from the (so called) 
Authorized Version of 161 1. 


'Companion', 'Hand-book', which we can trace 
back to an early day; it has been attributed to St. 
Jerome (who died in the year 420). It contained the 
Epistles and Gospels for the Sundays and chief fes- 
tivals throughout the year, and perhaps originally 
Prophecies also — that is to say, readings from the 
Old Testament. Now, the fact that in the Eastern 
Church both the Epistles and the Gospels are 
selected in order from the books of the New Testa- 
ment, and the further fact that the same passages (or 
'pericopes') of the New Testament are found in the 
'Comes' as the Epistles and Gospels of the Western 
Church, seem to carry back the 'Comes' to an early 
time; and it may well be that it is the order of the 
readings and not the selection of the readings them- 
selves which we may attribute to St. Jerome. Our 
Epistles show that in some places the order was not 
disturbed ; thus, those for the first four Sundays 
after the Epiphany are absolutely consecutive, and 
those for the si.xth to the twenty-fourth Sundays 
after Trinity (inclusive), wnth one exception, are 
from St. Paul's Epistles in the order in which they 
stand in the New Testament. 

The use in our Book goes back, then, through the 
English and the Sarum, to the 'Comes', with but few 
variations except sometimes in the length of the pas- 
sages designated. This is one of the particulars in 
which England has a use more ancient than Rome ; 
for at some date, which cannot now be determined, 
the Roman Church introduced variations into the 


scheme of Epistles and Gospels which she must have 
had in early days. We can easily trace what hap- 
pened (or was done) in the Sundays after Trinity, or, 
as Rome calls them, the Sundays after Pentecost. 
The first Sunday after Trinity lost its proper Gos- 
pel — the parable of the Rich Man and Lazarus, so 
well chosen to suit the Epistle — and borrowed that 
of the fourth Sunday after Trinity; into the place of 
this was drawn back the Gospel of the fifth Sunday, 
and so on; so that for the rest of the season the 
Roman Gospels are one Sunday out of the way. But 
in the English use the ancient order remains. 

In the former half of the Christian year, from Ad- 
vent to Trinity — which brings before us the succes- 
sive events or lessons of the Lord's life — the Sunday 
Gospels contain the special teaching, and the Epis- 
tles are chosen to illustrate and emphasize that teach- 
ing, even in the four Sundays after the Epiphany on 
which, as already noted, they are consecutive. The 
choice of Gospels for the Sundays after the Epiph- 
any shows a thoughtful selection of readings to 
illustrate the several Epiphanies of the incarnate 
Christ: first, in His home-life; second, in the be- 
ginning of His 'signs'; third, in His power over 
diseases of the body; fourth, in His power over the 
world of nature and of the mind; fifth, in the history 
of the Church; sixth, in the great consummation. 
In the latter half of the year, on the Sundays after 
Trinity, it is the Apostles who are teaching and the 
Lord who "confirms their word" by His signs and 


His lessons of truth. After a few readings from the 
general Epistles of St. John and St. Peter and one 
(on the fourth Sunday) from St. Paul, we have that 
long range of selection from St. Paul's Epistles in 
their New Testament order, with one exception on 
the eighteenth Sunday, to which attention has been 
already called. And if there is need of supplying two 
Sundays at the end of the year, the Epistle for the 
fifth Sunday after the Epiphany, taken for the first 
vacant Sunday, carries on the order one step further. 

The connection of Epistle with Gospel and of both 
with the Collect on the several Sundays is worth 
careful study; it is illustrated in Bishop Coxe's 
"Thoughts on the Services" and Bishop Doane's 

In the notes on the Calendar (page 6i), attention 
has been called to the fact that, as far as dates are 
concerned, the part of the year from Advent to the 
eve of Septuagesima is regulated by Christmas or 
Epiphany, which is kept by the Roman Calendar, 
and the part from Septuagesima to the eve of Advent 
is regulated by Easter, the date of which is deter- 
mined by the Jewish or lunar Calendar. The 
Epiphany is older in observance than Christmas; in 
the East it is called the Epiphanies (in the plural), 
and while it is primarily the festival of the Bap- 
tism — the date of which it may well preserve as the 
6th day of January — it also commemorates the 
Nativity and the visit of the Wise Men; it is for the 
oriental Christians a greater day than Christmas. 


The first writer, as far as we know, who placed the 
date of the Nativity on the 25th of December was 
Hippolytus of Rome, about the year 220; but the 
testimony of St. Chrysostom, soon to be cited, and 
perhaps the testimony of Tertullian, give us reason 
to think that its observance dates from an earlier 
time. It was introduced into the East a century 
and a half later; we have the sermon in which on 
Christmas, probably in the year 386, St. Chrysostom 
commended it to the Christians of Antioch as an 
observance not ten years old indeed among them, 
but kept at Rome, where men had access to the 
archives, from the beginning and by old tradition.* 
The name 'Christmas' (the special 'mass' or 'service' 
of Christ) can be traced back to the year 1123; it 
displaced in our language the name 'yule', appar- 
ently a word of merriment, and perhaps connected 
with 'jolly'. The nations Christianized by Latin- 
speaking missionaries call the feast by words such 
as the French 'Noel', derived from ' natalis\ meaning 
'dies natalis Domini\ 'the Lord's birthday'. The 
time of preparation for it is 'Advent', the name 
of which explains itself. In the Roman use it 
includes four Sundays; in the Milanese (Ambro- 
sian) and Mozarabic, it has six, beginning on the 

* None of the chronologers seems to note that at the time of 
our Lord's birth the solstice occurred on the 25th of Decem- 
ber ; the error in the Julian Calendar accumulated between 
Caesar's reform and the Council of Nice — three days in 400 
years — has never been corrected. 


Sunday after St. Martin's Day (November ii); in 
the 'Comes', five, one being our 'vSunday next before 

St. Stephen's is the earliest recorded Saint's day; 
St. John Evangelist and the Innocents naturally 
stand with him close to Christ. The old English 
name of the Innocents' Day is 'Childermas'. The 
festivals of the Circumcision, the Purification 
('Candlemas'), the Annunciation ('Lady Day', i.e., 
'Our Lady's Day') and the Nativity of St. John 
Baptist, take their dates from Christmas. 

'Lent' (a word first found about 1275) is a short- 
ened form of the substantive 'lenten' (first found 
about 1000), and means 'spring'. It appears to be 
of the same stem as 'long', 'length', and to have 
reference to the lengthening of the days at that time 
of the year. The fast before Easter was at first of 
short duration and very rigid, in some cases of forty 
hours ; next, it included the week-days of six weeks ; 
then, in the seventh century, four days being pre- 
fixed, it became our Lent of forty week-days. In 
_. Milan Lent still begins on the eve of the first 
Kr Sunday; and with us the Collect for that Sunday 
makes mention of fasting as if it were then about to 
begin. The difference between Latin and English 
observances is shown by the contrast between the 
'Carnival' of the former, and the 'Shrove-Tues- 
day' — that is 'shrift-Tuesday', 'confession-Tuesday' 
— of the latter. Ash-Wednesday, ' caput jejimii\ 
'the head of the fast', takes its name, as is well 



known, from the Biblical custom of sprinkling ashes 
upon the head in token of mourning. 

The fourth Sunday in Lent is Refreshment or 
Refection Sunday, from the Gospel, or Mothering 
Sunday, from the <:ustom of visiting the mother 
church or the mother's home. The fifth Sunday 
in Lent is Passion Sunday, as the services begin to 
look forward to the Passion; but Passion Week gen- 
erally means, in older writers at least. Holy Week or 
the week next before Easter. The Sunday before 
Easter is Palm Sunday, though until the last revis- 
ions of the tables of Lessons there was in the re- 
formed Anglican services no mention of the Lord's 
entry into Jerusalem. It should be noted that in the 
Gospels for the first six days of Holy Week, with the 
second morning Lessons for the Sunday and Good 
Friday, there is brought before us the full record of 
the Passion as written by the four Evangelists. 
Thursday before Easter was known as early as St. 
Augustine's time as the 'day of the Lord's Supper' ; 
the English name of 'Maundy' Thursday, dating 
from about 1300, meant originally the washing of the 
feet of the poor in obedience to the Lord's 'new 
commandment', ^ mandatum novum', the day being 
called 'dies mandati\ On Good Friday we have 
three Collects, a survival of the ancient solemn 
prayers of intercession on that day. In the first 
Collect, we commemorate the suffering and victorious 
Christ; in the second, we pray for the Church; and 
in the third, we pray that God will 'fetch home' (i) 


His ancient people Israel, who worship Him within 
the lines of a special covenant, but do not know the 
Messiah who has come; (2) the 'Turks' or Mohamme- 
dans, who worship one God and acknowledge Christ, 
but profess higher allegiance to a later 'Prophet' ; (3) 
Infidels, that is to say unbelievers, the heathen who 
do not know the one true God; and (4) Heretics, a 
word which historically can mean here only the 
separated bodies of Christians in the East, who for 
reasons involving no personal blame on their part are 
formally outside the Catholic Church. The name 
'Good Friday' is distinctly English and Flemish. 
Easter-even has been from of old a stated time for 
the baptism of adults. 

Easter, as the Venerable Bede tells us, takes its 
English appellation from 'Eostre' or 'Eastre', the 
name of a goddess whose festival was celebrated at 
the vernal equinox; her name, derived from 'east', 
shows that she was the goddess of the dawn or the 
sun-rising. The word first occurs as used by King 
Alfred about the year 890. In most other languages 
the name of the festival is from the Hebrew 'pesach' 
('passover') through the Greek Trdaxa, which, by 
the way, has no etymological connection with the 
verb Trda'xw:' The feast has been observed from the 

*The old proaunciation of the name of Queen Esther was 
the same as of the festival Easter, a fact which has led to some 
curious misunderstandings. The writer has seen in an old 
record the entry of a service on ' Esther-day '. 


earliest times. There is a possible allusion to it in 
I Corinthians v. 7, compared with xvi. 8. St. Poly- 
carp, who was martyred in the year 155, is reported 
to have attributed to St. John himself the custom by 
which it was kept in proconsular Asia ; and at Rome 
the observance can be traced back to about the year 
120. The rules for the determination of Easter and 
the feasts dependent upon it have been considered in 
the discussion of the Calendar. 

The whole period of fifty days from Easter to 
Whitsunday was in the early times considered one 
continuous festival; and the Council of Nice (325), 
following more ancient custom, forbade kneeling in 
worship during that time, as on all Lord's Days. 
The name 'Pentecost', rreimiKoa-Trj^ though really an 
ordinal and meaning 'the fiftieth [day]', was applied 
to the period as well as to the high festival on which 
it closed; its earliest occurrence in the latter sense 
is in the year 305. There seems to be no room for 
reasonable doubt that the Coming of the Holy 
Spirit, 'the Pentecostal Gift', was on Sunday, seven 
weeks after Easter; but that it was parallel to the 
giving of the Law at Sinai, and that this event was 
seven weeks after the Exodus, seems to rest on late 
traditions. The word 'Pentecost' has passed into 
Christian use outside of England and some of the 
northern nations of Europe; but 'Whitsunday' has 
been the English name from at least the year 1050. 
The New English Dictionary has not yet (1912) 
reached the letter W; but Professor Skeat's re- 


searches have made it certain that the word is really 
'White Sunday', early shortened into 'Whit-Sunday' 
and then by a misunderstanding sometimes called 
'Wit-Sunday', that is 'Wisdom-Sunday', with refer- 
ence to the gift of the Spirit. 

But why it was called 'White Sunday' is not so 
clear. Probably the right explanation is seen in the 
fact that Eastertide and Whitsuntide were the great 
seasons for adult baptism ; in the south of Europe, 
Easter was the time specially chosen, and the white 
robes of the candidates gave to the first Sunday after 
Easter the naYne of 'Dominica in albis\ that is to say, 
'/« albis depositis\ as the robes were laid aside on 
that day. But in the northern countries the later day 
was naturally preferred, and the Sunday of the white 
robes, Pentecost, was the White Sunday. It is in- 
teresting to note that the word passed at a very early 
day from English to Icelandic, and that Skeat quotes 
this evidence from an Icelandic dictionary. Dr. 
Neale's ingenious argument that the word is 
'Whitsun-day' and that 'whitsun' is the German 
'pfingsten' (which is confessedly from the Greek 
7r€rT7;«o<7T77,i* fiftieth'), is quite impossible; the Anglo- 
Saxon ' hwita sttnnan^ cannot be a derivation or a 
corruption of the German 'pfingsten', of which the 
earlier form is 'pfingeste'. The correct spelling, 
therefore, is 'Whit Sunday' ; the best Prayer Book 
use is for 'Whitsunday' ; modern use at the Oxford 
Press and the King's Printers, and Dr. Coit's au- 
thority in this country from 1845 to 1871, have 


given 'Whit-sunday' ; Dr. Neale's influence gave 
us 'Whitsun-day' from 1871 to 1892; now our Book 
reads, as do the English Standard and the Cam- 
bridge Press and as did our Standards before 1845, 
'Whitsunday'. 'Whitsun-week' indeed goes back to 
1549, before the derivation from 'pfingsten' was 
dreamt of; it is an abbreviation of 'Whitsunday- 
week' ; 'Whit-Monday' and *Whit-Tuesday' are 
common forms. The octave of Whitsunday was 
from an early time observed in honor of the Holy 
Trinity; but it was in England that it came first to 
be observed as 'Trinity-Sunday' and to attain the 
dignity of a separate festival, giving its name to all 
the following Sundays of the year. The special 
observance is attributed to St. Thomas h Becket, 
about 1 165; but it would appear to have been older 
by at least a century. 

When, including the Sunday next before Advent, 
there are twenty-six Sundays after Trinity, the ser- 
vice for the sixth Sunday after the Epiphany is best 
brought in to the vacant place; when there are 
twenty-seven, the services for the fifth and sixth 
Sundays after the Epiphany are most suitably used. 
Note has been made on an earlier page of the Ember- 
days and the Rogation-days. 

The reasons for assigning the festivals of the 
Apostles to the days on which they stand in the 
Calendar are for the most part now unknown. St. 
Andrew's Day, observed from at least the fourth cen- 


tury, seems to be the only festival of an Apostle 
claiming to be really on the anniversary of his death. 
St. Peter's Day, still in the Roman use St. Peter and 
St. Paul's Day, is the day on which in the year 258 
the supposed remains of the two Apostles were 
removed to a shrine in the place called 'At the Cata- 
combs'. St. Philip and St. James's Day commemo- 
rates the dedication of a church at Rome in honor of 
those Apostles on the first day of May in or about 
the year 561. The Conversion of St. Paul seems to 
have been assigned to the Epiphany season by 
reason of his being the 'Apostle of the Gentiles'. 
"The other festivals of Apostles," says Bishop John 
Wordsworth, "differ so much in the East and the 
West that, although at present we have no explanation 
of the dates to offer, we may consider them days of 
dedication of churches or of translation of relics 
rather than actually traditional days of their mar- 

The Festival of the Transfiguration was first 
formally assigned in the West to the sixth day of 
August in 1457. It cannot be the actual day of the 
Transfiguration; but it was chosen as commemo- 
rating a special act of deliverance granted to the 
Christians under Mohammedan oppression. Michael- 
mas is the day of the dedication of a church at 
Rome to St. Michael the Archangel. 

All Saints' Day ('All Hallows') dates from about 
the year 740. It is said that it was originally ap- 
pointed on another day, about 610, to celebrate the 


dedication of the Roman Pantheon as a Christian 
church. The Anglican Church on this day com- 
memorates all who have departed this life in the 
faith and fear of God and await a joyful resurrec- 
tion ; the Roman communion commemorates on the 
first day of November the canonized saints who are 
believed to be with Christ in heaven, and has an- 
other festival, All Souls' Day, on the second of 
November in memory of the souls in purgatory, for 
which she drapes her altars in black. 

Coincidence of Holy-Days 

Neither the English Prayer Book nor our own 
gives any rule as to the service to be used when a 
Holy-day 'concurs' with another Holy-day or a Sun- 
day ; that is to say, when two Collects, Epistles, and 
Gospels and two sets of Lessons are appointed under 
different rules for the same day. And neither Book 
makes any provision for postponing the observance 
of a Holy-day until some later free day; as for in- 
stance, in the case of the Annunciation falling in 
Holy Week, the ancient use was to defer the obser- 
vance of that feast until a week from Easter-Monday. 

The following table was approved by the Convoca- 
tion of Canterbury in 1879, and is generally accepted 
in practice among us. It places in two columns 
those Feasts and Holy-days which can concur, the 
name of the 'superior' day being placed in the fiirst 
column or that at the left hand, and that of the 
'inferior' day in the second column or that at the 



right hand; the intention being that in any case of 
'concurrence' the service appointed for the day in 
the left-hand column shall be said, with the insertion 
of the Collect for the day in the right-hand column 
after the other appointed Collect, thus making a 
'commemoration' of the other day. 

The Service for 
ist Sunday in Advent 
4 th Sunday in Advent 

With the Colled for 
St. Andrew 
St. Thomas 

St. Stephen, .St. John 

The Innocents 

Conversion of St. Paul 

The Purification 

Septuagesima, Sexagesima 

Sexagesima, Quinqua- 
gesima, Ash- Wednes- 
day, ist, ad, 3d Stmdays 
in Lent 


Sunday before Easter to 
Tuesday in Easter- 
week, inclu.sive 

Easter-day, Monday and 
Tuesday in Easter- 
week, ist Sunday 
after Easter 

ist Sunday after Easter 

St. Mark, St. Philip and 
St. James 


\ Sunday after Christmas 


3d Sunday after Epiphany 

f 4th Sunday after Epiphany, 
i Septuagesima, Sexagesima, 
[ Quinquagesinia 

Conversion of St. Paul 

St. Matthias 

/ 3d, 4th, 5th Sundays in 
< Lent 


\- Annunciation 


St. Mark 

St. Philip and St. James 

■J 2d, 3d, 4th, 5th Sundays 
) after Easter 


The Service for With the Collect for 

Ascension-day St. Philip and St. James 

Whitsunday, Monday and ") 
Tuesday in Whitsun- \ St. Barnabas 
week, Trinity Sunday J 

St. Barnabas and all other ] 
Holy-days to All Saints' \ Sundays after Trinity 
Day, inclusive J 

In proposing this table, it was added that if there 
were 'additional' services the service appointed for 
the day in the right-hand column might be said with 
the 'commemoration' of the other, except on Good 
Friday, Easter-day, Ascension-day, Whitsunday, 
and Trinity-Sunday. It was intended that the word 
'service' should include the Lessons, except that a 
lesson from the Apocrypha might at any time give 
place to one from Canonical Scripture. The table 
with its notes possesses no canonical or rubrical au- 
thority; but it represents good authority of custom. 

It should be noted that when Christmas falls on 
Sunday, the next Sunday is the Circumcision and 
there is no Sunday after Christmas, the Christmas 
Collect ceasing on 'New Year's Eve' ; and that 
liturgically there is never a second Sunday after 
Christmas, for if January 2, 3, 4, or 5 falls on 
Sunday, the Collect, Epistle, and Gospel to be 
read are those for the Circumcision ; such a Sunday, 
however, has proper Lessons provided and for that 
purpose is called the second Sunday after Christ- 
mas. When the Circumcision or the Epiphany 


falls upon Sunday, its service is the only one for 
that Sunday. 

When Thanksgiving-day, by custom the last 
Thursday in November, falls on St. Andrew's Day, 
it seems most proper (if there is but one service), to 
use both Collects with the Epistle and Gospel for St. 
Andrew's Day and the rest of the Thanksgiving-day 

Perhaps it should be added that the Collect, Epistle, 
and Gospel for a week-day not otherwise provided for 
are always that of the preceding Sunday, even when 
the service of the Sunday has yielded to that of a 
Holy-day; and that when a Holy-day falls on a week- 
day, the Collect of the preceding Sunday is not to be 
said after its Collect. The rubrics provide for the 
services to be used on the days between the Inno- 
cents' Day, the Epiphany, Ash-Wednesday, Ascen- 
sion-day, and the following Sundays respectively. 

The Collect for each Sunday or Holy-day is 
always to be said at both Morning and Evening 
Prayer on that day, even when it immediately pre- 
cedes another Feast-day or a Sunday; but at Evening 
Prayer the Collect for that Feast-day or Sun- 
day may be also said. On Eves, not being them- 
selves Sundays or other Feasts, one Collect only 
should be said. Ash-Wednesday, Good Friday, and 
Easter-even are Holy-days but not Feasts; their 
Collects are not said at Evening Prayer of the pre- 
ceding days. 



Works on the whole Prayer Book, as before. 

Wordsworth (Bishop John), The Ministry of Grace; Chap- 
ters vi, vii, viii. Scholarly and valuable. 

PuUan (Leighton), The Christian Tradition (in Oxford 
Library of Practical Theology) ; Chapter vi, Festivals of the 
Church. Scholarly and valuable. 

Articles in Dictionary of Christian Antiquities (see article on 
'Lectionary' for the 'Comes') and in [Roman] Catholic En- 
cyclopaedia ; also article on * Festivals and Fasts, Christian ', in 
Enclycopaedia of Religion and Ethics. 

The New English Dictionary, and Skeat's Etymological Dic- 

Interesting notes on Church Festivals will be found in Brady 
(John), Clavis Calendaria ; Hone (William), Every Day Book; 
and Neale (John Mason), Church Festivals and their House- 
hold Words in Essays on Liturgiology. Wheatly on the 
Prayer Book has much interesting material. 

Full comparative tables of Calendars, with notes on all the 
black-letter days of the English Calendar, will be found in 
Blunt's Annotated Book of Common Prayer. 



History of the Office 

WE learn from the three Synoptic Gospels and 
from St. Paul's First Epistle to the Corin- 
thians how it was that the Lord Jesus, the same night 
in which He was betrayed, in connection with the 
sacrifice and feast of the Passover, instituted the 
Sacrament of His Body and Blood. All four of the 
writers tell us the words with which He gave His 
disciples the bread and the wine over which He had 
spoken in thanksgiving and blessing, but none of 
them has preserved the words in which He gave 
thanks and blessed. That the Apostles after the 
Lord's Ascension and the Coming of the Holy Ghost 
observed the ordinance, no one doubts; but we can- 
not learn from the New Testament much as to the 
manner in which they did it, except that they broke 
the bread (Acts ii. 46; xx. 7) and ate it, drinking 
also from the cup which had been blessed (i Cor. x. 
16-18; xi. 20-29). The whole service is called in the 
Acts 'The Breaking of the Bread', and perhaps by 
St. Paul in the passage last cited 'The Lord's Supper', 
though it may be that by this term he means the 
common meal known as the Agape or Love-feast 
which accompanied the Sacrament. 


At least from St. Augustine's time (about 450) 
the Sacrament has been frequently called The Lord's 
Supper. Its most common name in the primitive 
Church was The Eucharist, that is to say, The 
Giving of Thanks, probably with the distinct thought 
of a blessing asked in a thanksgiving (compare the 
Words of the Institution in the several Gospels); but 
we cannot affirm that the word ev')(apLarta in any 
place in the New Testament means or necesarily im- 
plies the Sacrament. In the East both the service 
and the consecrated elements were and are often 
called 'The Mysteries', or 'The Holy Mysteries' ; but 
it must be remembered that the word fixMrr-qpiov 
does not mean something concealed or hard to under- 
stand; it means a revealed truth (as in Ephesians 
iii. 3-6), or an imparted blessing. St. Paul speaks 
(i Cor. X. 16) of the cup and the bread as being each 
a Communion, Koivcovla, that is to say (most probably) 
something of which all the communicants partook ; it 
was not until the fourth century that the name 'The 
Communion' or 'The Holy Communion', strictly ap- 
plicable to the reception, was given to the whole 
sacramental act. 

For many years the name most used in the Roman 
Communion has been that of 'The Mass', in Latin 
Missa. It is first found in the last quarter of the 
fourth century in the Epistles of St. Ambrose and the 
Itinerary of Silvia. Of itself it is an absolutely 
colorless word, being a verbal substantiv^e derived 
from mittOy missus, as collecta is derived from colligo. 


collecttis\ and at first meaning any religious service, 
it came to be commonly applied to the distinctive 
act of worship of the Christian Church. It is held 
by most scholars that missa was first a solemn di- 
missory formula at the end of the service, as to-day at 
the end of the Roman office the priest says, "//<?, 
missa est" , and then came to be applied to the service 
itself. One would prefer the derivation, for which, 
however, there is but slender evidence, on the anal- 
ogy of collecta? The prayer ad collectam, on the 
occasion of the assembling of the people, became 
the 'Collect' ; .so the act of worship ad missant, on 
the occasion of the commission of the people for 
official duty, may have become the 'Mass', and the 
word may thus have served as a translation of the 
Greek word 'Liturgy', in its literal sense of a public 
service, of which we must speak in a moment. 

To call the Holy Communion 'The Sacrament' or 
'The Blessed Sacrament', as if there were no other, 
though the former is in somewhat common use among 
the people and the latter among devotional writers, 
unless it is evident that the speaker is using a rhetor- 
ical licence, is hardly correct ; and to call the Com- 
munion Office a 'Celebration' (without adding such 
words as 'of the Eucharist* or 'of the Holy Commun- 
ion') is hardly reverent." 

The distinctive name of the service used for the 

' See the New English Dictionary . 

^ The New English Dictionary gives no literary example of 
this use, but cites it as modern colloquial. 


Eucharist is the Greek word 'Liturgy', XeLTOvpyia, 
or 'the Divine Liturgy'. It came to be used in 
English before the year 1600, and by as careful a 
scholar as Hooker, for any 'prescript form of prayer' ; 
but in a formal treatise and in its study the word 
should be kept to its strictly proper sense. Its 
derivation is almost certainly from an adjective con- 
nected with the word Xao'i, 'people', from which we 
get our word 'lay', and from the noun epyov, pepyov, 
which appears in our language as 'work'. It means 
therefore 'public service' ; and it was applied in 
Athens to a work for the public which a wealthy 
citizen discharged at his own expense, such as fitting 
out a war vessel or providing for the presentation of 
a drama. From this the Church applied it almost 
in our modern sense of 'public service', for the 
appointed order of her great act of worship. It is a 
great word with a great history. 

But the consideration of names and words has 
drawn us away from the history of the service. 
There is little to be added from the New Testament, 
except to notice that the Epistle to the Hebrews is 
full of what maybe called 'eucharistic allusions',' and 
that some such allusions may be found elsewhere. 
St. Paul's argument (i Cor. xiv. 16) that one praying 
in the congregation should pray in words that are 
understood, in order that the 'plain' man may know 

^The subject is treated in an interesting, if exaggerated, 
way in J. E. Field's The Apostolic Liturgy and the Epistle to 
the Hebrews ; see Bibliography. 


when to say 'Amen' at the 'thanksgiving', may 
well refer to the eucharistic service, especially as we 
remember how great stress the early Church laid 
on this response from the people. And St. Paul 
towards the end of his Epistle to the Romans (xv. 
15, 16) uses words which very soon had distinctive- 
ly liturgical sense, one of them being Xeirovpyov itself, 
and the others lepovpjovvra, 17 irpoa^opd, and r^ytaa- 
fxevTj iv TTvevfiari dyio). We may translate thus : 
"That I should be a leader of liturgical worship [or 
common service] for the nations, to the end that the 
oblation of the nations may prove to be acceptable, 
since it has been sanctified by [in] the Holy Spirit." 
And it may not be amiss to suggest that part of 
the imagery of the Book of Revelation seems to have 
been based on the worship of the Christian Church. 
We pass on now to the history of that worship as 
it has led to the forms of the Communion Office in 
the English Book and in our own. 

The earliest account of the eucharistic service 
which has reached us is contained in the Apology 
for the Christians written by Justin Martyr (of 
Samaria) to the Emperor Antoninus Pius in or about 
the year 152.* As he describes it, the parts of this 
service "on the day called Sunday", when "all who 
live in cities*br in the country come together to one 
place", were these: — 

* First Apology, chapters 65-67 ; a translation is in the Anle- 
Nicene Christian Library. 


1. The memoirs of the Apostles or the writings of 
the Prophets are read, as long as time permits. 

2. The President instructs and exhorts to the imi- 
tation of these good things. 

3. All rise together and offer prayers. 

4. We salute one another with a kiss [and alms are 
received for the poor]. 

5. Bread, and wine mingled with water, are 
brought to the President. 

6. He taking them gives praise and glory to the 
Father of the universe, through the name of the Son 
and of the Holy Spirit, and offers prayers and 
thanksgiving at considerable length, according to 
his ability. 

7. The people assent, saying 'Amen'. 

8. They who are called deacons distribute to the 
congregation the elements which have been blessed 
and carry a portion to those who are absent. 

Here we see a definite order of the service, while 
yet there is preserved to the officiating Bishop or 
priest, presumably speaking under divine or pro- 
phetic guidance, freedom of utterance in prayers and 
thanksgiving. That order has never been changed, 
in any essential part of its outline. Every full and 
formal celebration of the Holy Communion to this 
day is with a service which contains the reading of 
New Testament Scriptures (the 'memoirs of the 
Apostles' are probably the Gospels and the 'writings 
of the Prophets' the Epistles), a sermon or homily, 
prayers, acts of charity, the presentation of the 


appointed elements, the blessing of the elements by 
the celebrant with thanksgiving and prayer, the 
'Amen' of the congregation, and the communion in 
the elements which have been consecrated. The his- 
tory of the service is the history of its modifications 
along these lines, which had evidently been fixed 
so early that in a half century after the death 
of St. John they were the e.stablished rule of the 

The earliest extant liturgy completely written out 
is that known as the Clementine, and found in the 
so-called 'Apostolic Constitutions', of about the year 
350;'' it was evidently composed as an ideal form of 
service, some of the prayers being quite long, and 
was probably never used ; but it shows the order and 
mould of the service at that time in the East. Its 
teaching as to these matters is confirmed by the 
Catechetical Lectures of Cyril, Bishop of Jerusalem,* 
delivered in the year 347, in which he explains in a 
devotional way the parts of the service as they follow 
in order. Without doubt the liturgies still in use in 
the Orthodox Eastern Church — best known to us as 
the Churches of Greece and Russia ~ go back in all 
their essential parts and in their order to the 
times of the Constitutions and of Cyril, except that 
the Clementine form does not contain the Creed and 

•Book VIII, beginning ; translated in the Ante-Nicene Chris- 
tian Library. 

* Lectures xxii, xxiii ; translated in Nicene and PostNicene 
Fathers \ see also Burbidge, pp. 38 if. 


the Lord's Prayer, probaby because in the earliest 
days they were not committed to writing but were 
supplied — at least the Lord's Prayer — from memory. 
And the fact that the earliest Latin liturgies have the 
same outline and order assures us that while the wor- 
ship of the Church of the West was still in Greek it 
was in all essential points the same as that of the 
Church of the East. Of this more will be said 

Holding in mind this fact of the essential unity of 
all liturgical service, we note that we find, at as early 
a date as a century after that last mentioned, five 
families of liturgies, all in general agreement, but 
differing somewhat in their tone, and distinguished 
by the position given to what is called the 'Great 
Intercession' (the 'Prayer for the whole State of 
Christ's Church'). They are as follows: — 

1. The West Syrian (Antioch and Jerusalem) and 
Byzantine (Ccesarea and Constantinople). Its pres- 
ent forms are the liturgy of St. James, used on the 
island of Zante on St. James's Day and at Jerusalem 
on the last day of the year, much admired by the 
Scottish Churchmen and the English Non-jurors, 
and the Liturgies of St. Basil and St. Chrysostom, 
which are used, the former on special days and the 
latter on ordinary days, throughout the Orthodox 
Church of the East. These all have the Great Inter- 
cession after the Invocation of the Holy Spirit which 
completes the act of Consecration. 

2. The East Syrian, of Persia and Mesopotamia, 


now used by the Nestorians, who, on account of 
formal heresy dating from the year 431, are separated 
from the Orthodox Church. In these the Great In- 
tercession precedes the Invocation. 

3. The Alexandrian or Coptic, used in Egypt and 
Abyssinia by the Monophysites, whose separation 
from the Orthodox Church dates from 451. (The 
Greek Liturgy of St. Mark is no longer in use.) The 
Great Intercession in liturgies of this type is con- 
tained in the Preface to the Triumphal Hymn or 

4. The Gallican Liturgies, once used in Gaul, 
Spain, and North Italy, and probably to some extent 
in Britain. They have been called Ephesine or 
Johannine, but they cannot be traced to Ephesus 
or to St. John, though doubtless of Eastern origin. 
These Liturgies were largely superseded by the 
Roman rite in the time of Charlemagne. Their sur- 
vival to our day is probably in the Ambrosian 
Liturgy, still used in a modified form at Milan, and 
certainly in the Mozarabic Liturgy, still used in the 
form given it by Cardinal Ximenes (1500) in a few 

• chapels in Toledo. In these the Great Intercession 
follows immediately upon the first presentation of 
the elements (the 'Offertory'). 

5. The Roman Liturgy, which in its present form 
has a part of the Great Intercession before and a 
part after Consecration of the Elements, We 
have no example of the early Liturgy of the Church 
of Rome. In the form in which it prevails, as almost 


the only eucharistic service employed in the Roman 
obedience throughout the world, it shows the influ- 
ence of Gallican forms and strange traces of confu- 
sion and duplication of parts; but it has been prac- 
tically unchanged since about the year 800.' The 
special form which it assumed in England, from the 
time of Osmund, Bishop of Salisbury, in 1085, is that 
known as the Sarum Use. The present English Lit- 
urgy belongs to the Roman (or Western) family; and 
the general structure of our own is traced back 
through the English to the same source. 

But the English Office has a connection with one of 
the other four families of liturgies, and ours has in 
its most important part followed another of those 
families. The position of the great Prayer for the 
Church, in the English Book since 1549 and in our 
own, following as it does upon the first offering of 
the elements and preceding the central part of the 
service, is distinctly Gallican; it may have been 
taken from the Mozarabic Use, with which Cranmer 
was certainly acquainted. And in our American 
Prayer Book the provision of an explicit Oblation 
and explicit Invocation of the Holy Spirit, following 
immediately upon the words of the Institution, and 
made an essential part of the Prayer of Consecration, 
is due to the conscious and almost immediate influ- 
ence of the Greek Liturgies. For it was from the 

' As to the Leonine, Gelasian, and Gregorian Sacramen- 
taries, see page 118. 


Study of the Greek Liturgies that the English Non- 
jurors and Scottish Churchmen from about the year 
171 8 placed the Oblation and the Invocation in their 
Liturgies; and Bishop Seabury, having received 
from them the form of the Prayer of Consecration for 
the service which he set forth in Connecticut in 1786, 
secured its adoption in the Prayer Book of the 
Church of the United States, as has been noted 

Our Communion Office, therefore, is of the Eastern 
or Greek mould in its central act ; it has the Great 
Intercession in the Galilean position; and in other 
matters it conforms to the general outline of the 
Western or Latin or Roman Liturgy, while it is in 
no sense distinctly Roman. This Roman outline, 
moreover, is broken in upon and obscured, both in 
the English Book and in our own, by the insertion 
of a public form of preparation, beginning with the 
Exhortation and ending with the Comfortable 
Words, the suggestion of which came from reformers 
in Germany. The second and the third of the five 
families of liturgies mentioned, having been used for 
centuries by bodies outside of the communion of the 
Catholic Church (though the services themselves are 
not unorthodox), have not affected our service. 

The following table shows in parallel columns 
the successive parts of the Greek Liturgies, of the 
Roman Liturgy in its pre-Reformation English form 

®See p. 22. 



(and practically in its present form), of the English 
Liturgy of 1549, and of the American Liturgy.* A 
few notes of explanation are added below. 


Roman Litur- 

English Litur- 



gy^ Sarum Use 

gy of 1549 


[Service of 




Lord's Prayer 

Lord's Prayer 

Lord's Prayer 

and Collect 

and Collect 

Deacon's Lit- 

and Collect 

for Purity 

for Purity 


for Purity 



Little En- 

Lord, have 

Lord, have 


trance, with 



ments, and 

Book of Gos- 

Lord, have 



Gloria in 

Gloria in 



Prayer, Epis- 

Collect, Epis- 

Collect, Epis- 

Collect, Epis- 

tle, and Gos- 

tle, and Gos- 

tle, and Gos- 

tle, and Gos- 


pel, with Grad 
ual, etc. 

- pel 





Prayers for 


Homily or 




and for the 


Great En- 




trance with 

with presenta- 

• with presenta- 

with presenta- 

the elements 

tion of ele- 

tion of alms 

tion of alms 


and elements 

and elements 

' For the full Greek, Latin, and English forms, see the Bib- 
liography at the end of this Chapter. 




Roman Litur- 

English Litur- 



gy, Sarum Use 

gy of IS49 



Prayer for the 






Lift up your 

Lift up your 

Lift up your 

Lift up your 





Preface, Tri- 

Preface, Tri- 

Preface, Tri- 

Preface, Tri- 

umphal Hymn umphal Hymn 

i umphal Hymn 

umphal Hymn 




and Hosanna 

and Hosanna 

and Hosanna 

Prayer of 

Prayer for the 

Prayer for the 

Church on 

Church on 

earth, with 

earth, and 

names of 

for the de- 




2? Prayer for 



tion of Re- 

acceptance of 

tion of Re- 

tion of Re- 


service, and 



3? for a bless- 

.1 Invocation 

ing on it for 

of the Holy 



1. Words of 

1. Words of 

1. Words of 

1. Words of 





2. Oblation 

2. Oblation 

2. Oblation 

2. Oblation 

3. Invocation 

3. Offering of 

3. Invocation 

of the Holy 

gifts to heav- 

of the Holy 


enly altar 





Prayer for 

living and 

Holy things 
for the holy 

Roman Litur- 
gv, Sarum Use 

Prayer for the 


English Litur- 
gy of IS 49 






Lord's Prayer 

Lord's Prayer 

Lord's Prayer, 

Prayer of 

Prayer of 

Prayer of 







Lord's Prayer 





ion Collect 

ion Verse 


Gloria in ex- 





The differences between the order of our service 
and that of the English Book since 1552 are thus 
shown: — 

Present English 

Commemoration of Re- 

3? Prayer for the benefit to 

1. Words of Institution 


Commemoration of Re- 

1. Words of Institution 

2. Oblation 

3. Invocation of the Holy 


Present English American 



Communion Communion 

Lord's Prayer Lord's Prayer 

Prayer of Intercession and Thanksgiving 

self-oblation or Thanksgiving 

Gloria in excelsis Gloria in excelsis 

Benediction Benediction 

In the Greek Liturgies the service of the Prothesis 
includes an elaborate preparation of the elements, with 
prayers for the preparation of the priest and others ; 
it is said in the chapel of the Prothesis, which corres- 
ponds to our credence-table, but it is at the side of the 
sanctuary and not included in it. There are two En- 
trances, but with full ceremonial: the Little En- 
trance with the Book of the Gospels, and the Great 
Entrance with the elements which have been prepared 
for consecration. The Prayers for the Catechumens 
have altogether or quite disappeared, as there is no 
recognized body of catechumens now. (In the 
Roman service the priest says in this place 
"Oremus", 'Let us pray', but there is no prayer 
following except on Good Friday.) The Salutation 
is in the familiar words, "The Lord be with you", 
and has the response "And with thy spirit". The 'Lift 
up your hearts', in Latin 'Sursum corda', is first 
quoted in the Canons of Hippolytus (about 200) and 
by Cyprian of Carthage (martyred in 258), but as an 


already familiar phrase. The 'Holy, Holy, Holy', 
from Isaiah vi. 3 and Revelation iv. 8, is best called 
the 'Triumphal Hymn', or (if the term is preferred) 
the 'Tersanctus', that is 'Thrice Holy'. It is often 
given the name of 'Trisagion', which has exactly the 
same meaning in Greek as has 'Tersanctus* in 
Latin, but which to the Greeks means a short hymn 
sung by them as an earnest litany-like prayer: "Holy 
God, Holy Mighty One, Holy Immortal One, Have 
mercy upon us." 

The Creed was not said in the eucharistic service 
of the earliest times. In fact, we are told that it 
was introduced by two Bishops of doubtful orthodoxy 
about the year 500, in order to prevent additions to 
it which might condemn their peculiar v views. In 
the Roman Church it is now said only on Sundays 
and on a few other special days. 

The Gloria in excelsis is an Eastern Hymn, and is 
found in its full form, as is well known, about the 
year 450. But in the East it is a daily morning 
hymn, and has no place in the Liturgy. At Rome it 
was for a long time used only when a Bishop was 
celebrating the service, at first on Christmas, then 
on Sundays, and finally on other days. The use of 
the phrase "Blessed is he that cometh in the Name of 
the Lord, Ho.sanna in the highest", is common to 
Liturgies of both East and West. 

In the Roman use, the retention of the words 
'Kyrie eleison', transliterated from Kv/3ie ekerjcrov 
('Lord, have mercy'), is one of the indications that 


the service was originally in Greek. For a consider- 
able time there was at Rome an Old Testament 
Lesson, or 'Prophecy', before the Epistle and 
Gospel ; it is still retained by the Roman Church on 
certain week-days in Lent and at Ember seasons, 
and the Mozarabic Liturgy has it in every service. 
(It may not be unreasonable, as suggested further on, 
to find a reappearance of the Prophecy in the Ten 
Commandments of the English and American 
Books.) The 'Gradual', sometimes corrupted into 
'Grail', was a Psalm, and is now a verse, sung after 
the Epistle from the steps (^gradus') oi\\iQ. lectern 
at which the eucharistic lessons were read. It was 
followed by 'Alleluia' or in penitential seasons by 
a long-drawn-out melody called a 'Tract'; and 'Al- 
leluia' was sometimes followed by a 'Sequence' or 
'Prose' (from 'prorsus', that which goes forward), an 
example of which is 'In the midst of life' in the 
Burial Ofifice. There was little preaching at Rome, 
and the homily was early omitted there. 

The consideration of the order of the parts of the 
Prayer of Consecration is reserved for a later page. 

The Eirst Prayer Book of Edward VI was preceded 
by "The Order of the Communion", set forth in 
March 1548, and ordered to be first used on Easter- 
day. Nothing was to be changed in the Latin ser- 
vice so long in use; but after the priest had conse- 
crated the elements and himself received the Com- 
munion, be was to say the new 'Order' in English. 


This consisted of the Exhortation, the Invitation 
('Ye who do truly'), the Confession and Absolution, 
the Comfortable Words, and the Prayer of Humble 
Access ('We do not presume'), which were followed 
by the administration in both kinds with the words, 
"The Body of our Lord Jesus Christ, which was 
given for thee, preserve thy body unto everlasting 
life" ; "The Blood of our Lord Jesus Christ, which 
was given for thee, preserve thy soul unto everlast- 
ing life"; and then the Benediction with *The Peace 
of God'. All the parts of this 'Order' as well as of 
the preparatory 'Warning', suggested by and largely 
derived from German reforming services, passed into 
the Prayer Book of the following year, and still re- 
main, with but slight variations, in the English and 
American Books. 

But in framing the Communion Office in 1549 
Cranmer did much more than translate the ancient 
Latin service and incorporate into it the new order 
for the preparation of the communicants and for 
administering to them both the consecrated bread 
and wine, of the latter of which they had been for 
some three centuries deprived. He followed indeed 
the old office, but with the omission of the psalmody, 
etc., after the Epistle and with provision for the pre- 
sentation of alms for the poor, until the Hosanna 
after the Triumphal Hymn, Then he practically re- 
wrote the whole of the Great Intercession and the 
Prayer of Consecration in words more full and clear 
and beautiful than before and evidently with the 


design of better arrangement. First, he brought 
together the petitions for the living and the departed 
into one new prayer with the bidding words, "Let 
us pray for the whole state of Christ's Church." His 
form is almost exactly that of the present prayer 
with that title, if we substitute for the final paragraph 
the third of the additional prayers in our Burial 
Office ('We give thee most high praise'), with special 
mention of the Virgin Mary, the Patriarchs, Proph- 
ets, Apostles, Martyrs, etc., followed by the words, 
"We commend unto thy mercy, O Lord, all other 
thy servants, which are departed hence from us with 
the sign of faith, and do now rest in the sleep of 
peace; Grant unto them, we beseech thee, thy mercy 
and everlasting peace, and that at the day of the 
general resurrection we and all they which be of the 
mystical body of thy Son may altogether be set on 
his right hand." Upon this followed without a 
break the Prayer of Consecration, with first a brief 
commemoration of Christ's redemptive work; then 
the Invocation of the Holy Ghost upon the gifts and 
creatures of bread and wine, "that they may be unto 
us [this is the Roman phrase] the Body and Blood of 
thy most dearly beloved Son Jesus Christ" ; then the 
narrative of the Institution; then the Oblation 
('Wherefore, O Lord and Heavenly Father'), as we 
have it now, with the rest of the prayer as in our 
Book, and a petition in these words: "Command 
these prayers and supplications, by the ministry of 
thy holy angels, to be brought up into thy holy taber- 


nacle before the sight of thy divine Majesty"; 
all concluded by the Lord's Prayer. The 'Order of 
the Communion' was then inserted, after a saluta- 
tion and greeting, its Benediction (now enlarged to 
its present form) being deferred till after the newly 
written Thanksgiving. 

A comparison of this office with the Roman, hav- 
ing reference to the parts of the Prayer of Consecra- 
tion, makes it evident that a devout and scholarly 
hand was attempting to bring order out of confusion. 
In all the ancient liturgies, it may be safely said, 
the Words of Institution, the Oblation, and the In- 
vocation, had a place, and in this order, which 
the Greek Church has never lost or obscured.*" 
In the Roman Liturgies at a comparatively early 
time, and probably as a result of combination of 
forms, there had come to be two clauses of the Con- 
secratory Prayer which might be called Oblations 
and two which might be called Invocations; they 
are marked in the table 2 ? and 2, 3 ? and 3, respec- 

Now, there can be little doubt that the clauses 
marked 2 } and 3 ? are anticipatory and not an essen- 
tial part of the service. Cranmer saw that the Obla- 

'" In our copies of the East Syrian (Nestorian) Liturgies the 
Words of Institution are not found ; but it seems quite certain 
that they were omitted in the writing for reverence' sake and 
were repeated from memory. The (Roman) Catholic En- 
cyclopaedia says that " it is certain that all the old Liturgies 
contained" a prayer of Invocation. 


tion which he wished to preserve was that which fol- 
lowed the Words of Institution, and therefore he 
omitted that marked 2?; but he failed to see that the 
prayer (marked 3) for the presentation of the gifts 
by the ministry of God's Angel upon the heavenly 
altar, was in reality a prayer for the 'operation of the 
Holy Spirit' in blessing, and he fell back upon the 
prayer for blessing (3?) which precedes the Words of 
Institution, and made it, out of true place, a definite 
Invocation of the Holy Spirit. Finally, before the 
Doxology which closed the whole prayer, he turned 
the petition for the divine action — ^for God's 'Holy 
Angel' seems certainly to be His Holy Spirit or His 
Word — into a petition for the ministration of His 
'holy angels' in bringing the worship before God. 
Thus the order of the essential parts of the prayer 
in the Book of 1549 became 3, i, 2 — Invocation, 
Words of Institution, Oblation — an order which had 
never been employed before, and the consideration of 
which must have caused the Archbishop anxious 
thought after it had passed into use. 

It seems strange that the learned scholar who had 
framed such a prayer as this for eucharistic worship 
should have been content to substitute for it three 
year later the bald and unprimitive form which still 
remains in the English Prayer Book. The removal 
of the Prayer for the Church to a place after the 
Offertory made the service in this particular conform 
to Galilean or Mozarabic Use; and the abbreviation of 
this prayer at the end by this omission of all refer- 


ence to the departed was due no doubt to contro- 
versies under the influence of Calvinistic and Zwing- 
lian reformers on the Continent. Cranmer was a 
man of doubtful mind in regard to many matters; 
educated in the mediaeval school of theology, he had 
felt obliged to break with it in some important par- 
ticulars; and we can hardly wonder that he was at 
one time minded to advance with the scholars of the 
Continent, two of whom (Bucer and Peter Martyr) 
were Professors of Divinity at Oxford and Cambridge, 
and at another time inclined to fall back upon what 
had been so long held as the faith and practice of 
Western Christendom. 

But the influences which changed the Book of 1549 
into that of 1552 were not altogether what would 
be called Protestant or, at a later time, Puritan. The 
Prayer Book which inserted an Absolution into 
Morning and Evening Prayer and introduced into the 
Baptismal Office the declaration that the baptized 
child was regenerate, which retained conspicuously 
the sign of the Cross in Baptism and required kneel- 
ing at the reception of the Holy Communion, did 
not seek to satisfy all the objections of the radical 
reformers. Now the Prayer of Consecration in the 
new Book of 1552, after a short commemoration of 
redemption and a prayer that the communicants 
may be made partakers of Christ's most blessed 
Body and Blood, including no offering of the elements 
to God and no prayer for their sanctification by the 
Holy Spirit, simply provided for a repetition of the 


Words of Institution and the reception of the ele- 
ments by priest and people. The Invocation which 
had preceded these Words was removed, though a 
phrase describing its desired effect in the soul was 
retained ; and the Oblation which had followed them 
was removed also, though phrases carrying out part 
of its thought were turned into a memorial prayer 
at the end of the service. The result certainly was 
to teach that the consecration of the gifts was 
effected by the repetition of the Words of Institution 
introduced by a brief prayer for a blessing to ensue 
upon their reception. 

This was distinctly Roman doctrine, such as Cran- 
mer had learned from the scholastic authors whom 
he had studied in his youth ; not the doctrine of the 
Missal, for that, though confusedly, taught the need 
of an offering to God and of a prayer for God's bless- 
ing, but the doctrine of the theologians taught in the 
books. Is it to be wondered at, that, finding the 
new Eucharistic Office acceptable neither to the ad- 
herents of the old theology nor to the advocates of the 
new, and (as suggested above) finding that he had 
after all placed the parts of the Consecratory Prayer 
in the wrong order, Cranmer fell back on the old 
theory of consecration and put the prayer into the 
short and apparently uncontroversial form of 1552, 
which the English still retain.? It certainly seems 
to have been under the influence of Roman mediaeval 
theology, if with the further thought that it would not 
be offensive to radical reformers, that it was adopted, 


to be the use of the Church of England for centuries. 
to come. 

Other changes in the service were made in 1552, 
all of which we inherit. The removal of the Great 
Intercession to an earlier place in the service has 
been already noted ; we should add that a petition 
for the acceptance of the alms was inserted in it, 
and that it was seriously abbreviated at the end. 
The placing of the preparation of the communicants 
before 'Sursum corda' instead of after the Consecra- 
tion seems due to right instinct; for certainly they 
should be prepared to take part in the whole of the 
great act of worship and not in the act of communion 
alone; confession and absolution should precede the 
offering and the prayer for blessing which are the act 
of the whole church. The removal of 'Gloria in ex- 
celsis' to the end of the service makes it a part of 
the noble thanksgiving which precedes the blessing 
and violates no liturgical principle, if indeed it may 
not be called an act of liturgical propriety. And the 
insertion of the Ten Commandments before the 
Collect for the day was of the nature of a penitential 
introduction to the service, furnishing thoughts for 
self-examination before each of the petitions for 
mercy which had stood in the former office. A dis- 
tinctively 'Protestant' change in the service was the 
displacement of the formulae of administration — in 
both of which it should be noted, the Book of 1549 
had read 'body and soul' — by the words, "Take and 
eat this in remembrance that Christ died for thee, 


and feed on him in thy heart by faith with thanks- 
giving" ; "Drink this in remembrance that Christ's 
blood was shed for thee, and be thankful". In the 
Elizabethan Book of 1559, the 1549 and 1552 formulae 
of administration were combined. Finally, in 1662 
a rubric as to the presentation of the Bread and 
Wine was inserted before the Prayer for the Church, 
the words 'and oblations' were inserted into that 
Prayer, and the present commemoration of the de- 
parted was added at its end. 

The history of the American Communion Office 
calls for a brief statement as to the Scottish Offices 
from which our Prayer of Consecration has come to 
us. Episcopacy had been disestablished in Scotland 
in 1560; reintroduced in 1610, it was again dis- 
established in 1638 on the ground that Episcopacy 
was contrary to the Word of God; once more re- 
stored in 1660, it was again disestablished after the 
Revolution of 1688 as not being "agreeable to the in- 
clinations of the people". Most of the Churchmen 
of that country were loyal to the deposed Stuart 
family, and they fell under the ban of severe laws, the 
most stringent of which were passed after the rising 
of 1745." There was a strong bond of political sym- 
pathy between them and the English Non-jurors, 
who from faithfulness to the Stuarts had refused to 
take the oath of allegiance to the new line of sov- 

"' England and Scotland had been united as one Kingdom 
with one Parliament in 1707. 


ereigns ; and there was also a strong bond of ec- 
clesiastical sympathy which brought them together. 
Both the Scottish Churchmen and the English Non- 
jurors had among their clergy men of sound learning 
who made a study of liturgical matters; and for sev- 
eral reasons their minds were turned toward the 
Church of the East. They began to prepare forms of 
service for the Holy Communion; and recognizing 
no obligation to follow the English service in all its 
details, they first made use of the ill-fated Prayer 
Book which James I had sent to Scotland in 1637, i'^ 
which the Communion Office closely resembled that 
of the first Book of Edward VI; and then, as they 
pursued their studies, they accepted the teaching 
and order of the Greek Liturgies, and among them 
in particular the Liturgy of St. James. 

In or about the year 1700 appeared Stephens's 
"Liturgy of the Ancient Christians"," containing for 
the first time in the English language the Words of 
Institution, the Oblation, and the Invocation in their 
primitive order; and the same order was followed in 
the Non-jurors' Book of 1718, and in Scottish Offices 
of a later date. These offices, which contained only 
the Communion service, beginning with the Exhorta- 
tion, were printed by themselves and were familiarly 
known as 'wee bookies' ; they followed the general 
arrangement of the English Book of 1549, but placed 

'^ Not to be confused with his " Liturgy of the Ancients", 
published in 1696 ; they are both reprinted in volume ii of 
Hall's Fragmenta Liturgica. 


the parts of the Prayer of Consecration in the order 
just named. It was in the form of this service as 
published in 1764 that Bishop Seabury had wor- 
shipped in Edinburgh during the years 1752-1753, 
while he was studying medicine and waiting for his 
twenty-fourth birthday that he might be ordained, 
and which he found in use by the Bishops who conse- 
crated him to their sacred office. In the 'Concordate' 
which he made with them, and which they and he 
signed on the following day, the Scottish Bishops 
say that though they are "very far from prescribing 
to their brethren in this matter, they cannot help 
ardently wishing that Bishop Seabury would en- 
deavour all he can, consistently with peace and pru- 
dence, to make the celebration of this venerable 
Mystery [of the Eucharist] conformable to the most 
primitive Doctrine and Practice in that respect, 
which is the pattern the Church of Scotland has 
copied after in her Communion Office"; and Bishop 
Seabury agreed "to take a serious view of the Com- 
munion Office recommended by them, and if found 
agreeable to the genuine Standards of Antiquity, to 
give his Sanction to it, and by gentle methods of 
Argument and Persuasion to endeavour, as they have 
done, to introduce it by degrees into practice, with- 
out the compulsion of Authority on the one side or 
the prejudice of former Custom on the other." 
The story has been told on earlier pages how Bishop 
Seabury in 1786, after the publication of the 'Pro- 
posed Book' in the 'South', set forth an edition of 


the Scottish Communion Office for use in his diocese, 
and how at the General Convention of 1789 he 
secured the insertion of the Prayer of Consecration 
from this office in the Prayer Book set forth by the 
authority of the Church in the United States, and 
that with the full approval of all who shared with 
him in the important work of the Convention. Thus 
a great gift, which England could not impart to us 
because she had it not, came to the Church in this 
land from a body which men called "a shadow of a 
shade", and which called itself "the Catholic re- 
mainder of the Church of Scotland". 



Commentary on the Office 

THE Order for the Holy Communion, the 
Divine Liturgy, consists of two parts, which 
were called in Latin 'Missa Catechumenorum' and 
'Missa Fidelium'. At the former, which consisted of 
prayer, the reading of the Scripture, and instruction 
or exhortation, those who were preparing for bap- 
tism or even under discipline were allowed to attend, 
and the ancient liturgies contain prayers to be used 
at their dismissal ; at the latter, the Christian Mys- 
teries, only the faithful were present. In our office 
the point of division is not exactly defined. The 
rubric at the end of the service requires that "upon 
the Sundays and other Holy-days, though there be 
no Sermon or Communion, shall be said all that is 
appointed at the Communion, unto the end of the 
Gospel, concluding with the Blessing". This would 
imply that the division of the service should come 
after the Gospel if there is no Sermon, or after the 
Sermon if one is provided, and seems to assume that 
the Creed will not be said if the celebration of the 
Sacrament is not to follow. But as the Offertory 
Sentences may be used at any time 'when the alms of 
the people are to be received', it is proper to defer 
the Benediction until the offerings have been made. 


The English Prayer Book orders that when the 
'Ante-Communion' is read the service shall conclude 
with the 'General' Prayer for the Church, making 
the preliminary part of the service end there; and 
this has come to be the usage with us, if a pause 
is made for the withdrawal of catechumens or non- 
communicants.' Formerly this was not so, the 
Communion-alms being received from the commu- 
nicants alone. 

The first two rubrics are disciplinary, and call for 
interpretation by ecclesiastical lawyers rather than by 
commentators on the Prayer Book. It may be well 
to note that suspension or 'repelling' from the Holy 
Communion is not excommunication; that 'advertise' 
is old English and means 'notify' (see Numbers xxiv. 
14 in the Authorized Version, where the Hebrew for 
'advertise thee' is literally 'cause thee to know'); 
and that Canon 40 § H, makes provision for further 
possible action after the minister has given notice to 
the Ordinary (that is the Bishop) that he has thus 
disciplined a communicant. 

The rubric before the Lord's Prayer speaks first of 
the Table at which the service is to be said, its cov- 
ering, its place in the Church, and the part of it at 
which the officiating minister is to stand. The word 
'Table' or 'Holy Table' is by no means peculiar to 
Reformation or post-Reformation times; it has been 

^ In this pause, the organ should irjt be played. Read in 
Bishop Coxa's Christian Ballads "The Soul-Dirge." 


used from the fourth century/ and the correspond- 
ing Greek word is the common name for that which 
was more commonly, though by no means exclus- 
ively, called 'Altar' in the West. The first Book of 
1549 used indifferently the names 'Altar' and 'God's 
Board' ; and, by the way, 'table' and 'board' were 
interchangeable in English, as when we speak of the 
'tables' on which were painted the Creed and the 
Lord's Prayer and the Commandments. Neither 
'table' nor 'altar' of iself implies or denies anything 
as to doctrine.^ A 'fair' cloth, says a careful writer, 
implies "good repair as well as cleanliness"; it 
seems also to mean that the cloth shall not be em- 
broidered with colors. 

The phrase 'in the body of the Church or in the 
Chancel' comes to us from 1552. Its earlier part, 'in 
the body of the Church', carries us back to the time 
when it was customary in England, if the Communion 
was to be celebrated, to bring the Lord s Table into 
that part of the church in which the congregation 
were assembled, that they might hear and take part 
in the service; the chancels in most of the old 
churches being so deep, with a great deal of choir 
space, and sometimes so separated from the nave by 
a heavy screen, that the people could not readily 
either hear or see the officiant at the end of the 
building. To this day, in some churches in England, 

^ Cf. St. Paul in i Cor. x. 22. 

^As to the use of the word ' altar ' in the Institution Office, 
see note on that office. 


the communicants go into the choir after the Prayer 
for the Church or even at an earlier time, for con- 
venience in taking their part in the service, literally 
'drawing near v^ith faith'. This removal of the 
Lord's Table seems to have been common in England 
until the time of Charles I ; with us it is quite un- 
known. The word 'chancel', from the Latin cati- 
celli, meaning 'bars of lattice-work', and then the 
part of a public building latticed off for judges or 
officers (chancellors), doubtless includes all parts of a 
church which we call by the name choir, sometimes 
also presbytery and sanctuary (or chancel proper), 
as appears from our use of the word 'chancel-arch'. 

The 'right side of the Table' was, in our Book until 
1835, as it has been in the English since 1552, the 
'north side' ; in the Book of 1549 the rubric read "The 
Priest standing humbly afore the midst of the Altar, 
shall say the Lord's Prayer with this Collect". There 
can be no doubt that the change of word in 1835 was 
not meant to change the position of the officiating 
minister; but while in England, where all chancels 
are in the east,* the north side meant a definite di- 
rection, in our country, where chancels are at all 
points of the compass, it had to be interpreted on the 
assumption that the chancel was in the 'ecclesiastical 
east', and the word 'right' was adopted to avoid am- 

* The orientating of churches in England dates back to early 


The phrase 'right side' has given rise to much 
controversy, the points of which it is not necessary 
to reproduce. It seems certain, historically, that 
'side of Table' means the long side as distin- 
guished from the 'end'; that when the Lord's Table 
was brought into the body of the Church for the 
Communion it stood lengthwise, and that this posi- 
tion was not unusual even in the chancel; and that it 
was largely owing to Archbishop Laud that the 
Tables were finally turned about to stand crosswise 
or 'altar-wise', with the short ends north and south. 
With the lengthwise position of the Table, the priest 
obeying the rubric would stand facing south ; what 
was he to do when the Table was turned ? If he 
went with the Table, he found himself facing east, 
in the same direction as the congregation ; if he 
stayed where he was, he found himself at the end of 
the Table, facing south. This is the historical or 
ritual difBculty, the decision of which is hardly 
worth the time involved in stating it; and it is not 
possible that any matter of doctrine could depend on 
its solution. The matter is settled for us, so far as 
it is settled, by custom; probably most of our clergy 
now stand facing east in the place where the Gospel 
is to be read, and thus at what may be called the 
'right side' as one faces the people; while those 
who follow the old Anglican use stand at the 'right 
side' as one faces the Lord's Table itself, in the place 
where the Epistle is to be read, moving to the other 
position for the reading of the Gospel. It seems to 


the present writer that those who follow the former 
use comply more closely with the rubric as it is 
read historically. 

The words, "or where Morning and Evening Prayer 
are appointed to be said" have stood in the English 
Book since 1552 in the preceding sentence, and serve 
to define the word 'chancel' as including the place in 
which the clergy ordinarily minister. In our Book 
they give permission for saying the opening part of 
the Communnion service in the reading-desk or stall, 
as far as to (or through) the Sermon; the Offertory 
must always be begun at the Lord's Table. This 
permission was intended, we are told, to cover the 
case of St. Peter's Church, Philadelphia, where the 
Lord's Table is still at the east end of the building 
while the reading-desk and pulpit are at the other 
end; and Bishop White, who was rector there as well 
as at Christ Church, did not wish to walk the length 
of the central 'aisle' to read the ante-Communion ser- 
vice and then walk back to preach the Sermon. Very 
probably the same conditions led to the use elsewhere 
of the permission given in the rubric. 

The word 'Minister' is used in the early part of 
the service, because it may lawfully be read by a 
deacon; as has been noted before, the American 
Prayer Book almost invariably uses the word 'Priest' 
only in places where none but a priest may officiate. 
By Canon 22 § III, lay-readers are not permitted 
to read any part of the Communion service. 

The direction to the minister to stand for the 


Lord's Prayer and for the Collect while the people 
kneel, calls our attention here to the postures to be 
observed in this service, a matter as to which the 
rubrics do not give full instructions. At the General 
Convention of 1832, the House of Deputies asked 
the Bishops "to express their opinion as to the proper 
postures to be used in the Communion Office, with 
a view to effecting uniformity in that respect during 
its celebration." The Bishops replied that — 

"First, with regard to the officiating priest, they 
are of the opinion that, as the Holy Communion is 
of a spiritually sacrificial character, the standing 
posture should be observed by him whenever that of 
kneeling is not expressly prescribed, to wit: in all 
parts, including the ante-Communion and post-Com- 
munion, except the Confession and the prayer im- 
mediately preceding the Prayer of Consecration." 

Then, after speaking of the principles involved in 
their ruling, they added: — 

"The positions, therefore, proper to be observed 
by the people during the Communion Office, the 
Bishops believe to be as follows: Kneeling during 
the whole of the ante-Communion, except the Epistle, 
which is to be heard in the usual posture for hearing 
the Scriptures, and the Gospel, which is ordered to 
be heard standing; the sentences of the Offertory to 
be heard sitting, as the most favorable posture for 
handing alms, etc., to the person collecting; kneel- 
ing to be observed during the Prayer for the Church 
Militant; standing, during the exhortations; kneeling 


to be then resumed, and continued until after the 
Prayer of Consecration ; standing, at the singing of 
the Hymn; kneeling, when receiving the elements, 
and during the post-Communion, or that part of the 
service which succeeds the delivery and receiving of 
the elements, except the Gloria in excelsis, which is 
to be said or sung standing; after which the Congre- 
gation should again kneel to receive the blessing." 

These rules, given by way of counsel and not of 
authority, are still generally observed in the Church. 
Sometimes in a small congregation it is more con- 
venient to stand during the receiving of the alms; 
when the long Exhortation is omitted, as is allowed 
if it has been read on one Lord's Day in the month, it 
is better to kneel through the short Exhortation or 
Invitation ; and the Hymn after the Prayer of Consecra- 
tion may be treated as a prayer, and thus the posture 
of kneeling continued through it. 

One question remains, which is not easy to answer, 
before we pass from this third rubric, really the first 
which has to do with the service: Should the Lord's 
Prayer in this place be said by the minister alone or 
by the minister and the people together.? The 
rubric before the Lord's Prayer in Morning Prayer 
instructs the people to say it with the minister "both 
here and wheresoever else it is said in Divine Service' ' ; 
and it was shown there that 'Divine Service' cer- 
tainly includes the Communion Office. Is the prayer, 
then, in this place to be considered a part of the public 
office, or is it part of the priest's preparation, the peo- 


pie beginning to join in the service at the 'Amen' 
after the Collect for Purity or at the rehearsal of the 
Commandments ? The Collect for Purity, both in 
the Roman service and in the Sarum Use, stands in 
the priest's office of preparation before the Introit 
and the approach to the altar. It would hardly seem 
that when in 1549 the two prayers were ordered to be 
said 'afore the midst of the Altar', ° although they 
still preceded the Introit, they were meant to con- 
tinue as private prayers; but the service will permit 
that interpretation. Some good authorities, among 
them Mr. Scudamore, are of the opinion that the 
people should here say the Lord's Prayer with the 
minister. On the other hand, the almost universal 
custom in England, and the prevailing custom in this 
country, is that the people do not join audibly in 
the Lord's Prayer in this place or make a response to 
it; and the writer was told by Bishop Williams of 
Connecticut, on the authority of Dr. Samuel F. 
Jarvis and Bishop Smith of Kentucky, that both 
Bishop Seabury and Bishop White held that the peo- 
ple ought not to say it. It seems clearly a case where 
original and continued usage has ruled against a 
literal interpretation of a rubric, and where it may be 
well to yield to usage. There is no question that the 
people are to say 'Amen' to the Collect for Purity. 
The Introit or 'Entrance' Psalm or Verse was so 

* Perhaps, as has been suggested to me, this meant ' at the foot 
of the altar-steps,' where the 'Confiteor', etc., had been said. 


called from its use at the time when the priest was 
entering the sanctuary to begin the service. It was 
called in the Sarum Use 'Officium', a word which 
really belonged to all the former part of the service. 
In the first Book of Edward VI an Introit Psalm 
was printed in full before the Collect for each Sunday 
or Holy-day. A list of these Introits follows, inas- 
much as they may well be used, either chanted in the 
Prayer Book version or sung in some metrical ver- 
sion; for instance: Hymns 412 and 413 are versi- 
fications of Psalm xxiii, the Introit for Septuagesima; 
Hymn 334 is a versification of Psalm cxxx, the 
Introit for the Second Sunday in Lent; etc. 


First Sunday in Advent Psalm i 

Second Sunday in Advent Psalm 120 

Third Sunday in Advent Psalm 4 

Fourth Sunday in Advent Psalm 5 

Christmas, first Communion Psalm 98 

Christmas, second Communion Psalm 8 

St. Stephen's Day Psalm 52 

St. John Evangelist's Day Psalm 1 1 

Innocents' Day Psalm 79 

Sunday after Christmas Psalm 121 

Circumcision Psalm 122 

Epiphany Psalm 96 

First Sunday after Epiphany Psalm 13 

Second Sunday after Epiphany Psalm 14 

Third Sunday after Epiphany Psalm 15 

Fourth Sunday after Epiphany Psalm 2 

Fifth Sunday after Epiphany "t p , 

Sixth Sunday after Epiphany J 

Septuagesima Psalm 23 

Sexagesima Psalm 24 


Quinquagesima Psalm 26 

Ash- Wednesday Psalm 6 

First Sunday in Lent Psalm 32 

Second Sunday in Lent Psalm 130 

Third Sunday in Lent Psalm 43 

Fourth Sunday in Lent Psalm 46 

Fifth Sunday in Lent Psalm 54 

Sunday before Easter Psalm 61 

Good Friday Psalm 22 

Easter-even Psalm 88 

Easter-day, first Communion Psalm 16 

Easter-day, second Communion Psalm 3 

Easter-Monday Psalm 62 

Easter-Tuesday Psalm 113 

First Sunday after Easter Psalm 1 12 

Second Sunday after Easter Psalm 70 

Third Sunday after Easter Psalm 75 

Fourth Sunday after Easter Psalm 83 

Fifth Sunday after Easter Psalm 84 

Ascension-day Psalm 47 

Sunday after Ascension Psalm 93 

Whitsunday Psalm 33 

Whit-Monday Psalm 100 

Whit-Tuesday Psalm loi 

Trinity-Sunday Psalm 67 

First Sunday after Trinity Psalm 119, part i 

Second Sunday after Trinity Psalm 119, part 2 

Third Sunday after Trinity Psalm 119, part 3 

Fourth Sunday after Trinity Psalm 1 19, part 4 

Fifth Sunday after Trinity Psalm 119, part 5 

Sixth Sunday after Trinity Psalm 1 19, part 8 

Seventh Sunday after Trinity ... Psalm 119, part 7 

Eighth Sunday after Trinity Psalm 119, part 8 

Ninth Sunday after Trinity Psalm 119, part 9 

Tenth Sunday after Trinity Psalm 1 19, part 10 

Eleventh Sunday after Trinity Psalm 119, part 1 1 

Twelfth Sunday after Trinity . Psalm 1 19, part 12 

Thirteenth Sunday after Trinity Psalm 1 19, part 13 

Fourteenth Sunday after Trinity Psalm 119, part 14 


Fifteenth Sunday after Trinity Psalm 119, part 15 

Sixteenth Sunday after Trinity Psalm 119, part 16 

Seventeenth Sunday after Trinity Psalm 119, part 17 

Eighteenth Sunday after Trinity Psalm 119, part 18 

Nineteenth Sunday after Trinity Psalm 1 19, part 19 

Twentieth Sunday after Trinity Psalm 1 19, part 20 

Twenty-first Sunday after Trinity Psalm 1 19, part 21 

Twenty-second Sunday after Trinity Psalm 119, part 22 

Twenty-third Sunday after Trinity Psalm 124 

Twenty-fourth Sunday after Trinity Psalm 125 

Sunday next before Advent Psalm 127 

St. Andrew's Day Psalm 1 29 

St. Thomas's Day Psalm 128 

Conversion of St. Paul Psalm 138 

Purification Psalm 134 

St. Matthias's Day Psalm 140 

Annunciation Psalm 131 

St. Mark's Day Psalm 141 

St. Philip and St. James's Day Psalm 133 

St. Barnabas's Day Psalm 142 

Nativity of St. John Baptist Psalm 143 

St. Peter's Day Psalm 144 

St. James's Day Psalm 148 

[Transfiguration Psalm 146] 

St. Bartholomew's Day Psalm 115 

St. Matthew's Day Psalm 117 

Michaelmas Psalm 1 13 

St. Luke's Day Psalm 137 

St. Simon and St. Jude's Day Psalm 150 

All Saints Psalm 149 

The Ten Commandments, as has been noted al- 
ready, were introduced into the Communion Service 
in 1552; but that was not the first time that they 
were publicly read in the English Church. As far 
back as the year r28i, in the Province of Canter- 
bury, each parish priest was ordered to read and 


explain the Ten Commandments four times a year; 
and the same order was given in the Province of 
York in 1460. In 1542 the English Bishops directed 
their clergy to read the Commandments twice each 
quarter; and in 1547, it was ordered that on every 
Holy-day when there was not a sermon the Creed, the 
Lord's Prayer, and the Ten Commandments should 
be recited in English after the Gospel. As they 
stand, they are now an Old Testament Lesson; and 
followed as they are by nine Kyries of uniform 
wording and one of somewhat different form, they 
have a special value.' Our Book in 1790 introduced 
from the Scottish Office, as a discretionary addition 
to the Commandments, our Lord's Summary of them; 
since the last revision, it may be said either after 
or in place of the Decalogue, provided that the Deca- 
logue be read once on each Sunday. The Summary, 
it may be noted, is quoted by our Lord from the 
Pentateuch; so that in either case we have a read- 
ing from the Old Testament Scriptures. The Com- 
mandments were not taken from any version of the 
Bible; but, as was also the case of the Comfortable 
Words, they were directly translated for use in the 
service. The Three Kyries (or Lesser Litany) follow 
the Summary when the Decalogue is not read, that 
the cry for mercy may not be omitted from the place 

•^It is said that the Duke of Wellington declared his judg- 
ment, that it would be worth while to keep the Church of Eng- 
land established, if only to make sure that the Ten Command- 
ments should be read once a week in every parish in the land. 


where it had stood of old. The ancient Collect for 
Grace to keep the Commandments was brought into 
this place for discretionary use from the Scottish 
service; it stands in the English Book at the close of 
the Communion Office, and also, as with us, in the 
Confirmation service. 

Something has already been said (Chapter V) as 
to the Collects, Epistles, and Gospels. The announce- 
ment of the precise place at which the Epistles and 
Gospels begin may have been meant for a time when 
people could look for their places in the Bible, as 
many used to do when the text of a sermon was 
announced. The permission to say, "The portion of 
Scripture appointed for the Epistle" was granted 
in 1662, to relieve the conscience of those who would 
not call a passage from the Old Testament or the 
Acts or the Revelation by the name of an 'Epistle'; 
but having been appointed and read as an Epistle, it 
becomes such, and the concluding formula is always 
"Here endeth the Epistle". It is a very old custom 
that all in the congregation should rise to greet the 
Liturgical Gospel, technically called the 'Holy 
Gospel', and stand while it is reading; where the 
people stood during the whole service, resting at 
times on staves, they laid aside the staves, and those 
who had their heads covered removed their caps or 
mitres or crowns; a Greek Bishop lays aside his 
pall, as showing his submission to the Chief Bishop 
whose words are to be read ; and all in the church, 
should, if necessaary, turn so as to face the reader of 


the Gospel. The salutation, 'Gloria tibi, Domine', is 
also of ancient use; though constantly sung in Eng- 
land, it has not been in their Prayer Book since 
1552. The doxology at the end of the Gospel, 
'Thanks be to thee, O Lord', 'Praise be to thee, O 
Christ', or other like words, has never been in any 
English Book except that prepared for Scotland in 
1637, which also, alone of English Books, directed 
the priest to say, "So endeth the Holy Gospel", 
Ritual purists tell us that this is never to be 
said, because the Gospel never comes to an end, 
and because our response to the Gospel is the 

It is an English use which we should not willingly 
change, to require the recitation of the Creed at 
every public service at which the Holy Communion 
is celebrated: in England, the Nicene Creed is 
always said after the Gospel; with us, either the 
Apostles' or the Nicene is said either after the 
Gospel or in Morning Prayer immediately before the 
Communion, or one is said in each service; only 
since 1892, our Book has prescribed that the Nicene 
Creed shall be said on the five great festivals of the 
year. It needs not to be noted that the Nicene 
Creed is distinctly the Eucharistic Creed of the 
Church, and is normally said in this place. 

Between the Creed and the Sermon the minister is 
to notify the people of the Holy-days or Fasting- 
days to be observed in the week following — this seems 
therefore a rubric for Sundays — to give notice of the 


Communion, for which purpose forms of 'warning' 
are provided at the end of the service, and to make 
publication of other matters. (Banns of Matrimony- 
are no longer required by the laws of the land, and 
their publication has become obsolete.) It may be 
suggested that mention might well be made of days 
which are appointed for observance, even if for any 
reason there is to be no special service in that 
church on the particular days; the notice 'Friday in 
this week is a fasting day' might be very instructive 
and helpful though there were no other notices to 
give. The English Prayer Book directs that Briefs, 
Citations, and Excommunications are to be read in 
this place. Briefs are Royal Letters asking for 
special contributions, as a few years ago for the 
sufferers from famine in India;' Citations are sum- 
monses to appear in court, practically limited now to 
the announcement that some member of the parish is 
a candidate for ordination and that objectors are to 
present their objections; and Excommunications are 
obsolete. Their rubric goes on to say that no one 
but the minister shall make any proclamation or pub- 
lication in time of Divine Service (note the words 
applied to the Communion), and that he shall not 
proclaim or publish anything except what is pre- 
scribed by the rubrics or enjoined by the King or the 
Bishop. The spirit of this rule should regulate the 
giving of 'notices' from the chancel and in the Com- 

' Briefs are not unknown in American history. 


munion Office; those of a semi-secular character 
would be better announced from the reading-stall or 
the pulpit, or posted in the porch. 

The Sermon, as an exposition of the Church's 
teaching from the Scriptures, it needs not be said 
again, is very ancient; and it is certainly a valuable 
part of public service. It is expressly ordered by 
our Church only in this place and in the opening 
rubric of each of the Ordination services and in the 
Institution Office. 

After the Sermon, the priest returns to the Lord's 
Table and begins the Offertory, saying one or more 
of the prescribed sentences. The 'Offertory' is not 
the receiving of the alms, nor the alms themselves, 
but the sentence or sentences read at the time of 
receiving the offerings." Of these sentences, the 
first and the last four were added at our revision of 
1892; the rest are in the English Book. They may 
be divided into four classes: the first six are 
general; then five (beginning with 'Who goeth a 
warfare?') have to do with gifts for the support of 
the clergy; then ten (beginning with 'While we 
have time') are more appropriate when alms are 
received for the poor; the last four may be called 
oblationary or doxological. A little study will show 
that all the sentences may be read at one time or an- 

* The word may perhaps also be used to include the oblation 
in the following prayer ; ' begin the offertory ' might then 
mean that a new part of the service begins here ; compare be- 
fore Sursum corda the words ' the Priest shall proceed '. 


Other for the instruction and encouragement of the 
congregation; and the two excellent sentences from 
Tobit may help to vindicate our teaching as to the use 
of the Apocrypha. 

Only two of the Offertory Sentences — the second 
and the fifth — besides those peculiar to our Book, 
agree exactly in reading with the Authorized Ver- 
sion ; some are taken from Coverdale, some from the 
Great Bible, and some must have been specially 
translated for use in this place. 

Both these Sentences and the rubrics which 
follow, together with the first clause of the Prayer 
for the Church, remind us of the importance of the 
ancient custom, dating back to apostolic times, that 
at the celebration of the Eucharist, when bread and 
wine were offered for the Sacrament, alms were also 
offered for the poor. This presentation of alms had 
long been nearly extinct in the West, when it was 
revived in the English Church in the reign of 
Edward VI. The 'other devotions of the people' 
evidently mean gifts for other purposes than the 
relief of the poor, such as the support of missions, 
the maintaining of divine worship, and in fact what 
may be called, in the language of the English rubric, 
'pious' as distinguished from 'charitable' uses. Our 
Canons (Canon i6 § II [iv]) specially provide that 
"the Alms and Contributions, not otherwise specific- 
ally designated, at the Administration of the Holy 
Communion on one Sunday in each calendar month, 
and other offerings for the poor, shall be deposited 


with the minister of the parish, or with such church 
officer as shall be appointed by him, to be applied by 
the minister, or under his superintendence, to such 
pious and charitable uses as shall by him be thought 
fit." They also (Canon 16 § II [i]) declare it to be 
the duty of ministers to give suitable opportunities 
for offerings to maintain the missionary work of the 
Church at home and abroad.^ The basin with the 
alms is to be 'humbly presented and placed upon the 
Holy Table', where it should remain at least until 
after the prayer has been offered for the acceptance 
of the alms. At the Offertory, as indicated by the 
wording, the distinctive service of the priest begins 
The bread and wine for the Communion are next 
to be placed upon the Table. This is the First 
Oblation or the Offerings of the First Fruits, 'Ob- 
latio Primitiarum\ originally taken out of the gifts 
brought by the people in kind; later the parishioners 
in England provided the bread and wine in turn; 
now they are provided at the charges of the parish. 
At the consecration of the English Sovereign, he him- 
self offers to the Archbishop the elements for the 
Communion, and that before he makes his offerings 
of cloth of gold and a gold ingot. Our Book says 
nothing as to the kind of bread which is to be pro- 

®The Liturgy for Scotland, 1637, provided that of the offer- 
ings at the Communion, "one half shall be to the use of the 
Presbyter, to provide him books of holy divinity ; the other 
half shall be faithfully kept and employed on some pious and 
charitable use, for the decent furnishing of that Church, or the 
public relief of their poor." 


vided. No one could doubt that, as the English 
rubric says, it should be "the best and purest wheat 
bread that conveniently may be gotten"; and it 
would seem that the priest is at liberty to follow the 
custom of the Western Church in the use of un- 
leavened bread ^^ or that of the Eastern Church in 
using leavened. It is a very ancient custom, dating 
back to Justin Martyr, and doubtless derived from 
the Passover use, that a little water should be mixed 
with the wine; it has sometimes been done in the 
sacristy before the elements were brought into the 
church, and sometimes at this point of the service. 
The latest decision in England, that of the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury in the case of the Bishop of 
Lincoln (see Bibliography), has been that the mix- 
ture when practised should be at the earlier time; in 
this country Bishop Seabury's rubric after the pre- 
sentation of the alms is often followed: "The Priest 
shall then offer up and place the bread and wine pre- 
pared for the sacrament upon the Lord's Table, put- 
ting a little pure water into the cup." " The actual 

"Mr. Fortescue tells us that it was not until the eighth cen- 
tury that unleavened bread gradually came into use in the West. 

" The Bishop of Vermont, to whom I am also indebted for 
other suggestions and corrections, reminds me that the follow- 
ing declaration was made by the House of Bishops in 1886: 
"That the mixture of water with the eucharistic wine is lawful, 
and in conformity with the usages of the Catholic Church, and 
that there is no objection to the use of the mixed cup, pro- 
viding the mingling be not ritually introduced until it be author- 
ized by the rubric." 


presentation of the bread and wine should, by the 
rubric, follow that of the alms. 

An interesting question arises here: Does the 
word 'oblations' in the Prayer for the Church, and 
also in the preceding rubric (which dates only from 
our last revision), refer to the elements of bread and 
wine now presented on the altar for the purpose of 
consecration, or does it mean the 'other devotions' of 
the people or perhaps merely duplicate the word 
'alms' ? The words 'and oblations* in the prayer and 
'or oblations' in the side-note were first inserted in 
1662, at which time also the sentence as to the pre- 
sentation of the bread and wine was inserted as a ru- 
bric; and this seems to show that the presented ele- 
ments were meant by the 'oblations'. But a careful 
historical study," as Bishop Dowden and others have 
shown, makes it evident that the word 'oblations' 
was constantly used of offerings of money; and 
probably Scudamore is right in saying that "by 'alms 
and oblations' are meant the offerings of the people of 
whatever kind, and therefore including the bread and 
wine which the priest has now placed upon the Holy 
Table." Still, the phraseology of the new American 
rubric and such American custom as can be quoted 
seem to justify us in omitting the words 'alms and' 
and saying simply 'to accept our oblations' in the 
Prayer for the Church when there has been no collec- 
tion of alms but the elements for the Communion have 

"Further Studies, pp. 176 ff. 


been presented. Even if the alms are not received, 
one of the sentences is to be read for the 'Offer- 

The presentation of the bread and wine at this 
time, unless indeed they are now brought from the 
sacristy, assumes the use of a credence or prepara- 
tion table or stand or shelf on which they may be 
placed before or at the beginning of the service and 
from which they may be brought when the alms have 
been presented. The word ^credentia' in late Latin, 
Uredenza' in Italian, seems first used as a side 
'board' or table at which food was prepared and 
tasted, to give trust or confidence to those to whom it 
was to be served. For a long time credences were not 
common in churches; Archbishop Laud was blamed 
for having one in his chapel. Until the compara- 
tively recent revival of ecclesiastical architecture, 
few churches had credences fixed to the walls, but 
there were some in which movable stands were used 
on Communion Sundays. 

A Hymn or an Offertory Anthem may be sung 
'when the alms and oblations are presented'. Is the 
verb present, as if it were 'are in process of presen- 
tation', 'are presenting' >. or is it perfect, as meaning 
that the singing may find place when the alms and 
oblations 'have been presented' ? In either case, it 
will not cover what is popularly known as an 'Anthem' 
sung while the deacons, wardens, or others are receiv- 
ing the alms. Such an Anthem is evidently extra- 
rubrical, as might be a 'voluntary' on the organ while 


the clergyman was passing from the pulpit to the 
chancel or withdrawing to the robing-room. 

The English Book since 1552 has bidden to the 
Great Intercession with the words, "Let us pray for 
the whole state of Christ's Church militant here in 
earth"; whereas the Book of 1549 and the Scottish 
Ofifices had "Let us pray for the whole state of 
Christ's Church". Our Book retains the word 'mili- 
tant' ; the words 'here in earth' had become not quite 
accurate after the present memorial of the departed 
was added in 1662. 

The Exhortation is one — and as coming from the 
Order of the Communion of 1548 the first — of the 
brief homilies introduced into the English Prayer 
Book by way of instruction ; the suggestion for them, 
if indeed any was needed, came from the 'Consulta- 
tion' of Archbishop Hermann of Cologne and from 
like publications. The beginning of the introduc- 
tory rubric, 'At the time of the Celebration of the 
Communion', is explained by the fact that for a long 
time the Warnings stood in this place, following the 
part of the service which by the English rubric was 
to be used on every Sunday or Holy-day even if there 
was to be no celebration of the Sacrament. In our 
Book the Exhortation has been shortened, largely by 
the omission of minatory clauses liable to be mis- 
understood ; it is an admirable statement of the 
proper moral and spiritual preparation for receiving 
the Sacrament, an encouragement to those who can 
humbly trust that they come in a worthy manner, with 


a statement of the relations of the Sacrament to the 
great truths of the Incarnation and the Atonement, 
and of the purpose of the Lord's ordinance. The 
rubric evidently intends that it shall be read on the 
Sunday at the beginning of each month, when there 
is generally the largest body of communicants present, 
even if it is omitted on all other occasions; and the 
brief space of time which it requires will not be 
grudged to it by any devout and thoughtful priest. 

Still following the Order of Communion, the priest 
in the brief and earnest Invitation bids the communi- 
cants to the Confession, gives them the Absolution, 
and adds the Comfortable Words of Christ and His 
Apostles. Note has been made already of the use of 
capital letters in the Confession, to mark the begin- 
ning of each pause or suspension of the voice in the 
recital of the words, which certainly ought not to be 
said hurriedly; and of the special solemnity which the 
Church has always believed to be attached to the use 
of the 'precatory' form of Absolution. (See pages 
75, 76.) The Comfortable Words — and 'comfort- 
able' in 1548 meant 'strengthening' more than 'con- 
soling' — were especially translated for the service. 
Their separate meaning should be noted: the first is 
Christ's call to all who need Him, and His promise 
to them; the second has to do with His coming into 
the world and the meaning of the Incarnation; the 
third is St. Paul's witness to the Atonement; and 
the fourth, St. John's witness to the Intercession in 
the heavens. With this the preparation of the 


communicants ends, and now they may well be 
bidden to thanksgiving and praise. 

The part of the service which follows is called the 
^ 'Anaphora', as the special act of worship 'offered' to 
God; or the 'Canon', as remaining at all times un- 
changed in accordance with a fixed 'rule', except for 
the Proper Prefaces.'' The Sursum corda, 'Upwards 
hearts', introduces the constant Preface, in Anglican 
. use very brief, and this leads to the great Triumphal 
Hymn. The words, "Hosanna in the highest; 
Blessed is he that cometh in the Name of the Lord", 
were brought over from the Sarum Use to the Book 
of 1549, but were omitted in 1552, very probably 
because they are not recorded as a part of the song 
of the angelic host.^^ 

Of the Proper Prefaces, those for Easter and As- 
cension and the first for Trinity-Sunday are ancient, 
those for Christmas and Whitsunday were composed 
in 1549, and the alternative for Trinity-Sunday was 
inserted in the American Book in 1790. The East- 
ern Liturgies have no Proper Prefaces; the Roman 
use provides them for the Epiphany, the Sundays in 
Lent to Passion Sunday, Passion and Palm Sundays 
with Maundy-Thursday, and certain connected days, 

^^ In the Roman use of the word, the Canon does not begin 
until after the Tersanctus, but certainly that Hymn with the 
Sursum corda should be reckoned in it. 

" Perhaps also because Hosanna is not a word of praise ; it 
means "Help, we pray," " Help me now " (Psalm cxviii. 25). 


besides those days for which they are appointed in 
our Book, and uses the Trinity-Sunday Preface on all 
Sundays not otherwise provided for; it also has 
Prefaces for other special days and seasons, most of 
them very brief; but the Mozarabic Liturgy pro- 
vided a full and distinct Preface for the service of 
each Sunday and Holy-day. 

The Prayer of Humble Access, as we have come 
to call it, corresponding to the 'Prayer of Bowing- 
down' of the Greeks, is said in all Liturgies, except 
the English and our own, immediately before the 
reception of the Sacrament; as it stands in our 
Book, it breaks the connection between the 'Glory 
be to Thee' of the Triumphal Hymn sung by the 
priest and the people, and the same words as the 
priest repeats then at the beginning of the Prayer 
of Consecration; but it may be well considered as a 
sort of parenthesis, the sense of our unworthiness 
bidding us crave God's mercy once more before 
we venture into His nearer presence for our great 
act of worship. 

So much has been said on the history of the Prayer 
of Consecration, the meaning of its parts, and their 
primitive order maintained in our service, that little 
remains to be added here. The words of the rubric, 
'standing before the Table', seem to belong not only 
with 'hath ordered' but also with 'shall say'. It may 
not be amiss to note that the Words of Institution 
are recited and the manual acts performed primarily 
before God, but also in the presence and in behalf of 


the Church assembled before Him. The version of 
these words in the Anglican Books follows St. Paul 
more nearly than the Evangelists; it seems to have 
come most directly from a German source. 

The Oblation is the memorial of the death and 
passion of Christ made to the Father, but it passes 
on to commemorate the resurrection and ascension, 
by means of which His death avails for the life of 
His people; and the Invocation which follows is a 
prayer for the blessing of the Holy Spirit whom the 
ascended Lord sent to bring His life to the Church. 
The rubric which provides for a second consecration, 
and the rubric in the Order for the Communion of 
the Sick which gives permission for a shortened ser- 
vice, both show that in the judgment of this Church 
the Oblation and the Invocation are necessary for 
consecration. Those who follow the teaching main- 
tained in these pages look upon the parts of the Con- 
secrating Prayer as consecutive; those who attribute 
the consecration to the Words of Institution with 
prayer, consider that the parts, though consecutive 
in expression, are in reality simultaneous; but as in 
our Book there is no word of prayer until the Invoca- 
tion is reached, they would agree with the others 
that all its parts are essential. 

What, or Who, is the 'Word' through which as 
well as through the Holy Spirit it is asked that the 
blessing and sanctification may come.? The phrase, 
though with the terms in reverse order, is in the 
Book of 1549: "With thy Holy Spirit and Word 


vouchsafe to bless and sanctify these thy gifts."" 
The writer has not found this phrase in any office, 
Eastern or Western, of earlier date. It may be that 
there is a reference to our Lord's first word of bene- 
diction at the institution of the Eucharist, with a 
possible allusion to i Timothy iv. 5, where 'crea- 
tures of God' used for food are said to be "sanctified 
by the Word of God and prayer", as if it meant by 
God's original benediction at the creation and by 
specific prayer at this time. But this is hardly satis- 
factory. It seems more probable that 'Word' is here 
used as a synonym for 'Holy Spirit'. Justin Martyr 
tells us in a passage, which follows after a description 
of Christian worship already quoted, that "as Jesus 
Christ our Saviour was incarnate by the Word of 
God, and assumed flesh and blood for our salvation, 
so we have been taught that the food from which our 
flesh and blood derive nourishment, having been 
blessed [Mr. Ffoulkes translates, 'having been made 
the Eucharist'] by invocation [literally, 'prayer'] of 
the Word which is from Him, is both the flesh and 
blood of that same Jesus Who was made flesh." 
Now Justin Martyr held that the Son was the 
Jehovah ('Lord') of the Old Testament, and that 
it was the Holy Spirit who spake by the prophets; 

^* In the recently discovered ofl&ce-book of Sarapion, Bishop 
of Thmuis in Egypt (about 350), the Invocation reads: "O God 
of truth, let thy holy Word come upon this bread, that the bread 
may become body of the Word, and upon the cup, that the cup 
may become blood of the Truth." 



and for this reason, as it would seem, he called the 
Spirit the 'Word', using a title which later through 
the influence of St. John's Gospel was restricted to 
the Son. We do not know that Cranmer had a 
copy of Justin's Apology, but he may well have 
owned or used one ; and it would not be at all strange 
if from this first account and explanation of the 
eucharistic service, he took for the Prayer of Conse- 
cration which he was framing for the first English 
Prayer Book the title of 'Word' for the Holy Spirit 
in the act of Invocation. "With thy Word and Holy 
Spirit" seems then to mean "With thy Holy Spirit, 
by whom thou didst speak and didst effect the Incar- 
nation of thy Son." 

The concluding parts of the prayer, in their simple 
vigor and far-reaching application, call for no further 
exposition than has been already given. The an- 
tiquity and importance of the 'Amen' of the people 
have already been noted. 

The Hymn which may be sung after the Prayer of 
Consecration may be non-metrical, such as the 
'Agnus Dei' (which however recurs in the Gloria in 
excelsis), or metrical, such as those which are con- 
tained in the Hymnal. If the latter, it may be a 
hymn of praise, carrying on the doxology just 
spoken, or a hymn of penitence, in the ancient place 
of the prayer of humble access. 

The rubric as to the administration provides that 
all shall receive in both kinds, for this is evidently 
the meaning of 'in like manner'; and that the ele- 


ments shall be given 'into their hands', that is evi- 
dently that they shall themselves put the consecrated 
bread into their mouths and move the cup to their 
lips; 'in order' cannot refer to any order of sex or 
age or dignity in approaching the altar, but must 
simply mean 'in an orderly way' (as in i Corinthians 
xiv. 40). All are to receive kneeling, that having 
been for a long time the custom in the West, and to 
our thoughts most reverent and practically necessary, 
although in early times it would seem that all stood, 
as all stand in the Church of the East to this day. 
Nobody sat, as the Puritans wished to make every- 
one do, unless it were the Pope. The officiating 
priest is not expressly bidden to kneel, and may 
stand to receive the Communion which he has con- 
secrated, as was and is the Roman rule. Bishop 
Cosin thought that the celebrant should kneel at 
receiving, taking the same posture as the people; 
and for this there is very good authority. 

Our rubric has omitted the words 'to any one' 
after 'delivereth the Bread' and 'delivereth the Cup', 
making it entirely lawful to place the bread in the 
hands of two or more persons, or to present the cup 
to two, or to use two cups, for two persons, with one 
repitition of the formula. In administering, at least 
from the paten, it is more convenient to move from 
left to right (that is to say, from east to west, if 
facing south), following the path of the sun in the sky. 

Our provision for a second consecration, although 
it uses the words 'Bread or Wine', really supposes 


that there is to be a consecration of both elements; 
otherwise part of the prescribed words became mean- 
ingless. The priest, therefore, when the wine has 
failed, should consecrate a bit of bread with the 
wine required for the remaining communicants and 
vice versa; where the possible need of this can be 
foreseen, some of each element should be kept un- 
consecrated. That, in case of a small deficiency, 
water or unconsecrated wine may be added as a 
*medium' for the administration of that which has 
been consecrated, can hardly be doubted, however 
undesirable this may be as a custom, for each com- 
municant is sure to receive a portion of the conse- 
crated element. The English provision for a second 
consecration of either element, by the bare repetition 
of the Words of Institution for that element, without 
a syllable of prayer, can hardly be justified by anyone. 
The rubric as to placing upon the Lord's Table 
what remains of the consecrated elements and cover- 
ing them with a fair linen cloth or veil, dates from 
the Scottish Book of 1637 and the English Book of 
1662; it is a distinctly Anglican provision, to keep 
part of the consecrated gifts on the altar until after 
the Blessing. In the Roman use, the priest receives 
all of the consecrated wine, and all of the conse- 
crated bread which is not administered or espec- 
ially reserved, and cleanses the vessels at this point, 
before he proceeds with the service. The word 
'Minister' here and in the following rubric is evi- 
dently used for 'Priest'. 


The Lord's Prayer follows, in its Anglican posi- 
tion ; and then is said the Thanksgiving, composed 
in 1549, containing an acknowledgment of the spirit- 
ual benefits of the Sacrament and a prayer for grace 
to continue in the fellowship of the Church and to do 
the good works appointed for God's people. 

Gloria in excelsis is then said or sung in the place 
to which it was assigned in 1552. Its first strain, 
the Hymn of the Angels at the Lord's Nativity, is 
found in the Liturgy of St. James; the enlarged text 
is found in one form in the Apostolic Constitutions 
(about 350), and in another form nearer our own at 
the end of the Psalter in the Greek Bible known as 
the Codex Alexandrinus written about the year 450. 
The oldest Latin text is some three centuries later, 
and it is from this that the 'Angelic Hymn', as it is 
called, passed into the English Book and our own. 
The Scottish Communion Office has the Hymn 
translated from the Greek text. In the East, where 
it bears the name of the 'Great Doxology', it is and 
long has been a daily morning hymn. In the West 
it was introduced into the eucharistic service for use 
on the Lord's Day and festivals if a Bishop was 
present, or on Easter-day without the presence of a 
Bishop; later any priest was allowed to say it on the 
days for which it was appointed. The English 
Church has said it at every Eucharist since her ser- 
vice was translated, at first in the Roman position at 
the beginning of the service, but since 1552 after the 
Thanksgiving at the end. Our Church has allowed 


the substitution of a 'Hymn from the Selection' (or, 
in modern phraseology, from the Hymnal) for the 
Gloria, probably on account of the great difficulty felt 
in this country for a long time as to chanting; the 
substitution is sometimes made, by way of flexibility, 
'for the purpose of discriminating days and seasons'. 
The Hymn, which was at first, as already noted, a 
commemoration of the Nativity, has grown to be of 
threefold structure, its parts in an interesting way 
parallel to the three Comfortable Words in which the 
thought of the first of those Words finds application. 
For its second part, addressed to God the Son, is 
based on the 'Agnus Dei', the "Lamb of God, that 
taketh away the sin of the world" (St. John i. 29), 
and confesses His atoning and redemptive work; 
and its third, introducing the name of the Holy 
Ghost, finds its inspiration in the declaration made 
by St. Paul (Philippians ii. 11) that the ascended 
Christ "is Lord, to the glory of God the Father". 
Thus it well stands at the close of our service, help- 
ing to make it in this element of thanksgiving, as 
presently in that of blessing, superior to any other 
Communion Office used on earth. 

For the Blessing which we use is, as Mr. Scuda- 
more says, "at once the grandest and the most 
calmly solemn extant." The first clause (from 
Philippians iv. 7) was placed at the end of the Order 
of the Communion in 1548; the second clause, the 
final blessing, was added in 1549. It, as the Abso- 
lution in an earlier part of the service, is to be said 


by the Bishop (of the diocese) if he be present, 
though another may celebrate the service. In the 
hearing of these solemn words our faith is quickened, 
and our courage renewed, both to bear and to do for 
the Lord's sake. 

Five Collects follow: the first, an ancient Collect 
in the Mass for travellers starting on their 'way' ; the 
third, also old, where 'Direct' takes the place of the 
obsolete 'Prevent' (which, by the way, means rather 
'start' than 'guide'); and the second, fourth, and 
fifth, composed in 1549. They may be said 'after 
the Collects of Morning or Evening Prayer or Com- 
munion'. Now the only Collects in the daily offices 
are the three which follow the Creed ; and the only 
Collects in the Communion service are the Collect 
for Purity at the beginning, and the liturgical Collect 
of the Day with the discretionary Collect preceding 
it. It seems evident that these five were intended 
for special use at the end of the daily offices before 
the intercessions (which had not been inserted in 
1549), and before the Epistle in the eucharistic 
office. An undisputed custom has ruled that after 
the closing hymn or a sermon the minister may read 
any Collect in the Prayer Book before dismissing the 
people; and these are oftentimes well suited for that 

As to the first rubric after these Collects, enough 
has already been said (see pages 38, 167). 

The second rubric in this place dates from Scot- 


land in 1637 and from England in 1662, and as the 
dates show was directed rather against profanation, 
of which there was then a real danger, than against 
superstition. There is no question that from very 
early times it had been the custom to carry the ele- 
ments consecrated in church to those who were pre- 
vented from attending the public service; and there 
is no question that for a long time there was no cus- 
tom in any place of reserving the consecrated ele- 
ments in church that they might be made an object 
of worship. 

The Prayer Book of 1549 provided for the continu- 
ance of the ancient practice of ministration to the 
sick from the altar in the church in these words, 
after speaking of the notice to be given by a sick 
man to the priest that he was 'desirous to receive 
the Communion in his house' : "And if the same day 
there be a celebration of the Holy Communion in the 
church, then shall the priest reserve at the open 
communion so much of the Sacrament of the Body 
and Blood as shall serve the sick person and so many 
as shall communicate with him (if there be any); and 
as soon as he conveniently may, after the open com- 
munion ended in the church, then go and minister 
the same, first to those that are appointed to com- 
municate with the sick (if there be any), and last of 
all to the sick person himself." A direction was 
added as to the part of the service to be used. This 
rubric was omitted in 1552; but it was not until 
more than a century later that the order was inserted 


here that none of the conscerated bread and wine 
remaining at the end of the service should be carried 
out of the church. Whether the words 'if any 
remain' were meant to exclude the setting apart of 
what was necessary for immediate administration to 
the sick — in no accurate sense of the word 'reserva- 
tion' — may be and has been doubted, in view of well- 
known facts, both as to rubrics like-worded in pre- 
Reformation Books and to the usage allowed by the 
Latin Prayer Book of Queen Elizabeth's reign. 

On the other hand, there has been no provision in 
the English Book since 1552 and there is no provision 
in our own Book for the administration of the Holy 
Communion to the sick except after a consecration of 
the elements in the sick person's house; moreover, 
both Books have a clear statement as to spiritual 
communion in cases when, for any just impediment, 
a sick person cannot receive the Sacrament ; and at 
our last Revision a rubric was inserted providing for 
a very brief form of service, yet including consecra- 
tion, which can be used when necessary or expedient. 
Our House of Bishops, in their Pastoral Letter of 
1895, said: "The practice of reserving the Sacra- 
ment is not sanctioned by the law of this Church, 
though the Ordinary (that is, the Bishop of the 
Diocese) may, in cases of extreme necessity, author- 
ize the reserved Sacrament to be carried to the 
sick." With this statement, which does not declare 
that so-called 'reservation' for immediate communion 
is unlawful, but suggests that it needs the authoriza- 


tion of the Ordinary, we may leave further discus- 
sion of a vexed question to the authorities on Pas- 
toral Theology. It may be added, however, that the 
usage and the law of the Scottish Church in this 
matter are practically, if not exactly, the same as in 
the English Book of 1549. In its last version (191 1) 
there is this rubrical provision: "According to long 
existing custom in the Scottish Church, the Presbyter 
may reserve so much of the consecrated Gifts as may 
be required for the Communion of the sick and others 
who could not be present at the Celebration in 
Church. All that remaineth of the Holy Sacrament 
and is not so required, the Presbyter and such other 
of the Communicants as he shall then call unto him 
shall, after the Blessing, reverently eat and drink." 

The Warnings, or formal notices of intention to 
celebrate the Holy Communion, are now printed at 
the end of the service. The first dates from the 
Order of 1548, the second from the Book of 1552. 
They are full of instruction ; and however the rubric 
is interpreted as to the necessity of reading them 
before each celebration of the Sacrament, they 
should not be neglected. 

The Communion of the Sick 

It seems well to bring in here, though out of 
Prayer Book order, a few notes on the directions for 
administering the Holy Communion to the sick, to 
which, indeed, preceding paragraphs refer. 


The long rubric at the beginning should be care- 
fully read, and also the rubrics which follow the 
Gospel. It will appear that the service as ordinarily 
provided begins with the special Collect, Epistle, 
and Gospel; and that after the Gospel the priest 
(called here inadvertently the 'minister') is to pass 
to the Invitation and then to proceed with the service 
without change from the ordinary form ; and at the 
administration the sick person is to be the last to 
receive, probably to remove fear of infection. But 
(see last rubric) when persons are kept at home by 
age or infirmity, which is not of the nature of acute 
sickness, the Collect, Epistle, and Gospel for the 
day may be used; and (see third rubric after the 
Gospel) when it is necessary to make the service as 
brief as possible, only its absolutely necessary parts 
need be used. What is considered necessary should 
be carefully noted: the preparation by confession and 
absolution ; the eucharistic act of praise ; the conse- 
cration of the elements completed by the Invocation; 
then the administration, followed by the Lord's 
Prayer and the Blessing. Without doubt, in any of 
these cases other parts of the service may be re- 
tained, as the Creed after the Gospel, or the Prayer 
for the Church, or (in the case last mentioned) the 
Gloria in excelsis. The opening rubric requires that 
there shall be two at least to communicate with the 
sick person; and this may be interpreted to mean 
one beside the priest; but the next to the last rubric 
allows the priest alone to comunicate with the sick 


person under extreme circumstances. The intention 
doubtless is to have a real representation of the 
Church and to avoid all semblance of the 'solitary- 
masses' which were an abuse of the Sacrament. 
Certainly no one could blame a priest for acting 
on the principle of the next to the last rubric, 
even in a case which did not fall under the latter; 
yet, as Bishop Hall says, "the Church assumes 
the responsibility of allowing various hindrances 
to stand in the way of an actual Sacramental Com- 

Where such hindrances do exist, the Church tells 
the minister — who may for this purpose be a dea- 
con or a layman — to call upon the sick person to 
make an act of spiritual communion, or in the old 
phrase to seek the benefit of the Sacrament in voto. 
This is in no sense a modern teachirig; it was in the 
present form in the Book of 1549, and was taken 
from the ancient Sarum Use, in which under these 
circumstances the priest was bidden to say to the 
sick man, "Brother, in this case a true faith sufficeth 
thee, and a good will; believe only, and thou hast 
eaten"; and the last clause was borrowed from St. 
Augustine in his comment on St. John vi. 29. 

It remains only to note that the provision that the 
Visitation Office is to be 'cut off at the Psalm' when 
Holy Communion is to follow, means that the Visi- 
tation Service is to be said through the prayer of 
reconciliation ('O most merciful God') and up to the 
Psalm ; but in practice this will rarely occur. 



Editions of the Prayer Book, and works on the whole 
Prayer Book already noted. 

Editions of the Greek, Roman, Sarum, and Mozarabic Litur- 
gies. The following are among the most accessible and helpful : 

Hammond (C. E.), Liturgies Eastern and Western, with In- 
troduction, etc. All in Greek or Latin except the Armenian 
Liturgy. Later editions have the Ancient Liturgy of Antioch, 
from the writings of St. Chrysostom. This handy volume has 
been displaced for the Greek Liturgies by — 

Brightman (F. E.), on the basis of the former work by Ham- 
mond (C. E.), Liturgies Eastern and Western, with Introduction 
and Appendices. Vol. I, Eastern Liturgies. The Greek Lit- 
urgies are given in the original ; the others are translated into 
English. Very learned and helpful ; the standard book on the 
subject. Vol. II has not been published. 

Brett (Thomas). A Collection of Liturgies, translated into 
EngUsh, with a Dissertation upon them. An old book (1720), re- 
printed at least once (1838), with all the important Eastern Lit- 
urgies, the Roman, the Enghsh of 1549, and the Nonjurors' of 
17 18. Well worth purchasing when it appears in a catalogue. 

Neale (J. M.), The Liturgies of S. Mark, S. James, S. Clem- 
ent, S. Chrysostom, S. Basil, and the formula of the Apostolic 
Constitutions, in the original Greek. 

Neale (J. M.) and Littledale (R. F.), The Liturgies of SS. 
Mark, James, Clement, Chrysostom, and Basil, and the Church 
of Malabar, translated into English. In an appendix are the 
formulae of Institution in eighty-two different Liturgies, trans- 
lated. Very convenient and useful. 

Neale (J. M.), A History of the Holy Eastern Church. Part 
I, General Introduction (in two volumes). A mine of litur- 
gical information, and a monument of liturgical learning. 

Rattray (Bishop Thomas), The Ancient Liturgy of the 
Church of Jerusalem, being the Liturgy of St. James, with an 
English translation and notes. Not easily found, but worthy of 
special note for its indirect influence on our American Book. 


Neale (J. M.), Tetralogia Liturgica: sive S. Chryscstomi, S. 
Jacobi, S. Marci, Divinas Missas ; quibus accedit Ordo Mo- 
zarabicus. In the original, in parallel columns. Very valuable. 

Swainson (C. A.), The Greek Liturgies, chiefly from the 
original authorities. Valuable as furnishing material for a 
critical text and showing the approximate date of interpolations. 

Robertson (J. N. W. B.), The Divine and Sacred Liturgies 
of our Fathers among the Saints, John Chrysostom and Basil 
the Great. In Greek and English, with all the rubrics, on op- 
posite pages of small size. This book, published in 1886, ap- 
pears to be displaced by the much larger — 

Robertson (J.N. W. B.), The Divine Liturgies of our Fath- 
ers among the Saints, John Chrysostom and Basil the Great, 
with that of the Pre-sanctified, preceded by the Hesperinos and 
the Orthros (Vigil and Matin services). In Greek and Eng- 
lish, with all the rubrics, on opposite pages. Beautifully printed, 
well translated, a thick but handy volume, and altogether the 
most useful book for those who can have but one at hand. 
(Published by David Nutt, London.) 

The Leonine Sacramentary, edited by Feltoe, was pubHshed 
at Cambridge in 1896 ; the Gelasian Sacramentary, edited by 
Wilson, at Oxford in 1894 ; the Sarum Missal, at Burntisland, 
in 1 86 1. 

The Henry Bradshaw Society has reprinted the Roman 
Missal as it stands in the first Known printed edition of 1474. 
The Missal as now used can be readily obtained ; and a trans- 
lation of practically the whole work is in Lewis (George), The 
Bible, the Missal, and the Breviary (1833). The Sarum Missal 
has been translated by Dr. Harford Pearson (1884). 

Maskell (William), The Ancient Liturgy of the Church of 
England, according to the uses of Sarum, Bangor, York, and 
Hereford, and the Modern Roman Liturgy, arranged in parallel 
columns. In the original, with full notes. The second edition 
(1846) is better than the first. 

Scudamore (W. E.), Notitia Eucharistica. A very full and 
learned commentary on the Communion Office, unfortunately out 
of print. The second edition is more valuable than the first. 


Bulley (Frederic), A Tabular View of the Variations in the 
Communion and Baptismal Offices of the Church of England, 
1 549-1662, with the Scotch Prayer Book of 1637. 

Skinner (John), The Office for the Sacrament of the Lord's 
Supper, according to the use of the Episcopal Church in 
Scotland. With dissertation, notes, and a collation of offices 
drawn up by Bishop Horsley. 

Dowden (Bishop John), An Historical Account of the 
Scottish Communion Office and of the Communion Office of the 
Church in the United States ; with liturgical notes and reprints. 
A book of great learning, interesting and valuable. 

Benson (Archbishop E. W.), Judgment in the case of Read 
and others vs. the Lord Bishop of Lincoln, 1890. A learned in- 
vestigation of rubrics and usages in disputed matters. 

Sprott (George W., Scottish Presbyterian), Scottish Liturgies 
of the reign of James VL Reference may be made also to the 
same author's The Worship and Offices of the Church of 

Ffoulkes (E. S.), Primitive Consecration of the Eucharistic 
Oblation. Also, the same author's article on the Eucharist in 
the Dictionary of Christian Biography, etc. Of great learning. 

Gummey (H. R.), The Consecration of the Eucharist. From 
the point of view of the American Office. 

Pullan (Leighton), The Christian Tradition (in Oxford 
Library of Practical Theology). Chapter V, The Genius of 
Western Liturgies. Valuable to the student. 

Gore (Bishop Charles), The Body of Christ. Primarily 
doctrinal, but with helpful liturgical application. 

Stone (Darwell), The Holy Communion (in Oxford Library 
of Practical Theology). Chiefly doctrinal. See also the same 
author's large work on the History of the Doctrine of the Holy 
Eucharist, and his Outlines of Christian Dogma, Chapter XIL 

Hedley (Bishop John C), The Holy Eucharist. A modern 
Roman work, well worth reading, with special chapters on the 
Liturgy and the Mass at the present day. 


Fortescue (Adrian), The Mass (1912). In the same series as 
the last named work, called the Westminster Library ; it is a 
great store of historical information. 

Milligan (William, Scottish Presbyterian), The Ascension 
and Heavenly Priesthood of our Lord. A work of great value 
and interest. Lectures V and VI deal in part with the Eu- 

Dale (R. W., English Congregationalist) , Essays and 
Addresses. Lecture VII is on the Doctrine of the Real 
Presence and of the Lord's Supper. 

There are many other works, doctrinal, devotional, and con- 
troversial, which deal with the great subject of the Eucharist, 
from a standpoint in part liturgical. It must suffice to have 
pointed out those which seem to be of special value to a student 
of our Prayer Book service. 



Public Baptism of Infants 

MUCH is said, and much implied, in the New 
Testament as to the importance of Baptism 
and as to its benefits and its obligations. But we 
are told little as to the manner of its ministration, 
except that it was with water, as was the Jewish 
baptism of proselytes; and we read that our Lord 
commanded that it be "into [or "in"] the Name of 
the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit"; 
making as He spoke a new revelation of the God- 
head. We learn also that its symbolism was that of 
a burial with Christ by baptism into His death and 
a resurrection with Him unto newness of life 
(Romans vi. 3, 4); that it was looked upon as an act 
of the Holy Spirit admitting to the Christian body 
or Church (i Cor, xii. 13), and that it was called a 
'regeneration', that is a 'new birth', or (more accu- 
rately) a 'new begetting' (Titus iii. 5). We do not 
find the Lord's baptismal formula repeated in the 
Acts or the Epistles; the phrases in the Acts are "in 
[eV] the Name of Jesus Christ" (ii. 3, x. 48), and 
"into [ek] the Name of Jesus Christ" (viii. 16, xix. 3). 
But in the last case, at Ephesus, we find St. Paul 
expressing his surprise that persons could have 
been baptized without hearing the name of the Holy 


Spirit; and the fact that in the Didache (before the 
year lOo) and in Justin Martyr (about the year 157) 
we find the Lord's words as the form of minis- 
tration, and that they have continued to be used 
throughout the Church, assures us that the ex- 
pressions in the Acts imply all that the Lord Jesus 
Christ commanded. 

There can be no doubt that baptism was ordinarily 
either by immersion in water after the manner of a 
bath or by pouring water over the body after the 
manner of a burial;' the evidence of pictures in the 
catacombs and elsewhere leads us to think that the 
latter was more common. It would seem quite cer- 
tain that some confession of faith was required 
from those who were baptized ; though the words in 
Acts viii. 37, in which Philip requires of the Ethiopian 
chamberlain that he declare his belief and he replies 
by acknowledging his belief that Jesus Christ is the 
Son of God, are not in the most ancient manuscripts, 
yet they are an interpolation of an early date, being 
quoted by Irenaeus about the year 200, and testify to 
a custom or requirement which has been and is uni- 
versal. 'Sealing' and 'anointing' are mentioned in 
apparent connection with baptism — both terms in 2 
Corinthians i. 21, 22, the former in Ephesians i. 13, 
iv. 3, and the latter in i John ii. 20, 27; if the words 
are not used quite figuratively, 'sealing' may refer to 

' Compare Horace, Odes, I. xxviii. 35, 36, where three casts of 
earth make a formal burial, as is still the case with us. 


the use of the sign or seal of the Cross, and 'anoint- 
ing' to the use of oil or chrism, which we certainly 
find in early times. The only person of whom we 
expressly read as ministering baptism is Philip the 
Deacon and Evangelist (Acts viii), on whom hands 
had been laid by the Apostles for special service; 
the laying-on of hands which followed baptism was 
always the work of Apostles, as will be noted later. 

As we pass from the New Testament to the 
records of the early Church, we find that great care 
was taken for the admission and preparation of 
'catechumens' (that is, those who were receiving 
instruction) as candidates for the Sacrament; but 
that the administration of the Sacrament itself was 
with very simple ceremonial, including little if any- 
thing more than was mentioned in the New Testa- 
ment. Into the details of the preparation this is not 
the place to enter. It included renunciation of the 
wicked one and his works, 'exorcism' or prayer for the 
expulsion of evil spirits, examination in knowledge of 
Christian truth, and finally the teaching of the Creed 
and the Lord's Prayer, with the 'Effeta' or 'Ephpha- 
tha' (St. Mark vii. 34), a ceremony which betokened 
the opening of the ears and the lips to hear and to 
confess the truth. This preparation was formally 
ended, at Rome and doubtless elsewhere, on Easter- 
even ; the Bishop then with great solemnity blessed 
the water in the baptistery; the candidates were pre- 
sented and declared their faith by replying 'I believe' 
to the three parts of an interrogative Creed ; the 


Bishop and his attendant clergy immersed them, or 
poured water over them as they stood in the font; 
they were anointed with chrism, and the Bishop laid 
his hands on them with prayer for Confirmation and 
signed them with the sign of the Cross. The Bishop 
then passed to the service of the first Eucharist of 

All this had to do with the baptism of adults, and 
in fact most of those baptized in the earliest times 
were adults; but the number of infants brought to 
baptism must have soon exceeded the number of 
older persons prepared as catechumens. The service, 
however, continued in most respects as before; the 
prayers and the questionings were not greatly modi- 
fied, except that, there being no real catechumenate, 
the services of preparation and of administration 
were condensed into one, and sponsors made the 
replies on behalf of the children; and presently the 
ministration of the Sacrament, in the case of adults 
restricted practically to the eve of Easter or Whit- 
sunday, was allowed on any Sunday or day of special 
service, the water which had been blessed being 
always ready for use in the font, but covered except 
at the time of roinistration. Further, in West- 
ern use, the Bishop being rarely present at a baptism, 
confirmation was deferred, and that usually until 
the infants had 'reached years of discretion' or be- 
came 'children'. There were some exceptions; the 
Princess Elizabeth, afterward Queen, was both bap- 
tized and confirmed by Archbishop Cranmer when 


she was three days old. In the East, where Con- 
firmation is administered by priests, using chrism 
blessed by the Bishop, infants are still confirmed and 
comunicated immediately after their baptism. 

By the time of the framing of the Sarum office, 
which was in use in England until the Prayer Book 
of 1549 was set forth, adult baptism had quite passed 
out of use, and all the rubrics in the baptismal ser- 
vice spoke of infants. The priest met the child to 
be baptized at the church door, asking whether it 
had been baptized, and demanded its name. Then 
followed the prayers and ceremonies for making 
and instructing" a catechumen, with the sign of 
the Cross, prayers, exorcism, the Gospel from St. 
Matthew (xix. 13 ff.) followed by 'Effeta', and the 
Creed. The child was then brought into the church, 
the questions as to renunciation and desire of bap- 
tism were put, and the child was thrice immersed, 
anointed, clad in a white robe called a 'chrisom',^ 
and given a lighted taper. The service was ended 
with an exhortation to the sponsors. 

For the Prayer Book of 1549, some of the minor 
ceremonies were omitted, and an exhortation and 
prayer from Archbishop Hermann were prefixed to 
the part of the service said at the door. The Gospel 
was taken from St. Mark (x. 13 ff.) instead of St. 

' See the New Dictionary for the use of this word. A 
' chrisom child ' was a child who died soon after baptism, while 
still wearing its baptismal robe ; but by a strange perversion, 
the words came to mean a child who died unbaptized. 


Matthew — an excellent change — and followed by an 
exhortation, the Lord's Prayer and the Creed, and 
another prayer. The child was then brought into 
the church, an address was made to the sponsors, and 
the questions of renunciation, faith, and desire of 
baptism were put. Then (at least once in a month) 
newly-brought water was blessed, the child was bap- 
tized either by triple immersion or (if it were weak) 
by 'affusion' (pouring), clad in a chrisom, and 
anointed; and the service ended as before. In 
1552, the service was brought into nearly its present 
form. It was then ordered that all should be said at 
the font, and the order of making a catechumen 
become an introduction to the baptismal service. 
The Lord's Prayer was deferred until after the bap- 
tism, and the Creed was not said except in the ques- 
tion as to belief. The four short Mozarabic peti- 
tions, beginning 'O merciful God', and a following 
prayer were inserted from the Benediction of the 
Font, and a short exhortation and the prayer after 
the baptism with explicit declaration of the regener- 
ation of the child were also added. In place of the 
giving of the chrisom and the unction, the ceremony 
of signing with the Cross, omitted at the beginning 
of the service, was put in its present most suitable 
place. In 1662, besides some changes in the rubrics, 
a question as to obedience was added, and provision 
was made for the benediction of the water on every 
occasion of baptism. 
The Baptismal Service in our Prayer Book is prac- 


tically the same as that which has stood in the Eng- 
lish Book since 1662. A few rubrical changes were 
made for our Book of 1790, one of which allows 
parents to be admitted as sponsors ; the two prayers 
at the beginning were made alternative; instead of 
the Creed in an interrogative form was placed the 
question, "Dost thou believe all the Articles of the 
Christian Faith, as contained in the Apostles' 
Creed?"; *by God's help' was added to the reply to 
the last question ; and the permission to pour water 
on the child instead of dipping it in the water was 
left absolute, without any limitation to the case of 
weakness. Permission was also given to omit the 
Gospel and all that follows to the Questions, provided 
that all be read once in a month if there be a bap- 
tism, and also to omit, at the desire of those who 
bring the child, the signing with the Cross and the 
form of words accompanying it, with the statement, 
however, that "the Church knoweth no worthy cause 
of scruple touching the same." 

Thus our service contains a 'survival' of the old 
office for the admission of a catechumen, a form for 
the Benediction of the Font (or, to speak more 
accurately, of the Water), and a Baptismal Office 
proper, with two exhortations addressed to the con- 
gregation and two addressed to the sponsors. Its 
outline is ancient: part of the prayers, as the second 
at the beginning, 'Almighty and immortal God', and 
(in part at least) the prayer of benediction, with the 


suggestion of the exhortation at the end, are from the 
Sarum use; the four short prayers preceding that last 
mentioned, 'O merciful God', are from the ancient 
Spanish use, known as 'Mozarabic'; and the two be- 
ginning 'Almighty and everlasting God' are from 
Hermann's project of reform, called the 'Consulta- 
tion', to which also are due in great part the exhor- 
tations before the baptism. It is full of meaning and 
deserves careful study, and might well serve the pur- 
poses of extended instruction. 

A few words may be added as to some of the 
rubrics and as to certain phases in the service. 

Attention should be called to the provision, in the 
next to the last rubric at the end of the service for 
Adult Baptism, for changing the word 'Infant' to 
'Child' or 'Person' when the candidate is no longer 
an 'infant' and yet has not come to such age as to 
answer for himself. The lawyers call a person an 
'infant' until he is 'of age' ; the ecclesiastical writers 
call those between seven and fourteen years of age 
'children', and consider them of the right age for Con- 
firmation; probably in the service the word 'infant' 
may be best kept for 'babes in arms'. If the child can- 
not well be taken into the minister's hands (as the 
rubric says), he should stand or kneel at the side of 
the font, the minister with his left hand holding the 
child by the hand or touching him on the shoulder, 
both for the reassurance of the child and as a symbol 
of admission into the brotherhood of the Church. 


It is greatly to be desired that baptism should be 
administered, when it is any way possible, in the 
face of the Church and during Divine Service, as the 
rubric directs, that the congregation may unite in 
the admission of a new member and bear witness to 
it and say the Creed with him or his representatives 
after the service is ended, and that at the same time, 
as the English Book says, "every man present may be 
put in remembrance of his own profession made to 
God in his Baptism." 

The water, as has been noted, is to be placed in 
the font expressly for each ministration, and may 
well be poured in by the minister as he is about 
to begin the service. 

In the opening question, as in the questions ad- 
dressed to the sponsors, the nouns and pronouns are 
not to be put in the plural, however many there are 
to be baptized; the question is asked as for each one, 
or is put to each one, severally: 'Hath this child — ?' 
'Dost thou, in the name of this child — ?' 

In the first prayer, there seems to be little doubt 
that 'by water' is to be connected with 'perishing' 
and not with 'didst save', though the latter might 
seem to be required by i Peter iii. 2i ; the water 
which saved those in the ark saved them from the 
danger itself brought. The second and more ancient 
prayer is valuable for its sound theological teaching, 
'may receive remission of sin by spiritual regenera- 
tion', 'may enjoy the everlasting benediction of thy 
heavenly washing', and has a special appropriateness 


at Easter-tide, speaking as it does of God as 'the 
resurrection of the dead'. 

The word 'allow' in the exhortation after the 
Gospel is used in its old sense of 'commend', 
'approve*; it is the French 'allouer\ the Latin 
'allaudare\ The word has this meaning in the 
authorized version of St. Luke xi. 48, where it trans- 
lates avviv^oKelT^, and in other passages. 

The prayer after 'give thanks unto him and say' is 
to be repeated by the congregation with the minis- 
ter, as is shown by the capital letters at the begin- 
ning of the several clauses. 

The minister's holding the child or holding the 
hand of the adult (as we shall see in the later service) 
is not a matter of small importance; it signifies an 
actual reception of the candidate by Christ's author- 
ized representative, and is especially significant in 
the case of children who are thus received from the 
parents and given back to them to be cared for and 
brought up as children of God. 

When more children than one are to be baptized, 
the oldest should be taken first, yet so that the chil- 
dren of one family should be taken together. There 
was an old idea, with some superstitious notion, that 
boys should be baptized before girls. 

If the Baptismal Ofifice is said as a separate service, 
the minister may well add at the end the Thanks- 
giving from the Churching Office (if the mother con- 
sents), the Collect for Easter-even, and a blessing. 

Care should be taken that the water which remains 


in the font be reverently removed and poured out in 
a clean place. 

Private Baptism of Children 

The circumstances and manners of these times 
make it impossible for us to assume that the normal 
time for the baptism of children is within the ten 
days or two weeks after the birth, as is implied in 
the first rubric. But the principle of early baptism 
emphasized in the rubric, and that of the desirability 
of baptism in church on which the second rubric lays 
stress, are both of great importance. 

The form of service required, namely the Lord's 
Prayer with one or more Collects from the service of 
Public Baptism, the naming of the child, the actual 
ministration of the Sacrament, and the Thanksgiving 
with the prayer which it contains, shows what the 
Church considers absolutely necessary for the bap- 
tism of a child.' The prayer for the blessing of the 
water should certainly be said before the baptism; and 
at the end the prayer for a sick child may be added. 
Apparently by some misunderstanding, the Thanks- 
giving is not shortened in our Book as it is in the 
English by omitting the words, 'he, being dead unto 
sin .... and that', so that it seems to assume 
that the child is healthy and well and likely to live to 
mature years. 

^ It is interesting to note that the Lord's Prayer here, as 
below in the service for the reception of a child privately bap- 
tized into the Church, stands in its ancient place. 


The service for receiving into tiie Church a child 
baptized in private calls for no special note. Its pur- 
pose is twofold : first, to certify the assembled con- 
gregation of the baptism, and withal to make public 
declaration of the child's place in the Church; and 
secondly, to secure the promises of sponsors in its 
behalf, and therewith to give them a solemn exhor- 
tation to their duty. 

We need, however, to ask what is meant by the 
words 'lawful minister' in two of the rubrics. The 
Prayer Books of 1549, 1552, and 1559 said nothing as 
to the presence of a minister; their rubric before the 
words of administration read thus: "First, let them 
that be present call upon God for his grace, and say 
the Lord's Prayer, if the time will suffer; and then 
one of them shall name the child, and dip him in the 
water, or pour water upon him, saying these words, 
N, I baptize thee", .... etc.; and after the form 
of words the rubric went on, as at present: "And 
let them not doubt but that the child so baptized is 
lawfully and sufficiently baptized, and ought not to 
be baptized again in the church." And later on 
there was no question as to whether the person bap- 
tizing was a minister or not. But in 1604 the 
requirement of a 'lawful minister' was twice in- 
serted, and it still remains in the English Book and 
from it has passed over to our own. An attempt to 
require all private baptism "to be ministered by a 
lawful minister or deacon" had been made in Con- 


vocation in 1575, but Queen Elizabeth would not 
sanction it. But at the Hampton Court Conference 
(1604), King James expressed his decided opinion on 
the other side of the question: "That any but a law- 
ful minister might baptize anywhere, he utterly dis- 
liked; and in this point his Highness grew some- 
what earnest against the baptizing by women and 
laics." The Bishops agreed with the King; and the 
Puritan party, rather strangely, was also very strong 
on the necessity of an ordained minister for baptism; 
so that the new form of the rubric was adopted, as it 
would seem, by general consent. The statement 
that "from this time Lay Baptism was distinctly 
discountenanced by the Church of England" is indis- 
putably true, as far as the Prayer Book and official 
formularies are concerned; yet it must in fairness 
be noted that in the next to the last rubric at the end 
of this service, dating in this part from 1662, 
Water and the Lord's Words are declared to be 'es- 
sential' — though not 'the essential'— 'parts of bap- 
tism' ; which may possibly imply that though lay- 
baptism had not the sanction of the Church, yet it is 
to be reckoned as sufficient, according to the legal 
maxim, 'fieri non debuit, factum valet.' The theo- 
logical question as to Lay Baptism is beyond the 
limits of this book. It may be well to note that Bap- 
tism with the form beginning 'If thou art not already 
baptized' is called hypothetical. 

In carrying out the instructions in the last rubric 
as to a combination of services, it would appear that 


the certification as to the child already baptized 
should be first made; that then the question: "Hath 
this child been already baptized, or no?" should be 
asked as to the others ; that the service should then 
proceed as in public Baptism ; that the sponsors for 
the baptized child should remember that the ques- 
tion "Wilt thou be baptized in this faith?" is not ad- 
dressed to them; and that the baptized child should 
be publicly received into the Church with the sign of 
the Cross before the others are baptized. 

Baptism of Those of Riper Years 

We have seen that in the early Church the baptism 
of adults gave way to the baptism of infants, the ser- 
vice being but gradually changed. Then for centuries, 
all the nations of the civilized world having become 
Christians and all Christians recognizing it a duty 
to bring their children to baptism in their infancy, 
there was no need of any service for the baptism of 
such as were able to answer for themselves. The 
English Prayer Book had no office for adult baptism 
until its last revision, which it will be remembered 
went into use two years after the close of the Com- 
monwealth and the restoration of the Monarchy. 
Two very different things united to make it neces- 
sary to provide this new service. In the first place, 
during the fifteen years in which the use of the 
Prayer Book had been forbidden by law and other 
years in which it had been largely neglected, the 
influence of the Anabaptists and such like sects had 


been so great that a considerable part of a whole 
generation had grown up unbaptized ; in the second 
place, the discovery of America and the beginning of 
colonization on the American coast (Jamestown had 
been settled fifty-five years) had led to the conversion 
of some of the natives and to the hope that many 
more would be converted and brought to baptism. 
And thus the Preface to the English Book of 1662 
speaks of this office as one "which, although not so 
necessary when the former book was compiled, yet 
by the growth of Anabaptism, through the licen- 
tiousness of the late times crept in amongst us, is 
now become necessary, and may be always useful for 
the baptizing of natives in our plantations, and 
others converted to the Faith." 

The service follows closely the lines, and for the 
most part of the words, of that for the Baptism of In- 
fants. A different passage is of necessity chosen 
for the Gospel, the exhortation following being largely 
made up of passages from the New Testament bear- 
ing on the same subject. The opening rubric lays 
stress on the proper preparation of the candidates, 
and solemn exhortations are addressed to them. At 
the time of administration the minister is to "take 
the candidate by the right hand and place him con- 
veniently by the Font according to his discretion." 
He should transfer the person's hand to his own left 
hand, thus holding it while with his own right hand 
he pours the water; and the candidate should kneel 
for both the baptism and the signing with the 


Cross In case of baptism by immersion, either in 
a baptistery or in living (that is, running) water, the 
candidate should kneel in the water and the minister 
should bow the head forward at the recital of the 
words of administration, until the body is quite cov- 
ered; it is best to lay one hand upon the forehead 
and one upon the upper part of the back, and thus to 
be able to bend the body forward and to lift it up 
without discomfort or inconvenience. 

The student will note that the pronouns and nouns 
referring to the candidates are in this office in the 
plural, as normally adults are baptized at stated 
times and in comparatively large numbers; while in- 
fants are normally baptized separately, and therefore 
the pronouns and nouns relating to them are in the 

The second, third, and fifth rubrics at the end of 
the service are peculiar to our American Book; the 
last sentence of the second and the whole of the fifth 
were added at the revision of 1892. The provision 
for shortening the service shows that the Church 
considers it necessary to require in the case of an 
adult the profession of repentance and faith and 
obedience and the desire for baptism, with prayer 
including the petition for the blessing of the water, 
before the administration, and the Lord's Prayer 
with thanksgiving after it. 

The combination of Infant and Adult Baptism, as 
provided for in the third rubric, is very awkward, 
even when, as in most clergymen's handbooks or 


Books of Offices, the parts are printed in the order 
in which they are to be used; it is far better, if 
possible, to use the two separately. 

The permission of hypothetical baptism extends 
to adults what has been already provided in the case 
of infants. The minister must decide as to the 
reasonableness of the doubt; but it would seem 
that serious doubt as to whether the former min- 
ister had been lawfully ordained and had thus 
authority to baptize, could hardly be called un- 

The question may be asked whether in our Church 
it is lawful for a deacon to administer baptism to 
adults, inasmuch as in the Ordering of Deacons it is 
said to be a part of a deacon's office "in the absence 
of the Priest to baptize infants, and to preach, if he 
be admitted thereto by the Bishop." Until 1662, it 
read "to baptize and to preach if he be admitted 
thereto by the Bishop." It is certainly noticeable 
that the limiting word 'infants' was inserted at the 
time when a form for the baptism of adults was pro- 
vided. But at the same time the words 'in the 
absence of the Priest' were inserted; and it would 
appear that the case in mind — probably the only case 
in England — was that of a deacon serving under a 
priest; if the priest were absent, he might baptize 
infants, but for the baptism of adults they must 
wait until the priest returned. If a deacon is in 
"quasi sole charge", it would seem that the Bishop's 
licence practically covers full right to baptize. 


Doubtless adult baptism, as a great act of remitting 
sins, is a priestly act, and if possible a priest should 
be responsible for every adult baptism; but the act- 
ual administration may be demitted to one in Holy 
Orders of a lower rank. And we know from the 
example of St. Philip that it is not contrary to God's 
Word or to the practice of apostolic times for a 
deacon to baptize adults. 


Works on the whole Prayer Book, already noted. 

Marriott (W. B.), Article on Baptism, in Dictionary of Chris- 
tian Antiquities. A full study, coming down to the year 800. 

Other articles in Dictionaries and Encyclopaedias. 

Fallow (T. M.), The Order of Baptism, illustrated from 
Hermann's Consultation, etc. 

Rogers (C. F.), Baptism and Christian Archaeology. Illus- 
trated from ancient pictures. 

Stone (Darwell), Holy Baptism (in Oxford Library of Prac- 
tical Theology) . 

Maskell (William), Holy Baptism. 

Mozley (J. B.), The Primitive Doctrine of Baptismal Re- 
generation ; also, A Review of the Baptismal Controversy. 



THE Catechism is the form of Instruction which 
the Church provides "to be learned by every 
person before he be brought to be confirmed by 
the Bishop." The word has a Greek form, as 
fcaTTj'x^LafjLo^ from the verb Karrj^x^em, in Roman letters 
'kat-echeo', to 'echo-down', to 're-sound', almost 'to 
din in one's ears by repeating', and then 'to instruct 
orally'. The verb occurs in the New Testament in 
the Prologue to' St. Luke's Gospel (i. 4) of the in- 
struction which a convert, Theophilus, had received 
in the fundamentals of the Christian faith; in Acts 
xviii. 25, of like instruction which Apollos had re- 
ceived; in Acts xix. 21, 24, of an oft-repeated charge 
made against St. Paul; in Galatians vi. 6, of instruc- 
tion in the faith; in Romans ii. 18, of like instruc- 
tion in the Jewish law; and in i Corinthians xiv. 19, 
of the instruction given by a Christian teacher. 
There were Catechetical Lectures of St. Cyril of 
Jerusalem, as we have already seen, about the year 
350, and St. Augustine wrote a treatise on Catechis- 
ing about 400 ; the fame of the Catechetical School 
at Alexandria is world-wide. And there was doubt- 
less catechizing in England before the verb came 
into use about 1450 and the noun 'catechism' a little 
after 1500. In Henry VIII's reign, the curates 


(that is, clergymen having cure of souls) were 
charged, "that ye shall, every Sunday and Holy-day 
throughout the year, openly and plainly recite to 
your parishoners, twice or thrice together, if need 
require, one particle or sentence of the Paternoster 
or Creed in English, to the intent that they may 
learn the same by heart ; and so from day to day to 
give to them one little lesson or sentence of the 
same, till they have learned the whole Paternoster 
and Creed in English by rote. . . And that done, ye 
shall declare unto them the Ten Commandments, 
one by one, every Sunday and Holy-day till they be 
likewise perfect in the same." When Edward VI 
came to the throne, one of the first things that de- 
manded the attention of his advisers was the diligent 
instruction of the people, and especially the young, 
in the Creed, the Lord's Prayer, and the Command- 
ments, and expounding and declaring the understand- 
ing of the same. And when the Prayer Book was 
set forth in English, a brief catechism was prefixed 
to, or rather incorporated in, the Order of Confirma- 
tion, that the Bishop, or such as he should appoint, 
might at his discretion 'appose' the candidates in 
it. It differed but in few words, except that some 
of the Commandments were abbreviated, from that 
which stands in our Prayer Book, as far as to the 
end of the long answer explanatory of the meaning of 
the Lord's Prayer. 

It was in reality a 'short catechism', shorter than 
others prepared about the same time, and much 


shorter than the 'Shorter Catechism' of the West- 
minster Assembly set forth in 1647. And it is the 
only part of the Prayer Book which had not a Latin 
original. It is one of the most remarkable produc- 
tions of a remarkable time; good Izaak Walton calls 
it "that good, plain, unperplext Catechism, that is 
printed with the old Service Book"; and the late 
Archbishop Benson said, "I believe that there has 
never been in the hands of any Church any manual 
representing the doctrines, the true spirit, of the 
Bible, to compare with the Catechism of the 
Church of England." 

We cannot absolutely determine who was its 
author; but tradition points to Alexander Nowell, 
who was in 1549 a master in Westminster School, a 
man of mature years and good learning. Two years 
later he was made a prebendary of St. Paul's, and in 
1560 he was advanced to be Dean of that Cathedral. 
He wrote in Queen Elizabeth's day a long catechism, 
in both Latin and English; and some parts of the 
addition to the Prayer Book Catechism on the sub- 
ject of the Sacraments, made in 1604, can be traced 
back to this. But the author of this addition is be- 
lieved to have been John Overall, at that time Dean 
of St. Paul's, and afterwards Bishop of Coventry 
and Lichfield and of Norwich. 

Some few years ago the Lower House of the Con- 
vocation of Canterbury, after a good deal of discus- 
sion, prepared an addition to the Catechism of twelve 
questions and answers on the Church (see note 


below); it was not adopted by the Upper House, the 
Bishops holding that action relating to the definition 
of doctrine should have originated with themselves, 
but it is worthy of being better known and might 
well be used in some places. 

Few changes were made in the Catechism when 
the American Prayer Book was set forth ; the only 
one deserving note is the substitution of 'spiritually' 
for 'verily and indeed' in the answer as to the inward 
part or thing signified in the Lord's Supper. 

The rubrics of 1549 required that the curate of 
every parish, 'once in six weeks at least, upon warn- 
ing by him given', should 'upon some Sunday or 
Holy-day, half an hour before evensong, openly in the 
church instruct and examine' the children sent unto 
him in some part of the Catechism. In 1552 it was 
ordered to be done 'diligently upon Sundays and 
Holy-days, half an hour before evensong' ; in 1662 the 
time was changed and the catechising was appointed 
to be openly in the 'church' 'upon Sundays and Holy- 
days, after the Second Lesson at Evening Prayer'. 
Our rubric still directs that the minister's instruc- 
tion and examination of children of his parish in the 
Catechism shall be 'openly in the church'; it is evi- 
dently something additional to what is ordinarily 
understood by the work of the Sunday School. 

The second rubric lays a duty on fathers and 
mothers. There are no longer 'servants and appren- 
tices' whom their 'masters and mistresses' can send 
to church 'to hear and be ordered by the minister'. 


The third and fourth rubric have to do with the 
Confirmation Service which follows.* 

It is not at all easy to say what is the meaning of 
'M.' in the 'N. or M.' which is given as the answer 
to the first question in the Catechism. The usual 
explanation is that 'M.' is for 'NN.' and that 'N. or 
M.' means 'Name or Names'. But when the Cate- 
chism was written very few persons, if any, had 
more than one baptismal name; and in fact the use 
of 'middle names' was very infrequent until well into 
the nineteenth century, as will be evident if one will 
think of the names of the signers of the Declaration 
of Independence or of men prominent in the early 
history of the Republic. Bishop Charles Words- 
worth thought that 'N.' was meant for boys and *M.' 
for girls, and that the letters stand for the typical 
names of Nicholas and Mary. The fact that in the 
Marriage Service 'M.' is used for the bridegroom 
and 'N.' for the bride is no objection to this; for 
in the old Books *N.' is used for both, and it is still 
the correct reading for both in the English Book. 
Our Book has 'M.' for the bridegroom by "corrupt 
following" of a false reading. 

* It may be noted as a matter of curiosity, that our Catechism 
was printed in a Latin version, with the quantity of vowels 
marked and the rules of prosody prefixed, in Philadelphia, by 
Lydia R. Bailey ; what seems to be the second edition bears the 
date of 1820. 



An Addition to the Catechism, 

AS Agreed to by the Lower House of the 

Convocation of Canterbury 

Q. What meanest thou by the Church ? 

A. I mean the Body of which Jesus Christ is the Head, and 
of which I was made a member in my Baptism. 

Q. How is the Church described in the Creeds? 

A. It is described as One, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic, 

Q. What meanest thou by each of these words? 

A. I mean that the Church is One, as being One Body under 
the One Head ; Holy, because the Holy Spirit dwells in it, and 
sanctifies its members ; Catholic, because it is for all nations 
and for all times ; and Apostolic, because it continues sted- 
fastly in the Apostles' doctrine and fellowship. 

Q. We learn from the Holy Scripture that in the Church the 
evil are mingled with the good. Will it always be so ? 

A. No ; when our Lord comes again He will cast the evil 
out of His Kingdom ; will make His faithful servants perfect 
both in body and soul ; and will present His whole Church to 
Himself without spot and blameless. 

Q. What is the office and work of the Church on earth ? 

A. The office and work of the Church on earth is to main- 
tain and teach everywhere the true faith of Christ, and to be 
His instrument for conveying grace to men, by the power of 
the Holy Ghost. 

Q. How did our Lord provide for the government and con- 
tinuance of the Church? 

A. He gave authority to His Apostles to rule the Church, to 
minister His Word and Sacraments, and to ordain faithful men 
for the continuance of this ministry until His coming again. 


Q. What orders of ministers have there been in the Church 
from the Apostles' time ? 

A. Bishops, Priests, and Deacons. 

Q. What is the office of a Bishop ? 

A. The office of a Bishop is to be a chief pastor and 
ruler of the Church ; to confer Holy Orders ; to administer 
Confirmation ; and to take chief part in the ministry of the 
Word and Sacraments. 

Q. What is the office of a Priest ? 

A. The office of a Priest is to preach the Word of God ; to 
baptize ; to celebrate the Holy Communion ; to pronounce 
Absolution and Blessing in God's Name ; and to feed the flock 
committed by the Bishop to his charge. 

Q. What is the office of a Deacon? 

A. The office of a Deacon is to assist the Priest in divine 
service, and especially at the Holy Communion ; to baptize in- 
fants in the absence of the Priest ; to catechise ; to preach, if 
authorized by the Bishop ; and to search for the sick and the 

Q. What is required of members of the Church ? 

A. To endeavour, by God's help, to fulfil their baptismal 
vows ; to make full use of the means of grace ; to remain sted- 
fast in the communion of the Church ; and to forward the work 
of the Church at home and abroad. 

Q. Why is it our duty to belong to the Church of England ? 

A. Because the Church of England has inherited and re- 
tains the doctrine and ministry of the One Catholic and Apos- 
tolic Church, and is that part of the Church which has been 
settled from early times in our country. 



The version of the Ten Commandments in the Catechism, 
since 1552 the same as that at the beginning of the Commun- 
ion Service (except in the Preface), is not taken from any 
translation of the Bible, but was made for the Prayer Book. 
In 1549 there was no Preface ('I am the Lord thy God', etc.), 
and all the longer Commandments were given in an abbre- 
viated form, the fourth, for instance, being only 'Remember 
that thou keep holy the Sabbath day.' In 1552, the words 'The 
same which God spake in the xx. chapter of Exodus saying', 
with the full Preface, were prefixed, and ' I.' was placed before 
the first Commandment ; while in the Communion Service an 
abbreviated form of the introductory words was given as a 
part of the first Commandment, and thus it stands to this day ; 
' God spake these words, and said : I am the Lord thy God ; 
thou shalt have none other gods but me.' The Catechism's 
division of the Commandments was also, it is believed, some- 
thing new in English. The Roman Catholics and the Luther- 
ans, following St. Augustine, place the Preface apart, make the 
prohibition of other gods and of idols the first Commandment, 
that of taking the Lord's name in vain the second, and so on, 
dividing at last what we call the tenth Commandment into two ; 
only the Roman Cathohcs make the prohibition of coveting 
one's neighbour's wife, and the Lutherans that of coveting 
his house, the ninth Commandment. The present Hebrew 
Bibles make the Preface with our first and second Command- 
ments the first 'Word' — for in the original they are literally 
God's 'Words', not 'Commandments' — and then follow the 
scheme just mentioned, Deuteronomy placing the wife apart 
and Exodus the house. The Jewish Talmud makes the Preface 
the first ' Word ', puts our first and second Commandments to- 
gether for the second, and then has the numbering which we 
follow. The order of the Catechism, which places the Preface 
by itself, and makes the prohibition of other gods the first 
Commandment, is that of the Greek Church and of the Swiss 
Reformers, and is believed to be that of the ancient Jewish au- 


thorities. It is well to note how here, as elsewhere, our re- 
formers passed over the traditional Latin form or use in which 
they had been instructed and reverted to the Greek as signify- 
ing the older learning. 


White (Bishop William), Lectures on the Catechism of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church. 

Wordsworth (Bishop Charles), Catechesis. 

Robinson (Arthur W.), The Church Catechism Explained. 
An excellent handbook. 

Newbolt (W. C. E.), The Church Catechism, the Christian's 
Manual (in Oxford Library of Practical Theology). A full 
devotional and practical exposition. 

Ken (Bishop Thomas), The Practice of Divine Love, being 
an Exposition of the Church Catechism. Devotional, in the 
form of prayers. 

In Marshall's (C. and W. W.) volume on the Latin Prayer 
Book of Charles II, is a reprint and translation of the Catechism 
therein contained, with full notes. 


CONFIRMATION, or the laying-on of the 
hands of Apostles or Bishops (or in some cases 
of men authorized by them) upon those who have 
been baptized, with the prayer that they may 
receive the Holy Spirit, has been observed in the 
Church from the very earliest times, although it has 
been, as one has said, with "almost every possible 
variety of practice, belief, and even terminology." 
Very soon after the Church had begun its work, St. 
Peter and St. John were sent from Jerusalem to lay 
hands on those whom Philip the Deacon had baptized 
at Samaria; and those on whom they laid hands 
received the Holy Spirit (irvev^ia dyiov, Acts viii. 14- 
19). Some years later, St. Paul laid hands on some 
who had just been baptized at Ephesus, and the 
Holy Spirit (to Trvevfia to dyiov, Acts xix. 1-6) came 
upon them. It does not seem unreasonable, in the 
light of these passages, in which there is no sugges- 
tion of anything unusual, but rather the reverse, to 
suggest that when St. Paul went through Syria and 
Cilicia (Acts xv. 41) or through the Galatian country 
and Phrygia (xviii. 23) 'strengthening' the churches 
and all the disciples, one purpose was that he might 
lay hands on those who had 'only been baptized' ; 
although to translate or'qpi^oDv in these passages by 


'confirming' in our sense of the word would not be 
justified. And again, when he writes to the Romans 
(i. ii) that he is longing to come to them that he may 
impart to them 'some spiritual gift' that they may be 
'strengthened' (tW rt neraSco ')(apLa^ji.a vfilv TrvevfiaTi- 
Kov eh TO crTripL'x^dfjvaL vyiai), it is not unreason- 
able to think that he had in mind that at Rome, 
where no Apostle had been as yet, the baptized con- 
verts had not received the benefit of laying-on of 
hands. At a considerably later day, the author of 
the Epistle to the Hebrews names as a part of the 
'foundation' or 'the word of the beginning', and in 
close connection wirh 'baptisms', 'laying-on of 
hands', as something which belongs to all Christian 
men at the beginning of their discipleship. 

Something has been said (see page 210) as to the 
use of the words 'unction' and 'seal' in possible con- 
nection with baptism ; it may well be that they refer 
rather to the laying-on of hands than to the pouring 
of water, to the latter rather than to the earlier part 
of what was then considered as normally one rite. 
Thus we can well read 2 Corinthians i. 21, 22: "He 
who is making us firm (0 ^ejSaiwv) .... and did 
anoint us is God, who also did set a seal on us and 
give us the earnest of the Spirit" ; and Ephesians i, 
13: "When ye also became believers in him, ye were 
sealed by the Holy Spirit of his promise, who is an 
earnest of our inheritance." In fact, when we see 
how strongly the post-apostolic Christian writers 
spoke of the gift of the Spirit through the laying-on 


of hands, and feel sure that they learned of its im- 
portance more or less directly from the Apostles, we 
are justified in applying many such passages to the 
gifts bestowed by the sacramental ordinance which 
we call Confirmation. From the time of Tertullian 
(about 200) there is no lack of evidence as to the 
Church's belief and practice in the matter. 

The Latin confirmatio translates the Greek 
^€^aCa)(n<i, and in the Apostolic Constitutions of 
the fourth century the laying-on of hands is called 
fie^aia)ai<i r?}? 6fjioXoyia<;, 'the confirming of the con- 
fession', meaning God's confirming of our confes- 
sion; and co7ifir7natio has long been the name 
which this ordinance has borne in the West. The 
English word 'confirmation' (in this sense) is traced 
back to the beginning of the fourteenth century ; an 
old formula of that time reads: "The bisschop 
these wordes seth, Ich signi thee with signe of crosse, 
And with the creme of hele [the chrism of health, that 
is salvation] confermi." If we remember that 'com- 
fort' is literally almost the same word as 'confirm', 
we shall see that to our forefathers 'the Holy Ghost 
the Comforter' would often suggest 'the Holy Ghost 
the Confirmer', and the reverse. 

As was the case with Baptism, so also in Con- 
firmation, the service was originally very simple, 
having in it little if anything more than prayer and 
the laying-on of hands; and in contrast with Bap- 
tism, the ceremonies attendant on Confirmation have 
remained few and simple. The service in the Prayer 


Book of 1549 closely followed the lines of the Latin 
form then in use, with the important exception that 
the laying-on of the Bishop's hand was expressly 
provided for and that he was not instructed to use 
chrism in making the sign of the Cross. The service 
began with "Our help is in the name of the Lord", 
along with the other versicles which we retain; then 
followed the ancient prayer for the seven-fold gifts of 
the Spirit (it dates back at least to the beginning of 
the eighth century), followed by this, with allusion 
to 'sealing' and 'anointing': "Sign them, O Lord, 
and mark them to be thine for ever, by the virtue of 
thy holy cross and passion. Confirm and strengthen 
them with the inward unction of thy Holy Ghost, 
mercifully unto everlasting life." The Bishop then 
made a Cross on the child's forehead and laid his 
hand on the head, giving the child's name and say- 
ing, "I sign thee with the sign of the Cross and lay 
my hand upon thee; in the Name", — etc. Then 
followed the prayer for the confirmed still in use, 
taken from a long prayer of Archbishop Hermann, 
and the blessing. It is quite evident that in this 
case, as in others. Archbishop Cranmer and the 
others were looking back to the New Testament and 
providing carefully that there should be no doubt 
that the essential act of the service should be that on 
which the inspired writers laid stress. Probably the 
Roman Bishops in making with their thumbs the 
sign of the Cross with chrism on the foreheads of 
the candidates kneeling before them, did lay on the 


hand, as it is said that some if not most of them do 
to-day, though the rubric in most places does not 
require it; but it was unscriptural to frame a service 
for Confirmation with no mention of the laying-on of 
the Bishop's hand. It was left for the American 
Church in the Book of 1790 to make another change 
for complete conformity to the Scripture, and direct 
the Bishop to lay his 'hands' upon every candidate 
severally. The plural is always U3cd in the New 

In 1552, the sign of the Cross and all reference to 
it was omitted, and the present prayer at the laying- 
on of the hand or of hands, 'Defend, O Lord', was 
provided. 'Defender' comes near to a translation 
from TrapaKXrjTO'i, in English 'Paraclete', a title of 
the Holy Spirit, which following Wycliffe we gen- 
erally translate by 'Comforter' in the sense of 
'Strengthener', but the word 'defend' is not ordina- 
rily used in that sense; and few of us remember 
that God's 'heavenly grace' means His Holy Spirit. 

In 1662, the Preface, which had been before that 
time a rubric, was made part of the service, and the 
ratification of the baptismal vows was introduced. 
The use of 'confirm' in both the Preface and the 
question has led many to think that this 'confirma- 
tion' is that which gives name to the service — a 
mistake which needs to be carefully corrected in the 
minds of candidates who are brought, or are coming, 
"to the Bishop to be confirmed by him." The Lord's 
Prayer and the Collect before the Blessing were also 


inserted at that time. The American Church, in the 
Book of 1892, made the reading of the Preface dis- 
cretionary, introduced a presentation of the candi- 
dates, and also provided, but for discretionary use, a 
Lesson from Acts viii. 

The venerable Prayer of Confirmation, in its refer- 
ence to the regeneration and forgiveness of the can- 
didates — words which must refer to the time of their 
baptism — shows that it was composed when confirma- 
tion followed close upon the sacrament of baptism. 
Of the seven gifts of the Spirit, six are mentioned 
in the Hebrew and the English of Isaiah xi. 2, and 
all seven in the ancient Greek translation known as 
the Septuagint; there is good reason for believing 
that all were originally in the Hebrew text. The 
first two are intellectual gifts, the second two are 
moral, the third two are devotional; the last is the 
key-stone which binds all together in the life. 

In the Roman use, in which confirmation is ad- 
ministered by Bishops and sometimes by abbots or 
priests with special licence, the officiant says the 
ancient prayer while he holds his arms outstretched 
over the candidates; he then signs each on the fore- 
head with chrism, generally at the same time (as has 
been said above) laying his hand upon the head; and 
then gives each a light touch or blow on the cheek, 
reminding him to bear patiently the reproach of 
Christ; the confirmation of infants is not practised. 
In the Eastern use, the priest who baptizes an infant 
immediately anoints him with chrism blessed by the 


Bishop, and this is considered a sufficient laying-on 
of hands; here the confirmation of adults is un- 
known. A form of confirmation is also retained by 
the Lutherans and others. 

One of the rubrics at the end of the service 
reminds us that those confirmed should be urgently 
moved to avail themselves without delay of their 
privilege of receiving the Lord's Supper. In this 
connection it may be well to refer to the strange 
custom in the Church of Rome that children should 
receive their first communion before confirmation; 
and to call attention to a letter of the late Pope 
addressed to the Bishop of Marseilles in 1897, 
declaring that this custom is "not in accordance, 
either with the ancient and constant institution 
of the Church or with the good of the faithful", and 
commending the Bishop for changing it.* 

The form of the other rubric in 1549 was, "And 
there shall none be admitted to the Holy Communion, 
until such time as he be confirmed"; from 1552 to 
1662 it read, "And there shall none be admitted to 
the Holy Communion, until such time as he can 
say the Catechism and be confirmed." In 1662, it 
was put into the form which it has now in both the 
English Book and our own : "And there shall none be 
admitted to the Holy Communion until such time as 
he be confirmed, or be ready and desirous to be con- 
firmed." These last words were inserted, without 

^ Quoted by Bishop Hall, ' Confirmation', pp. 94, 95. 


doubt, at the time of the Restoration, in conse- 
quence of the suspension of the use of the Prayer 
Book for fifteen years, to allow the reception of the 
Holy Communion by those who coud not be con- 
firmed until a general visitation by the Bishops for 
that purpose should be held ; they also served for the 
case of Churchmen in these colonies, who were left 
by the Church of England for a hundred and seventy 
years without the ministration of Bishops. The 
general meaning of the rubric is clear. It is not so 
clear whether it was intended to apply to the case of 
what was called in England 'occasional conformity', 
that is to say, the case of habitual non-conformists 
communicating occasionally in the established 
Church; historically, it is certain that it has not been 
always so applied. 


Hall (Bishop A. C. A.), Confirmation (in Oxford Library of 
Practical Theology). 

Mason (A. J.), The Relation of Confirmation to Baptism. A 
book of great learning. 

Wirgman (A. T.),The Doctrine of Confirmation considered 
in relation to Holy Baptism. Written in reply to Dr. Mason's 

Chase (Bishop F. H.), Confirmation in the Apostolic Age. 


WE learn nothing from the New Testament as 
to any distinctively Christian form or cere- 
mony in Marriage. The ordinance was not of Chris- 
tian origin, and its essence was recognized as con- 
sisting in the consent of the parties, under such 
restrictions as were placed by the law of nature or 
by laws and customs of the place in which they 
lived. It appears that Christians in different parts 
of the world were married as others were, only being 
careful to use no idolatrous or unworthy ceremonies, 
and to ask for the blessing of the Bishop or priest. 

As far back as we are able to trace marriage cus- 
toms, we find that those of the Greeks and Romans 
differed in principle from those of the Hebrews, 
with which latter those of the Germans were partly 
in accord. The theory of the former — the fact in 
early days — was that the man stole the woman from 
her father's house and took with her what else he 
could get; in classic times the bride was carried 
veiled from her father's to the husband's home, lifted 
over the threshold, and acknowledged by the hus- 
band in some such words as ' Ubi ego Gains, tu Gaia' ; 
and she brought from her father her dowry, as is 
still the custom in Latin countries. Among the 
Semitic races, as also among the Teutonic, the ancient 


practice must have been that the man bought his 
wife from her father, as may be seen from the story 
of the betrothal of Rebekah or the marriage of Leah 
and Rachel, or may be read in the 'Germania* of 
Tacitus, who tells of the gifts which the husband 
brought to the wife, and of the assembling of the 
parents and relatives to inspect the presents — a cus- 
tom which remans with us to this day. 'Dower' 
('endowment'), the wife's right in her husband's 
property, is matter of Teutonic law; 'dowry', the 
wife's contribution to the husband's estate, is matter 
of Roman law. 

We read in early Christian times of the white 
dress of the bride, of the veil or canopy held over 
the parties, of the joining of hands, the kiss of peace, 
and the gift of a ring. Also — after it ceased to be 
considered pagan — the custom of crowning both 
bride and bridegroom with crowns of precious metal 
or flowers or leaves was permitted ; and this remains 
in the East to-day as an important part of the mar- 
riage rite. There were two ceremonies at a greater 
or less interval of time, in each of which words of 
pledge were spoken by both parties in the presence 
of witnesses — the betrothals and the nuptials. The 
ring given and received, if we follow Tacitus, was 
a symbol of subjection, as if it were a link of a 
chain; in his day the German 'braves' wore iron rings, 
as a badge of inferiority, until they had killed their 
man. But Clement of Alexandria makes it a symbol 
of equality and trust ; the bridegroom gives the bride 


a gold ring, says he, "not for ornament, but that she 
may with it seal up what has to be kept safe, as the 
care of keeping the house belongs to her." Perhaps 
there were different origins of the custom among 
different nations. 

Part, at least, of the formula for betrothal and 
marriage must have been, as they are, in the ver- 
nacular, while in Western Europe the whole of other 
services was and is in Latin. As a consequence, 
the marriage service of the Prayer Book has kept 
antique forms of words, though some have been 
dropped and some modernized. The English Book 
has omitted 'spousage', 'for fairer for fouler' (or like 
words), and has changed 'till death us depart' to 'till 
death us do part' ; and our Book has omitted 'with my 
body I thee worship', which was the man's acknowl- 
edgment of the honor due to the wife, as correlative 
to her promise to obey him; but we still have 'I 
plight thee, I give thee, my troth', 'allege' meaning 
'plead' in court, 'endow' in its sense of granting 
legal rights in property, 'pronounce' in the sense of 
'proclaim'. The English service follows the Sarum 
Use pretty closely, enlarging the opening exhortation 
with an 'excursus' on the purposes of the ordinance, 
prescribing the joining of hands with the proclama- 
tion of marriage, and after Introit and Collect pro- 
viding an address to be read 'if there be no sermon'. 
Until 1662, the last rubric ordered that "The new- 
married persons, the same day of their marriage, must 
receive the Holy Communion"; it has been changed 


to read that "It is convenient [that is, seemly] that 
the new-married persons should receive the Holy 
Communion at the time of their marriage or the first 
opportunity after their marriage." 

In our American Book, the service has been much 
shortened from the English. A part of what was 
left out of the opening exhortation was restored in 
1892, but it is still shorter and better than the Eng- 
lish; and everything after the first blessing — in- 
troit, prayers, and sermon (which makes the service, 
as Captain Cuttle said, end with 'amazement') — 
was not taken into our Book. But the service still 
remains a combination of that for the espousals and 
that for the nuptials. The dividing-point is at the 
question, 'Who giveth this woman V when the father 
puts his daughter into the hands of the Church, re- 
linquishing his ^patria potestas\ that she may be 
given to her husband. This 'first service' was of old 
said at the entrance of the church, as Chaucer tells 
us of the Wife of Bath: "Housbondes at chirche- 
dore she hadde fyve" ; and it is now often said at the 
entrance to the choir or at the foot of the chancel- 
steps, which place indeed may be meant in the 
rubric by 'the body of the Church'.^ In that case, 
after the betrothal, the brdegroom leads the bride to 
the rail of the sanctuary for the 'second service'. 

The minister should be quite sure that he under- 

'See note as to the place of the Lord's Table, page 167. It 
may be argued that our Book expects the whole service to be in 
' the body of the Church '. 


Stands the law of the State in which he lives, or in 
which he officiates, in regard to marriage, and 
should conform strictly to it, as well as to the 
Canon of the Church (Canon 39) which deals with the 
subject; and he should also be careful to return to 
the State or town authorities the evidence that he 
has solemnized the marriage, and to make full entry 
of it in the proper Parish Register. It is well to 
remember that the publication of banns is no longer 
required with us; and that no clergyman is obliged 
by civil or ecclesiastical law to perform any mar- 
riage, so that it is sometimes his duty to ask ques- 
tions which are not answered in the licence that is 
brought to him. The English Book requires all 
marriages to be in a church; our Book permits them 
in 'some proper house' ; both Books provide for 
witnesses by the requirement that the parties come 
'with their friends and neighbours'. Untold trouble 
would be prevented if the clergy, following at least 
the spirit of this requirement, would make sure that 
the parties presenting themselves are not attempting 
to escape from the presence of those who ought 
naturally to be asked to signify their assent. 

The man stands on the right of the woman during 
the service, but when the service is ended he 'wor- 
ships' her by giving her the place at his right (see 
Psalm xlv. 10 ). The exhortation refers to the insti- 
tution of marriage in Eden, and to its mystical 
meaning, to Christ's blessing of marriage at Cana, 
and to the commendation of it in the Epistle to the 


Hebrews (here, as was long the belief, attributed to 
St. Paul), and calls for objections from the congre- 
gation. The parties are then solemnly charged not 
to proceed in the service, making as it does a life- 
long change in their positions before God and man, 
if they know of any impediment. 'Lawfully' must 
apply to the law of God as well as that of the State ; 
'lawful', at the end, under present circumstances, 
seems to refer only to the law of God. 'Allow', as in 
the baptismal service (see page 218), means 'approve'. 
Probably no clergyman with us would be ready to 
proceed with a service as to the legality of which he 
had doubts, on the surety of anyone that if he was 
acting illegally he should be 'indemnified', that is 
that his surety would bear the amount of fine and 
costs to which he might be subjected in case of con- 
viction ; but the rubric frees him from ecclesiastical 
censure if he wishes to do so. An impediment 
'alleged' is an impediment formally pleaded, as in 
court. If an objection is made, which the clergy- 
man knows to be groundless or as to the ground- 
lessness of which he is reasonably satisfied, he is to 
proceed. 'M.' in this service, as was noted a few 
pages back, is a printer's change for the 'N.' which 
should designate both the man and the woman. The 
statement that 'M.' and 'N.' stand for maritus and 
nympka, husband and bride, is absurd. The letter 
stands for the baptismal name ; but the best author- 
ity is for using only so much of the baptismal name 
as is commonly employed ; t e late Queen of Eng- 


land and her consort were married as Victoria and 

The parties having, in answer to questions, ex- 
pressed their desire to marry each other, and the 
father (or friend representing him or his authority) 
having through the priest relinquished to the bride- 
groom his authority over the bride, they now proceed 
to marry each other by the giving of 'troth' (that is 
'truth'), the minister causing each to take the 
other's hand and dictating the proper form of words.* 
The manner of giving the ring is confused in our 
Book by the omission of an obsolete requirement 
from the rubric/ In the English Book it reads: "The 
man shall give unto the woman a ring, laying the 
same upon the book, with the accustomed duty to 
the priest and clerk. And the minister taking the 
ring shall deliver it unto the man", etc. That is to 
say, the man gives the ring to the woman by first 
laying it on the clergyman's book that it may have 

^Some of the ancient forms, with quaint phraseology, are 
given in Bhint ; in one of them the bride promises to be 
'bonour [or 'bonere'] and buxum'; where 'bonour' is for 
' bon ' or ' bonny ', meaning ' good ', ' gentle ', and ' buxom ' is 
'bow-som', that is, 'obedient', 'complaisant', from which it 
came to mean ' good-natured ' and then ' healthy '. An old 
writer says that " God took upon him humble buxomnesse " ; 
and the Golden Litany prays Christ to have mercy on us by His 
'infinite buxomnes'. 

'We read occasionally of a service with two rings, which 
seems abnormal. But Archbishop Hermann provided for the 
use of two rings, if the parties could afford them ; and the 
(modern) Old Catholics use two rings. 


his blessing, or at least that the act may have his 
sanction, and then receiving it from the clergyman 
to be put upon the woman's hand. To 'pass the ring 
around', as the saying is, is not rubrical, nor has it 
any meaning.* The rubric of 1549 read: "The man 
shall give unto the woman a ring, and other tokens 
of spousage, as gold and silver, laying the same upon 
the book", etc., and the form at giving the ring was: 
"With this ring I thee wed; this gold and silver I 
thee give;' with my body I thee worship; and with 
all my worldly goods I thee endow." 

The parties having thus, strictly speaking, mar- 
ried themselves under the protection of the Church, 
the minister bids the congregation to prayer. The 
faithful living together of Isaac and Rebecca must 
refer to marital faithfulness; Isaac was almost, if not 
quite, the only one of the eminent men of the Old 
Testament of whom we know that had but one 
wife. The formal recognition of the marriage is 

* Mr. Pullan gives us an interesting note (pp. 222, 223) on 
the wedding ring. The mediaeval English custom, he says, 
was to put it on the fourth finger of the right hand, and the 
English Roman Catholics followed this custom till the middle 
of the eighteenth century. There is in a Sarum rubric an ex- 
planation that the fourth finger is the ring-finger because a vein 
runs from it to the heart. 

* This was probably the pledge of ' endowment ' or of ' dower ', 
into the actual use of which the wife did not come until her 
husband's death. Some older forms had ' all my worldly cathel ' 
or ' cattle ', that is, ' chattels .' Compare the Latin ptcnnia 
from peats, a sheep. 


made by joining the hands of the parties, and the 
formal proclamation (from Hermann's 'Consultation') 
follows, with a closing benediction. As has been 
suggested more than once, the clergyman pronounces 
or publishes that the parties have been duly married, 
and the service which the Church performs is the 
"Solemnization of Matrimony."' The minister's 
kissing the bride at the close of the ceremony was 
probably the last survival of the kiss of peace at the 
beginning of the Communion Office; formerly, he 
kissed the bridegroom, and the bridegroom then 
kissed the bride. 

The bridegroom and the bride should kneel for the 
final blessing; all others, including their immediate 
attendants, should stand during the whole service. 

The question is asked, whether a deacon may read 
the marriage service. The law of the land recog- 
nizes the deacons of our Church as 'Ministers of the 
Gospel', and permits them to marry; and our service 
uses the word 'Minister' throughout, and that inten- 
tionally, as the English Book has confusedly 'Priest', 
'Curate', and 'Minister'. But the Benediction is 
priestly, and evidently ought not to be said by a 
deacon. It would seem, therefore, that a deacon 
may use the marriage service, without the Bene- 
diction, in any place where he has the Bishop's or 
priest's authority to minister. 

* Shakespeare makes the priest say : "And all the ceremony 
of this compact, Seal'd in my function, by my testimony.' 


It is sometimes said that 'man and wife' in the 
service should be 'husband and wife'. But 'man' in 
old English often meant 'husband', as the Latin 
vir and the Greek avr]p\ and 'wife' often meant a 
woman, whether married or not, as still in 'fishwife', 
'housewife', 'midwife'. In fact the word 'woman' 
is 'wiman', 'wifman', wifeman' (the sound of 'i' is 
still preserved in the plural, though spelled 'women'). 
'Man and wife' is the old monosyllabic way of put- 
ting what might be 'husband and woman', 'husband 
and wife', or 'man and woman' ; and it is the more 
common legal form of words. 

During the late revision of our Prayer Book the following was 
proposed but not adopted for use if the Holy Communion were 
celebrated at the time of a marriage : — 

Introit; Psalm cxxviii. [The English Book gives as an 
alternative Psalm Ixvii.] 

The Collect: Almighty and merciful God, who by thy power 
didst create our first parents and by thy consecration didst knit 
them together in holy wedlock ; Vouchsafe to send thy blessing 
upon all who are joined together in thy holy Name, and so fill 
them with thy grace, that obeying thy will, and continuing 
always in safety under thy protection, they may abide in thy 
love unto their lives' end ; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen. 

The Epistle : Ephesians v. 22-33. 

The Gospel : St. John ii. i-ii. 


Bingham (J. F.), Christian Marriage; The Ceremony, His- 
tory and Significance. 

Evans (Hugh Davey), The Christian Doctrine of Marriage. 

Fulton (John) , The Laws of Marriage. 

Howard (G. E.), The History of Matrimonial Institutions; 
3 vols. 


THE Visiting of the Sick is a duty of natural 
piety; but, like other such duties, it is made a 
Christian duty by the example and the words of our 
Lord, and it becomes a special duty of the Christian 
minister. The only Scriptural suggestion of a cere- 
mony in connection with such visitation is the 
anointing and laying-on of hands in the case of the 
Apostles (St. Mark vi. 13, xvi. 18) and the prayer 
and anointing by the leaders ('presbyters') of which 
St. James writes (St. James v. 14, 15). At a com- 
paratively early date we find provision for prayers 
for a sick man, and in mediaeval times the Sarum 
Manual provided an elaborate office for a formal visi- 
tation of the sick on which our office is based, and 
from which, indeed, it is in considerable part taken. 
Thus the 'salutation' of the house, commanded by 
the Lord Himself (St. Luke x. 5; St. Matthew x. 12), 
was said at the entrance, the antiphon 'Remember 
not, Lord', was said with the Penitential Psalms 
which the priest repeated on his way to the house; 
in the sick man's room were said the Kyrie, Lord's 
Prayer, and versicles, with nine prayers, two of 
which we retain; then followed an exhortation to 
patience and faith, with an examination of the faith 
of the sick man based on the Creed, to charity and 


hope, to contrition and repentance, and to the giving 
of alms. After his confession of sin, the priest gave 
him absolution with the ancient words of the prayer 
for reconciliation beginning in our Book 'O most 
merciful God'. If Extreme Unction was adminis- 
tered. Psalm Ixxi was said, with the antiphon 'O 
Saviour of the world', and the anointing was per- 
formed with prayers; and then the Holy Communion 
was administered to the sick man, if it was possible. 
It is evident from this outline of the ancient ser- 
vice, as indeed from the study of the form which it 
has taken in our own, that the former part was in- 
tended for a case of serious sickness, and the latter 
part for a case of impending death. Indeed it would 
almost seem to assume that this would be the only 
time in which the minister could be with the sick 
person in order to prepare him for the end of his 
earthly life. Yet the second prayer and the exhorta- 
tion express a hope of recovery and of a benefit to be 
derived in this life from God's fatherly visitation. 
It must have been in the earlier times, as it is 
to-day, that the Church meant this office to be in 
ordinary cases rather a 'directory' than a prescribed 
office (as indeed appears in the case of the exhorta- 
tion from the words 'or other like'); and it does give 
admirable instruction as to the preparation which 
any man should be called upon to take for death, 
and an admirable example of the serious though 
really hopeful way in which the Church bids her 
members look on faith and duty and our responsi- 


bility for both, as we pass through life as well as in 
the day of judgment. The faithful and devout 
clergyman will read other passages of Scripture, 
speak of divers matters in different strains, and use^ 
prayers from other parts of the Prayer Book or from 
other sources ; but he will find that he rarely passes 
far from the suggestions of this service. And both 
the visitor and the visited will do well to read it 
from time to time, and to meditate upon it; in fact, 
it has many wholesome lessons for the well. 

The interrogative Creed, which in our Book 
stands only here, differs in its wording in several 
places (as already noted) from that in Morning and 
Evening Prayer. Ordinarily, the clergyman will ask 
the sick man to say the Creed with him in some 

The long rubric after the Creed contains many 
useful suggestions. The laws of our States as to the 
inheritance of property are such that there is not 
always the same reason as formerly for urging all 
persons to make their wills, and there are many cases 
in which it would be an impertinence to do this.' 
But, on the other hand, there are many cases in 
which a clergyman, in confidential conversation with 
persons, may well speak with them of the matter and 
urge its importance. While it is the duty of the 
minister not to interfere with the lawyer in a matter 

^ It should be remembered that, until quite modern times, 
matters testamentary came under the jurisdiction of the ecclesi- 
astical courts. 


which belongs distinctly and professionally to the 
latter — as indeed he must not interfere with the 
physician in the physician's sphere of duty — it is well 
for him to know how to draw a simple will and to 
see that it is legally attested; but he should not, 
except under extraordinary circumstances, write for 
another person a will which contains a legacy to the 

The meaning of the rubric beginning 'The Exhor- 
tation before rehearsed' is that the minister may, as 
we say, 'have his talk' with the sick man, before he 
beigns the service of prayer with 'Remember not. 
Lord'; it seems to suggest that the exhortation 
and what goes with it may be confidential, while 
the family and others may be present at the 

The prayer 'O most merciful God', though called 
a 'Collect', is (as has been said) the ancient form of 
Reconciliation of a Penitent, and therefore really a 
solemn Absolution of the precatory kind.' It dates 
back to the Gelasian Sacramentary, and has been 
used for at least twelve centuries, though in 
mediaeval times an indicative form came to be used 
with it, or sometimes to displace it. It should be 
said only by a priest and by him standing. An 
absolution in the indicative form is placed before it 
in the English Book, with a rubric to the effect that 

' As to the three forms or kinds of absolution, see on pages 
75. 76. 



it shall be used, if the sick person humbly and 
heartily desire it, after he has made a special con- 
fession of some weighty matter with which he feels 
his conscience troubled ; and it is made the duty of 
the priest to move him to such confession if he is 
thus troubled. Our Prayer Book has lost nothing by 
omitting this mediaeval form and falling back upon 
what was for so long "the principal form of absolu- 
tion in the Western Church" (Frere's Procter), "used 
long before the other was introduced" (Blunt); and 
it must be remembered, besides, that it leads up to 
the final absolution in the Communion of the Sick. 

The Unction of the Sick, enjoined by St. James, 
was for recovery ; Extreme Unction (that is, the last 
or final unction) came in mediaeval times to be an 
anointing of the dying with a view of imparting 
spiritual grace. There is no allusion to any anoint- 
ing of the sick in ante-Nicene writers,' but the 
office-book of Bishop Serapion of Thmuis in Egypt 
(about the year 350) contains a 'prayer in regard to 
oil of the sick', which asks for healing and recovery. 
And after anointing came into use again, or at least 
became more common, there is no trace before the 
eighth century of sick people being anointed for the 
remission of their sins, or for the removal of the 
reliquicB of sin, or to impart to them grace en- 
abling them to die happily or courageously;* but in 

■''Warren, Liturgy of Ante-Nicene Church, pp. 161, 162. 
* Puller, Anointing of the Sick, p. 191. 


the ninth and tenth centuries unction came to be 
chiefly regarded as a preparation for death. 

In the Sarum Use, which was followed in the Book 
of 1549, it was not yet provided that the anointing 
should be given to none but the dying or that it 
should not be repeated, though no doubt it was often 
used as unction in extremis. The service in the 
first English Book (as already noted) was simple; 
the prayer did look forward with great hope to recov- 
ery, but it also seemed to teach that the use of this 
ordinance was for spiritual blessings, forgiveness and 
strength against temptation; the anointing was to be 
on the forehead and breast only, and not on all organs 
of sense as in the Roman Use. In 1552 all provision 
for unction was omitted, doubtless from the feeling 
that as practised it was a "corrupt following of the 
Apostles", and not the act of which St. James wrote. 
Whether the anointing of the sick with prayer for 
recovery may be used with the sanction of the 
Bishop as an extra-Prayer-Book service, is a question 
beyond the scope of this volume. In the Eastern 
Church, it may be added, the rite is practised in its 
primitive form, seven priests attending for its nor- 
mal ministration. 

Our Book has substituted Psalm cxxx, 'De pro- 
fundis', for the Psalm Ixxi of the old Unction and 
the present English Book; but we retain the beauti- 
ful antiphon, a benedictory prayer composed in 1549, 
and the Aaronic blessing (Numbers vi. 24), which 
was first placed here in 1662. 


Of the additional prayers, the first four are in the 
English Book, where they were added in 1662; the 
Commendatory Prayer, which has for almost every- 
one some tender associations, was shortened at the 
last American revision. The other three are pecu- 
liar to our Book; the first of these, 'O God, whose 
days are without end', is from Bishop Jeremy Taylor 
(who died in 1667), and is a fine example of his com- 
position. None of the others are in the best litur- 
gical style, though the next to the last is based on a 
prayer of Bishop Taylor's. 

For notes on the Communion of the Sick, see 
at the end of the Chapter on the Holy Communion, 
page 202. 


Cope (W. H.) and Stretton (Henry), Visitatio Infirmorum. 
Puller (F. W.), The Anointing of the Sick in Scripture and 


THE Burial of the Dead has always been con- 
sidered an act of natural religion, a 'corporal 
deed of mercy'. From the quiet and dignified bur- 
ial of Sarah (Genesis xxiii) to the ceremonious en- 
tombment of some of the kings (2 Chronicles xvi. 
14), and high priests {2 Chronicles xxiv. 15, 16), 
and from the dirge over Saul and Jonathan (2 
Samuel i. 17) to the lament for good King Josiah 
(2 Chronicles xxxv. 25), we read of funeral rites 
among the Jews of the older time. In the Gospels 
we read of but one funeral procession, that of the 
son of the widow of Nain, led by the mother, as was 
the custom in Galilee; and of but two burials, that 
of St. John Baptist and that of Lazarus (St. Mark 
vi. 29; St. John xi. 38), besides the burial of our 
Lord Himself, which has found mention in both our 
Creeds. The Jews made great wailing over their 
dead; and so did the Christians when they carried 
Stephen to his burial (Acts viii. 2); but soon we 
read of a quieter mourning by the bedside of 
Tabitha (Acts ix. 39). The Epistles and the Book 
of Revelation have many passages which tell of the 
blessedness of those who are sleeping in Christ. 

We know little of the ceremonies practised in the 
early Church at burials, other than those which were 


local customs, except that from an early time the 
Eucharist was celebrated with prayers, among which 
was the commendation of the departed soul to rest 
and peace. The body being carried to the church 
soon after death, and the burial, except in special 
cases, not being long deferred, it became a custom 
to say the night services with special psalms, anti- 
phons, and lessons, — as Vespers, Compline, and 
Matins (or Vigils) of the Dead. One of the psalms 
at Vespers was the Ii6th, the antiphon for which 
was the ninth verse, in our version *I will walk 
before the Lord in the land of the living', but in 
Latin 'Placebo Domino in regione vivorum ' ; from 
which the Vespers of the dead were known as 
Placebo. And one of the psalms at Matins was 
the 5th, with an antiphon taken from the eighth 
verse, where we read, 'Make thy way plain before 
my face', in Latin ' Dirige in conspectu tno viam 
meant ' ; and this gave to the Matins the name of 
Dirige, from which we get the word 'dirge'. 
Also, from the Officium or Introit in the service, 
^Requiem ceternam dona eis, Dornine, et lux per- 
petua luceat eis ', Mass for the Dead was called 

No serivce was in the first English Book changed 
as much from the corresponding Latin service as was 
that for burial. The old services had become very 
long and complicated, and the ancient prayers, 
which assumed that the faithful departed were in 
peace and asked that they might have rest in the 


land of the living and at the last the joys of the 
resurrection, had become prayers that they might be 
delivered from the pains of purgatory, which were 
described as identical with the pains of hell except 
in duration ; so that the reformers not only desired a 
briefer service, yet with longer reading of Scripture, 
but also felt the necessity of removing some of the 
prayers and also of modifying the phraseology of 
others which in themselves would not formerly have 
been thought objectionable. In 1549, there was a 
double service, as now, one to be said at the grave 
and one to be said either before or after the other in 
the church. They contained all that is in our 
present service, except that the psalms were differ- 
ent, with other prayers which were omitted in 1552 
from a fear of mediaeval petitions for the departed. 
Also in 1549 there was provision for the celebration 
of the Holy Communion, the Introit being Psalm 
xlii, the Collect being the prayer which now stands 
at the end of the service, 'O merciful God, the 
Father of our Lord Jesus Christ', with a somewhat 
different ending,^ the Epistle, i Thessalonians iv. 
13-18, and the Gospel, St. John vi. 35-41. Our ser- 
vice differs little from the English, except that the 
psalms have been abbreviated and the closing 
phrases of the committal and of the first prayer have 
been changed, the new wording being both in ex- 
cellent form and with good rhythm. 

* It still has in the English Book as a heading the words 
' The Collect '. 


The rubric at the beginning, excluding three 
classes of people from burial by this service, dates 
from 1662. Unbaptized adults have by their own 
decision never been admitted to membership in the 
Church, whereas of unbaptized infants it may be 
said that it has been the Church's wish to baptize 
them and that they have never refused it; excom- 
munication is not practised now, for suspension 
from the Holy Communion is not excommunication, 
and at the last revision of the Canons all provision 
for a possible "deprivation of all privileges of church 
membership" was removed from our legislation; and 
suicides die in the commission of an extreme crime 
against themselves. In this last case, the decision 
as to whether a person who has taken his own life 
has really and intentionally 'laid violent hands' upon 
himself, must (except in very extraordinary circum- 
stances) be left to the officials of the law, whose duty 
it is to make investigation and to publish what they 
find to be the facts of the case. 

But though a clergyman of the Church may not 
bury unbaptized adults or suicides with the Church's 
office, and may sometimes find it his duty to decline 
to use that office for others (as, for instance, for one 
who has died or been killed while committing some 
grievous crime), he is not debarred from reading 
passages of Scripture and prayers with the family of 
such an one in their home and at the grave. A suit- 
able psalm at such a time is the 51st or 143rd; and 
a suitable lesson may be taken from Jeremiah xxxi. 


or from some of the Lord's words of comfort in the 

The second rubric implies, as is ordinarily the 
case in England except in cities and large towns, 
that the church stands in the churchyard, and that, 
as was explicitly stated in the first Book, the ser- 
vice in the church may either precede or follow that 
at the grave. The latter may have been sometimes 
convenient or necessary in days when few but the 
rich were buried in coffins, and the bodies of the 
dead were ordinarily wrapped and tied in shrouds, per- 
haps covered with the parochial pall, which made all 
funerals externally alike, and thus carried on a bier. 
In either case the 'Sentences' — really anthems or 
antiphons — are normally to be begun at the church- 
yard gate and repeated by the minister as he goes 
'either into the church or towards the grave'. The 
exigencies of our cemeteries and of our funeral ar- 
rangements often require that the words be post- 
poned until the funeral company is ready to enter 
the church or is close to the grave. When the part 
of the service assigned to the church is said in the 
house, as must often be the case with us, these open- 
ing anthems should be reserved and read at the 
grave; when they have been said at entering the 
church, they should not be repeated in the burying- 

* A note may be made here as to prayers with the family at the 
home before the body is carried to the church. The service 
should be short, with one or two Psalms such as xxiii and cxxi, 


The three opening anthems are words respectively 
of faith, of hope, and of resignation. The first was 
in the old services the 'antiphon' to Benedictus, and 
the second a 'respond' at Matins; the third, really a 
double verse, was first provided in 1549. It is to be 
regretted that the first passage from Job is not 
abbreviated, as in the Latin; partly because the 
exact meaning of the middle phrase is very doubtful, 
and partly because the word 'worms* is not in the 
Hebrew at all; 'they destroy this body' is a way of 
saying 'this body be destroyed'. 

The portions of Psalms in our Book are not so long 
but that both may ordinarily be said, and that to the 
profit and comfort of those who are present at the ser- 
vice. If a distinction is made, Psalm xxxix is in 
some part suitable for a younger person, and Psalm 
xc for one of mature years; but the latter, 'a Prayer 
of Moses the man of God', hardly ought ever to be 
omitted. The Lesson deserves careful study, and 
reading which shows that it has been carefully 
studied. The service in church will ordinarily be 
ended (after a hymn, if it is convenient to have one) 
by the Creed — and that preferably the Apostles' 
Creed — and prayers, which should not be too many. 
The prayer for persons in affliction will certainly be 
used; at the funeral of a communicant, that at the 
end of the Visitation of the Sick, beginning 'O God, 

a short lesson such as Wisdom iii. 1-9 or i Thessalonians iv. 
13-18 or Revelation vii. 9-17, and two or three prayers either 
from the Prayer Book or from some good manual of devotion. 


whose days are without end'; the first and second of 
the additional prayers at the end of this service may 
be added; and a judicious selection can be made 
from the Collects for Easter (at the earlier Commun- 
ion), the fourth Sunday after Easter, the fourth 
Sunday after Trinity, All Saints' Day, the first 
Sunday in Advent, 'We humbly beseech thee', at the 
end of the Litany, and others; also, the Collect for 
the Day, unless it is manifestly inappropriate, may 
well be used. 

The verses from Job (xiv. i, 2) 'Man that is born 
of a woman', taken from the Vigils of the Dead, and 
the wonderful Sequence in three paragraphs, begin- 
ning Media vita ('In the midst of life we are in 
death'), were meant to be repeated while the attend- 
ants were making ready to lower the body (often 
coffinless) into the grave. If possible, they should 
be so repeated now, as the rubric directs, that the 
minds of the mourners may be drawn away from that 
on which their eyes cannot but be fixed to the great 
and eternal, though most solemn and awe-inspiring, 
truths which are declared in these words. Media 
vita, written as a 'Prose' or 'Sequence' to be said 
after the Epistle (see page 154), had been taken into 
the Sarum Breviary as an antiphon to Nunc Dimittis 
during part of Lent; it is only in the Anglican use 
that its words are read in the Burial Offios. They are 
wonderfully appropriate, having, as Blunt says, "a 
solemn magnificence, and at the same time a wailing 
prayerful ness, which make them unsurpassable by 


any analogous portion of any ritual whatever." And 
including, as they do, the words of the Greek Trisa- 
gion, 'Holy God, Holy Mighty One, Holy Undying 
One, have mercy on us* (see page 153), they carry our 
thoughts through all the range of worship and godly 
fear in the Christian Church. The composition of 
this Sequence is traditionally ascribed to Notker, a 
monk of St. Gall in Switzerland, who died in the year 
912, and in whom its thought is said to have been 
inspired as he watched men building a bridge over a 
deep gorge.' This tradition cannot be sustained;* 
but the words are none the less impressive, whatever 
were the circumstances under which they were 
moulded into their present form. In the Middle Ages 
this Sequence was constantly used ; it became a 
battle-hymn, and its use was believed to give super- 
natural powers; so that in 1316 a synod at Cologne 
forbade its use except on occasions especially ap- 
proved by the Bishop. 

The committal follows, in which the threefold 
casting of the earth, as is customary with the words 
'earth to earth, ashes to ashes, dust to dust', is to be 
considered the formal burial.* The rubric in the 
first Book instructed the priest to cast earth upon 
the body with the words of committal; in 1552 the 

'The commentators refer us to the verses of Shakespeare in- 
spired by the sight of samphire-gatherers on the cliff at Dover, 
in King Lear, iv. 6. 

* See Julian's Dictionary of Hymnology, sub voce. 

^ See the reference on page 210. 


present words 'by some standing by' were substi- 
tuted. It is probable that the priest began the 
burial as directed, and that others filled the grave 
while the following anthem was sung. That anthem, 
'I heard a voice', formerly the antiphon to Magnificat 
in the service for the dead, carries on the thoughts 
in the direction of the grand words of hope and 
assured victory with which the committal had ended.* 
The service closes with the Kyrie, the Lord's 
Prayer and one or both of two prayers, somewhat 
modified from their English form ; the former may 
well be kept for the burial of communicants. 

The three additional prayers were placed in our 
Book at the revision of 1892; the first and the second 
are modern; the third is taken from the commemora- 
tion of the faithful departed in the Communion 
Office of the first Book of Edward VI and the 
Scottish Office. The closing rubric explains itself; 
sometimes by reason of distance or of stress of 
weather all of the service, or all except the com- 
mittal, must be said in the church or in the house 
which serves as the church. The form of the com- 
mittal at sea is made very touching by the use of the 
words, 'The sea shall give up her dead'. 

In the process of our last revision, it was proposed 
to provide a special service for the burial of children, 
in the general form of the other service but with 

^In the Eastern Church Psalm xxiv. i is sung at the burial: 
" The earth is the Lord's, and all that therein is : the compass 
of the world, and they that dwell therein." 


different psalms and lessons and at least modified 
prayers. But the service prepared did not commend 
itself, and it was felt that all members of the Church, 
whatever their age, should have the same form of 
burial at the Church's hands, and that there is 
sufficient room for needed variations in the service 
with the family and in the prayers used after the 
Lesson.' The careful reader will see that the form 
of several phrases in the English Book was changed 
for our Book of 1790, in order that they might be 
suitable for as many persons as possible; and in this 
our Church was carrying out a principle adopted 
long before in England. At the time of death, the 
Church casts the mantle of her faith and hope and 
charity over all her members who have not utterly 
repudiated their membership, and leaves them in the 
hands of God against the day of His just and merci- 
ful judgment. 

'See Bp. Coxe's Christian Ballads, "Churchyards", fourth 


The Churching of Women 

THIS service of Thanksgiving — not of Puri- 
fication, in any strict sense, though it was so 
called in the Sarum Manual and the Book of 1549 — 
follows closely the simple service of former days. 
It was meant to lead up to the Holy Communion, 
and for that reason has no benedictory prayer at the 
end. 'Decently apparelled' meant that, in accord- 
ance with English custom, she should wear a veil.^ 
The 'convenient place' was defined in 1549 to be 
'nigh unto the quire door', and in 1552, 'nigh unto 
the place where the Table standeth' ; either the fald- 
stool or the chancel rail would seem suitable, in cases 
where the Ordinary has given no direction. The 
'hymn' or 'cento' from Psalm cxvi is, according to 
our rubric, to be said by the minister and the 
woman together, he leading her in the words of 
thanksgiving. It was an old custom that with her 
offerings the woman brougnt back to the church the 
chrisom put upon her child in baptism, so that after 
this it was no longer a 'chrisom child' (see page 213). 

*Wheatly, in loco, cites a cace in the reign of James I, in 
which a woman was excommunicated for contempt in refusing 
to wear a veil at her churching. 


The verb 'to church,' in the sense of bringing or 
conducting to a church, that one may receive its 
rites or enter (anew) into its worship, is of early use. 
It is applied in Scotland to a newly married couple on 
their first attendance in church after the wedding, and 
in England the formal attendance of judges at church 
on the first Sunday in term is called 'Churching the 
Judges'. It might have been noted before that Con- 
firmation was sometimes called 'bishoping'. 

Forms of Prayer to be Used at Sea 

These forms of supplemental devotion were com- 
posed for the Prayer Book of 1662, and are attributed 
to Dr. Robert Sanderson, Bishop of Lincoln, the 
author of a once famous volume of lectures on Con- 
science, who died in 1663. They displaced a Pres- 
byterian form of prayer for the Navy, set forth under 
the Long Parliament (1640-53). There are prayers 
for use in storm and before battle, and thanksgivings 
after the quieting of a tempest or the gaining of a 
victory ; but the compiler does not seem to have had 
in mind the possibilities of a defeat. During our 
Civil War, when there was need of special prayers 
for the Nation and for the army and navy serving in 
its defence, the phrases of these forms of prayer 
were largely used, and for this reason they are fixed 
in the minds of the older people in our congrega- 
tions. At the last revision of our Book, the order of 
the Psalms and Prayers was much improved. 

It may be noted as a liturgical curiosity, that 


when copies of the Prayer Book were printed in 
England for use in the Confederate States of 
America, they were to be printed from plates pre- 
pared for the Prayer Book of the Church in the United 
States of America, with the omission of the Ratifica- 
tion and the substitution of 'Confederate' for 'United' 
before the words 'States of America'. This substi- 
tution was made on the title-page and in the Prayer 
for the President and that for Congress; but either 
the editors or the printers forgot to make the change 
in the prayer for use on ships of war, so that this re- 
tained a petition that the men in service there might 
be a "safeguard unto the United States of America" ! 

The Visitation of Prisoners 
This office is not in the English Prayer Book, but 
was taken into ours from the Irish Book. It was 
agreed upon in the Synod of Ireland in 171 1, and 
ordered by the Council in 1714 to be printed and 
annexed to the Book of Common Prayer. It is 
framed on the model of the Visitation of the Sick, 
and calls for no special notes, except that the rubrics 
are wisely suggestive as to the duties of a priest in 
dealing with the conscience of a man who has been 
guilty of grievous sin. The Collect, Epistle, and 
Gospel are to be used in the case of ministration to 
a man under sentence of death. 

A note on the history of Thanksgiving-day, now 
by custom appointed annually on the last Thursday 


of November, will be found on page 60 of this 
volume. The service is taken from the Proposed 
Book of 1786, and is the only matter for which we 
are indebted to that Book, except the plan of the 
Table of Proper Lessons. The last three of the 
opening sentences are from the Fourth of July ser- 
vice in the Proposed Book; and the lessons were 
originally the Fourth of July Lessons. The anthem, 
or rather 'cento', in place of Venite is from Psalm 
cxlvii; it was formerly from the Bible Version, but 
was made to conform to the Prayer Book Version at 
the last revision, at which time also the special 
Thanksgiving was enlarged to include other na- 
tional blessings than those pertaining to the fruits of 
the earth. The minister may take one of the Selec- 
tion of Psalms, 'or some other Portion' at his dis- 
cretion ; if the latter clause implies any restriction, 
it may be taken to mean the part of the Psalter 
appointed for Morning or Evening Prayer on any 
day of the month. Permission is given here to sing 
the Selection or portion of the Psalms, as it was 
(curiously enough) in the Proposed Book. 

Family Prayers 

The Family Prayers, wisely placed in our Prayer 
Book of 1790, were composed by Edmund Gibson, 
Bishop of London (1720- 1748), and had been much 
used in the Colonies, over which indeed he held 
ecclesiastical jurisdiction by royal patent. They are 
said to have been based on prayers which Arch- 
bishop Tillotson drew up for the private use of King 
William IIL 


ENOUGH has been said already, for the pur- 
poses of this book, as to the history of the use 
of the Psalms in the Christian Church and their 
place in our Morning and Evening Prayer. Their 
division into sixty portions for daily use and full 
reading once each month is the same in our Book as 
it has been in England since 1549, except that at 
our last revision Psalm cxli, an evening Psalm, was 
transferred from Morning to Evening Prayer on the 
twenty-ninth day of the month. 

The Psalter remains in our Prayer Book in the 
version from which not only the Psalms but also the 
Epistle and Gospels were read from 1549 to 1662 — 
that, namely, of Coverdale, printed in 153S, edited 
and republished in the 'Great Bible', of which the 
first edition was printed in 1539, other editions follow- 
ing rapidly, and showing traces of Cranmer's work. 
Our Psalter is thus "in substance the work of that 
consummate master of rhythmical prose. Bishop 
Miles Coverdale. " When the Lessons began to be 
read from the Authorized Version of 161 1 cannot 
now be determined; it was 'appointed to be read in 
churches', but it is not known on what authority. 

The 'Great Bible' followed pretty closely Cover- 
dale's version, which had been printed but four 


years before it, with reference, however, to the 
original Hebrew and Greek; but it was also in- 
fluenced by Miinster's new Latin Version of the Old 
Testament. That it does not closely follow the 
Vulgate will be seen from comparing the opening 
words of some of the Psalms in this version with 
their opening words in Latin as they are given in 
the headings. (See for instance, Psalms cix, Ixv, 
Ixxxiii, cxix part 7.) The Psalter in the English 
Books does not follow exactly any edition of the Great 
Bible, and the printers have in the course of time 
made changes in it. In our first Prayer Book of 
1790 a few modifications were intentionally made, 
as of 'leasing' to 'falsehood' in iv. 2 and to 'lies' in 
v. 6, and of 'flittings' to 'wanderings' in Ivi. 8. 
In the preparation of the present Standard of 1892, 
the text of the Psalter was carefully studied and cor- 
rected where errors had crept in, so that it is now 
far more accurate than that in the English Book 
and almost ideally perfect. The report on the 
Standard in an appendix to the Journal of the Gen- 
eral Convention of 1892 gives many notes of impor- 
tant and unimportant corrections. At this time the 
so-called musical colon in each verse (corresponding 
to the Hebrew atfmacJi), which had been omitted 
in earlier American Books from Psalms and Canti- 
cles, was restored. 



Reference may be made to a few books which will help to a 
fuller knowledge and enjoyment of the Psalter. 

The translation of the Psalms in the American Revised Ver. 
sion gives accurately the meaning of the received Hebrew text. 

Dr. S. R. Driver's " Parallel Psalter" is the Prayer Book Ver- 
sion of the Psalms and a new version by a good scholar in 
both Hebrew and English, arranged on opposite pages. It is 
very interesting and helpful, and it has two admirable glossa- 
ries : one of characteristic or otherwise noteworthy expressions 
in the Psalms, and the other of archaisms in the Prayer Book 

In this connection, it will be well to call attention, as does 
Dr. Driver, to W. Aldis Wright's invaluable " Bible Word- 
Book" and also to the articles on words so plentifully given in 
Hastings's " Dictionary of the Bible." The Concordance to the 
Prayer Book Psalter in the S. P. C. K. Prayer-Book Commen- 
tary has been already noted. 

The finest literary version of the Psalms into English is that 
by Dr. Horace Howard Furness in the so-called 'Polychrome 

There are brief notes on each Psalm in Bishop Barry's 
" Teacher's Prayer Book." Kirkpatrick's Commentary on the 
Psalms (in English) in The Cambridge Bible for Schools is 
excellent and readily available ; the Introduction is helpful, 
though brief. 

One who would like to know a little of the English of earlier 
versions will find in a small volume published by the Clarendon 
Press at Oxford the Books of Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesi- 
astes, and the Song of Solomon, from a Wycliffite version of 
about the year 13S1. 

G. P. Huntington and H. A. Metcalf's "The Treasury of the 
Psalter" is a valuable aid to the better understanding of the 
Psalms and a work of much learning and careful labor. 

Archbishop William Alexander's " Witness of the Psalms to 
Christ and Christianity " is pleasantly written and interesting. 


THE services which follow the Psalter are not, 
strictly speaking, a part of the Book of Com- 
mon Prayer; but their titles are placed with the 
Table of Contents of the Prayer Book, and the con- 
ditions of making changes in them are the same as 
those of altering or amending the Prayer Book. 
They correspond, in fact, to the Pontifical, contain- 
ing the forms for conferring Holy Orders, for Conse- 
crating a Church, and for the Institution of a Rector; 
and the due administration of Orders is certainly 
necessary for the continuance of the Church. 

Many of the questions, both interesting and 
important, which arise in the study of the Or- 
dination Services of the Church of England and 
our own are fully discussed in works on the Ministry 
and on Church Polity. Such are: the interpretation 
which the Church in different ages has given to the 
terms by which she had designated her ministers; 
the stress which she has laid on a succession of her 
clergy from the Apostles and on the maintenance of 
that succession at the hands of Bishops; the proof of 
the assertion in Article XXXVI, that her present 
"Book of Consecration of Bishops and Ordering of 
Priests and Deacons" "doth contain all things neces- 
sary to such Consecration and Ordering, neither 


hath it anything that of itself is superstitious and 
ungodly"; and in particular the maintenance of the 
historic validity of her Orders against the latest 
form of the attack made upon them from Rome. To 
such books, therefore, the student is referred for a 
full study of the Ordinal ; it must suffice here to give 
a brief historical and liturgical commentary on the 

As in ancient times, all ordinations are minis- 
tered within the Eucharistic Office, and at such place 
in the office that the newly ordained may enter at 
once on the duties to which he has been called and 
for which authority has been given him. Thus, the 
candidates for the diaconate are examined and or- 
dained after the Epistle, and after ordination one of 
them reads the Gospel; in like manner, the candi- 
dates for the priesthood are examined and ordained 
after the Gospel, and after ordination they say the 
Nicene Creed with the congregation; the bishop- 
elect is questioned and ordained after the Creed and 
Sermon, and then takes his place with his consecra- 
tors for the offering and intercession which lead to 
the more solemn part of the Communion Office. 
And, again in accordance with ancient custom, the 
Litany is said at every ordination, with a special 
petition for those who are at the time to be admitted 
to any of the sacred Orders. Those to be ordained 
are presented to the Bishop by some one already in 
Orders, who vouches for their learning and their 
character (in the case of a bishop-elect by two of the 


Episcopal order); in the case of candidates for the 
diaconate and the priesthood, the people are called 
upon to show cause, if cause there be, why they 
should not be ordained; in the case of a bishop-elect, 
testimonials are demanded and read and a promise 
of conformity, with the solemnity of an oath, is 
required. An 'impediment' to ordination, as distin- 
guished from a 'crime', is the failure to fulfil some 
canonical requirement, as that the candidate has not 
attained the requisite age, or has not satisfied his 
examinations, or has failed to produce the necessary 

The English Ordinal was framed in 1550 — it was 
still 1549 in Old Style — less than a year after the 
first Prayer Book was published; our own was set 
forth in 1792, and the first service for which it was 
used was the consecration of Bishop Claggett of 
Maryland (see page 23). 

The changes made in the Ordination services from 
1550 to the present day, with their Preface, have 
been very few. Until 1662, the *Veni, Creator 
Spiritus' in the Ordering of Priests was sung after 
the Gospel; in that year it was removed to the 
place which it now has, corresponding to its position 
in the Consecration of Bishops. And from 1550 to 
1662, at the laying-on of hands upon a candidate for 
the priesthood or upon a bishop-elect, there was no 
mention of the Order conferred ; the form in the one 
case was 'Receive the Holy Ghost; whose sins 
thou dost forgive', etc., and in the other, 'Take the 


Holy Ghost; and remember that thou stir up', etc. 
In our Book the only change of any importance from 
the English was the provision of an alternative form 
at the laying-on of hands for the priesthood, of the 
same tenor as that provided for the diaconate. 
Nothing has been or is put into the hands of the 
newly ordained, by the rubrics of these services, 
except the New Testament in the case of deacons 
and the Bible in the case of priests and bishops; 
save that from 1550 to 1552 the priest received the 
chalice or cup with the bread, and the bishop the 
pastoral staff as well as the Bible. 

A comparison of the services with those which 
had been used in early times and in the mediaeval 
Church shows that there was little or nothing new in 
the Ordinal of 1550, but that it was marked by a 
simplicity and directness which were in decided con- 
trast to the offices as they had come to be used before 
that time. It is evident that Archbishop Cranmer 
and those who were associated with him, while they 
affirmed solemnly that it was their intention that 
the historic Orders should be 'continued and 
reverently used and esteemed' in the Church of 
England, wished to render the services more simple, 
to make their essential act, prayer with the laying-on 
of hands, in accordance with the New Testament 
(Acts vi. 6, xiii. 3, xiv. 23), and to free them from 
accretions which had disturbed the balance of the 
truths expressed in them, and again — perhaps more 
than anything else — to vindicate for the ministry of 


the Word its rightful place in the work of the priest- 
hood and the episcopate. 

The old Roman service was very simple, with 
little more than the Scriptural requirements, the 
priests from an early day laying-on hands with the 
Bishop upon those who were advanced to the priest- 
hood (see I Timothy iv. i), while the Bishop 
uttered words of prayer. From the Galilean use 
there came the ceremony of anointing the hands; 
and also, introduced by analogy from the service for 
the admission of sub-deacons (their office not being a 
'holy order'), the presentation of the vessels of min- 
istry, porrectio instrumentorum, which Pope Eu- 
genius IV in 1439 was so far left to himself as to 
declare the outward and visible sign in the 'sacra- 
ment' of Orders; and with the chalice and wafer put 
into the hands of the priest words were said as to a 
power conferred of offering sacrifice to God and cele- 
brating masses on behalf of the quick and the dead. 
Still later, probably from a fear that the primitive 
laying-on of hands might be neglected, or from the 
knowledge that it was actually omitted, there was 
inserted at the very end of the service a provision 
that the Bishop should lay his hands on the priests, 
who had already had a sort of ordination in three 
ways — by prayer (originally with the laying-on of 
the hands of bishop and priests), by unction, and by 
the delivery of the vessels — and say 'Receive the 
Holy Ghost', with the Lord's words as to remitting 
and retaining sins. 


The present Roman Pontifical, at least as used in 
this country, is in the same confused condition in 
regard to the ordination of priests. Almost at the 
beginning of the service, after exhortations and a 
brief indirect prayer, the Bishop "without saying any 
prayer whatsoever", lays both hands upon the head of 
each one. After this all the priests who are present 
do the same. Next, the Bishop and all the priests 
raise their right hands, and hold them extended over 
the candidates while the Bishop says another indirect 
pra3'er which does not imply that any gift or office 
is conferred. The unction of the hands and the pre- 
sentation of a chalice with wine and water and a 
paten with a wafer, with the words "Receive power 
to offer sacrifice to God and to celebrate mass, as well 
for the living as for the dead", both take place before 
the Gospel; and after this those who have been called 
'candidates' are now called 'priests', 'priests who 
have been ordained'. They all say the service with 
the Bishop, after the presentation of offerings, in- 
cluding the Words of Consecration. After the 
Communion and the ablutions, the 'newly ordained 
priests' rehearse the Apostles' Creed; and then as 
they kneel before the Bishop he places both hands on 
the head of each saying, "Receive the Holy Ghost; 
whose sins thou shalt forgive, they are forgiven 
them; and whose sins thou shalt retain, they are re- 
tained." This last ceremony cannot possibly be an 
ordination ; for those on whom hands were laid have 
already celebrated mass with the Bishop. Evidently 


the tradiiio inst7'7imentorum is the central point of 
the service, even to-day. From the confusion of the 
service and the great uncertainty as to what really 
was the act of ordination, Cranmer and the other 
revisers freed the English Ordinal. 

There is no question as to the precise act in it by 
which the deacons are ordained priests; and while 
until 1662 there was no mention of the order con- 
ferred at the time of laying-on of hands, neither was 
there such mention in the Roman use. If it be said 
that in the latter the Bishop did confer power to offer 
sacrifice and celebrate mass, so also in the English 
Oflfice did the Bishop in giving the Bible give "au- 
thority to preach the Word of God and to minister 
the holy Sacraments" — a grant which includes all 
that is in the other and much besides. The 
mediaeval use of 'Receive the Holy Ghost' was 
retained, as seemly and instructive; but that these 
words are not necessary is shown by the fact that for 
centuries they were nowhere used ; and the Ameri- 
can Church was faithful to primitive custom and 
quite within her rights when she gave permission to 
substitute another form of words for them, whatever 
one may think as to the desirability of employing it. 

Thus it may be seen from the purely liturgical 
standpoint that it would be more reasonable to con- 
tend that, in following the teaching of Eugenius IV, 
the Church of Rome has lost the succession of the 
priesthood, than that in the years from 1550 to 1662 
the Church of England failed to continue it. 


The reason for the insertion of the words in 1662, 
"for the office and work of a Priest [or of a Bishop] 
in the Church of God", was certainly not that the 
revisers at that time felt that there was any doubt as 
to the validity of the orders conferred since the first 
adoption of the Ordinal. It is much more probable 
that they thought it necessary, in the face of the 
Presbyterianism which was prevalent and indeed had 
had supremacy for a while, to affirm the distinction 
in order between a priest (or presbyter) and a 
bishop. On that distinction, indeed, we need to lay 
stress, and that not only against the advocates of 
parity, who would exalt all presbyters to the episco- 
pate, but also against the papal claim that bishops 
are of the same order as priests, only endowed with 
certain special authority or 'faculties'. 

The carefulness of Bishops Seabury and White as 
they prepared the Ordinal for our Church is seen in 
the change of a sentence in the form of words in 
which, at the consecration of a bishop, the congrega- 
tion is bidden to the Litany. In the English Book 
it reads, "It is written also in the Acts of the 
Apostles that the disciples who were at Antioch did 
fast and pray, before they laid hands on Paul and 
Barnabas and sent them forth." Now, in the light 
of what St. Paul says at the beginning of the Epistle 
to the Galatians, it is very doubtful whether the 
transaction described in the thirteenth chapter of the 
Acts can be called an ordination or designation of 
Sts. Paul and Barnabas to the apostolate. For this 


example, therefore, another was substituted in our 
Book: "It is written also that the Holy Apostles 
prayed before they ordained Matthias to be of the 
number of the Twelve"; though even here there 
might be some question as to the word 'ordain'. 

The 'Veni, Creator Spiritus' is the only one of 
many metrical hymns of the early and mediaeval 
Church which was brought over into the offices of 
the English Church.* It consists in the original of 
six four-line stanzas (without the doxology) of what 
w^e call long metre; and its composition has been 
ascribed to St. Ambrose of Milan (died 397), to 
Pope Gregory the Great (604), to the Emperor 
Charles the Great (Charlemagne, 814), and to 
Rhabanus Maurus, Archbishop of Mainz (856). 
Julian in his 'Dictionary of Hymnology' says that 
"the hymn is clearly not the work of St. Ambrose 
nor of Charles the Great, nor is there sufficient evi- 
dence to allow us to ascribe it to Gregory or to 
Rhabanus Maurus" ; so that this, "which has taken 
deeper hold of the Western Church than any other 
mediaeval hymn, the 'Te Deum' alone excepted", 
must remain anonymous. The first form of the com- 
mon metre version or paraphrase in sixteen stanzas, 
including the doxology, was prepared by Cranmer 
(as it is thought) for the Ordinal of 1550; it has 
some good phrases, but is diffuse and in places un- 

nt should not be confounded with the 'Veni, Sancte Spir- 
itus'. (See Dictionary of Hymnology.) 


rhythmical and lacks the tone of the original. It 
was modified into its present form for the revision of 
1662, at which time also the brief version in long 
metre, even more condensed than the Latin itself, 
was inserted as an alternative. This latter was the 
work of John Cosin, Bishop of Durham, who 
took a prominent part in preparing the new edition 
of the Prayer Book and from whose pen came the 
Collects written for that Book. Strangely enough, 
neither version retains the word 'Creator', which is 
so striking a title of the Holy Spirit; it is found in 
Hymns 380 and 381 of our Hymnal. 

The Litany and the Communion Office are 
reprinted here, that the Ordinal may be complete; 
in these the word 'Bishop' is used throughout for 
'Priest' or 'Minister'. What is meant by the addi- 
tion 'and Suffrages' to the title of the Litany, 
does not appear. In the preceding services the 
special petition for those to be ordained is called a 
'Suffrage', but it would certainly seem that it must 
be regarded as part of the Litany. 

Consecration of a Church; Institution 
OF Ministers 

The two offices which follow are not in the Eng- 
lish Prayer Book. The Form of Consecration of a 
Church or Chapel was taken in 1799 from one 
framed by the English Convocation in 1712 (which, 
however, lacked full authorization); and this in turn 
was based on an office prepared by Dr. Lancelot 


Andrewes, Bishop of Winchester, for the consecra- 
tion of a Chapel near Southampton in the year 1620. 
The form of 1712 has now been for a long time cus- 
tomarily used in Enlgand. The place of the 'instru- 
ments of Donation and Endowment' is commonly 
taken by a formal request to the Bishop, from the 
corporation or authorities of the parish, that he will 
consecrate the building and take it under his 
spiritual jurisdiction and that of his successors in 
office, including also a certificate, in the words of 
Canon 46, "that the building and the ground on 
which it is erected have been fully paid for, and are 
free from lien or other incumbrance, and also that 
such building and ground are secured from the 
danger of alienation, either in whole or in part, 
from those who profess and practise the doctrine, 
discipline, and worship of this Church", except 
under conditions allowed by the Canon. The read- 
ing of the Sentence of Consecration is the formal 
consecration of the building, and after it the regular 
service for the day begins. 

The Office of Institution, which from its terms can 
only be used for a rector, was drawn up in 1799 ^^ 
the request of the Convention of the Diocese of Con- 
necticut by the Rev. Dr. William Smith of Nor- 
walk.' It was formally accepted by the Diocesan 

'This Dr. William Smith, a native of Scotlaud, once minis- 
ter of Stepney Parish, Maryland, and later principal of the 
Episcopal Academy at Cheshire, who died in 1821, must not be 
confounded with Dr. William Smith, Provost of the University 


Convention of Connecticut in 1804, but two years 
before that time had been adopted by the Conven- 
tion of the Diocese of New York. In 1804 it was 
also adopted by the General Convention, which four 
years later changed its title to the present form, 
made its use discretionary, and altered the phrase- 
ology that it might not seem to be in conflict with the 
law of the land. It provides three well-worded pray- 
ers, to the three Persons of the Trinity, before the 
Benediction from Hebrews xiii. 20, 21, and an ex- 
cellent 'cento' of petitions in the prayer at the end. 
It has also some peculiarities. The Holy Commu- 
nion is here called 'the Holy Eucharist', a name not 
applied to it in the Prayer Book, though (as we have 
seen) very ancient. The word 'Altar' is also used 
many times; but a careful reading will show that it 
probably does not mean the Lord's Table, but the 
space enclosed by chancel-rails, as is the Methodist 
use of the word to-day. Also the term 'Senior War- 
den' is used, though Senior and Junior Wardens are 
unknown to canonical legislation both in this country 
and in England; the titles seem to have been bor- 
rowed from the Masonic order. This office of Insti- 
tution has really no legal value, either civil or 
ecclesiastical ; but it has an educational and moral 

of Pennsylvania and President of the House of Deputies in 
General Convention when the Prayer Book was revised, who 
died in 1803. Dr. William Smith of Connecticut was a strong 
advocate of chanting at a time when chanting was little 


value; and for that reason might well be often 

It does not fall within the scope of this book to 
treat of the Articles of Religion. 


Pullan (Leighton), The History of the Book of Common 
Prayer (in Oxford Library of Practical Theology). Chapter 
XVIII on the Ordinal is valuable. 

Dictionary of Christian Antiquities. The article on Ordina- 
tion, by Dr. Edwin Hatch, is very full and learned. 

See also other dictionaries and encyclopaedias. 

The Rite of Ordination [of Deacons and Priests] according 
to the Roman Pontifical, in Latin and English on opposite 
pages, edited by J. S. M. Lynch, is published by the Cathedral 
Library Association, New York. 

On the recent Roman Controversy, there is nothing better 
than the former part of Chapter VII and Appendix in Mober- 
ly's " Ministerial Priesthood." 

The numerous works on the validity of Anglican Orders need 
not be mentioned here. 



Absolution, forms of, 75, 189 ; 
in Visitation of Sick, 257 ff. 

Administration of Holy Com- 
munion, forms for, 12, 155, 
161 ff. 

Advent, 125; Advent-Sun- 
day, 57. _ 

Agnus Dei, 106, 194, 198. 

Alexandria, Catechetical 
School at, 227 ; Pope of, 
his Festal Letters, 53. 

Alexandrian (Eutychian) 
Liturgies, 146. 

'Allege'= plead, 246, 249. 

Alleluia, 77, 154. 

'Allow'= approve, 218, 249. 

All Saints' Day, 132. 

Alms, 183 ff . ; alms and obla- 
tions, 186 ff. 

Altar, 168; in Institution 
Office, 289. 

Ambrose, St. (t397), 80, 286. 

Ambrosian Liturgy, 146. 

Amen, 74 ff., 107, 194. 

American Prayer Book, 17 
ff. ; changes from English, 
21 £f., 70 ff,. etc. ; adopted 
(1789), 22 ff . ; changes in, 
24 ff. : revision of (1880- 
1892), 25 ff. ; standard of 
1892, 26. 

Anabaptism, 223. 

Anaphora, 190. 

Andrewes, Bp. of Winchester 
(ti626),23, 287 ff. 

Angel, the Holy, 158. 

Angelic Hymn, 197. 

Anglican Orders, 278 ff. 

Anointing ; see Unction. 

Ante-Communion, 167. 

Anthem, 47, 77, 92, 187. 

Anthems ; see Hymns and 

Antiphon, 107 and «., 254 

ff., 262, 265 ff. 
Antiphonal, 3. 
'Apparent'^ evident, 114 n. 
Army and Navy, prayers for, 

Articles of Religion, 3, 24, 

Athanasian Creed, 95 ff. ; 

declaration de., 98, 99. 
Ash-Wednesday, 58, 116, 126. 
Augustine, St., of Canter- 
bury (t6o4), 6, loi. 
Augustine, St., of Hippo 

(t43o),8o, 227. 

Baptism, Ministration of, 
(Chap. IX) 209 ff. ; an- 
cient services, 210 ; private, 
219; adult, 222; adult by 
immersion, 223 ; hypothet- 
ical, 221, 225 ; deacon as 
ministrant, 225 ; times for, 
128, 130. 

Bede, Venerable (1735), 128. 

Benedicite, 83. 

Benedictine Rule, 65. 

Benson, Abp. (11896), 229. 

Betrothal, 245 ; see Matri- 

Bible, Great, 4, 183, 275 ; 
Authorized Version, 121 «., 
275 ; see Lessons, Epistles 
and Gospels. 

Bible, in Ordination, 281. 

BibHography, General, 29-34 ; 
the Daily Offices, 94 ff. ; 
the Christian Year, 137 ff. ; 
the Communion Service 



205-208 ; Baptism, 226 ; the 
Catechism, 235 ; Confirma- 
tion, 243 ; Matrimony, 253 ; 
Visitation of the Sick, 260 ; 
the Psalter, 277 ff. ; the 
Ordinal, 290. 

'Bidding the bedes', 90. 

Bishops, House of, advice as 
to services, 74, 172 ff., 201. 

'Bishoping', 272. 

Black-letter days, 50. 

Black Rubric, 16. 

Body of the Church, 168, 247. 

Book of Offices, proposed, 
26, 27. 

Bowing in the Creed, 89. 

Bread for the Communion, 
184 ff. 

Breviary, 2; see Chap. Ill; 
revision of, 67 ff. 

Breviary use, 41 n. 

Briefs, 181. 

Burial of the Dead, (Chap. 
XIV) 261 ff. ; service in 
house, 265 ff. «., office for 
infants, 269 ff. 

Byzantine Liturgies, 145. 

Calendar, 48 ff. 

Candlemas, 126. 

Canon, in office of Holy 
Communion, 190. 

Canonical hours, 64. 

Catechism, 13, (Chap. X) 
227 ff. ; proposed addition 
to, 232 ff. ; Shorter, of 
Westminster, 229. 

Catechumens, 211 ff., 215, 
227 ; admission of, 211 ff. 

Chancel, 168. 

Charles the Great (Charle- 
magne) (t8i4), 286. 

Charles I, King (11649), 13; 
Prayer Book for Scotland, 

Charles II, King (ti685), 
13 ; Prayer Book of, 13. 

Child, age of, 216. 

Childermas, 126. 

Chrism, use of, in Baptism, 
211, 213; in Confirmation, 
238 ff. ; see Unction. 

Chrisom, 213 ff., 271 ; chrisom 
child, 213 n. 

Christmas, 124 ff . ; Sundays 
after, 135. 

Chrysostom, St. (1407), 
Prayer of, 93, 108 ff. 

Church (verd), 271 ff. 

Church, Prayer for, 167 ; see 
Intercession, the Great. 

'Churches', for 'dioceses', 88. 

Churching of Women, (in 
Chap. XV) 271 ff. 

Citations, 181. 

Claggett, T. J., Bp. of Mary- 
land (ti8i6), 23, 280. 

Clement of Alexandria 
(t2i7), 245. _ 

Clementine Liturgy, 144. 

Coincidence of Holy-days, 

133 ff- 

Collect, the word, 117 ff. 

Collects, in daily offices, 90, 
91 ; for eves, 136 ; at end of 
Communion service, 199 
ff. ; sources of, 119 ff. 

Collects, Epistles, and Gos- 
pels, (Chap. VI) 117 ff. ; 
proposed, for Marriage, 
253 ; former, for Burial, 

Comes, 121 ff. 

' Comfortable ', ' Comforter ', 
189, 240. 

Comfortable Words, 189. 

Commandments, the Ten, 
161, 177 ff . ; in Catechism, 

Commination, 115. 
Committal, at Burial, 268 ff. 
Communion, Holy, 139; see 

Holy Communion. 
Communion, Order of the 

(1548), 8. 



Communion of the Sick, 

202 ff. 

Communion service, postures 
in, 173 ff. 

Compline, 65, 66. 

Concordate, Bp. Seabury's, 

Confederate Prayer Book, 
272 ff. 

Confirmation, (Chap. XI) 
236 ff. ; names in New 
Testament, 236 ff. ; mean- 
ing of 'confirm', 238, 240; 
'hands' laid on, 237 ff . ; 
Eastern use, 241 ; Roman 
use, 239, 241 ; before first 
Communion, 242 ; rubrics 
at end of office, 242 ff. 

Congress, Prayer for, 112. 

Consecration, Prayer of, 23, 
154 ff., 191 ff . ; see Holy 
Communion ; second Con- 
secration, 195 ff. 

Consecration of a Church, 
23, (in Chap. XVII) 287 ff. 

Continental Reformers, 11. 

Convention, Prayer for, 113. 

Convention, General, 1785, 
19; 1786, 20; 1789, 20, 21 ; 
1880-1892, 25 ff. 

Cosin, Jonn, Bp. of Durham 
(ti672), 113,287. 

Cotton, Bp. of Calcutta 
(ti866), 113. 

Coverdale, Miles, Bp. 
(t 1 568), 4, 183,275. 

Coxe, Bp. of W. New York 
(11896), 124, 167 «., 2-jo n. 

Cranmer, Abp. (ti556), 8, 
14,67,68, 102, 108, 155 ff., 
160, 212, 281, 286 ; as trans- 
lator, 10, 121, 157 ; el saepe. 

Creed, Apostles' and Nicene, 
20, 85 ff. ; rubric before for- 
mer, 87 ff . ; Athanasian, 20, 
95 ff . ; interrogative, 211, 
256 ; in Holy Communion, 
180 ; at Burial, 266 ; in Bap- 

tism, 211, 217; at Ordina- 
tion, 279. 

Cross, sign of, in Baptism, 
213 ff . ; in Confirmation, 
239 ff. 

Credence, 187 ff. 

Crowns, in Marriage, 245. 

Curates, in cure of souls, 
227 ff. 

Cyprian, St. (I258), 152. 

Cyril, Bp. of Jerusalem 
(t386), 144, 227. 

Daily offices, 65, 68 ff. 

Deacon, as ministrant of 
Baptism, 225 ; of Matri- 
mony, 252 ff. 

Deacon's Litany, 101, 108. 

Departed, Commemoration 
of, 14, 156, 188, 259. 

Deprecations, in Litany, 105. 

De Profundis, in Prisons, 78 ; 
in Visitation of Sick, 259. 

Directorium, 3. 

Dirige, 262. 

Divine Liturgy, 141 ; seeWd^y 

Divine Office, 64, 93. 

Divine Service, 77. 

Dominical Letters ; see Sun- 
day Letters. 

Dowden, John, Bp. of Edin- 
burgh (ti9io), 186. 

Dower and dowry, 245. 

Drake, Sir Francis (11596), 



Easter-day, rule for deter- 
termining, 53 ; dates of, 62 ; 
name, 128. 

Easter-even, 128 ; for bap- 
tisms, 211 ff. 

Eastern Church, 'Greek 
Easter', 62, 63. 

East Syrian (Nestorian) 
Liturgies, 145. 



Eastward Position, for 
Creeds, 89 ; in Communion 
Service, 170, 171. 

Edward VI, King (ti553), 8, 
12 -, Prayer Books of, 8 ff. 

Effeta (Ephphatha), 211, 

Elizabeth, Queen (ti6o3), 
12, 104, 212, 221 ; Prayer 
Book of, 12 ; Latin Prayer 
Book of, 201. 

Ember-days, 58. 

Ember Prayers, 113. 

English Prayer Book, 5 ff., 
et saepe ; editions of, 9-14. 

Entrances, Little and Great, 

Epiphany, 124. 

Epistles and Gospels, 122 
ff. ; see Collects ; announce- 
ment of, 179 ff. 

Eucharist, 139, 289 ; see Holy 

Eutychians, 146. 

Evening Prayer, (Chap. Ill) 
64 ff. ; rubrics as to use, 
71 ff. 

Excommunication, 181, 264. 

Exhortation, in daily offices, 
73 ; in Holy Communion, 
188; in baptism, 213; in 
visitation of sick, 255. 

Extreme Unction, 235 ; Ro- 
man and Eastern, 259 ; see 

Fair linen cloth, 168, 196. 
Fald-stool, no, 271. 
Family Prayers, 274. 
Font, Benediction of, 214 ff. 
Fourth of July, 274. 
Full moon, ecclesiastical and 
astronomical, 54 ff. 

Galilean Liturgies, \i,^\ see 

Gelasius, Bp. of Rome 
(t496), 119,257. 

'General' Confession, 74; 
Thanksgiving, 93. 

Gibson, Edmund, Bp. of 
London (11748), 274. 

Gloria in excelsis, 79, 153, 
161, 197 ff. 

Gloria Patri, 79. 

God's Board, 168. 

Golden Numbers, 50 ff., 54. 

Good Friday, and its Col- 
lects, 127 ff. 

Gospel, see Epistles and Gos- 
pels ; at Baptism, 213, 223 ; 
at Ordination, 279. 

Gradual (Grail), 4, 154. 

Great Bible, 4, iSo, 275. 

Great Doxology, 197. 

Gregory, Bp. of Rome 
(1604), loi, 119, 286. 

Gunning, Bp. Peter (ti684), 


Hampton Court Conference, 
13, 221. 

Harison, Dr. Francis (11885), 

Henry VIII, King (11547), 
8, 102. 

Hermann, Abp. of Cologne 
(ti552), 10, 104, 188, 213, 
216, 239, 250 n. 

Hippolytus of Rome (tf.240), 

Holy Communion, History 
of the Office, (Chap. VII) 
138 ff. ; Commentary on 
the Office, (Chap. VIII) 
166 ff . ; names, 138 ff. ; 
earliest account, 142 ; earli- 
est liturgy, 144; families 
of liturgies, 145; English 
offices, 154 ff . ; American 
office, 162 ff. ; Scottish 
offices, 163 ff. ; see Adminis- 
tration, Communion of the 



Sick, Oblation and Invoca- 
tion, Order of the Com- 

Holy-days (in Chap. VI); see 

Holy Table, 167; j'l?!? Lord's 

Holy Week, 127. 

Hooker, Richard (ti6oo), 

Hosanna, 190. 

Hours, Canonical, 65. 

Humble Access, Prayer of, 

155. 191- 
Huntington, Dr. William R. 

(tigog), 25. 
Hymns, 194, 197 ; Hymns and 

Anthems, 47, 187. 

Impediment to marriage, 

249 ; to ordination, 280. 
Indemnification, 249. 
Intercession, the Great, 145, 

155 ff. . . 

Intercession, m Litany, 106. 
Introits, 174 ff. 
Institution of Ministers, 23, 

(in Chap. XVII) 287 ff. 
Invocation; see Oblation. 
Invocations, 102 ff.; in Litany, 

Irish Prayer Book, 273. 

James, St., Liturgy of, 145. 
James I, King (11625), i3. 
163, 221 ; Prayer Book of, 


Jamestown, 17. 

Jerome (Hieronymus), St. 

(t420), 122. 

Jewish Synagogue Worship, 

Justin Martyr (t^.i6o), 142, 

193 ff., 210. 


'Kindly', 104 and n. 

Kiss of peace, 143, 252. 

Kneeling in Holy Commun- 
ion, 16, 195. 

Kyrie eleison, loi, 153 ff., 254, 
269 ; see Lesser Litany. 

Lady-day, 126. 

Latin Prayer Book of Queen 

Elizabeth, 201. 
Laud, Abp. (11645), 13, 112 

ff., 187. 
Lauds, 65, 66, 68. 
Lawful Minister, 220 ff. 
Lay, Henry C, Bp. (tiSSs), 


Lay Baptism; see Lawful 

Legenda, 3. 

Lent, 126. 

Leo, Bp. of Rome (t46i), 1 19. 

Lesser Litany, 100, 178; see 
Kyrie eleison. 

Lesson in Confirmation, 237. 

Lessons, Tables of, 43 ff. 

Litany, S, (Chap. IV) 100 ff. ; 
of Mamertus, 100, 10 1 ; of 
1544, 102; analysis of, 105 
ff. ; at Ordination, 279. 

Litany, Lesser, 100, 178. 

Litany-days, 10^. 

Liturgies, families of, 145 ff. ; 
comparative tables, 148 ff. ; 
notes on, 152 ff. 

Liturgy, 140 ff. ; see Holy 

Lord's Prayer, 76 ; in Com- 
munion Office, 173 ff. 

Lord's Supper, 138; see Holy 

Lord's Table, 167 ff. 


M. and N., 249. 

Mamertus, Bp. of Vienne, 

(t477), 100. 



Man and wife, 253. 

Manual, 2. 

Mark, St., Liturgy of, 146. 

Marriage, see Matrimony ; 
Laws and Canon, 247 tf. 

Mary, Queen (+1559), abol- 
ishes Prayer Book, 12. 

Mass, 7, 139 ff. 

Matins (Nocturns), 65, 66, 
68, 69, 76 ; see Nocturns. 

Matrimony, Solemnization 
of, (Chap. XII) 244 ff.; 
ancient ceremonies, 245 ; 
words in service, 246, 250 
ff. ; at church door, 247 ; 
deacon as ministrant, 252 ff . 

Maundy Thursday, 127. 

Media vita, 267. 

'Minister' and 'Priest', 75, 
171, 196, 203. 

Missa fidelium and Missa 
catechumenorum, 166. 

Missal, 2 ; see Liturgies. 

Mixture of cup, 185. 

Morning and Evening Pray- 
er, (Chap. Ill) 64 ff. ; ru- 
brics as to use, 71 ff. 

Mothering Sunday, 127. 

Movable Holy-days, 45, 53, 58. 

Mozarabic Baptismal Office, 
213, 214, 216. 

Mozarabic Liturgy, 146, 154, 

158, IQI. 

Muhlenberg, Dr. William A. 

Mysteries, 139. 


N. or M., 231. 
Nativity ; see Christmas. 
Navy and Army, prayers for, 

Nestorians, 146. 
Nicaea (Nice), Council of, 

53. 129. 
Niceta, Bp. (ti:.4i5), 80. 
Nocturns (Matins), 65, 66, 

68, 69. 

Nones (noon), 65, 69. 
Non-jurors' Liturgy, 162 ff. 
Notices and warnings, 180 ff. 
Notkerof St.Gall (t9i2),268. 
Nowell, Alexander (ti6o2), 


Oblation, First (Oblatio 
Primitiarum), 184; includ- 
ing Alms, 1S7. 

Oblation and Invocation, 23, 
147 ff., 156 £f., 192 ff. 

Obsecrations, in Litany, 106. 

Offertory, 182. 

Old Style and New Style, 
61, 62. 

Order of the Communion 
(i548),8, iiff.;i54ff. 

Ordinal (Directorium), 3. 

Ordinal, 23, (Chap. XVII) 
278 ff. ; changes in offices, 

281 £f. ; modern Roman, 

282 ff. ; reason for changes 
in 1662, 285. 

Ordinary, 38, 115. 
Ornaments Rubric, 15. 
Osmund, Bp. of Salisbury 

(ti099), 147. 
Overall, Bp. (ti6i9), 229. 

Palm Sunday, 127. 

Pascha, 128. 

Passion Sunday, Passion 

Week, 127. 
Patria potestas, 247. 
Penitential Office, 115. 
Pentecost (Whitsunday), 59, 

Philadelphia, St. Peter's 

Church, 171. 
Pica (Pie), 3. 
Placebo, 262. 
Polycarp, St. (ti55), 129. 
Pontifical, 3 ; see Ordinal. 
Porrectio instrumentorum, 




Postures, in Communion-ser- 
vice, 172 ff. 

Prayer Book, American, his- 
tory of, 1 7 ff . ; see American 
Prayer Book. 

Prayer Book, English, his- 
tory of, 5 ff. ; see English 
Prayer Book. 

Prayer Book, Irish ; see Irish 
Prayer Book. 

Prayer Book, Scottish ; see 
Scotland, Scottish Liturgy. 

Prayer of Consecration, 191 
ff. ; at second Consecra- 
tion, 196 ; in Communion of 
the Sick, 204. 

Prayers to be used at Sea, 
(in Chap. XV) 272 ff. 

Prefaces, in Holy Commun- 
ion, 190 ; Preface, in Con- 
firmation, 240 ; to Ordinal, 

Presbyterianism, abolishes 
Prayer Book, 13 ; see 285. 

Priest, see Minister. 

Prime, 65, 66, 69. 

Primer, 7, 67. 

Processional, 2; see Chap. IV. 

' Pronounce '= proclaim, 246. 

Proper Lessons \see Lessons ; 
for Lent, etc., 46. 

Proper Prefaces, 190. 

Proper Psalms, 39. 

Prophecies, in the Liturgy, 
122, 154. 

Proposed Book (American), 
20, 60, 87, 164, 274. 

Proposed Revisions (Eng- 
lish), 14, 114. 

Prose, 154, 267. 

Prothesis, 152. 

Provoost, Samuel, Bp. of 
New York (ti8i5), 23. 

Psalms, Psalter, (Chap. 
XVI) 275 ff. ; use of, 40, 
41 «., 67, 78 ; see Selections. 

Puritans, 13, 14. 

Puritans and lay-baptism, 221. 

Quartodecimans, 53, 56 n. 

Quatuor Tempora (Ember- 
days), 59. 

Quinones, Quignon (ti54o)) 
and his Breviary, 10, 67. 


Ratification, 35, 

'Receive the Holy Ghost,' 
282, 284. 

Reconcihation of dying Peni- 
tent, 255. 

Refection (Refreshment) 
Sunday, 127. 

Requiem, 262. 

Reservation of elements for 
Communion, 201 ff. 

Reynolds, Bp. Edward 
(ti676), 93. 

Right side of Lord's Table, 
169 ff. 

Ring in Matrimony, 245, 
250 and n. 

Rogation-days, 58, loi. 

Rogation prayers, 113. 

Roman Liturgy, 146 ff., 157 

Rubric, Black, 16. 

Rubrics, 36 n. ; as to use of 
daily offices, 71 ff. ; see un- 
der each office. 

Rubrics, disciplinary, 167, 

Rubrics, general, 36, 45. 

Sacramentaries, 3 ; of Leo, 
Gelasius, Gregory, 119. 

Sacrament in voto, 204. 

Saints' Days, 49, 57, 13I) i33 
ff. ; see Concurrence. 

Salutation of house, 254. 

Sanderson, Bp. of Lincoln 

Sarum Use, 9, 147, 213, etc. 

Savoy Conference, 13. 



Scotland, Episcopacy in, 162 
ff.; Prayer Book for, 13, 163. 

Scottish Liturgy, 21, 22, 148, 
162 ff., 178 ff., 202. 

Scripture Lessons ; see Les- 

Seabury, Bp. Samuel (ti796), 
consecration, 18; Com- 
munion-office, 18, 164; re- 
vision of Prayer Book, 21 
ff., 105 «., 148, 285 ff., ei 

Sealing, in Baptism and Con- 
firmation, 210, 237. 

Selections of Psalms, sug- 
gested use, 40. 

Sequence, 154, 267. 

Serapion, Bp. {\c.yjo), 258. 

Sermon or Homily, 154, 182. 

Sexts, 65, 69. 

Shrove-Tuesday, 126. 

Sick, Communion of, 202 ff. ; 
Visitation of, (Chap.XIII) 
254 ff. 

Smith, Dr. William, of Con- 
necticut (ti82i), 288. 

Smith, Dr. William, of Phil- 
adelphia (ti8o3), 19, 55, 
288 «. 

Spirit, Gifts of the, 241. 

Stationary days, no. 

Special Prayers and Thanks- 
givings, (Chap. V) III ff. 

Suffrages after the Creed, 
89, 90 ; in Litany, 287. 

Suiciaes, burial of, 264. 

Sunday Letters, 49. 

Sunday Services, 36. 

Sursum corda, 152 ff., 190 
and n. 

Suspension from the Com- 
munion, 167. 

Syrian Liturgies, 145 ff. 


Table ; see Lord's Table. 
Taylor, Bp. Jeremy (ti667), 
114, 260. 

Te Deum, 79 ff. 

Ten Commandments, 177 ff. ; 

see Commandments. 
Tersanctus, 153, 190 n. 
Thanksgiving-day, 60, 78, 136; 

service for, 273 ff. 
Third Services, 38. 
Thomas k Becket, Abp. 

(+1170), 4, 131- 

Tierce, 65, 69. 

Tillotson, Abp. (11694), 274. 

Title-page, etc.^ 35. 

Tract, 154. 

Transfiguration, 28 «., 132. 

Trinity-Sunday, 131. 

Trisagion, 153, 268; see Ter- 

Triumphal Hymn, 153, 190. 

Troper, 4. 

'Troth', 250. 


Unction of the Sick, 255, 
258 ff. ; in Baptism and 
Confirmation, 210, 237 ; see 

Veni, Creator Spiritus, 280, 

Versions of Coverdale and 
Great Bible, 183 ; see Bible, 

Vespers, 65, 66, 69. 

Vestments, 15, 16. 

Victoria, Queen (figoi), 249. 

Visitation of Prisoners, (in 
Chap. XV) 273. 

Visitation of the Sick, (Chap. 
XIII) 254 ff. ; absolution 
in, 257 ff. ; unction in, 255, 
258 ff. ; Creed in, 256. 


Walton, Izaak (ti683), 229. 
Warden, Senior, 289. 
Warnings, 202. 
Washington, President 
(t 1 799), 92- 



'Wealth'=prosperity, 105. 

'Wee bookies', 163, 

West Syrian Liturgies, 145. 

White, Bp. William (11836), 
consecration, 21 ; revision 
of Prayer Book, 20 ff., 174, 
285 ff., et saepe. 

Whitsunday, 129 f¥. 

Whitsun-eve, for baptisms, 

William and Mary (King and 
Queen (ti702), (ti694), 14, 
274 ; proposed version of 
Prayer Book, 14, 114. 

Wills, 256 ff. 

Wine, for the Communion, 
mixture with water, 185. 

'Word and Holy Spirit', 192 ff. 

'Worship', in English Mar- 
riage service, 246. 

Wren, Bp. Matthew (ti667), 

Ximenes, Cardinal (ti597), 
146 ; see Mozarabic. 

Zante, 145.