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Full text of "The book of the Cross Kirk, Peebles, A.D. 1560-1690 : presbyterianism and episcopacy"

Books of tl)e CInirci} Strks 






A.D. 1560'1690 

♦ 

Dr Gunit 



Gc 

941.4602 
P373g 
1369841 






lyi. L;: 



CSENEAL-OGY C0I_L.ECT10N 



3 1833 00728 0123 



GENEALOGY 

941.4602 

P373G 



THE CROSS KIRK, PEEBLES. 



THE 

BOOK OF THE CROSS KIRK,"^ 

PEEBLES. 

A.D. 1560-1690. 

PRESBYTERIANISM AND EPISCOPACY. 



Being the Sixth Volume of the Series of the 
BOOKS OF THE CHURCH. 



Dr gunn. 



Printed and Published by Allan Smyth, 
Neidpath Press. 



Peebles: 

Printed by Allan Smyth, 

Neidpath Press. 



1369841 



PREFACE. 

This is the Sixth Volume of the series of Books of the Church. It shews 
the conversion of a mediceval Romish Church into the Reformed Parish 
Church of modern times. It covers the period of a hundred and thirty years 
from the Reformation to the Revolution Settlement, during which the Church 
passed through the alternating phases of Presbyterianism and Episcopacy. 
The ecclesiastical records of Peebles and of its Church are very complete, and 
ajjord an unusually detailed study of this difficult and interesting period. 

In Peebles Parish Church at the present day Divine Service is celebrated 
in conformity with Knox's Liturgy and after the methods of the Second 
Episcopacy. Christmas and Easter are duly commemorated. Is a union of 
Scottish Protestantism not possible on this basis? (See p. 249.) 

At the last moment Mr Renwick contributed the very interesting references 
to the Vicarage Teinds which appear in the appendix (p. 250). 

This volume is, like its predecessors, the product of the local Press, and 
both it and its author owe much to the careful and laborious interest given 
to the whole work by Mr Allan Smyth and his staff. The veteran master of 
his craft, Mr Alexander Smyth, has again supervised the proofs with un- 
dimmed eye and unabated strictness. 

Two interesting water colours are published for the first time — "A Sinner 
on the Pillarie," and "A Scottish Catechising," by kind permission of the Earl 
of Stair and Colonel Gray Buchanan respectively. 

Messrs W. & A. K. Johnston have produced the illustrations with their 
usual care. 

I thank the Carnegie Trustees for a grant in aid of the production of 
this volume. 

C. B. G. 

Lindores, 

Peebles, Christmas IQII. 



BOOKS OF THE CHURCH. 

Price si- Each. 
The Book of Stobo Church. 
The Book of St Andrew's Church, Peebles, 1195. 

The hook under review is a unique history of St Andrew's Church, whose tower and 
ruined walls still stand within the ancient cemetery of Peebles. There is no other Church in 
Scotland, not even the Abbeys and Cathedrals, which possesses a published history such as 
this is. It is all detailed in the volume now before us, from the very day of dedication, 
rising to the heights of prosperity and power, and proceeding by moral and spiritual 
decadence to ultimate poverty, ruin, and extinction. The volume has an interesting 
appendix and a most copious index. There are also twenty-four very beautiful and rare 
illustrations and two charters. — Peeblesshire Advertiser. 

The Church and Monastery of the Holy Cross of Peebles, 1261. 

This book is the result of a quarter of a century of study of the ancient Church. The 
sumptuous volume may be said to embody all that has been discovered respecting the Cross 
Church. We have its whole history before us, from the foundation by King Alexander III., 
on 7th May 1261, to the dissolution of the monastery and dispersion of the surviving friars, 
on the 27th January 1560. — Peeblesshire Advertiser. 

The Ministry of the Presbytery of Peebles, 296-1910. 

As originally planned this book was intended to be a " section of the General Assembly's 
scheme for the revision of Dr Hew Scott's Fasti." But it has developed into a "record of 
every minister of the Church within the bounds of the Presbytery of Peebles, from the third 
century of the Christian era to the first decade of the twentieth." Presbytery and kirk- 
session records and other available sources of information the author has searched to good 
purpose. — Scotsman. 

Dr Gunn, to whose unremitting zeal and scholarly research these volumes bear ample 
and convincing testimony, is to be congratulated on this book, which is in several respects 
the best bit of work that he has done in this province of Church history and antiquities. — 
Glasgow Herald. 

This is a condensed history of the Church of Scotland within the bounds of the 
Presbytery of Peebles, from the earliest times down to the present day. The life histories of 
no fewer than 406 clergymen are recorded in this volume. This, however, is no mere 
catalogue of names. Under the name and date of each clergyman is recorded every 
circumstance of note which happened in his Church or parish during his ministry. It is a 
truly monumental work. — Peeblesshire Advertiser. 

The Book of Lyne and Megget Church, 1165-1911, with St Mary's of 
the Lowes. 

This, the fifth of the series of Peeblesshire "Books of the Church" prepared by Dr 
Clement Gunn, is also the bulkiest and the best appointed in the matter of illustrations. In 
accordance with the plan which he has adopted and is carrying out with so much thorough- 
ness and industry, Dr Gunn elucidates the ecclesiastical history of Lyne and Megget by the 
aid of copious extracts from the Church records and other original documents which have not 
hitherto received so thorough a search. He disinters much matter of curious local interest, 
along with particulars that throw not a little light on the condition and ideas of the Church 
and the nation in pre-Reformation and post-Reformation times. — Scotsman. 

Very many who are neither strangers to nor merely travellers through the district will 
gratefully acknowledge their indebtedness to the enthusiasm and diligence of Dr Gunn for the 
lucid and detailed narrative he presents in this handsome volume. There is a mass of 
material in this volume illustrative of the religious condition of the country in times gone by. 
— Glasgow Herald. 

The dominating feature of this, the fifth of "The Books of the Church," is the 
ill-advised union of Megget with Lyne three hundred years ago, and the long drawn-out 
attempts of the Presbytery of Peebles ever since that date to annul it, or at least to mitigate 
its inconsistencies. Inconceivable though it may be, the Presbytery is no further on in the 
matter than it was three centuries ago. " The Books of the Church " will become more and 
more valuable as the years roll on, and future historians will have reason to bless Dr Gunn 
for handing on to them volumes which are veritable mines of information regarding the 
doings of our forefathers in the valleys and uplands of the Tweed and its tributary streams. 
A beautiful specimen of typography. — Peeblesshire Advertiser. 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Foreword, - i 

The Reformation, - - 4 

The Early Ministers, ..----- 6 

PrESBYTERIANISM, ..-----. 12 

The Ministry of Thomas Cranstoun, - - - - 30 

Alternating Presbyterianism and Episcopacy, - - 33 

The Ministry of Archibald Douglas, - - - - 35 

Presbyterianism, . . - 46 

The Ministry of Theodore Hay, D.D., - - - - 87 

The First Episcopacy, ------- 87 

Covenanted Presbyterianism, - - - - - - 1 1 1 

The Ministry of John Hay, B.l)., ----- 150 

The Second Episcopacy, - - - - - - - 179 

The Ministry of John Hay, A.M., - - - - - 197 

The Ministry of James Feithie, ----- 232 

Presbyterianism of the Revolution, - . . - 243 

Appendix, - - - - 244 

Index, ---------- 252 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Cross Kirk of Peebles before the Reformation, Frontispiece. 

Map, -------- To face Page i 

Catechising in the Church, . - - - „ 60 

Signing the National Covenant, - - - „ iii 

A Holy Fair, ,,162 

Ancient Font of St Andrew's Church, - - ,,176 

Tower, Cross Kirk, ------ ,,185 

A Sinner on the Pillarie, - - - - - ,,191 

The Covenanters' Communion, - - - - ,,201 

Dr Robert Leighton, ,,203 

The Most Ancient Stone in Peebles Churchyard, „ 216 

Four Ancient Communion Chalices, - - - ,,225 

Facsimile Inscriptions, . . - - - ,,226 



BOOKS OF THE CHURCH. 
The Book of Stobo Church, 1 170-1907. 
The Book of St Andrew's Church, Peebles, i 195-1560. 
The Church and Monastery of the Holy Cross of Peebles, 

1261-1560. 
The Ministry of the Presbytery of Peebles, 296-1910. 
The Book of Lyne and Megget Church, ii 65-191 i, with St 

Mary's of the Lowes. 
The Book of the Cross Kirk of Peebles, 1560- 1690. 



Map shewing Parishes in Presbytery of Peebles 




The Route fiom L>ne Church to Megget Chuich traverbcd by the Minister of L>ne and Megget is 
shown in led Observe that the whole of Minor half of Peebles two thirds of Traquau, ind 
part of Yarrow intervene. The distance measures twenty-six miles each way. 



THE REFORMED CHURCH OF SCOTLAND IN 
PEEBLES. 

Within the Cross Church from 1560 to 1784^0 all, two hundred and 
twenty-four years. 



FORE WORD. 

The seeds of Christianity in the county of Peebles bad been sown by Ninian, 
Kentigem, Cuthbert, and by an unknown missioner, Nicholas. Kentigern appears 
to have been the true founder of the Church in Peeblesshire and within the Borders. 
A Church dedicated by his name, St Mungo, which was the favourite appellation of 
Kentigern among the Scots, is considered traditionally to have existed in the ancient 
cemetery of Peebles. 

No traces of the Celtic Church are to be found in Peebles, whether its influence 
spread thither from Zona in the west, or from Lindisfarne in the east. It is the 
British Church of Kentigem, within the diocese of Glasgow, which predominated 
in the county of Peebles. 

When the Romish Reformation associated with the name of Margaret, Saint 
and Queen, was influencing Scotland, a new Parish Church was erected in the 
cemetery of Peebles. It was dedicated by the name of St Andrew, on the 29th 
October, in the year 1195. Stones of the earlier British Church of St Mungo are 
said to have been incorporated within the fabric of the new Church. This Church 
of St Andrew, with its full complement of eleven altars and attendant clergy, 
continued as the Parish Church of Peebles until the Protestant Reformation of 1560. 
Seventeen years before this Reformation, in a praiseworthy attempt to increase her 
usefulness, the Church had been converted into a collegiate charge, with provost, 
rector, curates and chaplains; but six years thereafter, and about a decade before the 
Reformation, the Church, along with a considerable part of Peebles, was burned 
by an invading English army (1549). 

For ten years before the Reformation, therefore, the parishioners of Peebles 
possessed no proper Parish Church, although some form of divine service was being 
irregularly celebrated within its ruins, in order that its clergy might have a legal 
title to draw their stipends. 

There were other three places of worship within the parish of Peebles at this 
time. These were: — (2.) The Chapel of the Virgin Mary, situated at the west end of 
the north row of the High Street, founded in the year 1362; there was also (3.) in 
the landward part of the parish, at Eshiels, a hospital and chapel of SS. Leonard and 



2 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

Lawrence, founded early in the fourteenth century; and (4.) there still was standing 
within the burgh the Church of the Holy Cross, which had been founded in the 
year 1261 by King Alexander III. It was the Church of the Convent of the 
Trinity Friars, three centuries old. Its monastery had been dissolved, and the 
friars dispersed. This was henceforth to be the dwelling-place of the Church of 
Scotland in Peebles for two centuries and a quarter. 

The Cross Church: Reformed. a.d. i 560-1 784. 

With symbolic appropriateness the Church of Scotland, now reformed, resumed 
her interrupted life in Peebles in a Church which had been a Roman Catholic place 
of worship for three centuries. The ruins of her ancient Parish Church of St 
Andrew's were still standing as silent witnesses of the obsolete order. The desolate 
choir and the desecrated altars spoke eloquently of the vanished ritual. But 
although apparently suffering an interruption, the continuity of the Church was 
maintained, and in the ancient Church of the Holy Cross, purged and reformed, 
the Church of Scotland continued her career, purged and reformed also. 

In the county of Peebles, the Churches of Stobo and of Lyne are also 
pre- Reformation Churches of ancient date ; but, unlike the case of the Cross Church, 
divine service is carried on in them unto the present day. In 1560 every new 
clergyman and every worshipper had been a Roman Catholic; and many of the 
former had officiated as Romish priests. In most parishes the buildings which had 
survived the riots of the Reformation continued to serve as places of divine service to 
the same people who had worshipped in them in pre-Reformation days, just as they 
had served their forefathers for centuries. The ritual, the doctrine, the dogma, were 
revised and reformed; the fabrics themselves were swept and garnished anew; the 
congregations assembled as of yore. It is indeed an interesting meditation to 
contemplate Churches such as those of Stobo and of Lyne, both in active use to-day, 
and to endeavour to realise that all down the centuries for more than seven hundred 
years, the bells of these village sanctuaries have summoned the sons of the soil and 
the lords of the manor without surcease to worship God and hear the same evangel 
delivered to them as to their fathers in the dawn of the Christian era. 

The Cross Church of Peebles, which was now to become the home of the 
Reformed Church of Scotland, was founded by King Alexander III., in the year 
1 261. It was designed to be the Memorial Church of one Nicholas, an early 
missionary and martyr, whose calcined remains had been discovered near the spot. 
With much ceremonial, both of the Church and of the State, the foundation stone 
had been laid. 

When the building was finished, it became the establishment of the Red or 
Trinity Friars, one of whose missions was to collect money for the ransom of 
Christian captives among the Saracens, during the Crusades, and later as the victims 
of Algerine pirates. It is interesting to note in this connection that, centuries after 
its first institution, the kirk-sessions of the Reformed Cross Church were wont to 
raise collections for this very purpose, little witting at the time that they were 
perpetuating a Romish tradition and practice. A master or minister presided over 



THE CROSS CHURCH BUILDINGS. 3 

the Church in its early days. King James III., in the year 1473, was the means of 
adding to the Church a cloister on the north aspect, in whose apartments a regular 
convent of friars was housed. At this time also the Church claimed to possess a 
fragment of the very true Cross on which our Saviour was crucified. This added 
great lustre to the Church, and became the objective of pilgrimages of all classes of 
the people, from the monarchs down to the very lowest. All the Stuart sovereigns 
worshipped in this interesting and hallowed Church, which attained a sacred 
celebrity in the Middle Ages. Decadence, however, had set in some time before 
the Reformation of the year 1560. The number of the clergy had dwindled. It 
did not, however, suffer so severely as the Parish Church had done in the English 
invasion of the year 1549, so that it became no very difficult matter to adapt this 
ancient Church of the Trinity Friars to the worship and needs of the Reformed 
Church in 1560. 

The Cross Church Buildings. 
What manner of building was this, the first Reformed Church in Peebles? It 
was an oblong rectangular edifice, measuring 102 feet in length, by 26 in breadth, 
interior measurement. The height from the ground to the top of the side walls was 
24 feet. At first there were no pews or seats, and no galleries. Probably every 
worshipper brought his own stool, as did Jenny Geddes in St Giles'. There 
were two doors on the south side, one on the north leading from the cloisters, and 
one at the west end. There were four or five windows on the south wall; it is 
uncertain if there were any at first on the north side. To the north aspect of the 
Church, the cloisters formed a sort of lean-to to the Church, and along with other 
three arcades, enclosed a rectangular area or court behind the Church. A massive 
square tower, roofed in with a bartizan, stood at the west end, and in a small 
canopied niche still existing on its south-west angle, about ten feet from the ground, 
stood probably a statue of St Nicholas, which, however, would be removed at the 
Reformation. A large Gothic window, filled in with tracery, lighted the Church 
from the east. In this ancient, long, and somewhat bare edifice, the burghers of 
Peebles and the landward parishioners worshipped for two hundred and twenty-four 
years, and during that period, the Reformed Church underwent its experimental 
infancy, the alternating phases of its late youth, and ere the congregation abandoned 
its decaying fabric, the Church had attained the matured repose which was the 
result of the Revolution Settlement of the year 1690. 



1560. ■c;be iReformation. 

[On the 17th of August, a.d. 1560, the Protestant Confession of Faith was 
adopted by Parliament, and on the 24th day of the same month penal acts were 
passed against all Roman Catholics : those two enactments legalised the Reformation 
in Scotland.] 

The Early Proceedings of the Reformed Church in Peebles: Summary. 

1560, August 18 — About noon on this day, Dionysius Elphinstoun of 
Henderstoun declared in a loud voice, in the porch of St Andrew's ruined Church, 
" that no ministration of the common prayers was being performed in the place 
where it ought to be done." 

1560, November 20 — The bailies were ordained to go to Edinburgh to the 
Lords of the Congregation to provide a minister and preacher. 

1560, November 28 — Eight days thereafter the magistrates, convened in the 
tolbooth, modified to John Dickson, minister of the common prayers in our Kirk 
of Peebles, forty pounds usual money of Scotland, . . . to be uplifted out of 
the readiest of the parson's goods and gear. 

1560, December 11 — The magistrates received from the Romish minister of the 
Cross Church monastery the keys of the outer door, in response to an order from the 
Lords of the Congregation. This was with a view to the Cross Church becoming the 
Reformed Parish Church. 

1560, December 12 — On the following day it appeared that the new minister, 
John Dickson, had arrested the corn, lying in the yard in the Old Town, of the 
Romish archdeacon and rector of Peebles, deceased. This was done as being the 
readiest of the goods and gear of the former parson of Peebles, out of which the 
stipend of the Reformed minister was to be paid. But on two burgesses coming 
forward to act as sureties, the arrestment was relaxed by the bailie. 

/ydo, December 20 — The bailies were ordained to pass to Edinburgh to the 
Lords, and get a minister to shew the true Word of God; and to modify to him a 
reasonable fee. The inference possibly is that John Dickson had not proved an 
efficient minister in some way, and that the community desired to have a more 
competent man to act as minister of Peebles. 

1560, January 2y — On this day was completed the cession of the Cross Church, 
to become the Parish Church. It is to be remembered in this connection that at 
that time the year did not end until March 24. 

1561, November 23 — " Sir John Allan, as minister of Peebles for the time," was 
charged on this day not to publish the banns of marriage between certain parties. 
This was done in the Cross Church, then used as the Parish Church. One infers 
from this extract that the bailies had not been successful in their quest for a minister 



ALLAN— DICKSON— CRANSTO UN— DO UGLAS. 5 

in place of John Dickson, and that they had elected, at least for the time, Sir John 
Allan, an ex-priest and chaplain, to act as minister of Peebles. 

/f(5/, February S — The magistrates and community on this day elected certain 
men to serve as elders and deacons. The elders and deacons are then stated to 
have " elected John Allan to be their minister in times coming, conform to his 
admission by John Willock and John Davidson, ministers in Glasgow; desiring also 
John Knox, superintendent of Edinburgh, to admit him in corroboration of the 
admission by the superintendents of Glasgow." The town treasurer was also 
ordained to allow John Allan five merks towards his expenses to go to Edinburgh 
to the preaching and exercise. 

1362, June 27 — John Dickson was admitted to be reader and exhorter of the 
common prayers, by John Willock, superintendent of Glasgow. Dickson possibly 
had not been found to be qualified to fill the position of minister of Peebles, but 
was now appointed to act as reader, while Sir John Allan, ex-priest, had probably 
been removed from the ministry. (See page 10, " Life of Sir John Allan.") 

1562, July 24 — John Dickson addressed the magistrates anent the appointing 
of elders; and upon the solemnisation of matrimony by those who ought to be 
married. This looks as if John Dickson were in sole charge by the appointment of 
John Willock (above). 

1562, February 13 — John Dickson, the exhorter, summoned before the 
kirk-session Gilbert Broun, formerly Romish minister of the Cross Church 
monastery. 

1566, July 8 — After an interval of four years, John Dickson is still found at 
variance with the friars, for on that date the bailies warned the ex-Romish minister 
and friars that if they refused to compear, the petition of John Dickson " shall 
be holden pro confesso." Nothing more concerning this matter is found in the 
records. 

In 1566, September 30, and again in 1567, October 6, John Dickson was 
created clerk of court; and in 1568, October 4, Dickson was sworn to use the 
ofifice of clerkship conform to his gift, for his lifetime, under the common seal. 
But on January 30, 1569, Sir John Allan, who had been deprived of the town 
clerkship seven years previously, was restored to that office. Here, then, may be 
seen John Dickson, reader and exhorter, succeeding as town clerk Sir John Allan, 
ex-town clerk and ex-minister of Peebles. 

Tjdp, June 22 — The vicar of Peebles is on this date referred to. His name 
was Archibald. He is mentioned several times formerly — as chamberlain of 
Glasgow, and as factor for the Romish rectors of Peebles. Here he is found 
assigning the glebe to a burgess. It is very probable that Archibald was now 
nominally only vicar as holder of the glebe, and that he did not possess any 
ecclesiastical office in the Reformed Church; and that John Dickson was spiritual 
vicar under the new order. 

1570 — In this year charges were made against several persons, more especially 
those of the Dickson family, including John Dickson, reader, of receiving portions 
of the Church furnishings and goods, from the ruined St Andrew's Parish Church. 



6 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

1570, February 10 — Thomas Cranstoun was called to "show the Word of 
God truly." His son, Andrew Cranstoun, was at the same time appointed 
schoolmaster. 

In 1 57 1, April 25, Thomas Cranstoun, minister, was appointed to be paid 
a third of the vicarage of Manor and Peebles. 

157 1, February 6 — The magistrates promised to give Master Thomas 
Cranstoun, minister, and his son, a resolute answer regarding their stipends. 

7f7j — Archibald Douglas appointed archdeacon of Glasgow and minister 
of Peebles. He was to be entitled to receive the whole fruits of the parsonage. 
(Cranstoun was to have received only one-third.) 

Resum^ of the Early Ministers. 

1560 — John Dickson, minister for a few weeks, thereafter exhorter and reader. 

1^61 — Sir John Allan, ex-priest, &c. Possibly acting as minister at times 
during ten years, as no other minister is mentioned. 

isyo — Thomas Cranstoun. 

1^73 — Archibald Douglas. 

As this matter of the early ministers of Peebles is a somewhat involved and 
obscure study, it has been considered a more convenient and intelligible arrangement 
to bring all the known facts together as in the foregoing abstract. Any amplification 
required to be made of any of its statements will come under the proper chronological 
dates. 

Retrospect of the Events Leading to the Conversion of the Monastery 

Church into the Parish Church of Peebles in Succession to the 

Ruined Romish Church of St Andrew's. 

7//P — Alienations of the monastery lands by the clergy. 

/fjp, July 5 — Lord Yester secured an option of the Cross Church from the 
friars, provided they were to be no longer able to retain it. 

1560, March JO — The Master of Yester and a company of esquires came 
to the monastery and terrorised the minister, Gilbert Broun. 

1360, December 11 — Petition from the inhabitants of Peebles asking from 
the Lords of the Congregation the Church of the Holy Cross to become their 
Parish Church. Cross Church granted to the parishioners. Key of the outer 
door deUvered up by the last Romish minister, Gilbert Broun. Various protests 
made against this occupation of the Church: — (i.) Protest by the minister, Gilbert 
Broun; (2.) Protest by Dionysius Elphinstoun of Henderstoun (Haystoun), against 
the abandonment of St Andrew's Church, and the use of the Cross Church as the 
Parish Church; (3.) Protest by the Master of Yester in favour of the claim by 
Lord Yester to the Cross Church. All the foregoing protests were, however, of 
no avail. 

1360, January 27 — Dissolution of the monastery; dispersal of the friars; the 
keys of the Church handed over by the last Romish minister, Gilbert Broun; the 



TEMPORARY MINISTERS. 



Cross Church becomes the Parish Church of Peebles. (See The Church and 
Monastery of the Holy Cross.) 

TEMPORARY MINISTERS. 

On November 25, 1560, previous to their obtaining possession of the Church, 
the bailies were ordered to proceed to Edinburgh, to consult with the Lords 
of the Congregation regarding a minister for Peebles. Eight days thereafter the 
magistrates assigned a stipend of forty pounds per annum to one John Dickson, 
minister of the common prayers in our Kirk of Peebles. Nothing is known 
concerning the previous career of this provisional minister: possibly he was of the 
family of Dickson of Winkston. 

It is a legitimate inference that John Dickson was speedily found to be 
unsuitable or unqualified to act as minister of Peebles, because within one month the 
magistrates were again ordained to journey to Edinburgh, and get a minister to show 
the true Word of God. 

The result of this second journey does not appear. Probably it was unsuccessful, 
for in ten months (1561, November 23), Sir John Allan is found referred to as 
" minister of Peebles for the time." Now, John Allan was a native of Peebles, and 
had lived in the town all his life. His intellect seems to have been the most acute 
of all those flitting across the stage at this time; and during the preliminary dearth 
of educated clergymen from among the ex-Romish priests, it is probable that he was 
selected to act as temporary minister until better provision could be made. He had 
been a lawyer and notary pubhc. He had also filled the office of town clerk; and 
latterly had been one of the chaplains in the old Parish Church of St Andrew's. 
Intellectually, then, if not spiritually, John Allan was possessed of certain qualifications 
which enabled him to act as minister for the time. 

John Dickson, erstwhile minister, was now styled exhorter. 

[The reader or exhorter was intended to be temporarily employed until a 
minister could be secured. It was his duty to read the common prayers and 
scriptures to the congregation, but not to administer the sacraments. If he were 
able, he might add an exhortation to his reading; and in process of time, if this 
training achieved efficiency, he might even be raised to the position of minister. 

[The English Prayer Book was at this time read in the Parish Churches of 
Scotland, but after a short time it was replaced by The Book of Common Order. 
This was a version of the liturgy in use in the Reformed Churches on the continent. 
By this book, the service of the Church of Scotland was regulated until 1645. 

[The first part of the service was conducted by the reader from the lectern. 
It consisted of praise, prayer, scripture, and, at some places, decalogue and creed. 
The minister then entered the pulpit, and knelt for private devotion. He began 
with one prayer, or two prayers with praise between. After this, there was the 
sermon, then a prayer of intercession, and finally the benediction. Conceived, 
as opposed to read prayers, always formed part of the service. If the minister 
were absent, the reader conducted the service, which was then wholly devotional. 

[In all the towns, and in the principal villages, there was daily morning and 
evening prayer in the Churches, and in many places the Churches remained open 
all day for the private devotions of the people.] 



8 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

Life of Sir John Allan, 

Priest, Notary Public, Town Clerk, Curate of St Andrew's, Chaplain of St John's, 

interim Reformed Minister of Peebles, Contractor for the Town Wall, &c. 

At this point an interesting study may be made of one of the Romish chaplains 
who became a convert to the new faith. 

Sir John Allan, whose personality is one of the most interesting of those of the 
Reformation period, was born about the year 1517. His father, John Allan, was 
married twice — first to Janet Gibson, who had a son, afterwards Sir Andrew Allan; 
and later, to Marion Gibson, mother of Sir John Allan. These ladies may have 
been sisters. 

The worthy burgess owned a land and biggin in the Crocegait of Peebles, 
and either he or his widow, Marion Allan, had burdened the property with an 
annual payment of eight shillings. This sum the widowed mother conferred upon 
her own son, Sir John, who was now aged 27, and a priest. Sir John Allan, with 
consent of his mother, and probably with a lively sense of favours to come, made 
a gift of the annualrent of eight shillings to the dean of Peebles, Master John 
Colquhoun, chaplain of the altar of SS. Peter and Paul. The dean utilised the 
money in purchasing, on behalf of his own soul, anniversary services to be performed 
by the succeeding chaplains at his altar, regularly as the date of his decease should 
come round. But long ere the death of the dean occurred. Sir John Allan redeemed 
the sum of eight shillings on the property by the payment in one sum of eight 
pounds; so the arrangement came to an end. This was on April 20, 1555. 

In the year 1546, Sir John Allan had succeeded in obtaining the ancestral 
biggin from his brother-german. Sir Andrew, to whom it had come as the son of 
John Allan and Janet Gibson. Two months thereafter, when Sir John was aged 
29, he was created a notary public, under apostolic authority, by Mr Richard 
Bothwell, doctor in civil and ecclesiastical laws. 

1550, March 75 — At this date Sir John Allan is found acting as curate of 
Peebles. It was on this day that William Kello, priest, and factor for the archdeacon 
of Peebles, Mr Alexander Dik, gave to the curate letters concerning the arrears of 
certain teind meal belonging to the parsonage of Peebles, at the instance of the 
archdeacon against John Hay, burgess of Peebles. Thereupon John Hay, during 
high mass in the Church, before all the parishioners, offered to account with the 
archbishop, and make full payment for the same. 

i^^ I, June ip — An execution was taking place upon the Kingsmuir. Thomas 
Melrose, with the rope around his neck, was on the point of ascending the fatal 
ladder. Whereupon he declared in a loud voice, and as he should answer before the 
Supreme Judge, that all the goods on Upper Kidston, and in possession of Andrew 
Melrose, his son, as well as the growing corn on Upper Kidston, had all been 
assigned to him at the feast of Martinmas, in the year 1549. Sir John Allan was 
present at this execution and dying declaration; so also were Sir William Tunno, Sir 
John Thomson, and other priests and notaries. 

iSSIt August 4 — Sir William Tunno, vicar of Manor, was dying, and desired to 



LIFE OF SIR JOHN ALLAN. 9 

make a death-bed protestation against any relapse of sinful nature during his latest 
moments. Sir John Allan was present as chaplain and notary public, along with 
other burgesses and also the brother-german of the dying chaplain. 

155^1 J'fy 21?— The Inquest refers the answer of Sir John Allan, written upon 
the annuals of St John's altar, to the bailies, because the treasurer was aye ordained 
of old to pay the same, conform to his infeftment, and as their books purport of old, 
and to sight their accounts, and pay the annuals restand to him; and thereupon the 
said Sir John asked enrolment of court of the said deliverance. 

ISSS, January 16 — The Inquest ordained Sir John Allan to be presented to the 
prebendary of St James's altar, within the Collegiate Church of St Andrew's, and to 
receive, uplift, and intromit, with all the annuals pertaining to it, both in Peebles and 
in Edinburgh, in all time coming. 

1560, September 2q — Sir John Allan created town clerk of Peebles. 

ijSo, December 20 — Sir John Allan, priest, was ordered to abstain from 
Margaret Dik. Was this lady a daughter of Archdeacon Dik? It was on this 
selfsame day that the first General Assembly of the Reformed Church was meeting 
within the Magdalene Chapel, Edinburgh. 

Tjd/, July ig — The bailies instructed the treasurer to answer their common 
servant and orator. Sir John Allan, prebendary of St John's altar, concerning 
twenty-eight pounds of the annuals of the said altar owing to him byegone; and 
to do so annually in times coming. 

iS6i, November 23 — From an entry under this date, it would seem as if 
John Allan were acting, at least for a time, as minister. This also although 
John Dikesoun was mentioned in November 1560 as minister of the common 
prayers in the kirk of Peebles. From other references, however, it would seem 
more likely that John Dikesoun had not proved to be fitted for this post, and 
that he acted later as reader and exhorter. However, returning to John Allan : On 
the day already mentioned, Thomas Tuedy, on behalf of Christina Miller, promised 
spouse of John Bullo, charged John Allan, notary, as minister of Peebles for the 
time being, to refrain from publishing the banns of marriage between John Bullo 
and Elizabeth Lauder, in the Cross Church, then used as the Parish Church, 
about II A.M., in presence of Mr John Colquhoune and other three burgesses. 
John Bullo, however, asserted that he had not made a promise to Christina Miller, 
and that he was quite free to marry Elizabeth Lauder. 

1561, February 5 — On this day the bailies, council, and community had 
chosen ten elders and eight deacons. The elders and deacons have elected and 
chosen John Allan to be their minister in times coming, conform to John Willock 
and John Davidson, ministers in Glasgow's admission; desiring effectuously John 
Knox, superintendent of Edinburgh, to admit the same by his subscription manual 
in corroboration of the superintendent's admission at Glasgow. Thereupon the 
said John Allan asked instruments, and protested for the names of the said 
elders and deacons for the enrolment of court. And further ordained their 
treasurer to answer the said Sir John of five merks of money out of the common 
good to go to Edinburgh to the preaching and exercise, to bear his expenses. 



lo THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

It seems tolerably certain that Sir John Allan did not continue for any 
length of time to act as minister of Peebles, for on June 27, 1562, John 
Dickson produced a testimonial and admission, dated the 20th of that month, 
whereby John Willock, superintendent at Glasgow, appointed him to continue at 
Peebles, where he had dwelt for the space of three years bye-past, there to use 
the common prayers and exhortations to the people according to the portion of 
his gift — "To be, I mean, reader and exhorter there." Probably now, for the 
next eight years, John Dickson, reader and exhorter, held sole charge of the 
Reformed Church of Peebles. 

In July 1563, Bailie William Dikesoun removed the court books out of the 
town clerk's possession; against which act of spulye, however, Bailie John Wichtman 
protested. His reason was that the council and community had not consented 
thereto, nor had they discharged Sir John Allan from his post, considering that 
no " notour fault " had been proved against him. He desired his colleague 
therefore to restore the books to Allan. 

In the following October, at the time of the election, John Dikesoun and 
Sir John Allan were created clerks until they should be discharged. 

On December 10, 1563, the council ordered Sir John Allan to deliver 
up the common books so that they might be conferred upon their clerk, John 
Dickson. And ten days thereafter. Treasurer William Dikesoun, on behalf of 
the bailies and council, afiSrmed that Allan was not worthy to use the office of 
burgh clerkship, and that he had been discharged for reasonable causes, especially 
because he kept in his company an unclean person, who was not joined with him 
in the bands of matrimony. For this, there may have been the plea put forward 
by Hill Burton, that the priests morally led a life of quasi married domesticity. 
Allan was farther charged with rebelling against the ordinance of the provost and 
bailies. Allan's plea was that the clerkship was his for life; and he protested 
against the loss of his emoluments. The bailies replied that Allan had not 
produced a letter authenticated with the common seal of the burgh, but only a 
"frivoll allegance." 

1563, December 20 — Sir John Allan had acted as town clerk since 1551. On 
this day it was thought proper to discharge him from this office, as he declined to 
marry the lady with whom he lived, notwithstanding many warnings from the 
authorities. She had a daughter, named Katharine Allan. 

/jdj, lasi day of February — Sir John Allan appeared before the examiners of 
notaries at Edinburgh, and produced his instrument of creation and his protocol 
book, and was duly admitted by the Lords of Session to practise his vocation. He 
is designed as notary public and common clerk of the burgh of Peebles, aged 46, 
unmarried, a native of Peebles. 

1364, June 7 — David Crychtoun appointed burgh clerk; and for a few years 
Allan was out of office, though he continued as a notary. 

Later, on September 27, 1564, Sir John Allan, acting this time as a notary, 
granted to Katharine Allan and Margaret Dik, her mother, sasine of a property on 
the north side of the Briggait. (Katharine Allan was Sir John Allan's own daughter.) 



LIFE OF SIR JOHN ALLAN. ii 

In 1566 and again in 1567, John Dickson was created clerk of court, and in 
1568, October 14, Dickson was sworn to use the office of clerkship of the burgh 
conform to his gift, . . for his lifetime, under the common seal. (This John 
Dickson was John Dickson, the reader and exhorter.) 

1567, April 7 — The bailies ordered all priests to compear and produce the 
gifts of their altarages. 

T'j'd/, April 28 — All priests within our city of Peebles to convene at next 
court; and John Allan and Gilbert Tweedy personally to produce their titles at 
next court. Accordingly James Davidson, now aged and blind, John Allan, and 
Gilbert Tweedy all duly compeared; and demanded from the bailies sitting in 
judgment the true extract of their foundations and evidents alleged to be in 
their custody. The judge, however, took instrument and act of court that no 
evidents had been produced before the court by the said priests, but only a 
deluding allegation, and therefore repelled the same simplidter. 

IJ67, July JO — Sir John Allan, however, must have been in the right, as 
on this date the judges decerned Thomas Foster's land to content and pay yearly 
to John Allan, prebendary of St John's altar, forty pence annualrent, conform 
to the infeftment produced in judgment on September 26, 1525; and ordains 
Janet Lauder, relict of the late James Frank, to pay so far as extends to her 
infeftment, providing there be as much defalcate, conform to the act of Parliament. 

IS<^P, October j — John Allan to be reponed as town clerk. 

On January 30, 1569, Sir John Allan, "who was spulyeit of his office by 
the space of seven years byegone," was restored to the clerkship. John Dickson 
and David Crychtoune were ordered to deliver up the books and papers to Sir 
John Allan, whose appointment was ratified in 1572. 

In 1570 Andrew Frank used injurious words upon Sir John Allan, clerk, stating 
that he could prove the said Sir John " ane false and fenyeit notarie!" Frank was 
put in prison till he should make good his words, but broke ward, and is heard of 
no more. 

Sir John Allan, during the whole Reformation period, comes forward as the 
most prominent personality in the burgh. Certainly he appears as the best educated 
man, and the holder of most of the appointments. Probably during those ten 
years of unsettlement following upon the religious revolution of the year 1560, 
Allan would prove to be a very useful, if maybe a somewhat unscrupulous official. 
He could carry on the municipal business of the town; as a notary he had his 
private legal practice; his rite of ordination as priest would possibly permit of 
his celebrating marriage and baptism during the want of a regular minister 
of the Reformed faith; and divine service of a kind could be carried on in the 
Cross Church by himself and John Dickson conjointly. By such methods the 
cure was served until the appointment of Thomas Cranstoun as the first regular 
minister of Peebles of the Reformed religion. Thereafter, in the year 1572, 
Allan, confirmed in his clerkship, is seen, along with one Lauder, contracting to 
build the town wall, which circumstance fitly closes all that is known at present 
of this versatile priest. 



12 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

The Government of the Reformed Church: Divine Service. 

[From 1560 to 1572 the government of the Church was by Presbytery; its 
officials comprised superintendents (who might be laymen), ministers, readers, 
elders, deacons. 

[In the First Book of Discipline, the country was intended to be divided 
into ten divisions, presided over, each, by one superintendent. He was to erect 
Churches, appoint ministers, and preach in places which had no pastor. In 
addition, he was to preach at least three times a week; was not to remain in 
his town of residence for more than three or four months at a time; while 
visiting, he was not to remain in any one place for longer than twenty days; must 
examine into the life, diligence, and behaviour of ministers and people; see the 
youth instructed, and the poor provided for; and take cognisance of all misdeeds 
calling for the discipline of the Kirk. The office was intended to be temporary, 
not perpetual; it might be given straight away to a layman; admission to it was 
by means of the Presbyters; and the superintendent was subject to the correction 
and censure of the Presbyteries; and possessed no exclusive powers of ordination 
such as bishops have. 

[The office of minister has never changed down to the present day. 

[The reader was intended to be a temporary substitute in those parishes which 
as yet had no minister; he might not dispense the sacraments. 

[Elders were to be men with the best knowledge of the scriptures, of the 
purest life, and most honest conversation. They were to assist the minister in 
the public affairs of the Kirk, and in admonitions to evil-doers. They were to 
take heed to the life, manners, diligence, and study of the minister; to admonish, 
correct, and along with the superintendent and the Kirk depose him if necessary. 
Deacons were to receive and dispone alms, collect rents, and assist the minister 
and elders in judgment. Elders and deacons were to be elected for one year only. 

[Holy Communion was recommended to be celebrated four times a year; 
baptism to be in the Church at convenient times; marriage upon a Sunday in 
the presence of the Church, and after proclamation of banns; funerals were to 
be conducted without any ceremony. The Common Prayers and Order of Geneva 
superseded the First Book of Edward VI., which had been the early guide of 
the Reformers. A metrical version of the Psalms was bound up with it. John 
Knox had the principal hand in composing it, and he used it while he was 
located at Geneva, hence its alternative name. In it were morning and evening 
prayers, an order for baptism, an order for communion, for marriage, for the 
visitation of the sick, and later, forms for election of superintendents and ministers, 
for excommunication, and for public repentance. The minister authoritatively 
absolves the penitent of his sin, and declares it to be loosed in Heaven. 

[With regard to the patrimony of the Kirk, the Book of Discipline proposed to 
divide the revenues into three parts — for the maintenance of the ministry, the 
education of the youth, and the support of the poor. 

[/jdo, December 20 — The first General Assembly was held at Edinburgh. 
There were no members present from Peeblesshire, unless Walter Balfour, "for the 
Kirk of Linton," be one. There are, however, three Lintons.] 

Contemporary Minister. 
[1560 — Eddleston — George Hay was parson both of Eddleston and Rathven, by 
dispensation of the Pope, and the double appointment was confirmed at the 



THE POOR— DISCIPLINE— BENEFICES. 13 

Protestant Reformation. In 1568 he was rebuked for neither preaching nor 
administering the sacraments. Thereafter he appears to have gone to Rathven.] 

Sacred Tune. 
[7j(5o — "Weimar" (51 and 166, Scottish Hymnal), by Melchior Vulpius 
(1560-1616).] 

Miscellaneous. 

1^61 — In 1561 the vicarage of Peebles was let to the parishioners for forty-two 
merks : formerly it had yielded j^6o. The vicarage glebe then measured sixty acres. 

75- (5/ — On June 21 it was ordered that all poor folk and decrepit bedells were 
to be harboured in the west vault under the tolbooth. It is curious that there is no 
word regarding the almshouse of St Leonard, which is supposed to have been 
situated in this vicinity, at the west end of the High Street, and in the establishment 
of which a former minister of the Cross Church had the principal part. Probably 
thus early it had passed into the possession of the Hays of Yester. 

On June 21 also it was resolved that the town treasurer, along with another, 
collect the charity and alms for the poor for the next month, beginning on the 
following Sunday, and the alms to be distributed among the poor folk and bedells. 

Many who were living in sin were to be publicly punished, others were to 
be banished from the town. The masters of servants who committed certain sins, 
and still maintained them, were to be fined £\o, the sinners themselves to be 
burned on the cheek with a hot iron; and all slanderers to be banished from 
the town. 

Political. 
[In the political world, the event of great interest to the people of Scotland 
was the return of Mary Queen of Scots from France, whither she had been sent 
as a child. She was but eighteen, but at that brief age she had been married 
and was now a widow, had been Queen of France, and from her cradle was 
Queen of Scotland. The date of her landing at Leith was August 19, 1561.] 

Discipline. 
On October 14, 1561, the Inquest ordained a certain man to appear on 
the following Sunday before the congregation, and there ask forgiveness of Marion 
Stevenson. If he should refuse, he was to be bound to the Cross on a market 
day, with a paper about his head, and there remain publicly for twenty-four hours. 

The Benefices. 
\1561, January 27 — The Book of Discipline was subscribed in the tolbooth 
of Edinburgh. It held that six acres, if there be so much of the glebe, be always 
reserved for the minister. The ratification of the Book of Discipline was refused 
at the third General Assembly, and thereupon the barons craved provision for 
the ministers. It was then devised that the Kirkmen shall intromett with two-thirds 
of the benefices, and that the third part be lifted for the use of the minister and 
the Queen. In the end, sums of 100 merks to 300 merks formed the meagre 
stipends modified to ministers.] 



14 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

The First Elders. 

On February 5, 1561, the bailies, council, and community chose and elected 
certain persons to be elders and deacons, both in the burgh and land; to use their 
office truly for the setting forth the glory of God and His true and faithful Word, 
and punishment of transgressors of His holy commandments, conform to the 
laudable use and rite of other burghs, to be observed inviolable in all times coming. 
Elders — James Robesone, John Scot, John Wychtman, James Frank, James Tweedy, 
William Dickson, sen., John Fresall, Thomas Tweedy, Denys Elphinstoun, Thomas 
Tweedy, captain. In this list it is good to see Dionysius Elphinston taking office. 
He it was who protested against the abandonment of the old Church of St Andrew's, 
and also against the first minister, John Dickson. Deacons — Archie Scott, Alexander 
Lauder, David Robesoun, jun., Patrick Newtoun, James Wilson, Roland Scot, 
William Dickson, and in his absence, John Dickson. 

Not one of the older clergy of the Cross Church appears to have had office 
in the new Church; it is not certain as regards the clergy of St Andrew's, with the 
exception of Sir John Allan, who certainly did officiate. 

John Allan as New Minister (Interim). 
On the same day the elders and deacons elected and chose John Allan to be 
their minister in times coming, conform to John Willock's and John Davidson's, 
ministers in Glasgow, admission, desiring effectually John Knox, superintendent 
in Edinburgh, to admit the same by his manual subscription, in corroboration of 
the superintendent of Glasgow's admission. The treasurer was ordained to grant 
five merks of money to bear his expenses to go to Edinburgh to the preaching and 



The Church's Patrimony. 

[Regarding the patrimony of the Kirk, it is fitting to make a few remarks before 
proceeding farther. It has been mentioned that of the revenues of the Romish 
Church, two-thirds were to be allowed to the old Romish clergy, bishops, abbots, and 
priests. The remaining third was to be divided between the Crown and the 
Reformed Church. Whence did the enormous revenues of the Church originally 
come ? An answer is supplied very fully in the ecclesiastical history of St Andrew's 
Church, which was the ancient Parish Church of Peebles ; and as was the case in one 
parish, so also was it with all. 

[Pious donors were in the habit of assigning to the Church, or to some special 
altar in a Church, pieces of land, dwellings, or other properties. They also frequently 
gave gifts of money or articles of value to the Church. Again, instead of actually 
resigning a piece of land away from their own possession, such lands, parks, or 
tenements were frequently burdened by the payment of an annualrent to the Church 
or altar. This constituted an inalienable duty paid by the land to the Church, and 
at any time in the future, when such properties changed hands by sale or by 
inheritance, they were taken over by their new owners in full cognisance of the 
burden upon them, on which account their purchase price was so much the less. 
Mills also, which were very numerous, there being one in almost every parish, paid to 
the Church a small part of the price received for grinding the corn of the parishioners. 



THE CHURCH'S PATRIMONY, 15 

Finally, there were the teinds. The teind was a tithe, or tenth part, of the produce 
of the land which from time immemorial had been devoted to the Church. There 
is no written record of their origin ; they were a tradition from Jewish history. No 
accounts were kept, for none were needed. When the harvest was reaped and 
gathered into stooks, but before it was gathered in, it was the custom of the minister 
to traverse the fields, selecting every tenth sheaf as his teind sheaf. So also with the 
animal produce of the farm, every tenth of the young of the farm stock went to the 
minister. In seaside parishes the case was similar, the tenth part of the harvest of 
the sea was paid to the minister as his teind. By mutual consent, teinds might be 
commuted, and instead of being paid in kind an annual payment in money might be 
accepted by the minister, reckoned on an annual average of the value of the produce. 
And what was true of the parishes was true also, but in a far larger manner, of the 
abbeys and monasteries. Their revenues, derived from teinds, feu-duties, annual- 
rents, gifts, penance money, mill-multures, and priests' fees, were enormous. Only, 
in this connection, a great abuse was generally perpetrated. The greater tithes of a 
parish were claimed by the monastery or abbey, and only the smaller payments were 
left to sustain a vicar, who had to discharge the priestly duty on a meagre stipend. 
This very thing was done by the Cross Church monastery of Peebles. The convent 
absorbed the greater tithes of the parish of Kettins, far away in Forfarshire, and 
maintained a vicar in that parish out of the smaller tithes only. 

[The revenues of the Reformed Church, then, were derived from that Church's 
share of the third part of the Romish revenues. The Crown was to have the 
remainder of the third. 

[But two-thirds still remained to the Romish clergy. After the Reformation, 
these were free to marry; many did so, and bequeathed to their children the patrimony 
of the Kirk. This was specially the case with the great prelates, many of whom were 
created lords of the abbey lands, such as Lord Lindores, Lord Balmerino, &c. Grants 
from the Crown of these same abbey lands in most cases accompanied the granting 
of the titles, and in this way were created great territorial families. Much of the 
Church property, too, was simply seized by neighbouring proprietors without much 
show of justice. And it has been shewn how, for instance. Lord Yester made an 
agreement with the minister of the Cross Church monastery to assign the properties 
to him when the friars were no longer able to retain them. In any of these 
ways, then, was it possible to aHenate and secularise Church lands. No wonder, 
therefore, that the Reformed Church began its career as a poor Church, and that 
the liberal schemes of Knox for the Church, for education, and for the poor 
were perforce inadequately carried out. The Church of Scotland owes nothing 
to the Crown; on the contrary, the Crown and the heritors owe a very great deal to 
the Church.] 

Fate of Church Vestments. 

1561, March 2 — The Inquest ordained the vestments to be rouped, and 
whoever will give most therefor, to be answered thereof between this and Wednesday 
next. The money gotten for them to be distributed to poor householders, with 
the advice of the bailies and council. 

1561, March 4 — The council has chosen James Tweedy and seven others to 
give in the names of the poor householders and poor folk within their quarters of 
the town, as they have most need, conform to their indigence, in order that the 
money obtained for the vestments may be distributed among them at their discretion. 



i6 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

Sinners. 
Ij6i, March 4 — The council ordained at the same time that the deacons, 
every one in his own quarter, should give up truly all manner of sinners to receive 
their correction, by their advice and advice of the council, in order that condign 
punishment may be applied to them as God's Word doth appoint; and that the 
same act be put to execution, and that the said offenders' names be registered 
between this and the 1 2th day of March. 

The Book or Geneva. 
\_IS62 — The General Assembly enjoined the use of the Book of Geneva in the 
administration of the sacraments, the solemnisation of marriage, and the burial of the 
dead.] 

John Dickson Confirmed in Office as Reader and Exhorter. 
1362, June 27 — John Dickson, who was admitted reader and exhorter of the 
common prayers by John Willock, superintendent of Glasgow, produced this 
testimonial of admission thereto: — "Know ye, loving Christian people, that, as well 
upon old experience, proof, and faithful witnessing of the life and conversation of 
John Dickson, I have appointed him to continue in Peebles, where he has dwelt 
for the space of three years past, there to use the common prayers and e-xhortations 
unto the people, according to the portion of his gift; to be, I mean, reader and 
exhorter there, praying you, according to the rule of Paul, to use him godly and 
charitably, that he may be comforted in his office, as appertains to the duty of 
Christian persons. Subscribed with the said John Willock's hand, at Glasgow, 20th 
June 1562." 

John Dickson and the Magistrates. 
1562, June 24 — " Sirs, bailies, council, and community of the burgh of 
Peebles, — Your servitor, John Dickson, humbly shews your masterships, desiring 
you now at present convened, to appoint elders to watch over the Kirk, who 
have the fear of God before them, through whom vice may be punished agreeable 
with the will of God as is revealed in His evangel, and our Reformed Kirk be 
ordered as other Kirks are; that your masterships, obeying the Word of God, 
may have His blessing, and also your knowledge opened by the instruction of His 
eternal spirit, and especial that punishment may be applied to those persons who 
will not complete the bond of matrimony, which in the presence of God is 
wickedness, so that without correction your town shall be a very Sodom and 
Gomorrah, and all because that no correction is applied to it by your masterships; 
so, if you omit this to be undone, God will punish you who are hinderers of His 
purpose. And this present letter is to exonerate me in the presence of God, who 
has often reproved the same by my writing, requiring your masterships' answer, 
you always having the fear of God before you; and for no partiality for any 
person, stay this which you know is agreeable to the will of the Eternal Judge 
who has set you in authority." This is perhaps the earliest instance in the history 



THE MINISTER— THE SCHOOLMASTER. 17 

of the Reformed Church of Peebles in which the Church invoked the aid of the 
civil power. This was the first step in a course which was ultimately to lead 
the Protestant Church to rival the Spanish Inquisition with all its horrors — a 
policy by which thousands of old wives were to be branded as witches after being 
judicially tried by kirk-sessions, and finally handed over to the civil authorities 
for execution, either by burning or drowning. 

Repairs on the Church. 
1562, October 16 — The council ordains the treasurer to purchase two dozen 
planks for the repairing of the Kirk, and two common ladders to be got, and 
divots till the time comes to be laid in the tolbooth. 

Church Linen. 
1562, October 16 — Ordains the bailies, along with James Wilson and John 
Dickson, to deal the linen cloths in the steeple to the poor folks as they think 
expedient, and who have most need. These were the old Church linens formerly 
used in the Romish services. 

The Minister. 
1562, October 24 — The minister obliges himself to grind all his corn in time 
coming at the town's mills, under the penalty of doubling the multure. 

Schoolmaster. 
1362, October 24 — The council ordains the schoolmaster from this hour forth 
to wait on the teaching of the bairns, and they exonerate him from all other 
pleasures, and therefore give him forty shillings to help him to get a gown; and as 
he makes cause in teaching the said bairns, and as they increase in science and 
knowledge, the said forty shillings to be given freely to him; and failing thereof, the 
said forty shillings to be allowed in his fee, and thereafter to provide for himself. 

The New Superintendents and Ministers. 

{^1562, December 25 — At the General Assembly, convened this day, superin- 
tendents were tried. One was found slack in visitation, stayed not at Kirks for 
ordering necessary affairs, was much given to worldly affairs, slack in preaching, rash 
in excommunicating, sharper in making acts for payment of small tithes than became 
him. Another was found to have very many Popish priests, unqualified, and of 
vicious life, admitted as readers in his diocese. That young men were admitted to 
be readers and exhorters without that trial and examination as ordered in the Book 
of Discipline. That gentlemen of vicious life were chosen to be elders. That 
sundry ministers made no residence at their Kirks, did not visit the sick, came too 
late on the Lord's Day, and the people wearied on them. That the youth were not 
instructed. That ministers did not resort to the exercise of prophecying (preaching).] 

Kirk Bells. 
1562, February 13 — The treasurer is ordained by the bailies and council to 



1 8 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

take down the bells out of St Andrew's Kirk, and hang one of them in the Cross 
Kirk to ring to common prayers; and the other bell to be laid in the steeple (of the 
tolbooth) to be preserved; and to build with the wood of the staircase and timber in 
the High Kirk seats in the Cross Kirk for ease of the parishioners. 

To THE Parishioners. 
1^62, February ij — Ordains all parishioners, both from burgh and land, who 
resort to the prayers, to compear and make their obedience at prayer time and other 
times without any disturbance in time coming; and that none make going and 
coming in Kirk or kirkyard nor any other enormity in time of prayers. 

Gilbert Broun, ex-Romish Minister of the Friars. 
IS62, February ij — On the same day, John Dickson, exhorter, took a writing to 
the effect that he required Gilbert Broun to appear on Thursday next before the 
elders, that notice might be taken of his conversation; but Gilbert denied that he 
would appear, alleging that they were not his masters; also the said Gilbert asserted 
in the judgment-seat of the burgh of Peebles that John Dickson backbited him; 
which John Dickson required proof of, otherwise Gilbert to be punished according to 
his demerit. 

The Service of Praise. 
English Psalters. 

[iS47 — Thomas Sternhold's contained nineteen renderings. 

[-rS49 — Second edition of above. Had forty-four psalms. Seven of these 
were by Rev. John Hopkins. This edition was the foundation of both the English 
and Scottish complete psalters. 

[ijjd — The congregation of English refugees at Geneva brought out The 
Order of Geneva, or The Book of Common Order. It contained the forty-four 
psalms of Stemhold and Hopkins; also seven new renderings by W. Whittingham. 
Every one of the psalms in this collection was transferred to the Scottish Psalter, 
along with forty two of the tunes. 

\_1560 — A new edition was published at Geneva, with fourteen new psalms. 

\1561 — Another edition came out, with twenty-five more, the total now being 
eighty-seven. 

\1562 — The psalter was completed and published in England. In this 
perfected edition, the forty-four psalms of 1549 were retained; of the forty-three 
added at Geneva in 1556-61 twenty were retained, twenty-three rejected. The 
eighty-six renderings required to finish the work, and a duplicate of Psalm 51, were 
all new.] 

The Genevan Psalter. 
[In 1539, when Calvin was in Strasbourg, he compiled a small collection of 
psalms with tunes, and in it are found twelve of Marot's versions, but with a spurious 
text. Clement Marot had made at various times versions of several psalms to the 
number of thirty, which were collected into a volume about 1542. Before this 
they had circulated in MS., and were published with an incorrect text at Antwerp 
in 1541. 



THE SERVICE OF PRAISE. 19 

[Calvin's Strasbourg collection was the basis of the true Genevan Psalter, which 
Calvin prepared when he returned to Geneva in 1542. It included Marot's thirty 
psalms. Later, Marot added nineteen more, which, with The Song of Simeon, make 
up Marot's fifty psalms. The Genevan Psalter remained thus till 1551, when Beza 
added thirty-four new versions, making eighty-three in all. In 1554, he added six; 
in 1555, one; and the remaining sixty in 1562. 

[In the Psalter of 1562, the number of distinct tunes is 125. Of these, two are 
for the Decalogue and The Song of Simeon. This leaves twenty-seven psalms to be 
sung to the tunes of other psalms. 

[The following tunes are from the Genevan Psalters: — "Calvin" (47, U.P. 
Hymnal; 222, U.P. Psalter; is the same as "Commandments"). "Carmel" (6, 
Psalms and Paraphrases; 1551, set to Psalm 35). "Commandments" (8, Psalms 
and Paraphrases; 6, 20, 284, 311, Scottish Hymnal; 33, Free Church Hymnal; 3, 
Scottish Psalter; set to the Ten Commandments). "Lausanne" (281, U.P. 
Hymnal; 1543, set to Psalm 118). "Old Hundredth" (26, Psalms and 
Paraphrases; 135, Scottish Hymnal; 224, U.P. Psalter; Doxology 3, U.P. Hymnal; 
15 and 16, Scottish Psalter; 20, Free Church Hymnal; 1551, set to Psalm 134). 
"Old 117th" (43, Free Church Hymnal; 1551, set to Psalm 127; also afterwards, 
1562, to Psalm 117). "Old 124th" (203, U.P. Hymnal; 217, Psalms and 
Paraphrases; 214, Scottish Psalter; 1551, set to Psalm 124). "Old 134th," or 
"Saint Michael" (125, Free Church Hymnal; 162, U.P. Hymnal; 202, U.P. 
Psalter; 197, Psalms and Paraphrases; 58 and 239, Scottish Hymnal; 1543, 201, 
Psalms and Paraphrases). 

[John Daye, printer; born, 1522, died, 1584; published in 1562 The Whole 
Book of Psalms. In it are found— " Old 6ist" (41, U.P. Psalter). "Old 68th" 
(173, Psalms and Paraphrases; 185, U.P. Hymnal). "Old 8ist" (186, U.P. 
Hymnal; 124, Scottish Hymnal; 174, Psalms and Paraphrases). "Old 137th" 
(175, Psalms and Paraphrases; 37 and 254, U.P. Hymnal; 215, U.P. Psalter; 81, 
Free Church Hymnal; 114, Scottish Psalter). " Rochester " (94, 98, 190, Scottish 
Hymnal; 29, Psalms and Paraphrases). "Day" (54, Scottish Psalter; 47, Free 
Church Hymnal; 12, Scottish Hymnal; 128, Psalms and Paraphrases, where it is 
named " Saint Flavian "). 

[In the 1563 edition are found: — "Old 44th" (182, U.P. Psalter; 97 and 
200, U.P. Hymnal; 172, Psalms and Paraphrases; 59, Free Church Hymnal; 
113, Scottish Psalter). "Preston" (225, Psalms and Paraphrases). "Saint 
Michael" (201, Psalms and Paraphrases; 58 and 239, Scottish Hymnal). "Old 
134th" (162, U.P. Hymnal; 202, U.P. Psalter; 125, Free Church Hymnal; 197, 
-Scottish Psalter). 

[Christopher Tye; graduated in 1537. His tunes are: — "Apostles' Tune" 
(220, Psalms and Paraphrases). "Dundee" (57, Scottish Psalter; i, U.P. Psalter; 
69, Psalms and Paraphrases). " Gethsemane " (41, U.P. Hymnal; 179, Free Church 
Hymnal). "Southwark" (151, Psalms and Paraphrases; 161, Scottish Psalter; 53, 
Free Church Hymnal; 154, U.P. Psalter; 94, U.P. Hymnal). "Winchester" (165, 
Psalms and Paraphrases; 178, Scottish Psalter; 23 and 203, Scottish Hymnal; 291 
and Doxology 2, U.P. Hymnal). 

["Coleshill" has been apparently in use for centuries in Scotland. It is an 
altered form of " Dundee " or " Windsor." It was used on Communion Sundays to 
Psalm 103; it now occurs in the " Cameronian's Dream," by Hamish MacCunn. 
Can be sung to "Jehovah! hear Thee in the day," also to "God is our refuge and 
our strength."] 



20 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

Queen Mary in Peebles. 
1563, August 28 — Queen Mary granted letters of protection to the burgesses of 
Peebles. 

Ruins — Chalices — Schoolmaster. 

1363, October 22 — Evidently in the beginning the magistrates did not desire the 
demolition of the old Church, which had served the parish since 1195, for on the 
above date the treasurer was warned not to meddle with Geddes' Aisle, an aisle or 
chapel in the old Church (St Andrew's), nor any other person in time coming. 

On December 10, in the same year, the Council ordained that one of the 
chalices, which had been laid up in the steeple of the tolbooth for secure preservation, 
should be melted down and made into money at the bailies' pleasure. 

On March 9 the schoolmaster was ordered to attend to the bairns, and not 
go a-hunting or other pleasures in time coming, without the licence of the aldermen 
(a new word), which if he fail in, he shall be deposed from office. 

Lord High Commissioner. 
[In the General Assembly it had now been arranged that the Queen should 
send some one to watch the debates. This was the beginning of the office of Lord 
High Commissioner.] 

John Knox's Marriage. 
[1S64 — The great Reformer was now verging upon sixty, and was a widower. 
In this year he married for the second time, the bride being Margaret Stewart, 
daughter of Lord Ochiltree, in her teens. Here is the description taken from Nicol 
Burne's Disputation : — Riding there with a great court on a trim gelding, not like a 
prophet or an old decrepit priest, as he was, but like as he had been one of the 
blood royal, with his bands of taffety fashioned with golden rings and precious 
stones; and as is plainly reported in the country, by sorcery and witchcraft did so 
allure that poor gentlewoman that she could not live without him; which appears 
to be of great probability, she being a damsel of noble blood, and he an old decrepit 
creature of most base degree of any that could be found in the country.] 

The Bell. 
1364, May II — The most part of the council, along with the bailies, convened 
in the tolbooth of Peebles, ordains the bell to be sold that is in the steeple (of the 
tolbooth) to any person who will give most therefor, and to take no less per stone 
weight than twenty-four shillings. And appoints the two bailies to sell the same to 
relieve creditors that they have ado with, in respect to the debt that the town is in at 
present. 

The Friars and their Pensions. 
1564, July 20 — The pensions of the ex-friars of the Cross Kirk monastery had 
fallen into arrear; this was a cause of complaint among them against the former 
minister of the monastery, Gilbert Broun. He on his part desired some profit to be 



KNOX'S LITURGY. 21 

made out of the ornaments, vestments, and jewels in safe keeping at Neidpath and 
Chapelhill; and also that the payment of the Queen's share of the third part of the 
benefice might be discharged. If these two things were managed, he promised to 
satisfy the claims of the friars, and augment their pensions by the addition of four 
merks annually. 

The Prebendaries of the Old Kirk. 
1^64^ October 20 — On this day the magistrates ordained that all prebendaries 
whatsoever of the Collegiate Kirk of St Andrew's were to attend the exhortation three 
days in the week; and to sing the psalms, and do God service, under the penalty of 
sixpence for each day that they failed. The officers were to poind for the same; and 
they admitted Patrick, the collector, to uplift the same, and note the absent ones in 
time coming; and that the said fines be disponed among the poor at the sight of 
the bailies. These prebendaries were still drawing the revenues of their altars, for 
which they were performing no service; they were not even as clergymen attending 
the week-day exhortation in the Cross Kirk. This they were now ordered to do. 

Knox's Liturgy. 
\1564 — During the course of the two preceding years, the Book of Geneva in 
Scotland had been modified and enlarged. New prayers from continental sources 
had been inserted ; others, which had been in use in Scotland previously, were added ; 
and the psalter was completed. In the General Assembly of this year every minister, 
exhorter, and reader was ordered to procure a copy, and use the order therein 
contained in prayers, marriage, and in the sacraments. The Book of Geneva thus 
remodelled is known as Knox's Liturgy, or The Book of Common Order. It 
embodied the law of the Church as to its services from 1564 to 1645.] 

Ninth General Assembly. 
\1564 — Hearers and sayers of mass were reported to have increased; also 
abusers of sacraments. Payment of stipends was craved. Superintendents were 
appointed to be placed where as yet there are none, e.g., Teviotdale, Tweeddale, &c. 
It was resolved to punish such as shut the doors of the Church against preachers, &c. 
Means were discussed how ministers were to obtain possession of their manses, 
glebes, &c. Repairs on Churches were ordered to be done.] 

Eleventh General Assembly. 
\1565 — Children baptised by priests need not be re-baptised.] 

The Cross Kirk Trees. 
1565, May 28 — Gilbert Broun, the ex-minister of the friars, was still having his 
troubles. On this day he accused a weaver, named William Kelle, of lending his 
saw, and John Wille, with the said saw, of cutting down some of the ash trees 
growing in the grounds of the Kirk. Both men denied the charges, but the minister 
took a writing to the purport that the bailie had found in John Wille's house certain 
ash trees, which Gilbert Broun alleged had been cut and removed out of his yard. 
Probably Gilbert was still occupying part of the cloisters as a residence. 



2 2 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

Marriage of the Queen. 
[On Sunday morning, July 29, 1565, Mary Queen of Scots was married to Lord 
Darnley, in the Chapel Royal, Holyrood, according to the rites of the Roman 
Catholic Church.] 

Queen Mary and the Protestant Lords. 
[z/d/, October 5 — An interesting reminiscence of the troubles of the Queen 
occurs in the burgh records under the above date. On that day the magistrates 
and community, convened in the tolbooth, arranged to send twelve horsemen to 
ride to the King (Darnley) and Queen to Dumfries. This was in obedience 
to a proclamation from the Queen, commanding the burghs to send men to 
her army. The twelve horsemen were to take nine carrying-horses with them. 
The neighbours who remained at home were to pay the cost of carriage and all other 
expenses of the horsemen. Briefly, the following events had occurred: — The 
Protestant lords had never relished the marriage of the Queen with Lord Darnley, 
who was a Catholic. The support given by the Queen to the Romish religion had 
likewise alienated them. At their head was the half-brother of the Queen, the Earl 
of Moray. On the last day of August — a Friday — the lords rode into Edinburgh 
with 1200 horse. Lord Erskine turned the guns of the Castle upon them; moreover, 
they learned that the Queen was returning to the capital to meet and take them 
in their rebellion. Accordingly at three o'clock on the Sunday morning, the 
Protestant lords retired to Dumfries by way of Hamilton and Peebles. On October 
8, the Queen set out from Edinburgh, attended by one woman only, and an army 
which has been variously estimated at 6000 or 12,000 men. It was this army to 
which Peebles furnished a contingent of twelve horsemen. But ere the Queen had 
left Edinburgh, the Protestant lords, ill equipped and discouraged, had left Dumfries 
and retired to Carlisle, thence to Newcastle, where they intended to stay until 
Queen Elizabeth's intentions toward them, or to the Queen, should be known. 
Mary's army made great spoil as it traversed the south of Scotland toward Dumfries. 
On arriving, she left a large force in that town under Bothwell, and returned by 
Lochmaben. She disbanded her army, and arrived in Edinburgh again on October 
18, with not more than 140 horsemen.] 

The Church and a Poor Student. 
1565, December i — On this day, in fenced court, the magistrates, council, and 
community gave the revenues of the altar of Our Lady, situated in St Andrew's 
Church, to Thomas Dickson, student, for all the days of his life. 

Lord Darnley in Peebles. 
zjdif— About Christmas time the Queen's husband was residing in Peebles. 
The weather is stated to have been exceptionally severe, and much snow fell. The 
object of the journey appears to have been for the purpose of effecting a meeting 
between Darnley and his father, the Earl of Lennox, who was out of favour with the 
Queen at the time. Here is a letter arranging the interview: — "Sir, — I have 
received by my servant Nisbet your natural and kind letter, for the which I humbly 
thank Your Majesty; and as to the contents thereof, I will not trouble you therein, 
but defer the same till I wait upon Your Majesty at Peebles, which shall be so soon 
;is I may hear of the certainty of your going thither. And for that the extremity of 



MURDER OF RIZZIO. 23 

the stormy weather causes me to doubt of your setting forward so soon on your 
journey, therefore I stay till I hear further from Your Majesty, which I humbly 
beseech you I may, and I shall not fail to wait upon you accordingly. Thus 
committing Your Majesty to the government and blessing of Almighty God, who 
preserve you in health, long life, and happy reign. — From Glasgow, this 26th day 
of December. — Your Majesty's humble subject and father, Matthew Lennox.'' 
Darnley was in great hazard of wanting necessaries, unless the bishop of the Orcades 
had casually come hither; for he, knowing the scarcity of the place, brought some 
wine and other provisions for his use. Adam Bothwell, bishop of Orkney under the 
Romish dispensation, was the son of a burgess of Edinburgh. He became parson of 
Ashkirk, and one of the canons of Glasgow Cathedral; in 1558 he succeeded Robert 
Reid as bishop of Orkney. Adam Bothwell owned property in Peebles. A protocol 
records that on November 18, 1563, Gilbert Broun, the ex- Romish minister of 
the Cross Kirk, with consent of the convent, received from Adam Bothwell, bishop 
of Orkney, feuar of the Briglands on the south side of the river Tweed, ^20 in 
redemption of an annualrent which the brethren of the Cross Kirk had had from 
Thomas Lowis of Manor. 

Murder of Rizzio. 
\1565, March p — Ten days after the murder of Rizzio, on March 1 9, the privy 
council record contains a long list of persons charged with complicity in the slaughter. 
Among them are the names of William Tweedy of Drumelzier, Adam Tweedy of 
Dreva, Hector Douglas of Spitalhaugh, James Douglas there, James Wedderspoon of 
Brighouse.] 

Sacred Tunes. 
[In the 1565 Geneva edition of the Scottish Psalter are found: — "Old ist" 
(hi, Scottish Psalter; set to Psalm i). "Old 8th" (213, U.P. Psalter; set to Psalm 
8). " Old 9th" (40, U.P. Psalter; set to Psalm 9). "Old 21st" (196, U.P. Psalter; 
set to Psalm 21). "Old 29th " (214, U.P. Psalter; 171, Psalms and Paraphrases: 
112, Scottish Psalter; set to Psalm 29). "Old 49th" (53, U.P. Psalter; set to 
Psalm 49). "Old 78th" (56, U.P. Psalter; set to Psalm 78). "Cromarty" (137, 
U.P. Psalter, set to Psalm 46).] 

Birth of a Son to Queen Mary. 
[75 (5(5, /ufte ig — On a Wednesday morning he who was to be afterwards known 
as King James VI. was born in Edinburgh Castle.] 

Gilbert Broun Again. 
1566, July 8 — Returning to affairs at Peebles, it is found that the reader, John 
Dickson, had presented a petition relating to Gilbert Broun and the other friars 
of the Cross Kirk monastery. But they had refused to appear regarding this 
petition. Accordingly the bailies warned the recalcitrant friars that if they still 
declined to appear, the matter, whatever it was, would be held as confessed by 
them. 



24 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

The Queen in Peeblesshire. 
[ijSd, August 14 — Queen Mary and Damley were hunting in Megget, during a 
temporary reconciliation. On the i6th they were at Rodono and Cramalt. Many 
nobles attended them, but the sport was deficient. At Rodono an ordinance was 
passed decreeing that owing to the scarcity of deer they were not to be shot, under 
severe penalties. On the 19th they were at Traquair, and by the 21st were back in 
Edinburgh.] 

Murder of Darnlev. 
\1566, February 10 — Hay, younger of Talla, was one of the conspirators.] 

The Prebendaries of St Andrew's Kirk. 
1567, April 7 — The priests who used to serve in the old Parish Church were 
warned by the bailies to appear at the next court and produce the gift of their 
altarages, along with their presentations, before the bailies, for inspection. Those 
who failed to appear were to be forfeited. On the 28th the order was repeated, and 
two ex-priests specially warned, viz., John Allan and Gilbert Tweedy, to produce their 
titles. On the same day these two ex-priests appeared along with another, by name 
James Davidson ; but the judge decided that no evidence of tide had been produced 
by these three ex-priests, but only a delusive allegation. 

The Reformation Ratified by Act of Parliament. 
[z5'(57, December 15 — Events had been moving apace in the political world. 
Darnley was dead, having been murdered on the loth of the previous February. On 
April 12, Bothwell had been tried and acquitted of the murder. On April 24, 
Bothwell seized the Queen and carried her off to the castle of Dunbar. On May 15, 
Mary and Bothwell were married, three months and five days after the murder of 
Darnley. And exactly one month thereafter, on Sabbath, June 15, Mary and 
Bothwell parted, not to meet again, at Carberry, in sight of her own army and that of 
the Lords of the Congregation. On the same night she was lodged a prisoner in the 
house of the provost, in the High Street of Edinburgh. On June 17, the Queen was 
imprisoned in the castle of Lochleven. On July 24, the Queen abdicated, and 
appointed her half-brother, the Earl of Moray, leader of the Protestant party. Regent 
of Scotland. On the 29th, Prince James, then 13 months old, was crowned King of 
Scotland. And on the date at the head of this paragraph, the change of religion in 
Scotland was ratified by Parliament.] 

The Reformation Legalised. 
[The Parliament of 1560 which established the Reformation had never received 
royal sanction, and on this account it was considered safer to re-enact its legislation. 
Purists of law consider this to be the true date of the Scottish Reformation, viz., 
December 15, 1567. The examination and admission of ministers was to lie with 
the Church, but the presentation was still to belong to the ancient lay patron of the 
benefice. But if he failed to present within six months, the right should then 
devolve to the Church.] 

Contemporary Ministers. 
[/j-(57 — Manor had a reader after the Reformation, the archdeacon of Glasgow 



THE FATE OF THE KIRK LANDS OF PEEBLES. 25 

keeping the parsonage of Peebles and Manor. Cranstoun, reader at Manor, was one 
of the witnesses to William Burnett's will ; and Thomas Purvis, reader, Manor, with 
a stipend of ^^14 6s 8d, appears in a list of ministers, in 1567. 

[75'd7-p/ — Broicghton — Minister, Walter Tweedy; exhorter at Broughton and 
Dawyck in 1567; reader at Glenholm and Broughton in 1574. Kilbucho also was 
under his charge. Continued in 1591. 

\_1567 — Hop-Kaihie — Reader, John Bullo, receiving £,12, 6s 8d stipend.] 

Old Church Revenues. 
1568, March 31 — On this day a petition was presented to the bailies by John 
Tweedy, a poor student, whose father had many children, and who was learned at 
school, craving for these reasons the gift of the revenues of the Rood and Holy 
Blood altar, which was situated in the ancient Parish Church. He sought the money 
for the space of ten years, in order to sustain him at the schools, where he might 
learn to be a minister of the evangel of Jesus Christ. The prayer of John Tweedy 
was granted by the magistrates and community. John was given the revenues 
of the altar to hold for the space of ten years, and if at the end of that period 
he were qualified to preach, then he was to retain them for life. But if not qualified 
by that time, the magistrates were to be free to dispone them otherwise. 

Escape of the Queen from Lochleven. 
\1568, May 2 — On this date Queen Mary escaped from Lochleven Castle. On 
May 13 her army was defeated at Langside by that of the Earl of Moray; and the 
Queen took flight, arriving at Workington, in England, on May 16. Queen Mary 
was never in Scotland again. Thus ended the career of this unhappy lady as Queen 
of Scotland. She appears to have been less in Peebles than any of her predecessors, 
especially those of the Stuart line. In fact, a careful examination of the itinerary 
of her life indicates that the Queen passed one night only in the town. Tradition 
points to Neidpath Castle as the dwelling which sheltered her on this occasion.] 

The Fate of the Kirk Lands. 
I56g, June 25 — The Kirk lands of Peebles formed part of the benefice of the 
vicar of Peebles in Roman Catholic times. On the above date Master Thomas 
Archibald, designated as vicar of Peebles, conveyed to John Wichtman, burgess of 
Peebles, the Church lands, or glebe, belonging to the said vicar. He reserved, as the 
act of Parliament of June 4, 1563, stipulated, the manse, with its outhouses and 
gardens, and three acres of the Church lands. The annual feu-duty payable to the 
vicar was to be £,2(i 15s Scots, and sixty-three poultry (or twelve pennies in lieu of 
each), as the old farm dues, and 26s 8d of new augmentation. The sanction of the 
Crown was obtained on October 14, 1569. In time the lands came into possession 
of James Williamson, burgess of Peebles, and William Veitch, notary, from whom 
the Earl of Traquair had the property. On July 26, 1634, the earl obtained 
confirmation by Crown charter, ratified by the Scots Parliament in 1641. The 
feu-duties were then made payable to the King, as coming in place of the vicar. 
The ancient Kirk lands of the Church of Peebles have remained private property ever 
since. 



26 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

Kirk Furnishings or Graith 
1569, October j— This matter of the ancient belongings of the disestablished 
Church was always coming up and demanding enactments by the Town Council. It 
probably consisted of the furniture of St Andrew's Church. There were bound to be 
fittings of various descriptions, such as seats, choir stalls, altar fittings, a rood loft, a 
rood screen, staircases, &c. Many of the inhabitants had been helping themselves to 
this property of the Church, which probably lay open and exposed in the ruined 
edifice. The practice was becoming a scandal; so on the above date it was enacted 
that any man who had offended in the matter of taking Kirk graith, or had had any 
part in meddling with such, should be ineligible for office in times coming. It was 
also moved that all who had had any doings therewith should make deliverance 
thereof, and account and reckoning, in order that it might be forthcoming for the 
common weal. 



The Walls of the Town. 
/jdp, March 7 — An agreement was drawn up on this day between the 
magistrates and two men, viz., Sir John Allan, town clerk, and Thomas Lauder, 
mason. These latter undertook to build a wall round the town within four years. 
It was to be four ells and a half high, and three feet and a half broad. The two 
contractors were to have the profits of the two mills (corn) and the waulk mill, and 
land for thirteen years. They were to begin drawing the profits at the Feast of the 
Invention of the Cross called Beltane. The town was to lay in 200 loads of lime 
before Pasche (Easter), and 200 loads annually for four years. The two contractors 
were to be paid by the town 200 merks annually during the thirteen years; and on 
their part they were to undertake the payment to Stene Robesoun his annualrent of 
^16. This is the wall, fragments of which remain to this day. In this reference 
it is curious to observe how tenaciously the old Romish feasts continued to serve 
as dates of reckoning. Sir John Allan had been Romish chaplain, curate, town 
clerk, notary, minister for the time, &c. 



Sacred Tune. 
\156Q — "Dortmund" (116 and 162, Scottish Hymnal); Johann WolfT's 
Gesanbuch (1569).] 



Marriages. 
\1570 — The General Assembly of this year ordained that all marriages were to 
be solemnised according to the published order. At first it was the rule for all 
marriages to be celebrated at the morning service in the Church on Sundays. After 
1579 it was allowed on week-days, provided a sufficient number was present, and 
preaching held at the same time. The old practice, however, of marrying on Sunday 
lingered long. This Assembly likewise directed that promise of marriage should 
take place before the minister or reader.] 



KIRK GRAITH. 27 

The Regiment of the Realm. 
75-70, July 14 — On this day the town council ordained one of the bailies, along 
with the treasurer, and another, to proceed to Edinburgh on the i6th of the month 
with the town's commission for establishing the regiment of the realm, conform to the 
close missive sent to the magistrates by Lords Lennox, Angus, Mortoun, Mar, 
Glencairn, Ruthven, Glamis, Ochiltree, and Cathcart, dated at Stirling, the 23rd 
June 1570. 

The Raid in Linlithgow. 
1570, August I — The council ordained one bailie and seven men to ride forth 
with my lord (provost ?) to the host, to the raid in Linlithgow, conform to the 
proclamation, providing always that my lord give his obligation to relieve the town 
harmless at the treasurer's hands. 

Kirk Graith. 
zf/o, October 2 — On this day certain burgesses were elected bailies, their 
names being John Horsburgh and Patrick Newtoun. But a protest was lodged 
against the election of Horsburgh and another, by name William Dickson, whose 
name was on the leet also, because they were culpable of Kirk goods and Kirk 
graith. Horsburgh hereupon confessed to a part of a chalice delivered to him 
by James Tweedy, who was treasurer at the time, and stated that he was ready 
to make payment for it. William Dickson denied meddling with any Kirk goods 
or graith, except what he had paid for; and protested that if either Horsburgh 
or Tweedy were elected bailies, then the Regent's letter thereanent was being 
disobeyed. To this answered James Tweedy, that he had given part of a chalice 
to John Horsburgh, but that Horsburgh, being bailie at the time, compelled him 
as a subject, the said Horsburgh being his superior, because James Tweedy was 
keeper of one of the keys of the common kist. James Tweedy then took a writing 
that the lord provost had disobeyed the Regent's letter, because he had voted for 
John Horsburgh and William Dickson to be bailies, both being culpable of part of 
the Kirk goods and graith. Then the lord provost obliged himself to answer to the 
Regent and the Lords of the Secret Council for Horsburgh and Dickson, and any 
others whose names he gave to be bailies elect; and to make account and reckoning 
for their intromissions, either with common goods or Kirk graith. Thereupon 
Andrew Alexander, messenger, produced the following names: — John Horsburgh, 
James Tweedy, John Wichtman, Roland Scot, John Dickson, the reader, William 
Dickson, Patrick Dickson, John Dickson of Mailingsland, as receivers and disponers 
of common goods and Kirk graith; and that if the lord provost voted upon any 
of these names he would endorse upon the Regent's letters the said disobedience, 
as is becoming to his office to which he was sworn. 

Steeple and Clock. 
1570, December 6 — The Inquest ordained the steeple (at the tolbooth) and the 
clock to be orderly and sufficiently kept, use and wont; and to ring twelve hours. 



2 8 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

six hours, and curfew nightly, and to pay Andrew Frank his fee therefor, bygone and 
to come. 

The Regent Murdered. 
[75-70, January 23 — As the Earl of Moray was riding through the streets of 
Linlithgow, he was shot by Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh, and died that night.] 

New Minister. 
1570, February 10 — The most part of the community of Peebles is contented 
with Master Thomas Cranstoun's writing concerning his desire to shew the Word of 
God truly, and to send a commission to him with the laird of Henderstoun 
(Dionysius Elphinstoun ?) and one of the bailies. This notice is the earliest reference 
to the fact that the Church of Peebles was requiring a minister. It is probable that 
there had not been another appointment to the cure since that of Sir John Allan, 
who had held office for a few months in 1561. Probably he lost his charge and the 
town clerkship about the same time. Since then, it would appear that John Dickson, 
reader and exhorter, had been discharging the whole duty in the Church. But it is 
not known who had been ministering both the sacraments during the nine years: it 
could hardly have been Sir John Allan, who, though an ordained clergyman, had not 
been living up to the new morality of the times. It must be kept in mind that, for 
many years after the Reformation of 1560, there was a great scarcity of ministers, and 
the ex-Romish priests were being utilised as readers and exhorters, and but rarel) 
as ministers. Now, however, the parish was about to be supplied with a regularl) 
appointed Reformed minister. 

The Schoolmaster. 
ijjo, March 14 — The bailie and most part of the community have ordained 
Master Andrew Cranstoun, by the admission of the Kirk, for instruction of the youth 
to take the bairns of the town to instruct them ; and appoints the tolbooth for him to 
teach them until Beltane next; and whoever pleases are to put their bairns to him for 
instruction. On the same day David Crichton granted, by his own confession, that 
he had been lawfully warned out of the school, and that he would remove therefrom 
at Beltane next. It is possible that there was a relationship subsisting between the 
minister and the schoolmaster, both of the same name, and appointed simultaneously. 

John Knox. 
[John Knox was now an old man. He had been advised to return to St 
Andrews, as the city of Edinburgh was then too hot to hold him. Into it the 
partisans of the Queen were pouring, and its castle was held, on behalf of the Queen, 
by Kirkcaldy of Grange. James Melville was at that time a student at St Leonard's 
College, and he has left a written record regarding the great Reformer in the evening 
of his days: — " Mr Knox would sometimes come into our college yard, and call us 
scholars unto him and bless us, and exhort us to know God and His work in our 
country, and stand by the good cause; to use our time well, and learn the good 
instructions, and follow the good example, of our masters. ... I saw him 
every day of his doctrine go hulie and fiar, with a furring of martricks about his neck, 



THE LAST ROMISH ARCHBISHOP. 29 

a staff in the one hand, and good, godly Richard Bannatyne, his servant, holding up 
the other oxter, from the Abbey to the Parish Church, and by the said Richard and 
another servant lifted up to the pulpit, where he behoved to lean at his first entry, 
but ere he was done with his sermon he was so active and vigorous that he was like 
to ding the pulpit in blads, and fly out of it."] 

The Last Romish Archbishop. 
\1571 — On April 7, John Hamilton, the last Roman Catholic archbishop of St 
Andrews, was publicly hanged at Stirling, wearing his archi-episcopal robes. After 
the battle of Langside the archbishop had been declared a traitor; and when the 
castle of Dumbarton, in which he had taken refuge, was captured, he was seized, 
tried, and condemned as accessory to the murders of Damley and Moray.] 



I570-I573- XCbe /IDtntstrs of XTbomas (Eranstoun. 

First Minister. Three Years. The Church of Scotland was Presbyterian till 1572, 
thereafter alternately Episcopal and unsettled. 

Thomas Cranstoun was called to Peebles on Februa'-y 10, 1570. He was 
translated from Liberton in 157 1, and entered at Beltane to minister the sacraments 
to the whole shire. He had 200 merks stipend. He is considered to be the first 
ordained minister of Peebles. 

Thomas Cranstoun is found acting as minister of Borthwick in the year 1567, 
with a stipend of fourscore pounds. He was translated thence to Liberton at 
Lammas, 1569. His stipend at Liberton was a hundred pounds. He was translated 
to Peebles in May 1571; but returned to Liberton before 1574. He continued in 
1578; but left again in 1579. He returned to Liberton again after April 12, 1582, 
and died in Edinburgh on May 21, 1585. His utensils, abulziements, and books 
were estimated at forty pounds. There was owing to him for the benefice of Ashkirk, 
resting for seven years, ;^i85. Inventory and debts amounted to ^2252 i6s. His 
executors were John Cranstoun of that Ilk, knicht; Patrick and Henry, his brothers; 
James, his nephew; and Michael, his son. He had a decreet by the commissioners 
of Lauder against the bailies of Selkirk for travailling in the ministry of that Kirk. 
To his spouse, Janet Mowbray, he left ^^420. By her he had a daughter, Isobel, 
also a son, Michael, who afterwards succeeded to Liberton. 

The Minister. 

1571, April 25— The Inquest is content that Master Thomas Cranstoun, 
the minister, be paid out of the third part of the parsonage and vicarage of Manor 
and Peebles. 

137 1, May 24 — John Dickson of Mailingsland appeared before the bailies and 
council, and desired them to be particular in calling upon all meddlers with Kirk 
gear and common gear to their own particular use, to restore all such and give 
it back for the common use of the town, in order that there be no taxations nor 
stent upon the poor. 

Kirk Graith and Common Goods. 
157 1, October i — Before proceeding to the election of the provost and bailies, 
the magistrates received and read a letter at the hands of Andrew Alexander, in name 
of the King, and by authority of the newly-appointed Regent, calling their attention 
to two letters sent to them some time ago by authority of the late Regent, the Earl of 
Moray. Their purport was to the effect, first, that no person should be elected as 
provost, bailie, or town councillor, who had meddled in any way with Kirk graith or 
common goods. And in the second place, urging the magistrates to insist upon the 



THE MINISTRY OF THOMAS CRANSTOUN. 31 

restoration of all such appropriated goods, and with them to proceed to the building 
of a wall around the town. All those persons who still possessed Kirk graith and 
common goods which they failed to deliver up within six days, or else obtain 
relaxation from the Regent and the lords personally in their favour, were to be 
proceeded against by law, and their goods rouped. The above letter from the Earl 
of Lennox, the Regent, must have been successful in its results; because, upon 
December 5, the Inquest ordered the contractors for the wall to fall to work on the 
morrow, and raise the dykes, and complete the remainder of the wall in the same 
manner as the previous portion, so far as the stones will serve. This ordinance 
shews that the stones forming the ruins of the ancient Parish Church were thus 
utilised in building the massive wall round the boundaries of the burgh, parts of 
which, in their broad solidity, remain to this day. On the same day, all disobeyers 
and contemners of the Kirk were ordered to be punished by the bailies, as accords 
with the use and custom of other burghs. 

Concordat of Leith. 

[/f//, January 12 — In the Church at large confusion was now increasing 
regarding the temporary possessions of the Church. The old abbots and bishops 
were dying out; these had been superiors of a large part of the country; and as 
in many cases they left no successors, their tenants and feuars were not able to 
obtain entry to their lands as there were none to give it. To rectify this, an act 
was passed by the Scots Parliament in 1571, declaring that all such ecclesiastical 
tenants and feuars were thenceforth to hold their possessions and feus direct from 
the King. This resulted in many cases in virtual confiscation of Church lands 
by the Crown. 

[There was still, however, much land and considerable teinds left unappropriated. 
These were bestowed by the Crown upon influential laymen: Kirkcaldy of Grange 
obtained the priory of St Andrews in Fife; and the Earl of Morton obtained the 
archbishopric of St Andrews from the Regent Lennox. But the Church would not 
tolerate this sudden secularisation of so much ecclesiastical property; and the 
noblemen who held Church possessions did not contemplate becoming Churchmen. 
Nor was it politic to allow the spiritual estate — the first in the realm — to come 
to nought. 

[Another difficulty arose from the fact that it would be impossible for the 
College of Justice to be maintained without the eight ecclesiastical senators to 
which it was entitled, seeing that the Reformed Church had forbidden its ministers 
and superintendents to act as judges. A consideration of all those problems led to 
the mutual acquiescence between Church and State which is known in history as 
The Concordat of Leith. 

[This Concordat was formulated at a convention of the Church, held at Leith 
on January 12, 1571, by whom convened being now unknown. The convention 
appointed a committee to meet a committee of the privy council; and by February 
I the joint committees framed an agreement, of which the following are the principal 
articles : — 

[That ecclesiastical titles and dioceses remain as they were before the 
Reformation, at least for the present. That to every cathedral there be attached a 
chapter of learned men. That bishops have no more power than superintendents, 
and like them be subject to the General Assembly. 



32 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

[That abbots and priors be continued as parts of the spiritual estate. That 
before admission they be examined by the Church. That from their benefices 
enough be secured for the maintenance of the ministers. And that they might act as 
Senators of the College of Justice. 

[That qualified ministers be placed in every part of the country. That livings 
below j[^^o in value be conferred on readers. That livings of greater value be 
conferred on ministers, who are to dispense the sacraments. That there be no 
pluralities. That every minister reside in his parish, sign the Confession of Faith, 
and take an oath of allegiance to the King. 

[That all provostries, prebends, chaplainries, &c., be bestowed on bursars in all 
the liberal professions. 

[The General Assembly met at St Andrews on March 6, but there is no 
evidence that it did anything regarding the Concordat. However, it met later at 
Perth on August 6, when the members unanimously gave a reluctant consent to the 
agreement as an interim measure, not to be final, but as being expedient at the time. 
Meanwhile the Earl of Morton had anticipated action by the Church. He had 
received the archbishopric of St Andrews, this he now assigned to John Douglas, 
rector of the University; James Boyd was made archbishop of Glasgow ; and similarly 
with the bishoprics; all were filled up with Protestant clergymen, in most cases 
nominees of powerful patrons. And the general opinion was, then as now, that these 
men acted as holders of the titles in order to permit the patrons to enjoy the 
ecclesiastical revenues. These were the bishops called tulchans, or stuffed calves, 
who served to milk the benefices for the benefit of their patrons, much after the 
method by which a fictitious calf was set beside a cow in order to prompt her to give 
milk more freely into the pail. 

[John Knox gave a modified assent to this reintroduction of a spurious 
Episcopacy. He died on November 24, 1572. This is not the place to enter into 
an appreciation of his character and personality. He would be described in the 
present day as a Broad Churchman; and he actually sent his sons to Cambridge 
to be educated for the English Church.] 

Convention of Leith. 
i^T I, January 12 — Thomas Cranstoun, of Peebles, present (Calderwood). 

The Minister and the Schoolmaster. 
1571, February 6 — The whole Inquest ordains the bailies to inspect their 
evidents, infeftments, and rentals, of the small benefices within the burgh, and 
being advised thereupon, to give Master Thomas Cranstoun, the minister, and 
Master Andrew Cranstoun, his son, a resolute answer to their notes concerning 
their stipends. Master Andrew Cranstoun took a writing to the purport that in 
case he did not receive a resolute answer between this and the next court he 
might be free to discharge himself from his service to the school. 

The Old Prebendaries. 
1571, March 12 — The Inquest ordained the prebendaries to produce the gifts 
of their prebends between this and the next court. 

Contemporary Minister. 
\_1571 — Glenholm — James Stewart, presented by King James VI., August 3.] 



THE MINISTRY OF THOMAS CRANSTOUN. 33 

End of First Period of the Church of Scotland. 
[The first period of the Church of Scotland had come to an end, viz., that of 
pure Presbytery. It had lasted from 1560 to 1572. From 1572 to 1592, a period 
of twenty years, there was to be a constant struggle taking place between Presbytery 
and Episcopacy. In 1572 there were prayers in the Kirk at St Andrews, Fife, every 
morning.] 

Andrew Cranstoun, Schoolmaster. 
1572, May zp — Andrew Frank, factor and prebendary of St Lawrence's altar, 
situated within the Collegiate Kirk of St Andrew's of Peebles, demitted the same into 
the hands of the provost, bailies, council, and community of Peebles, as undoubted 
patrons thereof, in favour of Master Andrew Cranstoun. And the magistrates 
received the said Andrew Cranstoun thereto, to lift up the fruits and annualrents of 
the same, so long as Master Andrew made residence for the instruction of the youth. 
(This altarage had always been gifted to the schoolmaster.) 

Military Preparations. 

1572, May ig — On this day there was a great wappinschaw of all the able-bodied 
men of the town in their armour, and with their weapons. Also an ordinance that 
every man was to possess a spear; and that those who were poor were to be supplied 
at the expense of the town. Night and morning, at the setting and the skailing of the 
watch, the drum was to be struck by Robert Thomson, tavernour. And at other 
times when the drum sounded, or the common bell rang out, every male in the town 
capable of bearing arms was to assemble in whatever spot the bailies pleased, and 
that in their "best and most honest substantious manner." 

Nine days afterwards, on May 28, orders were made regarding the fortifications 
of the town. One man was appointed who was to shoot the artillery from the East 
Wark, and another was to superintend the gunpowder. Another man was appointed 
to walk nightly upon the bartizan of the East Wark, and keep watch from thence. 
The east port was to be closed from nine at night until five in the morning. Times 
of trouble were at hand ; and the struggle lay betwixt the party of the exiled Queen, 
and that of the Regent and the infant King. A new gate was to be built in the new 
wall out of the readiest of the Kirk timber, beginning on the morrow. 

All through the summer these precautions were continued, and in the 
autumn they were increased. The watches, both by night and day, were 
augmented, and men appointed to walk outside the north gate, at which the 
expected trouble might come. A tax for the expenses was to be paid on the 
Saturdays, else be poinded for. The clock was to be made to strike nightly, and to 
ring curfew, twelve, and six respectively. All the gates and their wickets were to be 
closed in daylight, and opened also at daylight in the morning; and the key of each 
to be in the keeping of a different man. All who leaped the wall were to be put in 
irons for twenty-four hours for the first fault; banished for the second; executed for 
the third. All barn doors were either to be reinforced or else condemned under 
penalties. One man out of every house ordered to convene at seven in the following 



34 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

morning, and assist in heightening the wall. The town pavilion was to be brought 
home. 

All the precautions of the magistrates had evidently not availed to save the 
town entirely. Nothing certain is known now, but on January 6, 1572, they 
inhibited Harry Thomson for all time coming from being found within the liberties 
of the town of Peebles; because it was notoriously known that he was at the 
plunder of the town of Peebles on the 27th day of March last. 

The Bad Debts Due to John Tweedy, Student. 
1572, November / — It will be remembered that the magistrates had conferred 
upon John Tweedy, a student, the revenues of the altar of the Rood and Holy Blood, 
situated in the ancient Parish Church now in ruins. These were intended to sustain 
him at the schools for ten years, or for life, if he were found to be qualified. John 
now raised an action before the magistrates against a great many persons who 
declined to pay to him these ecclesiastical burdens upon their properties. The 
parties were duly cited to appear, and all denied their obligations. Proof was then 
led, after which the magistrates decided the case in favour of John Tweedy, and 
ordered the officer to poind and distrain the readiest goods of all the defaulters in 
payment of each of their obligations. The total amount was j[,\2 4s 2d, and a 
pound of wax. 

Schoolmaster. 
7572, February 7 — One of the bailies, accompanied by the officer and the clerk, 
was to pass through the town and call upon the honest men thereof, and take their 
handwriting and promises regarding the sum that they will benevolently give to a 
qualified schoolmaster, who will make daily continual residence, and wait upon the 
instructing and teaching of the bairns and youth, whereby they may increase in 
wisdom and knowledge for the common weal of the town. And to make a register 
of these benevolent persons who will contribute annually to the schoolmaster until 
the common good be freed, or at least until they have as much common good as 
will satisfy the schoolmaster. The inference from the above entry is that Andrew 
Cranstoun had resigned his position of schoolmaster, perhaps because he was not 
receiving his stipend. Another inference is that the increased expenses brought 
upon the town by the fortifications, &c., had exhausted the exchequer, and the 
magistrates had been forced to pledge the common good, and maybe the annualrents 
of the altarages also, in order to meet their debts. Another probable cause of 
the departure of Andrew Cranstoun, the schoolmaster, may be that his father at 
this time was re-translated to the parish of Liberton, whence he had originally come 
to Peebles. There is no mention in the records in existence of the departure either 
of the father or the son. 



1369841 



iS73-i6io. lEbe /llbtnistrg of Hrcblbalb Douglas. 

Thirty-Seven Years. Second Minister. Church polity unsettled until 15^2, when 
Presbyterianism was restored until 1610. 

Archibald Douglas was the next minister of Peebles. Nothing has been 
ascertained regarding this clergyman previously. He was minister of the parish 
for thirty-seven years, and had died before April 20, 16 10. A hiatus occurs at 
this point in the burgh records for a period of more than five years. 

Archibald Douglas was brother-german to the laird of Cavers. He was 
presented to the archdeaconry of Glasgow, by King James IV., on June 8, 1573. 
It was ratified on December 25, 1577. In 1574 he had ^200 stipend. He seems 
to have betaken himself to Manor in 1586, but yet held the benefice, and continued 
in 1608. His son, John, was served heir on December 28, 16 10. 

Contemporary Ministers. 

[/Jy4-i6i6 — Kirkurd — Archibald Douglas, son of a burgess of Edinburgh; 
presented by James VI., when Linton and Newlands also were under his care, with a 
stipend of j[^^o; removed to Linton before 1576, but returned about 1585; was 
refused collation to Skirling, June 20, 1592; and died before April 19, 161 6. 

[/5'75-p2 — Lyne — Gilbert Hay.] 

\1574 — Stobo — James Stewart. Glenholm, Drumelzier, Broughton, and Dawyck 
all under his charge at the same time. Stipend, ;^73 6s 8d, he paying the reader. 

Ministers and Readers. 

In the year 1576 there were 289 ministers and 715 readers in the Reformed 
Church. At first it was not an infrequent occurrence for one minister to have the 
charge of several parishes, with a reader under him in each. Many of these early 
readers were ordained priests under the Romish regime, and were considered as 
probationers by the Protestant Church. In many a parish the former priest became 
the reader to his old congregation. In latter days readers were of two classes — one 
class consisting of aspirants to the ministry, and the other consisting of schoolmasters 
and catechists not desiring promotion in the Church. 

There exists in the Register House, in Edinburgh, a record of the " Names of 
Ministers, Exhorters, and Readers, with their Stipends," in 1576. Here is the list 
for Peeblesshire: — 

Peebles — John Dickson, exhorter; 40 merks. Master Thomas Cranstoun, 
minister, and to minister the sacraments to the whole shire, 200 merks; 
Beltane, 1571. 



36 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

Linton — Adam Colquhoun, exhorter; ^26 13s 4d. 

Newlands — Thomas Paterson, reader; ;£2o 13s 4d; translated to Kirkurd; 

Beltane, 1570. 
Lyne — Patrick Gryntoun, reader; ;£i3 6s 8d. 
Mennar — Thomas Purves, reader; ^^14 6s 8d. 
Drumelzier — Thomas Bisset, exhorter; ^26 13s 4d; and 20 merks more since 

Beltane, 1571, because he serves this other Kirk — Dawyck. 
Glenquhom — George Tod, reader; j^i2, with the third of his pension extending 

to ^4 8s lod. 
Stobo — Thomas Neilson, exhorter; ^^26 13s 4d. 
Traquair — Mr Alexander Tait, reader, vicar pensioner; 20 merks; with his own 

third extending to £,i^ 8s lod, with glebe and manse. 
Kilbucho — William Porteous, reader; ^^14 6s 8d, with the third of his pension 

extending to 6 merks. 
Hopkailzie — John Bullo, reader; ^^14 6s 8d. 
Broughton and Dawyck — Walter Tweedy, exhorter; jQzd 13s 4d. 
Eddkstoun — Mr George Hay, minister and parsoun; the third of this parsonage 
and Rathven, as well past as to come, extending to ;£68 i6s 8d, one 
chalder, one boll, &c., of barley for Rathven; four chalders, nine bolls, 
&c., of meal for Eddlestoun. Providing always he insist diligently in the 
ministry, and also cause his Kirk, where he does not make continual 
residence, to be sufficiently served, and that he charge the Kirk with no 
further stipend. 
Kirkurd — Thomas Patersoun, reader; ;^2o; Beltane, 1570. 
Innerleithen — Patrick Sanderson, exhorter; £^\o; with the third of the vicarage, 

extending to ^22; Beltane, 1571. 
St Bride's Kirk (Traquair) — Alexander Tait, exhorter; JQ20; Beltane, 1571. 
Out of this number of seventeen clergymen, two only were ministers, viz., those 
of Peebles and Eddleston; these two ministers would require to traverse the whole 
county of Peebles administering the sacraments. As the minister of Eddleston was a 
pluralist, probably most of the burden fell on the minister of Peebles. 

Regarding the readers or exhorters, it will be noted that out of these there were 
four who enjoyed the third part of the vicarage teinds as pensioners, probably because 
they were survivals of the pre-Reformation priests. 

Dawyck and Drumelzier were ministered to by one clergyman; Kailzie had a 
Church of its own, now ruined, at Kirkburn. 

In modem currency, the ecclesiastical revenues of the entire county amounted 
to no more than £,/i,/^ 13s sd, with meal, barley, &c., in addition in some parishes; 
and, in one case only, with manse and glebe. 

Contemporary Ministers. 
\j575 — Lyne (previous to the 14th century Lyne was a chapel of Stobo) — 
Gilbert Hay, provided; died February 1592; having diligently served the cure. 
Janet Waich, his widow. 



THE MINISTRY OF ARCHIBALD DOUGLAS. 37 

\jS76 — Druniehier (previous to the Reformation Drumelzier was a vicarage of 
Stobo) — Thomas Bissait, exhorter, 1567; Dawyck was added to his charge in 1571; 
was reader at both in 1574; Dawyck was in the charge in 1576; deposed by the 
Presbytery of Edinburgh, August 22, 1592, but was still on the register, 1593. 

[75'7(5 — West Linton — Archibald Douglas, removed from Kirkurd; Kirkurd 
and Newlands being also in his charge; continued in 1578, but returned again to 
Kirkurd.] 

The Bassandyne Bible Completed. 

\1579 — I^O"" upwards of seventy years after Chepman and Myllar began business 
as printers in Edinburgh, no copy of the Bible had been printed in Scotland. In the 
year 1574, however, there was a printer in Edinburgh named Thomas Bassandyne. 
He was a Scotsman, but acquired a practical knowledge of the art of printing in the 
city of Leyden, in Holland. He returned to Edinburgh in the year 1558, and began 
business as a printer. His printing office was situated near to the Netherbow Port, 
and nearly opposite the building known as John Knox's house. Bassandyne had a 
strong desire to print a Bible, but as it was considered to be a formidable under- 
taking, he entered into an arrangement with a wealthy Edinburgh burgess, named 
Alexander Arbuthnot, to assist him in the important work. The Government, under 
the Regent Morton, having been found favourable, as also the leading men of the 
Kirk, it was resolved to proceed with the adventure. The matter was also brought 
before the Privy Council, when it was decreed that, " seeing the charge and hazard of 
the wark will be great and sumptuous, that each parish in the kingdom should 
advance five pounds as a contribution, to be collected under the care of the officers 
of the Church, ^4 1 3s 4d of this sum being considered as the price of a copy to be 
weel and sufficiently bund in paste and timmer, and the remaining 6s 8d as the 
expense of collecting the money." 

[Bassandyne and Arbuthnot, on their parts, bound themselves to execute the 
work under certain penalties, and respectable men became their sureties. One 
Solomon Kerknett was got from Flanders to act as compositor, at 493 per week, but 
it was soon found that the undertaking was much more formidable than had been 
supposed. Many serious drawbacks arose which greatly hindered progress, and the 
Bible was completed only in the year 1579, being five years after its commencement. 
An Act of Parliament was then passed, ordaining that " each householder worth 300 
merks of yearly rent, and all substantious yeomen and burgesses, should have a Bible 
and Psalm Bulk in the vulgar tongue, under the penalty of ten pounds Scots." 

[There was great rejoicing among the clergy at the completion of the work, and 
they praised the printer "as a man who had taken great pains and travail worthy to 
be remembered, and that henceforth there should be a copy in every Parish Kirk, as 
the most fitting ornament for such a place." 

[In terms of a commission under the privy seal, one John Williamson was 
instructed to " visit and search every household in the realm, and to require a sicht of 
their Bible and Psalm Buik, gif they ony have, to be marked with their own name for 
eschewing of fraudulent dealings on that behalf" 

[Such, then, is a brief account of the now famous Bassandyne Bible, the first 
which was printed in Scotland. It was a substantial folio volume, and although a 
large number would seem to have been printed, they must have been worn out with 
use, as it is now almost impossible to discover a complete copy anywhere. One 
eminent collector of old Bibles, at great trouble and expense, succeeded in procuring 
no fewer than seven imperfect copies with the view of trying to make a complete one, 



38 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

but after all his exertion and care he failed to do it because of the want of a title page 
and other items which had to be supplied in facsimile. It is gratifying, however, to 
note that a complete copy of this rare Bassandyne Bible has been secured for 
Edinburgh, its birthplace. It has been acquired by the Directors of the Edinburgh 
Public Library, and is to be seen in one of the glass cases in the Reference 
Department.] 

Downfall of Episcopacy. 
\1580 — In the Church at large the principal event had been the return to 
Scotland of Andrew Melville, after an absence of ten years on the continent. He 
returned to his native country possessing a European reputation. He had known, 
and was respected by, all the chiefs of the Reformation in Europe. He was 
appointed Principal of the University of Glasgow. He found that Episcopacy had 
existed already in Scotland for about three years, and had not done well. In the 
meetings of the General Assembly occurring during the next following years, Melville 
took a leading part in impugning Episcopacy and the bishops. His knowledge of 
the scriptural teachings upon the subject, and his experience of the feeling thereupon 
among the leading scholars on the continent, carried great weight in these Assemblies. 
Measures, sometimes of a temporising and at others of a retrogressive character, were 
successively carried; and in 1580 the downfall of Episcopacy for the time was 
consummated. In that year the General Assembly, \vith one voice, declared against 
Episcopacy. It pronounced the office of bishop to be unlawful. It ordained all 
bishops to demit the office. It ordered them to cease from preaching the Word or 
administering the sacraments until they had been admitted anew by the General 
Assembly. The Church thus reverted to the policy of 1560. The policy of the 
General Assemblies of the last six years had been self-denying. The ministers 
sought equality alone. Superintendents even were to cease.] 

Contemporary Minister. 
[zf^o — Skirling — John Purdy.] 

Sacred Tune. 
\1580 — Richard Farrant was bom about 1530. He died in 1580. He 
composed "Farrant" (99 and 231, Scottish Hymnal).] 

Forty-First General Assembly. 

\1580 — At the 41st General Assembly, held in 1580, the commissioners of 
provinces being tried, Mr Andrew Blackball was delated for admitting an unqualified 
man to the ministry at Ettlestone. Answered that he admitted him only to be an 
exhorter, and that with the advice of certain brethren. Also, he is now discharged of 
his ministry. It was answered that the Assembly acknowledged no such office in the 
Kirk of God, and will not acknowledge any such in times to come.] 

Mr Patrick Gaits was found fault with that Mr Thomas Cranstoun had ministered 
the sacrament without examination preceding, and without his own parish; that at 
other times he committeth the examination of the people to readers; baptiseth 
children privately; that he had celebrated the communion in Innerleithen on Easter 
day. He answered he had taken order with him for baptising of children privately, 
but understood 7iot of the rest before. The Assembly giveth commission to the 
brethren of the exercise of Edinburgh to call Mr Thomas before them, and after due 



THE MINISTRY OF ARCHIBALD DOUGLAS. 39 

trial and examination to take order with him according to the quality of his offence 
and acts of the kirk, and what shall be done herein to report to next General 
Assembly. — Calderwood, iii., 477. 

[The officials now recognised in the Church were those described in the Second 
Book of Discipline, which the Assembly of 1578 had approved. These were — 
Minister, doctor or assistant, elder, and deacon. The Assembly following this one 
had ordered all gentlemen and yeomen possessing property of a certain value to 
obtain copies of Knox's Book of Common Order.'] 

The Communion — Presbyteries Formed. 

[iSSo — From the description of a communion celebrated in one of the city 
Churches in Perth, it appears that the choir of the Church, where the principal altar 
had formerly stood, was railed off, and was occupied with tables and chairs. The 
communicants entered by two doors in the rails, giving their tokens and alms to the 
deacons as they entered. There were two ministrations — one at five and the other 
at nine a.m. 

[Presbyteries were formed in 1580.] 

Death of Gilbert Broun. 
By the year 1580 Gilbert Broun, last minister of the friars of the Cross Kirk 
monastery of Peebles, was dead. 

Churches. 
[ijSi — In 1 58 1 it was reported to the Assembly that, excluding the diocese of 
Argyle and the Isles, of which the rentals have never yet been given up, there are in 
Scotland 924 Kirks. Of these, sundry are pendicles and small parishes, and many 
Kirks are demolished, and some parishes are of greater bounds than that the 
parishioners may conveniently convene to their Parish Kirks. It hath been thought 
meet, therefore, to reduce the 924 Kirks to 600, and at every Kirk to have a 
minister, and their stipends and Hvings to be modified in four degrees: — 100 at 500 
merks each; 200 at 300 merks each; 200 at ^100 each; 100 at 100 merks each; 
to be divided into fifty Presbyteries of twelve Churches each. All benefices, at the 
decease of a minister, to be divided equally between his representatives and the new 
entrant. All benefices to be appointed gradatim — the youngest minister to the 
lowest, and so on to the highest, for periods of three years.] 

Members of Assembly since 1578. 
[The laird of Blackbarronie, the Tutor of Drumelzier, Mr Arch. Douglas, Gilbert 
Hay, Walter Tweedie. — Calderwood, iii., 527.] 

No Presbytery in Peeblesshire Yet. 
\1582 — In the Assembly of 1582 it was stated that — "As for the Presbytery of 
Tweeddale, forasmuch as the Assembly understandeth that by reason of the rarity of 
qualified ministers in these bounds, a Presbytery cannot be at present erected there, 
and that also divers, unfit for the function of the ministry, as yet remain in office, 
the Assembly giveth communion to their brother, John Brande, to visit Tweeddale, 
and with all convenient diligence to summon before the Presbytery of Edinburgh 
such as shall be judged unfit for their functions, to give trial of their doctrine and 
sufficiency, and if they be found insufficient, to deprive them of their offices with 



40 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

advice of the said Presbytery; and in the meantime, till a better order be taken 
that the ministers of that country resort to the Synodal Assembly of Lothian." — 
Calderwood, iii., 68.] 

Sacred Tune. 
[^rj82 — "Eber," Rev. Caspar Almberg's Psalms of David. '\ 

Contemporary Minister. 
\_1j82 — Eddleston — John Syde or Fawside. He desired to get the parish of 
Ormiston, February 13, 1583. He continued, however, in 1586.] 

Baptism. 
[In 1582 baptism in private houses was forbidden by the General Assembly.] 

The Synod. 
{.15^3 — As the Synod of Lothian was too large, it was thought expedient to 
dismember it — that Dunbar, Chirnside, Melrose, and Peebles be joined in one 
assembly, and meet at Lauder for the first time, and other places. — Calderwood, iii., 
748.] 

Anent Andrew and George Hay. 
\1584 — The testament of Mr James Lawsone, sometime minister of Edinburgh, 
made in exile, at his decease in London in 1584 ("false and feigned," said Bishop 
Adamson) ; — In its third article there is a letter directed to Mr Andrew Hay, parson 
of Renfrew, accusing him of adultery with Alison Weir, spouse to John Galloway. 
Also of the blood of Riccio. Also for art and part in the murder of Damley. Also 
for complicity in the affair against the King's person at Ruthven. Also against the 
honour and life of the Duke of Lennox. And of other rebellions against the King. 
He was accused also of being proud, ambitious, and conceited. Also envious and 
a detractor of men's names. Also a common briber and corrupter. That he had 
sett his benefice in assedation to his brother-in-law; and named his eldest son to 
succeed him in the benefice, thus making heritage of the Lord's honour. Negligent 
in study, not leisured to preach nor do good. To Master George Hay he also left a 
letter, charging him with having two benefices 120 miles from each other. He 
defended this as by a dispensation from the Pope. That the benefice of Rathene 
was founded to be a hospital for the poor, but that he spoiled the poor. That as a 
judgment his eldest son had suddenly died on the day of his marriage. That his 
sermons were rare and his residence rarer. Most of his time was spent at the courts 
of law. That he was proud and ambitious, and standing meikle upon his own 
reputation. — Calderwood, iv. (Note. — Master George Hay was minister of Eddleston 
until 1580.)] 

Schism. 
[The first dissent in the new Church had its origin about the year 1580. The 
adherents of the schism were called Brownists, or Independents, and they held that 
every congregation formed an Independent Church, possessing full powers. The 
Romish Church had been indivisible; but the theory of Protestantism allowed every 
man to think for himself in matters ecclesiastical and religious; although in practice 
it was attempted to be rigorously repressed. The following are the particulars: — 



THE MINISTRY OF ARCHIBALD DOUGLAS. 41 

\1584 — On Thursday, January 9, an Englishman, called Robert Brown, came to 
Edinburgh out of Flanders. He landed at Dundee, and having gotten support there, 
he came to St Andrews, where he purchased a letter of commendation from Mr 
Andrew Melville to Mr James Lowsone. There came in company with him four or 
five Englishmen, with their wives and families. They held opinion of separation from 
all Kirks where excommunication was not rigorously used against open offenders not 
repenting. They would not admit witnesses in baptism, and sundry other opinions 
they had. This Brown was their preacher. Upon Tuesday the 14th he made shew, 
after an arrogant manner, before the session of the Kirk of Edinburgh, that he would 
maintain that witnesses at baptism was not a thing indifferent but simply evil. But 
he failed in the probation. He affirmed, as the manuscript beareth, that the souls 
died. He and his company remained at the head of the Canongate. — Calderwood, 
iv., I.] 

The Black Acts. 
[1^84 — On May 22, 1584, the Scots Parliament met. This Parliament passed 
what have since become known as the Black Acts. One act ratified the Three 
Estates of the realm, and made it treason to speak evil of any one of the three ; this 
protected the bishops. Another act declared the King supreme in all cases, and 
over all persons, and to decline his judgment was treason; this was to check the 
boldness of such men as Melville. All convocations were declared to be unlawful 
except those specially licensed by the King; this restricted the powers of the Church 
courts. Another act placed the chief jurisdiction of the Church into the hands of the 
Episcopal body, for the bishops were to do what the Assemblies and the Presbyteries 
had been wont to do. By another act it was ordained that no one, privately or 
publicly — in sermons, declamations, or in conferences — should utter any false, untrue, 
or slanderous speeches to the reproach of the King or council; or meddle with the 
affairs of the King and Estate under penalties. Of these acts, the one which caused 
most consternation was that alleging the supremacy of the King over all cases and 
persons. The latter was allowed, the former was denied. It has always been 
maintained, in matters purely spiritual, that the Church courts possess an independent 
jurisdiction, from which there is no appeal. The defence of this great principle has 
formed a large part of the history of the Church ; and has been the source of much of 
the suffering of the Church, both in persecution and in schism. The practical effects 
of these measures were that the King might set up bishops, to whom all must be 
subject; he might interdict the General Assembly and Presbyteries; he might close 
the mouths of outspoken ministers. In addition, the King was to be supreme 
head of the Church in matters purely religious and ecclesiastical. The dispute lay 
between the prerogative of the King, which James and his successors considered to 
be divine, and the headship of Christ over His Church. This was the casting down 
of the gauntlet between court and Church, in a struggle which did not finally close 
until the Revolution Settlement of 1690, after the Stuarts had been finally banished 
by the Revolution of 1688.] 

Abuses in the Kirk. 
{1384, August 10 — A list of the abuses and grievances in the Kirk and common- 
weal, set down by Mr James Melville at the request of the Earl of Angus : — Among 
them are — " The small number that is of the ministry can have no certainty of the 
poor stipend assigned to them, but yearly it must be cast in the lords' modifiers' 
hands, and of new shaped and assigned over again to see how much may be wonne 



42 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

in to the collector. There is no provision made for the poor relicts and fatherless 
of the ministers; but notwithstanding their earnest, faithful, and most wakerife care 
over their flocks, which made them to cast away all other industry and virtue for 
worldly provision to their wives and children, they are suffered to beg and lie in 
misery after their departure." — Calderwood, iv., 152.] 

The Revenues of the Rood and Holy Blood Altar. 
Between 1584 and 1587 occur three receipts granted by John Tweedy, the 
student who had received the gift of the revenues of the Rood and Holy Blood altar, 
to Sir John Stewart, for the rent of the tenement called the Crosshouse or East Wark, 
built above the East Port. This East Wark had been in course of building in 1488; 
by the year 1549, the year of the burning of Peebles, it had come into the possession 
of the chaplain of the Rood altar in St Andrew's Kirk, and the building itself had 
been wholly or partially destroyed. Sir James Davidson, the last Romish prebendary 
of the Rood altar, had granted several renewals of a lease of the building to Sir John 
Stewart of Traquair, but always with reservation to the magistrates, who were to have 
the use of it for the purposes of fortification if need arose. In time becoming 
ruinous, its remains were cleared away in 1656. 

Contemporary Ministers. 

{ij8j-i6oj — Innerleithen — William Sanderson. Hope-Kailzie and Traquair 
were also under his care. Presented to the vicarage by James VI., May 24, 1599; 
died 1607. 

\158s — Newlands (previous to the Reformation Newlands was a prebend of the 
Collegiate Church of Dalkeith) — Robert Allan, translated from Saltoun, having 
Lyneton also in charge; continued 1588 (but was probably suspended); returned 
1590, and continued in 1591.] 

Sacred Tunes. 
[Thomas Tallis; died in 1585. He had been organist to Waltham Abbey until 
its dissolution in 1540. His tunes were: — "Evening Hymn" (10, Scottish Psalter; 
285, Scottish Hymnal; 22, Free Church Hymnal; 302, U.P. Hymnal). "Tallis" 
(168, Scottish Psalter; 67, Free Church Hymnal; 70 and 123, U.P. Psalter; 308, 
U.P. Hymnal; loi and 189, Scottish Hymnal; 156, Psalms and Paraphrases). 
Chant (226, Scottish Psalter; 76, U.P. Psalter).] 

The Black Acts. 
{^1586 — In the Church at large general consternation was created by the passing 
of the Black Acts by the Scots Parliament. Many of the more outspoken ministers 
fled either to Berwick or to England; some were imprisoned; others were banished 
north of the Tay. The Church received a severe blow when Craig, who had been 
the colleague of Knox, and who had at first held out strongly against the King, not 
only signed a deed of submission but counselled his clerical brethren to follow his 
example. This defection disheartened the great bulk of the ministers in their 
resistance, and the great majority, erstwhile champions of the Reformed Church, 
submitted to the will of the King, and agreed to the provisions of the Black Acts. 
Not only so, but Lord Maxwell, a Papist, considering the time ripe and the omens 
auspicious, assembled all those who had been practising the Romish faith in secret in 



THE MINISTRY OF ARCHIBALD DOUGLAS. 43 

the neighbourhood of Dumfries, and on Christmas Eve, 1585, celebrated mass at 
midnight amid the ruins of the Collegiate Church of Lincluden. For this breach of 
the law, however. Maxwell suffered three months' imprisonment in the castle of 
Edinburgh. One is not certain whether this personage is the erstwhile Master of 
Maxwell who had created panic in the breasts of Father Gilbert Broun and the 
Romish friars of the Cross Kirk twenty-five years previously. If it is the same man, 
then he must have reverted to the ancient faith. On May 10, 1586, the General 
Assembly met. At its sittings, the ministers argued the whole question of Episcopacy 
with the King in person; and ultimately the Church gave its sanction to a species of 
modified Episcopacy.] 

Second Charge Created in Peebles. 
i§86 — In this year Adam Dickson was minister of the second charge in 
Peebles, but the arrangement does not seem to have lasted long. It was not 
persevered in at the time, and nothing is now known concerning it. At the time, 
however, it was apparently required, as the minister of Peebles, Archibald Douglas, 
had betaken himself to his conjoined charge, which was Manor. Wherefore is not 
known. Adam Dickson attended the Synod this year. He is found as minister of 
Newlands, in the same Presbytery, in the year 1589. About fourteen years after 
this, a second minister was once more appointed for a brief period. 

Episcopacy and Presbytery Combined. 
\iS86 — There were in the Church at this time, archbishops, bishops, with a 
greatly diminished prerogative. Synods, Presbyteries, and kirk-sessions. In many 
matters the bishops were to receive directions from the Presbyteries, and they were to 
be answerable to the General Assembly.] 

Protests from the Borders. 
1586, October 12 — In the Synod of Merse, Teviotdaill, and Tweeddale a 
resolution was drawn up and signed, to the effect that in the Church of Scotland 
there were at that time no divided opinions touching the true policy and government 
of the House of God. And that they held to the policy as practised before May 
1584. And that those who subscribed the letter to the King did so in so far only 
as the laws of the King were agreeable to the Word of God, not allowing the 
tyrannical supremacy of bishops over ministers and their laws, which directly impugn 
the Word of God. Among those who signed are the names of Archibald Douglas, 
minister at Manor; Adam Dickeson, minister at Peebles; Robert Alane, minister at 
Newlands; Archibald Douglas, minister at Kirkurd; Thomas Bisset, minister at 
Drumelzier. 

Sacred Tune. 
\1586 — "Eisenach" (77, Scottish Hymnal); Johann Hermann Schein, 1586- 
1630.] 

Mary Queen of Scots. 
[On February 8, 1587, the Queen was put to death at Fotheringay. Previous 



44 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

to this, the King had ordered the ministers of Edinburgh to pray for his mother; this 
they declined to do. The King then ordered Archbishop Adamson to conduct the 
service in St Giles, in order that he might pray for the menaced royal lady. Cowper, 
the minister, refused to give place, and a riot ensued in the Church. Ultimately 
Cowper had to give place to the archbishop, and the service proceeded.] 

The Temporalities. 
[1387 — When the Scots Parliament met in this year, an act was passed annexing 
the temporalities of all benefices to the Crown; but reserving the teinds to the 
Church. The Church was thus plundered, and the bishops greatly impoverished. 
And the King himself was not greatly enriched thereby, as he squandered the 
possessions of the Church upon his favourites among his courtiers, who thus became 
aggrandised at the expense of the Church of Scotland. The ancient possessions of 
the Church were now finally lost.] 

Divine Service: The Armada. 
\^i^86-87-88 — At this time, in the public services of the Church, kneeling was 
the common posture at prayer; and in 1587 the kirk-session of Glasgow enjoined all 
persons to bend the knee to the ground. 1588 was the year in which was defeated 
the great Spanish Armada, which inflicted a severe blow upon the Romish cause. 
The coasts of Scotland were strewn with the wrecks of the great vessels. There was 
much excitement in the kingdom, and the popish nobility were ready for rebellion.] 

Sacred Tune. 
{1388 — "Southwell," Henrie Denham's Psalter.] 

General Assembly. 
\^IS88 — Act against burial in Kirks. No one to be allowed to do so; nor any 
ministers to give permission, All breaking this law to be suspended from all 
benefits of the Kirk, till they make public repentance therefor ; and ministers to be 
suspended who consent. And supplication to be made to the King to forbid burial 
in Kirks, erecting of tombs, and laying of throuches in kirkyairds. — Calderwood, iv., 
690.] 

Contemporary Ministers. 
[In the year 1588 died George Hay, who had been minister of Eddlestoun, 
which, previous to the Reformation, was a prebend of Glasgow. He was parson 
both of Eddlestoun and of Rathven, which he had held by dispensation of the Pope ; 
but was confirmed anew at the Reformation. In the year 1561 he was one of those 
who argued against the idolatry of the Queen. In the year 1562 he was a member 
of Assembly, and was appointed as superintendent of Glasgow, on July 2, to preach 
alternately, along with another, in the unplanted kirks of Carrick, till next Assembly. 
Such was his influence that, at the General Assembly, held in June 1564, he was 
called the minister of the court. He was appointed to argue against Knox on the 
obedience due to magistrates, but declined doing so, as he was of the same opinion 
also. In the year 1567 he had the third of both his parsonages, provided he insist 
diligently in the ministry, and cause his Kirk where he makes not residence to be 
sufficiently served, and charge no further stipend. In the year 1568, on a complaint 
to the General Assembly, by Andrew Murray of Blackbarony, in name of the 



THE MINISTRY OF ARCHIBALD DOUGLAS. 45 

parishioners, of his neither preaching the Word nor ministering the sacraments, he 
was sharply rebuked. He appears to have betaken himself to his other benefice. 

\_158Q — Newlands — Adam Dickson, formerly of Peebles, who seems to have left 
same year; returned in 1592, it being agreed, June 20, that better provision should 
be made for him. Presented by James VI., June 1593. Died in 1595, when the 
stipend was assigned to his widow and bairns. 

\138g-1622 — West Linton — David Nerne or Name, appointed to be admitted 
after November 4, 1589; presented to the vicarage by James VI., November 10, 
1597; died 1622.] 

The Confession and Covenant. 
158^ — In the Privy Council Register for 1589 the name of the minister of 
Peebles, Archibald Douglas, occurs in the " List of a commission of select clergy in 
the shires to promote subscription to the Confession of Faith and Covenant over the 
whole kingdom." 

Marriage of the King: The King and the Church. 
[The King had now married a Princess of Denmark, the ceremony being 
performed by a Presbyterian minister, David Lindesay; and the Queen was crowned 
on a Sunday in May, 1590, in Holyrood Chapel, by another minister, Robert Bruce. 
On August 4, 1590, the General Assembly met. The King was present at its eighth 
sitting. It was then that he " fell forth praising God that he was born in such a time 
as the time of the light of the gospel ; to such a place as to be King in such a Kirk 
— the sincerest Kirk in the world," and used the famous words: — "The Kirk of 
Geneva keepeth Pasche and Yule: what have they for them? — they have no 
institution. As for our neighbour Kirk in England, it is an evil said Mass in 
English, wanting nothing but the liftings (raising the host). I charge you, my good 
people — ministers, doctors, elders, nobles, gentlemen, and barons — to stand to your 
purity, and to exhort the people to do the same; and I, forsooth, so long as I brook 
my Ufe and crown, shall maintain the same against all deadly."] 

The Murder of Patrick Veitch. 
1590, June — About this time Peebles was the scene of a very cruel murder. 
William Veitch, "the Diel o' Dawyck," had a son called Patrick, who had been in 
Peebles on business on a day in June 1590. In the afternoon he rode homeward 
through the defile opposite the castle of Neidpath. He had been observed by James 
Tweedy of Drumelzier, one of the hereditary foes of his house. Six of the Tweedies, 
two Crichtons, and one Porteous resolved to waylay the unfortunate youth. Dividing 
into two parties, one of which preceded Veitch upon the road, they fell upon him in 
the narrow pass and murdered him — nine to one. The Tweedies were put in prison, 
but were never brought to justice. The Veitches, probably knowing by experience 
that this would be the case, took the matter into their own hands. Four days after 
the murder, on June 20, John Tweedy, Tutor of Drumelzier, one of the assassin 
band, was walking on the High Street of Edinburgh. He was met by John Veitch, 
from North Syntoun, in Selkirkshire, and Andrew Veitch, brother of the laird of 
Courhope, a property among the Meldon hills in Peeblesshire. Recriminations 



46 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

passed, which resulted in the death of Tweedy, after a sharp conflict. Then ensued 
and continued a long dispeace between the families of Tweedy and Veitch. In a 
letter, dated March lo, 1611, the King referred to this long-standing feud, and called 
upon Lord Dunfermline and the other lords of the privy council to suppress the 
enmity and effect a reconciliation between the septs. He fondly believed at the time 
that all other feuds in the kingdom had been suppressed but this. 

Assembly of 1590. 
[75^0 — Trial de novo is appointed of the whole Presbyteries as was had before 
this Assembly, and their diligence to be given in writt in their Synodal, in October 
next to come, .... and at the trial of Peebles, for Mr David Lindsey, John 
Brand. Speech of the King, hearing an advocate reason before the lords the 
Commissars of Edinburgh, in an action by the laird of Craigmillar against his wife: 
— " Your reasoning is like this which the ministers use. There can be no preaching 
without ministers; ministers cannot be had without livings; livings cannot be had 
without a platt; ergo, the gospel cannot be preached without a platt." — Calderwood, 
v., 117.] 

Presbvterianism: The Church's Charter. 
\15g2 — On May 29, 1592, Parliament met. It discussed a petition presented 
to it by the General Assembly of May 21. It passed thereafter an act confirming the 
liberty of the Church; giving a legal jurisdiction to its courts; repealing the acts of 
1584 in so far as they affected ecclesiastical authority in matters of religion; and 
stipulating that presentations should henceforth be directed not to bishops but to 
Presbyteries. This series of provisions constitute the Magna Charta of the Church. 
This act was equivalent to the entire subversion of the Episcopal polity in the 
Church, and the re-establishment of the Church upon the basis of Presbyterianism. 
There was no hope, however, of the Church regaining her temporalities. This, then, 
was the end of the twenty years' struggle. From 1572 Presbytery and Episcopacy 
had been intermingled, but had not assimilated. Now, in this year 1592, the victory 
lay with Presbytery; Episcopacy meanwhile was laid low.] 

Thirty-Two Years after the Reformation. 
\15g2 — At this time there were upwards of four hundred Churches still 
unsupplied with Protestant preachers. The Romish clergy as a class had shewn 
themselves either unwiUing or unfit to become ministers in the Reformed Churches. 
Attempts were made in some places, including Peebles, to compel these ex-chaplains 
to conduct or take part in the reformed services, but without much success. The 
reader had gradually sunk from his original office until by this time he discharged the 
office either of clerk or precentor. A curious entry in the records of one of the early 
Assemblies gives a glimpse of some of the side lights of the time — " Any minister or 
reader that taps ale, beer, or wine, and keeps an open tavern, should be ordained by 
the Commissioners to keep decorum." In place of the Romish festivals, the 
Reformed Church substituted fasts for special occasions. The abstinence lasted 
from Saturday at eight at night until Sunday after five o'clock, and then only bread 
and drink to be used, and that with great sobriety. Gorgeous apparel was to be 
disused during the whole time of humiliation, which lasted from one Sunday in the 
morning until the next Sunday at night. The public services were to last for 
three hours in the forenoon, and two hours in the afternoon, the remainder of the 



THE MINISTRY OF ARCHIBALD DOUGLAS. 47 

day being passed in private meditation. During a fast, there was daily service in 
the Churches for two or three hours. The pubHc penances of the Reformed Church 
were far more severe than those of the Romish Church had been.] 

Contemporary Ministers. 

Ei^g2 — Glenholm — John Hepburn, M.A. ; translated to Merton. 
/jp^ — Newlands — John Colden, formerly of Borthwick, was presented, but 
collation was refused him. May 9, 1592; demitted in 1594, and was admitted to 
Kinross. 

\1592 — Stobo — Adam Hepburne, presented and admitted, June 22; collated, 
August 15; died, October 1602, in the eleventh year of his ministry. His books 
were estimated at a hundred merks; utensils, &c., at ^40; inventory and debts, 
^^587 13s 4d; his debts exceeded his goods. Married Agnes Foulis, who survived, 
and left issue.] 

Sacred Tunes. 
\1592 — Thomas Este was printer in London between 1588 and 1624. In 1592 
he published the whole book of Psalms. In it are: — "Winchester" (23 and 203, 
Scottish Hymnal; 165, Psalms and Paraphrases; 178, Scottish Psalter; 178, U.P. 
Psalter; 291 and Doxology 2, U.P. Hymnal; set to Psalm 84). "Cheshire" (60, 
Psalms and Paraphrases; 47, Scottish Psalter; 52, U.P. Psalter; 180, U.P. Hymnal; 
set to Psalm 146). "Dundee" (i, U.P. Psalter; 69, Psalms and Paraphrases; 57, 
Scottish Psalter; set to Psalm 116). "Canterbury" or "Paston" (207, Scottish 
Hymnal; 58, Psalms and Paraphrases; 104, U.P. Psalter; set to Psalm 4).] 

Contemporary Ministers. 

\1593 — Broughton — John Makcullo, laureated at Edinburgh University, August 
12, 1592; admitted. May 28, 1594; but, April 2, 1595, "can find na sufficient 
provision." 

\1593 — Eddlesion — James Logan. 

\j593-^^^7 — ^y^^ — John Ker. 

\_i594. — Skirling — James Hunter, translated from Borthwick to Skirling; thence 
to Smailholm.] 

Sacred Tunes. 
[Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina; died in 1594. Tunes — "Palestrina" (118, 
Scottish Psalter). "Resignation " (123, Scottish Psalter). "Victory" (57, Scottish 
Hymnal).] 

Psalmody. 
\1595 — The arrangement of tunes in the psalter is supposed by some to shew 
that standing was the common posture in praise. During sermon the people usually 
sat with their hats on, and they sometimes applauded the preacher. Song schools 
were prominent institutions in all large towns. — Drs Sprott and Leishman.'\ 

Trial by Combat. 
1595 — Returning to secular matters in Peebles, there is an interesting account 
extant of a case of trial by combat, which occurred in its neighbourhood. The 
disputants were two members of the household of the late Provost of Peebles, James, 



48 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

lord Hay of Yester, who resided at the castle of Neidpath. The challenger was 
George Hepburn and the defender John Brown. License was obtained from the 
King, and the combat arranged to take place on Edston Haugh, two miles from 
Peebles. Both the combatants were mounted, and carried swords and spears. 
Hepburn, the challenger, overcame Brown, and bore him to the ground, thus 
vindicating his honour according to the usage and judgment of the time. But Brown 
resolutely refused to make any confession; however, Hepburn spared his life at the 
desire of the judges. For long after, Brown bore a deadly hatred towards his 
vanquisher, and swore to be avenged. This continued until 1605, when, on 
November 26, Brown was summoned to appear before the privy council, where he at 
length declared: — "Albeit he had borne feud against Hepburn in time byegone, he 
was content, in obedience to the council, to be reconciled with him, and gave his 
oath that from his heart he remitted Hepburn all rancour, and should never quarrel 
with him thereafter, and took him by the hand, and were reconciled together." 

Daily Prayers. 
[In this year the kirk-session of Glasgow ordered that prayers be read in the 
High Kirk at seven in the morning, and at five in the evening in the New Kirk.] 

A Benefice Register. 
[iSpS — ^ commission for the constant platt, General Assembly, 1595: — 
" Forasmuch as a great occasion of the non-planting of Kirks standeth in inlaike of 
provision of the ministry and that their stipends from year to year being changeable, 
they are drawn from their Kirks, to the neglecting of their flocks, and to the 
disgracing of their callings. With common advice it is herefore concluded and 
resolved that a constant platt shall be set down by the brethren following, appointed 
out of every province, who shall sit and convene the first day of September next, 
within Edinburgh; and before their convention and sitting every Presbytery shall, 
between and the 15th August next to come, deliver to the said brethren, appointed of 
their provinces, a resolute information, written in form of a book, in mundo, of the 
estate of their Kirks in the heads following, viz., of the names of the benefices 
within their bounds; whether the same be several benefices or annexed; who is 
patron thereof; who possessor; by what right the same is brooked; the old rent; 
the present rent; and the just availl thereof; and what Kirks may be united or 
divided. Which informations being received and collected together, the said 
commissioners convening as said is, shall appoint every Presbytery several days to 
direct a special brother, fully instructed by them, with a constant platt of the Kirks 
within their Presbyteries. And the said brethren so directed, with the commissioners 
foresaids, to conclude and put in form a constant platt of their Presbytery; and so 
furth to proceed till the work be wholly made up and complete. And after 
completing thereof, the said commissioners shall make warning to every Presbytery to 
direct a brother from them to consider the whole work." The King and council to 
ratify the information from all the fifty Presbyteries. — Calderwood, v., 374.] 

Contemporary Minister. 
\_1595 — Dritmehier — Robert Livingstone ; translated from Ellem ; Broughton, 
Kilbucho, andGlenholm were also under his charge; translated to Skirling.] 



THE MINISTRY OF ARCHIBALD DOUGLAS. 49 

St Mary's Lands in Innerleithen. 
In July 1596 occurred an alienation of ecclesiastical property, when the lands 
and buildings in Innerleithen belonging to the chapel of St Mary in Peebles were 
granted by feu charter to Horsburgh of Horsburgh. 

Presbytery Records. 
iSg6 — The records of the Presbytery of Peebles now begin. They are 
contained in a series of manuscript volumes, preserved in the Presbytery safe in 
Peebles. 

Meetings of Presbytery. 

I5g6 — October 11— hx. Peebles. Adam Hepburne, minister of Stobo, is chosen 
moderator. It is ordained that the bailies and council be warned to compear before 
the Presbytery the next day, with some gentlemen of each parish, for order to be 
taken that the exercise may be better kept. And also the bailies about the disponing 
of the prebends and about the hospital of SS. Leonard and Lawrence. The 
minister of Eddilstoun and the minister of Newlands are appointed to travail with 
the laird of Smithfield about the away-putting of the deadly feud betwixt him and 
James Dickson of Mennar. They reported that the laird of Smithfield was willing to 
offer five hundred merks, as he had offered before; and to submit other five hundred 
merks to friends. The Presbytery appoint the minister of Peebles to speak with 
James Dickson on the subject, and to receive his answer. Ordain Charles Pringill 
to be warned against the next day for production to the satisfaction of the party, of 
the King's remission for the unhappy slaughter of Janet Steivinsone. 

/jpd, November 2 — -At Peebles. The which day compeared the bailies and the 
most part of the council, they being accused for not resorting to the exercise as they 
ought and should. Answered by them that they shall do diligence to have the 
exercise better keepit, both by themselves and others. The bailies, being enquired 
at about the disposition of the prebends, and if they would be content to give 
them to sustain another minister? It was answered by them that they would be 
content to give Hector Cranstoun, reader, the gift of them; and proposed that a 
collector be appointed by the town to take up the rent. And as to the hospital, 
they would look out their evidents, and see what they can get, and report the next 
day. (Query. — Would this Hector Cranstoun be a relative of the former minister, 
Thomas, or his son, Andrew, the schoolmaster?) 

I5g6, December p — Compeared Charles Pringill, and declared that he was agreed 
with the party for the sudden slaughter of the late Janet Stevinsoun, and promised 
to produce the letter of slaines, or to cause the party to compear to testify the same. 
Continue the King's Majesty's remission and the satisfying of the Kirk until parties 
be satisfied. 

zjpd, December 23 — At Peebles. Schoolmaster. — Supplication by Mr Gavin 
MacCall, schoolmaster of Peebles, complaining of the smallness of the stipend 
assigned to him for teaching the school, and desiring the Presbytery to appoint one 



50 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

of their number to speak to the bailies to see if they will augment. Mr Archibald 
Douglas, the minister, is appointed to speak to the bailies. (Note. — This Gavin 
MacCall was he who was appointed minister of the second charge in 1600.) On 
the 6th of the following January the bailies reported that they had no means of 
augmenting the salary, but would speak with the council about it. The Hospital. — 
The bailies ordained to compear the next day to give answer about the seeking 
furth of the evidents of the hospital. 

zj-pd, January 6 — At Peebles. The Hospital. — Compeared the bailies of Peblis, 
and showed that they had searched all the common kist where their evidents lay, and 
could find nothing concerning the foundation of the hospital. Schoolmaster. — The 
bailies report that they have no means of augmenting the stipend of Mr Gawin 
M'Caill, schoolmaster, but will advise with the council about it. Sorcery. — Case of 
Janet Wallace, accused of sorcery and making a drink, whereby Christian Ker was 
slain, and some other people ; and that she went about the rowan tree to gather herbs 
for making the drink. The said Janet Wallace complained that Hector Cranstoun, 
reader, attempted to murder her under cloud of night; but as she had no proof of 
this, she was remitted to the session of Pebles, in order to make her repentance 
publicly in the Kirk, and to ask the said Hector's forgiveness for the slander. 

I5g6, January 20 — John Fausyde (Newlands) is appointed to carry a letter to the 
laird of Balcleuch anent the deadly feud betwixt John Hay of Smeithfield, and James 
Dikison in Kirktoun of Mennar. Also to show the oppression done to Mr Archibald 
Dowglas, minister at Peblis, by Robert Scott of Dryhope, cousin of Balcleuch, both 
by reiving of his heritage and not finding law-surety to him, but went to the horn. 

1596, February ij — At Peebles. The Presbytery appoint Mr Archibald 
Douglas, minister at Peblis, their commissioner to the General Assembly, and to speak 
to the Earl of Morton anent Mr John Wemyss (Kilbucho) and Mr John Cowane 
(Newlands). John Fausyd (Newlands) reported the laird of Balcleuch's answer to the 
Presbytery's letter about taking order with the deadly feud between John Hay of 
Smeithfield and James Dikison in the Kirktoun of Mennar; and produced a letter 
from Balcleuch to be subscribed for an insurance. The Presbytery appoint John 
Ker (Lyne) to ride to Tracquhair to James Dickison, to get the assurance subscribed. 
And as to the oppression done by Robert Scott of Dryhope to Mr Archibald 
Dowglas, Balcleuch promised to end the same when leisure served. On March 21, 
it was reported to the Presbytery that Dickson refused to grant the assurance. 

Penance in Sackcloth. 
1S96, March 2 — Compeared Thomas Stevinsoun, in name and behalf of the 
father and mother and friends of the late Janet Stevinsoun, and testified and declared 
that they were contented and satisfied by Charles Pringill for the unhappy and 
unadvysed slaughter of the said Janet; and for further declaration thereof, the 
Presbytery appoint the said Charles to compear on Sunday next, in his linen clothes, 
all the time of the sermon, and thereafter to humble himself before God in presence 
of the parishioners, and to ask God mercy for Jesus Christ His Son's sake, and the 
parties' forgiveness. 



THE MINISTRY OF ARCHIBALD DOUGLAS. 51 

The Case of Sorcery. 
iSg6, March ij — The minister of Peblis ordained to proceed with public 
intimation against Janet Wallace, in case she ask not forgiveness of Hector 
Cranstoun, reader, publicly in the Kirk, for slandering him. 

Contemporary Ministers. 

[/fpfj — Newlands — John Syde or Fawside, formerly of Eddleston ; presented by 
William, Earl of Morton, May 1592; admitted in 1596; removed to Henderland 
before 16 14; returned 161 5, and had ;!^ioo allowed him by the city of Edinburgh 
for his services at Kirkurd, August 16, same year; continued in 1631. 

[zfpd-vd^O — Skirling — Kenneth Logic, M.A., translated to Kirkcaldy in 1650.] 

Member of Assembly. 
iSgj, April 14 — The Presbytery ordain, according to the act of the provincial 
assembly, to try Mr Archibald Dowglas, minister at Peblis, commissioner to the 
General Assembly, held at Perth, to see if he passed the bounds of his commission or 
not. 

A Feud. 

1597, April 14 — The Presbytery, perceiving a deadly evil will and hatred falling 
out betwixt the lairds of Smythfield and Horsburgh, who, for invasion and contempt 
of each other, have convened their friends and forces to the town of Peblis for 
mutual harm and slaughter, to the offence of God, the unquietness of the country, 
and grief of every one of our consciences ; for remedy whereof and eschewing further 
troubles Uke to ensue thereupon, have for the present thought it meetest that Mr 
James Logane (Eddleston) and John Fausyde (Newlands) travail with each of the 
said parties, to assure each other for such a time as can be granted; and in like 
manner that they or either of them, as they may agree between themselves two, 
represent and declare the same to His Majesty and council, by whose deliverance 
there may be letters granted for charging either of the parties to compear before them 
that such order may be taken therein as His Majesty and council think good. 

iSgj, April 28 — Ordain Mr James Logane (Eddleston) to travail betwixt 
John Hay of Smythfield and the laird of Horsburgh for an assurance, and to desire 
the laird of Traquair and the laird of Blackbarony to concur with them to that effect. 

The Cross Church as Parish Church. 

IS97, April 28 — The Presbytery appoints the minister of Peebles to teach no 
longer in the chapel, but to resort to the Parish Kirk next Sunday; and this to be 
intimate to the session. This reference shows that the congregation of Peebles had 
been deprived of the ancient Cross Kirk, in which it had assembled after the 
Reformation for divine service. Possibly Lord Yester had usurped possession of the 
Church in virtue of an option granted to him by the last Romish minister, Gilbert 
Broun. The congregation was now worshipping in the chapel of St Mary, founded 
in the year 1362. 

zfp/, May 5 — Mr James Logane (Eddleston) and John Fausyde (Newlands) 



52 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

report their diligence as to obtaining an assurance between the lairds of Smythfield 
and Horsburgh; the former having refused to grant assurance, because the laird of 
Horsburgh and James Dikison's bairns are so near of kin. 

yjp/, May ig — Visitation of the Kirk of Peblis ordained, and the parishioners 
to be warned to that effect. 

/5P7, May 26 — Visitation of the Kirk of Peblis continued, because the 
parishioners could not well convene. 

IS97, June 16 — Mr Gavin Makcall, schoolmaster and probationer, exercised; 
addition by Mr James Logane on Genesis xvii., 23-27. It was concluded that the 
Presbytery be removed to Stobo next day. Intimation to be made to the 
parishioners of Peebles of the transportation of the Presbytery, and that for their 
disobedience and not keeping the Kirk. (Note. — This may mean that the 
congregation still worshipped in the ancient chapel of the Virgin, and had not 
gone to the Cross Kirk as ordered by the Presbytery.) 

The Cross Church. 
1597 1 July 7 — Mr Archibald Douglas, minister at Pebles, reported that he had 
spoken to Lord Yester about his lordship's goodwill of the Cross Kirk to be their 
Parish Kirk, and that his lordship refused. The visitation of the Kirk of Peblis to 
be on Wednesday next; and the causes to be given in against the town and parish 
why the exercise was transported. Adam Hepburn (Stobo) ordained to teach on 
the occasion. 

Visitation of Peebles. 
■'^'PZi July 13 — At Peebles. After invocation of God's name, and exhortation 
made by Adam Hepburn (Stobo), the minister being put forth, the parishioners are 
enquired at if they find any fault in his life and conversation. They find none, and 
praise God for him. Being asked if he teaches soundly, and if they receive comfort 
of his doctrine? they answer — Yes. The question whether on Sundays he taught 
both forenoon and afternoon is answered in the affirmative. And to the question 
whether he taught on Wednesdays, the minister himself answered that the fault was in 
the parishioners, who did not assemble. In regard to the administration of 
discipline, it was answered — "The session book will testify." The question being 
put both to minister and people when the communion was administered? it was 
answered — " More than a year syne," the want of a Kirk being the occasion why it 
was not oftener observed; but as many as came to the exhortation this last year it 
was administered to them. The parishioners being asked why they had not a Kirk, 
it was answered that they were poor, and unable to build a Kirk, and that they had 
directed Mr Archibald Douglas, minister at Peebles, to Lord Yester, to obtain his 
lordship's goodwill of the Cross Kirk to be their Parish Kirk. But his lordship 
would not grant it. The parishioners desired the Presbytery, with the Presbytery of 
Edinburgh, to obtain his lordship's goodwill to get the Cross Kirk to be their Parish 
Kirk, and they shall build and repair it. The parishioners also complained that 
"Their minister does nocht weill remane nor keip his Kirk because of certain envious 



THE MINISTRY OF ARCHIBALD DOUGLAS. 53 

persons, and therefore desire some of the ministers to mention the matter to His 
Majesty." The bailies and council being reminded of their obligation to have a 
second minister, they promise to give a resolute answer betwixt this and Friday next, 
and cause the minister to report the same to the Presbytery. Hector Cranstoun, 
reader, being put forth, the parishioners were asked if they had anything to say 
against him, in his life and character. They had nought to say, but praised God. 

75P7, July 21 — At Stobo. The causes why the Presbytery was transported 
furth of Peebles:— In the first, the contempt of the Word of God, which "kythit 
cleirly " in their seldom coming to the same. Second, the incommodity of the place ; 
being so open a place that at their gate the exercise cannot be heard for the clattering 
of people and the horse feet upon the caussay, &c. In respect there is no 
accommodation either for " decoring of the action or for the ease and quietness of the 
brethren." Third, the misorder in ringing the bell, in gauning by the door, banning 
and swearing in time of exercise, sometime nowt coming in, sometime the place of 
our exercise " distormit " in making it a place for keeping of their lime and sand to 
repair the tolbooth, a turall house, that those who would have looked at our stour 
on book and hose they would have said we had rather been making mortar than 
making the exercise. Fourth, the variance, apparently irreconcilable, among the 
members within the citie, yea, let be men amang wives, and outside the citie. The 
parties also repairing to the citie, troubling their good estate, no magistrate finding 
fault therewith. Fifth, their disobedience to the lawful desire and vote of the 
Presbytery concerning their repair of the Kirk; their help by their prebends for 
the providing of a second minister, and for the help of their schoolmaster in this 
extraordinary year. The Presbytery ordains the parishioners of Peebles to give in 
their answers in writing to the causes why the Presbytery was transported against 
next day. (Note. — The chapel in which the Presbytery was wont to meet was 
situated at what is to this day a very noisy comer of the High Street.) 

1597, July 28 — The answers by the bailies to the causes why the Presbytery was 
transported: — (i.) The provost, bailies, and council promised to mend it. (2.) As 
for the incommoditie of the place, the remeid thairof is in your own handis to resort 
to the Kirk quhilk the town and parochin hes promissit to repair, and to fumische 
the samyn with all necessaries. (3.) As concerning the ringing of the bell, it sail 
be repairit, and quhen the Kirk salbe repairit thair salbe ane bell provydit to it, and 
rung sa oft as neid requyris, and thairfoir leaves the answer to your hail termis for 
offending of you. (4.) Thinkis it had rather bein ane caus to have repairit the 
exerceis nor transportit it : the bailies fand ever fault with ony tumult or contraversie 
to thair power. (5.) Thair was never dissobedience bot rather seiking of concurrence 
of yow the ministrie, quha knowis the stop and impediment of the want of ane Kirk 
alsweile as we. And as concerning Mr Gawan M'Call, for supporting and helping 
him in this deir yeir, we are content to help him and augment him, provyding at your 
sychtis ye will cause him contract with us for the space of sawin zeiris (seven years). 

IS97, August 4 — The answers produced by the bailies to the reasons for 
transporting the Presbytery are refused. 

IS97, August 15 — The Presbytery ordain the exercise to be in Peebles the next 



54 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

day, for sighting of the conditions, and for the final conclusion of the matters that 
are betwixt the Presbytery and the town. Mr James Logan (Eddleston) reported 
according to his commission directed to the goodman of Whytebank about the 
question betwixt Gawin Thomeson and them. Answered that the goodman of 
Whytebank was content to receive offers, and as concerning Charles Pryngill, he has 
promised to cause him agree, or else he and other friends with have nothing ado with 
him. 

jfp/, August 31 — Compeared Gawin Thomson, and agreed, at the request of 
the Presbytery, that the Pringills shall draw a furrow of his land at Swynhop-bume 
after the corn be off the ground in hope of agreement, provided it prove not 
prejudice to him, his right and possession. Which the brethren thought reasonable. 

The Presbytery to Return to Peebles: Agreement. 
zj-p/, September I — The Presbytery conclude that the exercise shall remain in 
Peebles because of the agreement made in regard to the reasons why it was 
transported to Stobo. 

Schoolmaster. 
1597^ September i — The which day compeared the bailies and council, and were 
satisfied for perfecting the conditions that a contract be made betwixt them and 
Mr Gawin M'Call — the latter to remain with the school five years, and they to pay 
him yearly ;^ioo, as also Mr Archibald Douglas, minister at Peebles, 50 merks. 

The Feud. 

1597, September 2g — At Peebles. The which day, according to commission 
directed to Mr James Logan (Eddleston) and John Fausyde (Newlands) about the 
deidly feud betwixt the laird of Smithfield and James Dickeson in the Kirktoun of 
Mennar, after long travailling, James Dickeson has received the laird of Smithfield's 
offers for the slaughter of his late son. 

IS97, October 27 — The Presbytery ordain Mr James Logane (Eddleston) and 
John Fausyde (Newlands) to travail with the laird of Smythfield and the laird of 
Horsburgh, to see if they can obtain an assurance betwixt them, and to report the 
next day. 

The Reader. 

^S97^ October 27 — The same two brethren (the ministers of Eddleston and 
Newlands) are ordained to speak to the bailies of Peebles for poynding of Hector 
Cranstoun, the reader, because he will not walk, nor stent, nor wapinschaw with 
thame, and to report their answers. 

/5P7, November 17 — Mr James Logane and John Fawsyde ordained yet as 
before to travail with the provost, bailies, and council anent the walking, warding, 
and stenting, and to report their answers concerning Hector Cranstoun, their reader. 
(Note. — The reader claimed exemption from all the above mentioned services, and 
also stent, which was a military tax.) 



THE MINISTRY OF ARCHIBALD DOUGLAS. 55 

The Feud. 
1597, November ly — The minister of Newlands, appointed to travail with the 
laird of Horsburgh for obtaining an assurance betwixt him and the laird of Smythfield, 
reported that he sought the laird of Horsburgh, and could nocht get him. Ordain 
him yet, as of before, to travail with him. 

The Reader, &c. 
75P7, December i — Compeared the provost, bailies, and council of Peebles, and 
were content to submit themselves to the Presbytery concerning Hector Cranstoun, 
their reider, vaiking and stenting, &c., and they to speir the practice of other burghs 
concerning readers, and in cais they be exemit, he to be in the lyke estait; and the 
same to be advised by the Synod, and to be reported. The Presbytery appoint their 
brother, Adam Hepburne (Stobo), to wait upon the platt (see antea, p. 48, "A 
Benefice Register," 1595.) Ordain Mr Archibald Douglas, minister at Peebles, to 

proceed with public intimation to Helein Scot and Scot in Eschallis for 

their contempt before sentence of excommunication. Supplication given in by 
Patrick Ewmond and Issobell Stewart, within the parish of Peebles, desiring that they 
might be married. The Presbytery ordain Mr Archibald Douglas, minister at 
Peebles, to marry them. 

Assignation to the Town of the Cross Kirk thereof. 
jj-p/ — Our sovereign lord ordains a charter to be made under the great seal, in 
due form, making mention that His Highness, after his perfect age, and all his 
vocation and the zeal His Majesty bears to the glory and service of God, and to 
the entertainment of policy and keeping of good order among His Highness' 
subjects, specially within His Highness' burgh of Peebles, where the Parish Kirk 
of the said burgh was burnt of long time bypast, in time of war betwixt His 
Highness' realm and that of England; with advice and consent of his lords of His 
Highness' secret council and exchequer, has given, granted, and perpetually 
confirmed, and by the tenor hereof gives, grants, and perpetually confirms to the 
provost, bailies, council, burgesses, community, and inhabitants of His Highness' 
said burgh of Peebles, and their successors, heritable, all and whole the Kirk called 
the Cross Kirk of Peebles, with the yards, place, and enclosure adjacent thereto, and 
all their pertinents lying within the sheriffdom and parish of Peebles, to the effect that 
the said provost, council, burgesses, community, and inhabitants of the said burgh, 
and their successors, may sustain, build, and repair, and use the same for the Parish 
Kirk of the said burgh of Peebles in all time coming. Which Kirk, called sometime 
the Cross Kirk of Peebles, sometime pertained to the friars of the said Kirk, called 
the Trinity Friars of Peebles, and their predecessors, and now pertain to our said 
Sovereign Lord, fallen and come into His Highness' hands, and at His Highness' 
gift and disposition, by the acts of Parliament and laws of this realm through the 
abolishing of the superstitions of the said friars. (Note. — This charter was not 
signed, but was confirmed in another charter, dated 1621.) 



56 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

A Pure Presbyterianism. 
[From 1592 until 1610 the government of the Church was Presbyterian. For 
these few years the Church embraced the whole people ; was undisturbed by schism ; 
was unharassed by the civil power; and had no grievances save the standing one of 
lay patronage. The Church, however, had become very much impoverished from the 
continuous appropriation and alienation of her revenues, which had been going on 
from the Reformation. There is a complete blank for several years of this period in 
the burgh records, which precludes any information regarding the domestic history of 
the burgh of Peebles at this time.] 



Contemporary Minister. 
\1597, Kilbucho — John Weems, translated from Flisk; presented by the Earl of 
Morton; continued in 1608.] 



Beltane Pilgrimages to the Cross Church. 

IS9S, April 2g — The lairds of Traquair, Drummelzear, and Barony to be 
warned to come on Tuesday and Wednesday come eight days, together with the 
concurrence of the provost and bailies of Peebles, to await upon the Croce Kirk 
that no pilgrimage resort to it. Ordain Mr John Wemis (Kilbucho) and Adam 
Hepburne (Stobo) to travail with the lairds of Smythfield and Horsbrucht for 
obtaining an assurance. 

1598, May 4 — Upon the 2nd and 3rd days of May, according to the ordinance 
of the Presbytery, some of the gentlemen before appointed, with the provost and 
bailies of Peebles, waited at the Croce Kirk that no pilgrimages resort thereto, and 

apprehended one Beattie, parishioner of Mr John Bennett's, and Crychtoun, 

daughter of the laird of Newhall. 

The Feud. 

1598, May 4 — Mr John Wemis (Kilbucho) and Adam Hepburne (Stobo) 
reported their dealing with the lairds of Smythfield and Horsburgh for an assurance, 
and that the laird of Horsburgh promised to advise with the laird of Traquair, and 
thereafter to give an answer. They had not spoken with Smythfield. Ordained 
again to travail with him. 

1398, Wednesday after May 11 — Adam Hepburne (Stobo) and Mr John Wemis 
(Kilbucho) having been appointed to travail with the lairds of Smithfield and 
Horsburgh, reported that they had done so with Smithfield, who was content, after 
advising with friends, to grant an assurance ; and as for the laird of Horsburgh, they 
had received no answer. The two brethren are ordained still to travail with these 
lairds. 

1398, May 18 — Adam Hepburne (Stobo) and Mr John Wemis (Kilbucho) 
report as to the lairds of Horsburgh and Smythfield, to the effect that the former, 
after advisement of friends, would be at the Presbytery's command. Mr Wemis 
reported that the laird of Smythfield refused an assurance. 



THE MINISTRY OF ARCHIBALD DOUGLAS. 57 

1598^ May 24 — ^Ordains Adam Hepburn and Mr John Wemis as before to 
travail with the laird of Smithfield for obtaining an assurance between him and the 
laird of Horsburgh, and in case he refuse, the Presbytery will proceed with the 
censures of the Kirk against him. 

1598, June IS — Mr Robert Levingstoun (Skirling) reported that he had spoken 
to the laird of Smythfield for an assurance betwixt him and the laird of Horsbrucht, 
and that Smythfield said he could not assure with him until he advised with friends. 
The Presbytery, hearing that the laird of Smythfield is at the horn, they could not 
deal with him until they had licence of the King; and they ordain Mr James Logane 
(Eddleston) to travail with His Majesty for obtaining a licence to that effect. 

A Dispute. 

iSg8^ July 20 — John Fausyde (Newlands) and Hector Cranstoun (reader at 
Peebles) ordained to travail with Charles Pringill for taking away the cummar (an 
entanglement) betwixt him and Gawin Thomsone, and to report next day. 

1598, July 27 — Reported by Hector Cranstoun (reader at Peebles) that Charles 
Pringle said he would no wise be content to be at peace with Gawin Thomsone, but 
would refer that to his friends, and what pleased them would please him. The 
Presbytery ordain the beddel, Adam Dik, to summon Charles Pringle against the 
next day. 

1598, August J— Charles Pringill to be summoned for the second time. 

1598, August 10 — The beddell ordained to summon Charles Pringill for the 
third time anent the question between him and Gawin Thomson. 

1S98, August 24 — Mr Archibald Douglas, minister of Peebles, ordained to enter 
on public admonition against Charles Pringill for his contempt before sentence of 
excommunication. 

1598, September 7 — The Presbytery ordain Mr Archibald Douglas, minister at 
Peebles, not to proceed against Charles Pringill with public admonition, as the 
matter is under trysting, till they see what effect it will take. 

A Fast. 
1598, September 7 — Inquiry being made as to whether the fast was kept 
throughout the bounds, it was answered by all in the affirmative. 

Troubling the Kirk. 
IS98, November 16 — Mr John Wemis, minister at Kilbucho, is ordained to 
summon John Hay of Smithfield and Alexander Hay, his son, to answer at the 
instance of the minister and bailies of Peebles for troublence of the Kirk. 

Leaving the General Assembly. 
1598, November j(5— Mr Archibald Douglas, minister at Peebles, being 
questioned for his departure from the Assembly before the ending of it, excused 
himself by a letter from the Earl of Angus, the King's lieutenant, directed to the said 



S8 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

Mr Archibald, and his lordship came in to Peebles. The brethren remit his case to 
the Synod's discretion. 

1598, December 4 — Mr Archibald Douglas, minister of Peebles, summoned 
before the secret council. 

Troubling the Kirk. 
IS98, December 28 — Continue the summons of the lairds of Smythfield for 
troubling of the Kirk of Peebles to the advisement of the Synodical Assembly, 
because they have been civilly pursued before the King and council. The 
Presbytery appoint Mr Archibald Douglas, minister at Peebles, and Mr James 
Logane, minister at Edilston, to attend and wait upon the plea. 

Contemporary Ministers. 

\1S98 — Dawick — John Fairfoul, M.A., translated to Balmaghie, 1601. 

\15g8-1603 — Drumehier — Archibald Row, M.A., translated to Stobo. 

\1598 — Manor (the Church was dedicated to St Gordian, and before the 
Reformation was a chapel of Peebles) — Gilbert Tailzeour, formerly of Bathgate; 
continued in 1615.] 

Sacred Tunes. 
\15g8 — "Nun Danket" (141, Scottish Hymnal); Johann Criiger, 1598-1662. 
"Niirnberg" (352, Scottish Hymnal); William Barton's Psalms; Barton bom about 
1598.] 

Beltane and other Fairs. 
Tfpp, April /p — The Presbytery appoint William Sandersone, minister at 
Innerleithen, to wait upon the parishioners at Beltein and every fair, to advertise 
some of their own flocks to concur with him and the magistrates of the town in case 
the minister of Peebles get not licence to return from the Assembly in time. 



JSgg, April ig — Adam Dick, tailor, to be summoned for profaning of the burial, 
as remitted from the session of Peebles to the Presbytery. 

IS99, May 10 — The Presbytery ordain and summon Adam Dick a second time, 
for profaning of the burial and abusing of the dead. 

Pilgrimage to the Cross Kirk. 
iSgg, May 10 — Anent the ordinance that was given to William Sanderson 
(Innerleithen), minister, and some other brethren, to await with certain gentlemen 
and bailies of Peebles, to apprehend them that come in pilgrimages to the Croce 
Kirk, together with our brother, John Fausyde (Newlands), according to a commission 
given him direct from the provincial assembly of Lothian, halden at Prestoun Kirk, 
of date the first day of May 1599, they reported that they apprehended certain men 
and women, whose names they gave up in writing as follows: — William Douglas, in 
Hawick; James Wauche and Janet Diksoun, his spouse, there; Cuthbert Gledstaines 



THE MINISTRY OF ARCHIBALD DOUGLAS. 59 

and Marioun Greiff, servants to the laird of Gledstaines; Walter Johnstone and Adam 
Hopkirk, in Mynto; and James Kar, dwelling in the Auldwark, in the parish of 
Selkirk. (This was forty years after the Reformation.) The Presbytery ordain the 
clerk to direct a letter to the Presbytery in whose bounds these persons reside to take 
order with them. 

Murder of John Govane. 
iSgg, May 70— The Presbytery ordain Mr Archibald Douglas, minister at 
Peebles, to cause Adam Dik, beadle, summon John Scot, at his dwelling-house, to 
compear before the Presbytery this day eight days, for the cruel murther of the late 
John Gowane of Cardrono, with certification that in case he compear not, we will 
proceed with the sentence of excommunication against him. 

Miscellaneous. 

iSgg-, May 10 — Mr John Wemis (Kilbucho) and Mr James Logane (Eddleston) 
are ordained to travail with Andrew Pringill and Thomas Paterson for obtaining of an 
assurance betwixt them. 

iSgg, May 17 — Adam Dick to be summoned for the third time. 

The Murder of John Govane. 

IS99, ^'^y ^7 — '^^^ Presbytery ordains Mr Archibald Douglas, minister at 
Peebles, to make public intimatioun in the Kirk of Peebles on Sunday next to come, 
that in case John Scot compear not before the Presbytery, on Thursday come eight 
days, at nine o'clock, in the Croce Kirk of Peebles, bringing with him the King's 
Majesty's remission, with a testimonial of the satisfaction of the party, for the cruel 
murther of the late John Gowane of Cardrono, we will proceed with the sentence of 
excommunication against him, according to the acts of the Assembly. 

iSgg, May 17 — Mr John Wemis (Kilbucho) and Mr James Logane (Eddleston) 
report anent their travailling with Andro Pringill and Thomas Paterson they did not 
speed because the former refuses stubbornly. Mr James Logane is ordained to 
summon Andro Pringill against the next day, in case the action betwixt Thomas 
Paterson and him be not taken up. 

Profaning the Dead. 
IS99, May 24 — Adam Dik is remitted to the minister and session of Peebles, 
and they to enjoin him to satisfy in the Kirk of Peebles, for profaning of the burial 
and abusing of the dead. 

The Reader and His Glebe. 
IS99, May 24. — The Presbytery, hearing that Hector Cranstoun, reader, is slow 
in putting his letters of execution against the occupiers of the glebe, is ordained to 
put them to execution under pain of censure. 

The Murder of John Govane. 
1599, May ji — Report by Mr Archibald Douglas, minister at Peebles, that, in 
accordance with the appointment of the Presbytery, he had made intimation from the 



6o THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

pulpit on Sunday gane aucht dayes against John Scot, to compear before the 
Presbytery and produce the King's remission, with a testimonial of the satisfaction of 
the parties for the cruel murther of John Gowane of Cardrono, but the said John 
Scot had contemptuously disobeyed the ordinance of the Presbytery. Mr Archibald 
Rowe (Drumelzier), exerciser at the next meeting, is ordained to excommunicate the 
said John Scot. 

zfpp, May 31 — Mr James Logane (Eddleston) reported that he had travailled 
with Andro Pringill and Thomas Patersone, but had got no assurance. 

Meetings of Presbytery. 

1599, June 21 — At Peebles. John Fausyd (Newlands) is noted absent. 
Exercise by Mr John Wemis (Kilbucho); addition by Adam Hepburne (Stobo) on 
Genesis xxxii., 9-22. Mr James Logane (Eddleston) and Mr David Naime 
(Linton) are excused for absence on last occasion. 

1599, June 28 — The visitation of the Kirk of Peebles is appointed for Thursday 
next. 

Visitation of the Kirk of Peebles. 

IS99, July 5 — After invocation of the name of God, and exhortation made by 
Mr Alexander Flemyng (elect of Glenholm), the minister being put forth, and the 
reader, the parishioners were questioned whether they profited by the minister's 
teaching? And they answered that they did profit. Then being asked if they found 
any fault with his life and conversation? They answered that they found none. 
Thirdly, whether discipline was observed? They replied that it was. Fourthly, 
whether there was catechising on Sunday afternoon? Answered in the affirmative. 
Fifthly, whether there was teaching on Wednesday? The parishioners answered that 
the default is theirs, and not the minister's, through their slow convening: Which 
they promise to amend. Sixthly, when the Communion is administered? And how 
oft in the year? Answered it was administered the i8th of June last, and is to be 
observed twice in the year. The Kirk is found repaired. Being inquired at if they 
have anything to say against the life and conversation of the reader (Hector 
Cranstoun)? The parishioners answer they have nothing to say against him. 

1599, November 30 — The Presbytery appoint Mr Archibald Douglas, minister at 
Peebles, and Mr James Logane, to travail with Gawin Thomson for offers to be made 
of new again to Charles Pringill and his friends betwixt this and this day fifteen days. 

Contemporary Ministers. 
\1599 — Glenholm — Alexander Flemyng, presented by Lord Fleming; continued 
in 1608, and was probably translated to Dalgarno. 

{^1399-1601 — Traquair — Joseph Tennant, M.A.] 

Date of the New Year. 
\_1599, December 17 — " Till this time, the new year legally held in Scotland was 
that originally pitched upon by Exiguus when he introduced the Christian era, viz.. 



THE MINISTRY OF ARCHIBALD DOUGLAS. 6i 

March 25 — the day of the Annunciation." An act of privy council now ordered the 
new year to begin on January i, 1600.] 

Ecclesiastical Polity. 
[In the ordination of the clergy the First Book of Discipline had repudiated the 
laying on of hands because the miracle had ceased. The Second Book of Discipline 
had enjoined it; still the rite was frequently neglected. Neither Melville nor Bruce 
had been originally ordained to the ministry, but as the General Assembly had now 
insisted that imposition of hands was essential to admission to the ministry, Bruce 
reluctantly consented to the ceremony. The year 1600 was destined to see Scottish 
ministers elevated to the dignity of members of Parliament. To this the General 
Assembly had agreed in March 1598. There were to be fifty-one members, and they 
were to sit as representing the Romish prelates who formed the spiritual estate. In 
their appointment the Church overwhelmed these commissioners with caveats of all 
descriptions. They were to lay down their commissions every year, and be re-elected 
if suitable. All the vacant bishoprics were now filled up.] 

A Delinquent. 

1600, January 10 — The case of William Smaill, remitted from the session of 
Peebles, is continued until Mr Archibald Douglas, minister, be present. 

1600, January 21 — Compeared William Smaill, accused for breaking of the 
Lord's day by leading corn; secondly, for dinging and striking of a man of the 
Esshalds upon the Lord's day; thirdly, for upbraiding of the session of Peebles 
for reproving him. Confessed all, and the Presbytery remit him to the session 
of Peebles to receive his injunctions, and to satisfy them, under pain of 
excommunication. 

1600, February 7 — Reported by Mr Archibald Douglas, minister at Peebles, 
that William Smaill had satisfied in the Kirk of Peebles, according to the former 
ordinance of the Presbytery. 

Murder of Dunkie Kaid. 
j6oo, April j — Mr Archibald Dowglas, minister at Peebles, is ordained to make 
public intimation in the Kirk of Peebles next Sunday, that in case John Crawford 
compear not the next Presbytery day by nine o'clock, bringing with him the King's 
remission, with a testimonial of the satisfaction of the party for the cruel murder of 
Dunkie Kaid, in Peebles, the court will proceed with the sentence of excommuni- 
cation against him, according to the acts of General Assembly. 

Excommunication. 
1600, April 77 — Mr Archibald Douglas, minister at Peebles, reported that he 
had made public intimation, on Sunday fifteen days, against John Crawford for the 
cruel murder of Dunkie Keid in Peebles, and the said John having failed to compear 
this day, the Presbytery ordain John Ker, exerciser, to excommunicate the said John 
Crafurd. 



62 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

Offender Summoned. 

1600, May I — A summons is ordained to be directed against William Hay, 
agent to the Earl of Erroll, and now resident in Edinburgh, which summons William 
Thomson, clerk of the Presbytery of Edinburgh, promised to execute, to the effect 
that the said William Hay give obedience to the Kirk of Peebles, where he has 
offended, being relapse in fornication, under pain of excommunication. 

1600, May 2g — Continue William Hay's summons as of before, because 
Richard Thomson reported he had not summoned him because of his absence furth 
of the town. 

Visitations. 

1600, June 26 — -The visitation of Mennar to be on Friday come eight days, 
by Mr John FairfouU (Dawyck), Adam Hepburne (Stobo), and John Ker (Lyne); and 
in like manner Kirkurde, on Wednesday next, by Mr James Logane (Eddleston), 
John Fausyd (Newlands), and Mr David Nairne (Linton). That visitations may be 
beautified with the presence of persons appointed thereto, it is ordained by this 
Presbytery, with common consent, that whosoever absents himself from visitation, 
being deputed thereto, shall, without contradiction, pay xx shillings, to be delivered to 
the clerk; and that the visitors remember that things condescended upon be 
performed in convenient time without delay. 

1600, July J — Peebles is ordained to be visited the next day of our meeting. 

Murder of James Dickson. 
1600, July 10 — It is willed that the minister of Manor give public warning to 
his flock that Robert Gledstanes, parishioner among them, and his fellow, James 
Gledstanes, are to be excommunicate summarily for the cruel murdering of James 
Dickesoun, indweller in Peebles. 

Visitation of Peebles — A Second Charge Desired. 
1600, July 10 — Concerning the visitation of Peebles, held by the whole 
Presbytery on July 10, 1600, it is found, to the praise of God and edification of His 
people, that in the minister thereof, concerning life, doctrine, discipline, and family, 
there is a dutiful discharge daily increasing after such manner that the brethren were 
sufficiently satisfied and pleased by the report of his people. Exhorted in the Lord 
to submit themselves unto him, and that so much the more because he complained 
of their rare meeting on the Wednesdays, to weekly sermons, and were slow to resort 
to the common exercise. Willed to be amended. Further, our foresaid brother, 
acknowledging according to conscience his burden, craved that according to the laws 
of the realm and acts of the Assemblies, they would travail with his congregation for 
a fellow labourer, to whom, upon benevolence, he would, at the sight of the 
Presbytery, communicate, so be it the burgh, according to duty and daily practice 
in other towns, would make ane sufficient provision. The bailies and people 
answering hereunto orderly, were all well pleased with the same, but could not give a 



THE MINISTRY OF ARCHIBALD DOUGLAS. 63 

resolute answer until my lord of Newbottle, then provost, were present, or otherwise 
spoken. Whereupon it was appointed that Gawin Thomson, bailie, and Mr James 
Logane (Eddleston), should speak his lordship within fifteen days, and for furtherance, 
after removing Mr Gawin M'Call, it was enquired what the minister and flock thought 
of him? Answered — Nothing but good. And rather wished him than another to 
take the place, so be that he would therewith hold still the charge of the school. (Note. 
— They hint their desire for him to have the proposed second charge.) Whereanent 
in this behalf he submitted himself in the Lord to the direction of the Presbytery. 
Concerning the poor, had intimate the act of the Estates, and had craved execution 
thereof by the magistrates and session, desiring all other parishes to stay their poor 
ones from resorting to others. It is lamented that the hospital is abused and 
converted into temporality, being in the laird of Smithfield's hands. To be advised 
with the Presbytery. In other things particularly sifted out the congregation is found 
alike promising to do better. (Note. — The hospital is that of St Leonard, at the 
west end of High Street.) 

The Second Charge — The Hospital — Miscellaneous. 

1600, July 77 — The plantation of a second minister to Peebles to be called to 
mind the next day, and also, so soon as occasion shall be offered, that some brethren 
of the Presbytery speak the chancery that the hospital in Peebles may be restored to 
its integrity, according to the laws of the realm. 

1600, July 24 — The plantation of a second minister at Peebles continued until 
my Lord Newbottle's coming in this country; to be spoken thereanent by Mr James 
Logane (Eddleston) ; and John Ker (Lyne), to speak his lordship about the mending 
of the brig of Lyne. 

1600, July ji — The planting of the second minister of Peebles is continued, till 
the report of the provost, bailies, and council of Peebles. 

j6oo, August 6 — It is willed that John Ker (Lyne) speak to Charles Pringle 
touching reconciliation between him and Gawin Thomson, and to exhort him to 
repair to the Lord's table. 

1600, August 7 — The second minister of Peebles continued till next day, and 
then to have place. 

To Communicate rather than be Excommunicate! 
1600, August 21 — John Ker (Lyne) reported that he had spoken to Charles 
Pringle, who had given this answer concerning his reconciliation with Gawin 
Thomson, that he would do nothing thereanent without advice of his friends, namely, 
of Gallowscheills ; and as concerning his communicating with the Lord's table he one 
way would willingly do it, but another way is not drawn ; and yet notwithstanding ere 
he be excommunicated he will rather communicate. Which answer in itself being 
found not sufficient and Christian-like, the Presbytery ordain the said Charles to 
compear this day fifteen days, to give his resolute answer in the premises. 



64 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

The Second Minister. 

1600, August 21 — The fellow-labourer to the minister of Peebles as yet 
continued till Lord Neubottle's presence. 

1600, September 4 — Charles Pringle being called, and not compearing, is 
ordained to be warned against this day fifteen days, with certification. 

The Second Minister to be Paid out of the Romish Prebends. 

1600, September 4 — That the minister of Peebles may have a fellow-labourer, 
according to his desire and the necessity of the flock, Mr James Logane (Eddleston) 
reported that he had spoken to the Lord of Newbottle (provost), bailies, and their 
council, who, after advisement, had condescended that they were willing to give 
to the second minister the presentation of all the prebends of Peebles for 
maintenance of his charges, and would concur and assist him at their power to evict 
them out of the unjust possessors' hands, and give them to him in stipend, with that 
stipend which the schoolmaster had, so be that he would use both the offices. Mr 
Gawin being removed, upon sundry consideration, with deliberation, at his incalling, 
counselled him to accept the charge upon the offers made by the town and parson 
of Peebles, who, with the Presbytery, promised to hold hand for accomplishment of 
the conditions. The said Mr Gawin submitting himself to the Presbytery, who 
wished him to take on the charge, he craved that orderly, according to the Book of 
Discipline, in the Lord they would use him. Whereupon the Presbytery commanded 
edicts to be given forth in due form, that immediately after the Assembly he 
might be inaugurated and admitted. (Note. — Gavin M'Call was evidently already a 
clergyman, as well as schoolmaster. It was hoped that he would continue to hold 
both offices. The magistrates actually considered that they would pay him out of the 
emoluments of the ancient Romish prebends, which had been in lay hands now for 
forty years.) 

1600, September 25 — Concerning the inauguration and admission of Mr Gawin 
M'Call to the function of the ministry at Peebles, whose edicts have been served 
orderly according to the Book of Discipline, 7, 14, and 21st September, appoint the 
nth of October next to be the precise time of his admission, and the clerk is 
instructed to form and direct letters to the other Presbyteries of this provincial 
assembly, which command of the Presbytery the clerk obeyed and satisfied. 

Anent Charles Pringle. 

1600, September 25 — Adam Dick is ordained to warn Charles Pringle to compear 
the next day, to give answer whether he will be reconciled with Gawin Thomeson or 
not, and consequently communicate. 

1600, October p — Compeared Charles Pringle, according to summons, and 
signified to the Presbytery that he was willing to be reconciled with Gawin Thomson 
and to communicate, so be it that the goodman of Galascheills would give his consent 
thereto. The Presbytery, after deliberation on his answer, ordain Mr James Logane 
to speak to the Presbytery of Melrose and the said goodman of Galascheills 
thereanent, as occasion shall be offered to him. 



THE MINISTRY OF ARCHIBALD DOUGLAS. 65 

Admission of Mr Gavin M'Call to the Second Charge. 

1600, October 15 — At Peebles. According to the ordinance of the Presbytery 
formerly passed, upon signification that letters had been directed to other Presbyteries 
from whom none had been sent, and no impediment being alleged or found, 
according to the order (after earnest prayer and doctrine), prescribed in the Book of 
Discipline, Mr Gawin M'Call, with consent of the congregation and minister of 
Peebles, is admitted into the ministry at Peebles, by such brethren as were present at 
the time, namely, Adam Hepburne (Stobo); Mr Archibald Douglas, minister at 
Peebles; John Ker (Lyne); Mr John Fairfoul (Dawyck); Gilbert Tailzeour (Manor), 
ministers; recommending him to the grace of God, and dutiful execution of his office 
according to the ordinance of the Assemblies in all points. Which the said Mr 
Gawin promised to obey according to the measure of faith bestowed on him. (He 
was translated to Traquair on August 4, 1604.) 

1600, October 23 — The bailies, council, and community of Peebles, upon sundry 
good considerations, are willed to be present this next day to see what provision they 
will make for their second minister, lately admitted and placed among them. 

Anent Charles Pringle. 

1600, October 23 — Charles Pringle's action is continued till Mr James Logane 
be present, to report the execution of his commission. 

1600, November 6 — In like manner Mr James Logane, according to the same 
commission, was willed to speak to the goodman of Gallascheills anent Charles 
Pringle. 

Stipend for Second Minister. 

1600, November 6 — Certain answers were given in and produced for the bailies 
and council of Peebles, unsubscribed, signifying what provision they would make for 
their second minister, viz., 200 merks, upon conditions therein contained. Which the 
Presbytery thought not sufficient, and therefore delivered the foresaid answer 
containing their offers to Mr James Logane (Eddleston), who received the same, 
with commission to speak to Lord Neubottle, their provost, thereanent. 

1600, November 20 — It was reported that Lord Newbottle could not be 
conveniently spoken with by reason of the Parliament, and therefore further dealing 
for the provision of the second minister of Peebles is continued till good occasion 
thereof. 

Charles Pringle to Declare His Mind. 
j6oo, November 20 — The moderator also mentioned that he had spoken to the 
gudeman of Gallaschiels concerning the reconciliation of Charles Pringle with Gawin 
Thomeson, and he had given his answer, to wit, that the offers made by the said 
Gawin to the said Charles were inferior to the offers made by his late father, and 
therefore would not give his consent until the old offers were renewed. The 
Presbytery, upon consideration, wills and ordains the said Charles to be warned to 



66 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

compear this day fifteen days, to declare his mind resolutely thereanent, as he will 
shew himself obedient to the word of the Kirk. 

The Reader's Glebe. 
1600, December 4 — Also compeared William Waiche, brother of the laird of 
Dawyck, conform to the ordinance formerly passed, and being accused of troubling 
our brother, Hector Cranstoun, in the peaceable possession of his glebe, orderly 
designed, answered that as to that he meant nothing but what was right; as the 
matter was now depending questionably before the Lords of Session, who he 
supposed would decern that it was not a competent glebe, there being other kirk 
land nearer to the minister's manse than it, and more duly belonging to him, 
according to the act of Parliament, as should be proved sufficiently at the proper time 
and place. The Presbytery, on consideration of the answer, exhorted him to peace, 
and deferred further dealing in the matter meantime, until the Judge Ordinary decide 
in the matter according to equity. 

Charles Pringle's Case to be Continued. 

1600^ December 4 — Charles Pringle, being called, compeared, and was ordained 
to be publicly admonished by his pastors, the ministers of Peebles, in case he satisfy 
not the mind of the Presbytery, ordaining him to be reconciled with Gawin Thomson, 
and to communicate. 

1600, December 15 — Compeared Charles Pringle, and confessed that, according 
to the direction of the Presbytery, he communicated at the table, being not 
reconciled, but had put away all rancour and malice from his spirit, and protested 
that he had no private grudge, neither should have, against Gawin Thomeson. The 
brethren, having removed him, had conference again with him, and in consideration 
of certain weighty circumstances, thought it best to let this matter and further 
dipping therein be continued till time should try the truth thereof, and exhorted him 
earnestly to live peaceably, and to do sincerely. Which he promised to do. 

Vicar's Manse Assigned to Reader. 

1600, December 15 — Designation of the manse to the reader of Peebles to be 
endeavoured the next day. 

1601, January i — Designation of the vicar's manse of Peebles to the reader of 
Peebles, present titular and possessor, is willed to be given this day without prejudice 
of the parsone's manse, promised by the parsone of Peebles, to be forthcoming to his 
successor in the ministry. Whereanent the foresaid parsone and reader shall submit 
themselves to the arbitrament and decision of the Presbytery simpliciter as follows: — 
The Tenor of the Submission — We, the parsone of Peebles, presently minister there, 
and the vicar thereof in like manner, presently reader there, submit ourselves 
simpliciter to abide the arbitrament and decreet of the Presbytery of Peebles 
concerning manse and glebe, and in whose person it shall be transferred, without 
prejudice of either of the ministers, &c. Subscribitur, Mr Archibald Douglas; 
Hector Cranstoun. 



THE MINISTRY OF ARCHIBALD DOUGLAS. 67 

j6oi, January i — The tenor of the designation of the vicar's manse made and 
given to Hector Cranstoun, reader, and titular thereof: — Upon the first day of 
January 1601, Adam Hepburn, commissioner, accompanied with Mr Archibald 
Douglas, Mr Archibald Row, John Ker, and Gilbert Tailzeour, ministers, passed to 
the ground of the vicar's manse of Peebles, presently ruinous and desolate, and there, 
with advice of honest persons, videlicet, Adam Dick, John Wylie, Gilbert Sanderson, 
aldermen, designed according to acts of Parliament to Hector Cranstoun, reader, and 
vicar of Peebles, the foresaid manse, with yard thereof, and all other just pertinents, 
having the parish kirkyard on the west; the parsoun's cornyard on the south; and 
on the north and east parts the vicar's glebe, as they term it; and entered him in 
possession thereof, by deliverance of earth and stane in his hand, according to the 
usual custom and laws of the realm used in such cases, in presence of Cuthbert 
Elphinstoun, laird of Henderstone ; Adam Dickesoun of Melingsland ; John 
Dickesoune, bailie of Peebles; William Dickesoune, burgess of Peebles, parishioners, 
and witnesses required hereto. 

Provision for the Second Minister. 

1601, March 12 — The Presbytery ordain Hector Cranstoun (reader) to speak 
to the baihes and council of Peebles anent the provision for their second minister 
lately placed among them, and to desire them to be present the next day to give their 
resolute answer thereanent. 

1601, March 26 — Concerning provision for the second minister of Peebles, on 
several considerations the matter is deferred until Lord Newbottle, provost of the 
town, be present to further the same. 

Grievances of the Ministry. 
1601, March 26 — The dangerous state of the ministry serving in this sherififdom 
of Peebles is to be lamented unto the provincial assembly; and among the rest, John 
Ker's (Lyne) captivity, with spoiling of his goods by robbers and thieves; Gilbert 
Taylzeour's (Manor) oppression done by persons registered at the horn; the injury 
done to Adam Hepburn (Stobo); and the great exaction that is craved from Hector 
Cranstoun (reader) for taxation of the pensionary for which he serves, being less in 
quantity and value a great deal than the taxt for which he is charged; with others 
their grievances to be manifested according to the circumstances often before 
presented, and as yet not remedied. 

The Beltane Pilgrimage Anticipated. 
1601, April JO — The Presbytery appoint that every brother desire some 
gentlemen of their parish to be present on Saturday at even, and on the Lord's day 
thereafter, to prevent and stay the superstition of the people coming to the Cross 
Kirk of Peebles. 

The Pilgrimage Lapses Forty Years after the Reformation. 
1601, May 14 — It is reported by the minister and bailies of Peebles that at this 



68 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

Beltane there was no resorting of people into the Croce Kirk to commit any sign of 
superstition there. Wherefore in the Lord the Presbytery rejoiced, exhorting them in 
like manner in time coming to use the like diligence that all abuse of the place may 
be avoided. 

The Murder of Duncan Kid (Continued Case). 

1601, May 14 — It is reported that some friends to John Crawford, 
excommunicated, have oft represented the miserable state of the said John, penitent 
and willing, after his journey, to satisfy all parties whom he has offended, and 
that the party that has action against him is difficile. The Presbytery appoint the 
parsone of Peebles and Mr Gavin M'Kall, according to the commission given them, 
to deal with the friends of the late Duncan Kyd, to see if they are willing to be 
reconciled with the foresaid John, and to accept the offers that have been made to 
them in his behalf, and to report their mind thereanent the next day. 

1601, May 21 — The parson of Stobo and Mr Gawin M'Call (Peebles) reported 
that they had not the opportunity of speaking with the friends of the late Duncan 
Kyd that they would accept into their favour John Crauford, tailor, excommunicate, 
and are desired now as of before to travail with them, with certification that if the 
said friends shew themselves too difficult the Presbytery will proceed to relax the said 
John from excommunication, as is prescribed in the Book of Discipline. 

1601, May 28 — The ministers of Peebles reporting that the friends of the late 
Duncan Kyd were difficult, the Presbytery wills them to be warned to compear the 
next day to know the mind of the Presbytery in the matter to be proposed to 
them concerning reconciliation with John Crauford. 

1601, June 4 — Compeared John Richison, Christian Richeson, Alexander Scot, 
friends to umquhile Duncan Kyd, as they were desired, and being asked whether 
they would be reconciled with John Crauford or not, and accept his offers, they 
craved farther time to be advised therewith. Which the Presbytery granted, 
continuing the matter till next meeting. 

160 1, June II — It is reported by Mr Gawin M'Call (Peebles) that the friends of 
the late Duncan Kyd are willing to receive offers on behalf of John Crauford, 
tailzeour, excommunicate, so be it that they make more reasonable and sufficient 
offers than have been. Whereupon the Presbytery condescended that the friends of 
the said John should present the offers to them. Which they did. 

1601, June 18 — It is reported that the friends of the late Duncan Kid suit for 
satisfaction of them as kynbuit from John Crauford, tailzeour, excommunicate, 300 
merks, a sum impossible for the said John to pay, being depaupered. Therefore the 
Presbytery now as before wills the parsone of Peebles and Mr Gawin to speak them 
again, and to wish them to be more reasonable by accepting the offers presented, 
with an addition; otherwise if they would be wilful in their purpose the Presbytery 
upon consideration would relax him. 

160 1, June 2 J — Anent the late Duncan Kyd's friends, Mr Gawin M'Call 
(Peebles) reported that he had no occasion of speaking with them, but signified that 
the parsoun of Peebles had mentioned the matter to some of them at their 



THE MINISTRY OF ARCHIBALD DOUGLAS. 69 

examination, who had condescended to accept offers, and to receive John Crauford 
to favour. The Presbytery willed the said brethren to follow out the matter and to 
bring it to some point. 

Provision for the Second Minister of Peebles. 

1601, June 2j — Anent provision to the second minister of Peebles, oft 
mentioned, the parsoun of Peebles and Mr James Logane (Eddleston) are deputed 
to speak to Lord Newbottle, provost, with the council of Peebles. 

The Benefice of Peebles. 

1602, March 20 — A benefice, of old called the archdeaconry of Glasgow, 
extending to eighteen chalders meal, with the vicarage of wool and lambs extending 
yearly in times past scarcely to 100 lambs, paying thereof, according to custom, for 
each lamb six shillings and eightpence. Set in tack and assedation, of old and new, 
for 300 merks of old, to the late Allan Dickeson, his heirs and assignees; to the late 
Mr Thomas Archibald, his heirs, &c.; of new falling to the heirs and assignees of the 
late Harry Bickerton, writer, with some augmentation. Communicants at Peebles, 
600. Hector Cranstoun, vicar pensioner of Peebles, present titular, and serves 
the cure of reading. The rent thereof extends in whole to £,7,7. in his own 
possession. There are of old in Peebles twelve prebends, the most of them at 
the town's donation, and g07ie in abuse. There is of old an hospital founded in 
Peebles, whereof the place called the almshouse is erected into a temporal use with 
rents of the patrimony thereof, called the lands of Chapelyards (at Eshiels). The 
place and manse of the poor, called the hospital, is possessed by the heirs and relict 
of the late John Hay, father's brother to John Hay of Smythfield. The lands of 
Chapelyards likewise possessed by the said John Hay of Smythfield. (Note. — The 
prebends mentioned above comprised eleven in St Andrew's Parish Church and one 
in the chapel of the Virgin in High Street. At Chapelyards, near Eshiels, were the 
chapel and hospital of SS. Leonard and Lawrence. At the west end of High Street. 
on the north side, was the almshouse for the poor and aged. All the foregoing were 
now lost !) 

The Murder of Duncan Kid. 
1602, April 75 — It is condescended upon that a testimonial shall be formed 
and given to John Crauford, excommunicate, signifying his pitiful humiliation and 
willingness to satisfy parties, to whom he has made offers, and that he thirst earnestly 
to be reconciled with God, His Kirk, and all others whom he has offended, by his 
odious and scandalous fact, for which in the Lord he is penitent, according to his 
declarations given in this Presbytery this year bygone. 

Laird of Smythfield. 
1602, April Jf— The complaint given in of the young laird of Smythfield by 
the minister and session of Peebles, is continued till Mr John Wemis (Kilbucho) be 
present, who was ordained to warn him to compear to answer thereto. 



70 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

1602, April 2g — Concerning the young laird of Smythfield, it is reported by Mr 
John Wemis (Kilbucho) that he had expostulated with him, shewing him his offence 
and the greatness of it; which the said laird denied; but he had not warned him to 
compear. Therefore the Presbytery ordain the foresaid brother to summon him to 
compear the next day to answer to the former complaint given in by the minister of 
Peebles and their session. 

EXCOMMUNICANT ABSOLVED. 

1602, April 2g — On consideration of the manifold pitiful suits of John Scot, 
burgess of Peebles, excommunicate, for the odious fact of manslaughter, for which he 
has shown himself to have a godly sorrow unto repentance; and that with evident 
signs of humiliation he has made offers to the party offended, who shew themselves 
difficult and obstinate, notwithstanding that the Presbytery and other discreet men of 
the country have endeavoured to mollify them; and that the said John is relaxed 
from our Sovereign Lord's horn; and yet notwithstanding that he earnestly desires to 
be reconciled with God and His Kirk, and that the Presbytery, with intimation to 
the party, has already condescended before the last Assembly that the said John 
should be eased immediately after his relaxation from the horn, and that he has 
produced his respite or remission with the relaxation this day, with promise to fulfil 
whatsoever the Presbytery shall enjoin him, either for satisfying the party or removing 
of the scandal; and that his friends, Robert Scot, son to Walter Scot of Tuschelaw; 
John Scot, his brother; and James Scot, portioner of Hundleshope, have in like 
manner obliged themselves cautioners and sureties, that the said John shall in all 
points do his duty after power as shall be enjoined. The Presbytery therefore, and 
upon other good occasions, after invocation of the name of God, and grave 
admonition to the said John, humble penitent, do absolve him from the said sentence 
of excommunication, and receive him into the society of Christ's Kirk, upon the 
condition that, according to the heads of his bill, he shall behave himself and fulfil 
the discipline of the Kirk enjoined or to be enjoined; and that again de novo he shall 
make offers to the party offended, and that he and his friends shall use all means of 
reconciliation and eschew all occasion of offence or provocation of the adverse party 
to anger against him or them ; and that he shall, at the sight of the Presbytery, fulfil 
the promises under pain of heavier censure. Whereupon the said John, in all 
humility, with tears, in his ly?ung daithes, bareheaded and barefooted, yielded, 
binding and obliging himself to fulfil this injunction in all points, with signification 
that he shall withdraw his presence until in some measure he might get the party 
offended mitigated; and his friends aforesaid in like manner submitted themselves in 
name of the rest to observe the conditions, &c. 

Pilgrimages. 
1602, April 2g — It is condescended that the parsoun of Peebles shall wait on 
such persons as superstitiously repair to the Croce Kirk at this Beltane, and 
endeavour to have them apprehended, and punished by the magistrate. 



THE MINISTRY OF ARCHIBALD DOUGLAS. 71 

The Laird of Smithfield. 

1602, May ij — Compeared Alexander Hay, apparent of Smythfield, as he was 
warned, to answer to the complaint given in by the minister and session of the Kirk 
of Peebles, towards whom he had misbehaved himself; granted that he had come in 
before the said session, uncalled, and that he had held on his bonnet, not knowing 
the form. The said Alexander being removed, and entering in again, is ordained to 
compear this day fifteen days, to fulfil the injunctions of the Presbytery according to 
the discipline of the Kirk, upon occasion to be advised with the next day of his 
appearance. 

1602, May 27 — Compeared the young laird of Smythfield. After long 
reasoning and conference had with him privately and publicly, he confessed his 
misbehaviour towards the session of Peebles, before whom, with grave admonitions, 
he is ordained to make satisfaction, with certification, &c. 

1602, June 10 — Young Smithfield is also to be warned for his disobedience. 

Visitation of Peebles. 
1602, June 21 — Visitation of Peebles is appointed this day to be on Wednesday 
next, by Mr James Logane (Eddleston), John Fausyd (Newlands), Mr David Nairne 
(Linton), and Gilbert Tailzeour (Manor). 

The Laird of Smithfield. 
1602, June 24. — Mr Gavin M'Call (Peebles) reported that he had given the first 
and the second admonitions publicly to Alexander Hay, appearand of Smythfield, for 
his disobedience and misbehaviour to the session of Peebles, and the Presbytery will 
him to give the third admonition. 

Visitation — Manse for Second Minister — Cross Kirk as Parish 

Church, &c. 
1602, June JO — At Peebles. In the visitation of Peebles, holden by the 
brethren nominated before, with other brethren of the Presbytery who accompanied 
them, Mr Archibald Douglas and Mr Gavin M'Call, ministers there, and Hector 
Cranstoun, reader there, being severally removed, and tried according to the 
common heads of inquisition used anent the trial of ministers, nothing is found 
or reported of either of them but that which in the Lord is commendable; 
except only this, that on the week-days there was not ordinary doctrine through 
lack of an auditory, nor yet daily reading, but at some times upon occasions 
through the parishioners' fault that would not convene thereto. Appointed to 
be reformed according to the promise given thereto. And concerning other things 
accompanying their ministry: Parish Kirk, session, discipline, and execution thereof, 
praised be God, the same were found in a good state. And as concerning a 
provision for the second minister, the bailies and community of the burgh signified 
they could not conveniently do anything thereanent until they were further advised; 
and as for the landward of the parish, the gentle and honest men thereof signified 
that they could not conveniently do anything thereanent without consent of the 



72 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

heritors, viz., of the lord of Newbattle, being for the present both their sheriff 
and their provost. Whereupon the Presbytery agreed that a letter should be 
penned by the clerk to be directed to the aforesaid lord and other heritors of the 
land within the parish of Peebles, by several copies thereof, craving not so much 
their advice as consent thereto; and to report the answer thereof betwixt and the 
15th of July next. ^Vhich was done. And as concerning a manse for the second 
minister, the parsoun of Peebles promises to repair the same, being somewhat not 
watertight, and to modify the same to the second minister of Peebles, desiring 
earnestly the Presbytery to give their assistance and concurrence to the procurement 
of an act of Parliament constituting the Cross Kirk to be the Parish Kirk ad 
perpetuam remanentiam. Whereto the Presbytery most willingly accorded, ordaining 
the same to be represented to assemblies, that they in like manner may give their 
supply thereto. 

The Laird of Smithfield. 

1602, July I — It is reported by Mr Gavin M'Gall (Peebles) that he had given 
the third public admonition to the young laird of Smythfield for the cause above 
specified, and as yet neither he nor any in his name had shewn or offered a day to 
him to stay the censure of the Kirk to be execute against him. Whereupon 
the Presbytery willed him to proceed with prayer, according to the book of 
excommunication. 

1602, July 8 — Compeared Alexander Hay of Smithfield, younger, confessed his 
errors, after admonitions given him by the Presbytery, and receipt of his promise, 
given in all humility, to give obedience to the session of Peebles, and to satisfy them 
and all others for his misbehaviour. He is referred to the aforesaid session, and Mr 
Gavin is ordained to receive him, with publication of his obedience. 

Stipend of the Second Minister. 

1602, July 22 — Concerning the speaking to Lord Newbottle, for provision to the 
second minister of Peebles, Mr James Logane (Eddleston) reported that he had 
been at Morphat, seeking the said lord, but he did not get him. The Presbytery 
continued the matter till better opportunity, willing the said Mr James to do diligence 
thereon as before. 

1602, August 5 — Compeared Lord Newbottle, as was desired by Mr James 
Logane (Eddleston) at the appointment of the Presbytery, and signified plainly that 
it was impossible to the burgh to make any further supply of augmentation for their 
second minister at Peebles. For as concerning prebends, his lordship said that 
they had been talking thereof, but thought the same could not be conveniently 
obtained, they being spoilt and abused many ways, and therefore wished the 
Presbytery to take this their answer in good part; and Mr Gavin M'Call to be 
content of the provision already made; who took the same to advisement till the next 
day. 

1602, August 12 — Concerning the provision of the second minister of Peebles, 
it is reported that Mr Gavin M'Call is content, so be it that the conditions proposed 



THE MINISTRY OF ARCHIBALD DOUGLAS. 73 

be fulfilled, as well anent the prebends as landward; for settling whereof Mr 
James Logane (Eddleston) and John Fausyde (Newlands) are ordained to deal with 
Lord Newbottle as soon as security be made by the town in form of the contract. 

1602, August 26 — As concerning provision for Mr Gavin M'Call (Peebles) to be 
second minister at Peebles; continues it till his own presence the next day. 

1602, September g — Mr Gavin M'Call (Peebles) signified that the town of 
Peebles was willing to make the contract as himself, in the several points they have 
agreed upon, as it tends to the entertainment of a doctor to their school ; but as to 
the landward of Peebles, he would take them in his own hand, and that with them he 
might come speed. Mr James Logane (Eddleston) and John Fausyd (Newlands), 
according to his desire, are appointed to travail with Lord Newbottle, that he would 
go before in good example to the rest, who doubtless would follow. (Note. — The 
school doctor was the assistant teacher.) 

The King at Peebles. 

1602, October 15 — The King appointed a justice court to be held at Peebles on 
the 15th day of October, at which he personally intended to be present. The 
inhabitants of Selkirk were to attend him there, as well as those of Peebles, between 
sixty and sixteen years of age, " ilk ane of them weel bodin in feir of war " (well 
equipped in war array). 

The Constant Platt: Default of the Presbyteries. 
[7(5o2 — Touching the commissioners appointed by last Assembly to wait upon 
the constant platt, my lord collector being present, declared that the stay of that work 
proceeded upon the default of the Presbyteries, who for the most part had never 
returned an answer to His Majesty's letters, directed by the commissioners of the 
constant platt, without the which they could not proceed. And therefore the 
Assembly ordains such as had not reported their answers to produce them the 
mom. — Calderwood, vi., 163.] 

Baptism in Church. 
[1602 — Baptism was permitted to be celebrated in Church upon other than 
preaching days.] 

The Glebe. 
160J, February ij — The Presbytery condescend that the glebe of Peebles be 
newly designed to Hector Cranstoun, reader at Peebles, by Mr James Logane 
(Eddleston), John Ker (Lyne), and Gilbert Tailzeour (Manor), commissioners 
deputed by the Presbytery to that effect; and to do the same as they shall be 
advertised. A supplication was willed by the Presbytery to be framed by the clerk 
to be sent to the commissioners of the General Assembly, showing the troublesome 
state of the parsoun and vicar of Peebles, daily in danger through the overcharges of 
the collector, burdening them with the payment of few-maill of the kirkland of 
Peebles, for which Hector Cranstoun, reader, serves. Which was obeyed. 

1603, March 17 — The brethren deputed to design the glebe of Peebles, having 



74 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

not been advertised as was appointed, are now again this afternoon to design it, 
according to the act of Parliament, to Hector Cranstoun, reader at Peebles, and to 
his successors serving the cure of the ministry. And according to this ordinance, the 
brethren aforesaid passed in company with Cuthbert Elphinstoun of Enderston; 
William Brown, in Edstoun; and Archibald Frank, notary; John Newton, metster; 
unto the ground where the same should have been designed. But through the 
uncertainty of the manse, called in doubt, the designation is continued, and the 
brethren constrained to depart, the matter not accomplished. 

Death of Queen Elizabeth. 
\1603, March 24 — On this date Queen Elizabeth died, and James VI. became 
King of the United Kingdom of Scotland and England. On April 3 he listened to a 
farewell sermon in St Giles' Church, and in a few days thereafter he crossed the 
Border, and set foot in his new kingdom.] 

Glebe and Manse. 
1603, March 31 — The brethren deputed to design the glebe of Peebles reported 
that they were frustrate of their purpose through the uncertainty of a manse belonging 
thereto, and that the gentlemen and eldermen of the parish who had met with them 
doubted in hke manner of the same. For removing of which doubt, since the 
parsoun of Peebles has freely granted this his dwelling-place in the Auld Toun shall 
be the same in all time coming, mortifying it with the yard to the use and behoof of 
the second minister at Peebles, conforme to his submission made to the Presbytery 
on I St January 1601, subscribed by him, therefore the Presbytery continues the 
designation thereof till their return from the Assembly. 

Duncan Kyd's Murderer. 
1603, April 28 — At command of the Presbytery, and upon the earnest suit of 
John Crawford, the said John's offers were delivered to Mr Gavin M'Kall, that he 
might deal with the friends of the late Duncan Kyd, for reconciliation betwixt them. 

No Provision for Second Minister. 
1603, May II — John Ker, minister at Lyne, is deputed to speak to Lord 
Newbottle anent Mr Gavin M 'Kail's provision; and Lord Yester's answer thereto, 
whereof he discharged himself dutifully, but obtained nothing. 

Duncan Kvd's Murder. 
1603, May 25— Compeared Andrew Kyd, in name of the friends of the late 
Duncan Kyd, and being challenged by the Presbytery for that he and his complices 
did shew themselves difficile and intractable, notwithstanding that John Crawfurd, 
excommunicate, had in all humble manner made offers towards them; answered and 
promised that in all times coming they would supersede all such further dealing till 
his offers were sighted, and friends had dealt amicably betwixt them for composing 
the matter, that they might be in unity. 



THE MINISTRY OF ARCHIBALD DOUGLAS. 75 

Still no Provision for Second Minister. 
1603, June 16 — John Ker (Lyne) reported that he had used diligence and 
counsel, as well with Lord Newbottle as with Lord Vaster, to see what provision 
might be had for Mr Gavin M'Kall (Peebles); complaining also that landward had 
failed to him of their promise, but could obtain no favourable answer; therefore the 
Presbytery continued the matter till advisement the next day. 

Absolution. 
1603, June 16 — The Presbytery, for several good considerations, appoint Mr 
Gavin M'Kall to relax John Craufurd the next day from the censure of excom- 
munication. Which was done. 

Visitation of Peebles. 

1603, July 7 — The visitation of Peebles is appointed to be this day eight days, 
on occasions, and the same to be intimated to Lord Newbottle. Which was done. 

1603, July 14 — In the visitation of Peebles, Mr Archibald Douglas, Mr Gavin 
M'Kall, and Hector Cranstoun, being put apart, nothing is found in their persons 
or office but what in the Lord is commendable. They entering, lamented the rare 
auditory they got, which hindered doctrine, both on Wednesdays and Sunday after- 
noon. To be reformed. As also the short ringing of the bell ; and single meeting 
for exercise. To be amended. As was promised by the bailies, council, and 
community. And as for provision to the second minister, the Presbytery ordain the 
whole heritors of landward, together with the town, to compear next day to give their 
resolute answer thereanent. Other things belonging to the visitation being inquired, 
found to be in good and comely order. 

Provision for the Second Minister. 
1603, July 21 — Concerning provision to the second minister of Peebles, it is 
thought good that intimation be made to the whole parishioners that because they 
have no care thereof, license is given to him to remove, in case they compear not, 
and to do therein as effeirs for his full settling and provision the next day. 

Fast. 
1603, July 21 — It is reported that the fast has been observed, and the brethren 
are exhorted to continue in prayer for His Majesty. 

The Murderer of William Chisholme. 
1603, July 27 — At a court of justiciary, Thomas Horsbrugh, burgess of Peebles, 
was accused of the murder of William Chisholme, in Peebles, with his own whinger, 
under silence and cloud of night, also of the theftuous stealing of ten six pound 
pieces, and twenty merks of white silver, pertaining to the said umquhile William, 
under his bedhead, in the month of March last. Also of stealing ^^22 from his 
goodmother. The assize unanimously found Horsbrugh guilty, by the mouth of 
Michael Hunter of Polmood. Sentenced to be " tane to the Castellhill of 



76 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

Edinburgh, and thair to be hangit on ane gibbit until he be deid; and thereftir his 
heid and richt hand to be strukin fra his body; and his heid to be set upoun ane 
pike upon the steepleheid of Peebles, and his richt hand to be put on the East Port 
thairof; and all his movable guids to be escheit." 

The Stipend for the Second Minister. 
1603, July 28 — Compeared the laird of Enderston and William Horsbrugh, for 
the part of the landward of Peebles, acknowledged the foresaid intimation proposing 
either sufficient provision for their second minister, or else he to be transported. 
Anent which they alleged they could do naught; but for themselves, the rest would 
not condescend to any augmentation of his stipend, thinking the teinds sufficient to 
entertain one or more. And yet, notwithstanding, they wished if it might be done, 
that this overture should be followed out for their second minister's provision, that of 
every ten pound land there be ten merks gotten; which if it had place, the town 
might pay 100 merks; the parson another hundred; and the third hundred merks by 
the gentlemen of the parish, &c. The Presbytery suspend the resolution of this 
matter till this day eight days, till Mr Gavin, the Presbytery, with the parishioners, 
be further advised, and in the meantime appoint Mr John Wemis (Kilbucho) to speak 
with the Lord Newbottle thereanent, which he did, but without effect. 



The Second Minister to Leave. 
160J, August 4 — Mr John Wemis (Kilbucho) reported that he had spoken with 
Lord Newbottle, apparently in vain, and that Mr Gavin M'Kall, with submission of 
his ministry to the Presbytery (who referred his translation to himself), now being 
ripely advised, the said Mr Gavin gave his resolute answer, that seeing he sees no 
appearance of any present provision in Peebles, nor yet of any in times coming that is 
certain, that now he is willing to remove to Traquair. The Presbytery granting 
transportation to him, appoints the parish of Traquair to compear to subscribe their 
offers and contract the next day. 

A Second Minister Again Required. 

160J, September i — The parsoun of Peebles, remembering his infirmity, unable 
thoroughly to discharge the calling of the ministry in such manner as is requisite, Mr 
Gavin M'Call being removed, protested that the Presbytery would have some due 
consideration how he might be supplied, but that is to say, they would hold hand 
that he might have a fellow labourer. Which the Presbytery has promised to do, as 
soon as ever Lord Newbottle, provost of Peebles, be in the country, with whom they 
promised to deal to the same effect. 

1603, October 27 — The glebe of Peebles is appointed to be designed on Friday 
come eight days, and the bailies of Peebles to be warned to compear the next day to 
see what they will do for the plantation of a second minister among them, seeing Mr 
Gavin is removed. 



THE MINISTRY OF ARCHIBALD DOUGLAS. 77 

The Hospital. 
1603, October 27 — Forasmuch as the bailies, minister, and community of 
Peebles have intimated that they thirst earnestly for the restitution of their hospital 
to their own use, and that in this case the Presbytery has not ability, therefore it 
is willed that the same be signified to the Assembly, that their advice and authority 
may be interponed to procure the same at His Majesty's hand. 

The Question of a Second Minister. 

1603, December 22 — The designation of the glebe of Peebles being now, as 
before, in the days preceding, remembered, together with a fellow-labourer to the 
minister of Peebles, is continued upon occasions. 

Contemporary Ministers. 
{^1603-7 — Broughton — Archibald Livingstone, M.A., from Athelstaneford. 
\1603-4 — Drumehier — Colin Row, M.A., translated to St Quivox. 
\1603-18 — Stobo — Archibald Row, M.A., brother of preceding; from Drumelzier. 
\1603-32 — Traqiiair — Gavin Makcall, M.A., translated from Peebles second 
charge; died 1632. He left 1500 marks to the poor.] 

Visitation of Peebles. 

1604, January J— The Presbytery, considering the minister of Peebles' complaint 
in regard to the misbehaviour of Gavin Thomeson, and others, his complices, likely 
to be the occasion of faction, both in their town and session, appoint a visitation of 
the congregation to be on Wednesday next by the whole Presbytery, and Mr James 
Logane (Eddleston) ordained then to teach. 

Conference of English Divines. 
\^i6o4 — On January 14, 1604, the King assembled a conference of delegates as 
representing the two parties then dividing the Church of England — the High Church 
clergy and the Puritans. He took an active part in the discussions. One result of 
this conference was that a revised edition of the Bible was agreed upon and authorised 
to be proceeded with. This is the edition now in use. Between 1604 and 16 17 
Calderwood writes: — "During the whole thirteen years during which I discharged the 
functions of the ministry, whether in administering the sacraments or in celebrating 
other sacred rites, I never used the exhortation or prayers which are extant in our 
agenda."] 

Visitation of Peebles. 
1604, January 25 — At Peebles. In the visitation of Peebles, held by the whole 
Presbytery, after prayer and exhortation made by Mr James Logane (Eddleston) on 
Psalm hi., the moderator signifying the occasion of the meeting, viz., to reform things 
done amiss either on the part of the minister or of the flock, after removing of Mr 
Archibald Douglas as minister there, and inquisition being made concerning his 
doctrine, life, and behaviour in the execution of his calling, nothing was found 
offensive in him except negligence in visiting the sick, the occasion whereof non- 
advertisement, or desire thereto. Promised to be repaired. (2.) Intermission of 



78 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

doctrine on the Sabbath afternoon, and on Wednesday, the occasion whereof was 
reported to be lack of a colleague or fellow-labourer, anent which, with advice of the 
said minister, the Lord of Neubottle, their provost, is willed to be spoken to, so that 
one may be presented with some indifferent and sufficient provision; and in the 
meantime, until a colleague be had, the aforesaid minister promises, instead of 
teaching on the Sabbath afternoon, to have catechising. (3.) Intermission of keeping 
session weekly, wherethrough discipline was stayed. Imputed to the misbehaviour of 
Gavin Thomeson and others, his adherents, taking occasion of offence where none 
was given, and that because William Elliott had erected and set up a stall in the 
Kirk, as the said Gavin alleged, without advice of either bailies, council, or session of 
the Kirk. Anent the which, after due trial by the Presbytery, whether the matter 
was so or not, the most part of the session, as well landward as in burgh, reported 
that the said stall was set up with the knowledge and advice of the most part of the 
town and the session, no ordinance being made in the contrary. Whereupon the 
Presbytery, for avoiding contention and other inconvenients like to ensue, in case the 
matter be not taken up amicably, after dealing with the said Gavin Thomeson and 
his complices apart, that they might come to the knowledge of their error, and that 
our foresaid brother, for the sake of peace and furthering of the Lord's work, not 
to be intractable, upon consideration of sundry other circumstances, both the 
aforesaid Gavin and his complices and the aforesaid brother were reconciled, 
everyone of them forgiving the others for their grudges on all sides, promising by 
God's grace to walk more warily, and to eschew all occasion of offence with unity of 
mind. Whereunto the Presbytery, with grave admonitions, exhorted them in the 
Lord to be steadfast. 

Meeting of Presbytery. 
1604, February 2 — The commonplace de conciliis and first question thereof was 
handled by Gilbert Tailzeour (Manor) on Acts xv. To whom Alexander Flemyng 
(Glenholm) is deputed to succeed for Mr John Fairfoull (Dawyck) who is sickly. 
Brethren absent the day preceding, and likewise this day, being known to be 
hindered through tempestuous and unseasonable weather, or else by their evident 
sickness, are excused. 

The Glebe. 

1604, March 2g — Concerning the designation of the glebe of Peebles, hitherto 
continued upon occasions, forasmuch as an offer is made to give therefor yearly for 
the same five hundred merks, to be uplifted by the parsone or minister having the 
same designed to him in all time coming. The Presbytery therefore thought good to 
move this question — Whether the aforesaid offer may be acceptable to the use of the 
ministry or not? And then this assembly would give their advice. 

1604, April 12 — The designation of the glebe of Peebles, proposed this day and 
all others succeeding, has been delayed on the lawful impediments that occurred 
beyond expectation. 



THE MINISTRY OF ARCHIBALD DOUGLAS. 79 

Slandering the Parson. 
1604, May 18 — As concerning William Chisholme, of whom the parsone of 
Peebles complained, in respect that the said William slandered him as unrighteous 
and dealing falsely with him, the Presbytery apud acta warned him to compear before 
them the next day of their meeting, to hear order therewith taken as occasion shall 
be offered. 

Tumults and Seditions. 

1604, June 21 — For preventing of tumults and seditions betwixt the young laird 
of Smythfield and the town of Peebles, complained by the parsone of Peebles, the 
Presbytery appoint Mr James Logane (Eddleston) and the said parsone, or for him, 
Mr John Wemis (Kilbucho), to speak with Lord Newbottle, provost of Peebles, and 
the old laird of Smythfield, that the same may be stayed, to the avoiding of manifold 
inconvenients. 

1604, June 28 — Travailling with my Lord of Newbottle, anent the grievances of 
the parsone of Peebles, continued till there be new occasion that Smithfield be in 
the county. 

Conflagration. 
1604, July 4 — Robert Birrel, a burgess of Edinburgh, thus notes in his diary : — 
"A great fire in Peebles town." On July 10 there is another reference to the 
conflagration in the records of the Convention of Royal Burghs: — "Anent the 
supplication of the burgh of Peebles, craving support to their said burgh and 
inhabitants thereof for their help to the re-edifying of their said burgh, lately within 
these six days burnt with sudden fire, the commissioners ordain each burgh to come 
sufficiently instructed to the next Convention to give answer, and in the meantime 
ordains each commissioner at his returning home to intimate the same to his burgh 
and Presbytery." It is probably on account of this calamity that the records of these 
years are wanting. 

Discipline. 
1604, July 12 — Compeared John Dickesoun in the Plas, as he was warned, 
and is admonished for profaning the Sabbath, superstition, and ignorance, and 
disobedience to his session of Peebles. To whom now again he is remitted, to 
satisfy as shall be enjoined. 

The Fire. 
1604, July ig — A letter deputed to be penned, to be written to all the 
Presbyteries concerning the visitation of Peebles with fire; and support hereto to be 
directed to them as early as possible. 

The Fire — Second Minister — Reader. 
1604, August 2 — The Lord of Newbottle, the laird of Trakquair, the laird of 
Blackbarony, and other gentlemen, being present with divers of the Presbytery, 



8o THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

condescended that publication should be made throughout the whole Kirks by the 
brethren that the next day it is craved that every gentleman and honest man within 
the parish will declare and make manifest what they will do for the support of the 
town of Peebles. Whereto in like manner a second minister is to be provided with 
advice of the foresaid lord and his council of the burgh, who has promised also, with 
consent of the bailies and council, to satisfy Hector Cranstoun, reader and vicar of 
Peebles, for all charges due to him by the town anent the vicarage of Dawyck, duly 
belonging to him. 

1604, August g — Concerning the support of the town of Peebles, the brethren 
reporting their publication of the will of the Presbytery, and advice of my Lord of 
Newbottle, the laird of Traquair, the laird of Blackbarony, and other nobles and 
gentlemen for the time present with common consent, it is thought good that the 
town of Peebles itself, with the bailies and the whole council, and the whole parish 
being called on to declare what they will do themselves for the supply of the portions 
of the town that are damaged by the fire, that the same being known, others by their 
example may be the more easily moved to do the same; and the minister of Peebles 
to intimate the same the next day to his whole flock; and that every other brother do 
so with their flocks, that so every one may do something to their support; and to 
produce the same betwixt the day and date hereof, and this day xv days, at which 
time they to be present. Concerning the second minister of Peebles; the hospital 
that is within the town; the aisle; and satisfying of Hector Cranstoun; and the trial 
of certain evil doers; my Lord of Newbottle promises to cause order to be taken 
therewith on the earliest suitable occasion. (Note. — The aisle may have been 
Geddes' aisle, erected by John Geddes in the Parish Church of St Andrew, in 1427, 
and well endowed by him.) 

Confession of Faith anew Subscribed. 
1604 — The synod of Lothian, held in Tranent the 15th August. The two 
archbishops, Mr John Spotswood and Mr James Law, were at this synod, where, 
being charged for their indirect dealing to overthrow the discipline of the Kirk, they 
purged themselves in open assembly, protesting they had no such intention, but only 
to recover the Kirk rents, and thereafter they should submit the same unto the 
Assembly. The brethren were jealous of them, notwithstanding of this their 
protestation; and they were urged to subscribe the Confession of Faith anew, with 
the rest of their brethren, like as they subscribed the said Confession printed at 
Edinburgh in folio by Henry Charteris the year 1596. The names of the 
subscribers: — Haddington Presbytery; Dalkeith Presbytery; Edinburgh Presbytery; 
Linlithgow Presbytery; Peebles Presbytery — Archibald Douglas, James Logane, 
David Neme, Archibald Row, Gavin Makcall, Robert Livingstoun, John Ker, 
minister at Lyne. 

The Fire — The Second Minister, &c. 
1604, August 23 — The brethren reported concerning the town of Peebles as has 
been injured, they had intimated to all their parishioners the necessity and lawfulness 



THE MINISTRY OF ARCHIBALD DOUGLAS. 8i 

thereof, and had willed them in that behalf that all of their flocks be feeling members, 
and to resort to the Presbytery to make manifest their mind thereanent. But few or 
none compeared to that effect, and therefore the Presbytery, with advice of my Lord 
Newbottle, the lairds of Trakquair, Blackbarony, and other gentlemen, ordained that 
every brother in their session should take such order therewith, whereby the same 
may be ingotten and delivered ; and for forwarding hereof a letter be penned by the 
sheriff and subscribed by the common clerk of the sheriffdom, to be directed to 
every particular congregation, to be exhorted not to be negligent in kything of their 
charity in the Lord. John Tuedy, clerk of the sheriffdom, is appointed collector for 
that which shall be collected for the supplement of Peebles. Again, the second 
minister of Peebles; the hospital; Hector Cranstoun; and the aisle are remembered, 
that the foresaid lord, with the bailies and council of Peebles, may hold hand to see 
the same rightly used without offence. 

1604, September 6 — Concerning the support of the town of Peebles, my Lord of 
Newbottle, Trakquair, and Blackbarony being present, with their consent and assent, 
it is thought expedient that the barons and gentlemen of the county shall give in their 
contribution cheerfully betwixt this and fifteen days; and others, freeholders and 
gentlemen, thereafter to be dealt with as occasion shall be offered. And in case that 
the same be not gotten in voluntarily, that an imposition be procured by moyen of 
His Majesty's council and urge them thereto. The second minister of Peebles; the 
hospital there; the aisle; and Hector Cranstoun remembered to the foresaid lord's 
advisement to be used the next session of the council of Peebles as yet not met 
together to that effect. 

Meeting of Presbytery. 
1604, September 20 — The contribution of Peebles is continued till the foresaid 
lord's presence, at which time also the action betwixt the parsone of Peebles and the 
laird of Horsbrugh is to be wakened. 

The Designation of the Glebe. 
1604, November i — The designation of the glebe of Peebles is remembered this 
day and all other days succeeding, but the same has not had as yet the good success 
upon occasions, but namely of the offer of the feuars of the Kirkland. 

Grievances. 

1604, November 2g — The parsone of Peebles regretted the lack of a fellow- 
labourer; want of a school; the manifold controversies existing among his flock; and 
want of charity to supply the poor afflicted with fire; for remede whereof, travail is 
ordained to be used with my Lords of Neubottle and Yester, that they would hold 
hand to the redress thereof, and the brethren in the meantime to do their diligence 
for easing of the two last grievances. Which they promised to perform. 

Discipline. 

1605, February 7 — Concerning Michael Pringle, referred from the session of 



82 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

Peebles to this Presbytery, after his compearance and answer heard, he is ordained 
apud acta to satisfy as is enjoined by the foresaid session, or else to pursue the 
person whom he slanders, as burner of his corns, criminally betwixt this date and 
this day fifteen days, under the pain of execution of the censures of the Kirk against 
him by his session, to whom he is remitted. 

zdoj, April i — Forasmuch as Charles Pringle, burgess of Peebles, is delated as 
one in this respect offensive to his minister (doing injuries to the brethren), it is 
ordained that he be warned by Hector Cranstoun to compear the next day to answer 
to the complaint of the minister, with certification as effeirs. 

Second Minister — Romish Prebends — Hospital. 
i6o^, April I — For procurement of the second minister to Peebles, the parsone 
of Peebles reported that, for an interim, the town of Peebles had agreed to give two 
hundred merks to one that, along with the ministry, would occupy the place of the 
master of their school, and that he himself would give an hundred merks to the same 
person that would be fellow-labourer, upon condition that he might have access to 
meddle with the teind sheaves, adjacent to the town, according to law. And as for 
the prebends of Peebles that should supply the ministry, it is to be advised betimes 
how the same may be gotten for the use of the Church. In like manner concerning 
the hospital, concurrence to be had with the town for winning the same to their own 
use. 

The Plague. 
i6os — In 1605 the plague had entered the town, and on May 29 stringent 
regulations were drawn up in order to prevent it from spreading. Three persons 
were already lying dead from it at this date. The quarter-masters were ordered to 
perambulate the town inspecting the houses; cleansers had arrived for the purpose of 
purging the infected houses; no one was to enter the house of another, but every 
man keep to his own dwelling; and every one who should become sick was at once 
to reveal the same, under pain of death. According to the Rev. Dr Dalgleish, all 
the plague-stricken people were harboured in the cells and vaults of the cloisters of 
the Cross Kirk, but this does not appear in the records. 



New Tolbooth. 
160S, October 2/ — Hector Cranstoun, burgess of Peebles, as procurator for the 
bailies and council, made appearance, and undertook within the space of two years 
that they would build a sufficient and sure tolbooth and prison in the town, properly 
provided with irons and stocks, under penalty of a thousand pounds. (This building 
was erected on the High Street, opposite the old Town Hall.) 

Sacred Tune. 
[" Abbey Close" (Bartholomaus Gesius' Collection, 1605.)] 

Contemporary Minister. 
\^i6os-4S — Drumehier — Alexander Greg, M.A.] 



THE MINISTRY OF ARCHIBALD DOUGLAS. 83 

The Magistrates and John Hay of Smithfield. 
j6o6, August 22 — The provost, bailies, and town council of Peebles complained 
to the privy council that John Hay of Smithfield had interrupted them in the 
building of a loft and seat within the Cross Kirk of Peebles. The lords remitted the 
case to the Presbytery of Peebles to examine into it and report; and that in the 
meantime both the complainers and John Hay were to desist from building the said 
" desk " and loft. The Presbytery having made all proper enquiry, reported that the 
complainers had proceeded in an orderly manner to make their desk and seat; also 
that John Hay had no further liberty within the said kirk than any other gentlemen of 
the county; and ordained the complainers only to give him liberty to set up a desk 
and seat within the Kirk at the first vacancy. In the absence of John Hay, the 
defender, the report was approved of, and the magistrates were permitted to resume 
building the seat. 

Church Polity. 
[Between the years 1606 and 1610 the Episcopal form of Church government 
began gradually to be reintroduced. It was not accomplished without a conflict 
between the Chiurch and the King, who resided in England. In 1604 the King, in 
the exercise of his prerogative, had prorogued the General Assembly, which was to 
have met on the last Tuesday of July, until the following year. Notwithstanding 
this, three commissioners from the Presbytery of St Andrews met in Aberdeen on 
the appointed day, and protested. In the following year, on July 2, 1605, only 
nineteen ministers appeared at the meeting of the General Assembly at Aberdeen. 
These were ordered in a letter from the lords of the secret council to dissolve without 
appointing a day for reassembling before consulting the King. The ministers 
respectfully made a representation to the lords, and appointed the next meeting to be 
held in September. Whereupon, after wrangling, the royal commissioner dissolved 
the Assembly. Later, several of the ministers who had met were imprisoned in 
Blackness. In January 1606, six ministers were found guilty of high treason. 
Meanwhile Parliament met at Perth, and was attended by the two archbishops of the 
Scottish Church, and by the Scottish bishops as spiritual peers. Their chief business 
was to set up the state of bishops, with all its ancient revenues and privileges, and to 
erect a number of prelacies into temporal lordships. A bargain was made between 
the bishops and the lords. The bishops were to help the lords in the matter of 
lordships out of the old prelacies ; and the lords were to assist in the resuscitation of 
the bishoprics. In the end, the ancient state of the bishops was restored; and they 
were to have all their ancient rank and revenues and estate — at least on paper ! In 
practice, however, the present owners declined to disgorge; law suits were uncertain; 
so the bishops had to maintain their titles and rank on very lean revenues indeed. 
The King, meanwhile, anxious to reconcile all parties, had summoned eight ministers 
of the Church to London, and along with them five of the Scottish bishops, as 
representing the opposite side. They were taken to many Episcopal services; they 
took part in many discussions; they had many interviews with the English clergy. 
As an interlude, unfortunately, Andrew Melville had amused himself by composing a 
Latin epigram upon what he had witnessed at service in the King's chapel. This 
eventually came to the ears of the King. Melville was cited before the English 
council at Whitehall, and finally committed to the Tower of London for three years. 
Six ministers were convicted of treason, and were banished from the kingdom; and 



84 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

all the others who had attended the Assembly of Aberdeen were exiled to remote 
parts of Scotland. There were thus eight ministers detained in England, and 
fourteen exiled either in France or the Highlands. The King and the bishops now 
considered the time to be ripe for holding the General Assembly. A royal mandate 
commanded a convention to assemble at Linlithgow in December. No notice was 
taken of the meeting of Assembly, which had been fixed for July. Its chief business 
was appointing perpetual moderators to the Presbyteries. They were to be agents 
also for suppressing Popery, and were to receive each ;^ioo Scots as salary. The 
bishops were to be the moderators of those Presbyteries which assembled at Episcopal 
seats. The Church at large did not yield without much murmuring. The General 
Assembly, which met on the last Tuesday of July, seems to have strengthened 
still further the position of the bishops.] 

Annuals Given to a Student. 
1606, October 31 — The town council of Peebles, being convened, granted the 
gift of the altar of St Christopher for the space of seven years to William Dickson, to 
maintain him at the schools. (Note. — This was one of the twelve ancient Romish 
prebends which had not been lost sight of.) 

Contemporary Minister. 
^1607-45 — Innerleithen — Patrick Sanderson, exhorter at Innerleithen at Beltyn, 
1 571; and reader at Innerleithen and Hope-Kailzie, 1574; and at the former only, 
1576-80; presented to the vicarage by James VI., February 5, 1607.] 

The Minister of Peebles. 

1608, January 7 — The privy council having found that an assurance, which had 
been subscribed by Alexander Horsburgh of that Ilk on the one part, and Mr 
Archibald Douglas, parson of Peebles on the other, had become expired and 
outrun, although the variance and controversy between them was not removed or 
taken away, ordered the new assurance to the same effect to be forthwith mutually 
subscribed again. On the 21st of the same month, Andrew, the son of Alexander 
Horsburgh, for not keeping the above assurance, was ordered to appear before the 
council to underlie such order as shall be prescribed for him. Andrew disobeyed 
the order of the council, and on February 4 was denounced as a rebel. 

1608, January 25 — The minister of Peebles appeared before the town council, 
" lamenting his estate, being wrongously pursued for his life, and that the neighbours 
within the burgh had harboured some of his pursuers." This accusation was not 
established by the evidence further than that Horsburgh, along with two companions, 
had been received into a house in Peebles, to which they had come in the twilight, 
and having consumed two quarts of ale, had departed. 

Burials in Churches. 

1608, April 2^— Alexander Tait, younger of Pirn, complained to the privy 

council on account of threatened excommunication by the Presbytery of Peebles. 

He stated that the Presbytery insisted that he should raise the corpse of the late 

George Tait, of Innerleithen, which had been buried six weeks previously within the 



THE MINISTRY OF ARCHIBALD DOUGLAS. 85 

Church of Innerleithen, under pain of excommunication. Alexander remonstrated 
against the injunction, because he had had no part in the burial, but had only given 
his presence, along with a great number of barons, gentlemen, and common people; 
moreover that it was against Christian charity to raise the dead who had been six 
weeks in the grave; also, it would not be in the power of the complainer to have the 
corpse raised, because he was a mean man, of little or no friendship; and the late 
George had a great number of friends about the said Kirk who would not suffer him 
to raise the body. The members of Presbytery did not appear in answer to the 
complaint, so they were discharged from any further proceedings against Alexander 
Tait. 

j6o8, July 7 — William Horsbrugh, brother to Alexander Horsbrugh of that Ilk, 
was accused before the privy council of having slaughtered the son of Mr Archibald 
Douglas, archdeacon of Glasgow. For this heavy offence he had been denounced 
rebel on the 14th and i6th of May previous, and, being still at large, the lords 
ordained the captain of His Majesty's guard to bring him to justice, and to take his 
houses and remove his servants and family furth thereof, and make an inventory of 
his goods and gear thereintil, and to report the same to His Majesty's treasurer. 

The Second Charge. 
i6o8y August 26 — To the town council on this date, the lord provost reported 
that the moderator of the Presbytery desired that the second minister to be provided 
should have the teinds of the Kirklands ; to which it was answered that they had no 
power to give the teinds of the Kirklands, and further, the Kirklands never paid 
teind and therefore they cannot give quod non est sui juris. Answer that the prebends 
appertain to the burgh, and are most part gifted, and that they are willing, as they 
vacate, to give them respectively for seven or ten years to their youth, and sustentation 
for their schoolmaster; and, further, they cannot grant a stipend for their part; but if 
the brethren will place a second minister they will voluntarily and charitably contribute 
with the rest of the parish outside the burgh. (The proposal appears to have fallen 
through.) 

The Minister Again. 
1608, November j — Mr Archibald Douglas, parson of Peebles^ Mr James 
Douglas, his son, and his nephew, along with eight others belonging to Eshiels, 
complained to the privy council on account of excessive caution money. Their 
offence is not stated. The magistrates of Peebles had raised a prosecution against 
them; and from the minister and his son, and some of the others, caution had been 
demanded to the extent of ;£iooo Scots; and from the remainder 500 merks. 
The complainers alleged that these sums were far above those allowed by act of 
Parliament; also that the minister had no other living but his stipend; the son had 
no means but what his father allowed him; and the remainder were poor labourers 
not worth more than 100 merks gear. Procurators appeared for the parties; and the 
lords found that the penalties imposed on Douglas, his son, and nephew should 
remain; and the others be reduced to .;£ioo Scots each. 



86 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

Contemporary Ministers. 

\i6o8-i6 — Broughton — John Bennet, M.A., translated to Kirkurd. 

\i6o8, Dawyck — Richard Powrie, M.A., deposed and excommunicated, Decem- 
ber 7, 1649, for solemnising the marriage of John, Lord Linton, and the 
excommunicated Lady Anne Seton (which marriage ever after estranged the house 
of Traquair from the Protestant faith); was released from the sentence of 
excommunication, March 1650.] 

Sacred Tune. 
[/(5op — "Praetorius" (394, Scottish Hymnal). Michael Praetorius, Micsce 
SionicB, 1609.] 

The Courts of High Commission. 
[In 1609 the Parliament legislated on behalf of the bishops, restoring to them 
much of their old prestige and prerogative, and a few months later, the King created 
two Courts of High Commission. They possessed despotic powers; could call 
anyone before them; could enquire into their lives, doctrines, and characters 
minutely; could impose any fine; could imprison for any period; could depose any 
minister; could excommunicate; and from them there was no appeal! Thus was 
odium roused against the office of bishop.] 

The Minister Again. 
i6og, June 6 — Mr Archibald Douglas, parson of Peebles, and Alexander 
Horsburgh of that Ilk, charged to renew their assurance of peace until June. 

Hats — Psalm Books — Provost's Convoy. 
i6og, December i — It was ordained that none of the town councillors were to be 
without hats, and that they were to be provided therewith both in the Kirk and on 
council and court days. Also, all who shall be nominated by the provost, bailies, 
and Hector Cranstoun, be provided with psalm books. Also, that all the honest 
men, quarterly, be warned by the officers every Sunday, in the forenoon and 
afternoon, to convoy the provost to and from the tolbooth (in returning from and 
going to the Church?) 

The Destruction of St Andrew's Church. 
Between 1609 and 1664 the demolition of the old Church of St Andrew was 
steadily going on — the ruins serving as a quarry from which to procure whatever 
material was required for public works. 

Death of the Minister. 
1610 — Before April 20 of this year, Mr Archibald Douglas was dead. He died 
on the eve of the First Episcopacy. He had been minister since 1573 — in all, 37 
years. 



1610-1651, XEbe /iDtnistrs of tbe IRev. "CbeoDorc Dai?, D.D. 

Third minister. Forty-one years. The first Episcopacy until 1638, thereafter 
Covenanted Presbyterianism. 

New Minister. 
1610, April 20 — Theodore Hay, one of the regents of the University of 
Glasgow, appointed minister of Peebles. 

Church Polity. 

[Episcopacy was now forced upon the Church of Scotland. On April i, 1610, 
the King sent missives from Whitehall, summoning a General Assembly to be held 
at Glasgow on June 8. The archbishop of St Andrews was to signify to the 
Presbyteries what members were to be sent to the Assembly! No controversial 
questions were discussed publicly in this or in subsequent Assembhes; all was 
settled beforehand at private conferences, whose results were presented to the 
Assemblies. By this method the following articles were agreed upon: — That the 
calling of the Assembly belonged to the King, who would summon one annually. 
That there should be half-yearly Synods in every diocese presided over by the 
archbishop or by a bishop. That sentences of absolution or of excommunication 
should receive the approbation of the bishop. That all presentations should be 
directed to the archbishop or the bishop of the diocese. That the bishop was to 
perfect the act of ordination with the assistance of the Presbytery. That the bishop 
should be associated with the ministers in deposition and pronounce sentence. 
That every minister should take the oath of allegiance to the King. That bishops 
should visit their dioceses, or else send a substitute. That weekly exercises of 
doctrine be continued among the ministers, presided over by the bishop or his 
deputy. That bishops be subject to the General Assembly. That every bishop be 
at least forty, and have been a minister for at least ten years. That no minister argue 
or disobey the acts of this Assembly, or discuss the parity or disparity of ministers. 
Soon after the Assembly was dissolved, the archbishop of Glasgow, the bishop of 
Brechin, and the bishop of Galloway were consecrated in England by the bishops of 
London, Bath, and Ely. After this ceremony, they would be able to hand down the 
apostolic succession to their brethren in Scotland. The Parliament of October 16, 
161 2, ratified all the acts of this General Assembly of 1610. 

\i6iO, June 8 — Members of Assembly — James Logane, Robert Levingstoun.] 

The 1611 Bible. 
[In 1611 the present edition of the Bible, which had been translated by the 
divines at Westminster, was dedicated to the King.] 

Council Seat in the Kirk. 
161 J, November 16 — Refers the devising and building of the seat in the Kirk to 



88 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

the council. Each member of the council to give 20s to the building thereof, and 
Ninian Lowis to be collector. 

Annuals given to Students. 
1612, December 12 — On this day, the council, following the precedents of former 
years, granted the revenues of four altars, viz., St John Baptist, St Andrew, Mary of 
Geddes Aisle, and a fourth unnamed, to four youths, wherewith to maintain them at 
their studies. 

Sacred Tune. 

\1612 — Bach's " Passion Chorale " (50, Scottish Hymnal). Hans Leo Haisler, 
1564-1612.] 

Description of Divine Service at this Time. 

\1613 — Cowper, bishop of Galloway, in his " Seven Days' Conference between a 
Catholic Christian and a Catholic Roman," has given the following account of public 
worship in his day: — 

"What is this the people are going to do?" 

"They bow themselves before the Lord, to make a humble confession of their 
sins and supplication for mercy; which you will hear openly read out by the public 
reader. Now, when it is done, what think you of the prayer?" 

" Truly, I think there is nothing in it but that whereunto every good Christian 
should say Amen; and it hath done me much good to see the people, with humble 
reverence, sighing and groaning, accompanying the prayer up to God. But what go 
they now to do?" 

" Everyone is preparing, as you see, their psalm book, that all of them, with one 
heart and mouth, may sing unto the Lord." 

"What doth the reader now? Is he making another prayer?" 

"No, yonder book which now he opens is the Bible. . . . These are the 
three exercises which are used in all our congregations every Sabbath, one hour 
before the preacher comes in: — First, prayer; then psalms; then reading of holy 
scriptures. And by these the hearts of the people are prepared the more reverently 
to hear the word, and you see all is done with great quietness, devotion, and 
reverence." 

" But what are they doing now?" 

" You hear the third bell ringing, and in this space the reader ceaseth, and at 
the end of the bell ringing, the preacher will come." 

"There comes the preacher. And now I pray you tell me how I should behave 
myself?" 

"Trouble you not; do as you see others beside you. For first he will conceive 
a prayer, at which the people humble themselves; thereafter he reads his text of holy 
scripture; these the people hear with reverence; then he falls to the preaching, which 
some hear with their heads covered, some otherwise. (In that you may do as your 
health requires.) The preaching being ended, he concludes all with a thanksgiving, 
after which there is a psalm sung by the whole congregation; and then the minister 
blesseth the people in the name of the Lord, and so demits them ; you will see no 
other thing else." 

(All this is in strict conformity with the Book of Common Order.)] 



THE MINISTRY OF THEODORE HAY, D.D. 89 

Contemporary Ministers. 
\1613 — Kaihie or Hope Kailzie (belonged to abbey of Kelso; parish was 
suppressed by the commissioners for planting Kirks in 1674, and united to Traquair, 
Peebles, and Innerleithen) — Alexander Forrest, A.M.; University of St Andrews, 
1603; translated to Hassendean, 161 3. 

\^i6i4 — Glenholm — John Young, M.A. 

'1614-IS — Kilbucho — John Douglas, M.A., translated to Broughton. 
1614 — Rodonno, Henderland, or Megget — J'ohn Fawsyde, minister of Newlands ; 
Newlands and Kirkurd were also under his care; returned to Newlands in 1615.] 

Courts of High Commission. 
\_i6is — Member, Theodore Hay, parson of Peebles. The two archbishops 
were the heads of the courts of high commission. " Mr John Spottiswoode and Mr 
James Law, sometime ministers within the Presbytery of Linlithgow, two pretty 
football men, have now, as we used to say, the ball at their foot." — Calderwood, 
1615.] 

Sacred Tunes. 
\^i6ij — In the 161 5 edition of Andro Hart's Scottish Psalter are found: — 
"Abbey" (29, Scottish Psalter; 87, Free Church Hymnal; 20, U.P. Hymnal; 58, 
U.P. Psalter; 45, Psalms and Paraphrases). "Duke's Tune" (68, Psalms and 
Paraphrases). "Dunfermline" (58, Scottish Psalter; 12 and 247, U.P. Hymnal; 
152, U.P. Psalter; 298, Scottish Hymnal; 70, Psalms and Paraphrases). " French" 
(69, Scottish Psalter; 112, Free Church Hymnal; 207, Scottish Hymnal; 80, Psalms 
and Paraphrases; 218, U.P. Psalter). "Martyrs" (98 and 99, Scottish Psalter; 19 
and 194, U.P. Psalter; no. Psalms and Paraphrases). "Old Glasgow" (180, U.P. 
Psalter). "York" (179, Scottish Psalter; 105, Free Church Hymnal; 141, U.P. 
Psalter; 120, Scottish Hymnal; 167, Psalms and Paraphrases).] 

School Doctor. 

1616, April 22 — William Dyet has inducted himself to be doctor of the school, 
and found Master John Bryden caution for keeping his hours, to enter at six; to 
remain and teach till nine; from ten to twelve; from one to six; and to behave 
himself honestly; the town to give him ten merks termly so long as he serves 
thankfully. 

1616, July 25 — Mr Gavin Makall is desired to supply the parsone of Peebles 
roome this next Sabbath; and Mr John Bryden his place. 

Contemporary Ministers. 

[i-d/d — Broughton — John Douglas, M.A., translated from Kilbucho; died same 
year. 

\1616-38 — Kirkurd — John Bennet, M.A., translated from Broughton; presented 
by town council of Edinburgh; died in 1638.] 

Meeting of Presbytery. 
i6iy, April 10 — This day a testimonial was ordained to be given to Mr William 
Dickesoun, verifying to the Presbytery of Linlithquhow that the said Mr William had 
publicly exercised in this Presbytery. 

N 



90 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

Visit of the King to Scotland. 

[1617, May 16 — First visit of the King to Scotland after his departure. Divine 
service conducted in Holyrood Church according to all the ritual of the Church of 
England.] 

7(5/7, /^"^ 27 — Protest to the King against his powers affecting the external 
policy of the Kirk — his conclusions having the strength and power of ecclesiastical 
laws — by Theodore Hay, parson of Peebles, &c. 

Sentence of Banishment. 
7(5/7, August 21 — John Grysie, tailor, being banished Peebles for his offences, 
is forbidden to be received in any other parish of Tweedaill, and the same is to be 
intimated to all the several Kirks of the Presbytery. 

Contemporary Minister. 
\^i6i7-44—Broughton — James Dickesoune. ] 

The Constant Platt. 
[7(5/7 — " The Commissioners appointed by Parliament to see the plantation of 
Kirks and modification of ministers' stipends convened in Edinburgh the ist 
November, and held their meetings this winter. Time was protracted, and means 
were used to move ministers, with hope of augmentation of their stipends, to 
condescend to the King's Five Articles." — C alder wood.'\ 

Meeting of Presbytery. 
1618, January I — A testimonial from the Presbytery of Linlithgow in favour of 
Mr William Dickesoun, son to the provost of Peebles, was produced and accepted. 

The Assembly of Perth. 
\i6i8, August 25 — This was a famous, or rather an infamous meeting of the 
General Assembly, convened by the King, and packed by him with his creatures. 
Three noblemen acted as Royal Commissioners; and the archbishop of St Andrews 
presided. The King sent a letter containing Five Articles of his own devising, 
which, after discussion, in the end became part of the ecclesiastical law of the 
country. These were: — (i.) That the communion should be received kneeling; (2.) 
That it might be administered privately to the sick; (3.) That baptism might be 
administered at home when the infant could not conveniently be brought to the 
Church; (4.) That all children of eight years should be brought to the bishop on his 
visitation, to be questioned as to their knowledge, and to receive his blessing; (5.) 
That the days commemorative of Christ's birth, passion, resurrection, and ascension, 
also of the descent of the Holy Ghost, should be reverently observed. Although the 
King had thus carried his point, and had made himself the dictator of the Church of 
Scotland, the congregations on the whole remained Presbyterian. Great confusion 
was witnessed in many of the Churches, some receiving kneeling, others in the old 
manner. Some ministers conformed, others declined. Thousands flocked out of 
Edinburgh to the country Churches in which the sacrament was celebrated after the 
Presbyterian manner. The policy of the King did not prove in the end the success 
he anticipated. The kneeling at communion, most of all, excited opposition among 
the people; and the Lord's table became the scene of great scandal and confusion. 



THE MINISTRY OF THEODORE HAY, D.D. 91 

Communion was held four times, twice, or once a year in various parishes. There 
were at first no additional week-day services before communion. From the time of 
the Reformation it had been the practice to hold a meeting on the Tuesday before, 
for the reconciliation of offences. At this meeting the laity were permitted to point 
out what they thought amiss in the life and conversation of the minister, reader, 
elders, and deacons. But after the Perth Articles, these meetings became in many 
places scenes of strife, so were given over. 

[From 1 6 18 to 1638 the old custom continued in divine service with some 
slight differences: — The salutation of the minister was lengthened into a preface; 
there was an additional prayer and psalm before sermon at the morning service ; and 
the Lord's prayer was used at the end of the prayer before the sermon. The recital 
of the creed was omitted by many of the ministers; and those who opposed the 
court did not read any of the prayers. Although baptism was allowed to be 
celebrated in private in 16 18, it was disallowed in 1638. Henderson says: — "It is 
never administered in private houses." The child was accompanied by father and 
godfather. Some parents brought six or twelve gossips or godfathers, until in 1622 
the kirk-session at Aberdeen restricted the number to four at most. Every parent 
had to be able to repeat the Lord's Prayer, the creed, and the decalogue.] 

Contemporary Minister. 
\1618-163g — Stobo — Thomas Hoge, M.A., from South Leith.] 

Court of High Commission. 
i6ig — The minister, Theodore Hay, was appointed a member of the Court of 
High Commission, for a second time. 

Murder of William Braid. 

i6ig, February 18 — Upon a complaint given by the parsone of Peebles, for 
a cruel murder committed by William Brotherstanes, in Peebles, on the person of 
William Braid, the Presbytery ordain the parsone of Peebles to cite him publicly out 
of the pulpit, to compear before the Presbytery on March 4. 

i6ig, March 4 — The which day William Brotherstanes, being cited by the 
parsone of Peebles publicly out of pulpit, to compear before us the brethren of the 
Presbytery this day, being called and not compearing, the brethren ordain the parsone 
of Peebles to summon him publicly for the second time. 

i6ig, March 18 — Because William Brotherstanes, murderer, was cited the 
second time publicly out of pulpit by the parsone of Peebles to compear before us 
this day, and being called, and not compearing, ordain the parsone of Peebles to 
summon him pro tertio. 

i6ig, April I — William Brotherstanes, being thrice summoned publicly by the 
parsone of Peebles, was called this day and compeared not. Therefore the 
Presbytery ordain the parsone of Peebles to proceed to the first prayer. 

i6ig, April 75 — The which day compeared James Murray of Kirkhous, for 
William Brotherstanes, murderer, with a supplication subscribed by the said William, 
and offers to the party offended. Therefore the brethren appoint the moderator and 
the parsone of Peebles to present the offers to the friends of the slain man, and in 



92 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

the meantime ordain the parsone of Peebles to desist from any further process 
against the murderer until the Assembly. 

Sacred Tunes. 
\_i6ig — " Babylon's Streams," Thomas Campion, M.D.; obit, 1619. 
\1620 — " Haarlem " (236, Scottish Hymnal). Adam Drese, 1620-1701.] 

Court of High Commission. 
1620, March 28 — Court of High Commission held at Glasgow, by Mr James 
Law, bishop of Glasgow, &c. Dr Hay, Peebles, present. 



(After an interval of one year). 

Meeting of Presbytery. 
1620, August 24 — At Peebles. Exercisers, Mr John Douglas and Mr Robert 
Levingstoun, on John viii., 48. Absent, Mr Alexander Greg. Upon occasion the 
Presbytery appoint the day of their meeting to be on Thursday come eight days. 

Calumny against the Parson. 
1620, August 24 — In regard of the act of the Assembly on the process led 
against James Eleott, for his calumny against the parsone of Peebles, the Presbytery 
ordain the said James Eleot to stand in sackcloth the next Sabbath day at the Kirk 
door betwixt the second and third bells, and thereafter to pass to the place of public 
repentance, and after sermon openly to confess his fault and ask God, His Kirk, and 
specially the parsone of Peebles' forgiveness; and to that effect appoint Mr James 
Logane, the moderator, to teach, and in case of disobedience, ordain the moderator 
to give him the first admonition. 

A Case of Slander. 
1620, August 24 — The Presbytery ordain to give Meggie Leggat, in Peebles, the 
third admonition, because she had not satisfied, according to the injunctions, for 
slandering her neighbour. 

Speaking in time of Divine Service. 

1620, October 26 — On a complaint given in by the moderator against one of his 
parishioners, named William Scot, for speaking in time of divine service, and being 
summoned by him to this day, and not compearing, the Presbytery ordain him to be 
summoned the second time. 

Prebends. 

1621, April 23 — There is a memorandum of this date to the effect to advise the 
gifting of the prebends to a schoolmaster. 



THE MINISTRY OF THEODORE HAY, D.D. 93 

Double Murder. 

1621, July IQ — The parsone of Peebles reported the cruel murder of Robert 
Scot of Gilmanscleuch and John Waitche; which the Presbytery delayed to the 
Assembly's deliberation. 

1621 — James Williamson, Peebles, grants the Five Articles in Parliament. 

Sacred Tunes. 
[/d2z — Thomas Ravenscroft, bom 1592; died 1630. Published in 1621 The 
Whole Book of Psalms. From this collection are taken: — "Bristol" (53, Psalms and 
Paraphrases; 42, Scottish Psalter; 60, U.P. Psalter; set to Psalm 64). "Chichester" 
(136, U.P. Psalter; 61, Psalms and Paraphrases; set to Psalm no). "Gloucester" 
(82, Psalms and Paraphrases; 72, Scottish Psalter; 11, U.P. Hymnal; 153, U.P. 
Psalter; set to Psalm lo). "Norwich" (116, Psalms and Paraphrases; set to Psalm 
102). "Old 22nd," or "Hurstbourne " (170, Psalms and Paraphrases; set to Psalm 
38). "Salisbury" (146, Psalms and Paraphrases; 155, Scottish Psalter; 138, U.P. 
Psalter; set to Psalm 54). "Durham" (59, Scottish Psalter; 210, U.P. Hymnal; 
181, U.P. Psalter; 71, Psalms and Paraphrases; set to Psalm 71). "Old Carlisle" 
(42, U.P. Psalter; set to Psalm 79). "Ludlow" (24, U.P. Psalter; set to Psalm 45). 
"Saint David" (130, Scottish Psalter; io8. Free Church Hymnal; 126, Psalms and 
Paraphrases; set to Psalm 95).] 

The Charter of King James. 
1621, November /p— This is a very long document, constituting the Magna 
Charia of the burgh of Peebles. In it all the lands, rights, and privileges of the 
burgesses of Peebles are confirmed by the King. The ancient commons belonging 
to the burgh are enumerated, and the grants of former Kings referred to. In 
addition, there is a very full enumeration of all the ecclesiastical privileges and 
possessions which formerly belonged to the burgesses, which are anew confirmed 
to them. These include the High and Cross Kirks of the burgh, prebends, 
chaplainries, burial-places, feu-duties, anniversaries, tenements, houses, biggins, 
grants, and mortifications. The weekly market days are continued, also three free 
fairs in the year: — Beltane, on May 3, for forty-eight hours; St Peter's, on June 29, 
for forty-eight hours; and St Bartholomew's, on August 24, for eight days. The 
twelve ancient altars are also carefully enumerated in the charter. Also the burgh 
mills. In connection with the history of the Cross Church, this charter is one of 
considerable importance. In it the Church is granted by the King to the burgesses 
of Peebles; and this was done at a date after the granting of the temporalities of the 
Church to various persons. From this it is indisputable that the fabric of the Church 
cannot belong to any one person, but to the parishioners as a body; and that those 
persons or families that lay claim to its possession have no legal standing whatever. 

Contemporary Ministers. 
1621-47 — Kilbucho — Robert Eliot, M.A., translated to Linton. 
1621 — Meggat joined to Lyne. 

1622 — Manor — Alexander Spittal, A.M., University of Glasgow, 16 14. Gave 
;^io toward the building of Glasgow University Library, August i, 1632; was a 



94 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

member of Commissions of Assembly, 1645 and 1647; ^-^id died between December 
8 and 29, 1659, aged 66. 

\1622 — West Linton — John Hammiltoun, A.M., University of Edinburgh, July 
24, 1619. Presented by James VI., December 10, 1622. Being charged to remove 
from his glebe he applied to the court, when the lords, June 13, 1628, found the 
designation null, because it was not made by a commissioner having power from the 
Presbytery to make the same, and also because "it bore not that it was done with 
consent of two or three honest men in the parish," whose names ought to have been 
set do\vn specially ; also this designation was of a whole new glebe, whereas there was 
£Hi old glebe which was not four acres complete ; so that the designation should only 
have been made of so much as might make out the old glebe complete. He brought 
another action against removing from the soums grass due to the vicar lands, 
whereby he had privilege of pasturage, seeing the said lands were twenty-six acres, 
and the minister had over four thereof designed, and so he ought to have pasturage, 
and seeing the Kirkland had the pasturage of twelve soums grass. The lords found, 
February 2, 1630, "that albeit the minister bruicked four complete acres for his 
glebe, yet he ought to have a part of the privilege of pasturage which was due to the 
vicar's land; and therefore they found due to him the privilege of one horse grass for 
his travelling to Presbyteries, and other lawful business ; and of two cows' grass for 
his house and family, and no more." Mr Hammiltoun gave ^10 towards building 
Glasgow University Library, August i, 1632. Translated to Westerkirk, 1634.] 

The Murder of Robert Scot. 

1623, January g — Archibald Franck, bailie of Peebles, presented certain offers 
from the laird of Henderstoun and his brother, to be presented to Mistress Ker, 
relict of Robert Scot of Gilmanscleuch, and her bairns. Whereupon the Presbytery 
appoints the moderator and parsoun of Peebles to carry and present them to the 
party, and to report their diligence and answer to the Presbytery. 

1623, March 20 — The moderator reported that he had presented the offers from 
the laird of Henderstoun to the relict of Robert Scot of Gilmanscleuch, and her 
bairns, who declared that they would in no wise accept or receive them. 

1623, April 17 — It was reported by the parsone of Peebles and Mr Gawin 
Mackall, that they, with a messenger, had presented offers from the laird of 
Henderstoun to the relict of Robert Scot of Gilmanscleuch, and that she had 
altogether refused them. Whereupon they took instruments. 

The Pringles. 
1623, April 17 — Compeared Charles Pringill, burgess of Peebles, being 
summoned by the parsoun of Peebles for night-walking, carding, and dyceing in his 
own house, resetting also others, whereby the name of God was blasphemed and 
dishonoured. Being accused of the foresaid abominations, he promised, after 
confession of his fault, to satisfy the Kirk and mend. The Presbytery continued his 
injunctions, being the master of his family, till the next day, that the acts of 
Parliament concerning night-walkers, carders, and dycers be sighted. Also 
compeared John Pringill, son of the said Charles, being accused for night-walking, 
carding, and dyceing, after he had bound himself by an act of session to the contrary, 



THE MINISTRY OF THEODORE HAY, D.D. 95 

in all humility confessed his faults and submitted himself to the censure and 
discipline of the Kirk; upon which the Presbytery remit him to his own session of 
Peebles. 

1623, May I — Compeared Charles Pringill, and confessed his fault before the 
Presbytery; they, on consideration that he had accomplices and marrowis in the 
same fault, especially John Burnett of Barnes, and Patrick Pattison in Peebles, 
continued his censure until their citation and conviction, and ordain him to be 
present at their next meeting, and then to be summoned to that effect. Reported by 
the parsoun of Peebles, that John Pringill, son of the said Charles, had begun his 
satisfaction for his former offence. 

1622, May i§ — Reported by the parsoun of Peebles that John Pringill had 
satisfied the discipline of their Kirk. 

1623, May 2g — Compeared Charles Pringill, and did act himself under penalty 
of ;^ 1 00 to observe and underlye the act of the session of Peebles. His accomplices, 
John Burnet and Patrick Paterson, did the like. 

Brackenrig and Sanderson. 

1623, May 2g — Upon a letter from my lord of Glasgow (the archbishop), and a 
complaint given in by John Brakenrig against Patrick Sandersoun, there was a 
submission made betwixt the said Patrick and John, for deciding of all controversies 
and debts betwixt them — the said Patrick naming two of the brethren for his part, 
viz., the moderator and the parson of Peebles; John Brakenrig naming William Lowes 
of Plora and another gentleman that he promised to bring with him. And these four 
to have power to choose an oddsman and oversman, and then to meet on Tuesday 
for decision of all questions, and this meeting to be at Peebles at ten hours. 

1623, June 12 — Reported by the moderator and the parsoun of Peebles that 
they kept the time and place appointed for decision of the controversy betwixt their 
brother Patrick Sandersoun and John Brakenrig, but the latter had not brought his 
daysmen ; therefore they appointed him to be before the Presbytery the next day of 
meeting. Compeared John Brakenrig, and being posed wherefore he brought not his 
daysmen at the time and to the place appointed, he answered that he could get none, 
and that he would not submit that matter against his former consent and submission. 

The Great Bell to be Rung. 
1623, June 16 — On this day John Frank was directed to ring the great bell at 
five in the morning, and at eight in the evening, and to detain his wages if he fail. 

A Fast. 
1623, June 26 — It was declared by the brethren in particular that they had 
made due intimation of the fast in their several Kirks. The parsoun of Peebles 
desired the Presbytery to nominate some of the brethren to help him to teach on the 
week days, in the time of the fast. The Presbytery appoints the moderator to teach 
on Tuesday; Mr Gawin Mackall (Traquair) on Wednesday; Mr John Bennett 
(Broughton) on Thursday; and Mr Robert Eleot (Kilbucho) on Friday. 



96 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

Trial and Execution of Paterson the Weaver. 

1623, December 22 — This man, Thomas Paterson, a weaver in the Old Town of 
Peebles, was tried on this date at the burgh court of justiciary, in the tolbooth of 
Peebles, for the following offences: — On Monday, December 8, by night, from the 
lands of Aikerfield, two ewes belonging to John Dewar (two carcases and one head 
found by the provost and bailies in Paterson's house). On Thursday, December 18, 
by night, from Aikerfield, two ewes and a dymmont sheep belonging to John Dewar 
(three heads and skins found in Paterson's house). For stealing within the last three 
days a ewe pertaining to John Dewar (skin found also). On December 1 7, from the 
cloisters of the Cross Kirk, a ewe belonging to James Wylie (skin and carcase found 
also). A jury of fourteen burgesses was empannelled to consider the case. Paterson 
confessed to stealing of four sheep from Aikerfield, and one ewe from the Cross 
Kirk cloisters; all other charges were denied. The assize having returned a 
verdict of guilty, the provost and bailie, sitting in judgment, ordained Thomas 
Paterson to be taken presently to Peebles Water, west of the bridge thereof, 
and there before night to be drowned till he be dead, and all his goods and gear 
forfeited. Whereupon doom was given by John Temple, doomster. For the sequel 
to this case of burgh justice one has to quote from the burgh accounts: — "December 
23 — Given to John Tweedy, merchant, for four fathoms of cord to bind Thomas 
Paterson, price five shillings and four pence. For a candle when they searched the 
house, four pence. To Christian Hay, by command of the provost and bailies, when 
Thomas Paterson was executed, to the officers and sundry others for meat and drink, 
forty shillings. To Cleary and Makwat, the executioners, their bread, three shillings." 
One month later the one executioner had to perform punishment on the other, as 
shown by the same accounts : — 1624^ January 24 — For bread to Makwat when he 
scourged Cleary, two shillings. For a fathom of cord to bind him, six pence." 

Contemporary Minister. 
\1623-3g — ^i227zz(?— William Dickson. ] 

Sacred Tune. 
\1623 — " Heriot's Tune " before this.] 

Bestowal of Benefice Property. 
In 1624 (February 3) the whole of the property belonging to the benefice of 
Peebles, other than is mentioned in the charter of 162 1, was bestowed, not for life 
merely, but perpetually, on John, Lord Hay of Yester, as a reward for his services in 
repressing the thieves of the borders. 

Discipline. 

1624, February /2— Upon a complaint given in by the parsoun of Peebles, 
against Alex. Stewart, in Bonytoun, one of his parishioners, for not keeping of the 
Kirk, and for disobedience to their session of Peebles, the Presbytery ordain to 
summon the said Alexander to compear before them the next day. 



THE MINISTRY OF THEODORE HAY, D.D. 97 

1624, February 26 — Compeared Alexander Stewart, in Bonytoun, and being 
accused for not keeping the Kirk, and for disobedience to his own session of Peebles ; 
not giving a resolute answer because of the absence of the parsoun of Peebles, the 
Presbytery remit him to his own session, and ordain him to satisfy the discipline of 
their session, with certification if he did not, they would proceed with their censures 
against him. 

The Archbishop at the Cross Church. 
1624, April 8 — Ordained a summons to be given forth to William Hamiltoun, 
to compear before my lord of Glasgow and the Assembly, in the Croce Kirk of 
Peebles, the 13th day of April. 

Visitation. 
1624, May I J — The which day, the Kirk of Peebles being visited, the 
moderator, minister thereof, was removed, and the whole congregation that was 
present, with one universal applause, thanked God for his mercies toward them, in 
his behalf, having nothing to allege against him either in life or doctrine. The said 
moderator, being called, did produce his session book in good order, for poor and for 
discipline; regretted the slackness of some of the gentlemen of the parish in repairing 
the glass windows of the Kirk; (2.) Their carelessness in building the kirkyard 
dykes; (3.) Their slowness in coming to the exercise. The gentlemen, so many as 
were present, promised to repair the windows respectively, the moderator enjoined to 
stent the parish for the kirkyard dykes, and the people present promised to keep the 
exercise better. 

Schoolmaster. 
1624, May 24 — On this date occurs the earliest reference to one who must have 
achieved some notoriety or celebrity in his day on account of his energy and zeal in 
many departments. " Mr Andrew Watson compeared, and promised to give better 
attendance in time coming than he has done formerly, he being paid." He was 
schoolmaster at this time. 

Improbation Process before the Court. 
1624 — In one of the documents initiating this process, it was stated that certain 
lands were vested in the community of Peebles in virtue of their charters. But that 
certain portions of these lands were in possession of certain persons under pretended 
rights, titles, and securities, which are all false and feigned, falsely invented, forged, 
fabricated, and devised by the foresaid persons, defenders. These persons were now 
called upon to produce their titles, for approval or disproval; failure to answer being 
held as confession. Many of the ancient Church lands are described and measured 
in the documents, among them being the Dean's Park, near the North Gait of 
Peebles. 

o 



98 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

Contemporary Minister. 
\1624. — Eddleston — John Maitland, M.A., University of Edinburgh, June 30, 
1617. Member of Court of High Commission, October 21, 1634; continued March 
29, 1637; and was perhaps translated to Glenkirk, Earlston.] 

John Hay of Smithfield. 
1625, March 3 — The parsone of Peebles reported that John Hay of Smithfield, 
being guilty of certain sins meriting censure, was cited before the session of Peebles. 
He compeared, but refused to obey the injunctions of the Kirk from their mouths, 
alleging that the controversies which for these two years past had fallen out betwixt 
the burgh of Peebles and him, whereby mutual debates were made amongst them, 
were relevant reasons for declining the session (made up of the foresaid inhabitants). 
By reason he did not offer himself to satisfy according to the censure of any other 
Kirk judge. The brethren, for eschewing further inconveniences, ordain the said 
John Hay of Smithfield to be cited before them next day. 

Mr Andrew Watson, Schoolmaster. 
162s, March p — The bailies ordain John Dewar, in Peebles, to content and pay 
Mr Andrew Watson, schoolmaster in Peebles, the sum of ;^i8 money as a modified 
sum for curing a sore arm of Thomas Dewar, brother to John, and for ingredients 
bestowed on him for curing thereof, at the desire of John Dewar, in November 1623, 
conform to particulars in the account produced: — £,\2. for sundry ingredients and 
for fomenting Thomas's arm at sundry times, and the other ;£6 for his pains. 

John Hay of Smithfield. 

1625, March 24. — John Hay of Smythfield, by letter, declared his willingness to 
compear before the Presbytery, but excused himself on this occasion, because he had 
a tryst he behoved to keep with the laird of Cardrona anent marriage, and promised 
to compear at their next meeting. 

1625, April 7 — Compeared John Hay of Smythfield, and submitted to the 
injunctions of the Presbytery, in satisfaction of the scandal committed by him. 

King Charles I. 
[162J, May 27 — King James VI. died in the 5 9th year of his age. Prince 
Charles, who succeeded him, was a Scotsman also, born at Dunfermline in 1600, 
baptised by a Presbyterian minister, and brought up by Presbyterian tutors. But 
upon the accession of his father to the crown of England, Charles was educated 
under prelatic governors, from whom and from his father he imbibed all the ideas 
regarding divine right and kingly prerogative which later were to cost him his life. 
A petition sent to him shortly after his accession, craving the repeal of the Perth 
Articles, was refused. No General Assembly had met since that at Perth, which 
had been so revolutionary. All was confusion still in the ritual of the Church; and 
in the one Church, and at the same sacrament, all the methods of receiving the 
sacrament might be observed simultaneously.] 



THE MINISTRY OF THEODORE HAY, D.D. 99 

Divots for Thatching. 

1625, July II — The minister of Manor was permitted by the town council to 
cast and lead away from the lands of Cademuir, for the thatching of a house, two 
thousand divots. 

Sacred Tunes. 
[j(52j- — Orlando Gibbons, 1583-1625 — "Saint Matthias" (150, Scottish 
Hymnal); "Deptford;" "Angels' Hymn" (130, Scottish Hymnal).] 

Removal of Slates from the Cross Kirk. 

1626, April 28 — To leading of five hundred slates out of the Cross Kirk to the 
chapel, 6s 8d. (This must refer to the unroofing of part of the buildings around the 
Church, probably the cloisters. The chapel to which the slates were destined was 
that of the Virgin Mary, situated at the west end of High Street). 

Witchcraft. 
1626, July 6 — On this day appeared before the Presbytery Janet Henderson, in 
Blythe, in the parish of Linton, who confessed to the sin of "turning the riddle." 
She was ordered to stand for six Sabbath days at the Kirk door and place of public 
repentance at the Kirk of Linton, clothed in sackcloth, and with bare feet. On the 
same day Richard Johnstone in Slipperfield, and his wife, Helen Hay, were 
summoned to the next meeting of Presbytery for the same offence of " turning the 
riddle." They were both prevented from attending by illness, and, later, by the 
death of Helen. 

Discipline. 

1626, September 14 — The minister of Dawyck, Mr Richard Powrie, complained 
to the Presbytery that the laird of Dawyck did not attend his own Kirk. A 
committee of four waited on the accused, and thereafter reported that the laird was 
obstinate. Although cited to attend the Presbytery, the laird repeatedly declined to 
obey. Finally he sent in his reasons for not attending his Parish Kirk, which were 
not satisfactory to the Presbytery, who issued an edict that for the future he was to 
attend, on pain of censure. 

1626, October ig — The minister of Stobo, Mr Thomas Hog, complained to the 
Presbytery that Thomas Hay of Scroggs did not attend his Parish Kirk, and 
frequented other Kirks. Hay admitted the charge, but pleaded that he was uncertain 
whether Scroggs was situated in Lyne or in Stobo. The Presbytery decided that 
Scroggs was in Lyne, and that Thomas Hay must attend Lyne Church in future. 

1626, November 2— James Douglas of Cowthropple, in Newlands, was accused 
before the Presbytery of absenting himself from the kirk-session, of which he was a 
member. Douglas pleaded that he had done so because his fellow-elder, Andrew 
Murray of Romanno, had called him a liar within the house of the Lord. The 
charge was found proven against Murray, who was deposed from his office, and 
compelled to satisfy by standing on the stool of repentance. 



100 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

Second blank period occurring in the Minutes of the Presbytery oj Peebles^rom 1626 
to 164^, a space of twenty-three years. 



Witchcraft in Peebles. 
1627, January 4 — On this day compeared Margaret Dalgleish, widow, in 
Peebles, accused of witchcraft and charming. Margaret denied the accusation, none 
of whose points could be proved against her, except the threatening of some one with 
whom she had had a quarrel. This much she confessed, and asked pardon of God, 
declaring herself free from witchcraft. She came under an obligation not to offend 
in the same way again, and was allowed to go with an admonition. 

Visitation. 
1627, February ij — The Presbytery visited the Parish Kirk of Peebles, into 
which the parishioners had been convened, in order to inquire whether they were 
satisfied with the doctrine and ministrations of the parsone. All declared themselves 
well satisfied, and praised God for so good a minister, but they were not pleased 
with Hector Cranstoun, the vicar, whose duties consisted in reading a portion of 
scripture daily, morning and evening. Cranstoun, who was old and infirm, was 
requested to resign. On the same day the minister of Glenholm complained of 
wrong to the Kirk of Glenholm, the house of God, by Robert Crichton and others, 
making a tulzie in the Kirk after the sermon, and before the congregation were 
dismissed. Crichton had struck a gentleman with a rung which he had hidden 
under his cloak, and thereafter drawn his sword. Crichton was deposed from the 
eldership; and all the parties cited before the privy council. 

Stones and Lime from the Cross Kirk. 
162J, February 23 — Given for carrying six loads of stone to the Tolbooth, and 
three loads of lime to the steeple head, out of the Cross Kirk, los. In 1626 five 
hundred slates had been led from the Cross Kirk to the chapel also, at a cost of 6s 
8d. These were for the purpose of executing repairs on the chapel of the Virgin 
and its adjacent steeple at the west end of High Street. The lime had been stored 
in the Cross Kirk, but the stones and slates probably were part of its buildings. 

Contemporary Minister. 
\162j-s8 — Lyne — Hew Ker, M.A., presented by the King.] 

Various Cases. 
1628 — In February Thomas Brunton was accused of threatening the minister 
of Traquair with his whinger, and abusing him. Two men accused of having in their 
possession an enchanted stone for their cattle. John Tweedie, in Linton, accused by 
the ministers of Kirkurd, Stobo, and Linton, and a surveyor, by name BuUo, for 
threatening Bullo's life, striking him on the body, flinging him over a high and steep 



THE MINISTRY OF THEODORE HAY, D.D. loi 

brae, severely bruising him, and imperiously ordering the complainers to depart. 
All this was because the pursuers had been requested by the archbishop of Glasgow 
to measure some acres of land at Linton for a glebe for the minister. Defender was 
assoilzied for want of proof. In September the minister of Kilbucho complained that 
John Thriepland muttered and whispered to the congregation during sermon; spoke 
back to the minister when ordered to be silent; and followed the minister about with 
weapons, and wanted the minister to fight. Defender found guilty, and ordered to 
satisfy in the usual manner. In the same month Alexander Veitch, in Horsburgh, 
received warrant to search for and apprehend Katharine Young, wife of Alexander 
Peacock, suspected of the crime of witchcraft. 

1628, October 21 — Before the provost of Peebles compeared the minister of 
Newlands and a burgess of Peebles, and became acted for Marion Greig, wife of 
James Scott, in Scotston, as apprehended by the moderator and Presbytery of 
Peebles for witchcraft, that they shall not permit her to escape from justice, but be 
able to produce her before any judge in the realm, temporal or spiritual, within six 
days' notice, under penalty of ^1000 Scots. A few months later, the parson of 
Peebles had had apprehended for the same crime, William Matheson, in Kirna, for 
whose appearance when called on sureties also were taken. 

Contemporary Minister. 
\1628 — Newlands — Archibald Syd, A.M., probably son of preceding minister; 
University of St Andrews, 1618; presented to Minto, January, 1624, when he had 
testimonials from Peebles and Haddington. An edict was issued for his settlement 
at St Martin's, October 7, 1629, but objections were tendered by certain heritors, 
"that it was no Paroche Kirke," when he was ordered, November 25 thereafter, "to 
preach no more there." He appears to have been assistant or colleague to the 
preceding minister.] 

Execution of Three Witches. 
7(52i'-p— Expenses in connection with the strangling and burning of three 
witches at Peebles. At the foundation of the Calf Knowe, a gallon of ale and three 
wheat loaves, 1 9s. A pound and a half of lead to set the cruiks of the Calf Knowe 
door, 5s. To James Haddan, to build the Calf Knowe, j[,\o. Lime fetched to 
the Calf Knowe work with the town's horse, 47 loads, £^^ 8s. (Other 33 loads 
obtained.) Furnishing sand to the eighty loads of lime, £fi. Bringing home four 
planks to be a door to the Calf Knowe, 20s. Debursed for the witches, ^^24 los. 
To James Haldoune, for making the Calf Knowe door, 33s 4d. For making 
the gibbet which stands thereon, ;£4. Given for the commission to burn the 
witches, £,() 13s 4d. Drinksilver to James Primrose's man (clerk to the privy 
council), 30s. My own wages at that time, three days in Edinburgh, £,\ los. 
The Provost agreed with James Haldoune for setting up the gibbet the witches were 
hanged upon, £,■>, 13s. Mr William Dickson, schoolmaster, for being clerk to the 
witches' process, jQb. Directed to hire a lockman (executioner) to the witches, my 
two days' wages, ;^3. Drunk at his feeing, 26s 8d. To John Robene, for five loads 
of peats, with a quart of ale he gave to the peatmen, bought to burn the witches, 32s 



I02 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

8d. Three loads of coals, 36s. A load of heather, 9s. Three fathoms small cord 
to bind the witches' hands, 3od. Four fathom of thick rope to hang them up with 
all, 6s 8d. Three tar barrels, 48s. To Alexander Dickson, a pair of shoes, for 
warning the ministers, 20s. Carrying the tar barrels to the Calf Knowe, 3s 4d 
Hangman's wages, ;^io. To his son for being doomster, 12s. For a writing upon 
Isobel Graham's confession against the rest of the witches, at the parson's command, 
I2S. To John Frank, jailor, for catering for the witches, £fi 14s. Catering 
for the lockman and his son, j[,2, 12s. Bread and drink fetched forth to the 
assytheres (assessors), 30s. Fetched to the hangman and witches, i8s. (These 
items are from the accounts of the treasurer. In a separate note of disbursements 
by the Provost there occurs ;^5 i6s for ten loads of coals to the burning of the last 
three witches.) 

AN ALTAR OF BURNT-OFFERING. 
Outwith the burgh stands a grassy mound, 

Oft kissed by smiling sunbeams of the morn, 
And bathed by evening dews, but hallowed ground 

To us, though to our sires a place of scorn, 
To which were led old dames of friend forlorn, 

To yield in lambent flame and pungent smoke 
Their lives in martyrdom oft bravely borne 

In name of justice, but too oft a cloak 
For spite and jealousy of neighbour folk. 

A redder glow than sunbeams fired it then, 
The dew was human tears from spirits broke, 

Hearts torn and robbed of hope by cruel men. 
This mound thus takes to-day the form to passing eyes 

Of one vast altar raised for human sacrifice. 

New Scottish Liturgy Suggested. 
[In 1629 King Charles brought the question of a new liturgy before the 
Scottish prelates. He revived the project in 1633, and a committee was appointed 
to draw up a new form of Prayer Book after the model of the English Book of 
Common Prayer. This draft was revised and altered by Archbishop Laud; and in 
1637 ordered to be used in every Church.] 

Riots. 
i62g, April — Certain persons had attacked the minister of Dawyck with rungs 
and batons, and having confessed their crime, they were ordered to stand at the 
market cross of Peebles on the following Tuesday, being market day, with papers on 
their breasts setting forth their crime. In addition they were ordered to stand at the 
Kirk doors of Peebles, Kirkurd, Drumelzier, and Stobo. In this year also was a 
complaint against John Dunlop, school doctor in Peebles, for making a riot in the 
Kirk on July 5 last, and encroaching on the function of the reader without having 
lawful calling thereto, and causing thereby a great uproar. He was ordered to be 
summoned. He had been appointed assistant reader by the old reader, Hector 
Cranstoun, which arrangement had not been sanctioned by the Presbytery. 



THE MINISTRY OF THEODORE HAY, D.D. 103 

Mr Andrew Watson, Vicar. 
i62g, April — Mr Andrew Watson was admitted vicar of Peebles in the Cross 
Kirk in presence of a great number of parishioners. He was instituted in the 
customary form, the Bible being handed to him, and he being enjoined to be faithful 
to his function. John Dunlop was forbidden to exercise the office of reader, and was 
ordered to satisfy for his riot. 

Daily Service. 
i62g, April — The inhabitants of Peebles complained to the Presbytery for want 
of a week-day sermon. The matter was referred to the parson, who agreed to 
accede to the wishes of his flock by giving them a sermon daily. But as the Cross 
Kirk was inconvenient in situation, being outside the burgh, the chapel of the Virgin 
Mary at the west end of the High Street, was ordered to be repaired and made 
suitable for the daily service. The old pulpit was to be removed from the Kirk to 
the Chapel, and a new pulpit erected in its place. 

School Regulations. 
i62g, June I — School hours : — Six till nine ; ten till twelve ; half-past one till 
six; play hours from two till four on Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday; and if he 
please on Saturday, from two till night. 

Mortcloth. 

1630, May 10 — Robert Horsburgh, burgess of Edinburgh, son of Alexander 
Horsburgh of that Ilk, gifted to the burgh and kirk session, for the benefit of 
the poor of the parish, a mortcloth of fine black cloth, lined with black buckasie, 
and compassed round about with a black silk fringe on the borders. It was to 
be kept by the kirk treasurer and given out for the " decorment of all defuncts " 
as should be required. The fees were to be fixed by the council and kirk 
session, and the proceeds given to the poor. No other mortcloth was to be used 
by any person either from the burgh or land. The dues were: — Within the 
burgh, 13s 4d; in the landward part of the parish, 20s; in Eddleston, Kailzie, 
Manor, and Lyne, 30s; elsewhere, 5 merks or more, according to distance. 

Sacred Tune. 
[/djo — "Breslau" (184, 332, Scottish Hymnal). Joseph Clauder's 
Psalmodia Sacra, 1630.] 

Schoolmaster. 

1631, November 7 — On this day Mr William Martin was admitted school- 
master of the burgh. He was engaged till All-Hallow Day (November i), 1632, 
at a salary of ;^ioo Scots, with a competent chamber, or else £,() for rent; 
with twelvepence per quarter for each town child, and a merk per quarter for 
each landward bairn. His regulations were: — Hours from six till nine, morning 
prayer and psalms, hearing and teaching the morning lessons, with Latin and 



104 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

Scots till nine; from ten to eleven, teaching; from eleven till twelve, writing; 
from half-past one till quarter to six, teaching and learning again; a prayer, 
chapter, and psalm till six. Play from two till four on Tuesdays and Thursdays, 
and from two till night on Saturdays. On Sundays, assemble at eight in the 
morning for scripture and catechism till the ringing of the second bell; then to 
the Kirk with the bairns in comely order, and in time of preaching mark any 
disorder among them, with censuring them therefor; at one convene the bairns 
again and march to the Kirk at the ringing of the second bell; at the end of the 
afternoon sermon convene the bairns again and take account of their notes of 
the sermon and Sunday lessons. He was well treated before beginning duty 
— First, on August 4, in Patrick Veitch's, at the feeing, there were a pint of 
ale and a loaf at iis; drinking with him in David Plenderleith's, los; then 
given to him by direction of the provost and bailies, 58s. Then again on October 
5, his first day at the school, there was the sum of 32s 4d spent in drink; and 
a further expenditure of i8s for his entertainment in William Veitch's. (Patrick 
was the town clerk, and William was a vintner.) 

Glasgow University Library. 
1 622 — In 1632, when Dr Law was archbishop of Glasgow, contributions were 
made by several of the Peeblesshire clergy to the library of the University. Dr 
Theodore Hay, of Peebles, gave 100 merks; Hew Ker, minister of Lyne, 20 merks; 
Alexander Spittal, minister of Manor, ;^io, &c. 

Disbursements in Connection with the Pulpit. 
1632 — Given for five chopins of wine and bread, with the provost, bailies, and 
John Frank, when the pulpit was completed, 31s. To James Haldoun, for taking 
down the old pulpit and helping to set up the new pulpit, ;^6. To John Tweedy, 
for 25 nails to nail the bottom of the pulpit to the chapel, and Mr Andrew (Watson) 
his seat (as vicar), 3s 4d. Writing a warning and reading it at the Kirk door, 8s. 

Burning the New Testament. 
1632, May — John Pringle, in Peebles, was accused before the privy council of 
burning the New Testament at the waking of a corpse. 

Coronation of King Charles L 
[/(5jj — In 1633 Charles L visited Scotland in order to be crowned. The 
coronation took place in the chapel of Holyrood Palace, on June 18. The ceremony 
was carried out with all the ritual of the Anglican service, which was obnoxious to 
the people. Archbishop Laud, the King's evil adviser in matters of Scottish 
ecclesiastical polity, was the leading spirit of the innovations. On Sunday, June 23, 
the King attended divine service in the High Kirk, which was conducted by two 
English chaplains, and the bishop of Moray preached the sermon. Edinburgh was 
erected into a bishopric, St Giles was made the Cathedral Church, and all its 
dividing partitions were ordered to be removed.] 



THE MINISTRY OF THEODORE HAY, D.D. 105 

Apparel — Teinds — Schools. 
[-rdjj — On June 19, Parliament assembled; it passed many measures, among 
them an act confirming to the King the power of prescribing the apparel of Scottish 
clergymen; this roused great discontent. Two valuable enactments were, however, 
passed by this Parliament : one was the valuation of the teinds, whereby the fifth part 
of the rental of the land was declared to be the value of the teind ; and the other was 
the confirmation of a former act ordaining a school to be erected in every parish, and 
every child to have the means of education within its reach.] 

Burgh and Archbishop. 
From 1633 to 1636 there were a great many transactions between the burgh of 
Peebles and the archbishop at Glasgow, and much money was spent upon the various 
officials and deputations who proceeded to Glasgow. But the burgh records afford 
no information as to the nature of so prolonged and large a business with the 
ecclesiastical authority of the diocese. Mr Andrew Watson, the vicar, was the 
principal intermediary in all these transactions. In fact, this official appears to have 
had a finger in most of the ecclesiastical and scholastic business of the parish, from 
prosecuting witches to interviewing my lord the bishop. 

Contemporary Ministers. 

{^1634-81 — Newlands — Patrick Purdie, M.A. Before the erection of a school 
he supplied the want of a teacher for forty-four years; officiated as Presbytery clerk 
in the trying period of 1638; demitted in favour of his son, Patrick, March i68i; 
and died in 1688. 

[zdj.^-p — West Linton — George Johnstone, translated from Westerkirk; 
presented by Charles I.; translated to Sanquhar, March 7, 1639.] 

Divine Service near the Close of the First Episcopacy. 
\163S — Sir William Brereton, an English Puritan, visited Edinburgh in this 
year, and has given the following account of divine service in the city Churches, 
which may be taken as fairly representative of the general practice: — "The 
order that is observed in the worship of God is this: — Upon the Lord's Day 
they do assemble betwixt eight and nine in the morning, and spend the time 
in singing psalms and reading chapters in the Old Testament until about ten, 
then the preacher comes into the pulpit, and the psalm being ended, he reads a 
printed and prescribed prayer, which is an excellent prayer. This being ended, 
another psalm is sung, and then he prays before sermon, and concludes his 
sermon betwixt eleven and twelve. . . The afternoon's exercise, which begins 
soon after one, is performed in the same manner as in the morning, save that 
the chapters are then read out of the New Testament, and they conclude about 
four. In the morning, at the Greyfriars, I heard a very worthy man preach, Mr 
James Fairley. In the afternoon I went to the College Church, when I heard 
a blind man preach. . . Here I saw the sacrament of baptism administered 
in this manner: — The preacher standing in the pulpit, and there being fastened 
into the same a frame of iron wherein there stands a silver basin and ewer; the 
minister used an exhortation for God's great goodness in admitting them to this 
privilege, &c., and demanding from the witnesses (which are many, sometimes 
twelve, sometimes twenty), according to a printed form of baptism; the parent 

P 



io6 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

receives the child from the midwife, presents the same unto the preacher, who 
doth baptise it without any manner of ceremony, giving the strict care of 
Christian and religious education, first unto the parent, then unto the witnesses. 
When the sacrament of the Lord's Supper is administered, a narrow table is 
placed in the middle aisle, the whole length of the aisle, about which the most 
of the receivers sit, as in the Dutch and French Churches ; but now the ceremonies 
of the Church of England are introduced, and conformity is much pressed, and 
the gesture of kneeling is also much pressed." — Lee Lecture (Dr Sproti).'\ 

The Scottish Psalter. 
[/(5jj' — In the edition of 1635, printed by the heirs of Andro Hart, are found: — 
"Aberfeldy" (219, Psalms and Paraphrases). "Bon-Accord" (221, Psalms and 
Paraphrases; 40, Scottish Psalter). "Caithness" (45, Scottish Psalter; 121, U.P. 
Psalter; 55, Psalms and Paraphrases; 318 and 219, Scottish Hymnal). "Culross" 
(8, U.P. Psalter; 67, Psalms and Paraphrases). " Elgin " (74, Psalms and 
Paraphrases; 62, Scottish Psalter; 6, U.P. Psalter). "Inverness" (95, Psalms and 
Paraphrases). "New London" (94, Scottish Psalter; 107, Psalms and Paraphrases; 
19, Scottish Hymnal; 216, U.P. Psalter; 274, U.P. Hymnal). "Melrose" (100, 
Scottish Psalter; 59, U.P. Psalter; 11, Psalms and Paraphrases. " Wigton " 163, 
Psalms and Paraphrases).] 

Service Books. 
[i6j6 — In this year appeared Canons and Constitutions Ecclesiastical for the 
government of the Church of Scotland, published by authority and issued under the 
great seal. It contained regulations for the observance of the ritual in the services of 
the Church, which were intended to bring the Scottish Church into close resemblance 
with the Church of England in every respect. This was followed by the Scottish 
Book of Common Prayer., or Laud's Liturgy. This is but a copy of the English 
Book of Common Prayer, with some alterations which give it a strong similarity to the 
Romish missal. Every minister was commanded to use this service book in all the 
Churches of the realm. The whole population rose against its introduction, from the 
highest to the lowest. The ministers might have yielded, but the laity were firm. 
The principal objections were that the book was imposed without consent from the 
General Assembly or of Parliament; that it was Popish; that it taught baptismal 
regeneration, transubstantiation, the oblation of the sacred elements; and was litde 
better than a mass-book. It must be kept in mind that the Church of Scotland had 
used a liturgy long before this time. Even before the Reformation was legalised, the 
service book was in use in parishes where Reformation principles were growing. 
Later, The Book of Common Order, prepared by Knox, came into use, and was 
sanctioned by several Assemblies, and continued to be the authorised form of worship 
up to the date of Laud's Liturgy. Even on the very day of the introduction of this 
book, the lessons had been read in St Giles' out of this old Book of Common Order. 
The new liturgy was not to be used until 1637.] 

Visit of the Archbishop. 

1636 — From the year 1633 there had been comings and goings between 

the burgh and the bishop, and as usual the vicar, Mr Andrew Watson, was the 

chief intermediary in the transactions. In May of this year (1636) the archbishop 

of Glasgow visited Peebles, and partook of its hospitality. His name was Dr 



THE MINISTRY OF THEODORE HAY, D.D. 107 

Lyndsay, and probably it is he who is styled the bishop in the records. He was 
accompanied by Mr James Lyndsay of Flemington, his son, and many others. 
The party was met at Lyne Bridge by a number of townsfolk, which reception 
cost twenty-four shillings. Comfits, ale, and shortbread were consumed at the 
expense of the rates; and j[,\o paid to Margaret Reid, and forty-one shillings to 
Christian Hay, in connection with this visit. 

The Kirklands. 
1636, June 7 — This is the date of a charter of confirmation by John, Earl 
of Traquair, to Thomas Geddes, of portions of Kirklands. This was followed 
on August 25 by an instrument of sasine, by John, Earl of Traquair, in favour 
of Mariota Wallace, of seven roods of Kirklands. 

The Plague. 
In November 1636 the plague was prevalent in some parts of Scotland, 
consequently stringent regulations were drawn up for the exclusion from the 
burgh of all strangers, and for the prevention of the burgesses from going forth 
to those districts from which they might import the infection. 

Educational. 
In educational affairs there were two developments in 1636, one being the 
introduction of Wedderburn's grammar, and the other the setting up of a little wheel 
in a house taken for the purpose, with the object of teaching the bairns to spin. 

Contemporary Minister. 
\_i6j6—Glenholm — Robert Johnstone, M.A.] 

Repairs on the Kirk. 
i6j7, May jj— To David Plenderleith, for the town's part of the mending of 
the Kirk, £Z 17s. 

MUTTERINGS OF StORM. 

[7(5^7— The new service book had originally been intended to be introduced on 
Easter Day of this year, but the temper of the nation was so excited that it was 
considered safer to have it postponed. The bishop of Edinburgh, however, now 
caused his clergy to intimate from their pulpits, on Sunday, July 16, that on the 
following Sunday, July 23, the service book would be publicly introduced into the 
Churches. The week that intervened was one of turmoil and agitation. It was 
known that in St Giles' the dean of Edinburgh, George Hannay, would officiate, and 
in Greyfriars that the bishop-elect of Argyll, James Fairley, would do so, in both 
cases with great pomp.] 

A Memorable Scottish Sunday. 

\i 637— July 23 — The 23rd of July 1637 fell upon the first day of the 

week, and on that day Scotland in general, but Edinburgh in particular, was in 

a state of violent commotion. It was the day on which Laud's Liturgy was to 



io8 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

be launched upon the country by arbitrary command of the King. The 
peculiarities of that historic document are well-known. It was not the fact of 
its being a liturgy, nor even that it was the English liturgy, but that it was the 
English liturgy so tampered with by Laud and the Scottish bishops as to be more 
Popish than its classical original, which made the service book obnoxious in 
Scotland. Nor was its favourable reception any the more likely to be secured 
by its imposition on the sole authority of Charles I., who, without consulting 
either Parliament or Assembly, ordained its general use under pain of the severest 
penalties. 

The dangerous experiment on which the King had resolved was first tried in 
the diocese of Edinburgh. In Ross and Dunblane the book had already been used 
by the High Church bishops; but as the English Prayer Book had previously been 
in common use in these districts, the change was less remarked. But in such Churches 
as St Giles', Edinburgh, where the simple liturgy of Knox had been used, or where 
" free prayer " had been customary, the change would seem abrupt and rude. 
Accordingly, the announcement of the service book caused a far greater excitement 
in Edinburgh than it did in Ross and Dunblane. 

At the service in St Giles' there were present a host of dignitaries. Spottiswood, 
the archbishop of St Andrews, was there; and also the lords of session, "divine 
bishops " — among them the bishop of Edinburgh, who was to preach the sermon — 
the magistrates of Edinburgh, members of the privy council, and a large concourse of 
people. In the early morning John Knox's liturgy was read without disturbance. 
Doubtless its simple forms would seem doubly precious in the knowledge that it 
would be heard no more, if the King was to have his way. 

But when the dean opened the new service book it was as if a black squall had 
come down upon a placid lake. There was a clamour of voices — chiefly the voices 
of women. The audience sprang to their feet. Eyes flashed angrily, and threatening 
language flew. Among the foremost aggressors were intrepid waiting-women who 
had been sent to Church with folding stools to keep places for their tardy mistresses. 
Of these there was one named Jenny Geddes — a rather intangible personality, it must 
be confessed, in a historical sense — who is said to have seized her camp stool and 
hurled it at the head of the offending dean. Her violent initiative found many 
imitators. Books and stools flew between the columns of the sacred edifice. There 
was a tumult of voices. "Baal is in the Church," cried one; "The mass is entered 
amongst us," shouted another. The valorous Geddes herself is said to have turned 
upon a gentleman who, in her hearing, had uttered — rather prematurely, one might 
think — an "Amen " at the close of the dean's interrupted rehearsal; and, striking him 
in the face with her Bible, "in great indignation and fury" shrieked at him — 
"Traitor, dost thou say mass at my lug?" The bishop of Edinburgh, ascending the 
pulpit, endeavoured to calm the multitude; but only encountering a fresh volley of 
stools and execrations, he gave place to his grace of St Andrews. But the latter, 
succeeding no better, made use of his temporal authority as chancellor of the 
kingdom, and, summoning the provost, bailies, and councillors from the "loft" in 
which they sat, bade them clear the precincts of the unruly rabble. 

The women had carried the doubtful honours of the day. There is no 
historical doubt that the "devouter sex," as a contemporary writer with a grim irony 
called it, was mainly responsible for the unseemly outbreak in St Giles'. On the 
other hand, it was more than a merely lawless outburst of a low-bred mob. The 
women were sincere in their zeal and passion. Less given than men to calculated 
action, they beheved in "up and at it;" and a woman who overcomes her natural 



THE MINISTRY OF THEODORE HAY, D.D. 109 

diffidence will often replace it by reckless aggressiveness. The woman who hurled 
the first stool was at anyrate in dead earnest, whether some of those who followed her 
were mere rowdies or not; and, as the late lord president records on the tablet in St 
Giles', she "struck the first blow in the great struggle for freedom of conscience." 

It was mob violence this riot, no doubt. But there is weight in the defence 
of Lord Rothes. All other means of remedy were closed to them. The King 
was against them. He was surrounded — so they chose loyally to believe — by 
misinformers and evil counsellors. The magistrates — they were consenting to the new 
liturgy, and were present to give it such grace as magistrates can. The bishops were 
its reputed originators; and in any case the Scots would have been slow to seek 
redress through these unpopular dignitaries. The argument of the town-clerk of 
Ephesus to former rioters in a former temple did not apply; the law was not "open." 
The only alternatives were submission or revolt. They chose revolt. 

In the course of the riot the dean's desk had been invaded by the angry 
women; and, taking to flight, he had, Joseph-like, left his surplice in their hands. 
The bishop, it is said, barely escaped with his life. The service was continued, when 
the Church had been cleared and the doors barred ; but the excluded mob maintained 
such a battering of the doors and smashing of windows that the service was inaudible; 
and the perturbed bailies had again to leave their loft and endeavour to persuade to 
silence the turbulent assailants without. The service at length over, the bishop tried 
to reach a lodging in the vicinity; but the angry crowd plucked him by the sleeve, 
overwhelmed him with taunts, and were threatening more serious attempts, when the 
servants of the Earl of Wemyss opportunely rescued him. 

During the mid-day interval a hasty conclave of magistrates and privy council 
was held at the lodging of the lord chancellor. Precautions were taken for keeping 
order in the afternoon ; and one of the first of these was the rigid exclusion of women. 
The clergy found their way as quickly as possible to Church. A small and carefully 
selected congregation was admitted ; but the service-reading proceeded so slowly that 
it was four o'clock ere Mr Alexander Thomson began to preach the sermon. For 
that reason, says Row, the historian, the said sermon was very short; and at the close 
of a day so exciting and exhausting one can well understand an aversion, alike on the 
part of preacher and hearers, to prolix exhortation. But the excitement and danger 
of the day were not yet over — at least for one unlucky man. The Earl of Roxburgh, 
lord privy seal, consulting more the dictates of courtesy than of selfish prudence, 
offered the bishop of Edinburgh a seat in his carriage, with a view to driving him to 
his lodging. But as Jonah was to the Syrian mariners, so was the bishop to the privy 
seal. An angry multitude was speedily in the wake, and showers of stones fell upon 
the occupants of the carriage. The author of the scurrilous Breefe and True 
Relatione grimly remarked that " there needed no collectors to gather up the people's 
liberalitie at that season; for since the first Reformation of religion, our prelate and 
Church canonists got never readier payment." The Earl was fortunately attended by 
armed retainers, who drew sword upon the rabble; and Holyrood was reached in 
safety. But one can imagine the bishop, at various points in this eventful day, 
devoutly wishing that his part had been less conspicuous in the luckless inauguration 
of Laud's Liturgy. 

The tumults of the day had not been confined to the Cathedral Church. A 
lesser uproar had taken place at the morning service in the other portion of St Giles'. 
In Greyfriars', the sub-dean, Andrew Ramsay — a man of high culture, and at one 
time professor of divinity in the University — had declined to read the service. But 
his colleague, James Fairly, in the zeal of his new episcopate, undertook the invidious 



I lo THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

duty. He read on, to the doleful accompaniment of curses and lamentations, till he 
reached the close of the confession and absolution. But at this point the growing 
menace of the people constrained him to stop. It is said that, by magisterial aid, the 
service was safely got through in the evening. 

Intimation of the riot was sent to London; the week-day services were 
discontinued ; the new service book was not used ; nor was the old. Riots occurred 
in the city and all over the country. The service book was never used again. 

Patrick Henderson was one of those clergymen who were set aside for declining 
to read Laud's service-book. He had been in the habit of reading Knox's liturgy 
every morning on week-days as well as Sundays in St Giles'. On the day of the riot 
he had read it as usual at eight o'clock in the Cathedral, and when he finished he 
said — "Adieu, good people, for I think that this is the last time of my reading 
prayers in this place."] 

The Order of Service for the First 58 Years. 
[From the Reformation up till the passing of the Perth Articles in 16 18 
there had been uniformity in the conduct of divine service in the Church, which 
had been conducted in close accordance with Knox's Book of Common Order. 
The bell was rung at seven in the morning, and then at eight for the reader's 
service. The congregation assembled at that time, and engaged for a little in private 
devotion. The reader, taking his place at the lectern, read the common prayers, and 
in some Churches the decalogue and the creed. He then gave out large portions of 
the Psalter, the singing of which was concluded with "Glory to the Father," &c. 
Next, chapters of scripture were read from the Old and the New Testaments, 
according to the requirement of the Book of Discipline, which ordered that any book 
begun should be read through. After one hour thus spent, the minister entered the 
pulpit, the bell having been rung for the third time, and knelt for private devotion. 
He began with a conceived prayer, chiefly asking for illumination. Next he preached 
the sermon, and then read or repeated one of the prayers in Knox's liturgy for all 
conditions of men ; or he extemporised one in conformity with it, concluding with the 
Lord's Prayer and the creed. After this there followed a psalm and the benediction.] 

Slating Peebles Kirk. 
163J, July — To John Spier, slater, for the first year of their part of slating the 
Kirk (of Peebles), £,i,a, 7s. 

Affairs in Peebles. 
Z(5j7, November 6 — Ordains the whole council to sit each Sabbath day in the 
town's stall in the Kirk, and that each councillor have a new hat therein, under pain 
of forty shillings. (The new pew for the magistrates, which had been for some time 
erecting in the Cross Kirk, was now completed; it was to be inaugurated, and 
for the auspicious occasion the city fathers were each to indulge in the luxury of a 
new hat in order to enhance the dignity of the corporation. At the same time the 
new pulpit would be completed also, the old one having been removed to the old 
chapel in the High Street, for the conduct of the daily service there.) 

The Tables. 
[Towards the close of 1637 what have come to be known as "The Tables" were 




Signing the National Covenant in Greyfriars Churchyard, 1638— (I'hoto by T. Crozier 
See p. III. 



THE MINISTRY OF THEODORE HAY, D.D. iii 

instituted. They were formed by four Committees sitting at four tables in the 
Parliament House in Edinburgh, first of all as a Committee of public safety, but 
later as a law-making body, whose ordinances came to have a vogue denied to those 
of the King and the privy council. The first table included all the nobility who had 
joined the people's cause; the second, one gentleman for every county; the third, 
a minister for every Presbytery; and the fourth, a burgher for every town. Four 
representatives from each party formed a permanent central committee, the others 
sitting only during emergencies.] 

1638, February 22 — Peebles invited to send representatives to great meeting in 
Edinburgh of " The Tables." 

The National Covenant. 

1638, February 28 — On this day began to be signed the National Covenant by 
the people of Scotland. The ceremony began in the Church and churchyard of the 
Greyfriars in Edinburgh, and was taken up with enthusiasm all over Scotland. It 
was a league in defence of the liberty of the people on matters of religion, as well as a 
confession of their belief and a repudiation of popery. James Williamson, provost of 
Peebles, signed the National Covenant as a commissioner of the shire of Peebles in 
1638. He it was who presented the Peebles silver arrow at some date prior to 1628. 

1638, September 2<p — To Thomas Crawford, for doubling of the protestation 
against the last covenant, 12 s. To John Lowes, provost, being sent to Edinburgh to 
receive information anent the subscribing of the last covenant, and remaining five 
days, ^10. 

Reading of Prayers. 

\1638 — Meanwhile in the conduct of divine service, the reading of the prayers 
by the clergy, which had continued to be the rule in certain parts of the country, was 
given up, and was henceforth confined to the reader's part of the service.] 

Scotland's Covenants. 

[Scotland has had seven covenants which may fairly be described as of historic 
interest, because they mark important steps in the religious development of the 
nation. 

T\\.Q first takes us back to the early years of the Reformation. In 1557 the 
Protestant lords had called John Knox from Geneva to help the cause; but when he 
reached Dieppe he found that they had changed their minds as to the advisability of 
his coming. The Reformer wrote a letter in his usual style, telling the noblemen in 
the plainest fashion their duty. What he said bore fruit. The result was "the 
common or godlie band " in which the subscribers pledged themselves to apply their 
" whole power, substance, and very lives to maintain, set forward, and establish the 
most blessed word of God and His congregation." The original manuscript of this 
covenant may be seen in the Edinburgh Antiquarian Museum. It has five 
signatures: A. Erie of Ergyle, Glencarne, Morton, Archibald Lord Lome, Johne 
Erskyne of Doune. The signatures of great men were alone deemed of importance 
at this time. Before the covenanting period closed there was a significant change in 
this respect. The method of religious bands for furthering the Protestant cause so 
commended itself to the Reformers that we find no less than three covenants made 
during the next three years. The Queen Dowager was busy sowing dissension in 



112 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

their ranks, and the covenant of Perth in 1559 and that of Stirling in the same year 
pledge the leading Protestants to act together and " make the cause of one the cause 
of all." 

The fourth covenant was drawn up at Edinburgh in 1560. It was largely 
signed by the nobles and gentry of Scotland, who pledged themselves to maintain the 
Reformed religion and to assist the English in expelling the French troops from 
Scotland. No original copy of the last three covenants is known. They have been 
preserved in the histories of Knox and Calderwood. With the departure of the 
French troops the last great obstacle to the establishment of Protestantism in 
Scotland was removed. The covenants had done their work well. 

Twenty years after, the. fifth covenant was made. The great Roman Catholic 
reaction was making itself felt on the Continent. France was dominated by the 
League. Catholic Spain, the greatest power in Europe, was threatening England. 
Romish emissaries were everywhere in Scotland; and in terror of a reaction the 
covenant known as " The King's Confession " was drawn up by John Craig, one of 
the ministers of Edinburgh. It denounces in eloquent language the errors of Popery, 
and was considered "a touchstone to discern Papists from Protestants." In the 
Laigh Parliament House may be seen the original copy, with the signatures of King 
James and his household. But as Lennox, one of the signatories was a Roman 
Catholic in disguise, " the touchstone " was not altogether successful. 

Hitherto the enemy against which the Scottish covenants had been directed 
was Popery. The sixth covenant deals with a new foe. More than fifty years had 
elapsed since the King's Confession, and many changes had taken place in Church 
and State in the interval. England and Scotland had been united under one king, 
and King James had used his increased power to establish Episcopacy in Scotland. 
The General Assembly was abolished and its powers invested in the bishops. The 
Church and people sullenly submitted. But when Charles I. tried to thrust Laud's 
liturgy on the Church the whole country rose in revolt. In the crisis the old method 
of a covenant was reintroduced, and the famous National Covenant was drawn up. 
It professed to be a renewal of the King's Confession of 1580, "with such additions 
as the change of tyme and the present occasion requyred." These additions were 
chiefly directed against Episcopacy. It was truly a national rising. Scotland had 
never been so united. The enthusiasm was indescribable. Every one has read of 
the famous scene at Greyfriars' Churchyard at the first signing of the covenant. But 
the common idea that the covenant was only signed there is erroneous. Copies 
headed with the signatures of the leading Covenanters were sent to all parts of the 
country and signed with the same readiness. It is indeed surprising that so many of 
these copies are still in existence, for the time came when they were eagerly sought 
for and burned. More than thirty of them are known, and it is probable that many 
more may be in the possession of private individuals. The reading of the signatures, 
too, is very interesting, dry though it may seem. Many of the names look strangely 
out of place. Most prominent among them is that of the gallant Montrose, who at 
last perished on the scaffold because of his opposition to the covenanting cause that 
he had done so much to originate. There also we see the name of Sir John 
Maitland, who, as the Duke of Lauderdale, was to be the terror of the Covenanters. 
On the other hand is the name of Argyle, who joined the ranks late, but afterwards 
paid the penalty of his covenanting zeal with his life. There, too, is A. Leslie, 
afterwards Earl of Leven, the victorious leader of the covenanting army. But most 
significant feature of all is the presence of a host of names of unknown men. The 
power of the people was beginning to be felt, and their claim to a voice in the 



THE MINISTRY OF THEODORE HAY, D.D. 113 

religious affairs of the nation was here acknowledged. How different from the time 
when the first covenant was signed. 

The National Covenant of 1638 was completely successful. The King 
reluctantly agreed to its demands. Episcopacy was abolished, Presbytery triumphantly 
established. Yet its very success led to further trouble. It emboldened the English 
Parliament in its demands. The English Civil War broke out, and Scotland found 
itself in a difficult position. If the King were victorious he would most likely 
withdraw from Scotland the concessions he had made so unwillingly. When, 
therefore, the English Parliament, whose armies had been worsted in the first 
campaign, asked help of the Scotch it was agreed to give it on certain terms, which 
were expressed in the seventh and last of Scotland's covenants, called the Solemn 
League and Covenant. What distinguishes this, perhaps the best-known covenant, 
from all the rest, was that it did not apply to Scotland alone. Its object was to 
establish Presbyterianism in England and Ireland also. The English Parliament 
agreed to the terms, and 20,000 Scots soldiers marched over the Border and turned 
the fortune of the Civil War. 

How, after a brief season of hopefulness the attempt to establish Presbytery in 
England miserably failed; how the recoil of the failure affected Scotland, and how 
Presbyterianism had to fight for its very existence and was only saved for this country 
by the thirty years' heroic struggle of the common people, is a story that cannot be 
detailed here. But it is impossible to explain how the struggle was maintained so 
long, and to understand why the present Church of Scotland was established in 1690, 
unless we remember the Solemn League and Covenant. Many original copies of 
this important historical document may be seen in museums or public libraries. — T. 
E. S. Clarke.'] 

The Episcopacy of Twenty-Eight Years Overturned: Presbyterianism 

Restored, 1638. 

[Between 1638 and 1645 'he afternoon service was for many years catechetical, 

Calvin's catechism being used. It was divided into portions for successive Sundays. 

And after the children were examined in the presence of the people, the minister gave 

a short discourse on the doctrines of the day. 

[Returning to the Covenanters, the King was soon forced to understand that the 
people were prepared to resort to armed force in defence of their liberties. He sent 
a royal commissioner, but he was treated contemptuously. The King attempted to 
effect a compromise, and even signed the Confession of 1580; this accomplished a 
partial diversion in his favour, and caused a division among the Covenanters. After 
much discussion, and threats on both sides, the General Assembly was arranged to 
meet in the middle of November 1638. It did so, and within a month overturned 
the whole fabric of Episcopacy. All the Assemblies which had been vitiated by 
kingly interference were declared null and void; the service book, the book of 
canons, and other similar publications, were condemned; also the obnoxious and 
tyrannical Court of High Commission. Episcopacy and the Five Articles of Perth 
were abjured; all the bishops were deposed from the office of the ministry, and eight 
of them were excommunicated! This last involved fearful consequences to its 
victims, and involved the flight of the bishops from the country in order to save their 
lives. This Assembly, in thus acting against the bishops, was mercilessly severe and 
flagrantly unjust. The Assembly finally restored the Presbyterian form of Church 
government. This was a most remarkable proceeding, and difficult to understand, 
for Episcopacy had already lasted for nearly thirty years — a generation. All the 

Q 



114 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

ministers would have received Episcopal ordination, and yet the people returned to 
their first love, Presbytery. This has been called the second Protestant Reformation. 
The first was effected by Parliament; the second by the General Assembly. Civil 
war now appeared to be inevitable; and the Covenanters were opportunely provided 
with an able general in Alexander Leslie, one of the commanders of the army 
of Gustavus Adolphus in the great wars of the Continent.] 

The King's Covenant. 
As for Peebles, amid all these conflicting parties, the only reference is the 
following: — October 4, 1638 — Anent the missive letter sent from the commissioners 
of Edinburgh and other burghs convened at Edinburgh to us, desiring this burgh to 
protest against the proclamation of the General or King's Covenant, on September 
22, the council has concluded that protestation shall be made whenever the same 
shall be proclaimed, and to that effect ordains two of the council to attend the same 
daily. 

Schism. 
\1638 — In this year Irish irmovations were introduced into the Church under 
the name of Brownism. Its adherents rejected all forms of prayer ; also the reading 
of scripture without exposition. This party degraded the worship of the Church; 
and, later, allied itself with Cromwell, and ruined the covenanting movement. 
Sitting at communion had been restored at the Glasgow Assembly referred to above ; 
private celebration of communion was forbidden; also the observance of anni- 
versaries, including Christmas and Easter. Having abjured Laud's liturgy, the 
Church fell back on the Book of Common Order ^ 

Commissioner from Burgh to General Assembly. 
1638 — To the General Assembly of Glasgow the burgh had sent a 
commissioner, James Williamson, elected on October 15, 1638, but not by 
unanimous apppointment. On December 24, Williamson, on his return, gave in 
a report to the council of all the proceedings of this famous Assembly. The provost, 
Lord Yester, also supported the Covenanters' cause. 

The Church Lands. 
On March 20, 1638, the Earl of Traquair granted to Robert Forrester three 
roods of the Church lands of the glebe of Peebles. 

Episcopacy at an End. 
From 1638 to 1661 Presbytery asserted itself de facto if not de jure. 
Episcopacy had meanwhile come to an end. 

Morning and Evening Service (Presbyterian). 
On April 18, 1639, at Peebles, an instrument in writing was taken by request of 
the provost, bailies, and kirk-session, and others, to the vicar of Peebles, to give 
morning and evening prayers, and reading daily. 



THE MINISTRY OF THEODORE HAY, D.D. 115 

Subscribing of the Covenant. 
i63g, April 20 — Ordains that all those who have not subscribed the covenant 
be convened this day at the clerk's booth to subscribe the same. 

Premonitions of War — The Navy. 
/djp, May i — A letter, dated the previous day, had been sent from Lord 
Yester to the burgh of Peebles and the gentry of the shire, stating that the King's 
navy of twenty-eight warships had come up the Forth to Leith, and that therefore 
every fourth man in the kingdom would require to rise in arms, as was formally 
proclaimed, and every fourth man in the burgh should repair to him and his colours 
at Leith this night at once, furnished with arms. The magistrates and council 
ordered that the men of the first quarter designated in the roll, along with the 
magistrate appointed, perform the desire of his lordship's letter for a period of ten 
days' and nights' service. On the expiry of the ten days, the men of the second 
quarter and a magistrate were to relieve them; so also with the men of the third and 
fourth quarters, at the expiry of each period of ten days and nights. And then to 
begin again if necessary with the first quarter. 

The Burgh Prepares for War. 
jdjp, August ig — The provost and bailies to exact the prices of the muskets 
and picks delivered to the inhabitants of the burgh, and to search who received those 
left at the camp, beginning first at Patrick Thomson and his company. 

Civil War Imminent. 
[/<5jp — War between the Covenanters of Scotland and Charles, King of the 
United Kingdom, seemed now to be inevitable. In the spring of this year the royal 
army was mustering at York; and by the end of May the army of the Covenanters 
was encamped on Dunse Law. Both sides were unwilling to come to blows. 
Ultimately a compromise was effected whereby the King bound himself to call a free 
Assembly on August 6 at Edinburgh, to be followed by a Parliament on the 20th of 
the same month, for the purpose of ratifying the acts of the Assembly; the 
Covenanters were to disband their army, surrender their fortresses, and hold no 
illegal meetings. The King was anxious that the Assembly of 1638 be not 
recognised, nor its provisions; accordingly, to humour the King, the Assembly, on 
August 17, ignoring the previous Assembly, passed all its provisions anew against 
Episcopacy, and in favour of Presbytery. Unfortunately the Scottish Church sought 
to make the Covenant no longer a bond of union and liberty, but an instrument of 
oppression, by compelling everyone to swear to its provisions, especially all papists 
and suspects; all who refused were to be punished. The Assembly also deposed a 
long list of ministers who were considered as favourable to the cause of Episcopacy. 
As regards the Parliament, it certainly sat on the very day after the Assembly rose; 
but its meetings were prorogued from day to day, until the end of the year came, and 
nothing was done, nor were the acts of the Assembly ratified by it. The Assembly, 
among its other measures, enjoined universal observance of family worship, and 
prohibited all the innovations of the Brownists.] 



ii6 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

Daily Service (Presbyterian). 
i63g, November 12 — Mr Andrew Watson, vicar, began to read prayers in the 
chapel. There was paid to John Tweedy for candle, the Sabbath days and some 
other days wherein he was absent excepted, to this i6th day of December, three 
nightly, and one some mornings, 25 shillings. There was also a payment to 
Catharine Stewart, servant to Patrick Veitch, clerk, for wine that was drunk that day 
Mr Andrew Watson was enjoined to make morning and evening prayers, but the 
amount is not stated. 

Contemporary Ministers. 

[i6jp — Eddleston — David Neish, from Presbytery of Duns and Chimside; was 
enrolled on the exercise at Haddington, March 11, 1629. 

\163g — Kailzie — William Dickson, continued May 9, 1639; succeeded in 1640 
by Andrew Stewart. 

[/djpi — Kirkurd — Thomas Lamb, A.M., formerly of Glenluce. "One of those 
who were obliged to betake themselves to another way of life waiting for better days, 
whom the General Assembly of i6th December 1638 recommend as meriting to be 
regarded in supplying vacancies. Presented by the magistrates of Edinburgh, 
January 11; admitted, April 25, 1639. It being reported that he had struck a man 
which caused his death, he was suspended by the Presbytery, but appealed to the 
General Assembly of 1641, who, getting the Presbytery agreed, remitted him, 
July 31, to their consideration. Next day being Sunday, and the Assembly still 
sitting, in walking from Leith to Edinburgh, and under the necessity of relieving 
himself in the corn rigs of Restalrig, John Tuthope, to whom the corn belonged, 
challenged him, and took possession of his hat and gloves, which irritated him so 
much that he drew his whinger and killed him by a stroke. On which he was 
apprehended and imprisoned, tried for murder before the Lord High Constable, 
it being committed within four miles of the sitting of Parliament, deposed by the 
Presbytery, September 2, and shortly thereafter publicly executed, at. 42." Helen 
Bisset, widow.] 

The Daily Service (Presbyterian). 
1640, February 27 — The Presbytery having advised against the form of the act 
granted in favour of the town and parish of Peebles against Mr Andrew Watson, vicar 
and reader, of the date at Peebles, July 18, 1639, ordaining the said Mr Andrew 
Watson to give them weekly and daily service, conform to their bill as set down in the 
said act; notwithstanding whereof the said Mr Andrew did decline the Presbytery, 
and did appeal to the General Assembly indited by His Majesty at Edinburgh on 
August 12, 1639; whereupon the town asked instruments, and asked an extract of 
his declinature; and raising letters thereon, did cite the said Mr Andrew before the 
General Assembly; who compearing before them, August 22, 1639, the General 
Assembly did refer the same back to the Presbytery of Peebles, and ordained them to 
make a clearer act. And now the Presbytery, being therewith maturely and ripely 
advised, and considering that they have only power in spiritual and ecclesiastical 
affairs, and that the former act seemed not clear to the General Assembly, but partly 
civil and partly ecclesiastical, doth refer the civil part to the judge ordinary and 



THE MINISTRY OF THEODORE HAY, D.D. 117 

competent for such causes, and for the other part of the act as they have enjoined, so 
by these presents they do enjoin and ordain the said Mr Andrew Watson to give them 
daily service, morning and evening prayers, and reading in the house of prayer 
appointed for that effect. And the town of Peebles being present, at least James 
Williamson, provost, accompanied by the bailies, clerk, and council, the said James, 
in his own name and theirs, and in name of the town and parish, did accept and was 
content with the same ordinance. 

Witchcraft. 
In this year of 1640 the Presbytery of Peebles had several cases of witchcraft 
before them. On one occasion the court met at Glenholm for the purpose of trying 
witches — Gilbert Robesone, Isabel Cuthbertson, Lilias Bertram, and Mailie Macwatt, 
from Culter, were brought up. They were asked if any of them had had dealings 
with a witch called Graham, who had been burned at Peebles. The principal item 
against them was that of telling people to take sick children to a south running 
stream to be cured. Gilbert Robesone was considered to be a noted warlock, and 
there are many references to him. A year after, in 1641, he was then in ward, 
suspected of witchcraft, and the ministers of Drumelzier, Glenholm, and Broughton 
were appointed to enquire into the charges against him, and intimate the same from 
their pulpits. 

Peebles and the Covenanting Struggle. 
1640 — The following references indicate some of the preparations which were 
being carried out by Peebles as its share in the Covenanting enterprise. On March 
16 the bailies were to go through the town and seek payment from those who had 
received picks and muskets, with their fittings, within the next eight days, under pain 
of warding. On April 20 the whole council, along with the bailies and magistrates, 
were to attend the meeting of the gentry at Peebles that day, under pain of ;^5. 

Hamesucken. 
1640, May 6 — Returning to home affairs, there is on this date a complaint 
before the court by Mr Andrew Watson, the vicar, of the crime of hamesucken. On 
the previous night, between nine and ten o'clock, there was first one pistol shot at the 
north side of his chamber, and immediately thereafter another shot at the east gable, 
he being in the fore stair of the same; all which he recommended to the notice of the 
provost and magistrates to take trial thereof. 

Colours for the Burgh. 
1640 — On June 15, a colour for the town was to be purchased, having the 
arms of the burgh upon it. On July 13, it was ordered that when every fourth man 
departed for the army he was to take his own arms and armour with him ; and that if 
he had not a sufficiency the other three of the set were to accommodate him, and so 
act mutually in assisting one another. On July 16, the magistrates undertook to find 



ii8 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

another company of men to be ready to take the places of the first company 
(consisting of every fourth man) when their term of forty days expired. 

Destruction of Sacred Emblems, &c. 
[1640, July 2g — An Assembly was held at Aberdeen. An act was passed for 
demolishing monuments of idolatry; another against witches and charmers; another 
against revilers of the covenant; and another against religious meetings conducted by 
laymen. The immediate results were the destruction of crosses in Churches, market 
places, and tombs; the breaking of stained glass windows; and the effacement of all 
sacred emblems of the Saviour, the saints, &c. "Then it was that the niches of 
Melrose were emptied of their statues of prince and prelate; that the sculptured 
pillar at Ruthwell was broken in three; that the Synod of Argyll was let loose upon 
lona to cast its monuments into the sea and its manuscripts into the flames; that the 
magnificent rood-screen of Elgin, and the stately altar-screen of Aberdeen, were hewn 
in pieces." — Robertson's Scottish Abbeys and Cathedrals. By an act of Parliament 
in the same year, many of the vessels of the sanctuary were consigned to the melting 
pot to furnish funds to pay the Covenanting army.] 

The Brownist Schismatics. 
^^1640 — The Brownists, against whom the Assembly had directed its attention, 
did not believe in the private devotion of a minister on entering the pulpit; readers 
or others were not to use the least invocation of God by themselves ; they would not 
read the common confession of sins ; and condemned the reading of it or of any set 
prayer. They called the Lord's Prayer a threadbare prayer, that it was not lawful to 
say, especially after supper; they did not sing "Glory to the Father." At family 
prayers the laymen are taught that it is a sin to use a set prayer. "When the 
congregation is in the Kirk they have private meetings in private houses by 
themselves, where they expound the scriptures without premeditation. They pray 
one after another, and expound, even although they can scarce answer the questions 
in the Catechism." — Dr Sprott.'] 

The Civil War as it Affected Peebles. 
1640 — On August 10 the provost and bailies were authorised to deal with the 
horse that was James Dickson's, with its harness, and to send it to the army. 
William Wichtman appeared and offered his horse and harness to the council, also 
for service in the army; he alleged that it cost him jQi"] odds. There also appeared 
John Dickson, and claimed that James Dickson's horse had been delivered to him by 
James, in payment of money due to him, and that the cost of the horse had been 
£,2$. The two horses, along with their saddles and creels, were forthwith delivered 
to James Dickson as baggage horses, he promising to go to the army and attend upon 
the men there from the town of Peebles. The conditions were that if the army broke 
up within forty days, Dickson would return and await the council's pleasure. But if 
there be an encounter and the army dissolve not within forty days, and provided that 
Dickson bring the horses home safe and sound, he was to have his choice of them. 
On August 1 2 appeared John Buchanan, cordiner in Peebles, as cautioner for Robert 
Buchanan, soldier in the company of the laird of Keir, that Robert shall repair 
immediately to the said captain and his company, and that he produce a certificate 



THE MINISTRY OF THEODORE HAY, D.D. 119 

that he has done so within eight days from Captain William Lyle of Bassendean. As 
for the payments by the town to its soldiers, there is one dollar (54s) to Patrick 
Trotter, other two men received half-a-dollar each, arles to Trotter, 27s. There is a 
curious entry under August 1 2 : — Given for half a load of lime for James Dickson, 
for which I had his cloak in pledge, and when he went away with the baggage horses, 
at command of the provost I was directed to give it to him again, 4s. Five days' 
meat to Alexander Eumond, i6s 8d. Alexander had been borrowed out of prison in 
order to act as substitute for his brother John with the army. John became his 
cautioner, either to produce Alexander when required, or enter the prison himself on 
six hours' warning, under pain of ;^ioo. During this period of threatened civil war, 
soldiers had been billeted on the town from the army also, as the following 
indicates: — The provost and magistrates bound themselves that in case the sum of 
;^4 per day for every soldier quartered in the houses be not paid by the commissary- 
general, they will see it paid. 

The Scots Army. 
\1640 — Meanwhile the Covenanters had resolved to trust neither to Parliament 
nor to the General Assembly, but were busy enrolling soldiers and equipping them 
for the field. Early in August a large army, under General Leslie, was marching 
from Edinburgh to the south. For a few weeks it halted on Dunse Law, the scene 
of their former camp, and then on the 21st of the month the army crossed Tweed 
and entered England. By the 30th the Scots were in possession of Newcastle; the 
King being at York with his army. After some negotiations it was determined that 
the Scots army was to remain inactive at Newcastle, receiving ^850 per day. All 
other negotiations were transferred to London. By the middle of December 
conditions of peace had been agreed on, and mutual desires expressed for securing 
uniformity in the religion of the two countries.] 

Divine Service. 
[After this year (1640) the reading of prayers by the clergy was gradually given 
up. An increasing number discontinued the habitual use of the Lord's Prayer; the 
Glory to the Father; and kneeling for private devotion; and in some places lectures 
by ministers were substituted for the morning and evening prayer on week-days.] 

Contemporary Ministers. 

[7(5^0— .£(/^/m/(7«— Robert Scott, M.A. 

\1640 — Kaihie — Andrew Stewart; licensed by the Presbytery of Glasgow, 
March 20, 1623; at Peebles, December 17, 1640. Translated to Penningham, 
which was affirmed by the Synod, May 4, 1642. 

\1640-1682 — Siobo — Patrick Fleming, A.M., University of Glasgow, 1633; 
presented by John, Earl of Wigton, May, and instituted, October 2, 1640. Member 
of Commissions of Assembly, 1646-48-49. Required by privy council, December 
12, 1661, to compear and answer for assisting in the admission of the minister of 
Manor, under pain of rebellion. Died, February 12, 1682, est. 69, and forty-second 
year of his ministry. 

{^1640 — Traquair — Ninian Douglas, admitted (at Peebles), December 17, 1640; 
deposed, November 6, 1644; reponed, November 4, 1647. Margaret Reid, his 
widow, died October 31, 1663. 



I20 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

[1640 — lVes( Linton — John Hog, A.M., University of Edinburgh, July 26, 
1634; licensed by the Presbytery of Dalkeith, October 13, 1636; ordained, February 
5, 1640. Translated to the Canongate, May 6, 1646.] 

James Dickson's Nag. 
1641, February 22 — The council has concluded that the nag brought home by 
James Dickson be presently intromitted with by the officers, and comprised and 
delivered to John Dickson in payment, according to the work of the nag furnished by 
him of the baggage-nags sent to the camp, conform to the former act of council, 
bearing the said James to restore one of the said nags. 

Witchcraft. 
1641, April 21 — Gilbert Robsone, in Logan, was incarcerated in the wardhouse 
of Peebles for the alleged crime of witchcraft. He regained his liberty on the surety 
of his son, who bound himself to produce his father at any time within forty-eight 
hours, under penalty of two hundred merks. 

Covenanters and Puritans. 
{^1641, July — The General Assembly met in July, and passed an act against 
impiety and schism. This Assembly was the first which began those negotiations 
between the Covenanters and the Puritans which have had so great an influence in 
the Church of Scotland. A letter was read from some ministers in England, in which 
they expressed a desire for unity between the Churches of England and Scotland. 
The Assembly, in reply, urged that efforts should be made to have in both Churches 
one confession, one directory for public worship, one catechism, and one form of 
Church government. The Assembly began by preparing a draft of a directory of 
worship, with which England might possibly agree. — Dr SproU.] 

The Covenant Supreme. 
[^641 — The King arrived on August 14 at Holyrood Palace, and in the 
following week opened Parliament m person. Parliament ordained that no one 
was to sit in Parliament until they had signed the Covenant; this was made 
operative on the most powerful nobles. Presbytery became fully ratified; the 
prerogatives of the Crown seriously diminished; and the constitution of Parliament in 
some respects changed. Honours were heaped on the Covenanting nobility. The 
spoils of the Episcopacy were divided among the four Universities and the nobility. 
On November 18, the King departed for the south. Troubles were thickening for 
him in England.] 

Anent the Founding of the Cross Church. 
1641, December 17 — A journey which the vicar of Peebles, Andrew Watson, 
made to Cambridge receives notice, in consequence of his having brought home with 
him a document believed at the time to be an extract of the erection of the Cross 
Kirk of Peebles, which was reported to have been found on his making research in 
the records of North Britain deposited in the library of St John's College, Cambridge. 
John Hay, eldest son of Dr Theodore Hay, whom he succeeded in the ministry of 



THE MINISTRY OF THEODORE HAY, D.D. 121 

Peebles, was then studying theology at Cambridge, where he eventually took the 
degree of Bachelor of Divinity, and he, along with other Fellows of St John's 
College, authenticated the extract. Considerable value was evidently attached to the 
writing, as nearly forty years afterwards (June 7, 1680), the council "allows the 
treasurer to satisfy Mr John Frank ^^41 9s, which was the money really given out by 
him for renewing of a paper anent the antiquity of the burgh, which was recorded in 
the Scotch Register at Cambridge, and extracted by Mr John Hay and several others 
of the fellows of the said college, and the council gives Mr John hearty thanks for 
his pains." The original extract is to be found printed in full in Pennecuik's 
Description of Tweeddale, along with the translation by Frank. It consists, first, 
simply of a passage from Thomas Dempster's Ecclesiastical History of Scotland; and, 
secondly, of another passage from the Scotichronicon of John of Fordun. An edition 
of Dempster's History had been printed in 1627, but Fordun's work was only 
accessible as yet in MS., one copy, illustrated with curious coloured representations, 
being preserved at Cambridge (Ren wick, in Gleanings from the Burgh Records of 
Peebles). Fordun's account of the founding of the Cross Kirk of Peebles has 
already been quoted in connection with the early history of the Church. 

1641 — In December of this year an account was taken of the arms delivered by 
the burgh of Peebles to the inhabitants in 1639; there were forty-one muskets and 
forty-one picks. 

Contemporary Minister. 
\1641 — Innerleithen — James Smyth, A.M., graduated University of Edinburgh, 
1640; ordained colleague, July 14, 1641. Presented by John, Earl of Traquair, 
March 20; instituted, June 21, 1644; member. Commission of Assembly, 1645. 
Translated to Eddleston in 1665.] 

Troubles of the Vicar. 
1642, February 3 — Mr Andrew Watson, vicar of Peebles, complained to the 
privy council that on a certain day in this month James Williamson, younger, in 
Peebles, who had often vowed to tirle the said minister's house above his head, came 
early in the morning before daylight to his dwelling-house, climbed up to the top 
thereof, and with a graip cast down a great part of the thatch and divots of the 
house. Then on a certain day in June thereafter, he, understanding that Watson 
was at St Andrews, came with John Mure, in Peebles, to the said house and chamber, 
so that when the complainer returned, all the utensils and plenishing of his house 
were spoiled with rain, and the house made uninhabitable. And afterwards, in 
October, they came under cloud and silence of night, entered the house by a back 
door, and having ascended the stair, tore up the planks of the floor, so that but for 
the providence of God, complainer would have fallen down between the head of the 
turnpike and the chamber door, and been killed, which was their intention. When 
the privy council met in 1642, February 3, Watson brought no proof; Williamson 
denied the whole on oath; so he and Mure were acquitted, and received each ten 
merks from Watson for detention. 

R 



122 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

A Covenanting Assembly Urges the Use of the Lord's Prayer 
AND the Gloria. 
\1642 — The Assembly of this year was still taken up with the innovations of the 
Brownists. After much discussion, the Assembly authorised the moderator to send 
a letter to those Presbyteries which were troubled with the innovators. In it occurs: 
— " We can hardly be induced to think that any gracious or wise brother of the 
ministry will forbear continually to say the Lord's Prayer, to sing the conclusion, and 
to bow in the pulpit, and if there be any such that will not receive satisfaction, but by 
his needless scruples foment division, you know that the act of the Assembly at 
Edinburgh doth warrant the Presbyteries to censure innovators."] 

Uniformity Desired. 
[Negotiations were being conducted between the General Assembly and the 
English Parliament, which was desirous of having the support of the Scottish nation 
in their struggle mth the King. The Assembly, on the other hand, was anxious to 
confer the great blessing of Presbytery upon Episcopalian England; and indeed the 
increasing party of the Puritans and Independents in the latter kingdom was 
likewise desirous of replacing Episcopacy with Presbyterianism. Uniformity was the 
great cry at this time. In England the battle of Edgehill was fought between the 
King and the Commons; the civil war had begun.] 

Teinds. 

1642, April 2j — To make an offer of the teind lambs on Cademuir to the 
parson, in respect he uplifts the teind sheaves thereof, and so cannot seek 40s for the 
teind lamb and wool. 

1642, May 26 — Several parties, including all those who pastured sheep on the 
town's lands, to pass to the personal presence of the parson and vicar, and make an 
offer to them of their vicarage teinds, conform to the act, with a view to commutation 
for money. 

Contemporary Minister. 
\^i642-jQ — Kirkurd — Alexander Dickson, M.A., presented by town council of 
Edinburgh; translated to Eddleston, October 26, 1659.] 

Mr John Hay Desired as Assistant to Dr Theodore Hay. 
1643^ January 16 — The bailies and most of the council had sent a supplication 
to the Presbytery, desiring Mr John Hay, son of the parson of Peebles, in respect of 
his father's old age and weakness, to be joined as a helper to him and admitted as 
colleague to him. The council now state that when they subscribed their names 
they merely meant John Hay to be helper to his father in preaching during his 
lifetime only, and not to be admitted colleague with him, as was desired by Mr 
Andrew Watson, presenter of the supplication, and as was concluded in the 
kirk-session of Peebles before the subscription thereof. The council protested that 
if the Presbytery proceeded further in the matter than the declaration of the council 
now intended, that the council would dissent therefrom, and ask the Presbytery to 
record the dissent in their books. 



THE MINISTRY OF THEODORE HAY, D.D. 123 

Action Against the Parson and Vicar. 
1643, February 5 — The council has given warrant to the provost and two bailies 
to subscribe a procuratory, presented by Mr John Hay, younger of Haystoun, in 
name and behalf of my Lord Yester, and remanent heritors of the parish of Peebles, 
for putting the letters of horning to execution raised against the parson and vicar of 
Peebles, for repeating the charges and sums disbursed already upon the reparation of 
the Cross Kirk of Peebles, and upholding the same in times coming. 

Marquis of Hamilton Created a Burgess. 
1643, April 21 — The Marquis of Hamilton, who had been for long the trusted 
delegate of the King in his dealings with the Scottish Covenanters, visited Peebles, 
and was created a burgess of the burgh. Along with him were several country 
gentlemen who were likewise honoured by the town. 

John Hay Admitted Colleague. 
1643, June 7 — John Hay, B.D., eldest son of Dr Theodore Hay, admitted 
colleague to his father, the minister of Peebles. He was M.A. of Edinburgh 
University, and held also a fellowship at Cambridge, where he had taken the 
Bachelor degree. In making this appointment the Presbytery acknowledged their 
disobedience to the acts of Assembly. 

The General Assembly and Witches. 
\_1643, July I — Persecutions of witches, which had latterly fallen into abeyance, 
were revived; and the Assembly of this year gave specific directions as to their 
treatment. — Peierkin, 354.] 

The Solemn League and Covenant. 
1643, August 77 — The Solemn League and Covenant had been ratified by the 
Estates on August 17, 1643, and within a few days proclamation was made that all 
males between sixteen and sixty years of age should arm themselves in a specified 
way, and have forty days' provisions, and be in readiness to mobilise at forty-eight 
hours' notice. Lord Yester was one of the colonels, and the committee for war 
included such names as Sir Alexander Murray of Blackbarony, Sir David Murray of 
Stanhope, Sir John Veitch of Dawyck, James Naesmyth of Posso, John Haldon of 
that Ilk, James Geddes of Rachan, John Dickson of Hartmire, William Lyell, 
Sheriff-Depute, Andrew Hay of Haystoun, William Govan of Cardrona, William 
Tweedy of Wrae, James Russell of Kingside, John Williamson for Peebles. The 
assembled forces crossed Tweed on January 19, 1644, under the Earl of Leven 
(General Leslie). Every householder in Peebles, and every manservant between 
sixteen and sixty, was to contribute forty shillings toward the outfit of every fourth 
man for the war. Every one of these men was to receive five dollars as pay and 
equipment allowance. 



124 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

England and the Solemn League and Covenant. 
[i"(5^j — The General Assembly of this year was still greatly taken up with the 
innovations of the Brownists, which were distinctly retrogressive in character, and 
wholly negative in quality. It also ordained that a directory for divine worship be 
got ready for the next Assembly. It approved of the Solemn League and Covenant. 
The King had heaped rewards and distinctions of all kinds upon the Covenanters, in 
the hope that at least they would remain neutral in the civil war in England. He 
warned them that the chief promoters of the troubles in England were the Brownists 
and Anabaptists and other independent sectaries, who were as much opposed to 
Presbytery as to Episcopacy. Some of the Scottish leaders hesitated, but the hope 
of leading the English Church into a condition of conformity with the Scottish 
proved a very strong inducement, and in the end the Scottish clergy entered into an 
alliance with the Enghsh, and sent commissioners to the Westminster Assembly 
of Divines, which had met on July i previous. Soon after (January 19, 1644), the 
Scottish army crossed the Tweed and entered England, and this turned the fortunes 
of the civil war. It also split the Covenanters into two parties, and strengthened the 
hands of the Brownists, who well knew that the English sectaries opposed all 
liturgical forms. A deputation from the Parliament of England had been received 
by the Assembly, who asked their assistance, and stated that they had ejected the 
bishops from the House of Peers and abolished Episcopacy. The Solemn League 
and Covenant having been drawn up, was carried to England, and September 22 
appointed for signing it. Both Houses of Parliament, the Assembly of Divines, and 
the Scottish commissioners all assembled in St Margaret's Church at Westminster. 
The document was read over article by article, all stood up and approved of it bit by 
bit; the Commons then signed it in the chancel while the Assembly signed another 
copy at the same time. Under this league it was that the Scottish army forthwith 
crossed the Tweed and joined the civil war against the King to secure uniformity of 
worship between England and Scotland, as the Scottish Covenanters fondly believed.] 

The Ultimate and the Immediate Results of the Solemn League. 

[The Solemn League and Covenant (1643) was signed by the Westminster 
Assembly of Divines, by the Lords and Commons of England, by the Scots privy 
council, and by the people of both nations. Its intention was a covenanted 
uniformity of worship for both kingdoms; but its only ultimate results were the 
substitution in Scotland of the Westminster Confession of Faith, catechism, and 
directory for public worship, in place of the older Scottish documents; and the 
approximation of Scottish Presbytery to English Puritanism, involving a distinct 
departure from the ideals of the Scottish Reformation, and the introduction into 
Scotland of a form of Sabbatarianism which has come to be regarded now as 
distinctively Scottish, but which belonged originally to English Nonconformity. Its 
immediate effects were the short-lived predominance of Presbytery in England, and 
the crossing of the Tweed in January 1 644 of a Scots army in the pay of England, as 
has been already mentioned.] 

Peebles Affairs. 

1643, September p — Charter by the Earl of Traquair to John Frank and William 
Greg, Edinburgh, of an acre of land in the Kirklands. 

164J, December 20 — Complains Mr Andrew Watson, vicar of Peebles, upon 
John Halden, dryster, and James Halden, milner, cautioner, "that where about a 



THE MINISTRY OF THEODORE HAY, D.D. 125 

year since the said John and James employed me in curing the said John of diverse 
wounds and dislocations, which had then befallen him through a fall, and promised 
me satisfaction for my pains and disbursements; and true it is that for the space of 
many weeks I attended the said John at all set diets, both night and day, and 
debursed great charges in his cure until he was whole and sound. Nevertheless they 
refuse to give me their promised satisfaction, which will extend to a hundred 
merks." (The result of this claim is not recorded.) 

A Scots Theocracy. 
[The government of Scotland at this period approached closely to such a 
theocracy as the Jews of old enjoyed. The power of the King had fallen; 
Parliament was in abeyance; the real governing body was the General Assembly, 
whose ministers and elders constantly declared that they derived their legislative 
authority from Jesus Christ alone, the King and Head of the Church. Religion was 
dominant in the national mind; the war was a religious war. The Covenanters were 
determined that England equally with themselves should enjoy the blessing of the 
Presbyterian Church. But they were extremely intolerant, and everyone who 
declined to subscribe the Solemn League was excommunicated.] 

Sacred Tune. 
[Johann Christopher Bach, 1643-1703. "Frankfort" (373, Scottish Hymnal).] 

Presbyterial Changes. 
\_1643-4 — Broughton parish disjoined from Presbytery of Peebles and annexed 
to Biggar Presbytery. 

\1643 — Tweedsmuir disjoined from Drumelzier.] 

Witches. 
1644, January 8 — Alexander Lauder is ordained to go to Edinburgh or 
Musselburgh to fetch an executioner to the impannelled witches upon Thursday next, 
January 11; and if he refuses, the provost and bailies to cause another, on 
Alexander's expenses. 

A Deserter. 
1644, January 8 — The council ordained James Chisholm, who was imprisoned 
for not going forth to the present expedition, to be released on sufficient caution that 
he shall be ready to go forth whenever the provost and bailies require him, under 
the penalty of ^40, and the going forth of his cautioner in place of him in case he 
fails. 

Wappinschawing. 
1644 — On May 6, a muster and Wappinschaw was ordered to be held on the 
following Saturday. Each one who possessed a musket was to have a pound of 
powder, and a pound of balls, and the town shall provide them with matches. 



126 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

Andrew Watson as a Surgeon Again. 

1644, May 15 — Mr William Burnett, treasurer clerk of Scotland, present, being 
accused for the barbarous and uncomely coming to the market cross of Peebles and 
night-watch thereof, and uttering divers and sundry oaths and imprecations, and 
wishing that the town of Peebles were all burnt in a fire, and not only abusing and 
troubling the whole people and the said watch out of their beds at that time, but also 
for the cruel hurting and wounding of William Hislop, wright, in Peebles, being one 
of the said watch, in the left hand with a drawn sword, and thereby mutilating him to 
the effusion of blood in great quantity, and dismembering him of his left hand, which 
he cannot deny. The said Mr William Burnett granted the whole complaint except 
mutilating, and for obedience entered into ward and acted himself for indemnity of 
the part hereafter. The cure of the hand was effected by the vicar, but once more 
had this amateur surgeon to sue for his bill. 

1644, August 7 — Anent the claims sent in and pursued before the provost and 
bailies of Peebles, by Mr Andrew Watson, vicar of Peebles, against William Hislop, 
wright, burgess there, claiming from William the sum of ;£24o, indebted by him to 
the said Mr Andrew for curing William's left hand, and restoring the two foremost 
fingers thereof, which were cut and mutilated by Mr William Burnett, and whereof 
the said William promised him thankful payment. The provost and bailies ordain 
William Hislop, the defender, to content and pay Mr Andrew Watson, pursuer, two 
hundred merks money only, modified by them. 

Payment of Teinds. 
1644, May 27 — Ordains intimation to be made to the parson and vicar to 
receive their teinds ipsa corpora (personally), by the provost, and such as he can 
conveniently have meeting with the parson. 

Deserters from the Army. 
1644, /^^^ 2-2 — John Brotherstones had run away from the army at York, and 
was apprehended at the instance of Andrew Hay, of Haystoun, sheriff of Peebles, 
who had him brought before the bailie. The runaway thereafter was incarcerated in 
the prison, until his brothers came forward and became cautioners for his appearing 
before the committee of war, and obeying their instructions. In July there were 
other two runaways from the army at York, apprehended, and brought before the 
bailies of Peebles. They bound themselves to return within fourteen days to the 
army, under pain of death. 

Actions by the Parson or Vicar to be Defended. 
1644, July 2g — The magistrates and council are ordained to concur with the 
inhabitants of this burgh in defence of the persons, if any be, to be pursued by the 
parson or vicar of Peebles, against them; and the expenses to be disbursed in 
defence thereof to be given forth by the defenders each one pro rata. 



THE MINISTRY OF THEODORE HAY, D.D. 127 

Andrew Watson's Action. 
1644, August 7 — Claim by Mr Andrew Watson decided in an action for 
payment of his bill for surgical attendance (see May 1 5 and August 7, antea). 

The Vicarage Teinds. 
1644, August ig — Appoints the provost and the two baihes to speak to the 
parson anent the vicarage teinds. 

Public Worship under the Covenants. 
{^1644 — By November of this year the Assembly of Divines at Westminster had 
prepared the directory for the public worship of God. The General Assembly of 1645 
sanctioned its use in Scotland; and ever since that time it has remained the directory 
for worship in the Church of Scotland, although much of it has been allowed to become 
obsolete. No forms of prayer were prescribed, but what ought to be the burden 
of prayer was expressed. Baptism was to be administered without ceremony 
save sprinkling in the name of the Trinity. Communion was to be celebrated 
frequently, and in the manner in which it is done at present. Marriage was to be in 
Church, but not on the Sabbath day. Funerals were to be without ceremony, no 
prayers, no singing of hymns, although the minister might profitably direct the 
attention of the people to their latter end. The Scots commissioners were desirous 
of having the creed repeated by the sponsors at baptism, but the English would not 
agree; equivalent interrogations were to be put instead, however, just as in the case 
at present in the Scottish Church. The General Assembly asked that these questions 
be omitted, so as to allow Scottish ministers to use the creed as had been the 
custom from pre-Reformation days. This was agreed to; as also that marriage 
should be celebrated only at that "place appointed by authority for public 
worship," i.e., the Parish Church. The Scots commissioners were asked to 
explain to the General Assembly also that the Westminster Assembly desired 
the Church of Scotland to prohibit private devotion on the part of ministers 
on entering the pulpit; and of singing the Glory to the Father by the congregation 
as a conclusion. The first request was acceded to, and private devotion of the 
minister became a thing of the past for the sake of uniformity with the Church of 
England. The singing of the Gloria, however, was not prohibited, although it 
appears to have fallen into disuetude after this. The Lord's Prayer was not 
forbidden either. On the whole, however, this was a triumph for the Brownists, the 
innovators of the last eight years.] 

Contemporary Ministers. 
{^1644-59 — Broughton — Robert Brown, translated to Lyne and Megget. 
\1644-62 — Glenholm — William Dickson.] 

The Shorter Catechism. 
[The Shorter Catechism was drawn up under the auspices of the Westminster 
Assembly, composed of 151 English members, six Scottish members being added; of 
these, all save the six Scotsmen and two Reformed pastors of London were in 
Episcopal orders and graduates of Oxford and Cambridge. The same body revised 
the Thirty-Nine Articles now used by the Episcopal Church. All historians strongly 
emphasise the fact that this Assembly represented various shades of Protestant 



128 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

opinion in a remarkable degree, and that the Scotsmen were accounted amongst the 
most liberal and conciliatory of all the members — " Fair men, not fanatical," is the 
unanimous verdict of history upon them. And also that never before nor since has 
this Assembly been equalled for rare scholarship, practical ability, and piety, and 
singular breadth and liberality of mind. The chief composers of the Catechism were 
Dr Arrowsmith, head of St John's College, Cambridge ; Dr Tuckney, Vice-Chancellor 
of the University of Cambridge; and J. Wallis, M.A., an eminent Cambridge 
mathematician, who acted as amanuensis of the Assembly, and was largely 
responsible for the consise and severely logical answers of the Shorter Catechism. 
He was later Professor of Geometry at Oxford, and one of the founders of the Royal 
Society. Most of the Scottish members had left ere the Assembly discussed the 
Shorter Catechism. 

In it questions of Church polity and discipline are entirely omitted. It is 
wholly a manual of doctrine. 

The Shorter Catechism is used by Baptists, Congregationalists, and Episco- 
palians, as well as others. At the "Savoy Conference" in 1661, at which 
the Bishops and leading Puritans drew up a revised liturgy for common use, the 
Shorter Catechism was inserted in place of the Episcopalian Church Catechism, 
Bishops and Puritans agreeing to recognise the Shorter Catechism as a compendium 
of doctrine. This "Savoy Liturgy" has been reprinted in America, and is used there 
to this day by Episcopalian congregations. Professor Schaff, Professor of Biblical 
Literature in the Union Theological Seminary, New York, says — "The Shorter 
Catechism is one of the three typical catechisms of Protestantism, which are likely to 
last till the end of time." Professor Bryce, M.P., has written — " There is nothing 
specially Presbyterian in the Shorter Catechism ; it is only historically and by a series 
of accidents that it has been identified in common usage with the Presbyterian 
Church."] 

The Westminster Directory. 
\1645 — The General Assembly had approved of the Westminster Directory on 
February 3; and on the 7th another act was passed for observing uniformity in the 
practice of the Directory. In it ministers were enjoined to begin half-an-hour earlier 
than they had formerly done when readers took the first part of the service. Baptism 
was to be administered as formerly after the sermon. At communion a short address 
at each table was to be substituted for the story of the Passion as previously read by 
the readers. On May 27, the commission of the General Assembly authorised the 
publication of a Scottish edition of the Directory.] 

Teinds of Peebles. 
1645, April 28 — It is instituted and ordained that all who have any goods 
subject to teind to the parson and vicar, should intimate to them, for teinding 
thereof, between this and May 1 5 next. 

Another Deserter. 
About this period occurs another instance of a runaway from the army. This 
time it was a weaver in Peebles, who deserted from the company of Captain John 
Murray of Romanno, lying at Dumfries. He bound himself to rejoin his colour and 
company within a month, under pain of death. 



THE MINISTRY OF THEODORE HAY, D.D. 129 

The Plague. 
1645 — On June 23, there were fears lest the plague should enter the town. 
Accordingly St Peter's fair was forbidden to be held this year; and the provost, 
along with thirteen others, resolved to frequent the market places, and watch that no 
one from Lothian or other suspected place enter the town. On July 9, however, a 
man named Thomas Tweeddale, a wright in Edinburgh, came into the town from 
that city, and immediately became suspected of the plague. He and his wife and 
children were put into quarantine in his barn, situated at the style called Tweeddale's 
style, till such time that all appearance of infection be past. No member of the 
household was to come forth from the barn for fourteen days, but were to hold the 
easter and south doors of the barn steekit and locked. None were to resort thither, 
nor any of the family resort to any place, under penalty of ^500 Scots and burning 
of the bam. James Haldon was to keep the key of the south door, and be 
answerable therefor; and no meat or drink be given the suspects without the 
presence of one or two of the council, or kirk-session, or honest men of the burgh. 
The miller and a traveller bound themselves as sureties before the provost and bailies 
for the observance of all these precautions. In this month, also, several burghers 
attended the expedition to St Johnstoun. On August 23 the provost and bailies 
were convened in the tolbooth of Peebles for the purpose of meeting with the 
members of the committee of war. And on the 27th the inhabitants were solemnly 
warned by tuck of drum that none pass out of the burgh, under pain of death and 
confiscation, but all remain in the burgh prepared to aid the magistrates in 
preservation of the burgh during the time of their present troubles. 

The Marquis of Montrose. 
\^r645 — O'l August 15 the Marquis of Montrose won the battle of Kilsyth. 
This had the effect of placing Scotland completely in his power; and the people on 
all sides were returning to their allegiance. Montrose was the champion of 
the National Covenant, but a determined enemy of the Solemn League. His 
Presbyterianism was of the old Scots type, and he abhorred the innovations of the 
Brownists and of the Independents of England. He desired to see restored 
nothing else but what the first Reformers practised before the days of prelacy. 
He considered that the National Covenant had been violated by the introduction 
of the innovations into the Church. He maintained that the religion of the 
Brownists and Independents was contrary to the intention and religion of the 
first Reformers. All this he stated in a manifesto drawn up by him after the 
battle of Kilsyth, but owing to his defeat at the battle of Philiphaugh it did not 
see the light until our own day. — Sprott^ 

Battle of Philiphaugh. 
\1645 — The battle of Philiphaugh took place on September 13, 1645, and 
resulted in the defeat of the Royalist party under the Marquis of Montrose. He 
fled after the battle over Minchmoor and on to Traquair House, where it is said 
he was denied admittance. He proceeded to Peebles, whence he set out in order 
to raise fresh troops in the north. Although Montrose then served the King, 
and no longer the Scottish nation, he always considered himself to be a true 



I30 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

Covenanter, true to the first Covenant. The Covenanters, acting on Old Testament 
precedents, massacred a band of prisoners after the battle, and hanged many others 
of noble and gentle birth later. These proceedings were remembered at a future 
time when fortunes had changed places.] 

Execution of Laud — The Scots Army in England. 
[In England, Archbishop Laud, who had been so prominent in connection with 
the introduction of the service book into Scotland, had been beheaded, after three 
years' detention in the Tower of London. The Scottish army had taken part in 
the fierce battle of Marston Moor, and had assisted to reduce York, and had 
captured Newcastle. Thereafter they were disposed to rest.] 

Presbytery and Independency in England. 
[Early in 1645 negotiations had been entered into between the King and the 
Parliament with a view to peace, but were unsuccessful. The competing claims of 
Episcopacy versus Presbytery helped to ruin the efforts of diplomatists. Presbytery 
was making rapid progress among the English clergy — out of a hundred and 
twenty-one ministers in London, all were Presbyterian but two. Organs had been 
silenced, altars removed, prayer-book disused. But there were the Independents to 
be reckoned with. Every congregation of them claimed to be a Church complete in 
itself, and they repudiated in turn Assemblies, Synods, and Presbyteries. They 
shocked the Scots commissioners by receiving the communion in their pews, 
preaching with their hats on, and allowing liberty of conscience to all. Sects of all 
denominations increased with a rapidity truly extraordinary.] 

The Plague in Peebles. 
1645 — Meanwhile in Peebles, notwithstanding the precautions of the magistrates 
and burghers, the pestilence had found an entrance. In the treasurer's accounts of 
the time are found: — November j — Given to William Hislop and others for cutting 
timber in the Cross Kirk, and for building the first two lodges for those who were put 
forth in the visitation, 13s 4d. November ij — To William Hislop and others for 
building the kiln for cleansing the infected clothes, ^^3. To two cleansers who came 
out from Edinburgh to seek work and were sent back, 12s. On December 15, two 
families, consisting of parents and children, were ordered to he removed to the two 
lodges which had been erected on the green, as both their houses were infected. 
They were to be provided with fuel and necessary furniture. The houses of two 
other men were ordered to be closed in, perhaps because there may have occurred in 
them deaths from the plague. January 27 — To a load of peats to cleanse the 
school, 8s. Peebles at this time had troubles in plenty, with the plague, the civil 
war, and the disturbed state of the Church. 

Contemporary Minister. 
\1645-8 — Drumelzier — Robert Fleming, A.M. University of Edinburgh, July 
24, 1630; ordained, February 27, 1645; deposed or deprived. May 4, 164S; died, 
April 1656, aged 46. There was in his chamber at Lynton a furnished bed estimated 
at ;£2o. Free geir, £,\Z\'i is 8d.] 



THE MINISTRY OF THEODORE HAY, D.D. 131 

The King and Church and State. 
[zd^d — Affairs were developing rapidly. The King had been worsted in the 
civil war, and in the beginning of May sought shelter with the Scottish army. 
Negotiations for a termination of the war were at once set on foot. The King was 
asked both by the English and the Scotch to abolish Episcopacy, ratify the proceedings 
of the Westminster Assembly of Divines, take the Solemn League and Covenant, 
compel all others to do so, and set up a Church in conformity with its principles. 
All this he declared it to be against his conscience to do. A controversy of a 
friendly character was entered into between the King and the Rev. Mr Henderson on 
ecclesiastical matters, but victory lay with neither. Episcopacy was now crushed in 
England, as it had been since 1638 in Scotland. The contest now lay between 
Independents and Presbyterians. Commissioners from all parties, save the latter, 
importuned the King to yield, but this he would not do. The English Parliament 
claimed the right to dispose of the King, and were assisted in their claim by the 
General Assembly of the Scottish Church, who would not consent to the King setting 
foot in Scotland until he had signed the Solemn League and Covenant; although the 
Scottish Parliament demurred. On January 1 6, the Scottish estates gave their assent 
to the King's going to Holmby House, in Northamptonshire, there to remain until he 
should give satisfaction to both kingdoms. On the 30th the Scottish army marched 
out of Newcastle on its return to Scotland. The Church had meant the Westminster 
Directory to be strictly followed, but the clergy soon fell away from it toward 
Brownism. There was to be no reading of a chapter without exposition. The 
prayer of intercession was introduced after the sermon.] 

Dr Theodore Hay. 
1646 — On October 5, there appeared before the magistrates the parson of 
Peebles, Theodore Hay. He produced the act of the committee of estates, and 
warned the magistrates that none might be elected to any public position who had 
taken part with the rebels in the war or who had not given satisfaction in the Kirk 
therefor. He asked them to keep this in mind at the elections held that day. 

Penance. 
\1646, October 5 — In connection with this satisfying of the Kirk, George Tait of 
Pirn, and others, had to satisfy the Kirk on the stool of repentance in the Kirk of 
Innerleithen for their part in the late rebellion. At Tweedsmuir, on December 27, the 
laird of Hawkshaw had to make satisfaction also for complying with James Graham 
(Marquis of Montrose). Every parish in the county appears to have held 
thanksgiving on his discomfiture.] 

Contemporary Ministers. 

[^1646-61 — Traquair — William Thomson, M.A.; died 1661. 

\^i64J-74 — Kailzie — Hugh Gray, M.A. Translated to Innerleithen. 

\i64'j — Kilbucho — Alexander Bertram, M.A. Joined the Protesters, 1651; 
ordered by Diocesan Synod on April 29, 1664, to appear and answer for not 
conforming; decreet against him and others, July 16, 1672; indulged at Shotts, 
September 2, 1672, which he refused to accept; warrant of imprisonment against 
him, July 14 following; complained against in the Synod of Glasgow for keeping 
conventicles, October 22, 1674; denounced for intercommuning, August 3, 1676; 



132 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

left the country on account of his concern in the rebellion, 1679, and went to 
Holland. 

{^1647-82 — Linton — Robert Eliot, M.A. Translated from Kilbucho. Though 
refusing to conform, he was permitted to remain, and died in 1682, in the 6ist year 
of his ministry.] 

Peebles to the Play. 
164J — It is pleasant to record something of a nature different from the wars and 
ecclesiastical strifes which had vexed Scotland for so many years. On April 20, the 
annual horse races were held in the burgh of Peebles, and the silver bell of Peebles, 
with two little bells and eight pendicles attached, was won by the servitor of the Earl 
of Traquair. In the following year it was won by a noble and potent lord, George 
Ramsay, and by this time the bell had had added to it another little bell, as was 
expected to be done by winners. The race was thrice round the stoups of 
Whitehaugh. No one was to take in troopers or dragoons without the licence of the 
magistrates, under penalty of ;^io. This would follow on the disbanding of the 
army. 

The Church of Scotland and the Westminster Confession. 
[The Church of Scotland had now attained the summit of her greatness. She had 
achieved the conquest of prelatical England, and given a poHty to the whole empire. 
Presbyteries had been set up in London and in other parts. The Westminster 
Assembly of Divines, after having lasted five years and a half, had nearly finished its 
labours. In the previous year the General Assembly had accepted the Westminster 
Confession as necessary for the intended uniformity of religion. The Church of 
Scotland, for the sake of this uniformity in the three kingdoms, threw aside her own 
Confession and her own Book of Common Order — both the legacy of Knox — in order 
that her covenanted uniformity with England might be secured. Long ago repudiated 
by England, the Westminster Confession still remains the authorised creed of the 
Church of Scotland. — Cunningham.'] 

"The Engagement." 
\164j — Regarding " The Engagement " and its " sinfulness," the best account 
that one may come across is that to be found in Butler's Life of Leighton (1903), page 
206 : — " On December 26, 1647, at Carisbrooke Castle, he (Charles I.) entered into an 
Engagement with the Scottish commissioners, in which he bound himself, on the 
word of a King, to confirm the covenant for such as had taken it, or might take it 
(without forcing it on the unwilling); also to confirm Presbyterian government and 
the Westminster Directory of Worship in England for three years (with the reservation 
of the liturgy, &c., for himself and his household); and moreover to see to the 
suppression of the Independents and all other sects and heresies, while the Scots, in 
return, were to send an army into England for the purpose of restoring him on these 
conditions to his full royalty in England. The Engagement became known in 
Scotland on February 15, 1648, and in the committee of estates, and in the 
Parliament which met on March 2, the majority — the Hamiltonians or Engagers — 
carried the day. But the opposition, headed by Argyll, Eglinton, Lothian, Cassilis, 
and Johnstone of Warriston, rested on the nearly unanimous opinion of the Scottish 
clergy, and had a powerful help, apart from Parliament, in the commission of the 



THE MINISTRY OF THEODORE HAY, D.D. 133 

Kirk. The argument on their side was that the commissioners had exceeded their 
powers; that the conditions made with Charles were too slippery; that the King had 
really evaded the Covenant, and that though Scotland might have a just cause for 
war against the English sectaries, no good could come from a war nominally against 
them, in which Presbyterians would be allied with malignants, prelatists, and even 
papists. Declarations embodying these views were published by the commission; 
the pulpits rang with denunciations of the Engagement; petitions against it were 
poured in upon Parliament by the Kirk; and the Anti-Engagers or Protesters were in 
the majority amongst the people. Loudoun detached himself from Hamilton, and 
expressed repentance in the High Kirk of Edinburgh; the Scots army, notwithstand- 
ing, headed by Hamilton, and numbering about 20,000, marched into England on 
July 8, 1648, and out of the Scottish Engagement with the King, began the second 
civil war, which was crushed in four months (May to August, 1648), as the first was 
spread over four years. The connection with the Scottish commissioners and the 
English Parliament was severed; and forward into Lancashire the Scottish army 
moved to rescue the King, free England from the army of sectaries, establish 
Presbytery, and put down 'that impious toleration settled by the two Houses 
contrary to the covenant.' The result was the rout of the Scots with their English 
allies at the three days' battle of Preston (August 17-19), by the Parliamentary army 
under Cromwell." 

In 1648 the committee of the estates returned a favourable answer to 
Cromwell's request, which corresponded exactly with their own desire, that adherents 
of the late Engagement should be dismissed from office, and be hindered from having 
the opportunity of again being disloyal to the State.] 

Church Polity (Extreme Covenanting). 
{^1648 — The General Assembly of 1648 approved the Larger and the Shorter 
Catechisms; the latter being intended for such "as are of weaker capacity." The 
two catechisms previously in use had been divided into sections, one for each Sunday 
in the year. The creed formed part of both, and sixteen Sundays were devoted to 
its exposition. In many Churches the afternoon service had been catechetical, and 
the creed was preached upon for a large part of the year. The Scots commissioners 
had been promised by the English Puritans that the creed would form part of the 
new catechism, but it was admitted merely as an appendix. From this time it 
gradually began to be set aside, until at the present day it has been regarded by 
many as savouring of Episcopacy if not of Popery. Regarding young communicants, 
the First Book of Disciplitie had required them to be able to repeat the Lord's 
Prayer, the creed, the decalogue, and understand the nature of the holy sacrament. 
Now this General Assembly insisted on all such swearing the Solemn League and 
Covenant in addition. The collection for the poor was now to be so ordered that no 
part of the public worship be thereby hindered. This may have been out of a great 
fear lest works of charity (which the Apostle calls an acceptable sacrifice and with 
which God is well pleased), should pass for any part of the service of God ! Ministers 
were now ordered to "appoint some other way and time for receiving the collections." 
To recapitulate: — The chief changes made during the foregoing period were 
discontinuance of daily service, of private devotion on entering Church, of read 
prayers, of the reading of Holy Scripture, of singing the "Glory to the Father," of 
the offertory during divine service, of the repetition of the Lord's Prayer. Ministers 
had to give two sermons and two lectures every Sunday; and one sermon and one 
catechising on other two days in the week. — Sprott.'\ 



134 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

The Psalms. 
\1648 — This same General Assembly of 1648 had under consideration also a 
new version of the Psalms. Mr Rous, an E?iglish M.P., was the author of this 
version, but he had borrowed from another version, which was the composition of Sir 
William Alexander, afterwards Earl of Stirling. A committee was appointed to revise 
the work of Rous, with instructions to make what use they could of the version of the 
laird of Rowallan and of Zachary Boyd. The result was the compilation of that 
version still in use in divine service at the present day. (See idjo.)] 

The Conflict between Church and State. 
[In England, as has been shown previously, the King was in the hands of the 
army which now ruled the kingdom with a military despotism. The Scottish estates 
were loyal, and made attempts to save the King. He promised to give the Solemn 
League and Covenant Parliamentary sanction, provided that none be compelled to 
take it against their will ; to establish Presbytery in England for three years, provided 
that he and his household were allowed their own form of worship; and after three 
years to establish permanently such a polity as the Westminster Divines, along with 
twenty commissioners nominated by himself, should determine as most agreeable to 
the Word of God. These conditions were afterwards embodied in the treaty with the 
Scottish estates, known as "The Engagement" (referred to already). But the 
General Assembly, when it met, resolved to withhold sanction to " The Engagement," 
and defied Parliament. On the other hand Parliament now threw off the yoke of the 
Church, and raised an army, with the Duke of Hamilton at its head. This army was 
defeated at Preston, in England, by the army of Cromwell, August 17, as has been 
mentioned, and the Duke of Hamilton was executed. The noblemen and ministers 
of the west now assembled their vassals and parishioners, and marched on Edinburgh ; 
the estates fled before them, and a change of government resulted. This is 
known as "The Whiggamore's Raid." Argyll, the Covenanter, was placed at the 
head of the Government, which now sought to make peace with Cromwell. He was 
welcomed to Edinburgh, and entertained with banquets. Berwick and Carlisle were 
placed in his hands. All who had been hostile to the Covenant were deprived, 
among them many ministers and members of Parliament. A great change was 
effected upon the appearance of the Church and the legislature.] 

Levies on Peebles. 
164S — The burgh of Peebles had to take a share in all these proceedings. 
On May 15, the council was considering the nominations of all those to 
be sent on the expedition, and in case the provost was not able to attend, 
the meetings were to be held at his house. On May 17, it was resolved by the 
council that every inhabitant of whatever sex, age, or degree, pay the sum of fifty 
shillings toward the town's levy money. This was to provide twenty days' provisions 
and arms to those persons sent to the expedition by the burgh. Two persons were 
appointed as collectors in each quarter of the town, and two for the Old Town. At 
the Cross Kirk of Peebles, on June 1 2, Archibald Tweedy and Robert Graham were 
ordained one of them to give to the other ten dollars or else go forth themselves 
both. On June 19, quartermasters were appointed to superintend the billetting 
of horse and foot. Anyone who gave money to a soldier or shifted the billet on to a 
neighbour was to be fined j£s ; and any who put away their horses from the service 



THE MINISTRY OF THEODORE HAY, D.D. 135 

of the town were likewise to be fined £^e^. Two fond mothers, who had paid two 
soldiers to take the place of their sons in this conscription, were ordered to produce 
their sons to the major, as their substitutes had deserted. The council was to take 
into consideration whether it would repay to the mothers the moneys which they 
had paid to the soldiers. The quartermasters were ordered to gather in all the sums 
of fifty shillings, or else soldiers would be quartered on them for their negligence. 
All fugitives and their parents to be punished. And if any of the councillors give 
advice to enrolled persons to run away, or know those who give such advice and do 
not reveal them to the council, they will themselves take the places of such fugitives. 
Those who had given picks and muskets to soldiers in Major Somerville's company 
are to be free therefrom. From September i, all above sixteen and below sixty are 
to remain in the town, parents and children, masters and servants. All the 
inhabitants to convene at the tolbooth at six in the morning of September 20. At 
this meeting sixteen persons were chosen to advise with the magistrates anent sending 
fifteen men to the army of General Leslie. 

The Billetting of Soldiers. 
1648, September 22— Another assessment was made upon the burghers, this 
time of twenty shillings per head, to pay those who were sent forth to the army. A 
new town council was chosen on October 9; it included the Earl of Tweeddale and 
Lord Yester, James Williamson, provost, two bailies, and twelve councillors. Their 
first business concerned Alexander Veitch of Manor. English troopers had been 
billetted upon him, but he had sent them on to the town of Peebles, whereby skaith 
had been sustained by the town. It so happened that William Paterson of Peebles 
was due Veitch ^71 as the price of sheep and wethers sold to him. This sum 
Paterson was now ordered to deliver to the town in place of Veitch, in payment of 
the expenses of the soldiers whom Veitch ought to have billetted himself 

The Minister Demits. 
In 1648 Dr Theodore Hay demitted office. He had been minister of Peebles 
since 1610, but his son had been associated with him as colleague from 1643. 

Results of the Civil War. 
[The army of 1648 was raised for the purposes of maintaining the Solemn 
League and Covenant, for delivering the King from imprisonment, and freeing the 
English Parliament from the restraint put upon it. The most melancholy fruit of all 
this civil and ecclesiastical strife was the discontinuance of holy communion in the 
chief towns and in many country parishes. It was not celebrated in Edinburgh for 
six years, nor in Glasgow for five, nor in Stirling for nine, nor in St Andrews for six. 
The moderator of Assembly in 1649 was actually appointed to draft an act for 
prohibiting the use of the Lord's Prayer. Its use was entirely given up in the 
Churches of Edinburgh at this time. — Sprott.'] 

TWEEDSMUIR. 

[^1648 — Tweedsmuir Church built.] 



136 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

Contemporary Minister. 
\i 648-6 1 — Tweedsmuir — Alexander Trotter, formerly of Barra; presented by 
the Earl of Wigton. Died, June 24, 1661; in his 63rd year.] 

Proclamation of King Charles II. 
\164g, January jo — Death by beheading of King Charles I. On February 5, 
the Scots Parliament proclaimed his son King as Charles II. But an act was also 
passed that he should not be admitted to the sovereignty until first he had signed the 
Solemn League and Covenant. The General Assembly, when it met on July 7, 
decreed likewise as to the King. Moreover, all who had been involved in "The 
Engagement" were to do penance or suffer excommunication This Assembly also 
authorised the commission to print and publish the new version of the psalter for 
public use.] 

Schoolmaster. 
164^ — In the burgh of Peebles, while the grim tragedy of Whitehall was being 
enacted, the city fathers were engaged in electing a new schoolmaster. His name 
was Mr William Purdie, brother german of the minister of Newlands. The school 
hours had undergone no change either on week-days or on Sundays since the last 
appointment. The salary was to be 100 merks per annum, with ten merks for 
chamber rent, also twelve pennies per quarter for each town's bairn, and thirteen 
shillings and fourpence per quarter for each landward bairn. 

Removing Stones from the Cross Church. 
164P, February 7 — Given for the carrying of three loads of freestones from the 
Cross Kirk to the chapel, to make a window of, and a load of lime from the Kirk, 
and three loads of sand, 4s. 

The Town's Seat and that of the Merchants in the Cross Church. 

164^, April 2 — There is offered by William Lowis for reforming the town's seat 
in the Cross Kirk, lofting thereof, and making of pews beneath the same, 100 merks 
for half a year annual rent free. And at the completion thereof, either to have his 
own hundred merks or else to have power to dispone upon the pews by the advice of 
the council after the repairing thereof. 

i64g, July 16 — It was reported by William Lowis, commissioner to the 
Convention of Burghs, that the Convention had enacted that the president of every 
meeting of the council of each burgh say a prayer at the beginning and close of every 
meeting. And in those cases where the president was unable to attend, the minister 
shall be employed to do the same. 

i64g, August (5— The merchants in the council, for themselves and remanent 
merchants, are content and oblige themselves to build a seat in the Kirk directly 
from the new wester loft to the new seat of the magistrates and council, the passage 
to be above the clerk's seat. Three men bind themselves to furnish and lay in 
timber and other materials. 



THE MINISTRY OF THEODORE HAY, D.D. 137 

The Interval of Twenty-Three Years in the Presbytery Records. 

164^ — During all the preceding momentous period, there is little ecclesiastical 
information concerning Peebles, owing to the want of records. Any scanty references 
to those troublous times are to be found in the town council minutes, and in the 
records of the privy council. The following were the ministers during that time : — 

1610 — Theodore Hay, A.M., had become minister of Peebles in 1610. He 
was promoted from regent in the University of Glasgow. Was presented by King 
James VI., April 20. He was a member of the Courts of High Commission, 
December 21, 1615; June 15, 1619; and December 21, 1634. Had the degree 
of D.D. conferred upon him by the University of St Andrews, July 29, 1616. He 
subscribed the Protestation for the Liberties of the Kirk, with fifty-four others, June 
27, 161 7. He was on the leet for Edinburgh in 162 1. He gave a hundred merks 
towards building the library of the University of Glasgow, August i, 1632. He 
continued June 7, 1643, but demitted in 1648, and died in November 1651. He 
left a widow and a son, who succeeded to the cure. 

1643 — John Hay, B.D. ; eldest son of the preceding. He studied and took the 
degree of A.M. at the University of Edinburgh, July 24, 1630, and at Cambridge, 
where he held a fellowship and obtained his higher degree. Admitted colleague, 
June 7, 1643, for which the Presbytery had to acknowledge their disobedience to the 
acts of the Assembly upon their knees before the Synod. He was appointed to 
attend the Master of Hay's regiment by the Assembly, June 11, 1646, and was on 
the commissions of Assembly, 1646, 1648, 1649. He was presented by John, Lord 
Yester, October 12, 1648; called February 14, 1649. In October 1661 he was 
prepared for the bishopric of Caithness, and died, October 3, 1666, aged 53, in the 
twenty-fourth year of his ministry, leaving three sons — Theodore, Henry, and 
William, and a daughter, Lilias. 

Contemporary Minister. 
\^i64g-8i — Drumehier — -Richard Browne, M.A., presented by the Earl of 
Wigton; required by privy council to compear and answer for assisting at the 
admission of the minister of Manor. Although he did not comply with the 
Episcopal form of Church government he continued at Drumelzier till deprived by 
the Test, i68i.] 



After a blank period of twenty-three years, the records of the Presbytery of Peebles 
are once more resumed. 



Searching out Witches. 
i64g, November 14 — This day, meeting held by appointment of the Synod to 
assist commissioners appointed for the trial of those "emprisoned for the abominable 
crime of witchcraft." The ministers of Manor, Newlands, Lyne, and Eddleston 
convened there; Mr James Smith (Innerleithen) only excused himself After prayer, 
Mr Spittell (Manor), whom they chose to moderate, thought fit to propone these 

T 



138 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

particulars to them: — That those heritors from whose lands the imprisoned persons 
come, take houses for them in the town that they may be kept in several prisons, that 
the labours of the ministers in prayer and exhortation be no longer lost, for it cannot 
be thought that ever they will be brought to confess so long as many are together in 
one prison. That it would please the commissioners to acquaint the Presbytery when 
they are to empanel them, so that a brother may be appointed to give sermon, and 
intimation be made of a solemn fast and humiliation in this congregation where they 
are to sit, and fervent prayer to God for His blessing on the work in bringing of the 
challenged to confession and preparing of the guilty. Mr John Hay was sent to 
obtain this information. He returned and reported that the commissioners had fixed 
upon the empanelling of Jonett Coutts, Marion Tuedy, Bessie Forrest, Marion 
Robieson, and Thomas Shanks, on Wednesday next, the 21st inst., and desired the 
ministry to intimate the same to their congregations ; and that all who know any more 
guiltiness in any of the accused give in the same to the commissioners, who are to sit 
here for that purpose on the 19th inst. And that the brethren from whose parishes 
the said imprisoned persons have come, go forth with some of their elders and search 
their houses for materials or instruments which may evidence guiltiness in charming 
and witchcraft. And Mr Robert Eliot, moderator of the Presbytery, preach at 
Peebles the said day at ten o'clock. And that the brethren assist the commissioners 
in the trial and execution of the imprisoned for the said abominable crime, and give 
prayer and exhortation when it shall be required. 

164Q, November 21 — The Presbytery was convened by the moderator, after the 
fast was kept very solemnly by this congregation. The brethren had made searches, 
and nothing had been found except that Mr Alexander Dickson (Kirkurd) found in a 
chest of Elspeth Graham's a bunch of sheep-skins made up round in the form of a 
man's head, and covered with nurden cloth, which was shewn to the Presbytery and 
the commissioners. And Mr Patrick Purdie (Newlands) found in a chest of Ishbel 
Alexander's four hoofs of a young neat beast. 

Sir James Hay and the Presbytery. 

J(5.^p, November 22 — Brethren appointed to assist the commissioners by prayer, 
&c., and in preparing those empanelled for death. The ministers at Peebles report 
no satisfaction from Sir James Hay, and the Presbytery ordains that if he do not 
satisfy them before next meeting they will publish him from the pulpit, and delate 
him before the commission. 

164^, December 6 — Sir James Hay explained that his health forbade his 
attendance at Church. 

The Minister of Dawyck Deposed for Marrying a Catholic Lady to 

Lord Linton. 

1649, December 7— Mr Richard Powrie (Dawyck) sentenced to be deposed from 

the ministry at Dawyck for marrying Lord Linton to the excommunicated Lady 

Seaton, at Newton Church. Also, the Presbytery ordained the sentence of 



THE MINISTRY OF THEODORE HAY, D.D. 139 

excommunication to be pronounced against him next Lord's Day, in the Kirk of 
Peebles, by Mr Alex. Spittal (Manor). 

Pews in the Church. 
1630, January 14 — The merchants were still building their loft in the Church. 
When it was finished they were to have their choice as to what part they would 
occupy, whether the back part of the town's loft or their own. James Williamson, late 
provost, to have a pew in the middle rank, east end. Four other Williamsons to 
have a pew in the middle rank. The dean-of-guild and treasurer to complete their 
pew in fifteen days. 

A Minister's Penance. 
16^0, March 7 — A bull was given in by Mr William Purdie (Newlands), asking 
to be received to satisfaction for his accession to the late sinful and unlawful 
Engagement, according to the Presbytery's former ordinance. He was ordered to be 
admitted in the Church at Peebles. 

Penance of the Minister of Dawyck. 
1650, March 7 — The Presbytery enjoined Mr Richard Powrie, minister of 
Dawyck, on the Lord's Day first coming, to be in the Kirk of Peebles, in his own 
habit, in a seat before the pulpit, which will be provided for him, and there evidence 
his repentance to the people when the minister shall call him. It was in the Kirk of 
Peebles that he had been sentenced and deposed for celebrating the marriage with 
Lord Lyntoun and the Popish Lady Seatoun, in Newtoun Kirk. The minister 
appointed to report the next day that further humiliation may be enjoined him; and 
the Presbytery proceed to his relaxation. 

The Case of Sir James Hay. 
i6£o, March 14 — This day the ministers at Peebles reported that Sir James Hay, 
now over his long sickness, had satisfied as the Presbytery had enjoined him in all 
points. 

Vagrants. 
i6jo, March 14 — No report by the moderator and ministers at Peebles of their 
approaching the sheriff and magistrates of Peebles anent taking measures for the 
restraint of the vagabond poor. The Presbytery ordains the several brethren to 
inhibit their people to give unto them or receive them into their houses, and to make 
intimation thereof next Lord's Day. 

The Minister of Dawyck Relaxed. 

16^0, March 14 — The ministers of Peebles reported well of Mr Richard Powrie, 

minister of Dawyck, who in their judgment was truly humbled, and the congregation 

satisfied with him. The Presbytery decided that he should now be released, and 

does ordain that he may be relaxed upon his further repentance from the sad and 



140 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

fearful sentence of excommunication in the same Kirk of Peebles this next Lord's 
Day, where he shall be put for that effect in the same place before the pulpit as the 
last day, in sackcloth, and express his sorrow as before God's people, when the 
minister shall call him. And appoints Mr Patrick Fleming, minister of Stobo, to 
preach at Peebles the said day, and upon his seeing the truth of his repentance to 
release him from the said fearful sentence and receive into God's Kirk again, conform 
to the order prescribed. And for the greater solemnity, the moderator to write in 
name of the Presbytery for the presence of other brethren from Edinburgh, Dalkeith, 
and Biggar. 

Confession of Sin. 
1630, March 14 — The ministers at Peebles reported that Margaret Fletcher, who 
was imprisoned on last meeting day, had confessed her sin of fornication, but not her 
attempts at procuring abortion, and she was sent back to Edinburgh for trial. 

Witchcraft. 
1650, April 26 — A case of witchcraft occurs in Peebles at this time. Marion 
Watson had been incarcerated in the steeple of Peebles for half a year or thereby, on 
the charge of witchcraft. She was to be relieved from jail on the sureties of two 
responsible burgesses, who were bound to produce her within twenty-four hours if 
required. Meanwhile Marion was to keep her own house in silence, and not be 
heard of her neighbours, nor attend Kirk or market, nor transgress to go abroad over 
her own gutter, under penalties. 

Politics. 

[/difo — In the beginning of this year the Marquis of Montrose landed in 
Scotland, with the intention of making one more effort to regain the throne for the 
rightful King. Although the estates were prepared to recognise the King under 
conditions, yet they declined to recognise his General, who had fallen away from the 
Covenant. So an army was sent against Montrose ; he was defeated, betrayed, and 
taken prisoner. He was afterwards executed at Edinburgh. 

Previous to the expedition of Montrose a deputation from the estates had 
waited on the King at Breda, urging him to accept their terms. This ultimately he 
did, agreeing to everything which they demanded. He was to take the Solemn League 
and Covenant, to remove all excommunicated persons from the court, to establish 
Presbyterian government and worship, to practise the same in his o\vn family, to 
confine all civil matters to Parliament, and all ecclesiastical to the General Assembly. 
All which being accomplished, the King set sail and landed at the mouth of the 
Spey in the middle of June (23rd). He was not allowed to set foot on the shore 
until he had subscribed the Solemn League and Covenant, which he did with 
reluctance. He was now among the straitest of the Covenanters, and was humbled 
and irritated in every possible manner. 

Scottish history remembers to this day that split of the Scottish clergy around 
Charles H. in 1650, into the Resolutioners, who acquiesced in the resolutions of the 
Parliament and commission of the Kirk, for suspending or disusing the act of classes; 
and the Remonstrants or Protesters, who raised their voices against the backsliding. 
The leaders of the Resolutioners were Robert Douglas, David Dickson, and Robert 



THE MINISTRY OF THEODORE HAY, D.D. 141 

Baillie. The leaders of the Protesters were Patrick Gillespie, James Guthrie, and 
Samuel Rutherford. The Resolutioners were the inheritors of the better traditions of 
the Reformed Scottish Church, and saw nothing undivine in Episcopacy; the 
Protesters represented the ultra-Presbyterian party. — Butler's Leighton, p. 216.] 

Visitation of Peebles. 

1650, June 20 — The Presbytery appoints the Kirk of Peebles to be visited this 
day fifteen days, and Mr Hew Ker (Lyne) to preach. And after visitation to meddle 
with Presbyterial affairs. 

1630, July 4. — After sermon by Mr Hew Ker (Lyne) — text, Luke viii., 4-6 — and 
prayer by the moderator, the ministers and elders being called for and all found 
present, together with some heritors, the elders were gravely exhorted and charged by 
their oath of eldership to answer ingenuously to the interrogatures following, and to 
declare what they knew concerning their ministers, Messrs Theodore and John Hay's 
doctrine, discipline, and conversation. 

The said ministers of Peebles being removed, and the elders, severally 
interrogated, answered as follows: — (i.) As to their doctrine, that it was powerful, 
sound, and edifying; that they were painful in preaching, viz., that they preached 
there on the Lord's Day, lectured in the forenoon, lectured on the Sabbath night, 
lectured on the Monday morning, preached on the Wednesday; that they preached 
against mahgnants and sectaries; applied their doctrine to the times and the sins of 
the people, warning and reproving sin and pressing family exercise; celebrate the 
sacrament of the Lord's Supper once a year; administer the sacrament of baptism on 
preaching days only; were diligent in examination severally before the communion. 
(2.) As to the discipline, that they had a session book that could testify their 
diligence and faithfulness therein. Whereupon Mr Alex. Spittall (Manor) and Mr 
Alex. Dicksone (Kirkurd), visitors of their session book, being interrogated, answered 
they found collections for and distributions to the poor; sin censured; the profane, 
ignorant, and scandalous debarred from the table of the Lord; the old session 
choosing the new; yea, everything done in order; only they found some persons 
censured without mention of their names, wherein the clerk was admonished. (3.) 
As to their conversation, that it was pious, sober, and righteous; that they worshipped 
God in their families; and in everything were commendable in the Lord and 
exemplary to their people, and were diligent in visiting the sick. 

The elders were also severely interrogated if they knew anything each one of 
another wherein they were to be admonished : answered they knew nothing. 

Whereupon the ministers were called in and encouraged in the Lord and 
exhorted to continue. And the elders being removed, the ministers were exhorted to 
declare if they knew anything wherein they would have any or all of their elders 
admonished, who answered that as for the body of the eldership they were honest 
men, and their hands much strengthened by them, and they knew nothing of them 
but what was commendable in the Lord. Only there were some elders that did not 
bear that hand in discovering and censuring of sin as should be. Whereupon the 
elders, being called in and exhorted to continue in assisting their ministers in the 



142 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

Lord's work, they were also admonished to be more diligent and impartial in 
discovering and censuring of sin. 

The ministers and elders " regrated " that though they knew sundry families did 
make conscience in seeking and serving the Lord in their families, yet family worship 
was not so "sett by" in sundry families as was to be wished; that though the 
repairing of the fabric of the Kirk was begun yet it was not finished; that the 
kirkyard dykes were ruinous ; that one of the ministers wanted manse and glebe, and 
both of them grassums except the kirkyard; that the way from the east to the Kirk 
was stopped; the ways from the north and west were exceeding filthy and deep in 
winter, not being causewayed. The old minister desired his manse to be visited and 
valued. 

The Presbytery having heard and considered the foresaid "regrats," advises the 
ministers to continue pressing family exercise, and to make use of the directions 
of the General Assembly against those that refuse or neglect the same. Appoints 
Messrs Robert Eliot (Linton), Alexander Dickesone (Kirkurd), Alexander Spittal 
(Manor), William Thomsone (Traquair), with their ruling elders, to visit the old 
minister's manse and value it; to speak to the heritors anent the fabric of the Kirk, 
kirkyard dykes, for manse and glebe to the other minister, and grassums to both. 

" Mr Andrew Watsone (vicar) regrated that he was much wronged by the town 
of Peebles in the vicarage tithes, and hke to be robbed thereof, therefore he desired 
the Presbytery's advice and assistance therein." The Presbytery appointed several 
ministers and ruling elders, with the moderator, to hear both parties, and to 
endeavour to arrange the matter; also to speak to the magistrates of Peebles and the 
heritors about the mending of the ways that lead to the Kirk. 



The Civil War. 
\1650 — On July 1 8 another levy of men was raised in the town. Nine men 
were to go forth on this occasion. They were to have six muskets, three picks, nine 
swords, and every man have £,\i besides his arms. Every person in the town to 
contribute twenty-four shillings Scots except the magistrates.] 



Discipline. 
1650, August 8 — Mr John Hay, minister at Peebles, craved advice anent Grisel 

Chisholme, wife to Ewmond, webster, who had her husband apprehended and 

pressed forth to be a soldier, that censure should be inflicted for her cursing of the 
army, saying " the destroying angel be among them." The said Grisel, being called 
in and compearing, was interrogated if she had uttered these words. She at first 
denied, but being "dealt with," at length confessed. The Presbytery, "finding her 
words to be horridlie grosse and blasphemous, did ordaine her to stand in sackcloath 
at y= kirk door and afterwards being brought befor y<= pulpitt to be publicklie rebukt 
befor y<= congregation and y^ next Lord's Day upon evidence of her repentance to be 
received. And w' all to be recommended y= civill magistrat." 



THE MINISTRY OF THEODORE HAY, D.D. 143 

A Drinking Bill. 
1630, August 20 — I (town clerk) was in Eddlestoun Kirk with the soldier, five 
pints ale, los." — Gleanings from Burgh Records, p. 422. 

Battle of Dunbar. 
\1650, September 3 — Cromwell instantly marched northward on hearing the 
intelligence of the arrival of King Charles II. in Scotland. The armies encountered 
one another at Dunbar, and the Covenanters were beaten. They had seriously 
weakened their strength by expelling all officers and men who were in the least 
suspected of what was called malignancy, or who had favoured " The Engagement." 
Every one had to be a Covenanter. The Scottish ministers were largely responsible 
for this great defeat.] 

Peebles after Dunbar Defeat. 
i6so — In October directions were given for keeping strong watches at all the 
gates to watch and report the advance of the enemy. Scouts on horseback were to 
be sent out at night to reconnoitre for the enemy. One was to ride to Gladhouse 
Mill, the other to David Hislop's house, and report daily, else they would receive no 
payment. The pay was to be twenty shillings nightly. Soldiers were to be quartered 
in the town at the charges of their hosts only. 

From November i, 16^0, to May 2g, i6ji, there are no entries in the 
Council Record. 



Neidpath Castle Assailed by Cromwell's Troops. 
1650 — Lord Yester, son of the Earl of Tweeddale, fortified the castle of 
Neidpath against a party of Cromwell's troops sent to capture it. During their stay 
the troopers are said to have stabled their horses in the Church of St Andrew. 
Cannon were posted on the south side of the Tweed on a great elevation, and from 
this point the castle was assailed on its weakest and oldest side. The English 
General is supposed to have been Major-General Lambert, and the time was the latter 
part of December. Cromwell ordered Lambert, with his party of 3000 horse, to 
march from Peebles to Lanarkshire, where he defeated Colonel Ker and 5000 men 
with great slaughter on December i. Neidpath would be besieged on his return to 
Peebles. 

No Service at Drumelzier. 
[i6jo, November 10 — No meeting in the Kirk of Drumelzier till December 29, 
all which time the minister was in a fleeing condition.] 

Cromwell and his Army. 
It was at this time, on December 25, 1650, that Cromwell addressed a letter to 
Colonel Francis Hacker, "at Peebles or elsewhere," in which occurs the following: — 
"Truly I think he that prays and preaches best will fight the best. I know nothing 



144 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

will give like courage and confidence as the knowledge of God in Christ will, and I 
bless God to see any in this army able and willing to impart the knowledge they have 
for the good of others. And I expect it be encouraged by all chief officers in this 
army especially; and I hope you will do so. — I rest, your loving friend, O. 
Cromwell." 

The Scottish Metrical Psalms. 

\1630 — The metrical Psalms, as sung in public worship in the twentieth century, 
are an English production, the work mainly of one Francis Rous. Rous (1579-1659) 
was a native of Cornwall, and was accounted one of the soundest of Puritan divines. 
For the greater part of his long life he was a staunch Presbyterian, but in his old age 
he went over to the Independents, and engaged in a fruitless attempt to set up a 
State Church on congregational lines. He was a man of affairs as well as a 
theologian. He sat in all the Parliaments of Charles I.; he was Speaker in the 
Barebones Parliament of 1653; Cromwell made him one of his counsellors; and he 
capped a strenuous career by becoming Provost of Eton. Like most Puritan divines, 
Rous was of a highly disputatious temperament, and theological controversy to him 
was as essential as the air he breathed. In the second Parliament of Charles I. he 
was conspicuous by his virulent attacks on Arminianism and Popery, and in the Long 
Parliament he led off in a debate on the legality of Laud's new canons — a theme 
thoroughly congenial. He was equally at home as a lay assessor of the Westminster 
Assembly of 1643. 

The adoption of Rous's version of the Psalms by the Church of Scotland came 
about in rather a peculiar way. When in 1642 the Long Parliament directed its 
attention to psalmody, it had to judge between two rival translations of the Psalms ; 
one was by Rous, and the other by a clergyman named Barton. The House of 
Lords favoured Barton, but the Commons stood firm for Rous. The result was that 
both versions were printed by order of Parliament, and were referred for consideration 
to the Westminster Assembly, which finally decided in favour of Rous. His amended 
version was published in 1646, and in the following year was recommended by 
Parliament to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland. The Supreme 
Court appointed a committee to prepare a revised Psalter, and advised Rous's book, 
together with the " Old Version " of Stemhold, Hopkins, and others, printed at 
Edinburgh in 1564, and the versions of Zachary Boyd and Sir William Mure of 
Rowallan. Rous's book, however, took precedence, and became the basis of the 
"Paraphrase" of the Psalms printed by authority of the General Assembly in 
1650, which has been retained in the Scottish Churches until now. Though an 
Englishman's version of the Psalms was thus adopted, it is only fair to mention that 
Rous was indebted to some extent to the labours of James VI., and Sir William 
Alexander (afterwards Earl of Stirling), who projected a version which was printed by 
authority of Charles I. at the Oxford University Press. It was subsequently attached 
to the famous Scottish service-book which proved too much for Jenny Geddes. 
Still the fact remains that for over two centuries and a half Scottish worshippers have 
been singing a version of the Psalms which, in the main, is the handiwork of Francis 
Rous, who, although wedded to the Presbyterian polity, was in every other respect 
typically English, and, so far as our knowledge goes, never saw Scotland.] 

Scottish Psalters. 
\_1562 — Only one copy of this work is known to remain, viz., that in the library 
of Corpus Christi College, at Oxford. 



THE MINISTRY OF THEODORE HAY, D.D. 145 

1^65 — Copies of this edition are identical with the previous. There are 105 
tunes, forty-two more than the English psalter of 1562. Of the psalms, the forty-four 
by Sternhold and Hopkins (1549) are retained; and the forty-three added by the 
refugees at Geneva. Of the eighty-seven added to the 1562 English psalter, forty-two 
are retained, and twenty-two added from new sources. 

i^(j8 — Thomas Bassendyne published a psalm book containing an objectionable 
song called "Welcome Fortune," suppressed by the General Assembly. 

7J7J- — Bassendyne issued another edition of the psalter. Spiritual songs 
appear in it; also "Gloria Patri," attached to Psalm 136. Ross brought out an 
edition contemporary with Bassendyne. A copy of this is in the Antiquarian 
Museum in Edinburgh; title-page missing. 

i^g() — Edition by Henrie Charteris. It contains one prayer in the Scottish 
dialect appended to each psalm; also a full set of metrical doxologies termed 
conclusions. 

161 1 — Two editions by Andro Hart; faulty. 

1613 — A handsome and accurate edition. It introduces twelve four-line tunes 
separate from the fixed tunes, and bearing the common designation of " common " 
tunes. 

jd2j'-j(52(5— Two editions, by Raban, at Aberdeen. 

i62g — Another edition by Raban. 

1633 — Raban's best edition. Three new common tunes are added. Also Bon- 
Accord and Montrose. In these latter tunes the treble is designated "the Church 
part." 

1635 — Edition by the heirs of Andro Hart. It contained the psalms of David 
in prose and metre, with all their tunes in four or more parts. There were many 
godly prayers added ; and a kalendar for twenty-five years. The common tunes were 
increased to thirty-one, besides eight in repeats. It was edited by Edward Miller, 
M.A. 

1640 — Two editions of the preceding version, by James Bryson. 

1630 — The present version of the psalms adopted by the Church. The 
psalter was printed without the tunes; and the tunes were not issued separately. 
The tunes therefore became forgotten.] 

The Remonstrants. 
[/djo— Meanwhile among the Scottish clergy another body had arisen who were 
called " Remonstrants." This was because they had presented a remonstrance to the 
estates against the treaty which had been made with King Charles II. They were 
headed by Colonel Strachan, who, however, with his troops, was defeated near 
Hamilton. He afterwards joined Cromwell.] 

The Psalms. 
[The commission of the Assembly had forbidden any other version to be used in 
any congregation or family, after May i, 1650, than the new version of the psalter. 
May 1 5 was kept as a thanksgiving for the capture of Montrose, and on that day the 
new psalm-books were read and sung through all the kingdom. Montrose was 
executed on May 21, 1650.] 

Noble Penitents. 
[After the battle of Dunbar, Cromwell was master of the country up to the Forth. 



146 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

The Engagers were loyal to King, country, and Church; and they were ready to 
submit to any penance in order to be allowed to join in the national defence. The 
Government consulted the commission of the Assembly, who finally allowed such 
to be made use of on condition of their satisfying the Church for the sin of the 
Engagement. The Parish Churches were now filled with the mock penitents doing 
penance for their political misdeeds. The Duke of Hamilton, Lord Chancellor 
Loudon, the Earl of Dunfermline, the Earl of Lauderdale, and the Earl of Crawford 
all put on sackcloth and professed repentance for their imputed sins. On January 
12, 1 65 1, Lieutenant-General Middleton did his penance in Dundee Church, in 
sackcloth; and on the same day Colonel Strachan, who had remonstrated against 
the treaty with Charles II., was excommunicated and delivered to the devil in the 
Church of Perth. This remonstrant was treated worse than the Royalists.] 

Coronation of King Charles II. 

[zdj/ — Charles II. was crowned King of Scodand at Scone on January i, the 
crown being placed on his head by the Marquis of Argyll. 

The coronation sermon of January i, 1651, in the Kirk of Scone was preached 
by Robert Douglas, who was minister at Edinburgh. Some supposed he had 
something of the blood-royal in him. Anyhow, he was a kingly man. Professor 
Mitchell calls him "a silent, sagacious, masterful man." He was one of the 
Resolutioners or more moderate of the Covenanters. The text of the coronation 
sermon was II. Kings xi., 12-17, the crowning of King Joash. He said: — "You are 
this day to invest a young King in the throne, in a very troublous time, when wicked 
men have risen up and usurped the kingdom, and put to death the late King most 
unnaturally. . . . It is our necessary duty to crown the King upon all hazards, 
and to leave the success to God. Delay is dangerous, because of the compliance of 
some and the treachery of others. If it shall be delayed longer, it is to be feared that 
the most part shall sit down under the shadow of the bramble, the destroying 
usurpers. ... In putting on the crown it should be well fastened, for Kings' 
crowns are often tottering, and this is a time wherein they totter. Two things make 
them totter — great sins and great commotions and troubles. The sins of former 
Kings have made this a tottering crown. There has been a solemn day of 
humiliation for the sins of the Royal Family on Thursday last (26th December 1650), 
which I wish the Lord may bless, and I desire the King may be truly humbled for 
his own sins and the sins of his father's house, which have been great. Beware of 
putting on these sins with the crown ; for if you put them on, all the well-wishers to a 
King in the three kingdoms will not be able to hold on the crown and keep it from 
tottering, yea, from falling. . . ." Mr Douglas said of " the testimony " given to 
the Jewish King — " I recommend to the King to take some hours for reading the 
Holy Scriptures; it will be a good means to make him acquainted with God's mind 
and with Christ a Saviour." On "the anointing," the preacher admitted it was 
typical, but " it was most in use with the Bishops of Rome, who, to keep Kings and 
Emperors subject to themselves, did swear them to the Pope when they were 
anointed. . . . They are here who were witnesses at the coronation of the late 
King, the bishops behoved to perform that rite, and the King behoved to be sworn 
to them. But now, by the blessing of God, Popery and Prelacy are removed — the 
bishops as limbs of anti-Christ are put to the door — let the anointing of Kings with 
oil go to the door with them, and let them never come in again." In giving 
"directions to the King," the preacher said: — "Sir, you have many difficulties and 
oppositions to meet with; acquaint yourself with prayers, be instant with God, and 



THE MINISTRY OF THEODORE HAY, D.D. 



t47 



He will fight for you. Prayers are not in much request at Court, but a covenanted 
King must bring them in request. I know a King is burdened with multiplicity of 
affairs and will meet with many diversions. But, sir, you must not be diverted. 
Take hours, and set them apart for that exercise. Men being once acquainted with 
you will not dare to divert you. Prayer to God will make your affairs easy all the 
day. I read of a King, of whom his courtiers said — ' He spoke oftener with God 
than with men.' If you be frequent in prayer, you may expect the blessing of the 
Most High upon yourself and upon your Government." 

The sermon occupies fifty pages, and winds up with a warning derived from the 
King's grandfather. King James, who "fell to be very young in a time full of 
difificulties, yet there was a godly party in the land who did put the crown upon his 
head, . . . yet he remembered not their kindness, but persecuted faithful 
ministers for opposing his course of defection. ... In a word, he laid the 
foundation whereupon his son, our late King, did build much mischief to religion all 
the days of his life. I shall add one example for imitation, that of Hezekiah, who 
did that which was right in the sight of the Lord, and the Lord prospered him 
whithersoever he went forth. Follow his example, and the Lord will be with you. 
To this Lord, from whom we expect a blessing upon this day's work, be glory and 
praise for ever. — Amen."] 

The Dumb Man of Peebles. 
163 1 — The following letter, written in the month of the King's coronation, is of 
interest, as containing a reference to Peebles: — "Their young King is gone to 
Aberdeen, where 'tis reported he sets up his standard: they will rise willingly, 
being very unanimous, yet the dumb man of Peebles makes signs that they will 
before long cut off the heads of some great ones. Truly I am confident that they 
have filled the measure of their iniquities, and that God will speedily judge them." — 
Major-General Lambert to Oliver Cromwell. 

Mr Andrew Watson. 
16^1, April 2 — On this day was appointed schoolmaster Mr Andrew Watson, 
who had been vicar of Peebles for a long time. The stipend was to be 200 merks, 
with the payments from the town's and landward bairns, and a chamber. He was to 
instruct the children in the grounds of divinity and humanity, and all other liberal 
sciences, which he had taught when he was schoolmaster previously. The chapel 
bell to be rung every morning at six for convening the children to school. 

Troops in Peebles. 
In June Twisleton's troop was quartered on the town. No one was to purchase 
or reset his neighbour's goods from the enemy, but all such were to be restored to 
their lawful owners. 

A Mortification for the Schoolmaster. 
1^51^ J^^n^ 6 — On June 6, 1651, the following interesting mortification 
was ordered to be inserted into the council book : — Three ladies, Marie, Isobel, and 
Margaret Tweedy, daughters and heiresses of the sheriff of Peebles, and heiresses to 



148 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

their brother, Thomas Tweedy, in Whitehaugh, have devoted to the augmentation 
of the schoolmaster's fee and stipend of the burgh school of Peebles, " our three 
fourth-parts of Franksland, our three fourth-parts of Dalatho, and our barns, 
tenements, houses, and yards in the Northgait of Peebles," provided that their cousin, 
Sir Michael Naesmyth of Posso, and bailie William Lowis, spouse of Isobel, and 
William Tweedy of Wrae, their cousin, have a voice in the election of the 
schoolmaster, or any two of them. If this be at any time denied them, then the 
revenues were to go to the kirk-session of Peebles for the honest poor persons of the 
burgh and land during the time that the said gentlemen had no voice in the election 
of the schoolmaster. Part of these properties were formerly Church lands ; and it is 
pleasant to see these revenues applied, as the reformers desired, in the cause of 
education. 

Divisions in Church and State. 
\1651 — At this time all the land south of the Forth was in the hands of the 
English sectaries, Stirling Casde forming the frontier fortress of the Royalists. 
General Leslie had been beaten by Cromwell at Dunbar ; and the army of Strachan 
had suffered at Hamilton. The act of classes of 1648, which prevented any from 
holding offices of honour or trust who had approved of the Engagement, had had the 
effect of prohibiting large numbers of officers and men from taking part in the 
defence of their country. The full force of this insane exclusiveness was now felt by 
the nation; and after much acrimonious argument on all sides, the odious act of 
classes was repealed on the last day of May. This was not accomplished without a 
protesting party; and as a result, two more parties were added to Church and 
State, viz.. Protesters and Resolutioners. The Church, however, had, as has been 
already referred to, first to be satisfied by the humiliations and penances then in 
vogue ere the repeal of the act could enable the delinquents to take positions in the 
army, Church, and State as formerly. The protesting of these resolutions of the 
Church in favour of the so-called malignants had the effect of causing the disruption 
of the Church a few months later. It had been found that the abohtion of the daily 
service had been the cause of much drinking at that time when prayers and chapters 
had been usually read. Accordingly ministers resolved to give lectures in turns, 
morning and evening daily, in the Church of Edinburgh.] 

The First Schism. 
\1651, July 17 — When the General Assembly met at St Andrews, in July 1651, 
news came on Sunday, the 17th, that part of the army of Cromwell had crossed the 
Forth, and defeated the Scots at Inverkeithing. Thereupon the General Assembly 
met at midnight, and adjourned to meet at Dundee on the 22nd. The Protesters 
did not attend, but sent a protest. This led to the deposition of three ministers and 
the suspension of one. This is the first open schism in the Church.] 

The Civil War. 
[zdj'y — King Charles moved his army from Fife, and began a march to 
the south toward England. Cromwell pursued; and at Worcester, on September 
3, defeated Charles. The King fled, and ultimately gained a shelter in France. 
Cromwell handed over the subjugation of Scodand to General Monk, who effected it 
more thoroughly than had been done by Edward I. For the next nine years 



THE MINISTRY OF THEODORE HAY, D.D. 149 

Scotland was practically a province of Puritan England. The Church was now 
merely a teaching institute, and not a place of divine worship unless in a very minor 
degree ; but there is ample evidence that the laity did not approve of the giving up of 
the reading of scripture, of the Lord's Prayer, of the Gloria, and of the communion. 
General Monk next carried the war into the Highlands, and, on August 26, captured 
the estates, and nine ministers, at Alyth, and transported them to London. Scotland 
was now completely conquered. The Covenants, as State documents, were dead. 
Sectarianism was triumphant over both Presbytery and Episcopacy. This disruption 
was followed by the Ten Years' Conflict, the fiercest that ever raged in the country. 
The Westland Ranters of the Kirk, as the Protesters were called, were very much the 
same party as that which had promoted the sectarian innovations in worship. They 
now, by their schismatic course, broke the back of the Church, and destroyed its 
orderly continuity. — Sprott.^ 

Returning to Peebles: as has been stated its records are wanting from 
November 1650, till the end of May 1651, an evidence of the disturbed condition of 
the country by the troops of Cromwell. There is one entry which helps to shew 
this: — One shilling paid for two candles to look at the writs in the steeple after 
the Englishmen had spoiled the same. 



1648-1666. /IDinfstrs of IRev. 5obn 1bas, B.2). 

Fourth Minister. Eighteen Years. Covenanted Presbyterianism till 1661, thereafter 
the Second Episcopacy. 

The Manse of Peebles. 
1651, September 4 — The minister at Peebles desired that being to enter to his 
manse, and to satisfy the relict of the last incumbent, his manse might be valued, and 
that before they did proceed thereunto they would appoint some to speak the 
heritors and to represent unto them the act of Parliament concerning manses. 
Whereupon the Presbytery appointed Mr Alexander Spittall (Manor), and Mr 
Patrick Fleming (Stobo), to do so. (This means that the senior minister, Dr 
Theodore Hay, was now deceased. He had been minister of Peebles since 16 10, 
but had for assistant his son, John Hay, from 1643. In 1648 Dr Theodore Hay 
demitted office.) 

Dr Theodore Hay and His Times. 
Dr Theodore Hay was old enough to have remembered the long struggle 
that was waged between Episcopacy and Presbytery, which lasted from 1572 
to 1592, resulting in the triumph of Presbytery; this in turn came to an end in 
the very year in which he became minister of Peebles, so that the new minister began 
his ministerial life in Peebles as an Episcopalian; Presbytery however re-asserted 
itself again in 1638. In 1645 Dr Hay would have to follow the order recommended 
in the Westminster Directory, for the purpose of procuring uniformity with the 
Puritans in the English Church. He was a witness of the Revolution of 1648, which 
ended in the death of King Charles I. He would probably be one of those who 
deplored the introduction of Brownist innovations into the Church; and it would 
likely be with extreme reluctance that he discontinued the reading of scripture, the 
recitation of the Lord's Prayer, and the singing of the "Glory to the Father." He 
lived long enough to know of the disruption of the Church in 1651 ; and finally died 
when any worship that there was in Scotland was conducted by sectaries. In his 
last years, Peebles was in the hands of the soldiers of Cromwell, who acted the part 
of militant evangelists and of ecclesiastical dictators. He had seen the Covenants 
originate and become promulgated over the whole of the kingdom with an intense 
enthusiasm; he likewise saw their fall as State documents. It is a curious thought 
that during all that time his name occurs with rare infrequency in the records of the 
day, whereas that of his versatile vicar is met with constantly. Whether Dr Hay was 
a dignified and scholarly man of peace, who made it his ruling principle to quarrel 
with no one, or was a lukewarm Laodicean, cultivating a Gallio-like indifference to 



THE MINISTRY OF JOHN HAY, B.D. 151 

all the changes going on around him, there is now no evidence to shew. But amid 
such stirring times it was surely no mean statesmanship which enabled this man to 
continue for so long a period as minister of Peebles and yet leave behind him no 
indications of his tastes, proclivities, principles, friendships, policy, or ritual. 

The Manse of Peebles. 

1651, September 18 — It was reported that the heritors of Peebles promised a 
definite reply next day. 

165 1, October g — The heritors of Peebles called; not compearing, the clerk was 
instructed to write to them. 

7(557, October 23 — Heritors of Peebles promised an answer for next day 
regarding the manse at Peebles. 

1631, November 20 — Some of the heritors of Peebles, compearing, did, in the 
name of the rest, refuse to make free the manse to the present incumbent by 
satisfying the relict of the late incumbent. The Presbytery therefore appoints some 
of their number and a ruling elder, together with two craftsmen, to visit the said 
manse of Peebles, and to value the melioration thereof in respect of its condition at 
the entry of Mr Theodore Hay, late incumbent to the ministry there; withal 
ordaining them to call before them such aged men as can best give information anent 
the state and condition of the said manse at the entry of Mr Theodore Hay, and of 
his meliorating the same during his incumbency. Date for their meeting fixed, and 
they are to report. 

165 1, December 4 — The valuation of the manse of Peebles being offered to the 
Presbytery in script by the brethren appointed for that effect, the Presbytery refused 
to take in the report till Mr Johne Hay (the minister), now at Edinburgh, be present. 

1651, December 18 — The brethren appointed to visit and value the manse 
of Peebles gave in a report of their diligence as follows: — Peebles, 24th November 
1 65 1. — This day the committee appointed by the Presbytery, &c., met, and called 
before them Thomas Wallace, James Robison, and Robert Marshall, old men, who 
were most able to inform them of the condition of the manse at the entry of Mr 
Theodore Hay therein. Thomas Wallace, a man of sixty years of age, residing at 
Peebles, declared that at the entry of Mr Theodore Hay the " high house " of the 
manse was ruinous, and the roof so crazy that the minister was in danger to be 
smoored (smothered), and durst not dwell in it; that it had no doors but one at the 
stair foot; that it had one old loft; that the high house was roofed anew by Johne and 
James Creue, craftsmen, at the expense of the said Mr Theodore Hay, a little after 
his entry, and that the hall and chamber in the high house were lofted anew by Wm. 
Broune and Wm. Hyslop, craftsmen, now present, at the charges of the said Mr 
Theodore Hay. Moreover he declared that the " low houses," viz., a hall and a 
chamber, with a byre on the other end of the hall, with a cross house on the head of 
the yaird toward the south, and with a barn joining to the gable of the high house on 
the west side of the close, were all lately built from the ground by the said Mr Theodore 
Hay at his charges. Moreover, that the outer gate, having neither cheeks, nor cover, 
nor leaves, was in all these built and repaired at the said Mr Theodore Hay's charges. 



152 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

James Robiesone, residing at Peebles, aged sixty years, declared ut supra. Robert 
Marshall, residing at Peebles, of near sixty years of age, declared anent the manse ut 
supra., yea, moreover added that he was a man of sixteen or eighteen years of age at 
the said Mr Theodore's entry; that he was sometime the said Mr Theodore's 
domestic servant, and that while he was in his service he did plant the yaird that is 
joined to the manse. The visitors of the said manse having heard the above 
superscribed declaration of these three aged men, did, with the three workmen, go 
through all the rooms of the manse, and having taken a narrow inspection thereof, did 
take the workmen sworn, with their hands lifted up, deeply charging them to go 
through again the several rooms of the manse, and to prize and value everything done 
by Mr Theodore, without fear or favour of any whomsoever, and to return to them the 
true worth and value, according to their judgment, of everything done by the said Mr 
Theodore Hay to the said manse, in building or repairing the same since his entry, 
with respect always to the condition of the manse at his entry as compared to its 
present state. The three sworn craftsmen, after careful consideration, gave in their 
judgment to the ministers and ruling elder. They fixed the value of the improve- 
ments made by Mr Theodore Hay at the sum of a thousand threescore and nine 
marks, Scots money. — Signed by Patrick Fleming. The Presbytery having heard 
the report, approves the same, and appoints three of the said visitors to see the 
present minister at Peebles content and satisfy the relict of Mr Theodore Hay for 
the said manse, and to deal for agreement betwixt them in case of any difference. 

John Hay's Scandalous Marriage. 

i6si, December i8 — Johne Hay, son to Sir James Hay of Smithfield, being 
referred to the Presbytery for his disobedience to the session of Peebles, and for his 
late scandalous marriage, contrary to the order and practice of this Kirk, and being 
cited to this day, was called, and not compearing, was ordered to be cited pro 
secundo. 

165 1, December 25 — John Hay called; not compearing, was ordained to be 
cited pro tertio. 

The English Soldiers in Peebles. 
1651 — In October, soldiers were still being quartered on the town. In 
December all the picks and muskets which the town had purchased from Lord 
Tweeddale were to be examined. A deputation was also appointed to wait upon 
Lieutenant-General Lambert, and regret the losses which were made by the English 
army, for preventing local quartering, and repeat to them the burden of coal, candle, 
and take instructions. All arms not given out to the levies, whether plundered by 
the enemy or not, to pay the full price for the same. On December 29 the order was 
repeated for the deputation to proceed to General Lambert at Edinburgh, and speak 
to him anent the losses sustained by the town by the English army. All those who 
possessed horses were to give them up for the purpose of carrying the commissioners' 
messages and doing other business for the utility of the town. Those who had no 



THE MINISTRY OF JOHN HAY, B.D. 153 

horses to furnish footmen for the same purpose, without any exemption, under 
penalty of ;^5. 

Reparation of the Church. 
1651 — The council are willing, according to the old former custom, to repair the 
two westmost windows and the fabric of the Church; they are willing to repair and 
uphold their part of the Church according as the burgh of Selkirk, which is a more 
able burgh than this; item, they find it is incumbent to the titular to repair a part of 
the Church as his predecessors were wont to do, and if they were tacksmen as others 
are, they are most willing to undergo their proportion conform. (This means if they 
were tacksmen of the teinds.) 

A Period of Unrest. 
In the Presbytery records occur such references as these in various parishes: — 
1651, March 2j— No meeting, for fear of the enemy. March jo — The collection 
this day to be given to a man for acting as watch during the time of sermon. 
August J — No meeting, because of the marching of the enemy through the parish. 
The kirk-session of Innerleithen lent their money on bond until more peaceful times. 

Dark Days for the Church. 

i6sJ — The records at this time teem with cases of discipline. Punishments are 
inflicted for gossiping in the Churchyard, ricking corn on Sunday, flyting, drinking, 
keeping the mill going on Sunday, absenting from Church, hiring on Sunday, 
gathering nuts on Sunday, carrying meal on the same day, and for hounding a dog 
on sheep "mair thoroughly then ordinar." 

These indeed were terrible days of Church discipline. Much attention was paid 
to evidence of a merely hearsay character; the result being that opportunity was 
afforded to the envious, to the malignant, to the slanderous and revengeful, either to 
pay off old scores, or to destroy the reputation of a neighbour. To these causes also 
must be attributed the awful delusion of witchcraft — at least in part — which in this 
seventeenth century obsessed the Church like a hideous nightmare. Some of its 
victims were undoubtedly insane; others were the subjects of an aggravated hysteria 
which prompted them to confess to horrible practices out of a mere craving for 
notoriety; but very many suffered from the false and vindictive accusations of their 
neighbours in order to afford the gratification of spite or revenge. Notwithstanding 
the unfortunate axiom in the Old Testament — "Thou shalt not suffer a witch to 
live," which command was obeyed with a terrible literalness, the Church of this time 
was very far from being free from blame in the wholesale martyrdoms of the period. 
A Judaising spirit appeared to invade the Church. There was, for instance, this 
devilish servitude to the cult of burning witches. There was the fanatical massacre 
of the prisoners of Philiphaugh, admittedly conducted on Old Testament lines. 
There was the slavish worship of the Sabbath, with a literal attention to detail, rather 
than the God of the Sabbath. There was the Pharasaical life and dead ecclesiasticism 
of many of these self-righteous sectaries. There were the degrading humiliations of 



IS4 



THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 



the cutty stool, and of the jougs, which served merely to render the culprit callous 
and vindictive, rather than truly penitent. And, lastly, there was the legalised 
hypocrisy which followed on the repeal of the act of classes, whereby noblemen, 
officers, gentlemen, and others were forced by their patriotism, and by a tyrannical 
Church, to undergo a mock penance for sins which they were conscious they had 
never committed. Otherwise they would have been precluded from all share in the 
defence of their country against the English invasion. 

The result of it all was that the short-sighted polity of the Church caused the 
defeat at Dunbar of the Scottish army, and directly opened the way to the 
subjugation of Scotland by Cromwell and General Monk. The Church gained 
nothing. She alienated, excommunicated, and exiled the best of her clergy. She 
gave up her ritual, her liturgy, her worship, all in order to please the Puritans of 
England. Worship in the truest sense ceased; and its place was taken by a 
system of teaching the narrowest, hardest, and most repellant doctrines for the 
mutual damnation of the hearers. The Church is only now emerging from the 
deadly bane of those blighting days. She is returning again to her ancient ritual and 
liturgy; and the ignorant in Church history exclaim against those things as an 
imitation of Episcopacy, not knowing that Scotland acquired them all from Knox, and 
abandoned them merely in deference to a cry for uniformity with the Puritan Church 
in England. The Brownist innovations formed indeed a disastrous legacy which 
the Church inherited from those days, and from whose deadening spell she is 
endeavouring to emerge. 

At Stobo, in Peeblesshire, may be seen the jougs or iron collar, attached to the 
outside of the Church, in which offenders were imprisoned, which remain a survival 
of the discipline of the time. At Eddleston, also, there are jougs, no longer attached 
to the Church, but preserved in the manse as a monument of a regimen which is past. 
And only a few years ago there was unwittingly destroyed the stool of repentance 
which belonged to the Church of Peebles. These things are useful as object lessons 
in gratitude to the present generation, and serve to point the moral, recorded also in 
the Old Testament: — "Say not thou, What is the cause that the former days were 
better than these ? For thou dost not enquire wisely concerning this." 

The Psalter. 
[rd// — Regarding the new psalter, which was now fairly in use, Dr Sprott says 
that its introduction had a disastrous effect on the service of praise. In the old 
version there had been a much greater variety of metre, and the proper tunes in four 
parts were usually printed along with the text. Another novelty recommended by 
the Directory proved fatal to Church music, and dealt the last and lasting blow. 
This was the reading of the line and singing the same, line by line, to the utter 
destruction of melody and sense. This also survived down to the present day. It 
was perhaps as well that what was called singing was to be introduced only once or 
twice during the service, although by this order the fundamental idea of what worship 
really is was still further sacrificed.] 

Sacred Tune. 
\i6si — " Altenburg," Gotha Cantional] 



THE MINISTRY OF JOHN HAY, B.D. 155 

Politics. 
\1651 — After the battle of Worcester, Scotland was governed by a commission. 
Cromwell, whose sympathies were with the Protesters, yet appointed one (Leighton) 
whose leanings were toward the Resolutioners. The national religion was not 
proscribed ; the Church, however, lost some of her independence, and had no longer 
the power of controlling the civil government. The General Assembly was forcibly 
dissolved in 1653; but Synods and Presbyteries were allowed to meet as formerly. 
The formation of independent congregations was protected ; and Church courts had 
no longer coercive jurisdiction over non-members. Commissioners were appointed 
by the English government to visit the Universities; also to enquire as to those 
ministers who preached against it; and to decide disputes in vacant parishes. These 
commissioners endeavoured to hold the balance between Resolutioners and 
Protesters. The Parliamentary commissioners governed Scotland from 1653 to 
1655; thereafter a special council did so. In Scotland the Protector's government 
aimed at a limited Presbytery carried on with toleration, whereas in England, 1653 
to 1660, a Broad Church was realised, with no special form of ecclesiastical 
organisation. The commission considered principally the personal fitness and 
piety of a presentee to a living, and he was placed in his parish if found worthy in 
these respects. The Parish Church was regarded as parish property, and in 
England in one parish the clergyman might be a Presbyterian, in another 
Independent, and in a third Baptist.] 



Reparation of the Church. 
1652, January 8 — Returning to Peebles, it is found that the council appointed 
the provost and six others to meet on this day with lord Yester and remanent heritors 
in Peebles parish, and to confer with them anent the reparation of the Church. 

John Hay, Younger of Smithfield. 
1632, March 25 — The minister at Peebles informed the Presbytery that John 
Hay, "appeerand of Smyfeeld, in that paroche," had, contrary to the order of this 

Kirk, married himself to one Jonnet Watsone, daughter to Watsone, in 

Peebles, without proclamation before, or consent of his parents to his marriage, by an 
English minister at Edinburgh, and that he had cited the parties to the Presbytery. 
The Presbytery finding their marriage scandalous, called the parties; of whom the 
man only compeared, and spoken to upon his offence, answered: That he was not 
convinced of any offence he had done in it, but if he were, that he would submit 
himself to censure ; whereupon the Presbytery appointed Mr Robert Elliot (Linton) 
and Mr Richard Broun (Drumelzier) to deal with him, to convince him. And 
because the woman compeared not, to cite her pro secundo. The minister at Peebles 
also reported a process before his session against John Hay, son of Sir James Hay of 
Smyfeeld, and John Pringle in Peebles, which was read, mentioning diverse hellish 
and devilish imprecations which escaped them amidst their cups, and depositions of 
two witnesses. The Presbytery appointed the same brethren who are to speak to 
John Hay about his scandalous marriage, to speak to him about this, and also to the 
other, with a view to bringing them to repentance, and to report at next meeting. 



156 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

A Notable Eclipse. 
i6s2, Monday, March 2g — "Upon Monday the 29th of March 1652, the sun 
eclipsed from eight hours to half hour to eleven or thereby before noon; the sun 
eclipsed eleven digits; the darkness continued about eight minutes. The people all 
began to pray to God. A little hereafter was seen upon the south side of the 
firmament a clear perfect star. Some affirmed they saw two, but I one only. And 
because this has been rare and wonderful therefore I judged it worthy to put it on 
record. — Thomas Smyth, town clerk." 

Churchyard. 
1632 — On April 2 proceedings were taken with a view to the erection of a wall 
round the churchyard, as the burial place of the dead was being trod upon by 
beasts by reason of the want of one. Everyone who possessed a horse was to lead six 
loads of clay for each horse; and all those families which had no horses were to carry 
stones, themselves or their servants, for the space of three hours, for the building of 
the wall round the churchyard. 

The Case of John Hay. 
1632, April 8 — The brethren appointed to confer with John Hay report no 
conference because he is sick, which also excuses the woman. The case of the other 
man also deferred. 

Purchase of Arms— Quartering of Soldiers. 
1632 — On April 12 the town obtained a receipt from the earl of Tweeddale 
for 895 merks, being the price of arms received from the earl by the town in the 
recent war. The town also received £,i,o from the shire, as the price of coal and 
candle for seven weeks, which has been divided among those inhabitants on whom 
the soldiers were quartered. 

The Case of John Hay. 
16^2, April 22 — The report of John Hay and his woman, and of him and John 
Pringle not brought in this day neither. The brethren who were appointed to deal 
with him and them having had no convenience of meeting with him in regard he is in 
prison. The Presbytery resolves to seek advice of some reverend brethren at the 
ensuing Synod. 

The Glebe. 
1652, April 22 — The minister at Peebles informing the Presbytery that his glebe 
land is tilled away by those who are next adjacent, so as the bounds and limits of it 
are not clear, and desiring the Presbytery would take some speedy course, so that the 
Kirk be not farther prejudiced, the Presbytery appoints brethren and a ruling elder 
to visit and delimit the glebe of Peebles, and to report next day. 



THE MINISTRY OF JOHN HAY, B.D. 157 

Fairs. 
1632, April JO — The magistrates, considering that profanation of the Sabbath is 
occasioned by holding fairs upon Saturday or Monday, have resolved to change all 
such fairs as happen to fall on either of these days to Tuesday. They therefore 
appoint the fair hitherto called Trinity Monday to be kept and held on Tuesday next, 
and so on in following years. 

Punishment of a Purse-Cutter. 
i6j2 — On May 10 a purse-cutter was ordered to stand at the cross from eleven 
to twelve in the morning, bound with a rope to the stalk of the cross, and a paper on 
his head, for cutting the purse of James Johnstone, in Dawyck. 

The Case of John Hay. 
i6j2. May 20 — The Presbytery, hearing that John Hay is now at liberty, 
ordains that he and his woman, for their scandalous marriage, and he himself and 
John Pringle, for their hellish dialogue in their drunkenness, be cited again to the 
Presbytery. 

Marches of the Glebe. 
1632, May 20 — Ministers reported that they had fixed the marches of the glebe 
land at Peebles, and that the minister there was satisfied. 

A Charge of Wizardry. 

1632, May 20 — The minister at Peebles informed the Presbytery that one John 
Ewmond, weaver in Peebles, having his house broken into and his money stolen, for 
getting his money again, had gone to one John Lyndsey, a wizard, in Dirleton, 
within the Presbytery of Haddington, and that he had cited him to the Presbytery. 
The said John called, compeared, and admitted that because he heard that Robert 
Gibsone, in Eddleston, had got moneys again by going unto him, that therefore he 
went to him also. And interrogated further what he saw him do, he answered that 
he desired of him the names of his own household, and the names of his neighbours 
whom he suspected, and that when he had written them upon a paper, he cutted out 
one and said that man had his moneys and no other, and bade him let his minister 
see it. And asked what time he went to him, he answered that he gave him this 
response upon the windy Saturday, the 8th May instant. Asked what conditions 
passed between them, he said that he promised to give him twenty merks if he got 
his moneys again. The Presbytery having thus heard him, ordains each brother 
with whom are any that have offended this way to cite them to the Presbytery the 
next day, and the said John cited also. 

1652, June J — The Presbytery, in pursuance of their instructions, inquired for 
the names of any who had had dealings with the wizard. Three in different parishes 
were given in, and the persons were called in. They were questioned and confessed. 
Robert Gibson was asked about his visit, and he said the wizard asked him the names 
of his neighbours, and then looked in a little book, and told him the name of the 



158 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

person who he said had the money, "and so he got again his money." The 
Presbytery, resolving to speak of the matter at the Synod, dismissed them, after 
sharp rebuke and exhortation to repentance, and desired them to come to next 
meeting: which they promised. 

The Case of John Hay. 
1652, July 8 — John Hay and his woman, and the said John Hay and John 
Pringle, in their processes, respectively cited pro tertio to this diet, called, compeared 
not. But the Presbytery was informed that John Hay is at Edinburgh, and thought 
good to delay them till he come home. 

The Penalties of Excommunication. 
\From the Books of the Presbytery of Dalkeith: — 1652, July 15 — Also it was 
informed by some of the brethren that Mr James Robertsone, at the marriage of the 
erle of Lowthian's daughter, had both in the Kirk prayit, and at the table in 
Newbotle Castell craved an blessing before supper and given thanks also, Swinton 
being present who is excommunicat; and therfor Mr James being posit if it wer so, 
as wes alledgit? Answered: — That if Swinton wes in the Kirk it wes more than he 
knew of, for he did not sie him ther. As for his being at the table, it wes an long 
tyme before he did perceave him, he being at an larg distance from him, and many 
betwixt them, as also it being in the evening. Bot quhen he perceaved him ther, he 
wes much weighted then, as also now, for his imprudent and inconsiderat carriag. 
As for his giving thanks, it wes after Swinton's rysing from the table, uthers having 
downe the lyk befor, and taking the opportunitie at his absence did give thanks. 
The brethren having ponderat the premisses, and finding that he had not vareit 
himself as it became an man of his place and age, ordainet him to be publicly 
rebuikit and to be more circumspect in tyme to come; which, after his incalling, was 
accordingly done, and the same rebuik well acceptit of by the said Mr James.] 

The Chapel in the High Street. 
1652 — On July 26 the magistrates resolved to erect a pulpit and magistrates' 
seat in the chapel in the High Street. 

Burning and Watching Witches. 
1652, July 28 — Paid to Mr Andrew Watson, vicar of Peebles, £% Scots, as 
payment in part of 100 merks due by the Presbytery for burning witches. Two years 
before this the kirk-session of Newlands had refused to pay the sum asked for by the 
magistrates of Peebles for watching witches in the prison there, because there were 
but four witches in the prison there, and little watching required. 

The General Assembly Prohibited from Meeting. 
\1652 — After a year of anarchy, during which Scotland was horrified by 
Cromwell's officers and soldiers preaching in the Churches, and by other unordained 
persons preaching, baptising, and marrying, the General Assembly met at Edinburgh 
in July 1652. A protest was lodged against its lawfulness by the protesters; and the 
English commissioners recommended to the Assembly the adoption of the Indepen- 
dent system. — Sprott. The Assembly made an act with reference to the conduct of 



THE MINISTRY OF JOHN HAY, B.D. 159 

the services, and recommending the restoration of the catechetical service on Sunday 
afternoons. This was the last utterance of a Covenanting Assembly on the subject of 
worship. When the Assembly sought to meet on July 20 in the following year, 1653, 
one of Cromwell's officers dissolved it and bade it convene no more. Presbyteries 
and Synods were allowed to meet, but the military despotism constantly interfered 
with their jurisdiction. If discipline were directed against a Protester, the culprit 
merely required to get an order from the nearest commandant in order to have 
the proceedings against him stopped.] 

Account for Burning Witches. 
1652, July 28 — Paid to Mr Andrew Watson, vicar of Peebles, £1 Scots, as part 
payment of 100 merks due by the Presbytery for burning witches. — Drumelzier Kirk 
Records. 

John Hay's Case. 
1632, August 26 — The minister at Peebles reported that John Hay is comed 
home from Edinburgh, and that he had cited him and John Pringle to this diet. 
They called, compeared, and asked for their hellish and reproachful discourses in 
their drunkenness in James Birsbane's house, and charged with every particular 
libelled against them as in the process before the session of Peebles sworn to be 
proven. Both of them most obstinately denied, and though much dealt with by 
brethren desiring to convince them, yet not convinced either of drunkenness or any 
such discourse. Whereupon the brethren resolved to represent the case to the 
Synod. The said John Hay, having his wife brought to bed of a child, desired by a 
bull to have the same baptised, offering obedience to the session of Peebles or 
Presbytery respectively, for his scandalous marriage or any other offence that can be 
made up against him The Presbytery having read and considered his bull, referred 
him to the session at Peebles. 

The Manse. 

i6S2, September 23 — Mr John Hay informing the Presbytery that the manse at 
Peebles had not been visited and valued formally by three ruling elders, with the 
ministers, according to act of Parliament thereanent, the Presbytery appoints brethren 
and elders to visit and value as desired. 

1652, October 26 — This day a bull given in by the relict of umquhile Mr 
Theodore Hay, late minister of Peebles, wherein she craves an extract of the 
valuation of the manse. The Presbytery, in regard the incumbent is absent this day, 
delayed the giving furth of it till he be present, with this explanation, that if he agree 
not with her before the next meeting of Presbytery that then she shall have it. 

St Andrew's Day Fairs. 
i6j2, November 13 — A minute of the town council of this date refers to the 
public and free fairs which had been held yearly on St Andrew's day, "these 
many ages byegane." There is no reference to the fair on St Andrew's day in the 



i6o THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

burgh charters, and this fact may be taken as an indication that this fair required no 
charter, having been of use and wont. 

The Manse. 
1652, November 25- — Mr Theodore Hay's reHct requiring an answer to her 
former bull anent the valuation of the manse, and the present incumbent being 
present, the Presbytery, judging her desire reasonable, directs the clerk to give her an 
extract. 

Punishment for Consulting a Wizard. 
16^2, November 25 — Regarding the case of those who had consulted the 
Dirleton wizard, the Presbytery had consulted the Synod. All the delinquents were 
appointed to stand for three Lord's Days at their Church doors while the people were 
convening; and also in the public place of repentance, clothed in linen, during the 
time of divine service. On the first and last of the three Lord's Days their 
repentance was to take place at their own Parish Churches. And on the second 
Lord's Day they were to stand all together at the Church of Peebles. The ministers 
were to deal gravely with them for their ignorance and hardness of heart. 

Repair of the Church. 
1652, December 6 — The council, taking into consideration the ruinous and 
decayed roof of the Church of Peebles, and to evidence their willingness to repair 
their part of the same, and for the present urgent necessity and keeping the same 
from utter decay, authorises and ordains William Lowis, provost, John Andro, and 
John Tweedy, younger, to offer to the heritors and taxtmasters appointed for breaking 
the taxt for reparation of the said Church, to repair a seventh part of the two parts of 
the said roof (the choir belonging to the titular being excepted), providing all the 
burgesses and inhabitants, heritors of lands, be taxt with the town for their trading 
distinct from the parish ; and with this provision that this large offer of the council's 
be no ways prejudicial to them nor to their successors, as a constant rule in time 
coming ; but only for the present necessity, and that notwithstanding, they shall have 
liberty to restrict themselves to the stent rolls in the late Mr Archibald Douglas and 
Mr Theodore Hay, parsons of Peebles, Hfetimes, as also to suit repayment from the 
heritors of the said parish as they shall be found due by law of the expenses debursed 
and to be debursed, and ware it out by the said town in reparation of the chapel; 
also that consideration be taken for the town's upholding of the bridges and school 
upon their own charges without help from the heritors in the shire. 

Account for Quartering an English Regiment. 
1652, December 13 — Alexander Lauder to produce an account of the groats 
owing by the heritors in the landward parish for quartering Twistleton's regiment, 
this day eight days, to the effect the same may be paid to the inhabitants losers 
thereof. 



THE MINISTRY OF JOHN HAY, B.D. i6i 

Visitation of Grammar School. 
16^2, December 30 — The provost of Peebles desired of the Presbytery that some 
of their number should visit the grammar school there. The Presbytery appoints 
members to visit and report. 

Sacred Tune. 
\_16s2 — " Egham," William Turner, 1652-1740.] 

Visitation of Grammar School. 
1633, January 20 — The brethren who were appointed to visit the school 
at Peebles reported their diligence therein, and that they found the school well 
attended by Mr Andrew Watson, present schoolmaster, and great proficiency in the 
scholars by his pains. Whereupon the said Mr Andrew was encouraged and 
exhorted to go on in his duty. 

Building of Pews in the Church. 

1633, March 7 — The council resolved to build two pews, and add to the 

magistrates' seat on the town's charges, and ordains the treasurer to repair the same, 

and gives liberty to any burgesses or freemen in the burgh who will be at the expense 

to join together for building pews before the council's seat and Patrick Veitch's seat. 

Rioting in the Church — Resignation of Schoolmaster, &c. 
1653, March 21 — -Euphan Pringle, spouse to Patrick Dickson, accused of 
committing riot upon Jonet Dickson and Mat Leadbetter within the Church of 
Peebles, upon the Lord's Days, the 6th and 13th days of March; grants schooting 
over Jonet Dickson and dunching her upon the neck ; denies that she did anything 
to Matthew Leadbetter. On this day also the vicar, Andrew Watson, resigned his 
post as schoolmaster, not feeling able for the post. On the following day three men 
were appointed to speak to Lord Linton and Sir John Veitch anent the feu-duties of 
Innerleithen, which were ecclesiastical revenues, and anent the East Wark, which was 
likely to fall. This building was also a possession of the altar of the Holy Cross. 

Disbanding of the General Assembly. 
\_i6s3, July 20 — The General Assembly was disbanded by Colonel Cotterel, one 
of the officers of Cromwell. This was to the great joy of the Remonstrants and 
Protesters.] 

Feu-Duties of the Kirk Lands. 
1653— On October 22, the bailies and other persons were appointed to gather 
in the feu-duties of the kirk lands of Peebles from the persons who have to pay on 
the I St November. 

Complaint Against the Vicar. 
1653, November 24 — It was reported by Mr John Hay that Mr Andro Watson 
did not attend his charge at Peebles, and further that he heard a report of his 



1 62 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

misdemeanour during the time of his absence from his charge. He had been 
previously ordered by the Presbytery to report the case to the session of Peebles, and to 
be diligent in finding out the truth of the "bruit." "I gave obedience," Mr Hay says, 
" in compearing before the session of Peebles, and at the first diet, in regard some 
more than two years had intervened, I durst not be so confident of my memory as to 
give the particular information, but craved a time at which to consult with the 
Presbytery, and thereafter I did attend at another diet, being appointed thereto, but 
was not called in, and now the matter being referred to the Presbytery this is all I 
have to say to the first point. As regards my enquiries about the second point, the 
truth of the scandal, I found that at EHbank there was one night a juggling man 
called Lawson in company with my lord Lynton, with whom also Mr Andro was, 
and after supper or dinner, the juggling man committed impropriety. Mr Andro was 
in the house (as I heard), but whether he was present in the room or not I could not 
learn, only this I have for a truth that Lawson could not get any one to join him in 
his debauched act." The Presbytery, for further light, arranged to ask information 
from lord Elibank, his family, and servants. 

The Church Polity. 
\i6s3 — From this time forward bitterness steadily increased between the 
Resolutioners and the Protesters. The former party embraced most of the clergy, but 
the latter always appeared to exhibit the greater devotion, hence were the favourites 
of the people. It was the Protesters who at this time inaugurated sacramental fast 
days; they were not known previously. They ordained communion to be celebrated 
once a month, but as a rule debarred one-half of the communicants as unworthy. 
On fast days sermon after sermon continued for eight or ten hours. On the 
Saturday two or three preparation sermons were delivered. On the Sunday the 
services lasted the whole day. On the Monday the thanksgiving sermons numbered 
three or four. Sometimes as many as ten ministers were required at these Holy 
Fairs. As these were the days of the Commonwealth, and the Protesters favoured 
Cromwell and his sectaries, they could always count on the favour of the ruling civil 
power. Un-Christian animosities reigned alike in Church and secular affairs. In the 
diary of one Nicol, in October of this year, it is stated " there was no reading of 
chapters nor singing of psalms on the Sabbath day."] 

The Case of John Hay and John Pringle. 
16^4, Jatiuary 5 — Report of examination of witnesses regarding the case of John 
Hay and John Pringle, they having been accused of using scandalous language in 
their cups, about a year previously. The brethren, not being clear about the case, 
adjourned it till after Synod. (The report of the witnesses is of their talking of 
playing cards in hell, saying it would be hot work, and that they should like a barrel 
of wine, for which they suggested the waiter might be tapster. This case has been 
up again and again and again in the minutes, as being adjourned for one reason or 
another. Other cases of scandal were adjourned and adjourned for many months, 
but never dropped until every possible source of information was exhausted, and 
sometimes they appear to have arisen out of the merest trifles: in one case a scandal 
which lasted many months arose out of the mere leaving of her place by a woman 




A Holy Fair -(Photo by T. Crozier). Set- p. 162 



THE MINISTRY OF JOHN HAY, B.D. 163 

servant in the middle of the term, and over which an enormous amount of trouble 
was taken by ministers, Synod, and even General Assembly !) 

Gillespie's Charter. 
{^1634 — This year may be noted in the history of the Church as the year of 
Gillespie's Charter. It was called after one of three Protesters summoned to London 
by Cromwell to aid him in preparing an ordinance similar to one which he had 
introduced into England. A leading provision of this document was that no one was 
to be admitted to a parish who was not approved by the Tryers — ministers and 
laymen of the various sects appointed for the purpose of trying candidates for vacant 
charges. This was opposed by the Synods, and also by some of the Protesters as 
well, so it was only partially carried out, but it increased the numbers of the 
dissenting ministry.] 

Repair of the Church. 
1654, February 77 — Upon report made by William Lowis, provost, that for 
reparation of the roof, two parts of the Church (the minister having undertaken to 
repair the choir, being the third part thereof), the cost is seven hundred merks Scots, 
appointed to be broken and collected from the heritors in the town and landward 
parish, whereof the town's part is 100 merks, being the seventh part thereof, the 
council authorises the two present bailies (after the town's part is broken) to give in 
the same to the stentmasters appointed by the heritors for breaking the whole stent, 
and that the same be joined with the stent roll for the landward parish. For the 
paying of which 100 merks as the town's part it is resolved and enacted that the town, 
out of its common rent, pay the two parts, and the heritors of the arable acres the 
third part; and for relief of the town's two parts the tenements of lands within the 
town to pay the half thereof; and what the town has debursed in reparation of 
the Kirk windows be allowed to them in the fore end of the said stent, according as 
the parish gets allowance. 

Town Full of Soldiers. 
1634, March p — This day, the town being full of soldiers, who are reported 
to be very unruly, only the moderator and three other members present. No 
business done. 

Removing the Pulpit to the Chapel. 
1634, April J — When John Murray, wright, took down the pulpit into the 
chapel, with two others to help, 6 shillings. 

The Hay-Pringle Case. 

i6s4, August 10 — Anent Johne Pringle, blasphemer, the Presbytery ordains the 
minister of Peebles to pray for him publicly. John Hay is said to be out of the 
country. 

1634, Augicst 24 — Anent John Pringle, the minister reported he had hopes of 
his satisfaction. 



1 64 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

i6s4, September 30 — Anent John Pringle, the minister reported he had prayed 
for him publicly. The Presbytery ordains him to proceed to the second (prayer) if 
he be obstinate. 

Charge against Andrew Watson — John Pringle's Denial. 
i6s4, October 19 — The brethren from Haddington reported that Lord Elibank 
had no servants in his employ who were there at the time of Mr Andrew 
Watson's alleged scandalous behaviour, and that my lord himself solemnly declared 
that he did neither hear nor see any such thing as was alleged to have taken place. 
The Presbytery decided to try to trace the servants, and to write to the ministers 
in the places where they may find them to be living. John Pringle, blasphemer, 
compeared, fell on his knees, and declared his innocence of any blasphemy. He is 
ordered to appear before the next meeting of Synod. John Hay also ordered to 
appear before the Synod. 

Death of the Earl of Tweeddale. 
j6^4 — John, eighth lord Yester, had been raised to the dignity of earl of 
Tweeddale in the year 1646. In his latter days, when enfeebled by illness, the 
honours of the family were sustained by his son, John, lord Yester, who married lady 
Jean Scott, daughter of Walter, first earl of Buccleuch. Lord Yester took consider- 
able part in the Civil War, and commanded a troop of horse at the battle of Marston 
Moor, in 1644. When Cromwell invaded Scotland in the year 1650, and soon after, 
by gaining the battle of Dunbar, acquired possession of Edinburgh, lord Yester, who 
may be styled a Covenanted Royalist, has been referred to as having fortified 
Neidpath Castle against Cromwell's General. This lord Yester succeeded his father, 
the first earl of Tweeddale, who died in 1654. He became second earl of 
Tweeddale, and after the restoration of Charles II. he became the leading statesman 
of his day in Scotland. It was he who greatly improved Neidpath Castle, excavating 
the principal doorway in the centre of the building in place of that at the river front, 
with its turnpike stair. The grand staircase also was hewn out of the eleven feet 
thick solid wall. Spacious windows were substituted for the narrow airholes. Stables 
and other outbuildings were added; and the terraces sloping to the Tweed were 
formed. The second earl had a son, John, lord Yester, born in 1645. He became 
author of the verses to the tune of "Tweedside." He married in 1666 Lady Anne 
Maitland, only child and heiress of the duke of Lauderdale, In the year 1686 he 
sold his entire interests and estates in Tweeddale to the duke of Queensberry. 

Ministers Disciplined. 

/df5, March i — Act of Synod received anent Alexander Trotter, ordering him 
to express repentance on a Sabbath day in the Kirk of Peebles, and confirming their 
former act regarding Mr Patrick Purdie. 

i6s5, March ij — Alexander Trotter reported as much weighed down with the 
sense of his sin. Which he, appearing, confirmed. He was ordained to confess the 
same in the Kirk at Peebles upon Sabbath fortnight, the moderator to preach and 



THE MINISTRY OF JOHN HAY, B.D. 165 

receive him; and he then to go likewise to Lanark and Biggar. (Alexander Trotter 
was minister of Tweedsmuir. Patrick Purdie was minister of Newlands.) 

The Charge against Andrew Watson. 
16^5, March 75 — The kirk-session of Peebles reported that they had met on 
the case of Mr Andrew Watson, and that they knew nothing of the scandal reported 
by the Presbytery, nor any other against him. Mr John Hay, minister of Peebles, 
declared that he could not learn where any of Lord Elibank's former servants had 
gone. 

Censuring the Moderator. 
1655, March 2g — The meeting censured their moderator for his disobedience in 
not being at Peebles to receive Mr Alexander Trotter (Tweedsmuir), and ordained 
him to do so on Sunday eight days. 

Visitation of the School. 
1653, March 2g — This day appeared the magistrates of Peebles to desire the 
Presbytery to appoint some of their number to visit their school at Peebles, so that 
they may know whether the scholars profit by the work of Mr Andrew Watson, 
their teacher. 

Protest by Patrick Purdie. 
i6ss, March 2p — The brother appointed to "visit" (revise?) Mr Patrick 
Purdie's protest, together with the said Mr Patrick, to meet at the school on Monday, 
April 9, and examine. 

The Moderator and Alexander Trotter. 
i6sSi April 12 — The moderator being asked whether he had received Mr 
Alexander Trotter, answered he had not, and gave in excuses which the Presbytery 
will consider. (At the following meeting they decided they were satisfied with his 
excuse.) 

The Charge against Andrew Watson — Visitation of the School. 

idjs, April 12 — Anent Mr Andrew Watsone, the Presbytery appoints the 
minister of Peebles to shew to the town council (as hath been to the session), that 
nothing can be found to prove the charges informed against him. The brothers 
appointed to visit Peebles school reported that they found pains taken in teaching the 
grammar and rhetoric in respect of grammatical and rhetorical questions, but found 
deficiencies in making of congruous themes. The magistrates and schoolmaster 
being called in, the moderator, in presence of the magistrates, did exhort the 
schoolmaster to amend what was amiss in themes and turning of verse, and to make 
conscience of his charge by giving more attendance. 



1 66 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

Alexander Trotter to be Received. 
i6jS, April 26 — Mr John Hay appointed to receive Mr Alexander Trotter at 
Peebles Kirk, it being the most central and convenient place. 

Renewed Charges against John Hay and John Pringle. 
1655, April 26 — John Hay and John Pringle (who have already occupied an 
enormous amount of the Presbytery's time) are reported by the minister to absent 
themselves from the ordinances. He is advised to admonish them, and if they are 
again disobedient to process them before the session. 

Alexander Trotter Received. 
i6s5, May 17 — Alexander Trotter (Tweedsmuir) reported to have been received 
in Peebles Kirk, and the Presbytery declare him loosed from his former suspension, 
the same to be intimated at the Kirk of Tweedsmuir. 

The Charges against Hay and Pringle. 
i6jj, November 22 — Apparently John Hay's father is dead, and he is now Sir 
John Hay, for a report has been given to-day, as has been done many times before, 
that the brethren have been unable to meet him and John Pringle, but calling him 
now Sir John. He is said to be out of the country. 

Divine Service. 
[^^55 — The Synod of Lothian in this year appointed a committee to consider 
whether or not in every congregation when the people are gathered, there shall 
be singing of psalms and reading of chapters, both in the forenoon and afternoon 
of the Sabbath day, before the lecture and sermon begin; and how catechetical 
doctrine shall be preached each afternoon on the Sabbath day. It was now that the 
fondness for theological discussion and argument was fostered in the Scottish intellect 
with a keenness greater than formerly. The catechising of the people by the clergy 
implanted in their minds a subtle and thorough knowledge of matters theological. 
The presence of the various sectarian denominations in every burgh throughout the 
country engendered an enquiring spirit as to the differences and principles underlying 
the schisms. Cromwell's Puritan soldiery were ever ready to preach as to fight, and 
by their universal distribution throughout the country they carried into every nook 
and corner their opinions and observances. Scotland at this period was undoubtedly 
a religiose country, following with exceeding strictness a creed in which the letter was 
everything. But most of the so-called religion of the time was destitute of the 
loving liberal spirit which is the highest phase of spiritual life. It was as if the nation 
followed the rule of the theocracy of the sternest times of the Old Testament, rather 
than the loving life and doctrine of the New Testament Jesus.] 

Contemporary Minister. 
[i6sj — Skirling — John Greig, M.A., suspended in May 1661 for joining the 
Protesters, which sentence was taken off November 2 1 thereafter ; deprived by act of 
Parliament, June 11, and act of privy council, October i, 1662.] 



THE MINISTRY OF JOHN HAY, B.D. 167 

The Hay-Pringle Case. 

1656, February 14 — The Presbytery, grieved for the long delay of ending with 
Sir John Hay and John Pringle, ordains the two brethren appointed to go to Peebles 
on Monday week, to see if they can possibly be found. 

i6s6, March 6 — The brethren appointed to meet Sir John Hay and John 
Pringle reported that they had met, but could not find the parties. 

The East Wark. 
7(5j-<5 — This fortification of the town's, which was anciently an appanage of the 
altar of the Holy Cross, and had been let to various parties after the Reformation, 
having became very ruinous, was cast down on March 13. The workmen who did 
the work received jQ^. 

The Hav-Pringle Case. 
16^6, April 10 — Sir John Hay at home, so he and John Pringle to be dealt 



Reparation of the Church. 
1656, April 28 — The magistrates and council, for advancing the reparation of 
the place for public worship, have unanimously resolved to contribute for reparation 
of the two parts of the said Church (the third part being the titular's), that is, to pay 
a sixth part of the charges of the said two parts, conform to the former acts, 
and authorises the provost and bailies to offer the same, without prejudice to the 
town in time coming. 

Sir John Hay Admonished. 

1656, May I — Sir John Hay spoken to, expressed his willingness to obey the 
Presbytery, and asks what they bid him do, and to be careful not to charge him with 
anything he was innocent of. A new scandal was reported against him, and he being 
called in, was finally made to confess. After much dealing with him, and many 
blasphemies heard from him, it pleased God to open his mouth that he made a 
confession, and submitted himself to the Presbytery. They continue his censure till 
next day. 

zdjd, May 2g — Sir John Hay not compearing, he was ordered to be summoned 
by the Presbytery's officer, and because of the grossness of his offences he is to 
appear in lineis (white sheet ?) 

1656, July J — Sir John Hay, after having been publicly admonished from the 
pulpit in Peebles (as was ordained), appeared in "lineis," and seemed to be weighed 
with grief. He was ordained to come to the public place of repentance next 
Lord's Day but one, and hear himself spoken to by his minister upon his grievous 
offences, and after this the Presbytery are to enjoin him further. 

Andrew Watson to be Cited. 
^6^6, July J — Mr John Hay reports that Andrew Watson, vicar and 



i58 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

precentor at Peebles, had used disrespectful language regarding the session in 
connection with Sir John Hay's public admonition. Mr Andrew Watson to be cited 
to appear next day. 

The Reparation of the Kirk. 
1656, July 21 — John Andro, collector of the Kirk stent, received from the 
treasurer of Peebles £^(^2 in part payment of the town's proportion of their stent for 
repairing the Kirk. 

Sir John Hay Obdurate. 

i(>5'^j f^fy 31 — Sir John Hay writes that he is in Edinburgh. He refuses 
obedience, and goes on still more offensively. The minister is appointed to warn 
him, and if that be of no use, is to admonish him publicly the second time. 

16^6, September 4 — Sir John Hay is reported to have entered to public 
satisfaction. 

16^6, September 18 — Anent Sir John Hay, the minister at Peebles reports that 
neither in public nor in private can he get him to make categorical confession of his 
sins, which he extenuates in private, and in public will only give generals, not 
particulars. The Presbytery desires the minister still to require him in the public 
place, and to make particular acknowledgement of his offences before the 
congregation when he shall be required to do so. 

The East Wark. 
/djd, September 22 — Produced by Alexander Williamson, provost, a disposition 
granted and subscribed by John, lord Linton, in favour of the town of Peebles of the 
Great Lodging, or East Wark; for which the town is to lay in and carry six score 
loads of lime. My lord is to pay for the lime, and the council resolves to cause it to 
be laid in. This was a bargain whereby, if the town assisted lord Linton to carry his 
lime, he in return gave an assignment of the East Wark to the burgh. This was 
because they were desirous of casting it down and removing it. Regarding the 
repairs and alterations carried on at the Cross Kirk in this year, the Rev. Dr 
Dalgleish, writing at the beginning of the nineteenth century to General Hutton, 
states that as the Church was too long for most voices to fill it, thirty feet were cut off 
from the east end of it, which reduced it from 102 to 72 feet. Galleries were 
erected to compensate for this reduction of space. At the east gable of the Church, 
on its outer aspect, may be seen on the lintel of the door, "feir god, 1656," 
commemorating these alterations. 

Andrew Watson Denies all Accusations. 
1656, October 2 — Andrew Watson denies all accusations. Case continued for 
witnesses to appear. 



THE MINISTRY OF JOHN HAY, B.D. 169 

Sir John Hay Again. 

1656, October 2 — Sir John Hay reported under arrest at Edinburgh. The 
minister to verify this. 

1636, October 2J — Sir John Hay reported returned, and the minister is to see 
that he does his repentance, or else admonish him publicly again. 

i6j6, November 27 — Anent Sir John Hay, the minister at Peebles reports that 
he presented himself in the public place, but was a scandal by his coming there, 
and thinks him such a man as no minister should be bidden speak with him in that 
place. The Presbytery, hearing he is imprisoned, continues till he be at liberty. 

The Charge against Andrew Watson. 

1656, November 27 — The witnesses in Mr Andrew Watson's case. Lady 
Smithfield and her daughter, Sir James Douglas' lady, to be examined by three 
brethren. The other witnesses called compeared not. 

Contemporary Minister. 
\1656 — Dawyck — -David Thomsone, M.A. Was required by the privy council, 
December 12, 1661, to compear and answer for assisting in the admission of the 
minister of Manor. Translated to Manor, 1663.] 

Sacred Tune. 
[/(5j-(5 — "Berlin," 325, Scottish Hymnal; Johann Cruger's ^^ Praxis Prelatis 
Melica."] 

The Charge against Andrew Watson. 
7(5/7, January i — Witnesses examined regarding Mr Andrew Watson, and 
all answered in the negative, so Mr Andrew cleared. 

Peebles School. 
i6s7, January I — School visitation at Peebles arranged for as usual. 

1657, January 2g — Peebles school well reported on. 

1657, May 28 — The school at Peebles examined, and report made of small 
proficiency in the children by reason of the schoolmaster's having newly gone, 
and that the parents, he complains, frequently keep their children at home, 
employing them upon other business. This to be reported to the magistrates. 

Sir John Hay Promises Obedience. 
1657, December 17 — This day Sir John Hay, after long restraint by imprison- 
ment, came in to the Presbytery, and promised to obey their former injunctions. 
The Presbytery sends him to be enjoined by the kirk-session of Peebles. 

The Protesters. 
[7(55'7 — The Protesters were a mixed multitude, politically and ecclesiastically. 
They were so deep in the interests of Cromwell that it was said of them by a patriotic 
Presbyterian: — "We know but two parties in Scotland, those who stand for the 



170 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

rights and liberties, the laws and government of Scotland, and those who have 
protested and acted against those good ends. The Protesters we do not look on as 
Scotsmen." Many of them became Independents, Quakers, Baptists, &c. In 
parishes they coalesced with other sectaries, and founded a United Sectarian Party. 
When they (however few), called a minister, he got a kirk and stipend; but when the 
Presbytery and even the whole congregation almost called and admitted one, he had 
to preach in the fields or in a barn without stipend.] 

Church Discipline in Bygone Days. 

[For the confirmed laudator temporis acti no better prescription than the perusal 
of some old kirk-session book can well be imagined. In its pages the evil that men 
did lives after them; the history of a parish as it is therein recorded is often little 
more than the story of human frailty, the pillory of its sinners. The golden age that 
the detractors of these present evil days on which we have fallen are always 
bepraising — this golden age, as one reads such a record, turns out to have been 
largely one of clay. The giants that were in the land in those days had certainly a 
deal of human nature in them. 

But one virtue in its full perfection these men of old undoubtedly had — the 
merit of simple ingenuousness. As to what the men who should come after them 
might think of them — of the impression that future generations might form of them 
from this much recording of their sins — they never seem to have given a thought. 
The tale of their brothers' and sisters' weakness was chronicled with a simple 
straightforwardness that took no thought of the morrow or of those who might read 
and judge therein. Those honest folks forgot the future, or despised it. But we of 
these latter days are minded to be more careful. For it has been suggested to the 
Church's Committee on Discipline that a new Act should decree the keeping of the 
record of all disciphne cases in separate minute books, and the burning of these 
minute books from time to time. Surely a wise and most humane proposal ! 

As one reads this full chronicle of human weaknesses — detailed in the literary 
remains of those worthy old session clerks with all the directness of Montaigne — one 
hardly knows whether to wonder more at the vastness of the Church's claims to 
supervise the conduct of her people or the fatuousness of her methods for improving 
the same. Her claim to interfere with the liberty of the subject knows hardly any 
bounds ; in our eyes much of her work would be regarded as pure meddlesomeness, 
sheer inquisitorial officiousness. Does A. come home late on a Saturday night — he 
is brought before the kirk-session, has to give the reason for this breach of elders' 
hours, and is exhorted to repent of the same. Does B. absent himself from worship 
for a time — he is cited to appear. Is C. heard swearing, or said to have been heard 
swearing even — it is the same thing — he must appear and be admonished to repent- 
ance for his sin. D. is summoned for " prophanation " of the Sabbath by " cHmbing 
at the old Castell in time of sermon." Even innocence will hardly save a man from 
rebuke. Thus, a certain E., being " interrogat if he was guilty of mocking at the 
elders, answered 'No.'" But the elders, "considering that he is one brutishly 
ignorant, and suspecting that there was reality in the delation, determined that he 
should be sharply rebuked," and "upon his promise never to be guilty of the like 
again " (sicl), the said E. was dismissed, a less brutishly ignorant, at least, if not a 
better man. 

The fatuousness of their methods! Attempting to build up character, to 
improve moral conduct, by summoning before this Court of Conscience ! by insisting 
on confession of sin in . face of the congregation ! by administering public rebuke ! 



THE MINISTRY OF JOHN HAY, B.D. 171 

To think of rules like these making for righteousness ! Gait tells us how the shameless 
made a jest of it all; but a greater than Gait were needed to reveal the agony that 
must have torn the hearts of the hapless young folks, truly penitent, under these brutal 
ordeals. But not to speak of the guilty; what an edifying spectacle it must all have 
been for the congregation! Just think of it! Watching an adulterer in the place of 
sinners; hearing him, at the close of the service, rebuked for his sin! 

But of course the records are not merely the story of the Church's supervision of 
the morals of the parish. The celebrating of the annual Sacrament is chronicled with 
unfailing regularity; indeed, for nearly twenty years, at one place, it is the only fact 
recorded. The fixing of the date was attended with some degree of formality; the 
minister " statit that he intendit to celebrate the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper " on 
such and such a date, "if it was convenient for the parish." "The session referred 
to the minister to pitch any of two days that was most convenient to himself" 

Then there is the record of the Church's care of the poor in those days, when as 
yet the Church was Parish Council and Parochial Board. There is frequent 
mention of claims being put forward for help from the session — there is more 
frequent mention of help being given ex gratia to the deserving poor. We read that 
" the session, taking to their consideration how, through the blessing of God, there 
was now the prospect of a plenty instead of that scarcity which had for so long a time 
prevailed, agreed to leave off buying of meal for the support of the poor in the parish, 
and instead thereof to return to their former practice of giving to their stated 
pensioners twenty pence per month." Such was their care of the poor; it went even 
further than that, however, for on one occasion we find the session formulating 
a kind of Aliens' Immigration Bill. " Considering the multitudes of poor that come 
into the paroch from other parts, with whom the session was alwise burdened . . . 
appointed John Brown to speak to John Livingstone, whom they understood was 
setting a house to one who would prove burdensom to the session, and to tell him 
that if he brought any poor into the paroch he should get them to maintain himself" 
This was approven ; and John Livingston, when spoken to, we are happy to relate, 
"promysed to sett his house to none that would prove burdensome to the session" — 
but whether from the desire to please the session or from more obvious reasons, the 
record is, of course, silent. 

Then there is the story of bills and bonds; of moneys lent by the Church 
to certain of her parishioners at fixed rates of interest. She seems at times, indeed, 
to have had no little difficulty in holding her own; there is always a promise to pay 
ready enough, but to get the money again, even to get the interest, is another matter. 
There is much "earnest consideration of the matter," and frequent appointing " of a 
commity" to consult with the borrowers. But on the whole it does not seem 
that she was often worsted. 

Every now and again one reads of payments to poor students ; there is mention 
once of twelve pounds being " laid by " to help such. Then there is the appointment 
of new elders, and of one of their number every six months to wait on the Presby- 
tery; there is likewise the appointment of the new session clerk, always easily 
distinguished by the change of handwriting. Then there is the death of one minister 
and the appointment of another in his place. The King is dead; long live the King. 
In the whole record there is only one gleam of humour, and it is in connection with a 
minister's death — was it conscious or unintentional, we wonder ? The deceased had 
lived to be the father of the Church — having been ordained minister no less a time 
than sixty-four years — though this is not recorded here. But what is recorded is 
the text of the funeral sermon which was preached that day, Genesis v., 27 — "And 
all the days of Methuselah were nine hundred sixty and nine years; and he died."] 



[72 



THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 



Peebles Kirk-Session Records Begin. 
i6^f, February 4 — The earliest volume of the kirk-session records of Peebles 
begins on this date. It is the first of twelve volumes which extend, with breaks, 
to the month of June 1892. When this, the first of the series, begins, the Common- 
wealth of Oliver Cromwell was eight years old; and Cromwell himself had about 
seventeen months longer to live. The minister of Peebles was the Rev. John Hay, 
B.D., who had been appointed colleague to his father, the Rev. Dr Theodore Hay, 
fourteen years previously; and had been now sole minister of Peebles for the 
preceding nine years. The religion of Scotland was the Puritan aspect of the 
Presbyterian form of Church government. The congregation at Peebles was still 
worshipping in the ancient Cross Kirk, which was at the time all but four hundred 
years old. In the previous year certain structural alterations had been carried out on 
its fabric, previously referred to, with the object of rendering this ancient Roman 
Catholic place of worship more suitable for that Protestant divine service which had 
been celebrated now within the building for almost a century. The first extant 
volume of the kirk-session records coincides with the reopening of the renovated 
Church. It embraces a period of twenty-one years, ending on the ninth day of June 
1678, when Episcopacy had become the order of the Church for the second time. 
The book is quarto in size, in a good state of preservation, with the various 
handwritings clear and distinct. It is covered with vellum, and labelled on the 
outside with a letter D. The title page bears the following: — "A Register of the 
Kirk at Peebles, containing the Discipline of the Session by the Elders, and Diligence 
of the Deacons for the Poor therein. Begun in the year of our Lord 1657." On the 
first page are inscribed the names of the members of kirk-session : — Mr John Hay, 
minister; elders in the burgh — John Andrew, Alexander Williamson, John Plender- 
leith, John Tweedy (elder), Thomas Smyth, John Bell, Robert Forester, John 
Weylie. Elders in the landward — Mr John Hay of Haystoun, Mr Alexander Spittal, 
sheriff-depute; John Borrowman, John Lauder, Alexander Lauder (elder), Mr William 
Hay, Thomas Henderson. Deacons in the burgh — John Tweedy (younger), Andrew 
Mathieson, William Hislop, James Hoipe, William Wilsone, John Smyth, Thomas 
Saltoune, Thomas Law, William Hopkirk, William Cockine, Thomas Andrew, George 
Stoddart, Mr Andrew Watsone, clerk; William Melrois, officer. (This Andrew 
Watson referred to above is probably he who is styled frequently vicar of Peebles, 
who has been seen as a keen prosecutor of witches before the Church courts, and 
who had also been schoolmaster.) 

Revision of Acts of Discipline, &c. 
1657, February 4 — The minister reported that he had received the oaths of 
certain new elders, who had been elected on the 8th of January. A committee of six 
members of session was appointed, and the minister as convener, to revise all the 
former acts of discipHne extant in the old registers of the parish, and also the acts of 
the General Assembly, "and from both to form such as may serve to the ruling and 
right ordering of this congregation." This day the session, having considered the 
deplorable condition of Janet Robesone, who has become frantic, and that having no 



THE MINISTRY OF JOHN HAY, B.D. 173 

friends to care for her, she was suffered to stray in the streets and fields, to the hazard 
of her own life and harming of others, thought it meet that James Scott, traveller 
(in whose house she had been before harboured), should be required to take notice 
of her, and keep her from further straying ; and, for his pains in so doing, ordained 
the treasurer to give him weekly six shillings Scots; and recommend him to the 
council of the burgh for further recompense during her sickness. This day for 
further instructing the members of session, Mr Alexander Spittell is appointed to buy 
from Thomas Weylie, merchant in Edinburgh, twenty copies of the little book called 
" Instructions concerning the Duties of Elders and Deacons," and to distribute them 
to such of the elders and deacons as need them. An elder and a deacon were 
appointed to collect for the poor, and visit the burgh respectively the next Lord's 
Day, and report diligence in observing and delating delinquents, if any happen to be 
found that day. And that consecutively an elder and a deacon each Sabbath 
following, as their names stand in the roll, shall discharge that respective duty. 
Likewise that the deacon who collects for the poor on the Lord's Day, shall collect 
also on the week-day thereafter when there shall be sermon. The minister and two 
others were appointed to bespeak Mr Andrew Watson for returning to his office of 
clerk to the session, from which he had been suspended upon a complaint and 
scandal given in by Mr William Lowes against him, and which, after trial, both 
in session and Presbytery, was found to have been a mere forgery for his defamation. 

Meetings of the Kirk-Session at Peebles. 

7(557, February 18 — The absentees from the preceding meeting, after trial, were 
excused. Mr Alexander Spittel exhibited twenty copies of the book entitled 
"Instructions for Elders and Deacons," which were distributed and paid for. All the 
members of kirk-session and the church officer, having previously publicly given their 
oath of faithful administration, now agree to promise secrecy in their consultations and 
proceedings in the session. The minister, Mr Alexander Spittall, and John Plender- 
leith reported that they had bespoken Mr Andrew Watson, who had promised that 
seeing he had received a clearing from the session, from the town council, and also 
from the Presbytery of whatever he had been, or could be charged with, and likewise 
a call to return to his place as clerk of session, he would obey that call, providing 
competent maintenance should be provided to him for his attendance and trouble 
therein. The session said that they thought this proposal conformable to equity and 
reason, and appointed him to meet with them at their next meeting. A new 
treasurer to be elected to receive all the collections for the poor and the fines exacted 
by the civil magistrate from delinquents. The elder and the deacon who had been 
on duty reported that nothing had been found censurable in the burgh. 

1657, February 25 — At a meeting of the kirk-session, Mr Andrew Watson 
agreed to resume his duty as clerk to the kirk-session, from which he had been 
suspended on a false accusation. He professed himself satisfied with the competent 
provision agreed upon by the members for his attendance and trouble, and promised 
faithfulness and secrecy. On the same day John Andrew (who had jointly, by the 
heritors and session, been appointed collector of the tax imposed upon the parish for 



174 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

reparation and abridging of the parish kirk, of old called the Cross Kirk), gave in his 
accounts, craving that they be revised, censured, and approven. The session thought 
fit that a certain day be appointed for this purpose, to which the heritors be 
summoned. (In the minute-book of the kirk-session several blank leaves follow this 
entry; and it is not until October 29, 1662, that any more entries occur of the 
proceedings of the kirk-session. The minister at that time is still found to be 
Mr John Hay; but the form of Church government has changed to Episcopacy. 
Charles II. is King. Thus there is no information in this volume regarding the 
proceedings of the kirk-session in the renovated Cross Kirk for five and a half years.) 

Expenses of the Repairs. 
165'j, May 30 — It is resolved and ordained that for paying fourscore pounds for 
defraying the remanent charges of the town's part of the common loft, and twenty 
pounds as the remainder of the town's part for repairing the roof and glass windows 
in the kirk, making in all ;£ioo, it be broken and apportioned among the heritors of 
land within the burgh, and the tenandry within the same (consideration always being 
had to the proportions already paid by the heritors and the voluntary contributions 
paid by the tenandry), and for apportioning thereof and for breaking the assessment 
of May and June, appoints ten persons, the bailie to convene them and take their 
oaths. In the months of September and October soldiers were still coming into the 
burgh. Part of Captain Bissett's troop came in September, and remained for one 
month ; and in the end of October part of Captain Turner's troop, in the regiment of 
Lilburn, arrived, and remained in the burgh until May 1658. During all this period 
of sectarian and political animosities there is little of interest in the burgh records. 
Indeed they are very meagre, and the great gaps in the council minutes are a silent 
evidence of the disturbed condition of the burgh and country all these years. This 
is due to the domination of affairs and persons by the soldiers of Cromwell, who 
arrogated all legislation to themselves. 

Second Volume of Kirk-Session Records. 
1638, January — The second volume of the kirk-session records begins in January 
1658. It continues down to August 20, 1676, a period of eighteen years. It is 
thus seen to contain information in duplicate, and included within the first volume of 
kirk-session records ; beginning, however, one year later than the first, and ending two 
years sooner than it. It contains, however, records of the discipline exercised by 
the session during the five and a half years omitted in the previous volume (viz., 
after February 25, 1657, down to October 29, 1662.) The second volume is in 
much worse preservation than the first, and in a hand-writing much less fine, and not 
so distinct. It is marked f . 

Death of Oliver Cromwell. 
[7(55'<? — This year was memorable as that in which died Oliver Cromwell, on 
September 3. Scotland, however, remained in possession of his troops, with their 
theologically-disposed officers. Ecclesiastically there was no change in the situation; 



THE MINISTRY OF JOHN HAY, B.D. 175 

only a development of sectarian opinion and party. Regarding Church affairs in 
Peebles nothing special was occurring. Divine service had sunk all over Scotland to 
such a dead level of barren sameness that no specialised developments were possible 
without a revolution. This, however, was, in the course of things, on its way.] 

The Vicarage Teinds. 
1658 — On April 12, in Peebles, certain persons were ordered to acquaint the 
quarters of the town for which they were responsible that they were to elect one of 
their number to meet with the vicar, Mr Andrew Watson, anent the vicarage teinds 
claimed by him, and to report the next council day. (Note. — Towards the end of 
the nineteenth century these vicarage teinds ceased to be collected. They have 
become lost to the Church for ever; and the properties from which they were 
formerly derived, which have been repeatedly bought and sold, subject to the burden 
of the tithe upon them, and on that account acquired more cheaply, were presented 
with a gift of their vicarage teinds by disuetude, and the Church is by so much more 
the loser.) 

Building Activity in Peebles. 
1638, October p — The workmen, when they ended the flooring of the kirk-loft, 
received, at the direction of Provost Williamson, a quart of ale and a loaf, at a cost 
of 4s 2d. There was considerable building activity at this period. There was the 
reparation of the Cross Kirk, there were the perennial renovations at Tweed 
Bridge, the cross was also at this time undergoing repair, the East Wark was being 
demolished, &c. 

How Church Buildings Disappeared. 
i6s8, November 12 — Laird Chisholm received from the treasurer the sum of 
three shillings for bringing three great freestones from the Kirk to Tweed 
Bridge. 

Contemporary Minister. 
[i6j8 — Zyne — Hew Ker, A.M.; son of the preceding minister. University of 
Edmburgh, July 14, 1621; presented in conjunction with his father by James VI., 
March 3, 1627. Gave twenty merks toward the building of the Glasgow University 
Library in 1632; was member of Assembly in 1638. Died between June 24 and 
July 29, 1658, aged fifty-seven, in the thirty-second year of his ministry. Married, 
April 12, 1637, Janet, daughter of John Dickson, merchant burgess, Edinburgh; 
she died before January 29, 1675, and had a son, Hugh, who was served heir to his 
father, and a daughter Janet.] 

Sacred Tune. 
[zdj<?— "Burford;" Henry Purcell, 1658-1695.] 

Removal of Stones from the Cross Kirk. 
i6jp, June — An entry concerning Peebles is that on June 23, Tom Tweddale 
was given two shillings for conveying four freestones from the Cross Kirk to Tweed 



176 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

Bridge. Operations of this nature at the bridge necessitated spoliation of one or 
other of the Kirks, and required to be accomplished in the summer time, when 
the water was low. An enormous quantity of ecclesiastical masonry must be 
submerged in the bed of Tweed in the neighbourhood of the bridge. There are no 
recorded recoveries of any stones of special interest from the river with the exception 
of one very beautiful specimen. This is a large block of close-grained freestone, 
octagonal in shape, having each of its eight faces beautifully sculptured to the design 
of Gothic windows, each window being of different plan from its neighbours. A wide 
drain perforates the centre of the block. There can be no doubt that this is a relic 
of the pre-Reformation Church of Peebles which must have been the principal 
portion of a large and beautiful font. The size of the drain suggests the period of 
ecclesiastical usage when the infant neophyte was thrice bodily immersed in the 
consecrated water in the name of the Holy Trinity. The foregoing entries in the 
accounts of the burgh are quite sufficient to explain a possible method of transference 
of this ecclesiastical fragment from the Church to the river. It was found in that part 
of the channel now occupied by the foundations of the spinning-mill. It was 
restored to the Church in the year 1899. 

Citation of Sir Michael Nasmith. 
1639, September 22 — Sir Michael Nasmith, who has been three times cited to 
the kirk-session of Peebles in vain, to be cited to the Presbytery. 

A Case of Child Murder. 

/djp, September 22 — This day Mr John Hay regrated that there is in the parish 
of Peebles one Margaret Bannatyne, who has rendered herself suspect of murdering 
of her o\vn child, by her own confession to him, in private, and some of his elders, and 
that now she is convened before the kirk-session she would be frae it again, therefore 
he desired some brethren to assist him in dealing with her, that so heinous a sin and 
unnatural a fact be not hid, when God himself has begun already to bring it to light. 
Brethren appointed. 

/dfp, October 13 — Margaret Bannatyne, accused of murdering her child, has 
been recommended to the civil magistrate, she having confessed her sin. 

Sir Michael Nasmith to be Warned. 
/djp, November 24. — Sir Michael Nasmith not yet compeared. He is to be 
warned that if he does not compear, the next citation will be from the pulpit. 

Regarding the Restoration of the King. 
\_i6jg — In the month of November of this year General Monk began his march 
from Scotland toward London to determine whether Charles II., King of Scotland, 
was to return from exile and occupy the throne of the United Kingdom. Hardly 
had Monk reached London when James Sharp, minister of Crail, began his journey 
thither also, having been sent on a mission to watch over the interests of the Church 
at this political crisis.] 




Ancient Font of St. Andrew's Church— (Photo by T. Crozier). 

Eig^ht Gothic windows of different design are carved 
upon its panels. 

Found in Tweed. Restored to Peebles Church by Mrs Wilkie. See p. 176. 



THE MINISTRY OF JOHN HAY, B.D. 177 

Contemporary Ministers. 

\i6sg — Eddleston — Robert Scott, A.M., University of St Andrews, 1632; 
presented by the Presbytery, September 3, and instituted, September 24, 1640. 
Deposed, May 5, 1659; taken off, December 4, 1660. 

\165g — Kirkurd — Alexander Dickson, A.M., University of Edinburgh, July 25, 
1638; presented by the magistrates of Edinburgh, November 10, 1641; ordained 
February 7 following; member of Commissions of Assembly, 1645-8; translated to 
Eddleston, October 26, 1659, which was affirmed by the Synod, May 2, 1660.] 

The Restoration. 

\i66o — Meanwhile James Sharp, minister of Crail, was busy in London 
interviewing members of Parliament, closeted with General Monk, discussing affairs 
with Episcopalian ministers, and finally, about the month of May, crossing over 
to the Continent to offer his congratulations to King Charles upon his being 
proclaimed King of the United Kingdom. Sharp had been instructed to insist on 
the Covenanted uniformity of religion between the two countries, but he soon found 
a tide of feeling rising in favour of Episcopacy. 

On May 29, 1660, Charles II., entered London in triumph. The monarchy 
was once more restored. By July 8, the Marquis of Argyll, who had crowned 
the King at Scone, but who, alas for him, was the leading spirit among the 
Covenanters, was arrested and committed to the Tower of London. On August 23, a 
number of Remonstrant ministers met in a private house in Edinburgh, and drew up 
a paper containing their views for presentation to the King. They were all arrested, 
and committed to Edinburgh Castle. Sharp arrived from London on the last day 
of August; and on September 3, the letter from the King, which he had brought, was 
read. In it Charles promised to protect and preserve the government of the Church 
of Scotland as settled by law. In the autumn several ministers were cast into prison 
for utterances from the pulpit which were supposed to incriminate them. And on 
the last day of the year there entered Edinburgh the Earl of Middleton, as Royal 
Commissioner, a man of rough manner, imperious way, and violent temper, who 
had served under Covenanting and Royalist banners. Meanwhile the Synods 
were turning their attention towards their dissenting brethren, and impeaching 
them for disloyalty to King and Church, and for disobedience.] 

Peebles and the Restoration. 
In Peebles the Restoration was evidently hailed as a relief from the oppressions 
which the people had undergone for long, both from the civil and ecclesiastical 
powers. Pubhc spirit was waking up, a minor evidence of which survives on the 
vane of the town cross and on the halberts of the officers, which alike bear the date 
1662. 

Contemporary Ministers. 

\i66o — Eddleston — Alexander Dickson, M.A., from Kirkurd. 

\i66o — Lyne — Robert Brown, from Broughton. Was required by the privy 
council, on December 12, to compear and answer for assisting in the admission 
of the minister of Manor.] 

End of the first century after the Reformation; also of the reformed occupancy of 
the Cross Church; also (for the time) of Presbyterianism. 



178 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

The Second Episcopacy. 

[j66i, January I — The Scottish Parhament, under the name of the Three 
Estates, was opened. It was composed of King's men. An absolute despotism, 
directed from London, ruled the legislation of Scotland now. The veto of Parliament 
was merely nominal. Acts of Parliament emanated from what was called the 
Drunken Parliament. The King was acknowledged supreme over all persons and in 
all causes, thus striking at Presbytery, which denied the supremacy of the civil 
magistrate in spiritual cases. All acts and practices after 1637 were declared 
undutiful and disloyal. The Solemn League and Covenant with England was 
declared null and void. Hamilton's Engagement of 1648 was approved of; and all 
persons in public trusts were to take the oaths of supremacy and allegiance, which 
recapitulated the acts strengthening the King's prerogative already passed. They 
passed also the Act Rescissory, annulling all the Parliaments held since 1633, thus 
uprooting Presbytery in Scotland. In the meantime assurance was given that 
kirk-sessions. Synods, and Presbyteries would be allowed, notwithstanding the Act 
Rescissory, as long as they kept within bounds. And on September 5, 1661, a 
letter to the privy council, from Charles II., announced the determination of the King 
to have the Church of Scotland governed by bishops, notwithstanding the letter from 
the King to the Presbytery of Edinburgh, dated August 1660, agreeing to maintain the 
government of the Church of Scotland as settled by law! — (Butler.) Of all the old 
bishops, Sydserff alone remained. Episcopal consecration was necessary. Accord- 
ingly, in the month of December, there met in London, Sharp, Fairfoul, Hamilton, 
and Leighton — the last being the one saint common to both the Episcopal and 
the Presbyterian Churches. Sharp and Leighton had first to be privately 
consecrated deacons and priests, and finally in Westminster Abbey as bishops. 

In May the Synod of Lothian recommended two chapters of the Bible to be 
read before sermon, in forenoon and afternoon. The Gloria Patri was likewise 
resumed. They also recommended the daily morning and evening reading of 
scripture and prayers publicly; the Lord's Prayer before or after the Sunday sermon; 
and the creed at baptism.] 

The Minister Preaches before Parliament. 
1661, April 25 — Mr John Hay, Peebles, excused because called to preach this 
next Sabbath to the Parliament at Edinburgh. 

The Monastery Ruins. 
On August 10, William Wood received 8s, at the rate of twelvepence per load, 
for eight loads of stones from the Cross Kirk to Tweed Bridge. 

Synods, Presbyteries, and Kirk-Sessions Forbidden to Meet. 
[While the bishops were yet in England, a letter from the King forbade Synods, 
Presbyteries, or kirk-sessions to meet until they could be reconstituted as bishops' 
courts. The new bishops now set themselves to hand on the Apostolic succession 
by consecrating others, and the sees were soon filled with new bishops.] 

Patronage Restored. 
[Patronage, which had been abolished by act of Parliament on March 9, 1649, 
was now restored. All vacant stipends for seven years to come were to be given to 
ministers, their wives and bairns, who had been loyal to Episcopacy.] 



THE MINISTRY OF JOHN HAY, B.D. 179 

Contemporary Ministers. 
\i66i — Manor — John Hay, M.A. ; presented by the earl of Tweeddale, with 
consent of the parson of Peebles, August 1661. Episcopacy having been restored, 
September 6, 1661, his settlement was forbidden by the privy council, December 
10, but his admission was completed notwithstanding on December 12, for which 
seven ministers, who were present, were required to compear and answer. He was 
again presented in August 2, and admitted in October 1662; translated to Govan, 

[1661 — Traquair — -William Thomson, A.M., University of St Andrews, 1631; 
licensed by the Presbytery of Dalkeith, November 11, 1641; called, July 1645; 
ordained, January 22 following; died between June 20 and July 11, 1661, aged 
fifty, in the sixteenth year of his ministry. Geills Miller, relict. A son, Thomas, 
died in 17 10. 

[z(5<5/ — Tweedsmuir (disjoined from Drumelzier in 1643; Church built, 1648) — 
Alexander Trotter, formerly of Barra; entered, January 7, 1644; presented by 
John, earl of VVigton, in December 1647; admitted, August 10, thereafter; died, 
June 24, 1661, aged sixty-three, in the thirty-third year of his ministry. He "was 
very careful and diligent to establish good order and Church discipline." Married 
the daughter of David Ogill, minister of Barra, and had a son, Thomas.] 

Episcopacy. 
[Episcopacy was formally restored on May 27, 1662. An act of Parliament was 
passed requiring all those holding public offices to abjure the Covenant, and declare 
that it had been unlawful. As patronage had been in abeyance since 1638, and had 
been by law aboHshed since 1649, another act declared that all ministers who, since 
1639, had been appointed to parishes without presentation from their lawful patrons, 
must either quit their parishes or accept presentation from the patron and collation 
from the bishop. The result was that 350 ministers were driven out of their parishes 
rather than submit. During the close of 1662, throughout large districts in the 
lowlands of Scotland, the Parish Churches were kept shut, the sacraments not 
administered, the bell not rung. Edinburgh was left with but one minister. Burnet 
states that the outed ministers were " very popular men, both esteemed and loved by 
their people; they were related to the chief families in the country either by blood or 
by marriage, and had lived in so decent a manner that the gentry paid great respect 
to them." Nearly 600 ordained ministers conformed to Episcopacy. But the 
Episcopalian Church of the Restoration differed httle from the Presbyterian in its 
communion service, public worship, and even discipline. The bishops held certain 
dignities, they exercised some spiritual authority over their dioceses, they called 
Presbyteries "precincts," they had seats in the Scots Parliament, and they were 
bishops in name more than in reality. The Scriptures and the Creed were the only 
rule of faith. There was no liturgy in public worship except at Holyrood and the 
Parish Church of Salton, where Gilbert Burnet was minister. Leighton states that 
there was no change in doctrine, worship, or discipline. The doctrine continued 
Calvinistic; the worship was conducted without liturgy, surplice, or ceremony; the 
worshippers sat during prayer and at communion, which was rarely celebrated. 
There was no threefold ministry; confirmation was unknown. Ordination seems to 
have been very much ad libitum; Synods, Presbyteries, kirk-sessions, and elders 
continued as formerly. The bishops did not demand subscription to the old and 
first confession of the Reformers, but connived at the Westminster Confession 
and Catechism. Holy days were but rarely observed. The sole differences in divine 



i8o THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

service appear to have been the use of the doxology, the Lord's Prayer, and, 
in baptism, the Creed. The moderator of Presbytery was chosen by the bishop. 
Candidates for orders were examined by the Presbytery, returned to the bishop for 
ordination, and inducted by the Presbytery to the charge; but in very many places the 
bishop ordained merely as one of the Presbytery, who each laid his hand upon the 
candidate. The bishop presided at the Synod. The Episcopal General Assembly 
consisted of bishops and deans and two members from each Presbytery (one to be the 
nominee of the bishop), and one member from each University. The calling of the 
Assembly rested wholly with the Crown, and nothing was to be proposed in it but by 
the King or his Commissioner, and no measures were to have effect until ratified by 
the sovereign. Leighton did not reordain any minister in his diocese, but regarded 
their Presbyterian ordination as valid as Episcopal orders. Leighton allowed 
Presbyteries to choose their own moderator. And as patron he allowed Presbyteries 
to invite a candidate to preach before the congregation in order that he (the bishop) 
might be guided by their opinion.— j9«/'/«r. 

In order to fill up the vacant benefices, invitations were issued broadcast 
to all who would accept livings in the west. From the north, which had always 
favoured Episcopacy, came crowds of uneducated young men in search of parishes. 
Many of the candidates were men infamous for immoral lives; all of them 
conspicuous by dearth of talent and learning. They were as a rule received by the 
parishioners in sullen silence. In this manner the first century of the Reformed 
Church closed. During that time the kingdom had been governed by Queen Mary, 
by Regents, of whom the Earl of Moray was the Good Regent, by King James VI., 
by Charles I., by Oliver Cromwell, and King Charles II. Of all those rulers, 
perhaps Moray alone had been, as far as he dared, a disinterested friend of the 
Church. The dealings of all the other monarchs had been characterised by a base 
duplicity to the Church. It is true that at times they made concessions and granted 
privileges to the Church, but only later either to be abrogated entirely, or used as a 
means of personal or political advantage. Not one of the Stuart sovereigns was a 
true friend to the Church of Scotland; but if she had been chastised with whips in 
her first century, she was now to be chastised with scorpions by Charles II. and 
James VII. In her own ecclesiastical polity the Church had witnessed many 
vicissitudes. Continuing in 1560 she had been fostered by Knox, who had given her 
Knox's Confession and The First Book of Discipline. Those were the days of 
superintendents over districts. Next had come The Book of Common Order, or 
Knox's Liturgy, which appointed an order for divine service in the Church. No 
theory of Apostolic succession had hampered the early fathers; there had been no 
break in the continuity of the Church to make any proceedings necessary on that 
account. Knox had passed away in 1572, and had been eulogised by the Regent 
earl of Morton. Andrew Melville had carried on the torch in succession to his great 
predecessor, himself second to none. There had been the Concordat of Leith, 
followed by the Assembly at Perth, which sanctioned and gave a qualified assent to 
bishops. Those were the Tulchan bishops. Andrew Melville discovered the Divine 
Right of Presbytery. The Second Book of Discipline followed in 1578; and in 
1592 the government of the Church by Presbyterian Courts was ratified by act of 
Parliament. From 1592 to 1610 the government of the Church was by Presbytery; 
she was at peace, but had two grievances — lay patronage and pillage of her 
patrimony. The year 16 10 saw Episcopacy established in Scotland; and three 
of the ministers of the Church journeyed to England and there received Episcopal 
ordination. For twenty-eight years this polity continued. The service book of Laud 
had been introduced and discontinued in 1637. The following year saw the 



THE MINISTRY OF JOHN HAY, B.D. i8i 

National Covenant, and coincident with it Scotland was in rebellion. The 
unfortunate attempts at uniformity with worship in England resulted in the 
degradation of divine service in the Scottish Church, the effect of which continued for 
two centuries. The Solemn League and Covenant, with all its narrow bigotry, 
replaced the patriotic National Covenant; and in its train followed the execution 
of Montrose, loyal to the latter and to the King. 1643 ^^s the year of the 
Westminster Assembly of Divines. To it were due the Westminster Confession, 
also the Directory and the Catechisms. Lay patronage was repudiated in 1649. 
This year had also witnessed the death of Charles I. and the proclamation of 
his son as King of Scotland. The ten years of the rule of Cromwell ensued, bringing 
in their train the narrow intolerance of the sectarian denominations, along with the 
dissensions between Resolutioners and Protesters. Wearied of all this, the country 
had reacted to Episcopacy. 

The bishops at their Synods in 1662 gave instructions that the reading of 
Scripture, the use of the Lord's Prayer and the Gloria Patri, the repetition of 
the Creed at baptism, and in some cases public morning and evening daily prayer, 
should be resumed. The people then rose at the singing of the doxology, showing 
that sitting at praise was the custom. Hence, for the next two centuries after this, all 
the foregoing observances were associated in the minds of the congregations with 
Episcopacy. And this is the cry down to the present day. All the degraded 
innovations of the Brownists came to be regarded after this as the worship of the 
Covenanters and even as the use of the early Reformers. Hence it is that by those 
who are unacquainted with the ecclesiastical history of their own Church, the Church 
of Scotland, the devotional spirit which characterised the end of the nineteenth 
century and beginning of the twentieth in the reverential endeavours after a restored 
liturgy and decorous ritual for the observance of divine service, is looked upon as a 
spirit of innovation, instead of in its true aspect as one of restoration. What is 
sought is a return to the early ritual and liturgical observance of the Reformed 
Church, undisfigured by the engrafted and debased innovations of the Brownists. 
The Church under their use has for too long occupied the position of merely a 
teaching institute. Worship by the congregation has, during all that time, been 
reduced to a minimum. The minister even yet has too large a part of the service 
on his shoulders, while the congregation is content to sit still and allow him to 
become their intermediary almost to a papistical degree between its members and 
the Divine Being. This is in process of being corrected; but it is the legacy which 
the Church inherited from those Brownist times, and from the days of the Assembly 
of Divines, when the Church of Scotland, in a spirit of self-abnegation, sought to 
accomplish uniformity between the kingdoms by the sacrifice of her own liturgical and 
devotional forms.] 

The Test. 
[The following was the Test, or declaration appointed by Act 5 of the second 
session of Parliament, 1662, to be subscribed by all persons in public trust. It was 
their refusal to subscribe this Test which was the cause of hundreds of ministers 
being deprived of their livings: — " I do sincerely affirm and declare that I judge it 
unlawful to subjects, upon pretext of reformation, or any other pretext whatsomever, 
to enter into leagues and covenants, or to take up arms against the King, or those 
commissioned by him; and that all those gatherings, convocations, petitions, 
protestations, and erecting or keeping of council-tables that were used in the 
beginning, and for the carrying on of the late troubles, were unlawful and seditious : 



i82 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

And particularly that these oaths, whereof the one was commonly called The 
National Covenant (as it was sworn and explained in the year 1638 and 
thereafter), and the other, entituled A Solemn League and Covenant, were and 
are in themselves unlawful oaths, and were taken by and imposed upon the subjects 
of this kingdom, against the fundamental laws and liberties of the same; and that 
there lieth no obligation upon me or any of the subjects from the said oaths, or 
either of them, to endeavour any change or alteration of the government either 
in Church or State, as 'tis now established by the laws of the kingdom."] 

The Kirk-Session of Peebles under Episcopacy. 

1662, October 2g — Meeting of the kirk-session of Peebles. No minutes of any 
meetings are extant from the 2Sth of February 1657. There is thus a gap of five and 
a half years without information. Mr John Hay is still minister, but Mr Andrew 
Watson is no longer the clerk, his place being taken at this meeting by Mr Robert 
Smith, schoolmaster. There are some changes in the personality of the kirk-session. 
At the time of the latest entry, Puritanism was the order under the Commonwealth of 
Cromwell; now the Restoration has taken place, and with it Episcopacy has been 
restored. The accounts of the collections and debursements of the poor-silver were 
this day given up as follows: — Collected since April 23, ;^35 19s 8d; debursed since 
that day to the poor ones who are ordinary pensioners and to some others in 
necessity, £,12 3s 4d; which being added to the former superplus extends on the 
whole to ^228 i6s gd; so the distributions exceed the collections, £,\')2 17s. Two 
women, delated for their scandalous carriage by railing, scolding, and flyting on 
the Sabbath day, and a man for cursing and swearing — are all ordained to be cited to 
the next meeting. 

1662, November 2 — At a meeting of kirk-session the man confessed his guiltiness 
in cursing and swearing. He was ordained to go to the minister before the next 
session day to be dealt with, that he may be made more sensible of his sin, and 
thereafter be rebuked and undertake never to be found in the like again. The 
women likewise compeared for flyting and scolding on the Sabbath day, but not 
being convinced, were delayed for farther clearing to the next meeting, and other 
neighbours to be cited as witnesses. Two of the session to go through the streets 
next Sabbath to search in time of divine service and take notice of Sabbath breakers. 
Kirk-session meetings were wont to be held on Wednesdays; now they are found 
held on Sundays. Is this the greater latitude of the Restoration? 

1662, November ig — Two men compeared before the kirk-session and professed 
themselves sorrowful for travelling on the Sabbath day. The session ordained them 
to be publicly rebuked the next Sabbath day, and to pay twenty shillings Scots to the 
poor. 

1662, December 4. — At a meeting of kirk-session a man confessed his scandalous 
carriage both in offending God and wronging his neighbour the provost by his railing, 
outrageous speeches toward him in his furious passion. He confessed himself to be 
heartily sorrowful therefor; and being humbled before the session, promised that 
through God's grace he would never be found in the like again, but would study to 
walk more Christianly. Which the session accepts, but ordains him to pay forty 



THE MINISTRY OF JOHN HAY, B.D. 183 

shillings to the poor. The women again brought up for flyting, but the 
witnesses declared that they did hear no scolding nor flyting. The session not 
finding any more in it desired that they might be sharply rebuked for giving any 
offence on that day in the least. Which accordingly was done, and they were 
exhorted to walk more Christianly. 

1662, December 10 — At a meeting of the kirk-session held on this day, there 
appeared before them a man who confessed his sins of drunkenness and swearing. 
And being humbled on his knees, he professed himself heartily sorrowful for them, 
and promised never to be found in the like again. The session enacted that if he be 
guilty again, he shall be severely punished. The piper's wife being cited, compeared, 
for receiving idle and vagabond persons into her house, who being sharply rebuked, 
was informed that if ever she did the like again, the magistrate would put her out of 
the town. It was ordained that elders and deacons in their several quarters should 
diligently perambulate on the Lord's Day to see if any did profane the Sabbath in the 
houses or in the streets after divine service. 

1662, December 17 — At a meeting of the kirk-session it was thought fit and 
expedient that the elders and deacons should know their quarters, particularly for 
visiting and searching both on the Sabbath and week days. The division whereof is 
as followeth, each elder together with his deacon; — Provost Williamson for the south- 
east quarter, with his deacon, William Hislop; Provost Plenderleath from thence to 
Sir James Douglas's dwelling-house, and John Smith his deacon; from thence John 
Bell to the West Port, and his deacon; John Frank for the south-west to the Dean's 
Gutter and Dean's Wynd, with Adam Russell his deacon; Mr William Hay from 
thence to the Northgate head, with his deacon, Andrew Hislop; Thomas Smith for 
the Northgate, and Thomas Giffen his deacon; for the landward part seven elders 
and deacons; and one of each for the Old Town. Alexander Laidlie, the piper, 
compeared for playing in the night time, and corrupting young folks thereby, for 
which he was sharply rebuked. He promised not to do the like again, otherwise to 
be severely punished. A man at the West Port gave in a bill complaining that a 
man and wife had scandalised his good name by calling him a thief, and offering also 
to prove it that he had opened sacks in the mill and taken shillings out of them, and 
put them in his own. His wife also had said that her husband's head would stand 
neither on the East nor on the West Port as his (the accuser's) forebear's did. The 
man confessed his part, and the session ordained him to be publicly rebuked before 
the congregation for the slander, and also to pay ten shillings to the poor. The woman 
denying her part, witnesses were called and sworn. One man deponed that he heard 
her say that she hoped her husband's head would stick neither on the East nor the 
West Port for a wrongous action. A woman deponed that she heard her say that her 
goodman would be as long unhanged or his lug unnailed to the tron as any Horsburgh 
of his kin. Several other witnesses confirmed these expressions. The session finding 
it not proven in terms, but finding her guilty of reflecting speeches tending to much 
thereaway, ordains her to be sharply rebuked by the minister, which was done; and 
she professing her grief and sorrow therefor, promised not to be found in the like 



1 84 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

Painting the Kirk Loft, &c. 
1662, November 8 — To Thomas Brown, for painting the Kirk loft, the dial, and 
the chains, ^30. 

Moderator Appointed by the Archbishop. 

1662, November 27 — This day, upon a letter from the most reverend archbishop 
warranting Mr John Hay to preside in the Presbytery as moderator, the said Mr 
John Hay is thereupon accepted as moderator by the brethren present. 

Fines Imposed under Middleton's Act. 
1662 — List of fines imposed by Middleton, in Parliament, 1662, for complying 
with Cromwell generally, but for no special crimes (arbitrarily chosen): — Peeblesshire 
— The laird of Polmood, ;£6oo; William Burrell of Slipperfield, ^doo; Douglas of 
Linton, £,Tf>o; Cranstoun of Glen, £,'ioo; Bailie John Horsbrugh, of Peebles, 
£,2)(io; Mr Andrew Hay, brother to John Hay of Haystoun, ;£6oo; Joseph 
Learmonth, ;£i2oo. 

Contemporary Ministers. 

\1662 — Traquair — John Carmichael, M.A.; deposed, October 18, 1665, for 
declining Episcopacy, when he joined the Presbyterians. Had his share of suffering, 
and died at Pitmeddie, in Fife, aged about 36. 

[7<5(52 — Tweedsmuir — Robert Scott, M.A., formerly of Eddleston ; presented by 
the earl of Wigton; died, October 1674, aged about 62.] 

The Proceedings of the Kirk-Session and of the Presbytery under 
Episcopacy. 

1663, January 7 — A testimonial was received by the kirk-session from the 
parish of Temple, testifying that a certain woman, who had lived there for the space 
of a year, was without public scandal, to which place she came from the parish of 
Borthwick, where she lived thirteen years without public scandal, except her graceless 
and irreverent carriage at a time there before the congregation when the minister was 
about to reprove her for flyting and scolding with her neighbours, for which she did 
satisfy the kirk. Which last testimony was subscribed by the minister of the parish 
of Temple. 

1663, January 8 — The registers of the Presbytery produced and committed to 
the keeping of the moderator (Mr John Hay). 

1663, February 3 — Moderator ill in Edinburgh, and clerk there also, pleading 
at law for his stipend, and he has with him the minutes. 

1663, March ip — This day the moderator gave in to the Presbytery a presentation 
from the earl of Tweeddale to Mr Robert Smith, to the vicarage pensionary of Peebles, 
and the archbishop's collation thereupon. Upon which the brethren, after the rising 
of their session, went to the Church of Peebles and inducted him. 

1663, March 22 — At a meeting of the kirk-session, held on this day, there 
appeared a man and two women accusing a certain man of calling their mother a 




oi 

-4;-.. '^'^W^^ 






.^K 



Tower, Cross Kirk— (Drawn by Geo. Johnston). 

.Sculptured stones upon the south-west angle of the Cross Church Tower. 
Opinions differ whether they have been utihsed as building material from some 
other site, or whether they indicate the completion of that portion of the Tower. 

Observe the Cross of the Trinity Friars ; also the three salmon of the Burgh 
crest ; the fieur de lis (or arrow head) ; the hunting-horn ; and the sheaf of 
arrows. The signification of the three last is unknown. See pp. 1S5, 189. 



THE MINISTRY OF JOHN HAY, B.D. 185 

witch. The accused man being called, stated that being in a distemper at the time 
after drink, he could not remember if such words did escape him, but if they did, it 
was beyond intention and mind, and therefore he professed himself sorrowful, also for 
his being overtaken in drink which occasioned it, promising by the Lord's grace not 
to do the Uke again; wherewith the parties offended were satisfied. 

1663, March 25 — At the meeting of kirk-session, held this day, the collections 
were given up, and distributions as follows: — Collected since October 29, 1662, 
£,2(3 6s; disbursed since that day, ;^65 13s; which, being added to the former 
superplus of ^^192 17s, extends to ;£258 los; so remains superexpended, £,212 4s. 

1663, April 2Q — Provost Williamson and Thomas Smith, who were ordained to 
view the steeplehead, which was ruinous, reported that they had done so, and that 
in their judgment they thought 200 merks would repair it. The heritors to be spoken 
to as to reparation. 

1663, May IS — On which day the minister and elders and sundry of the heritors 
did meet anent the repairing of the steeplehead in the Cross Kirk. The meeting 
agreed to have the steeplehead repaired at the cost of 200 merks, as reported by 
Provost Williamson and Thomas Smith. The heritors agree to be assessed for the 
cost according to the rule formerly in use at the repairing of the kirk, to which all 
consented except Haystoun. 

1663, June 10 — A man was summoned before the kirk-session for vaging 
(wandering) on the Castlehill in time of divine worship, along with another man, who 
also compeared. Both confessed their sin, being humbled before the session on their 
knees, and enacted never to do the like again, and also to pay to the poor six 
shillings. The keeping of the little mortcloth was committed to a certain man. It 
is to be lent out to any within the town and parish for twenty shillings Scots; and for 
forty shillings Scots to all outside the parish. 

1663, July 8 — This day the collections and disbursements were given account 
of: — Collected since March 25, 1663, £2^ 19s 8d; debursed since that day, 
£2$ i6s 4d, which, being added to the former superplus, ;£232 4s, extends in 
both to ^^258 4s; so remains superexpended, ;£232 8s. 

1663, July 12 — The Kirk treasurer was ordained to buy a green cloth for the 
pulpit. It was also ordained that the repairs on the steeplehead be hastened. 

1663, July 22 — A woman was asked to declare as witness what she knew in a 
certain scandal between a man and a woman. On one occasion she declared that 
she had seen the man and the woman late on a winter night go in alone to the Chapel 
and not come out. On another occasion she saw the couple alone at Dean's Wynd 
foot late at night. On another occasion she heard her say when Hugh was sitting 
whistling on the Tolbooth stair, "Who would not love that well-favoured face?" On 
July 26 another witness, a man, declared that he heard the accused man declare that 
he would run himself through with a " touk " when the woman threatened to give up 
his company. A woman also declared that she witnessed their meeting at the Cross 
Kirk. Later on, on September 20, the accused woman having been formally ordained 
by the session to find caution to abstain from keeping company with the man, or 
correspondence in any kind, having not done so, was referred to by the magistrate to 



1 86 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

make her obey. On October 1 9 a different man altogether became caution for her, 
under pain of 100 pounds Scots. 

1663, August p — -The pastor did seriously exhort members of the session to take 
notice of scandalous persons not worthy to communicate, seeing that the time thereof 
drew nigh. 

1663, August 22 — This date was the Saturday before the celebration of the 
sacrament of the Lord's Supper, accordingly the session met, and the elders were 
exhorted to attend the tables, with an elder and a deacon at each kirk door for the 
collections. 

1663, August JO — The members of session having observed some that withdrew 
from the sacrament last Sabbath, it was thought expedient that they be cited before 
the session to give their reasons why they did so, and also from the hearing of the 
Word ; and their names to be given in next day. 

i66j, October 28 — Collected from July 8, ^47 13s 6d; debursed, £,2,0 8s 8d; 
superexpended at this date, jQz 159s 4d. 

Death of Archbishop Fairfoul. 
i66j, November 2 — Archbishop Fairfoul died in Edinburgh. On November 1 1 
his body was carried to St Giles' East Church, now the High Church, and laid in 
mourning before the pulpit. The bells rang for the funeral sermon at four in the 
afternoon. Mr John Hay, parson at Peebles, archdeacon of Glasgow, preached 
from Ecclesiastes xii., 5. The body was then taken in procession, and interred at 
the east end of the Abbey Church. 

The Revolt against Episcopacy. 
[1663 — All the troubles which now befell the Church of Scotland were 
principally brought about by the following causes: — Patronage in the Church had 
been abolished by act of Parliament in 1 649. The General Assembly, in following 
this act up, had conferred on the kirk-sessions the right of electing the ministers, with 
power to the congregations to appeal to the Presbytery in case of dissatisfaction. 
From 1649 to 1660 all the ministers ordained had been elected under this act. 
But it was now announced, as has been already mentioned, that all such ministers 
had no right to their parishes. To meet their case, however, it was agreed that 
every minister who should now receive presentation from the patron, along with 
institution from the bishop, would be allowed to retain his Church, manse, and 
benefice. After the passing of those acts, the Lord High Commissioner journeyed 
into the west country, and, while there, learned from the archbishop of Glasgow that 
none of the ministers of his diocese had as yet presented themselves for institution, 
and that they were continuing in their livings in defiance of the acts. Thereupon a 
meeting of the privy council, held at Glasgow, on October i, passed an act declaring 
that all the ministers who had not complied with the law had forfeited their livings. 
They were interdicted from preaching, and were ordered, along with their families, to 
remove from their parishes before November i. On that day three hundred 
ministers came out of their manses and Churches. Many of these continued to 
preach, though not in the Church; thus arose conventicles, or field-preachings. The 
Parish Churches became deserted. Few or none resorted to them to listen to the 
curates who occupied the places of the extruded ministers. Ruinous fines were 



THE MINISTRY OF JOHN HAY, B.D. 187 

exacted from all who abandoned their Church or resorted to conventicles. The 
curates themselves became informers on the parishioners. In many of the Churches 
the curates called a roll of the names of the parishioners at the close of the service, 
and handed over to the officer commanding the district a list of defaulters. These 
had fines imposed upon them and soldiers quartered on them until they were paid.] 

Anent the Curates. 

\1663 — Indeed there was never a more melancholy change made in a Church than 
when Presbyterian ministers were thus turned out, and the bishops with their curates 
came in. Before the reintroduction of Prelacy in the preceding year, every parish in 
Scotland had a minister, every village a school, every family, and in most places each 
person, a Bible; the children were all taught to read, and furnished with the Holy 
Scriptures either at their parents' or the parish charge; every minister professed and 
obliged himself to adhere to the Protestant Reformed religion, and owned the 
Westminster Confession, framed by the divines of both nations, and were regulated by 
the excellent acts of Assemblies. 

Most part of the ministers did preach thrice a week, and lecture once, to say 
nothing of catechising and other pastoral duties, wherein they abounded according to 
the proportion of their ability and faithfulness. None of them were scandalous, 
inefficient, or negligent, as far as could be noticed, while Presbyteries continued in 
their power. A minister could not be easy himself without some seals of his 
ministry, and evidences of the divine approbation in the souls of his people, of which 
there were in that period not a few. One might have lived a good while in many 
congregations, and ridden through much of Scotland, without hearing an oath. You 
could scarce have lodged in a house where God was not worshipped by singing, 
reading the Word, and prayer. And the public-houses were ready to complain that 
their trade was broke, everybody now was become so sober. 

As soon as the prelates and their curates were thrust in, one began to meet 
with the plain reverse of all this, which was the heavier that it resembled King Saul's 
change — a bad spirit after good. Some two years ago there was scarce a minister or 
expectant in this Church but professed himself a covenanted Presbyterian, and so the 
bishops and the curates in the eye of the common people came in with perjury written 
in their foreheads where holiness to the Lord should have been, and one need not 
wonder at the opposition made to them. 

When the curates entered their pulpits it was by an order from the bishop, 
without any call from, yea, contrary to, the inclinations of the people. Their personal 
character was black, and no wonder their personal entertainment was coarse and cold. 
In some places they were welcomed with tears in abundance and entreaties to be 
gone; in others with reasonings and arguments which confounded them; and some 
entertained them with threats, affronts, and indignities too many here to be repeated. 
The bell's tongue in some places was stolen away that the parishioners might have 
an excuse for not coming to Church. The doors of the Church in other places were 
barricaded, and they made to enter by the window literally. The laxer of the gentry 
easily engaged to join in their drinking cabals, which, with all iniquity, did now 
fearfully abound, and sadly exposed them; and in some places the people, fretted 
with the dismal change, gathered together and violently opposed their settlement, and 
received them with showers of stones. This indeed was not the practice of the 
rehgious and more judicious; such irregularities were committed by the more 
ignorant vulgar, yet these were so many evidences of the regard they were like to 
have from the body of their parishioners. — Wodrow, p. 332.] 



1 88 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

Contemporary Ministers. 

\1663— Manor — John Hay, A.M.; University of Glasgow in 1654; licensed by 
Presbytery of Haddington, September 8, 1659; presented by John, earl of 
Tweeddale, with consent of the parson of Peebles, August 13 and 19, 1661. 
Episcopacy having been restored, September 6, his settlement was forbidden by the 
privy council, December 10, but his admission was completed notwithstanding on the 
1 2th of said month, for which seven ministers, who were present, were required to 
compear and answer to the premises under pain of rebellion, as has been mentioned. 
He was again presented in August, and admitted October 1662. Continued June, 
15, 1663, and was translated to Govan same year. 

[^1663 — Manor — David Thomsone, translated from Dawyck. He was attacked 
by a number of armed men, September 9, 1680, and fell as dead, when they 
plundered his house and stole his horses. He was deprived in 1681 for refusing the 
Test; again presented and admitted, 1682. Being disabled from the ministry 
through loss of hearing occasioned by wounds in his head from the swords of his 
assaulters and other hardships, he was obliged to demit his charge. The privy 
council, in 1689, allowed him a share of the collection uplifted for the French and 
Irish Protestants; died January 1692.] 

Court of High Commission. 
[In 1664 King Charles II. established in London a Court of High Commission 
for the purpose of trying all offences committed against the Established Church. 
But its arbitrary proceedings caused so great disgust that it was abolished in a year.] 

Town Council Regulations. 
1664 — In Peebles at this time they were concerned that every member of 
the town council should possess and wear a hat at the meetings of the magistrates ; 
that the streets and bridges should be kept clean ; and that one of the feet of every 
hen should have a clog of wood attached to it for the purpose of preventing the fowls 
from scraping in gardens or upon thatches of houses. When any person of quality 
died, twenty of the ablest honest burgesses were to attend the funeral, under 
penalties. 

The Kirk-Session and the Presbytery under Episcopacy. 

1664, January 6 — It was ordained that when the Church ladders are lent out 
they shall not be permitted to stand at a house above two houses' height, but to hang 
at the high house; and the borrowers thereof to pay i2d per day. 

1664., January 20 — Collected since October 28, 1663, ;£2i 7s; debursed, ;^33 
17s 6d; debt, ^227 19s lod. It was the session's desire this day to the magistrates 
that none be permitted to come and take up their residence in the town but those 
that live peaceably and attend ordinances. 

1664, February 10 — This day was produced the disposing of the roumes in the 
Cross Kirk. The earl of Tweeddale and most part of the heritors meeting with the 
elders, March 24, 1658, together with the magistrates of the burgh: — (i.) The earl 
of Tweeddale's place is appointed over against the pulpit on the north side, and to 
build laigh or high, or both, as he pleases. (2.) The magistrates of the burgh and 
town council have chosen for themselves to build a loft to go through the east end of 



THE MINISTRY OF JOHN HAY, B.D. 189 

the Kirk, and to come as far west as the east side of the first south window. 
(3.) The laird of Smithfield's roume is next to the earl of Tweeddale's, on the north 
side of the Kirk eastward. (4.) Mr John Hay, parson, having been at the pains of 
repairing the third part of the roof, his place is appointed between the pulpit and the 
south Church door, and his pew to come as far from the wall as the pulpit and seats 
thereto belonging. (5.) Haystoun's place on the right hand on the east side of the 
pulpit. (6.) Cringletie on the west side of the south door. (7.) Chapelhill on the 
west side of the north door, and his seat to stand along the wall, if he choose a fixed 
back seat. (8.) Barns and Crookston pew to stand with the end to the wall on the 
north side of the Church, next to Smithfield's seat. (9.) Heath pool and Winkston, a 
pew behind Haystoun. (10.) Mailingsland and Foulage, a pew next behind them. 
(11.) Blackbarony's and Kingslands' place behind Barns and Crookston on the north 
side of the Kirk. (12.) Gilbert Hay of Bridgelands' place behind Chapelhill. (13.) 
Whitehaugh's place behind Mailingsland. (14.) Little Ormiston behind Cringletie. 
These were all the places then thus designed. 

1664, February ij — Elders ordained in their several quarters to search for 
these young men who sit up late drinking and playing at cards, and report. And 
on March 16, similarly the elders were ordained to observe those that vage (wander) 
and clatter under stairs on the Sabbath day, and to give in their names. 

1664, March jo — The accounts for the repairing of the Cross Kirk steeple were 
produced by James Williamson. The debursements came to the amount of ;£i25 
3s. "So remains ^8 3s 8d, which he has delivered to the kirk treasurer." It was 
reported on May 11 that there had been collected since January 20, ^£34 is 2d; 
that there had been debursed since that day, ^^52 i6s 2d; and that there 
remained superexpended, ;£246 i6s lod. 

1664, April 14 — Hew Blak and Bessie Melrose, who had been long processed 
before the kirk-session of Peebles and the Presbytery, now confessed before the 
kirk-session their sins, and were called. She said the reason why she had been so 
long in confessing was that the man prevented her, and he said that the reason that 
he had been so long in confessing was that the woman and her relations prevented 
him. Case deferred, as another woman now implicated. The above inserted by me. 
—P. PURDIE, Clerk. 

1664, June 23 — Bessie Melrose to evidence her repentance in sackcloth before 
the congregation of Peebles. The others have not yet confessed. 

1664, July 6 — This meeting was taken up by three wives, two of whom were 
accused by the third — all having the same Christian name of Bessie — of calling her a 
witch, and charging her with bewitching various persons. The bill was proven, and 
the matter carried over to next meeting. 

1664, July 20 — A woman from Stobo produced a testimonial to the effect that 
she was free of any public scandal, and had never been under an ill report of 
witchcraft or charming. The dues for the use of the mortcloth were fixed for those 
outside the parish at jQ/^, and for those within the parish, forty shillings. A bill of 
complaint was given in by two Janets against a man and his wife, to the effect that 
he said that he would prove by witnesses that one of the Janets cast the dew over 



I go THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

her shoulder in the Quarrel Holes before the sun, where his naiggs died; and that 
when he was coming in with his naigg Janet met him, and that if she had not met 
him his naigg would not have died, and that the man's wife called Janet a ringwoodie 
witch. The man denied his part, but his wife admitted hers. Witnesses confirmed 
having heard all the charges and expressions. The session delayed what farther was 
to be done. 

1664, August 10 — The matter of the three Bessies was resumed. A man 
deponed that he had never seen accused woman; for when once drinking a pint of 
beer in her house he saw none but her servant. And he never blamed Bessie for 
the distemper which he took a little while thereafter. In the end (on August 17) 
one of the Bessies was ordered to be rebuked before the congregation for calling one 
of the others a witch; the second Bessie was rebuked before the session for certain 
evil-favoured expressions concerning the third Bessie, and ordered to be reconciled. 
There was reported collected since May 11, J[,2i 9s 6d; debursed, ;^i8 3s; 
superexpended, ;^2 37 8s 6d. 

1664, August 21 — The delinquent Bessie was publicly rebuked before the 
congregation, and professed herself sorrowful. Two women, called Isobel, and a 
man were summoned for a breach of the Sabbath. The first Isobel sent her woman, 
the second Isobel, with a barrel of ale on the Lord's Day, and the man was accused 
of receiving it. These all professing their sorrow, were sharply rebuked before them, 
being the first fault and enacting never to do the like again. The sender meantime 
was ordered to pay twenty shillings to the poor. On the same day four Brotherstones 
compeared along with another man, all accused being fleshers, charged with being 
wont to drive away their goods on Saturday. They were ordained to bring a 
testimonial where their goods are on the Sabbath hereafter. 

1664, October ig — The session ordered the treasurer not to sett out any of the 
silver belonging to the box to any man without the advice of the session. If he do 
otherwise he is to sustain all the losses. A man complained against two women for 
cursing and railing at him, and saying, " The devil come to the rigging of your house 
and whummle it down on your head and on your family." Also bidding God's curse 
on him and his family, and wishing His curse never go by him. Denied. 

1664, October 26 — Two new deacons were admitted on this day. In the case of 
the Janets, referred to at a previous meeting, the wife of the man was ordered to be 
publicly rebuked for calHng one of the Janets a ringwoodie witch; and the other 
Janet was ordered to be publicly rebuked for cursing and imprecating against the 
man. 

1664, November p — There appeared Alexander Laidlay, who gave promise that 
he would not misbehave himself nor play on his pipes at home nor abroad. If 
otherwise he is to be banished the town. 

1664, November 2j — The treasurer reported that since August 1 7 there had been 
collected j^2g 12s; there had been debursed, ^£40 3s; there had been super- 
expended, ;^2 52 2S. 

1664, November 27 — The Church beadle gave in a supplication wherein he 
acknowledged his miscarriage in his office by betraying his trust therein; humbly 



THE MINISTRY OF JOHN HAY, B.D. 191 

craving mercy therefor from God; and submitting himself to them and their censure; 
and if they would be pleased to readmit him to his office. But the session 
unanimously thinks him unworthy to be in that place. A collection was ordered to 
be taken up on December 7, for the wright, who was now blind and indigent and in 
great poverty. And a new beadle was chosen on the 21st, there being nothing 
against his character; accordingly the oath de fideli was administered to him. 

1664, December 2g — Bessie Melrose, having now kept the public place of 
repentance all the time which was enjoined, and the Presbytery being satisfied of her 
" unfeigned repentance," allow her to be received. The two other people involved 
in this case not yet sentenced, fresh wrong-doing being discovered on the part 
of the other woman, &c. 

Contemporary Ministers. 

\1664 — Eddleston — Alexander Dickson, A.M., translated from Kirkurd; called. 
May 28, 1659; admitted. May 30, 1660; continued, April 14, 1664. 

{^1664 — Lyne — Robert Brown, translated from Broughton; called, April 1659; 
admitted, February i following; presented, June 1661; required by the privy 
council, December 1 2 following, to compear and answer for assisting in the admission 
of the minister of Manor, under pain of rebellion; continued, August 4, 1664. 

[^1664 — Skirling — David Hay, translated from Cathcart; died. May 1666. ] 

The Kirk-Session and Presbytery during Episcopacy. 
i66s, January 11 — A collection was ordered to be taken for the bridge of Dy, 
in the north, according to the act of Synod. Winter floods had probably caused its 
destruction. 

1665, February i — The wrights and smiths of Peebles petitioned the kirk-session 
for license to build a seat for themselves, viz., a loft at the west end of the Church. 
The session granted this, provided they remove the pillar at their own cost, and repair 
at their own cost the scholars' loft for them. The scholars' loft was also situated at 
the west end of the Church. 

i66j, February 16 — The magistrates of Peebles and some of the elders ask for 
supply to be arranged for them during the time of their minister's illness. 

i66s, March 26 — The minister was ill, and on that day Mr John Philp, minister 
at Kirkurd, preached and "kept session" on that account. "Who having been 
desired by the parson to enquire at the eldership if there were any new scandal, they 
answered they knew of none; whereupon, at the parson's desire, exhorted them to 
vigilance in their several quarters." 

Mr John Hay, the minister, died in the following year. He was ill yet in the 
month of April 1665, and there was no meeting of session. 

In July the collections were reported thus: — Collected since November 23, 
^£56 4s 6d; debursed, ;£45 6s; superexpended, ^^241 2s. 

1665, August 6 — A man gave in a bill against another man and his wife in 
Woodgrivinton for calling him " an old-faced warlock's get and witch's goat, and hi.s 
wife said he was come over to brag them with his old silver that his father had 
conquished with his joukrie and naverie under the nooks of Kaidmuir, and that my 



192 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

wife was a hypocrite going from holl to holl and kirk to kirk yowling." The bill was 
proved against the woman on the following week, and she was ordered to be publicly 
rebuked. 

1665, August 13 — This day being the Sabbath, the act anent withdrawers from 
public worship was publicly read before the congregation, and delivered to the 
provost to be put into execution. A woman, being old and poor, supplicated the 
session for some supply; she was made an ordinary pensioner with the rest. 

On September 10, this being the Sabbath, the proclamation for keeping of the 
Fast was publicly read before the congregation, who were ordered to keep it. A 
woman gave in a supplication for some supply, "to satisfy the physician" for curing of 
her broken arm, being poor. The treasurer is ordained to speak the physician and 
report. 

On September 13, the public fast and humiliation was solemnly observed. 

On September 1 7, the session having considered those that withdraw from the 
ordinances, did give these to the provost — (here follow nine names, one being called 
" Skinkie"). 

On September 24, a pair of shoes was ordered to be given to an old man; and 
the price of three pecks of meal to the wife, whose arm was broken, " and to pay for 
curing of her arm." 

1663, October 5 — James Nichol referred to Presbytery by the kirk-session of 
Peebles as one who has a child long unbaptised, withdrawing himself also from the 
ordinances of the Church, keeps conventicles, and is disobedient to the kirk-session. 
He to be summoned pro secundo, and if he does not compear the Presbytery will 
summon him before the archbishop and Synod. Was this the martyr of 1685? 

1665, October 18 — Mr John Carmichael, minister at Traquair, was called at the 
door of the High Kirk of Peebles, but compeared not. He sent, however, a letter 
wherein he declines the present Synod, and refuses to keep meeting with the 
archbishop and Synods for the time to come, and professes that his keeping of 
former meetings with them has been bitterness of spirit to him before the Lord. The 
Synod thought good to put a close to the process, and, by plurality of votes, deposed 
him from the office and exercise of the ministry. (This would seem to have been the 
ruined Church of St Andrew.) 

On October 22, the shank weavers, who had lately come to the town, were 
ordained to bring testimonials. 

On November 15, a poor orphan got a pair of shoes and a shirt; a poor man in 
the Longsyde house was to have the price of half a boll of meal ; and a woman was 
to get a pair of shoes and a plaid. A woman who had failed to prove her case 
against another is ordained to lose her forty shillings caution money; and "because 
she is delated for scolding, she is referred to the provost to be incarcerated therefor, 
and to appear the next day of session." 

Contemporary Ministers. 
\i66s — Dawyck — William Bollo, M.A. Ordained by the archbishop of 
Glasgow, and admitted and instituted May 8, 1665; translated to Stobo, 1682. 



THE MINISTRY OF JOHN HAY, B.D. 193 

\i66s — Eddleston — James Smyth, M.A., from Innerleithen. 

\i66s — Traquair — John Carmichael, A.M., son of Frederick Carmichael, 
minister of Markinch; University of St Andrews, July 20, 1650; elected to their 
bursary by the Presbytery of Kirkcaldy, December 4 following; ordained. May 24, 
1661, as minister of Thursbie, in England; presented to this parish by Charles II., 
July II, 1661; instituted and admitted, August 7, 1662; deposed, October i8, 1665, 
for declining Episcopacy, when he joined the Presbyterians. Had his share of 
suffering; died at Pitteddie, Fife, cet. 36. Left Frederick and Euphan. (See 
Kirkton and Wodrow's History; Lamont's Diary.] 



The Kirk-Session under Episcopacy. 

1666, January 25 — Mr John Hay reported himself so much better that he 
thinks he could preach in the forenoon, if some brother could preach for him in the 
afternoon. 

1666, January 28 — Being the Sabbath day, an act discharging all private 
conventicles was read publicly. 

1666, February 21 — Collected since July 3, £,(ii 5s lod; debursed, ^£71 iis 
2d; superexpended, ;£249 7s 6d. A man gave in a bill against another for calling 
him a base knave, a common thief, who had stolen him off his feet, and had lived by 
purse-cutting three years; he had also said — " If the devil had taken him away when 
he and he spake together in the loft, he had not been to wrong anybody, and if he 
had let him go over the stair and broken his neck he had troubled nobody." The 
accused denied the bill. The complainer produced forty shillings, and called 
witnesses, who corroborated. The session found the case proven, and ordained the 
accused to confess his wrong publicly before the congregation, and pay twenty 
shillings to the poor. And both parties bind themselves to live more Christianly and 
peaceably, under the pain of severe punishment. 

1666, March 8 — Mr Robert Smyth, expectant, present schoolmaster at Peebles, 
desires a testimony from this Presbytery of his by-past behaviour among them, to be 
presented to Lanark Presbytery. 

Collections reported on May 27 — Since February 21, ^^54 12s; debursed, 
^^32; superexpended, ^226 15s 6d. On this day the handwriting in the session 
book very markedly changes its character; moreover the days are sometimes styled 
die dominica and at others die sabbatica. 

1666, August 12, die dominica — The last Lord's Day the Lord's Supper 
was celebrated to the congregation. 

Decease of Rev. John Hay, B.D. 
1666, October j — The Rev. John Hay died this day, aged 53. He had been 
minister since 1643, in all, twenty-three years. He left three sons — Theodore, Henry, 
and William; and a daughter, Lillias. During the greater part of his ministry the 
Church of Scotland worshipped under Covenanted Presbyterianism, but for the latter 
five years the Church was Episcopalian. (See genealogical table of Hays.) 



194 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

1666, October 11 — This day the provost and several of the council of the town 
of Peebles earnestly desiring that the Church might be supplied, which was now 
vacant through the decease of Mr John Hay, their late parson, the Presbytery ordains 
Mr David Thomson (Manor) and Mr Wm. Bow (Dawyck) to preach in Peebles 
betwixt now and next meeting. This day Elizabeth Melrose, adulteress, earnestly 
desires that " since she hath stooden about a twelvemonth in the Church of Peebles 
she may now be released from the place of public repentance." The Presbytery 
ordains Mr David Thomson to enquire at the session of Peebles anent her conversa- 
tion at the time of her satisfaction, and to report. A letter from the archbishop, for 
valuing of the manse belonging to the Church of Peebles. Brethren appointed to 
take workmen with them and visit the manse, and report. 

1666, October 14 — God having called home to himself our revered pastor, Mr 
John Hay, of happie memorie, Mr David Thomson, minister at Manor, by 
appointment of the Presbytery, supplying the cure this day, convened with the 
members of session, after calling upon God, proceeded thus: — A man to be rebuked 
next Lord's Day for calumniating another; a man rebuked for carrying thistles on the 
Lord's Day. 

1666, October 25 — Brethren report that Elizabeth Melrose has stood in the habit 
of an adulteress for twelve months, and they know of no reason why she should not 
be received. She compeared in sackcloth, and, confessing her sin with tears, was 
appointed to be received by Mr James Smyth. Mr David Thomson being asked 
whether he had made intimation of the visitation to Peebles, said he had forgotten. 
Intimation to be made by Mr Hew Gray. 

1666 — Supply of ministers after the death of Mr John Hay: — October 28, Mr 
Hugh Gray, minister at Kailzie; November 25, Mr James Smyth, Eddleston. 1667, 
January 6 — Mr Hugh Gray, Kailzie; February 10, Mr John Clelland, Traquair; 
March 3, Mr William Alison, Kilbucho; March 17, Mr John Philp, Kirkurd; 
March 24, Mr William Alison, Kilbucho; April 7, Mr James Smyth, Eddleston; 
April 14, Mr George Forbes, Innerleithen; April 25, Mr James Smyth, Eddleston; 
June 16, Mr David Thomson, Manor; June 23, Mr John Hay, minister of Peebles. 

The Manse. 
1666, November 22 — Report of visitation of Peebles manse: — Peebles, ist 
November 1666. — The which day, the brethren being convened that were appointed 
by the Presbytery, in pursuance of desire of the archbishop, took sufficient craftsmen 
and went to the manse to value it. They took with them the valuation made in 
1 66 1, after Mr Theodore Hay's death. The craftsmen, being sworn, then went 
through all the house to take accurate note of all the repairs and improvements made 
by Mr John Hay, the late parson, and, having done so, they estimate them at 264 
lib. IS 4d. The former valuation, which was fully paid to Mr Theodore Hay's relict 
by Mr John Hay, was 1069 merks Scots money. 

Plague Victims. 
"In 1666 the unhappy persons who were afflicted with the plague were placed 



THE MINISTRY OF JOHN HAY, B.D. 195 

in the cells or vaults of the Cross Kirk." Thus wrote the Rev. Dr Dalgleish to 
General Hutton in the beginning of the nineteenth century. 

Major Joseph Learmont. 
In connection with the battle of Rullion Green (November 28, 1666), reference 
must be made to Major Joseph Learmont of Newholme. This property was then 
considered as being situated partly within the shire of Lanark and partly in 
Peeblesshire. The Major had been previously fined by the act of 1662, 
called Middleton's Act, in the sum of ;£i2oo Scots, for compliance with the 
usurpation of Cromwell. At the same time Andrew Hay, brother of John Hay of 
Haystoun, had to pay ;^6oo; Bailie Horsburgh of Peebles, ;^36o, &c., as stated 
previously. Learmont is reported to have been skilful and resolute as a soldier, and 
of mature years. He was one of the valued leaders of the insurrection, and against 
great odds dared more than once to confront the Royal forces. At the above battle 
he led the principal attack, but in the final rout he managed to escape, along with a 
preacher named William Veitch, who afterwards wrote an account of the battle, and 
lived to become minister of Peebles in 1690. 

Sacred Tune. 
["Silesia," Adam Krieger, ob. 1666.] 

Contemporary Ministers. 

[7(5(5(5 — Innerleithen — George Forbes, translated from Portpatrick; presented by 
earl of Traquair; translated to Traquair, 1674. 

\i666 — Kilbucho — William Allisone, M.A., translated from Kirknewton; admitted 
by the archbishop of Glasgow. Accused of not reading the proclamation of the 
Estates, and not praying for William and Mary but for James VIL; acquitted, 
September 17, 1689. Deposed by Presbytery, September 25, 1690, for declining 
their authority. 

\i666 — Traquair — John Cleland, translated from Middlebie; presented by 
Alexander, archbishop of Glasgow; collated, March 8; instituted, April 9. Died 
between February 14 and May 8, 1672, leaving a wiclow, Margaret Bell (alive in 
1689), for whom a collection was recommended, March 2, 1681.] 

Court of High Commission. 
\i666 — With the fall of the Court of High Commission in this year persecution 
did not cease. Conventicles were prohibited. The system of repression continued, 
especially in the west and south. Terrorism prevailed. On November 12, at Dairy, 
in Galloway, the rising of the people against persecution commenced. At first they 
were successful, and their numbers became greatly augmented as the gathering 
traversed the west and south. Later, however, they became disheartened from 
the absence of reliable support, and on November 28, the Covenanters were 
defeated by General Dalziel, at Rullion Green, in the Pentland Hills. Rigorous 
imprisonment followed, and very many were executed.] 



196 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

Ministers of Peebles, 1570 to 1666. 

In the first century of her existence the Church had for ministers: — 

Thomas Cranstoun, 1570 to 1573. 

Archibald Douglas, from 1573 to 1610, with Adam Dickson and later Gavin 
Makcall as ministers in turn of the second charge. 

Dr Theodore Hay, from 16 10 to 1648; and 

Rev. John Hay, from 1643 until 1666. 

The former Hay had seen the Church first of all Episcopalian and later 
Covenanting; the latter Hay saw it Covenanting and then Episcopalian. 

Help for Converted Jew. 
/dd/, April 7 — Ordains the Kirk treasurer to give to the minister at Kirkurd to 
give to the converted Jew three pounds Scots. 



1667-1690. Ube /IDinistri? of tbe IRev. 3obn Ibai?, H./ID. 

(Secundus). 
Fifth Minister. Twenty-Three Years. Church of Scotland in her Second Episcopacy. 

Mr Hay Admitted. 

1667, June 20 — Mr John Hay admitted to the Kirk at Peebles by being given 
the key of the Church ; and by delivery of earth and stone, as the custom is, the said 
Mr John Hay was possessed of the manse and glebe as it had been delivered to 
his predecessor, Mr John Hay (whose predecessor was Mr Theodore Hay). Mr 
William Hay, sheriff clerk and notary public, to draw up instruments to be given to 
Mr John Hay. 

Mr Hay was translated to Peebles from Govan. He studied at the University 
of Glasgow, where he graduated in 1654. He was licensed by the Presbytery of 
Haddington on September 8, 1659. He was presented by John, earl of Tweeddale, 
with consent of the parish of Peebles, to Manor, on August 13 and 19, 1661. 
Episcopacy having been restored on September 6, his settlement was forbidden by 
the privy council on December 10; but his admission to Manor was nevertheless 
completed by the Presbytery of Peebles on December 12. For this, seven members 
of the Presbytery were compelled to answer to the privy council. He was again 
presented to Manor in August, and admitted in October 1662. He was translated 
to Govan, and admitted between June 15 and October 29. This Mr John Hay 
(secundus) appears to have been son-in-law to his predecessor. 

A Gentlewoman in Difficulties. 
1667, June 20 — This day, Jean Hay, a "gentilwoman," did supplicate the 
Presbytery for help, and was helped by several of the brethren. 

Discipline. 
On June 23, when the name of the new minister, Mr John Hay, appears for the 
first time, two men were rebuked for putting on women's clothes at a dancing; 
they engaged to more sober carriage in time coming. 

Collections. 
By October 13 the collections had improved greatly, and the debt was 
correspondingly reduced: — From June i, 1666, there was collected, ;^i43 iis 2d; 
debursed, ;£iS7 12s 8d; excess, ^14 is 6d. 



1 98 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

Ordination of Elders and Deacons. 
New elders and deacons were ordained on December 25; they came from 
Glensax, Spittlehope, Bonnington, Eshiels, Chapelyards. 

Contemporary Minister. 
[1667— Skirling — James Buchan, M.A., presented by the laird of Skirling; 
translated to Prestonpans in 1676.] 

Kirk-Session during Episcopacy. 

1668, January 2 — Mr William Cock, schoolmaster at Peebles, is reported not 
to keep Church, and for anything that is known, the magistrates are not to continue 
him in that charge. 

1668, January 8 — The kirk-session appoints the north jamb of the wester loft 
for the scholars to sit in in time of divine service; and authorises the Kirk treasurer to 
enclose it with a rail and a door. This was in the Cross Kirk, at the end of the 
Church next the tower. The magistrates occupied the loft at the opposite or east end. 

On February 5 a collection was appointed to be taken up "for the supply of 
Jeddart Kirk and Ancrum Bridge " the next Lord's Day. 

1668, May 7 — Mr William Cock, schoolmaster at Peebles, who has officiated 
there for years without license, requests a testimonial, as he is removing. As there is 
nothing else against him he is to get one. 

On June 24 the accounts were reported upon: — The collections amounted to 
j^73 ss 4d; and the distributions, since December 1667, to £,Z<) 5s 4d; over- 
expended, ;^29 17s 6d. 

On Sunday, September 20, there was collected for the supply of the families 
whose houses were burned in Kilmarnock, ten rix dollars. This sum was delivered 
to William Cardwell, in name of the said burgh, on February 10, 1669, as his receipt 
shews. 

Contemporary Minister. 
\i668 — Broughton — George Setone, presented by earl of Wigton; translated 
to Fyvie in 1672.] 

Kirk-Session and Presbytery during Episcopacy. 

i66g, February 2 — Distributions since June 24, ^^76 7s; collected, ^£77 8s lod; 
over-expended, j[,2% i6s 8d. The treasurer's "great account": — Charge of principal 
sums, annual rents, &c., since June 1666, ;£53i 12s 4d; expended in weekly 
accounts, ;^448 2S 8d; excess, ^^83 19s 8d. Ordains the treasurer to give to Thomas 
Kay, whose house was burned in summer last, of supply, ^£40; so rests owing by the 
treasurer, £,\i 19s 8d. 

i66(p, February 14 — Gavin Thomson, deacon, was by the unanimous vote 
of the members of the session nominated and elected Kirk treasurer during the 
session's pleasure. He is charged with: — A bond of Gilbert Hay's of Bridgelands, 
^233 6s 8d; a bond of umquhile Mr John Hay, minister of Peebles, ^£133 6s 8d; 



THE MINISTRY OF JOHN HAY, A.M. 199 

another bond of Mr Hay's, £,d,^; Jean Hay, his reHct, annual rent of ;£ioo, J[^/^; 
a bond of Alexander Douglas, in Cowthrepple, ;^66 13s Qd; John Matheson, cooper 
in Peebles, jQ^o; burgh of Peebles, ^200; John Plenderleith, ;^8o; John Tweedie 
of Oliver, ;^66 13s 4d; Marion Thomson, ^80; Barns, ;£ii7 los; John Scott of 
Hundleshope, £,\\o; William Bullo and his wife, ;£33 6s 8d; John Murray, wright, 
;£66 13s 4d; Thomas Lowes, portioner of Woodhouse, ;!^ii5 4s; Thomas Saltoun, 
in Crookstoun, ;^4o; George Stoddart, ;£66 13s 4d; James Tait, in Tamzelbume, 
j^i33 6s 8d; Thomas Williamson and James Gibson, £,(>(> 13s 4d; William Burnett 
and two others, ;£66 13s 4d; Robert Dodds and others, ;£66 13s 4d; Thomas 
Wilson, in Shiplaw, ^33 6s 8d; William Burnett, ;^66 13s 4d; the parson of 
Peebles, j^ioo; Patrick Brotherstones, J[,i2> 6s 8d; ready money in treasurer's 
hands, ;£4i 19s 8d, besides a few smaller sums and annual rents and interest, 
including a sum of j[^% ids remaining of the money collected for reparation of the 
Kirk windows. Also an assignation by James Inglis, with a debt against John Inglis 
of 100 merks. Sir James Hay's legacy of (blank). My lady Yester her mortification 
registered. The lady Hay her legacy £,\2. Alexander Leggat's bond, remaining 
four merks. A minute book in octavo anent building the burial-yard dyke. A note 
of the Kirk treasurer's debursements in repairing the Kirk for the heritors. Some 
green silk and a black fringe. 

i66g, March 11 — Mr John Hay asks advice of the Presbytery anent the case of 
twin children born to Adam Russel's wife in the seventh month of their marriage. 
The midwife and other honest women stated in the process before the kirk-session of 
Peebles that the children were not come to perfection, having neither hair nor nails. 
Therefore the Presbytery judges the scandal to be removed, and advises the minister 
and kirk-session to desist from further process. 

i66g, March //—The kirk-session regulated the price of the mortcloths to be as 
follows: — The large velvet mortcloth, two merks within the parish; and four merks 
outside. The short velvet mortcloth, one merk within the parish ; and two merks 
outside the parish. The cloth mortcloth, twelve shillings. 

On Sunday, May 16, it was ordained that a meeting of heritors be summoned 
on the following Sunday, calling on them to meet on Wednesday eight days along 
with the session, for building of the seats already designed and as yet unbuilt, with 
certification to those heritors who meet not nor build; so that others who design will 
be admitted to build in their rowmes. 

Separate Women's Seats in the Church. 

On Sunday, May 23, certain persons were appointed to regulate the women's 
seats in the body of the Church. And the treasurer was ordained to buy a Bible for 
William Shaw, son of the late John Shaw, in Winkstone. 

On Wednesday, August 4, there were granted : — To a poor woman, two shillings 
sterling; to another, for boarding a bairn this running quarter, ^8, the half in hand, 
and the other half at the end of the quarter, with a pair of double-soled shoes as 
bountith for byegones and in time coming. The late provost has promised to repay 
to the treasurer the said £,% at Martinmas next for his servant. 



200 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

Visitation under Episcopacy. 

i66g, August 26 — The Presbytery, calling to mind that the Church of Peebles is 
the only one left unvisited, does now appoint the visitation thereof at their next 
meeting, the parson of Peebles to make intimation thereof on the Lord's Day 
immediately preceding the visitation. 

i66g, September 16 — Mr John Hay, parson of Peebles, preached. Session book 
produced. Many elders and deacons absent, it being explained that they are 
labourers, and that it is their harvest time. Elders' answers very much commending 
their minister. Minister's answers commending his elders. They have no grievance, 
but desire the old act of the Presbytery anent not celebrating of marriages on the 
Tuesday (whereby the town of Peebles is prejudged), might be removed; which thing 
was promised them. Session book reported well kept. Elders and deacons being 
dismissed, the Kirk officer was required to call at the Church door if there were any 
person in that congregation who had anything to represent to the Presbytery. After 
thrice calling, none appeared, and so the visitation was closed. 

Non-Observance of the Sabbath. 

On Sunday, October 3, a widow was rebuked for bringing in water and setting 
up her corn on the Sabbath day ; has promised not to do the like again. All parties 
giving in bills for scandal shall pay to the Kirk officer for each witness summoned by 
him within the town, twelve shillings; and outside the town, in the landward, two 
shillings. 

On November 10 a woman was rebuked for carrying water on the Lord's 
Day. Promised not to do the like again. 

An Indulgence. 
[In 1669 a letter from the King to the privy council authorised the granting of 
an indulgence to the ejected ministers. The privy council were to appoint such of 
the ejected ministers as they thought fit to vacant parishes. Those ministers who 
received collation from the bishops were to have their stipends. Those who declined 
were to receive manse and glebe, and be allowed to exercise the ministerial office. 
Twelve, and later, thirty ministers were by these means admitted to vacant parishes. 
This meagre act of royal clemency, however, pleased very few in the Church, and 
parties were as dissatisfied as formerly. On November 10, an act of Parliament 
made Charles to be pope as well as King. It created the King supreme head of 
affairs ecclesiastical.] 

Robert Leighton. 

\i67o — The first act of King Charles as pope was to degrade the archbishop of 
Glasgow from his high position ; and Leighton, bishop of Dunblane, was appointed 
commendator of the see. He, along with Gilbert Burnett, the historian, endeavoured 
for long to effect a compromise between Episcopalians and Presbyterians, and had 
even obtained the sanction of the King to the compromise, but after great and 
eloquent efforts the scheme was not taken up by those affected, and the saintly 
Leighton, disappointed, resigned his see and retired to England. 

Robert Leighton received his first parish from the Presbyterian earl of Lothian; 



THE MINISTRY OF JOHN HAY, A.M. 201 

he served under the government of the Church by Presbytery while at Newbattle 
(1641); he was made principal of Edinburgh University by the Independents 
in 1653; and was made a bishop by Charles II. in 1662. The best of the 
Presbyterians, Independents, and Episcopalians loved Leighton. 

"Mr Robert Leighton, once minister of Newbattle, and all this time Principal 
of the College of Edinburgh, son to Mr Leighton in England, the author of Zion's 
Plea against Prelacy, who was so severely handled by the prelates there, made choice 
of the small bishopric of Dunblane to evidence his abstractedness from the world. 
His character was by far the best of any of the bishops now set up; and to give him 
his due he was a man of very excellent learning, an excellent utterance, and of a 
grave and abstracted conversation. He was reckoned devout, and an enemy to 
persecution, and professed a great deal of meekness and humility. By many he was 
judged void of doctrinal principle, and his close correspondence with some of his 
relations at Douai in popish orders made him suspected as very much indifferent as 
to all professions which bear the name of Christian. He was much taken with some 
of the popish mystic writers, and indeed, a latitudinarian, and of an over extensive 
charity. His writings evidence his abihties, and that he was very much superior to 
his fellows."] 

Conventicles. 
[Conventicles had meanwhile greatly increased in numbers and in frequency, 
and the people attended them armed. Parliament met in July, and adopted stringent 
and repressive measures against them. To preach at one meant death and 
confiscation. To attend was followed by an utterly ruinous fine. A price of five 
hundred merks was set on the head of every preacher, and indemnity for any 
slaughter committed in effecting their apprehension. Wives might be made to 
incriminate husbands; children their parents. Fines, imprisonment, and exile 
might follow the baptism of an infant by an outed minister, or absence for three 
successive Sundays from the Parish Church.] 

Presbytery and Kirk-Session under Episcopacy. 

i6-jO, January 6 — Mr James Smyth read a letter which he had received from 
Mr Prestane, justice depute, anent John Stoddart. The Presbytery, considering the 
grievous presumptions and his scandalous carriage, ordains him to stand three several 
Lord's Days at the Kirk door of Peebles, and in the place of public repentance, and 
three several Lord's Days at Eddleston. As also they appoint some ministers to 
speak to the magistrates of Peebles to cause him to be set upon the cokstool upon a 
mercat day. 

1670, February 20 — Distribution since February 14, 1669, ;^i46 19s 6d; 
Collections, with fifty merks of mortcloth money, ^135 os 6d; excess of distribution, 
£'L\ 9s. 

1670, February 24 — This day Mr John Hay reported that the magistrates of 
Peebles had done nothing anent John Stoddart, because they judged it most proper 
for the sheriff, it being done without the precints of their burgh. The Presbytery 
appoints Mr John Hay and Mr Hugh Gray to renew the foresaid recommendation 
to the magistrates of Peebles, and likewise to speak to the sheriff for that effect, and 
delay the execution of the Kirk censure till they heard further what the civil 
magistrate does in the case, and ordains him to compear next meeting. 

02 



202 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

i6jo, March ly — Mr John Hay reported that John Stoddart was fugitive, upon 
a confession of Isobell Saltoune, in the parish of Peebles, that she had committed 
adultery with him. He is to be cited from the pulpit. Isobell Saltoune compeared 
in sacco, confessed, and was exhorted to repent and to evidence her repentance by a 
holy life. The magistrates of Peebles desire the Presbytery to visit their school. 
Agreed. 

1670, April 14 — Four brethren appointed to visit the school at Peebles. 

1670, June p — John Stoddart, called again, compeared not; he is to be cited 
from the pulpit pro secundo. 

On July 10 certain persons were appointed to serve the tables at the administra- 
tion of the holy communion the next Lord's Day: — For the bread, four; for the 
wine, four; for receiving the tickets (tokens), one; for collecting the offering at the 
Church doors, two. 

i6jo, November j — Mr John Hay, parson of Peebles, reported that John 
Stoddart (Eddleston) is now returned to this country, and that he had caused cite him 
to this diet. He compeared in sacco, and confessed, &c. 

Sacred Tunes. 
[1670 — " Bishopthorpe," " Brockham," and " Confidence " (205, Scottish 
Hymnal), Jeremiah Clarke, 1670-1707.] 

A Sinner's Punishment. 

1671, February — Jean Murray, a sinner, having stood for sixteen weeks at the 
Church door, and in the place of public repentance, compeared in sacco. 

The Pillar or Stool of Repentance. 
1671, March ij — The hammermen ordered to remove the pillar, and set it 
upon the north side of the Kirk, above the wester loft, at their own expense. 

Presbytery and Kirk-Session under Episcopacy. 
On Sunday, July 9, the session appointed that day fifteen days for celebrating 
the Lord's Supper, and Wednesday eight days for a day of fasting and humiliation. 

(A blank occurs from August 13 to October 8, 1671, when the handwriting changes.) 

On October 8, 167 1, a man was fined jQj\, and a woman forty shillings Scots, 
for immorality, "and appointed to compear upon the pillar" three several Lord's 
Days ; and a man was appointed surety for the man and another for the woman. A 
man was summoned for drunkenness, and another for breaking the Lord's Day. The 
man for drinking had to pay four merks Scots and appear before the congregation 
next Lord's Day; and two men for breaking the Sabbath had to pay each twenty 
shillings Scots, and be publicly rebuked next Lord's Day. 

i6ji, October 72— James Douglas having been summoned three times, and not 
compearing, three brethren appointed to speak with my lady Douglas to deal with her 




Dr Ror.iKi Leighion, Archbishop ok Glasgow, a.d. 1611-S4. 
Peebles was in the Diocese of Glasgow. 



THE MINISTR Y OF JOHN HA Y, A.M. 203 

son to give obedience to the Church. Andrew Hepbume's contribution handed in 
for the most part. 

On October 22 a new clerk was appointed, as the late clerk had "voluntarily 
demitted and deserted the session." The tenant of Chapelyards was found guilty of 
calumniating another by accusing him of deer stealing on the Lord's Day; he was 
fined twenty shillings Scots, and to be rebuked next Lord's Day. 

167 1, November 23 — James Douglas reported to be in Edinburgh; remit 
continued. 

zd/j, December 21 — " This day reported by Mr John Hay that he had not the 
occasioune to speak with James Douglas, becaus he is not comed to the countrey. 
Continues their former appoyntment. The nixt meitting to be upon Wednesday 
come a twentie dayes, being the 17 of Jary., 1672 yeirs." 

The Archbishop at Peebles. 
Leighton became archbishop of Glasgow in 1671-72. He held his first 
Synod at Glasgow in August 1670; and another the same month at Peebles. 
(Law, Memorials, p. 29.) Leighton sent six Episcopal divines round the western 
countries to preach in the Churches and discuss matters with the people in order to 
bring about accommodation. In Burnet's History, ii., 385, there is this reference to 
one of them — "Mr Nairn was the politest man I ever knew bred in Scotland; he 
had formed clear and lively schemes of things, and was the most eloquent of all 
our preachers. He considered the pastoral function as a dedication of the whole 
man to God and His service. He studied to raise all that conversed with him 
to great notions of God, and to an universal charity." Leighton left Glasgow 
in December 1674, and retired to Sussex (but first of all for some time to the 
University precincts of Edinburgh.) He died in 1684, aged 74. 

Sacred Tune. 
["Playford," John Playford's Psalter, 1671.] 

Presbytery and Kirk-Session under Episcopacy. 

1672, January 21 — The parson reported concerning a certain man that, although 
the Presbytery had found him to be guilty of a trilapse, nevertheless they freed him 
from standing in sackcloth. On February 4 he was ordained by the kirk-session to 
stand upon the pillarie nine several Lord's Days, and before that he be allowed 
to enter upon it that he pay ;£i6 Scots of fine, and be also enacted under the penalty 
of ;^4o Scots for abstinence in all time coming; a certain man became surety for 
him. A woman was appointed to stand six days for her relapse, but no fine was 
exacted from her, owing to poverty. 

1672, February 14 — Letter to be sent to Sir James Douglas, calling upon him to 
send for his son to give obedience, unless the son comes forward before next meeting. 
Meeting of Synod to be delayed till first Tuesday of April. 

On February 28, a man confessed, with visible signs of great grief, his excessive 
and scandalous drinking, and the session, judging him to be serious in the 



204 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

acknowledgment of his sorrow, did only for this time rebuke him sharply, and 
enacted him under the pain of £^i, Scots not to be found in the like again. Half a 
merk and twenty shillings Scots were the respective fees to be paid to the beadle by 
sinners. 

i6j2, March 6 — No answer from Sir James Douglas. 

i6'j2, March 27 — No exercise to-day, one speaker appointed not having come, 
and few brethren, it being a very tempestuous morning. James Douglas, who has 
been thrice cited to the session and thrice to the Presbytery, besides being reasoned 
with to give obedience and confess his sin, is still obstinate, and so is to be referred 
to the archbishop and Synod. Margaret Paterson, not compearing, also to be cited 
to the Synod. 

On March 31, the provost was desired by the session to imprison a certain 
delinquent until he found caution that he would obey the injunctions of the session. 

On April 14, a woman appeared in white sheets in Church, as ordered. A fast 
was intimated to be kept, by order of the Synod, on the following Wednesday. 

On April 21, the parson, after consulting with the deacons after sermon, 
appointed a man to receive eighteen shillings Scots from the treasurer. 

On May 5, the parson intimated that he had received from David Plenderleith 
the £,20 which his father, John Plenderleith, sometime provost of Peebles, had 
mortified to the poor of Peebles at his decease. 

i6j2. May 8 — James Douglas, being referred to the Presbytery by the Synod, 
the minister of Peebles is ordained to cite him out of the pulpit, concealing his name, 
and appoints two brethren to confer with him. 

On May 19, the session ordained that as several persons refused to be reconciled 
to those with whom they were at variance, after much pains had been taken with 
them, they should be fined forty shillings Scots, and that this be intimated. 

1672, May 26 — There were several vacancies in the session, owing partly to 
death, to removals out of the parish, and to " voluntary demission of members " still 
residing in the parish. Names of proposed elders and deacons resolved to be 
intimated to the congregation, in case of any objections. 

On May 29, a man was delated for abiding out of the Church on the Lord's 
Day, for selling drink in time of divine service, and denying to open the door to the 
searchers. 

A woman was committed to prison on June 5, because she had no surety for her 
giving satisfaction to the session. Later, she was found guilty of scandalous conduct, 
and the man having made his escape, and " she being none of ours, and both being 
loose vagabonds," she is ordered to be imprisoned and scourged out of the town next 
market day. 

1672, June / — Mr John Hay reported that he had cited James Douglas out of 
pulpit, and he compeared before the Presbytery, and would not condescend 
to give obedience to the session of Peebles. The Presbytery gives him time to 
advise with himself whether he will give obedience or not, or give in reasons 
what does hinder him from giving obedience, and ordains him to compear at next 
meeting. 



THE MINISTRY OF JOHN HAY, A.M. 205 

On June 23 a woman, who had been found guilty of harbouring profane and 
scandalous company in her house on the Lord's Day, was ordained to stand in the 
jougs if she ever fell into that fault again. 

1672, July I — On which day appeared Mr John Horsburgh, vicar pensioner in 
Peebles, and declared that he was content to accept the rule of payment of the 
vicarage teinds of Peebles conform to the payment of his predecessor, Mr Robert 
Smyth. 

1672, July J— Reported by Mr James Smyth that Sir James Douglas and 
his lady had promised that if they could have power with their son they should make 
him give obedience. 

1672, July 14 — It being made known to the session that various persons in the 
parish were at variance, the parson was appointed to visit the several quarters, along 
with the elders and deacons, and reconcile them. 

On July 21, in the intimation of the communion it is styled, "the blessed 
memorial of our Saviour's passion." The ordinary fast was to be observed on the 
preceding Wednesday. On August 4, on which day it was celebrated, it is called 
" the holy sacrament of the Lord's Supper." 

On August II the treasurer is to give ten merks for behoof of a poor young 
orphan who had fallen and broken his leg. 

1672, September I — A woman, having called another a perjured woman, was 
ordained to pay forty shillings Scots to the poor, and appear before the session the 
next Lord's Day, and be put under a penalty of jQ^ Scots to behave more Christianly 
and soberly, and was referred to the provost to be imprisoned until she found surety 
for the fine and the satisfaction. Chapelhill was allowed to build a loft on the west 
side of the north door between the said door and the scholars' loft. The session, 
taking into consideration the great loss to the poor for want of a good mortcloth, 
ordains the treasurer to proceed to Edinburgh, and with the advice of a tailor, 
buy as much velvet as make a mortcloth. 

1672, October ^ — The charges for the new mortcloth to be forty shillings Scots 
for those within the parish, and J^^ Scots for those outside; and half these charges 
for the old mortcloth. jQt, Scots granted to a poor orphan in Tweedsmuir, 
recommended by the Presbytery. 

1672, October 20 — A woman was imprisoned until she found caution for 
appearing before the session. Several delinquents about this time were standing on 
the pillarie for three several Lord's Days. One woman was condemned to six days 
in the pillarie and a fine of £,-}, Scots. A poor woman, whose husband had broken 
his leg, was granted a shilling, and her husband ordered to be carried to Eddleston 
on horseback. A woman and a man admitted immorality, but as the woman was 
quite unknown until Whitsunday last, and had produced no testimonials, she was 
ordered to be imprisoned until she obtained her testimonial and gave surety. The 
master of the man became surety for his penalty, his satisfaction, and his abstinence. 
1672, October 27 — A couple, having stood three several days upon the pillarie, 
were absolved. Testimonials were granted to several others also that they were 
absolved. 



2o6 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

1672, November 6 — Mr Hew Gray (Kailzie), absent, so no report of James 
Douglas j Mr James Smyth (Eddleston) appointed to speak to Sir James and his lady 
anent her son. 

1672, November 27 — A woman who had relapsed into immorality was fined £,t, 
Scots, and to stand on the pillarie six Lord's Days. The man was fined £,2) Scots, 
and to stand three days, it being his first offence. 

1672, December 22 — Meeting for discipline. No reference to Christmas. 

Persecution of Presbyterians. 
[In 1672 fresh acts were passed against Presbyterians. New ordinations by 
outed ministers were declared to be a crime; to keep a child unbaptised for thirty 
days was another, punishable by an enormous fine. Victims, as a consequence, 
increased, and the Bass Rock was converted into a State prison for these criminals. 
A second act of indulgence was extended to about eighty of the ejected ministers, 
but was greatly restricted in its mercy by stringent conditions.] 

Contemporary Ministers. 

\1672 — Traquair — James Findlay, M.A., translated from Glassford; presented 
by archbishop of Glasgow; translated to Eddleston in 1674. 

\16y2 — West Linton — Robert Eliot, formerly of Broughton. Indulged in 
conjunction with his father, September 3, 1672; but withdrawn by privy council, 
January 30, 1684, for breach of his confinement and not keeping May 29, the 
anniversary of the Restoration.] 

Presbytery and Kirk-Session under Episcopacy. 

1673, January / — In consequence of disturbance among the children in the 
west loft during sermon, the session appoint the deacon who gathers the collection 
there to sit in the loft, and observe who the disturbers are, and have them delated. 

zd/j, February 5 — Mr John Hay, moderator, informed the Presbytery that 
James Douglas, under process, is now relapsed in fornication with another woman, 
and has confessed his sin and promised submission before the kirk-session at Peebles, 
and the session has referred him to the Presbytery for advice regarding his 
satisfaction. The Presbytery, considering the nature of the young gentleman, lest he 
should be irritated by too great severity, conceived that the minister may absolve him 
upon three days' standing in the public place, if he see evidence of his repentance, 
and ordains the clerk to give him an extract thereof. 

1673 — A poor woman is to have twenty shillings Scots; a blind woman one 
shilling sterling. The provost is desired by the session either to put out those 
strangers that resided in the town, or force them to produce their testimonials, and 
the beadle was ordained to give the provost a list of their names. 

1673, March 2 — James Douglas had given himself up for immorality, and had 
offered to satisfy the Church for his relapse; the session consulted the Presbytery. 
The Presbytery advised that if he would freely condescend to appear before the 
congregation three days, or if the session pleased to indulge him, they might be 
tender to him. The session appointed the parson, the provost, and Mr Spittal to 



THE MINISTR Y OF JOHN HA V, A.M. 207 

speak to that gentleman, that he might appear on the pillarie next Lord's Day, or on 
the first convenient. The provost was appointed also to speak to another man who 
had been a long time out of the country, and had not satisfied the Church; to speak 
to him that he might satisfy. 

^^73^ /'^fy JO — Two women, bearing the same surname, were delated for 
scandalous flyting. After hearing a severe rebuke, they were reconciled, and placed 
under caution of forty pounds Scots not to be found in the like fault again. A man 
and a woman were also delated for speaking unchristian and reproachful words against 
each other in the open street; were fined in twelve merks, and, under pain of forty 
shillings Scots, were advised to be more meek in deportment. 

167 J, August 10 — This day was celebrated the blessed memorial of our Saviour's 
death and passion. 

i6t3, August ly — A man and a woman to stand on the pillarie for three Sundays ; 
and the man to pay as mulct £,i, Scots and the woman four merks. Several persons 
had produced testimonials before last communion from other parishes; these were 
ordered to be registered in the session book. 

jd/j, August 25 — The day of thanksgiving for the harvest appointed by the 
Synod of Selkirk was intimated to be kept the next Lord's Day. An act of the 
secret council being read, appointing a collection to be taken from all the nation 
for the redemption of Christian captives from Turkish slavery, the session appointed 
the parson to gather it through all the families, both burgh and landward, taking 
along with him the deacons of the several quarters, and the parish to have it ready 
against his coming the next Lord's Day. (Note. — Such a collection was a singularly 
suitable one to be made in the Cross Church, because the Trinity friars, who formerly 
had occupied the Cross Church, were wont to dedicate the third part of their incomes 
to the redemption of Christian captives among the Turks.) 

idjs, October 8 — This day compeared Helen Jenkison (who has been mentioned 
several times lately as to be summoned, &c., and who was before the Presbytery, 
giving them much trouble, some years previously), and still denying the fact of 
adultery, the parson of Peebles is appointed to cite her out of pulpit, concealing her 
name, in order to the sentence of excommunication, upon any Lord's Day betuixt 
and the next meeting, unless she should confess to the session of Peebles the Lord's 
Day first coming, to which she is summoned. 

i6jj, October 23 — The case of Helen Jenkison also referred to the Synod. She 
had confessed imprudence, but denied sin still, so the Synod to be consulted as to 
what should be done to her. 

i6j3, November g — This day a solemn thanksgiving for the harvest was 
observed. The act of council was read, and the parish warned to have the collection 



Sabbath Breaking during Episcopacy. 
John Wood, delated for taking a fish upon the Lord's Day, compeared, and 
confessed the fault. He was appointed to be imprisoned until the parson pleased to 
release him, and summoned to appear before the session the next Lord's Day. 



2o8 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

1673, November 23 — Three men confessed that they had killed a fish with a 
stone ofif the bridge on the Lord's Day, and had ridden in on horseback to take it 
out. The session appointed them to compear before the session and confess their 
sin the next Lord's Day, and John Wood, as principal actor, was fined in one merk, 
and the other two of them each in half a merk Scots. A man is to receive two shirts 
from the treasurer. 

1673, December 21 — Supplication from the three Sabbath breakers afore 
mentioned, craving that they be let off the public appearing. The session accept 
their private acknowledgment of guilt; and order Wood to pay twenty shillings 
Scots, and the other two one shilling sterling each, and be cautious to observe the 
Sabbath in future. 

The Earl of Traquair. 
[1673, December 3 — On this day there appeared at Holyrood House the countess 
of Traquair along with her son, the youthful earl, in order that he be educated in the 
Reformed religion. The countess had been previously summoned, but she had 
declined to appear. On February 8 of the previous year the countess had appeared, 
however, whereupon her son was ordered to be consigned to the care of a professor 
of divinity in the University of Glasgow to be educated in the Reformed religion, at 
sight of the archbishop of Glasgow. No popish servants were to be allowed to 
attend the young earl. By some means the order had been evaded at the time, 
hence the re-appearance of the case in this month of December. The privy council 
now resolved that he be sent to a good school, with a pedagogue and servants chosen 
by the archbishop, the earl of Galloway to defray the charges. A letter was to be 
sent to the archbishop, and the countess to be allowed to retain her son for ten or 
twelve days. The end of the matter does not appear. This earl died unmarried, 
and was succeeded by his brother, also a Roman Catholic] 

Resignation of Archbishop Leighton. 
[1673 — Leighton resigned the archbishopric of Glasgow, and retired to England. 
He had been set over the diocese of Glasgow in 1670. He died at the Bell Inn, in 
Warwick Lane, in London, in 1684.] 

Contemporary Minister. 
[1673 — Brougkion—]a.mQS Simson, translated to Drumelzier in 1682.] 

Cases of Discipline. 

1674, January 2 — The parson reported that James Douglas, being found 
accidentally at home upon the Presbytery day, was called before them prima instantia, 
and that he simply denied that he had fallen into sin with a woman for the second 
time, as also that the Presbytery had taken both him and her out of the session's 
hands. 

1674, February i^ — Supplication by a man that he be released from standing 
at the Kirk door. The session, considering the profit that might redound to the 
poor, released him, and ordained that he pay twenty merks of fine. 



THE MINISTR Y OF JOHN HA Y, A.M. 209 

The Thirteen Drifty Days. 
[^1674 — There was a great storm of snow, with very severe keen frost, and the 
snow lay from January 15 to March 18; and during that time thirteen of these days 
were drifty days. Most of the farmers lost all, or the greater part, of their sheep and 
other stock. The roads being blocked, there was also a great scarcity of fuel, in so 
much that many perished.] 

Presbytery and Kirk-Session during Episcopacy. 

1674, March 22— This day a fast, appointed by the Presbytery to be kept for 
the seedtime, was appointed to be kept next Lord's Day. 

1674, April 5 — A man, delated for travelling on the Lord's Day, ordered to be 
summoned for the next meeting. An orphan appointed to get a pair of shoes from 
the treasurer. 

1674, April 8 — A reference from the session of Peebles about Issobell Todrigge 
and Margaret Paterson, who have been at variance for some years bygone, and that 
notwithstanding all the pains taken with them for reconciliation, remained yet 
implacable and obstinate. Mr Hew Gray is supposed to have some power with 
Issobell Todrigge, and is to deal with her to be reconciled, she being the most 
refractory. 

1674, April ij — Mr Hew Gray reported that he had succeeded in inducing 
Issobell Todrigge to agree to be reconciled to the other woman, and he and another 
brother are appointed to go and see them reconciled in the afternoon, no impediment 
being anticipated from the other woman. Horsburgh, disobedient to the session at 
Peebles, to be cited before the Presbytery, called, not compearing, is appointed to be 
cited out of pulpit, concealing his name, or if that suit him not he is referred to the 
civil magistrate. Jennet Shearer compeared, and desired baptism for her child. The 
Presbytery ordains the parson at Peebles to baptise the child upon her finding a 
surety for his education in the Protestant religion. 

1674, May ij — The moderator reported that he and Mr Hew Gray had not yet 
succeeded in reconciling Issobell Todrigge and Margaret Paterson. They are to be 
dealt with again. 

1674, July — A drove of nowt came through the town between sermons, and the 
drovers not coming to Church in the afternoon were handed over to the magistrates 
to be punished for their profanation of the Lord's Day. 

1674, July ij — James Foster had given his oath before the congregation that he 
was not the father of Margaret Achison's child, and that he had never had any carnal 
dealing with her. He is to stand in the place of repentance one day for his proven 
scandalous converse with the woman, and refers it to the Synod whether or no she 
should be made to seek another father to her child. 

1674, August g — A couple sharply rebuked for scolding; promised to do so no 
more. 

1674, August 17 — A poor man allowed one peck of meal brought to him weekly 
for four weeks. A poor woman allowed sixpence. 

1674, August 24 — The magistrates of Peebles endeavoured to organise a species 



2IO THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

of friendly society in order to make provision for old age and poverty. All male 
servants were eligible for membership, an entrance fee was to be paid, and there 
were other fees and fines in addition. If any man or lad in going for coals or 
returning from coals left his neighbour by the way, and did not do all in his power to 
assist him — the roads being dangerous from thieves^he was to be fined one merk 
Scots to the box. Also any brother who was invited to the wedding of another 
brother, and had obtained liberty from master or mistress, and did not attend, 
without reasonable excuse, was to pay to the box one merk Scots. Thus arose 
the custom of attending penny weddings. 

i6j4, Aicgusi 26 — This day the appointed fast was observed before the 
communion. 

Divinity Bursar. 

i6j4, September 2 — A motion being made anent the settling of a bursar of 

divinity according to the act of Synod, the Presbytery unanimously condescended 

upon Theodore Hay, son to the Reverend Mr John Hay, quondam parson of 

Peebles, being this year a magistrand, from Lambmess, 1674, for four years to come. 

Permission Granted to Build a Seat. 
1674, October 4 — Woman admonished for abusing another. Supplication by 
Mr John Frank for liberty to build a seat. The session granted him a single pew at 
the south end of Chapelhill's seat. 

Licentiates. 
1674, October 7 — Mr John Hay having finished his trials, is recommended to 
the archbishop for a license to preach. All other expectants who have not yet got 
licenses to apply for them, and show them to the Presbytery as soon as may be. 
Mr John Hay to continue his trials at next meeting. 

Cases of Discipline. 

1674, October 7 — It is reported that Issobell Todrigge is willing to be 
reconciled, but the other woman, Margaret Paterson, refuses. The moderator 
reported that he had that morning seen Margaret Paterson, and that she had 
professed herself willing to be reconciled also. The Presbytery appoints the 
same brethren as formerly to try them in the afternoon again. James Horsburgh 
reported to have been seriously dealt with, but is still obstinately refusing. The 
Presbytery, taking to their consideration his contumacy after their so long patience, 
appoints the moderator to lay the case upon the first occasion before the archbishop. 

1674, November 2 — Among the regular poor of the parish the sum of 
£59 13s 4^ distributed. 

1674, November 4 — The brethren appointed to speak with James Douglas 
reported that they had often called " for " him at his father's house, but could never 
find him at home. Appointment continued upon them. Issobell Todrigge and 
Margaret Paterson not reconciled, because the brethren appointed had not met 



THE MINISTRY OF JOHN HAY, A.M. 21 r 

with them. Remit continued. The archbishop not yet consulted about James 
Horsburgh. 

1674, December 2 — James Douglas seen, and been seriously dealt with to bring 
him to an acknowledgment of his alleged trilapse, and he not only ,obstinately denies 
guilt but refuses to take the oath of purgation, alleging the Church had no power to 
impose it on him. The Presbytery appoints the moderator to take an extract of all 
his process and show it to the archbishop, that they might receive order and advice 
for further procedure. James Mosman not compearing, to be cited pro secundo. 
The Presbytery's advice being asked anent Issobell Hunter, in the parish of Peebles, 
who had scandalously conversed with James Douglas on the Lord's Day, the 
Presbytery thought she should be publicly rebuked and give security to satisfy if any 
greater scandal should afterwards come to light. 

Kailzie Suppressed. 
1674 — In this year the parish of Kailzie ceased to have an independent 
existence. The division on the right bank of Tweed became joined to Traquair; and 
the remainder was joined to Innerleithen, with the exception of a very small part, 
which was annexed to Peebles. From an early period the district had been associated 
with Innerleithen, and when the Church of Innerleithen was conferred on the Abbey 
of Kelso, the chapel at Hope Kailzie came also under the superintendence of the 
Abbey monks. In the rental of the Abbey of Kelso, made up in 1567, the teinds of 
Kailzie produced ^10 annually. The Church stood on the Kirkburn, and was 
dedicated to the Virgin Mary. In 1613 Alexander Forrest was minister; from 1623 
to 1639, the minister was William Dickson; from 1640 to 1642, Andrew Stewart was 
minister ; and the last was Hugh Gray, translated to Innerleithen. He officiated from 
1647 to 1674. 

The Skirling Martyr. 
[1674— The following happened at Skirling: — Peter Gillies, of the Waulk Mill 
there, having had a Presbyterian minister preaching in his house, he was hunted from 
his house by Sir James Murray, the laird, and Mr James Buchan, the curate. For 
several years he wandered about from place to place. At last he was apprehended, 
in April 1685, at Muiravonside ; was carried by the soldiery to the west country, and 
after much insult and cruelty was, on May 6, put to death at Mauchline, and there 
unceremoniously his body was buried with those of other four fellow-martyrs.] 

Contemporary Minister. 
[1674 — Traquair — George Forbes; translated from Innerleithen; deposed, 1690.] 

Presbytery and Kirk-Session under Episcopacy. 
1675, January 6 — James Douglas's process not yet extracted, because the 
Presbytery book was at Glasgow, which the moderator reported he had written for 
but not received. The brethren appointed to speak with Issobell Todrigge and 
Margaret Paterson reported that they found Issobell Todrigge yet willing, but 
Margaret Paterson was hindered by her husband, Thomas Williamson. The 



212 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

Presbytery appointed Mr David Thomson to speak to the said Thomas, that he 
might be instrumental with his wife for a peaceable reconciliation with her neighbour. 
The moderator reported that the archbishop, having considered James Horsburgh's 
process, desired the Presbytery to go on to the public citation. James Horsburgh, 
compearing, desired yet a time to make out those slanders he had raised upon 
Issobell Paterson, calling her whore and thief. The Presbytery grants him till next 
meeting. The parson of Peebles reported that he had publicly rebuked Issobell 
Huntar, and finding her not heartily penitent, had recommended her to the 
magistrates of Peebles, who had banished her out of the toune. William Leggat, in 
the parish of Peebles, reported to have satisfied, and been absolved. 

7(575, January 24 — This day was collected for the Christian captives under 
Turkish slavery the sum of ^4. 

7(575, February j — Letter from the archbishop, who had considered James 
Douglas's process, and who desires the Presbytery to deal with him and his parents, 
and if they could not get him to satisfy the Church, to go on to higher censures. 
James Douglas, being sent for by the officer, was found lying sick. Two brethren 
appointed to go to his father's house and speak with him and show him the 
archbishop's letter. James Horsburgh, at his request, delayed till next meeting. Mr 
David Thomson (Manor), reported that Thomas Williamson promised to deal with his 
wife for reconciliation with Issobel Todrigge, providing the said Issobel would depart 
from her process against him before the session of Peebles. The moderator stated 
that on this having been reported to him he had caused cite all the parties to come 
there that day. Issobell Todrigge and Margaret Paterson, being called, compeared, 
and were reconciled in the face of the Presbytery. Mr Hew Gray and Mr George 
Forbes are to deal with Issobell Todrigge that she may pass from her compearance 
against Thomas Williamson, that so all occasion of enmity being cut off they might 
all happily be united in Christian amity. 

7(575, February 21— A. couple sat in the place of repentance both forenoon and 
afternoon. The session, considering that they were to be married, resolve to absolve 
them next Lord's Day. 

7(575, March J — James Horsburgh compeared, and acknowledged that he had 
wronged Issobell Paterson in calling her whore and thief, and that he was sorry for the 
injury done to her good name, against whom he had nothing to say as to her honesty. 
The Presbytery, apprehending him to be sincere, appointed two brethren to desire 
the provost of Peebles to go along with him to the woman, and deal with her for 
accepting of a private satisfaction before the session or Presbytery, which should be 
publicly intimated to the congregation upon a Lord's Day, and if the woman would 
accept of the said satisfaction it was the Presbytery's mind that if James Horsburgh 
were truly sorry and sensible of his sin against God and his neighbour, it might be 
thus taken away, providing he obliged himself under a penalty not to do the like any 
more. The moderator reported of Thomas Williamson that some few days ago he 
had seen him in his own sight, and in the presence of several gentlemen, behave 
himself very unchristianly by horrid swearing and blaspheming the name of God in 
his beastly drunkenness, which he reported was not a "single escape" in him, but 



THE MINISTRY OF JOHN HAY, A.M. 213 

(as he was informed) an habitual and customary sin. The Presbytery withdraws the 
recommendation to Issobell Todrigge to desist from her process against him, and 
remits to the session of Peebles to enjoin him for all these things. 

1675, March 24 — A man granted the loan of ;^ 100 on a bond over his house 
in the Northgate; and the bond to be delivered to the Kirk treasurer. 

idys-, March 28 — A man referred to the Presbytery for drunkenness, slander, 
and swearing. 

i6ySi April 7 — The Moderator reported that Sir James Douglas had taken his 
son in to meet the bishop. Also that Mr Hew Gray, the provost of Peebles, and 
he had dealt with Issobell Paterson for accepting of James Horsburgh's private 
satisfaction, but could not get her to agree. Brethren sent out to speak to her at the 
door reported the same, adding that she refused because the scandal was become so 
public. James Horsburgh, informed that he must give public satisfaction, not only 
resiled from his former acknowledgment but was most violent and presumptuous, 
saying that either he or some other should die before they should get a public 
acknowledgment of him. The Presbytery recommended him to the magistrates of 
Peebles for his insolent behaviour, and appointed the parson of Peebles to go 
on to the public citation. Thomas Williamson to make public confession of his 
drunkenness, swearing, and slandenng Issobell Todrigge, and his grief therefor, with 
certification that if he be found to continue thereafter in habitual drunkenness and 
swearing they will proceed to higher censure. James Douglas reported to have 
promised the archbishop to satisfy the Church. The Presbytery awaits his return to 
the country. Thomas Williamson continued, because sick. 

1675, May J — This day the moderator reported that he had taken the two 
collections for the captives under the Turks to Glasgow, but had not seen any to take 
it from him, and therefore he was ready to deliver to the treasurer to be disposed 
upon for the use of the poor. Three people allowed forty shillings Scots. 

167s, May g — The parson reported that he had delivered the two collections 
for the captives under the Turks to the treasurer. Two poor people allowed twenty 
shillings Scots each. 

167s, May 12 — The parson of Peebles reported that having called upon 
Thomas Williamson before the congregation to acknowledge his sin of drunkenness, 
swearing, and slandering Issobell Todrigge, he had confessed the former and declared 
himself to be sorrowful for them, but as for Issobell Todrigge he affirmed he had 
done her no wrong, and has appealed from the Presbytery to the archbishop. The 
Presbytery, judging this to be no satisfaction, ordained the parson and Mr Hew Gray 
to deal with him before next meeting, to bring him to a true sense of his sins, and in 
particular for that his presumptuous demeanour before the congregation. 

167^, May JO — This meeting was taken up with cases of immorality and 
scandal. 

^'^75> J^*^f 6 — Testimonials produced by some parishioners; demanded from 
others. 

^^75^ ya«« /J, June 20, June 2j, and June 27 — All these meetings taken up 
by scandals of various sorts; fines and absolutions. 



2 14 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

167J, July 7 — James Douglas never yet come home ; continued. The parson 
of Peebles shewed to the Presbytery an absolvitor of Issobell Paterson from the 
action of theft alleged upon her by James Horsburgh, and undertaken to be proven 
before the town court of Peebles. The Presbytery appoints the parson, according to 
their former act, to give him a public citation. The parson of Peebles reported that 
he and Mr Hew Gray had dealt with Thomas Williamson to bring him to a sense of 
his sins, and that he was content to acknowledge his sorrow for them privately, but 
desires not to be brought into public. The Presbytery, taking to their consideration 
that his miscarriages were public, and so could not be taken away privately, ordains 
him to acknowledge that same before the congregation, and he being called to hear 
the sentence of the Presbytery, compeared, adhered to his former appeal, promising 
to give in the reasons of his appeal within twenty-four hours, and with very proud 
and passionate language refused to submit to the Presbytery's sentence. 

167s, July 18 — A man professes sorrow for the sins of drunkenness and 
swearing; is absolved. 

1673, July 24 — A fast was kept in preparation for the holy communion. 

167s, July 25 — This day the sacrament of the Lord's Supper was celebrated. 
A fast, by order of His Majesty's council, was intimated to be kept on Wednesday 
next for the long drought. 

167s, July 28 — A fast observed this day by the Council's act for the long 
drought. Several poor people received alms. 

167J, August to November — All the weekly meetings taken up with discipline 
cases, and absolutions, and fines, and charity. 

1673, August 4. — James Douglas not yet come home; continued. The parson 
of Peebles reported to the Presbytery by letter that he had cited James Horsburgh 
publicly to compear before them, and the said James being called, compeared, and 
promised to give all satisfaction. He is referred to the parson of Peebles for this. 
The parson of Peebles also wrote that Thomas Williamson had satisfied publicly. 

1675, October 6 — James Douglas not yet come home, and a fourth scandal of 
fornication going abroad upon him, committed with one of the women he had fallen 
with before, the Presbytery refers him to the approaching Synod for advice. 

1675, November 12 — Slander case and calling names — Margaret Stevenson 
cotitra John Marshal, stranger. 

1675, December i — The moderator reported having written to Edinburgh anent 
James Douglas, and had in reply a letter from Mr Archibald Cameron, stating that 
Jennet Hislop had confessed her sin (before the elders) with James Douglas. He 
not being in Edinburgh had not yet been spoken to. The moderator to write to 
James Douglas and his father that he may come and satisfy. James Burnet and 
Francis Beatie continued ut aniea. Thomas Penman and Jennet Cleghorne, his 
spouse, to be cited pro tertio. Reference from session of Peebles regarding Jennet 
Shearer (another confessed relapse with James Douglas), who had applied to be 
admitted to her satisfaction. The session desires to know " whether they might take 
her satisfaction, the man not having taken with the guilt." The Presbytery advises 



THE MINISTR V OF JOHN HA V, A.M. 2 1 5 

the parson of Peebles to take her satisfaction, providing she find sufficient caution for 
satisfying further if afterward it appear to be any higher guilt. 

167S1 December 17 — A bill was given in to the kirk-session by Margaret 
Stevenson, spouse of James Haddon, one of the elders, against John Mitchell, a 
travelling man, who had slandered her for a witch. He denied this; but on its being 
proved against him, John was ordered to stand upon the cross with a paper on his 
breast, and thereafter be dismissed the town, never to return. 

1675 — Certain burgh lands resigned in favour of the parson and kirk-session of 
Peebles. 

Persecutions. 

[In 1675 letters of intercommuning were issued against several persons who 
had been concerned in conventicles. This was a revival of the sentence of 
excommunication, whereby all the parties named were ostracised and cut off from 
all society of every kind, and might be apprehended on sight. Every person aiding 
them or communicating with them was to be held as guilty as the persons themselves. 
It applied to ministers, elders, gentlemen, and ladies, many of whom had to leave 
their homes and betake themselves to the hills and moors. 

During all these years the country was in a disturbed and wretched condition. 
The proprietors in the west and south, being unable or unwilling to subscribe the 
bond making them responsible for their retainers and tenantry in the matter of 
abstaining from conventicles, were ordered to be treated as rebels. A Highland host 
of ten thousand men marched down, and was quartered in all the disturbed districts 
with the object of promoting Episcopacy, of terrorising the inhabitants, collecting 
fines, and preventing the holding of conventicles.] 

Contemporary Minister. 
\i6t5 — Tweedsmuir — Francis Scott, son of preceding minister; presented by 
earl of Wigton ; collated by Robert, archbishop of Glasgow. There was no sermon, 
October 3, 1680 — "The minister hardly daring stay sermon for murderers or robbers 
falling upon him, as of other ministers of the Presbytery." At length he was outed 
by the people after May 9, 1688.] 

Sacred Tunes. 
["Braun" (227, Scottish Hymnal), Johann Georg Braun's Ecko Hymnodia 
deles tis, 1675.] 

Kirk-Session and Presbytery under Episcopacy. 
1676, January 5 — The moderator reported to the Presbytery that he had 
spoken with James Douglas, who said that for the first three fornications he intended 
to satisfy his promise made to the archbishop, but as to the fourth, given up by 
Jennet Hislop, he knew nothing of it, only when the ministers of Edinburgh 
challenged him for it he should answer them. Reference made from the session of 
Peebles anent Andrew Scott and Issobell Todrigge, regarding the probation (proving) 
of their disorderly supposed marriage, whether or not they should be obliged to 
produce a testificate of their so alleged marriage, under the hands of the minister 



2i6 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

that married them, before witnesses be admitted and heard for the making out 
thereof. The Presbytery appoints them to produce certificate from the minister, 
with names of the witnesses present. 

i6j6, February 2 — Andrew Scott, cited for refusing to produce testificate of his 
marriage to the kirk-session of Peebles, called, compeared, and was cited to compear 
before the Synod at Jedburgh, upon the last " Wendsday " of April next, unless he 
provides legal proof of his marriage before that time. 

1676, March 26— A collection to be taken up in order to lay a causeway to the 
Church, as many stay away from Church in winter weather. 

1676, April p — Collection taken up for the causeway to the Church amounted 
to ^22. 

i6j6, May 10 — Andrew Scott and Issobell Todrigge, by advice of the Synod, 
are to prove their marriage by witnesses, and until this is done they should be made 
to live separately. They are referred to the parson of Peebles. 

1676, June 7 — The moderator reported that the magistrates of Peebles had laid 
a fine upon Francis Beatie, for getting his child baptised by a stranger. The 
moderator to admit the rest of the witnesses for probation of the marriage of Andrew 
Scott and Issobell Todrig. 

1676, August 20 — The second volume of the kirk-session minutes ends here. 
It is marked $. It begins in January 1658. A gap of thirteen years follows. 

1676, September 12 — The bursary of theology is vacant by the removal of Mr 
Theodore Hay to be vicar of Peebles, and William Hay, his brother, is appointed in 
his stead, with the same payment. Letters of horning to be issued by the Court of 
Session to the treasurers of the Churches to pay their proportions to him. — J. Hay, 
uWoderator. 

1676, November 6 — Reference from the session of Peebles regarding Thomas 
Chisme, formerly guilty with his servant, Catherine Frank, while he lived in 
Edinburgh. She has now taken up her abode in Peebles, and the said Thomas is 
known to live in her house and cohabit with her. He to be cited to next meeting. 

1676 — Thomas Chisme called, compeared not, and is excused in regard he 
was visiting a patient who was dangerously sick. He is to be cited to next meeting. 

1676 — Thomas Chisme compeared, and promised to flit and to avoid 
scandalously frequenting her company. The moderator asked advice concerning a 
testificat to be given to the said Thomas, and he is advised to give him one cum 
nota, bearing some suspicion of his being guilty in Peebles with that same woman 
for whom he had satisfied at Edinburgh. 

1677, Jaiiuary 28 — The piper rebuked for playing at unseasonable times; was 
rebuked and discharged from playing at night, under 40s. 

7(5/7, March 7 — Thomas Chisme not having fulfilled his promise of flitting, was 
cited to the Presbytery by the moderator. He compeared, and said he had some 
|)lenishing still in her house which caused him to be frequently there. The 
Presbytery considering his carriage before them has been very insolent, think fit to 
recommend him to the magistrates of Peebles, to the effect that she be no longer 
permitted to entertain him, and he to be cited to ensuing Synod. 




IN OBITUM AI.EXANDRI WILLIAMSON 
DOMINI DE HUrCHENFEILD QUE I-RE 

rosrri peblei viri vere probi I'LENi 

ANNORUM I'LENI QUE HONORUM VI 
TAM HANG I'OSUENTIS LUBRICAM 
XII MAY ANO SAL MDCLXXVI 

AETATIS l.XV 
I'EKLEO HONOS SISIT VIRTUS PRUDENIIA 
CANDOR MENS PIA LARGA MANUS SERMO 
DECORQUE GRAVIS EXPETIT HAUD LONGAM 
SED MULTAM VIVERE VITAM HAEC NUM 
ERAT PALMAS TEMPORIS ILLE MORAS SAT 
ILLl IN TERIS VITASSE SIC LONGIOR EXTARE 
CUM CHRISTO IN CAELIS VITA FRUENDA BONIS. 

HEAR LYES ENSHRIND BENETH THIS STONE 
THE DUST OF PROVIST WILLIAMSON 
A PRUDENT MAGISTRAT A FRIEND 
FAITHFUL AI.WAYES MOST JUST AND KYND 
BY WHOSE BLIST PITY AYE FOUND REST 
IHE WIDOW POOR ONES AND OPPREST 
YEA IN A WORD HIS WORTH WAS SUCH 
AS FEU CAN MATCH NOR GREIVE TOO MUCH 
FOR HIS DEPARTURE BUT THAT HE 
CHAXGD EARTH FOR HEAVENS FELICITIE. 



The .Most Ancient Stone in Peebles Cen 
It stands in tlie ruined Church of St. Andrew, and 
bequeathed to the Church one of the four silver Communion Chalices, 

Translation by the Rev. J. K. Cruicksh/ 



(Photo by Charles Walker). 

Provost Alexander Wi 
Date on stone, 1676. 

CK, B.D., Stobo. 



On the death of Alexander Williamson 

Laird of Hutchenfield and Provost 

Of Peebles, a truly upright man, who, full 

Of years, and full of honours 

Laid down this fleeting life 

On the I2th day of May in the year of .salvation, 1676 

Aged 65. 
He remains an honour to Peebles, virtue, prudence, 
Candour, pious mind, liberal hand, speech 
Seemly and serious. He sought not to live a long 
But a full life. This (tablet) reckons up 
His distinctions in time ; He (reckons) it enough 
For him to have escaped hindrances on earth so the longer to lie 
With Christ in the life which is to be enjoyed in the ble.ssed heav 



THE MINISTRY OF JOHN HAY, A.M. 217 

1677, ^"■y 9 — Anent Thomas Chisholm, chirurgeon, the moderator is desired 
to acquaint him with the act of the Synod against him. 

1677, May 21 — Thomas Chisholm appeared, and he has removed from the 
woman. He expressed his sorrow for any rash expressions he has used to the 
session and the Presbytery, and for any faults they can charge him with, and 
promised to be more obedient to the discipline of the Church in time coming. He 
is to have a testimony to Edinburgh upon his bringing a testimony to them from 
Eddleston. 

1677, May 27— The session collect evidence anent a drinking bout in a house. 

1677, June I J — The moderator reported that having received a testimony from 
Thomas Chisholm from Eddleston, he had given him one for Edinburgh. 

1677, June 17 — A woman craved the session to mitigate the rigour of the 
sentence out against her. The bill was granted, and she was rebuked after one 
ingenuous confession, and enacted to pay a merk. Penalty of ^£1 if she come 
under the like fault again. 

1677, July 8 — Another woman supplicating the session to mitigate the rigour of 
their former act. The session, considering her repentance and sincere confession in 
offending God and her neighbour, rebuked her, and enacted her to pay ;^io if she 
fall into the same fault. 

1677, August 7 — A fast before the communion was observed. S—A preparatory 
sermon before the communion. 12 — The communion was celebrated. ij — 
Thanksgiving after. 

Contemporary Minister. 
[1677 — Skirling — William Lyone, M.A.] 

Sacred Tune. 
["Saint Mary" — Playford's Psalter, 1677; Pry's Psalter, 1621; 153, Scottish 
Hymnal.] 

Presbytery and Kirk-Session under Episcopacy. 

1678, February /o— The moderator reported that the Presbytery advised the 
kirk-session to take pains to make a certain couple satisfy together, and if that could 
not be done to take their satisfaction asunder. The couple, on March 31, 1678, 
were appointed to sit three days, forenoon and afternoon, in the public place of 
repentance. 

1678, May 28 — Testimonial produced by a woman from St Cuthbert's. A 
woman allowed two shillings for her expenses homewards. 
1678, June 2 — Case of discipline. 
1678, June g — Three cases of discipline close the book. 

End of Book D Register, February 4, 16^7, to June g, 1678. 

On its front page there is: — "A Register of the Kirke at Peebles, conteaning 
the discipline of the Sessione by the Elders, and diligence of the Deacones for the 
poore therein. Begun in the yeare of Our Lord, 1657. — Theo. Hay, Cler. Ch. Sess." 



2i8 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

1678, October 2 — William Veitch referred from Manor as scandalously 
frequenting the company of Christian Grahame. He is discharged her company in 
time coming, and has engaged to obey. Reference from the session of Peebles anent 
James Douglas, and the Presbytery appoints the moderator to speak to the 
archbishop anent him. 

1678, November 6 — Mr William Achesone compeared, and adhering to his 
denial, is ordained to prison till he find caution to answer as law will. Anent James 
Douglas, the moderator reports that he had had no occasion to acquaint the 
archbishop with his process, but hoped to do so before next meeting. 

1678, December 11 — Archibald Gilbert and Jennet Scott not compearing, are 
ordained to produce proofs of their marriage, or else satisfy for their scandalous 
behaviour. 

1678 — Andrew Scott accused of selling his wife for £,^^0 Scots to John Wood, 
declaring that she was cheap at the money. Excuses himself by saying that he was 
in drink but is ordered to confess publicly. 

Contemporary Minister. 
1^1678 — Kirkurd — George Robertson, M.A., translated from Queensferry; 
presented by town council of Edinburgh, July 25, 1677; instituted, January 16 
thereafter; deposed, November 3, 1680.] 

Sacred Tunes. 
["Hanover," 16, Scottish Hymnal; William Croft, 1678-1727. "Croft's 
148th," William Croft, 1678-1727.] 

Case of Discipline. 
167^, March J — William Achesoune and Janet Macnab being confronted, he 
was found to lie and contradict himself, so he is to be sent to the steeple of Peebles 
till he be brought to some ingenuous confession of the truth, or at least until he find 
a sufficient cautioner that he shall answer as law will. 

Archbishop Sharpe. 
[/($7p, May j — James Sharpe, archbishop of St Andrews, was put to death on 
Magus Moor, near St Andrews, by a band of desperate men. They fled to the west 
country after the deed. Sharpe was considered by them as he who had betrayed the 
Church of Scotland, and also as the author and instigator of all the misery and 
repression which had befallen the people for conscience sake.] 

Drumclog. 
[On June i was fought the battle of Drumclog, between the Covenanters (who 
had been disturbed while attending a conventicle) and dragoons under Claverhouse, 
in which the latter were defeated.] 

BoTHWELL Bridge. 
[167P, June 22 — On this day, also a Sunday, the Royal army under the Duke of 
Monmouth lay encamped on Bothwell Moor by the side of the Clyde. The 



THE MINISTRY OF JOHN HAY, A.M. 219 

Covenanters lay on the opposite side, with Bothwell Bridge between the armies. 
A gate in the centre of the bridge had been barricaded by the Covenanters, and it 
was defended by Hackston of Rathillet, one of the enemies of Sharpe. Unfortunately 
they fell back upon the main army, and permitted the Royalists to defile over the 
bridge. No attack at this time was made on the dragoons, who discharged their 
artillery upon the Covenanters. The latter turned and fled, and a rout ensued. 
Four hundred were massacred in flight; a thousand prisoners were taken; and but 
few were slain in the fight. Two ministers were hanged in the Grassmarket; five 
men were executed at Magus Moor in revenge for the slaying of Sharpe. The 
prisoners were confined in the churchyard of Greyfriars for four or five months, 
exposed to the weather, and guarded by sentries with loaded firearms. Of these, two 
hundred and fifty were to be sold as slaves at Barbadoes, but the small vessel in 
whose hold they were confined was wrecked in the Orkneys, and all were drowned. 
The prisoners who were left, signed a bond not to disturb the peace, and were 
liberated. An Act of Indemnity, also the third Indulgence, were offered in July 
to ministers and people, but being accepted by comparatively few, were soon 
withdrawn. Thereupon the west and south were once more overrun by soldiery in 
search of all who declined to accept these instruments, and torture and massacre 
prevailed. The most desperate of the hunted people formed themselves into bands, 
and are known in history as Society People, Hillmen, Wanderers, and Cameronians, 
after Richard Cameron, their leader. Major Learmonth, the veteran Covenanter, 
after the battle of Bothwell Bridge, in which, along with Robert Hamilton, he led the 
desperate charge, hid himself in a vault under his own house. It was so artfully 
concealed, and was entered from the house, that none suspected his place of 
concealment. By this means he kept himself free for several years. In time, 
however, he was discovered, tried, and condemned, but through interest made on his 
behalf, the sentence was commuted into one of imprisonment on the Bass. He 
survived the Revolution, and died in his own house of Newholme, in the eighty-eighth 
year of his age.] 

Dr Pennecuik. 
[About this time there was living in the county Alexander Pennecuik of 
Newhall, M.D., having been born in 1652. He practised as a medical man in the 
county of Peebles, but found time to manage his estates and write his Description of 
Tweeddale and some poems. He appears to have resided and practised in the county 
for more than thirty years. " My employment as a physician obliged me to know 
and observe every corner thereof; so what I advance in this description is not from 
hearsay and secondhand, but from ocular inspection and proper knowledge. Having 
made so frequent surveys through all the hills and valleys of that country, both 
on horse and foot, and made a nice scrutiny into all things I found remarkable, 
especially as to plants, several whereof are naturally produced here, which I have not 
observed in my herbalising through other shires of the kingdom." He was 
contemporary with Cromwell, Montrose, and Monk, who resided at Dalkeith. 
Hamilton of Coldcoat, who fought at the battle of Worcester, and Sir William 
Drummond of Hawthornden were his neighbours and companions, possessing all the 
same political opinions. Dr Pennecuik died in 1722, at the age of seventy years, and 
was buried in Newlands churchyard.] 

Contemporary Minister. 
[/d/^j — Glenholm — William Selkrigg, M.A., translated from Roberton. He 



220 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

read the proclamation of the Estates, and prayed for William and Mary; for which 
he was threatened by some of the meanest of the people and ordered to remove from 
the manse within two weeks; a lock was also put on the Church door to keep him 
out. He demitted, however, which was accepted, October 7, 1690; and was received 
into communion by the General Assembly, January 29, 1692, he never having been 
an enemy or persecutor of any, but ready to do them favours, which caused the 
Episcopal party to look down upon him. He was afterwards settled at Falkland.] 

Unbaptised Children. 
1680, April 7 — Reference from session of Peebles regarding five men who all 
have children of which it is not known whether they are baptised, and who are 
disobedient to the session. They did not compear, and are referred to the Synod. 
Other brethren who may have similar cases to cite them also to the Synod. Note.— 
During those years unbaptised children generally belonged to parents who refused 
to conform to Episcopacy, and were baptised by non-conformist ministers at 
conventicles. 

Conventicles. 
1680, April 7 — This day, the Presbytery taking to their consideration the 
frequent and rebellious meetings there are among them, where persons who have 
been intercommuned since the rebellion in the year 1665, now go publicly to other 
persons' houses, and take upon them to preach in the doors and entries of the houses 
where they are reset, at all which meetings there are several hundreds out of doors, 
who either have been at Bothwell Bridge themselves, or frequent the company of 
such; and their meetings being a new-kindled fire in this place of the kingdom, where 
never any rebellious meeting of this nature formerly was, they humbly crave advice 
from the archbishop and Synod what to do in such cases. The archbishop, by a 
letter, appointed a Synodal meeting of the whole diocese of Glasgow to consider the 
subject. 

The Antiquity of the Burgh of Peebles. 
1680, June 7 — The town council allows the treasurer to satisfy Mr John Frank, 
^41 9s, which was the money really given out by him for renewing of a paper anent 
the antiquity of the burgh, which was recorded in the Scots register at Cambridge, 
and extracted by Mr John Hay and several other of the fellows of the said College ; 
and the council gives Mr John hearty thanks for his pains. The paper referred to 
was the extract from Scotichronicon, containing the account by Fordun of the 
founding of the Cross Kirk. It was originally discovered in the library at Cambridge 
forty years previously. 

Cameronians. 
[On June 22, Donald Cargill and Richard Cameron, along with a band of 
twenty-one men, marched into Sanquhar and, at the cross, threw off their allegiance to 
King and Government. But on July 20, at Airsmoss, Cameron was killed, and 
Hackston, covered with wounds, carried to Edinburgh, and there mutilated and put 
to death barbarously. Cargill escaped for a while, but died on the scaffold later.] 



THE MINISTRY OF JOHN HAY, A.M. 221 

A Runaway. 

1680, August 4 — Reference from the session of Peebles about George Forbes, 
a dragoon, who was very late at night in company with one Isobel Denman. She has 
run away, and the brethren cannot go further with the man seeing she is not there, 
but great search to be made for her to ascertain whether she is within their bounds. 
George Forbes compearing, denied anything wrong, but he is to find caution for 
his appearance to answer judicially, and if he do not they will write to his captain 
about the scandal. 

1680, September 8 — Isobel Denman found in Mr Findlay's parish, and he gave 
an account of her to the moderator. The moderator reported that he had sent an 
ofificer to bring her to Peebles, which was done, and she was imprisoned by the 
magistrates, as she could not find caution. In the night time, however, she broke 
prison. She is to be made search for, and in the meantime two burgesses stand 
caution for George Forbes, for his compearance when called upon. 

Episcopalians Persecuted. 
1680, September g — A number of armed men at night did violently intrude into 
the house of Mr David Thomson, minister of Manor, and did fall upon, beat, and 
wound him in the head and other parts of his body, so that he fell down as dead, but 
with strength to call for one to panse (dress) his wounds. The said persons said they 
would panse him by giving him the cross stroke, adding that if all the curates and 
oppressors of Christ's cause had the stroke it would be well for the Kirk of Scotland ; 
and the said persons did not sist here only, but, having time and opportunity, did 
plunder his house and took away his horses, amounting all to a considerable value. 
Wandering bands of rebels did not scruple to commit outrages of this kind. After 
the battle of Bothwell Bridge they ranged through all the country and towns, taking 
away all the arms, guns, and swords they could, and best horses, without recompense. 
— Law's Memorials. 

Presbytery and Kirk-Session under Episcopacy. 

1680, Novetnber j — Bailie Hay and John Govan, treasurer of Peebles, appeared 
in name of the council of Peebles and desire that the Presbytery would appoint a 
visitation of the school of Peebles. The Presbytery thought it was very necessary, 
but because the days were short they delayed till the days became longer. (Note. — 
This Treasurer Govan bequeathed a communion cup to the Church in 1684.) 

1680, December i — James Douglas consents to submit to the Presbytery, and 
make an acknowledgment of his sins before the Presbytery, and to pay in a penalty 
for the use of the poor of Peebles. The reasons actuating the Presbytery to make 
terms with this delinquent were : — The long duration of this process, and the want of 
success with James Douglas, until by the dealing of the archbishop he had been 
brought to this length; also considering the uncertainty of his abode, and the 
looseness of the times, the contempt of Church discipline, and fearing that a strict 
dealing with the Hke of him may turn him also away from the Church ; the Presbytery 
on all these counts agreed to take this acknowledgment of his sins before themselves. 



222 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

and ordain him to go to Edinburgh, and there purge himself of his sin, in order 
to absolution from all. These matters are more fully gone into among the dealings 
of the Presbytery as a court. 

1681, January J — James Heely, trilapse, compeared, and the Presbytery 
considering that the last fall was after proclamation in order to marriage with the 
woman with whom he sinned, and that he was now going on to be married upon her, 
thought fit to advise the parson at Peebles and the session there that he should stand 
in the public place of repentance three Lord's Days, both forenoon and afternoon, 
and to pay a penalty for the poors' box, and so be absolved. Reference from the 
session at Peebles concerning Robert Douglasse. He has confessed that he has 
sinned with Margaret Straiton, but denies that he is the father of the child, because it 
was bom ten months after the last time that he sinned with her. This is corroborated 
by witnesses. The Presbytery, finding it a matter of great concernment, and not find- 
ing that any such case has been before them before, of so long a space between the 
birth of the child and the last time of sinning, which was very strongly spoken to and 
declared upon oath by the said Robert, who, however, had previously very confidently 
and with great asseverations denied that ever he sinned with her, thought fit to refer 
the matter to the archbishop and Synod. Both parties are cited to the said Synod, 
to be held at Jedburgh, April 20 next. 

16S1, July 6 — The heritors of the parish of Manor having failed to pursue and 
apprehend the persons implicated in the attack upon the minister, the privy council 
decerned that they pay a thousand merks Scots, with relief against each other 
and their tenants for the amount. The fine having been paid, was ordered to be 
handed to the minister, Mr David Thomson, for repairing his losses and damages 
sustained by the rebels. 

The Test Act. 
\^i68i, August — This act required every person who held a public oflSce, however 
humble, to swear that he owned the true Protestant religion as explained in the 
Confession of 1567; that the King was supreme in all causes and over all persons, 
civil and ecclesiastical; that he would never consult about any matters of State 
without the King's license, and never seek after any alteration in the government of 
the country. Papists as well as Episcopalians were affected by this Test, although it 
was aimed only at Presbyterians. By its provisions also members of Parliament 
might not dare to effect any change in the law. The act was thus seen to be 
unworkable all round. In order to smooth away the difficulties, the bishop of 
Edinburgh came forward with an explanation. This was converted into an act of 
council, and received the sanction of the King. Some were satisfied, but eighty of 
the clergy left their parishes rather than comply with a Test which their consciences 
condemned.] 

The Town Council of Peebles and the Test. 

1681 — Just at this time, on November 24, the provost and magistrates of 

Peebles presented a curious petition to the privy council. It stated that the 

petitioners were desirous to take the Test, but that the town was very inconsiderable, 

and the petitioners ignorant and illiterate, and being in a remote place, where they 



THE MINISTRY OF JOHN HAY, A.M. 223 

could get no person to inform them of the difference between the act of Parliament 
and the act of council, and not having the act of Parliament in all the country, nor 
yet the Confession of Faith referred to, the petitioners humbly required time to advise 
concerning the Test. But as the burgh could not be without magistrates, they had 
elected their number in the hope that the first of the following January would be 
in time enough to take the Test. But as soon as they understood the act of 
Parliament they were perfectly willing to take the Test when and where the privy 
council pleased. They had always been very loyal and ready to serve the King on 
all occasions, amongst other instances their care and diligence in the late rebellion 
(the battle of Bothwell Bridge), was taken notice of by the privy council, who did the 
petitioners the honour to return them their particular thanks therefor. They now 
humbly supplicated the privy council to allow the provost and magistrates to take the 
Test in the presence of one of the privy council, and authorise them to see the other 
magistrates take the Test before a fixed day. The privy council considered the 
petition, and appointed one of their number to administer the Test to the provost, 
bailies, and treasurer, and allowed the magistrates to administer the Test to the 
remainder of the council, and report before the third Thursday of December. 

1681, November 28 — In accordance with the preceding decision of the privy 
council, the provost, one of the bailies, and the treasurer, having had the Test 
administered to themselves by a member of the privy council, on the above date 
administered it in turn to the remanent members of the town council. The 
meeting was held in the tolbooth of Peebles, and the various members were 
interrogated by the provost. John Hay, bailie, was content to take the oath; 
William Scott, dean-of-guild, declined; James Halden accepted; John Borroman 
also; Alexander Jenkinson declined; William Hislop agreed; James Grieve declined; 
Adam Little agreed; Archibald Shiell refused; John Jenkinson agreed; also Thomas 
Chisholm, William Wyllie, deacon of weavers; Thomas Hope, and John Tod. Out 
of the whole town council there were thus thirteen who accepted the Test, and four 
who declined. 

Act anent Bridals. 
[The act of Parliament of 168 1 ordained that "at marriages, besides the married 
persons, their parents, children, brothers, and sisters, and the families wherein they 
live, there shall not be present at any contract of marriage, marriage, or infare, or 
meet upon occasion thereof, above four friends upon either side, with their ordinary 
domesticated servants, and that neither bridegroom nor bride, nor their parents or 
relatives, tutors, or curators for them and to their use, shall make above two changes 
of raiment at that time or upon that occasion."] 

Contemporary Ministers. 

\i68i — Kirkurd — Laurence Mercer, M.A., translated from Craigie; presented 
by town council of Edinburgh, December i, 1680; instituted May 11 following. 
Probably deprived on account of the Test. 

\i68i — Newlands — Patrick Purdie, in 1670 presented by the earl of Tweeddale 
as assistant to his father; instituted, 1681; deposed, October 7, 1690.] 



2 24 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

Riot in Peebles. 
1682 — On February 13 a riot occurred in Peebles. The magistrates had 
decided to let a small piece of common, lying around the walls, by public roup. A 
mob thereupon invaded the tolbooth where the magistrates were sitting, and 
threatened violence, and warned the provost that he " would be stickit," as Provost 
Dickison was, if they persisted. Two of the ringleaders were promptly arrested and 
detained in the tolbooth to answer for this crime. Several burgesses of Peebles 
invaded the prison and carried off the prisoners. But the prisoners, along with their 
would-be rescuers, were again reinstated in their confined quarters. However, on 
March 2 thereafter, certain persons convocated several women, who did in a most 
tumultuary and irregular way take out of prison both the original two ringleaders, and 
also their first rescuers. The whole party proceeded to the town cross, and there 
drank their good health as protectors of the liberties of the poor, and to the confusion 
of the magistrates and council. Stones were at the same time carried to the platform 
of the cross wherewith to stone to death such as would oppose them. Finally the 
whole three hundred persons divided themselves into companies, each company escort- 
ing one person to his home, "to the grat astonishment of the honest and well-meaning 
people." The principal riotors had to appear before the lords of the privy council, 
who committed them to the tolbooth of Edinburgh, and deprived them of their 
burgess-ship. The magistrates at the same time were ordered to commit to the 
tolbooth of Peebles the remainder who had been accessory to the riot, and imprison, 
fine, and " ryve the burgess tickets," as they should find cause. On March 31 the 
delinquents in the tolbooth of Edinburgh were liberated, under caution of five 
hundred merks Scots to appear when called upon. And they were ordered to appear 
before the magistrates of Peebles on April 12, and crave their pardon. 

Fined for Absence from the Kirk. 

1682, October 18 — Patrick Brotherstaines, merchant, was found guilty of absence 
from the Kirk for six Lord's Days, and was fined ;^i2 Scots. Several other cases of 
a similar kind occur at this time. The object of these prosecutions appears to have 
been the prevention of attendance at conventicles. 

Contemporary Ministers. 

[1682 — Drumelzier — James Simson, translated from Broughton. Called, 
instituted, and admitted, March i. Deprived by act of Parliament, April 25, 1690, 
restoring Presbytery. Married, November 12, 1674, Elizabeth Seaton. 

\1682 — Innerleithen — Alexander Gray, probably son of preceding minister. 
Instituted, August 16; demitted, October 1695. Married, November 11, 1692, 
Elizabeth Porteous, in Tweedsmuir, and had a son, Hugh. 

[1682—Stobo — William Hollo, M.A., from Dawyck. Deprived by the privy 
council, September 3, 1689, for not reading the proclamation of the Estates, and not 
praying for William and Mary, but for King James. He had been imposed on 
the parishioners by the bishop, but they gave him no entry to the Church, and he 
entered by the window. Died at Edinburgh, 1702.] 



THE MINISTRY OF JOHN HAY, A.M. 225 

The Killing Times. 
[In the years 1682 and 1683 the lawless soldiery continued to harass the 
country. Their powers were almost unlimited, and their excesses great. Terrorism 
prevailed. No one was safe, even in the most isolated farmhouses on the loneliest 
moors. Graham of Claverhouse was the most active leader of the persecutors at this 
period; and whom he arrested was almost certain of conviction before his legal coad- 
jutor, Sir George Mackenzie. Conventicles were dispersed; Presbyterians were driven 
to Episcopal Churches, where the roll was called, and absentees noted; the Test was 
applied after torture; and summary murders on the lonely moors were committed 
upon some of the saintliest of men. There was a list of more than two thousand 
proscribed names. The persecuted people in time became desperate, and were 
forced into open rebellion. They threw off their allegiance; they proclaimed their 
persecutors; they practised retaliation. In justification they published in 1684 the 
"Apologetic Declaration." This dismayed several of the persecutors. Curates fled 
from their charges; magistrates and informers considered themselves unsafe. The 
whole of Scotland was in a condition of civil war. Terror prevailed on every side. 
In the list of fugitives for 1684 occur the following names of eleven persons 
connected with Peeblesshire, who had fled rather than take the Test: — William 
Forbes, servant to Thomas Weir in Sclathole; Thomas Weir, merchant traveller; 
James Mitchell, cooper, Linton; Adam Hunter, Fingland; James Ramage, Skirling; 
James Richardson, tailor, Logan; William Porteous, Earlshaugh; James Welsh, 
Fingland; George Hunter, Corehead; John Welsh, Menzion; James Nicol. — 
IVodrow, iv., 24. John Veitch of Dawyck; James Nasmyth of Posso; and John 
Skene of Hallyards were among the assizeres at the trial of Sir Hugh Campbell of 
Cessnock for complicity in Drumclog and Both well Bridge. (March 27, 1684.) 
Not proven — Wodrow, iv., 860.] 

Contemporary Ministers. 

\^i68j — Eddkston — Thomas Smyth, licensed by Alexander, bishop of Edinburgh, 
July 8, 1675, being recommended by the Presbytery of Dalkeith. Was on trials for 
Manor, but was instituted and admitted here, February 21; died between July 6 and 
November 2, 1687, in the fifth year of his ministry. Married, August 3, 1683, 
Margaret Tod, relict of Walter Smart, Fisherrow. 

[/(5<?j — Kirkiird — David Spence, M.A., University of Edinburgh, 167 1; 
appointed by town council of Edinburgh, December 29, 1682; instituted, July 25 
thereafter. Deposed by privy council, September 17, 1689, for not reading the 
proclamation of the Estates, not praying for William and Mary, not observing the 
thanksgiving, and not intimating the collection for the Irish Protestants and the 
French; and declaring publicly that it was as lawful to go and hear mass as to hear a 
sermon in a meeting-house. On May i, 1689, the committee of Estates considered 
a supplication by Mr Spence, representing that notwithstanding the proclamation of 
the Estates forbidding persons to trouble ministers who were then in the actual 
exercise of their ministerial functions, yet, on April 25 last, four or five persons in the 
parish, with some others outside it, came in a hostile manner to Mr Spence's house, 
and took away the poors' box and the mortcloth and other things belonging to the 
Church, and commanded him to remove with his family within eight days, otherwise 
they would cast his plenishing to the doors, and in the meantime forbade him to 
preach. Notwithstanding, he was willing to give obedience to the proclamation of 
the Estates. All the heritors within the parish punctually attend the Church, and all 
the people except a very few ; and therefore supplicated their lordships to grant him 



2 26 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

their protection. The committee, considering that Mr Spence was willing to obey 
the proclamation of the Estates, dated April 13, ordered the poors' box, the mortcloth, 
and other things belonging to the Church, to be restored, and the heritors to secure 
Mr Spence in the peaceable exercise of the ministry and possession of his house and 
goods. 

\i68j — Lyne — John Horsbrugh, A.M.; University of Edinburgh, 1669; 
instituted and admitted, June 1683. Died before March 14, 1705, aged 56. 
Mr Horsbrugh was the last of the Episcopalian ministers. At the Revolution 
Settlement he did not conform, and defied the Presbytery. This was probably due to 
the protection of the earl of March. He was permitted to continue minister of Lyne, 
and probably drew the stipend until his decease in Edinburgh, whither he had 
retired. 

[7d<?j — Manor — Robert Smith, A.M., formerly of Crawford, presented in April; 
admitted and instituted, June. He gave in a demission, which was accepted, 
October 7, 1690; died May 31, 1696, aged 73. Married Janet Buchanan.] 

Putting down Conventicles. 

\16S4, Jtme 6 — On this date the privy council sent a letter to Murray of 
Stanhope, Murray of Blackbarony, and Veitch of Dawyck, stating that a conventicle 
had been held on Sunday, June i, at Cairniehill, and another on June 8 at 
Colstounslope, both in Peeblesshire. This the council considered very strange, as 
the county gentlemen named had not dispersed them, nor given information 
concerning them. These were now directed to ascertain who were the preachers, 
and on whose ground the conventicles were held; also to apprehend all concerned in 
the matter, and report to the council. 

Next followed a letter to General Dalyell on the same subject, and commanding 
him to make strict enquiry thereanent. Further correspondence ensued, including 
letters from the lord primate, and from Claverhouse; and in the end it was 
ascertained that the two conventicles had been held within the confines of 
Mid-Lothian. 

1684, July I J- — The earl of Tweeddale proceeded against, over whose lands the 
preachers had passed after the conventicle at Cairniehill. He was assoilzied, as he 
was not in the shire, and did not know. 

1684, July — At the end of July five wandering Covenanters were arrested by 
Claverhouse while sleeping in the fields. On attempting to escape they were fired at, 
and some of them wounded. A poor woman, who offered to dress their wounds, was 
carried away to Edinburgh with them; and, on their arrival, they were tried and 
■executed the same day. James Nicol, a merchant of Peebles, being accidentally 
present at the execution, attracted attention, and was arrested under circumstances to 
be related presently.] 

Communion Cups. 
1684 — From this period of the Second Episcopacy have come down to the 
Church of the present day four silver communion cups of the date 1684. On the 
first cup is the following inscription : — " Legato pio Alexdri Wmsone, urbis prafecti 
vigileniis, cura Ja. Wmsone a Cardrona, filii et haredis. An.S., 1684." (By the 
pious bequest of Alexander Williamson, the vigilant provost of the city, through 
the care of James Williamson of Cardrona, his son and heir. In the year of the 
Saviour, 1684.) On the second cup: — "Legato pio Jo. Govan, Peeblen., Edinburgi 



p,,,.., -,,,.. ..^,, ,..,.-, ^- - - _ -., 


i i 

1 ' 




^ ^aio pio JO : GOVAK ^e.^Cerx. 

wio: frank: : k: s - scn ■. -.- 


an.: s : 1 o84 . 


^ ev TouTu, \'iKaM«;iO:HAY: J{eclorLS: 


Te- p^^TrJ; ei n\cntr a<i .'. ; /dg-f 


J/fls (fub hitherto w'lU'pul oi\v \nscriphot\ is 


5uppo5e(/ foSe fA'it frfsenfL-i/ (o Hie (_'f\urc'/\ By 


re/errea to m ih'en- nunufp 0/ (4"> JHfy /t-.8*. 


3iy or3cr of tf{s X'rk 5.'-S5um 0/ ^Pe■cl1l,:s l&^S . 


foi'H A/vrir\T CoA/A/rx/OiV C//Aua;s. 

ff-i-isi.rs C/nr/iC// /OB'/ . 1 


i . . , , J 



Facsimile— (Alex. Mathieson). 

1. By the pious legacy of Alexander Williamson, vigilant provost of the city. By the care of James 
Williamson of Cardrona, son and heir, in the year 1684. 

2. By the pious legacy of John Govan of Peebles, faithful treasurer of Edinburgh. By the care of Mr John 
Frank, Writer to the Royal Signet, in the year of salvation 1684. 

3. By this conquer ! (The gift) of Mr John Hay, Rector of Peebles and Manor, in the year of salvation 1684. 

4. Note regarding the fourth Chalice : In the seven hundredth year of the Church the Conmiunion Service 
was being augmented, and attention was directed to the ancient vessels. Any tradition concerning the fourth Cup 
had been forgotten. The present writer fortunately discovered the minute referred to : — 

" 1684, July 14. The Council are content to allow one of the four Communion Cups, and ordains 
the clerk to deal with Captain Cockburn therefor." 

John Govan was the son of William Govan of Nether Kidston, near Peebles. The Govans had been lairds of 
Cardrona for centuries, until the year 1683, when the estate was sold. This is the year before the cups were presented. 
Curiously enough it was the new laird of Cardrona, James Williamson, who carried out the bequest of his father 
regarding another of the cups. 

John Govan was Treasurer of Edinburgh in i5So, as may be seen from the Edinburgh Burgess Books under date 
23rd August 1683. He died in August 1683. By his will, dated 15th August 1682, he left legacies amongst others to 
John Frank, his cousin. He left what is known as ' ' Posso's Bond " to be divided equally between the poor and the school 
of Peebles. To the poor of Edinburgh he bequeathed 500 merks, and a similar sum to Trinity Hospital, Edinburgh. 



THE MINISTRY OF JOHN HAY, A.M. 227 

quastor. fidelis, cura Mr lo. Frank, R.S.Scrt. An.S., 1684." (By the pious 
bequest of John Govan, native of Peebles, faithful treasurer of Edinburgh; 
through the care of John Frank, writer to the Royal Signet. In the year of the 
Saviour, 1684.) On the third cup: — "Ei/ Tovrt^ viKa. Mr lo. Hay, Rectoris de 
Peebles et Maner. An.S. 1684." (By this conquer. The gift of Mr John 
Hay, rector of Peebles and Manor. In the year of the Saviour, 1684.) 
Observe that the minister of Peebles claimed to be rector of Manor, although 
Robert Smith, M.A., is recorded as minister of Manor at the time. There 
is also a fourth cup of solid silver, but without any inscription on it. It is 
not mentioned by Chambers, nor by Burns in his work on communion plate, but 
is of the same style and shape as the other three, and bears the same trade marks. 
In 1895 the present writer discovered the following reference in the burgh records: — 
" 14th July 1684 — The Council are content to allow one of the four communion 
cups, and ordains the clerk to deal with Captain Cockburn therefor." At the time 
(1895) the congregation was considering a proposal for augmenting the service of 
communion plate, and the writer brought the entry before the kirk-session in that 
year. The hall-mark on all the four cups is the same; so also the initials of the 
maker, Thomas Yorston, admitted 1673; ^nd also the punch of John Borthwick, 
assay master, 1681-1697. Four cups were required in 1684; three bore the names 
of private donors; the town council had resolved to present the fourth; and here 
was a fourth bearing all the marks of the other three, but wanting inscription. The 
legitimate inference was that this uninscribed communion cup was that presented by 
the magistrates in 1684 in order to complete the set; accordingly an inscription 
recording this inference was put upon the cup, but in an inconspicuous place, within 
the hollow of the pedestal. Regarding the persons mentioned on the cups, John 
Govan was the son of William Govan of Nether Kidston, Peeblesshire, who is 
supposed to have been descended from the Govans of Cardrona, an old Border 
family, who had been lairds of Cardrona for centuries, until the estate was sold in 
1683. He was also treasurer of Edinburgh in 1680, as is testified by an entry 
in the Edinburgh burgess books. He died in August 1683. By his will, 
dated August 15, 1682, he left legacies, amongst others, to John Frank, his 
cousin. He left also what is called Posso's bond, the proceeds of which were to 
be divided equally between the poor and the school of Peebles. Of the Williamsons, 
there were several provosts of that name in Peebles, the principal being Provost 
James, 1638 and 1650. No references to Provost Alexander have been found. The 
Rev. John Hay was the son of Dr Theodore Hay, and it was he who, while a 
student, lighted upon the reference in Fordun's Scotichronicon regarding the 
foundation of the Cross Kirk. The four communion cups remain in use to this 
day, and are a survival of the Second Episcopacy. The communion plate was 
considerably augmented by additions in 1895, on the occasion of the septcentenary 
of the Church. 

The Martyr of Peebles. 
1684, August /p — In a report to the privy council upon the prisoners in 



2 28 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

Canongate and Edinburgh tolbooths, James Nicol, in Peebles, is one of those to be 
"processed and indicted" that they be proceeded against according to law. — 

Wodro7v, iv., 35. 

1684, August 27 — James Nicol, from Peebles, and William Young, executed at 
Edinburgh. James Nicol, merchant burgess of Peebles, was a bold, zealous man: 
hitherto he escaped, and was at Edinburgh at the trial of Thomas Harkness, Andrew 
Clerk, and Samuel M'Ewen, who were all hanged the same day they were tried, on 
August 5, in the Grassmarket. Nicol was greatly affected, and was a mournful 
onlooker at their trial, and afterwards was taking his horse in the Grassmarket to go 
out of the town, after he had been there some time about business. At this moment 
the guard came down with the three persons to be hanged. This stopped him, and 
he went in among the crowd, and stayed till they were executed. When coming 
away, he said, in the bitterness of his spirit, and in hearing of a good many — " These 
kine of Bashan have pushed these three good men to death at one push, contrary to 
their own base laws, in a most inhuman manner." Whereupon he was straight seized 
and carried off to prison. In a day or two he was brought before the committee for 
public affairs, and after that before the council, where he was very bold and plain in 
his answers. And on the 27th was brought before the justiciary. He was indicted 
for treason. The probation was his own confession that he was at Bothwell with 
arms, that he owns the Sanquhar declaration and the Rutherglen paper. Found 
guilty. Hanged same day, Wednesday, August 27, between two and four. — 

Wodrnw, iv., 69. 

Persecution of Covenanters. 

1684, August — Proclamation anent discovery of westland rebels and their 
resetters. 

1684, October /p — Heritors, ministers, and elders to meet with commissioners 
of privy council at Peebles on Wednesday next. 

1684, December 24 — Robert Baillie of Jerviswood executed at Edinburgh for 
raising rebellion against the King along with that declared traitor, Mr William Veitch, 
the earl of Argyle, &c. — Wodrow, iv., 1 10. (Note. — William Veitch became minister 
of Peebles in 1690.) 

Contemporary Ministers. 

\^i684 — Broughton — Alan Johnstone, M.A., translated to Carstairs. 

Yi684—Dmvyck — George Smith, M.A., son of the minister of Eddleston; died, 
December 17 19. 

{^1684 — West Linto?i — William Hay, schoolmaster of Dunfermline, elected 
schoolmaster of South Leith, August 3, 1682; instituted, September 17, 1684; 
deprived by privy council, August 25, 1689, for not reading the proclamation of the 
Estates, and not praying for William and Mary, but for James, the late King, and 
drinking his health. Married Helen Walker, and had a son, WiUiam.] 

Death of Robert Leighton, formerly Archbishop of Glasgow. 
\1684 — Leighton often used to say that if he were to choose a place to die in, it 



THE MINISTRY OF JOHN HAY, A.M. 229 

should be an inn ; it looked like a pilgrim's going home, to whom this world was all 
as an inn, and who was weary of the noise and confusion of it. He obtained what 
he desired, for he died at the Bell Inn in Warwick Lane, London. Regarding the 
life and character of Leighton, there are many diversities of opinion. He has been 
considered as the one saint common both to Presbytery and Episcopacy. Dr King 
Hewison, in his work on the Covenanters, writes somewhat contemptuously of him ; 
Dr Hay Fleming pillories him scathingly; Dr Butler praises him highly.] 

Parochial Matters. 

168^, January J — Contribution for Kelso to be ready at a call. 

168^, January 18 — Returning to Peeblesshire, a proclamation was read on 
January 18 in Manor parish, to discover those who own or who will not reveal a 
treasonable declaration against the King, and the horrid principle of assassination 
there specified. 

168^, February 4 — Two indiscreet people still deny in spite of conference with 
ministers, and are referred to next Synod. Their former " cautions " compeared and 
undertook for them under the penalties foresaid. The magistrates of Peebles desired 
the Presbytery to visit their school. 

Visitation of School. 
1683, March J — Neither exercise nor discipline, as this is the day for the 
visitation of the school. After trial and examination of the whole scholars, the 
Presbytery declared to the magistrates that they were very well satisfied with their 
proficiency, and that the schoolmaster deserved great commendation and 
encouragement. 

Hunting the Covenanters. 
168^ — On September 6, the earl of Balcarres, lord Yester, and William Hay 
of Drumelzier were commissioned as justiciars of the shires of Roxburgh, Berwick, 
Peebles, and Selkirk, to secure and punish rebels according to law. The Hon. 
Colonel James Douglas, brother to the first duke of Queensberry, was associated with 
Claverhouse at this time in hunting down Covenanters. He was convener of the 
commissioners of supply for Tweeddale. Wodrow mentions a number of cruelties 
which he is said to have perpetrated. He attacked and dispersed a gathering in a 
secluded part of Tweedsmuir, when John Hunter was shot at the Devil's Beef Tub. 
The tombstone of this martyr is still to be seen in the churchyard of Tweedsmuir. 
In the following year the earl of Tweeddale sold the Neidpath estates to the duke 
of Queensberry, brother of this Colonel Douglas. In the properties were included 
the lands and tenandry of the monastery and Cross Kirk of Peebles, which now 
passed from the Hays of Tweeddale to the duke of Queensberry, from whom they 
passed to the earl of Wemyss and March. 

Case of Discipline. 
168^, Nove7nber 21 — The indiscreet people, previously reported, are to satisfy 
the session of Peebles in sacco. 



2 30 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

Fines in Peeblesshire, 1679 to 1685. 
[Peebles, ^^978 6s; Traquair, ^374 2s; Kirkburn, Eddleston, Linton 
j^So6 i6s; Tweedsmuir, ^^1130 — total, ^2989 4s. — Wodrow, i., 48.] 

Death of Charles II. 
[/dcPj — In this year death claimed Charles Stuart, the second of that name, who 
had been for twenty-five years the tyrant of Scotland. Had this King been a religious 
and intolerant bigot, as was his brother, now King James VII., his repressive 
persecutions of the Scots might have been intelligible. But he was a man destitute 
of all religion ; he laughed at virtue and modesty. He possessed neither principles 
nor credited others with any. Finally, he gave the lie to his hfe by professing 
the Roman Catholic religion on his death-bed. This was the man at whose 
command Scotland was converted into a human hunting ground for a quarter of a 
century. Through him it was that much of the most sterling worth and honesty of 
principle and religion perished — shot down by his minions ; and they whom he had 
hunted down were of the same nation as had shed their blood for him, a fugitive, at 
the bloody battles of Dunbar and Worcester. Charles was succeeded by his brother 
James, but affairs in Scotland continued as bad, or worse. Four men were 
intercepted when returning from hearing Renwick preach, and three of them were 
shot. Captain Bruce killed six men in Galloway. John Semphill, in Dailly, was 
shot because he abstained from attending the Church, and had occasionally 
harboured fugitives. John Brown of Priesthill was shot at his own door, in presence 
of his wife, by Claverhouse. The widow Maclachlan and Margaret Wilson were 
fastened to stakes and drowned by the rising tide in the river Blednoch at Wigton. 
Two hundred Covenanters were imprisoned within one vault in the castle of 
Dunottar; after undergoing inhuman severities, a hundred of them were shipped to 
America, but on the voyage sixty died.] 

Sacred Tunes. 
\1685 — "David," "Chandos" or "Cammis," Georg Fredrich Handel, 
1685-1759.] 

Parochial. 
1686, January 6 — Mr Douglas reported to be in Edinburgh. One man who 
confessed, and then withdrew his confession, said he did not remember, "because 
he was in a great bumbaze." 

King James VII. and the Election of Magistrates. 
1686 — On September 27, instructions arrived from the privy council to the 
effect that it was the will of King James VII. that no elections of magistrates be held 
this year, and that all the present magistrates hold office until the King's will be 
known. 

Contemporary Ministers. 

\i686 — Broughton — William Symson, M.A., deposed for charming, but was 
officiating as minister at Montrose in December 1709. 

\i686 — Skirling — Thomas Douglas. He deserted his charge and was deprived 
by act of Parliament, April 25, 1690, restoring the Presbyterian ministers.] 



THE MINISTRY OF JOHN HAY, A.M. 231 

" Kistin'." 
[The custom of "kistin"' or "chestin'," is common to certain districts in tlie 
west of Scotland, especially Ayrshire and Lanarkshire. Curious as the custom may 
have appeared to many, its origin is even more curious. It is not a remnant of an 
Irish wake, to which, however, it has some resemblance. Nor did it spring out of a 
desire on the part of mourning relatives to have spiritual comfort that a minister or 
elder went to a "kistin'." The custom had its origin in an act of Parliament for the 
encouragement of the manufacture of linen! The Scots Parliament in 1686 passed 
an act entitled, "Act for Burying in Scots Linen," enjoining every one to bury their 
dead in linen spun within the kingdom, and forbidding, under severe penalties, any 
one using for this purpose linen which had been made in Holland or elsewhere. A 
certificate duly attested by two respectable persons had to be given to the minister, 
certifying that they had seen the body of the deceased enshrouded in linen of Scottish 
manufacture. This act was so frequently violated that Parliament soon afterwards 
not only made the penalties much more stringent, but enjoined the nearest elder or 
deacon to be present when the body was encoffined, to see that the act was not 
infringed. This is the origin of the " kistin' " service, and explains why in certain 
districts a minister or elder is still expected to be present when a body is encoffined.] 

Toleration. 
[7d<?7 — In this year the King abrogated all penal and prohibitive laws against 
Roman Catholics, and allowed them to be ehgible for offices of trust. As a 
counterpart he suspended also all sanguinary laws against the Covenanters, and 
allowed the exercise of the Presbyterian worship in houses and chapels, but not in 
the open air. In these enactments are seen the first germs of the principle of 
religious toleration which is now enjoyed by all in the kingdom. But the motives 
and designs of the King were suspected by all ; and the rigid Cameronians refused to 
acknowledge these acts of grace. They had disowned the whole race of Stuart, 
and held their title to worship only from the Lord Jesus Christ Himself They 
likewise reprobated the principle of toleration all round, which had influenced the 
proclamations of grace. They therefore continued in defiance of the Government 
and held field conventicles.] 



1687-1689. Ube ^tnistrs of TRev. 5ames jfeitbte, a./ID. 

Sixth Minister. For two Years. A Covenanted Presbyterian. 

Little is known of this Covenanter and his brief ministry. The senior minister, 
the Rev. John Hay, Episcopalian, was still living, aged about fifty-three, and held the 
benefice. It is probable that the Presbyterians in the parish of Peebles gave a call 
to Mr Feithie while yet the Church and parish were occupied by the Episcopalians 
established by law. Mr Feithie studied at the University of Edinburgh, where he 
graduated on July 9, 1656. He had been in the habit of holding conventicles, 
for which he suffered imprisonment, and was for some time immured on the Bass 
Rock. While there he obtained permission to walk upon the rock, also had an 
allowance of eightpence per day on account of his poverty. He was liberated on 
July 4, 1679. He was appointed chaplain of Trinity Hospital, Edinburgh. 1687 
is given as the year of his call to Peebles. He was admitted on November 17, 1687. 
Mr Feithie would minister to the Presbyterians of Peebles, while Mr Hay, rector 
of Peebles, conducted the Episcopalian services in the Parish Church, which was 
still the Cross Church. Mr Feithie died between November 5 and 20, 1687, 
having been minister in Peebles for about two years. The Rev. John Hay survived 
him, and lived for one year more. Mr Feithie left a daughter, Elizabeth, who 
was served heir on November 3, 1691. 

The Clerk of Presbytery an Offender. 
7(5<?7, December 7 — This day the parson of Peebles informed the Presbytery that 
Mr Theodore Hay, their clerk and his vicar pensioner, had fallen into the sin of 
fornication, and craved their advice anent him. The Presbytery thought fit he should 
forbear public reading of the Scriptures and precenting in the Church, as also serving 
as their clerk and all other Church employment, and that the moderator should write 
to the archbishop anent him, and crave his advice. 

Contemporary Ministers. 

^1687 — Lyne — Robert Brown. The same who was placed in 1660 and had to 
appear before the privy council in 166 1. He continued at Lyne, August 22, 1688. 
Had a son, Richard, and a daughter, Marion. 

\i68j — Skirling — John Greig, M.A., formerly noticed. After being indulged 
at Carstairs, and being imprisoned on the Bass, returned, and was present at the 
meeting of ministers in the bounds of Lothian and Tweeddale, July 6, 1687, after 
toleration had been granted. Died May, 1689, aged about 71, having been strict in 
discipline, and anxious to promote the interests of holiness. 

1687— West Linton— Rohett Eliot, A.M., formerly mentioned, returned in July 
[687 to the meeting-house at Slipperfield, but got possession of the Parish Church, 



THE MINISTRY OF JAMES FEITHIE, A.M. 233 

April 28, 1689. Restored by the act of Parliament, April 28, 1690, to his former 
Church of Broughton. He went there, was translated hither, and was member of 
Assembly same year. Translated to Kinglassie, July 13 and August 5, 1691.] 

Mr Theodore Hay's Case. 

1688, January 11 — No return being come from the archbishop of the 
moderator's letter anent Mr Theodore Hay, and an address being made this day to 
the Presbytery, subscribed by the heritors of the parish of Peebles, elders, and 
magistrates of the burgh, and given in by the provost of Peebles in the name of the 
rest, earnestly desiring the Presbytery to interpose their moyen to the archbishop that 
the said Mr Theodore Hay might be continued in his place, in regard of the peculiar 
respects they had for him, both upon the account of his singular qualifications for his 
employment, and the relation he had to the worthy Dr Theodore, his grandfather, and 
Mr John Hays, his father, late parsons of Peebles, and men famous in their 
generation. The Presbytery, in compliance with the said address, and out of their 
regard to the gentleman himself, appointed another letter to be written to the 
archbishop in his favour, and subscribed by all the brethren, and one of their number 
viz., Mr John Horsbrugh, to deliver it and back the same if need were. Eighty-four 
persons in Peebles confessed to having had more persons at their baptisms than the 
law allows, since October 1682, and were fined. Thirty-nine others were likewise 
fined for having had more persons at their marriages than the law allows; and 
fourteen others were fined in absence. Mr John Hay, parson of Peebles, being 
accused for having a wedding in his house whereat there were more persons than the 
law allows, was found guilty, and fined. 

1688, January 25 — Robert Johnston having stood long in sacco at the Parish 
Church of Peebles, and given great evidences of his repentance, was this day referred 
by the session of Peebles to the Presbytery. He compeared, and being humbled 
in sacco after the moderator had seriously laid home his sin to him and exhorted him 
to amendment of life, he was referred back to the parson and kirk-session of Peebles 
for absolution. Mr John Horsbrugh (Lyne) reported that he had delivered the 
Presbytery's letter to the archbishop in favour of Mr Theodore Hay, and that he was 
satisfied with the Presbytery's ordering him to forbear the public exercise of his 
office, and thought fit a formal sentence of suspension should be imposed upon him. 
The said Mr Theodore being called in, was interdicted and suspended by the 
moderator in name of the Presbytery and the archbishop from his offices of reader 
and precentor and session-clerk of Peebles, as also from his office of clerk to the 
Presbytery, during pleasure, withall exhorting him to repentance and a humble walk. 
The archbishop to be asked what satisfaction he shall give for the scandal. 

Narrow Escape of James Renwick at Peebles. 
7(5(?7, December 2g — James Renwick to Robert Hamilton: — "I have been at 
Peebles this week, and, through the Lord's providence, wonderfully escaped; our 
intended meeting near to the town, about nine of the clock at night, in the time 



234 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

of our gathering, being by a strange providence discovered. It is a place I had not 
been in before, and we had no armed men; there are four taken and imprisoned." 

1688, January 12 — James Renwick to Alexander Shields: — "I came forward 
to Peebles, where our meeting in the time of gathering was discovered by a wonderful 
providence, namely, as I am informed, the pursuing of some for theft when people 
were observed to crowd out of the town ; which made the clerk to enquire what they 
were, and whither they were going; the report whereof coming unto me, being lodged 
in a most suspected house, I went forth and passed on towards the place of meeting 
until I came within speaking and hearing of the clerk and some with him, who were 
without all the town challenging people, and being in no capacity to resist, I turned 
again into the town, where there was some little uproar, and went forth of it another 
way, where I waited a considerable space for my horse, which was at length got into 
me with some difificulty; and finding that the meeting could not be kept I came 
away; but there were four persons taken. And since I came to this place I have 
lodged with Thomas and John, and lest I should trouble mine own spirit, I have not 
denied any to keep silent anent my being here, nor reproved any for coming into my 
quarters, whatever the hazard might be ; but left that to the providence of God, and 
people to their own discretion, and I find it not the worse way." 

James Renwick's Martyrdom. 
James Renwick, the last of the Scots martyrs, preached for the last time at 
Riskenhope, in Yarrow, and baptised a child in the waters of the brook. On February 
1 7, 1 688, one month after writing the foregoing letter, Renwick suffered martyrdom 
at Edinburgh. 

RENWICK AT RISKENHOPE. 
Mark well yon white house 'mid the trees; 

There, chased from glen to glen 
By bloodhounds of a despot race, 
Young Renwick found a shelt'ring place, 
With looks of love and deeds of grace 

From simple plaided men. 



Mark well that stump, where once there grew 

A thorn, a goodly tree ; 
Even there he stood, and 'gan to sing 
A powerful psalm, on faithful wing. 
Most like to David, shepherd-king, 

Ruddy and fair to see. 



So preached the fair-faced boy, and knew 

His preaching meant a deed ; 

When in his ear the fierce halloo 

Sounded of Clavers and his crew. 

Who all God's people did pursue 

To death, with murtherous speed. 



THE MINISTRY OF JAMES FEITHIE, A.M. 235 

He wept his last farewell, then crossed 

The hills to Manorhead ; 
Thence down to where, with gentle sweep, 
Tweed winds its waters slow and deep. 
By lofty Neidpath's castled keep. 

With hasty foot he sped. 

Nor there might rest, but on and on 

Through Fife, a weary way ; 
And backward thence with shifty skill, 
And foot with travel faint, until 
Beneath Dunedin's castled hill. 

The hunters trapped their prey; 

And dragged him where stern judges sate 

In dreadful judgment hall. 
Who plied him hard with legal phrase, 
But sat and wondered with amaze. 
While calmly he protests, and prays 

"May God forgive you all ! 

"No laws against free-fielded prayer 

In God's true Book are found; 
God is my Judge ; to Popish James 
I owe no cess ; to own his claims 
Let him find liege men on the Thames, 

Not here on Scottish ground ! " 

Thus he ; then calmly took his doom, 

And with firm front denied; 
And to the crowded market place 
Moved firmly with a steady pace. 
And with a glory on his face. 

Received the rope and died. 

John Stuart Blackie. 

Magistrates and Councillors Appointed by the King. 
1688, February / — Charles, earl of Traquair, attended the meeting of the town 
council held on this day, and submitted a list from the privy council of all those 
men whom the King had nominated as magistrates and councillors until the following 
Michaelmas. It will be noticed that James VII. had thus deprived the burgesses 
of the right of electing their own magistrates and councillors, and had sent down the 
names of his own nominees instead. This is the King's last piece of legislation for 
Peebles. 

The Case of Theodore Hay. 
1688, March 7 — The archbishop advises that Mr Theodore Hay be rebuked 
before the Presbytery and absolved. The said Mr Theodore being called, compeared, 
and confessed his sin with great evidences of his sense thereof, and being gravely 
exhorted by the moderator to a more strict, sober, and holy walk, was absolved from 
the scandal. And the desire of the heritors, elders, and magistrates being renewed to 



236 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

have him reponed, the Presbytery ordained another letter to be written to the 
archbishop in his favour, and sent by the hands of Mr John Horsbrugh. Mr Henry 
Hay having produced sufficient testimonials from the Presbytery of Earlstowne, both 
anent his good life and qualifications for preaching, having passed his trials among 
them, the Presbytery appoints a letter of recommendation to be written in his favour 
to the archbishop for a license to preach within this diocese. 

The Two Presbyteries of Peebles. 
1688, March 22 — It is to be observed that throughout the whole of the Second 
Episcopacy, now nearing its close, there existed an Episcopalian Presbytery, composed 
of the parish ministers, almost wholly Episcopal, and with whom those parish 
ministers who were Covenanted Presbyterians declined to meet. Episcopacy was 
still the legal polity of the Church of Scotland. But in some of the parishes 
Presbyterian congregations were being formed, presided over by Presbyterian 
ministers, from whom, however, entrance to the Churches was as yet withheld. It 
thus happened that in some parishes an Episcopalian congregation assembled in the 
Parish Church under the parish minister; and in the same parish a Presbyterian 
congregation was meeting in some other place under a Covenanted Presbyterian 
whom its members had called and voluntarily supported. On the date at the head 
of this paragraph a few of those ministers met in a farmhouse in the parish of Stobo, 
adjoining Peebles. They were presided over by Mr James Feithie, "minister 
at Peebles." The others were Robert Eliot, minister at Linton; John Campbell, 
minister at Borthwick; William Burnet, minister at Calder; and Mungo Watson, 
minister at Gladsmuir. These "did, by prayer and imposition of hands, ordain Mr 
William Russell, minister, unto the congregation at Stobo, having previously 
interrogated him anent his judgment in relation to the doctrine, worship, discipline, 
and government of the Presbyterian Church of Scotland, to which he professed 
adherence," &c. After the admission of the said Mr William Russell, the foresaid 
Mr James Feithie, as moderator, Mr Robert Eliot, and the said Mr William Russell, 
after calling upon the name of the Lord, with the concurrence of the foresaid 
ministers, John Campbell and William Burnet, did constitute themselves into a 
Presbytery, and appointed their next meeting to be that day twenty days at Mr 
Robert Broun's, minister at Lyne, his dwelling-house, and appoint each minister to 
bring an elder, nominate by their session, with them. The next minister whom they 
ordained, at a later meeting, was Mr James Thomson, as minister at Tweedsmuir, who 
in time became minister of Peebles. 

The Archbishop and Theodore Hay. 
1688, April 4 — The meeting being somewhat infrequent, the giving an account 
of stipends still delayed till next day, but to be done then without fail. Archibald 
Wilson reported to have satisfied. Mr John Horsbrugh reported that he had 
delivered the Presbytery's letter, and that the archbishop had ordained the sentence 
of suspension to be taken off Mr Theodore Hay, and him to be reponed to his 
place, and accordingly the said Mr Theodore Hay being called, and compearing, was 



THE MINISTRY OF JAMES FEITHIE, A.M. 237 

by the moderator, in the archbishop and Presbytery's names, declared to be free from 
the sentence of suspension and to be admitted to the exercise of his charge again, and 
imprimis he was instanter re-admitted to be Presbytery clerk. A copy of the last 
letter to the archbishop was appended, and is subscribed — "Your Grace's most 
obedient sons and servants," and signed by the whole Presbytery. The archbishop's 
answer, written by his own hand, as a postscript to the Presbytery's letter, was as 
follows: — "Edinburgh, March 28, 1688. — Reverend Brethren, — In compliance 
with your desire in your letter abovewritten, I allow the restoreing of Mr Theodore 
Hay to his office, praying he may edifie God's Church by his serious repentance and 
pure life, as he hath offended by his sin. — Sic subscribittir, Jo. Glasgow." The 
brethren are entreated to pay the bursar's fees for this current year. 

Divided Ecclesiastical Authority. 
1688, April 12 — Mr James Feithie desired the advice of the brethren anent 
James Johnstoun, in the parish of Peebles, against whom the prelatick party 
intended a process of excommunication, for his refusing to satisfy for an alleged 
scandal of drunkenness, whereinto he fell after his uniting to the Presbyterian 
congregation at Peebles, for which scandal the said James Johnstoun did satisfy 
before the said Mr James Feithie and the representatives of the said congregation. 
The Presbytery advises the said Mr James and Alexander Veitch of Glen to interpose 
with the sheriff-depute to deal with lord William Douglas to put a stop to the foresaid 
Episcopal proceeding. 

Stipends in the Presbytery. 

1688, May — A particular account of the stipends through the whole Presbytery, 
with glebes, grassums, mortifications, schoolmasters' salaries, &c., by the ministers 
present, and partly as sent under the hands of those absent : — 

Peebles — The Parson — Mr Hay. Tack-Diity — His predecessor set a tack of the 
whole tithes, with consent of the patron, archbishop, dean, and chapter, for five years, 
for a reddendo of nine hundred merks Scots. Teinds — New tack made by himself 
for five years for the reddendo of 1200 merks to the next incumbent, after which five 
years expired the next incumbent would fall into the tithes. Glebe — Four acres. 
Pasturage — No grassums, but two kines, on the common pasturage of Peebles. 
Mortifications — 350 merks by Tweedie, merchant, burgess in Edinburgh; 100 lib. 
from Alexander Duncan, late bailie of Peebles; four silver communion cups, 
mortified one by himself, one by the town of Peebles, one by A. Williamson, late 
provost of Peebles, one by John Govan, late treasurer of Edinburgh. Schoolmaster — 
The town pays the schoolmaster and agrees with him. For Communion Elements — 
None. (Observe, in this statement, drawn up by the Episcopalian Presbytery, 
the name of Mr Feithie is not inserted as colleague. The foregoing statement of the 
benefice of Peebles was the last act of the Presbytery of the Second Episcopacy). 

The Divided Authority. 
1688, June 28 — Mr James Feithie gave in an account of his diligence in James 



238 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

Johnstoun's affair, which was this, that the sheriff-depute, by appHcation to lord 
William Douglas, obtained an order to the foresaid prelatic clergy to desist from 
further process against the said James. 

The Presbyterian Minister and the Celebration of the Communion. 

1688, October 11 — " Upon a desire from Mr James Feithie, minister at Peebles, 
to such of the brethren as he could get acquainted, where, in the absence of the 
moderator, Mr Antony Murray was chosen to moderate for the tyme, there being 
present Messrs Murro, moderator, Robert Elyott, James Feithie, and William Russell. 
After prayer by the moderator, Mr James Feithie did represent to the brethren mett, 
that upon consideratioun of the great trouble and confusion of the countrie and 
having advice from some of his brethren upon the foresaid ground, he had put off 
the dyett, being the 21 of October, formerly intimat by him unto his congregation, for 
celebration of the Lord's Supper among them, with consent of the representatives 
of the said congregation, and desired the judgment of the Presbyterie thereanent, 
and whether or not they thought it convenient to fix upon a new dyett before the 
coming in of the winter. The Presbyterie, after consideration, found there was 
cause for the putting off the foresaid dyett, and that it was not convenient this season 
of the year that he should appoint a new dyett." 

1688, October 25 — " Mr James Feithie represented to the Presbyterie that upon 
Saboth last, the representatives of his congregation did universally regret the putting 
off the dyett appointed for the communion, and did earnestly urge that a new dyett 
might be condescended upon before the winter. The Presbyterie, taking the said 
representation to their consideration, did advise him not to condescend upon any 
new dyett for the season, upon account of the shortness of the day, badness of 
the weather, and uncertainty of the tymes, and that he should defer it (the Lord 
granting health and liberty), until the return of the year. With which advice the said 
Mr James acquiesced." 

The Revolution of 1688. 
\^i688 — The days of King James VIL as ruler of Britain were numbered. On 
both sides of the Tweed people were alarmed at the enactments of the King in favour 
of Roman Catholics. This feeling was aggravated by the repeal of the Test acts both 
in England and Scotland. The Church of England felt herself to be in great danger. 
Had this not been the case, the King might have continued his campaign against the 
Scottish Covenanters until they had become exterminated, but when once the 
conviction became universal that the King intended to restore the Romish religion 
and fill positions of trust with Roman Catholics, then the time was considered to be 
ripe for revolution. On November 5, the King's son-in-law landed from Holland at 
Torbay, with 14,000 troops. Six weeks later the King was a fugitive; and Britain was 
free from the accursed Stuarts. The whole of the race, from James VL downwards, 
had persecuted the Church of Scotland. None of them had shewn the Church any 
favour. There had been no meeting of the General Assembly since 1651, when 
Colonel Cotterel dispersed it, as Cromwell did the Parliament of England. The 
inferior Church courts, somewhat modified, had met more or less frequently 
throughout the period. Presentations were addressed to the bishop, not to the 
Presbytery; ordination was after the Episcopal method, and performed not in the 



THE MINISTRY OF JAMES FEITHIE, A.M. 239 

Parish Church but in the Cathedral. The form of public worship was little altered. 
After the day of Jenny Geddes it was not thought wise to hazard a liturgy. The 
Articles of Perth were not enforced. Prayers were extemporaneous; and the 
communion was administered to the people sitting at a table. The bishops and 
Presbyteries insisted on two things only — that the Lord's Prayer be repeated during 
the service, and the doxology sung at the close of the service. In the diocese of 
Dunblane the decalogue and the creed were repeated. And " their most indecent 
sitting at prayer " was given up. Long texts and short sermons were enjoined on the 
clergy, so as not to weary the congregation. A large Presbyterian element had been 
maintained during the whole of the Second Episcopacy, hence their forms, courts, 
services, and faith had still largely existed. The bishops were both members of 
Parliament and of the privy council, but possessed little pomp, and no wealth. The 
Lothians, which formed the centre of rebellion in 1638, after the Geddes riot, was 
comparatively quiet in 1662. The counties in the south and west of Scotland formed 
the principal battle-grounds of Presbytery, and arenas of persecution. Probably most 
of the ecclesiastical changes connected with Episcopacy might have been peaceably 
introduced, and even tholed by the Scottish people, but for two reasons: — (i.) The 
usurpation by the King of that headship over the Church which they claimed to 
belong to Jesus Christ alone; and (2.) The ousting of the ministers, which embittered 
the clergymen themselves as well as their congregations, and elevated them into the 
position of martyrs and heroes.] 

Some Peeblesshire Ministers at the Revolution. 
1688 — Some Covenanting ministers in the Presbytery of Peebles, all of whom 
were alive at the Revolution: — Robert Eliot of Linton, Richard Broun of Drumelzier, 
Patrick Fleming of Stobo, Robert Broun of Lyne, Hugh Gray of Kailzie (conformist), 
David Thomson of Dawyck, Patrick Purdie of Newlands, James Feilhie of Peebles. 

Burning of the Popish Wares found in Traquair House. 
j688 — The following is from the Vindication of Mr Richard Cameron, by Peter 
Walker, Bristo Port, Edinburgh: — "In the end of the year 1688, at the happy 
Revolution, when the Duke of York (James VII.) fled, and the crown was vacant, in 
which time we had no King nor judicatories in the kingdom, the United Societies, in 
their general correspondence, considering the surprising, unexpected, merciful step of 
the Lord's dispensation, thought it some way belonged to us in the interregnum to go 
to all popish houses and destroy their monuments of idolatry, with their priests' robes, 
and to apprehend and put to prison themselves; which was done at the cross of 
Dumfries and Peebles and other places. That honourable and worthy gentleman, 
Donald Ker of Kersland, having a considerable number of us with him, went to the 
House of Traquair in frost and snow, and found a great deal of popish wares there, 
but wanted the cradle, Mary and the Babe, and the priest. He sent James Arcknyes 
and some with him to the house of Mr Thomas Lowes, who had the name of a 
Presbyterian minister. Kersland ordered them to search his house narrowly, and 
behave themselves discreetly, which they did. Mr Lowes and his wife mocked them, 
without offering them either meat or drink, though they had much need of it. At 
last they found two trunks locked, which they desired to have opened. Mr Lowes 
then left them. They broke up the, coffers, wherein they found a golden cradle, with 



240 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

Mary and the Babe in her bosom ; in the other trunk the priest's robes (the earl and 
the priest had fled), which they brought all to the cross of Peebles, with a great deal 
of popish books and many other things of great value, all Romish wares, and burned 
them there. At the same time we concluded to go to all the prelatic intruding 
curates, and to give them warning to remove, with all that belonged to them. . 
That we should call for the Church's goods, cups, and basons, and also for the 
kirk-box, wherein was nothing but a few doits; likewise for the session book and 
kirk-door keys; and that we should deliver all to men of credit." 

[The foregoing was one example of riots which now occurred throughout Scotland 
from the capital all over the country. No lives, however, were lost. This rabbling 
of the curates, as it was called, began on Christmas Day, 1688, and continued for a 
few months. Many of the curates saved themselves by flight. In other cases they 
were seized, carried in mock procession, and finally ejected from the parishes. Their 
manses were raided and the furniture scattered or destroyed. Two hundred clergy- 
men were thus ejected from their Churches, manses, and livings. But it must be 
remembered that they were, as a rule, aliens, who had been imported to fill the places 
of the ousted Presbyterian ministers, many of these last having had to skulk among 
the hills and moors in hiding, and holding conventicles at the risk of their lives. 
The curates' wives and families shared in the misfortunes of these men; and a 
familiar entry in minutes of kirk-session at this time frequently occurs, granting relief 
to the wife or the family of a curate, who had lost goods and means of livelihood by 
the Revolution. When it is remembered that those were the men who called the roll 
of the parishioners' names at the close of the Sunday service, and handed over to the 
military officer commanding the district the names of absentees for purposes of 
persecution or martyrdom, it is surprising that the Covenanting mobs allowed them to 
escape so easily. Still the rioting must be reprobated now, as indeed it was at the 
time by most right thinking men.] 

Parochial. 
1688, December j — Advice was sought by Mr James Feithie in a particular 
relating to the parish of Peebles, the resolution whereof was delayed till the next 
meeting of the Presbytery. Mr James Feithie, according to an agreement by Mr 
Greig, moderator, Mr Eliot, and the said Mr Feithie, kept exercise and addition, and 
was approven by the brethren who were present. And because of the paucity of 
their number did not lay the same upon any till the next meeting of the Presbytery. 

Contemporary Ministers. 

[1688 — Sioio — William Russell, son to the laird of Kingseat; called, October 
1687; ordained at Happrew by a committee of the Synod, March 22, 1688; member 
of Assembly, 1690-92; and died, August 1699, after a ministry of twelve years. 
Married, June 27, 167 1, Kathren, daughter of George Brown of Scotstoun. 

[1688 — Tweedsmuir — James Thomson, called in 1687; ordained at the Crook, 
September 5, 1688: translated to Peebles, November 29, 1696.] 

Sabbath Profanation. 
i68<), June 25 — The magistrates had under consideration Sabbath profanation. 
It was alleged that the inhabitants were in the habit of going and staying abroad 



THE MINISTRY OF JAMES FEITHIE, A.M. 241 

during the time of divine service; that they sat in companies below stairs, drinking to 
excess in the afternoon; that others went for peats, turf, and coals on Sunday night; 
and others laid out clothes for bleaching; all to the scandal of religion. A fine of 
five merks was to be the penalty in the future for Sabbath breaking; and a fine 
of similar amount on all merchants and vintners who sold drink on the Lord's Day, 
unless in cases of necessity. 

The New Order. 
\i68g — Many months of the year 1689 had to elapse ere order began to grow 
out of the confusion of political and ecclesiastical parties, which necessarily resulted 
from the Revolution and the flight of James VII. Much time also was necessary to 
allow the new King, William, to come to some kind of understanding as to the 
intricacies of Church government which perplexed both kingdoms. He was led and 
misled by men of all parties and creeds. Indications of his policy were given at his 
coronation, when, during the administration of the oath, the new King declined 
to bind himself to any promise which might render him a persecutor.] 

Episcopacy Abolished. 
[By the middle of July 1689 an act was passed abolishing Episcopacy in 
Scotland, and giving promise of a form of Church government pleasing to the people. 
Parish ministers were commanded to cease praying for ex-King James, and to pray 
for William and Mary ; also to read a proclamation dethroning James. Some who 
declined to do so were ejected. Among these latter were William Gray, minister of 
West Linton, who, on August 27, was deprived for not praying for their Majesties. 
On the same day William BuUo was also deprived of the living of Stobo, for the same 
reason. The case of the minister of Manor, David Thomson, was sorrowful. He 
had been the victim of an outrage previously at the hands of roving Covenanters, and 
as a consequence had been obliged to resign his living owing to infirmity some time 
previously, leaving the parish vacant. On September 6 he petitioned the privy 
council for pecuniary relief. He stated that he had laboured for twenty-five years in 
the service of the gospel, but that he had become disabled from deafness occasioned 
by wounds in the head received at the hands of the rebels. This had caused the 
resignation of his living, leaving himself and wife and seven children without 
maintenance. The lords recommended him to receive a share from the collections 
uplifted on behalf of the Irish and French Protestants.] 

Mr John Hay to be Summoned. 
j68q, September p — The magistrates and council have unanimously agreed to 
summon the parson of Peebles and Mr Henry Hay before the privy council for not 
reading the proclamation and not praying for King William and Queen Mary, 
according to the act of the meeting of the Estates. 

Contumacious Ministers. 
[i68p, September 17 — The minister of Kirkurd was deprived for not praying for 
their Majesties. His name was David Spence. On the same day a complaint was 
raised against William Alison, minister of Kilbucho, for not praying for their 
Majesties, and for praying for King James. Mr Alison, who was old and deaf, 
repelled the accusation, declaring that he had prayed for their Majesties; and that as 



242 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

for King James, he had only prayed for his reformation. The minister was absolved 
from the charge. Richard Brown, Covenanter, who had been deposed from 
Drumelzier five or six years before the Revolution, was now restored, he in turn 
outing James Simpson, Episcopalian.] 

Mr Feithie Deceased. 
i68g — James Feithie, Presbyterian minister at Peebles, died between November 
5 and 20, aged 53. He left a daughter, Elizabeth, who was served heir on November 
3, 1 691. John Hay, senior minister (Episcopalian), lived for one year later. 

Disputed Settlement. 
i68g, November — In Peebles now occurred one of the cases of complicated 
settlement which were common owing to the change from Episcopacy to Presbytery. 
After the death of Mr Feithie, and Mr Hay being still alive, Robert Knox, Episcopal 
assistant to Mr Hay, was nominated by the duke of Queensberry to the charge, on 
November 17, 1689. He was unanimously accepted by the whole heritors, elders, 
and parishioners who were present when the letter of nomination was read. Others, 
however, were dissatisfied; and in September 1690 a call, according to regular usage, 
was moderated for Mr William Veitch, who was admitted with the customary 
formalities. There were thus two competing claimants for the living of Peebles. — 
Chambers. 

The Vacancy in the Parish. 

16^0, January 2 J — The parish of Peebles representing their sad case, through 
the death of their minister, to the Presbytery, they appoint Mr James Broun, 
Kilbucho, the next Sabbath; Mr Robert Livingstoun the second Sabbath; Mr 
Robert Law, Skirling, the third Sabbath, to supply them. (Note.— The Rev. Mr 
Feithie, Covenanting Presbyterian minister at Peebles, was now deceased. The Rev. 
John Hay, Episcopalian minister of the parish, was under process, but died before 
November.) 

i6go, February 26 — Messrs James Broun, Robert Law, and Robert Livingstoun 
reported that they had preached at Peebles according to appointment. Mr Sinclair, 
an expectant, having preached at Peebles by the moderator's invitation, was thanked 
by the Presbytery, and earnestly desired to stay with that people for some time, in 
order to their supply. 

Disturbing Church Services. 
7(5po, March 24— The lords of the privy council having found a libel proven 
against John Govan and Alexander Williamson, ordain them to "enter themselves 
prisoners in the common prison of Peebles, upon a council day, and from thence to 
go to the council house and there, in presence of the council there convened, to crave 
the magistrates' pardon for their rudeness in disturbing the worship of God, and for 
the indiscreet language given by them in doing thereof. All which was duly carried 
out by the two offenders. (Note. — These are names similar to those of two of the 



THE MINISTRY OF JAMES FEITHIE, A.M. 243 

donors of communion cups in the year 1684, during the Second Episcopacy. Possibly 
they were supporters of the Rev. Mr Knox, the Episcopahan presentee, and were 
protesting in Church. They may have been sons of the donors who bequeathed two 
of the cups.) 

i6go, April — An act of Parliament in this month abolished Episcopacy 

AND RESTORED PrESBVTERIANISM. 



APPENDIX. 



The Church of Scotland in Peebles: Her Polity, Services, and 
Service Books. 

Early preachers : — Nicholas, 296; Gordian (?), 362; Ninian, 432; Kentigern, 

603; AlDAN, 651; BOISEUL, 661. 

jfirst IReformatton, 664:-e88. 

664 — The Synod of Whitby declares in favour of the Romish form for the 
Borders. 68j — Cuthbert; 688 — Adamnan, the Celtic bishop in the Borders, 
declares also for the Romish form; 72/ — Sedulius, a noted Border bishop; 88g — 
The Scottish Church given liberty by King Gyric. Service books of this period: — 
The Confession of St Patrick; The Altus of Columba; The Antiphonarv 
OF Bangor; The Stowe Missal; The Litany of Dunkeld; The Office of 
Communion for the Sick from the Book of Deer (the most ancient Scottish 
book). The sacred tune Iona is considered to have been the composition of 
Columba himself; it is known also as Erin. 



SeconD IReformation, 1069-U93. 

lodg — Marriage of Margaret and King Malcolm; their death in 1193. The 
Romish Reformation of Scotland lies between those two dates. iigs — 
Parish Church of Peebles dedicated. Romish service books: — The Gospel 
Book of St Margaret (nth century). The services in Scotland were 
conducted after the Use of Sarum. Very few specimens of service books survive; 
some of these are: — The Ramsay Psalter of the 13th century; the Herdmanston 
Breviary, about the year 1300, used at Sprouston; the Roslyn Missal, brought to 
Scotland about 1316; the Perth Psalter, used in Perth about the end of the 14th 
century; the Holyrood Ordinale, about 1450; the Culross Psalter, about 1468; 
the very fine series of Arbuthnott Books, between 147 1 and 1484; the Rathen 
Manual, about the end of the 15th century; the Aberdeen Breviary, 1509-10; 
the HoRjE of the Virgin Mary, in the first part of the 15th century, used at Iona; 
the Scone Choir Book, between 15x3 and 1546. The Scottish Reformers used as 
their First Service Book (before the Reformation), in 1557, The Second Book of 
Common Prayer of the Church of England, printed in 1552. 



APPENDIX. 245 

XEbe Ubir& IReformatton, 1560. 

1560-1572. Prcsbytcrianism. 

There were superintendents, ministers, readers, elders, deacons. Temporary 
officials — John Dickson minister of common prayers; 156 1 — John Allan, ex-priest, 
minister for the time; 1562 — John Dickson (again), as reader and exhorter, until an 
ordained minister was appointed in 1570. Service books and others — 156 1 — First 
Book of Discipline and Confession of Knox; 1562 — The Book of Geneva, 
approved by Calvin, as used by the English Church at Geneva (this was the Second 
Service Book of the Reformers); 1564 — The Book of Common Order (or the 
Psalm Book or Knox's Liturgy); this was the former Anglo-Genevan book, combined 
with the metrical psalter, and added to at later dates. It lasted through all the 
changes of the i6th century, and through the whole of the First Episcopacy and the 
strict Covenanting period, until superseded in 1645 by the Westminster Directory. 
It was used in St Giles on the morning of the very Sunday on which the so-called 
Laud's Liturgy was introduced. The Metrical Psalms used in 1564 were those of 
Sternhold and Hopkins; but in later versions one-third of the metrical translations 
were by the Scottish exile, William Kethe. 156J — The Confession of Knox. 
All marriages were celebrated at the morning service on Sundays until 1579. 
Order of Divine Service, 1561 and onward — According to the English Book of 
Common Prayer. First part by the reader; praise, prayer, scripture, and in some 
places decalogue and creed. Second part by the minister; private devotion by the 
minister, one prayer, or prayer, praise, prayer; sermon; intercession; benediction. 
1570 — First ordained minister, Thomas Cranston, from 1570 to 1573. 157 1 — A 
spurious temporal and temporary Tulchan Episcopacy agreed upon as a makeshift 
expedient. 



1573-1592- Alternating Episcopacy and Presbyterianism. 

From 1573 to the beginning of the First Episcopacy in 1610 the second 
minister of Peebles was Archibald Douglas. The spurious Tulchan Episcopacy 
continued until 1680, and then ceased for four years. I57g — The Bassandyne 
Bible was completed (the first Bible printed in Scotland.) 1575 — The Psalms of 
David in metre was published, bound up with Calvin's Catechism. 1578 — The 
Second Book of Discipline was approved by the Assembly; superintendents now 
ceased. 1580 — Presbyteries were formed. 1582 — Private baptism prohibited. 
1584 — The Black Acts re-introduced Episcopacy. 1586 — A second charge was 
created in Peebles. 1586 — There were existing at the same time archbishops, 
bishops, General Assembly, Synods, Presbyteries, kirk-sessions. 1586-7-8 — Kneeling 
at prayer was common. 1590 — The King called the Church the sincerest Kirk in 
the world. 15^2 — The Black Acts were repealed; Episcopacy was abolished; 
Presbyterianism was established. 



246 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 
1592-1610. Prcsbytcrianism. 

This was pure Presbyterianism, undisturbed by any schism. On Sunday there 
was divine service for three hours in the forenoon, and two hours in the afternoon. 
During a fast, there was daily service for two or three hours. Standing was the 
common posture at praise; hats were kept on during the sermon; song-schools were 
re-established. 1600 — A new minister was elected to the second charge, which 
continued for barely three years, and then ceased. 1610 — Decease of Mr Archibald 
Douglas, after a ministry of thirty-seven years. This was coincident with the cessation 
of Presbyterianism. 

1610-1638. The First Episcopacy. 

This true Episcopacy continued for twenty-eight years. Dr Theodore Hay was 
minister during the whole period, and later until 165 1. i6ii — The present version 
of the Bible was published; also The Psalms of David in metre, along with the 
prose, to which were added prayers for use in the Kirk and in private houses. In 
this year also was published an edition of Calvin's Catechism. 1613 — Divine 
service was conducted thus: — First, the reader's service — prayer, psalms, scripture; 
then at the third bell, the minister entered; he began with a conceived prayer, then 
gave out the text, which was followed by preaching; then thanksgiving, psalm, 
benediction. 1618 — Divine service was celebrated thus: — The bell rang at 7 a.m., 
then at 8 for the reader's service; the congregation assembled then, and engaged in 
private devotion; the reader next at the letteran read the common prayers, and in 
some Churches the decalogue and creed; he then gave out large portions of the 
psalter, concluding with the "Glory to the Father;" next, chapters from the Old and 
New Testaments were read, and a book, once begun, had to be read through on 
Sundays until finished. After one hour had been thus spent, the third bell was rung, 
and the minister entered; he knelt for private devotion, then began a conceived 
prayer for illumination, next came the sermon, then he read or repeated one of the 
prayers from Knox's Liturgy for all sorts and conditions of men, or extemporised one 
in conformity with it, concluding with the Lord's Prayer and the creed; after this, 
followed a psalm and benediction. 1618 — The King introduced The Articles of 
Perth — communion to be received kneeling, baptism might be administered at 
home, communion might be administered privately to the sick, children of eight were 
to be brought to the bishop for examination; certain holy days were to be observed. 
1620 — The Form and Manner of Ordaining Ministers was published. 1621 — 
Another edition of the Psalms was published, in metre and prose, with tunes ; again 
in 1625 another edition, with the tunes in four or more parts. 162^ — The people 
of Peebles were promised a sermon daily. 1633 — Another edition of the Book 
OF Psalms, in metre and prose, came out. 1636 — Canons and Constitution 
Ecclesiastical for the Church of Scotland was pubHshed. 1637 — This was the 
year of the introduction of the so-called Laud's Liturgy; it was principally the work 
of Dr Maxwell, bishop of Ross, and Dr Wedderburn, bishop of Dunblane; it was 
read but once, in St Giles, when the tumult of Jenny Geddes ended its career. 



APPENDIX. 247 

Knox's Book of Common Order had been read in the morning. 1638 — This was 
the year of the signing of the National Covenant, which resulted in the ending of the 
First Episcopacy, after an existence of twenty-eight years. 

1638-1661. Covenanted Presbyterianism. 

1638 — Reading of prayers by the clergy was discontinued, and was confined to 
the reader's service; afternoon service became catechetical, Calvin's Catechism being 
used; Brownism was introduced into public worship, which degraded it; -aA forms of 
prayer were rejected, also all reading of scripture unless expounded; sitting at 
communion was restored, private celebration was forbidden, also the observance of 
all holy days. The Book of Common Order continued until the close of 1644, 
when it was superseded by the Westminster Directory and Confession of 
Faith, idsg — Morning and evening prayers were desired daily in Peebles. 1640 
— Daily service was granted night and morning in Peebles. 1640 — Brownism very 
prevalent in the Church — no private devotion by the minister on entering the pulpit; 
readers were not to use the least invocation to God by themselves, they were not to 
read any common confession of sins, nor to use any set prayer (they called the Lord's 
Prayer a set prayer); the "Glory to the Father" was not to be sung; set prayer was 
not to be used at family worship; they expounded the scriptures without premeditation. 
After 1640, reading of prayers was gradually given up; the habitual use of the Lord's 
Prayer was discontinued, also the Gloria, and kneeling at prayer; lectures were 
substituted for morning and evening prayer in some places. 1641 — Beginning of the 
desire for uniformity between the Church of Scotland and the Church of England. 
The General Assembly urged one confession, one directory, one catechism, one form 
of Church government. 1641 — New edition of the Book of Common Prayer 
as used in the Church of Geneva and the Church of Scotland, as approved by Calvin. 
1642 — Reaction in the Assembly this year against the innovations of Brownism — 
"We can hardly be induced to think that any gracious or wise brother of the 
ministry will forbear continually to say the Lord's Prayer, to sing the conclusion, to 
bow in the pulpit." The Brownist innovators to be censured. 1643 — John Hay, 
B.D., admitted as colleague to his father, Dr Theodore Hay. Witches were being 
cruelly persecuted. 1643 — The Solemn League and Covenant signed by Scotland 
and England. Meeting of the Assembly of Divines at Westminster, including 
commissioners from the Church of Scotland: its ultimate results were the substitution 
of the Westminster Directory, Confession, and Catechisms in place of the ancient 
Scottish Book of Common Order (or Knox's Liturgy); also the approximation of 
Scottish Presbyterianism to English non-conformity, the departure of the Church of 
Scotland from the ideals of the Scottish Reformation, and the introduction of an 
ultra Sabbatarianism into Scotland, also the formation of a Scottish theocracy 
resembling that of Judaism. 1645 — The Westminster Directory was sanctioned 
for Scotland, and has remained as the standard to the present day; there were to be 
no forms of prayer; baptism was to be without ceremony save sprinkling in the name 
of the Trinity; communion to be frequent; marriage to be in Church, but ?wt on 



248 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

Sabbath; funerals to be without ceremony, nor with prayers, nor singing of hymns. 
At baptisms, the Scots commissioners desired to have the creed, but the English 
declined. The General Assembly, however, sanctioned the creed. Private devotion 
by the minister was prohibited, to please the EngHsh; but the Gloria was not 
forbidden, although the English desired it to be so. The Lord's Prayer was not 
forbidden. On the whole, the Brownists triumphed. 164s — The Westminster 
Directory was published in this year. It penalised the Book of Common Prayer in 
England and in Scotland, and was adopted by the Church of Scotland immediately. 
It was produced by English Presbyterians, and was adopted by Scotland for the sake 
of uniformity with England. The Shorter Catechism was drawn up principally by 
three Englishmen. 1648 — The chief results of Scotland's efforts for uniformity with 
England were: — Discontinuance of daily service, of private devotion on entering 
Church, of read prayers, of reading the scriptures, of the Gloria, of the offertory 
during divine service, of the Lord's Prayer. Ministers had to give two sermons 
and two lectures every Sunday; and one sermon and one catechising on other two 
week days. 1648 — Dr Theodore Hay demitted; his son was his colleague. Holy 
Communion discontinued in the chief towns and in many country parishes; was not 
celebrated in Edinburgh for six years, nor in Glasgow for five, nor in Stirling for nine ; 
nor in St Andrews for six. i64g — The Moderator of Assembly was appointed to 
draft an act for prohibiting the use of the Lord's Prayer; it was entirely given up in 
the Churches of Edinburgh. 16^0 — Adoption of the present Book of Psalms in 
metre (by Francis Rous, an Enghsh M.P.) He used a few translations by Sir 
William Stirling and King James VI. i6si — Decease of the retired minister, Dr 
Theodore Hay; his son, John Hay, continued. 165 1 — The new psalter had a 
disastrous effect on the service of praise, due to the omission of the ancient tunes in 
four parts, and to the introduction of reading the line. 1653 — The General Assembly 
was forcibly dissolved by an English officer. Great bitterness existed in the Church 
between Resolutioners and Protesters. The Protesters inaugurated sacramental fast 
days. Communion was to be once a month, but half the communicants were 
debarred as unworthy. On fast days there were eight or ten sermons for as many 
hours. On the Saturday two or three sermons were delivered. On the Sunday the 
services lasted the whole day. On the Monday the thanksgiving sermons numbered 
three or four. 1654 — Tryers were appointed by Cromwell to try candidates for 
vacancies in Churches. 1661 — After the Restoration of King Charles II., the Scots 
Parliament passed many acts, among them the Act Rescissory, cutting out all 
legislation since 1633, thus abolishing Presbyterianism in Scotland. 

1661-1689. The Second Episcopacy. 

7(5(5/, September j — Letter from King Charles II. to the privy council, stating 
his intention to have bishops in Scotland. The Synod of Lothian recommended that 
two chapters of the Bible be read before sermon in forenoon and afternoon. The 
Gloria was resumed, also daily morning and evening reading of scripture and prayer 
publicly; the Lord's Prayer before or after sermon; also, the creed at baptisms. 



APPENDIX. 



249 



Synods, Presbyteries, and kirk-sessions were temporarily forbidden to meet. 1662, 
May 27 — Episcopacy was formally restored; Covenants were abjured; patronage was 
restored (it had been in abeyance since 1649); ministers were to accept anew 
presentation from the patron and collation from the bishop; 350 ministers were 
driven out in consequence 1662 — During the close of this year, in large districts in 
the Borders, Parish Churches were kept shut, the sacraments were not administered, 
the bells not rung; Edinburgh was left with but one minister. The Episcopalian 
Church differed little from the Presbyterian in communion service, public worship, 
and even discipline. The scriptures and the creed were the only rule of faith. 
There was no liturgy in public worship except at Holyrood and Salton. The 
doctrine remained Calvinistic; there was neither surplice nor ceremony. The 
worshippers sat at prayer and at communion, which was rarely celebrated. There 
was no threefold ministry; confirmation was unknown. Ordination was very much 
ad libitum. Synods, Presbyteries, kirk-sessions, and elders continued as formerly. 
The bishops connived at the Westminster Confession and the catechism. Holy days 
were rarely observed. In divine service the sole difference was the use of the 
doxology, the Lord's Prayer, and in baptism the creed. The moderator of Presbytery 
was chosen by the bishop. In many places the bishop ordained ministers as one of 
the Presbytery. Leighton did not re-ordain any minister in his diocese, and 
permitted Presbyteries to choose their own moderator. At the doxology the 
worshippers rose. 1666 — Decease of the Rev. John Hay; he had been minister 
for twenty-three years. Persecutions of Covenanters continued ; conventicles became 
very common; defeat of the Covenanters at Rullion Green. 1667 — Mr John Hay 
(secundus), appointed minister of Peebles; he also continued for twenty-three 
years. In Peebles Church women sat separate from men. Strict Sabbatarianism 
was observed in Peebles rigorously. Severe punishments were inflicted for non- 
attendance at Parish Church, for assisting at conventicles, for postponing baptism, for 
encouraging outed ministers. Very severe discipline was observed in Peebles 
Church, by pillarie, jougs, sackcloth, &c. 1672 — Fresh acts against Presbyterians — 
imprisonment on the Bass Rock and other places. 1682-5 — The Killing Times. 
Great persecutions of Covenanters. 1684 — Conventicles. 1684 — Peebles 
communion cups presented. 1684 — James Nicol, the Peebles martyr. 1684 — 
Death of Archbishop Leighton. 1685 — John Hunter, the Tweedsmuir martyr. 
l(,87 — Toleration sanctioned. 1687 — James Feithie, first Presbyterian minister of 
Peebles, John Hay, Episcopalian minister, possessing the benefice. 1687 — James 
Renwick, the covenanting preacher, "wonderfully escaped" at Peebles. 1688 — 
The Revolution. Traquair House sacked by Presbyterians. During this second 
Episcopacy there had been no liturgy (after the non-success of Laud's.) The 
Articles of Perth had not been enforced. Prayers were extemporaneous. Communion 
was administered sitting. The Lord's Prayer was repeated, and the doxology was 
sung. Long texts and short sermons were enjoined on the clergy. i688-g — The 
Episcopalian curates were " outed " by the Presbyterians, and in some places rabbled. 
i68g, July — Episcopacy abolished. Outed Presbyterian ministers restored. 
i68g, September — Mr John Hay, Episcopalian minister of Peebles, to be summoned. 



250 THE CROSS CHURCH OF PEEBLES: PROTESTANT. 

i68g — James Feithie, covenanting Presbyterian minister of Peebles, deceased in 
November. Attempt made to intrude an Episcopalian curate, Robert Knox, but 
it failed. i6go, April — Act of Parliament restoring Presbyterianism. i6go, 
November — Decease of Mr John Hay, Episcopalian minister of Peebles. 

The Presbyterianism of the Revolution Settlement followed, and 
continues to the present day. 

The Vicarage Teinds. 

1646, July — Decerns the persons following to content and pay to Mr Andrew 
Watson, vicar pensioner of Peebles, the vicarage and liquidat prices after specified, 
viz.: — John Plenderleith, burgess of Peebles, as cautioner for Robert Chisholm in 
Mailingsland, xvi d. money as liquidat price for the teind " milkness " of ilk ewe of 
three hundred ewes, pertaining to the said Robert and his cottars and servants, 
pastured on the lands of Mailingsland, Foulage, and Winkston, occupied by him, as 
said is, yearly the cropts and years of God, 1642, 1643, 1644, and 1645 years. Item, 
xvi d. money as liquidat price of ilk dozen of twelve dozen teind eggs of twelve hens, 
pertaining to him and his said servants, yearly the said years. Item, xiii s. money for 
the teind " milkness " of ilk milk kow of ten ky milked and pastured these respective 
said years. Item, xii s. money for the teind of ilk stirk of eight stirks bred there 
yearly the said years. Item, xxiiii s. money for the teind of ilk darg of xvi dargs hay 
mown, or otherwise intromettit with by him and his servants. Item, xl s. for ilk staig 
of three staigs pertaining him and bred and pastured there. Teind also of lint, hemp, 
apples, pears, plums, groserts, plants, kaill, and other yaird fruites in Mailingsland. 

i64g, January 8 — Gives warrant to the provost and bailies, with so many of the 
remanent council, to speak with my lord Yester upon Wednesday next, after sermon, 
anent the decreet arbitral betwixt the town of Peebles and Mr Andrew Watson for his 
vicarage teinds, registered in the commissar of Peebles books, which decreet the said 
Mr Andrew intends to make void by privy bargaining, and discharge given by him to 
these that pays him, not making mention of the decreet arbitral and the discharges 
not given conform thereto and prices therein mentioned, and to declare to his 
lordship that the town will abide by the said decreet. 

i64g, November 12 — The bailies and sic others of the council as they shall 
desire to meet with the parsons, elder and younger, for Mr Andrew Watson anent the 
school. 

16^0, March Tf — Item, to advise anent a supplication to be given to the 
kirk-session of Peebles anent the benefice of the vicar, now declared vacant, to be 
granted for the school of Peebles. 



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INDEX. 



Abbey (tune), 89. 
Abbey Close (tune), 82. 
Aberfeldy (tune), 106. 
Absolution, 75. 

of excommunicant, 70. 

Abuses in the Church, 41. 
Acts, the Black, 41, 42, 43. 
Allan, John, 7. 

interim minister, 14. 

Sir John, life of, 8. 

minister for the time, 4, 5. 

Altarages, 11. 

Altar of burnt offering, an, 102. 

of St Christopher, revenues of, 84. 

revenues, 88. 

Altars, 92. See also Prebends. 

Altenburg (tune), 154. 

Alternating Episcopacy and Presbyterianism, 245. 

Angels' Hymn (tune), 99. 

Antiquity of the burgh, 220. 

Apostles' Tune, 19. 

Apparel of ministers, 105. 

Appendix, 244. 

Archbishop and the burgh, 105. 

at Peebles, 106, 107. 

at the Cross Church, 97. 

last Romish, 29. 

Fairfoul, 186. 

Sharpe, 218. 

Archdeacon John Hay, 186. 
Archdeacon's goods arrested, 4. 
Armada, the, 44. 
Army, the Scots, 119. 

in England, 130. 

Assembly, General, 44, 158. 

the first, 12. 

ninth, eleventh, 21. 

forty-first, 38. 

of 1590, 46. 

disbanded, 161. 

members of, 39, 87. 

leaving the, 57. 

Babylon's Streams (tune), 92. 
Banishment, sentence of, 90. 
Banns of marriage prohibited, 9. 
Baptism, private, forbidden, 40. 
in Church, 73. 



Bassandyne Bible, the, 37. 
Beltane fair, 58. 

pilgrimage, 56, 67, 70. 
Benefice of Peebles, 69. 

property, 96. 

register, 48. 
Benefices, 13. 
Berlin (tune), 169. 
Bible, the, edition of 1611, 87. 
Billetting of soldiers, 135. 
Bon Accord (tune), 106. 
Book of Common Order, 7. 

of Discipline, the First, 12, 13. 

of Geneva, 16. 

Bothwell Bridge, battle of, 218. 

Brackenrig and Sanderson, 95. 

Braun (tune), 215. 

Breslau (tune), 103. 

Bridals, act anent, 223. 

Bristol (tune), 93. 

Broughton and Dawyck, exhorter at, 36. 

Broughton disjoined, 125. 

minister of, 25, 47, 77, 86, 89, 90, 127, 198, 

208, 228, 230. 
Brown, Friar Gilbert, 18, 23, 39. 

Gilbert, Romish minister, 5. 

Brownism, 40, 41. 



Burford (tune), 175. 
Burial in Kirks, 44. 
Burials, 58, 59. 

in Churches, 84. 

Bursar, 210, 216. 

Caithness (tune), 106. 

Calvin (tune), 19. 

Cameronians, 220. 

Cameronian^s Dream, 19. 

Canterbury (tune), 47. 

Captives, Christian, 207: under the Turks, 213. 

Carmel (tune), 19. 

Castlehill, 185. 

Catechism, the Shorter, 127. 

Chandos, or Cammis (tune), 230. 

Chapel and Hospital of SS. Leonard and Law- 
rence, 1. 

of St Mary, 1, 53, 99, 100, 103, 158; pulpit 

for, 163. 



Chapel, the Magdalene, 9. 

Chalices, 20. 

Charge, a second, 43, 62, 63, 64, 65, 67, 69; 

manse for, 71; new minister for, 76, 77, 79, 

80; no provision for, 74, 75; stipend for, 

72, 76. 
Charles, King, II., coronation of, 146. 
Charter of King James, 93. 
Cheshire (tune), 47. 
Chichester (tune), 93. 
Child murder, 176. 
Church and council, 110. 

and state, 134, 148. 

bells, 17, 20. 

courts not to meet, 178. 

government, 12. 

graith, 26, 27, 30. 

lands, fate of, 25, 114, 124. 

linen, 17. 

of St Andrew, 1 ; ruins of, 86. 

of St Mungo, 1. 

pews in, 161. 

polity, 83, 87, 162, also Appendix. 

repairs, 17, 107, 110, 153, 155, 160, 163, 

167, 168, 174. 

revenues, 25. 

rioting in, 161. 

ruins, 20. 

the, and a poor student, 22. 

timber, 33. 

vestments, 15. 

Churches, number of, 39. 

Church's patrimony, 14, 15. 

Churchyard, 156. 

City of Peebles, 11. 

Civil power invoked, 17. 

Civil war, 135, 142, 148. 

Clerk of Presbytery an offender, 232. 

ColeshiU (tune), 19. 

Colours for the burgh, 117. 

Commandments (tune), 19. 

Commissioner, Lord High, 20. 

to the Assembly, 114. 

Common Prayers and Order of Geneva, 12. 
Communion, method of, 39. 

cups, 226, 227. 

Concordat of Leith, 31. 
Confession and Covenant, 45. 

of Faith, 80. 

of sin, 140. 

Conflagration, 79. 

Constant platt, 55, 73. See benefice register. 

Conventicles, 210, 220, 226. 

Court of High Commission, 86, 91, 92, 188, 195. 

Covenant, subscribing of, 115. 

the King's, 114. 

the National, HI. 

the Solemn League and, 123, 124. 

Covenants, the, 120. 

the Seven, 111. 

Covenanters, 113, 120, 228, 229. 
Covenanting polity, 133. 



Covenanting struggle, 117. 

Cranstoun, Andrew, schoolmaster, 32, 33. 

Thomas, minister, 6, 28. 

ministry of, 28, 30. 

Cromarty (tune), 23. 
Cromwell, 143, 174. 
Cross Church, 2, 3, 4; as parish church, 51, 52, 

71; assigned to the town, 55; cession of, 6; 

claim to, 6; dissolution of, 7; document 

concerning, 120; protests against, 6; stones 

from, 136; trees of, 21. 
Culross (tune), 106. 
Curates, Episcopal, 187. 
Curfew, 33. 
Cuthbert, St, 1. 

Daily prayer, 7, 48. 

service, 103. 

Dark days, 153. 

Darnley murdered, 24. 

in Peebles, 22. 

David (tune), 230. 

Dawyck ministers, 58, 86, 99, 102, 138, 139, 169, 
192, 228. 

Daye, John, printer, 19. 

(tune), 19. 

Deacons, 183. 

and elders, 9. 

the first, 14. 

Deathbed protest, 8, 9. 

Delinquent, 61. 

Deptford (tune), 99. 

Deserter, 125, 126, 128. 

Destruction of sacred emblems, 118. 

Dickson, Adam, second charge, 43. 

John, 7. 

John, and the magistrates, 16. 

John, and the Romish friar, 18. 

John, clerk of court, 5. 

John, e.xhorter, 5, 10. 

John, minister of common prayers, 4. 

John, of Mailingsland, 30. 

John, reader, 16. 

Discipline, 13, 16, 61, 62, 79, 81, 142, 170, 171, 
182, 183, 184, 188, 191, 192, 194, 197, 203, 
204, 205, 206, 207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 212, 
213, 214, 216, 217, 218, 221, 222, 230. 

Divine service, First Episcopacy, 88, 105; for 
fifty-eight years, 110, 166. See also Appendix. 

Divines, English, 77. 

Dortmund (tune), 26. 

Douglas, Archibald, decease of, 86. 

ministry of, 35. 

Drinking, 143. 
Drumclog, battle of, 218. 
Drumelzier, exhorter at, 36, 37. 

minister of, 48, 58, 77, 82, 130, 137, 224. 

no service at, 224. 

Duke's Tune, 89. 

Dumb man of Peebles, 147. 

Dunbar, battle of, 143. 



254 



INDEX. 



Dundee (tune), 19, 47. 
Dunfermline (tune), 89. 
Durham (tune), 93. 

East Wark, 167, 168. 
Eber (tune), 40. 

Ecclesiastical authority, divided, 237. 
Eclipse, 156. 

Eddleston, minister of, 12, 36, 38, 40, 44, 47, 98, 
116, 119, 177, 191, 193, 225. 

Kirk, 143. 

Egham (tune), 161. 
Eisenach (tune), 43. 
Elders, 183. 

and deacons, 9. 

names of, 172. 

the first, 14. 

Elgin (tune), 106. 
Elphinstoun, Dionysius, 4. 
Engagement, the, 132. 
Engagers, the, 146. 
Episcopacy abolished, 241. 

and Presbyterianism combined, 43. 

a spurious, 32. 

at an end, 114. 

downfall of, 38. 

overturned, 1 13. 

revolt against, 186. 

the First, 83, 87, 105, 246. 

the Second, 178, 179, 180, 181, 248, 249. 

Episcopalians persecuted, 221. 
Este, Thomas, composer, 47. 
Evening Hymn (tune), 42. 
Excommunication, 61, 158. 
Execution on Kingsmuir, 8. 

Fairs, 157, 159. 

Farrant (tune), 38. 

Fast, 57, 75, 95. 

Fast-days, sacramental, 162. 

Fawside, John, 40. 

Feithie, James, Peebles, 232; deceased, 242. 

Fines under Middleton's Act, 184. 

Fire, 79, 80. 

First period of the Church, end of, Zi. 

Five Articles and the provost, 93. 

Frankfort (tune), 125. 

French (tune), 89. 

Friars, the, and their pensions, 20. 

Gethsemane (tune), 19. 
Gillespie's charter, 163. 
Glebe of reader, 59. 

the designation of, 73, 74, 78, 81, 156, 157. 

Glenholm, minister of, 32, 36, 47, 60, 89, 100, 

107, 127, 219. 
Gloucester (tune), 93. 
Gloria, the, 122. 
Govan, John, 59. 
Great bell, the, 95. 

Haarlem (tune), 92. 



Hamesucken, 117. 
Hamilton, marquis of, 123. 
Hanover (tune), 218. 
Hats for councillors, 86. 
Hay, Andrew, 40. 

George, minister of Eddleston, 12, 40. 

Sir James, 138, 139. 

John, Smithfield, 85, 93, 152, 155, 156, 

157, 158, 159, 162, 163, 166, 167, 168, 169. 
Mr John, minister, 122, 123, 137; ministry 

of, 150; deceased, 193. 
Mr John, minister (secundus), ministry of, 

197, 241. 

of Talla, 24. 

Dr Theodore, ministry of, 87, 131, 135, 

150. 

Theodore, vicar, 233, 235, 236. 

Hays, genealogies of the, 251. 
Heriot's Tune, 96. 
Hospital, 49, 50, 63, 77, 82. 
Hurstbourne (tune), 93. 

Improbation, process of, 97. 
Independency in England, 130. 
Indulgence, 200. 
Innerleithen, exhorter at, 36. 

minister of, 42, 84, 121, 195, 224. 

Inverness (tune), 106. 

Jew, a converted, 196. 
Jougs, 154, 205. 



Kailzie, minister of, 25, 89, 96, 116, 119, 131. 

reader at, 36. 

suppressed, 211. 

Kentigem, 1. 
Kilbucho case, 101. 

minister of, 56, 89, 93, 131, 195. 

reader at, 36. 

Killing Times, the, 225. 

King and Church and State, 131. 

at Peebles, 73. 

Charles I., 98; coronation of, 104. 

Charles II., 136; restoration of, 176, 177; 

deceased, 230. 

James VII. and the magistrates, 230, 235. 

marriage of, 45. 

protest to, 90. 

praises the Church, 45. 

visits Scotland, 90. 

Kirk. See Church. 

absence from, 224. 

Kirklands, 85, 107, 161. 

Kirk-session, 172, 173. 

during Episcopacy, 182, 184, 185, 188, 191, 

193, 201, 203, 206, 209, 211, 215, 217, 221. 

during Presbyterianism, 198. 

records, 172, 174, 216, 217. 

Kirkurd case, 100. 

minister of, 35, 89, 116, 122, 177, 218, 223, 

225. 
reader at, 36. 



Kistin', 231. 

Knox, John, superintendent, 5, 9; marriage of, 
20. 

last days of, 28. 

Robert, Episcopal, intruded, 242. 

Knox's Liturgy, 21. See also Appendix. 

Laud, execution of, 130. 

Laud's Liturgy, 102, 107, 108, 109. See also 

Appendix. 
Lausanne (tune), 19. 
Learmont, Major Joseph, 195. 
Leighton, Rev. Robert, 200 ; archbishop at 

Peebles, 203, 208; deceased, 229. 
Levies on Peebles, 134. 
Linton, exhorter at, 36. 
minister of, 37, 45, 94, 100, 105, 120, 132, 

206, 228, 232. 
Loft in Church, 139. 
Longsyde House, 192. 

Lord's Prayer, the, 122. See also Appendix. 
Ludlow (tune), 93. 
Lyne, minister of, 35, 47, 100, 175, 177, 191, 

226, 232. 
reader at, 36. 

Manor, minister of, 25, 58, 93, 99, 179, 188, 226. 

reader at, 36. 

riot at, 222. 

Manse and glebe, 74. 

Manse of Peebles, 150, 151, 159, 160, 194. 

Marriages, 26. 

Martyr of Peebles, 227, 228. 

of Skirling, 211. 

of Tweedsmuir, 229. 

Martyrs' (tune), 89. 
Megget, minister of, 89. 
Melrose (tune), 106. 
Member of Assembly, 51. 
Members of Parliament, clerical, 61 . 
Military preparations, 33. 
Minister and a feud, 86. 

and his son, 85. 

first, 6. 

for the time, 4. 

grievances of, 67. 

of common prayers, 4. 

of second charge. See Charge, second. 

second, 6, 82, 85. 

Thomas Cranstoun, 28. 

Ministers and ale shops, 46. 

and readers, 35. 

at the Revolution, 239. 

deprived, 241. 

temporary, 7. 

Minister's corn, 17. 

son, slaughter of, 85. 

Ministry of Archibald Douglas, 35. 

of James Feithie, 232. 

of John Hay, B.D., ISO. 

. of John Hay, A.M. (secmidus), 197. 



Ministry of Theodore Hay, 87. 

of Thomas Cranstoun, 30. 

grievances of, 67. 

Moderator appointed by archbishop, 184. 

censured, 165. 

Monastery ruins, 178. 
Montrose, marquis of, 129. 
Mortcloth, 103. 

Mortification for schoolmaster, 147. 
Murder, double, 93. 

of Duncan Kyd, 61, 68, 69, 74. 

of James Dickson, 62. 

of JohnGovan, 59. 

of Patrick Veitch, 45. 

of Robert Scot, 94. 

of William Braid, 91. 

of William Chisholme, 75. 

M'Call, Gavin, admitted minister of second 

charge, 65. 
schoolmaster, 49. 

Nag, Dickson's, 120. 
Nasmyth, Sir Michael, 176. 
National Covenant, 113. 
Navy, the, 115. 
Neidpath Castle assailed, 143. 
Newlands case, 101. 

elder at, 99. 

minister of, 42, 45, 47, 51, 101, 105, 139, 

164, 223. 

reader at, 36. 

New London (tune), 106. 
New Year, date of, 60. 
Nichol, James, martyr, 192. 
Nicholas, 1. 
Ninian, 1. 
Norwich (tune), 93. 
Not keeping the Kirk, 96, 97. 
Nun Danket (tune), 58. 

Old Carlisle (tune), 93. 

Glasgow (tune), 89. 

1st (tune), 23. 

■ 8th (tune), 23. 

9th (tune), 23. 

21st (tune), 23. 

22nd (tune), 93. 

29th (tune), 23. 

44th (tune), 19. 

49th (tune), 23. 

61st (tune), 19. 

68th (tune), 19. 

78th (tune), 23. 

81st (tune), 19. 

100th (tune), 19. 

117th (tune), 19. 

124th (tune), 19. 

134th (tune), 19. 

137th (tune), 19. 

Order, the new, 89. 



856 INI 

Painting the Kirk, 184. 

Palestrina (tune), 47. 

Parliament and minister of Peebles, 178. 

Parochial, 229, 230, 240. 

Parson and vicar, action against, 123. 

calumny against the, 92. 

slandering of the, 79. 

Passion Chorale (tune), 88. 
Paterson's trial and execution, 96. 
Patrimony of the Church, 14, IS. 
Patronage restored, 178. 
Peebles after Dunbar defeat, 143. 

after the Restoration, 177. 

exhorter at, 35. 

Peebles to the Play, 132. 
Penance, 131. 

in sackcloth, SO. 

Penitents, noble, 145. 

Pennecuik, Dr, 219. 

Persecutions, 215. 

Perth, Five Articles of, 90. 

Pew, 139. See Seats. 

Philiphaugh, battle of, 129. 

Pilgrimages, 56, 58, 67. 

Pillar (pillarie), the, 202, 206, 207. 

Piper rebuked, 216. 

Plague, the, 82, 107, 129, 130, 194. 

Playfurd (tune), 203. 

Politics, 140, 155. 

Poor, 13, 15. 

Pr^torius (tune), 86. 

Prayer Book, English, 7. 

Prayers, the parishioners and, 18. 

reading of. 111. 

Prebendaries, 21, 24, 32, 39. 
Prebends, ancient, 9, 49, 64, 82, 92. 
Presbyterian minister and communion, 238. 
Presbyterianism, 245, 246, 247. 

confirmed, 46. 

in England, 130. 

pure, 56. 

restored, 113, 243. 

Presbyterians persecuted, 206. 
Presbyteries, two in Peebles, 236. 
Presbytery, the, during Episcopacy, 184, 188, 191, 
198, 201, 203, 206, 209, 211, 215, 217, 221. 

removed to Stobo, 52. 

Preston (tune), 19. 

Priests, ex-, 11. 

Pringle, Charles, 49, 57, 64, 66. 

Pringles, the, 94, 95. 

Protests from Border ministers, 43. 

Protesters, 169. 

Provost's son, William Dickson, 90. 

Psalm books, 86. 

Psalmody, 47. 

Psalms, Scots metrical, 144. 

the, 134, 145. 

the whole Book of, 19. 

Psalter, 154. See also Appendix. 

Genevan, 18, 19. 

the English, 18. 



Psalters, various, 145. 
Pulpit, new, 104. 

Queen Elizabeth, deceased, 74. 

Mary, 43. 

and the Protestant lords, 22. 

escape of, 25. 

in Peebles, 20. 

in Peeblesshire, 24. 

of a son, 23. 

Mary's marriage, 22. 

Raid in Linlithgow, 27. 
Reader, 54, 55, 79, 80. 

duties of, 7. 

glebe of, 66. 

manse of, 66, 67. 

Readers and ministers, 35. 
Record of ministers and exhorters, 35, 36. 
Records of Presbytery begin, 49. 
Records. See under Kirk-session. 
Reformation ratified, legalised, 24. 

the, 4. 

the first, 244. 

the second, 244. 

the third, 245. 

Reformed Church, the, 4. 
Regent murdered, 28. 
Regiment, English, 160. 

of the realm, 27. 

Remonstrants, 145. 
Renwick at Riskenhope, 234. 
Renwick, James, at Peebles, 233. 

martyrdom of, 234. 

Resignation (tune), 47. 

Restoration, the, 177. 

Retrospect, pre-Reformation, 6. 

Revenues of altar, 34, 42. 

Revolution, 238. 

Riot in Peebles, 224. 

Rizzio, murder of, 23. 

Rochester (tune), 19. 

Ruins of Church, 175. 

Runaway, 221. 

Sabbatarianism, 200, 207, 208, 209. 

Sabbath profanation, 240. 

Saint Andrew's day, 159. 

David (tune), 93. 

Flavian (tune), 19. 

Mary (tune), 217. 

Mary's lands, 49. 

Matthias (tune), 99. 

Michael (tune), 19. 

Salisbury (tune), 93. 
Savoy liturgy, 128. 
Schism, 114. 

first, 40, 148. 

School, 169, 229. 

doctor, 89, 102. 

grammar, 161. 

no, 81. 

regulations, 103. 



INDEX. 



257 



Schools, 105, 107. 

Schoolmaster, 17, 20, 28, 32, 33, 34, 49, 50, 54, 

97, 98, 103, 136, 161, 193, 198. 
Scotstoun case, 101. 
Seats in Cross Church, 87, 110, 136, 139, 188, 

210. See also Pew. 

Service books, 7, 12, 16, 21, 106, 244, 245, 246, 
247, 248, 249. 

daily, Presbyterian, 116. 

divine, 7, 12, 44, 119, 244. 

in Church disturbed, 242. 

morning and evening, 114. 

of praise, 18. 

order of, 91 . 

Settlement disputed, 242. 

Sharpe, Rev. James, 177. 

Silesia (tune), 195. 

Skirling, minister of, 38, 47, 51, 166, 191, 198, 

211, 217, 230, 232. 
Slander, 92. 

Smithfield feud, 49, 50, 51, 54, 55, 56, 57. 

laird of, 69, 71, 72. 

Soldiers, English, 152. 

quartering of, 1 56, 1 63. 

Songschools, 47. 
Sorcery, SO, 51. 
Southwark (tune), 19. 
Southwell (tune), 44. 
Speaking in Church, 92. 
Steeple and clock, 27. 
Steeplehead, repair of. 185. 189. 
Stipend of Peebles, 237. 
Stobo case, 100. 

exhorter at, 36. 

minister of, 35, 47, 77, 91, 99, 119, 224, 

240. 

Presbytery at, 53. 

Student, poor, 22, 34. 
Superintendents' admission, 9. 
.Superintendents and ministers, 17. 
Synod dismembered, 40. 

Tables, the, 110. 

Talla, Hav of, 24. 

Tallis (tune), 42. 

Teinds, 31, 105, 122, 126, 127, 128: unappro- 
priated, 31; vicarage, 175, 250. 

Temporalities, 44. 

Test Act, 181, 222. 

Testament, New, Ijurned, 104. 

Theocracy, 125. 

Thirds, the, 15. 

Thirteen drifty days, 209. 

Tokens, 202. 

Tolbooth, new, 82. 

Toleration, 231. 

Town Council and the Test, 222. 

Traquair, earl of, 208. 

exhorter at, 36. 

House sacked, 239. 

minister of, 60, 77, 100, 119, 131, 179, 184, 

192, 193, 195, 206, 211. 



Traquair, reader at, 36. 
Trial by combat, 47, 48. 
Trinity friars, 2. 

Monday, 157. 

Troops in Peebles, 147. 
Troubling the Kirk, 57, 58. 
Tumults and seditions, 79. 
Tunes- 
Abbey, 89. 

Abbey Close, 82. 

Aberfeldy, 106. 

Altenburg, 154. 

Angels' Hymn, 99. 

Apostles, 19. 

Babylon's Streams, 92. 

Berlin, 169. 

Bon Accord, 106. 

Breslau, 103. 

Bristol, 93. 

Burford, 175. 

Caithness, 106. 

Calvin, 19. 

Canterbury, 47. 

Carmel, 19. 

Cheshire, 47. 

Chandos or Cammis, 230. 

Chichester, 93. 

Coleshill, 19. 

Commandments, 19. 

Cromarty, 23. 

Culross, 106. 

David, 230. 

Daye, 19. 

Deptford, 99. 

Dortmund, 26. 

Duke's, 89. 

Dunfermline, 89. 

Dundee, 19, 47. 

Durham, 93. 

Eber, 40. 

Egham, 161. 

Eisenach, 43. 

Elgin, 106. 

Evening Hymn, 42. 

Farrant, 38. 

Frankfort, 125. 

French, 89. 

Gethsemane, 19. 

Gloucester, 93. 

Haarlem, 92. 

narrower, 218. 

Heriot's, 96. 

Hurstbourne, 93. 

Inverness, 106. 

Lausanne, 19. 

Ludlow, 93. 

Martyrs', 89. 
. Melrose, 106. 

New London, 106. 

Norwich, 93. 

Nun Danket, 58. 

Old Carlisle, 93. 



2S8 

Tunes (Continued) — 
Old Glasgow, 89. 
1st, 23. 

8th, 23. 

9th, 23. 

21st, 23. 

22nd, 93. 

29th, 23. 

44th, 19. 

49th, 23. 

61st, 19. 

68th, 19. 

78th, 23. 

81st, 19. 

100th, 19. 

117th, 19. 

124th, 19. 

134th, 19. 

137th, 19. 

Palestrina, 47. 
Passion Chorale, 88. 
Playfurd, 203. 
Prtetorius, 86. 
Preston, 19. 
Resignation, 47. 
Rochester, 19. 
Saint David, 93. 

Flavian, 19. 

Mary, 217. 

Matthias, 99. 

Michael, 19. 

Salisbury, 93. 
Silesia, 195. 
Southwark, 19. 
Southwell, 44. 
Tallis, 42. 
Victory, 47. 
Weimar, 13. 
Winchester, 19, 47. 
Windsor, 19. 
Wigton, 106. 
York, 89. 

Tweedsmuir, Church of. 



INDEX. 



Tweedsmuir disjoined, 125. 

minister of, 136, 165, 179, 184, 240. 

Tye, Christopher, 19. 

Unbaptised children, 220. 
Uniformity, 122. 
University of Glasgow, 104. 
Unrest, 153. 

Vagrants, 129. 
Vestments, IS. 
Vicar, 161, 184. 

Archibald, 5. 

of Manor, 8. 

troubles of, 121. 

Vicarage, 13. 

^— teinds, 205, 250. 

Victory (tune), 47. 

Visitations, 52, 53, 60, 62, 77, 97, 100, 141, 200. 

Wall, town, 11, 26, 33. 

Women separate from men in Church, 199. 

Wappinschaw, 125. 

War, burgh prepares for, 115. 

Civil, 115, 118. 

premonitions of, 115. 

Watson, Andrew, schoolmaster, 98. 99, 103, 121, 

124, 126, 127, 147, 164, 165, 167. 168, 169, 

173. 
Weimar (tune), 13. 
Westminster Confession, 132. 

Directory, 128. 

Wigton (tune), 106. 

Willock, John, superintendent, 10. 

Winchester (tune), 47, 19. 

Windsor (tune), 19. 

Witchcraft, 99, 100, 117, 120. 

Witches, 123, 125, 137, 140, 158, 159. 

executed, 101. 

Wizardry, 157, 160. 

Worship, public, 127. See also Service, divine. 

York (tunc), 89.