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SacreD JBoohs ot tbe J6ubt)bist0, IDoL J. 



THE BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE 
VOLUME I. 



THE BOOK 
OF THE DISCIPLINE 

(VINAYA-PITAKA) 

VOL. I. 
(SUTTAVIBHANGA) 

TRANSLATED BY 

I. B. HORNER, M.A. 

ASSOCIATE OF NEWNHAM COLLEGE, CAMBRIDG.E 



PUBLISHED FOR THE PALI TEXT SOCIETY 

by 
LUZAC & COMPANY LTD. 

46 GREAT RUSSELL STREET, LONDON, W.C.i 
1949 



First published - 1938 
By The Oxford University Press 



v.lO 



'i'B iS. /\ ^ 



S0379 



Pkinted in Gkeat Hkitain 



TRANSr.ATOR'S INTRODUCTION 

The present translation of the Vinaya-Pitaka is based 
upon Hermann Oldenberg's extremely careful edition 
of the Pali text of the Vinaya-Pitaka, published in five 
volumes in the years 1879-1883. In the Introduction 
to Vol. I. of his edition, Oldenberg wrote (p. x) that 
he had been compelled to relinquish his original in- 
tention of adding a complete translation to the text. 
But in the years 1881, 1882, 1885 T. W. Rhys Davids 
and Oldenberg collaborated in the production of a 
partial translation, called Vinaya Texts, published in 
the Sacred Books of the East Series (Vols. XIII., XVII., 
XX.) in three volumes. 

The detailed handling, exposition and analysis of 
many important, interesting, difficult and obscure 
points make of Vinaya Texts a work of remarkable 
scholarship. In addition, the erudition of one who had 
had opportunities of investigating contemporary monas- 
ticism in Ceylon has been bestowed upon it. Indeed, 
Rhys Davids' and Oldenberg's translation can admit 
of supplement in only two respects, while in all others 
I am aware that my attempt at a critical translation 
compares but unfavourably with theirs. 

In the first place, .what is now needed, both for its 
own sake and in order to bring the Vinaya into line 
with, at least, the Sutta-Pitaka, is a complete, as against 
a partial translation into English. This is one of the 
two respects in which Vinaya Texts can be supple- 
mented. Secondly, our knowledge of various aspects 
of Buddhism has doubtless increased during the fifty- 
two years which separate the appearance of Vol. III. 
of Vinaya Texts and the appearance of Vol. I. of The 
Book of the Discipline. During this time the Pali Text 
Society has been founded, and has published all the 
Pali Canonical " books," practically all the Com- 



VI TRANSLATOR S INTRODUCTION 

mentaries and other post-Canonical " books," together 
with a considerable number of translations, not to 
mention a Dictionary. 

This mass of material, not available to the original 
translators of the Vinaya, has made possible a com- 
parison of passages, phrases- and words occurring in 
scattered parts of the Canon, so that now a more definite 
and perhaps less tentative interpretation of the signifi- 
cance of some of them, as they appear in the Vinaya, 
can be presented. This is the second way in which 
Vinaya Texts can be supplemented. It is only by dis- 
covering what words and phrases signify in passages 
other than those with which one is at the moment 
concerned, that the general, and even the exceptional, 
meaning of those same words and phrases can be more 
or less accurately gauged. I have considered it de- 
sirable, in the light of the knowledge made accessible 
during the last fifty years by the issues of the Pali 
Text Society and certain books on Early Buddhism, 
to revise and remould some of the renderings in Vinaya 
Texts. Even so, one cannot fail to be impressed by 
the vision of the original translators, whose interpreta- 
tions, sometimes no more than leaps in the dark, have 
often proved successful and iinimpeachable. 

There is reason to suspect that some words and 
phrases are peculiar to the Vinaya, or have a special 
connotation in it, but there can be no certainty upon 
this point, until the Concordance, which is being compiled 
under the auspices of Mrs. Rhys Davids, is brought to 
completion. 

Since the study of Early Buddhism is admittedly 
still in its infancy, many of the rich and variegated 
treasures of its storehouse as yet await investigation. 
Hence, I am fully aware that The Book of the Discipline 
is nothing more than an interim translation, needed for 
the reasons given above, but in no way claiming to 
be final and definitive. 

The word vinaya has come to be paired, as it were 
(although since precisely when we do not know), with 



TRANSLATOR S INTRODUCTION Vll 



the word dhamma. This is a word whose long history- 
needs a detailed study, such as we have in W. Geiger's 
Dhamma, 1920, while vinaya is considerably easier of 
definition. Whatever the .exact meaning or meanings 
of dhamma may have been at one stage in the history 
of Early Buddhism or at another, or at one part of the 
Sayings or at another, it is a fair enough description 
to say that dhamma concerned the inner life of Gotama's 
followers, their conscience, their mental training and 
outlook and, later, stood for the body of teaching that 
they were to believe and follow; and that vinaya was 
the discipline governing and regulating the outward 
life of the monks and nuns who had entered the mon- 
astic Orders, the foundation of which is attributed to 
Gotama. Dhammxi may indeed be said to be all that 
vinaya is not.^ Two Pitakas are devoted to dham- 
ma: the Sutta-Pitaka and the (later) Abhidhamma- 
Pitaka; one, the Vinaya-Pitaka, as its name implies, 
to vinaya} 

I have called the present translation The Book of the 
Discipline, rather than The Basket (Pitaka) of the 
Discipline, on the analogy of The Book (Nikdya) of the 
Kindred Sayings and The Book of the Gradual Sayings, 
What was originally an oral tradition of Sayings 
became, at some time, committed to palm-leaf manu- 
scripts. Later still, these were " edited " to form the 
material of printed books. Today the early Sayings 
survive nowhere but in books. 

Oldenberg began his edition of the text of the Vinaya- 
Pitaka with the section known as the Mahavagga. 
This, together with the Culavagga to which he pro- 
ceeded, constitutes the Khandhakas. He placed the 
Suttavibhanga after these, and ended with the ad- 
mittedly later Parivara. But properly speaking, the 
Pali Vinaya begins with the Suttavibhanga. The 



^ Oldenberg, Vin. ir xiii. 

2 For chronology of the Pali Canon, see B. C. Liw, History of 
Pali Literature, Chapter I. 



Vlll TRANSLATOR S INTRODUCTION 

Vinaya of the Sarvastivadin school " follows the same 
general arrangepient,"^ as do apparently the Chinese 
Vinaya of the Mahisasaka school and the Diilva, or 
Tibetan Vinaya of the Mahasarvastivadins.^ Be this 
as it may, the Pali Vinaya is the only one with which 
we can concern ourselves here. Comparisons with the 
Vinaya of other schools must be left to one side, as 
must comparisons with the rules and discipline of pre- 
Sakyan sects and contemporary sects, including the 
Jain Orders of monks and nuns.^ 

According to Rhys Davids and Oldenberg, the oldest 
portion of the Vinaya is the Patimokkha, or list of 227 
rules,* or courses of training to be observed. As this 
seems to be indisputably the case, it is only fitting 
that the Suttavibhanga should precede the Khandhakas. 
For the Suttavibhanga is that portion of the Vinaya 
which contains the Patimokkha. 

In their Vinaya Texts, Rhys Davids and Oldenberg 
open with the Patimokkha. Buddhaghosa in his 
Commentary, the Samantapasadika (denoted as VA- 
in the footnotes to my translation),^ begins with the 
Suttavibhanga in extenso. I therefore follow the same 
plan, and mention it chiefly to indicate that my Vol. I. 
does not correspond to Oldenberg's Vol. I., but ap- 
proximately to the first two-thirds of his Vol. III. 
Considerations of length alone prevented me from 
including all his Vol. III. in my Vol. I. of The Book of 
the Discipline. On the other hand, this present volume 
corresponds to the opening portion of Vol. I. of Vinaya 
Texts. The chief difference between the presentation 
of the Suttavibhanga in Vinaya Texts and The Boqk 



1 E. J. Thomas, Hist, of Buddhist Thought, p. 267; but see N. Dutt, 
Early History of the Spread of Buddhism, p. 283 f . 

2 Oldenberg, Vin. i. xliv ff. 

^ See Jacobi, Jaina Sutras, i. xix if. {S.B.E. xxii.). 

* See S. Dutt, Early Buddhist Monachism, p. 92, and B. C. Law, 
Hist, of Pali Lit., i. 20 f., for notes on variant numbers of the rules. 
Also Winternitz, Hist, of Ind. Lit., ii. 23, n. 5, for numbers of rules 
recognised by various schools. 

* I.e., Vinaya-atthakathd, Commentary on the Vinaya. 



TRANSLATOR S INTRODUCTION IX 

of the Discipline is that, in the former the Suttavibhanga 
is cut down to comprise nothing more than the Pati- 
mokkha rules themselves, all auxiliary material being 
omitted, while the latter, when finished, will contain, 
with very few exceptions,^ an unabridged translation of 
the entire Suttavibhanga. 

The Vinaya, the Discipline, especially that portion 
of it called Suttavibhanga, appoints and decrees a definite 
standard of outward morality, comprised in courses of 
training laid down for the proper behaviour of monks 
and nuns. On the surface the Suttavibhanga is not 
much more than an attempt to restrain unsuitable 
behaviour; but in reality it also arrives, though in many 
cases by a long process of exclusion, at the kind of 
positive conduct to be pursued by the monk who wishes 
his life to be externally blameless, so far as his relations 
with his fellow monks, with the Order as a whole, and 
with the laity are concerned. 

This limitation of the Suttavibhanga to an outward 
and objective field is amply indicated by the striking 
absence from it, of any passage stating that the ob- 
servance of the courses of training " made knOwn for 
monks by the lord " will conduce to the realisation of 
desirable subjective states. The gulf between this and 
the pre-eminently subjective attitude of the Sutta-Pitaka 
is immense. Never once is it said, in the Suttavi- 
bhanga, that the courses of training should be followed 
so as to lead, for example, to the rejection of passion, 
of hatred, of confusion, to the destruction of the dsavas 
(cankers), to making the Way (one, fourfold, eightfold) 
become, to the mastery of dhamma, to the attainment 
of perfection. Always the recurrent formula of the 
Suttavibhanga declares that breaches of a course of 
training are " not fitting, not suitable, not worthy of 
a recluse, not to be done," and so on, and that such 
lapses are not " for the benefit of non-believers nor 
for increase in the number of believers." Thus a 
standard of conduct is imposed from outside, and for 

1 See below, p. xxxvii. 



TRANSLATOR S INTRODUCTION 



external, impersonal reasons, instead of insistence 
being laid, as in the Nikaya teaching, on the great 
subjective states attainable through a man's own 
efforts of will. 

The word Suttavihhanga means analysis or classifica- 
tion (vibhanga) of a sutta, a term here applied to each 
rule or course of training included in the Patimokkha. 
The literal meaning of sutta (sutra) is of course string 
or thread, and as such also appears in the rVinaya. But 
its meaning of rule or clause or article is apparently 
peculiar to this composition, and is, according to Dr. 
E. J. Thomas,^ earlier than its meaning of separate 
discourse. That the word sutta, in the Vinaya, probably 
does bear the meaning of rule, as was suggested in 
Vinaya Texts,^ is indicated by Various passages. For 
example, at Vin. i. 65 = 68, a monk is not to receive 
the upasampada ordination if he does not know the 
two l^atimokkhas^ rule by rule (suttato); at Vin. ii. 68, 
it is said: "'This thing is in a rule (suttdgata) and comes 
up for recitation every half-month."^ The thing 
(dhamma) here referred to is not in a Sutta, or Sutta- 
Pitaka discourse, but does occur, as part of a course 
of training, in the Vinaya. Further, the Vinaya Com- 
mentary mentions, calling it a sutta,^ the statement 
allowing an amma (park) to monks. The one reference 
that I have come across to the compound suttavihhanga 
in the Vinaya text^ (apart from its use as the title of 
the' section bearing its name) is in association with 
sutta.. Both these terms appear here to refer as clearly 
to Vinaya and not to Sutta-Pitaka material, as do the 
others cited above. 

As the Sutta vibhanga has come down to us,"^ it is 
divided into two sections: Parajika and Pacittiya. 
Between them, these two sections comprise 227 rules 
divided into the eight groups of the four Parajikas, 

1 History of Buddhist Thought, p; 268, n. 2. ^ Vol. i. xxviii f. 

' The one for the monks and the one for the nuns. 
* See below, p. xi. ^ VA. 81. « Vin. ii. 97. 

' For date of compilation of the Suttavihhanga see Vin. Texts, 
\. xxi. 



translator's introduction xi 



the thirteen Sanghadisesas, the two Aniyatas, the thirty 
Nissaggiya Pacittiyas, the ninety-two Pacittiyas, the 
four Patidesaniyas, the seventy-five Sekhiyas, and the 
Adhikaranasamatha rules.^ Only the first three groups 
are contained in Vol. I. of The Book of the Discipline. 
There is a corresponding Bhikkhuni-vibhanga, sometimes 
referred to as the Bhikkhunl-vinaya, or Discipline for 
nuns, with its set of Patimokkha rules. This will 
appear in a later volume of this translation. 

The Suttavibhanga material is usually arranged in 
a series of four groups: (1) a story leading up to a rule; 
(2) a Patimokkha rule, which always states the penalty 
incurred for breaking it; (3) the Old Commentary, the 
Padabhajaniya, on each rule, defining it word by word; 
(4) more stories telling of deviations from the rule, 
and showing either that they were not so grave as to 
entail the maximum penalty, or that they were reason- 
able enough to warrant, in certain circumstances, a 
modification or a relaxation of the existing rule, or that 
they were not such as to be rendered permissible by 
any extenuating circumstances. Items (3) and (4) are 
sometimes reversed in position, and (4) is now and 
again absent altogether. 

The Patimokkha rules are the core of the Suttavi- 
bhanga. This list of rules, or list of courses of training, 
was recited twice a month on the uposatha (observance, 
sabbath, or avowal) days, held on the niglits of the new 
and the full moon.^ In Vedic times, tlie upavasatha 
was a fast day kept for the preparation of and the 
performance of the Soma sacrifice. According to the 
Pali tradition, parihhdjakas, or wanderers belonging to 
other sects, also held sacred two, if not three, days in 
each month for the recitation of their dhamma.^ It 
was in imitation of this popular custom that the Sakyan 
bhikkhus assembled on these same three days. Later, 
apparently, these were reduced to two,* and were 
devoted to the recitation of the Patimokkha rules. 

» Cf. B. C. Law, Hist, of Pali Lit., i. 46 f. « Vin. i. 104. 

9 Vin. i. 101. * VinA. 104. 



Xll TRANSLATOR S INTRODUCTION 

This recitation served the double purpose of keeping 
the rules fresh in the minds of the monks and nuns, 
and of giving each member of the monastic community 
the opportunity, while the rules were being repeated 
or recited,^ to avow any offences that he or she had 
committed. After the avowal came the due punish- 
ment. In the Suttavibhanga, the monk is usually 
shown as avowing his offence to Gotama, or to one of 
the monks, or to a group of monks, directly he had 
committed it, and not as waiting to avow it before the 
full congregation (sangha) of monks. He was thus 
" pure " for the wposatJia ceremony, and could take his 
place at the meeting. 

Oldenberg sees in the term patifnokkha, freedom 
^* from sins there named, "^ that is, in the list of rules 
called Patimokkha. This is part of what amounted in 
Oldenberg to an obsession with " the doctrine regarding 
release from suffering, which forms so central an idea 
in the ancient Buddhist faith. "^ But the monks were 
not asked, as Oldenberg states, whether they were 
" free from the sins there named." The word for 
*' free " or " freed " would have been vimutta. What 
they were asked was Avhether they were parisuddha, 
quite pure, pure in the matter of having kept the rules, 
therefore outwardly pure. I think that if Oldenberg 
had looked upon the Patimokkha as a list of rules or 
courses of training, as I have called them above, and 
not as a " list of those offences which deserved punish- 
ment or some kind of expiation,"* he would not have 
been so much dominated by the idea of freedom from 
" sins." Moreover, " sin " is not even a Sakyan 
conception. 

This is leading us up to the derivation of the word 
pdti- ipdti-) mokkha. Rhys Davids and Oldenberg, 
following Childers, refer it to pdti (Skrt., prati)-\-muc, 
and see in it " disburdening, getting free."^ Buddha- 
ghosa, too, at Vism. 16, derives it from muc, in the 

^ Not '* read out," as Oldenberg says, Vin. i. xv. 

* Vin. i. XV. 3 Ibid., xiv. * Ibid., xv. 

^ Vin. Texts, i. xxvii f. 



TRANSLATOR S INTRODUCTION Xlll' 



sense of being free from the punishments of niraya 
(hell) and other painful rebirths. But it was not the 
getting free that was of such importance as the being 
bound. This came first. Preceding the notion, if 
indeed it ever existed at the time when the Vinaya 
was compiled, that the monk should be free of sin or 
of the punishment for sin, came the assumption that 
the rules, as binding, should be followed and obeyed, 
and that a monk should be " bound by the restraint of 
the Patimokkha " (pdtimokkhasarjvarasarjvuta). 

S. Dutt is of the opinion that pdtifnokkha means 
" bond.'' He regards it as an external bond of union 
devised to convert the Sect of the Sakyaputtiya smnanas 
into an Order} Rhys Davids and Stede in the P.E.D, 
say that it has the '' sense of binding, obligatory, 
obligation," and that the Sanskrit adaptation of the 
Pali should be pratimoksya, " that which should be 
made binding," and not prdtimoksa. Pratimoksya, 
according to these lexicographers, is the same as the 
Pali patimokkha, " binding, obligatory," from patimun- 
cati, to fasten, to bind.^ 

Dr. E. J. Thomas, on the other hand, says that 
patimokkha is "in Sanskrit prdtimoksha. In form it is 
an adjective formed from patimokkha, binding, from 
pati-muC' ' to fasten or bind on (as armour),' and thus 
should mean ' that which binds, obligatory,' ''^ thus 
agreeing with the definition given in the P.E.D., but 
not with the derivation. 

The word is defined in the Mahavagga of the Vinaya 
as the '' face, head of all good states,"* but as Winter- 
nitz pointed out this derivation " is quite impossible."^ 
Winternitz himself was inclined to explain pdtimokkha as 
" that which is to be redeemed,"^ but unfortunately he 
did not support this statement, except by saying he 
thought that the correct translation ofsamgaram pdtimok- 
kharn ofJd. v. 25 should be " a promise to be redeemed." 

^ Early Buddhist Monachism, p. 89 f. 

^ Cf. Vin. iii. 249, patimuncMi, to bind on or tie on a head-pad. 
^ History of Buddhist Thought, 15, n. 1. * Vin. i. 103. 

^ History of Indian Lit., ii. 22, n. 2. * Ibid. 



XIV TRANSLATOR S INTRODUCTION 



Nearly all these authorities agree that the term is 
borrowed from other sects, and dates from pre-Buddhist 
days. 

The question of the composition of the Patimokkha 
rules is one which, while being of the greatest interest, 
is not very likely to grow out ol the speculative stage. 
This question has two sides to it: that of when and 
that of hmv the rules came to be formulated. -I_can 
only point out the existence of these problems, not 
attempting to solve them. The" solution of the one 
would to a large extent elucidate the other. 

The rules were either drawn up in their entirety in 
Gotama's lifetime; or they were drawn up in their 
entirety after his parinibbdna (utter waning); or some 
were drawn up during his lifetime and others afterwards. 
The last assumption is that most generally favoured 
by scholars, who adduce " additions and modifications," 
repetitions and inconsistencies, existing among the 
collection of rules. ^ Again, if it were held that the rules 
were codified into their present shape after Gotama's 
parinibbdna, this would not at all necessarily mean 
that they were not known and enforced during his 
ministry. The question of hotv they were composed 
likewise suggests three alternatives: either that some 
actual event led up to the framing of each rule ; or that 
they were all formulated in readiness to meet events, 
but before these had occurred; or that some had an 
historical source, while others owe their existence to 
precautionary imagination. 

It is conceivable that not one of the Patimokkha 
rules was framed until someone, lay-followers or the 
more dependable monks and nuns, had seen, heard or 
suspected a mode of behaviour which seemed to them 
unfitting in a member of one of Gotama's Orders. Each 
rule is therefore very possibly the direct result of some 
actual event, and was not made with merely hypo- 
thetical cases of wrong-doing in mind. On detecting, 
even on suspecting that conduct unfitting in a recluse. 



E.g., E. J. Thomas, Hist, of Buddhist Thought, i). 14. 



TRANSLATOR S INTRODUCTION XV 



unworthy of a monk had been perpetrated, the action 
was reported, as it is almost invariably stated, to 
Gotama, either by the errant monk himself or by those 
vigilant in the interests of the Order. The Sutta- 
vibhahga shows that if the action were found to be 
blameworthy, a course of training was set forth, a 
penalty was attached, and it henceforth became mani- 
fest that a breach of each rule of right conduct would 
incur a like penalty. 

Prevention of unsuitable behaviour in monks and 
nuns seems to have rested on two bases. In the first 
place the presumption that a certain line of conduct 
had been forbidden by Gotama, apparently appealed to 
the purer-minded and more zealous monks. Secondly, 
the penalty, fixed commensurably with the breach of 
the rule, will doubtless have exercised a deterrent 
influence over the behaviour of some of those monks 
who were not susceptible to the dictates of loftier 
motives. 

Although the framing of each major rule is without 
exception attributed to Gotama, it has never been 
suggested that at the inception of the Orders he thought 
over all the possible cases of wrong-doing and depravity 
of which the monks might be capable, and propounded 
a n^ady-made body of rules to meet every conceivable 
contingency. It is, however, more likely that the 
majority of the rules grew up gradually, as need arose, 
and are the outcome of historical developments that went 
on within the Order. At the same time it would not 
have been impossible for the Sakyans to have borrowed 
at all events the outline of a compendium of rules 
from other sects. We cannot tell with any degree of 
accuracy the historical Order in which the rules were 
formulated. All that can be said is, that there is no 
need to imagine that offences were perpetrated and rules 
promulgated in the order in which they now appear in 
the Suttavibhanga. 

Again, it is to my mind questionable whether all the 
offences, grave and petty, all the adroit evasions and 
twistings, all the cases of illness which prevented a 



XVI TRANSLATOR S INTRODUCTION 



rule from being carried out to the letter, all the multi- 
farious detail of communal life, were reported to Gotama, 
who then pronounced his verdict, and either framed 
a new rule or altered an existing one. 

The rules are doubtless ascribed to him so as to give 
them weight, but of what proportion he was in 'fact 
the author we can never know. We can merely judge 
that, as some of his disciples were competent to preach 
dhamma, so some would also have been competent to 
meet a case of wrong-doing by admonishment and 
rebuke, and by decreeing an appropriate penalty as a 
safeguard for the future. Indeed, in the Suttavibhahga, 
although by far the greater number of rules is said to 
have been enunciated by Gotama, many a sub-rule at 
least (as in Sangh. ix., x., xi.) is laid down without 
reference to the Founder. Although he remains the 
central figure in the Vinaya, any absence of reference 
to him is an indication either that some transgressions 
occurred and were legislated for after his parinibbdna 
(utter waning), or that, even while he was still alive, 
it was not thought necessary to trouble him with the 
entire mass of items, some of them very trivial, that was 
bound to arise in the organisation of ^' unenclosed " 
Orders of monks and nuns. This was the more compli- 
cated both because the members of the Orders were, 
and were recognised to be, at varying stages of spiritual 
development, and because their behaviour was not 
viewed solely as it affected internal policy, but also as it 
affected the laity. 

For the believing laity, though naturally not to the 
forefront in the Vinaya, are in a remarkable way never 
absent, never far distant. They perpetually enter into 
the life of the Order as supporters, critics, donors, 
intensely interested; and themselves affected by Sakya, 
it seems that they were deeply anxious for its success. 
Thus the Vinaya does not merely lay down sets of 
rules whose province was confined to an internal con- 
ventual life. For this was led in such a way as to 
allow and even to encourage a certain degree of inter- 
communication with the lay supporters and followers, 



translator's introduction xvii 

no less than with those lay-people who were not ad- 
herents of the faith. What was important, was that 
the monks should neither abuse their dependence on 
the former, nor alienate the latter, but should so 
regulate their lives as to give no cause for complaint. 
With these aims in view, conduct that was not thought 
seemly for them to indulge in had to be carefully 
defined; and it became drafted in rule and precept. 

Indian monasticism differs from Western in the 
important respect that the former stood in no need of 
fighting battles against temporal powers. The world 
in which Gotama's Orders grew up was fully in favour 
of experiments in religious devotion. Such struggles 
as there were, were not between monks and the 'armies 
of hostile kings, not between monks and the active 
scorn of the world, but struggles, no less heroic in in- 
tention perhaps, to strengthen the monks against them- 
selves and their human weaknesses, to endow them 
with goodness and virtue as the living witnesses to 
man's desire for perfection, to fortify them for victory 
in the contest between the spirit and the flesh, between 
right and wrong — undying ideals to which many an 
ordinary layman ardently clung, but to which he could 
not himself aspire. 

In the Vinaya literature that has come down to us, 
Gotama is nowhere shown as legislating for his lay- 
followers, as Mahavira did for his. Yet, even in the 
absence of a Vinaya for laymen, it is apparent that an 
attitude of toleration and common-sense admitted much 
that was permissible to the worldly section of the com- 
munity that was not considered to be fitting in monks. 
Had no difference been insisted upon, one of the most 
potent reasons for the existence and for the popularity 
of monks would have been rendered invalid. For one 
of the points of entering Gotama's Order was to learn 
control of body, mind and speech. This, it was thought, 
was essential to spiritual progress, and was extremely 
hard to attain, unless the shackles of the household life 
had been laid aside. Then man, as monk, could more 
readily attain perfection and its fruit (arahattaphala), 

b 



XVlll TRANSLATOR S INTRODUCTION 

the goal of hrahynacariya, the good, divine, holy or 
Brahma-life. Arahatta, as the goal, was at some time 
in the early history of the Order substituted for that 
other goal : an approach to Brahma, that Highest, an 
approach which India, in the sixth century B.C., held 
that each and every man was potentially capable of 
making. Because religion was understood in those 
days, men who, according to popular estimate, showed 
that they were on the Way to the Highest, were this 
regarded as Brahma or arahatta, were revered and not 
despised. 

Yet, as in any others, the Vinaya shows that there 
were in Gotama's Orders indolent, lax, greedy monks 
and nuns, those who were lovers of luxury, seekers 
•after pleasure, makers of discord. We should, how- 
ever, be greatly mistaken if we insisted upon regarding 
the Order as riddled by scandal, by abuses and by 
minor forms of wrong-doing. There is no doubt that 
these existed; but there is no justification, simply 
because they happen to be recorded, for exaggerating 
their frequency, or for minimising the probity and 
spiritual devotion of many men who, in Gotama's 
days, were monks. Records of these are to be found 
in the Nikayas, in the Thera-theri-gatha ; and, too 
much overlooked, there are in the Vinaya, the virtuous, 
moderate monks who, vexed and ashamed, complain 
of the misdemeanours of their fellows. 

As historians, we must be grateful to these inevitable 
backsliders, for theirs is this legacy of the Patimokkha 
rules. Had the Order contained merely upright, 
scrupulous monks and nuns — those who were stead- 
fastly set on the goal of the Brahma-life, and those who 
had, in the circumstances, to voice their annoyance 
with the wrong-doers — in all likelihood the Vinaya, the 
Discipline, the Patimokkha rules would not have come 
into being, and much of the early history of the Order 
woukf now be known to us solely through the indirect 
and fragmentary way of the Sutta-Pitaka. 

If monks behaved in a way that was censurable in 
monks, this does not necessarily mean that their con- 



translator's introduction xix 

duct was wrong in itself. Various activities were not 
only permissible for lay-people, but were fully accepted 
to be such as could be unquestionably pursued by them. 
Marriage, negotiating for parties to a marriage, trading, 
the owning of possessions, are cases in point. Nor 
could we maintain that, before a particular course of 
training had been made known, the conduct of a monk 
was necessarily reprehensible if it resembled that which 
was legitimate for the laity. For all monks came into 
the Order from the laity. Therefore if it did not at 
once strike them that in certain respects their behaviour 
should change when their vocation changed, it is only 
natural that in the meantime they should have indulged 
in pursuits for which, as laity, they had attracted no 
adverse criticism. 

I think it very likely that some of the courses of train- 
ing for monks that are included in this volume were 
formulated as a result of this bringing over of lay-life 
into the religious life; for a difference between the two 
had to be made, and then maintained. Others most 
certainly were formulated as the result of behaviour 
which, whether evinced by a layman or a monk, would 
have been regarded as equally blameworthy; others, 
again, to prevent the monks from being an intolerable 
burden on the laity; while still others were formulated 
so as to preserve the harmony and well-being of the 
Order. 

Now and again, monks, contemplating a certain 
action which they knew to be forbidden or which they 
knew to be wrong, are recorded to think: " There will 
be no blame for me." Was this because they had 
done similar things while still " in the world " without 
incurring censure, and so thought that they would be 
immune from blame after they had gone forth ? Or 
did they think that there was some reason why they 
personally would incur no offence for their deed ? If 
so, spiritual pride had still to be humbled in them. 

The Patimokkha rules of the Pali Vinaya fall into 
eight sections, classified according to the gravity of 



XX TRANSLATOR S INTRODUCTION 

the offence committed. Of these eight sections, only 
three are covered by the present volume. These are, 
first, the four Parajika rules, framed to govern those 
offences, the most serious of all, which involve " defeat," 
and whose penalty is expulsion from the Order; and 
secondly, the thirteen Sahghadisesa rules, framed for 
the type of offence which is so grave as to necessitate 
a formal meeting of the Sahgha, or whole community 
of monks present in the district or in the vihara where 
the offence was committed. The penalties incurred for 
a Sanghadisesa offence are chiefly that of being sent 
back by the monks to the beginning of the probationary 
period, together with that of undergoing the manatta 
discipline. The terms parajika, sanghddisesa and manatta 
are shortly discussed on pp. xxvi f., xxix ff., 38, 195 
f . below. 

I Thirdly, included in this volume, are the two Aniyata 
rules, designed to meet offences whose nature is so 
" undetermined " that only individual circumstances 
can decide whether it is such as to involve defeat, or 
a formal meeting of the Order, thereby being linked 
with the two preceding sections of rules; or whether 
it is such as to require expiation (pdcittiya). Because 
of this further possibility, the Aniyata rules are linked 
with the next group but one, the Pacittiya rules. 

The first three Parajika rules are levelled against the 
breach of a code of morality generally recognised and 
active among all civilised communities: against un- 
chastity, against the taking of what was not given, 
and against the depriving of life. 

Evidently the aim of the strictures on unchastity, 
with which Parajika I. is concerned, was partly to 
bring the monks into line with members of other pre- 
ceding and contemporary sects whose members, having 
renounced the household state, had to be celibate. 
This notion already had history behind it by the time 
the Sakyan Order of monks came into being. It was 
a notion based as much on common-sense, as on the 
conviction that restraint and self-taming were indis- 



TRANSLATOR S INTRODUCTION XXI 

pensable factors in the winning of the fruit of a monk*s 
life. 

It is perhaps not necessary to believe that each or 
any of the many and curious forms of unchastity, 
mentioned in Parajika I., ever ^as actually perpetrated 
by a monk. Such comprehensive treatment as is found 
is not needed either to support or to elucidate the mean- 
ing of the general rule. This was clear enough. It is 
possible, of course, that some of the delinquencies did 
occur, while others did not, but we do not know. In 
any case, it is also possible that at the time of the final 
recension, each rule was minutely scrutinised and 
analysed, and all the deviations from it, of which the 
recensionists had heard or which they could imagine, 
were formulated and added in some kind of order. 
For then there would be in the future no doubt of the 
class of offence {e.g., Parajika, thullaccaya or dukkata) 
to which any wrong behaviour that had been or should 
be committed, belonged, or of what was the statutory 
penalty for that offence. The smooth and detailed 
handling of some parts of the other Parajika rules and 
of some of the Sanghadisesa rules, likewise suggests 
that these are the outcome, not of events, so much as 
of lengthy and anxious deliberations. The recension- 
ists had a responsible task. They were legislating for 
the future, and they would, I think, have been deter- 
mined to define in as minute a way as possible the 
offence already stated in a general way in each major 
rule. 

Stealing is ranked as a Parajika (Par. II.), or the 
gravest kind of offence, not merely because civilisation 
agrees that, for various reasons, it is wrong to take 
something not given. It was particularly reprehensible 
for a Sakyan monk to steal, since at the time of his 
entry into the Order he morally renounced his claim 
to all personal and private possessions, and should 
henceforth have regarded anything he used as com- 
munal property, lent to him for his needs. In addition, 
it may be urged that if monks were restrained from 
stealing, any tendencies they may have had towards 



xxii translator's introduction 

greed and gluttony, towards finery and luxury, towards 
carelessness in the use of their requisites, would have 
been reduced and perhaps eradicated, thus allowing 
a greater margin for the exercise of unfettered spiritual 
endeavour. 

There is a point in Parajika II. to which I should like 
to draw attention. The rules concerned with taking 
what was not given show that stealing something of 
or above a definite, though small, value, namely, five 
mdsakas,^ is a more blameworthy offence than stealing 
something worth less than five mdsakas. Five mdsakas 
apparently constitute the lowest commercial value that 
an object can have, and anything less is presumably 
commercially valueless and therefore negligible. But 
all tendency towards acquisition had to be suppressed 
in the monks, all inclination to regard objects in the 
light of possible possessions to be checked. And 
further, it had to be remembered that monks might not 
know the exact value of some particular object.^ 

In Parajika II., the value in mdsakas of the object 
stolen becomes the standard of moral transgression, and 
hence the criterion of the gravity of the offence com- 
mitted: to steal something of more than five mdsakas 
entails defeat; to steal something of the value of from 
one to four mdsakas is said to be a grave offence f while 
to steal something worth less than one mdsaka is called 
an offence of wrong-doing.^ Thus the gravity of the 
offence of stealing is shown to be to some extent de- 
pendent upon the value of the object stolen. At 
Vin. i. 96, on the other hand, it is said to be an offence 
entailing defeat to steal even a blade of grass. These 
inconsistencies doubtless suggest that these rules were 
drawn up at different times.^ 

No doubt the depriving of life ranked as a Parajika 

1 Below, p. 85. 2 Below, p. lU. 

^ Thullaccaya, a technical term. 

4 Dukkaia, another technical term. 

^ See Vin. Texts, i. xxv, for plausible argument for the intro- 
duction of the new terms thullaccaya and dukkata into the final 
recension of the Vinaya. 



TRANSLATOR S INTRODUCTION XXIU 

offence (Par. III.) partly because it is the very opposite 
of ahirjsd, non-violence, non-injury, which was an idea 
prevalent in India before the advent of Sakya. Again, 
the teaching on rebirth and the allied teaching on 
karma, both pre-Sakyan notions, would hold that the 
murderer, in consequence of his deed, obstructs his 
progress through the worlds, until he has worked off 
the fruit of his action. The problems of Freewill and 
Predetermination find no place in Indian philosophy. 
Man's will is assumed to be free. Hence the murderer 
might have chosen otherwise: the deed of murdering 
was not pre-ordained. To incite a person to death 
was considered as bad as murdering him. For if praise 
of " the beauty of death " inspired him to die at will, 
if he cut himself off before he had done his time here, 
the fruits of past deeds, both good and ill, would still 
remain to be worked off by him. 

It may seem strange to a European living in the 
twentieth century that the offences of unchastity, steal- 
ing and murder receive the same legal punishment. 
But different ages have different values. In England, 
hanging was the penalty for sheep-stealing up to modern 
times. And the Patimokkha rules relate to more than 
two thousand years ago, some of them being rooted 
in an even more remote antiquity. Besides, we must 
remember that they were for monks, and not only for 
Sakyan monks. The Jains had precepts corresponding 
to these first three Parajika rules, as did the common 
precursors of Jain and Sakyan, the sanydsins or brahmin 
ascetics and recluses.^ 

Those who had gone forth into homelessness were to 
withstand all temptation and ambition offered by life 
" in the world," they were to be beyond the reach of 
its quarrels, loves and hatreds. For, if they continued 
to behave as those who had not gone forth, their sup- 
porters would fall away, the non-believers would think 
but little of them, and the behevers would not increase 
in number. 

^ See Jacobi, Jaina Sutras, i. xxiii (S.B.E. xxii.). 



XXIV TRANSLATOR S INTRODUCTION 

Tlie injunctions against unchastity, the taking of 
what was not given, and against the depriving of life, 
besides corresponding to the brahmin and Jain pre- 
cepts, also correspond to the first three Buddhist sllaSy 
moral " habits," or precepts of ethical behaviour. 
These, however, run in reverse order from the Parajikas, 
and begin with the precept of refraining from onslaught 
on creatures. Next comes refraining from taking what 
was not given, and thirdly the precept of refraining 
from unchastity (here called abrahmacariya, as it is in 
the Jain sutras). The fourth Parajika, alone of the 
Parajikas, does not find any corresponding matter 
among the silas. If the relation of the Parajikas to 
the sllas were worked out, some cogent reason for these 
discrepancies might emerge. 

At present I can only suggest that the fourth Para- 
jika, of which I have shortly spoken elsewhere,^ is con- 
cerned more with a monk's spiritual state than with 
his outward behaviour.^ In this it differs from the 
Silas, and more interesting still, from the other Pati- 
mokkha rules. These are, with the striking exception 
of the fourth Parajika, concerned with the here and now, 
with the regulation of certain aspects of community 
life, with matters affecting the Order, with the arrange- 
ment of various mundane affairs, with questions of 
conduct concerning the opposite sex and the lay followers, 
with questions of property. 

The curious fourth Parajika, concerned with the 
offence of " claiming a state or quality of further- 
men " (uttarimanussadhamma), seems to have been 
fashioned in some different mould, and to belong to 
some contrasting realm of values. It is by no means 
a mere condemnation of boasting or lying in general, 
for it is the particular nature of the boast or the lie 
which makes the offence one of the gravest that a monk 
can commit: the boast of having reached some stage in 

1 Early Buddhist Theory of Man Perfected, p. Ill ff. 

2 The fifth Jain precept, to renounce all interest in worldly things, 
calling nothing one's own (aparigraha), seems to be on a rather 
different basis from the other Jain precepts. 



TRANSLATOR S INTRODUCTION XXV 

spiritual development, only attainable after a long 
training in the fixed and stable resolve to become more 
perfect, and to make the potential in him assume 
actuality. The seriousness of the offence of unfoundedly 
claiming a state of further-men is further emphasised 
by the statement at Parajika iv. 4 that, if a deliberate 
lie is uttered in connection with such a claim, then 
that lie constitutes an offence entailing defeat. Yet, in 
the Suttavibhanga, it is far more common to find that 
deliberate lying ranks as an offence requiring expiation 
(pdcittiya), which is not nearly so grave as one " in- 
volving defeat." 

I have suggested elsewhere that the claiming of a 
state, or states, of further-men, to which the claimant 
was not entitled, could have only appeared as a most 
heinous offence to people by whom a teaching on be- 
coming, on becoming more perfect, of going further, 
was held in much esteem. Perhaps the greatest of 
Mrs. Rhys Davids' many contributions to the inter- 
pretation of Early Buddhism, is that this idea of be- 
coming was of living power and force to Gotama's 
early followers. If so, one may conclude, tentatively, 
that the fourth Parajika belongs to an ancient Sakyan 
stratum, and that in this, other-worldly (lokuUara) 
matters were held to be as important as, if not more 
so than, worldly (loka) matters. For I think it possible 
that the Parajikas are arranged in an ascending scale 
of gravity, in which the offence held to be the worst 
morally, though not legally, is placed last. Be this as 
it may, if spiritual progress and development had not 
been valued by the Sakyans, to whom this precept 
appears to be peculiar, the offence of untruly claiming 
the attainment of this or that advanced spiritual state 
could not have ranked as a Parajilca offence. 

It should be remarked that talk on conditions of 
further-men, though not absent from the Sutta-Pitaka, 
is at no place accentuated in it. There is, for example, 
a Saijyutta passage, which is the exact parallel of a 
long Vinaya passage, with the noteworthy exception 
that in the former there is no reference to Moggallana 



XXVI TRANSLATOR S INTRODUCTION 

as one held by other monks to be claiming a state of 
further-men, an imputed claim which seems to be the 
pivot of the Vinaya passage.^ 

I have chosen to translate pdrdjika by " defeat " 
chiefly, I admit, because Rhys Davids and Oldenberg 
rendered it in this way. They follow Buddhaghosa, 
who, to quote E. J. Thomas,^ " interprets pdrdjika as 
' suffering defeat,' and the Mulasarvastivadins appear 
.to do the same (Mvyut. 278, 9)." The editors of Vinaya 
Texts refer ''the word to the passive of ji (to defeat) 
with pard prefixed."* B. C. Law also considers these 
four rules are concerned with " acts which bring about 
defeat."* Although it may be grammatically incorrect 
to refer pdrdjika to pard-ji,^ to my mind no more 
convincing derivation has so far been put forward. 
Burnouf's idea® (adopted by Childers' and others) is 
that pdrdjika is derived from pard-{-aj, meaning a 
crime which involves the expulsion or exclusion of the 
guilty party. Pard-\-aj may be a better source, gram- 
matically speaking, for pdrdjika than is pard-\-ji. Yet, 
that the sense intended is " defeat," seems to me rather 
less doubtful than that it is expulsion, and aj, though a 
Vedic root, meaning " to drive away," is unknown as 
a root in Pali. 

It might be argued that because in each promulga- 
tion of the Parajika rules the words pdrdjiko hoti is 
followed by the word asarnvdso, "not in communion," 
tiiis is because the two are complementary, asamvdsa 
filling out the sense intended by pdrdjika. Such an 
argument would naturally increase the tendency to 
regard pdrdjika as a word standing for expulsion or 
exclusion, probably of a permanent nature.^ But may 
it not be that pdrdjika and asamvdsa represent not 

1 S. ii. 254-262:= Fm. iii. 104 ff. See below, p. 180 ff. 

2 Hist, of Bud. Thought, 16, n. 2. 

8 Vin. Texts, i. 3 n. * Hist, of Pali Lit., i. 47, 50. 

6 E.g., Kern, Manual of Indian Buddhism, 85, 
« Intr. it, VHist. du Buddhisme indien, 2nd edn., 268. ' Diet. 

8 E. J. Thomas, Hist, of Buddhist Thought, 16; Kern, Manual of 
Indian Buddhism, 85. 



TRANSLATOR S INTRODUCTION XXVll 

complementary, but disparate ideas, the not being in 
communion introducing a new notion, and one con- 
nected with and dependent upon not expulsion, but 
defeat ? 

If a monk were found to be unworthy to be in com- 
munion, unfitted to take his part in the communal 
acts and jurisdiction, then he would have to be expelled. 
But equally, he would have to cease to be in communion 
(which would entail expulsion, either temporary or 
permanent), if he found that he was defeated in his 
endeavour " to achieve the end for which he entered 
the Order."! 

It is beyond all doubt that the punishment for breach 
of the Parajika rules indeed involves expulsion. But 
it seems unnecessary to take the etymologically obscure 
parajika itself to mean expulsion, when this notion is 
covered by the word asamvdsa, with which, as I have 
said, parajika is always coupled in the formulation of 
the Parajika rules. In addition, it may be remarked 
that the Suttavibhanga has the verb ndseti (causative 
of nassati), meaning " to be expelled. "^ 

In such a very controversial case, I have preferred 
to follow the commentator. It appears very probable 
that many of these words: Patimokkha, Parajika itself, 
Sanghadisesa, were adopted from pre-Buddhist sects, 
and thus had some tradition behind them. Now, it 
may well be that the commentator explained the word 
parajika according to a meaning that for it and for him 
had become traditional. In which case, such an ex- 
planation will as truly enshrine something of the history 
of that word as later and inconclusive attempts at 
grammatical analysis. Moreover, the reference, in the 
third formulation of Parajika I., to not disavowing 
the training and not declaring weakness, together with 
the subsequent detailed analysis of these phrases 
(below, p. 42 if.), to my mind lends weight to the sug- 
gestion that a monk becomes one who is defeated 

1 B. C. Law, Hist, of Pali Lit., i. 47, n. 1 ; also cf. p. 50. 
a E.g., Vin. iii. 33, 40=pp. 50, 62 below. 



XXVlll TRANSLATOR S INTRODUCTION 

{pdrdjiko hotiy through his own inability or '' weak- 
ness " to lead the Brahma-life. 

Like the Parajika rules, the Sanghadisesas begin (in 
Sanghadisesa II. — Saiighadisesa I. is in a category apart) 
with four rules connected with a monk's conduct towards 
women. Then come two rules (Sanghadisesa VI., VII.) 
in which injunctions for building a hut and a vihara 
on sites approved by other monks, are set forth. The 
point of these rules appears to be to prevent monks 
from begging building materials too greedily from the 
laity, and to prevent them from building anywhere 
where animal life would be endangered or destroyed. 
The force of the injunction that the hut or the vihara 
must have an open space round it, is difficult to interpret, 
and the Old Commentary gives no practical help. It 
probably means that no monk should live in a secret 
place. The laity, who had contributed to the building 
of the hut or vihara, would very likely wish to have 
seen that the monk was behaving in a way worthy of 
their gift, and hence his conduct and habits must be 
open to unhindered inspection. 

Sanghadisesa VIII. and IX. comprise rules against 
the defamation of one monk by another. Then come 
two against the making of a schism in the Order, while 
Sanghadisesa XII. is concerned with the offence that 
a monk incurs if he is difficult to speak to. All such 
transgressions, leading to disharmony in the Order, 
would have made it hard for the Order to maintain itself 
and to progress. And if there had been repeated 
quarrels, discord and stubbornness, the Order would 
have become discredited among its lay supporters. 

The twelfth Saiighadisesa should be compared with 
the Anumana Sutta.^ The Old Commentary's defini- 
tion of dubbacajdtika, "difficult to speak to" (Vin. 

1 On hoti—bhavati, to become, see Mrs. Rhys Davids, To Become 
or Not to Become, p. 18 if. 

2 M. Sta. 15. Bu. at VA. 742, says that this Sutta is one of the 
five spoken for the disciples of the four groups (i.e., monks and 
nuns, male and female lay -followers). 



TRANSLATOR S INTRODUCTION XXIX 

iii. 178= p. 311 below), is word for word the same as the 
Anumana's description of the monk whom his fellows 
consider unfit to be taught or instructed.^ Buddha- 
ghosa states^ that the Ancients (pordnd) called this 
Sutta the Bhikkhu-patimokkha. This leads us to 
wonder if the twelfth Sanghadisesa indeed represents 
some specially ancient fragment of the Patimokkha, 
and whether, while the rules were being shaped, refusal 
to take the training with deference and respect appeared 
amongst the earliest offences that a monk could commit. 

The last and thirteenth Sanghadisesa rule is against 
bringing families into disrepute. This, again, would 
make the Order unpopular among the lay followers. 
It must be remembered that it was considered highly 
important to propitiate these, to court their admiration, 
to keep their allegiance, to do nothing to annoy them. 
For without their active interest and support the Order 
could not have endured. It is true that, had it been 
disbanded, the Sakyaputtiyas, as individuals, would 
not have come to starvation. For the " holy man," 
be he samana, sddhu, sanydsin or fakir, in India always 
has had his physical needs fulfilled. And some Sakya- 
puttiyas doubtless. could have reverted to a household 
life ; while others might have gone to dwell in the forests, 
there to subsist on fruits and roots (phalamula), and to 
dress in bark and antelopes' hides, as did some of their 
brahmin precursors and contemporaries. But, in fact, 
the Order became a powerful magnet, attracting men 
and women from many and various families, classes, 
trades and occupations, from the ranks of the Jains and 
Wanderers (paribbdjaka). Historically, the success of 
the Early Buddhist experiment in monasticism must be 
in great part attributed to the wisdom of constantly 
considering the susceptibilities and criticisms of the 
laity. 

Like the meaning of pdrdjika, the meaning of sangha- 
disesa is controversial. Again B. C. Law^ and I follow 

1 M. I 95, 1 12 ff. ' MA. ii. 67. 

3 Hist, of Pali Lit., i. 47, 50. 



XXX translator's introduction 



Vinaya Texts in r^nd^rmg sanghadisesa as offences (or 
rules or matters) which require a formal meeting of 
the Order. 

Now, one part of the penalty imposed for a breach 
of any one of the thirteen Sahghadisesa rules, namely, a 
return to the beginning of the probationary period, 
has apparently led Kern, for example, to describe the 
Sarighadisesas as offences '' involving suspension and a 
temporary exclusion "^ — from the Order or from taking 
part in its legal procedure is not made clear, though 
the latter must be meant. The other part of the penalty, 
namely, the necessity of undergoing the m3»natta 
discipline, has apparently led E. J. Thomas,^ . for 
example, to describe these offences as those which 
involve " a period of penance and reinstatement by the 
Assembly." Burnouf suggests' that sanghddisesa means 
*' that which should be declared to the Sangha from the 
beginning to the end." He further states that the 
Chinese syllables, pho chi cha, the equivalents of ddisesa, 
are '' probably altered." This may be because the Pali 
had already been altered from some more definite 
phrase containing less ambiguity and obscurity. Childers 
suggests^ that this class of offence is so called because 
as much in the beginning (ddi) as in the end (sesa) a 
Sarigha is required to administer the stages of penalty 
and ultimately rehabilitation. 

Neither of the descriptions — suspension or penance — 
is contained etymologically in the word sanghddisesa. 
That both were penalties incurred by this type of offence 
is indubitable. But by derivation, the compound 
sanghddisesa could not possibly mean either suspension, 
manatta discipline or reinstatement. Comparison with 
the Sanskrit brings us no nearer to an elucidation. For 
as Kern remarks,^ " Neither a Sanskrit Sangha vasesa 
nor Sanghatisesa, i.e. remnant of the Sangha, renders 
a satisfactory meaning." 

^ Manual of Indian Buddhism, p. 85. 

2 History of Buddhist Thought, p. 17. 

^ Intr. a I Hist, du Buddhisme indien, 2nd edn., p. 269. 

* Diet. 5 Manual of Indian Buddhism, p. 85, n. 9. 



TRANSLATOR S INTRODUCTION XXXI 



In the circumstances it is best to allow that we are 
in the realm of ancient technicalities, whose exact 
significance the passage of time has dimmed. In a 
translation, we can, however, pay due regard to the 
only member of the compound sanghddisesa which is 
neither grammatically obscure nor controversial. This 
is sangha, meaning for Sakya the Order, or any part of 
the whole Order resident within a certain boundary, 
district or vihara. That the oifence could not be 
settled without the intervention of the Order is a point 
for which there is the support of the Old Commentary. 
This states clearly that *' it is the Order which places 
(the wrong-doer) on probation, it sends (him) back to 
the beginning, it inflicts the manatta, it rehabilitates."^ 
Moreoyer, as noted by Childers, Rhys Davids and 
Oldenberg, this type of punishment had to be enforced, 
could only be enforced, by formal resolutions (sangha- 
kamma) carried at meetings of the Order. 

It is just possible that kamma, most usually work, 
which the Old Commentary states is a synonym for 
this class of offence, has also a specialised sense of 
" proceedings, ceremony performed by a lawfully con- 
stituted Sangha of monks." Such proceedings were 
formal in character, with motions and resolutions, and 
rules for their validity. Thus, if kammxi were indeed 
a synonym for this class of offence, and if it means acts 
of a formal nature, then what sanghddisesa means is a 
type of offence whose punishment must be meted out 
by some formal administration on the part of the 
Order. 

It may well be that the penalty for every class of 
offence could be imposed, or came at some time to be 
regarded as effective, only as the result of the juris- 
diction of the Order met together in solemn conclave. 
This, however, would not prove that the word sanghd- 
disesa does not contain some special reference to the 
Order as that instrument which, in this type of offence, 
administers the penalty. It is more than possible that 



Sec below, p. 196. 



XXXll TRANSLATOR S INTRODUCTION 

some of the other rules were known and named before 
the codification of the Patimokkha, but that the penalty 
for breaking them could be imposed by one or more 
individuals. Otherwise it could hardly have been 
necessary for the Old Commentary expressly to state 
that it is the Ordel, and not one man or many persons, 
which imposes the Sanghadisesa penalties.^ 

As S. Dutt shrewdly observes,^ " It is significant that 
only one of the group of offences (Sanghadisesa) is 
mentioned as coming within the disciplinary jurisdiction 
of the Saiigha, and it is in the case of this group only 
that certain penalties to be imposed upon the Bhikkhu, 
even against his will ... viz. Parivdsa and Mdnatta, are 
laid down. In the case of the other offences it is no- 
where stated or suggested in the Patimokkha itself 
that the Sahgha should have jurisdiction over them, and 
no mode of exercising such jurisdiction is defined, as in 
the case of the Sanghddisesas.'^ 

It is not impossible that originally the various Sanghas, 
which were really sub-divisions of the whole Sahgha, 
exercised their jurisdiction over each individual member 
only in the case of the Sanghadisesa offences, only 
coming later to exercise such jurisdiction in the case 
of all classes of offence. If this is so, we do well, I 
think, to underline the formalities which the Sangha- 
disesa offences entailed, and were very likely alone in 
so doing at first. For by this means some early feature 
of the Order's history may be kept in mind. 

The two Aniyatas, or undetermined matters, evince 
a remarkable amount of trust put in a woman lay- 
follower. Doubtless Visakha was one of the most 
generous patrons of the Order, a great supporter of the 
faith, to whom the Order had full reason to be grateful. 
Here she is shown expostulating with Udayin for what 
seemed to her unsuitable behaviour in a monk. The 
interesting thing is that both the Aniyata rules, general- 
ised as are all the Patimokkha courses of training from 

^ See below, p. 196. « ^-^rZy Buddhist Monachism, p. 105. 



TRANSLATOR S INTRODUCTION XXXlll 

a particular case, allow a monk '* to be dealt with " 
according to what a trustworthy woman lay-follower 
should say. Thus Visakha, herself eminently trust- 
worthy and single-minded in her efforts to improve 
conditions in the Order, is instrumental in bringing to 
all reliable women lay-followers the responsibility of 
procuring investigation into a monk's conduct, if she 
has seen him sitting secluded with a woman. These 
two Aniyata rules indicate the respect and deference 
that was, at that time, paid to women. They were not 
scornfully brushed aside as idle gossips and frivolous 
chatter-boxes, but their words were taken seriously. 

It may be pointed out here that the Vinaya shows, 
that if monks went astray, this was not always due to 
the baneful influence of women. For now and again 
monks took the initiative, and begged and cajoled lay- 
women and even nuns. Sometimes they got what they 
wanted, at others the women stood firm. When they 
asked lewd questions, women are shown as being 
innocent of their meaning.^ It is also apparent from 
the two Aniyatas that women of the world might do 
certain things with impunity, but that those same things, 
if done by Sakyan recluses, were blameworthy. Their 
life was to be organised on a different basis, as Parajika L 
shows, from that of the laity, and a recognition of this, 
and attempts to preserve the difference, are visible in 
many parts of Vinaya III. 

The Old Commentary, or Padabhajamya, is now 
incorporated in the Suttavibhanga, and forms an 
integral part of it. Since it explains each Patimokkha 
rule word by word, so that we get from it the meaning 
which the wordg possessed at all events at the time when 
the Old Commentary was compiled, this ancient exegesis, 
often of very great interest, is a most valuable critical 
apparatus. The purpose of the Old Commentary was 
evidently to make each rule absolutely clear, so that no 
misconception could arise through lack of lucid defini- 



1 P. 219 below. 



XXXIV TRANSLATOR S INTRODUCTION 



tion. Words not contained in the rule, but appearing 
in the stories, are not commented upon. 

Rhys Davids and Oldenberg think that when the 
rules had been formulated and each word interpreted, 
some explanation was wanted as to how the rules origin- 
ated. Thus, they hold, stories were invented to intro- 
duce each rule. Personally I do not think it necessary 
to take quite such a hard-and-fast view. For it seems 
to me possible that in some cases the story may be true, 
or may have had some historical foundation, so that 
the rule came to be made on account of the self-same 
events which, later, were recorded. In other cases, the 
story may quite possibly be an invention, the original 
reason for framing the rule and the name of the first 
wrong-doer involved having long been forgotten. It 
would now be very difficult to judge which stories may 
be more or less true and which may be purely fictitious. 

The point of the series of short stories or incidents, 
which usually follow the Old Commentary's exegesis, 
is to show what exceptions could be made to a rule, 
what exemptions were permissible, what lesser and 
sometimes what graver ojffences were incurred, and 
what was an offence from which there could be no 
exemption since it tallied in all its main respects with 
that which had led to the framing of the rule. These 
stories are not invariably ascribed to any particular 
person, as are those introducing the rule. They not 
seldom attach th^ behaviour which needs consideration 
to " a certain monk." 

These stories reveal the existence of different grades 
of penalty for different types of offence against the 
main rules. Not merely are there five great classes of 
offences — Parajika, Sanghadisesa, Nissaggiya Pacittiya, 
Pacittiya and Patidesaniya — there are also thnlhccaya 
(grave) offences, and dukkata offences (those of wrong- 
doing). These are of constant recurrence in the stories, 
or "Notes giving the exceptions to, and extensions of, 
the Rule in the Patimokkha.''^ Of rarer appearance 

» Yin. Texts, i. xix. 



TRANSLATORS INTRODUCTION XXXV 

are offences of wrong speech. One or other of these 
offences is said to be incurred if behaviour has approxi- 
mated to that which a particular Patimokkha rule 
has been designed to restrain, but which is, so far as 
can be judged, not so grave in nature as a breach of 
the rule itself, because of certain differences in its execu- 
tion, or because of certain extenuating circumstances. 

Sometimes the stories are grouped together to form 
a set. Although, where this occurs, each story may show 
no more than a minute variation from the others, they 
are all set out at length. Putting the gist of the stories 
into general terms, each one would then read something 
as follows : If this is done, but not that, though the other 
thing is done, such and such an offence is incurred. 
If this is done and that, but not the other thing, such 
and such an offence is incurred. If this is not done, 
but that is done, and the other thing is (is not) done, 
such and such an offence is incurred. And so on through 
permutation and combination of deeds done or not 
done, until the final case is achieved where no offence 
is incurred. 

These groups of stories are apt to be tedious to 
Western readers. I have therefore put them, when 
they occur, into a smaller type, as also other passages 
concerned with small shades of differences. Doubtless 
such meticulous detail was useful in defining exactly 
what was lawful and what was not lawful for monks to 
do, and in preventing the evasions which from time 
to time they seemed ready to attempt. As history, 
these stories are as interesting in evincing an Oriental 
love and management of detail as in revealing items 
of topical value in regard to manners and customs. 
The manner and time of their formulation are as 
problematical as those of the major rules. 

At the end of each Parajika, Sanghadisesa and Aniyata 
Rule, general circumstances are stated where the breach 
of the rule is riot to be counted as an offence. The 
most comprehensive of these is when a monk is mad, 
in pain or a beginner. Others have a more specialised 
import. Thus, for example, there is said to be no 



XXXVl TRANSLATOR S INTRODUCTION 

offence if a monk had some course of behaviour forced 
upon him, but did not consent to it (as in Parajika I.); 
if he did something accidentally, not intending to do it 
(as in Parajika III.); if he did something unsuitable, 
being under a misapprehension (as in Parajika 11. ). 

The occasions when it is stated that no oifence is 
incurred are all remarkable for their humane and lenient 
tone, for their reasonableness and common-sense. Thus 
there is no offence if something not given is taken for 
the sake of food (Parajika II. 7. 38), or is only taken 
for the time being (Parajika 11. 7. 40), it being assumed, 
apparently, that there was the intention of returning 
it. Again, two occasions are recorded^ where a monk 
died, in the one case through being tickled,^ and in the 
other through being trod upon.^ Yet no murderous 
act was done, or the verdict would have been different, 
and not that " there is no offence involving defeat." 
It seems probable that the monks who died were nervy, 
delicate or infirm, and received a shock or heart-attack 
resulting in their death, but had they been in normal 
health they would have come to no harm. 

It must be admitted that several early literatures 
have a coarse side. That the translations of Pali 
canonical works have so far been not in the least offen- 
sive, is mainly, or it may be said only, because the 
Sutta-Pitaka and the Abhidhamma-Pitaka deal chiefly 
with spiritual matters. The Vinaya, on the other hand, 
being concerned with behaviour, is forced occasionally 
to go into some aspects of life irrelevant to the 
subject-matter of the other two Pitakas. Such exposi- 
tions are, however, almost entirely confined to Parajika I. 
and Sanghadisesa I. 

^ Vin. iii. 84 (=pp. 145, 146 below). 

2 angulipatodaka. P.E.D. has " nudging with the fingers," 
C.P.D. " tickling with the fingers." Dial. i. 113 has in the text 
" nudging one another with the fingers," but loc. cit., n. 3, in referring 
to the above Vin. passage {=Vin. iv. 110) says: " It must there mean 
* tickling.' " G.S. iv. 225 (A. iv. 343) has " poking one another with 
the fingers." 

^ Or oUharati may mean to spread out, to stretch out. 



TRANSLATOR S INTRODUCTION XXXVll 

With regard to this preservation of crude passages in 
the Vinaya, three points must be insisted upon. In 
the first place they were neither spoken nor written 
down for a general public, but were intended only for 
the devotees of celibacy. * Secondly, the motive which 
led to their being uttered or written down was not a 
desire to shock, but the need to prevent unchastity. 
Thirdly, the pattern on which the compilers of the 
Suttavibhanga worked was one of almost unbelievable 
detail, for in their efforts to be lucid, case after case 
of possible or actual deviation from the general rule 
was investigated, penalised and perpetuated. Hence it 
cannot justly be said that the tendency to be detailed 
is greater or more insistent in one Parajika, or in one 
Sanghadisesa, than in others. Such lack of restraint 
as is found may be embarrassing to us, but it must be 
remembered that early peoples are not so much afraid 
of plain speech as we are. No stigma of indecency or 
obsQenity should therefore be attached to such Vinaya 
passages as seem unnecessarily outspoken to us. For 
they were neither deliberately indecent nor deliberately 
obscene. The matters to which they refer had to be 
legislated for as much as had matters of theft and murder, 
of choosing sites for huts and viharas. 

Nevertheless the differences in the outlook of an 
early society and a modern one may easily be forgotten 
or disregarded. I have therefore omitted some of the 
cruder Suttavibhanga passages, and have given abbrevi- 
ated versions of others, while incorporating them in 
their unabridged state in Pali in an Appendix, and 
marking them by an asterisk in the text. Even in 
omitting or expurgating such passages, I yet think 
that they are interesting historically, scientifically and 
psychologically, even psycho-analytically, and that 
they might be of value to anyone making a detailed 
comparison of Eastern and Western Monachism. 

Of the various forms of address recorded in Vin. 
iii., pp. 1-194 (to which this volume of translation 
corresponds), the most frequent are hhagavd, bhanie, 



xxxviii translator's introduction 

hho, dyasmd, dvuso, ayya, bhagini. I will do no more 
now than briefly indicate them, leaving a fuller in- 
vestigation to the Introduction to the final volume, 
when all the Vinaya data for modes of address will be 
before us. 

Only Gotama is recorded to be addressed as bhagavd. 
This, therefore, is- a very honourable term, which I 
have rendered by " lord." 

Bhante, one of several vocative forms of bhavant, is 
of very frequent occurrence. When Gotama is addressed 
as bhante, I have used the rendering '' lord." In order 
to preserve this appellation for him alone, when the 
named and unnamed monks who are his disciples 
are addressed as bhante, I have used the rendering 
" honoured sir." 

Bho (plural bhonto), another vocative form of bhavant, 
appears to be a more familiar form of address than is 
bhante, and is used as between equals, or from a superior 
to an inferior. It is of fairly frequent occurrence, some- 
times being followed by another vocative, such as a 
proper name. I have translated bho as " good sir." 

Ayasmd is not a form of address. It is an honorific 
designation, and is the most usual way in which monks 
and theras are referred to in the narrative, followed 
by their proper name. I have translated it as "the 
venerable." Nuns are never designated by this term, 
nor^are lay-people. ; 

Avuso may be said to be the habitual mode of address 
used between monks. The only other word that they 
appear to use in speaking to one another is bhante.^ 
They are also recorded to address laymen as dvuso, 
and this practice is sometimes reversed, although the 
laity seem more usually to have said bhante in speaking 

1 Franke in J.P.T.S., 1908, holds that the CuUavagga Council 
reports were invented exercises to show ways of address. His 
argument is based on the decree of D. ii. 154, ascribed to the dying 
Gotama, after which seniors were to address juniors as dvuso, while 
juniors were to address seniors as bhante. 

_ The terms duso and bhamte were also in use among the Jains, cf. 
Ayaramgasutta (P,T.S. edn.), e.g. p. 106. 



TRANSLATOR S INTRODUCTION XXXIX 

to the monks, sometimes combined with ayya. I have 
translated dvuso as " your reverence " and " reverend 
sir." Since dvuso is masculine in form, it was never 
used in addressing nuns. 

Ayya and ayyo (nom. plural used as a voc.) are 
frequently used in speaking of a person and in address- 
ing him, both directly and obliquely. It appears to 
be more flexible than the other terms noted above, 
both with regard to those who use it and with regard 
to those to whom it is applied. I have translated it 
as " master " if followed by a proper name, and as 
** the master " if this is not the case. It is not in- 
frequently combined with bhante. Ayya was an epithet 
in use among the laity, as well as between the laity and 
the monks. But in the part of the Vinaya translated 
in this volume it does not happen that a lay-person is 
addressed as ayya by a monk, or that any monk is so 
addressed by a fellow-monk. 

Although monks did not address their fellows in the 
Brahma-life as ayya, nuns use ayye (fem., " lady, 
noble lady ") in speaking to one another. Lay women 
also use this form of address in speaking to nuns and 
to other laywomen. Monks, however, never appear to 
address either nuns or laywomen a6 ayye. 

Bhagini, " sister," is the most usual way in which 
monks are recorded to address both laywomen and 
nuns. Yet nuns do not, as far as is recorded, address 
one another as bhagini. Unluckily, in this portion of 
the Vinaya there are no records of intercommunication 
between nuns and laywomen, so we get here no indica- 
tion of how they addressed one another. 

From these short notes it will have emerged that the 
words bhikkhu and bhikkhuni do not occur as forms 
of address used between the two sections of the religious 
community, any more than that lay-people address 
monks and nuns with these terms. On the other hand, 
Gotama is sometimes recorded to address a monk as 
bhikkhu, and also to refer to individual monks in this 
fashion. And there is a certain story {Vin. iii. 131 = 
p. 220 below) in which a female wanderer addresses a 



xl translator's introduction 



monk as hhikkhu. In the narrative, monks are ordinarily 
spoken of as bhikkhu, unless the personal name of the 
monk concerned has been recorded. If it has, it is 
usually preceded by dyasmd, and never, I think, by 
bhikkhu. On the other hand, the narrative, if referring 
to a nun, consistently calls her bhikkhum, and this 
description precedes her proper name, if this has been 
recorded. In this part of the Suttavibhanga there are 
no records showing Gotama speaking with nuns, so we 
have no means of knowing how he usually addressed 
them. When speaking of them, he is, however, recorded 
to have used the word bhikkhum. 

The translation of the term bhikkhu presents many 
difficulties. I have selected the term " monk," and 
have rejected " mendicant, almsman, brother, friar," 
not necessarily because " monk " is the most literal, 
but, for reasons which I will state shortly, it appears 
to me the best and most suitable rendering. 

Although neither *' monk," nor the terms rejected, 
are precise equivalents for bhikkhu, I could not find 
sufficient grounds for leaving bhikkhu untranslated, as 
though it were untranslatable. Further, I became more 
and more convinced that where an English word is 
possible, where it coincides to some extent with the 
significance of the Pali, although the known facts of 
history preclude full identity of meaning, it is more 
desirable to use it than to leave the word untranslated. 
Untranslated words are balking to the English reader, 
and it is for the English reader that this series is primarily 
designed. But before giving the reasons which deter- 
mined my choice of " monk " as the nearest equivalent 
for bhikkhu, a few words must be said about each of 
the terms that has not been selected. 

■'Mendicant," literally " a beggar for alms," from 
mendicare, to beg, mendicus, " a beggar," is also doubt- 
less etymologically correct^ as a translation of bhikkhu. 

^ Cf. Burnouf, Infr. a VHist. du Buddhisme indien, 2nd edn., 
p. 245, where he says that the sense of the word bhikkhu means 
exactly " one who lives by alms." 



translator's introduction xli 

Yet, I think, it lays too much emphasis on one aspect 
only of the bhikkhu's life, and ignores the other con- 
notations of bhikkhu adduced by the Old Commentary,^ 
as well as his functions of meditation and preaching. 
Moreover, in English it has no feminine, unless one 
falls back on the cumbersome " woman (or female) 
mendicant," as one is forced to say " woman (or female) 
slave " (ddst) and " woman (or female) recluse " (samam)y 
a practice to be avoided as far as possible. 

Professor B. M. Barua speaks of the bhiksus as 
" Buddhist mendicants, monks or recluses, "^ a sentence 
which well shows the hesitation which all translators 
must feel in trying to translate the term bhikkhu. An 
objection here would be, though it is a fault into which 
we all fall, that " Buddhist " is an anachronism, since 
'* Buddhist " and " Buddhism " are terms of a much 
later invention. " Sakyan mendicant" would be pos- 
sible; and it is true that here, as in all the other transla- 
tions for bhikkhu that are being considered, the word 
" Sakyan " is wanted in all cases where it is necessary 
to distinguish the monastic followers of Gotama from 
those adherents of other sects who were also known 
as bhiksu. But I doubt if the Pali Canon demands 
the drawing of such a distinction, for in it, I believe, the 
term bhikkhu denotes exclusively the Sakyan bhikkhu. 
Moreover, if it came to the feminine, the phrase " Sakyan 
female mendicant " would be unwieldy, and it seems 
a pity to use three words where two should suffice. 

'' Almsman " has " almswoman " for its feminine, 
and is further doubtless etymologically correct. For 
bhiksa and bhiksuh (Skrt.) are the noun and participle 
derived from the desiderative base of bhaj, to beg, to 
beg for alms. But again, like " mendicant," it lays too 
strong a stress on one aspect only of what the words 
bhikkhu and bhikkhunl came to stand for. For the 
Sakyan bhikkhu came to be much more than one de- 
pendent on others for the necessities of life. This is 



1 Vin. iii. 24. 

* Maskari as an Epithet ofGosala, Ind. Hist. Quart., iii. 2, p. 253. 



xlii translator's introduction 

one of the reasons why I have not adopted Lord 
Chalmers' rendering of " almsman "^ here, as I have 
elsewhere.^ Again, '' almsman " may not inevitably 
mean one who asks for or who lives on alms, for it 
may also be used to mean a giver of alms. In addition, 
'' almsman " would have a cumbrous translation in 
German and some other European languages. Hence 
I think that, as a possible rendering, it should be rejected. 

" Brother " is, as a translation of hhikkhu, historically 
incnrrect. It is the term by which bhikkhu is rendered 
in the Cambridge translation of the Jatakas, and the 
English title of the P.T.S.'s translation of the Thera- 
gatha reads " Psalms of the Brethren." Thera is merely 
a bhikkhu of long standing. In spite of the recom- 
mendation for " brother " derived from its use in these 
works, the advance in Pali studies since the date of 
their publication shows that bhikkhu does not mean 
what " brother " means. It might be argued that the 
term " brother " draws attention to the bhikkhu' s 
relation to his fellow-members of the religious com- 
munity, and that such a relation was explicitly recog- 
nised, in so far as bhikkhus addressed the bhikkhunls 
not as bhikkhuni but as bhagini, " sister." 

Yet against this argument we must set the fact that 
neither Order looked to anyone or to any kind of being 
as their " father " or their " mother." Nor were the 
viharas ruled over by anyone corresponding to an abbot, 
father or bishop. Power of authority was not vested in 
an individual, but in the Patimokkha courses of training 
and the Order (Sangha) of monks. All that can be 
said is, that the bhikkhus were " brethren " to the 
extent that, apart from the three grades of theras 
(Elders), those of middle standing, and novices, no 
hierarchy existed among them, but terms of more or 
less equality. 

There is, besides, " another argument, to my mind 
so insuperable as to extinguish the claims of '* brother " 
as in any way a suitable term by which to render bhikkhu. 

^ Fur. Dial. * Women under Primitive Buddhism. 



translator's introduction xliii 



For bhdtar, the accepted word for " brother," and one in 
current terminology, was never apparently regarded as 
synonymous with bhikkhu, and indeed never seems to 
have been connected with members of the Order. 
These are never recorded to address one another or 
laymen as bhdta. Nor do the lay-people so address 
them. Had *' brother " been wanted, had it been 
able to fulfil some purpose in the monastic life, surely 
bhdtar would have been used, for it was to hand. As it 
is, the word seems to have been restricted in its use to 
the relationship of blood-brothers,^ and even among the 
laity bhdta was not used in address, but tdta (dear). 

With this absence of bhdtar as a term used in the 
religious life, it is curious that monks used its opposite, 
bhaginl. But it should be noted that they addressed 
laywomen as well as nuns as bhagini. Hence the word 
bhaginl is clearly precluded from containing any unique 
reference to bhikkhunls. Thus the two terms, bhaginl 
and bhikkhunl cannot be said to be precisely equivalent 
in meaning. The latter is applicable to women to whom 
the former is not applicable. Yet the implication 
remains, if words mean anything, that monks regarded 
women as " sisters," while they did not regard men as 
" brothers." There must be some historical reason for 
this. I venture to suggest that the celibacy to which 
the monk was consecrated was answerable for his look- 
ing upon women as bhaginl. But I am not prepared 
to say that this is the whole story, although I believe 
that it may be the root of the matter.^ 

"Friar," although it has the English feminine 
" friaress," does not appear to me such an acceptable 
rendering for bhikkhu as is *' monk." It is true that 
friars are much more than mendicants or almsmen, as 
a bhikkhu is, or came to be,' much more than one who 
merely begs for alms. When, in the West, mendicancy 
became symbolic under St. Francis, the friars were to 



1 E.g., at Thig. 408; J a. i. 308. 

2 Cf. S. iv. 110, where, however, there is also mention of the 
mother-mind " and " daughter-mind." 



xliv translator's introduction 

beg, as other poor men. The Sakyan bhikkhu, too, 
had to beg. Yet the growing belief that merit was to 
be acquired by giving in many cases inspired the laity 
to give before they had been begged. Hence begging 
did not take such a high place in the duties of Gotama's 
Order as it did in the West after St. Francis' death; 
and I doubt if, in India, it was ever symbolic. 

On the other hand, " friar," being derived from 
f rater, is open to the same general objections as is 
•" brother." Moreover, the Western friar, a later de- 
velopment than the monk, and with the monastic 
tradition behind him, never aimed at saving himself. 
He was a brother to the whole world, and went about 
talking to people at the wayside, to birds and animals; 
while the prime concern of bhikkhus, however much 
they may have preached, was with the attainment of 
their own perfection. 

Having now considered various arguments for and 
against mendicant, almsman, brother, friar as transla- 
tions of bJtikkhu, I will put forward the reasons which 
led me to choose " monk " for this term, and " nun " 
for bhikkhuni. It may be that only a profound study 
of Western Monachism could fully justify or condemn 
this choice, but from a superficial study it would appear 
that the similarities between a " monk " and a bhikkhu 
outweigh their differences. These similarities and differ- 
ences must be judged by the historical associations of 
the two words. Etymological ly they are not con- 
nected. Yet in the East and in the West there were 
these movements, comparable in a general way, though 
varying in detail, towards ordering and organising 
religious life in a fashion that necessitated its devotees 
renouncing their former modes of life and their former 
worldly pre-occupations. 

The two words, monk and bhikkhu, are the outcome 
of certain and definite historical tendencies. Because 
these did not follow the same course of development 
in East and West, the two words, although comparable 
in meaning, are not synonymous. For each is the 
expression of a particular phase of that development. 



translator's introduction xlv 

If this is borne in mind, if we remember that we are 
dealing with historical variations of a common tendency, 
it will seem to us less remarkable that Western termin- 
ology offers no equivalent with which the term bhikkhu 
can be made exactly to fit, and more remarkable that 
a study in comparisons is as possible as it is. 

The Western monk, coming into Europe from the 
East, has, like the Buddhist bhikkhu, a long and compli- 
cated history, and monks of one century and Order 
differ considerably from monks of another century and 
Order. The word monk (monachus) is derived frgm 
inonos, meaning " alone." For originally monks aban- 
doned the worldly life for the sake of that solitude in 
which, by meditation and contemplation, they could 
attempt to save their souls. Communion with God 
would enable their souls to be entered by God. Later 
the outward forms of monkdom changed, and monks 
came to live a communal life in convents, observing 
the Rule of the Order which they had entered, and taking 
the vows of poverty, chastity and obedience. It was 
the monk's great work to go out into the world so as to 
save men and to bring men to God. A separate develop- 
ment, a still further change displaced the monk's earlier 
ideal of finding his own salvation while leading the life 
of a hermit or anchorite in the desert. Moreover, as 
monasticism developed, century by century, the early 
communal poverty gave way to communal plenty. 
Monasteries became land-owners, monks became culti- 
vators of the soil, makers of various kinds of produce, 
copyists of manuscripts, storehouses of learning, although 
by none of these activities was individual property or 
gain supposed to result. 

Now the Buddhist bhikkhu did not live alone, but 
in communities; and there is nothing in the derivation 
of bhikkhu comparable to monos. Bhikkhu, bhiksu is 
from the desiderative base of bhaj, to beg, to beg alms. 
On the other hand, he did go into seclusion for medita- 
tion during the " day-sojourn " {divdvihdra, cf. siesta), 
and sometimes for longer periods he retreated to lonely 
spots far from the haunts of men. And possibly in 



xlvi translator's introduction 

his earlier history, as bhiksu, he was one who lived 
alone, only gradually coming to live in a community, 
as the monk came later to lead a cenobitic life. Part 
of the moral duty of the Buddhist bhikkhu was, if he 
had talent that way, to go forth and give dhamma for 
the sake of devas and mankind. In this he resembles 
certain Orders of Western Monachism which had as 
their mission the salvation of the world. The early 
Friars, too, did wayside teaching and preaching, but 
later this was regulated by authority and made orthodox. 
Monks, in Gotama's Order, were certainly not segre- 
gated, and the Vinaya reveals all manner of inter- 
communication between the religious and the lay 
sections of society. 

In order to give dhamma, the bhikkhu had to tour the 
countryside for nine months in each year. This would 
also prevent him from being a constant drain on the 
resources of the laity at any one place. But he was 
forbidden to travel during the three months of the rains. 
In this there was nothing similar to the Benedictine 
** vow of stability," by which a monk undertook to 
remain permanently at one house. This vow was im- 
posed because wandering ascetics had become a nuisance, 
whereas Buddhist monks had to stay in one fixed abode 
for the rains, lest in journeying during this season they 
should harm the young crops or destroy animal life. A 
motive such as the latter was far from the thoughts of 
Western monks, one of whose many activities was to tend 
the crops and dig the soil. Their view of life did not in- 
clude a close kinship existing between men and animals, 
and even the Friars, who spoke to the animals as their 
" brothers," did not suggest that a man might be 
undergoing rebirth as an animal {tiracchdna-gata). 

It may also be supposed that the nine months of 
touring was made obligatory on a Buddhist monk in 
order to keep him healthy. The heaviest manual work 
he did was the washing, bleaching and beating of his 
robes, and now and again repairs to buildings. This 
was not because the entrants into the Order were weak, 
decrepit or sick. It was because the nature of the 



translator's introduction xlvii 

beliefs which they held made work on the land im- 
possible for them. In the West, agriculture and all 
forms of manual labour were regarded as essentials in 
the main work. They served the further purpose of 
helping the conquest of the spirit in its perpetual battle 
with the flesh, and of sharpening and toughening the 
monks against the vice of accedia. The Eastern bhikkhu 
who, on account of the climate, might have been more 
prone to this was, I think it reasonable to hold, 
fortified against sloth and indolence by the discom- 
forts of journeying on foot (for the use of vehicles was 
not allowed), no less than by preaching and by spiritual 
exercises. 

The Buddhist bhikkhu has to renounce his worldly 
possessions before he is ordained, and after his ordina- 
tion he should own no private property, but should regard 
his bowl and robe and other requisites as being the 
communal property of the Order, lent to him for his 
use. He should lead a life of chastity. He should be 
obedient to the Patimokkha courses of training. In 
these particulars his case closely resembles that of an 
European monk. But, and here is a great difference 
between the Western monk and the bhikkhu, as under- 
stood in the sixth century B.C. in India: there were no 
vows for a Sakyan bhikkhu to take. He did not make 
any vows, did not bind himself by vows. If he attempted 
right behaviour, this was because his spiritual training 
had led to the taming of the self. But where this was 
of no avail, penalties were inflicted and the discipline 
was tightened, sometimes in ways which left no loop- 
holes for laxity. 

If there were no initial vows, far less were there any 
*' final vows," making a return to life *' in the world " 
extremely difficult, if not impossible. For even after 
the second ordination ceremony, the upasampada, a 
bhikkhu was able, if he wished, to " leave the Order," 
vibbhamati, as is the Vinaya word, and to " turn back 
to the low life of the layman," hmdyavattati, as is the 
Pitakan expression. What was binding on the bhikkhu 
was the one rule, the Patimokkha, under which he 



xlviii translator's introduction 



lived, the one training and the one work, as the defini- 
tion of " in communion " at the end of each Parajika 
rule shows, If he was not at one with these, he was 
defeated and expelled from the Order. 

A bhikkhu goes for alms, he begs, sikntly, for alms; 
he is entirely dependent on the laity for food, robes^ 
lodgings and medicine. In the great centuries of 
Western Monachism monks, far from being beggars for 
alms, were the donors of abundant charity. Bhikkhus 
received alms, they did not give them. If a bhikkhu 
received no kathina cloth at the time of its distribution, 
he wore rags taken from the dust-heap. Moreover, a 
mark of the bhikkhu is that he is one who Wears the 
patchwork cloth (bhinnapatadhara). For even gifts of 
robe-material had to be made up, not whole, but in 
pieces, symbolical of a beggar's rags. The " yellow 
robes " of a bhikkhu are comparable to the Western 
" habit," the frock and cowl. 

In looking for points of contact between " monks '' 
and bhikkhus, their relation to the lay-followers might 
be adduced. In, for instance, a Cistercian abbey the 
brethren were divided into the monks (monachi) and 
the lay-brothers (conversi). The Buddhist Order had 
its lay-followers. But there, I think, the similarity 
between the Buddhists and the Cistercians ends. For 
the Buddhist lay-followers of the faith, in supporting 
the religious exponents and answering their call of 
poverty, did not regard them as the means of transmit- 
ting their gifts of charity to other needy laity. These 
gifts were made to and for the bhikkhus, and there the 
matter ended. Nor were the lay-followers organised as 
were the conversi. They did not live in the viharas 
and they had no cloistral duties to perform. These 
were executed by those bhikkhus who had been duly 
appointed to various offices, such as that of food- 
distributor, assignor of lodgings, robe-distributor, silver- 
remover, and so forth, offices comparable to those of 
almoner, kitchener, cellarer of the Western convent, 
and which in Cistercian abbeys were performed by the 
conversi. The viharas did not receive laity as guests; 



translator's introduction xlix 

they only received monks from other districts. In 
Western monasteries the entertainment of lay- visitors 
was a very important matter. 

The wide scope of meaning compressed" into the word 
bhikkhu is doubtless an indication that the word was of 
gradual growth, its significance increasing as the object 
which it connoted acquired more and more aspects and 
characteristics. I think the plain historic fact is that 
originally bhikkhiis were no more than " men of the 
scrap-bowl." To this was added, for their greater 
merit, the meaning of men who, besides living on 
begged meats, had broken away from this or that un- 
desirable state, and had assumed various distinguishing 
marks. 

In spite of the differences between bhikkhu and monk, 
the affinities between them seem to me marked enough 
to warrant translating bhikkhu as " monk." I have 
also chosen " monk " for various other reasons. In 
the first place, in the translations of Pali literature 
which have already appeared, no less than in several 
books on Early Buddhism, monk is a rendering that 
has been commonly adopted for bhikkhu. This word, 
therefore, has some tradition behind it, and hence will 
not arrest the reader's attention with a sense of un- 
familiarity. Secondly, in deciding upon the nearest 
English equivalent for bhikkhu, I had to take into 
account the fact that an easy feminine form would 
be required. " Nun " is a very convenient translation 
for bhikkhum, and has, moreover, equivalents in other 
European languages. This is not a negligible point 
when comparing translations. Another reason for the 
choice of " monk " was that, in the period of Indian 
history under review, this word necessitates, in the last 
resort, the drawing of a distinction merely between the 
Sakyan monk and the Jain monk. Each of the other 
possible terms — almsman, mendicant, friar^ — might be 
applicable to the disciples of other sects; but these 
could hardly be termed " monks." 

^ " Brother " is hardly possible, as I have tried to show above. 

d 



1 translator's introduction 

The tremendous growth in the meanings and associa- 
tions of both " monk " and bhikkhu clearly shows that 
in some cases it is impossible for the history of words 
to be contained in their etymology. I mention this 
tendency for words to grow and change, a tendency 
not of course peculiar to these two terms, simply to 
remind the reader that etymology is not an infallible 
guide to the developed meaning of terms. By the time 
the objects that such terms denote have passed through 
several phases, their historical meaning, their signifi- 
cance in and for history, may have come to be more 
than their etymological meaning indicates, diiferent 
from it, even the very reverse of it. The most that 
etymology can do in such cases is to point to the mean- 
ings that the words once, very likely originally, possessed. 
This is of undoubted importance. But to translate 
them according to that meaning, and without a due 
regard for the known facts of their evolution, would 
be grossly to neglect the significance that they came to 
acquire as a result of their historical development. 

In rendering samana by *' recluse " I am adopting 
what has come to be a fairly usual translation. I am 
aware that it is a far from happy one. It has no 
feminine form in English; its connotation of being 
segregated and living in isolation is misleading. For 
the Sakyan samanas were not segregated, in the sense 
of being confined within the vihara precincts and 
forbidden to mix with the laity. They were restricted 
from following worldly occupations, for it was held 
that these should be given up when a man or woman 
went forth from the household state. But the Sakyan 
samanas were in no way anchorites or hermits. Nor 
do I think " ascetic "^ a particularly suitable rendering. 
For nowhere is asceticism, as understood in the West, 
made of importance in Pali literature. The chief 
asceticism which it recognises is a taming, a training 
(damatha, from the root dam), the restraint of evil deeds, 



1 E.g., E. J. Thomas, Histonj of Buddhist Thought, 72, 82, 89. 



translator's introduction li 

thoughts and words. Thus, although " ascetic " may, 
etymologically, be more correct than " recluse," unless 
the Sakyan meaning of asceticism be thoroughly under- 
stood, and its Western connotations of bodily mortifica- 
tions and austerities be dispelled, " recluse " comes 
nearer to the Pali than does *' ascetic." For there 
were times when the samanas went into seclusion for 
meditation. There are, besides, other words in Pali, 
such as tdpasa, literally burning, which more definitely 
connote an ascetic. 

Mrs. Rhys Davids says that " monk " is our nearest 
word^ to samana, although she also puts forward another 
word, namely " retreater,"^ which perhaps is the best 
in the sense of preserving the history buried in the word 
samana, sramana. Doubtless " monk " could have been 
used for samana, had this word not been selected as 
the most appropriate for bhikkhu. For from internal 
evidence, not only of the Suttavibhanga but of other 
parts of the Canon and the Commentaries,^ it would 
appear that the Sakyan satnana was to all intents and 
purposes regarded as much the same as the Sakyan 
bhikkhu. The difference came to be more in the name 
than in the object, and may even have depended more 
on the person who used the term than on the person 
of whom it was used. This, in its turn, may depend 
on some earlier aspects of the history of the two terms. 

The word samana is not used as a direct form of 
address in the portion of the Suttavibhanga here trans- 
lated. The brahmin of Veraiija, before he became a 
lay-follower, does not address Gotama as samana, 
although in speaking to him he uses this word of him 
(Vin. iii. 2=p. 2 below); and Gotama, in this same 
conversation, is recorded to apply the term to himself. 

* Birth of Indian Psychology, p. 185; and c/". her Outlines of Bud- 
dhism, pp. 62, 65. 

2 Buddhism, Home Univ. Lib,, new edn., p. 198. 

* Canonical references very frequent. Comys, see, e.g., A A. iii. 
156 (Siamese edn.), hhikkhu kanhddhimuttikd ti samana nam' eie; 
and MA. ii. 4, where samanas are explained as those on the four 
ways to arahantshij), thus being identified with hhikkhus. 



lii 



TRANSLATOR S INTRODUCTION 



The schismatics also refer to Gotama in this way 
(Vin. iii. 171, 172=pp. 296 ff. below), but not in his 
presence. Monks are not recorded to address one another 
in this way, nor do the nuns employ the feminine samani 
(voc.) when speaking to one another, nor the nomina- 
tive samani in speaking of one another. The laity, on 
the other hand, are sometimes recorded to speak of a 
particular monk by his personal name, coupled with the 
appellation samana, such as samana Uddyi (Vin. 
iii. 120= p. 200 below). They also refer, so it is said, 
to monks as samana, whether they admired them {Vin. 
iii. 11 9 = p. 200 below) or were vexed with them (Vin. iii. 
120= p. 200 below). ^ 

The curious thing is that the negative forms, asamdno, 
asamam, occur quite often as terms of reproach, and 
meaning " not a true recluse." On different occasions 
lay-people and monks are recorded to have reprimanded 
a monk for his bad behaviour by saying asamxino 'si 
tvam, '' you are not a (true) recluse." A nun is re- 
corded to have rebuked another nun in the single phrase 
asamam 'si tvam. This was evidently such a serious 
reproach as to send the person rebuked to Gotama to 
receive his verdict on the oifence committed or imputed, 
as the case may have been. If the action performed 
by the monk or nun in question is found by him to be 
blameworthy, one of the words of censure put into his 
mouth is always assdmanaka, " not worthy of a recluse, 
not belonging to a recluse " (e.g., Vin. iii. 24= p. 43 
below). 

A common designation of the monastic followers of 
Gotama was samana Sakyaputtiyd, recluses (lit. sons of 
the) Sakyans, or Sakyan recluses. This was also used 
of them by the laity (e.g., Vin. iii. 43, 136, 172=pp. 67, 
234, 299 below), including those occasions where the 
monks had given them cause for complaint (Vin. 
iii. 44, 73, 119=pp. 70, 125, 200 below). In each 
definition that it gives of pdrdjika, the Old Commentary 
invariably states that the errant bhikkhu is become one 
who is not a samana, not a Sakyajmttiya. These two 
words, asamana and asakyaputtiya, are sometimes 



translator's introduction liii 

used together in other passages as terms of abuse 
(Vin. iii. 164 f. =283 below). It may also be noted 
that, as the monastic disciples of Gotama were called 
saynand Sakyaputtiyd, so * the followers of Mahavira 
were called, even in the Pali canon,^ samand Niganthd, 
or to be exact, niganthd ndma samanajdtikd, a kind of 
recluse called niganthas (Jains). 

If the Sakyan samana came to correspond with the 
Sakyan bhiJckhu on the one side, on the other he came 
to correspond with brdhmana, brahmin, in the meaning 
of this term as it grew into Sakya, and also into Jain- 
ism. ^ For the fact that samana often appears in 
combination with brdhmana ih Pali canonical litera- 
ture does not there, I think, necessarily imply any 
opposition between the two, any more than it does in 
Jaina literature.^ According to Professor B. M.^Barua,* 
there were various sects or groups or schools of Sramana 
who broke away from the '' later form of Brahmanic 
religion, superstition and mysticism." So far there 
was opposition. But by the time that the Sakya- 
puttiyas were known as samanas, the term brdhmana 
was also being incorporated into Sakyan usage, and was 
there receiving a new meaning. 

While brahmins as a class remained, brahmins by 
birth and occupation, brahmins forming sects of 
ascetics, living by various rules, the word brdhmana 
was developing for Sakya the meaning of the best, the 
highest person, not because of birth and lineage, but 
because of spiritual endeavour and attainment. To this, 
samana in public opinion was evidently equivalent. 
Had not the two words come to have some identity of 
meaning, not exactly the same things would have been 



1 A. i. 206. 

2 Jaina Sutras, ii. p. 138 (ed. Jacobi, S.B.E. xlv.): " He who has 
no worldly attachment after entering the Order, who does not repent 
of having become a monk . . . him we call a Brahmana." Again 
at p. 422: " The sama^jias or brahmanas who say thus ... do not 
speak as samanas or Nigranthas." 

^ Cf. Jaina Sutras, ii. p. 140, and last note. 

* Pre-Buddhisiic Indian Philosophy, p. 242. See also p. 237 ff. 



liv translator's introduction 



said of them both, as is the case in a formula occurring 
now and again in this part of the Suttavibhahga 
(e.g., Vin. iii. 44, 120=pp. 70, 200 below). On the 
other hand, the words samana and brdhmana occur in 
two other sentences at Vin. iii. 44, once separated by 
the disjunctive vd (or), once forming a compound. It 
is possible that some divergence between the two is 
intended here, as perhaps referring to members of diff- 
erent sects; in which case the two words would not be 
substitutes or synonyms for one another.^ 

I have left brdhmana in its anglicised form of brahmin. 
The time is perhaps not yet ripe to draw an infallible 
distinction between brahmins as members of a sect op- 
posed to Sakya, and brahmins as men, as monks, who 
had attained, or who had failed to attain, some of the 
ethical attributes and mental development inculcated 
by Sakya. A verse in the Dhammapada clearly identi- 
fies the three, for it ends: so brdhmano so samano sa 
bhikkhu (ver. 142). To differentiate between the Sakyan 
and non-Sakyan uses of brdhmana, as this word occurs 
in the Pali canon, would be to emphasise the new mean- 
ing which, under Sakya, accrued to brdhmana, as a 
word adopted from earlier times. 

For there is no doubt that the three terms — bhikkhu, 
brdhmana and samana — were, in their Sanskrit forms of 
bhiksu, brdhmana, sramana, already in the terminology 
of pre-Sakyan days.^ Each word will therefore have 
some pre-Sakyan history, even though this is, in many 
respects, still obscure. Brdhmana is of course a term 
of enormously long and complicated history, of in- 
disputable antiquity. Professor B. M. Barua says^ that 
" sramanas became known, perhaps from the practice 
of begging, as bhiksus (mendicants)." And referring 
to a passage in the Anguttara Commentary, he further 
points out that '* by the bhiksus must have been meant 

^ On Samanas see B. M. Barua, loc. cit., and Ratilal Mehta, Asceti- 
cism in Pre-Bvddhist Days, Ind. Culture, iii. 4. 

2 Cf. interesting Jaina tradition tliat Mahavira's parents were 
followers of the sramanas, S.B.E. xxii., p. 194. 

* History of Pre-Buddhist Philosophy, p. 240. 



translator's introduction Iv 



the members of the fourth Brahmanic order, that is, 
the Brahmanist ascetics in the fourth stage of efforts 
and fruitions who are designated Bhiksu, Yati or Pari- 
vrajaka in the Dharma-Stitras and the Dharma-Sastras."^ 
It is worth while to mention that, according to Jacob's 
Concordance, in the early Up^nisads, §ramana appears 
but once,2 hrdhmana many times, and bhiksu not at all. 
Sramana occurs, however, in the Satapatha Brahmana. 

If bhikkhu were equivalent in fact to samana, and if 
this were, on some occasions at least, equivalent to the 
Sakyan usage of hrdhmana, it is not difficult to see 
why the life of monks continued to be called brahma- 
cariya under Sakya.' But as the most suitable transla- 
tion of brahma has still to be decided upon, when it 
occurs in the compounds brahmacariya and brahmacdrin, 
I have left it untranslated. 

All the same I think there is little doubt that in the 
words in which Grotama first sent monks out on tour 
to preach to devas and men, brahmacariya meant the 
perfect, the best, the highest life. At some later time 
it was defined as " refraining from unchastity,"* while 
in another Suttavibhanga passage it is defined as 
** monkdom, dhamma of recluses, the aggregates of 
morality, the quality of austerity."* The difficulty is 
to determine what was meant by the " best life." 
Whether at one time brahma, as part of the compound 
brahmacariya, may not have possessed the deep and 
essential meaning of the All, the All-Real, the Highest 
that it possessed in the Upanisadic teaching is as yet 
a matter of controversy. I find it hard to believe that 
Sakya arose either in ignorance of this teaching or un- 
influenced by it. And even if, as seems highly probable, 
brahmxicariya and brahmacdrin are words taken over by 
Sakya (and Jainism) from pre-Sakyan sects, it has still 

^ Maskarl as an Epithet of Gosdla, Ind, Hist. Quart., iii. 2, p. 254. 

2 Bihad. 4, 3, 22. 

^ See Dial. i. 212-215. The word brahmacdrin occurs once in the 
Rg-Veda in the (later) Mandala, x., ver. 109. 
' * E.g., Vin. iii. 133=p. 225 below. Cf. S. i. 38. 

5 Vin. iii. 164=p. 282 below. 



Ivi translator's introduction 



to be established that for these brahma did not contain 
some profound philosophical or religious significance. 

Besides hrahmacariya and brahmacdrin, I have left 
untranslated two other words of great importance. 
These are dhamma and tathdgata. 

Dhamma is a word whose meaning appears to vary- 
in varying contexts. It may mean something like what 
we should call " conscience," that which should be done, 
in one passage; the externalised body of doctrine, in 
another; fashion, act {etena dhammena, Vin. iii. 133 = 
p. 225 below), in a third. Mrs. Rhys Davids has written 
at some length on the meaning of dhamma in her later 
works, to which I now refer the reader. 

Anesaki, in his essay on Tathdgata,^ closely connects 
the notion of tathdgata with that of dhamma, but he 
comes no nearer to a conclusive translation of tathdgata 
than do others. For the very ambiguity of its derivation' 
precludes any definitive meaning. This being the case, 
and because Anesaki has virtually shown that no 
empirical investigations of the uses of the term can 
bring us near to a meaning fixed once and for all, we 
must regard tathdgata as a term best left untranslated. 
I give here four ways in which it might be rendered: 

(1) the one thus-gone, or thus-going (tathd-gata), since 
gata may be taken as a present as well as a past participle ; 

(2) the one thus-come, -or thus-coming (tathd-dgata); 

(3) the truth-finder, used by Lord Chalmers in Further 
Dialogues, as the result of empirical considerations; 

(4) the Way-farer, a rendering suggested by Mrs. Rhys 
Davids,^ and used by F. L. Woodward in Gradual 
Sayings, V.^ In Pali literature the term is not applied 
exclusively to Gotama himself. 

If the meaning of words is liable to vary in different 
contexts, it is wiser and less misleading not to translate 
those words until there has been some further advance 
in Pali criticism and interpretation. 

1 Katam Karamyam, Tokyo, 1934, p. 240 if. 

2 Sahja, pp. 67-68, 381; Manual of Buddhism, p. 116. 

8 See G. S, v. xiii; Verses of Uplift, S.B.B. viii., p. 81, n. 2. 



translator's introduction Ivii 

Deva, devatd smd yakkha are other words that I have 
not translated. This is partly because the nature of 
these beings has not yet been fully investigated or 
established; and partly because the little we do know 
of them leads us to suppose that they represent kinds of 
beings for whom in English there are no acceptable 
equivalents. For example, in canonical Pali, devas are 
no longer " gods," as they were in the Vedic age; nor 
are they '' angels."^ Mrs. Rhys Davids has suggested 
that they were " brave and pious gentlemen who have 
passed as ' devas ' to the next world only to come 
back one day as men."^ There is no doubt that 
these three classes of being are regarded as having a 
close contact with the world of men. The word deva 
is often coupled with manussa, men, people (e.g., Vin. 
iii. 1). The earth-devas are recorded to have heard 
of Sudinna's lapse, and to have communicated it to 
the other groups of devas (Vin. iii. 18 =p. 33 below). It 
is told how a devatd (fem.) belonging to Mara's retinue 
came and encouraged Migalandika for having deprived 
the monks of life (Vin. iii. 69=p. 118 below). 

Neither do yakkhas seem far removed from the human 
sphere. Words like " fairies, sprites or goblins " do 
not accord at all well with the Indian way of thinking. 
There are the predatory yakkhas (or yakkhas in the form 
of beasts of prey) who killed some monks, and there is 
the story of the exorcist monk who deprived a yakkha 
of life (Vin. iii. 84= p. 146 below). A monk is recorded 
to have had sexual intercourse with a yakkhinl (Vin. 
iii. 37= p. 56 below), although the Old Commentary 
does not include this type of being among mdtugdma, 
women-kind (e.g., Vin. iii. 121 =p. 202 below). It 
defines mdtugdma as manussitthi, human women, and 
carefully and deliberately excludes yakkhls, petis and 
female animals. 

Where the word peta, and the feminine peti, occur 
I have used the translation suggested by Mrs. Rhys 

1 A. Coomaraswamy, A New Approach to the Vedas, p. 60 ff. 
^ Manual of Buddhism^ p. 92. 



Iviii translator's introduction 



Davids^ of " departed one." It appears that jpetas, 
departed ones, those who have gone on, gone before, 
were regarded as still endowed with life, and able to 
speak to men. There is the story of the body, inhabited 
by the joe^a (Fm. iii. 58=p. 97 below), which rose up 
in the cemetery, by what the Commentary calls " the 
feta's own power," and pursued a monk, asking him 
not to remove his outer cloak from him. It is also 
curious that it was thought possible for a monk to 
commit an offence with petls, and that although an 
offence committed with petis, yakkhinls and ndgis 
(female serpents ?) is as grave in nature as one committed 
with a human woman, these beings are excluded from 
the Old Commentary's definition of " woman-kind." 
It almost looks as if a peta means one who is quite 
recently dead, and whose mind and spirit still have 
power over the body, being not yet entirely dissociated 
from it. 

I think that what emerges most clearly from the 
Vinaya references to devas, devatds, yakkhas and petaSy 
is that there is a non-human world (cf. amanussagdma 
at iii. 46= p. 74 below) whose various denizens penetrate 
the human world and participate in the aifairs of men, 
as their counterparts are thought to do in India, Burma 
and Ceylon at the present day. 

Where names of weights, measures and mediums of 
exchange occur, I have left them untranslated, and have 
given notes. All attempts to correlate English words 
to these would be wholly misleading, and would conjure 
up a set of wrong ideas. 

Amongst the store of incidental knowledge that this 
part of the Vinaya brings to light, it should be noted 
that the word nibbdna occurs only twice, each time 
in the same stereotyped formula (iii. 20, lll=pp. 35, 
1 94 below) . I have translated it as " waning. ' ' Nothing 
more can be safely deduced from its virtual absence 



Indian Religion and Survival, p. 35 ; and cf. p. 59. 



translator's introduction lix 



than the concentration of this portion of the Sutta- 
vibhanga on outward morality, on forms of behaviour 
to be regulated and guided by an external standard 
rather than by an appeal to the inner conscience, the 
inner morality which, in the India of the sixth century 
B.C., was held to be immanent in man. 

Besides this piece of negative information, a good 
many positive details, mostly concerning contemporary 
manners and customs, are brought to light in this part 
of the Suttavibhariga. There is, for example, mention 
of .the punishments that a king could mete out to a 
thief, while there emerges the very fact that a king 
meted them out (Tin. iii. 46 = 72, 73 below); mention 
of some of the kinds of ornaments used (Vin. iii. 48, 
180=pp. 75 f., 314 below); some of the kinds of games 
played {Vin. iii. 180=p. 316 below); the sort of food- 
stuffs in common consumption ; various kinds of animals, 
birds, insects, plants and flowers {Vin. iii. 48, 49, 52, 
58=ppi 79, 80, 87, 98 below); there is mention of the 
existence of customs' frontiers and customs' houses 
{Vin. iii. 52, 62=:pp, 86, 104 below); smuggling, kid- 
napping of children, the kind of treatment given by 
monks to their ill comrades; there is evidence for the 
belief that trees may be inhabited by conscious beings ; 
and there is the indication that Indians, then as now, 
appear to have no difficulty in dying at will. I have 
nothing to add to Rhys Davids' and Oldenberg's 
remarks on the knowledge and use of writing^ at the 
time of the compilation of t^e Vinaya. 

The following authorities, including the late Professor 
E. J. Rapson, kindly helped me on the difficult point 
of finding a translation for the term bhikkhu; their 
letters were most interesting, while showing a consider- 
able diversity of opinion. I have much pleasure in 
tendering my thanks to all their writers: to Professor 
J. Przyluski, Mrs. Rhys Davids, Professor Otto Schrader, 
Professor Helmer Smith and Professor F. W. Thomas. 
Above all, I should like to express my gratitude to my 

1 Vin. Texts, i. xxii if. 



Ix translator's introduction 

friend, Miss A. M. Cooke, for her illuminating conversa- 
tions on the Western monk. It remains for me to 
thank, especially and most sincerely, Mrs. Rhys Davids 
for entrusting the translation of the Vinaya to me, for 
her many rewarding suggestions, and for the help that 
she has generously bestowed upon the preparation of 
this volume. 

An asterisk in the text denotes that the word or 
passage beside which it appears is given in full in Pali 
in the Appendix. 

The page numbers, given in square brackets in the 
text, and corresponding to Oldenberg's page numbers 
of his edition of the Vinayapitaka^ane placed, not at 
the beginning of the pages to which the translation 
corresponds, but at the end. This has been done in 
order to introduce a certain consistency, for all Vinaya 
numbering — of section, sub-section and paragraph — is 
placed at th'e end. 

I. B. HORNER. 
Manchester, 1938. 



EDITORIAL NOTE 

At the translator's request I say here a few words. 
Words of valediction for a work which is a genuine 
labour of love. Result though it be of strenuous, 
unfaltering research, the translation of an ancient 
thesaurus of monastic legality, as is the Pali Vinaya 
Pitaka, is not of the class we call " best seller." Labour 
and printing costs have been alike undertaken by my 
friend and colleague, the translator. And I am not 
a little proud to think that a book which my husband 
helped, in his early efforts, to bring in part before 
European readers, should now receive my blessing in 
its first complete form after this interval of over half 
a century. 

It may interest some to learn, as to that translation 
in part, how the two translators divided the work. 
For living in different countries, each translating in 
his leisure moments, there seems to have been (more's 
the pity !) very little if any collaboration. No corre- 
spondence survives revealing that any took place. 
On the fly-leaf of Vol. I. of Vinaya Texts, Sacred Books 
of the East, XIII., there stands in Rhys Davids' 
handwriting the following: " Of the work I have 
translated the 

Patimokkha i. 1-90. 

Mahavagga v. and vi. 22; ii, 1-81. 80 pp. 

vi. 32--vii. 3. 43 pp. 

viii. 12-32. 49 pp. 
Cullavagga i.-iii. 120 pp. 

iv. 1-12 (the whole vohime). 440 pp. 

Total: 800 pp. out of 1230 pp. 

The rest, as is well known, was the work of that fastidi- 
ously careful scholar, Hermann Oldenberg." 

As she has stated in her Introduction, Isaline Horner 
begins her translation at the beginning, as Oldenberg did 

Ixi 



Ixii EDITORIAL NOTE 



laot, in his edition of the Pali text, published shortly 
before the birth of the Pali Text Society. The S.B.E. 
translation was a large selection, not the complete work. 

In the Vinaya, taking it by and large, we have 
the records of a great effort, put forth by the culture 
of North India during the sixth to the third century 
B.C., to "get rich quickly" in things, not of worldly 
experience, but of man's spiritual fortune. The idea, 
in monasticism, was that the man, in striving to become 
a More than his worldly fellows, could best do so by 
making his life here a Less. By cutting out a great 
part of what our poets have called " life in the whole,'' 
it was judged he would, by living a simplified remainder, 
progress much faster. Progress, that is, towards that 
waning out of repeated spans of life as he knew it here, 
or heard of it in the next world or worlds. 

This is surely to misunderstand life as we find it. 
An enemy army is not conquered by its being attacked 
in one section only. The monk admitted that he bore 
his enemy about with him in body and mind. And to 
shelter body and mind from opportunities of efforts 
towards a Better, such as life in its fulness alone could 
afford, was no sound method of seeking to grow. Man 
is but a less if he shirk much of life. Not along such 
lines does the Hand draw him which 

aufond de V ideal fait signe. 

It is doubtless true that the withdrawn life is not only 
good at times, but may, there or then, be necessary for 
the student. But I do not find this need expressing 
itself in Buddhist monastic literature as a motive for 
leaving the world. I may be wrong, and shall welcome 
correction. For the history of monasticism, especially 
of monasticism in what was perhaps its cradle, has yet 
to be written. And a complete translation of the 
Vinaya Pitaka will bring such a work nearer the day 
when it can be written. 

C. A. F. RHYS DAVIDS. 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 



Translator's Introduction - - - - v 

Editorial Note - - - - - Ixi 

Defeat (Parajika) I. - - - - 1 

Defeat (Parajika) II. - - - - 64 

Defeat (Parajika) III. - - - - 116 

Defeat (Parajika) IV. - - - - 151 

Formal Meeting (Sarighadisesa) I. - - - 192 

Formal Meeting (Sahghadisesa) II. - - 199 

Formal Meeting (Sanghadisesa) III. - - 214 

Formal Meeting (Sarighadisesa) IV. - - 222 

Formal Meeting (Sarighadisesa) V. - - 229 

Formal Meeting (Sarighadisesa) VI. - - 246 

Formal Meeting (Sarighadisesa) VII. - - 266 

Formal Meeting (Sarighadisesa) VIII. - - 271 

Formal Meeting (Sarighadisesa) IX. - - 288 

Formal Meeting (Sarighadisesa) X. - - 296 

Formal Meeting (Sarighadisesa) XL - - 301 

Formal Meeting (Sarighadisesa) XII. - - 309 

Formal Meeting (Sarighadisesa) XIII. - - 314 

Undetermined (Aniyata) I. - - - 330 

Undetermined (Aniyata) II. - - - 336 

Appendix of Untranslated Passages - - 341 

Indexes : 

1. Words and Subjects - - - - 348 

2. Names - - - - - 355 

3. Some Pali Words discussed in the Notes - 357 

4. Titles of Works abbreviated in the Footnotes 358 

Ixiii 



Vinayapitaka 

SUTTAVIBHANGA (PARAJIKA) 

PEAISE TO THE LORD, THE PERFECTED ONE, 
THE FULLY ENLIGHTENED 

DEFEAT (PARAJIKA) I 

At one time^ the enlightened one, the lord, was staying 
at Veranja^ near Naleru's Nimba tree^ with a great 
company of five hundred monks. A brahmin* of 
Veranja heard: Verily, good sir,^ the recluse* Gotama, 
son of the Sakyans,^ having gone forth from the Sakyan 
clan, is staying at Veraiija near Naleru's Nimba tree 
with a great company of five hundred monks. The 
highest praise^ has gone forth concerning the lord 
Gotama : he is indeed lord, perfected one,^ f iiHy enlight- 
ened, endowed with knowledge and conduct, well-farer, 
knower of the worlds, unrivalled trainer of men to be 
tamed, teacher of devas and mankind, the enlightened 

1 From here, to end of || 1 j| cf. A. iv. 173-179. 

2 Quoted at DA. i. 12. VA. 108 merely says that Veranja was 
the name of a town. It is mentioned again at A. iv. 172, 197. 
At A. ii. 57 it is said that Gotama was " journeying along the 
highroad between Madhura and Veranja." For Madhura on the 
Jumna see Buddhist India, p. 36; C.H.I, i. 316. M. Sta. 42 says 
that Gotama addressed some brahmins and householders from 
Veranja at Savatthl. 

^ VA. 108 says that here the yakkha is called Naleru,, that 
piicimanda is the nimba-tree (Azadirachta Indica), and that mularj 
is sarmpay. Cf. PucimandajdtaJca, J a. iii., p. 33. 

* VA. Ill, nidtdpituhi katandmavasena pandyam Udayo ti vuccati. 

^ See Intr., p. xxxviii. * See Intr., p. \ f. 

' Sakyaputta, lit. son of the Sakyan (s), but a Pali idiom meaning 
simply " a Sakyan." 

« Cf. D. i. 87. » Arakan. 

I. 1 



2 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 1-2 

one, the lord. Having brought to fulfilment his own 
powers of realisation, he makes known this world, 
together with devas including the Maras, and the 
Brahmas ; creatures, together with recluses and brahmins, 
together with devas and men. He teaches dhamma, 
lovely at the beginning, lovely at the middle and lovely 
at the ending. He explains with the spirit and the letter 
the Brahma-life completely fulfilled and wholly pure. 
Good indeed it were to see perfected men like that.^ || 1 1| 

Then the brahmin of Veranja came up to the lord, 
and having come up he exchanged friendly greetings 
with the lord, and having exchanged friendly greetings 
he sat down [1] to one side. As he was sitting to 
one side, the brahmin of Veranja spoke thus to the 
lord: 

" I have heard, good^ Gotama, that the recluse 
Gotama does not greet brahmins who are worn, old, 
stricken in years, who have lived their span and are at 
the close of their life'*^; nor does he stand up or ask them 
to sit down. Likewise, good Gotama, that the revered* 
Gotama does not greet brahmins who are worn, old, 
stricken in years, who have lived their span and are at 
the close of their life; nor does he greet them or stand 
up or ask them to sit down. Now this, good Gotama, 
this is not respectful."^ 

" Brahmin, I do not see him in the world of devas 
including the Maras, including the Brahmas, including 
recluses and brahmins, of creatures including devas and 
mankind, whom I should greet or rise up for or to whom 
I should offer a seat. For, brahmin, whom a tathagata 

^ All this is stock. 

2 Bho. This is the vocative, sing, and plur., of bhavant. See 
Intr., p. xxxviii. 

3 Also stock; cf., e.g., M. i. 82, ^n. 50, 92; Vin. ii. 188. 
^ Bhavam. 

^ Na samjiannam eva. VA. 130 (am ahhivddanudinam akaranam 
ayuitam eva. Similar passages are at A.'i. 67 {AA. na yuttam eva, 
na anucchavikam eva). Translator at G.S. i. 63 says " the idea here 
is ' not the peri'ect gentleman ' or ' bad form.' " See also A. iii. 
223; iv. 173. 



I. 1, 2-3] DEFEAT 



should greet or rise up for or offer a seat to, his head 
would split asunder."^ || 2 || 

"The revered^ Gotama is without the quality of 
taste, "^ he said. 

" There is indeed, brahmin, a way in which one 
speaking truly of me could say: The recluse Gotama is 
without the quality of taste. For, brahmin, tastes for 
forms, tastes for sounds, tastes for scents, tastes for 
savours, tastes for tangible objects — these have been 
destroyed by the tathagata, cut off at the root like 
a palm-tree, they are so utterly done away with that 
they are not able to come into future existence. This, 
brahmin, is a way in which one speaking truly of 
me could say: The recluse Gotama is without the 
quality of taste. But surely you did not mean that-," 
he said. 

" The revered Gotama is without enjoyment,"* he 
said. 

" There is indeed, brahmin, a way in which one speak- 
ing truly of me could say: The recluse Gotama is without 
enjoyment. For, brahmin, enjoyments of forms, en- 
joyments of sounds, enjoyments of scents, enjoyments 
of savours, enjoyments of tangible objects — these have 
been destroyed by the tathagata, cut off at the root like 
a palm-tree, they are so utterly done away with that 
they are not able to comd into future existence. This, 

1 7mMhdpi tassa vipateyya. Bu. explains at VA. 131: "the 
head of that man {tassa 2>uggalassa) having been cut off from the 
neck, may it fall to the ground." Same phrase occurs at D. i. 
143; iii. 19; Dhp. 72. 

Cf. J a. V. 33, muddhdpi tassa vipphaleyya sattadhd, with v. 11: 
vipa-, vipha- and phaleyyuy. Cf. Jd. v. 493, mitddkd me sattadhd 
phaleyya (' perhaps the best reading ' — P.E.D.)^ and ibid.., muddhdpi 
tassa vipateyya sattadhd. 

2 Bhavam. 

3 Arasarupa:- VA. 131 takes this to mean lack of good 
manners. Gotama is said not to show complete taste, which 
consists in paying reverence, making salutation, getting up from 
the seat and making a respectful greeting. Cf. Tait. Up. ii. 7. 

* Nibbhoga, or " property," as at G.S. iv. 118. VA. 134 says 
that greeting the aged is sdmxiggiparibhoga. 



BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 2-3 



brahmin, is a way in which one speaking truly of me 
could say: The recluse Gotama is without enjoyment. 
But surely you did not mean that." 

*' The revered Gotama professes the doctrine of non- 
action,"^ he said. 

" There is indeed, brahmin, a way in which one 
speaking truly of me could say: The recluse Gotama 
professes the doctrine of non-action. For I, brahmin, 
teach the non-doing of offences of body, speech and 
thought. I teach the non-doing of manifold evil and 
wrong states. This indeed, brahmin, is a way in which 
one speaking truly of me could say : The recluse Gotama 
professes the doctrine of non-action. But surely you 
did not mean that." 

" The revered Gotama professes the doctrine of 
annihilation,"^ he said. 

" There is indeed, brahmin, a way in which one speak- 
ing truly of me could say : The recluse Gotama professes 
the doctrine of annihilation. For I, brahmin, speak of 
the annihilation of passion, of hatred and of confusion^ ; 
I speak of the annihilation of manifold evil and wrong 
states. This indeed, brahmin, is a way in which one 
speaking truly of me could say: The recluse Gotama 
professes the doctrine of annihilation. [2] But surely you 
did not mean that." 

'* The revered Gotama is one who detests,"* he said. 

'* There is indeed, brahmin, a way in which one 
speaking truly of me could say: The recluse Gotama 
is one who detests. For I, brahmin, detest offences of 



1 For this passage to end of |1 3 ||, cf. Vin. i. 234-236 and A. iv. 
180 ff., in both of which Gotama is represented as speaking with 
the General Siha. The theory of non-action is usually attributed 
to Piirana Ka?sapa, as at D. i. 52 f. The theory of kiriyavddin 
and akiriyavddin is also stated at ^. i. 62. 

2 Ucchedavdda, or cutting oif. Cf. D. i. 34. Rhys Davids refers 
to Katha Up. i- 20, where the doubt as to whether, after a man 
is dead, he exists or not, is also voiced by Naciketas. Cf. also 
M. ii. 228. 

^ Cf. S. iv. 252, definition of nibhdna. 

' Jeyucchiy one who loathes, or feels abhorrence. See Dial. i. 237, 
11. 2, and cf. M. i. 77, 78. 



I. 1, 3] DEFEAT 5 

body, speech and thought, and the coming into^ manifold 
evil and wrong states. This indeed, brahmin, is a way 
in which one speaking truly of me could say: The recluse 
Gotama is one who detests. But surely you did not 
mean that." 

" The revered Gotama is restrained,"^ he said. 

" There is indeed, brahmin, a way in which one 
speaking truly of me could say: The recluse Gotama 
is restrained. For I, brahmin, teach dhamma for 
the restraint of passion, of hatred and of confusion; 
I teach dhamma for the restraint of manifold evil 
and wrong states. This indeed, brahmin, is a way in 
which one speaking truly of me could say: The recluse 
Gotama is restrained. But surely you did not mean 
that." 

" The revered Gotama is one who practises austeri- 
ties,"**^ he said. 

" There is indeed, brahmin, a way in which one speak- 
ing truly of me could say: The recluse Gotama is one 
who practises austerities. For I, brahmin, speak of 
evil, wrong states which are searing,* of offences of body, 
speech and thought. He who, brahmin, has destroyed 
the searing, evil, wrong states, having cut them off at 
the root like a palm-tree, who has done away with them 
so utterly that they can come to no future existence — 
him I call one who practises austerities. The tathagata, 
brahmin, has destroyed the searing, evil, wrong states, 

1 Samdpatti. 

2 Venayika. VA. 135 says that the brahmin did not see the 
lord paying reverence and so forth, and said that he restrained 
these acts with regard to the " highest in the world," therefore he 
thought him one to be restrained, one to be suppressed. At M. i. 
140 Gotama is represented as telling the monks that he is charged 
with being venayika. It here seems to mean annihilationist, for 
it is combined with: " he preaches the disintegration, the destruc- 
tion and annihilation of existing creatures." But as translator 
{G.S. iv. 119, n. 4) remarks, we have natthika and ucchedavdda for 
nihilist and annihilationist. See loc. cit. for valuable remarks, and 
A. v. 190. 

* Tapassi, connected with tapas, lit. burnt up. It can also 
mean " one who has his senses under control." 

* tapanlyd ; cf. A. i. 49 and " should be mortified " at G.S. iv. 120. 



300K OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 8-4 



has cut them off at the root like a palm-tree, has done 
away with them so utterly that they can come to no 
future existence. This indeed, brahmin, is a way in 
which one speaking truly of me could say: The recluse 
Gotama is one who practises austerities. But surely 
you did not mean that." 

" The revered Gotama is not destined to another 
(kind of) becoming,"^ he said. 

" There is indeed, brahmin, a way in which one 
speaking truly of me could say: The recluse Gotama is 
one who is not destined to another (kind of) becoming. 
Indeed, brahmin, he whose future conception in a womb, 
whose rebirth in a future becoming are destroyed and 
cut off like a palm-tree at the root, are so utterly done 
away with that they can come to no future existence— 
him I call one not destined to another becoming. The 
tathagata's future conception in a womb, his rebirth in 
a new becoming, are destroyed and cut off at the root 
like a palm-tree, are so utterly done away with that he 
can come to no future existence. This indeed, brahmin, 
is a way in which one speaking truly of me could say: 
The recluse Gotama is one not destined to another 
becoming. But surely you did not mean that." || 3 || 

" Brahmin, it is like a hen^ with eight or ten or twelve 
eggs on which she has sat properly, properly warmed 
and properly hatched j is that chick which should win 
forth safely, having first of all pierced through the 
egg-shell with the point of the claw on its foot, or with 
its beak, to be called the eldest or the youngest ?" he 
said. 

" He is to be called the eldest, good Gotama, for he is 
the eldest of these," he said. 

" Even so I, brahmin, having pierced through the 
shell of ignorance for the sake of creatures going 
in ignorance, born of eggs, [3] covered over, am 

1 apagabbha. VA. 136, the brahmin says that Gotama is either 
destined to be rebofn again in a mother's womb or not to arise in 
a deva-world. 

2 Cf. M. i. 104. 



I. 1, 4-6] DEFEAT 



unique^ in the world, utterly enlightened with unsur- 
passed enlightenment. 2 I myself, brahmin, am the 
world's eldest^ and highest.* ||4|| 

Brahmin,^ I had steadily put forth energy, clear 
mindfulness had arisen, my body was quieted and calm, 
my mind was composed and x)ne-pointed. I, brahmin, 
aloof from pleasures of the senses, aloof from wrong 
states of mind, having attained the first musing with 
its reflection and investigation that is born of solitude, 
zestful and easeful, abided therein. By the mastery of 
reflection and investigation, having inner faith, the mind 
become concentrated,® without reflection, without in- 
vestigation, having attained the second musing that is 
born of contemplation, zestful and easeful, I abided 
therein. By the fading out of .zest, I dwelt poised, 
mindful and attentive, and I experienced welfare as to 
the body, attaining the third musing which the noble 
ones describe in these terms : " he who is poised and mind- 
ful dwells happily," I abided therein. By the rejection 
of ease' and by the rejection of discomfort,' by the 
annihilation of the rejoicing and the sorrowing I had 
before, having attained to that state which is neither 
pleasant nor painful, that utter purity of mindfulness 
which is poised, which is the fourth musing, I abided 
therein.8 ||5|i 

Then with the mind collected, clarified, purified, 
flawless, void of taints, grown soft and pliable, fixed and 



1 eko=eko adutiyo, VA. 139. 

2 VA. 139=MJi. i. 54, bodhi ti maggo , . . bodht ti vuccati 
catusu maggesu ndnafj. 

3 VA. 140, on account of being the first-born among ariyas. In 
VA. 165 ariyas are defined as Buddhas, paccekabuddhas, and the 
disciples of Buddhas. 

* Cf. D.ii. 15, aggo,jettho, settho. 

5 This passage to end of HSJl below=ilf. i. 21-23, but M. omits 
the simile of the chick. 

* ekodibhdva. 

' Expl. by Corny, to mean bodily ease and bodily discomfort. 
« C/. ^.i. 53;^. V. 318. 



8 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 4 

come to utter peace,^ I directed the mind^ towards the 
knowledge of the memory of former becomings; thus I 
remember divers former becomings; that is to say, one 
birth,^ two births, three births, four births, five births, 
ten births, twenty births, thirty births, forty births, 
fifty births, a hundred births, a thousand births, a 
hundred thousand births, and many an seon of disintegra- 
tion of the world, and many an aeon of its redintegration* 
and many seons of both its disintegration and redin- 
tegration: such a one was I by name, having such and 
such a clan, having such and such a colour,* so was I 
nourished, such and such easeful and painful experiences 
were mine, so did the span of life end. Passing from 
this, I came to be in another state where such a one was 
I by name, having such and such a clan, having such 
and such a colour, so was I nourished, such easeful and 
painful experiences were mine, so did the span of life end. 
Passing from this, I came to be here, thus I remember 
divers former becomings in all their modes and in detail. 
This, brahmin, was the first knowledge attained by 
me in the first watch of that night®; ignorance was 
dispelled, knowledge arose, darkness was dispelled, 
light arose, even as I abided zealous, ardent, with a 
self that has striven.' This was, brahmin, my first 



1 Vin. iii. 4; M. i. 22, read dnanjappatte with v. 11; A. ii. 211; 
D. i. 76; M. i. 182 all read dnejjappatte. This passage to end of 
II 8 II below=ilf . i. 22-23=i. 182-183, except that these omit the 
simile of the chick. 

2 Cf. A. ii. 211 ; Q. i. 76 i^ a cf. S. ii. 122. < 

* I follow Lord Chalmers' trans, at Fur, Dial. i. 15, for, although 
it is not perfect, it gives the idea that the process is eternally re- 
peated. K.S. ii. 86 reads " aeon of involution ... of evolution "; 
G.S. iv. 121, " rolling on and rolling back "; G.S. ii. 145, " rolling up 
and rolling back." The brahmanic idea is that as Visnu sleeps 
on the giant cobra, he dreams the world; this is its out-rolling, its 
coming to be. When he awakes the world falls into nothingness, 
it is withdrawn, until the god sleeps and dreams again. 

s VA. 160, evayvanno ti oddto vd sdmo vd. 

• See Fur. Dial. i. 15, n. 1 for this night being occupied with the 
" chain of causation," as at Vin. i. 1. 

' pahitatta ; see Mrs. Rhys Davids, The Birth of Indian Psychology y 
etc., p. 295. 



I. 1, 6-8] DEFEAT 9 

successful breaking forth, like a chick's from the egg- 
shell. II 6 II 

Then with the mind collected, clarified, purified, 
flawless, void of taints, grown soft and pliable, fixed 
and come to utter peace, I directed the mind towards the 
knowledge of the arising and passing hence of beings ; [4] 
so that with the purified deva-vision surpassing that of 
men, I behold beings, I know beings as they pass away 
or come to be — mean, excellent, fair, foul, in a good bourn,^ 
in a bad bourn^ according to their actions, and I think: 
Indeed, those worthies^ whose deeds were evil, whose 
speech was evil, whose thoughts were evil, abusers of 
the noble ones, holders of wrong views, incurring^ the 
actions^ of wrong views — ^these at the breaking up of 
the body after death, have arisen in the waste, the bad 
bourn, the abyss, hell. Indeed, those good sirs^ whose 
deeds were good, whose speech was good, whose thoughts 
were good, who did not abuse the noble ones, holding 
right views, incurring the actions of right views — ^these 
at the breaking up of the body after death, have arisen 
in the good bourn, the heaven-world. Tlius with 
purified deva-vision surpassing that of men, do I behold 
beings, I know beings as they pass away and come to 
be — mean, excellent, fair, foul, in a good bourn, in a 
bad bourn according to their actions.* This, brahmin, 
was the second knowledge attained by me in the middle 
watch of that night. Ignorance was dispelled, knowledge 
arose, darkness was dispelled, light arose, even as I 
abided zealous, ardent, with a self that has striven. 
This was, brahmin, my second successful breaking forth, 
like a chick's from the egg-shell. || 7 || 

Then^ with the mind collected, clarified, purified. 



1 VA. 164, sugate ti sugatigate . . . duggate ti duggatigate, lit. gone 
to a good bourn, etc. ; or, in a good bourn, etc. ^ Bhonto. 

3 kammasamdddna, trans, at G.S. iii. 295, " action's mould- 
ing," and at G.S. iv. 122, " men who have acquired this karma." 

* This passage=>S. ii. 122 f. 

« For this passage cf. A. ii. 211; M, i. 23; M, iii. 36. 



10 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 6-6 



flawless, void of taints, grown soft and pliable, fixed 
and come to utter peace, I directed the mind towards 
the knowledge of the destruction of the cankers. I 
knew as it really is: This is ill, this is the arising of ill, 
this is the stopping of ill, this is the course leading to 
the stopping of ill. I knew as it really is: These are 
the cankers, this is the arising of the cankers, this is the 
stopping of the cankers, this is the course leading to the 
stopping of the cankers. In me, thus knowing, thus 
seeing, my mind was freed from the canker of sensual 
pleasures, my mind was freed from the canker of be- 
coming, my mind was freed from the canker of false 
views, my mind was freed from the canker of ignorance.^ 
(To me) freed, came knowledge^ through the freedom: 
I knew : Destroyed is rebirth, lived is the Brahma-life, 
done is what was to be done, there is no beyond for 
this state of things.^ This was, brahmin, the third 
knowledge attained by me in the third watch of that 
night. Ignorance was dispelled, knowledge arose, dark- 
ness was dispelled, light arose, even as I abided zealous, 
ardent,* with a self that has striven.* This was, brahmin 
[6] my third 'successful breaking forth, like a chick's 
from the egg-shell." il 8 II 

When he had spoken thus, the brahmin of Veranja 
said to the lord: 

'* The revered Gotama is the first-born, the revered 
Gotama is the best. Wonderful, good Gotama, wonder- 
ful, good Gotama. As a man, good Gotama, might set 
upright what had been overturned, or reveal what had 
been hidden, or tell a man who had gone astray which 
was his way, or bring a lamp into the darkness so that 
those with eyes to see might see the things about them 
— even so, good Gotama, in many a figure has the good 

1 These are the four dsavd. At M. i. 23 and A. ii. 211, iv. 179 
only three dsaxms are mentioned. 

2 C/. G.S. ii. 225, n. 2; G.S. iv. 123. 

3 One of the formulae of arahantship. 

4 To here from ||5|1 above=M. i. 21-23 (and cf. M. l 
182-3). 



I. 1, 9—2, 1] DEFEAT II 

Gotama made dliamma clear. To the lord^ Gotama I 
go for refuge, and to dhamma and to the Order of monks. 
May the revered Gotama accept me as a lay follower, 
as one gone for refuge, from this day forth while life 
lasts.2 May the revered Gotama consent to spend the 
rains at Veranja together with the company of monks." 
The lord consented by his silence. Then the brahmin 
of Veranja having gained the lord's consent, rose from 
his seat, and saluting the lord, departed, keeping his 
right side towards him. || 9 || 1 1| 

At that time Veranja^ was short of almsfood,* which 
was difficult to obtain; it was suffering from famine, and 
food tickets were issued. Nor was it easy to keep 
oneself going^ by gleaning or by favour. At that time 
some horse-dealers of Uttarapathaka^ arrived at the 



1 Here bhagavantam; at A. iv. 179 bhavantam. 

2 Vin. i. 236; M. "i. 24, 488 f., etc., for this stock passage. To 
here, from beginning of this Parajika, cf. A. iv. 173-179. 

^ Burlingame, Buddhist Legends, ii. 193, says that Jataka 183 
is derived from this Vinaya story; and that* the Corny, on Dhp. 83 
is derived from this Jataka; cf. DhA. ii. 153 ff. 

* Cf. below Par. I. 5, 5; Par. IV. 1, 1. 

The meaning of these four stock-phrases is doubtful: (1) Short of 
almsfood = diibbhikkJia ] may also mean: (suffering from) famine. 
VA. 174, dullabhikkhd, almsfood (was) hard to get. (2) Difficult 
to obtain =dvlhitikd; may also mean: crops were bad. See art. in 
P.E.D. (3) Suffering from famine = setatthikd; may also mean: 
i. (strewn with) white bones, ii. mildew. So trans, at Vin. Texts iii. 
326 {Vin. ii. 256), where this word used in simile = ^, iv. 279, trans. 
G.S. iv. 185 (see ibid. n. 2), " white-as-bones " (disease). (4) Food 
tickets were issued = saldkdvuttd ; may also mean : people subsisted 
on blades of grass. VA. 175 gives both meanings. G.S. i. 142 = 
A. i. 160: grown to mere stubs. At ^. i. 24 Kundadhana is. called 
"chief among those who are the first to receive a food ticket" 
(G.S. i. 18). AA, i. 260 f. apparently refers to a food ticket. Cf. 
VA. 174 f., AA. ii. 257, SA. iii. 106. Also G.S. i. 142, ^.>S. iv. 228 
{=A.i. 160, /S. iv. 323) and their notes. 

* ydpetum. Cf. description of Vesali in opposite terms at 
Vin. i. 238.' 

* Probably meaning Northern India, see B. C. Law, Geography 
of Early Buddhism, p. 48. At J a. ii. 287 five hundred horse- 
dealers from Uttarapatha are mentioned. Also a certain dealer 
had five hundred horses. 



12 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [HI. 6 

rains-residence of Veranja with five hundred horses. 
In the horse-rings^ they prepared patiha measure after 
pattha measure of steamed grain^ for the monks. The 
monks rising early and taking their bowls and robes, 
entered Veranja for almsfood. But being unable to 
obtain almsfood, they went into the horse-rings for 
almsfood. Having brought the pattha measures of 
steamed grain back to the park, they pounded them 
and ate them. The venerable Ananda, having crushed 
a pattha measure of the steamed grain on a stone, took 
it to the lord and the lord ate it. Then the lord heard 
the sound of the mortar. Now tathagatas (sometimes) 
ask knowing,^ and knowing (sometimes) do not ask; 
they ask, knowing the right time (to ask), and they ask, 
knowing the right time (when not to ask). Tathagatas 

1 AssamaiidaliJca. VA. 176 says: "Not being able to journey 
during the four rainy months in this district, they built outside the 
city in a place not submerged by water, sleeping quarters {vdsdgara) 
for themselves and stables (mandira) for the horses, encircled by a 
fence." 

2 j)aUhapatthamulaka=^DhA. ii. 154, where n. 4 gives FausboU's 
reading, pattan thulakay. In" my copy of FausboU's edition of the 
Dhp., which was formerly Trenckner's, Trenckner has altered this 
reading to patthay mulakarj. VA. 176 reads °pulakafj with v.h 
muldkafj. Pattha is a measure of a certain capacity. See Rhys 
Davids, Ancient Coins, etc., pp. 18-20. At VA. 176 it is said: 
pattho ndma ndlimattay. Ndlimatlayj would seem to mean as much 
as a tube or hollow stalk holds; trans, at G.S. ii. 210 " root- 
fibres." SnA. 476 says cattdro pattha dlhakay, an dlhaka being 
another measure; thus one pattha=\ dlhaka. At DhA. ii. 70; PvA. 
283 and Jd. i. 419 pattha is used of ajalandika, put down a bad 
monk's throat. 

Bu. says, VA. 176, that a pattha measure oi pulaka was prepared 
for each monk, the horse-dealers saying, " What if we were now 
to take a pattha measure from the morning meal of each horse and 
give it to each monk. Thus they will not suffer and the horses will 
be kept going." Bu. says, fulakafj ndma nitthusan katvd ussedetvd 
gahitayavatanduld vuccanti, which would seem to mean: "having 
done away with the husk and having steamed it — pulaka is the name 
of barley and rice husked and taken after steaming " = steamed — 
i.e., rice ready for boiling. 

Ussedeti is not given in P.T.S. Diet., but sedeti is given as 
causative of sijjati, to heat, to steam. 

3 =Fm. i. 158= Fm. iii. 88-89 below. 



I. 2, 1-2] DEFEAT I3 

ask about what belongs to the goal,^ not about what 
does not belong to the goal; the breaking of the bridge^ 
of the tathagatas is among what does not belong to the 
goal. The enlightened ones, the lords, question the 
monks concerning two matters, either: " Shall we teach 
dhamma ?" or, " Shall we declare the course of training 
for the disciples ? ' ' Then the lord addressed the venerable 
Ananda, saying: 

" What, Ananda, is this sound of a mortar ?" 
Then the venerable Ananda told this matter to the 
lord. [6] 

" It is good, Ananda. Ananda, those who comeafter^ 
will disdain the meaty boiled rice and the gruel won* 
by you who are men indeed."^ || 1 1| 



Then the venerable Moggallana the Great* came up 
to the lord, and having come up he greeted the lord and 
sat down to one side. As he was sitting to one side, 
the venerable Moggallana the Great spoke thus to the 
lord: 

" At present, lord,^ Veranja is short of almsfood, 

1 Attha, in Sakya the positive goal. The translators of Vin. i. 158 
at Vin. Texts, i. 327 translate afthasamhita as " full of sense," thus 
taking attha (quite unnecessarily) in its later, debased and narrowed 
meaning. The negative word anattha appears at Vin. i. 10 in the 
First Utterance, the positive form being there absent. See G.S. iv., 
vii. and xix. 

2 Setughdta. VA. 180 says setu vuccati maggo. Thus if we follow 
Bu. in this interpretation of setughdta, the rendering " the bridge 
is pulled down for the Tathagatas " of Vin. Texts, i. 327 must be 
given up. Cf. A. i. 220, where it seems to mean the breaking down 
of new actions; and cf.A.i. 260; ii. 145; Dhs. 299 ff. 

^ Pacchima Janata, VA. 181 says andgate; also that they will 
be sitting in the vihara, getting food easily, but feeling nothing 
but contempt for it as being not to their liking. Cf. below, p. 66. 

* Vijitam, also meaning conquered, subdued, VA. 180 says dub- 
hhikkham vijitam lobho vijito icchdcdro vijito. 

* So'ppurisa. On prefix sa- see Mrs. Rhys Davids, Intr. to G.S. i. 
ixf. 

^ Generally paired with Sariputta. At ^. i. 23 he is called chief 
among the disciples who have psychic power. Cf. Vin. i. 39; 
Breth. 382 ff. 

' Bhante. 



14 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 7 

which is difficult to obtain. It is suffering from a 
famine and food-tickets are being issued. Nor is it 
easy to keep oneself going by gleaning or by favour. 
Lord, the under surface of this great earth is fertile, 
even as a flawless honey-comb.^ Good it were, lord, if 
I were to invert the earth,^ so that the monks might 
enjoy the nutritive essence of the water-plants." 

''But what will you do with those creatures, 
Moggallana, who are supported by the earth ?" 

" Lord, I will make one of my hands broad, like the 
great earth, and I will make those creatures who are 
supported by the earth pass over thence. Then with 
the other hand I will invert the earth." 

" Take care, Moggallana, please do not invert the 
earth, or beings may meet with derangement."^ 

" It is well, lord, the whole order of monks may go 
to Uttarakuru* for alms." 

" Take care, Moggallana, let not the going of the whole 
order of monks to Uttarakuru for alms seem good to 
you." II 2 II 2 II 



Now while the venerable Sariputta^ had gone into 
seclusion for meditation, this thought arose in his mind: 
"Of which enlightened ones, of which lords, did the 
Brahma-life not last long ? Of which enlightened ones, 
of which lords did the Brahma-life last long ?" Then 
the venerable Sariputta, rising up at evening time from 
his meditation, came up to the lord and having come 
up he greeted the lord and sat down to one side. As 
he was sitting to one side, the venerable Sariputta 
spoke thus to the lord: 



1 For this simile cf. D. iii. 87. 

2 VA. 182 explains: so as to turn up the lowest level to the top. 

3 Vijmlldsa, from vi-\-pari-\-as, lit. to throw round against. 

* B. C. Law in his Geography of Early Buddhism, pp. 17, 53, says 
that Uttarakuru " is alluded to in Pali literature as a mythical 
region." 

^ Usually paired with Moggallana. See Pss. Breth., p. 340. At 
^. i. 23 he is called chief among the disciples " of great wisdom.'* 



I. 3, 1-2] DEFEAT I5 

" Now, lord, as I was in seclusion for meditation, this 
thought arose in my mind: * Of which enlightened 
ones . . . last long ?'" 

" Sariputta, while Vipassin^ was lord, while Sikhin^ 
was lord, and while Vessabhu^ was lord the Brahma-life 
did not last long. Sariputta, while Kakusandha^ was 
lord and while Konagamana^ was lord and while Kassapa^ 
was lord [7] the Brahma-life lasted long." || 1 1| 

"And what. Lord, is the cause, what the reason why 
when Vipassin was lord and when Sikhin was lord and when 
Vessabhu was lord the Brahma-life did not last long ?" 

" Sariputta, the lord Vipassin and the lord Sikhin 
and the lord Vessabhu were idle in preaching dhamma 
in detail to the disciples; and these had little of the 
Suttas^ in prose or in prose and verse, the Expositions, 
the Songs, the Verses of Uplift,* the Quotations, the 
Jatakas, the Miracles, the Miscellanies^; the course of 
training for the disciples was not made known, the 
Patimokkha was not appointed. After the disappear- 
ance of these enlightened ones, these lords, after the 
disappearance^ of the disciples enlightened under these 
enlightened ones,' those last disciples of various 

1 Some of the 24 Buddhas. For Sikhin see S. i. 155 &., and for all 
three Jd. i. 4 fi., D. ii. 2 ff. 

2 The last three Buddhas before the present supreme Buddha. 
Cf. Jd. i. 43; DhA. i. 84, iii. 236; D. ii. 2 ff. 

3 See Fur. Dial. i. 93, n. 1 on meaning of " Suttas " ; not explained 
in Vin. Corny, on above passage. Also on these names see E. J. 
Thomas, Hist, of Buddhist Thought, p. 277 tl"., and J. Przyluski, 
Le Concile de Rdjagrha, p. 342 &. At DA. i. 23 f., VinA. 28, AA. iii. 
5 f., Asl. 26, these nine angas of the Canon are listed and described. 

* Uddna. On this name see S.B.B., vol. xiii., p. v f. 

* On derivation of vedalla, see J. Przyluski, Le Concile de Rdjagrha, 
p. 344; E. J. Thomas, History of Buddhist Thought, p. 278, n. 1. 

^ VA. 187, " after the disappearance of the khandhas, after the 
parinibbdna."' 

' VA. 187, anubuddhd=sammukhasdvakd. At Thag. 679=1246 
=S. i. 193 huddhdnuhuddho yo thero Kondanno, trans., " who next 
to our great Waked One was awake." SA. i. 282 says: " The 
Teacher was first enlightened in the four truths, afterwards the 
thera." Thus an interesting variation is apparent in the inter- 
pretation of buddhdnubuddha as given by SA. and VA. 



l6 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 8 

names, of various clans/ of various social strata,^ who had 
gone forth from various families, caused this Brahma- 
life rapidly to disappear. It is as if, Sariputta, various 
flowers, loose on a flat piece of wood,^ not tied together 
by a thread, are scattered about, whirled about and 
destroyed by the wind. What is the cause ? Inasmuch 
as they are not held together by a thread, even so, 
Sariputta, at the disappearance of these enlightened 
ones, these lords, at the disappearance of the disciptes 
enlightened under these enlightened ones, those last 
disciples of various names, of various clans, of various 
social strata, who had gone forth from various families, 
caused this Brahma-life rapidly to disappear. And these 
lords were untiring in exhorting the disciples, for they 
read their minds with their own.* 

Formerly, Sariputta, the lord Vessabhu, perfected, all 
enlightened one, in a certain awe-inspiring jungle-thicket 
exhorted and admonished a congregation of a thousand 
monks, reading their minds with his own, and saying: 
Apply the mind thus,* you should not apply the mind 
thus^ ; pay attention thus,' you should not pay attention 
thus^; forsake this^; having attained this,^^ abide in it. 
Then Sariputta, when these thousand monks had been 
exhorted and admonished by Vessabhu, the lord, 
perfected, all enlightened one, their minds were freed 
from the cankers without grasping.^^ Moreover, Sari- 
putta, whoever not devoid of passion, is in a terror of 
the awe-inspiring jungle-thicket, and enters the jungle- 

1 VA. 187, such as "protected by Buddha, protected by dhamma." 

2 VA. 187, such as khattiya, brdhnana. 

^ phalaka, a board, a plank. Perhaps a tray here, such as flower- 
Vendors carry. 

^ C/. D. i. 79;if. i. 445;^. ii. 233. 

s VA. 188, i.e. to the three vitakkd : viz., renunciation, benevolence 
and non-injury. 

^ Ibid., to their opposites: viz., sensual pleasures, malevolence 
and injury. 

' Ihid., i.e. to impermanence, sorrow and non-self. 

8 Ihid., i.e. to their opposites. 

* Ibid., i.e. what is wrong. 

^^ Ibid., i.e. what is right. 

1* Anufdddya. 



I. 3, 2-4] DEFEAT ly 

thicket, as a rule his hair stands on end. This, Sariputta, 
is the cause, this is the reason why, when Vipassin was 
lord and when Sikhin was lord and when Vessabhu was 
lord, the Brahma-life did not last long." || 2 1| 

" But what, lord, is the cause, what the reason why 
when Kakusandha was lord, and when Konagamana was 
lord and when Kassapa was lord the Brahma-life lasted 
long?" [8] 

" Sariputta, the lord Kakusandha and the lord 
Konagamana and the lord Kassapa were diligent in 
giving dhamma in detail to the disciples, and these had 
much of the Suttas in prose or in prose and in verse, 
the Expositions, the Songs, the Verses of Uplift, the 
Quotations, the Jatakas, the Miracles, the Miscellanies. 
The course of training for disciples was made known, 
the Patimokkha was appointed. At the disappearance 
of these enlightened ones, these lords, at the dis- 
appearance of the disciples who were enlightened under 
these enlightened ones, those last disciples of various 
names, of various clans, of various social strata, who 
had gone forth from various families, established the 
Brahma-life for a very long time. It is as if, Sari- 
putta, various flowers, loose on a piece of wood, well 
tied together by a thread, are not scattered about or 
whirled about or destroyed by the wind. What is the 
reason for this ? They are well tied together by the 
thread. Even so, Sariputta, at the disappearance of 
these enlightened ones, these lords, at the disappearance 
of the disciples who were enlightened under these 
enlightened ones, those last disciples of various names, 
of various clans, of various social strata, who had gone 
forth from various families, established the Brahma-life 
for a very long time. This, Sariputta, is the cause, this 
the reason why when Kakusandha was the lord, and 
when Konagamana was the lord and when Kassapa was 
the lord, the Brahma-life lasted long." || 3 || 

Then the venerable Sariputta, having risen from his 
seat, having arranged his outer robe over one shoulder, 

2 



l8 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 9-10 

and held out his joined palms in salutation to the lord, 
said to the lord: 

'' It is the right time, lord, it is the right time, 
well-farer,^ at which the lord should make known the 
course of training for disciples and should appoint the 
Patimokkha, in order that this Brahma-life may persist 
and last long." 

" Wait, Sariputta, wait, Sariputta. The tathagata 
will know the right time for that. The teacher does 
not make known, Sariputta, the course of training for 
disciples, or appoint the Patimokkha until some con- 
ditions causing the cankers appear here in the Order.^ 
And as soon, Sariputta, as some conditions causing 
the cankers appear here in the Order, then the teacher 
makes known the course of training for disciples, he 
appoints the Patimokkha in order to ward off those 
conditions causing the cankers. Some conditions, Sari- 
putta, causing the cankers do not so much as appear 
here in the Order until the Order has attained long 
standing. And as soon, Sariputta, as the Order has 
attained long standing, then some conditions causing 
the cankers appear here in the Order. Hence the 
teacher makes known the course of training for dis- 
ciples [9], he appoints the Patimokkha in order to ward 
off those conditions causing the cankers.^ Some con- 
ditions, Sariputta, causing the cankers do not so much 
as appear here in the Order until the Order has attained 
full development. And as soon, Sariputta, as the Order 
has attained full development, then some conditions 
causing the cankers appear here in the Order. Hence 
the teacher makes known the course of training for 
disciples, he appoints the Patimokkha in order to ward 
off those conditions causing the cankers.* Some con- 
ditions, Sariputta, causing the cankers do not so much 

^ Sugata. 

2 VA. 191, things belonging to the here and now and to the next 
world, the bonds of murder, bad conscience and the reproaching 
of others, and a variety of ill and woe. For this passage, cf. M.i. 445. 

3 VA. 194 quotes Vin. Mahdvagga, i. 31. 

4 VA. 194 quotes Par. 5; cf. MA. iii. 156. 



I. 3, 4] DEFEAT I9 

as appear here in the Order until the Order has attained 
the chief greatness of gain.^ And as soon, Sariputta, 
as the Order has attained the chief greatness of gain, 
then some conditions causing the cankers appear here 
in the Order. Hence the teacher makes known the 
course of training for disciples, he appoints the Pati- 
mokkha in order to ward off those conditions causing 
the cankers. 2 Some conditions, Sariputta, causing the 
cankers do not so much as appear here in the Order until 
the Order has attained great learning. And as soon, 
Sariputta, as the Order has attained great learning, then 
some conditions causing the cankers appear here in the 
Order. Hence the teacher makes known the course of 
training for disciples, and appoints the Patimokkha in 
order to ward off those conditions causing the cankers.^ 
Sariputta, the Order of monks is devoid of immorality,* 
devoid of danger, stainless, purified, based on the 
essential.^ Sariputta, the most backward® of these five 
hundred monks is one who has entered the stream, not 
liable to be reborn in any state of woe, assured, bound 
for enlightenment . ' 1 1 4 1 1 3 1 1 



1 Idbhaggamahatta. VA. 194 Idbhassa aggamahattam yo labhassa 
aggo uttamo mahantahhdvo tarn patto hoti ti attho. For list of ** gains " 
see A. i. 38. At M. i. 445 we find Idhhaggam, trans. Fur. Dial. 
I 317 as " wealth." 

2 VA. 195 quotes Pdc. 41; cf. MA. iii. 156. 

3 VA. 195 quotes Pdc. 68; cf. MA. iii. 157. 

* nirabhuda. Lokasmiy abbuda, translated at K.S. i. 61 '* a hell 
on earth," and SA. i. 100 says that " thieves are those who cause 
ruin in the world." At VA. 195 nirabbudo=niccoro, free from 
thieves. It explains that here thieves mean those who are im- 
moral, not being true samanas; but pretending to be, they steal 
the requisites of others. Therefore nirabbuda (free from ruin) 
means free from thieves, free from immorality. Nirabbuda recurs 
below, Vin. iii. 18. 

^ Bu. says, VA. 195, that this consists of virtue, contemplation, 
wisdom, freedom, and knowledge and insight into freedom. 

« lacchimaka. At A. ii. 80^and D. ii. 155 Gotama is made to use 
this sentence in addressing Ananda. The Corny, on A. ii. 80 and 
at DA. ii. 593 say that by pacchimaka, Ananda is meant. Our 
Corny. {VA. 195) naturally does not refer to him. 

' A usual formula for stream-entrants. 



20 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 10-11 



Then the lord addressed the venerable Ananda, 
saying: " Now, Ananda, it is the custom for tathagatas 
not to tour the country for almsfood without having 
(first) taken leave of those by whom they have been 
invited to spend the rains. Let us go, Ananda, to the 
brahmin of Veranja, and we will take leave." 

"So be it, lord," answered the venerable Ananda. 

Then the lord, taking his bowl and robe and departing 
with the venerable Ananda as his attendant,^ came to 
the dwelling of the brahmin of Veranja; and having 
come up he sat down on the appointed seat. Then the 
brahmin of Veranja came up to the lord, and having 
come up he greeted the lord and sat down to one side. 
The lord said to the brahmin of Verailja, as he was 
sitting to one side: [10] 

" Brahmin, having spent the rains invited by you, we 
are taking leave of you: we wish to tour the country 
for alms." 

" It is true, good Gotama, that you have spent the rains 
invited by me, but that the gifts (to mendicants) were 
not given. This was not because we did not want to 
give. But how was it possible ? For the household 
life is busy and there is much to be done. May the 
revered Gotama consent to eat with me tomorrow 
together with the company of monks." 

The lord consented by keeping silence. Then the 
lord, having taught, roused, gladdened and delighted 
the brahmin of Veranja with dhamma-talk, rose from 
his seat and went away. Then the brahmin of Veranja 
having had prepared abundant hard and soft foods^ in 
his own home by the end of the night, made the time 
known to the lord: 

" It is time, good Gotama, the meal is ready," he said. 

Then the lord, rising up early and taking his bowl and 
robe, came up to the dwelling of the brahmin of Veranja. 
Having come up together with the company of monks, he 



1 Pacchdsamana, the junior monk who walks behind the senior 
on his rounds. Ananda accompanies Gotama again at Vin. iv. 78. 

2 Defined at Vin. iv. 92. 



I. 4-6, 1] DEFEAT 21 

sat down on the appointed seat. Then the brahmin of 
Veranja, having served with his own hand abundant 
food, both hard and soft, to the company of monks 
with the enUghtened one as their head, and having 
satisfied them, when the lord had eaten and had finished 
his meal, he clothed him with the threefold robes and 
he clothed each monk with a set of garments.^ Then 
the lord, having instructed, roused, gladdened and 
delighted the brahmin of Veranja with talk on dhamma, 
rose from his seat and departed. 

Then the lord, having remained at Veraiija for as 
long as he found suitable, returning by Soreyya,^ 
Saqkassa^ and Kannakujja* came to Payagapatitthana,^ 
and having come to Payagapatitthana and crossing the 
river Ganges, he went down to Benares. And the lord 
having remained at Benares for as long as he found 
suitable, set out for Vesali for alms. In due course, 
wandering for alms, he arrived at Vesali.* The lord 
stayed there at Vesali in the Gabled Hall in the Great 
Wood. I! 4 II 

Told is the Recital on Veraiija 



Now at that time not far from Vesali was a village 
called Kalandaka. The son of a Kalandaka, the great 
merchant^ there, was named Sudinna, the Kalandaka. 



1 dussayuga, cf. Yin. i. 278 and Vin. Texts ii. 190, n. ; M. i. 215 
=S. V. 71. 

2 A town near Takkasila ; mentioned also in connection with these 
other two towns at Vin. ii. 299. 

3 A town, said by Fausboll to be the locus of Dhp, 181. At its 
gate Sariputta interpreted a problem, on which Jataka 134 is 
based. See Jd. i. 473. 

^ A town. 

^ The modern Allahabad. 

« Capital of the Vajji country. See B. C. Law, Geography of 
Early Buddhism, p. 12 f. 

' VA. 202 says that as other people there were called Kalanda(ka), 
Sudinna was also called " son of the great merchant " [setthiputta) 
— to distinguish him. 



22 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 11-12 

Now Sudinna the Kalandaka^ went to Vesali, together 
with many friends, on some [11] business. At that time 
the lord was seated, surrounded by a great company 
of people, and teaching dhamma. When Sudinna, the 
Kalandaka, saw the lord seated, surrounded by a great 
company of people, and teaching dhamma, he thought^ : 
" What now if I were to listen to dhamma ?"^ Then 
Sudinna, the Kalandaka, came up to this company, 
and having come up, he sat down to one side. As 
he was sittmg to one side, Sudinna, the Kalandaka, 
thought: "So far as I understand dhamma taught by 
the lord, it is no easy matter for one who lives in a 
house to lead the Brahma-life, complete and undefiled 
and polished like a conch-shell. What now if I were 
to cut off my hair and beard and don the yellow robes 
and go forth from home into homelessness ?" 

When the crowd had been taught, roused, gladdened 
and delighted by the lord with talk on dhamma, and 
had risen from their seats, greeting the lord and walking 
round him, keeping their right side towards him, they 
departed. And not long after the crowd had departed 
Sudinna, the Kalandaka, came up to the lord and 
having come up, he greeted the lord and sat down to 
one side. As he was sitting to one side, Sudinna, the 
Kalandaka, spoke thus to the lord: 

" Lord, so far as I understand dhamma taught by 
the lord, it is not an easy matter for one who lives in a 
house to lead the Brahma-life, complete and undefiled 
and polished like a conch-shell. I desire, lord, having 
cut off my hair and beard and having donned the yellow 
robes, to go forth from home into homelessness. May the 
lord let me go forth." 



1 Keferred to at Vin. ii. 286 as " the first parajika, promulgated 
at Vesali on account of Sudinna with regard to sexual intercourse." 
Referred to at Miln. 170. 

2 VA. 202, " because having in former births been very meritori- 
ous, he was incited, a clansman's son, bound to become " {bhabbakula- 
putta). 

^ This same story is told in practically the same words about 
Katthapala at M, ii. 55 £f. 



I. 6, 1-2] DEFEAT 23 

"But, Sudinna, have you your parents' consent to 
go forth ?" 

" No, lord, I have not my parents' consent to go 
forth." 

" Sudinna, tathagatas do not ordain a child without 
the parents' consent." 

" I will do whatever is necessary, so that my parents 
will consent to my going forth from home into homeless- 
ness, lord." |i 1 1| 

Then Sudinna, the Kalandaka, having finished his 
business in Vesali, went up to his parents in the village 
of Kalandaka, and having come up to his parents, he 
spoke thus: 

" Mother and father, in so far as I understand dhamma 
taught by the lord, it is no easy matter for one who 
lives in a house to lead the Brahma-life, complete and 
undefiled and polished like a conch-shell. Having cut 
off my hair and beard and donned the yellow robes, I 
wish to go forth from home [12] into homelessness. 
Give me your consent to go forth from home into home- 
lessness." 

When Sudinna, the Kalandaka, had spoken thus, his 
parents said to him: 

" But you, dear Sudinna, are our only child, dear and 
beloved, you live in comfort and are well cared for. 
Dear Sudinna, you do not know anything of discomfort. 
Your death would make us desolate with no pleasure 
left. How can we, while you are still living, consent 
that you should go forth from home into homelessness ?" 

A second time Sudinna, the Kalandaka, spoke thus 
to his parents: "Mother and father . . ." ". . . from 
home into homelessness?" A third time Sudinna, the 
Kalandaka, spoke thus to his parents: "Mother and 
father . . ." ". . . from home into homelessness?" 

Then Sudinna, the Kalandaka, said: "My parents do 
not consent to my going forth from home into home- 
lessness." So he lay down on the bare ground and 
said: " I will die here, or go forth." Then Sudinna, the 
Kalandaka, did not eat one meal, Txor did he eat two 



24 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. ia-14 

meals, nor did he eat three meals, nor did he eat four 
meals, nor did he eat five meals, nor did he eat six 
meals, nor did he eat seven meals.^ And then the 
parents of Sudinna, the Kalandaka, spoke thus to 
him: 

" Dear Sudinna, you are our only child, dear and 
beloved, you live in comfort and are well cared for. 
Dear Sudinna, you know nothing of discomfort. Your 
death would make us desolate with no pleasure left. 
How can we, while you are still living, consent that 
you should go forth from home into homelessness ? 
Get up, dear Sudinna, eat and drink and amuse yourself; 
eating, drinking, amusing yourself, delighting in sensual 
pleasures and doing meritorious deeds,^ enjoy yourself.^ 
We do not consent to your going forth from home into 
homelessness." 

When they had spoken thus, Sudinna, the Kalandaka, 
was silent. A second time and a third time the parents 
of Sudinna, the Kalandaka, said: ". . . We do not 
consent to your going forth from home into homeless- 
ness." A third time was Sudinna, the Kalandaka, 
silent. II 2 II 

Then the friends of Sudinna, the Kalandaka, came 
up to him, and having come up they spoke to him thus: 
*' You, good Sudinna, are your [13] parents' only child, 
dear and beloved; you live in comfort and are well cared 
for. You do not know anything, good Sudinna, of 
discomfort. Your death would make your parents 
desolate with no pleasures left. How can they, while 
you are still living, consent that you should go forth 
from home into homelessness ? Get up, good Sudinna. 
Eat and drink and amuse yourself; eating, drinking and 
amusing yourself, take delight in sensual pleasures and 
doing meritorious deeds, enjoy yourself. Your parents 

1 This passage omitted at M. ii. 57, see loc. cit., n. 7. 

2 VA. 205, " giving gifts, cleansing the way to a good bourn, 
doing good actions." 

3 Abhiramassu, or "indulge in love"; but from the context I 
think not here. Cf. below, p. 114. 



I. 5, 3^] DEFEAT 25 

cannot consent to your going forth from home into 
homelessness." 

When they had spoken thus, Sudinna, the Kalandaka, 
was silent. A second and a third time the friends of 
Sudinna, the Kalandaka, spoke thus to him: '^ You, 
good Sudinna, are . . /' and a third time Sudinna, the 
son of Kalandaka, was silent. || 3 || 

Then the friends of Sudinna, the Kalandaka, went up 
to his parents, and having come up to them, they said : 

" Mother and father, this Sudinna, lying on the bare 
ground, says that he will die there or go lorth. If you 
do not consent to Sudinna's going forth from home into 
homelessness he will die there. But if you consent to 
his going forth from home into homelessness, after he 
has gone forth you may see him again. If he does not 
enjoy the going forth from home into homelessness, 
what alternative^ will he have than to come back here ? 
Consent to Sudinna's going forth from home into home- 
lessness." 

" We consent, my dears, to Sudinna's going forth from 
home into homelessness," they said. 

Then the friends of Sudinna, the Kalandaka, went 
up to him, and having gone up, they said to him: " Get 
up, good Sudinna, your parents consent to your going 
forth from home into homelessness." 

Then Sudinna, the Kalandaka, said: " They say that 
my parents consent to my going forth from home 
into homelessness." And he rose, joyful, delighted, 
elated, smoothing his limbs with his hands. Then 
Sudinna, the Kalandaka, after a few days when he 
had regained his strength, went up to the lord, and 
having come up he greeted the lord and sat down to 
one side. As he was sitting to one side, Sudinna, the 
Kalandaka, spoke thus to the lord : 

" I am permitted by my parents, lord, to go forth 
from home into homelessness. May the lord allow me 
to go forth." [14] 

^ gatij lit. going or bourn. 



26 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 15 



Then Sudinna, the Kalandaka, received the pab- 
bajja ordination in the presence of the lord, and he 
received the upasampada ordination. And not long 
afterwards the venerable Sudinna went about with these 
qualities^ to the fore: he was a dweller in the jungle, a 
beggar for alms, one who wore rags taken from the 
dust-heap, one who went on continuous alms-begging 
from house to house; and he dwelt depending on a 
certain village of the Vajjians. || 4 || 

At that time the Vajjians^ were short of almsfood,^ 
which was difficult to obtain; they were suffering from 
a famine, and food-tickets wer^ issued. Nor was it 
easy to keep oneself going by gleaning or by favour. 
Now the venerable Sudinna thought to himself: " At 
present the Vajjians are short of almsfood, which is 
difficult to obtain; they are suffering from a famine, 
and food-tickets are being issued. It is not easy to 
keep oneself going by gleaning or by favour. But in 
Vesali my relations are rich, with great resources and 
possessions, having immense (supplies of) gold and silver,* 
immense means and immense resources in corn.^ What 
now if I should dwell supported by my family ? Re- 
lations will give gifts for my support, they will do 
meritorious actions; and the monks will profit and I 
will not go short of almsfood." 

Then the venerable Sudinna, packing up his bedding 
and taking his bowl and robe, set out for Vesali, where 
he arrived in due course. The venerable Sudinna 
stayed there at Vesali in the Gabled Hall in the Great 
Wood. The relations of the venerable Sudinna said to 
themselves: " They say that Sudinna, the Kalandaka, 

1 VA. 206, dhutagune==kilesaniddhunanake gune. 

2 Tribes belonging to one of the sixteen stock mahdjanapadas 
{A. i. 213 ; iv. 252, 256, 260). See E. J. Thomas, The Life of Buddha, 
p. 13, and, on the Vajjis or Vajjians, T. W. Rhys Davids, Buddhist 
India, p. 25. 

3 Cf above Par. I. 2, 1, and below, Par. IV. 1, 1. 

* jdtarupa-rajata. See below, p. 28, n. 1. 

* For this stock phrase cf. A. ii. 86; S. i. 17. On prosperity of 
Vesali, cf Vin. i. 268. 



I. 6, 5-6] DEFEAT 27 

has arrived at VesalT." And they brought him as a 
gift of food sixty offerings of barley.^ Then the 
venerable Sudinna, having given these sixty offerings of 
barley to the monks, rising early and taking his bowl 
and robe, entered the village of Kalandaka for alms. 
As he was going about Kalandaka village on a continuous 
alms-tour, he came up to his own father's house. |i 5 || 

At that time the female slave of the venerable 
Sudinna 's relations wanted to throw away the previous 
evening's barley-gruel. But the venerable Sudinna 
spoke thus to this female slave: 

" If that, sister, is to be thrown away, put it here in 
my bowl.*' 

Then as the slave-girl of the venerable Sudinna's 
relations was heaping the previous evening's barley- 
gruel into his bowl, she recognised his hands and feet 
and voice. 2 Then the female slave of the venerable 
Sudinna's relations went up to his mother, and having 
come up she said to her: 

'* If it please you,^ madam, you should know that 
the young master* Sudinna is back ?" 

" Now then, if you speak the truth, I will make you 
a freed woman." 

At that time the venerable Sudinna was eating the 
previous evening's barley-gruel in the room provided 
for the purpose.^ Then the [15] venerable Sudinna's 
father coming from work, saw the venerable Sudinna 

1 VA. 207 explains that each offering would feed ten monks, 
therefore sixty would feed six hundred. 

2 VA. 208 explains that Sudinna had been a monk for eight 
years, so although the slave did not know him at once, she recognized 
the character of his hands, feet and voice. 

3 yagghe. 

* ayyapiUta. 

^ annataran kvddamulay nissdya. P,T.S. Diet, calls kuddamula, 
" a sort of root." But VA. 209 says it means " that in this district 
there are rooms in the houses of the large householders where there 
are seats prepared, and where those going for alms sit down and eat 
the gruel offered to them." Cf. M. i. 62, where kuddafj with v. I. 
kuddamulay. MA. iii. 2d7=VA. 210. Lord Chalmers translates 
'* under the hedge." May mean " leaning against a wall." 



28 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 16 

eating the previous evening's barley-gruel in the room 
provided for the purpose; and seeing the venerable 
Sudinna he came up to him, and having come up he 
said to him: 

" Can it be, dear Sudinna, that you are eating last 
evening's barley-gruel. Surely, dear Sudinna, you 
should go into your own home ?" 

"We went, householder, to your house; hence last 
evening's barley-gruel." 

Then the father of the venerable Sudinna, taking him 
by the arm, said to him: " Come, dear Sudinna, we will 
go to the house." 

Then the venerable Sudinna came up to the dwelling 
of his own father, and having come up he sat down on 
the appointed seat. And the father of the venerable 
Sudinna said to him: " Eat, dear Sudinna." 

" Not so, householder; today's meal is over for me." 

" Consent, dear Sudinna, to eat tomorrow." 

The venerable Sudinna consented by keeping silent. 
Then the venerable Sudinna, rising from his seat, 
departed. Then the mother of the venerable Sudinna, 
having had the ground smeared with fresh cow-dung, 
had two heaps made, one of gold coins^ and the other 



* ekam hirannassa ekam suvannassa. At M. ii. 63 the reading is 
hirannasuvannassa (punjarn), translated at Fur. Dial. ii. 32, " of 
gold and bullion," and then again " treasure." Khys Davids, 
Ancient Coins, etc., p. 5, gives other and earlier translations for both 
these passages. There is no doubt that two heaps are meant, 
cf. MA. iii. 299, and that therefore the two words hiranna and 
suvanna are intended to represent a difference in the materials of which 
the heaps were composed. Cf. below, Vin. iii. 48, 216, hirannam 
vd suvannam vd. I think that there is little doubt that suvanna is 
the worked or refined gold, but it does not appear to follow in the 
least that hiranna is therefore the un worked, unrefined gold. 
For at A. i. 2b3 jdtarUpa is clearly the un worked (sterling) gold; 
the process of working this is described, and when finished some 
gold ornament is the result. (At Vin. iii. 238 jdtarupa is called 
satthuvanna, the colour of the Teacher.) I therefore cannot sub- 
scribe to the translation of hiraftnasuvanna at Fur. Dial. ii. 94 
{=M. ii. 166) as " wrought and unwrought gold." JdtarUpa is 
gold in its unwrought state, therefore, hiranna will almost certainly 
have some other meaning, with a greater or lesser shade of difference. 



I. 5, 6] DEFEAT 29 

of gold. The heaps were so large that from this side 
a man standing could not see a man standing at the other 
side, and from the other side a man standing could not 
see a man standing at this side. Hiding these heaps 
with screens, and preparing a seat between them 
surrounded by a curtain, she addressed the venerable 
Sudinna's former wife, saying: 

" Daughter-in-law, adorn yourself with those orna- 



At p. 79 Corny, leads one to suppose that hiranna is an ornament; 
cf. Monier- Williams, Sanskrit- English Dictionary under hiranya, 
where one of the meanings given is " a golden ornament (Ved.).'' 
But I think that hiranna most probably means " gold coins." 
N.B. — use of the plural at Vin. iii. 219. According to Boehtlingk 
{Sanskrit -Worterbuch) it meant *' Gold, spater auch Geld," and this 
is the interpretation put upon it in some commentarial passages, 
and I think also at S. i. 89 where hiranna is balanced by rupiya, 
silver {=rajata, see Vin. iii. 238, 240, except that at 240 rUpiya is also 
called satthuvanna, which at 238 is reserved for jdtarUpa). VA. 210 
on the above passage says that " here hiranna should be called kahd- 
pana.'' And at SnA. 323, on Sn. 307, and SnA. 513 on Sn. 769 
hiranna is explained as kahdpana.samkhdta, while at SnA. 315 on Sn. 
285 it is said that na hiranna means that "there was not even quarter 
of a masaka," (on musakay see below, p. 72). In none of these Sn. 
passages is hiranna combined with suvanna, which is interesting and 
curious. Although the Commentator shows a tendency to call hiranna 
kahapana, this does not get us much further. For we do not 
exactly know what a kahapana was at any given time. At Vin. iii. 
238, 240 it appears in the definitions of rajata and rupiya, but at 
the time of the Vinaya its value may have been different from that 
which it had at Bu.'s time. All we can- say is that the kahapana 
was the medium of exchange in Pali literature, and because 
the Commentators sometimes explain hiranna by kahapana, then 
the nearest we can get to a translation at present is " gold coins." 
This seems a more likely translation than " gold leaf " (which so 
far as I know has never been suggested). Hiranna is undoubtedly 
connected with hari, meaning '' yellow, yellowish, green, greenish," 
and I find that in the Ency. Brit, it is said of gold that " while in 
very thin leaves it transmits a greenish light." Before the days 
when it was fashionable to plaster stupas and images of the 
Buddha with gold-leaf, it is not, however, very likely that this 
substance would have been used in any large quantities. Rich 
people would have been more apt to have " heaps of gold 
coins." Although more Pali literature is available to us than was 
to Rhys Davids, we must still say with him {Ancient Coins, etc., 
p. 5) that " to decide these points we must have more texts 
before us." 



30 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 16-17 



ments, adorned with which you were dear to my son, 
Sudinna, and beloved by him." 

" Very good, noble lady," the former wife of the 
venerable Sudinna answered his mother. || 6 || 

Then the venerable Sudinna, rising early and taking 
his bowl and robe, came up to the dweUing of his own 
father, and having come up he sat down on the appointed 
seat. Then the father of the venerable Sudinna came 
up to him, and having come up, revealing the heaps, he 
spoke thus to the venerable Sudinna: 

" This, dear Sudinna, is your mother's fortune, the 
wife's dowry because she is a woman. This is your 
father's and the other is your paternal grandfather's.^ 
It is possible, dear Sudinna, while leading the low life 
of a layman, both to enjoy riches and to do meritori- 
ous actions. Come, dear Sudinna, while leading the low 
life of a layman, enjoy riches and do meritorious 
actions." [16] 

*' I am not able to do so, father, I cannot. Delighted,^ 
1 lead the Brahma-life." 

A second and a third time the father of the venerable 
Sudinna spoke thus to him: "This, dear Sudinna, is 
your mother's portion, the wife's dowry because she is 
a woman. That is your father's and the other is your 
paternal grandfather's. It is possible, dear Sudinna, 
while leading the low life of a layman, both to enjoy 
riches and to do meritorious actions. Come, dear 
Sudinna, enjoy riches while leading the low life of a 
layman, and do meritorious actions." 

" If you would not take it in bad part, householder, 
we could tell you what (to do)." 

" Speak, dear Sudinna," he said. 

" Well then, you, householder, having had very large 
bags of hemp-cloth made, having had them filled with 
the coins and the gold, and having had them brought 



1 It is curious that here there seem to be three heaps, whereas 
just above it is said that two were made. 

* abJdrato, to be translated in this context as above. But see 
below, p. 114. 



I. 6, 7-8] DEFEAT 3I 

down on wagons — sink them in the middle stream of 
the Ganges. And why ? Because, householder, on 
account of them you will become either frightened or 
terrified,^ or your hair will stand on end, or there will 
be no protection for you." 

When he had thus spoken the father of the venerable 
Sudinna was not pleased, and said: " Why does the son, 
Sudinna, speak thus ?" Then the venerable Sudinna's 
father addressed the venerable Sudinna's former wife: 

" Well now, daughter-in-law, as you were dear and 
beloved, so perhaps now the son Sudinna will do your 
bidding." 

Then the former wife of the venerable Sudinna, taking 
hold of his feet, spoke thus to the venerable Sudinna : 

' ' What are these (deva2-)nyniph8 like, son of my lord, 
for whose sake you lead the Brahma-life ?" 

" I do not lead the Brahma-life, sister, for the sake 
of (deva2-)nymph8." 

Then the former wife of the venerable Sudinna said : 

" From this day on my lord's son greets me by saying 
' sister,' " and she fell down at that very spot in a 
swoon. II 7 II 

Then the venerable Sudinna spoke thus to his father: 

"If, householder, there is food to be given, give it, 
but do not annoy me." 

" Eat, dear Sudinna," he said. 

Then the mother and the father of the venerable 
Sudinna waited on him and satisfied him with abundant 
food, both hard and soft. Then when the venerable 
Sudinna had eaten and had finished his meal his mother 
said to him: 

" This family, dear Sudinna, is rich, of great resources 
and possessions, having immense supplies of gold and 
silver, immense means, and immense resources in corn. 
It is possible, dear Sudinna, while leading the low life 
of a layman, both to enjoy riches and to do meritorious 



^ Chambhitatta, see below, p. 119, n. 3. 
2 So VA. 212. 



32 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 17-18 

actions. Come, dear Sudinna, enjoy riches while leading 
the low life of a layman and do meritorious actions." 

" Mother, I am not able to do so, [17] I cannot. 
Delighted,! I lead the good life." 

A second time and a third time the mother of the 
venerable Sudinna spoke to him thus : 

" This family, dear Sudinna, is rich, of great resources 
and possessions, having immense (supplies of) gold and 
silver, immense means, and immense resources in corn. 
For this reason, dear Sudinna, beget offspring; do not 
let the Licchavis^ take over our heirless property." 

" It is possible for me to do this,^ mother," he 
said. 

" Where, dear Sudinna, are you staying at present ?" 
she said. 

"In the Great Wood, mother," he said. Then the 
venerable Sudinna, rising up frOm his seat, departed. || 8 || 

Then the mother of the venerable Sudinna addressed 
his former wife, saying: 

" Daughter-in-law, as soon as you menstruate, the flow 
coming, you should tell me." 

" Very well, noble lady," the former wife of the 
venerable Sudinna answered his mother. Not long 
afterwards the former wife of the venerable Sudinna 
menstruated and the flow began. And the former wife 
of the venerable .Sudinna said to his mother: " Noble 
lady, I am menstruating and the flow has begun." 

" Daughter-in-law, adorn yourself with those orna- 
ments, adorned with which you were dear to my son 
Sudinna and beloved by him," she said. 

" Very well, noble lady," the former wife of the 
venerable Sudinna answered his mother. 

^ abhirato, here I think meaning simply as translated above. But 
see below, p. 114. 

2 Their capital was at Vesali. 

3 VA. 212 says that he said this thinking that if he had issue 
his relations would no longer bother him about looking after the 
property, and so he would be able to follow the dhamma of recluses 
at ease. 



I. 5, 9] DEFEAT 33 

Then the mother of the venerable Sudinna together 
with his former wife went up to the venerable Sudinna 
in the Great Wood, and having come up she spoke thus 
to him: 

" This family, dear Sudinna, is rich, of great resources 
and possessions, having immense (supplies of) gold and 
silver, immense means, and immense resources in corn. 
For this reason, dear Sudinna, beget offspring; do not 
let the Licchavis take over our heirless property." 

*' It is possible for me to do this, mother," he said, 
and taking his former wife by the arm and plunging 
into the Great Wood, and seeing no danger, since the 
course of training had not been made known, three 
times he induced his former wife to indulge in sexual 
intercourse with him. As a result she conceived. The 
earth -de vas made this sound heard: 

" Good sirs, the company of monks is without im- 
morality,^ it is not beset by danger, but immorality 
is evoked, danger is evoked by Sudinna, the Kalan- 
daka." 

The retinue of the Four Firmament devas, having 
heard the sound of the earth-devas, made this sound 
heard . . . the Thirty devas . . .the Yama devas ... 
the Happy devas . . . the devas who delight in creation 
. . . [18] the devas who dehght in the creation of 
others . . . the devas belonging to the retinue of 
Brahma made this sound heard: 

" Good sirs, the company of monks is without im- 
morality, it is not beset by danger, but immorality is 
evoked, danger is evoked by Sudinna, the Kalandaka." 
Thus in this very moment, this very second, the 
sound went forth as far as the Brahma- world. ^ Then 
the womb of the venerable Sudinna's former wife 
came to maturity, and she gave birth to a son. Now 
the friends of th<3 venerable Sudinna called this boy 
Bijaka; they called the former wife of the venerable 
Sudinna, Bijaka's mother; they called the venerable 

^ nirabbuda, cf. above, p. 19, n. 4. 

2 VA. 215, brahmalokd=aka7iitthabrahmalokd, i.e. the worlds of 
the Elder Brahma-devas. 

3 



34 600K OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 19 

Sudinna, Bijaka's father. At (some) later time, both^ 
having gone forth from home into homelessness, they 
realised arahanship. || 9 || 

Then the venerable Sudinna was remorseful and 
conscience-stricken, and said: 

" It surely is not a gain to me, it surely is not a gain 
to me, I have surely ill-gained, I have surely not well- 
gained, that having gone forth under this dhamma and 
discipline which are well preached, I was not able for all 
my life to lead the Brahma -life, complete and purified." 
And because of his remorse and bad conscience, he 
became haggard, wretched, of a bad colour, yellowish, 
the veins showing all over his body, melancholy, of 
sluggish mind, miserable, depressed, repentant, weighed 
down with grief. ^ Then the monks who were the friends 
of the venerable Sudinna said to him : 

" Formerly you, reverend Sudinna, were handsome, 
your features were rounded, your face was a good colour, 
your skin clear. But now at present you are haggard, 
wretched, a bad colour, yellowish, your veins showing 
all over your body, melancholy, of sluggish mind, 
miserable, depressed, repentant, weighed down with 
grief. Can it be that you, reverend Sudinna, lead the 
Brahma-life dissatisfied ?"^ 

"I do not, your reverences, lead the Brahma-life 
dissatisfied. I have done an evil deed. I have indulged 
in sexual intercourse with my former wife. That is 
why, your reverences, I am remorseful ... to lead the 
Brahma-life, complete and purified." 

*' Reverend Sudinna, you ought to feel remorse,* 
reverend Sudinna, you ought to have a bad conscience, 
because you, having gone forth under dhanmia and the 
discipline which are well preached, cannot during your 
life-time lead the Brahma-life, complete and purified. 

1 Ilrid. — i.e., Bijaka and his mother. ^ Stock. 

3 anabhirato, VA. 217, " fretting, longing to be a householder 
. . . but I find no delight (anabhirato) in making become the 
conditions of higher righteousness." See below, p. 114, notes. 

* =Vm. ii. 250. 



I. 5, 10-11] DEFEAT 35 

Is not, your reverence, dhamma taught by the lord in 
various ways for the sake of passionlessness, not for the 
sake of passion; is not dhamma taught for the sake of 
being without fetters, not for the sake of being bound ; 
is not dhamma taught for the sake of being without 
grasping, not for the sake of grasping ? How can you, 
your reverence, while this dhamma is taught by the 
lord for the sake of passionlessness, strive after passion; 
how can you while this dhamma is taught by the lord 
for the sake of being without fetters, [19] strive after 
being bound ; how can you while this dhamma is taught 
by the lord for the sake of being without grasping, strive 
after grasping ? Is not, your reverence, dtiamma taught 
in many ways by the lord for the waning of passion, is 
not dhamma taught for the subduing of conceit, for the 
restraint of desire, for the abolition of clinging, for the 
annihilation of the round of becomings,^ for the destruc- 
tion of craving, for passionlessness, for stopping, for 
waning P Has not, your reverence, the destruction of 
the pleasures of the senses been declared in many ways 
by the lord, full understanding of ideas of the pleasures 
of the senses been declared, restraint in clinging to the 
pleasures of the senses been declared, the elimination 
of thoughts of pleasures of the senses been declared, 
the allaying of the fever of the pleasures of the senses 
been declared ? It is not, your reverence, for the benefit 
of non-believers, nor for the increase in the number of 
believers, but it is, your reverence, to the detriment of 
both non-believers and believers, and it causes wavering 
in some." II 10 II 



Then thqse monks, having rebuked the venerable 
Sudinna in various ways, told this matter to the lord. 
And the lord for this reason, in this connection, having 
had the company of monks convened, questioned the 
venerable Sudinna, saying: 

^ VA. 218, tebhiimakavattafj ucchijjati {i.e. the kdma, rupa and 
arupa becomings). 

2 Cf. A. ii. 34, and various passages in S. v. 



36 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 20-21 

** Is it true, as is said, Sudinna, that you indulged in 
sexual intercourse with your former wife ?" 

" It is true, lord," he said. 

The enlightened one, the lord, rebuked him, 
saying: 

"It is not fit, foolish man, it is not becoming, it is 
not proper, it is unworthy of a recluse, it is not lawful, 
it ought not to be done. How is that you, foolish man, 
having gone forth under this dhamma and discipline 
which are well taught, are not able for your lifetime 
to lead the Brahma-life which is complete and wholly 
purified ? How can you strive, foolish man, while 
dhamma is taught by me in various ways for the sake 
of passionlessness . . . foolish man, by me for the 
sake of passionlessness. Foolish man, is not dhamma 
taught by me in various ways for the waning of passion 
. . . the destruction of pleasures of the senses . . . the 
allaying of the fever of the pleasures of the senses been 
declared ? It were better for you, foolish man, that 
your male organ should enter the mouth of a terrible 
and poisonous snake, than that it should enter a woman. 
It were better for you, foolish man, that your male 
organ should enter the mouth of a black snake, than that 
it should enter a woman. It were better for you, 
foolish man, that your male organ should enter a charcoal 
pit, burning, ablaze, afire, than that it should enter a 
woman. What is the cause for this ? For that reason, 
foolish man, you would go to death, or to suffering like 
unto death, but not on that account would you pass 
at the breaking up of the body after death to the waste, 
the bad bourn, the abyss, hell. But for this reason, 
foolish man, at the breaking up of the body after death, 
you would pass to the waste, [20] the bad bourn, the 
abyss, hell.^ Thus for this very deed, foolish man, you 
will enter upon what is not verily dhamma,^ upon village 

1 Cf. below, p. 155. 

- asaddhamma. VA. 22J, "You would follow untrue dhamma 
of interior people." On prefix sa- see Mrs. Rhys Davids, introduc- 
tion to G.tS. J. ix. f. 



I. 5, 11] DEFEAT 37 

dhamma, upon a low dhamma/ upon wickedness, upon 
final ablution,^ upon secrecy, upon having obtained 
in couples. Foolish man, you are the first-doer of many 
wrong things. It is not, foqlish man, for the benefit 
of un-believers, nor for the increase in the number of 
believers, but, foolish man, it is to the detriment of 
both unbelievers and believers, and it causes wavering 
in some." 

Then the lord, having rebuked the venerable Sudinna 
in various ways, and having spoken in dispraise of his 
difficulty in supporting and maintaining himself, of his 
arrogance, of his lack of contentment, of his clinging 
(to the obstructions^) and of his indolence; and having 
spoken in various ways of the ease of supporting and 
maintaining oneself, of desiring little, of contentment, of 
expunging (evil),* of punctiliousness, of what is gracious, 
of decreasing (the obstructions^) and of the putting 
forth of energy,^ and having given suitable and befitting 
talk on dhamma to the monks, he addressed the monks, 
saying: 

" On account of this,' monks, I will make known the 
course of training for monks, founded on ten reasons: 
for the excellence of the Order, for the comfort of the 
Order, for the restraint of evil-minded men, for the ease 



1 VA, 221, " outcastes (vasala) rain down evil dhamma; the 
dhamma of the outcaste, low men is outcaste, or it is a dhamma 
pouring out the kilesas." Vasala at Sn. IIG ff. translated by Lord 
Chalmers, Suttanipata, H.O.S. 37, as " wastrel." 

2 Odakantika — i.e., following the sexual act. VA. 221 explains: 
ttdakakiccam antikam avasdnam assd ti, the water-libation (the 
cleansing, the washing) is at an end, finished for him. The word 
udukakicca occurs at D. ii. 15, but DA. is silent. 

3 Samganika—kilesasaThganika, VA. 222. 

* Sallekhana=niddhunana, VA. 222. 

* Apacaya=sabbakilesd])acayabhutd, VA. 222. 

« =Fm. i. 45=ii. 2— iii. 171=iv. 213, where this standing 
dhamma-talk is given. These are doubtless the subjects to be filled 
in where the text in so many places baldly states that Gotama 
'* gave dhamma-talk." All my renderings differ from those given 
at Vin. Texts i. 153, ii. 331; iii. 252. Cf. M. i. 13. Corny, on 
Vin. iii. 171 is silent. 

' I.e., Sudinna's offence. VA. 223. 



38 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 21-22 

of well-behaved monks, for the restraint of the cankers 
belonging to the liere and now, for the combating of 
the cankers belonging to other worlds, for the benefit 
of non-believers, for the increase in the number of 
believers, for estabhshing dhamma indeed,^ for following 
the rules of restraint. ^ Thus, monks, this course of 
training should be set forth: 

Whatever monk should indulge in sexual intercourse 
is one who is defeated,^ he is no longer in communion." 

And thus this course of training for the monks was 
set forth by the lord. ||11||5|| 

Told is the Sudinna Recital 



Now at that time a certain monk in the Great Wood 
at Vesali, on account of his lust *kept a female monkey. 
Then this monk, rising early and taking his bowl and 
robe, entered Vesali for alms. Now at that time a 
large concourse of monks, who were engaged in touring 
for lodgings, came up to this monk's vihara. The female 
monkey, seeing these monks coming from afar, went 
up to them and *postured before them. [21] Then these 

1 VA. 225 says that saddhamma is threefold: (1) the Tipitaka, all 
the utterances of the Buddha (c/. KhuA. 191 ff.); (2) the thirteen 
scrupulous ways of life, the fourteen duties, virtue, contemplation, 
insight; (3) the four ariyan Ways and the four fruits of samanaship 
and nibbana. 

2 VA. 226 says that Vinaya or discipline is fourfold: discipline 
by restraint, by rejection, by calm, by making known. 

3 On derivation of pdrdjika, see Vin. Texts i. 3, n. 2. Editor 
takes it as "involving or suffering defeat," either specifically as 
defeat in the struggle with Mara; or more probably defeat in the 
struggle against evil generally, defeat in the effort to accomplish 
the supreme goal of arahanship. VA. 259 gives pdrdjiko ti pard- 
jito, pardjayam dpanno, defeated, fallen on defeat. "In this mean- 
ing pdrdjika exists for those people for whom there is an offence 
(dpatti) against the training. Whoever transgresses against the 
course of training, it defeats him {pardjeti), therefore it is called a 
defeat. Whoever commits an offence, that defeats him, therefore 
that is called a defeat. The man, inasmuch as defeated, fallen on 
defeat, is thereby called a defeated one." We thus get a neuter, 
feminine and masculine reference for pdrdjika. Childers says, 
'* meriting expulsion." I 



I. 6] DEFEAT 39 

monks thought: "Undoubtedly this monk *has com- 
mitted fornication," and they hid themselves to one side. 
Then this monk, when he had gone about Vesall for 
alms, returned with his almsfood, and eating half gave 
the other half to the female monkey. *And there was 
some misbehaviour. Then those monks said to that 
monk: 

" Surely the course of training has been made known 
by the lord, your reverence ? Why do you *commit 
fornication, your reverence ?" 

" It is true, your reverences, that the course of training 
was made known by the lord, but it refers to the human 
woman and not to the female animal." 

'' But surely, your reverence, it refers just as much to 
that. It is not fit, your reverence, it is not suitable, 
it is not becoming, it is not worthy of a recluse, it is not 
lawful, it ought not to be done. How it is that you, 
your reverence, having gone forth under this dhamma 
and discipline which are well taught, are not able to 
lead for your life-time the Brahma-life, complete and 
wholly purified ? Has not, your reverence, dhamma 
been taught in various ways by the lord for the sake of 
passionlessness and not for the sake of passion^ . . . 
and the allaying of the fever of the pleasures of the 
senses been declared ? It is not, your reverence, for 
the benefit of non-believers . . . and it causes wavering 



in some." 



Then these monks, having rebuked this monk in 
various ways, told this matter to the lord. And the 
lord for this reason and in this connection, having the 
company of monks convened, questioned this monk 
thus : 

"Is it true, as is said, monk, that you ^committed 
fornication ?" 

" It is true, lord," he said. 

Then the lord rebuked him, saying: (=5. 11 above. 
Instead of village dhamma, read the state of monkeys) 
". . . having obtained in couples. It is not, foolish 

1 Cf. above, Par. I. 5. 10. 



40 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 22-28 

man, for the benefit of non-believers. . . . Monks, thus 
this course of training should be set forth : 

Whatever monk should indulge in sexual intercourse 
even with an animaU is one who is defeated, he is not in 
communion." 

And thus this course of training for monks was made 
known by the lord. || 6 1| 

Story of the Female Monkey [22] 



Now at that time, a great company of monks, dwellers 
at Vesali and sons of the Vajjins, ate as much as they 
liked, drank as much as they liked and bathed as much 
as they liked. Having eaten, drunk and bathed as much 
as they liked, not having paid attention to the training, 
but not having disavowed^ it, they indulged in sexual 
intercourse not having declared their weakness.^ These, 
in the course of time being affected by misfortune to 
their relatives, being affected by misfortune to their 
wealth, being affected by the misfortune of disease, 
approaching the venerable Ananda, spoke thus to him: 

" Honoured Ananda, we are not abusers of the 
enlightened one, we are not abusers of dhamma, we are 
not abusers of the Order. Honoured Ananda, we are 

1 Cf. Vin. I 96. 

^ sikhham apaccakkhdya, not having . denied the teaching, not 
having said : " I renounce (formally) my submission to the discipline," 
i.e. " I am no longer a monk." Cf. Vin. Texts i. 275, n. 2, where 
editor thinks this is a formal renunciation of the Order as opposed 
to the Vinaya's term vibbharnati, " he returns to the house." Cf. 
A. iv. 372, where among the nine Impossibles {abhabba) is that 
the monk who is an arahan should disavow the buddha, dhamma or 
Order. At S. ii. 231 a monk, assailed by passion, disavows the 
training and hmdydvattati, the Sutta word for returning to the low 
life of the layman, and cf. S. ii. 271. 

Paccakkhdti is pati + akkhdti=d + khyd, and not pati-\-akkh. The 
root akkh is purely theoretical and would certainly not explain the 
a of paccakkhdti, paccakkhdya. 

3 This refers, as noted in Vin. Texts i. 4, n. 1, to the permission 
(on the ground that it was better to leave the Order than to burn, 
see above, P|lr. I. 6, 11), for a monk to acknowledge himself unfit 
for the discipline and to throw off the robes. 



I. 7] DEFEAT 41 



self-abusers, not abusers of others. Indeed we are 
unlucky, we are of little merit, for we, having gone 
forth under this dhamma and discipline which are well 
taught, are not able for our life-time to lead the Brahma- 
life, complete and wholly purified. Even now, honoured 
Ananda, if we might receive the pabbajja ordination 
in the presence of the lord, if we might receive the 
upasampada ordination, then contemplating, we would 
dwell continuously intent upon states which are good, 
and upon making to become the states belonging to 
enlightenment.^ It were good, honoured Ananda, that 
you should explain this matter to the lord." 

" Very well, your reverences," he said. And the 
venerable Ananda having answered the dwellers in 
Vesali, the sons of the Vajjins, went up to the lord. 
And, having come up to him, he told this matter to 
the lord. 

" It is impossible, Ananda, it cannot come to pass,^ 
that the tathagata should abolish the teaching on defeat 
which has been made known for the disciples, because 
of the deeds of the Vajjins or the sons of the Vajjins." 

Then the lord for this reason, in this connection, 
having given talk on dhamma, addressed the monks 
thus: 

*' Monks, whatever monk should come, without 
having disavowed the training, without declaring his 
weakness, and indulge in sexual intercourse, he should 
not receive the upasampada ordination. But, monks, 
if one comes, disavowing the training and declaring 
his weakness, yet indulging in sexual intercourse, he 
should receive the upasampada ordination. And thus, 
monks, this course of training should be set forth: 

Whatever monk, possessed of the training and mode 



^ The term bodhipakkhiyadhamma, or as it is here bodhipakkhika° , 
is not usually considered to belong to the earlier literature. The 
later literature and Comys. reckon these states as thirty-seven. 
On their arrangement see Mrs. Rhys Davids, Sakya, p. 395, and 
K.S. V. vi. 

* Following Woodward's translation at G.S. i. 25. and see loc. cit. 
n. 6. VA. 229 elucidates anavakdso by kdranapatikkhepavacanafi . 



42 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 23-24 

of life for monks, but not disavowing the training and 
not declaring his weakness, shoukl indulge in sexual 
intercourse, even with an animal, is one who is defeated, 
he is not in communion." 11 7 11 



Whatever means: he who, on account of his relations, 
on account of his social standing, on account of his 
name, [23] on account of his clan, on account of 
his morals, on account of his dwelling, on account of his 
field^ (of activity), an elder^ or a novice or one of middle 
standing: — this is called whatever. 

Monk means: he is a monk because he is a beggar 
for alms, a monk because he submits to wandering for 
alms, a monk because he is one who wears the patch- 
work cloth, a monk by the designation (of others), a 
monk on account of his acknowledgment; a monk is 
called " Come, monk," a monk is endowed with going 
to the three refuges, a monk is auspicious, a monk is the 
essential, a monk is a learner, a monk is an adept, a 
monk means one who is endowed with harmony for the 
Order, with the resolution at which the motion is put 
three times and then followed by the decision,^ with 
actions (in accordance with dhamma and the discip- 
line),^ with steadfastness, with the attributes of a man 
perfected.'^ Whatever monk is endowed with harmony 
for the Order, with the resolution at which the motion 
is put three times, and then followed by the decision, 
with actions (in accordance with dhamma and the 
discipline), with steadfastness and the attributes of 
a man perfected, this one is a monk as understood in 
this meaning. 

Training means: the three trainings are — training in 
the higher morality, training in the higher thought, 

1 For definition oigocara see Yhh. 247. 

2 VA. 239, thera is one who has completed ten years; nava, a 
novice, is one of four years standing; and majjhima is one of more 
than five years standing. 

3 natticatuttha. * So VA. 243. 

^ Cf. list of eighteen explanations of monk at Vbh. 245-6. 



I. 8, 1-2] DEFEAT 43 

training in the higher wisdom. Here the training 
signified in this meaning is the training in the higher 
morality. 

Mode of life is called whatever course of training is 
made known by the lord: this is called mode. . . . 
One is trained in this, thereby one is called possessed 
of the mode. . . . || 1 1| 

Not disavowing the training, not declaring his weakness 
means: there is, monks, both the declaration of weak- 
ness, the training not being disavowed; and there is, 
monk:s, the declaration of weakness, the training being 
disavowed. 

And how, monks, is there declaration of weakness 
with the training not disavowed ? Here, monks, the 
monk who is chafing, dissatisfied, desirous of passing 
from the state of a recluse, anxious, troubled and 
ashamed^ at being a monk, longing to be a householder, 
longing to be a lay-follower, longing to be a park- 
attendant, longing to be a novice, longing to belong to 
another sect, longing to be a disciple of another sect, 
longing not to be a recluse, longing not to be a son of 
the Sakyans — (such a monk) says, and declares: ' What 
now if I were to disavow the enlightened one V Thus, 
monks, there is both a declaration of weakness and the 
training not disavowed. Then further, a chafing, dis- 
satisfied . . . longing not to be a son of the Sakyans, 
says and declares : ' What now if I were to disavow 
dhamma ?' . . . he says, he declares: ' What now the 
Order . . . what now the training . . . what now the 
discipline . . . what now the Patimokkha . . . what 
now the exposition . . . what [24] now the preceptor 
. . . what now the teacher . . . what now the fellow- 
monk . . . what now the novice . . . what now the 
preceptors of my equals . . . what now the teachers 
of my equals . . . what now if I were to disavow the 
Brahma-life V . . .he speaks, he declares: ' What now 



^ For these three words, cf. D. i. 213, where Gotama is made to 
use them in reference to the exercise of supernormal powers. 



44 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 25-26 

if I were a householder V . . .he says, he declares: 
' What now if I were a lay-follower . . . what now if 
I were a park-attendant . . . what now if I were a 
novice . . . what now if I were an adherent of another 
sect . . . what now if I were a disciple of another 
sect . . . what now if I were not a recluse . . . what 
now if I were not a son of the Sakyans V Thus, monks, 
there is a declaration of weakness, the training not 
having been disavowed. 

Then further, a chafing, dissatisfied . . . longing not 
to be a son of the Sakyans says, declares: ' But if I 
were to disavow the enlightened one ' ... he says, 
he declares : ' But if I w;ere not a son of the Sakyans ' 
... he says, he declares : ' And I should disavow the 
enlightened one' ... he says, he declares: 'And I 
should not be a son of the Sakyans ' ... he says, he 
declares: ' Come now, I should disavow the enlightened 
one ' . \ . he says, he declares : ' Come now, I should 
not be a son of the Sakyans ' ... he says, he declares : 
' The enlightened one is disavowed by me ' ... he 
says, he declares: ' There is no existence as a son of 
the Sakyans for me.' Thus, monks, is there a declara- 
tion of weakness and the training is not disavowed. 

Then further, a chafing, dissatisfied . . . longing not 
to be a son of the Sakyans, says, declares : ' I remember 
my mother ... I remember my father ... I remem- 
ber my brother ... I remember my sister ... I 
remember my son ... I remember my daughter . . . 
I remember my wife ... I remember my relations 
... I remember my friends ... I remember the 
village ... I remember the town ... I remember the 
rice-field ... I remember my property ... I re- 
member my gold coins ... I remember my gold . . . 
I remember my crafts ... I remember early laughter 
. . . prattle and amusement.' Thus, monks, [25] there 
is a declaration of weakness, the training not having 
been disavowed. 

Then further, a chafing, dissatisfied . . . longing not 
to be a son of the Sakyans says, declares: ' I have a 
mother, she ought to be supported by me ... I have 



I. 8, 2-3] DEFEAT 45 

a father, he ought to be supported by me ... I have 
a brother, he ought to be supported by me ... I have 
a sister, she ought to be supported by me ... I have 
a son ... I have a daughter ... I have a wife . . . 
I have relations, they ought to be supported by me . . . 
I have friends, they ought to be supported by me.' 
Thus, monks, there is a declaration of weakness, the 
training not having been disavowed. 

Then further, a" chafing, dissatisfied . . . longing not 
to be a son of the Sakyans says, declares: ' I have a 
mother, she will support me . . . I have a father, he 
will support me ... I have friends, they will support 
me ... I have a village, I will live by means of it . . . 
I have a town, I will live by means of it . . . rice-fields 
. . . property . . . gold coins . . . gold ... I have 
crafts, I will live by means of them.' . . . Thus, monks, 
there is a declaration of weakness, the training not 
having been disavowed. 

Then further, a chafing, dissatisfied . . . longing not 
to be a son of the Sakyans says, declares: ' This is diffi- 
cult to do . . . this is not easy to do . . . this is 
difficult . . . this is not easy ... I am unable . . . I 
cannot endure ... I do not enjoy myself ... I take 
no delight.'^ Thus, monks, there is a declaration of 
weakness, the training not having been disavowed." || 2 || 

And how, monks, is there a declaration of weakness 
with the training being disavowed ? Here, monks, a 
monk who is dissatisfied, chafing . . . longing not to 
be a son of the Sakyans says, declares: ' I disavow the 
enlightened one.' This, monks, is a declaration of 
weakness and the training being disavowed. 

Then further, a chafing, dissatisfied . . . longing not 
to be a son of the Sakyans says, declares: ' I disavow 
dhamma . . . [26] I disavow the Order . . . the train- 
ing . . . the discipline . . . the Patimokkha . . . the 
exposition ... the preceptor . . . the teacher . . . my 
fellow-monks . . . the novice . . . the preceptor of 



1 See n. 1, p. 114. 



46 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 27 

my fellows . . . the teacher of my fellows ... I dis- 
avow the Brahma-life ...';... says, declares: ' I will 
be a householder ... I will be a lay-follower ... a 
park-attendant ... a novice ... an adherent of 
another sect ... a disciple of another sect . . . not 
a recluse ... I will not be a son of the Sakyans.' 
Thus, monks, there is a declaration of weakness with the 
training being disavowed. 

Then further, a chafing, dissatisfied . . . longing not 
to be a son of the Sakyans, says, declares : ' I am tired 
of the enlightened one ... I am tired of the Brahma- 
life.' This, monks ... 

Then further . . . says, declares: ' What is the en- 
lightened one to me ? . . . What is the Brahma-life 
to me V This, monks . . . 

Then further . . . says, declares: ' The enlightened 
one means nothing to me ... The Brahma-life means 
nothing to me.' This, monks . . . 

Then further . . . says, declares : ' I am well freed 
with regard to the enlightened one ... I am well 
freed with regard to the Brahma-life.' This, monks 
... being disavowed. 

Then there are these other attributes of the en- 
lightened one, or of dhamma, or of the Order, or of the 
training ... or of the Brahma-life, or of the house- 
holder ... or of one who is not a son of the Sakyans ; 
he speaks, he declares by reason of these properties, 
by reason of these features, by reason of these signs. 
Thus, monks, there is a declaration of weakness, the 
training having been disavowed. || 3 || 

And how, monks, is the training not disavowed ? 
Here, monks, by reason of these properties, by reason 
of these features, by reason of these signs, the training 
is disavowed, yet if one who is out of his mind disavows 
the training by reason of these properties, by reason of 
these features, by reason of these signs, then the training 
is not disavowed. If one disavows the training in the 
presence of one who is out of his mind, the training is 
not disavowed. If one whose mind is unhinged disavows 



I. 8, 4-5] DEFEAT 47 

the training ... if one disavows the training in the 
presence of one whose mind is unhinged ... if one 
is afflicted with pain ... in the presence of one afflicted 
by pain ... in the presence of devatas^ ... if one 
disavows the training in the presence of animals, the 
training is not disavowed. If an ariyan^ disavows the 
training in the presence of a non-ariyan^ and he does 
not recognise it, the training is not disavowed. If a 
non-ariyan in the presence of an ariyan ... if an 
ariyan in the presence of an ariyan ... if a non- 
ariyan [27] disavows the training in the presence of 
a non-ariyan and he does not recognise it, the training 
is not disavowed. If he disavows the training for a 
joke ... he disavows the training for fun ... if he 
announces what he does not wish to announce ... if 
he does not announce what he wishes to announce . . . 
if he announces to those not knowing ... if he does not 
announce to those knowing ... or if he does not 
announce the whole thing, the training is not disavowed. 
This, monks, is the training which is not disavowed. || 4 || 

Sexual intercourse means : what is not verily dhamma, 
village dhamma, low-caste dhamma, wickedness, the 
final ablution, secrecy, having obtained in couples: this 
is called sexwil intercourse. 

Indulges means: whenever the male organ is made to 
enter the female, the male member to enter the female, 
even for the length of a fruit of the sesame plant, this 
is called indulges. 

Even with an animal means: indulging in sexual inter- 
course with a female animal,* he is not a (true) recluse, 

^ VA. 255, from the earth devatas to the devatas of the Akanittha 
reahn. 

^ YA. 255, ariyaka means the proper mode of speech, the language 
of Magadha. Note the form ariyaka. 

3 milakkhuka. Cf. Mlecchas, now a term for all non-caste people. 
Here perhaps the aboriginal inhabitants of India. VA. 255 says, 
ndma yo koci anariyako Andha-Damilddi, the people of Andha {i.e. 
the Telugus) and the Tamils, cf. VbhA. 387, 388. 

* Tiracchdnagatitthi, lit. a woman gone to the animals. Cf. below, 
p. 212. 



48 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 28-29 

not a (true) son of the Sakyans, much less so than 
with women: hence the meaning is even mih an 
animal. 

Is one who is defeated means: as a man with his head 
cut oif cannot become^ one to live with that bodily con- 
nection, so is a monk indulging in sexual intercourse 
not a (true) recluse, not a (true) son of the Sakyans^: 
therefore he is called one who is defeated. 

Is not in communion means: communion^ is called one 
work, one rule, an equal training, this is called com- 
munion. He who is not together with this is therefore 
called not in communion. II 5 11 8 11 



Three kinds of females : human women, non-human 
females, female animals. Three kinds of hermaphro- 
dites: human hermaphrodites, non-human herma- 
phrodites, animal hermaphrodites. Three kinds of 
eunuchs: human eunuchs, non-human eunuchs, animal 
eunuchs. Three kinds of males: human males, non- 
human males, animal males. There is an offence 
involving defeat if he commits sexual intercourse with 
human women *in three ways. Also with non-human 
women and with female animals. Also with human, 
non-human and animal hermaphrodites. There is an 
offence involving defeat for a human eunuch if he 
commits sexual intercourse *in two ways. Also non- 
human and animal eunuchs. There is an offence in- 
volving defeat for human males, non-human males and 
male animals if they commit sexual intercourse *in these 
two ways. ||1|| [28] 

For a monk who, having thought of cohabitation, 
lets his male organ enter a human woman *at any one 
of the three places, there is an offence involving defeat. 

^ Abhabba. 

2 Cf. Vin. i. 96. 

^ Samvdsa, lit. living with, co-residence. It often refers to the 
household life, as at A. ii. 57, 187; iii. 164; iv. 174; Sn. 283, 290; 
but in Vin. it is a term of importance in religion. 



I. 9, 2-4] DEFEAT 49 

For a monk who ... a non-human female, a female 
animal ... a human, non-human, an animal herma- 
phrodite *at any one of the three places, there is an 
offence involving defeat. For a monk who ... a 
human, non-human or animal eunuch ... a human 
male, a non-human male or a male animal ... in- 
volving defeat. i| 2 || 

Opponents of monks having brought a human woman 
into a monk's presence associate his male organ *with 
these three places. If he agrees to application, if he 
agrees to entry, if he agrees to remaining, if he agrees 
to taking out, there is an offence involving defeat. 
Opponents of monks . . . if he does not agree to appli- 
cation, but agrees to entry, to remaining, to taking out, 
there is an offence involving defeat. 

Opponents of monks ... if he does not agree to application, 
nor to entry, but to remaining and to taking out . . . involving 
defeat. Opponents of monks ... if he does not agree to * 
application nor to entry nor to remaining, but to taking out 
. . . involving defeat. Opponents of monks ... if he does 
not agree to application nor to entry nor to remaining nor to 
taking out, there is no offence. 

Opponents of monks, having brought a human 
woman awake . . . asleep . . . intoxicated . . . mad 
. . . drunk . . . dead but undecomposed . . . dead and 
practically undecomposed . . . *dead and practically 
decomposed . . . involving defeat. [29] If he agrees to 
its application, to its entry, to its remaining, to taking 
it out, there is a grave offence . . . if he does not agree, 
there is no offence. 

(All this is repeated for non-human females, female 
animals; human, non-human, animal hermaphrodites; 
human, non-human, animal eunuchs; human men, non- 
human males, male animals.) || 3 || 

Opponents of monks, having brought a human 
woman [30] into a monk's presence, associate his male 
organ *at the three places, the woman being covered, the 
monk uncovered ...;... the woman uncovered, 

4 



50 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 31-33 

the monk covereJ ...;... the woman covered, the 
monk covered . . .; ... the woman uncovered, the 
monk uncovered. If he agrees to its application, to its 
ejitry, to its remaining, to taking it out, there is an 
offence involving defeat. If not, there is no offence. 
Opponents of monks ... a human woman awake . . . 
asleep .... dead but practically undecomposed . . . 
involving defeat . . . dead, but practically decomposed 
. . . the woman being covered, the monk uncovered . . . 
both being uncovered. If he agrees . . . there is a grave 
offence. If not, there is no offence. 

(All this is repeated for a non-human female, female 
animal; human, non-human and animal hermaphrodite; 
human, non-human and animal eunuch; human males, 
non-human males and male-animals.) ||4|| 

Vin. iii. 32-33, §§ 5, 6 are repetitions of §§ 3, 4 but 
reading " opponents of monks, having brought a monk 
into the presence of a human woman . . ." || 5 || 6 || 

In as much as opponents of monks have been ex- 
plained, so should be explained opponents as kings, 
opponents as thieves, opponents as scoundrels, oppo- 
nents as " the scent of lotuses."^ Covered has been 
commented upon. 

He lets the way enter by the way, there is an offence 
involving defeat. He lets what is not the way enter 
by the way, . . . involving defeat. He lets the way 
enter by what is not the way . . . involving defeat. 
He lets what is not the way enter by what is not the 
way, there is a grave offence. A monk commits sin 
with a sleeping monk. Awakened he agrees ; both should 
be expelled. 2 Awakened he does not agree; the defiler 

1 Uppalagandha, ])erhaps a soubriquet of some brigands, VA. 268 
says they needed human hearts: except monks, men were rare. 
Monks should not be nmrdcred, so the brigands led them astray by 
bringing women to them. Cf. It A. ii. 57. 

2 ndsetabbo. I follow the renderinf^ of Vin. Texts i. 215, which 
seems to suit the context better than the " to atone " of the P.T.S. 
Did. Ndseti is the caus. of nassati, to disappear, to come to an end. 
Cf. below, pp. 62, 280. 



I. 9, 7—10, 1] DEFEAT 51 

should be expelled. A monk commits sin with a 
sleeping novice. Awakened he agrees; both should be 
expelled. Awakened he does not agree; the defiler 
should be expelled. A novice commits sin with a 
sleeping monk. Awakened he agrees; both should be 
expelled. A novice commits sin with a sleeping novice. 
Awakened . . . should be expelled. ||7|| 

If one is ignorant, if one has not agreed, if one is mad, 
unhinged, afflicted with pain, or a beginner, there is no 
offence. ||8{|9{| 

Told is the Recital on Covering 



The female monkey, and sons of the Vajjins, a house- 
holder and a naked one, adherents of another 
sect. 

The girl, and Uppalavanna, then two about charac- 
teristics, / 

Mother, daughter, and sister, and wife, supple, 
pendent, [33] 

Two sores, and a plaster decoration, and a wooden 
doll,/ 

Five with Sundara,^ five about cemeteries, bones, 

A female naga and a female yakkha, and a female peta, 
a eunuch, impaired, he touched, / 

In Bhaddiya, the man perfected, asleep, then four 
on Savatthi, 

Three on Vesali, garlands,^ the Bharukaccha monk in 
his dream,/ 

^ Sundarena saha panca. As there is only one episode recounted 
about Sundara below, this possibly means the five actions that the 
woman did in connection with him: she said two things to him, 
did him homage, lifted his robe and took hold of him, see below, 
il 11 1|. Or there may have been other stories referred to, but which 
have not survived. 

* This is printed as Malld. But the section || 21 1| below to which 
this heading refers has nothing to do with the Mallians, but it does 
have to do with garlands, mala. I have therefore rendered it thus 
above. Oldenberg suggests the emendation at Vin. iii. 269, mala; 
but maUd may be correct ( = malyd). 



52 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 84 

Supabba, Saddha, a nun, a female probationer, and a 

female novice, 
A prostitute, a eunucb, a householder, one another, 

one who had gone forth when old, a deer. 



Now at that time a certain monk *committed fornica- 
tion with a female monkey. On account of this he was 
remorseful. He said, '' The course of training has been 
made known by the lord. I hope that I have not fallen 
into an offence entailing defeat."^ He told this matter 
to the lord ... " You, monk, have fallen into an 
offence entailing defeat," he said. || 1 1| 

Now at that time a great company of monks, dwellers 
in Vesali, and of the Vajji clan, not disavowing the 
training and not declaring their weakness, indulged in 
sexual intercourse. On account of this they were re- 
morseful, and said: " The course of training has been 
made known by the lord. Let us hope that we have 
not fallen into an offence entailing defeat." They told 
this matter to the lord ... "... You, monks, have 
fallen into an offence entailing defeat," he said. ||2|| 

Now at that time, a certain monk saying: " There will 
be no offence for me," committed sexual intercourse 
(wearing) the characteristic (white dress) of a layman. 
On account of this he was remorseful ... "... de- 
feat," he said. 

Now at that time a certain monk being naked com- 
mitted sexual intercourse, saying: " There will be no 
offence for me." On account of this he was remorse- 
ful .. . "... defeat," he said. 

Now at that time a certain monk saying: " There will 
be no offence for me," clad in a kusa-grass garment^ 



^ Here and following: fdrdjikam dpattim dpanno, instead of the 
more usual, dpaiti pdrdjikassa. 

« At A. i. 240=:295=^ii. 206=Vin. i. 305=Z). i. 167 these various 
sorts of garments are given. At Vin. i. 305 monks, including the 
one who was nagga are also given in this ord^r. 



I. 10, 3-5] DEFEAT 53 

. . . clad in a bark garment^ . . . clad in a garment of 
wood shavings^ . . . clad in a hair blanket^ . . . clad 
in a blanket made of horse-hair . . . clad in a dress of 
owls' wings . . . clad in a cloak made of strips of a 
black antelope's hide,^ indulged in sexual intercourse. 
On account of this he was remorseful ... '* ... en- 
tailing defeat," he said. || 3 || 

Now at one time a certain monk as he was wandering 
for alms, seeing a little girl lying on her back, was 
enamoured of her and *made his thumb enter her, and 
she* died. On account of this he was remorseful . . . 
" . . . Monk, there is not an offence involving defeat; 
there is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the 
Order,"* he said. ||4|| [34] 

Now at one time a certain brahmin youth was in love 
with the nun Uppalavanna.^ Then this brahmin youth, 

1 Cf. D. i. 166-7 for these words. At Jd. i. 356 we get purisarn 
phalakam katvd, trans. " making this man my stalking-horse," which 
editor suggests, Vin. Texts ii. 246, " may be a figure of speech 
founded on the use of this word and mean ' making him his 
covering.' " 

2 As Ajita Kesakambalin, see D. i. 55. 

3 VA. 272, " with the hair and hooves." 
* See below, p. 195, n. 1. 

5 Thig., ver. 224 fF., ThigA. 190; DhA. ii. 48 ff. and AA. i. 355-356 
all relate how she had power in the sphere of light {cf. Dabba, in 
Sangh. VIII. below), and say that she was born at Savatthi in the 
family of a great merchant. DhA. ii. 49 tells much the same story 
as that given above, her assaulter there being a young kinsman, 
and it says that she went into the Dark Wood, because at that 
time forest-dwelling for nuns had not been forbidden. In Nissa- 
ggiya V. she is also said to have entered the Dark Wood. There is 
no doubt, I think, that the Uppalavanna of Vin. iii. 35 above and 
of DhA. are one and the same. That the Uppalavanna of Thig. 
is the same is less likely. For though some of the thoughts there 
attributed to her might be construed to be the outcome of her 
adventures, the niaii^ episode of her life as represented in Thig., 
is that of being her mother's co-wife. Nothing is said of this surely 
very unusual situation in either DhA. or AA. VA. gives no story. 
It may be that DhA. and AA. have welded the story of the two 
Uppalavannas into one story. Such a welding of two stories into 
one has a parallel in the story of Kisagotami, Pss. Sisters, p. 109, 



54 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 35 

when the nun Uppalavanna had gone into the village 
for alms, entered the hut and sat down, concealed. The 
nun Uppalavanna, after the meal and when she had 
finished eating, washing her feet and entering the hut, 
sat down on the couch. Then the brahmin youth, 
taking up the nun Uppalavanna, assaulted her. The 
nun Uppalavanna told this matter to the nuns. The 
nuns told this matter to the monks.^ The monks told 
this matter to the lord. He said: " There is no offence, 
monks, as she was not willing." || 5 || 

Now at one time the sign of a woman^ appeared to a 
monk. They told this matter to the lord. He said: 
" Monks, I allow a teacher^ to meet with the nuns 
during the rains, as for the upasampada ordination, 
BO as in the presence of nuns to turn the nuns away from 
those offences which they have in common with monks; 
but in those offences of monks which are offences not 
in common with nuns, there is no offence (for the 
nuns)." 

Now at that time the sign of a male appeared to a 
nun. They told this matter to the lord. He said: 
" Monks, I allow a teacher to meet with the monks 
during the rains, as for the upasampada ordination, 
so as in the presence of monks to turn the monks away 
from those offences which they have in common with 
nuns, but in those offences of nuns which are offences 
not in common with monks, there is no offence (for the 
monks)." II 6 II 

with which c/. the story of Patacara, Pss. Sisters, p. 70. At ^. i. 24 
Uppalavanna is called chief of the disciples who are nuns having 
psychic potencies; and at ^. i. 88 she and Khema are taken as the 
standard and measure by which to estimate the disciples who are 
nuns. See Horner, Women under Primitive Buddhism, p. 168 f. 

* In no passage are the nuns recorded to tell the matter to the 
lord direct, but always through the medium of the monks. An 
exception to this is in the case of his aunt Mahapajapati. 

2 Itihilinga. 

2 Tani yeva upajjham tarn eva upasampadain, explained at VA. 
273 as pubbe gahitaupajjham eva pubbe kataupsampadarn eva ca 
anujdndmi, which seems to mean: I allow the teacher who was 
taken before, the upasampada that was conferred before . . , 



T. 10, 7-10] DEFEAT 55 

Now at that time, a certain monk thinking: " There 
will be no offence for me," indulged in sexual intercourse 
with his mother ... his daughter ... his sister. On 
account of this he was remorseful ... He told this 
matter to the lord, who said: "You, monk, have fallen 
into an offence involving defeat." 

Now at that time, a certain monk indulged in sexual 
intercourse with his former wife. On account of this 
he was remorseful ... "... involving defeat." || 7 || 

Now at that time a certain monk had a supple back.^ 
Tormented by chafing,^ he took hold of *his own male 
organ. On account of this he was remorseful . . . 
"... involving defeat." 

Now at that time a certain monk was able to bend 
down his male organ. Tormented by chafing,^ *he 
committed a perversion. On account of this, he was 
remorseful ... "... involving defeat." || 8 || [35] 

Now at that time a certain monk saw a dead body, 
and on the body . . . *was a sore. He, thinking: 
" There will be no offence for me," *had illicit relations. 
On account of this he was remorseful ..."... in- 
volving defeat." 

(* Another case of this sort) || 9 || 

Now at that time a certain monk, inflamed, *had 
illicit relations with a plaster decoration.^ On account 
of this he was remorseful ... "... Monk, it is not 
an offence involving defeat; it is an offence of wrong- 
doing." 

Now at that time a certain monk, inflamed, *had 
illicit relations with a wooden doll.* On account of 
this he was remorseful ... "... of wrong-doing." 

moil 



1 VA. 177, he had formerly been a dancer. 

2 See below, p. 114, n. 1. 

^ Lepacitta. VA. 278 says cittakammarupa. 
* Ddrudhitalika. VA. 278 says kattharupa. 



5^ BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 36 

Now at that time the monk called Sundara, who had 
gone forth from Rajagaha, was walking along a carriage- 
road. A certain woman said: " Wait, honoured sir, 
for a moment, I will pay homage to you." As she was 
paying homage she held up his inner garment and took 
hold of *his male organ. On account of this he was 
remorseful. ... "... Monk, did you agree?" 

" I did not agree, lord," he said.^ 

" There is no offence, monk, as you did not agree." 

II 11 II 

Now at one time a certain woman seeing a monk, 
spoke thus: " Come, honoured sir, indulge in sexual 
intercourse." 

" Not so, sister, that is not proper for me." 

" Come, honoured sir, I will exert myself, do not you 
exert yourself, thus there will be no offence for you." 
The monk acted accordingly. On account of this he 
was remorseful ... "... involving defeat." 

Now at that time a certain woman seeing a monk, 
spoke thus: " Come, honoured sir, indulge in sexual 
intercourse." 

" Not so, sister, that is not proper for me." 
' " Come, honoured sir, you exert yourself, I will not 
exert myself, thus there will be no offence for you." 
The monk acted accordingly. On account of this he 
was remorseful ... "... involving defeat." 

Now at that time a certain woman seeing a monk 
spoke thus: " Come, honoured sir ..." "... not 
proper for me." 

" Come, honoured sir, * touching the inner parts, dis- 
charge semen . . . touching the outer parts, discharge 
semen. Thus there will be no offence for you." The 
monk acted accordingly. On account of this he was 
remorseful ... "... involving defeat." ||12|| 

Now at one time a certain monk going to a cemetery 
and seeing a body not yet decomposed indulged in sexual 

1 VA, 278 says he was a non-returner, therefore he did not 
agree. 



1. 10, 13-14] DEFEAT 57 

intercourse with it. [36] On account of this he was 
remorseful ... *' . . . involving defeat." 

Now at that time a certain monk going to a cemetery 
and seeing a body which was practically undecom- 
posed ... "... involving defeat." 

Now at that time a certain monk going to a cemetery 
and seeing a body which was practically decomposed 
... "... Monk, there is no offence involving defeat, 
there is a grave offence." 

Now at that time a certain monk going to a cemetery 
and seeing a decapitated head, *behaved wrongly, touch- 
ing its mouth. On account of this he was remorseful. ... 
"... You, monk, have fallen into an offence involving 
defeat." 

Now at that time a certain monk going to a cemetery 
and seeing a decapitated head, *behaved wrongly, but 
not touching its mouth. On account of this he was 
remorseful. . . "Monk, there is no offence involving 
defeat, there is an offence of wrong-doing." 

Now at that time a certain monk was in love with a 
certain woman. She died, and her bones were thrown 
in the chamel-ground and scattered. Then the monk, 
going to the cemetery, collected the bones and *behaved 
in an unsuitable way. On account of this he was re- 
morseful. ... "... Monk, there is no offence in- 
volving defeat, there is an offence of wrong-doing." || 13 || 

Now at that time a certain monk indulged in sexual 
intercourse with a female naga^ . . . with a female 
yakkha^ . . . with a female departed one^ . . . with 

. 1 VA. 279 says " whether it is a young female ndgd {ndga- 
mdnavikd, cf. Jd. iii. 275 and DA^. iii. 232, trans, at Buddhist 
Legends, iii. 57 as ' dragon-maiden ') or a kinnarl " (birds [?] living 
in the heart of mountains); c/. ThigA. 255. 

2 VA. 279, " the female yakkhas are all devatas." 

3 VA. 279, " the nijjhdmatanhika petis and so on are not to be 
approached, but there are petis who live in mansions; the demerit of 
these matures during the dark half of the month, but in the light half 
they experience bliss like devatas." The nijjhdmatanhika petas are 
consumed by thirst. At Miln. 294 it is said that they do not derive 
benefit from ofiferings made by their living relatives. Cf. Miln. 
303, 357. 



58 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE nil. 87-38 

a eunuch. On account of this he was remorseful . . . 
"... involving defeat." || 14 || 

Now at that time a certain monk's faculties were 
impaired.^ Saying: "I feel neither ease nor discom- 
fort > thus there will be no offence for me," he indulged 
in sexual intercourse. They told this matter to the 
lord. He said: "Monks, whether this foolish man felt 
or did not fee},^ there is an offence involving defeat." 
II15II 

Now at that time a certain monk, saying: " I will 
indulge in sexual intercourse with a woman," was 
conscience-stricken at the mere touch ... " Monk, 
there is no offence involving defeat, there is an offence 
entailing a formal meeting of the Order." || 16 1| 

Now at that time a certain monk was lying down in 
the Jatiya Grove at Bhaddiya,^ having gone there for 
the day-sojourn. All his limbs were stiff with pain. 
A certain woman seeing him, sat down *on him, and 
having taken her pleasure, departed. The monks, seeing 
that he was wet,"* told this matter to the lord. [37] 
He said ..."*... Monks, this monk is a man per- 
fected; monks, there is no offence for this monk." i| 17 |! 

Now at that time a certain monk was lying down, 
having gone to the Dark Wood at Savatthi for the day- 
sojourn. A certain woman cowherd seeing him, sat 
down *on him. The monk consented ... On account 
of this he was remorseful. ... " You, monk, have 
fallen into an offence involving defeat." 

Now at that time a certain monk ... at Savatthi . . . 
A certain woman goatherd seeing him ... a certain 
woman gathering fire-wood seeing him ... a certain 



1 upahatindriya. ^ vedayi vd . . . na vd vt 

3 The capital of the Anga kingdom. Here lived Mendaka, famed 

for his psychic potency, Vin. i. 240 ff. The town is mentioned also 

at Vin. i. 189, 190; A. iii. 36. 
* kilinna. 



I. 10, 18-20] DEFEAT 59 

woman gathering cow-dung seeing him, sat down *on 
him ... "... involving defeat.'' ||18|| 

Now at one time a certain monk was lying down, 
having gone into the Great Wood at Vesali for the day- 
sojourn. A certain woman seeing him, sat down *on 
him, and having taken her pleasure, stood laughing 
near by. The monk, waking up, spoke thus to this 
woman: " Have you done this V 

'^ Yes, I have," she said. On account of this he was 
remorseful ... 

" Monk, did you consent ?" 

" I did not know, lord," he said. 

" Monk, there is no offence as you did not know." || 19 || 

Now at that time a certain monk was lying down, 
resting against a tree, having gone into the Great Wood 
at Vesali for the day-sojourn. A certain woman, seeing 
him, sat down *on him. The monk got up hastily. On 
account of this he was remorseful ... " Monk, did 
you consent ?" 

" I did not consent, lord," he said. 

" Monk, there is no offence as you did not consent." 

Now at that time a certain monk was lying down, 
resting against a tree, having gone into the Great Wood 
at Vesali for the day-sojourn. A certain woman, seeing 
him, sat down *on him. The monk, rising (quickly), 
knocked her over.^ On account of this he was remorse- 
ful .. . " Monk, did you consent ?" 

" I did not consent, lord," he said. 

" Monk, there is no offence as you did not con- 
sent." II 20 II 



^ akkamitvd pavattesi. VA. 280 says that the monk, rising 
suddenly and giving a kick {akkamitvd), knocked her over in such 
a way that she rolled on the ground. The same expression 
recurs below, p. 138, in connection with a mortar. The Corny, on 
this passage, VA. 475 gives akkamitvd in explanation of ottharitvd, 
which seems to mean " sitting on." Tr. Cr. Pali Diet, says that 
akkamati is " to make a kick %t one," and in that connection cites 
the above passage. P.T.S. Diet., evidently following the Corny., 
gives " to rise " for this passage. 



6o BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. SR-SO 

Now at that time a certain monk, in the Gabled Hall 
in the Great Wood at Vesali for his day-sojourn, was 
lying down having opened the door. All his limbs were 
stiff with pains. Now at that time a large company of 
women, bringing scents [38] and garlands, came to the 
park looking at the vihara. Then these women seeing 
that monk, sat down *on him, and having taken their 
pleasure and saying: " Isn't he a bull of a man^ ?" 
departed, piling up their scents and garlands. The 
monks, seeing the moisture, told this matter to the 
lord. He said . . . (c/. ||17||) "... Monks, there is 
no offence for this monk. I allow you, monks, when you 
are in seclusion for meditation during the day, to medi- 
tate in seclusion, having closed the door." || 21 1| 

Now at that time a certain monk of Bharukaccha,^ 
having dreamed that he committed sexual intercourse 
with his former wife, said: " I am not a (true) recluse, 
I willleaVe the Order, "^ and going to Bharukaccha, and 
seeing the venerable Upali* on the road, he told him 



1 purisusabha. 

2 Bhdrukacchako bhikkhu. Bharukaccha was a town, see Jd. iii. 
188; and Pss. Breth., p. 194, Pss. Sisters, p. 103; here Vaddha and 
his mother were said to have been born. Professor E. Miiller, 
J.P.T.S. 1888, p. 63, says that Bharukacchaka is a monk; but he 
is mentioned nowhere but here. At Miln. 331 the inhabitants of 
the town are called Bharukacchaka. Pss. Sisters, p. 103, n. 1, calls 
it " a seaport on the north-west seaboard, the Bharoch of today." 

3 Vibbhamissdmi. P.T.S. Diet., referring to the above passage, 
says " co-habiting." But see below, p. 114, for an exact repetition 
of this phrase, where it is probably to be taken in its sense of "to 
leave the Order." The question is, does the text of the above 
passage justify the Dictionary's rendering ? It is as easy to believe 
that the monk was merely returning to his former home as that 
he was declaring his intention of returning to his former wife. On 
the other hand, on' p. 62 below, vibbhama possibly means " co- 
habit." At p. 323 below, vibbh° probably means " left the Order." 
Doubtless this meaning carried the other with it. See also p. 114 
and n. 3. 

* At A. i. 25 he is called " chief among those who know the dis- 
ciplinary rules by heart," quoted bv VA. 283. Verses at Thag. 249- 
251, see Pss. Breth. 168. Of. Vin. Texts ii. 276, n. 1; Mrs. Rhys 
Davids, Manual of Buddhism, p. 217. 



I. 10, 22-25] DEFEAT 6l 

this matter. The venerable Upali said : '' There is no 
offence, your reverence, since it was in a dream." || 22 || 

Now at that time in Rajagaha there was a female 
lay-follower, called Supabba,^ who beheved in the en- 
lightened one. She held this view: whatever (woman) 
gives sexual intercourse, gives the highest gift. Seeing 
a monk she spoke thus: ''Come, honoured sir, indulge 
in sexual intercourse." 

'' Not so, sister, it is not fitting," he said. 

" Come, honoured sir, (only) touch the region of the 
breasts, thus there will be no offence for you . . . Come, 
honoured sir, (only) touch the navel . . . the stomach 
. . . the waist . . . the throat . . . the ear . . . the 
coil of hair . . . the spaces between the fingers . . . 
Come, honoured sir, approaching (me only) with (your) 
hands, I will make you *function, thus there will be no 
offence for you." The monk acted accordingly. On 
account of this he was remorseful. '' Monk, there is 
no offence involving defeat; there is an offence entailing 
a formal meeting of the Order." || 23 || 

Now at that time at Savatthi was a female lay- 
disciple, called Saddha, who believed in the enlightened 
one. She held this view : whatever (woman) gives sexual 
intercourse, gives the highest gift. Seeing a monk, she 
spoke thus: " Come, honoured sir, indulge in sexual 
intercourse." 

" Not so, sister, it is not fitting." 

" Come, honoured sir, touch the region of the breasts. 
. . . Come, honoured sir, approaching (me only) with 
(your) hands, I will make you *function, thus there will 
be no offence for you." The monk acted accordingly. 
On account of this he was remorseful. " Monk, there 
is no offence involving defeat, there is an offence entailing 
a formal meeting of the Order." || 24 || 

Now at that time at Vesali some Licchavi youths, 
taking hold of a monk, made him commit sin with a 

^ Mentioned, I think, nowhere but here. 



62 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 89-40 

nun. [39] Both agreed, then both should be expelled.^ 
Neither agreed, there was no offence for either. 

Now at that time at Vesali some Licchavi youths, 
taking hold of a monk, made him commit sin with a 
female probationer . . . with a female novice. Both 
agreed, then both should be expelled. Neither agreed, 
there was no offence for either. 

Now at that time at Vesali some Licchavi youthSj 
taking hold of a monk, made him commit sin with a 
prostitute^ . . . with an eunuch . . . with a woman 
householder. The monk agreed, then the monk should 
be expelled. The monk did not agree, then there is 
no offence for the monk. 

Now at that time at Vesali some Licchavi youths 
taking hold of (some) monks made them commit s.in 
with one another. Both agreed, then both should be 
expelled. Neither agreed, there is no offence for 
either. ||25|| 

Now at that time a certain monk who had long gone 
forth, went to see his former wife. She said, " Come, 
honoured sir, leave the Order,"^ and she took hold of 
him. The monk, stepping backwards, fell down on his 
back.^ She, bending him up,^ sat down *on him. On 
account of this he was remorseful. . . . They told this 
matter to the lord. He said: 

'' Monk, did you consent ?" 

" I did not consent, lord," he said. 

" There is no offence, monk, as you did not con- 
sent." II 26 II 

Now at that time a certain monk dwelt in the jungle. 
A young deer, coming up, (*niade that monk consent to 

^ ndsetabbo. Cf. above, p. 50. 

2 vesli or low-caste woman. 

3 vibbhama, see above p. 60, n. 3. 

* VA. 284, says that he stepped back to free himself from her 
grasp, but fell down as he was weak through old age. But he was 
a non-returner, one who had cut off passion and sense-desires, 
therefore he did not consent. 

» ubbhujitvd. Cf. Vin. ii. 222. 



I. 10, 27] DEFEAT 63 

what it wanted to do). On account of this he was re- 
morseful. He told this matter to the lord. He said: 
" You, monk, have fallen into an offence involving 
defeat." ||27||10|| 

Told is the First Offence involving Defeats [40] 



1 samatiam, instead of the more usual nitthitam. 



DEFEAT (PARAJIKA) II 

At one time the enlightened one, the lord, was stay- 
ing at Rajagaha on the slopes of the Vulture's Peak. 
Now at that time a large company of monks who were 
friends and comrades, having made a grass hut on the 
Isigili mountain-slope,^ went up there for the rains. 
Also the venerable Dhaniya, the potter's son, having 
made a grass hut, went up there for the rains. Then 
these monks having spent the rains for three months, 
demolished the grass huts, and having put away the grass 
and wood, departed on tour into the country. But the 
venerable Dhaniya, the potter's son, spent the rains 
there, the cold weather there, the hot weather there. 
Then when the venerable Dhaniya, the potter's son, had 
gone into the village for alms, women, gathering grass, 
gathering firewood, demolished the grass hut, and went 
away taking the grass and wood. A second time did 
the venerable Dhaniya, the potter's son, having collected 
grass and wood, make a grass hut. A second time, 
when the venerable Dhaniya, the potter's son, had gone 
into the village for alms, women, gathering grass, gather- 
ing firewood, destroyed the grass hut, and went aw^ay 
taking the grass and wood. A third time did the 
venerable Dhaniya, the potter's son, having collected 
grass and wood, make a grass hut. A third time, when 
the venerable Dhaniya, the potter's son, had gone into 
the village for alms, women, gathering grass, gathering 
firewood, demolished the grass hut, and went away 
taking the grass and wood. Then the venerable 
Dhaniya, the potter's son, thought: "For the third 

^ One of the group of hills above Rajagaha, whence the other 
crests could be seen {M. iii. 68, if.); a resort of the Order, Vin. ii. 
76; where Godhika committed suicide, S. i. 120; cf. D. ii. 116. 

64 



II. 1, 1-2] DEFEAT 65 

time, when I have gone into the village for alms, women, 
gathering grass, gathering firewood, demolished the 
grass hut, and went away taking the grass and 'wood. 
But I am well taught, experienced in my own craft, 
accomplished in the potter's craft. What now, if I, 
kneading mire myself, should make a hut consisting of 
nothing but mud ?" Then the venerable Dhaniya, the 
potter's son, kneading mire himself, [41] making a hut 
consisting of nothing but nmd, collecting grass and wood 
and cow-dung, baked this hut. It was a beautiful, 
lovely, pleasing red hut, just like a little lady-bird^ ; and 
just like the sound of a small bell, so was the sound of 
this hut. Ill II 

Then the lord as he was descending from the slopes 
of the Vulture's Peak with a great company of monks, 
saw this beautiful, lovely, pleasing red hut, and seeing 
it he addressed the monks saying: 

" Monks, what is this beautiful, lovely, pleasing red 
thing like a little lady-bird?" Then the monks told 
this matter to the lord. The enlightened one, the lord, 
rebuked them saying: 

" Monks, it is not suitable in this foolish man, it is 
not fit, it is not becoming, it is not worthy of a recluse, 
it is not seemly, it should not be done. For how, monks, 
can this foolish man make a hut out of nothing but 
mud ? Certainly, monks, this foolish man can have 
no consideration, compassion and mercy for creatures. ^ 

^ Indagopaka, lit. India's cowherds. Corny, makes no remark. 
But c/. Thag. 13 and Pss. Breth. 18, n., where it is said that " ac- 
cording to the (Thag.) Commentary these are coral-red insects, 
alluded to in connection with recent rain, but said by some to be 
a red grass." Note also here Sir Charles Eliot's remark that the 
Russians call lady-birds, " God's little cows." Dhaniya's hut 
might have been of a round kraal-like shape, suggesting a beetle's 
back. Monier Williams' Sanskrit-English Dictionary gives under 
indragopaka, " the insect cochineal of various kinds "; and St. Peters- 
burgh Dictionary gives " Coccinelle." The coccineds are, however, 
lady-birds. 

'^ na hi ndma tassa moghajmrisassa pdnesti anuddayd anukampd 
avihesd bhavissati. This must refer to the small creatures in the mud 
which would be destroyed when the mud was baked. 

I. 5 



66 BOOK 01- THE DISCIPLINE III. 42 

Co, monks, demolish this liut. Do not let the folk 
who come after bring downfall to creatures.^ And, 
monks, a hut consisting of nothing but mud should not 
be made. Whoever shall make one — ^there is an offence 
of wrong-doing. "2 

" Very well, lord," the monks said, and liaving 
answered the lord they went up to the hut, and having 



^ md pacchinid Janata jydiiesu pdtavi/afam dpajji. VA. 288 para- 
phrases pacchimd janald by janasamuho, concourse or multitude of 
people. At Viti. ii. 128 we find pacchimamjanatam lathdgato amikam- 
yati, trans, at Vin. Texts, iii. 128, " The tathagata has mercy even on 
the meanest thing." And atiW. ii. 93, pacchimam janatam tatlulgato 
apaloketi, trans, at Fur. Dial. ii. 47, " The Truth-Finder is looking 
towards those that shall follow hereafter." MA. gives no help. 
Pacchimam janatam at A. i. 61 is trans, at G.S. i. 55 as " future 
generations," with n. that " Corny, takes it to mean ' his disciples 
who come after.' " At A. iii. 108=251 we get pacchimd janatd dit- 
thdnugatim dpajjati [dpajjissati, 108), trans., G.S. iii. 86, 184, " and 
the folk who come after fall (will fall) into the way of wrong views." 
At <S. ii. 203 we find pacchimam ca janatam anukampamdno appeva- 
ndma jHicchijhd janatd ditthdnugatim dpajjeggum, trans., K.S. ii. 
136, *' and being filled with compassion for them who will come after 
us. For surely these may fall into error." ^.4. makes no comment. 
Because of this array of translations of pacchimd janatd as " those 
who come after," I am reluctant to think that here it means " lowest 
or most backward persons " — in this case represented by Dhaniya. It 
was meant, I think, that it was a bad example if he should destroy 
creatures, for then those who might use the hut after him might 
destroy them. Cf. pacchimaka bhikkhu, above, p. 19; D. ii. 155; 
A. ii. 80. 

Fdlavyatd is paraphrased at VA. 288 as pdtabyahhdva, and it is 
said that in the time of a Buddha the monks did bring " downfall 
to creatures, thinking that there was no fault in de})riving them of 
life, falling into the way of wrong views {ditthdnugatim dpajjamdnd, 
cf. A. iii. 108-^251) about this; so now it is said: 'Let not the 
lowest })eoj)le think thus of the ruin [pdtabbe, with v. 11 pdhabyate, 
pdtubye) and crushing {ghamdtahbe) of creatures." At M. i. 305= 
A. i. 266 we find kdmesu pdtavyafam dpajjati {°byatam dpajjanti, 
M. i.), translated Fur. Dial. i. 219, " they give way to indulgence in 
}>leasures of sense," and G.S. i. 244, " comes to be intoxicated with 
his lusts.'^ Mr. Woodward says, G.S. i. 244, n. 2, that Comy. on 
A. a])pears to derive pdtavyata from \/'piv., intoxication, as does 
I'dA. 351, 365, as he points out. So also does MA. ii. 371. But such 
u derivation is not hinted at at 1^4. 288, nor would it fit the case. 

2 VA. 289, " There was no oU'ence for Dhaniya, because it was 
a first ofience." 



II. 1, 2-3] DEFEAT 67 

gone up to the hut they destroyed it. Then the vener- 
able Dhaniya, the potter's son, said to these monks : 
" Why, reverend sirs, do you destroy my hut ?" 
** Reverend sir, the lord causes it to be demolished," 
they said. 

" Destroy it, reverend sirs, if the lord of dhamma^ 
causes it to be destroyed," he said. || 2 || 

Then the venerable Dhaniya, the potter's son, thought: 
" For the third time when I have gone into the village 
for alms, women, gathering grass, gathering firewood, 
demolished the grass-hut, went away taking the grass 
and wood; and now this hut made by me and consisting 
of nothing but mud has been caused to be demolished by 
the lord. Now the overseer in the wood-yard is a friend 
of mine. What now, if I, having begged the overseer in 
a wood-yard for some sticks, were to make a wood hut ?" 
Then the venerable Dhaniya, the potter's son, went up 
to the overseer in the wood-yard, and having gone up, 
he spoke thus to the overseer in the wood-yard : 

" For the third time, your reverence, when I had 
gone into the village for alms, women, gathering grass, 
gathering firewood . . . has been caused to be destroyed 
by the lord. Give me some sticks, your reverence, 
I want to make a wood hut." 

'' There are no such sticks, honoured sir, that I could 
give the master. [42] These, honoured sir, are sticks 
held for the king, serving to repair the city, laid down 
in case of accident. If the king has those dealt out, 
you might take them, honoured, sir," he said. 

'' Your reverence, they are gifts from the king." 

Then the overseer of the wood-yard thought: '' These 
recluses, sons -of the Sakyans, are followers of dhamma, 
followers of tranquillity, followers of the Brahma-life, 
speakers of truth, virtuous, of good conduct. Now the 
king has faith in these. It is not right^ for what is 
said to be given not to be given." Then the overseer 
of the wood-yard spoke thus to the venerable Dhaniya, 



dhammasdnd, cf. S. iv. 94; A. v. 220. ^ na arahati. 



68 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 48 

the potter's son: "You may take (some), honoured 
sir/' Then the venerable Dhaniya, the potter's son, 
had these sticks broken up piece by piece and having 
them brought out by means of wagons, made a wood 
hut. II 3 II 

Now the brahmin Vassakara,^ the chief minister in 
Magadha, while he was inspecting the works in Raja- 
gaha, came up to the overseer in the wood-yard, and 
having come up he spoke thus to the overseer in the 
wood -yard: "Look here, where are these sticks held 
for the king, serving to repair the city, laid down in 
case of accident ?" 

" Sir,2 these sticks were given, by the king to master 
Dhaniya, the potter's son," he said. 

Then the brahmin Vassakara, the chief minister in 
Magadha, was displeased: " How can the king give the 
sticks held for the king, serving to repair the city, laid 
down in case of accident, to Dhaniya, the potter's 
son ?" he said. 

Then the brahmin Vassakara, the chief minister in 
Magadha, went up to King Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha, 
and having come up he spoke thus to King Seniya 
Bimbisara of Magadha: "Is it true, as it is said, sire, 
that the sticks held for the king, serving to repair the 
city, laid down in case of accident, were given by the 
king to Dhaniya, the potter's son ?" 

"Who said that?" 

" The overseer of the wood-yard, sire," he said. 

" Then, brahmin, send for the overseer of the wood- 
yard," he said. Then Vassakara, the chief minister of 
Magadha, had the overseer of the wood-yard fetched, 
bound. The venerable Dhaniya, the potter's son, saw 
the overseer of the wood-yard being brought along, 

1 At Vin. i. 22S=D. ii. SQ=Ud. 87 he and Sunidha, another 
chief minister, were building a fortified town at Patahgama against 
the Vajjins. At JJ. ii. 72 Ajatasattu, then King of Magadha, sent 
Vassakara to tell Gotania that he (Ajata°) was going to fight the 
Vajjins. 

^ Sdnii. 



II. 1, 4-5] DEFEAT 69 

bound, and said to liim: " Wliy are you brought bound, 
your reverence ?" 

" Because of this business with the pieces of wood, 
honoured sir," he said. 

" Go, your reverence, for I come," he said. 

** You should come with me, honoured sir, before 1 
am done for," he said. || 4 |j 

Then the venerable Dhaniya, the potter's son, ap- 
proached the dwelling of King Seniya Bimbisara of 
Magadha, and having approached it he sat down on the 
appointed seat. Then King Seniya Bimbisara of 
Magadha came up to the venerable Dhaniya, [43] the 
potter's son, and having come up and greeted the 
venerable Dhaniya, the potter's son, he sat down to one 
side; and sitting to one side. King Seniya Bimbisara of 
Magadha spoke thus to the venerable Dhaniya, the 
potter's son: 

"Is it true, as is said, honoured sir, that the pieces 
of wood held for the king, serving to repair the city, 
laid down in case of need, have been given by me to 
the master ?" 

"It is so, your majesty," he said. 

" We kings are very busy, honoured sir, with much 
to do; having given, we may not remember. Come, 
honoured sir, remind me." 

" Do you remember, your majesty, when you were 
first anointed, this phrase was uttered : ' Let the recluses 
and brahmins enjoy gifts of grass, wood and water V " 

" I remember, honoured sir. There are, honoured 
sir, recluses and brahmins who are modest, scrupulous, 
anxious for training; there is only a little worry with 
these. What was uttered by me was meant^ for these, 
and that was: what was in the jungle not owned.^ So 
you, honoured sir, think to steal wood not given (to 
you) by this trick ? How could one like me flog or 

* Tesam mayd sandhdya bhdsitam. Sandhdya of text altered to 
saddhdya at Vin. v. 260. VA. 295 reads sandh°. 

* VA, 295 says: " that grass, wood, and water not owned in the 
jungle, this is the meaning intended by me." 



70 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [111. 44 

imprison or banish a recluse or a brahmin living in the 
kingdom '{ (Jo, lionoured sir, you are freed on account 
of your hair,' but do not do such a thing again.'* ||6 || 

People became annoyed, vexed and angry, saying: 
*' Tlicse recluses, sons of the Sakyans, are shameless, 
of bad conduct, liars. And they pretend to be followers 
of dhamma, followers of tranquillity, followers of the 
Brahma-life, speakers of truth, those who are virtuous, 
of good conduct. There is no recluseship among 
these, there is no brahmanhood among these; recluse- 
ship is lost among these, brahmanhood is lost 
among these. Where is recluseship among these ? 
Where is brahmanhood among these ? These have 
destroyed recluseship, these have destroyed brahman- 
hood. If these deceive the king, how much more then 
do other people ?" 

Monks heard these people who were annoyed, vexed 
and angry. Tliose who were modest, happy monks, 
conscientious, scrupulous, anxious for training, became 
annoyed, vexed, angry and said: " How can the vener- 
able Dhaniya, the potter's son, take pieces of wood 
belonging to the king when they have not been given 
(to him) ?" Then these monks told this matter to the 
lord. And the lord, on that occasion, in this connection, 
having the company of monks convened, questioned 
the venerable Dhaniya, the potter's son, saying: 

" Is it true, as is said, Dhaniya, that you have taken 
pieces of wood belonging to the king when they were 
not given (to you) ?" 

'^ It is true, lord." 

^ Lomena. VA. 295 says that laina is the characteristic mark of 
pahbajjd. It is like the case of some evil-minded people, who wanting 
to eat flesh, take a goat with a fine coat. A clever man comes along 
and thinks that the goat's coat is valuable^ so giving the other people 
two goats, he himself takes the valuable one. Thus this goat is 
freed on account of its coat or hair {lomena). Similarly, although 
the man who has done the deed (referred to in the text) is worthy 
of flogging or binding, yet because he bears the mark of an arahan 
(arahaddhaja) he is scatheless. Therefore, on account of his hair 
{Imnena, i.e.., the down on the Kmbs) which is the sign of his having 
gone forth, he is freed, like the valuable goat. 



II. 1, 6] DEFEAT 7I 

The enlightened one, the lord, rebuked him, saying: 
" It is not fit, foolish man, it is not seemly, it is not be- 
coming, it is not worthy of a recluse, it is not proper, it is 
not to be done. How can you, [44] foolish man, take the 
pieces of wood belonging to the king when they have 
not been given to you ? Foolish man, it is not for the 
benefit of non-believers/ not' for increase in the number 
of believers, it is to the detriment of non-believers as 
well as of believers, and it causes wavering in some." 

Now at that time a certain former minister of justice 
who had gone forth among the monks, was sitting near 
the lord. And the lord spoke thus to this monk: 

'' For what amount (of theft) does King Seniya 
Bimbisara of Magadha, having caught a robber, flog 
or imprison or banish him V 

" For a pdda,^ lord, or for the worth of a pdda,^ or 
for more than a pdda/' he said. 

Now at that time in Eajagaha the pdda was (worth) 

^ ^. i. 98. At G.S. i. 84 appasanndnam is trans. " to believers " 
in error. It is, of course, '* to non-believers or unbelievers." 

2 On 2)dda see Rhys Davids, Ayicienl Coins, etc.. p. 2 f., where he 
says " there is nothing to prove that it meant a coin at all; it may 
have been a weight . . . recognised as a basis of calculation or a 
medium of exchange." VA. 297 says, " then in Rajagaha a kahapana 
was (worth) twenty masakas, therefore a pada was (worth) five 
masakas, and a pada, because of this property, is to be called a 
quarter of a kahiipana throughout the countryside." At Vin. iii. 
238, 240, kahapana appears in definition of rajata (silver), rupiija 
(silver), respectively, but I think that it need not necessarily mean 
silver literally, as the copper, wood and lac masakas also a])))ear 
in these definitions of rajata and rupiya. See p. 72, n. for )t\dsaJxa. 
At VvA. n=^DhA. iii. 108 we get a descending line, kahnpana, 
addhapdda, mdsaka, then kdkanikd. For this last see Rhys Davids, 
Ancient Coins, etc., }). 10. Owing to the uncertainty as to the 
exact nature of the coins: kahapana, masaka, pada, if indeed they 
were coins at all, I think it better to leave them untranslated. 
All we can say is that the kahapana was the unit of exchange in 
Pali literature, and that the others were mediums of exchange of 
lesser value than the kahapana. To translate kahapana by ' ' penny 
and so on as does Burlingame in Buddhist Legends, ii. 333 f. 
brings us no nearer to the sense of the Pali. 

^ pdddrahaij. Here we have what is possibly an early use of 
araharj, when it simply meant " worth " or " value," and not even 
-so nmch as a " worthy person," far less a saint or man perfected. 



72 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 46 

five mdsahas? Then the lord, blaming the venerable 
Dhaniya, the potter's son, in several ways for his diffi- 
culty in behaving himself ... " Thus, monks, this 
course of training should be set forth: 

" Whatever monk should take by means of theft 
what has not been given to him, in such manner of taking 
as kings, catching a thief in the act of stealing, would 
flog him or imprison him or banish him, saying : ' You 
are a robber, you are foolish, you are wrong, you are 
a thief,' — even so a monk, taking what is not given him, 
is also one who is defeated, he is not in communion." 

And thus this course of training for monks was made 
known by the lord. || 6 i| 1 1| 



Now at that time the group of six monks, going to 
tlie bleachers' ford and stealing a bundle of things that 
had been bleached, carried it off to the park and divided 
it. The monks spoke thus: 

" You, your reverences, have great merit, for many 
robes have accrued to you." 

" Where is there merit for us, your reverences ? Now 
we, having gone to the bleachers' ford, stole a bundle 
of things that had been bleached." 

'* But surely, your reverences, a course of training was 
made known by the lord. How can you, your rever- 
ences, steal a bundle of things that had been bleached ?" 

*' It is true, your reverences, that a course of training 
was made known by the lord; but it is for the village 
and not for the jungle." 

" Surely, your reverences, it is just as much for that. 

1 mdsaka from mdsa, a bean of the phaseolus, see below, p. 83, n. 
Enough has been said to show that usually twenty masakas were 
reckoned to make a kahapana. As mentioned in foregoing note 
the copper, wood and lac masakas are included in a definition of 
rajata and rupiya. See also VA. 689-690 which speaks of masakas 
made of skin, bone, fruits or seeds of trees, and says that some 
masakas have figures stamped upon them. This passage goes on 
to say that, together with silver and gold, the gold masaka and the 
silver masaka are four things to be given up (by monks). See Rhys 
Davids, AncieTU Coins, etc., pp. 8, 14. Cf. S. i. 79. 



II. 2 3] DEFEAT 73 

It is not fit, it is not seemly, it is not becoming, it is 
not worthy of a recluse, it is not right, it should not be 
done. How can you, your reverences, steal a bundle of 
things that had been bleached ? Your reverences, it is 
not for the benefit of non-believers, nor for increase in the 
number of believers, it is to the detriment of non-believers 
as well as of believers, and it causes wavering in some." 

And then these monks, having rebuked the group of 
six monks in various ways, [45] told this matter to the 
lord. Then the lord, on this occasion, for this reason, 
having the company of monks convened, questioned 
the group of six monks: 

"Is it true, as they say, monks, that you, having 
gone to the bleachers' ford, stole a bundle of things that 
had been bleached ?" 
" It is true, lord." 

The enlightened one, the lord, rebuked them, saying: 
"It is not fit, foolish men, it is not seemly, it is not 
becoming, it is not worthy of a recluse, it is not right, 
it should not be done. How can you, foolish men, 
going to the bleachers' ford, steal a bundle of things 
that had been bleached ? FooHsh men, it is not for 
the benefit of non-believers ... in some." Then the 
lord rebuking the group of six monks for their difiiculty 
in behaving themselves . . . praising the putting forth 
of energy, giving dhamma-talk on what was right and 
on what was seemly, said to the monks . . . "Thus 
this course of training, monks, should be set forth: 

" Whatever monk should by means of theft take from 
a village or from the jungle what has not been given to 
him in such manner of taking as kings, catching a thief 
in the act of stea,ling, would flog him or imprison, him 
or banish him, saying, * You are a robber, you are 
foolish, you are wrong, you are a thief,' — even so a 
monk, taking what is not given him, is also one who is 
defeated, he is not in communion." 11 2 11 



Whatever means he who . . . Monk ... is monk 
to be understood in this meaning. 



74 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 48-47 

Village moans: a village of one Iiut, and a village 
of tAvo huts, and a village of three huts, and a village of 
four huts, and a village with human beings,^ and a 
village with beings who are not human,i and a fenced-in 
village, and a village which is not fenced in ; and a village 
arranged fortuitously, and even a caravan that is camp- 
ing for more than four months is called a village. The 
precincts of the village means : of a fenced-in village, the 
outward stone-throw of a man of average height standing 
at the threshold; of a village not fenced in, the outward 
stone-throw of a man of average height standing at the 
precincts of a house.^ 

The jungle means : leaving aside the village and the 
outskirts of the village, what remains is called the jungle.^ 

What has not been given means: what has not been 
given, nor granted, nor thrown away; what is guarded, 
protected, cherished, what belongs to others — this is 
called what has not been given. 

By means of theft means: intending to steal, intending 
to thieve. 

Should to^ means: should take, should steal, should 
thieve, should interrupt the mode of movement, should 
remove from a place, should wait at a rendezvous.* 

In such manner of taking as means : a pdda, the worth 
of a pdda, or more than a pdda. [46] 

Kings mean: kings of the earth, local kings, kings' 
deputies, subordinate chieftains, judges, chief ministers ; 
moreover those who administer torture and maiming 
are called kings. 

^ samanusso pi gdmo amanusso pi gdmo, or " a village that is 
inhabited or a village that is uninhabited." See n. 2, p. 147 below. 

2 See Viwi. 71 f., which goes into the question of fixing the 
village precincts at greater length. It adduces Vinaya evidence: 
a stone thrown by young men in a display or strength fixes the 
boundary. The standard throw decides this. The Vism,. goes on 
to say that the Suttanta scholars say that the boundary is the fall 
of a stone thrown to drive away a crow. 

3 Quoted at SnA. 83; and at Vism. 73. Here Vibhanga defini- 
tion is also collected: " it is jungle when one goes out by the gate- 
pillars," Vhh. 251. Suttanta views as to relation of jungle and village 
are also given at Vism. 73. * samketa, see below Par. 11. 4. 30. 



II. 8-4, 1] DEFEAT 75 

A thief means: he who takes by means of theft (any- 
thing) having the value of five mdsakas or more than five 
rndsakas that has not been given — he is called a thief. 

Would flog means: they would flog with the hand, or 
the foot, or a whip, or a cane, or a rod, or with maiming. 

Would' imprison means: they would imprison with a 
binding of rope, with a binding of fetters, with a binding 
of chains, with a binding of a house, with a binding of 
a town, with a binding of a village, with a binding of 
a small town, or they would make a guard of men. 

Would banish means: they would banish from the vil- 
lage or small town or town, or province or rural district. 

You are a robber, you are foolish, you are ivrong, you 
are a thief means : this is censure. 

Even so means: a pdda or the worth of a pdda or more 
than a pdda. 

Taking means: taking, stealing, thieving, interrupting 
the mode of movement, moving from a place, waiting at 
a rendezvous. 

Also means: it is called so, in reference to the first. 

One ivho is defeated means: as a withered leaf freed 
from its hold could not become^ green again, thus a 
monk, taking by means of theft, a pdda or the worth 
of a pdda or more than a pdda which had not been given 
to him, is not a recluse, is not a son of the Sakyans^ ; 
therefore he is called one who is defeated. 

Not in communion means: communion is called one 
work, one rule, an equal training, this is called com- 
munion. He who is not together with this, is therefore 
called not in communion. 11 3 II 



Being in the earth,^ being on firm ground, being in 



^ Abhabba. 

* Cf. Yin. i. 96, where it is said that a monk who has received the 
upasampada ordination should abstain from taking what is not 
given him and from theft, even of a blade of grass. 

^ Where necessary these terms are commented upon in notes on 
the following paragraphs. 



76 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [TIT. 47 

the air, being above ground, being in the water, being 
in a boat, being in a vehicle, carried as a burden, being 
in a park, being in a vihara, being in a field, being on a 
property, being in a village, being in a jungle, water, 
tooth-cleaner, forest tree, goods in transit, deposit, 
customs frontier, a creature without feet, two-footed, 
four-footed, many-footed creatures, a spy, the keeper 
of entrusted wares, an arranged theft, the makmg of 
a rendezvous, the making of a sign. || 1 1| 

Being in the earth means : the goods are put down into 
the earth, buried and covered. If he says: " I will 
take the goods which are in the earth," and intending 
'to steal, either he seeks for a companion,^ or he seeks 
for a hoe or a basket (or) goes (himself) ,2 there is an 

1 duitya, a second one, a mate or helper, a friend, associate or 
accomplice. 

2 There are two curious points in this passage: (1) he seeks for a 
hoe or a basket, not for both; (2) the construction pariyesati gacchati, 
the use of two indicatives together being uncommon. It is more 
usual to find an indicative following a gerund. Does this sentence 
mean that having been unable to find a willing friend he goes and 
seeks for the implements himself ? Or that seeking a hoe or a 
basket he goes himself to do the theft ? In the following paragraphs 
the reading is simpler: dntiyam vd pariyesati gacchati vd, he seeks 
for a friend or he goes away (or goes himself). VA. 310 f. says that 
realising that the treasure is too heavy for one person alone, he goes 
and wakes a sleeping friend (sahdya), who may bring his own hoe. 
But if he has not one, the intending thief goes to another monk 
and says: " Give me a hoe, I want it for something," and he gives 
some excuse — a pacittiya offence. If he finds that the hoe has no 
handle, he goes away for this purpose, and cuts down and shapes 
a piece of dry wood. There is a dukkata offence in all these under- 
takings, except in lying, which is a pacittiya, and in cutting reeds 
for a basket — also a pacittiya. 

We thus get two possible interpretations for gacchati: (1) that th^ 
intending thief goes away to another monk ; (2) that he goes away 
to make a handle for the hoe. But in commenting on gacchati vd, 
VA. 311 says, " he goes to the place where the treasure is, the 
friend sought, the hoe (sought), the basket (sought)." This seems 
to convey the idea that he goes himself. I have therefore translated 
it in this way. 

VA. 312 mentions the names of eight dukkata offences which are 
interesting. There are pvhbapayogadukkala, sahapayogaduk° , ana- 
rmsaduk°y duriipaciri,naduk° , vinayaduk°, ndtaduk°, nattiduk°, patis- 



II. 4, 2] DEFEAT 77 

offence of wrong-doing.^ [47] If he breaks a piece of 
wood or a slender tree*^ growing there ... If he digs 
up the soil or removes it or lifts it up . . . If he lays 
hold of a large round pot, there is an offence of wrong- 
doing. If he makes it quiver,^ there is a grave offence.* 
If he removes it from the place,^ there is an offence 
involving defeat. Making it enter his own bowl, he 
touches something worth five mdsakas or more than 
five tndsakas, there is an offence of wrong-doing. If he 
makes it quiver, there is a grave offence. If he either 
puts it into his own bowl,® or detaches a handful,^ there 
is an offence involving defeat. If he touches the goods, 
intending to steal them, (and) puts on an article such as 
a chain,* or a string,^ or an ornamental string of beads 

savadukkata, which seem to mean respectively: the offence of a 
previous action, of a present action, of touching something forbidden 
(so Crit. Pali Diet.), the offence of handling something wrongfully, 
an offence concerning discipline, an offence concerning relations, 
an offence concerning a resolution, concerning obedience. 

^ Dukkata, explained at VA. 313 as duUhu kata, badly, wrongly 
done; and transgressing being done is called dukkata. This is not 
one of the worst transgressions. 

2 Lata, a slender creeper. 

^ Phanddpeti, cf. M. i. 404 phandato phanddpayato, trans, at 
Fur. Dial. i. 291, " who sets folk quaking or causes another to do so." 
The meaning probably is that he takes hold of the article so that 
it throbs, trembles or shakes — a worse offence than merely laying 
hold of it, but not so bad as removing it. 

* Thullaccaya, an offence whose nature is grave, VA. 314. 

* Thdnd cdveti. Cf. Sn. 442 7nd mam thdnd acdvayi, trans. 
H.O.S. vol. 37, " May he never beat me back," and S.B.E. vol. x., 
" that he may not drive me away from my place." 

" Attano hhdjanagatam vd karoti. Cf. below, p. 85. Bhdjana- 
gatam expl. at VA. 316 to mean bhdjane yeva hoti, as kumhhigatam is 
kumhhiyam, fem. loc. 

' Mutthim chindati, i.e., of kahapanas. VA. 316; which also says, 
evam ynutthim karonto mutthim chindati ndma, making a fist so is 
called detaching a handful so that no kahapanas come out between 
the fingers. 

« Suttdrulham. VA. 316, " putting on chains means, tying on 
chains, made of chains." Cf. Vin. ii. 106 where the group of six 
monks wore similar things. 

» Pdmanga, at Vin. Texts iii. 69, "ear-drops." VA. 316, "made 
of gold, made of silver, made of chains, strings of pearls and so on." 
Otherwise Bu. of no help here. Cf. VA. 534. 



yS BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 48 

for the throat, or an ornamental string lianging from 
the ear.i or an ornamental girdle,^ or a cloak, or a turban, 
there is an offence of wrong-doing. 

If he makes it quiver, there is a grave offence. If, 
holding it by the top,^ he raises it up, there is a grave 
offence. If he draws it out, levelling it,* there is a 
grave offence. If he releases (the goods) even (as much 
as) a hair's breadth from the rim of the bowl, there is 
an offence involving defeat. If, intending to steal, he 
drinks at one gulp^ ghee or oil or honey or molasses® 
to the value of five indsakas or more than five mdsakas, 
there is an offence involving defeat. Inasmuch as he 
breaks or disperses or burns or renders useless, there is 
an offence of wrong-doing. || 2 || 

Being on firm ground? means : the goods are put down 
on the firm ground. If intending to steal and saying: 
'' I will steal the goods which are on the firm ground," 
he either searches for a companion, or goes himself, 
there is an offence of wrong-doing. If he touches them, 

1 KamasuUaka at Yin. i. 286 seems to mean a clothes-line; but 
cf. Vin. ii. 143. 

2 Katisuitaka. Not enuinerated at Vin. ii. 136 where other special 
kinds of girdles arc mentioned. The monks were forbidden to wear 
any of these things, Vin. ii. 107. The use of katisuitaka, meaning a 
hip-string, is forbidden to the nuns at Vin. ii. 271. 

3 kotiyani gahetva=dkdsattham akaronto, VA. 317, 

* ghamsanto nlharati, which according to VA. 317 means that when 
a big pot is brim-full, drawing it out and levelling a chain {pdmahga) 
across the mouth of the big pot, if he draws the chain further than 
the mouth, so that he drags off whatever goods rise higher than the 
level of the top of the pot, there is a parajika offence. But if, in 
pulling the chain, he does not pull over any goods, as he does not 
pull the chain beyond the rim, there is a thullaccaya offence. Sec 
above, p. 77 n., on pdmahga. 

^ payoga, an elastic term, meaning action, business, undertaking; 
cf. Vin. iii. 50 below, where it seems to mean occasion, occurrence, 
happening. 

« These, with fresh butter, navanlta, constitute the five kinds of 
medicine, vf. below, Vin. iii. 251. 

^ thalattham. Thala is solid ground, firm ground, as opposed to 
water; dry ground — i.e., high, raised or sloping as opposed to low 
ground; or a plateau as opposed to a low-lying place. VA. 322 
explains by bhwnilale vd pdsddapabbatatalddisu vd. 



II. 4, 3-5] DEFEAT 79 

there is an offence of wrong-doing. If he makes them 
quiver, there is a grave offence. If he removes them 
from the place, there is an offence involving defeat, || 3|| 

Being in the air means: the goods going in the air.^ 
A peacock or a francolin partridge^ or a partridge or 
a quaiP or a cloak* or a turban, or an ornament^ or 
gold,^ being broken, falls to the ground; and he says: 
** I will steal the goods which have been in the air." 
If, intending to steal, he either searches for a com- 
panion, or goes himself, there is an offence of wrong- 
doing. If he interrupts their journey . . . If he touches 
them, there is an offence of wrong-doing. If he makes 
them quiver, there is a grave offence. If he removes 
them from the place, there is an offence involving 
defeat. II 4 II 

Beifig above ground^ means : the goods are found above 
ground.' They get stuck in a couch or chair, or on a 

1 akasagatam , gat am being an elastic termination of some fixed 
significance. 

2 kapinjara, possibly with this meaning, cf. Kvu. 268 {kapinjala) 
and J a. vi. 538. 

3 vattako, P.T.S. Did. says a '' cart," vattakd being " quail." 

^ Blown by the force of the wind and extended on the ground, 
VA. 324. 

^ hirannam vd suvannam vd. While people are putting on, e.g. a 
necklace or while a goldsmith is making a salakd, if it falls from 
the fastener, and the thief makes off with it, VA. 324. But for 
these two words, hir° and suv^, cf. above p. 28, n. 

^ VehdsaUham. There is usually little difference between vehdsa 
and dkdma, which is part of the word explained in the preceding 
})aragraph. Both usually mean "air" or " atmosphere." But 
it is clear in this context that some greater difference is intended. 
In this paragraph, beginning " Being above ground," the goods 
are shown to come into contact with something standing on or 
supj)orted by the earth, and are not, as '' in the air," freed, like a 
bird, from the earth's support. V ehdsaUhani , with bhumigatam, 
occurs at D. i. 115, and is trans, at Dial. i. 147 " above the ground," 
which 1 follow, and at Fur. Dial ii. 94, " housed in treasury chambers." 
DA. i. 2^'i^:=MA. iii. 420, says ''completing terraces and turrets 
{pdsddaniyyuhdddgo) and putting (it there) is called ' above the 
ground.' " 

^ vehdsagatam. 



80 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 48 49 

bamboo peg for hanging up a robe,^ or on a cord for 
hanging up a robe, or on a peg in the wall,^ or on an 
'' elephant-tusk "(peg),^ or in a tree, even on the support 
for a begging-bowl.'* If, intending to steal, he thinks: 
" I will steal the goods that are found above ground," 
he either searches for a companion, or goes himself, 
there is an offence of wrong-doing. If he touches them, 
there is an offence of wrong-doing. If he makes them 
quiver, there is a grave offence. If he removes them 
from the place, there is an offence involving defeat. 
II 6 II [48] 

Being in the tvater means: the goods are put down in 
the water. Intending to steal, he thinks: " I will steal 
the goods which are in the water;" he either searches 
for a companion, or goes himself, there is an offence of 
wrong-doing. He either dives into (the water) or 
emerges from (it), there is an offence of wrong-doing. 
If he touches (the goods), there is an offence of wrong- 
doing. If he causes them to quiver, there is a grave 
offence. If he removes them from the place, there is 
an offence involving defeat. Intending to steal, he 
touches either a blue, red, or white lotus which is growing 
there,^ or the sprout of a lotus, or a fish or a turtle to 
the value of five 7ndsakas or more than five mdsakas, 
there is an offence of wrong-doing. If he causes them 
to quiver, there is a grave offence. If he removes them 
from the place, there is an offence involving defeat. || 6 || 

A boat means: that by which one crosses.^ Being 
in a boat means: the goods are put down in a boat. 

1 clvaravarjsa. This and the next, civararajju, are often found 
together in Vinaya; cf. Vin. i. 47 and 286 where these things were 
prescribed for the monks. 

2 bhittikhila. VA. 327, something knocked against the wall, 
driven straight in, or something that was there originally. 

^ ndgadanta. VA. 327 says that this is curved. 

^ VA. 328, this may be a support on a tree or on a fence or 
on a stick. 

^ tadhajdtaka, lit. born there. 

^ VA. 332, here meaning even a washerman's tub or a sheaf of 
bamboos. 



II. 4, 7-9] DEFEAT 8l 

Intending to steal, he thinks: "I will steal the goods 
which are put down in a boat " ; he either searches for 
a companion, or goes (himself), there is an offence of 
wrong-doing. If he touches them . . . involving de- 
feat. Intending to steal, he says: ''I will steal the 
boat," ... or goes himself, - there is an offence of 
wrong-doing. If he touches it, there is an offence of 
wrong-doing. If he makes it quiver, there is a grave 
offence. If he loosens the moorings, there is an offence 
of wrong-doing. If, having loosened the moorings, he 
touches it, there is an offence of wrong-doing. If he 
makes it quiver, there is a grave offence. If he makes 
it move up or down, or across (the river) even for as 
much as a hair's breadth, there is an offence involving 
defeat. |i7|| 

A vehicle^ means: a litter, a two-wheeled carriage, 
a waggon, a chariot.^ Being in a vehicle means: the 
goods are laid down in a vehicle. Intending to steal, 
he thinks: " I will steal the goods laid down in the 
vehicle," ... or goes himself: there is an offence of 
wrong-doing. If he touches them . . . involving de- 
feat. Intending to steal, he thinks: "I will steal the 
vehicle "... or goes himself, there is an offence of 
wrong-doing. If he touches (it) . . . involving de- 
feat. II 8 II 

A burden means: a burden carried on the head, a 
burden carried on the back (or shoulder), a burden 
carried on the hip and hanging down. Intending to 
steal, he touches the burden on the head, there is an 



^ ydna, a way, the act of going, so a vehicle. Earlier, in the 
Brahmanas and Upanisads, it had meant a way, rather than the 
means of going, as devaydna, pitrydna, the way to the devas, the 
way to the ancestors. Dasgupta sees the word as " career," History 
of Indian Philosophy I. 125. This rendering was adopted by 
E. J. Thomas, History of Buddhist Thought, p. 178, in referring to 
later (Mahayana) teaching. The above definition clearly rules 
out " career " for this passage. 

^ Cf. Vin. iv. 339 where two more are added: slvikd pdtahki, 
palanquin and sedan-chair. 

I. 6 



82 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [HI. 49-60 

offence of wrong-doing. If he makes it quiver, there is 
a grave offence. If he robs the back (of its burden), 
there is an offence involving defeat. Intending to steal, 
he touches the burden on the back, there is an offence 
of wrong-doing. If he makes it quiver, there is a grave 
offence. If he robs the hip, there is an offence involving 
defeat. Intending to steal, he touches the burden on 
the hip, there is an offence of wrong-doing. If he 
causes it to quiver, there is a grave offence. If he takes 
it with his hands, there is an offence involving defeat. 
Intending to steal the burden with his hand, he deposits 
it on the ground, there is an offence involving defeat. 
Intending to steal, he takes it -from the ground, there 
is an offence involving defeat. || 9 || 

A park means: a park with flowers, a park with fruit 
(i.e., an orchard). Being in a park means: the goods 
are laid down in the park in four places: in the earth, 
on the firm ground, in the air, above the ground. [49] 
Intending to steal, he thinks: " I will steal the goods 
which are in the park," ... or goes himself, there is 
an offence of wrong-doing. If he touches them . . . 
involving defeat. Intending to steal, he touches a root 
growing there, ^ or a (piece of) bark,^ or a leaf, or a flower,^ 
or a fruit to the value of five nmsakas or more than five 
mdsakas . . . involving defeat. If he claims the park,* 
there is an offence of wrong-doing. If he evokes doubt 
in the keeper (of the park), there is a grave offence. 
If the keeper, saying: " This will not be for me," gives 
up his post,^ there is an offence involving defeat. Re- 
sorting to law® he defeats the keeper, there is an offence 

1 tatfhajdfala, (f. p. 80, n. 5; VA. 337 f., applies this adjectiA^c 
only to myJa. 

2 })ark was used for medicine or dye; to harm a tree with valu- 
able bark was a parajika, VA. 338. ^ such as jasmine and lotus. 

* VA. 338, i.e. belonging to someone else, saying, ' It is mine'; 
in this attempt to take what is not given, there is a dukkata. 

^ (Ihuram nikkhipati, or " throws ofE his responsibility." 

* d/ianrmam caranto. VA. ii. 339=^b}iikkhusan(/he vd mjnknlc 
vd vinicchayarn karonto ; but the judges having descended to false 
witnesses pervert justice and conquer the keeper. 



II. 4, 10-12] DEFEAT 83 

involving defeat. Resorting to law,^ he is defeated,^ 
there is a grave offence. || 10 1| 

Being in a vihdra^ means : the goods are deposited 
in a vihara in four places: in the earth, on the firm 
ground, in the air, above the ground. Intending to 
steal, he thinks: '' I will steal the goods deposited in 
the vihara," ... or goes himself, there is an offence 
of wrong-doing. If he touches . . . involving defeat. 
If he claims the vihara ... he is defeated^: there is 
a grave offence. || 11 || 

A. field means: where grain and pulses* are produced. 
Being in a field means : the goods are deposited in a . 
field in four places: in the earth, on the firm ground, in 
the air, above the ground. Intending to steal, he thinks : 
"I will steal the goods deposited in the field," . . .or 
goes himself, there is an offence of wrong-doing. If 
he touches . . . offence involving defeat. Intending 

^ Here VA. 339 says, "but if proceeding with the investigation 
by means of Vinaya and dhanima and the master's teaching, he 
accomplishes his own defeat ... he falls into a thullaccaya." 

2 parajjati. 

3 Note that this par, and || 14 || below do not begin by saying: 
** a vihara means:", " a village means:", as do the others here. 

* There are seven sorts of grain {pubbanva) and seven kinds of 
pulses or cereals {aparanna). Nd. ii. 314 distinguishes these two 
sorts of grain: pubhatwa (natural) and aparanna (prepared). To 
the first, here called dhanna, belong sali and vihi (rice-sorts), yai'>a 
(barley), godhuma (wheat), kartga (millet), varaka (beans), kndru- 
saka. At Dial. iii. 70 n. 1 translator says kudrusaka is a "kind 
of rye." At D. iii. 71 it is said that as now soli and curry {mafjsodana) 
are the highest kinds of food, so when man's life-span is reduced to 
ten years, kudrusaka will become the highest food. At Vin. iv. 264 
these kinds of grain are catalogued under dmaka-dhanna, " raw " 
grain, corn in its natural, unprepared state. At D. i. b=A. ii. 209 
it is said that Gotama is one who abstains from accepting this 
dmakadhanna. Nd. i. 248, in defining khetta gives a rather different 
series of seven grains; sdli, vihi, mugga (kidney-bean), nmsa (a bean, 
Phaseolus indica or radiata), yai^a, godhuma, tila (sesame plant). 
Miln. 106 again varies slightly: sdli, vlhi, yava, tandula (rice-grain), 
tila, mugga, mdsa. A. iv. 108=112 includes tila, mugga, mdsa under 
aparanna. A list of provisions for a journey at Vin. i. 244 includes 
tandula, mugga, mdsa. J a. v. 106 says that harenukd ti aparannajd ti. 



84 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 50 

to steal, he touches either the grain which grows there 
or the pulses to the value of five mdsakas or more than 
five mdsakas, there is an offence involving defeat. If 
he claims the field ... he is defeated, there is a grave 
offence. If he shifts the post, or the cord, or the fence, 
or the boundary, there is an offence of wrong-doing. 
Before he has finally done this, there is a grave offence; 
when he has finally done this, there is an offence involving 
defeat.i ||12i| 

A property means : the property of a park, the property 
of a vihara. Being on a property means: the goods are 
deposited on a property in four places: in the earth, 
on the firm ground, in the air, above the ground. In- 
tending to steal, he thinks: " I will steal the goods which 
are on the property," ... or he goes himself, there is 
an offence of wrong-doing. If he touches . . . involv- 
ing defeat. If he claims the property ... he is de- 
feated, there is a grave offence. If he shifts the post, 
or the cord, or the fence, or the boundary, there is an 
offence of wrong-doing. Before he has finally done this, 
there is a grave offence; when he has finally done this, 
there is an offence involving defeat. || 13 || 

Bei7ig in a village means: the goods are deposited 
in a village in four places: in the earth, on the firm 
ground, in the air, above the ground. Intending to 
steal, he thinks: "I will steal the goods which are in 
the village," ... or he goes himself, there is an offence 

^ Ekam payogam andgate, dpatti thullaccayassa ; tasmin payoge 
agate, upatti pdrdjikassa. Note the use of ace. and loc. VA. 341 
says, " desiring to make a field for himself using the enclosure of 
another person's field, he digs in the wood. Each time he uses a 
piece, there is a dukkata offence {payoge payoge dukkatam)] when 
one piece is still to come, there is a thullaccaya offence {ekasmim 
andgate thullaccayaw); when that piece has come, there is a parajika 
{taswim dgate pdrdjikam)'' Corny, goes on to say that if by 
these means one is able to enclose a field for himself, then there is 
a dukkata with the first payoga, and finally (avasdne) there is one 
of two thiujufs: a thullaccaya according to one, a parajika according 
to the other. 



II. 4, 14-17] DEFEAT ' 85 

of wrong-doing. If he touches them, there is an offence 
involving defeat. || 14 || [50] 

The jungle means : that which is taken for (the use) 
of men, that is the jungle. Being in the jungle means: 
the goods are deposited in the jungle in four places: 
in the earth, on the firm ground, in the air, above the 
ground. Intending to steal, he thinks: " I will steal 
the goods which are in the earth," ... or he has access 
to them, there is an offence of wrong-doing. He touches 
them . . . involving defeat. Intending to steal, he 
touches a piece of wood growing there, or a creeper, 
or grass to the value of five mdsakas or more than five 
masakas . . . there is an offence involving defeat. || 15 || 

Water means: either it has gone into a bowl or into 
a pond or into a reservoir. Intending to steal, he touches 
it . . . there is an offence involving defeat. Having 
put water to the value of five mdsakas or more than five 
mdsakas into his own bowl, he touches it, intending to 
steal it, there is an offence of wrong-doing. If he makes 
it quiver, there is a grave offence. If he puts it into 
his own bowl,^ there is an offence involving defeat. If 
he breaks the embankment, there is an offence of wrong- 
doing. Having broken the embankment he empties 
water to the value of five mdsakas or more than five 
mdsakas, there is an offence involving defeat. He 
empties water to the value of more than a mdsaka or of 
four mdsakas, there is a grave offence. He empties water 
to the value of a mdsaka or less than a Tndsaka, there is 
an offence of wrong-doing. || 16 || 

Tooth-cleaner means: either broken or unbroken. 
Intending to steal, he touches one of the valuQ of five 
mdsakas or more than five jndsakas, there is an offence 
of wrong-doing. If he makes it quiver, there is a grave 
offence. If he removes it from the place, there is an 
offence involving defeat. |i 17 || 

^ attano bhdjanagatam laroti, cf. above, p. 77. 



86 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 61-52 

Forest tree^ means : what is taken for (the use of) men, 
a useful tree. Intending to steal, he fells it, for each 
blow there is an offence of wrong-doing. With one 
still to come, there is a grave offence; when that blow 
has come, there is an offence involving defeat.^ || 18 || 

Goods in transit^ means : the goods in transit belonging 
to another. Intending to steal, he touches them . . . 
involving defeat. Thinking: " I will take the carrier 
together with the goods," he moves the first foot, there 
is a grave offence; he moves the second foot, there is 
an offence involving defeat. Thinking: "I will seize 
the fallen goods," he makes them fall, there is an offence 
of wrong-doing. Intending to steal, he touches the 
fallen goods to the value of five mdsakas or more than 
five tndsahas . . . involving defeat. || 19 || 

Deposit means: goods laid down (reserved). " Give me 
the goods," he says; if one calls out to him: "I am not 
taking them," there is an offence of wrong-doing. He 
evokes doubt in (the mind of) the keeper, there is a grave 
offence. [61] The keeper, saying: '- He will not give it 
to me," gives up his post, there is an offence involving 
defeat. Resorting to law he defeats the keeper, there 
is an offence involving defeat. Resorting to law he is 
defeated, there is a grave offence.* I|20|| 

Customs-frontier means: it is established by the king 
in a mountain-pass, or at a ford in a river, or at the gate 
of a village, so that tax shall be received on a person 
entering here. Intending to steal, and having entered 
there, he touches goods which are of value to the king 
to the value of five mdsakas or more than five mdsakas, 
there is an offence of wrong-doing. If he makes them 
quiver, there is a grave offence. If he makes his first 
foot cross the customs-frontier, there is a grave offence. 

^ VA. 347, " the oldest tree, but here (idha) all are taken for 
the use of people." ^ Cf. above, pars. 12, 14. 

^ haranaka, from ^/h^, to bring, convey, carry, fetch. 
4 CJ. above, II. 4, 10. 



TI. 4, 21-25] DEFEAT 87 

If he makes his second foot cross the customs-frontier, 
tliere is an offence involving defeat. Standing within 
the customs-frontier, he makes them fall outside the 
customs-frontier, there is an offence involving defeat. 
If he evades the tax, ther<^. is an offence of wrong- 
doing. II 21 II 

Creature means : what is called a human creature. In- 
tending to steal, he touches it . . . there is an offence 
involving defeat. Thinking: "I will conduct (him) on 
foot," he makes the first foot move, there is a grave 
offence. If he makes the second foot move, there is an 
offence involving defeat. || 22 1| 

Footless means: snakes and fish. Intending to steal, 
he touches them to the value of five mdsakas or more 
than five mdsakas . . . involving defeat. ||23|| 

Two-footed^ means: men and birds. Intending to 
steal, he touches them . . . involving defeat. Saying: 
" I will lead them away on foot," he makes the first foot 
move, there is a grave offence. If he makes the second 
foot move, there is an offence involving defeat. || 24 || 

Four-footed mesms: elephants, horses, camels,^ bullocks, 
asses, cattle. Intending to steal, he touches them . . . 
there is an offence involving defeat. Saying: "I will 

^ VA. 363 says there are three kinds of creatures born with wings: 
those with wings of down {loma), such as peacocks and partridges; 
those with wings of skin, such as bats; those with wings of bone, such 
as bees. 

2 ottha, " camel " in Class. Sanskrit. This word appears in 
another list of animals at Miln. 32, there translated " camels." 
Morris, J.P.T.S. 1887, p. 150, for otthivyddhi suggests " female 
elephant," a rendering followed by Francis and Neil in translating 
Jd. iii. 385. Here the otthivyddhi is made to speak of feats done by 
her in battle with words which, however, ring equally true if they 
came from a camel. Ouha can hardly mean " elephant " here, 
since the ordinary word hatthi is included in the list. Monier 
Williams, Sanskrit Dictionary, Oxford, 1872, has " ustra ... a 
buffalo; a bull with a hump; a camel; a cart, a waggon; . . . 
(7), f. a she-camel; an earthen vessel in the shape of a camel." 



88 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 52-68 

lead them away on foot," he makes the first foot 
move, there is a grave offence. If he makes the second 
foot move, there is a grave offence. If he makes the 
third foot move, there is a grave offence. If he makes 
the fourth foot move, there is an offence involving 
defeat. || 25 || 

Many-footed means: scorpions, centipedes, live maw- 
worms.^ Intending to steal, he touches them to the 
value of five mdsakas or more than five mdsakas ... 
there is an joffence involving defeat. Saying: "I will 
lead them away on foot," he makes them move, for 
each foot there is a grave offence. If he makes the last 
foot move, there is an offence involving defeat. || 26 || 

A spy means: spying on the goods,^ he describes 
them,^ saying: "Do you steal such and such goods," 
there is an offence involving a double defeat.* || 27 || [52] 

The keeper of entrusted wares means: guarding goods 
that have been brought (to him) to the value of five 
mdsakas or more than five mdsakas, (and) intending to 
steal, he handles^ (the goods) . . . involving defeat. || 28 1| 

An arranged theft means: a crowd having arranged 
together^ (to commit a theft), one steals the goods, all 
are involved in defeat. ||29 || 

The making of a rendezvous'^ means : he makes a ren- 
dezvous (for a time) either before or after a meal, or 
during the night or the day; according to this rendezvous, 
he says: "Do you steal," there is an offence of wrong- 
doing. If, at this rendezvous, he steals the goods, there 

^ uccdlingapdnaJid. Corny, gives no help. 

2 " examining them and considering them." VA. 365. 

3 I.e., to another as goods put carelessly or unguarded in other 
houses or viharas. 

* ubhinnayn pdrdjikassa, for he both incites others and assists 
in the theft himself. 

^ " He puts them into a sack or a well." VA. 366. 

* samvidahitvd, also below, Par. II. 7, 34. 
' sarnketakamma. 



II. 4, 30-31—5, 2] DEFEAT 89 

is an offence involving defeat for both. If he steals the 
goods before or after the (time of the) rendezvous, there 
is no offence for the instigator, there is an offence in- 
volving defeat for the thief. || 30 1| 

The making of a sign means: he makes a sign, saying: 
" I will either cover up my eyes or I will raise my 
eyebrows or raise my head: according to this sign, do 
you steal the goods," there is an offence of wrong-doing. 
If, according to this sign, he steals the goods, there is 
an offence involving a double defeat. If he steals the 
goods before or after this sign, there is no offence for 
the instigator, there is an offence involving defeat for 
the thief. 11 31 11 4 II 



If a monk enjoins a monk, saying: " Steal such and 
such goods," there is an offence of wrong-doing. If he, 
thinking these (are goods to be stolen), steals them, there 
is an offence involving defeat for both. If a monk 
enjoins a monk, saying: " Steal such and such goods," 
and he, thinking these (are the goods to be stolen), steals 
something else, there is no offence for the instigator, 
there is an offence involving defeat for the thief. If a 
monk ... he, thinking something else (are the goods 
to be stolen), steals them, there is an offence involving 
defeat for both. If a monk ... he, thinking some- 
thing else (are the goods to be stolen), steals something 
else, there is no offence for the instigator; there. is an 
offence involving defeat for the thief. || 1 1| 

If a monk enjoins a monk, saying: " Tell of such and 
such (matter), let so and so tell of such and such, let 
so and so steal such and such goods," there is an offence 
of wrong-doing. If he speaks to another, there is an 
offence of wrong-doing. If the thief agrees, there is 
a grave offence for the instigator. If he steals these 
goods, there is an offence involving defeat for all (these 
four people).^ If a monli: enjoins a monk, saying: " Tell 

^ YA. 369, sabbesam catunnam pijandnam pdrdjikam. 



go BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 53-54 

of such and such (a matter) ... let so and so steal 
such and such goods," there is an offence of wrong- 
doing. If he enjoins another, there is an offence of 
wrong-doing. If the thief agrees, there is an offence of 
wrong-doing. If he steals these goods, there is no 
offence for the instigator, there is an offence involving 
defeat for the en joiner and the thief. ||2|| 

If a monk enjoins a monk, [63] saying: " Steal such 
and such goods," there is an offence of wrong-doing. 
Having gone, he returns, saying: "I am not able to 
steal these goods," and if he enjoins him again, saying: 
" When you are able, then steal these goods," there is 
an offence of wrong-doing. If he steals the goods, 
there is an offence involving defeat for both. || 3 |t 

If a monk enjoins a monk, saying: " Steal such and 
such goods," there is an offence of wrong-doing. If 
having enjoined (this course), he regrets it, but does 
not say^ to him: "Do not steal," and he steals these 
goods, there is an offence involving defeat for both. 
If a monk . . . having enjoined (this course), regrets it, 
and says to him: " Do not steal," and he says: " Very 
well, "2 and desists, there is no offence for either. 11 4 11 5 I! 



There is an offence involving defeat through appro- 
priating in five ways what is not given : it is the possession 
of another, and known to be the possession of another, 
and it is important, and it is a requisite to the value 
of five or more mdsakas, and there is present the in- 
tention to steal. If he touches it, there is an offence 
of wrong-doing. If he makes it quiver, there is a grave 
offence. If he removes it from the place, there is an 
offence involving defeat. 

There is a grave offence through appropriating in 
five ways what is not given : it is the possession of another, 
and known to be the possession of another, and it is 

^ na sdveti, causative of sundti, to hear. ^ sufthu. 



II. 6, 1-3] DEFEAT 9I 

unimportant, and it is a requisite to the value of more 
than a mdsaka or less than five mdsaJcas, and tliere is 
intention to steal what is at one's disposal. If he 
touches it, there is an offence of wrong-doing. If he 
makes it quiver, there is an offence of wrong-doing. If 
he removes it from the place, there is a grave offence. 

There is an offence of wrong-doing through appro^ 
priating in five ways what is not given : it is the property 
of another ... a requisite to the value of a nidsaka 
or less than a mdsaka ^ and there is present the in- 
tention to steal. If he touches it, there is an offence 
of wrong-doing. If he makes it quiver, there is an 
offence of wrong-doing. If he removes it from the 
place, there is an offence of wrong-doing. || 1 1| 

There is an offence involving defeat through appro- 
priating in six ways what is not given : he does not know 
it is his own, he does not take a confidant, it is not for 
the time being, it is important, it is a requisite to the 
value of five mdsakas or more than five mdsakus, and 
there is present the intention to steal. If he touches it 
... involving defeat. 

There is a grave offence through appropriating in 
six ways what is not given: he does not know it is his 
own ... it is unimportant, it is a requisite [54] worth 
more than a mdsaka or less than five Tndsakas, and there 
is intention to steal . . . there is a grave offence. 

There is an offence of wrong-doing through appro- 
priating in six ways what is not given: he does not know 
it is not his own ... it is unimportant, it is a requisite 
to the value of a mdsaka or less than a mdsaka, and there 
is intention to steal . . . there is an offence of wrong- 
doing. II 2 II 

There is an offence of wrong-doing through appro- 
priating in five ways what is not given: it is not the 
possession of another, he thinks it is the possession of 
another, it is important ... to the value of more than 
five mdsakas, there is present the intention to steal. If 
he touches it, there is an offence of wrong-doing. If 



92 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 55 

he makes it quiver, there is an offence of wrong-doing. 
If he removes it from the place, there is an offence of 
wrong-doing. 

There is an offence of wrong-doing through appro- 
priating in five ways what is not given: it is not the 
possession of another, he thinks it is the possession of 
another, it is unimportant ... to the value of less 
than five mdsakas, there is present the intention to 
steal. If he touches it, there is an offence of 
wrong-doing. If he makes it quiver, there is an offence 
of wrong-doing. If he removes it from its place, there is 
an offence of wrong-doing. 

There is an offence of wrong-doing through appro- 
priating in five ways what is not given: it is not the 
'property of another, he thinks it is the property of 
another, it is unimportant ... to the value of less 
than a mdsaka, and there is present the intention to 
steal. If he touches it, there is an offence of wrong- 
doing. If he makes it quiver, there is an offence of 
wrong-doing. If he removes it from its place, there is 
an offence of wrong-doing. || 3 || 

There is no offence if he knows it is his own, if he 
is taken as a confidant, if it is taken temporarily ,i if he is 
in the realm of the departed,^ if he is in the animal- world, 
if he thinks them to be rags taken from the dust-heap,^ 



^ I.e., with intention to give it back; VA. 372, patidassdmi pati- 
karissdmi\ cf. Vin. iii. 66=ii. 174, where the lord is represented as 
allowing monks to take away temporarily. 

2 petapariggahe=pittwisaye, VA. 372, the realm or world of the 
departed. Mrs. Rhys Davids, Indian Religion and Survival (London, 
1934), p. 35, says peta, " a word which,' meaning literally ' gone 
before,' is held to be a corruption of the older teim. pitr-, or fathers'- 
world." VA. 372 says, " having done his time in the world of the 
departed where he had arisen and being reborn in that existence, 
all the devas of the retinue of the Four Firmament Devas go to 
destruction as departed ones: for these there is no guilt in that 
realm." 

^ VA. 373. If he knows that these rags have no owner (assdmika) 
there is no offence in taking them; but if they have an owner, he 
should give them to him, having had them fetched. 



II. 6, 4—7, 1] DEFEAT 93 

if he is mad, if his mind is unhinged, if he is afflicted 
by pain, if he is a beginner. ^ il 4 || 6 || 

Told is the First Eecital on Taking what is not Given. 



Five things told about bleachers, and four about 

outer coverings. 
Five indeed about darkness,^ and five about carrying, / 
Five things told about the way of expressing oneself, 

the next two about the wind, 
The not decomposed, the casting of a Kusa lot,^ 

in the bathroom* is the tenth,/ 
Five things told about broken meats, and five about 

inexistent receivers. 
And Kuru-meat in famine, cakes and sweetmeats, / 
The bag for carrying the set of necessaries, bolster, 

a bamboo-peg, on not coming out, 
And trust about foodstuffs, the next two about 

knowing one's own,/ 
Seven times saying " We do not steal," seven times 

they did steal, 
Seven times they stole from the Order; the next two 

on flowers, / 
Three on taking greetings,^^ three jewels are taken past, 
And pigs, deer, fish, and even he set going the 

vehicle, / 
Two on a piece of flesh, two on sticks, rags taken from 

the dust-heap, two on water, [55] 
Little by little, having made arrangement, it did not 

amount (to five mdsakas),/ 
Four handfuls at Savatthi, two on broken-meats, two 

about grass, 

1 Bu. says (VA. 373) that Dhaniya was the beginner, and there 
was no offence for him. 

2 Andhakdra. 

3 A blade (or blades) of the Kusa grass cast to give the proper 
distribution of robes. VA. 378. 

* Text here leads jantagghena, but at Vin. iii. 58, where the story 
is given we get jantdghare. 
5 Vuttavddino. 



94 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 56 

Seven on distribution for the Order, seven on being 

not owners,/ 
Wood, water, clay, two on grass, he stole seven 

times intentionally from the Order, 
One should not take away what has an owner, one 

may take for the time being what has an owner, / 
At Campa and in Rajagaha, and Ajjuka at Vesali,' 
And Benares, and Kosambi, Sagala and about 

Dalhika. 



At one time the group of six monks having gone to the 
(things) spread out to be bleached, stole a bleacher's 
bundle. They were remorseful, and said: '' The course 
of training has been made known by the lord. Let us 
hope that we have not fallen into an offence involving 
defeat.'*^ . . . They told this matter to the lord. . . . 
" You, monks, have fallen into an offence involving 
defeat." || 1 1| 

At one time a certain monk having gone to the 
(things) spread out to be bleached, and seeing a garment 
of very great worth, had the intention to steal it. On 
account of this he was remorseful. ... " There is no 
offence, monk, because it was a passing thought." 

At one time a certain monk . . . seeing a garment 
of very great worth, intending to steal it, touched it. 
On account of this he was remorseful. ... " Monk, 
there is no offence involving defeat, there is an offence 
of wrong-doing." 

At one time a certain monk . . . made it quiver. 
On this account he was remorseful. ... " There is a 
grave offence." 

At one time there was a certain monk . . . removed 
it from its place. On account of this he was remorse- 
ful. .. . " You, monk, have fallen into an offence 
involving defeat." || 2 1| 

At one time a certain monk who was going for alms 

1 Cf. 1. 10, 1. 



II. 7, 3-6 DEFEAT 95 

saw a valuable outer cover^ and liad the intention to 
steal it . . . intending to steal it, he touched it . . . 
intending to steal it, he made it quiver . . . intending 
to steal it, he removed it from the place. On account 
of this he was remorseful. ... '' You, monk, have 
fallen into an offence involving defeat." ||3|| 

At one time a certain monk, seeing some goods during 
the day, made a sign, saying: "I will steal (these) at 
night." Thinking of them he stole them . . . thinking 
of them, he stole something else . . . thinking others to 
be the ones, he stole these^ . . . thinking others to be 
the ones, he stole those others. On account of this he 
was remorseful. ... "... defeat." [56] 

At one time a certain monk, seeing some goods during 
the day, made a sign, saying: "I will steal (these) at 
night." Thinking others to be the ones, he stole 
his own goods. On account of this he was remorseful. 
... " Monk, there is no offence involving defeat, there 
is an offence of wrong-doing." ||4|| 

At one time a certain monk carrying the goods of 
another, touched the burden, intending to steal it, on the 
head . . . intending to steal it, he made it quiver . . . 
intending to steal it, he lifted it on to his shoulder ... in- 
tending to steal it, he touched the burden on the shoulder 
. . . intending to steal it, he moved it . . . intending 
to steal it, he lifted it on to his hip . . . intending to steal 
it, he touched the hip-burden . . . intending to steal it, 
he moved it . . . intending to steal it, he took hold of it 
with his hands . . . intending to steal the burden in 
his hands, he deposited it on the ground. On account 
of this he was remorseful. ... " You, monk, have 
fallen into an offence involving defeat." || 5 || 

At one time a certain monk having spread out his 
robe in the open air, entered the vihara. A certain 



^ uttarattharana. 

2 which he had originally thought of stealing. 



96 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 57-68 

monk, saying: "Do not let this robe be lost," put it 
aside. Having come out (of the vihara), he^ asked the 
monks: "Your reverences, who has stolen my robe?" 
He^ said: " I have stolen it." He^ seized him and said: 
" You are not a (true) recluse." Thereupon he^ was 
remorseful. He told this matter to the lord. He said : 
" Of what were you thinking, monk ?" 

"I, lord ? It was a way of speaking," he said, 

(The lord) said: "There is no offence, monk, in the 
way of speaking."^ 

At one time, a certain monk, putting down his robe 
on a chair ... his mat on a chair . . . putting down 
his bowl under the chair, entered the vihara. A certain 
monk, saying: "Do not let the bowl be lost," put it 
aside. Having come out, he^ asked the monks: " Your 
reverences, who has stolen my bowl?" He^ said: "I 
have stolen it." He^ seized him ..." your way of 
speaking." 

At one time a certain nun, having spread out her 
robe on a fence, entered the vihara. A certain nun, 
saying: "Do not let this robe be lost," put it aside. 
Having come out, she* asked the nuns: "Ladies,^ who 
has stolen my robe?" She^ said: "I have stolen it." 
She* seized her and said: " You are not a (true) woman 
recluse." On account of this she^ was remorseful. 
This nun told this matter to the nuns. The nuns told 
this matter to the monks. The monks told this matter 
to the lord. ... " There is no offence, "monks, because 
of her way of speaking." || 6 || [67] 

At that time a certain monk seeing a cloak blown up 
during a whirlwind, took hold of it, saying: " I will give 
it to the owners." The owners reprimanded the monk, 
saying: "You are not a (true) recluse." On account 
of this he was remorseful. ... "Of what were you 
thinking, monk ?" 

1 The first monk. ^ The second monk. 

3 dpatti here followed by loc. instead of gen. 

* The first nun. ^ ^yy^- * The second nun. 



II. 7, 7-10] DEFEAT 97 

*' I did not intend to steal it, lord," he said. 

" Monk, there is no offence as you did not intend 
to steal." 

At one time a certain monk intending to steal, laid 
hold of a turban which had been blown into the air 
during a whirlwind, ''before the owners see. " The owners 
reprimanded the monk, saying: " You are not a (true) 
recluse." Because of this he was remorseful. . . . 
" You, monk, have fallen into an offence involving 
defeat." ||7|| 

At one time a certain monk going to the cemetery 
took hold of rags taken from the dust-heap which 
were on a body not (yet) decomposed. And the de- 
parted one^ was dwelling in this body.^ Then the 
departed one said to the monk: " Honoured sir,, do not 
take hold of my cloak." The monk, unheeding, went 
away. Then the body, arising,^ followed closely on 
the heels of the monk. Then the monk, entering the 
vihara, closed the door. Then the body fell down at 
that very place.* On account of this he was remorse- 
ful. ... " Monk, there is no offence involving defeat. 
(But) a monk should not take rags from the dust-heap 
(which are) on a body not (yet) decomposed.^ Whoever 
should take them : this is an offence of wrong-doing." || 8 || 

At one time a certain monk at the distribution of 
robes to the Order, casting the kusa-grass and intending 
to steal, took hold of a robe. On account of this he 
was remorseful ..." involving defeat." || 9 || 

At one time the venerable Ananda, thinking that the 
inner garment of another monk was his own, robed 



^ peta. See above, p. 92, n. 

" " On account of its longing for a cloak,*' VA. 374 — i.e., probably 
naked and needing a cloak. 

^ Through the pclas own power, VA. 374. 

* At the closed door the pela, being devoid of desire for the cloak, 
left the body, and went according to its deed, VA. 374. 

s Still warm. VA. 374. 

I 7 



98 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [HI. 58-59 

himself in the bath-room.^ Then this monk said to the 
venerable Ananda: "Why did you, reverend Ananda, 
robe yourself in my inner garment V 

" Your reverence, I thought it was my own," he 
said. 

They told this matter to the lord. He said: "There 
is no offence, monks, as he thought it was his own." || 10 || 

At one time a company of monks, descending from 
the slopes of the Vulture's Peak, seeing the remains of a 
lion's kill, had it cooked and ate it. Because of this they 
were remorseful. ... " Monks, there is no offence in 
(this matter of) the remains of a lion's kill."^ 

At one time a company of monks, descending from 
the slo^^es of the Vulture's Peak, seeing the remains of 
a tiger's kill . .. . seeing the remains of a panther's 
kill . . . seeing the remains of a hyena's kill . . . 
seeing the remains of a wolf's kill, had it cooked . . . 
" Monks, there is no offence in taking what belongs to 
animals." ||11|| [58] 

At one time a certain monk, gruel being distributed 
to the Order, said to another: "Give me a portion for 
another," and he took fbr an inexistent (monk).^ For 
this he was remorseful. ... " Monk, there is no offence 
involving defeat, there is an offence involving expiation^ 
for deliberately lying. "^ 

At one time a certain monk, hard foods being distri- 
buted to the Order . . . cakes . . . sugar-cane ... (a 
species of cucumber) being distributed to the Order said 
to another: " Give (me) a portion for another," and he 
took for an inexistent (monk)."^ On account of this he 



^ jantdghara. 

' This shows that vegetamuism was not (at this time) enjoined; 
</. below, pp. 297, 298. 

^ amulaka, 

* Pdciitiya, discussed in forthcoming vol. 

5 He must therefore have eaten it himself, the "for another'* 
being only an excuse. 



II. 7, 12-15] DEFEAT 99 

was remorseful. ..." Monk, there is no offence involving 
defeat, there is offence involving expiation for deliber- 
atelylying."! II12II 

At one time a certain monk, entering a rice kitchen^ 
during a shortage of alms-food, intending to steal, 
stole a bowlful of rice. On account of this he was re- 
morseful. ..."... defeat." 

At one time a certain monk, entering a slaughter- 
house during a shortage of alms-food, intending to steal, 
stole a bowlful of meat.^ ... "... defeat." 

At one time a certain monk, entering a bakery during 
a shortage of alms-food, intending to steal, stole a bowl-, 
ful of baked cakes . . . intending to steal, stole a bowlful 
of cake . . . intending to steal, stole a bowlful of sweet- 
meats. On account of this he was remorseful. . . . 
"... defeat." || 13 |i 

At one time a certain monk, seemg a set of requisites 
during the day, made a sign, saying: "I will steal it 
at night." Thinking this to be the one, he stole it . . . 
thinking another to be the one, he stole that (which 
he had originally thought of stealing) . . . thinking 
another to be the one, he stole this other. On account 
of this he was remorseful. ... "... defeat." 

At one time a certain monk, seeing a set of requisites 
during the day, made a sign, saying: "I will steal it at 
night." Thinking another to be the one (which he 
had thought of stealing), he stole his own set of re- 
quisites. On account of this he was remorseful. . . . 
" Monk, there is no offence involving defeat, there is 
an offence of wrong-doing." || 14 || 

At one time a certain monk, seeing a bag put by on 
a seat, and saying: " If I take it from here J shall be- 
come one who is defeated," he took hold of it, moving 

1 He must therefore have eaten it himself, the "for another" 
being only an excuse. 

2 odaniyaghara. 

3 Again the fault is not in eating meat, it is in stealing. 



100 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 59-60 

it together with the seat. On account of this he was 
remorseful. ... *' . . . defeat." || 15 || 

At one time a certain monk, intending to steal, stole 
a bolster belonging to the Order. On account of this 
he was remorseful. ... '' . . . defeat." || 16 || 

At one time a certain monk, [69] intending to steal, 
stole a robe from the bamboo^ used for hanging up 
the robes. On account of this he was remorseful. . . . 
'^ . . defeat." || 17 || 

At one time a certain monk, stealing a robe in the 
vihara, and saying: " Coming out from here I shall 
become one who is defeated," he did not go out from 
the vihara. They told this matter to the lord. He 
said: "Whether he comes out, monks, or whether the 
foolish man does not come out, there is an offence in- 
volving defeat." || 18 || 

At one time two monks were companions. One monk 
went into the village for alms. The other monk, taking 
his friend's portion of the hard foods distributed to the 
Order, putting his trust in him, ate it. (But) as he^ knew 
this, he reprimanded him, saying: " You are not a (true) 
recluse." On account of this he was remorseful. . . . 

" Monk, of what were you thinking ?" 

*' I had a misconception as to the trust, lord," he 
said. 

" There is no offence, monk, because there was a 
misconception as to the trust." || 19 || 

At one time a company of monks was making robes. 
As the hard food was distributed to the Order, the por- 
tions^ brought to them were laid aside.^ A certain monk, 

i Here clvamvamsa is not in conjunction with civararajju, the 
cord or ro])e for hanging the robes on. 

- The first monk. ^ pativisa. 

^ LJpanikkhittd honli. V panikkhiita is the participle of the 
perfect passive of upanikkhipati. 



II. 7, 20-22] DEFEAT lOI 



I 



thinking that it was his own, ate the portion^ of another 
monk. He, knowing this, reprimanded him, saying: 
" You are not a (true) rechjse." On account of this he 
was remorseful. ... "... Monk, are you out of 
your senses ?" 

" I thought it was my own, lord," he said. 

'* There is no oifence, monk, as you thought it was 
your own," he said. 

At one time a company of monks was making robes. 
When a certain monk had taken with his bowl another 
monk's share^ of the Order's hard and soft foods, it 
was laid aside. The monk who was the owner of the 
bowl ate (the food), thinking it was his own. Knowing 
this, he reprimanded him, . . . " There is no offence, 
monk, as you thought it was your own." || 20 || 

At one time mango-tree thieves, having made the 
mangoes fall, went off taking a bundle of fruit. The 
owners pursued these thieves. The thieves, seeing the 
owners, dropped the bundle and ran away. The monks, 
thinking it to be rags taken from the dust-heap, had it 
procured, and ate (the mangoes). The owners repri- 
manded these monks, saying: "You are not (true) 
recluses." These were remorseful. Tliey told this 
matter to the lord. " Monks, of what were you think- 
ing ?" he said. 

" Lord, we thought they were rags tnken from the 
dust-heap," they said. 

" Monks, there is no offence, since you thought they 
were rags taken from the dust-heap." 

At one time rose-apple tree thieves ... bread-fruit 
tree thieves . . . jack-fruit thieves . . . palm-fruit 
thieves . . . sugar-cane thieves . . . cucumber thieves, 
[60] having cut off cucumbers, went away, taking a 
bundle. The owners ... " There is no offence, 
monks, since you thought they were rags taken from the 
dust-heap." ||21|| 

At one time mano^o-tree thieves having made the 



1 pativisa. 



102 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE pil. Cl 

mangoes fall . . . ran away. The monks saying: " Be- 
fore the owners see them," and mtending to steal, 
ate (the mangoes). The owners reprimanded the 
monks, saying: '*You are not (true) recluses." These 
were remorseful. ... " You, monks, have fallen into 
an offence involving defeat." 

At one time rose-apple tree thieves . . . cucumber 
thieves . . . ran away. The monks saying: "Before 
the owners see them," and intending to steal, ate (the 
cucumbers). The owners ... " You, monks, have 
fallen into an offence involving defeat." ||22|| 

At one time a certain monk, intending to steal, 
stole a mango belonging to the Order ... a rose-apple 
... a bread-fruit ... a jack-fruit ... a palm-fruit 
... a sugar-cane . . . intending to steal, stole a 
cucumber belonging to the Order. He was remorse- 
ful. ... "... defeat." || 23 || 

At one time a certain monk, going to a flower-garden 
intending to steal, stole a flower worth five mdsaJcas that 
had been (already) plucked off. He was remorseful, . . . 
"... defeat." 

At one time a certain monk, going to a flower-garden 
intending to steal, and picking a flower worth five 
nidsakas, stole it. He was remorseful. ... "... de- 
feat." II 24 II 

At one time a certain monk as he was going to the 
village said to another monk: " Your reverence, do you 
allow me to take your greetings^ to the family which 
supports you ?" Going (there), having had an outer 

^ Vulto vajjemi ti. VA. 382 says that this means, " being spoken 
to by you, I speak on your behalf." Hence the one who takes 
the message of greeting will be treated at the house in the same way 
as is the regular diner there. Thus vutto vadeti means: to greet 
somebody on the part of somebody. The offence would seem to 
lie in the substitution of one monk for another. VA. 382 implies 
that it is allowed for one monk to take greetings from another if 
he is going to ask for something definite. 



II. 7, 25] DEFEAT IO3 

cloak fetched, he enjoyed it by himself. He, knowing 
this, reprimanded him, saying: " You are not a (true) 
recluse." He was remorseful; ..." Monk, there is 
no offence involving defeat. But, monks, you should 
not say: 'May I take greetings (from you)?' Who 
should speak thus — there is an offence of wrong-doing." 

At one time a certain monk went to the village. A 
certain monk said to this monk: " Your reverence, take 
greetings from me to the family which supports me." 
Going (there) and having a pair of outer cloaks fetched, 
he used one himself, one he gave to that monk. He, 
knowing this, reprimanded him, saying: "You are not 
a (true) recluse." He was remorseful. ... " Monk, 
there is no offence involving defeat. But, monks, you 
should not say: ' Take greetings (from me).' Who 
should speak thus — there is an offence of wrong-doing." 

At one time a certain monk as he was going to the 
village [61] said to another monk: "Your reverence, 
may I take greetings to the family which supports you ?" 
He spoke thus: " Take greetings from me." Going 
(there), he had fetched an dlliaka measure^ of ghee, a 

1 See Rhys Davids, Ancient Coins, etc., pp. 18-20. VA. 702 
gives a discussion on the dlhak'tti from which it appears that it was 
a very variable measure: " ' takes half an alhaka of gruel ' means: 
takes the gruel made from two ndlis of uncooked rice according 
to the Magadha ndli. In the Andha Commentary a Magadha ndli is 
said to be thirteen and a half palas (a weight). The ndli in use in 
the Island of Ceylon is larger than the Tamil ndli. The small 
Magadha ndli is the right measure. In the Great Commentary it 
is said that one Sinhalese ndli is equal to one and a half of this 
Magadha ndli.'' 

At SnA. 476 it is said that four patthas make an alhaka, reckoning 
by the Kosala patthas, and that four dlhakas make a dona. See 
Ancient Coins, etc., p. 18, and cf. above, p. 12, on pattha. 

This word dlhaka is the same as that which occurs in the name of 
one of the games, pattdlhaka, Vin. iii. 180, D. i. 6, M. i. 166. The 
various Comys. always explain as pannanmlika, a ndlika measure 
of leaves. Ndlika=ndli. 

At A. ii. 55=ii. 337 dlhaka is used in connection with the " ocean." 
It is therefore a liquid as well as a dry measure. It is trans, as 
"gallon" at G.S. ii. 64, and as "pailful" at G.S. iii. 237. At 
Vin. i. 240 it occurs in the compound dlhakathdlikd, trans, at Vin. 
Texts ii. 122, " pint pots." At A. iii. 369 it occurs again in t<his 



104 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 62 

tula, measure* of sugar and a dona measure^ of husked 
rice, whicli he ate by himself. Knowing this, he repri- 
manded him, saying: "You are not a (true) recluse." 
He was remorseful. ... " Monk, there is no offence 
involving defeat. But, monks, you should not say: 

* May I take greetings from you V nor should you say: 

* Take greetings from me.' Who should speak thus — 
there is an offence of wrong-doing." || 25 || 

At one time a certain man, taking a valuable jewel, 
was going along the high road in the company of a 
certain monk. Then the man, seeing the customs 
house, put the jewel into the monk's wallet without his 
knowing it, (and so) he took it past the customs house. 
He was remorseful. ... " Monk, of what were you 
thinking ?" 

" I did not know, lord," he said. 

" There is no offence, monk, since you did not know." 

At one time a certain man, taking a valuable jewel, 
. . . seeing the customs house, pretended to be ill, 
and gave his own bundle to the monk. When the man 
had passed the customs house, he said to the monk: 
** Give me my bundle, honoured sir, I am not indis- 
posed." 

" Why did you do that, your reverence ?" Then the 
man told this matter to the monk. He was remorse- 
ful. ... " There is no offence, monk, since you did 
not know." 

At one time a certain monk was going along a high 



same compound; trans, at G.S. iii. 262, " as big as pipkins," with 
commentarial exegesis, n. 6, ianduldlhakassa bhattapacana-thdlika, 
which seems to mean " a small bowl for cooking food to the extent 
of an dlhaka of unboiled rice." Same compound dlhakathdlikd 
occurs at DhA. iii. 370, with v.l. hhattathdlikd, as though the bowl 
of an dlhaka a capacity were being identified with a bowl of food. 

^ Tula is some kind of measure. At S. ii. 236=^. i. 88 Khema 
and Uppalavanna are called the tuld pamdna (measure) of the 
disciples who are nuns. Tuld at A A. ii. 157 simply seems to mean 
standard or weight. The Abhidhanappadipika (a late work), §481, 
says that a tuld is a hundred palas. 

* Usually four dlhakas make a dona. See note 1, page 103. 



II. 7, 26-29] DEFEAT IO5 

road in the company of a caravan. A certain man, 
seeing the customs house and bribing^ a monk, gave 
tliis monk a vakiable jewel, saying: '* Honoured sir, get 
this jewel past the customs house." So the monk took 
the jewel past the customs house. He was remorse- 
ful. ... "... defeat." ||26|| 

At one time a certain monk out of compassion re- 
leased a pig trapped in a snare. He was remorseful. . . . 
" Of what were you thinking, monk ?" 

'' I acted from a compassionate motive, lord,"^ he 
said. 

" There is no offence, monk, since you acted from 
a compassionate motive." 

At one time a certain monk released a pig trapped in 
a snare, intending to steal it '' before the owners see it." 
He was remorseful. ... "... defeat." 

At one time a certain monk out of compassion re- 
leased a deer trapped in a snare . . . released a deer 
trapped in a snare intending to steal it [62] before the 
owners saw it . . . out of compassion released fish 
trapped in a fish-net . . . released fish trapped in a 
fish-net intending to steal them " before the owners see 
them." He was remorseful. ... "... defeat." || 27 || 

At one time a certain monk, seeing some goods in a 
vehicle, said: " If I take these from here I shall become 
one who is defeated." As he was passing, he took hold 
of it, pushing it along. He was remorseful. ... "... 
defeat." ||28|| 

At one time a certain monk, saying: " I will give the 
owners a piece of flesh taken up by a hawk," took hold 
of it. The owners reprimanded this monk, saying: 
" You are not a (true) recluse." He was remorse- 
ful. ... " There is no offence, monk, since you did 
not intend to steal." 



^ dmisena upaldpetvd, lit. cajoling with a reward. 
2 lit. I am one who has a sense of compassion. 



I06 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 63 

At one time a certain monk, intending to steal a piece 
of flesh taken up by a hawk " before the owners see it," 
took hold of it. The owners reprimanded the monk, 
saying: "You are not a (true) recluse." He was re- 
morseful. ... "... defeat." || 29 || 

At one time some men who had put a raft together, 
stowed it away on the river Aciravati.^ As the bindings 
were torn they went away (leaving it) all strewn over 
with sticks. The monks, thinking that these were rags 
taken from the dust-heap, got them out of the water. 
The owners reprimanded these monks, saying: "You 
are not (true) recluses." They were remorseful. . . . 
" l^onks, there is no oifence, since you thought that they 
were rags taken from the dust-heap." 

At one time some men who had, put a raft together, 
stowed it away on the river Aciravati. As the bindings 
were torn they went away (leaving it) all strewn over 
with sticks. The monks, intending to steal, got them 
out of the water " before the owners see them." The 
owners reprimanded the monks, saying: " You are not 
(true) recluses." They were remorseful. ..." You 
monks, have fallen into an offence involving defeat." 
II 3011 

At one time a certain cowherd, hanging his cloak on 
a tree, went to relieve himself. A certain monk took it 
thinking it was a rag taken from the dust-heap. Then 
the cowherd reprimanded that monk, saying: " You are 
not a (true) recluse." He was remorseful. . . . "There 
is no offence, monk, since you thought it was a rag 
taken from the dust-heap." || 31 1| 

At one time, as a certain monk was crossing a river, 
a cloak that had escaped from the bleachers' hands, 
stuck to his foot. The monk took hold of it, saying: 
" I will give this to the owners." The owners repri- 

* B. C. Law, Geography of Early Byddhism,j). 36: " Aciravati is 
the river Rapti in Oudh, on which the town of Savatthi was situated." 



II. 7, 32-35] DEFEAT IO7 

manded that monk, saying: "You are not a (true) 
recluse." He was remorseful. ..." There is no 
offence, monk, because you did not intend to steal." 

At one time, as a certain monk was crossing a river, 
a cloak that had escaped from the bleachers' hands 
stuck to his foot. [63] The monk took hold of it, in- 
tending to steal it " before the owners see." The owners 
reprimanded the monk, saying: " You are not a (true) 
recluse." He was remorseful. ... "... defeat." ||32|| 

At one time a certain monk, seeing a large round pot 
of ghee, ate it little by little. He was remorseful. . . . 
" Monk, there is no oifence involving defeat, there is 
an offence of wrong-doing." || 33 || 

At one time a company of monks, having arranged 
together,^ went away, saying : "We will steal these goods." 
One (of them) stole the goods. The others said: " We 
are not those who are defeated; the thief is one who is 
defeated." They told this matter to the lord. He said: 
"You, monks, have fallen into an offence involving 
defeat." 

At one time a company of monks, having arranged 
together, and having stolen some goods, shared them 
out. Amongst those sharing, none had a portion 
amounting to five mdsakas. They said: "We are not 
those who are defeated." They told this matter to 
the lord. He said : " You, monks, have fallen into an 
offence involving defeat." || 34 || 

.At one time a certain monk, intending to steal, 
stole a handful of rice belonging to a shop-keeper at a 
time when S^vatthi was short of alms-food. He was 
remorseful. ... "... defeat." 

At one time a certain monk, intending to steal, stole 
a handful of kidney-beans ... a handful of beans . . . 
a handful of sesamum belonging to a shop-keeper at 
a time when Savatthi was short of alms-food. He was 
remorseful. . . . "... defeat." ||35|| 

1 samvidahitvd, also above, Par. II. 4, 29, where the rule is laid 
down. 



I08 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [ITT. 64-65 

At one time thieves in the Dark Wood at Savatthi 
having killed a cow, eaten the flesh and tidied up the 
remains, went away. The monks, thinking that these 
were rags taken from the dust-heap, took them up and 
ate them. The thieves reprimanded these monks, say- 
ing: " You are not (true) recluses." They were remorse- 
ful. ... " There is no offence, monks, since you 
thought that they were rags taken from the dust- 
heap." 

At one time thieves in the Dark Wood at Savatthi 
having killed a pig . . . "... since you thought they 
were rags taken from the dust-heap." ||36|| 

At one time a certain monk going to a meadow, in- 
tending to steal, stole some cut grass worth five mdsaJcas. 
He was remorseful. ... "... defeat." 

At one time a certain monk going to a meadow, in- 
tending to steal, cutting grass worth five mdsakas, stole 
it. He was remorseful. ... "... defeat." ||37 || [64] 

At one time some in-coming monks having divided 
the (fruits of 'a) mango-tree belonging to the Order, 
ate them. The resident^ monks reprimanded these 
monks, saying: "You are not (true) recluses." They 
were remorseful. They told this matter to the lord. 
" Of what were you thinking, monks ?" he said. 

" Lord, it was for the sake of food for us," they said. 

" There is no offence, monks, since it was (done) for 
the sake of food." 

At one time some in-coming monks ... a rose- 
apple tree belonging to the Order ... a bread-fruit tree 
belonging to the Order ... a jack-fruit tree . . . 
palm fruits ... a sugar-cane ... a cucumber-tree 
belonging to the Order, had (the various fruits) shared 
out and ate them. The resident monks ... " There 
is no offence, monks, since it was (done) for the sake 
of food." II 38 II 

At one time keepers of a mango-grove gave a mango- 



^ Avdsika. 



II. 7, 39-42] DEFEAT log 

fruit to some monks. The monks, saying: " The 
masters^ (are) to watch these, not to give them away," 
being scrupulous, did not accept them. They told this 
matter to the lord. He said: "There is no offence, 
monks, since it was a gift from the guardian." 

At one time keepers of a rose-apple grove ... a 
cucumber-plantation gave cucumbers to the monks. 
The monks, saying: "these masters . . ." "There is 
no offence, monks, since it was a gift from the 
guardian." || 39 || 

At one time a certain monk having removed for the 
time being a piece of wood belonging to the Order, 
shored up the wattle and daub wall of his own vihara 
(with it). The monks reprimanded this monk, saying: 
" You are not a (true) recluse." He was remorseful. 
He told this matter to the lord. He said: "Monk, of 
what were you thinking?" 

" I (took it) for the time being, lord," he said. 

" There is no offence, monk, in taking for the time 
being."2 ||40|| 

At one time a certain monlc, intending to steal, stole 
water belonging to the Order . . . clay belonging to 
the Order . . . intending to steal, stole ^ma-grass 
belonging to the Order. He was remorseful. . . . 
". . . defeat." 

At one time a certain monk, intending to steal, set 
lire to /im-grass belonging to the Order. He was 
remorseful. ... " There is no offence, monk, involving 
defeat; there is an offence of wrong-doing." ||41 1| 

At one time a certain monk, intending to steal, stole 
a couch belonging to the Order. He was remorseful. . . . 
"... defeat." 

At one time a certain monk, intending to do so, 
stole a chair belonging to the Order . . . stole a pillow 
. . . a bolster and pillow ... a door ... a case- 

^ Issara. '^ Cf. below, p. 110. 



no BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 66-86 

ment^ . . . with intention to do so, stole a rafter^ be- 
longing to the Order. He was remorseful. ... " . . . de- 
deat." II 42 II 

At one time monks [66] enjoyed elsewhere the lodging 
and food of a vihara^ belonging to a Certain lay-follower.* 
Then this lay-follower was vexed, annoyed and angry. ^ 
He said : 

" How can the revered sirs, enjoy elsewhere appur- 
tenances belonging somewhere else?" They told this 
matter to the lord. " Monks, one should not enjoy 
elsewhere appurtenances belonging somewhere else. 
Who enjoys himself (in this way) — there is an offence 
of wrong-doing . " 1 1 43 1 1 

At one time monks, feeling remorse at having 
taken^ in to the hall in which the Patimokkha was held 
and the meeting-place, sat down on the ground. Their 
limbs and robes were covered with dust. , They told 
this matter to the lord.* " I allow you, monks, to take 
(things) away temporarily."^ ||44|| 

At one time at Campa,^ the nun who was the pupil 
of the nun Thullananda went to the family who sup- 
ported the nun Thullananda, and said: " The lady^ 
wants to drink^^ rice-gruel containing the three pungent 

1 dlokasandhi, cf. Vin. i. 48; ii. 209=218. 

2 gopandsi, cf. A.i. 261 ; M. i. 80. 

^ Vihdraparibhoga. See Vin. ii. 174. 

* Thus he could not give them to senior monks coming in, VA. 391. 

5 VA . 390, a couch or chair. 

« Part of the story seems to be omitted. 

7 =Vin. ii. 174. See also above, p. 109. Tdvakdlika, trans, at 
Vin. Texts iii. 217 as " for a certain time only "; and at Dial. ii. 195 
=Bvddhist SiUtas, second edition, p. 241 (trans, of Jd. i. 393), as 
" only for a time ... as temporary " (word occurring twice). 
At Vi7i. Texts ii. 154, n. 7, editor says tdvakdlika means " only for 
a time, temporary, on loan," and translates it by " on loan " at 
Vin. Texts ii. 347 (= Vin. ii. 174). At Jd. i. 121 the word is used of a 
cart taken on hire. Cf. Vin. iv. 286, when it is not considered an 
offence to give recluses robes temporarily. 

® The ancient capital of Ahga. ' ^yy^- 

^<* Pdtun, inf. of jnvati, balanced by khdditun in the next story. 



II. 7, 45-46] DEFEAT III 

ingredients,"^ and having had this cooked, she took it 
away with her and enjoyed it herself. She, knowing 
this, reprimanded her, saying: ''You are not a (true) 
female recluse." She was remorseful. Then this nun told 
this matter to the nuns. The nuns told this matter to 
the monks. The monks told this matter to the lord. 
" Monks, there is no offence involving defeat; in the 
deliberate lie there is an offence involving expiation." 

At one time in Rajagaha, the nun who was the pupil 
of the nun Thullananda went to the family who sup- 
ported the nun Thullananda, and said: " The lady^ wants 
to eat a honey-ball,"^ and having had this cooked, 
she took it away with her and enjoyed it herself. She, 
knowing this ..." involving defeat; in the deliberate 
lie there is an offence involving expiation." ||45 || 

At one time in Vesali, the householder who was the 
supporter of the venerable Ajjuka had two children, 
a son and a nephew. Then the householder spoke thus 
to the venerable Ajjuka: 

" Honoured sir, will you grant an audience'* to which- 
ever of these two children has faith and belief?" At 
that time the householder's nephew had faith and belief. 
So the venerable Ajjuka granted an audience to that 
child. Because he was wealthy he set up an estate and 

^ Tekatulaydgu. VA. 391 says " made with either tila (sesamu^), 
tandula (rice-grain), mugga (kidney-beans), or tila, tandula, and 
)ndm (a bean), or tila, tandula and kulattha (a kind of vetch), or any 
one prepared grain with tila and tandula, making three (ingredients)." 
CJ. above, p. 83, n. 4. The word tekatulaydgu also occurs at Vin. 
i. 210, where Gotama is said to make this gruel of tila, tandula and 
mugga. Ed. at Vin. Texts ii. 68, n. 2, says katu means pungent, 
and that these three substances are explained to be ginger and two 
kinds of pepper. Apparently the gruel could be made of three kinds 
of grain and flavoured with three spices. But VA. 391 says: " It 
is said that they make this (gruel) mixing these three (prepared 
grains) in milk and four parts of water and adding ghee, honey and 
molasses." 

2 Ayyd. 

^ Madhugolaka. P.T.S. Diet, gives only one reference td golaka 
at ThigA. 255; and under kild-golaka to Vism. 256 {cf. KhA. 53). 
VA. 391 defines madhugolaka as atirasapdva, which seems to mean 
a " very tasty cake." * Okdsa. 



112 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 66-67 



made a gift. Then the householder '^s son said to the 
venerable Ananda : 

" Honoured Ananda, which is the father's heir, the 
son or the nephew ?" 

" The son, your reverence, is the father's heir." 

'* Honoured sir, this master Ajjuka has shown that 
our wealth belongs to our associate." 

" Your reverence, the venerable Ajjuka is not a (true) 
recluse." Then the venerable Ajjuka said to the 
venerable Ananda: 

" Reverend Ananda, give me a trial." [66] 

At that time the venerable Upali^ was an adherent 
of the venerable Ajjuka. Then the venerable Upali 
said to the venerable Ananda: 

" Reverend Ananda, whoever being told by the 
owner: ' Grant this audience to such and such a person,' 
granted it— does he fall ?" 

" Honoured sir, he does not fall at all, (not) even to 
the length of an offence of wrong-doing," he said. 

" Your reverence, this venerable Ajjuka, being told 
by the owner: ' Grant this audience to such and such 
a person,' granted it. Your reverence, there is no 
offence for the venerable Ajjuka." ||46|| 

Now at that time at Benares the family which sup- 
ported the venerable Pilindavaccha^ was pillaged by 
thieves, and two children were kidnapped. Then the 
venerable Pilindavaccha leading back these children 
by his psychic power placed them on a terrace. People, 
seeing these children, said: 



^ See above, p. 60, n. 4. 

2 Vin. i. 206 ff.=iii. 248 ff. recounts the feats lie did by his mystic 
potency in Rajagaha when Bimbisara was King of Magadha. At 
A. i. 24 he is called " chief among the disciples who arc dear and 
delightful to the devas." At Ud. 28 objections are raised to his 
" foul talk." I think he is probably the same as the Pilinda-Vaccha 
of Thag.; see Pss. Breth. ix. and loc. cit., p. 14, n. 4; p. 15, n. 2. 
We learn from Corny, on Thag. that Pilinda was his name, Vaccha 
the name of his clan {cf. Vana-Vaccha, Pss. Breth. xiii.), and that 
he was waited on by a deva and acquired the Gandhara charm. 
For this, see D. i. 213; Jd. iv. 498. 



11. 7, 47-49] DEFEAT 113 



'' This is the majesty of the psychic power of master 
PiUndavaccha,!" and they put faith in the venerable 
Pilindavaccha. The monks became vexed, annoyed 
and angry, and said: " How can this venerable Pilinda- 
vaccha lead back children who had been kidnapped by 
thieves ?" They told this matter' to the lord. He 
said: "Monks, there is no offence for one who pos- 
sesses psychic power in the sphere of psychic power." 
1147 II 

At one time, two monks, Pandaka and Kapila,^ were 
friends. One lived in a village and one at Kosambi. 
Then as that monk was going from the village to 
Kosambi, crossing a river, in the middle of the way a 
piece of fat, escaped from the hands of pork-butchers, 
stuck to his foot. The monk took hold of it, saying: 
" I will give it to the owners." The owners repri- 
manded that monk, saying: " You are not a (true) re- 
cluse." A woman cowherd who saw him as he had 
crossed, said: 

" Come, honoured sir, commit sexual intercourse." 
He said: " By nature T am not a (true) recluse," and 
having committed sexual intercourse with her and gone 
to Kosambi, he told this matter to the monks. The 
monks told this matter to the lord. He said: " Monks, 
there is no offence involving defeat for taking what is 
not given^; but there is an offence involving defeat 
for sexual intercourse in conjunction (with another)." 
II 48 II 

Now at that time at Sagala,^ a monk who shared a 
cell with the venerable Dalhika, being tormented by 



^ Mentioned, I think, nowhere but here. Naturally not the Kapila 
to whom MA. i. 91 refers as the depraved monk {cf. Vin. iii. 107), 
reborn with his sanghdti-iohe flaming. 

* For he did not intend to steal it. 

3 See Miln, p. 1, for description of a city of this name. A Sagalii, 
capital of the kingdom of the Maddas, is mentioned at Jd. iv. 230; 
V. 283, 285, 289f.; vi. 471. 

I. 6 



114 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 67 

chafing,^ took a tradesman's turban,^ and said to the 
venerable Dalhika: ** Honoured sir, I am not a (true) 
recluse, I will leave the Order."^ 

" What was done by you, your reverence ?" He 
told him this matter. 

" Having taken it, you value it, but being valued it is 
not worth five mdsakas. There is no offence, your 
reverence, involving defeat," he said, and gave dhamma- 
talk. That monk was delighted.* || 49 || 7 1| 

Told is the second Offence involving Defeat 

^ Anabhiratiyd pilito. Vin. Texts iii. 77, n. 3, says, " this anabhi- 
rati is constantly referred to, and always as the result of falling in 
love, or in connection with sexual desire." I think it is then not 
so much the " distaste (for meditation)," as stated at Yin. Texts iii. 
77, as the actual dis-ease of unsatisfied sexual needs. We have, 
however, now had the words abhirata and anabhirata several times, 
and not always in such a connection. Thus at pp. 24, 25, the 
verb clearly means no more than to enjoy the ordinary and varied 
delights of the household life, such as music and nautch girls 
dancing ; as at p. 32 it siuiply means to be delighted with the Brahma- 
lifo. But at p. 34 it might be thought that, by implication, ana- 
bhirata means dissatisfied, longing for sexual intercourse. At p. 43 
it might only mean a vague fretting, or it might have a more definite 
and specialised sense. 

- Vethana, possibly a wrap or a cloak, as at Jd. vi. 12, taken as a 
disguise. A wrap to put over the " yellow robes " would have 
been a l)ctter disguise than a turban, but could a wrap possibly 
have been worth less than five mdsakas ? A turban, on the other 
hand, would have hidden the shaven head, but that is all. Perhaps 
it was meant symbolically. 

3 Vibhhamissdmi. On those occasions when anabhirati is in 
connection with sexual desire, it would look as if vibbhamissdmi 
should then be translated, " I will co-habit," and not as " I will 
leave the Order," But except for the occurrence oi anabhirati in the 
above story, I see doubtful justification for such a rendering of vib- 
bhamissdmi here. For the point of the story is that the monk has 
taken something worth less than five mdsakas, which does not rank 
as a theft. However, we must remember that in the preceding 
story the oiTence is shown to be that of sexual intercourse, and 
not that of taking what was not given. Something of the same sort 
may have been here originally, but left out by a redactor. 

* abhirami, aor. of abhiramati. I cannot help thinking that 
this word in this rather curious ending of the second Parajika is 
meant to balance the an-abhirati with which this story began. 
Abhiramati and abhirati both derive from abhi-\-ram. It is most 



II. 7, 49] DEFEAT II5 

rare to find it said that a monk, when told that there is for him no 
offence, " was delighted," and I more than ever believe that there are 
omissions in the text as we have it. I do not believe that the monk 
" was delighted " that he had committed no offence. I believe 
that in his appropriated vetkantty he enjoyed himself (a meaning 
of abhiramati), or even fell in love (another meaning, cf. Sn. 718, 
1085), which would balance the anabkirati of the opening sentence. 
I think, in fact, that this story was meant to end up in exactly the 
same way as the preceding one. But as the material for this is 
wanting, I have left the phrase as " was delighted." 



DEFEAT (PARAJIKA) III 

At one time the enlightened one, the lord, was staying 
at Vesali in the pavilion of the Gabled Hall in the Great 
Wood. At that time the lord talked in many ways to 
the monks on the subject of the impure,^ he spoke 
in praise of the impure, he spoke in praise of de- 
veloping (contemplation of) the impure,^ he spoke thus 
and thus^ in praise of taking the impure as a stage 
in meditation. Then the lord addressed the monks 
thus: 

" I wish, monks, to go into solitary retreat for a 
half-month; I do not wish anyone to come up to me 
except the one who brings my alms-food."* 

" Very well, lord," the monks answered the lord, 
and accordingly no one went up to the lord except the 
one to take him alms-food. Then the monks said: '' The 
lord has talked in many ways on the subject of the 
impure, he spoke in praise of the impure, he spoke in 
praise of developing (the contemplation of) the impure, 
he spoke in praise of taking the impure as a stage in 
meditation." These (monks) dwelt intent upon the 
practice of developing (contemplation of) the impure in 
its many different aspects; (but) they were troubled 
by their own bodies,^ ashamed of them, loathing them. 

1 VA. 393 f. Cf. Bud. Psych. Ethics, 2nd edition, 63, n. 2. 

2 asubhabhdvand, VA. 394 says, pavatassa cittassa hhdvand vad- 
dham phdtikammay, and goes on to say that the monk intent upon 
the impure attains the first musing, and then making insight to 
grow, he roaches the highest goal (uttamattha), arahanship. 

^ ddissa ddissa, expl. at VA. 394: evam pi ittham piti punappuna 
vavatthdnam katvd. 

* As at S. V. 320, where the subject of asubha, the impure or " the 
unlovely," also occurs, but with some omissions and variations. • 

5 sakena kdyena, trans, at K.S. v. 284 " as to this body." 

116 



III. 1, 1] DEFEAT 117 

It is as if a woman or a man when young and of tender 
years and fond of ornaments,^ having washed (himself 
and his) head,^ should be troubled, ashamed, full of 
loathing because of the carcase of a snake or of a dog 
or of a man hanging round the neck — even so, those 
monks who are troubled by their own bodies, ashamed 
of them and loathing them, both by themselves deprive 
themselves of life,^ and (also) deprive one another of 
life.* Having come up to Migalandika,^ a sham re- 
cluse,® they said: 

'' Be so good, your reverence, as to deprive us of life; 
this bowl and robe will become yours." Then Migalan- 
dika, the sham recluse, a hireling' for a bowl and robe, 

1 =Z>. i. 80=Ftn. ii. 255= ilf. ii. 19; this simile omitted at 
S. V. 320. 

2 VA. 399, " washed, together with the head." 

^ attandpi attdnam jwitd voropenfi. VA. 399 says, " like that 
man, having no desire for the carcase, the monks being desirous of 
quitting (pariccajati) their own bodies, taking the knife attandpi 

. . vowpentiy This is probably a way of saying that they com- 
mitted suicide, cf. S. v, 320, satthahdrakam pariyesanti . . . sattham 
dharanti. Or the phrase might possibly mean that " the self 
deprives the Self of life " — i.e., there may be some notion lingering 
on from the Upanisad philosophy that this kind of slaying affects 
the Atman, the All-Real, the Self. Some other attd couples of 
sayings occur in the Ang. — e.g., at A. i. 57, 149; iv. 405; v. 182, and 
at S. ii. 68, and seem to have this implication. 

* VA. 399, " ' You deprive me of life, I you,' thus they deprived 
one other of life." 

* VA. 399 calls him Migaladdhika, with v. I. as in the text. He 
is not mentioned at S. v. 320, nor as far as I know at any other 
passage. 

* VA. 399, samanakuttaka=samanavesadhdraka, one who wears a 
recluse's dress. " Having shaved his head and put on one yellow 
robe and another over his shoulder, depending on the vihara, he 
lived on a substance of broken-meats." 

' bhata. Corny, is silent. If bhata means soldier, cf. S.B.E. trans, 
of Miln. 234, 240, the sense would be that he hit about him with a 
knife, and perhaps stifled the monks with his robe. But bhata can 
also mean " hireling, servant." There seems to be no verb in 
Pali of which it is the p.p. It is connected with the Epic and 
Class. Sanskrit bhata, which is connected with bhrta. Monier 
Williams, Sanskrit- English Dictionary, gives for this: "hired, kept 
in pay, paid; possessed of, endowed with, having earned, acquired, 
gained ..." 



Il8 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 68-69 

deprived the company of monks of life, and taking a 
blood-stained knife came up to the banks of the river 
Vaggumuda.^ Then while Migalandika, the sham re- 
cluse, was washing the large blood-stained knife, he 
became remorseful, he became repentant. " That is 
bad for me, that is not good for me, that was wrongly- 
gotten by me, that was not [68] rightly gotten by me, 
indeed much demerit attaches to me because I deprived 
of life monks who were virtuous and of good conduct." 
Then a certain devata^ of the retinue of Mara, coming 
on unbroken water^ said to Migalandika, the sham 
recluse: '' It is good, very man,* it is good; very man, 
it is good for you; very man, it is rightly gotten by you; 
very man, much merit attaches to you because you 
bring those across who had not crossed."^ 

1 VA. 399 says, " a river considered by people to be lovely 
{vaggu-matd, mata from mannati), renowned for merit. He went 
there saying, ' There I will wash away this evil.' " 

2 VA. 400 says, " not a well-known earth-devata, a holder of 
false views, on the side of Mara, taking Mara's part." 

3 abhijjanidne udake gantvd. VA. 400 says, " coming as though 
walking on the earth's surface." This power of walking on the 
water is one of the forms of iddhi, see D. i. 78. Bhijjamdna is pres. 
part, of bhijjati, passive of bhindati-{-a, not being broken, or divided, 
therefore firm, unruffled, undivided, unbroken, undisturbed. But 
the reading at D. i. 78=^4. i. 170 is udake pi abhijjamdno gac- 
chati, he goes on the water without breaking it {Dial. i. 88 and cf. 
A. i. 255), but this loses the passive aspect of the verb. At D. i. 212 
we get udake abhijjamdnam gacchantam. However at M. i. 34=494 
the reading is (as at Vin. iii. above) tidake pi abhijjamdne, trans. 
Fur. Dial. i. 24, " on the water's unbroken surface." Thus, there 
is a good deal of variation in the reading of abhijj°. See Pts. ii. 208 
which reads °mdne, and says that as ordinary people walk on the 
earth, so the psychic person (iddhimd) walks on the unbroken 
water, having first reflected on it. Vis7n. 396, in explaining how 
by will-power such a person transforms the water to earth, quotes 
this Pts. passage. 

* sappurisa. On prefix sa- see G.S. 1. ix. 

* atinne idresi, VA. 401, " You free them from samsara . . . those 
who are not dead are not freed from samsara, those who are dead 
are freed." Tarati, to cross, was frequently used in connection 
with ogha, the flood, 7nah6gha, the great flood. The flood was later 
broken up into four floods, which became identified with the four 
asavas. But the commentarial exegesis, as above, which is not 
rare, shows the view that to be across was to be across nothing 



III. 1, 1-2] DEFEAT IIQ 

Then Migalandika, the sham recluse, said: " It is said 
that it is good for me, it is said that it is rightly gotten 
by me, it is said that much merit attaches to me, it 
is said that I bring those across who had not crossed," 
and taking a sharp knife and going from vihara to 
vihara and from cell to cell,^ he said: " Who has not 
crossed ? Whom do I bring across ?" Then those 
monks who were not devoid 'of passion were frightened 
at that time, 2 in a state of consternation,^ their hair 
standing on end; but those monks who were devoid of 
passion were not frightened at that time, nor were they 
in a state of consternation, nor did their hair stand on 
end. Then Migalandika, the sham recluse, on a single 
day deprived one monk of life, on a single day he de- 
prived two monks of life, on a single day . . . three 
. . ., on a single day . . . four . . ., on a single day . . . 
five . . ., on a single day . . . ten . . ., on a single 
day . . . twenty . . ., on a single day . . . thirty 
. . ., on a single day . . . forty . . ., on a single day 
. . . fiftv . . ., on a single day he deprived sixty monks 
of life. II 1 II 

Now the lord, at the end of the half-month, arising 
from his retreat for meditation, addressed the venerable 
Ananda: " Ananda, how is it that the company of monks 
is so diminished as it is ?" 

more nor les^ than samsdra, the round of death and rebirth. This 
is what, in the monkish outlook of the commentator, it was highly 
desirable to stop. Cf. Sn. 571, tiniw tares' imam pajam. 

1 =Vin. i. 216—247. On farivena, cell, see Vin. Texts iii. 109, 
n. 3, where editor says that it is here doubtless a cell used as a cooling 
room, after the steam bath. But at Vin. Texts iii. 203 editor takes 
parivena to mean " a number of buildings," in n. 1 saying that 
" here it evidently included several viharas." 

2 Tasmitn samaye. 

3 Chamb'hitafta. Cf. D. i. 49. P.T.S. Did. says that here 
DA. i. 50 wrongly explains it by sakala-sarira-calanam. VA. 401 
reads, " beginning with the flesh of the heart, the body trembled 
{sanracalanamY' ; it speaks of those being devoid of passion as 
being khindsava. It also gives thamhhilatta as a synonym of chambhi- 
tatta. P.T.S. Diet, says that this meaning oU-hambhitatta as fluctua- 
tion, unsteadiness, is late, and is caused by misinterpretation of 
chambhitatia. 



120 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 69-70 



" It is because, lord, the lord talked to the monks 
in many ways on the subject of the impure: he spoke in 
praise of the impure, he spoke in praise of increasing (con- 
templation of) the impure, he spoke in praise of taking 
the impure as a stage in meditation. And, lord, those 
monks said : ' The lord has talked in many ways on the 
subject of the impure, he spoke in praise of the impure, 
spoke in praise of increasing (contemplation of) the 
impure, he spoke in praise of taking the impure as a 
stage in meditation ' — (so) those (monks) dwelt intent 
upon the practice of contemplating the impure in its 
many different aspects. (But) they were troubled by 
their own bodies, ashamed of them, loathing them. It 
is as if a woman or a man, when young and of tender 
years and fond of ornaments, having washed (himself 
and his) head should be troubled, ashamed, full of 
loathing because of a carcase of a snake, of a dog or 
of a man hanging round the neck — even so, these monks 
who are troubled by their own bodies, [69] ashamed of 
them and loathing them, both by themselves deprive 
themselves of life, and (also) deprive one another of 
life. (For) having come up to Migalandika, the sham 
recluse, they said : ' Be so good, your reverence, as to 
deprive us of life; this bowl and robe will become yours.' 
Then, lord, Migalandika, the sham recluse, a hireling 
for a bowl and robe, on a single day deprived one monk 
of life ... on a single day deprived sixty monks of 
life. It were good, lord, if the lord were to give another 
instruction,^ so that the company of monks might be 
established in profound knowledge."^ 

(The lord) said: " Then, Ananda, call together in the 
assembly-hall as many monks as dwell near Vesali." 

^ Pariydya. VA. 402 explains it by kammatthdna, basis for 
meditation. 

^ Annd. See Pss. Breth., Intr., p. xxxiii, and Mrs. Rhys Davids, 
Birth of Indian Psychology, etc., p. 225, where she says " anna — i.e., 
the having-come-to-know . . . had taken the place of the older 
Sakyan term for the summum bonum: attha, the thing needed, the 
t^ing sought;'* and ibid., p. 264, " coming-to-know or learning . . . 
as what might be rendered as gnosis or saving knowledge." 



III. 1, 2-3] DEFEAT 121 

" Very well, lord," he said. And when the venerable 
Ananda had answered the lord, and had called together 
in the assembly-hall as many monks as lived near 
Vesalf, he came up to the lord, and having come up to 
him, he said: " Lord, the company of monks is assembled. 
Lord, does the lord think^ that it is now the right time 
for this?" 

Then the lord came up to the assembly-hall, and having 
come up he sat down on the appointed seat. Sitting 
down, the lord addressed the monks, saying: ||2|| 

" This,2 monks, is the concentration with mindfulness 
on in-breathing and out-breathing, which if developed 
and made much of^ is good and excellent and pure* and 
is a happy way of living, and it immediately^ destroys 
and allays the evil, wrong states which have arisen. 
If is as if, monks, in the last month of the hot weather® 
a big storm, arising out of season,'' destroys and allays 
the dust and dirt that have formed — -even so, monks, 
concentration with mindfulness on in-breathing and 
out-breathing, if developed and made much of is good 
and excellent and pure and is a happy way of living, 
and it immediately destroys and allays the evil, wrong 
states which have arisen. And how, monks, if concen- 
tration with mindfulness on in-breathing and out- 
breathing be developed and made much of, does what 
is good and excellent and pure and a happy way of 
living, immediately destroy and allay the evil, wrong 
states which arise ? 

Herein, monks, a monk going to the jungle, going 

1 Mannasi. At. S. v. 321, mannati. 

2 From here to end of ||3|| below=>S. v. 321 f. exactly. 

3 Cf. M. i. 421. 

* Asecanaka. VA. 403 f. says, ndssa secananti (adulterating, 
mixing, sprinkling), andsittako (iinsprinkled) ahhokinno pdtekko 
dveniko. Cf. Thig. ver. 55. 

^ Thdnaso. VA. 404 khatmi eva. 

^ Called dsdlhamdsa at VA. 404. 

' VA. 404 says: having arisen, the whole sky is covered, and for 
the whole half-month of the bright moon in this dsdlha month there 
are clouds shedding rain. 



122 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 70-71 

to the foot of a tree, going to a lonely place, sits down 
cross-legged with back erect, having caused mindful- 
ness to be present in front of him.^ Mindful, he 
breathes out;^ mindful, he breathes in; breathing out 
a long breath he knows, ' I am breathing out a long 
breath ' ; breathing in a long breath, he knows, ' I am 
breathing in a long breath'; breathing out a short 
breath, he knows, ^ I am breathing out a short breath ' ; 
breathing in a short breath, he knows, ' I am breathing 
in a short breath ' ; he trains himself,^ saying, ' I will 
breathe out, conscious of the whole body ' ; [70] he trains 
himself, saying, * I will breathe in, conscious of the whole 
body ' ; he trains himself, saying, ' I will breathe out, 
quieting the body's constituents ' ; he trains himself, 
saying, ' I will breathe in, quieting the body's consti- 
tuents ' ; he trains himself, saying, ' I will breathe out 
... I will breathe in, conscious of zest ' ; he trains himself, 
saying, ' I will breathe out ... I will breathe in, 
conscious of ease ' ; he trains himself, saying, ' I will 
breathe out ... I will breathe in, conscious of the 
mind's constituents ' ; he trains himself, saying, ' I will 
breathe out ... I will breathe in, quieting the mind's 
constituents ' ; he trains himself, saying, ' I will breathe 
out ... I will breathe in, conscious of the mind ' ; 
he trains himself, saying, ' . . . satisfying the mind 
. . . composing the mind . . . detaching the mind 
. . . realising impermanence . . . realising passionless- 
ness . . . realising stopping . . . realising renuncia- 
tion.' Thus, monks, developing and making much of 
concentration with mindfulness on in-breathing and 
out-breathing, is good and excellent and pure, and is 
a happy way of living, and it immediately destroys and 
allays the evil, wrong states which have arisen." || 3 || 

Then the lord, for this reason, in this connection, 

1 parimukham. Or, *' round the face." 

2 Cf. D. ii. 291=ilf . i. 56 for this passage, also M. iii. 82, 89, and 
Pts. i. 177, quoted Vism. 272. 

3 Sikkhati, VA. 411, ghatati vdyamati, and goes on to say he trains 
himself in the three trainings : the higher morality, the higher thought, 
the higher wisdom. 



III. 1, 4_2] DEFEAT 1 23 

having had the company of monks convened, asked the 
monks : 

" Monks, is it true, as is said, that monks by them- 
selves deprived themselves of life, and (also) deprived 
one another of life, and having approached Migalandika, 
the sham recluse, spoke thus: ' Be so good, your rever- 
ence, as to deprive us of life; this bowl and robe will 
become yours.' " 

" It is true, lord/' 

The enlightened one, the lord, rebuked them, saying: 
'* Monks, it is not becoming for these monks, it is not 
seemly, it is not fit, it is not worthy of a recluse, it is 
not right, it should not be done. How can those monks 
by themselves deprive themselves of life . . . how can 
they say . . . ' this will become your bowl and robe V 
Monks, this is not for the benefit of non-believers . . . 
and thus, monks, this course of training should be set 
forth: 

Whatever monk should intentionally deprive a human 
being of life, or should look about so as to be his knife- 
bringer, he is also one who is defeated, he is not in com- 
munion." 

Thus this course of training for monks was made 
known by the lord. || 4 || 1 1| 



At one time a certain lay-follower was ill. His wife 
was beautiful, comely and pleasant. The group of six 
monks were enamoured of this woman. Then the 
group of six monks thought: " If this [71] lay-follower 
lives, your reverences, we cannot take this woman; 
come, your reverences, let us praise the beauty of death 
to this lay-follower." So the group of six monks came 
up to the lay-follower, and having come up they said 
to the lay-follower: 

" Lay-follower, you are one who has done what is 
good,^ who has done what is profitable, who has won the 

1 C/. ^.ii. 174, 175; /^., p. 25. 



124 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 72 



shelter of the timid^ ; you have not done evil, you have 
not been cruel, you have not been violent; what is good 
has been done by you, what is evil has not been done 
by you. What need have you of this evil, difficult 
life ? Death would be better for you than life. Hence, 
when you have done your time, at the breaking up of 
the body after death, you will pass to a happy bourn, 
to a heaven-world^ ; there,^ possessed of and provided 
with five deva-like qualities of sensual pleasures,* you 
will amuse yourself." 

Then the lay-follower said, " Masters, you spoke the 
truth, for I have done what is good, I have done what 
is profitable, I have won the shelter of the timid; I have 
not done evil, I have not been cruel, I have not been 
violent: what is good has been done by me, what is evil 
has not been done by me. What need have I of this 
evil, difficult life ? Death would be better for me than 
life. Hence when I have done my time, at the breaking 
up of the body after death, I will pass to a happy bourn, 
a heaven- world, then possessed of and provided with the 
five deva-like qualities of sensual pleasures, I will amuse 
myself." 

He ate detrimental soft foods and detrimental hard 
foods, he tasted detrimental savoury foods, he drank 
detrimental drinks,^ and because he had eaten detrimental 
soft foods . . . detrimental drinks, a sore affliction 
arose,^ on account of which he died. 

His wife was grieved, vexed, angry, and said, " These 

1 katabhlruttdna, YA. 436 says that he has gained protection 
against the dread beings have at the time of dying, possibly by 
means of a charm (parittd) as is suggested by Corny, on A. ii. 174. 

2 J. Przyluski, Le Concile de Rdjagrha, p. 368, where he says 
that in the oldest (Buddhist) period svarga (Pali, sagga) and brahma- 
loka are synonymous terms. This seems here borne out by next 
sentence in text. It has been suggested, and confuted by Przyluski, 
ibid., p. 371, that Asoka spoke only of svarga, and not of nirvana, 
because he addressed the laity, and not monks. 

3 I.e., in a deva-world, VA. 436. 

4 Cf. A. V. 273. 

^ Cf. Vin. i. 44 for these four items. 
* Kharo dbddho uppajji=D. ii. 127. 



III. 2] DEFEAT 125 

recluses, sons of the Sakyans/ are shameless, of low 
morality, liars. And they pretend to be dhamma- 
followers, walking by right, those leading the Brahma- 
life, speakers of truth, virtuous, of good character. There 
is no recluseship among these, there is no brahmanhood 
among these; destroyed is recluseship among these, 
destroyed is brahmanhood among these ; where is recluse- 
ship among these, where is brahmanhood among these ? 
Fallen from recluseship are these, fallen from brahman- 
hood are these. These praised the beauty of death to my 
husband; by these my husband has been killed." 

And some people were angry and said, "... these 
have departed from brahmanhood. These praised the 
beauty of death to the lay-follower; by these the lay- 
follower has been killed." 

The monks heard these people who were annoyed, 
vexed and angry. Those who were modest monks were 
annoyed, vexed, angry, and said: "How could the 
group of six monks praise the beauty of death to the 
lay-follower ?" Then [72] these monks told this matter 
to the lord ... 

"Is it true, as is said, monks, that you praised the 
beauty of death to the lay-follower ?" he said. 

" It is true, lord," they said. 

The enlightened one, the lord, rebuked them, saying: 
" Foolish men, it is not becoming, it is not seemly, it is 
not suitable, it is not worthy of a recluse, it is not 
right, it should not be done. Why did you, foolish men, 
praise the beauty of death to the lay-follower ? Foolish 
men, this is not for the benefit of non-believers . . . 
And thus, monks, this course of training should be set 
forth: 

" Whatever monk should intentionally deprive a human 
being of life or should look about so as to be his knife- 
bringer,^ or should praise the beauty of death, or should 



1 As below, pp. 200, 223. . 

2 satthahdrakam vdssa pariyeseyya. For lack of any better inter- 
pretation, explanation of VA. 441 is followed here. Cf. S. iv. 62; 
M. iii. 269. 



126 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 78 

incite (anyone) to death, saying, * Hullo there, my man, 
of what use to you is this evil, difficult life ? Death is 
better for you than life,' or who should deliberately^ and 
purposefully^ in various ways praise the beauty of death 
or should incite (anyone) to death: he also is one who is 
defeated, he is not in communion." ||2|| 



Whatever means: he who . . . 

Monk means: . . . thus in this^ sense is monk to be 
understood. 

Intentionally means : a transgression committed know- 
ingly, consciously, deliberately.^ 

Human being^ means: from the mind's first arising,^ 
from (the time of) consciousness becoming first manifest 
in a mother's womb until the time of death, here mean- 
while he is called a human being. 

Should dejyrive of life means : he cuts off the faculty of 
life,® destroys it, harms its duration. 

Or shmdd look about so as to be his knife-brvnger means : 
a knife or a dagger or an arrow or a cudgel or a stone or 
a sword or poison or a rope.'' 

1 iticittamano, so the mind and thought; VA. 442 says, " so the 
mind, (or heart, citta)^ so the thought; * death is better for you than 
life ' here means: the mind set on death, thought set on death, 
wherefore tliought is called the illustration of mind. From this 
meaning the two are as if one, therefore, no division is to be seen; 
as the mind so the thought, as the thought so the mind." This 
last phrase=p. 127 below, the old Corny, on this passage. 

2 cittasamJcappa, intention of mind. On samkappa, as a term 
of " awareness, thought, reflection, purpose," see Mrs. Rhys Davids, 
Birth of Indian Psychology, etc., pp. 55 ff., 273 ff. 

3 =Fm. iv. 290, and =Vin. iii. 112 in expl. of sancetanika. At 
Vin. ii. 91 it is said that whatever transgression is committed like 
this, is called a legal question whether an offence be wrong. 

* Manussaviggaha. 

^ VA. 437 paraphrases by pathamam patisandhicittam, the mind 
being first reinstated. 

« Cf. Vbh. 123. 

' Satthahdraka as we have seen is lit. " sword-carrier," so that this 
definition probably implies " carrying a knife . . . carrying a rope." 
Cf. below, p. 133, where these items are grouped together under " a 
trap." 



III. 3] DEFEAT 127 

Or should 'praise the beauty of death means : he shows 
danger in living, and speaks praise of death. 

Or should incite {one) to death means: he says, ' take 
a sword or eat poison or do your time, having hanged 
yourself with a rope.' 

Hullo there, my man, means: this is a form of address. 

Of tvhat use to you is this evil, difficult life means : life 
is called evil: the life of the poor is evil compared to 
the life of the rich, the life of the unwealthy is evil 
compared to the life of the wealthy ; the life of mankind 
is evil compared to the life of devas. [73] Dijfficult life^ 
means : when the hands are cut off, when the feet are cut 
off, when (both) the hands and feet are cut off, when the 
ears are cut off, when the nose is cut off, when (both) 
the ears and the nose are cut off. Because of this evil 
and because of this difficult life he says, ' Death is better 
for you than life.' 

Deliberately means: as the mind so the thought, as 
the thought so the mind. 

Purposefidly means: conscious of death, thinking of 
death, intending death. 

In many ways means: in manifold manners. 

Or should praise the beauty of death means: he shows 
danger in living and speaks of the beauty of death, 
saying, "You, deceasing hence, at the breaking up of 
the body after death, will pass to a happy bourn, a 
hea ven- world ; there, possessed of and provided with 
five deva-like qualities of sensual pleasures, you will 
amuse yourself." 

Or should incite (one) to death means: he says, " take 
a sword, or eat poison, or do your time having hanged 
yourself with a rope, or falling into a deep ravine, or 
into a pit, or down a steep precipice.^ 

He also means: is called so, referring to the preceding.^ 

Is one ivho is defeated means: just as a flat stone 

^ dujjwita. 

2 VA. 443, papdtd ti pabbatantare vd thalanlare. 

^ VA. 443 says, " like the blameworthy man who has fallen into 
defeat, having committed sexual intercourse, and having taken 
what was not given." 



128 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [111. 74 

which has been broken in half cannot be put together 
again,^ so the monk who has intentionally deprived a 
human, being of life is not a (true) recluse, not a (true) 
son of the Sakyans,^ and is therefdre called one who is 
defeated. 

Is not m comynunion means: communion is called one 
work, one rule, an equal training, this is called com- 
munion; he who is not together with this is therefore 
called not in communion. 11 3 II 



Himself, by volitional force,' by a messenger, by a 
series of messengers, by a special kind of messenger, by 
a messenger gone and returned again. 

Not in secret thinking to be in secret ; in secret think- 
ing to be not in secret; not in secret thinking to be not 
in secret; in secret thinking to be in secret. 

He praises by means of the body, he praises by means 
of the voice, he praises by means of (both) the body 
and the voice, he praises by means of a messenger, he 
praises by means of a writing.* 

A pitfall, a support,^ a trap, medicine, offering a 
sight, offering a sound, offering a smell, offering a taste, 
offering a touch, offering dhamma, announcement, 
instruction, making a rendezvous,® making a sign. 
Hill 



1 This is the only Parajika where, in the simile, the word abhabba 
does not occur. 

2 Cf. Vin. i. 97, where it is said that a monk who has received the 
upasampada ordination should not deprive any living being (pdna) 
of life, even down to an ant or a worm. 

3 Adhitthdya. Adhititthati or adhitthahati, adhitthdti, adhittheti 
is a word of wide meaning. Tr. Crit. Pali Diet, includes above 
passage under " to determine, resolve, wish." VA. 445 explains 
adhitthahitvd by samipe thatvd. On the " volitional force " of 
adhitthdna consult Mrs. Ehys Davids, Birth of Indian Psychology, 
etc., p. 112. Adhitthita used in connection with robes at Vin. iii. 
196. 

^ Lekhdya. Lekhd means lit. a scratching, therefore a writing. 
See below, p. 131, n, 1. 
^ Apasfsena. 
• Samkefakamma, see above, p. 88. 



III. 4, 2] DEFEAT I29 

Himself means : he himself kills by means of the body 
or by something attached to the body or by something 
that may be cast. 

By volitional force means: exerting volitional force, 
he commands: hit thus, strike thus, kill thus. [74] 

A monk commands a monk, saying, " Deprive so- 
and-so of life," there is an offence of wrong-doing. He, 
thinking this is the person/ deprives him of life, there 
is an offence involving defeat for both. 

A monk commands a monk, saying, " Deprive so- 
and-so of life," there is an offence of wrong-doing. He, 
thinking this is the person, deprives another of life, there 
is no offence for the instigator, there is an offence in- 
volving defeat for the murderer. 

A monk commands a monk, saying . . . He, thinking 
of another, deprives a certain person of life, there is 
an offence involving defeat for both. 

A monk commands a monk, saying . . . He, thinking 
of another, deprives that other of life, there is no offence 
for the instigator, there is an offence involving defeat 
for the murderer. 

A monk commands a monk saying, " Tell so-and-so, 
let so-and-so tell so-and-so, let so-and-so deprive so- 
and-so of life," there is an offence of wrong-doing. The 
murderer accepts . . . there is a grave offence for 
the instigator. He deprives him of life . . . there is 
an offence involving defeat. 

A monk commands a monk, saying, " Tell so-and-so, 
let so-and-so tell so-and-so, let so-and-so deprive so- 
and-so of life," there is an offence of wrong-doing. 
He commands another, there is an offence of wrong- 
doing. The murderer accepts, there is an offence 
of wrong-doing. He deprives him of life, there is no 
offence for the instigator, there is an offence involving 
defeat for the one who gives the orders and for the 
murderer. 

A monk commands a monk, saying, " Deprive so- 
and-so of life," there is an offence of wrong-doing. 

1 Tam. 



130 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 75-76 

Going, he comes back again, saying, " I am not able 
to deprive liim of life." He commands him again, 
saying, " If you can, then deprive him of life," there is 
an offence of wrong-doing. He deprives him of life, 
there is an offence involving defeat for both. 

A monk commands a monk, saying, '* Deprive so- 
and-so of life," there is an offence of wrong-doing. 
Having commanded, he is remorseful, but does not 
declare, " Do not kill him." He deprives him of life, 
there is an offence involving defeat for both. 

A monk commands a monk, saying, " Deprive so- 
and-so of life," there is an offence of wrong-doing. 
Having commanded, he is remorseful and declares, 
" Do not kill him." He says, '* I am commanded by 
you," and deprives him of life, there is no offence for 
the instigator, there is an offence involving defeat for 
the murderer. 

A monk commands a monk, saying . . . Having 
commanded, he is remorseful and declares, " Do not 
kill him." He says, " Very well," and desists, there 
is no offence for either. || 2 1! 

Not in secret thinking to be in secret, he calls out, 
" If only so-and-so were killed," there is an offence of 
wrong-doing, hi secret thinking to he not in secret . . . 
Not in secret thinking to be not in secret . . . [75] In 
secret thinking to be in secret . . . there is an offence of 
wrong-doing. || 3 || 

He praises by means of the body means: he makes a 
gesture with the body,^ saying, " Whoever dies thus^ 
receives wealtli or receives glory or goes to heaven," 
there is an offence of wrong-doing. He says, " On 
account of this praise I will die," (and) produces a pain- 
ful feeling, there is a grave offence; if he dies, there is 
an offence involving defeat. 

^ Kdyena vikdram karoti {dasseti, YA. 452, with v. I. karoti), lit. 
he makes an (expressive) gesture. 

2 According to VA, 452, by taking a sword or by drinking poison, 
as at p. 127 above. 



Ill, 4, 4] DEFEAT I3I 

He praises hy means of the voice means : he proclaims 
by the voice, "Whoever dies thus ..."...; if he 
dies, there is an offence involving defeat. 

He praises by means of the body and the voice means : 
he makes a gesture with the body and proclaims by 
the voice, "Whoever dies thus ..."...; if he dies, 
there is an offence involving defeat. 

He praises by means of a messenger means : He gives 
instruction to a messenger, saying: " Whoever dies thus 
receives wealth, or receives glory or goes to heaven " 
— there is an offence of wrong-doing. Having heard 
the messenger's instruction, one says: "I will die," and, 
produces a painful feeling, there is a grave offence; if 
he dies, there is an offence involving defeat. 

He praises by means of a writing means: he cuts a 
writing^ saying, " Whoever dies thus receives wealth 



1 lekham chindati, VA. 452, " lie cuts syllables (akkhardni) on a 
leaf or a book {potthake, cf. Sk. pustaka). Cf. J a. ii. 90, akkhardni 
chinditvd, here on a kayida, a stalk or cane. Lekham chindati could 
not therefore here mean " destroys the letter " as P.T.S. Diet. 
says. Cf. rupam chindati at VA. 690 in connection with cutting 
a figure on the wooden mdsaka. Lekhd therefore does not neces- 
sarily mean writing as we have it to-day. At Vin. iv. 7 lekhd 
is one of the three "high crafts" (or occupations, sippa). At 
Vin. i. 77=iv. 128 Upali's parents decide against letting him 
learn /eMa on the grounds that his fingers will become painful. 
At Vin. iv. 305 it is said to be no ofience for a nun to learn writing 
{lekham pariydpundti). Lekha is the writing, the letter; lekhd the 
line, the tracing {cf. Jd. vi. 56). VA. 867 explains by akkhardni 
Ukhantassa. Cf. VA. 739 lekhd ti akkharalekhd, letters: syllables 
or letters; see next n. for akkhara. 

At Vin. ii. 110 the context seems to demand another meaning for 
lekhd: it is to be something that can be separated from the bowl; 
this can be given away, whereas lekhan ca me paribhogarn bhavissati, 
" so that the chips shall remain my property " {Vin. Texts iii. 78), or 
" the chips will come to be for my personal use," or " the chips will 
be of use to me." {Paribhoga is that which one uses, of usfe, rather 
than property.) At this passage lekharn (which has faulty variant 
reading likharn; cf likhdpanna for lekhd° at PvA. 20) is almost 
certainly to be taken in its meaning of " chips, shavings." 

At ^. i. 2S3=Piig. 32 three kinds of individuals are described: 
pdsdnalekhdpama, pathavilekhapama, udakalekhupama. Here lekJid 
is trans, at G.S. i. 262 by " carving." Neither Comy. remarks on 
lekhd. 



132 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 76 



or receives glory or goes to heaven," there is an 
offence of wrong-doing for each syllable.^ Having 
seen the writing he says, "I will die"; he produces 
a painful, feeling, there is a grave offence; if he dies, 
there is an offence involving defeat. || 4 || 

A pitfall means: he digs a pitfall for a man, saying: 
" Falling into it he will die," there is an offence of wrong- 
doing. The man falls down into it, there is an offence 
of wrong-doing. In falling down a painful feeling 
arises, there is a grave offence; if he dies, there is an 
offence involving defeat. He digs a pitfall without a 
purpose, and says of whoever falls into it, " He will 
die," there is an offence of wrong-doing. A man falls 
down into it, there is an offence of wrong-doing. In 
falling down a painful feeling arises, there is a grave 
offence; if he dies, there is an offence involving defeat. 
A yakkha or a departed one or an animal in human 
form^ falls down into it, there is an offence of wrong- 
doing. ^ In falling dow^n a painful feeling arises, there 
is an offence of wrong-doing; if he dies, there is a grave 
offence. An animal falls down into it, there is an 
offence of wrong-doing. In falling down a painful 

^ akkharakkhardya, or "for the syllables and syllables" so "for 
each syllable." Tr. Crit. Pali Did. says that akkhara is opposed 
to pada, word. Akkhara seems to be connected with aksara of the 
Upanisads, the Imperishable — perhaps because the letters when 
engraved could faintly emulate the Imperishable (Veda). 

2 Tiracchdnagata7nanussaviggaha, lit. a man taking up the form 
of one going as an animal. This is obviously meant to be something 
different from tiracchdnagata, going as an animal, just below. The 
former probably refers to an animal who has the power to put on 
human form in this life; for this is a belief which existed at that time. 
Cf. the rule which forbids an animal in human form to be ordained, 
Vin. i. 86, 87. The latter, going as an animal, or just an animal, 
is a fairly forceful expression in connection with the belief in rebirth, 
meaning that someone is going as an animal in this rebirth. 

^ VA. 4.55 says, " It was dug for a man, (therefore) he is not 
guilty of the death of yakkhas and so forth who fall into it." In 
the Vinaya, yakkhas constantly appear as the denizens of some 
sphere or other, not far removed from the realm of mankind. The 
same is true of the petas, or departed ones. 



III. 4, 5-9] DEFEAT I33 

feeling arises, there is an offence of wrong-doing; if he 
dies there is an offence requiring expiation. || 5 || 

A support means: he puts a dagger in a support, or 
smears it with poison; or makes it weak, or he arranges 
it in a deep ravine, or a pit, or a steep precipice, and says : 
" FalHng down, he will die," there is an offence of 
wrong-doing. A painful feeling arises on account of 
the dagger or the poison or the fall, there is a grave 
offence; [76] if he dies, there is an offence involving 
defeat. || 6 || 

A trap means: he secretly deposits a knife or a dagger 
or an arrow or a cudgel or a stone or a sword or poison 
or a rope,^ saying, "Because of this, he will die," there 
is an offence of wrong-doing. He says, "I will die 
on account of this," and produces a painful feeling, 
there is a grave offence; if he dies, there is an offence 
involving defeat. || 7 || 

Medicine means: he gives ghee or fresh butter or oil 
or honey or molasses,^ saying, " Having tasted this, 
he will die," there is an offence of wrong-doing. In 
tasting it a painful feeling arises, there is a grave offence; 
if he dies, there is an offence involving defeat. || 8 || 

Offering a sight^ means: he arranges a dreadful sight, 
saying, " Seeing this frightful, horrible thing, and being 
terrified he will die," there is an offence of wrong-doing. 
Seeing it he is terrified, there is an offence; if he dies, 
there is an offence involving defeat. He arranges a 
lovely sight, saying, '' Seeing this and if it fades with- 

^ Cf. above, p. 126, where these items are grouped together under 
'' should look about so as to be his knife-bringer." 
^ These are the five kinds of medicine, cf. Vin. iii. 251, 
^ It is curious that the five senses are all equally powerful here, 
and that the last three are not grouped together under nmta, sensed, 
felt, thought or imagined, as sometimes occurs in the older literature, 
e.g. Vin. iv. 2. It is also curious that these five senses have the 
power to cause death. Was it really believed that people died 
because of a bad smell or loud noise ? 



134 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 77 

out his getting it, he will die," there is an offence of 
wrong-doing. Seeing this, it fades without his getting 
it, there is a grave offence ; if he dies, there is an offence 
involving defeat. 

Offering a sound means: he arranges a dreadful sound, 
saying, " Hearing this frightening, horrible thing, and 
being terrified, lie will die," there is an offence of wrong- 
doing. Hearing it, he is terrified, there is a grave 
offence; if he dies, there is an offence involving defeat. 
He arranges a lovely sound, saying, " Hearing this 
lovely, heart-stirringi thing, and if it fades without his 
getting it, he will die," there is an offence of wrong- 
doing. Hearing this, it fades without his getting it, 
there is a grave offence; if he dies, there is an offence 
involving defeat. 

Offering a smell means: he arranges a dreadful smell, 
saying, " Smelling this loathsome, objectionable thing, 
he will die because it is loathsome and objectionable," 
there is an offence of wrong-doing. In smelling it a 
painful feeling arises because it is loathsome and ob- 
jectionable, there is a grave offence; if he dies, there is 
an offence involving defeat. He arranges a lovely 
smell, saying, " Smelling this and if it fades without 
his getting it, he will die," there is an offence of wrong- 
doing. Smelling this, it fades without his getting it, 
there is a grave offence; if he. dies, there is an offence 
involving defeat. 

Offering a taste means: he arranges a dreadful taste, 
saying, " Tasting this loathsome, objectionable thing, 
he will die because it is loathsome and objectionable," 
there is an offence of wrong-doing. In tasting it a 
painful feeling arises because it is loathsome and objec- 
tionable, there is a grave offence; if he dies, there is an 
offence involving defeat. He arranges a lovely taste, 
saying, *' Tasting this, if it fades without his getting 
it, he will die," there is an offence of wrong-doing. 
Tasting this, it fades without his getting it, there is a 
grave offence; if he dies, there is an offence involving 
defeat. 

* Hadayamga7na, cf. D. i. 4. 



111.4,9-10] DEFEAT 135 

Offering a touch means: [77] he arranges a dreadful 
touch, saying,^ " This is contact with pain, this is a 
hard contact, touched by which he will die," there is 
an offence of wrong-doing. In touching it a painful 
feeling arises, there is a grave offence; if he dies, there 
is an offence involving defeat. He arranges a lovely 
touch, saying, " This is a pleasant contact, a soft con- 
tact, if touched by this it fades without his getting it, 
he will die," there is an offence of wrong-doing. Touched 
by this, it fades without his getting it, there is a grave 
offence; if he dies, there is an offence involving defeat. 

Offering dhamma means: he gives talk about hell^ to 
one doomed to suffering in hell, saying, " Hearing this, 
and being terrified, he will die," there is an offence of 
wrong-doing. Hearing this, he is terrified, there is 
a grave offence; if he dies, there is an offence involving 
defeat. He gives talk about heaven to a man of good 
behaviour ,2 saying, " Hearing this, and set upon it,^ 
he will die," there is an offence of wrong-doing. Hearing 
this and set upon it, he says, *' I will die," and produces 
a painful feehng, there is a grave offence; if he dies, 
there is an offence involving defeat. || 9 || 

Announcement means: asked (about it) he says: " Die 
thus,* he who dies thus receives wealth or he receives 
glory or he goes to heaven," there is an offence of wrong- 
doing. He says, " On account of this announcement 
I will die," and produces a painful feeling, there is a 
grave offence; if he dies, there is an offence involving 
defeat. 

Instruction means: not asked (about it) he says: " Die 
thus, he who dies thus receives wealth, or he receives 
glory or he goes to heaven," there is an offence of wrong- 
doing. He says, "On account of this instruction I 
will die," and produces a painful feeling, there is a grave 
offence; if he. dies, there is an offence involving defeat. 

The making of a rendezvous means : he makes a ren- 
dezvous, saying: "Before the meal or after the meal 

1 Niraya. ^ Kalydnakamma. 

^ Adhimutta. Of. below, p. 148. * Evam marassu. 



136 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 7&-79 

or in the night or in the day, on aecount of this ren- 
dezvous deprive him of life," there is an offence of 
wrong-doing. On account of this rendezvous he de- 
prives him of life, there is an offence involving defeat 
for both. He deprives him of life before or after the 
rendezvous, there is no offence for the instigator, but 
there is an offence involving defeat for the murderer. 

The making of a sign means : he makes a sign, saying : 
*^ I will cover the eye or I will raise the eyebrow or I 
will raise the head; at that sign^ deprive him of life,'' 
there is an offence of wrong-doing. If he deprives him 
of life before or after that sign, there is no offence for 
the instigator, there is an offence involving defeat for 
the murderer. || 10 1| 

There is no offence if it was unintentional, if he did 
not know, if he were not meaning death, if he was out 
of his mind, a beginner. || 11 1| 4 1| 

Told is the First Recital : that on Defeat connected with 
human beings [78] 



Praising, sitting down, and about pestles and mortars. 
Gone forth when old,^ a falling out,^ first (-taste),"* 
experimental poison,/ 



1 — ^, 89, above. 

2 vuddhapabbajitd, usually " those long gone forth, old monks." 

3 Oldenberg, fin. iii. 271 f. gives v. II. vuddhapabbajitd ca bhisanno, 
°jitd sinnoy and " °jjitassa no corrected to °jjitdbhisanno," and 
he says, " I do not know how to correct bhisanno or sinno.'' The final 
a of °jjitd may possibly belong to bhissanno, ihen=abhisanno, 
meaning '' full of, overflowing with " (old monks, 5, 4), or a " falling 
out " (of meat, 5, 5). Sinna as p.p. of sijjati usually means " wet 
with perspiration, boiled," but it cannot mean that here. The word 
does not appear again in the stories below. Possibly one group has 
been omitted. 

* Text reads aggam. Oldenberg proposed an emendation to lag- 
gam, doubtless thinking of vilagya in 5» 5, but aggam refers to agga 
{-kdrila'j of 5, 6. 



III. 5, 1-2] DEFEAT 137 

Three about making sites, then three on bricks, 

An adze, and then a beam, a platform, descent, he 

fell,/ 
And heating, nose (-treatment), rubbing, on bathing 

and about oil, 
Making get up, making lie down,^ dying because of 

food and drink,/ 
Child by a lover, and co-wives, he killed both mother 

and child, 
Neither die,^ destroying, scorching, barren, fruitful,/ 
Nudging, restraints, a yakkha, and he sent to a pre- 
datory yakkha. 
Thinking about him, he dealt a blow,^ and heaven, a 

talk on hell,/ 
Three on trees at Alavi, then three about fires. 
Do not keep in misery, not yours, and on buttermilk 

and sour gruel./ 



Now at that time a certain monk was ill. Out of 
compassion the monks praised the beauty of death to 
him, and that monk died. They were remorseful, and 
said: " What now if we have fallen into an offence in- 
volving defeat ?" Then these monks told this matter 
to the lord. He said: *' You, monks, have fallen into 
an offence involving defeat." || 1 || 

At one time a certain monk who was going for alms, 
sat down on a boy who was on a chair concealed by a 
rag, and sitting (hard)* on him, killed him. He was 

1 Text, maranam. 

2 ubho na miyyare. Cf. na miyyare at Sn. 575. 
^ fohari. 

* ottharitvd', this word occurs again below in the next par. and 
also at p. 146, below. VA. 475 on this latter passage explains by 
akkamitvd, and goes on to say that a monk having fallen down was 
dragged along by some others, and one having got on to his stomach 
sat there. But cf. p. 59, n. 1, above for akkamitvd, meaning 
" kicking, making a kick at." At Miln. 121 ottharaii is used in 
connection with the waves of the sea: they "flow" (so trans. 
S.B.E. xxxi. 182), meaning they flow again over the spot whence 



138 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 79 

remorseful. ... " Monks, there is no offence involving 
defeat. But monks should not sit down on a seat 
without noticing (what they are doing). Whoever shall 
so sit down — there is an offence of wrong-doing." ||2 || 

Now at that time a certain monk who was preparing 
a seat in the refectory inside a house, took hold of a 
pestle, the pestles being high up, when a second pestle 
falling down, hit^ the head of a certain boy (hard) ; he 
died. The monk was remorseful. ... "Of what were 
you thinking, monk ?" he said. 

" I did not intend it, lord," he said. 

" There is no offence, monk, as it was not inten- 
tional," he said. 

At one time a certain monk who was preparing a seat 
in a refectory inside a house, treading on the mortar- 
requisites,^ knocked it over^; hitting* a certain boy 

(hard), it killed him. He was remorseful *' There 

is no offence, monk, as it was not intentional." || 3 || 

Now at that time a father and son were going forth 
among the monks. When the time was announced^ the 
son said to his father: ''Go, honoured sir, the Order 

they had rolled back. It there has the sense of covering over or 
covering up. P.T.S. Diet, under ottharati s&ys, "see also avattha- 
rati " for both of which it gives much the same meanings. I think 
it possible that ottharati (as here and in next par. below, and again 
below at p. 146) and avattharati as at next note below, have the 
sense of dealing roughly with someone, even by mistake. Avatthdsi 
occurs, again, p. 140, where it also seems as if it means "hit" 
(with loc). Both words certainly seem to include the sense of 
hardy sitting hard enough or hitting hard enough to cause death. 

^ avatthdsi. 

^ bhandikd. This is a comprehensive word meaning a heap of 
goods, a collection. At Jd. iii. 41 it is v.l. for gandikd, which as 
"executioner's block" could not make sense here. ."Mortar- 
requisites " would include the pestle. 

^ akkamitvd pavattesi. Akkamitvd here seems to be in its meaning 
of " to tread on." We get the same expression in Vin. iii. 38, above, 
p. 59, where it seems to mean " rising, he knocked her over," and 
I should like to add hardy rising hard or suddenly. See above, 
p. 137, n. 4. 

* ottharitvdy see above, p. 137, n. 4. * kale drodte. 



III. 6, 4-5] DEFEAT 139 

waits for you," and seizing him by the back, he pushed 
him away. FaUing down, he died. He was remorse- 
ful. . . . [79] " Of what were you thinlcing, monk V 
he said. 

" I did not mean (to cause his) death, lord," he said. 

" There is no offence, monk, since you did not mean 
(to cause his) death," he said. 

Now at that time a father and son were going forth 
among the monks. When the time was announced^ the 
son said to his father: "Go, honoured sir, the Order 
waits for you," and meaning to cause his death he seized 
him by the back and pushed him away. Falling down, 
he died. He was remorseful. ... "... defeat," he 
said. 

Now at one time a father and son were going forth 
among the monks. When the time was announced the 
son said to his father: "Go, honoured sir, the Order 
waits for you," and meaning to cause his death he 
seized him by the back and pushed him away. Falling 
down, he did not die. He was remorseful. ... " There 
is no offence, monk, involving defeat, there is a grave 
offence." ||4|| 

At one time while a certain monk was eating, some 
meat^ stuck in his throat. A certain monk gave a blow 
to that monk's neck; the meat fell out with blood, and 
that monk died. He was remorseful. ... " There is 
no offence, monk, as you did not mean to cause his 
death." 

At one time while a certain monk was eating, some 
meat stuck in his throat. A certain moiik, meaning 
to cause his death, gave a blow to that monk's neck; 
the meat fell out with blood, and that monk died. He 
was remorseful. ... "... defeat." 

At one time while a certain monk was eating, some 
meat stuck in his throat. A certain monk, meaning 
to cause his death, gave a blow to that monk's neck. 

1 kale drocite. 

2 mafjsa; again showing that the monks were not vegetarians. 
Cf. above, p. 98. 



140 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 80-81 

The meat fell out with blood, but that monk did not 
die. He was remorseful. ... '^ There is no offence 
involving defeat, monk; there is a grave offence." || 5 || 

At one time a certain monk who was on his alms- 
round, receiving poisoned alms-food and bringing it 
back, on his return gave a first-taste to the monks. 
These died. He was remorseful. ... "Of what were 
you thinking, monk ?" he said. 

" I did not know, lord," he said. 

'' There is no offence, monk, since you did not know," 
he said. 

At one time a certain monk gave poison to a certain 
monk, intending to test it. This monk died. He was 
remorseful. ... " Of what were you thinking, monk ?" 
he said. 

'' I intended to test it, lord," he said. 

" There is no offence involving defeat, monk; there is 
a grave offence," he said. || 6 1| 

At one time the monks of Alavi were making a site 
for a vihara. [80] A certain monk being below, lifted 
up his head, and a stone badly held by a monk who 
was above, hit^ the monk who was below on the head, 
and that monk died. He was remorseful. . . . "There 
is no offence, monk, as it was unintentional," he said. 

At one time the monks of Alavi were making a site 
for a vihara. A certain monk being below, lifted up 
a stone. A monk who was above, intending to kill 
the one who was below, let loose the stone at his head. 
That monk died . . . that monk did not die. He 
was remorseful. ... " There is no offence involving 
defeat, monk; there is a grave offence," he said. ||7 || 

At one time the monks of Alavi were erecting a walP 
for the vihara. A certain monk, being below, lifted 

1 avatthdsi, cf. above, p. 137, n. 4. 

^ Kudda. At Vin. iv. 266 three kinds of walls are mentioned: 
itthakd° (of tiles or bricks, as here), sild° (of stones), ddru° (of wood). 



III. 6, 8-11] DEFEAT I4I 

up a burnt brick, and the burnt brick being badly held 
by a monk who was above, fell on the head of the monk 
who was below. He died. He was remorseful. . . . 
" There is no offence, monk, since it was uninten- 
tional." 

At one time the monks of Alavi were erecting a wall 
for the vihara. A certain monk, being below, lifted 
up a burnt brick. A monk who was above, intending 
to cause the death of the monk who was below, let loose 
the burnt brick at his head. That monk died . . . 
that monk did not die. He was remorseful. . . . 
" There is no offence involving defeat, monk, but there 
is a grave offence." || 8 || 

At one time the monks of Alavi were making repairs. 
A certain monk, being below, lifted up an adze. The 
adze being badly held by a monk who was above, 
fell on the head of the monk who was below. That 
monk died. He was remorseful. ... '* There is no 
offence, monk, since it was unintentional," he said. 

At one time the monks of Alavi were making repairs 
. . . lifted up an adze. A monk who was above, 
meaning to cause the death of the monk who was 
below, let loose the adze at his head. That monk died 
. . . that monk did not die. ... He was remorse- 
ful. ... "... grave offence," he said. || 9 || 

At one time the monks of Alavi were making repairs. 
A certain monk, being below, lifted up a beam. The 
beam being badly held by a monk who was above . . . 
[three cases as above) ... "... grave offence," he 
said. II 10 II 

At one time the monks of Alavi, making repairs, 
were fixing up a platform.^ A certain monk said to 
another monk: " Your reverence, fix it standing here." 
He stood there and, in fixing it, he fell down and died. 



^ Attaka. VA. 466 calls it vehdsmnanca, lit. a bed above the 
ground, probably a platform or scaffold up a tree, such as hunters 
use. It is the diminutive of attay a watch-tower, Vin. iii. 200. 



142 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 82 

[81] He was remorseful. ... "Of what were you 
thinking, monk ?" he said. 

" I did not mean to cause his death, lord," he said. 

" There is no offence, monk, since you did not mean 
to cause his death," he said. 

At one time the monks of Alavi, making repairs, 
were fixing up a platform: A certain monk, meaning 
to cause (his) death, said to another monk: "Your 
reverence, fix it standing here." He stood there and, 
in fixing it, fell down and died . . . fell down and did 
not die. He was remorseful. . . . " There is no offence 
involving defeat, monk, there is a grave offence," he 
said. II 11 II 

At one time a certain monk, having thatched a 
vihara, was coming down. A certain monk said to 
that monk: " Your reverence, come down here." 
Coming down at that place and faUing down, he died. 
He was remorseful. ... " There is no offence, monk, 
since you did not mean to cause his death," he said. 

At one time a certain monk, having thatched a 
vihara, was coming down. A certain monk, meaning 
to cause his death, said to that mpnk: " Your reverence, 
come down here." Coming down at that place, he 
fell down and died . . . fell down and did not die. . . . 
" There is no offence involving defeat, monk, there is 
a grave offence," he said. || 12 || 

At one time a certain monk, tormented by chafing, 
having scaled the Vulture's Peak, falling down the 
precipice, and hitting a certain basket-maker hard, 
killed him. He was remorseful. ... " There is no 
offence involving defeat, monk. But, monks, one should 
not throw oneself off. Whoever shall throw (himself) 
off, there is an offence of wrong-doing," he said. 

At one time the group of six monks, having scaled the 
Vulture's Peak, threw down a stone in fun. Hitting a 
certain cowherd (hard), it^ killed him. They were 

^ mdresum. We should say " it " (the stone), but the Pali regards 
the men as the agents of the cowherd's death. 



III. 6, 13-16] DEFEAT I43 

remorseful. ... " There is no offence involving defeat, 
monks. But, monks, you should not throw down a 
stone in fun. Whoever shall so throw one down, there 
is an offence of wrong-doing," he said. || 13 || 

At one time a Certain monk was ill. The monks 
heated him, and he died. They were remorseful. . . . 
" There is no offence, monks, since you did not mean to 
cause his death," he said. 

At one time a certain monk was ill. The monks 
heated him, meaning to cause his death. This monk 
died . . . this monk did not die. They were remorse- 
ful. ... " There is no offence involving defeat, monks, 
there is a grave offence," he said. || 14 1| 

At one [82] time a certain monk had a headache.^ 
The monks gave him medical treatment through the 
nose.2 This monk died. They were remorseful. . . . 
" There is no offence involving defeat, monks, since you 
did not mean to cause his death," he said. 

At one time a certain monk had a headache. The 
monks, meaning to cause his death, gave him medical 
treatment through the nose. This monk died . . . did 
not die. They were remorseful. ... " There is no 
offence involving defeat, monks, there is a grave offence," 
he said. || 15 || 

At one time a certain monk was ill. The monks 
rubbed him. This monk died . . . {three cases as 
above). ... " There is a grave offence," he said. 

At one time a certain monk was ill. The monks 
bathed him. This monk died ... " There is a grave 
offence," he said. 



lit. " heat in the head," cf. Vin. i. 204, where 
Pilindavaccha is mentioned as suffering this aihnent. 

^ natthum adamsu=naUhukamma as at Vin. i. 204. DA. i. 98, 
expl. telam yojetvd n° karanam. At D. i. 12 this treatment is in- 
cluded among the low arts by which some samanas and brahmins 
earn a wrong livelihood, but at Vin. i. 204 it is allowed by Gotama, 
with details of how best to apply the drug to be taken through the 
nose. Cf, DhA. i. 12. 



144 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 83-84 



At one time a certain monk was ill. The monks 
anointed him with oil. This monk died. ... " There 
is a grave ojRFence," he said. 

At one time a certain monk was ill. The -monks 
made him get up.^ This monk died. ..." There is 
a grave offence," he said. 

At one time a certain monk was ill. The monks 
made him lie down. This monk died. ... " There is 
a grave offence," he said. 

At one time a certain monk was ill. The monks gave 
him food . . . they gave him drink. This monk 
died. ... " There is a grave offence," he said. ||16|| 

At one time a certain woman whose husband was 
living away from home became with child by a lover. 
She said to a monk who was dependent for alms on 
(her) family: " Look here, master, find me an abortive 
preparation." 

" All right, sister," he said, and he gave her an 
abortive preparation. The child died. He was re- 
morseful. . . . " You, monk, have fallen into an offence 
involving defeat," he said. || 17 || 

At one time a certain man had two wives: one was 
barren, and one was fertile. The barren woman said 
to the monk who was dependent for alms on (her) 
family: "If she should bring forth (a child), honoured 
sir, she will become mistress of the whole establishment. 
Look here, master, find an abortive preparation for 
her." 

" All right, sister," he said, and he gave her an abortive 
preparation. The child died, but the mother did not 
die. He was remorseful. ..."... defeat," he said. 

At one time a certain man had two wives ... he 
gave her an abortive preparation. The mother died, 
but the child did not die. He was remorseful . . . 
" There is no offence involving defeat, monk, [83] there 
is a grave offence," he said. 

^ Or, " raised him " (to a sitting position). 



III. 6, 18-22] DEFEAT 145 

At one time a certain man had two wives ... he 
gave her an abortive preparation. Both died . . . 
neither died. He was remorseful. ... " There is no 
offence involving defeat, monk; there is a grave offence," 
he said. || 18 || 

At one time a certain woman who was pregnant, 
said to a monk who was dependent for alms on (her) 
family: *' Look here, master, find me an abortive prepara- 
tion." 

" Well then, destroy^ it, sister," he said. She, having 
destroyed it, caused abortion. He was remorseful. . . . 
"... defeat," he said. 

At one time a certain woman who was pregnant . . . 
" Well then, scorch yourself, sister," he said. She, 
scorching herself, caused abortion. He was remorse- 
ful. ... '' , . , defeat," he said. || 19 || 

At one time a certain barren woman said to a monk 
who was dependent for alms on (her) family: " Look 
here, master, find some medicine by which I may become 
fertile." 

" All right, sister," he said, and gave her some 
medicine. She died. He was remorseful. . . . "There 
is no offence involving defeat, monk; there is an offence 
of wrong-doing," he said. || 20 || 

At one time a certain fertile woman said to a monk 
who was dependent for alms on (her) family: " Look 
here, master, find some medicine by which I may not 
become fertile." 

" All right, sister," he said ..." there is an offence 
of wrong-doing," he said. || 21 1| 

At one time the group of six monks made one of the 
group of seventeen monks^ laugh by tickling him with 

^ maddassUy crush, bruise. Cf. J a. iii. 121. 

2 Cf. Vin. iv. 110, where this story also appears; tickling with 
the fingers is there said to be a pacittiya offence. The seventeen 
monks are also mentioned at Fm. iv. 41. At Vin, i. 77=iv. 128, the 
boy Upali is said to have seventeen friends. See Intr. p. xxxvi, n. 2. 

I. 10 



146 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 84 

their fingers. This monk, faint and unable to get his 
breath, died. They were remorseful. ... *' There is 
no offence involving defeat, monks," he said. || 22 1| 

At one time the group of seventeen monks said to 
one of the group of six monks: " We will do some work,"^ 
and treading on him,^ they killed him. They were re- 
morseful. ... '' There is no offence involving defeat, 
monks," he said. |i23|| 

At one time a certain monk who was an exorcist^ 
deprived a yakkha of life. He was remorseful. . . . 
'" There is no offence involving defeat, monk, there is 
a grave offence,"* he said. || 24 1| 

At one time a certain monk sent a certain monk to 
a vihara inhabited by a predatory yakkha.^ The 
yakkhas deprived him of life. He was remorseful. . . . 
" There is no offence, monk, as you did not mean to 
cause his death," he said. 

At one time a certain monk, meaning to cause his 
death, sent a certain monk to a vihara inhabited by a 
predatory yakkha. The yakkhas deprived him of 



1 kammam karissdwa, possibly idiomatic, '* we will do (for him)," 
" wc will have some fun." 

2 ottharitv(l~~alkan)itvcl, VA. 475. See above, p. 137. 

3 bhutavejjaka; bhufavijjd mentioned at D. i. 9 as a " low art." 
Bhutavidyd (trans, by R. E. Hume as " Demonology ") also occurs 
at Chand. 7.2.1.==7.7.1. 

* The monk learned in exorcism, in freeing a person possessed by 
a yakkha may cut off a clay doll's head; then the yakkha dies, 
killed by him. But he may kill not only the yakkha but Sakka, 
king of the Devas; therefore it is a grave offence. VA. 475. At 
S. i. 206 some Sakka is called a yakkha. K,S. i. 263, n. 3 says, 
*' there is no tradition, revealed in the Corny, that Sakka, ruler 
of the Thirtyl -three] Gods, is meant." He was a {eko) yakkha 
belonging to Mara's faction, SA. i. 302. 

^ vdUiyakkha. VA. 475, " In this vihara a predatory {vdla), 
fierce yakkha dwelt; it was his vihfira." At A. iii. 256 vdlayakkhas 
are said to l^e one of the five dangers of Madhura. Sec G.S. iii. 188, 
n. 3. Mr. E. M. Hare translates vdlayakkhd as " bestial yakkhas." 
Cf. yakkha eating men and cattle at D. ii. 346. Term may mean 
" yakkha in form of a beast of prey." 



III. 5, 25-28] DEFEAT I47 

life . . . the yakkhas did not deprive him of life. . . . 
" There is no offence involving defeat, monk, (but) 
there is a,grave offence," he said. || 25 || [84] 

At one time a certain monk sent a certain monk to 
wilds inhabited by beasts of prey^ ... to wilds in- 
habited by robbers. The beasts of prey . . . the 
robbers . . . deprived him of life. He was remorse- 
ful .. . {three cases each time as above). ... " There 
is a grave offence," he said. || 26 || 

At one time a certain monk, thinking of a certain 
person, deprived him of life . . . thinking of a certain 
person, deprived another of life . . . thinking of another, 
deprived a certain person of life, thinking of another, 
deprived (that) other of life. He was remorseful. . . . 
"... defeat," he said. || 27 || 

At one time a certain monk was seized by a non- 
human being. 2 A certain monk gave that monk a 
blow.* He died. He was remorseful. ... " There is 
no offence, monk, since you did not mean to cause his 
death," he said. 

At one time a certain monk was seized by a non- 
human being. A certain monk, meaning to cause his 
death, gave that monk a blow. That monk died . . . 
that monk did not die. He was remorseful. . . . 
" There is no offence involving defeat, monk, there is 
a grave offence," he said. || 28 || 



^ VA. 476: " In all of these wilds there are beasts of prey and 
snakes ... in all of those there are robbers." Five kinds of 
wilds (kantdra) mentioned at J a. i. 99, SA. i. 324; four kinds at 
Nd. ii. 630. 

2 amanussena: amanussa is a yakkha, a spirit, a ghost. At 
Vm. i. 277 it is said that Kaka, a slave, was born anuanussena. 
Word occurs at D. i. 116, S. i. 91, and also above, p. 74. VA. 
298 says, they are either yakkhas or men who, having departed, 
desire to return. 

3 VA, 476 " saying, * I will drive the yakkha away,' he gives him 
(i.e., the monk) a blow. One should not give a person possessed 
by a yakkha a blow, but should bind a palm-leaf or protecting 
thread on his arm or leg." 



148 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 86-«6 

At one time a certain monk gave a talk about heaven 
to a man of good actions. He was set on it/ and died. 
He was remorseful. ... '' There is no offence, monk, 
since you did not mean to cause his death," he said. 

At one time a certain monk, meaning to cause his 
death, gave a talk about heaven to a man of good 
actions. He was set on it, and died ... he was set on 
it, but did not die. ... " There is no offence involving 
defeat, monk, there is a grave offence," he said. 

At one time a certain monk gave a talk about hell to 
a man doomed to suffering in hell. Being terrified, he 
died . . . (the smne three cases) ... " There is a grave 
offence," he said. || 29 || 

At one time the monks of Alavi were making repairs 
and felling a tree. A certain monk said to another 
monk: " Your reverence, fell it standing here." While 
he was standing there and cutting it, the tree falling 
(over him) killed him . . . {three cases) ..." There 
is a grave offence," he said. || 30 1| 

At one time the group of six monks set fire to a 
forest. Some men were burnt and died . . . (three 
cases) ..." There is a grave offence," he said. ||31 1| [85] 

At one time a certain monk, having gone to the place 
of execution, said to the executioner: " Reverend sir, 
do not keep him in misery.^ By one blow deprive him 
of life." . . 

" All right, honoured sir," he said, and by one blow 
he deprived him of life. He was remorseful. " You, 
monk, have fallen into an offence involving defeat," 
he said. 

At one time a certain monk, having gone to the place 
of execution, said to the executioner: " Reverend sir, 
do not keep him in misery. By one blow deprive him 
of life." 

^ adhimutto. Tr. Crit. Pali Diet., referring to this passage says, 
*' impressed with the idea." Cf. above, p. 135. 
2 nid yimam kilatnesi. 



III. 5, 32-33] DEFEAT I49 

" I will not do your bidding," lie said, (but) deprived 
him of life. He was remorseful. ... " Monk, there 
is no oifence involving defeat, there is an offence of 
wrong-doing,"^ he said. ||32|| 



At one time a certain man whose hands and feet had 
been cut off, was in the paternal home surrounded by 
relations. A certain monk said to these people, 
" Reverend sirs, do you desire his death V 

" Indeed, honoured sir, we do desire it," they 
said. 

'* Then you should make him drink buttermilk,"* 
he said. They made him drink buttermilk, and he died. 
He was remorseful. ... " You, monk, have fallen 
into an offence involving defeat," he said. 

At one time a certain man whose hands and feet 
had been cut off was in a clansman's house, surrounded 
by relations. A certain nun said to these people, 
" Reverend sirs, do you desire his death ?" 

" Indeed, madam, we do desire it," they said. 

" Then you should make him drink salted sour 
gruel,"^ she said. They made him drink salted sour 
gruel, and he died. She was remorseful. Then this 



* Apparently not a grave offence because the executioner was not 
influenced by the monk's words. The monk only transgressed in 
uttering the words, attempting to hasten the man's death. 

* takka. VA. 478, " buttermilk of a cow, a buffalo, a goat, hot, 
cold, flavoured or unflavoured." At Vin. i. 244 it is included in 
the five products of the cow {panca gorasd). 

^ lonasumraka. VA. 478, " a medicine made of all tastes." Bu. 
gives a long description of the things mixed together to form it: 
various kinds of myrobalan (astringent and intoxicant), all the seven 
grains and pulses, gruel, the fruit of the plantain, and all fruits, 
the jungle creeper, sprouts of various trees, fish and meat, honey 
and molasses, rock-salt, alkaline and bitter medicines. Then, 
letting it mature for two or three years, it is the colour of the juice 
of the rose-apple and is good for various diseases (mentioned here, 
cf. also A. V. 110), but further than that (ca uttaram) if decaying, it 
is no longer a medicine. At Vin. i. 210 it is called somraka: here the 
lord allows the use of it to one who is sick, and to one who is not sick 
the use of it mixed with water as a medicine. 



150 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 86 

nun told this matter to the nuns, the nuns told this 
matter to the monks, and the monks told this matter 
to the lord. He said, *' Monks, this nun has fallen into 
an offence involving defeat." || 33 || 5 1| 

Told is the Third Offence involving Defeat [86] 



DEFEAT (PARAJIKA) IV 

At one time^ the enlightened one, the lord, was staying 
in Vesali in the pavilion of the Gabled Hall in the Great 
Wood. Now at that time many monks who were friends 
and companions went for the rains to the banks of the 
river Vaggumuda.^ At that time Vajji was short of 
alms-food^ which was difficult to obtain; it was suffering 
from a famine, and food-tickets were being issued. 
Nor was it easy to keep oneself going by gleaning or by 
favour. Then these monks said to one another: 

" At present Vajji is short of alms-food, which is 
difficult to obtain; it is suffering from a famine, and 
food-tickets are being issued. Nor is it easy to keep 
oneself going by gleaning or by favour. What now if 
we, by some stratagem, and all together, being on 
friendly terms and hannonious, should spend a com- 
fortable rainy season and should not go short of alms- 
food ?" 

Some spoke thus: " Look, your reverences, we could 
superintend the business of householders, thus they will 
think to give to us; thus we, all together, being on 
friendly terms and harmonious, will spend a comfort- 
able rainy season and will not go short of alms-food." 

Some spoke thus: "Enough, your reverences, of 
superintending the business of householders. Look, 
your reverences, we will execute householders' commis- 

^ From here to towards the end of j| 2 |j below, cf. Vin. iv. 23-25, 
where it is a pacittiya for a monk to tell of his knowledge of condi- 
tions belonging to the further-men, even if he possessed this know- 
ledge. If he does not }K)ssess it, it is a parajika offence to speak 
of it, as here at Defeat IV. 

2 Mentioned at Ud. 25; it is also here said that some monks spent 
vassa on its banks. 

3 Cf. above, Defeat I. 2, 1 ; 5, 5. 

151 



152 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 87-88 

sions,^ thus they will think to give to us; thus we, 
all together, being on friendly terms and harmonious, 
will spend a comfortable rains and will not go short of 
alms-food." 

Some spoke .thus: "Enough, your reverences, of 
superintending the business of householders and ''of 
executing householders' commissions. Look, your 
reverences, we will speak praise to householders 
concerning this or that state of further-men,^ saying: 
' Such a monk is possessed of the first musing, such 
a monk is possessed of the second musing, such a 
monk is possessed of the third musing, such a monk is 
possessed of the fourth musing, such a monk is a stream- 
attainer, such a monk is a once-returner, such a monk is 
a non-returner, such a monk is man perfected, such a 
monk is a three-fold wisdom man,^ such a monk is a 
sixfold super-knowledge man.'* Thus these (house- 
holders) will think to give to us; thus we, all together, 
[87] being on friendly terms and harmonious, will spend 
a comfortable rains and will not go short of alms-food. 
Just this is better, your reverences: the praise spoken 
by us to the householders concerning this or that state 
of further-men." 

Then these monks spoke praise to the householders 
concerning this or that state of further-men, saying: 
" Such a monk is possessed of the first musing . . . 
such a monk is a sixfold super-knowledge man." 
These men thought: "We have gained, surely there is 
a profit for us that such monks have come for the 
rains; surely such monks as these monks, virtuous 

^ duteyyam hardma. 

2 uttarimanussadhammuy on this term, see Intr., xxiv/. 

3 tevijjo — i.e.f he has knowledge of his own previous rebirths, of 
the arising and passing away of beings, and of the destruction of 
the cankers. It is a term handed down from the Upanisads, where 
it meant knowledge of the three Vedas. 

* chalahhinno — i.e., psychic power, clairaudience, knowledge of 
the thoughts of other beings, knowledge of previous rebirths, clair- 
voyance, and knowledge of destruction of the cankers. Cf. A, iii. 
15; D. i. 77 £f.; and see G.S. iii. Intr. viii for these being originally 
five. 



IV. 1, 1-2] DEFEAT 153 

and of good character, never came to us for the rains 
before." Accordingly these did not on their own 
account eat soft food — they gave not to parents, they 
gave not to wife and children, they gave not to slave 
or servant, they gave not to friend or colleague, they 
gave not to blood-relations, as they gave to the monks. 
Accordingly these did not on their own account take^ 
savoury hard foods or drinks — they gave not to 
parents, they gave not to wife and children, they gave 
not to slave or servant, they gave not to friend or 
colleague, they gave not to blood-relations, as they gave 
to the monks. Thus these monks were handsome, of 
rounded features, their complexions bright, their skins 
clear.2 || 1 1| 

Now it was the custom for^ monks who had finished 
keeping the rains to go and see the lord. Then these 
monks who had finished keeping the rains, the three 
months having elapsed, packed away their bedding,* and 
taking their bowls and robes, went up to Vesali. In 
the course of time they came up to Vesali, the Great 
Wood, the pavilion of the Gabled Hall, and to the 
lord, and having approached the lord they greeted him 
and sat down to one side. At that time the monks 
who had spent the rains in those regions were lean, 
wretched, of a bad colour,^ having become very 

* khddaniydni sdyaniydni pdridni attand pivanti. Vin. iii. 272 
gives v.l. which before pivanti inserts khadanti sdyantiy so that 
trans, might run " eat hard foods, taste savoury foods or take (drink) 
drinks." 

* A stock phrase. 

3 For the beginning of this par. cf. Vin. i. 158. 

* sendsanam satnsdmetvd, trans, at Vin. Texts i. 326, " set their 
places of rest in order." I closely follow Chalmers' " packed away 
their bedding " at Fur. Di<il. i. 104, because I prefer " away " rather 
than " up " which suggests the possibility of their taking their 
bedding with them when vassa was over. " Places of rest " is, I 
think, misleading: much teaching of the laity went on during vassa, 
which could therefore only be regarded as a time of leisure in so far 
as there was no travelling from vihara to vihara. 

^ This is all stock-phrase. Dubbanna: Chalmers at Fur. Dial. ii. 
65 trans. " ill-looking," while at Vin, Texts i. 186 it is trans. 
" discoloured." 



154 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 88-89 

yellow,^ their veins standing out all over their bodies,^ 
but the monks from the banks of the Vaggumuda were 
handsome, of rounded features, their complexions 
bright, their skins clear. It was the custom for en- 
lightened ones, for lords, to exchange friendly greetings 
with incoming monks. ^ So the lord said to the monks 
from the banks of the Vaggumuda: 

" I hope, monks, that things went well with you,* 
I hope that you had enough to support your life, I hope 
that,, in unity, being on friendly terms and harmonious, 
you spent a comfortable rainy season and did not go 
short of alms-food ?" 

" Things did go well with us, lord,^ we had sufficient 
to support life, lord,^ and in unity we, lord,^ being on 
friendly terms and harmonious, spent a comfortable 
rainy season and did not go short of alms-food." 

Tathagatas knowing (sometimes) ask; [88] knowing 
(sometimes) do not ask . . . enlightened ones, lords, 
put questions , to the monks for two purposes, saying : 
" Shall we give ^dhamma, or shall we make known the 
course of training for disciples V"^ Then the lord said 
to the monks from the banks of the Vaggumuda: 

" In what way did you, monks, being in unity and 
on friendly terms and harmonious, spend a comfortable 
rainy season and not go short of alms-food ?" Then 
these monks told this matter to the lord. 

" Indeed, monks, I wonder if that is true ?"^ 

"It is a falsehood, lord," they said. 

The enlightened one, the lord, rebuked them, saying: 

" It is unsuitable, foolish men, it is not becoming. 



1 uppand'^P'Pandukajdta, Chalmers, loc. nit., " jaundiced," and 
Vin. Texts i. 186, "( . . . his complexion has become) more and 
more yellow." 

2 dhamanisanthatagatta, Chalmers, loc. cit., " their veins standing 
out like whipcord." 

3 =7*n.i. 59=212=253. 

4 =Vin. i. 59=212=253. Kacci khamaniyam, cf. Vin. i. 204-, 
205, where na kkhamamyo hoti is used of a disease which had not 
become better. 

* Bhagavd. ® Bhante. 

7 =Fiw. i. 158=iii. 6. ^ Kacci pana vo bhfitan ti. 



IV. 1, 2-3] DEFEAT 155 

it is not proper, it is not fitting for a recluse, it is un- 
lawful, it is not to be done. How can you, foolish 
men, for the sake of your stomachs, speak praise to 
householders concerning this or that state of further- 
men ? It would be better for you, foolish men, that 
your bellies should be cut open with a sharp butcher's 
knife, than that you, for the sake of your stomachs, 
should speak praise to householders concerning this 
or that state of further-men. What is the cause of 
this ? For that reason, foolish men, you may incur 
death, or suffering like unto death, but not on that 
account would you, at the breaking up of the body after 
death, pass to the waste, the bad bourn, the abyss, hell. 
But for this reason, foolish men, at the breaking up 
of the body after death, you would pass to the waste, 
the bad bourn, the abyss, hell.^ Foolish men, this is 
not for the benefit of non-believers ..." and having 
thus rebuked them and given dhamma talk, he addressed 
the monks: ||2|| 

" Monks, there are these five great thieves to be found 
in the world. ^ What are the five ? Monks, here^ a 
certain one of the great thieves thought : ' To be sure, 
will I, surrounded by a hundred or by a thousand, 
wander about among villages, towns, and the possessions 
of kings, slaying and causing to be slain, destroying 
and causing destruction, tormenting and causing tor- 
ment.' He, in the course of time, surrounded by a 
hundred or by a thousand wanders about among 
villages, towns, and the possessions of kings, slaying 
and causing to be slain, destroying and causing destruc- 
tion, tormenting and causing torment. Now indeed, 
monks, a certain depraved monk thought: ' To be sure, 
I, surrounded by a hundred or by a thousand, will 
make an alms-tour among villages, towns and the pos- 
sessions of kings, honoured, respected, revered, wor- 
shipped, esteemed, supported by householders, by those 

1 Of, above, p. 36. 2 cy ^4 ^ 153. - jgS. 



uj. above, p. 3D. 

idhd ti imasmiy sattaloke, VA. 482. 



156 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 8^-90 

who have gone forth into homelessness, and by the 
requisites of robes, alms, bedding and medicine.' He, 
in the course of time, surrounded by a hundred, by a 
thousand, made an alms-tour among villages, towns and 
the possessions of kings, honoured, respected, revered, 
worshipped, [89] esteemed, supported by householders 
and receiving the requisites of robes, alms, bedding 
and medicine for those who go forth into homelessness. 
This, monks, is the first great thief found existing in 
the world. 

Again, monks, here a certain depraved monk, having 
mastered thoroughly dhamma and the discipline made 
known by the tathagata, takes it for his own. This, 
monks, is the second great thief found existing in the 
world. 

Again, monks, here a certain depraved monk, blames 
a follower of the pure Brahma-life, one leading the 
absolutely pure Brahma-life, for an unfounded breach 
of the Brahma-life.^ This, monks, is the third great 
thief found existing in the world. 

Again, monks, a certain depraved monk favours 
and cajoles a householder on account of those things 
which are important possessions of the Order, on account 
of those things which are its important requisites, 
that is to say, a park, a site for a park, a vihara, a site 
for a vihara, a couch, a chair, a bolster, a pillow, a brass 
vessel, a brass jar, a brass pot, a brass receptacle, a 
razor, an axe, a hatchet, a hoe, a spade, a creeper, 
bamboo, muiija-grass, babbaja-grass, tina;:grass, clay, 
woodeii articles, earthenware articles.^ This, monks, 
is the fourth great thief found existing in the world. 

* VA. 484 says, suddhan ca hrahmacdrim is a monk whose cankers 
are destroyed. Parisuddham brahmacariyam carantan means lead- 
the best (highest) life free from the kilesas. . . . Amulakena 
abrahmacariyena anuddhamseti, means he censures and blames this 
man for a parajika offence. 

2 At Vin. ii. 170 all these items are grouped into five categories 
of things which are not transferable by the Order or by a group or 
by an individual. At Vin. ii. 122 a brass pot is one of the three 
kinds of water- vessels allowed. At Fm. ii. 143 all kinds of brass- 
ware are allowed to the Order except weapons, all kinds of wooden 



IV. 1, 3] DEFEAT 157 

Monks, in the world with the devas and including 
Mara, including the Brahma- world, including recluses 
and brahmins, including breathing things, including 
devas and men, this is the chief great thief: he who 
claims a non-existent^ state of further-men, which has 
not become.2 What is the reason for this? Monks, 
you have eaten the country's almsfood by theft." 

Whoever should declare himself otherwise, otherwise 

than he is, 
Has eaten this by theft, as a gambler by cheating, 
Many' about whose neck is yellow robe. 
Of evil qualities and uncontrolled. 
Wicked, by wicked deeds, in hell they're born. 
Better it were to eat an iron ball. 
Heated and like a (very) sheaf of fire, 
Than were a man immoral, uncontrolled. 
To make his meals off (the whole) country's alms. 

Then the lord having rebuked in various ways the 
monks from the banks of the Vaggumuda that they 
were difficult to maintain, difficult to support . . . 
"... And thus, monks, this course of training should 
be set forth: 

Whatever monk should boast, with reference to him- 
self, of a state of further-men, sufficient ariyan knowledge 



articles except divans {Vin. i. 192), long-armed chairs (Fm. i. 
192), bowls {Vin. ii. 112) and shoes {Vin. i. 188); all kinds of 
earthenware excej^t katakas (foot scrubbers, see Vin. Texts iii. 
130, n. 3), and large earthen vessels to be used as huts to live in. 
See Vin. Texts iii. 156 for these references. This last item is the 
only one not mentioned in previous rules. At Vin. ii. 211 injunc- 
tions are given to monks setting out on a journey as to what to 
do with their wooden and earthenware articles. At Vin. i. 190 it is 
a dukkata offence for monks to make foot coverings of tina-, munja- 
or babbaja-grass. 

^ Asanta. * Ahhuta. 

3 From here to end of vcTscs=Dhp. 307, 308=/^., p. 43=p. 90 
(last three lines only at It. 90). I follow Mrs. Rhys Davids' trans, 
at S.B.B. vii. 



158 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 90-91 

and insight,^ though not knowing it fully, saying : ' this 
I know, this I see ' ; then not long afterwards, he, being 
pressed or not being pressed, fallen,^ should desire to 
be purified and should say : ' Your reverence, I said that 
I know what I do not know, [90] see what I do not see, 
I spoke idly, falsely, vainly,' then he also is one who is 
defeated, he is not in communion." 

Thus this course of training for monks was made 
known by the lord. || 3 fl 1 1| 



Now at that time a great company of monks, thinking 
they had seen what they had not seen, attained what 
they had not attained, found what they had not found, 
realised what they had not realised, spoke of profound 
knowledge^ with undue estimate of themselves.* Their 
heart, not long afterwards, yielded^ to passion, their 
heart yielded to hatred, their heart yielded to con- 
fusion. On account of this they were remorseful and 
said : 

" The course of training has been made known by 
the lord, and we thought to have seen what we did not 
see ... and spoke with undue estimate of ourselves. 
What now if we have fallen into an offence involving 
defeat ?" They told this matter to the venerable 
Ananda. The venerable Ananda told this matter to 
the lord. He said: 

" Ananda, these are monks who are aware of the seen 
in the unseen ... and speak of profound knowledge 

1 Alamariyandnadassana. VA. 489 says that the highest ariyan 
purity is knowledge and insight. Alay is expl. pariyattay, sufficient, 
enough, so that alay means " intent on enough ariyan knowledge and 
insight for the destruction of the kilesas." 

2 A'panna, cf. below, Old Corny, explanation, p. 160, and VA. 492, 
" because he has fallen (dfannto) into defeat, therefore, putting 
monkdom to one side, he cannot become one to arrive at musing 
and so forth " — musing, etc., being given in explanation of states 
of further-men, see below, p. 159. 

3 Anna. Cf. above, p. 120, n. 2. 

* Adhimdna, pride, arrogance. 

* Namatiy intrans. ; dttam is the subject. Cf. S. i. 137. 



IV. 2-3] DEFEAT 159 

through undue estimate of themselves; but this is 
negligible.^ And thus, monks, this course of training 
should be set forth : 

Whatever monk should boast, with reference to him- 
self of a state of further-men, sufficient ariyan knowledge 
and insight, though not knowing it fully, and saying: 
' This I know, this I see,' then if later on, he, being 
pressed or not being pressed, fallen, should desire to 
be purified, and should say: * Your reverence, I said that 
I know what I do not know, see what I do not see, I 
spoke idly, falsely, vainly,' apart from the undue estimate 
of himself, he also is one who is defeated, he is not in 
communion." || 2|| 

Not knowing fully means: not knowing, not seeing a 
good state in the self as non-existent, not fact, not to be 
found (yet) he says: * For me there is a good state.' 

A state of further-men means: musing, freedom, con- 
centration, attainment, knowledge and insight, making 
the Way to become,^ realisation of the fruits, destruc- 
tion of the corruptions, delight in solitude for the mind 
devoid of the hindrances. 

With reference to himself means: either he presents 
these good states in the self, or he presents the self 
among these good states. 

Knowledge means : the three knowledges. 

Insight means: what is knowledge, that is insight; 
what is insight, that is knowledge.^ [91] 

Should boast of means: should proclaim to a woman 
or to a man or to a householder or to one who has gone 
forth into homelessness. 

This I know, this I see means: I know these states, 

^ Tan ca kho etam ahhohdrikan ti. Same phrase occurs again 
below, p. 196. Because VA. 488 says that the phrase means that 
"it does not belong to the business and is not a form of offence", 
I take the ti after abbohdrika to mean that the phrase was uttered by 
Gotama and not by the monks. The word seems to mean " not to 
the point, irrelevant." See Pts. Contr., p. 361, n. 4. 

2 Maggabhdvand, or making the (four) ways (to arahanship) 
become. But see Old Corny 's definition, below, p. 161. 

3 Repeated at VA. 489. 



l6o BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 92 

I see these states, and there are in me these states, 
and I live conformably to these states. 

If later on means: in the moment in which there is 
an occurrence, at that moment, that second, that frac- 
tion of time, it has passed. 

Being pressed means: when a matter is acknowledged, 
then being pressed in this matter, one says: ' What was 
attained by you, how was it attained by you, when wab 
it attained by you, where was it attained by you ? 
How many corruptions are destroyed by you ? Of 
how many states are you possessed V 

Not being pressed means: nothing being said. 

Fallen means: one who has evil desires, evil longings, 
laying claim to a non-existent state of further men 
which is not a fact, is one who has fallen into an 
offence entailing defeat. 

Should desire to be purified means: he is desirous of 
being a householder or he is desirous of being a lay- 
follower or he is desirous of being a park-keeper or he 
is desirous of being a probationer.^ 

Your reverence, I said that I know what I do not know, 
see what I do not see, (but) I do not know these states, 
I do not see these states, and in me there are not these 
states, nor do I live conformably with these states. 

/ spoke idly, falsely, vainly, means: emptiness was 
spoken by me, a lie was spoken by me, a falsehood^ was 
spoken by me, it was spoken by me not knowing. 

Apart from an undue estimate of himself raesms: setting 
aside an undue estimate of oneself. 

He also means: is called so, referring to the 
preceding. 

Is one who is defeated means: just as a palmyra tree 
cut off at the crown cannot become one^ for new growth, 

^ VA. 492 says, " Inasmuch as being a house-man, a lay-follower, 
a park-keeper, or a probationer he is able (hhabha) to set going the 
way to heaven through giving, the refuges, morality and the 
restraints, or the way to freedom through musing and freedom, 
therefore the state of a householder and so on is called pure ; therefore 
desiring this purity, he is said to be one desiring purity." 

* Abhuta, something that has not become. ' abhabba. 



IV. 3—4, 1] DEFEAT l6l 

SO a monk with evil intentions, claiming a non-existent 
state of further-men which is not a fact, is not a (true) 
recluse, not a (true) son of the Sakyans^ — therefore he 
is called one who is defeated. 

He is not in comn union means: communion is called 
one work, one rule, an equal training — this is called 
conMnunion. He* who is not together with this is there- 
fore called not in communion. ||3|| 

A state of further-men^ means: musing, freedom, con- 
centration, attainment, knowledge and insight, making 
the Way to become, realisation of the fruits, destruction 
of the corruptions, delight in solitude for the mind 
devoid of the hindrances. 

Musing means: the first musing, the second musing, 
the third musing, the fourth musing. 

Freedom means: void freedom, signless freedom, 
freedom in which there is no hankering.^ [92] 

Concentration means: void concentration, signless 
concentration, concentration in which there is no 
hankering.* 

Attainment means: void attainment, signless attain- 
ment, attainment in which there is no hankering. 

Knotvledge means: the three knowledges.^ 

Making the Way to become means: the four presences 
of mindfulness, the four right efforts, the four bases of 

1 Cf. Vin. i. 97, where it is also said that the mouk is not eveu 
to say that he delights in solitude, 

2 This definition^that given above, p. 159. From here to end of 
i!l|! below=Fm. iv. 25-26. 

3 VA, 493 says that void means void of passion, hatred and 
confusion. " Signless " and " in which there is no hankering " are 
also explained with reference to these three. At Pts. ii. 35 the 
long homily begins: " Monks, there are these three kinds of freedom: 
that of the void, that of the signless, that in which there is no 
hankering." Cf. S. iv. 295 (where appanihita is trans, "aimless ") 
Cf. Vism. 658, Asl. 223, where in the trans, appanihita is 
rendered " unhankered " and " undesired " respectively. At 
Miln. 333, 337 the trans, is given as " the freedom (or concentration) 
in which no low aspirations remain." In trans, of Dhs. 351, 507 ff. 
aptpanihita is rendered " unaimed at." 

* Cf. S. iv. 360. 5 .=above, p. 159. 

I. 11 



l62 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 98 

psychic potencies, the five faculties, the five powers, 
tlie seven things helpful to enlightenment, the noble 
eightfold Way.i 

Realisation of the fruits means: realisation of the fruit 
of stream-attainment, realisation of the fruit of once- 
returning, realisation of the fruit of no-return, realisa- 
tion of the fruit of perfection. 

Destruction of the corrwptimis means: the destruct'on 
of passion, the destruction of hatred, the destruction 
of confusion. 2 

For the mind devoid of hindrances means: the mind 
devoid of the hindrance of passion, the mind devoid of 
the hindrance of hatred, the mind devoid of the hindrance 
of confusion. 

Delight in solitude means: during the first musing 
there is delight in solitude, during the second musing 
. . . during the third musing . . . during the fourth 
musing there is delight in solitude. || 1 1| 

There is an offence involving defeat for telling the 
conscious lie that, " In three ways may I enter upon 
the first musing ": before he has lied he knows, " I am 
going to lie"; while lying he knows, " I am lying"; 
having lied he knows, " I lied."^ 

There is an oifence involving defeat for telling the 
conscious lie that, "In four ways may I enter upon 
the first musing": before he has lied he knows, ''I 
am going to lie "; while lying he knows, " I am lying "; 

1 This is the usual order in which these thirty-seven things 
helpful to enlightenment, as they are called in the Corny s., appear. 
But another order is sometimes given. See Mrs. Rhys Davids, 
Sahja 395 and K.S. V., vi. ff. 

2 Cf. S. iv. 251, where the definition of nibbdna is rdgaJckhaya, 
dosakkhaya, mohakkhaya (instead of pahdna, as above)=/S. iv. 252 
in definition of arahatta. VA. 494 says, " passion and hatred are 
destroyed by the third Way, confusion by the fourth Way." 

3 Here arc three tenses of the verb bhanati : bhanissam, bhandmi, 
bhamlam. Cf. Vin. iv. 2 if. to end of j| 2 || below. Cf. M. i. 414 
where Gotama speaks to Rahula on " conscious lying." This 
Rahulovada is famous as being alluded to in an Asoka Edict; see 
Hultzsch, Corpus Jnscriptionuni Indicarum, vol. i., 1925, pp. 172, 173. 



IV. 4, 2-4] DEFEAT 163 

having lied he knows, " I lied," so misrepresenting his 
opinion. 

There is an offence involving defeat for telling the 
conscious lie that, " In five ways may I enter upon the 
first musing ": before he has lied ... so misrepresent- 
ing his opinion, so misrepresenting his approval. 

There is an offence involving defeat for telling the 
conscious lie that, " In six ways may I enter upon the 
first musing ": before he has lied ... so misrepresent- 
ing his opinion, so misrepresenting his approval, so mis- 
representing his pleasure. 

There is an offence involving defeat for telling the 
conscious lie that, " In seven ways may I enter upon 
the first musing " . . .so misrepresenting his opinion, 
so misrepresenting his approval, so misrepresenting his 
pleasure, so misrepresenting his intention.^ || 2 || 

There is an offence . . . "In three ways do I enter upon the 
first musing "... wrongly representing his intention. 

There is an offence . . . "In three ways did I enter upon 
the first musing "... wrongly representing his intention. 

There is an offence ... 'In three ways am I possessed of the 
first musing "... wrongly representing his intention. 

There is an offence . . . "In three ways am I master of the 
first musing "... wrongly representing his intention. [93] 

There is an offence , . . "In three ways is the first musing 
realised by me " . . . wrongly representing his intention. || 3 |! 

There is an offence . . . "In three ways will I enter upon the 
second . . . the third . . . the fourth musing ... In three 

1 These four psychological modalities are added to the three 
tenses of the verb bhanati. They are ditthiy khanti, ruci, bhdva, 
which I have trans, as opinion, approval, pleasure, intention, re- 
spectively. They are, as it were, added on to the three modes of 
the verb, thus making seven constituents. Bu. at VA. 400 points 
out a contradiction in the Parivara {Vin. v. 136), which attributes 
eight arigd (lit. limbs, thus constituents) to a lie, for it adds {vini- 
dhdya-) sannam, knowledge, to the above seven. These expressions 
also occur at Vm. ii. 295; iv. 2 ff. Cf. also Vbh. 245 where these 
with dddya, a casually taken-up belief {cf. Vin. i. 70), instead of 
bhdva are given in definition of idha, here, now. And cf. Nd. i. 64 f. 
where laddki, a religious belief, view, especially an heretical view, 
is substituted for bhdva. Three of these terms occur below at 
p. 305. 



164 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 04 

ways do I enter upon . . . did I enter upon ... am I possessed 
of the fourth musing . . . am I master of the fourth musing 
... is the fourth musing realised by me." ... As this first 
musing has been explained in detail so should they all be explained 
in detail. || 4 i| 

There is an offence involving defeat for telling the 
conscious He that, " In three ways will I enter upon the 
void freedom, the signless freedom,^ the freedom in 
which there is no hankering." ... "In three ways do 
I . . . did I enter upon . . . am I possessed of . . . 
am I master of ... is the freedom in which there is 
no hankering realised by me." . . . 

There is an offence involving defeat for telling the 
conscious lie that, '' In three ways will I enter upon the 
void concentration, the signless concentration, the con- 
centration in which there is no hankering ... do I 
enter upon . . . did I enter upon . . . am I possessed 
of . . . am I master of ... is the concentration in 
which there is no hankering realised by me." . . . 

There is an offence involving defeat for telling the 
conscious lie that, '' In three ways will I enter upon 
the void attainment^ . . . the signless attainment . . . 
the attainment in which there is no hankering ... do 
I enter . . . did I enter . . . am I possessed of . . . 
am I master of ... is the attainment in which there 
is no hankering realised by me." 

. . . "In three ways will I enter upon the threefold 
knowledge ... is the threefold knowledge realised by 
me." . . . 

. . . "In three ways will I enter upon the four 
presences of mindfulness . . . the four right efforts . . . 
the four bases of psychic potency . . . the five faculties 
. . . the five powers . . . the seven things helpful to 
enlightenment . . . the noble eightfold Way ... is 
the noble eightfold Way realised by me." 

. . . "In three ways will I enter upon the fruit of 
stream-attainment . . . the fruit of once-returning . . . 



1 See above, p. 161. 

2 0/ Fm. iv. 26 ff. 



IV. 4, 5-6] DEFEAT 165 

the fruit of non-return . . . perfection ... is perfec- 
tion realised by me." [94] 

. . . "In three ways is passion given up by me, is 
passion renounced by me, is passion sacrificed by me, 
is passion destroyed by me, is passion forsaken by me, 
is passion thrown aside by me, is passion rejected by 
me." 

. . . *' In three ways is my heart devoid of the 
hindrance of passion ... of the hindrance of hatred 
... of the hindrance of confusion ..." before he has 
lied he knows ... so wrongly representing his inten- 
tion. 

Told is that connected with purity || 5 || 

There is an oiFence involving defeat for telling the conscious 
lie that, " In three ways will I attain the first musing and the 
second musing . . . have been realised by me." 

There is an offence involving defeat for telling the conscious 
lie that, " In three ways will I attain the first musing and the 
third musing . . . will I attain the first musing and the fourth 
musing . . . will I attain the first musing and the void freedom 
. . . the first musing and the signless freedom . . . the first 
musing and the freedom which is without hankering . . . the 
first musing and the void concentration . . . the first musing 
and the signless concentration . . . the first musing and the 
concentration which is without hankering . . . the first musing 
and the void attainment . . . the first musing and the signless 
attainment . . . the first musing and the attainment which is 
without hankering . . . the first musing and the threefold 
wisdom . . . the first musing and the four presences of mind- 
fulness . . . the first musing and the four right efforts . . . 
the first musing and the four bases of psychic potency . . . the 
first musing and the five faculties . . . the first musing and the 
five [95] powers . . . the first musing and the seven things 
helpful to enlightenment . . . the first musing and the noble 
eightfold way . . . the first musing and the fruit of stream- 
attainment . . . the first musing and the fruit of once-returning 
. . . the first musing and the fruit of no-return . . . the first 
musing and perfection . . . will I enter upon the first musing 
'with passion given up by me . . . with passion renounced by 
me . . . sacrificed . . . destroyed . . . forsaken . . . thrown 
aside . . . rejected by me." 

There is an offence involving defeat for telling the conscious 
lie that, " In three ways do I enter upon . . . did I enter upon 



l66 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 96-97 

the first musing . . . and I am possessed of the first musing 
... I am master of the first musing ... is the first musing 
realised by me and passion is given up by me . . . and hatred 
is given up by me . . . and confusion is given up by me . . . 
and the first musing is realised by me and my heart is devoid 
of the hindrance of passion . . . my heart is devoid of the 
hindrance of hatred . . . my heart is devoid of the hindrance 
of confusion." 

Told is a portion of tbe series || 6 || 

There is an offence involving defeat for telling the conscious 
lie that, " In three ways will I enter upon the second musing 
and the third musing . . . upon the second musing and upon 
the fourth musing . . . and my heart is devoid of the hindrance 
of confusion." 

There is an offence involving defeat for telling the conscious 
lie that, " In three ways will I enter upon the second musing and 
the first musing . . . is it realised by me. ..." 

Told is the contracted series || 7 || 

So one by one with the exception of the first members 
should the contracted series which has been recited be 
treated. 

There is an offence involving defeat for telling the 
conscious lie that, *' In three ways is my heart devoid 
of the hindrance of confusion and I will enter upon the 
first musing . . . and the second musing . . . and the 
third musing . . . and the fourth musing . . . has been 
realised by me ... in three ways is my heart devoid 
of the hindrance of confusion [96] and I will enter upon 
the void freedom ... is my heart devoid of the 
hindrance of confusion and is my heart devoid of the 
hindrance of hatred ... 

Beginning with one || 8 || 

Beginning with two and beginning with three and be- 
ginning with four and beginning with five and beginning 
with six and beginning with seven and beginning with 
eight and beginning with nine and beginning with ten 
should be explained in detail like that beginning with 
one. This is that beginning with all: 



IV. 4, 9-5, 1] DEFEAT 167 

There is an offence involving defeat for telling the 
conscious lie that, " In three ways will I ... do I 
. . . did I enter upon the first musing and the second 
musing and the third musing and the fourth musing 
and the void freedom and the signless freedom and the 
freedom in which there is no hankering and the void 
concentration and the signless concentration and the 
concentration in which there is no hankering and the 
void attainment and the signless attainment and the 
attainment in which there is no hankering and the 
threefold knowledge and the four presences of mind- 
fulness and the four right efforts and the four bases of 
psychic potency and the five . faculties and the five 
powers and the seven things helpful to enlightenment 
and the noble eightfold Way and the fruit of stream- 
attainment and the fruit of once-returning and the fruit 
of non-return and perfection, and with passion given 
up by me . . . hatred given up by me . . . confusion 
given up by me, renounced, sacrificed, destroyed, for- 
saken, thrown aside, rejected, and my heart devoid of 
the hindrance of passion and . . . devoid of the 
hindrance of hatred and . . . devoid of the hindrance 
of confusion," if before he has lied he knows, " I am 
going to lie"; while lying he knows, '* I am lying"; 
having lied he knows, "I lied," so giving a misrepre- 
sentation of his opinion, a misrepresentation of his 
approval, a misrepresentation of his pleasure, a misrepre- 
sentation of his intention. 

Told is that beginning with all || 9 !| 4 || 



There is an offence involving defeat for telling the 
conscious lie that, " In three ways may I enter upon 
the first musing," and for acknowledging this, if he is 
desirous of saying,^ " I may attain the second musing " 

^ vattukdma, cf. Vism. 622=VbhA. 130. Oldenberg says, Vin. iii. 
272, " the MSS. constantly read vatthukamo, vatthuvisarakaa^a " 
(below). " I have no doubt that I was right in correcting vattnk**, 
vattuv°." This is borne out by VA. 500 f. 



l68 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [97-98 

— but if he docs not acknowledge it there is a grave 
offence. 

There is an offence involving defeat for telling the 
conscious lie that, " In three ways may I enter upon 
the first musing," and for acknowledging this if he is 
desirous of saying, " I may enter upon the third musing 
. . . the fourth musing " — but if he does not acknow- 
ledge it there is a grave offence. 

There is an offence involving defeat for telling the 
conscious lie that, " In three ways may I enter upon 
the first musing " and for acknowledging this, if he is 
desirous of saying, " My mind is devoid of the hindrance 
of confusion " — but if he does not acknowledge it 
there is a grave offence: before he has lied he knows, 
" I am going to lie " . . . having lied he knows, " I 
lied," so misrepresenting his opinion ... his intention. 

Portion of the series of the expanded talk on that 
beginning with one || 1 1| [97] 

There is an offence involving defeat for telHng the conscious 
lie that, " In three ways may I enter upon the second musing," 
and for acknowledging this, if he is desirous of saying, " I may 
enter upon the third musing . . . the first musing . . . " . . . 
but if he does not acknowledge it there is a grave offence . . . 

Concise statement of the contracted series of the 
expanded talk for that beginning with one || 2 1| 

There is an offence involving defeat for telling the 
conscious lie that, " In three ways is my heart devoid 
of the hindrance of confusion " and for acknowledging 
it, if he is desirous of saying, " I may enter upon the 
first musing ..." . . . a grave offence . . . 

There is an offence involving defeat for telling the 
conscious lie that, '* In three ways will my heart be 
devoid of the hindrance of hatred," and for acknowledging 
it, if he is desirous of saying, '' . . . but if he does not 
acknowledge it there is a grave offence." 

Told is the expanded talk on that beginning with 

one II 3 II 



IV. 5, 4] DEFEAT 169 

That beginning with two and that beginning with 
three and . • • that beginning with ten should be 
treated in the same way. This is that beginning with 
all : 

There is an offence involving defeat for telling the 
conscious lie and acknowledging it, that, "In three 
ways may I enter upon the first musing," if he is desirous 
of saying, "... my heart is devoid of the hindrance 
of confusion " — ^there is a grave offence for not acknow- 
ledging it. 

There is an offence involving defeat for telling the 
conscious lie and acknowledging it, that, " In three 
ways may I enter upon the second musing and the third 
musing and the fourth musing and the freedom which 
is void . . . and perfection, with passion given up by 
me, renounced by me, sacrificed, destroyed, forsaken, 
thrown aside, rejected, and with hatred given up by 
me . . . and with confusion given up by me . . . and 
with my heart devoid of the hindrance of passion . . . 
and of the hindrance of hatred . . . and of the hindrance 
of confusion," if he is desirous of saying, " I may enter 
upon the first musing " — ^but there is a grave offence if 
he does not acknowledge it . . . 

There is an offence involving defeat for telling the conscious 
lie and acknowledging it, that, " In three ways may I enter 
upon the third musing and the fourth musing . . . with my 
heart devoid of the hindrance of confusion and I may enter upon 
the first musing," if he is desirous of saying, " I may enter 
upon the second musing "... a grave offence. . . . There 
is an offence involving defeat for telHng the conscious lie and 
acknowledging it, that, " In three ways is my heart devoid of 
the hindrance of confusion and I may enter upon the first musing 
and the second musing and the third musing and the fourth 
musing . . . andmy heart is devoid of the hindrance of passion," 
if he is desirous of saying, " My heart is devoid of the hindrance 
of hatred " — but if he does not acknowledge it there is a grave 
offence. ... 

The expanded talk on that beginning with all. Told 
is the abbreviated series of the expanded talk 
II 4 II 5 11 [98] 



170 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 99 

There is a grave offence for telling the conscious lie 
that, " In three ways may the monk who lives in a 
vihSra enter upon the first musing . . . does he enter 
upon . . . did he enter upon . . . that monk is pos- 
sessed of the first musing ... is master of the first 
musing . . . the first musing has been realised by that 
monk " and for acknowledging this — but there is an 
offence of wrong-doing for not acknowledging it. It is 
that: before he Tied he knew, " I am going to lie "; . . . 
misrepresenting his intention. 

There is a grave offence ..." The monk who lives 
in this vihara may enter upon the second musing ... 
the third musing . . . the fourth musing . . . perfec- 
tion . . . does enter upon ... is realised by him '' 
... an offence of wrong-doing. 

There is a grave offence ..." Passion is given up 
by that monk . . . hatred is given up by that monk 
. . ..confusion is given up by that monk . . . that 
monk's hear,t is devoid of the hindrance of passion . . . 
of hatred ... of confusion ..."... an offence of 
wrong-doing. 

There is a grave offence ..." The monk who lives 
in that vihara may enter upon the first musing in soli- 
tude . . . the second musing in solitude . . . the third 
musing in solitude . . . the fourth musing in solitude 
. . . does enter upon . . . entered upon . . . that monk 
is possessed of the fourth musing in solitude ... is 
masjber of . . . the fourth musing has been realised by 
that monk in solitude ..."... an offence of \^rong- 
doing. (These are the three ways) : Before he lied . . . 
misrepresenting his intention. 

Thus should there be set out in detail the progression 
of the abridged fifteen || 1 1| 

There is a grave offence for telling the conscious lie 
that, "In three ways may a monk make use of your 
vihara . . . may make use of your robe . . . may make 
use of your alms-food . . . may make use of your 
lodgings . . . may make use of your medicine for the 



IV. 6, 2-^, 1] DEFEAT I7I 

sick . . . your vihara has been made use of by him 
. . . your robe has been made use of by him . . . your 
alms-food has been made use of by him . . . your 
lodgings have been made use of by him . . . your 
medicine for the sick has been made use of by him 
. . . thanks to you he gave a vihara . . . thanks to 
you he gave a robe ... he gave alms-food ... he 
gave lodgings ... he gave medicine for the sick, 
that monk may enter upon the fourth musing in 
solitude . . . the fourth musing has been realised by 
that monk in solitude "... but if he does not acknow- 
ledge it [99] there is an offence of wrong-doing. (These 
are the three ways): Before he has lied he knows, ''I 
am going to lie "; while lying he knows, " I am lying "; 
after he has lied he knows, " I lied," misrepresenting 
his opinion, misrepresenting his approval, misrepre- 
senting, his pleasure, misrepresenting his intention. 

Told are the abridged fifteen || 2 1| 6 1| 



There is no offence if there is an undue estimate 
of oneself, if he is not intentionally putting forward 
a claim, if he is mad, if he is unbalanced, if he is afflicted 
by pain, if he is a beginner. ^ || 7 || 

About undue estimate of oneself, in the jungle, alms, 

a teacher,^ behaviour. 
Fetters, being in private, a vihara, attended,/ 
Not difficult, energy, and then the fear of death, 

remorse your reverence,^ rightness, 

^ VA, 502 says that the monks from the banks of the Vaggumuda 
were beginners, therefore there was no offence for them. 

2 U^ajjhd, a short form of upajjhdya, found in Vin. — e.g.y i. 94; 
iii. 35; at Vin. iv. 326 upajjhd is feminine. 

^ Vipjyatisdn: *' strongly remembering something against (oneself), 
so generally ' remorse,' " thus G.S. iii. 125, n. 2 (on A. iii. lQ6=Pug. 
61). Cf. Vin. ii. 249=^. iii. 197 for the refrain: "there's no 
need for remorse in thee," which is the result of being exhorted on 
five scores on which no remorse ought to be set up. See G.S. iii. 
145. The word is also sometimes translated " regret, repentance." 



172 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 100 

By energy, by being intent, by accomplishment,^ 

then on feeling,^ two on giving in,/ 
Five stories of a brahmin, tliree on uttering profound 

knowledge. 
Houses, rejected sense-pleasure, then delights, setting 

forth,/ 
The cattle butchers are either^ bones (or) a lump of 

flesh, the morsel was a fowler, the sheep-butcher 

is flayed. 
The pig-butcher has swords, a deer-hunter knives, a 

fletcher arrows, an animal-tamer needles,/ 
He was a slanderer who was sewn, the bearer of his 

private organs was a village fraud, 
An adulterer is fallen into a pit, the eater of dung was 

a wicked brahmin,/ 
The flayed woman was an adulteress, the ill-fayoured 

woman was a woman fortune-teller. 
The dried-up woman scattered coals on the co-wife, 

*the beheaded one was an executioner, / 
A monk, a nun, a female probationer, a novice, a 

female novice, 
These having gone forth in the discipline of Kassapa 

did evil deeds at once,^/ 
The Tapoda in Rajagaha, a fight, and on the plunging 

of elephants, 
The monk Sobhita, perfected one, remembers five 

hundred kalpas. 

Although I have translated kuJckuccam hoti as " was remorseful " 
and although kukkucca and vippatisdn are often found together, 
I keep " remorseful " also for vippatisdri, for *' regret " seems not 
forceful enough, and " repentance " is now by Westerners associated 
with " repenting of a sin " — an idea foreign to Buddhism. Vippa- 
tisdri comes near to " bad conscience," which is also remembering 
something against oneself. Words for conscience are sadly lacking 
in Pali, but this may be an attempt to express the idea of it, emerging 
in the sixth century B.C. 

^ These two on feeling, if that means physical pain, seem to be 
included in the next, " on giving in." Or, and this is more likely 
and was suggested by Oldenberg, Yin. iii. 272, " two stories appear 
to be wanting " — i.e., those corresponding to drddhandya and 
vedandya. 

* Uhho. « Tavade, 



IV. 8, 1--3] DEFEAT 1 73 

Now at one time a certain monk, through undue 
estimate of himself, declared profound knowledge.^ 
He was remorseful, and said: " The course of training 
has been made known by the lord. What now if I have 
fallen into an offence involving defeat ?" So this monk 
told this matter to the lord ... " There is no offence, 
monk, (merely) because there was an undue estimate of 
yourself." |! 1 1| 

Now at one time a certain monk [100] lived in the 
jungle having made a wish^: " Thus may people esteem 
me !"^ People esteemed him. He was remorseful . . . 

'* Monk, there is no offence involving defeat. But, 
monks, there should not be living^ in the jungle having 
made a wish. Whoever should dwell thus — ^there is an 
offence of wrong-doing." 

Now at one time a certain monk was going for alms 
having made a wish: " Thus may people esteem me !" 
People esteemed him. He was remorseful . . . 

" Monk, there is no offence involving defeat. But, 
monks, there should not be going for alms having made 
a wish. Whoever should go thus — there is an offence of 
wrong-doing. ||2|| 

Now at one time a certain monk spoke thus to another 
monk: '' Your reverence, those who are pupils of our 
teacher are all men perfected." He was remorseful 
... He told this matter to the lord. 

" Of what were you thinking, monk ?" he said. 

'M wanted to put forward the claim, lord," he said. 

" Monk, there is no offence involving defeat; there is 
a grave offence," he said. 

* Anna. 

2 Panidhdya, ger. of panidahati. VA. 502, patthanam katvd, 
making a wish, cf. Jd. i. 68. For panidhdya, cf. A. iii. 249==iv. 461, 
trans, in G.S. " set on gaining." SA. i. 99 on S. i. 42 explains 
panidhdya by thapelvd, establishing. 

^ VA. 502, " May people esteem me living in the jungle as being 
at the stage of arahanship, or of a learner, then I will become revered 
by the world, venerated, respected, worshipped. 

* Vatlhabbam, from Vms, to live, to dwell. 



174 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 101-102 

Now at one time a certain monk spoke thus to another 
monk : 

" Your reverence, those who are the novices of our 
teacher are all of great psychic potency, of great majesty." 
He was remorseful . . . 

"... a grave offence/' he said, [j 3 || 

Now at one time a certain monk walked up and down, 
having made a wish . . . stood, having made a wish 
. . . sat, having made a wish ... laid down, haVwig 
made a wish: "Thus may people esteem me!" The 
people esteemed him. He was remorseful i . . He 
told this matter to the lord . . . 

" There is no offence involving defeat, monk. But, 
monks, there should not be lying down, having made 
a wish. Whoever should so lie down — there is an 
offence of wrong-doing." || 4 1| 

Now at one time a certain monk laid claim to a state 
of further-men in front of another monk, and spoke 
thus: "Your reverence, the fetters are destroyed for 
me." He was remorseful . . . He told this matter 
to the lord . . . 

"You, monk, have fallen into an offence involving 
defeat." ||5|| 

Now at one time a certain monk, being in private, 
claimed a state of further-men.^ A monk, knowing the 
mind of the other, blamed that monk, saying: " Do not 
speak thus, your reverence, this is not for you." He 
was remorseful . . . He told this matter to the 
lord . . . 

" Monk, there is no offence involving defeat; there is 
an offence of wrong-doing." 

Now at one time [101] a certain monk, being in private, 
laid claim to a state of further-men. A devata re- 



* According to VA. 503 he said, " I am an arahan," but as he 
did this not (really) believing it in his mind {na manasd cintitarn), 
it was a dukkata offence. 



IV. 8, 6-8] DEFEAT 175 

buked this monk, saying: " Honoured sir,^ do not speak 
thus, this is not for you." He was remorseful . . . 
He told this matter to the lord ... 

" Monk, there is no offence involving defeat; there is 
an offence of wrong-doing." || 6 || 

Now at one time a certain monk said to a certain lay- 
follower : 

" Your reverence, whatever monk lives in your 
vihara is one perfected." Now, he lived in his^ vihara. 
He was remorseful . . . 

" Of what were you thinking, monk ?" he said. 

" I wanted to put forward the claim, lord," he said. 

" There is no offence involving defeat, monk; there is 
a grave offence." 

Now at one time a certain monk said to a certain 
lay-follower: 

" Your reverence, whomever you attend with the 
requisites of robes, alms-food, lodgings and medicines 
for the sick, that monk is one perfected." But he 
attended him with the requisites of robes, alms-food, 
lodgings and medicines for the sick. He was remorse- 
ful .. . 

"... an offence of wrong-doing." || 7 || 

Now at one time a certain monk was ill. The monks 
said to him: " The venerable one has a state of further- 
men." 

" Reverend sirs, it is not difficult to attain." He was 
remorseful, and said: "Those who are really disciples 
of the lord may speak thus, but I am not a disciple of 
the lord.^ What now if I have fallen into an offence 
involving defeat ?" He told this matter to the lord. 

" Of what were you thinking, monk ?" he said. 

" I did not intend to put forward the claim, lord," 
he said. 



^ Note the way a fellow-monk uses dvuso in addressing a monk, 
while a non-monk, lay people, and, as here, a devata, use bhante, 
honoured sir. 

^ I.e., the lay-follower's. ^ _^g/^^^ p jgQ. 



176 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 102-103 

" There is no offence, monk, as you did not intend to 
put forward the claim. "^ 

Now at one time a certain monk was ill. The monks 
said to him: " The venerable one has a state of the 
further-men." 

" Reverend sirs, it is not difficult to declare profound 
knowledge," he said. He was remorseful ... He 
told this matter to the lord. He said: 

" Of what were you thinking, monk ?" 

" I did not intend to put forward the claim, lord,"^ 
he said. 

*' There is no offence, monk, as you did not intend 
to put forward the claim." || 8 || 

Now at one time a certain monk was ill. The monks 
said to him : 

" The venerable one has a state of further-men." 

" Reverend sirs, a state is to be attained by stirring 
up energy." He was remorseful ... He told this 
matter to the lord ... 

" There is no offence, monk, as you did not intend 
to put forward the claim." 

Now at one time a certain monk was ill. The monks 
said to him: 

'' Your reverence, do not be afraid." He said: 

" Your reverences, I am not afraid of death." He 
was remorseful . . . 

" There is no offence, monk, as you did not intend to 
put forward the claim." 

Now at one time [102] a certain monk was ill. The 
monks said to him : 

" Your reverence, do not be afraid." 



^ Anullajmnddhippdyassa. VA. 502 says, kohanne icchdcdre 
athatvd, not wanting to have his needs filled by hypocrisy (or deceit). 
Tr. Crit. Pali Did. gives, " not intending to show off, to impose," 
under anuUa''. 

2 VA. 503, " it is not difficult for a virtuous man, who has set 
insight going to declare profound knowledge, he is competent to 
attain arahanship." But this monk did not reckon himself in this 
category. 



IV. 8, 9-10] DEFEAT 177 

" Your reverences, let him be afraid who may be 
remorseful."^ He was remorseful . . . 

" There is no offence, monk, as you did not intend 
to put forward the claim." 

Now at one time a certain monk was ill. The monks 
said to him: 

" The venerable one has a state of further-men." 

" Your reverences, the state is to be attained by one 
who is rightly intent. "^ He was remorseful . . . 

" There is no offence, monk, as you did not intend to 
put forward the claim." 

Now at one time a certain monk was ill . . . 

" Your reverences, a state is to be attained by stirring 
up energy."^ He was remorseful ... 

"... as you did not intend to put forward the 
claim." 

Now at one time a certain monk was ill . . . 

" Your reverences, a state is to be attained by one 
who is harnessed* to endeavour."* He was remorse- 
ful. . . 

" . . . as you did not intend to put forward the 
claim." II 9 II 

Now at one time a certain monk was ill. The monks 
said to him; 

" We hope, your reverence, that you are getting 
better, we hope that you are able to support life ?" 

" Your reverences, it is not possible to give in because 
of this and that." He was remorseful ... He told 
this matter to the lord ... 



^ Vippatisdri, cf. above, p. 171, n. 3. VA. 504, " let the monk 
in whom remorse arises be afraid, but I am not remorseful, the 
moral precepts are completely pure, why then should I be afraid 
of death?" 

2 Sammd payuttena. 

3 As above, p. 176. 

* Yuttayoga. This word also occurs at J a. i. 65 and is translated 
" devout " {Buddhist Birth Stories, second edition, p. 178). Yanjati 
(of which yutta is p.p.) occurs at Jd. iv. 131, v. 369, with ghatati 
vdyamati, all meaning to strive, to endeavour. Yoga {yogya) has 
sense of " lit for." 

I. 12 



178 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 103 

" Monk, there is no offence as you did not intend to 
put forward the claim." 

Now at one time a certain monk was ill . . . 

" Your reverences, it is not possible to give in because 
of the common people."^ He was remorseful . . . 

*' Monk, of what were you thinking?" he said. 

" I intended to put forward the claim, lord," he 
said. 

"Monk, there is no offence involving defeat, there is 
a grave offence." || 10 1| 

Now at one time a certain brahmin invited the monks, 
saying: 

" Let the good sirs, the perfected ones, come."^ They 
were remorseful, and said: 

*' But we are not perfected ones, and yet this brahmin 
addresses us with talk about perfected ones. Now 
what line of conduct should be taken by us ?" They 
told this matter to the lord. 

*' Monks, there is no offence in a speaker with faith,"^ 
he said. 

* VA. 504, surrounding him. 

^ Ayantu, from a + Jl and meaning dgacchantu. VA. 504, " Who- 
ever said this would also have said : ' Prepare seats for all the 
arahans, give water for washing the feet, let the arahans wash their 
feet.' " 

3 Pasddabhanne. Apart from the meaning of this very rare 
word, it is noteworthy that it is in the loo., instead of, as is usually 
the case after dpatti and andpaiti, in the gen. VA. 504 says, 
" The meaning being: instigated (samussdhitassa) through his own 
power of faith, being one who goes by faith." Cf. for bhanna (for 
which P.T.S. Diet, refers to bhd) Jd. v. 317, 318. The former of 
these passages reads bhan nam with v. I., hamnam, bhunjam, and 
the latter explains by saying bhd tiratanass' etam ndmam. But I 
think that here bhanna derives from Vbhds, to speak, and not from 
Vbhds, to shine. At A. ii. 31; S. iii. 72; M. iii. 78 we find Ukkald 
vassa-bhannd. K.S. iii. 63 translates vassa-bhannd as *' preachers 
in retreat " — i.e., during vassa, the rains. But SA. ii. 279 says vasso 
ca Bhanno ca, and evidently means that these are names of people 
in certain districts, like UkkaJa-janapada-vdsino; while MA. iv. 136 
declares this to be the case: Vasso ca Bhanno cd ti dve jand. Cf. 
Pis. of Contr. 95, n. 2. I do not, however, think that the pasdda- 
bhanfie of Vi7i. above can refer to the Bhaniia people. 



IV. 8, 11-13] DEFEAT 179 

Now at one time a certain brahmin invited the monks, 
saying: 

" Let the good sirs, the perfected ones, be seated . . . 
Let the good sirs, the perfected ones, eat . . . Let 
the good sirs, the perfected ones, be regaled . . . Let 
the good sirs, the perfected ones, go away." . . . 
They were remorseful and said . . . 

" . . . in a speaker with faith." ||11 1| 

Now at one time a certain monk claimed a state of 
further-men in front of another monk, and he said : 

" Your reverence, the cankers are destroyed for me." 
He was remorseful ... 

" You, monk, have fallen into an offence involving 
defeat." 

Now [103] at one time a certain monk ... 

" Your reverence, these states exist for me." He was 
remorseful ... 

"... involving defeat." 

Now at one time a certain monk . . . 

" Your reverence, I live conformably to these states." 
He was remorseful ... 

"... involving defeat." ||12|| 

Now at one time his relations spoke thus to a certain 
monk : 

" Come, honoured sir, live in a house." He said: 

" Your reverences, one like me cannot become one 
to live in a house." He was remorseful . . . 

" There is no offence, monk, as you did not intend 
to put forward the claim." 

Now at one time his relations said to a certain monk : 

" Come, Jionoured sir, enjoy the pleasures of the 
senses." He said: 

" Your reverences, the pleasures of the senses are 
rejected by me."^ He was remorseful . . . 

^ VA. 505, dvatd ii dvdritd nivdritd patikkhittd ti attho. Had 
they in truth been rejected he would have been an arahan. Before 
they attained this supreme state, monks were not indifferent to the 
beauties of nature, as for example some of the Theragatha show. 



l8o BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 104 

" There is no offence, monk, as you did not intend 
to put forward the claim." 
Now at one time his relations said to a certain monk : 
" Come, honoured sir, enjoy yourself."^ He said: 
** Your reverences, I am enjoying myself with the 
highest enjoyment. "2 He was remorseful and said: 
*' Those who are really the lord's disciples may speak 
thus, but I am not a disciple of the lord.^ What now 
if I have fallen into an offence involving defeat ?" He 
told this matter to the lord. 

" Of what, monk, were you thinking ?" 
*'I did not intend to put forward the claim, lord," 
he said. 

" There is no offence, monk, as you did not intend to 
put forward the claim." || 13 || 

Now at one time a company of monks went up to a 
certain residence for the rains, having made this agree- 
ment: Whoever shall set out from this residence first, 
him we shall know for one perfected. A certain monk 
said: 

" Let them know me for one perfected," and he set 
out first from that residence. He was remorseful. He 
told this matter to the lord . . . 

'* You, monk, have fallen into an offence involving 
defeat." 11 141! 8 li 



At one time* the enlightened one, the lord, was 
staying at Rajagaha in the Bamboo Grove at the 
squirrels' feeding place. Now at that time the venerable 
Lakkhana^ and the venerable Moggallana the Great 

^ On ahhirati and ahhiramati see above, p. 114. 

2 YA. 505, " the monk says, * Because there is no lack of exposition 
and questionings on the teaching, and because I enjoy this state of 
things, I say I am enjoying myself with the highest enjoyment.' " 

3 = above, p. 175. 

4 =S. ii. 254-262 from here to end of |I 3 !| below. 

5 VA. 506~*SJ. ii. 216, "He from among a thousand Jatilas 
(matted hair ascetics) received the ' Come, monk ' for upasampada 
ordination. He attained arahanship at the end of the Discourse 



IV. 9, 1-2] DEFEAT l8l 

were staying oji the summit of the Vulture's Peak. 
Then the venerable Moggallana the Great, rising up 
early and taking his bowl and robe, approached the 
venerable Lakkhana, and having approached the 
venerable Lakkhana, he said: 

" Let us go, reverend Lakkhana, we will enter Raja- 
gaha for alms-food.'* 

"So be it, your reverence," the venerable Lakkhana 
answered the venerable Moggallana the Great. Then 
the venerable Moggallana the Great, [104] as he was de- 
scending from the summit of the Vulture's Peak, smiled 
(when he came to) a certain place. Then the venerable 
Lakkhana said to the venerable Moggallana the Great : 

" Now, reverend Moggallana, what is the reason, 
what the cause, that you smile ?" 

" This is not the time, reverend Lakkhana, for this 
question. Ask me this question in the presence of the 
lord." II 1 II 

Then the venerable Lakkhana and the venerable 
Moggallana the Great, having been for alms-food in 
Rajagaha, and having dined and come away from their 
meal, approached the lord and having approached and 
saluted the lord, they sat down to one side. As they 
were sitting to one side, the venerable Lakkhana said 
to the venerable Moggallana the Great: 

" Now as the venerable Moggallana the Great was 
descending from the summit of the Vulture's Peak, he 
smiled (when he came to) a certain place. Now what, 
reverend Moggallana, is the cause, what the reason, 
that you smiled ?" 

" Just now, your reverence, as I was descending from 



on Burning. He should be called one great disciple {eko nmhd- 
sdvako). Inasmuch as he is endowed with this mark and is 
possessed of a Brahma-like existence, he is called Lakkhana. Maha- 
Moggallana, the second great disciple, attained arahanship on the 
seventh day after he had gone forth into homelessness." This 
mention of Moggallana as second to Lakkhana is curious, for in 
the Suttas he is only ever linked with Sariputta. See Vin. i. 33 ff. 
for the story of the conversion of the Jatilas. 



l82 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 106 

the summit of the Vulture's Peak, I saw a skeleton 
going through the air/ and vultures, crows and hawks^ 
were following hard, striking it^ round about the ribs,* 
while it uttered a cry of distress. Then, your reverence, 
I thought: Indeed it is wonderful, indeed it is marvellous 
that a being will become like that, that a yakkha will 
become like that, that one having existence as an in- 
dividual^ will become like that." 

The monks became annoyed, vexed, angry and said. 

" The venerable Moggallana the Great is claiming a 
state of further-men."^ 

Then the lord addressed the monks, saying : 

** Indeed, monks, Ihere live disciples who have become 
vision,' indeed monks, there live disciples who have 
become knowledge, inasmuch as a disciple will know 
or will see or will see with his own eyes a thing like this. 
Monks, I saw this being before now, but I did not 
declare it. I could have declared it, but others would 
not have had faith in me, and for those who could not 
have had faith in me, there would have been for them 
pain and sorrow for a long time. Monks, this being 



^ Vehdsagata, or going above ground, cf. above, p. 79, 
n. 7. 

* VA. 507 calls these yakkha vultures, yakkha crows and yakkha 
hawks, probably meaning that these birds eat flesh. Qf. the pre- 
datory yakkhas, above, p. 146. 

3 Vitudenti. VA. 507 reads vituddhenti ti vinivijjhitvd gacchanti, 
vitudanti ti (v.l. vitudenti ti) vd pdtho. S. ii. 255 reads vita>cchenti 
vibhajenti, as in the cases below, with v.l. vitudenti for vitacchenti and 
omitting vibhajenti. 

* PdsUlay with v.l. pdsula; S. ii. 255 reads phdsula. 

* Attabhdvapatildbha. 

« Omitted at S. ii. 255. 

' CakkhubhUta, hhuta being p.p. of bhavati. At A. v. 226 the 
tathagata is called cakkhubhitto ndnabhuto (as above) and dhamma- 
bhuto brahmabhUtOj trans, at G.S. v. 157 " he has become the eye, 
he has become knowledge," etc. VA. 508 says, cakkhubhutam 
jdtam uppannam tesan ti cakkhubhUtd, bhutacakkhukd uppannacak- 
khukd. Cakkhum uppddetvd viharanti dutiyapade pi es' eva nayo. 
A A. on A. V. 226)Siamese edition) says, cakkhubhuto ti cakkhu viya 
bhdto nibbatto. Ndnabhuto ti ndnasabhdvo. {A A. also explains 
bhuta in dhamma° and brahma° by sabhdva.) 



IV. 9, 2-3] DEFEAT 183 

was a cattle butcher^ in this very Rajagaha. As a 
result of his deeds he was boiled^ in hell for many- 
years, for many hundreds of years, for many thousands 
of years, for many hundreds of thousands of years; 
now for what remains as the result of his deeds he under- 
goes existence as an individual like this. Monks, 
Moggallana spoke truly; there is no offence for Mog- 
gallana."^ ||2|| 

..." Now, your reverence, as I was coming down 
from the summit of the Vulture's Peak, I saw a lump 
of flesh going through the air, and vultures, crows and 
hawks, following hard, were tearing at it and pulling 
it to pieces,* while it uttered a cry of distress." [106] 
..." Monks, this being was a cattle-butcher in this 
very Rajagaha." 

..." Now, your reverence, as I was coming down 
from the summit of the Vulture's Peak, I saw a morsel 
of flesh going through the air, and vultures, crows and 

^ VA. 508, '* at the time of his passing from the Pit (naraka) his 
outward appearance was a mass of bones ... he has arisen as a 
departed one {'peta) who is a skeleton." Of his deeds, tassa katnmassa 
expl. tassa ndndcetandhi dyuhi tassa apardpariyakammassa. 

2 paccifvd, passive of pacati. Paccati is lit. to be boiled or cooked, 
P.T.S. Diet, saying, " Nearly always applied to the torture of boiling 
in niraya, where it is meant literally." But I think that the idea 
(found in the active) of ripening and maturing for the next rebirth 
is also intended. The context brings out this point. One was not 
condemned to eternal damnation. VA. 508 also emphasises this 
by saying that through what remained of the result of his deeds 
after his reinstatement (patisandhi) in naraka, he took on reinstate- 
ment again among the petas. I have translated paccitvd literally, 
since for lack of an English word to express the idea of being boiled 
to a ripeness which entails a change, it seems to me preferable to 
" has been punished " {K.S. ii. 170), as this conveys the idea still 
less of the past deeds maturing until the individual is ready for a 
new rebirth. 

3 Omitted at S. ii. 256. 

* Cf. M. i. 364, where the simile is possibly taken from this Vin. 
passage, M. i. 364 reads, vitaccheyyum virdjeyyum, trans. Fur. 
Dial, i' 261, " to tear and rend it." VirdjerUi is a v.l. for vibhajetUi 
at both Vin. iii. 105 above and S. ii. 256, and it would not seem un- 
intelligible in these contexts. 



184 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 106 

hawks, following hard, were tearing at it and pulling 
it to pieces, while it uttered a cry of distress." . . . 
" Monks, this being was a fowler^ in this very Raja- 
gaha." 

..." Now, your reverence, as I was coming down 
from the summit of the Vulture's Peak, I saw a flayed 
man going through the air, and vultures, crows and 
hawks, following hard, were tearing at it and pulling it 
to pieces, while it uttered a cry of distress." . . . 
" Monks, this being was a sheep-butcher^ in this very 
Eajagaha." 

..." Now, your reverence, as I was coming down 
from the summit of the Vulture's Peak, I saw a man 
who had swords for hair going through the air. These 
swords of his, constantly flying up into the air, fell down 
on his body while he uttered a cry of distress." . . . 

" Monks, this being was a butcher of pigs in this very 
Rajagaha."^ 

..." Now, your reverence, as I was coming down 
... I saw a man with knives for hair going through 
the air. These knives of his constantly flying up into 
the air fell down on his body, while he uttered a cry of 
distress." ... " Monks, this being was a deer-hunter 
in this very Rajagaha."* 

..." Now, your reverence, as I was coming down 
... I saw a man with arrows for hair going through 
the air. These arrows of his ..."...".. . was a 
fl etcher^ in this very Rajagaha." 

^ VA. 509, " at the time of bis passing from the Pit (tiaraka) his 
outward ai)pearance was a piece of flesh, therefore he arose as a 
departed one who is a piece of flesh." 

2 orabbhika, VA. 509, elake vidhitvd, having skinned them during 
his life, afterwards his appearance was that of a skinless ram's body, 
and therefore he has arisen as a departed one who is flayed {nic- 
chavipeto). 

3 He killed the pigs with swords, thus his outward appearance 
is the state of having drawn swords, thus he has arisen as a departed 
one who has swords for hair. 

* His outward appearance is a state of being struck with knives, 
because he killed the deer with knives. 

* kdrmiika, but judge at K.S. ii. 171, which has n. "cruel to 
criminals." According to the Comys. " a man causing death. 



IV. 9, 3] DEFEAT 185 

..." Now, your reverence, as I was coming down 
... I saw a man having hair like needles going through 
the air. These needles of his . . ." . ..*'... was an 
animal- tamer^ in this very Rajagaha." 

..." Now, your reverence, as I was coming down 
... I saw a man having hair like needles going through 
the air. These needles of his piercing his head came 
out through his mouth, entering his mouth they came 
out through his breast, entering his breast they came 
out through his stomach, entering his stomach they 
came out through his thighs, entering his thighs they 
came out through his legs, entering his legs they came 
out through his feet, while he uttered a cry of distress." 
... "... was a slanderer in this very Raja- 
gaha." 

..." Now, your reverence, as I was . . . I saw a 
demon-man^ g^^ii^g through the air. When he moves 
he goes having put his secret organs on to his shoulder, 
when he sits he sits among these secret organs, so that 
vultures, crows and hawks following hard, were tearing 
at him and pulling him to pieces, while he uttered a cry 
of distress ..."..."... was a village fraud in 
this very Rajagaha." 

..." Now, your reverence, as I was ... I saw a 
man, head and all, tumbled into a dung-pit ..." 

shooting with arrows," kandena vijjhitvd. Hence possibly the 
confusion, P.T.S. Diet., referring only to S. ii. 257, and saying, " wsw°, 
however, used simply in the sense of making: arrow-maker, fletcher." 

^ sdrathi. S. ii. 257 reads, sucako here as in the next example. 
Translator at K.S. ii. 172 suggests suto for sucako. Bofh words, 
according to P.T.S. Diet., mean charioteer or coachman, but VA. 
50^ and SA. ii. 220 (under suto, with n. that title in text sud-sdrathi) 
sjjeak of horse-tamer, cow-tamer. 

2 kuynbhanda. Note word-play on anda. VA. b\0=:SA. ii. 220 
says, kumbhamattd mahdghatappamdnd andd ahesum, while Jd. iii. 
147 defines as kumbhamattarahassangd mahodard yakkJid. Our 
Comys. say that as he had made others suffer by his secret wrong- 
doing, so now he suffers in his secret organs. At DA. i. 73 a 
kumbhanda is placed on the back of a horse as a sign of instability. 
Kumbha7idi at Vism. 183, in connection with lata, creeper, trans. 
" pumpkin." This is evidently the secondary meaning of the 
word. 



l86 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 106-107 

..." Monks, this being was an adulterer in this very 
Eajagaha." 

..." Now, your reverence, as I was [106] ... I 
saw a man, head and all, tumbled into a dung-pit and 
eating dung with both hands ..." ..." Monks, 
this being was a wicked brahmin in this very Rajagaha. 
He, at the time of Kassapa, the all-enlightened one, 
having invited a company of monks to a meal, and 
having had a trough filled with dung, and having had 
the time announced, said: " I say, let my masters eat 
as much as they like, and carry away as much as they 
need." 

..." Now, your reverence, as I was ... I saw a 
flayed woman going through the air. Vultures . . . 
were pulling her to pieces, while she uttered a cry of 
distress ..." ... " Monks, this woman was an 
adulteress in this very Rajagaha."^ 

..." Now,, your reverence, as I was ... I saw a 
malodorous, ill-favoured woman going through the air. 
Vultures . . . were pulling her to pieces ..." 
..."... was a fortune-teller^ in this very Raja- 
gaha." 

. . . " Now, your reverence, as I was ... I saw a 
woman, shrivelled up, dried up because of some 
cutaneous disease,^ going through the air . . . while 
she uttered a cry of distress." ... " Monks, this 
woman was the chief consort of King Kalinga; over- 
come by envy she threw out her rival,* scattering a 
brazier of burning coals over her." 

1 Inasmuch as she got her pleasures with other men, not with her 
own husband, she is reborn flayed so as to undergo a painful contact, 
being deprived of pleasant touch. VA. 510. 

2 VA. 511, deceiving the people by taking gifts of flowers and 
perfumes from them, saying, " now there will be increase for you." 

3 wpakkam okilinim okirinim. Bu. at VA. 511 says, '* she fell on 
to a heap of coals . . . therefore, she is shrivelled by the agonising 
fires; okilini and her body inflamed, drop upon drop oozing from her 
body; okirinl and surrounded by charcoal; from below the charcoal 
was on both sides of her, like the red flowers of the kimsuka tree ; 
the charcoal fell from the air on her." 

* She was a dancer who had pleased the King by massaging him. 



IV. 9, 3] DEFEAT 187 

..." Now, your reverence, as I was ... I saw the 
headless trunk of a body going through the air. Its 
eyes and even its mouth were on its breast. Vultures 
. . . were pulling it to pieces while it uttered a cry of 
distress ..." ... " Monks, this being was an execu- 
tioner called Harika in this very Rajagaha."^ 

..." Now, your reverence, as I was ... I saw a 
monk going through the air. His outer cloak was 
burning,^ in flames and ablaze, moreover his bowl was 
burning, in flames and ablaze, moreover his girdle was 
burning, in flames and ablaze, moreover his body was 
burning, in flames and ablaze, and he was uttering a 
cry of distress ..." ... " Monks, in the time of 
Kassapa, the all-enlightened one, this monk was a 
depraved monk."^ 

..." Now, your reverence, as I was ... I saw a 
nun ... I saw a (female) probationer* ... I saw a 
novice ... I saw a female novice going through the 
air. Her outer cloak was burning, in flames, and 
ablaze . . . while she uttered a cry of distress. Then, 
your reverence, I thought: indeed it is wonderful, 
indeed it is marvellous, that a being may become like 
that, that a yakkha may become like that, that one 
having existence as an individual may become like 
that." 

The monks became annoyed, vexed and angry and 
said: 

"The venerable Moggallana is claiming^ a state of 
further-men."^ 

Then the lord addressed the monks, saying : 

" Indeed, monks, there live disciples who have be- 



* VA. 512, for a long time he had beheaded thieves at the king's 
command. Therefore he was reborn headless. 

^ Quoted at MA. i. 91, and said to refer to the monk Kapila. 
VA. mentions no names. 

* He went about enjoying himself to his heart's content, therefore 
he was boiled in hell for an interval between Buddhas, and then 
arising in a ^e^a- world he arose with an existence like a monk. 

* Fem. in Table of Contents, above, p. 172. 
6 Omitted at S. ii. 261. 



l88 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 107-106 

come vision, there live disciples who have become 
knowledge, [107] inasmuch as a disciple will know or 
will see or will see with his own eyes a thing like this. 
Monks, I saw this female novice before now, but I did not 
declare it. I could have declared it, but others would 
not have had faith in me, and for those who could not 
have had faith in me, there would have been for them 
pain and sorrow for a long time. Monks, at the time 
of Kassapa, the all-enlightened one, this female novice 
was a. depraved female novice. As a result of her 
deeds, she was boiled in hell for many years, for many 
hundreds of years, for many thousands of years, for 
many hundreds of thousands of years. Now, because 
of what remains as the result of her deeds, she undergoes 
existence as an individual like this. Monks, Moggallkna 
spoke truly; there is no offence for Moggallana." ||3'|| 

Then the venerable Moggallana the Great addressed 
the monk^ thus : 

'' Your reverences, this Tapoda flows from this: this 
lake of beautiful water, of cool water, of sweet water, 
of pure water, with lovely and charming fords, with an 
abundance of fishes and turtles, and lotuses bloom for 
the measure of a cycle. And yet this Tapoda as it 
flows is boiling." 

The monks became . . . angry and said: 

" How can the venerable Moggallana the Great speak 
thus : ' Your reverences, this Tapoda flows from this 
... is boiling V The venerable Moggallana the Great 
ite claiming a state of further-men." They told this 
matter to the lord. He said : 

"Monks, this Tapoda flows from this: this lake of 
beautiful water . . . lotuses bloom for the measure 
of a cycle. But, monks, the Tapoda comes between 
the two great hells,^ that is why the Tapoda as it flows 

^ Tapoda means " boiling waters." VA. 512, says, " they say- 
that the town of Rajagaha is near the world of the departed, and 
this Tapoda comes there between the two great red pits of the hells." 
Cf. below, p. 274, n. 6. At ^. v. 196 Ananda and the wanderer 
Kokanuda went to this river to bathe their limbs. 



IV. 9, 4-6] DEFEAT 189 

is boiling. Monks, Moggallana spoke truly. There is 
no offence for Moggallana." || 4 || 

At one time King Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha was 
defeated in a conflict with the Licchavis. Then the 
king, after collecting his armies, beat the Licchavis and 
the drum of victory went into the conflict, and the 
Licchavis were defeated by the king. Then the vener- 
able Moggallana the Great addressed the monks saying : 

'' Your reverences, the king was defeated by the 
Licchavis, and the drum of victory went into the con- 
flict, and the Licchavis were defeated by the king." 
The monks became annoyed, vexed and angry and said : 

*' How can the venerable Moggallana speak thus: 
* Your reverences, the king was defeated by the Lic- 
chavis, and the drum of victory went into the conflict, 
and then the Licchavis were defeated by the king.' The 
venerable Moggallana the Great is claiming a state of 
further-men." They told this matter to the lord. He 
said : 

** Monks, first the king was defeated by the Licchavis, 
[108] and then after the king had collected the army, 
he beat the Licchavis. Moggallana spoke truly. There 
is no ofl*ence for Moggallana." || 5 || 

Then the venerable Moggallana the Great addressed 
the monks, saying : 

'' Now I, your reverences, having entered upon stead- 
fast contemplation on the banks of the river Sappinika/ 
heard the noise of elephants plunging, crossing over 
and trumpeting. "2 

The monks became annoyed, vexed and angry, saying : 
" How can the venerable Moggallatia the Great talk 

1 Mentioned also at S.. i. 153; A. ii. 29, 176, SappinT; at A. i. 185, 
Sappinika; cf. also Vin. Texts i. 254, n. 2. Usually trans, the 
" Snake River." The wanderers had a park on its banks. It was 
near Rajagaha. 

2 VA. 513, " plunging down into the deep water, and bathing 
and drinking there, and taking up water with their trunlis, they 
mingle together and cross over." 



igo BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [109 

like this, saying : ' Having entered upon steadfast con- 
templation, I heard elephants plunging, crossing over 
and trumpeting ?' . . . a state of further-men." They 
told this matter to the lord. He said: 

*' Monks, that was contemplation, but he was not 
wholly purified.^ Moggallana spoke truly. There is no 
offence for Moggallana." || 6 || 

Then the venerable Sobhita^ addressed the monks, 
saying: "Your reverences, I remember five hundred 
kalpas." The monks became annoyed, vexed and 
angry, saying: 

'' How can the venerable Sobhita speak thus: ' I re- 
member five hundred kalpas '? He is claiming a state 
of further-men." They told this matter to the lord. 
He said : 

" Monks, the meaning is that this is just one birth 
of Sobhita's. Sobhita spoke truly. There is no offence 
for Sobhita." || 7 || 9 1| 

Told is the Fourth Offence involving Defeat 



Set forth for the venerable ones are the four things 
involving defeat. A monk, having fallen into one or 
other of these, is not in communion with the monks; 
as before,^ so after, he is one who is defeated, he is not 

^ parisuddha. VA. 513 f. " They say that the thera attained 
arahanship on the seventh day after he went forth, and had mastery 
in the eight attainments, but not having purified himself well in 
the obstructions to contemplation . . . and rising up from musing 
and hearing the sound of the elephants, he heard it between the 
attainments. Of this he was aware." 

^ A. I. 25 says, that he is the chief of the monks remembering his 
former rebirths. In his verses, Thag. 165, 166, he twice repeats 
that he remembered five hundred kalpas in a single night. At 
Asl. 32 he is said to be the third in the line of theras who conveyed 
the Abhidhamma up to the time of the Third Council. 

^ Vin. Texts i. 5, n. 2, says that the phrase yathd pure tathd pacchd 
" probably means that the monk is irrevocably defeated. He 
must remain for ever in the condition (of permanent exclusion from 
the Order) into which he has brought himself." VA. 516 says, 



IV.] DEFEAT 191 

in communion. Therefore I ask the venerable ones: 
I hope that you are quite pure in this matter ? A 
second time I ask: I hope that you are quite pure in 
this matter ? A third time I ask: I hope that you are 
quite pure in this matter ? The venerable ones are 
quite pure in this matter, therefore they are silent. 
Thus do I understand. 

Unchastity, taking what is not given, and the form 

of men, and those who are further. 
The four matters involving defeat are without doubt 

a reason for punishment.^ 

Told is the Defeat Section [109] 

*' as in his time as a householder, at the time when he was not (yet) 
ordained, and as after when he has fallen into defeat, he is not in 
communion; there is not for him communion with the monks at 
the uposatha (observance-day), the pavarana (ceremony at the end 
of the rains), under the rule of the Patimokkha, or at the legal acts 
of the Order." 

1 Chejjavatthu. See chejja (Vched) above, p. 75, meaning 
maiming. 



[These thirteen things, venerable ones, entailing formal 
meetings of the Order, come for exposition.] 



FORMAL MEETING (SANGHADISESA) I 

At one time the enlightened one, the lord, was stay- 
ing at Savatthi in the Jeta Grove in Anathapindika's 
park. Now at that time the venerable Seyyasaka^ led 
the Brahma-life, dissatisfied.^ Because of this he was 
thin, wretched, his colour bad, yellowish, the veins 
showing all over his body.^ The venerable Udayin saw 
the venerable Seyyasaka thin, wretched, his colour bad, 
yellowish, his veins showing all over his body. Seeing 
him thus, he said to the venerable Seyyasaka : " Reverend 
Seyyasaka, why are you thin, wretched . . . the veins 
showing all over your body ? Perhaps it is that you, 
reverend Seyyasaka, lead the Brahma-life, dissatisfied ?" 

** It is so, your reverence," he said. 

" Now then, you, reverend Seyyasaka, eat as much 
as you like, sleep as much as you like, bath* as much 
as you like : eating as much as you like, sleeping as much 
as you like, bathing as much as you like, if dissatisfac- 
tion arises in you and passion assails^ your heart, then 
emit semen using your hand."^ 

^ At Vin. ii. 7 ff. he is represented as being tiresome in various 
ways. 

* armbhirato, see above, p. 114, for discussion on this term. VA. 
517 says on this term, vikkhittacitto kdmardgaparildhena pari- 
dayhamdno na pana gihibhdvam patthayamdno, upset in his mind, 
burning with a fever of passion and sense-desires, but not wanting 
the household state. 

' stock-phrase. 

* VA. 517, anointing the body with clay, rubbing on chunam. 

5 A stock-phrase, rdgo citiam anuddhamseti, as at Af. i. 26; ^. i. 
186; ^. ii. 126. VA. 518 says, kdmardgo cittam dhamseti padhamsefi 
vikkhipati c'eva mildpeti ca. MA. i. 142 expl. anuddhamsessati by 
hifjsissati adhibhavissati. 

« VA. 518, " Thus will your mind become one-pointed. The 
teacher is said to have taught this." At VA. 517 it is said that 

102 



I. 1, 1-2] FORMAL MEETING I93 

" But, your reverence, are you sure that it is suitable 
to act like this V 

" Yes, your reverence, I do this." 

Then the venerable Seyyasaka ate as much as he 
liked, slept as much as he lik^d, bathed as much as he 
liked; but having eaten as much as he liked, slept as 
much as he liked, bathed as much as he liked, dissatis- 
faction arose, and passion assailed his heart, so he emitted 
semen using his hand. Then in a short time the vener- 
able Seyyasaka was nice-looking with rounded features, 
of a bright complexion and a clear skin. So the monks 
who were the friends of the venerable Seyyasaka spoke 
thus to the venerable Seyyasaka : 

" Formerly, reverend Seyyasaka, you were thin, 
wretched, of a bad colour, yellowish, with the veins 
showing all over your body. But now, at present, you 
are nice-looking with rounded features, [110] of a bright 
complexion and a clear skin. Why now, do you take 
medicine,^ reverend Seyyasaka ?" 

" I do not take medicine, your reverences, but I am 
eating as much as I like, I am sleeping as much as I 
like, I am bathing as much as I like; then eating as 
much as I like, sleeping as much as I like, bathing as 
much as I like, if dissatisfaction arises in me and passion 
assails the heart, I emit semen using my hand." 1| 1 1| 

" But do you, reverend Seyyasaka, eat the gifts of 
faith^ with the very same hand as that which you use 
to emit semen ?" 

" Yes, your reverences," he said. 

Those who were modest monks became annoyed, 
vexed and ^ngry, saying: 

Seyyasaka's teacher is Laludayin, " an unsteady monk." This 
thera Laludayin is mentioned at DhA. ii. 123 as having the reputa- 
tion of saying the wrong thing; at Jd. i. 123 as coming into conflict 
with Dabba the Mallian over food-tickets; and at J a. ii. 164 as being 
extremely nervous and unable to talk. 

1 bhesajjam karosi. 

2 saddhd-deyya, VA. is silent, but DhA. i. 81, explains as kamman 
ca phalah ca idhalokah ca paralokan ca saddahitvd dinndni. 

I. 13 



194 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. Ill 

" How can the venerable Seyyasaka emit semen in 
this way ?" 

Then these monks, having rebuked the venerable 
Seyyasaka in various ways, told this matter to the lord. 
Then the lord on this occasion, in this connection, having 
had the order of monks convened, asked the venerable 
Seyyasaka : 

" Is it true, as is said, that you, Seyyasaka, using 
your hand, emit semen ?" 

*' It is true, lord," he said. 

The enlightened one, the lord, rebuked him, saying: 
" It is not fit, foolish man, it is not becoming, it is not 
suitable, it is not worthy of a recluse, it is not right, it 
is not to be done. How can you, foolish man, emit 
semen using your hand ? Foolish man, have I not 
uttered dhamma in many ways for the stilling of passion,^ 
and not for the sake of passion, taught dhamma for 
the sake of being devoid of the fetters, and not for the 
sake of being bound, taught dhamma for the sake of 
being without grasping, ^ and not for the sake of grasp- 
ing ? How can you, foolish man, while dhamma is 
taught by me for the sake of passionlessness, strive 
after passion ? How can you, while dhamma is taught 
for the sake of being devoid of the fetters, strive 
after being bound ? How can you, while dhamma is 
taught for the sake of being without grasping, strive 
after grasping ? Foolish man, have I not taught 
dhamma in various ways for the stilling of passion, 
taught dhamma for the subduing of conceit, for the 
restraint of thirst, for the elimination of attachment, 
for the cutting through the round of becomings, for 
the destruction of craving, for passionlessness, for 
stopping, for waning ? Foolish man, have I not de- 
clared in various ways the destruction of the pleasures 
of the senses, declared the full understanding of ideas 
of the pleasures of the senses, declared the restraint 



1 = above, p. 35, except that in this second passage the lord is 
represented as speaking. Cf. A. ii. 34. 
* A7iupddd7ia, sa-upddana. 



I. 1, 2—2, 1] FORMAL MEETING 195 

of the thirst for pleasures of the senses, declared the 
elimination of thoughts of pleasures of the senses, 
declared the allaying of the fever of pleasures of the 
senses ? Foolish man, it is not for the benefit 
of unbelievers, nor for increase in the number of 
believers, but it is, foolish man, to the detriment 
of unbelievers as well as of believers, and it causes 
wavering in some." 

Then the lord having rebuked the venerable Seyya- 
saka [111] in various ways on account of his difficulty 
in maintaining his state . . . said: 

"... Thus, monks, this course of training should 
be set forth : 

Intentional emission of semen is a matter entailing 
a formal meeting of the Order. "^ 

Thus this course of training for monks was made 
known to the lord. 11 2 11 111 



Now at that time, monks, having eaten abundant 
food, went to sleep, thoughtless and careless. While 
they were sleeping, thoughtless and careless, one of 
them emitted semen as the result of a dream. These 
were remorseful and said^: " The course of training made 

^ Sahghddisesa. Cf. A. ii. 242. VA. 522 says, sahgho ddimhi 
c eva sese ca icchitabbo assd ti sahghddiseso. This explanation was 
noted by Childers: an offence to be dealt with by a sahghakamma 
in the beginning, ddi, and in the remaining cases, sesa. See below, 
Old Corny.' s explanation which makes clear the first stage, the 
placing on probation ; the second stage of sending back to the begin- 
ning of the probation; the third stage, the tndnatta discipline; and 
the last stage, the rehabilitation. This type of offence is next in 
gravity after the Parajikas. Because it cannot be settled by many 
people or by one man [Old Corny.) it therefore has to be settled by 
the Order, which presumably has to be convened for the purpose, 
as the above incident shows. Editor at Vin. Texts i. 7, n. 1, notes 
that, " these thirteen offences give rise to the various saw^Aa^awwas 
. . . which are explained in detail in the third Khandhaka of the 
Culavagga." 

2 These first sentences recur at Vin. i. 294. Cf. Kvu. 164 where 
the matter of this story formed the controverted point of one of 
the early debates on arahans. 



196 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 112 

known by the lord says that intentional emission of 
semen is a matter requiring a formal meeting of the 
Order; and because 01 a dream one of us (did this). 
Now is this intention permitted ? What now if we have 
fallen into an offence requiring a formal meeting of the 
Order ?" They told this matter to the lord. He said: 

" Monks, this was the intention, but it does not 
apply.^ Monks, this course of training should be set 
forth: 

Intentional emission of semen except during a dream 
is an offence requiring a formal meeting of the Order. " 1 1 1 1 1 

Intentional means: a transgression committed know- 
ingly, consciously, deliberately.^ 

Semen means: there are* ten kinds of semen . . . 

Emission means : the removal from the place is called 
emission. 

Except during a dream^ means: setting the dream 
aside. 

Offence requiring a formal meeting of the Order means : 
the Order places him on probation^ on account of the 
offence, it sends him back to the beginning,* it inflicts 
the manatta discipline,^ it rehabilitates®; it is not many 

1 =above, p. 159, and see n. 1. 

a =above, p. 126, and see n. 3. 

3 parivdsam deti. Cf. Vin. ii. 7. Rules for monks placed on 
probation are given at Vin. ii. 31 ff. At Vin. ii. 40 Udayin was 
placed on probation for one day, since he had concealed this first 
saiighadisesa for one day. See Vin. Texts ii. 384, n. 1, for the four 
principal kinds of probation, and for Seyyasaka's conduct. At 
Vin. 1. 69 it is said that a person who was formerly an adherent of 
another sect and who asks for ordination should be put on probation 
for four months, and the measures to be taken for the proper carrying 
out of this step are stated. Valid and invalid proceedings are given 
at Vin. i. 320 ff. 

* I.e., of his probationary term. Cf. Vin. ii. 7. At Vin. ii. 34 
rules for those thrown back to the beginning are given: they are 
the same as for those placed on probation. 

* This appears to be much like being placed on probation, cf. 
Vin. ii. 35. At Vin. ii. 45 Udayin underwent manatta for six days. 
For the correct carrying out of this discipline see below, p. 328. 

« The way in which a monk should ask for rehabilitation is given 
at Vin. ii. 39 and cf. below, p 328. 



I. 2, 2—6, 1] FORMAL MEETING IQ/ 

people, it is not one man ; therefore it is called an oifence 
which in the earlier as well as the later stages (requires) 
a formal meeting of the Order. A synonym for this 
class of oifence is a work;^ therefore, again, it is called 
(an offence which in the earlier as well as the later stages 
requires) a formal meeting of the Order.^ || 2 || || 2 || 



[The whole of || 3 1|,* pp. 112-115, because of the out- 
spokenness and crudeness which it contains, and 
which seem to be inseparable from early litera- 
tures, appears unsuitable for incorporation in a 
translation designed principally for Western 
readers.] 



He aims at it, makes the effort, it is emitted — an offence en- 
tailing a formal meeting of the Order. He aims at it, makes the 
effort, it is not emitted — a grave offence. He aims at it, does 
not make the effort, it is emitted — not an offence. He aims at 
it, does not make the effort, it is not emitted — not an offence. 
He does not aim at it, he makes the effort, it is emitted — not an 
offence. He does not aim at it, does not make the effort, it is 
emitted — not an offence. He does not aim at it, does not make 
the effort, it is not emitted — ^not an offence. 

There is no offence if he was dreaming, if there was 
no intentional emission, if he was mad, unhinged, in 
pain, a beginner. ||4|| 



A dream, excrement and urine, reflection, and about 

hot water, 
Medicine, itching, the way, the bladder, a hot room 

for bathing-purposes, making an effort,/ 

^ kamma, possibly meaning sanghakamma: an act or ceremony, 
for the infliction of the penalty, to be performed by an assembly of 
monks met together in solemn conclave. Probably kamma has here 
an ancient technical meaning. 

* Gf. Vin. iv. 225, the first Bhikkhuni-sanghadisesa. Here 
" inflicts manatta " is apparently substituted for " places on pro- 
bation," which is not mentioned. 



J 



198 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 116-119 

And a novice, and asleep, the thigh, he pressed with 

the fists, 
In the air, firmness, he meditated on, an aperture, 

he hit with a stick, / 
In the stream, muddy water, running, a twist of 

flowers, a lotus. 
Sand, mud, water, lying down, and with the thumbs. 



At one time while a certain monk was dreaming he 
emitted semen. He was remorseful and said: " What 
now if I have fallen into an offence entailing a formal 
meeting of the Order ?" That monk told this matter 
to the lord. He said : " There is no offence for the monk 
because he was dreaming.'' || 1 1| 



[The reasons for not including* the remainder of || 6 1| 
in this translation are the same as those for not 
including |{3|| above.] 

Told is the First Offence entailing a Formal Meeting of 

the Order 



FORMAL MEETING (SANGHADISESA) II 

At one time the enlightened one, the lord, was staying 
at Savatthi in the Jeta Grove in Anathapindika's park. 
At that time the venerable Udayin lived in the jungle. 
The dwelling^ of the venerable one was lovely, good to 
look upon, beautiful, the inner chamber in the middle 
was entirely surrounded by the house; the couch and 
chair, the bolster and pillow were well designed, the 
water used for drinking and that used for washing were 
well placed; the celP was well swept. Many people 
came to look at the dwelling of the venerable Udayin, 
and a certain brahmin together with, his wife approached 
the venerable Udayin, and having approached the vener- 
able Udayin, he said: " We want to see the dwelling of 
the good Udayin." 

'' Do look at it, brahmin," he said, and taking the 
key, unfastening the bolt, and opening the door,^ he 
entered the dwelling. The brahmin entered after the 
venerable Udayin, and the brahmin lady entered behind 
the brahmin. Then the venerable Udayin, opening 
some windows and closing others, going round about 
the inner room, and coming up from behind, rubbed up 
against* the brahmin lady limb by limb. Then the 

^ Vihdra. ^ parivena, see above, p. 119, n. 1. 

3 Kavdlam pandmetvd. Cf. Vin. i. 87; ii. 114, 207 and Vin. 
Texts iii. 88, where in n. 1 translator (rightly) insists that pandmeti 
is "to open " and not " to shut," Our passage above is further 
evidence that this is so. But P.T.S. Diet, says " kaodtam "pandmeti, 
to shut the door." Possibly it means "to make the door lean/' 
i.e. when open against the wall, when closed against the post. 

* pardmasi, see below, p. 203, and n. 6. This " rubbing up 
against " was not, I think, an act of deliberate familiarity or 
meant offensively. In the tiny cell-room Udayin just rubbed up 
against the visitors, as we might rub up against people in a crowd 
— in a bus or train or queue. 

199 



200 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 11&-120 



brahmin, having exchanged greetings with the venerable 
Udayin, went away. Then the brahmin, who was 
pleased, burst out with a cry of pleasure:^ " Superb are 
these recluses, sons of the Sakyans, who dwell in such 
a jungle, superb is the revered Udayin who dwells in 
such a jungle." 

Having spoken thus, the brahmin" lady said to the 
brahmin: [119] 

" What is there superb about him ? Even as you 
rubbed up against me limb by limb, so did this recluse 
Udayin rub up against me limb by limb." 

Then the brahmin became annoyed, vexed, angry 
and said : 

'' These recluses, sons of the Sakyans, ^ are shameless, 
of low morality, liars. And they pretend to be walking 
by dhamma, walking by right, leading the Brahma- 
life, speaking truth, virtuous, of good conduct. Among 
these there is no recluseship, among these there is no 
brahmanhood. Perished is recluseship among these, 
perished is brahmanhood among these. Where is re- 
cluseship among these ? Where is brahmanhood among 
these ? Fallen from recluseship are these, fallen from 
brahmanhood are these. How can this recluse Udayin 
rub up against my wife limb by limb ? It is not possible 
to go to the park or dwelling with wives of respectable 
families, with daughters of respectable families,^ with 
girls of respectable families,^ with daughters-in-law* 
of respectable families, with women-slaves of respectable 

^ attmnano atfamanavdcam nicchdresi= M . i. 32 and M. i. 509 
inicchdreyya) . VA. is silent, MA. i. 151 says: attamano ti saka- 
mano tuttliamano ; pUisomanassehi va gc^hiiamano. Attamanavdcam 
nicchdresi ti attamanatdya vdcam, attamanabhdvassa vd yutiavdcam 
nicchdresi. Udirayi, pabydhari ti vuttam hoti. 

2 As above, p. 125, and below, p. 223. 

3 These two are probably meant to be opposed. Bu. calls kula- 
dhitd, purisantaram gatd, and kulakumdriyo, anivitthd (unsettled). 

^ Kulasunhd. P. T.S. Diet, given sunhd undei sunisa. At Vin. Texts 
ii. 348 it is trans. " sisters-in-law." Childers gives daughter-in-law. 
VA. 532 says, " brought from another family for the young men of 
respectable families, they are vadhuyo," which is daughters-in-law. 
And indeed a daughter-in-law held a more important position in 
the social system than did a sister-in-law. 



II. 1, 1-2] FORMAL MEETING 201 

families. If wives of respectable families, daughters 
of respectable families, girls of respectable families, 
daughters-in-law of respectable families, women-slaves 
of respectable families should go to a park or dwelling, 
the recluses, sons of the Sakyans, may assault them." 

Ill II 

The monks heard this brahmin as he was grumbling, 
murmuring, and becoming angry. Those who were 
modest monks became annoyed, vexed, angry and said: 
" How can the reverend Udayin come into bodily contact 
with women-kind ?" Then these monks told this matter 
to the lord. Then the lord on this occasion, for this 
reason, causing the Order of monks to be convened, 
asked the reverend Udayin: 

*' Is it true as they say, Udayin, that you came into 
bodily contact with a woman ?" 

" It is true, lord," he said. 

Then the enlightened one, the lord, rebuked him, 
saying: 

"It is not right, foolish man, it is not becoming, it 
is not suitable, it is not fit in a recluse, it is not proper, 
it is not to be done. How can you, foolish man, come 
into bodily contact with a woman ? Foolish man, is 
not dhamma uttered by me in various ways for the 
sake of stilling passion, and not for the sake of passion 
. . . declared the allaying of the flames of the pleasures 
of the senses ? It is not, foolish man, for the benefit 
of unbelievers. . . . Thus, monks, this course of train- 
ing should be set forth : 

" Whatever monk, affected by desire,^ with perverted^ 
heart, should come into^ physical contact with a woman. 



^ Otinna, as passive: possessed by. See Old Corny.'' s explanation 
below in 2, 1. The translators in Vin, Texts i. 7, n. 2 say, " our 
word ' degraded ' has often a very similar connotation." They 
render otinna by degraded. Cf. below, p. 215. 

^ Viparinatena, lit. changed. Cf. below, p. 215. 

* Samdpajjeyya=$afj -\-dpajjati, Sanskrit. dpadyate=d-{-pad, to 
get into, to come into, to meet with. Sam+d (as here) very often 
pleonastic. Although samdpajjati does not, in the above context, 



202 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [120-121 

holding her hand, or holding a braid of her hair, or 
rubbing against any one or other of her limbs: this is 
an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order/' 

11211111 



Tf^a^ever means: he who ... 

Monk means: . . . this is how monk is to be under- 
stood in this sense. [120] 

Affected by desire means: infatuated, full of desire, 
physically in love with.^ 

Perverted means: the perverted heart is impassioned, 
the perverted heart is corrupt, the perverted heart is 
erring. And in this meaning it is to be understood 
that the perverted heart is impassioned.^ 

Woman means : a human woman, not a female yakkha, 
not a female departed one, not a female animal,^ even 
a girl bom on this very day, all the more an older 
one.2 

Together with means : together. 

Should come into physical contact means: it is called a 
transgression.^ 



necessarily imply deliberate action, coming into physical contact 
with a woman was nevertheless regarded as an offence of a serious 
nature, because the desires possibly resulting from such a contact 
had to be suppressed. For in a growing vogue of monasticism the 
majority of members were perhaps young and middle-aged men. 
Cf. below, p. 338. 

^ =below, p. 215. 

^ Mahattari. This is comparative of makant. The Sanskrit 
form is muhattard, but Pali has -i, after then. Same definition 
occurs below, p. 332. 

^ Ajjhdcdra, cf. ajjhdcarati {adhy - a + \^car) to practise (some- 
thing bad). Used in Vin. in the sense of a fault, a transgression; 
then in an erotical sense as above, and cf. below, p. 216. It could not 
there be used in sense of contact, for the speech, not the body, was 
at fault. VA. 533 says, " whatever is called physical contact 
{cf. 547, " oifensive speech ") according to that meaning it is a trans- 
gression." Cf. also VA. 213, " she, because of his transgression, 
became pregnant." VA. 19 says, " he disciplines body and speech 
through the restraint of transgressions of body and speech." At 
Vin. i. 63 we get adhisile silavipanno hoti ajjhdcdre dcdravipanno 



II. 2, 1-2] FORMAL MEETING 203 

The hand means: going up from the tip of the nail 
as far as the elbow. 

Braid of hair means: nothing but hair/ or mixed 
with threads,^ or mixed with garlands,^ or mixed with 
gold coins,* or mixed with gold,* or mixed with pearls, 
or mixed with jewels.^ 

A limb means : setting to one side a hand and a braid 
of hair, what remains is called a limb. || 1 1| 

Rubbing, rubbing up against, rubbing downwards, 
rubbing upwards,* bending down, raising up, drawing 
to, pushing back, holding back hard, taking hard hold 
of, the grasp, the touch. 

Rubbing is called merely rubbed. Rubbing up 



hoti atidiithiyd ditthivipanno hoti. Here ajjhdcdre (indeclinable) 
means according to Tr. Crit. Pali Diet., " in matter, of conduct " 
as adhisile means not ** in the higher morality," but *' as to a matter 
of morality." Vin. Texts i. 184, n. 1, points out that there Bu. says 
that adhisUe '' m said with regard to offences against the Defeat 
and Formal Meeting rules, while ajjhdcdre consists in offences against 
the minor rules of the Patimokkha." But below, p. 211, " to come 
into physical contact," which above is called a transgression, is 
there (below) called a Formal Meeting offence. 

* /.c, unmixed with threads, VA. 533. 

^ I.e., the hair mixed with threads of five colours. 
^ I.e., with jasmine flowers, and so on. 

* On hiranna and suvanna see above, p. 28. Here VA. 534 says that 
hiranfiamissa means mixed with garlands and kahapanas; and 
suvanrikamissa means mixed with golden ciraka and with pdmanga. 
Here suvannaciraka probably means gold threads or bands or 
fillets {of. Jd. V. 197 where suvannaciraka seems to mean gold 
brocade). On pdtnahga, cf. above, p. 77. 

^ With jewels strung on threads. 

* These four words: dmasand, pardmasand, omasand, ummasand 
are all connected with masati from ^/mfs. to touch. I have tried 
to give the force of the prefixes with masati by suitable prepositions. 
a has force of "at," therefore d-masati, to stroke at, touch at, 
although a in itself denotes touch (contact) or a personal (close) 
relation with the object — so P.T.S. Diet. Cf. below, p. 211. Para- 
means " over." Note the difference of o<jiva and ut in the third and 
fourth words. There are similar prefixes in some of the following 
words, meaning " down " and " up." Pardmasati at Vin. ii. 216 
is trans, by " wipes " (at Vin. Texts iii. 291) — i.e., wipes over, rubs 
over (the spoon and the dish). Cf. pardmasati, above, p. 199. 



204 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE III. 121-122 

against is called moving from here and there. Rubbing 
downwards is called bringing down low. Rubbing up- 
wards is called raising up high. Bending down is called 
lowering. Bending up is called raising up high. Draw- 
ing to is called pulling. Pushing back is called sending 
back. Holding back hard^ is called holding back having 
taken hold of a limb. Taking hard hold of is called 
taking hold together with someone. Grasp is called 
merely taken. Touch means merely contact. 

Offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order means : 
. . . therefore it is called an offence entailing a formal 
meeting of the Order. || 2 || 2 1| 



If there is a womai^ and thinking her to be a woman, 
if the monk is infatuated, and rubs the woman's body 
with his body, rubs up against it, rubs it downwards, 
rubs it upwards, bends it down, raises it up, draws it 
to,* pushes it back, holds it back hard, takes hold of 
it hard, grfisps it, touches it, there is an offence entailing 
a formal meeting of the Order. 

If there is a woman, and being doubtful, if the monk is in- 
fatuated, and rubs the woman's body with his body, rubs up 
against it . . . touches it, there is a grave offence. 

If there is a woman, and thinking it to be an eunuch, if the 
monk is infatuated . . . grave offence. 

If there is a woman, and thinking it to be a man . . . thinking 
it to be an animal, if the monk is infatuated . . . grave offence. 

If there is an eunuch, and thinking it to be an eunuch, if the 
monk is infatuated, [121] and rubs the eunuch's body . . . 
touches it . . . grave offence. 

If there is an eunuch, and being doubtful . . . thinking it to 
be a man . . . thinking it to be an animal . . . thinking it 
to be a woman, if the monk is infatuated ^ and rubs the eunuch's 
body . . . touches it, there is an offence of wrong-doing 

If there is a man, and thinking it to be a man . . . 
doubtful . . . thinking it to be an animal . . . think- 
ing it to be a woman . . . thinking it to be an eunuch, 

^ ahhinigganhand, while merely ** holding back " is nigganhand. 
Also cf. next, abhinipjniand and nipptland. 



U. 3, 1-3] FORMAL MEETING 205 

if the monk is infatuated and rubs the man's body . . . 
touches it, there is an offence of wrong-doing. 

If there is an animal, and thinking it to be an animal 
. . . doubtful . . . thinking it to be a woman . . . 
thinking it to be an eunuch . . . thinking it to be a 
man, if the monk is infatuated and rubs the animal's 
body . . . touches it, there is an offence of wrong- 
doing. 

Beginning with one || 1 1| 

If there are two women, and thinking the two women 
to be women, if the monk is infatuated and rubs the 
women's bodies . . . touches them, there is an offence 
entailing a formal meeting of the Order. 

If there are two women, and being doubtful whether they 
are two women . . . thinking them to be men ... to be 
eunuchs ... to be animals, if the monk is infatuated and rubs 
with his body the bodies of the two women . . . touches them, 
there are two grave offences. 

If there are two eunuchs, and thinking the eunuchs to be 
two eunuchs, if the monk is infatuated and rubs their bodies . . . 
touches them, there are two grave offences. 

If there are two eunuchs, and being doubtful of their being 
eunuchs . . . thinking them to be men ... to be animals 
... to be women, if the monk is infatuated and rubs the bodies 
of the eunuchs . . . touches them, there are two offences of 
wrong-doing. 

It there are two men, and thinking the two men to be men, 
if the monk is infatuated and rubs the two men with his body 
. . . touches them, there are two offences of wrong-doing. 

If there are two men, and being doubtful of their being men 
. . . thinking them to be animals ... to be women ... to 
be eunuchs, if the monk is infatuated and rubs the two men 
with his body ... touches them, there are two offences of 
wrong-doing. 

If there are two animals, and thinking the two animals to 
be animals . . . doubtful . . . thinking them to be women 
... to be eunuchs ... to be men, if the monk is infatuated 
and rubs the two animals with his body, there are two offences 
of wrong-doing. || 2 || 

If there are a woman and an eunuch, and thinking 
both to be women, if the monk is infatuated [122] and 



206 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 123 

rubs with his body . . . touches them, there is an offence 
of wrong-doing together with an offence entailing a 
formal meeting of the Order. 

If there are a woman and an eunuch, and being doubtful, if 
the monk is infatuated . . . there is an offence of wrong-doing 
together with a grave offence. 

If there are a woman and an eunuch, and thinking both to be 
eunuchs, if the monk is infatuated . . . there are two grave 
offences. 

If there are a woman and an eunuch and thinking both to 
be men, if the monk is infatuated .- . . there is an offence of 
wrong-doing together with a grave offence. 

If there are a woman and an eunuch, and thinking both to 
be animals, if the monk is infatuated . . . there is an offence 
of wrong-doing together with a grave offence. 

If there are a woman and a man, and thinking both 
to be women', if the monk is infatuated . . . there is 
an offence of wrong-doing together with an offence 
entailing a formal meeting of the Order. 

If there are a woman and a man, and being doubtful 
of both . . . thinking them to be eunuchs ... to be 
men . . . to be animals, if the monk is infatuated . . . 
there is an offence of wrong-doing together with a grave 
offence. 

If there are a woman and an animal, and thinking 
both to be women, if the monk is infatuated ... there 
is an offence of wrong-doing together with an offence 
entailing a formal meeting of the Order. 

If there are a woman and an eunuch, and being doubt- 
ful of both . . . thinking them to be eunuchs ... to 
be men ... to be animals, if the monk is infatuated 
. . . there is an offence of wrong-doing together with a 
grave offence. 

If there are an eunuch and a man, and thinking both 
to be eunuchs, if the monk is infatuated . . . there is an 
offence of wrong-doing together with a grave offence. 

If there are an eunuch and a man, and being doubtful 
of both . . . thinking them to be men ... to be 
animals ... to be women, if the monk is infatuated 
. . . there are two offences of wrong-doing. 



II. 3, 3-4] FORMAL MEETING 207 

If there are an eunuch and an animal, and thinking 
both are eunuchs, if the monk is infatuated . . . there 
is an offence of wrong-doing together with a grave 
offence. 

If there are an eunuch and an animal, and being 
doubtful of both . . . thinking them to be men . . . 
to be animals ... to be women, if the monk is in- 
fatuated . . . there are two offences of wrong-doing. 

If there are a man and an animal, and being doubtful 
of both . . . thinking them to be animals ... to be 
women ... to be eunuchs, if the monk is infatuated 
. . . there are two offences of wrong-doing. 

Beginning with two || 3 || 

If there is a woman, and thinking it to be a woman, 
if the monk is infatuated and rubs with his body the 
woman's article of dress (worn on the body^) . , . 
touches it, there is a grave offence.^ 

If there are two women, and thinking the two women 
to be women, if the monk is infatuated and rubs with 
his body an article of dress belonging to the two women 
. . . touches it, there are two grave offences. [123] 

If there are a woman and an eunuch, thinking that both are 
women if the monk is infatuated and rubs an article of dress 
of both with his body . . . touches them, there is an offence of 
wrong-doing together with a grave offence. 

If there is a woman, thinking it to be a woman, if the monk 
is infatuated and rubs his body with the woman's article of dress 
. . . touches it, there is a grave offence. 

If there are two women . . . there are two grave offences. 

If there are a woman and an eunuch . . . there is an offence 
of wrong-doing together with a grave offence. 

If there is a woman, thinking it to be a w^oman, if the monk 
is infatuated and rubs (his) article of dress with the woman's 
article of dress . . . touches it, there is an offence of wrong- 
doing. =* 

^ Kdyapatibaddha, or ornaments, e.g. rings, VA. 536, clothes and 
flowers, VA. 537. Whoso takes several women, encircling them in 
things to be worn, commits various offences. Cf. below, p. 218. 

2 C/. Fm. iv. 214. ^ Ibid. 



208 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [II. 124 

If there are two women . . . there are two offences of wrong- 
doing. 

Ifthere are a woman and an eunuch . . . there are two offences 
of wrong-doing. 

If there is a woman, and thinking it is a woman, 
if the monk is infatuated and rubs the woman's body 
with something that may be thrown^ (aside), thBre is an 
offence of wrong-doing. 

If there are two women, and thinking that the two women 
are women, if the monk is infatuated and rubs the bodies of the 
two women with something that may be thrown (aside), there are 
two offences of wrong-doing. 

If there are a woman and an eunuch, and thinking both are 
women, if the monk is infatuated and rubs the body of each with 
something that may be thrown (aside), there are two offences of 
wrong-doing. 

If there is a woman, and thinking it to be a woman, 
if the monk is infatuated and rubs the woman's article 
of dress with something that may be thrown (aside), 
there is an offence of wrong-doing. 

If there are two women, and thinking that the two women are 
women, if the monk is infatuated and rubs an article of dress 
belonging to the two women with something that may be thrown 
(aside), there are two offences of wrong-doing. 

If there are a woman and an eunuch . . . there are two 
offences of wrong-doing. 

If there is a woman, and thinking it to be a woman, if the 
monk is infatuated and rubs something he has thrown (aside) 
with something of the woman's which may be thrown (aside), 
there is an offence of wrong-doing. 

If there are two women . . . there are two offences of wrong- 
doing. 

If there are a woman and eunuch . . there are two offences of 
wrong-doing. 

Told is the Monk Repetition ||4|| 

If there is a woman, and thinking it to be a woman, 
if the monk is infatuated and the woman rubs the body 
of the monk with her body, rubs against it, rubs it down- 

1 nissagyiya, cf. p. 129. VA. 540, flowers and fniits; cf. Vin, iv. 214. 



II. 3, 5] FORMAL MEETING 209 

wards, rubs it upwards, bends it down, raises it up, draws 
it to her, pushes it back, holds it back hard, takes hard 
hold of it, grasps it, touches it; if desiring cohabitation, 
he exerts his body and recognises the contact, there is 
an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order. 

If there are two women, and thinking them to be 
women, if the monk if infatuated and the women rub 
. . . and recognises the contact, there is an offence entail- 
ing two formal meetings of the Order. [124] 

If there are a woman and an eunuch, and thinking both to 
be women, if the monk is infatuated and if both rub . . . 
and recognises the contact, there is an offence of wrong-doing 
together with an offence entailing a formal meeting of the 
Order. 

If there is a woman, and thinking it to be a woman, if the 
monk is infatuated and the woman rubs with her body the monk's 
article of clothing . . . there is a grave offence. 

If there are two women . . . there are two grave offences. 

If there are a woman and an eunuch . . . there is an offence 
of wrong-doing together with a grave offence. 

If there is a woman, and thinking it to be a woman, if the 
monk is infatuated and the woman rubs the monk's body with^ 
her article of dress . . . there is a grave offence. 

If there are two women . . . there are two grave offences. 

If there are a woman and an eunuch . . . there is an offence 
of wrong-doing together with a grave offence. 

If there is a woman, and thinking it to be a woman, 
if the monk is infatuated and the woman rubs the 
monk's article of dress with her article of dress . . . 
there is an offence of wrong-doing. 

If there are two women . . . there are two offences of wrong 
doing. 

If there are a woman and an eunuch . . . there are two 
offences of wrong-doing. 

If there is a woman, and thinking it to be a woman, 
if the monk is infatuated and the woman rubs the 
monk's body with something that may be thrown (aside), 
if desiring cohabitation, he exerts his body and recognises 
the contact, there is an offence of wrong-doing. 

I. 14 



210 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 126-126 

If there are two women . . . there are two offences of wrong- 
doing. 

Ifthere are a woman and an eunuch . . . there are two offences 
of wrong-doing. 

If there is a woman, and thinking it to be a woman, 
if the monk is infatuated and the woman rubs the monk's 
article of dress with something that may be thrown 
(aside) . . . and recognises the contact, there is an 
offence of wrong-doing. 

If there are two women . . . there are two offences of wrong- 
doing. 

If there are a woman and an eunuch . . . there are two offences 
of wrong-doing. 

If ihene is a woman, and thinking it to be a woman, 
if the monk is infatuated and the woman rubs with some- 
thing that may be thrown (aside) something of the 
monk's that maybe thrown (aside), if desiring cohabita- 
tion, he exerts his body but does not recognise the 
contact, there is an offence of wrong-doing. 

If there are two women . . . there are two offences 
of wrong-doing. 

If there are a woman and an eunuch . . . there are 
two offences of wrong-doing. || 5 || 

If desiring cohabitation, he makes bodily exertion 
and recognises contact, there is an offence entailing 
a formal meeting of the Order. If desiring cohabita- 
tion, he makes bodily exertion but does not recognise 
contact, there is an offence of wrong-doing. If desiring 
cohabitation, he does not make bodily exertion but 
recognises contact, there is no offence. If desiring 
cohabitation, he does not make bodily exertion nor 
recognises contact, there is no offence. 

If desiring emission he exerts his body and recognises 
contact, there is no offence. If desiring emission, he 
exerts the body but does not recognise contact, [125] 
there is no offence. If desiring emission, he does not 
exert the body but recognises contact, there is no offence. 
If desiring emission, he does not exert the body and does 
not recognise contact, there is no offence. || 6 || 



n. 8, 7—4, 3] FORMAL MEETING 211 

There is no offence if it is not on purpose, not inten- 
tional, not knowing, not agreeing, if lie is mad, un- 
hinged, in pain, a beginner.^ II 7 || 3 1| 



Mother, daughter, and sister, wife, and female yakkha, 

eunuch, 
Asleep, dead, an animal, about a wooden doll,/ 
Pressing up to, a bridge, a road, a tree, and a boat, 

and a cord, 
A stick, he disclosed the bowl,^ in salutation, he 

exerted himself but did not touch. 

Now at that time a certain monk stroked^ a mother* 
for the sake of a mother's affection ... a daughter 
for the sake of a daughter's affection ... a sister for 
the sake of a sister's affection. He was remorseful, and 
said: '' What now if I have fallen into an offence en- 
tailing a formal meeting of the Order ?" He told this 
matter to the lord. He said: 

" Monk, this is not an offence entailing a formal 
meeting of the Order, it is an offence of wrong-doing." 

II 1 II 

Now at one time a certain monk came into physical 
contact with his former wife. He was remorseful . . . 

" You, monk, hava fallen into an offence entailing 
a formal meeting of the Order." || 2 1| 

Now at that time a certain monk came into physical 
contact with a female yakkha . . . with a eunuch. 
He was remorseful ... " Monk, it is not an offence 



* VA. 541 says that Thera Udayin was the first olfender, therefore 
there was no offence for him. 

* Cf. kavdtam pandmeti. See p. 199, n. 3, above, and p. 213, below. 
^ Amasi, see above, p. 199, n. 4, and p. 203 n. 6. Amasi is the word 

there trans, by " to rub," but there it seems to call for ** to stroke." 

* VA. 541 says " he strokes the mother's body, saying, ' she is my 
mother.' " In text amasi (he stroked) is not followed by the ace. 
as is usually the case. 



212 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 126-127 

entailing a formal meeting of the Order, it is a grave 
offence." ||3|| 

Now at one time a certain monk came into physical 
contact with a sleeping woman. He was remorseful 
... *' Monk, you have fallen into an offence entailing 
a formal meeting of the Order." 

At one time a certain monk came into physical con- 
tact with a dead woman. He was remorseful. '' Monk, 
it is not an offence entailing a formal meeting of the 
Order, it is a grave offence." 

Now at one time a certain monk came into physical 
contact with a female animal^ ... " Monk, it is not 
an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order, 
it is an offence of wrong-doing." 

Now at one time a certain monk came into physical 
contact with a wooden doll ... "... an offence of 
wrong-doing." ||4|| 

Now at one time many women, pressing up to^ a 
certain monk, led him about arm-in-arm. He was 
remorseful ... " Did you consent, monk ?" he said. 

''I did not consent, lord," he said. 

" It is not an offence, monk, as you did not consent," 
he said. |!5|| [126] 

Now at one time a certain monk, being infatuated, 
shook the bridge^ upon which a woman had ascended. 
He was remorseful ... "... offence of wrong- 
doing." II 6 II 

Now at one time a certain monk seeing a woman 
whom he met on the way, was infatuated, and gave 
her a blow on the shoulder. He was remorseful . . . 
"... formal meeting of the Order." || 7 ij 

1 tiracchdnagatitthi, see above, p. 47, n. 4. 
* sampilefvd, pressing, pinching, or worrying. 
» VA . 546, whether it is a bridge for one passenger, or for waggons, 
if he succeeds in shaking it or not, it is a dukkata. 



II. 4, 8-11] FORMAL MEETING 213 

Now at one time a certain monk, being infatuated, 
shook the tree up which a woman had climbed . . . the 
boat in which a woman had embarked. He was remorse- 
ful .. . "... offence of wrong-doing." || 8 || 

Now at one time a certain monk, being infatuated, 
pulled a cord^ of which a woman held (the other end). 
He was remorseful ... "... grave offence," he said. 

Now at one time a certain monk, being infatuated, 
pulled a stick of which a woman held (the other end). 
He was remorseful ... "... grave offence," he 
said. II 9 II 

Now at one time a certain monk, being infatuated, 
greeted^ a woman with his bowl. He was remorse- 
ful .. . " . .'. grave offence," he said. ||10|| 

Now at one time a certain monk, infatuated by a 
woman who made reverence, raised his foot. He was 
remorseful ... "... formal meeting of the Order," 
he said. 

Now at one time a certain monk, saying: " I will take 
a woman," exerted himself but did not touch one. He 
was remorseful ... "... offence of wrong-doing," 
he said. ||11||.4|| 

Told is the Second Offence entailing a Formal Meeting 

of the Order 



1 rajjum dvinji. 

2 pattena pandmesi. In " Table of Contents," p. 211, above, 
this appears as pattam pandmesi, which at Vin. ii. 216 is " uncovered 
(or disclosed) the bowl." The trans, of this passage at Vin. Texts 
iii. 290 is not accurate; but it means "he presents the bowl 
with his right hand." In the above passage it is so curious that 
paita is in the instrumental, as against the more natural ace. that I 
am inclined to suspect that anjalim should have been inserted — 
then meaning, " he raised his hands together with his bowl in 
respectful salutation of the woman." Thus this " greeting with 
the hands " would be balanced just below by " greeting with the 
feet." Corny, is silent. I think that there must be some con- 
fusion between pattam pandmeti and anjalim pandtneti. Cf. on 
kavdtam ^ariameii, above, p. 199, n. 3. 



FORMAL MEETING (SA]?^GHADISESA) III 

... at Savatthi in the Jeta Grove in Anathapindika's 
park. At that time the venerable Udayin lived in the 
jungle. The venerable one's dwelling was lovely, good 
to look upon, beautiful. At that time many women 
came to the park^ in order to see the dwelKng. Then 
those women approached the venerable Udayin, and 
having approached him, they said to the venerable 
Udayin: 

" Honoured sir, we want to see the master's dwell- 
ing." 

Then the venerable Udayin, showing these women 
his dwelling and pointing out^ the privies to them, spoke 
in praise, spoke in blame and begged and implored and 
asked and questioned and described and exhorted and 
abused. Those [127] women who had little fear of 
blame,^ who were sly and who had no shame mocked at 
the venerable Udayin, called out to him, laughed at 
him, made fun of him.* But those women who had 
shame, upon departing complained to the monks, 
saying: 

" Honoured sirs, this is not suitable, it is not fitting, 
we should not wish this spoken about ev^n by our 
husbands, to say nothing of master Udayin."^ || 1 1| 

Then those who w:ere modest monks became annoyed, 
vexed and angry and said: 



^ Oldenberg, Vin. iii. 274, suggests aranham agamafjsu. 

2 ddissa=:apadisitvd, VA. 546. 

^ chinnikd=chinnaoUappd, VA. 546. 

* uppandenti ti pandaho ayarn ndyam puriso ti, 

^ Kim pan' ayyena Uddyind. 

214 



III. 1, 2—2] FORMAL MEETING 215 

" How can the venerable Udayin offend women with 
lewd words ?" Then these monks told this matter to 
the lord. Then the lord on this occasion and in this 
connection had the company of monks convened and 
questioned the venerable Udayin, saying: 

" Is it true as is said, Udayin, that you offended 
women with lewd words ?" 

" It is true, lord," he said. 

The enlightened one, the lord, rebuked him, saying: 

'' It is not suitable, foolish man, it is not proper, it 
is not becoming, it is not worthy of a recluse, it is out 
of place, it is not to be done. How can you, foolish 
man, offend women with lewd words ? Foolish man, 
is not dhamma uttered in various ways by me for the 
sake of passionlessness, not for the sake of passion . . . 
proclaimed for the allaying of the flames of pleasures 
of the senses ? It is not, foolish man, for the benefit of 
unbelievers . . . and thus, monks, this course of train- 
ing should be set forth : 

Whatever monk, affected by desire^, with perverted 
heart,2 should offend a woman with lewd words con- 
cerned with unchastity, as, for example, a youth to a 
young woman, it is an offence entailing a formal meeting 
of the Order." || 2 ill 11 



Whatever means : he who . . . 

Monk means: . . . this is how monk is to be under- 
stood in this meaning. 

Affected by desire means: infatuated, full of desire, 
physically in love with.^ 

Perverted means: the perverted heart is impassioned, 
the perverted heart is corrupt, the perverted heart is 
erring. And in this meaning it is understood that the 
perverted heart is impassioned.^ 

Woman means : a human woman, not a female yakkha, 
not a female departed one, not a female animaP; she is 

1 KSee above, p. 201, n. 1. ^ g^e above, p. 201, n. 2. 
^ Cy. above, p. 202. 



2l6 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 128-129 



intelligent, competent to know good and bad speech, 
what is lewd and what is not lewd.^ 

Le/ivd speech means: speech connected with privies 
and with unchastity. 

Should offend^ means: it is called a transgression.^ 

As, for example, a youth to a young woman means : a 
lad to a young girl, a boy of tender age to a girl of tender 
age, a male enjoying sense-pleasures to a female enjoying 
sense-pleasures. [128] 

Concerned ivith unchastity means: connected with 
unchaste things.* 

A formal meeting of the Order means : . . . because of 
this it is called a formal meeting of the Order. || 2 1| 

Pointing out the two privies he speaks in praise, and 
he speaks in blame, and he begs, and he implores, and 
he asks, and he questions, and he describes, and he 
exhorts, and he abuses. 

He speaks in praise means: he extols, he praises, he 
commends . . . 

He speaks in blame means: he curses, he reviles, he 
finds fault with . . . 

He begs means: he says, " give to me, you are worthy 
to give to me." 

He implores means: he says, " When will your mother 
be reconciled ?^ When will your father be reconciled ? 
When will your devatas be reconciled ? W^hen will 
there be a good opportunity, a good time, a good 
moment ? When shall I have sexual intercourse with 
you ?" 

He asks means: he says, " How do you give to your 
husband ? How do you give to a paramour ?" 

1 == below, p. 337 

- obhdseyijd ti avabhdseyya . . . asaddhammavacanam vadeyya. 

^ Cf. above, p. 202, in expl. of kdyasaysagga. 

^ It is difficult to render into English the slight difference of mean- 
ing in the Pali : methunujjasamhitdhi ti tnethunadhammapatismjyuttdhi. 
Cf. below, p. 226. 

^ VA. 548, " on tlie reconciliation of your mother I will indulge in 
sexual intercourse." 



III. 3, 1-3] FORMAL MEETING 217 

He questions means: he says, " They say that as you 
give to your husband so you give to your paramour." 

He describes means: having asked, he says: " Give 
thus, giving thus you will become dear and beloved to 
your husband." 

He exhorts means: not having asked, he says: " Give 
thus, giving thus you will become dear and beloved to 
your husband." 

He abuses means: he says, " You are without sexual 
characteristics, you are defective in sex, you are blood- 
less, your blood is . stagnant, you are always dressed, 
you are dripping, you are a deformed woman,^ you are 
a female ounuch, you are a man-like woman, your 
sexuality is indistinct, you are a hermaphrodite.^ || 1 1| 

If it is a woman, if he is infatuated thinking her to 
be a woman, and if the monk, pointing out the two 
privies to a woman, speaks in praise, speaks in blame 
. . . abuses, it is an offence entailing a formal meeting 
of the Order. 

If there are two women, if he is infatuated thinking 
them to be women, and if the monk pointing out the two 
privies to the two women ... it is an offence entailing 
two formal meetings of the Order. 

If it is a woman and an eunuch, if he is infatuated 
thinking them both to be women, and if the monk 
pointing out the two privies to both . . . there is an 
offence of wrong-doing with an offence entailing a formal 
meeting of the Order. || 2 1| 

If there is a woman, if he is infatuated thinking her 
to be a woman, and if the monk leaving out (talk on) 
the two privies to the woman, pointing out (any part) 
from below the collar bone to above the knee,^ speaks in 
praise, and speaks in blame [129] . . . and abuses, there 
is a grave offence. 



^ sikharani — i.e., probably with certain defects of the pudendum. 

2 For these abnormalities, c/. same list at Vin. ii. 271. 

3 Cf. Vin, iv. 213. 



2l8 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 130 

If there are two women . . . there are two grave 
offences. 

If there are a woman and an eunuch . . . there is an 
offence of wrong-doing together with a grave offence. || 3 || 

If there is a woman, if he is infatuated thinking her 
to be a woman, and if the monk, pointing out (any part) 
from below the collar bone to above the knee to the 
woman, speaks in praise, speaks in blame . . . abuses, 
there is an offence of wrong-doing. 

If there are two women . . . there are two offences 
of wrong-doing. 

If there are a woman and an eunuch . . . there are 
two offences of wrong-doing. || 4 || 

If there is a woman, if he is infatuated thinking her 
to be a woman, if the monk, pointing out an article of 
clothing^ to the woman, speaks in praise . . . there is 
an offence of wrong-doing. 

If there are two women . . . there are two offences 
of wrong-doing. 

If there are a woman and an eunuch . . . there are 
two offences of wrong-doing. || 5 || 

There is no offence if he is aiming at (explaining) the 
meaning,^ if he is aiming at (explaining) dhamma,^ if 
he is aiming at (explaining) the teaching, if he is mad, 
if he is a beginner.^ II 6 1| 3 1| 

Red, thick and short, matted, shaggy and long, sown, 
I hope the way is at an end, faith, about a gift, about 
work. 

^ Kdyapatihaddha, VA. 549 says, '' a garment or a flower or an 
ornament," so here not necessarily article of dress. Cf. above, 
p. 207. 

* atthapurekkhdra dhammapurekkhdra. Attha and dhamma taken 
together are sometimes rendered " the letter and the spirit " as 
at ^. i. 69 ; cf. " not-dhamma and not-aim " at G.S. v. 155. VA. 549 
says of attha'^, " telling the meaning of the words or reciting the 
commentary," and of dhamma°y " teaching or reciting the text 
{pdli). 

^ VA. 549 again says, Udayin was the beginner. 



III. 4, 1-5] FORMAL MEETING 219 

At one time a certain woman was wearing a newly 
dyed blanket. A certain monk, being infatuated, said 
to this woman: " Sister, is that red thing yours^ ?" She 
did not understand and said: 

" Yes, master, it is a newly dyed blanket." 

He was remorseful and said; " What now if I have 
fallen into an offence entailing a formal meeting of the 
Order ?" He told this matter to the lord, who said: 

" Monk, it is not an offence entailing a formal meeting 
of the Order, it is an offence of wrong-doing." || 1 || 

At one time a certain woman was wearing a rough 
blanket . . . said: 

" Sister, is that thick, short hair^ yours ?" She did 
not understand and said : 

" Yes, master, it is a rough blanket "... "... 
offence of wrong-doing." || 2 1| 

At one time a certain woman was wearing a newly 
woven^ blanket . . . and said: 

"Sister, is that your matted hair* ?" She did not 
understand and said: 

" Yes, master, it is a newly woven blanket." He was 
remorseful ... "... offence of wrong-doing." || 3 1| 

At one time a certain woman was wearing a rough 
blanket . . . and said: 

" Sister, is that stiffs hair yours ?" . . . 

" Yes, master, it is a rough blanket "... "... 
offence of wrong-doing. || 4 || 

At one time a certain woman was wearing a mantle 
. . . and said: 



1 lohita is both " blood " and " red." 

2 VA. 550, kakkasaloman ti rassalomam bahulomam. 

3 dvuta seems to be derived from dvayati=d-\-vd, to weave, a 
root which has been merged in d+vr (dvarati), to string on, to fix 
on. Avuta as " woven " is not given in the P.T.S. Did. 

* VA. 550, dkinnaloman ti jatitalomam. 
« VA. 550, kharaloman ti thaddhalomarru 



220 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 130-131 



" Sister, is that long hair yours ?". . . '' . .. . offence 
of wrong-doing." || 5 || [130] 

At one time a certain woman came along having had 
a field sown.^ A certain monk being infatuated said 
to this woman: 

" Well, sister, has there been some sowing^ ?" She, 
not understanding, said: 

" Yes, master, only I have not closed^ the furrow." 
He was remorseful ... " Monk, there is no offence 
entailing a formal meeting of the Order, there is an offence 
of wrong-doing." || 6 || 

At one time a certain monk seeing a female wanderer^ 
on the road, and being infatuated, said to this female 
wanderer : 

" I hope, sister, that there is a way at the end ?"^ 

She, not understanding, said: 

" Yes, monk,* "you will follow it." He was remorse- 
ful .. . "... grave offence." || 7 || 

At one time a certain monk, being infatuated, said 
to a certain woman : 

" You are faithful, sister, but you do not give to us 
what you give to your husband." 

" What is that, sir ?" she said. 

^ Note hfere the play of the three conjugations: (1) double causa- 
tive, vapdpetvd, having had the sowing done, or having superintended 
it, (2) simple causative, vdpitam, (3) radical verb pati-{-vuUay= 
Sanskrit praty-upta, as noted by Oldenberg, Vin. in. 274, and by 
Geiger, Pali Gr.^ pp. 72, 147, and not prati-vac, as given in P.T.S. 
Diet. Vapdpeti, vulta and vdpita are given under vapati, to sow. 
Bu. at VA. 550, who naturally attaches the word to vap, to sow, 
has two explanations; one for udakavappa, another for thUlavappa. 

^ paribbdjikd. At Vin. iv. 92 it is a pdcittiya for a monk to give 
food to one, at Yin. iv. 285 for a nun to give a robe to one. 

3 Under sarjsidati the P.T.S. Diet., referring to this passage, 
takes it to mean that the way {magga) is at an end. Bu. at VA. 550 
has another explanation; indeed, without him we could not under- 
stand these puns. 

* Note that the female wanderer addresses the monk as bhikkhu, 
while laywomen say ayya, master, or bhante, honoured sir. 



III. 4, 8-10] FORMAL MEETING 221 

" Sexual intercourse," he said. He was remorseful 
... "... an offence entailing a formal meeting of 
the Order." ||8|| 

At one time a certain monk, infatuated, said to a 
certain woman : 

" You are faithful, sister, for you do not give us the 
highest gift." 

" What is the highest gift, sir ?" she said. 

" Sexual intercourse," he said. He was remorseful 
... "... an offence entailing a formal meeting of 
the Order." ||9|| 

At one time a certain woman was doing some work. 
A certain monk, infatuated, said to this woman : 

" Stand, sister, I will work " . . . " sit, sister, I will 
work ... lie down, sister, I will work." She, not 
understanding ... "... an offence of wrong-doing." 
I|10||4|| 

Told is the Third Off'ence entailing a Formal Meeting 
of the Order 



FORMAL MEETING (SANGHAdISESA) IV 

... at Savatthi in the Jeta Grove in Anathapindika's 
park. At that time the venerable UdSyin was dependent 
on families, and approached many families. Now at 
that time there was a certain woman who was a widow, 
beautiful, good to look upon, lovely. Then the vener- 
able Udapn, rising early and taking his robe and bowl, 
came up to this woman's dwelling [131] and having 
come up he sat down on the appointed seat. Then this 
woman approached the venerable Udayin, and having 
approached she greeted the venerable Udayin and sat 
down to one side. As she was sitting to one side the 
venerable Udayin rejoiced, pleased, gladdened, delighted 
this woman with talk on dhamma. Then this woman 
having been . . . delighted with talk on dhamma by 
the venerable Udayin, said to the venerable Udayin : 

" Do say, honoured sir, what (will be) of use^; we are 
able to give to the master, that is to say, the requisites 
of robes, alms-food, lodgings and medicine for the sick." 

" It is not hard, sister, for us to come by those things, 
that is to say, the requisites of robes, alms-food, lodgings, 
medicine for the sick. Give^ what is hard for us to 
come by." 

" What is that, honoured sir ?" 

'' Sexual intercourse," he said. 

** (Will it be) of use,^ honoured sir," she said. 

" (It will be) of use, sister." 

'' Come, honoured sir," she said, and entering into an 
inner room, taking off her cloak, she lay back on the 

^ Yena attho. Cf. Vin. iii. 210 for the same expression. 
^ Dehi. The use of the imperative in such a connection is a very 
grave thing. 
^ Attho, to balance yena attho above (?). 

222 



IV. 1, 1-2] FORMAL MEETING 223 

couch. Then the venerable Udayin approached this 
woman, and having approached her he said: 

" Who could touch this evil-smelling wretch^ ?" and 
he departed spitting.^ 

Then this woman became annoyed, vexed, angry 
and said: 

" These recluses, sons of the Sakyans^ are shameless, 
of low morality, liars. And they pretend to be those 
walking by dhamma, walking by right, leading the 
Brahma-life, speaking truth, virtuous, of good conduct. 
Among these there is no recluseship, among these there is 
no brahmanhood. Perished is recluseship among these, 
perished is brahmanhood among these. Where is re- 
cluseship among these ? Where is brahmanhood among 
these ? Fallen from recluseship are these, fallen from 
brahmanhood are these. How can this recluse Udayin, 
having himself begged me for sexual intercourse, say: 
' Who could touch this evil-smelling wretch V and 
depart spitting ? What is bad in me ? What is evil- 
smelling in me ? In what am I inferior to whom ?''* 

Other women became annoyed, vexed, angry and 
said: " These recluses, sons of the Sakyans, are shame- 
less . . . How can this recluse Udayin, having himself 
begged this (woman) for sexual intercourse, say : ' Who 
could touch this evil-smelling wretch V and depart 
spitting ? What is bad in her ? What is evil-smelHng 
in her ? In what is she inferior to whom ?" || 1 1| 

The monks heard these women who were annoyed, 
vexed and angry. Those who were modest monks 
became annoyed, vexed, angry and said: 

1 It is curious that vasala is in the masc. or neuter, but it obvi- 
ously refers to the woman. Bu. sees it as a masc. here, VA. 551. 

2 Nitthuhitvd ti khelam pdtetvd, VA. 551;.c/". PvA. 80, khelan ti 
nutthuhhanam. Cf. fin. i. 271 where the setthfs wife spat out 
{nutthuhitvd) ghee into a spittoon. Cf. also Jd. i. 459. Forms of 
this verb are nitthuhhati, nufthuhhati and nitthuhati. 

3 As above, pp. 125, 200." 

* Kassdham kena hdydmi. VA. 551, " with regard to treasure, 
jewelry or beauty, to what other women am I inferior ? Who is 
better than I a^>i ?" 



224 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 132-133 



" How can this venerable Udayin speak in praise of 
ministering to sense-pleasures for self ^ in the presence of 
women-folk ?" 

Then these monks told this matter to the lord. Then 
the lord for this reason, on this occasion, having had the 
Order of monks convened, [132] questioned the venerable 
Udayin, saying: 

" Is it true as is said that you, Udayin, spoke in praise 
of ministering to sense-pleasures for self in the presence 
of women-folk ?" 

'' It is true, lord," he said. 

The enlightened one, the lord, rebuked him saying: 

''It is not right, foolish man, it is not becoming, it 
is not suitable, it is not worthy of a recluse, it is out of 
place, it is not to be done. How can you, foolish man, 
speak in praise of ministering to sense-pleasures for self 
in the presence of women-folk ? Foolish man, is not 
dhamma preached by me in various ways for the 
stilling of passion . . . the allaying of the flames of 
sense-pleasures declared ? It is not, foolish man, for 
the benefit of unbelievers . . . Thus, monks, this 
course of training should be set forth : 

Whatever monk, affected by desire,^ with perverted 
heart,^ should speak in praise of ministering to sense- 
pleasures for self in the presence of women-folk, saying: 
* Sister, this is the highest kind of ministration : that a 
woman^ should minister to one like me, virtuous, of 



^ Attakdmapdricariydya, VA. 551 says, methunadhammasamkhd- 
tena kdmena pdricariyd kdmapdricariyd, attano atthdya kdmapdri- 
cariyd attakdmapdricariyd. This passage is quoted at VvA. 11, 
where atta° cariydya is caMed gdmadhamme — i.e., low states, those 
belonging to the village. Note that the term attakdma could 
be used also with religious significance: see Mrs. Rhys Davids, 
Buddhism (Home University Library), second edition, p. 81, and cf. 
G.S. ii. 21, *' he to whom the self is dear," and K.S. i. 102, " the soul- 
lover." See also attakdmarupa at Vin. i. 350=ilf . i. 205= iii. 155. 
MA. ii. 236 and Old Corny, below give- two quite different interpreta- 
tions of attakdma, the one giving the higher and the other the lower 
meaning. 

2 Cf. above, pp. 201, 215. 

^ Yd, whoever, fern. 



IV. 1, 2-2] FORMAL MEETING 225 

good conduct, leading the Brahma-life, in this fashion '^ 
— meaning with what is connected with sexual inter- 
course — that is an offence entailing a formal meeting 
of the Order." 11 2 || 111 



Whatever means: . . . (see Formal Meeting III. 2) 
. . . competent to know . . .- what is lewd and what 
is not lewd. 

In the presence of women-folk means: in the neighbour- 
hood of women-folk, near women-folk. 

Sense-pleasures for self means: sense-pleasures for 
self,2 for the sake of self, desiring for self, ministering 
to self. 

This highest means: this highest, this best, this fore- 
most, this utmost, this most excellent. 

She^ means: a noble woman,* a brahmin woman, a 
merchant-class woman, a low-caste woman. ^ 

One like me means : a noble man, a brahmin, a merchant- 
class man, a low-caste man. 

Virtuous means: refraining from onslaught on crea- 
tures, refraining from taking what is not given, refraining 
from lying. ^ 

Leading the Brahma-life means : refraining from sexual 
intercourse.^ 

Of good conduct means : he is of good conduct in respect 
of this virtue and in respect of this Brahma-life. 

^ Etena dhammena. It might also mean " according to this 
dhamma" (teaching), but that it does not here is apparent from 
the Old Corny.' s exegesis below. 

2 Atiakdman ti attano kdmam. 

^ Yd, trans, above " a woman." 

* VA. 552, "if it is said, ' I am a noble man, you are a noble 
woman, a noble woman is worthy to give to a noble man, because 
they are of the same caste,' it is not a sanghadisesa offence. But 
if you say, ' I. am a noble man . . . you are worthy to give me 
sexual intercourse,' because you are speaking of things connected 
with unchastity, there is a sanghadisesa offence." 

5 Showing that the four castes were by now recognised. 

^ Corresponding to the first three Parajika offences, with the 
addition of refraining from lying. Deliberate lying has appeared 
as a pacittiya offence and as a parajika offence. 

I. 15 



226 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 133-134 

In (his fashion means : with regard to sexual inter- 
course. 

Should minister to means: should give pleasure to. 

Connected loith unchastity means: connected with un- 
chastity.^ 

A formal meeting of the Order means: . . . because 
of this it is called a formal meeting of the Order. || 2 1| [133] 

If there is a woman, if he is infatuated thinking her 
to be a woman, and if the monk speaks in praise, in the 
woman's presence, of ministering to sense-pleasures for 
self, it is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the 
Order. 

If there are two women, if . . . thinking they are 
two women . . . there are two offences ... a formal 
meeting of the Order. 

If there are a woman and an eunuch, if . . . thinking 
them both to be women . . . there is an offence of 
wrong-doing with an offence entailing a formal meeting 
of the Order. || 1 i| 

There is no offence if he speaks, saying: " Support^ 
(us) with the requisites of robes, alms-food, lodgings, 
medicine for the sick," if he is mad, if he is a beginner.^ 

I|2||3|| 

How can a barren woman ? (How) can I get a son, 
and be dear ? How can I be charming ? 

What may I give? With what shall 1 support 
(you) ? How can I go to a good bourn ? 

At one time a certain barren woman said to a monk 
dependent on (her) family: " How could I, honoured sir, 
bear (a child) ?" 

1 Cf. above, p. 216. 

* upatthaha, imp. of upalthahati, from upa-\-\sthd, 
^ VA . 552 again says tiiat Udayiu was the beginner, and therefore 
there was no offence for him. 



IV. 4, 1-6] FORMAL MEETING 227 

" For this, sister, give the highest gift." 

" What is the highest gift, honoured sir ?" she 
said. 

" Sexual intercourse," he said. 

He was remorseful ... "... a formal meeting of 
the Order." || 1 1| 

At one time a certain fertile woman said to a monk 
dependent on (her) family: " How could I, honoured sir, 
get a son ?" 

" For this, sister, give the highest gift ... "... a 
formal meeting of the Order." || 2 1| 

At one time a certain woman said to a monk de- 
pendent on (her) family: " How could I, honoured sir, 
be dear to (my) husband ?" . . . " How could I, 
honoured sir, be charming ?" 

" For this, sister, give the highest gift " ... ". . . 
a formal meeting of the Order." j| 3 || 

At one time a certain v/oman said to a monk de- 
pendent on (her) family: 

" What, honoured sir, may I give to the master ?" 

" The highest gift, sister," he said. 

" What is the highest gift, honoured sir ?" 

"Sexual intercourse," he said. He was remorseful 
. . . "... of the Order." ||4:|| 

At one time a certain woman said to a monk de- 
pendent on (her) family: 

" With what can 1, honoured sir, support the 
master ?" 

" With the highest gift, sister," he said. 

" What is the highest gift, honoured sir ?" she 
said ... "... formal meeting of the Order." 
II 5 II 

At one time a certain woman said to a monk dependent 
on (her) family: 



228 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 134 

" How can I go to a good bourn, honoured sir ?" 
** For this, sister, give the highest gift." 
'' What is the highest gift, honoured sir ?" she said . . . 
/\ . . formal meeting of the Order." || 6 || 4 1| 

Told is the Fourth Offence entailing a Formal Meeting 
of the Order [134] 



FORMAL MEETING (SANGHADISESA) V 

. . . at Savatthi in the Jeta Grove in Anathapindika's 
park. At that time the venerable Udayin was dependent 
on families at Savatthi, and he approached many 
families. When he saw a youth not (yet) a husband, 
or a young girl without a husband, he spoke in praise 
of the girl in the presence of the youth's parents, saying: 
" The young girl of that family is beautiful, good to 
look upon, lovely, she is learned, accomplished, wise, 
clever, energetic. This young girl is suitable for that 
youth." 

These said: "They do not know us, honoured sir, 
nor who we are, nor to whom we belong. If, honoured 
sir, the master will induce them to give, we might con- 
vey this girl to this youth." 

He spoke in praise of the youth in the presence of 
the girl's parents, saying: " The youth of that family is 
beautiful, good to look upon, lovely, he is learned, 
accomplished, wise, clever, energetic. That young girl 
is suitable for this youth." 

They said: " They do not know us, honoured sir, 
nor who we are, nor to whom we belong, nor in what, 
as it were, is the girl's property.^ But if, honoured sir, 
the master would beg, we might give this girl to that 
youth." 

By this means he brought about the leading^ of the 
bridegroom (to the bride's home), he brought about the 



^ Or, taking vatthum as wrong reading for vattum : " we should be 
ashamed {kismim viya, of. VA . 552) to speak thus for the girl('s sake)." 

^ dvdha, VA. 552, " The bringing of the youth from another 
family to the girl." 

229 



230 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 136-136 



leading away' (from the bride's home), he caused mar- 
riages^ to take place. || 1 || 

Now at that time the daughter of a certain woman 
who was formerly a courtesan was beautiful, good to 
look upon, lovely. Some disciples of Naked Ascetics 
coming from a distant village, said to the courtesan: 
" Lady, give this girl to our boy !" 

She said: "Masters, I do not know you, nor who 
these are, nor to whom he belongs; and I will not give 
my only daughter to go to a distant village." 

Some people said to these disciples of Naked Ascetics : 
" Masters, why did you come ?"^ 

"Now we, masters, begged that courtesan for her 
daughter for our son; and she said, ^ But, masters, I do 
not know you, nor who these are, nor to whom he be- 
longs, and I will not give my only daughter to go to a 
distant village.' " 

" Master, why did you beg the courtesan for her 
daughter ? Certainly master Udayin should be told, 
master Udayin will induce her to give (her daughter)." 

Then these [135] disciples of Naked Ascetics ap- 
proached the venerable Udayin, and having approached 
him, they said to the venerable. Udayin : " Now, honoured 
sir, we begged that courtesan ..." distant village.' 
It would be good, honoured sir, if the master could 
induce this courtesan to give her daughter to our boy." 

Then the venerable Udayin approached that courte- 
san, and having approached, he said to that courtesan: 
" Why did you not give your daughter to these (people)?" 

" But, master, I do not know them, nor who they 
are, nor to whom he belongs, and I will not give, my only 
daughter to go to a distant village." 

^ vivdha. VA. 553, "The sending out of the L'irl herself to another 
family." 

2 vdreydni, text; VA. 553, vdrei/yan, with v.l. vdreyydni. 
VA. 553, "begging: give your girl to our boy, or settling the 
day, lunar mansion, astronomic law." 

^ kissa tumhe dgat' attha? Here attha is second pi. of atthi, from 



V. 1, 2-3] FORMAL MEETING 23 1 

" Give her to them, I know them." 

*' If, honoured sir, the master knows them, I will 
give (her)," she said. Then this courtesan gave her 
daughter to these disciples of Naked Ascetics. || 2 || 

Then these disciples of Naked Ascetics, taking the 
young girl, for a month made use of her according to 
her lot as a daughter Tin-law^ ; then afterwards they made 
use of her according to her lot as a female slave. ^ Then 
this young girl dispatched a messenger to her mother, 
saying: '^ I am wretched, I am miserable, I get no 
happiness. For a month they made use of me according 
to my lot as a daughter-in-law, now after that they are 
making use of me according to my lot as a female slave. 
Let my mother come for me, let her take me away." 

Then the courtesan came up to the disciples of Naked 
Ascetics, and having come up, she said to these disciples 
of Naked Ascetics, " Masters, do not make use of this 
young girl according to her lot as a female slave, make 
use of this young girl according to her lot as a daughter- 
in-law." 

They said: " We do not want anything to do with 
you,^ we want to have to do (only) with a recluse. You 
go away, we do not know you." 

Then this courtesan, being ' reproached by these 
followers of the Naked Ascetics, returned again to 
SavatthT. A second time this young girl dispatched a 
messenger to her mother, saying: *' I am wretched . . . 
take me away." Then the courtesan approached the 
venerable Udayin, and having approached him, she 
said to the venerable Udayin: 

" Honoured sir, it is said that the young girl is wretched, 
miserable, she gets no happiness. For a month they 

1 I.e., VA. 553, they enjoyed what she cooked, and the meals she 
served. 

2 I.e., working in the fields, throwing out sweepings, fetching 
water, etc. 

3 Ahdrupahdro. VA. 553 says, " taking and offering, getting and 
giving, nothing is taken or offered by us, buying and selling with 
you is not our custom." 



232 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 136-137 

made use of her according to her lot as a daughter-in- 
law, and now after that they are making use of her 
according to her lot as a female slave. Honoured sir, 
do say : * Masters, do not make use of this young girl 
according to her lot as a female slave, make use of this 
young girl according to her lot as a daughter-in-law.' " 

Then the venerable Udapn approached these disciples 
of the Naked Ascetics, and having approached them, he 
said to these disciples of the Naked Ascetics: 

"Masters, do not make use of this young girl accord- 
ing to her lot as a female slave, make use of this young 
girl according to her lot as a daughter-in-law." 

They said: " We do not want anything to do with 
you ; we want to have to do (only) with the courtesan. 
A recluse should be without occupation,^ [136] the 
recluse will become a model recluse. ^ You go away, we 
do not know you." 

Then the venerable Udayin having been reproached 
by these disciples of Naked Ascetics, returned again to 
Savatthi. For a third time the young girl dispatched 
a messenger to her mother, saying: ''I am wretched, 
take me away." For a second time the courtesan ap- 
proached the venerable Udayin ... "... Do say: 
' Masters ... as a daughter-in-law.' " 

He said: " When I went before, I was reproached by 
these disciples of the Naked Ascetics. Go yourself. 
I will not go." II 3 II 

Then the courtesan became annoyed, vexed, angry 
and said: "May this master Udayin be wretched, 
may this master Udayin be miserable, may this 

* Avydvata, a rare word. Cf. Jd. iii. G5 and its v. 11. ajhdvata, 
abydvata ; Jd. vi. ] 88 ; Z). ii. 141 . At Nd. ii. 72 appossukha=abydvata 
anajpehkha. 

2 Samanena bhamfabbam, avydvatena samano assa sumano. The 
word sumano has v. 11. sumano, susamano; VA. reads sussaynano. 
Expl. seems to show what is rare: that Oldenbeig's text is faulty. 
No doubt the text could be emended: samanena bhavitabbam avyd- 
vatena (avydvato) samano assa sussamano, but the elliptical con- 
struction is perhaps intentional, and shows a popular style, which 
does not, however, sound very well. 



V. 1, 4-5] FORMAL MEETING 233 

master Udayin not find happiness, even as my girl 
is wretched, miserable, and finds no happiness because 
of her evil mother-in-law, because of her evil father- 
in-law, because of her evil husband." And then the 
young girl became annoyed, vexed, angry, saying: 
" May this master Udayin be wretched, may this 
master. Udayin be miserable, may this master Udayin 
not find happiness, even as I am wretched, miserable 
and find no happiness because of my evil mother-in- 
law, because of my evil father-in-law, because of my 
evil husband." 

Even other women, unhappy with their mothers-in- 
law, unhappy with their fathers-in-law, unhappy with 
their husbands, denounced^ him, thus: "May . . . 
be wretched . . . even as we are wretched, miserable, 
and find no happiness because of our evil mothers-in- 
law, because of our evil fathers-in-law, because of our 
evil husbands." 

But those women who were happy with their mothers- 
in-law, with their fathers-in-law, and with their husbands, 
these prayed to^ him thus: "May this master Udayin 
be happy, may this master Udayin be blest,^ may this 
master Udayin prosper,^ even as we are happy, blest 
and do prosper because of our good mothers-in-law, 
because of our good fathers-in-law, because of our good 
husbands." ||4|| 

The monks heard some women denouncing, some 
women praying. Then those who were modest monks 
became annoyed, vexed, angry and said: " How can the 
venerable Udayin act as a go-between ?"* Then these 
monks told this matter to the lord. Then the lord on 
this occasion, for this reason, having had the company 
of monks convened, questioned the venerable Udayin, 
saying: 

^ oydcati and dydcati. For dydcati cf. D. i. 240. 

* sajjito, Corny. 553 says, " endowed with all means of livelihood, 
beautifully adorned." 

^ sukhamedho. 

* sahcarittam samdpajjati. For n. on samdpajjati see p. 201, n. 3. 



234 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [HI. 137-138 

"Is it true, as is said, Udayin, that you acted as a 
go-between ?" 

*' It is true, lord," he said. 

Then the enlightened one, the lord, rebuked him, 
saying: " How could you, foolish man, act as a go- 
between ? That is not, foolish man, for the benefit 
of unbelievers . . . Thus, monks, this course of train- 
ing should be set forth : [137] 

Whatever monk should act as a go-between for a 
woman with a man in mind or for a man with a woman 
in mind, whether as a wife or as a mistress, that is an 
offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order." || 5 || 1 1| 



At one time many men of abandoned life^ who were 
amusing themselves in a pleasure grove, sent a messenger 
to a harlot to say, " Come, we will enjoy c^irselves in 
the pleasure grove." 

She said: " Masters, I do not know you, nor who you 
are, nOr to whom you belong; and I have many goods, 
I am well-to-do, and I will not go outside the city."- 
Then the messenger told this matter to the men of 
abandoned life. A certain man said to these men of 
abandoned life: 

" Masters, why do you beg this harlot ? Surely 
master Udayin should be told. Master Udayin will 
procure (her for you)." 

When he had spoken thus, a certain lay-follower said 
to that man: " Do not speak like that, master; it is not 
right for recluses, sons of the Sakyans, to act like that. 
Master Udayin will not do it." 

When he had spoken thus, they said, " Will he do it, 
or won't he do it ?" and they made a bet. Then these 
men of abandoned life approached the venerable 
Udayin, and having approached him they said to the 
venerable Udayin: 

^ VA. 533 calls them " abandoned with women," itthidhutia, not 
necessarily leading the wild life of gambling or the wild life of 
drink — the other two of the three kinds of abandoned life. 

* bahinagaran ca garUabbam ndham ymnissdmi. 



V. 2, 1-2] FORMAL MEETING 235 

" Now we, honoured sir, amusing ourselves in the 
pleasure grove, sent a messenger to some harlot, saying, 
* Come, we will enjoy ourselves in the pleasure grove/ 
She said : ' Masters, I do not know you, nor who you are, 
nor to whom you belong ; and I have many goods, I am 
well-to-do, and I will not go outside the city/ It would 
be good, honoured sir, if the master would procure this 
harlot (for us)." 

Then the venerable Udayin went up to this harlot, 
and having come up he said to this harlot: " Why do 
you not go amolig these (men) ?" 

" Master, I do not know them ... I will not go 
outside the city." 

" Go among them," he said, " 1 know them." 
" If, honoured sir, the master knows them, I will go." 
Then these men of abandoned life, taking this harlot, 
went to the pleasure grove. || 1 || 

Then that lay-follower became annoyed, vexed, angry, 
saying: '* How can master Udayin act as a go-between 
for a temporary wife ?"^ The monks heard that lay- 
follower who was annoyed, vexed, angry. Those who 
were modest monks became annoyed, vexed, angry, 
saying: " How can the venerable Udayin act as a go- 
between for a temporary wife ?" Then these monks 
[138] told this matter to the lord. 

" Is it true, as they say, Udayin, that you acted as a 
go-between for a temporary wife ?" 

" It is true, lord," he said. 

The enlightened one, the lord, rebuked him, saying: 
'* How can you, foolish man, act as a go-between for 
a temporary wife ? It is not, foolish man, for the 
benefit of unbelievers . . . Thus, monks, this course 
of training should be set forth : 

Whatever monk should act as a go-between for a 
woman with a man in mind, or for a man with a woman 

^ Of. Buddhaghosa, who says at VA. 553-4 that tamkhano here 
means " for a short time " ; thus tamkhanikd may mean " a temporary 
wife " as in this Sangh. rule. See below p. 236, for explanation of 
the Old Corny. 



236 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 189 

in mind whether as a wife or as a mistress or even as a 
temporary wife, there is an offence entailing a formal 
meeting of the Order." || 2 1| 2 1| 



Whatever means: he who . . . 

Monk means: . . . thus monk is to be understood 
in this meaning. 

Should act as a go-between means: either sent by a 
woman he goes into a man's presence, or sent by a man 
he goes into a woman's presence. 

For a woman with a man in mind means : he tells to 
a woman the mind of a man. < 

For a man with a woman in mind means : he tells to 
a man the mind of a woman. 

As a wife^ means : You will become a wife. 

As a mistress means: You will become a mistress. 

Even as a temporary wife^ means : you will become a 
wife for the moment.^ 

Offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order . . . 
because of that it is called an offence entailing a formal 
meeting of the Order. || 3 || 

Ten (kinds of) women: protected by the mother, 
protected by the father, protected by the parents, pro- 
tected by the brother, protected by the sister, protected 
by the relations, protected by the lineage, protected 
by dhamma, with protection, protected by a stick. ^ 

^ VA. 554, " Speaking to a woman with a man in mind he 
speaks of being a wife. Speaking to a man with a woman in 
mind, he speaks of being a mistress. Further, speaking to a 
woman with a man in mind he speaks of wifehood, of the sure 
state of being a wife, of the low livelihood of a mistress, but saying 
this, he also says, ' they say you will become a wife.' In speaking 
to a man with a woman in mind he says, ' You will become a lord, 
a husband, you will become an adulterer.' " 

2 Tamkhanikd and muhuttikd are practically sjmonymous. 

3 M. i. 286=ilf . iii. 46, gives the first five on this list, then sassd- 
mikd, saparidandd antamaso mdldgulaparikkhittd. A. v. 264 
gives the first five, then dhammarakkhitd (with v.U. to insert gotta- 
rakkhitd), sassdmikd, etc., as at M. i. 286; iii. 46. VvA. 72 follows 
the Vin. reading. Cf. G.S. v. 177, n. 2. 



V. 4, 1-2] FORMAL MEETING 237 

Ten (kinds of) wives: one bought with money, one 
kept for passion, a kept woman, one who receives 
clothes, one who provides water, one who takes off the 
pad (for the burden she carries on the head), the slave 
and wife,^ the servant and wife,^ the flag-brought,^ the 
wife for the moment. || 1 1| 

Protected by the mother means: the mother protects,^ 
guards,^ wields supremacy,* has her under control.^ 

Protected by the father means: the father . . . has her 
under control. 

Protected by the parefitsmea.ns: the ]^3iien.ts . . . have 
her under control. 

Protected by the brother means: the brother . . . has 
her imder control. 

Protected by the sister means: the sister . . . has her 
under control. 

Protected by the relations means: the relations . . . 
have her under control. 

Protected by the lineage means: her own clans-people 
. . . have her under control. 

Protected by dhamma^ means : those regarding dhamma 
. . . have her under control. 

With protection means: she is appropriated in the 
womb saying: '' She is mine," even if she is betrothed. 

Protected by the stick means: the stick is put by some 

^ For explanation see below, p. 238. 

2 VA. 555, " the mother lets her go nowhere." 

^ Ibid., " she puts her in a place so (well) guarded that other 
people cannot see (her)." 

* Ibid., " restrains her from living in lodgings of her own choice, 
and overrules her." 

6 Ibid., " Saying ' do this, do not do that.' " Cf. M. i. 2U, 
where the expression cittam vasam vatteti, " has his heart under 
control," or, as at Fur. Dial., i. 155, " is master of his heart." 

^ VA. 555, " neither lineage nor dhamma protects her, but she is 
protected by her own clans-people and by those regarding dhamma 
who, on account of one teacher, have gone forth belonging to one 
company." It is not the abstract but the concrete which protects 
her; people and not ideas, in fact, her co-religionists (sahadhammikd). 
This is an interesting heading as being a recognised kind together 
with nine others. 



238 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 139-140 

people, and whoever goes to such-and-such a woman 
says: " What a stick.''^ || 2 || [139] 

Bought with money means: having bought (her) with 
money, he makes her stay. 

Kept for 'passion^ means: the dear one makes the dear 
one stay.^ 

A kept woman means: giving her wealth, he makes 
her stay.* 

One who receives clothes means: giving a garment, he 
makes her stay.^ 

One who provides water means: having handled a bowl 
of water, he makes her stay.® 

One who takes off the pad (for burdens she carries on 
the head) means: taking down the pad he makes her 
stay.^ 

A slave means: she is a slave and a wife. 

A servant means : she is a servant and wife. ® 

Flag-brought means: a woman taken in a raid.^ 



A temporary wife means: a wife for a moment. || 3 j| 

A man sends a monk saying: " Go, honoured sir, to 
such a one protected by the mother, and explain : ' He 

^ etkiko dando. 

2 VA. 555, " kept for passion, means, he lives of his own free 
will for passion. Inasmuch as she is not only passionate, but a 
wife she is accepted by the man." 

3 piyo piyam vdseti. 

* VA. 555, " A country-woman comes to be a wife, having 
received the hoiLsehold implements." 

* Ibid., " receivmg as much as a garment or cloak, a vagabond 
woman rises to be *a wife." 

^ Ibid., plunging their two hands into one pot of water, he says: 
'* Joined like this water, so let them not be divided." 

' VA. 555, " Someone who is a gatherer of firewood and so on, 
and taking the pad off her head, he keeps her in the house." In 
India the women put a coiled pad of cotton or some material or 
grass on their head, and then balance their burdens: brass vessels, 
long bunches of firewood, big round baskets and so on, on the pad. 

® Ibid., " She works in the house for wages. Somebody lives a 
household life with her — not satisfied with his own wife." 

» VA. 556, " Having gone with the army erecting the flag, plunder- 
ing another district, she is brought back. If anyone makes her 
his wife, she is called flag-brought." 



b 



V. 4, 4-5] FORMAL MEETING 239 

says become the wife of such a one bought for money.' " 
If he accepts, examines and brings back, it is an offence 
entailing a formal meeting of the Order. 

A man . . . protected by the father, explain: ... 
protected by a stick, explain ... a formal meeting of 
the Order. 

The steps in the composition 

A man sends a monk saying: '' Go, sir, to such and such a 
one protected by the mother, protected by the father and say: 
' He says, become the wife of so-and-so bought with money.' " 
If he accepts . . . formal meeting of the Order. 

A man . . . protected by the mother and protected by the 
parents . . . protected by the mother and protected by a stick 
. . . formal meeting of the Order. 

A portion of the series 

A man . . . "protected by the father and protected by the 
parents . . . protected by the father and protected by the 
mother" . . .formal meeting of the Order. 

Told is the beginning of the contracted series 

A man ..." protected by a stick and protected by the 
mother . . . protected by a stick and with protection . . ." 
. . , formal meeting of the Order. 

Told is that beginning with one 

That beginning with two and that beginning with three up 
to that beginning with nine should be done in the same way. 
This is that beginning with ten: 

A man sends a monk saying: " Go, sir, to such a one protected 
by the mother and protected by the father . . and protected 
by a stick, and explain: ' He says, become ...'"... a formal 
meeting of the Order. 

Told is the series about women bought with money || 4 || 

A man sends a monk, saying: " Go, honoured sir, to such a 
one protected by the mother, and explain : ' He says, become the 
wife kept for passion of such a man . . . the kept woman . . . 
the temporary wife.' " If he accepts ... a formal meeting 
of the Order. 

A man sends a monk, saying: " Go, honoured sir, to such a 



240 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 140-141 

woman [140] protected by the mother and protected by the 
father . . . and protected by a stick, and explain: ' . . . a 
temporary wife.' " If he accepts . . . formal meeting of the 
Order. 

Told is the series on the woman who is a 
temporary wife || 5 || 

A man sends a monk saying: " Go, honoured sir, explain to 
so-and-so protected by the mother: ' He says, become the wife 
bought by money of such and such a man,' " If ite ac(jepts, 
examines her, brings back, it is an offence entailing a formal 
meeting of the Order. 

A man ... * the wife kept for passion ' . . . ' the kept 
woman ' . . . ' the temporary wife ' . . . formal meeting of 
the Order. 

The steps of composition 

This is that beginning with ten: 

A man sends a monk, saying: " Go, honoured sir, explain to 
so-and-so protected by a stick: ' He says, become the wife of 
so-and-so, bought by money, and kept for passion and . . . and 
the temporary wife ' " . . . formal meeting of the Order. || 6 || 

A man sends a monk saying: " Go, honoured sir, explain to 
so-and-so protected by the mother: ' It is said, become the wife 
bought by money of so-and-so.' " . . . a formal meeting of 
the Order. 

A man . . . "to so-and-so protected by the mother and 
protected by the father, explain: ' It is said, become the wives 
and so-and-so, bought by money and kept for passion, and . . .' " 
... a formal meeting of the Order. 

A man . . . "to so-and-so protected by the mother and pro- 
tected by the father and protected by the parents, and explain: 
' He says, become the wives of so-and-so, bought with money, 
and kept for passion, and the kept woman and ...'"... a 
formal meeting of the Order. 

Increase from both (ends) is to be made thus: 

A man sends a monk saying: " Go, honoured sir, to so-and-so 
protected by the mother and protected by the father and . . . 
and protected by a stick and explain: 'He says, become the 
wives of so-and-so, bought by money, and kept for passion . . . 
and temporary wives.' "... a formal meeting of the Order. 

Told is the increase from both (ends) || 7 || 



V. 4, 8-11] FORMAL MEETING 24I 

The mother of a man sent a monk ... the father of a man 
sent a monk . . . the parents of a man sent a monk . . . the 
brother of a man sent a monk . . . the sister of a man sent a 
monk . . . the relations of a man sent a monk . . . the clans- 
men of a man sent [141] a monk . . . the co-religionists of a man 
sent a monk. || 8 |! 

The mother of (a girl) protected by the mother sent a monk, 
saying: " Go, honoured sir, explain to so-and-so: ' Let her be 
the wife, bought by money, of so-and-so . . . ' '' . . . formal 
meeting of the Order. 

The mother of (a girl) protected by the mother sent a monk, 
saying: " Go, honoured sir . . . be the wife kept for passion 
. . . the temporary wife ..." ... a formal meeting of the 
Order. 

The steps in the composition 

This is that beginning with ten: 

The mother of (a girl) protected by the mother sent a monk, 
saying: " Go, honoured sir, explain to so-and-so: ' Let her be 
the wife of so-and-so bought by money and the wife kept for 
passion and . . . and the temporary wife ...'"... a formal 
meeting of the Order. || 9 || 

The father of (a girl) protected by the father sent a monk . . . 
the parents of (a girl) protected by the parents sent a monk . . . 
the brother of (a girl) protected by the brother sent a monk . . . 
the sister of (a girl) protected by the sister sent a monk . . . the 
relations of (a girl) protected by the relations sent a monk . . . 
the co-religionists of (a girl) protected by dhamma sent a monk 
. . . one who was appropriated with protection sent a monk . . . 
one who has put a stick, for protection with a stick, sent a monk, 
saying: " Go, honoured sir, explain to so-and-so: ' Be the wife 
of so-and-so bought with money ... be the wife of so-and-so 
bought with money and the wife kept for passion . . . and 
the temporary wife.' " . . . a formal meeting of the Order. || 10 || 

One protected by the mother sent a monk, saying: "Go, 
honoured sir, explain to so-and-so: ' I am the wife bought by 
money for so-and-so ...'"... a formal meeting of the Order. 

One protected by the mother . . . ' the wife kept for passion 
. . . the temporary wife ' . . . formal meeting of the Order. 

The steps of composition 

If one protected by a stick sends a monk, saying: " Go, sir, 
explain to so-and-so: ' I am the wife for so-and-so, bought with 
1. 16 



242 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 142-143 

money . . . another wife kept for passion and . . . and the 
temporary wife.' " If he accepts, examines, and brings back, it 
is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order. 

Told is the whole abbreviated series || 11 1| 

If he accepts, examines, brings back, it is an offence 
entailing a formal meeting of the Order. [142] If he 
accepts, examines, but does not bring back, it is a grave 
offence. If he accepts, but does not examine and does 
not bring back, it is an offence of wrong-doing. If he 
does not accept, but examines and brings back, it is a 
grave offence. If he does not accept, but examines, yet 
does not bring back, it is an offence of wrong-doing. 
If he does not accept, and does not examine, but brings 
back, it is an offence of wrong-doing. If he does not 
accept, does not examine and does not bring back, it is 
not an offence. || 12 || 

If a man enjoins many monks, saying: '' Go, honoured 
sirs, examine such and such a woman," and if they all 
accept, all examine and all bring back, it is an offence 
entailing a formal meeting of the Order for them all. 

If a man ...''... examine such and such a woman," and 
if they all accept, all examine, but if one makes them bring 
back, it is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order for 
them all. 

If a man ..."... examine such and such a woman," if 
all accept, if one makes them examine her and if all bring back, 
it is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order for them 
all. 

If a man ..."... examine such and such woman," if all 
accept, but if one makes them examine, and if one makes them 
bring back, it h an offence entailing a formal meeting of the 
Order for them all. ||13|i 

A man enjoins a monk; " Go, honoured sir, examine 
such and such a woman." If he accepts, examines her 
and brings back, it is an offence entailing a formal meet- 
ing of the Order. 

A man enjoins a monk: " Go, honoured sir, examine such and 
such a woman." If he accepts, examines her but makes a novice 



V. 4, 14—5, 1] FORMAL MEETING 



243 



bring back, it is an oifence entailing a formal meeting of the 
Order. 

A man enjoins a monk: "... such and such a woman." If 
he accepts, makes a novice examine, but himself brings back, it 
IS an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order. 

A man enjoins a monk: " . . . such and such a woman." If 
he accepts, makes a novice examine her, and the novice having 
examined, brings back alone, ^ there is a grave offence for 
both.2||14|| ^ 

Going, he procures, coming back he deceives with 
words— it is a grave offence. Going he deceives with 
words, coming back he procures— it is a grave offence. 
Going he procures, coming back he procures— it is an 
offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order. |i 15 || 

There is no offence if it is for the Order,-^ or for a 
shrine,* or if he is ill;^ if he is going on business, if he 
IS mad, if he is a beginner. || 16 || 4 || 

Asleep, and dead, gone out, unsexed woman, a female 

eunuch. 
She was reconciled after having quarrelled, and did 

go-between for a eunuch. 

^ bahiddhd] not telling his teacher, the monk. 

2 F^. 559, "A grave offence for both means: the accepting, 
and making over the examining is a grave offence with two parts 
for the teacher. The accepting and the bringing back is a grave 
offence with two parts for the novice." 

^ VA. 599 f., " It is not an offence if any hall for reciting the 
Patimokkha belonging to the Order is left unfinished, and a lay- 
tollower sends a monk to a female lay-follower in order to get food 
as wages for the workers, or if a female lay-follower goes to a lay- 
follower on business connected with the Order. It is the same for 
building a shrine." 

* I do not think a cetiya is necessarily a '' tumulus, sepulchral 
monument, cairn," as the P.T.S. Diet, defines it. The cetiyas at, 
e.g., the Caves of Ellora and Ajanta are certainly neither tumuH 
nor cairns, nor do they contain relics. Erected probably after the 
life-^ime of the Buddha, they were used as places for meditation, 
iVcet, to think), or for listening to discourses. See below, p. 266. 

^ *' If he goes for the sake of medicine for an invalid, sent by a 
lay-follower into the presence of a female lay-follower, or sent by 
a female lay-follower into the presence of a male lay-follower." 



244 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 143-144 

At one time a certain man [143] enjoined a certain 
monk: " Go, honoured sir, examine such and such a 
woman." As he was going, he asked some people: 
" Where is so-and-so ?" 

" She is asleep, honoured sir," they said. He was 
remorseful, and said: " What now if I have fallen into 
an offence requiring a formal meeting of the Order." 
He told this matter to the lord. He said: " Monk, this 
is not an offence requiring a formal meeting of the 
Order; it is an offence of wrong-doing." || 1 1| 

At one time a certain man enjoined a certain monk, 
saying: "Go, honoured sir, examine such and such a 
woman." As he was going he asked some people: 
" Where is so-and-so ?" " She is dead, honoured sir," 
they said. ... " She has gone out, honoured sir," 
they said. . . . " That is an unsexed woman, honoured 
sir." ... " That is a female eunuch,^ honoured sir," 
they said. He was remorseful ..." offence of wrong- 
doing." || 2 1| 

At one time a certain woman, having quarrelled 
with her husband, went to her mother's house. A monk, 
dependent on (her) family, effected a reconciliation. He 
was remorseful . . . 

" Monk, is she not one to be told ' enough ' ?"2 
" She is not one to be told ' enough,' lord." 
"It is not an offence, monk, as she is not one to be 
told 'enough'." ||3|| 

^ Ifthipmidakd, may be name of a deformity. Cf. above, p. 217; 
and Vm. ii. 271 {°pandikd). 

2 alamvacaniydf a woman who has to be addressed with alam 
(enough), perhaps the husband's way of divorcing, and the wife 
returns to her pai;ental home. That this woman did not return 
to the parental home, ndlamvacanlyd, means, according to Bu., 
VA. 561, " she was not abandoned (by her husband). For any 
woman who is abandoned according to the customs of divers districts 
and thus ceases to be a wife, is called alamvacaniyd. But this 
woman was not one to be told ' enough ' (perhaps = divorce) on 
account of some quarrel, so that here the lord said there was no 
offence." 



V. 6, 4] FORMAL MEETING 245 

At one time a certain monk acted as a go-between 
for a eunuch. He was remorseful. " What now if I 
have fallen into an offence requiring a formal meeting 
of the Order ?" He told this matter to the lord. 

** Monk, it is not an offence requiring a formal meeting 
of the Order; it is a grave offence." || 4 || 5 || 

Told is the Fifth Offence entailing a Formal Meeting of 

the Order 



FORMAL MEETING (SANGHADISESA) VI 

... at Eajagaha in the Bamboo Grove at the 
squirrels' feeding place. At that time the monks of 
AiavT,^ begging in company ,2 were having huts built 
with no benefactor,^ for their own advantage, and not 
according to measure^; but these were not finished. 
They lived intent on begging, intent on hinting^: " Give 
a man, give a servant, give an ox, give a wagon, give a 
knife, give a hatchet, give an axe, give a spade, give a 
chisel, give a creeper, give bamboo, give mmja-grass, 
give coarse grass, give ^ma-grass, give clay." People 
were oppressed with the begging,- oppressed with the 
hinting, and when they saw the monks they were per- 
turbed, then alarmed, then they ran away, then they 
went by a different route,* turned in another direction^ 
and closed the door ; and when they saw cows they ran 
away, [144] imagining them to be monks. 



_^ ^ VA. 561, "boys born in the kingdom of Alavi were called 
Alavaka, and at the time of their going forth they were known as 
Alavaka." These monks often gave trouble over new buildings, 
cf. above, p. 148, and Vin. ii. 172. 

2 Oldenberg says, Vin. iii. 274, " probably we ought to read 
constantly samydcikdya kutiyo.' ' VA . 566 takes sayydcikdya to mean 
begging themselves. See below, p. 254. 

3 Assdmikdyo ti anissariyo, VA. 561, which goes on to say, " having 
them built without a donor," or benefactor, ddyaka. 

* Appamdnikdyo. VA. 561, "with this amount they will be 
completed," they said. So they were not limited in size, their 
measure increased, their measure was great. 

6 See Vin. iii. 227. 

« VA. 565, *' having come to a road, then leaving it and turning 
back, they went taking the left side or the right." 

' Annena mukham karoti: to direct the face towards another 
(quarter). 

246 



VI. 1, IJ FORMAL MEETING 247 

Then the venerable Kassapa the Great^ arose from 
spending the rains in Rajagaha, and set out for Alavl. 
In due course he arrived at Alavl. There the venerable 
Kassapa the Great stayed in the chief shrine at Alavi.^ 
Then the venerable Kassapa the Great rising early, 
and taking his bowl and robes, entered Alavl for alms. 
People seeing the venerable Kassapa the Great were 
perturbed, then alarmed, then they ran away, then they 
went by a different route, turned in another direction 
and closed the door. Then the venerable Kassapa the 
Great, having walked Alavi for alms, after having eaten 
and finished his meal, addressed the monks saying : 

" Formerly, your reverences, Alavi had good alms- 
food, alms were easily obtained, it was easy to keep 
oneself going by gleaning or by favour. But now this 
Alavi is short of alms-food, alms are difficult to obtain, 
nor is it easy to keep oneself going by gleaning or by 
favour. What is the reason, what the cause that now 
this Alavi is short of alms-food, that alms are difficult 
to obtain, that it is not easy to keep oneself going by 
gleaning or by favour ?" 

^ Mahd. The rendering " Great " is perhaps a little misleading, 
for one would not think him eminent enough to be so called. The 
epithet was clearly given so as to distinguish him from other 
Kassapas. Conceivably it means that he had been in the Order 
longer than they had. We cannot say the " Elder " as thera is 
an elder; but Kassapa Senior might be possible. Further, I think 
it doubtful whether it is right to render Mahd as " Great " in any 
of the cases where it occurs as an epithet of disciples. For example, 
Sariputta was never called Mahii-Sariputta, as Moggallana was 
referred to, very frequently, as Maha-Moggallana ; and yet as far as 
" greatness " goes, there is little or nothing to choose between them. 

^ Aggdlave cetiye, mentioned at Vin. ii. 172; S. i. 185; Sn. p. 59; 
DhA. iii. 170. SnA. 3M=/S^. i. 268 explains aggdlave cetiye as Alavi- 
yam aggacetiye, and says that it was transformed into a vihara. At 
K.S. i. 234, it is taken to be " the chief temple " at Alavi; in Buddhist 
Suttas, p. 56 (second edition), it is called " the temple at Aggalava "; 
while translator at Vin. Texts iii. 212 appears to regard it as a proper 
name. Mr. E. M. Hare in G.S. iv. 147 translates, " at Agga}ava, 
near the shrine there," and gives no notes. It was probably a' 
pre-Buddhist shrine. See above, p. 243, n. 4, and below, p. 266, 
n. 5. Also see B. G. Law, Geography of Early Buddhism, Appendix, 
p. 74 fiP. 



248 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 145-146 

Then tliese monks told this matter to the venerable 
Kassapa the Great. || 1 || 

Then the lord having dwelt at Rajagaha for as long 
as he thought fit, set out on a tour for Alavi. Making 
the tour, in due course he arrived at Alavi. There at 
Ajavi the lord dwelt in the chief shrine at Alavi. Then 
the venerable Kassapa the Great approached the lord, 
and having approached him, he greeted the lord and sat 
down to one side. Sitting to one side the venerable 
Kassapa the Great told this matter to the lord. Then 
the lord on that occasion, for that reason, having had 
the Order of monks convened, questioned the monks 
of Alavi, saying : 

"Is it true, as is said, that you, monks, begging 
in company, were having huts built, with no benefactor, 
for your own advantage, not according to measure, and 
that these were not completed ? They say that you 
dwelt intent on begging, intent on hinting: ' Give a 
man ...'... seeing cows they ran away, taking them 
for monks." 

*' It is true, lord," they said. 

The enlightened one, the lord, rebuked them, saying: 
" How can you, foolish men, begging in company, have 
huts built ? . . . ' Give a man . . . give clay.' It 
is not foolish men, for the benefit of unbelievers," . . . 
having rebuked them and given dhamma-talk, he ad- 
dressed the monks: || 2 || 

*' Former ly,i monks, two brothers (who were) holy 
men^ lived close by the river Ganges. Then, monks, 
Manikantha,^ [146] the naga-king,* emerging from the 

^ Cf. J a. ii. 283, Manikanthajataka, for this story. 

2 Isi, holy man or anchorite. Isi has not the great force of 
rsi of the brahminical tradition, meaning a seer or inspired singer to 
whom the Vedas were spoken or revealed. There are interesting 
variations in the details of this story as described in Vin. and Jd. 

=^ VA. 565, " the naga-king went with a very valuable jewel 
able to grant all desires, adorning his throat, therefore he is called 
' jewel-throated.' " Cf. Hindu mythology, where the cow granting 
all desires and the jewel granting all desires were brought out from 
the sea at the Churning of the Ocean. * Or serpent-king. 



/ 



VI. 1, 3] FORMAL MEETING 249 

river Ganges, came up to the younger holy man, and 
having come up and encircled the younger holy man 
seven times with his coils, he stood spreading his great 
hood above his head.^ Then, monks, the younger holy 
man, through fear of this snake, became thin, wretched, 
of a bad colour, yellowish, his veins showing all over his 
body. Monks, the elder holy man saw that the younger 
holy man was thin, wretched, of bad colour, yellowish, 
the veins showing all over his body. Seeing this, he 
said to the younger holy man: ' Why are you, good sir, 
thin ... all over your body V 

' Now, the naga-king, Manikantha, came out of the 
river Ganges for me, and came up to me, and having 
come up and having encircled me seven times with his 
coils, he stood spreading his great hood above my head.^ 
I, good sir, through fear of the snake, became thin . . . 
all over my body.' 

' But, good sir, do you not want this snake to return V 
' Good sir, I do not want this snake to return.' 
' Do you, good sir, see anything of this snake V 
' I see, good sir, the jewelled ornament on his throat.' 
' Then, good sir, you beg this snake for the jewel, 
saying: " Good sir, give me the jewel; I want the 
jewel." ' 

Then, monks, Manikantha, the naga-king, emerging 
from the river Ganges, came up to the younger holy man 
and having come up he stood to one side. Monks, as 
he was standing to one side, the younger holy man said 
to Manikantha, the naga-king: ' Good sir, give the jewel 
to me, I want the jewel.' Then Manikantha, the naga- 
king, said: * A monk begs for the jewel, a monk wants 
the jewel,' and he hurried away. 

A second time, monks, did Manikantha emerging 
. . . come up to the younger holy man. Then, monks, 
the younger holy man saw Manikantha, the naga-king, 
coming from afar, and seeing Manikantha, the naga- 

^ I.e., according to VA. 565, above the younger holy man's head. 
He was practising mettd-vihdray and the naga-king shaded him with 
his hood. 



250 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 146-147 



king, he said: ^ Good sir, give me the jewel, I want the 
jewel.' Then, monks, Manikantha, the naga-king, said: 
' A monk begs for the jewel, a monk wants the jewel.' 
And then he turned away again. 

A third time, monks, Manikantha, the naga-king, 
came up from the river Ganges. Then, monks, the 
younger holy man saw Manikantha, the naga-king, 
emerging from the river Ganges, and seeing him, he 
said to Manikantha, the naga-king: * Good sir, give me 
the jewel, I want the jewel.' Then, monks, Manikantha, 
the naga-king, addressed these verses to the younger 
holy man: [146] 

' My food and drink is produced abundantly, excel- 
lently — by reason of this jewel, 

I do not give it to you, you are one who asks too 
much, and not for you will I come to a hermi- 
tage.,/ 

Like a lad, his hand on a tempered sword,^ you 
frighten^ (me) begging for this stone,^ 

I do not give it to you, you are one who asks too 
much, and not for you will I come to a hermi- 
tage.' 

Then, monks, Manikantha, the naga-king, said: ^A 
monk begs for the jewel, a monk wants the jewel,' and 
he went away; then he was gone, and did not come back 



1 sakkharadhotipdni. J a. ii. 285 expl. " your hand is on a sword 
polished on the oil-( whetting) stone." VA. 566 says : sakkhard vuccati 
kdlasild (a dark stone) . . . sakkharadhotapdni, pdsdne dhotanisita- 
khaggakattho ti attho, which seems to mean " in the hand the sword 
whetted and cleaned on a stone." "As a man with a hand on a 
sword frightens, do you frighten begging me for the stone." Ibid., 
Rouse translates this line at Jd. ii. 198: " Like lads who wait with 
tempered sword in hand " (lads, susu being there in the pi.). 

2 tdsesi, cans, of tasati, to tremble, shake, to have fears. 

^ Reading with Jd., tdses' imam sdam ydcamdno, and not with 
Vin., tdsesi mam . . . Jd. Corny, says Od. ii. 285): "asking for 
this jewel, you frighten me like a young man who would unsheathe 
his gold-hilted sword and say: 'I cut off your head.' " VA. 566 
reads, evam tdsesi mam selam ydcamdno, manim ydcanto ti attho. 



VI. 1, 3-4] FORMAL MEETING 251 

again. Then, monks, the younger holy man, not seeing 
that beautiful snake, became increasingly thin, wretched, 
of a bad colour, yellowish, the veins showing all over 
his body. The elder holy man, seeing that the younger 
holy man had become increasingly thin . . . the veins 
showing all over his body, said to the younger holy 
man: 

* Why are you, good sir, increasingly thin ... the 
veins showing all over your body V 

* It is because I, good sir, do not see the beautiful 
snake that I become increasingly thin . . . the veins 
showing all over my body.' 

Then, monks, the elder holy man addressed these 
verses to the younger holy man : 

* Do not beg him who is dear for what you covet, it 

is odious to ask for too much. 
The snake, begged by a brahmin for a jewel, dis- 
appeared, and was not seen ( again). '^ 

Monks, begging from these animals and living creatures 
will become hated, begging by hinting (will become) 
hated, how much more then (will be begging) from 
men? ||3|| 

Once upon a time, monks, a certain monk lived in a 
certain thicket on a slope of the Himalayas. Monks, 
not far from the thicket was an extensive, low-lying 
marshy ground. Then, monks, a great flock of birds, 
going daily to feed in this marshy ground, entered the 
thicket at night to roost. Then, monks, that monk, 
worried by the noise of the flocking birds, came up to 
me, and having come up and greeted me, he sat down 
to one side. Sitting to one side, I said, monks, to that 
monk: [147] ' I hope, monk, you are getting on well, I 
hope, monk, you are keeping going, having accomplished 
your journey with but little fatigue. But where do 
you come from, monk V 

' I am getting along fairly well, lord,^ I am keeping 
going, lord,^ and, lord,^ I have accomplished my journey 



-Jd. ii. 285. 2 Bhagavd. » Bhante. 



252 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 148 

with but little fatigue. There is, lord,^ on the slopes of 
the Himalayas a large thicket, and, lord, not far from 
this thicket there is an extensive, low-lying marshy 
ground. Now, lord, a great flock of birds going daily 
to feed at that marshy ground goes into that thicket at 
night to roost. That is why I come, lord,^ for I am 
worried by the noise of that flock of birds.' 

I said: ' Monk, do you want this flock of birds not to 
return V 

' I want, lord,^ this flock of birds not to return.' 
I said : ' Then 3^ou, monk, going there, and penetrating 
this thicket three times in the first watch of the night 
must utter this sound : ' Listen to me, good sirs, whatever 
birds have come to roost in this thicket, I want a 
feather. Good sirs, give me one feather at a time.' 
Three times in the -middle watch . . . three times in 
the last watch . . . ' at a time.' Then, monks, this 
monk having gone there, and having penetrated the 
thicket, uttered this sound three times ... in the 
middle watch of the night ... in the last watch of 
the night . . . ' at a time.' Then, monks, that flock of 
birds said: ' The monk begs for a feather, the monk 
wants a feather,' and they departed from that thicket, 
and after they were gone, they did not come back again. 
Begging, monks, from these animals and living creatures 
will become hateful, hinting (will become) hateful, how 
much more then from men ? || 4 1| 

Once upon a time, monks, the father of Ratthapala, 
the noble youth, addressed these verses to Ratthapala, 
the noble youth : 

' Tho' I do not know them, Ratthapala, the many-folk. 
These, meeting me, beg — why do you not beg of me V 
' The beggar is not liked, the not-giver to beggar 

is not liked, ^ 
Therefore I do not beg of you, do not be angry with 

me.'* 

1 Bhante. ^ Bhagavd. ^ For not giving is not liked, VA. 566. 
* =«/a. iii. 352, 353, except first line. 



VI. 1, 5-6] FORMAL MEETING 253 

Monks, if Eatthapala, the noble youth, can speak 
thus to his own father, how much more then can (any) 
person to (any other) person ? || 5 || 

Monks, it is difficult for householders to collect pos- 
sessions [148], and difficult to protect their stores; how 
can you, foolish men, dwell intent on begging, intent on 
asking by hinting (for something) from among these 
possessions which are difficult to collect, and from among 
these stores which are difficult to protect, saying: 
* Give a man, give a servant, give an ox, give a wagon, 
give a knife, give a hatchet, give an axe, give a spade, 
give a chisel, give a creeper, give bamboo, give munja- 
grass, give coarse grass, give tina-gra.ss, give clay.' This 
is not, foolish men, for the benefit of unbelievers . . . and, 
monks, thus this course of training should be set forth : 

A monk begging in company^ for having a hut built, 
which has no benefactor, for his own advantage, should 
make it according to measure. This is the measure : in 
length, twelve spans of a span of the accepted length^ ; in 
width seven spans inside. Monks should be brought for 
marking out the site. A site not involving destruction,^ 
and with an open space round it,* should be marked 
out by these monks. If that monk should build a hut, 
begging himself for a site which involves destruction and 
which has not an open space round it, or if he should 
not bring the monks for marking out a site, or if he 
should exceed the measure, there is an offence entailing 
a formal meeting of the Order." i| 6 || 1 1| 

^ VA. 566, " sanndcikd m«ans, having themselves inaugurated is 
called ' begging,' therefore sanndcikdya is called begging themselves," 
cf, VA. 561 and below, Old Corny., sayam ydcitvd. 

2 Sttgata-vidatthiyd, see Vin. Texts i. 8, n. 2, for a discussion of this 
phrase. VA. 567, " a man of medium height is three spans, a 
builder's cubit {hattha, the hand used as a measure) is one and a 
half cubits." 

3 Andrambha — i.e., to living creatures, see below, Old Corny., 
p. 257. 

•* Saparikkamana — i.e., accessible, good for rambling in. See 
below. Old Corny., " possible for a cart drawn by a yoke of oxen to 
go round it." jf follow trans, as at Vin. Texts i. 8. 



254 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 149-150 

Begging in company means: oneself begging for a man, 
for a servant, for an ox, for a wagon, for a knife, for a 
hatchet, for an axe, for a spade, for a chisel ... for 
^ma-grass, for clay. 

A hut means: it is smeared inside or it is smeared 
outside, or it is smeared inside and outside.^ 

For having . . . built means: building or causing to 
be built. 

Without a benefactor means: there is not anyone who 
is the owner, either a woman or a man or a householder 
or one who has gone forth. 

For his oivn advantage means: for the goocll)f him- 
self. 2 

Should make it according to measure. This is the 
measure : in length, twelve spans of a span of the accepted 
length means: for the outside measure. In width, seven 
inside means: for the inside measure. || 1 1| 

Monks should, be brought for marking out a site means: 
that a monk building a hut, having cleared a site for a 
hut, approaching the Order, arranging his robe over one 
shoulder, honouring the feet of the senior monks, 
squatting down on his heels, and saluting with his palms 
outstretched, should speak thus to them^ : ' Honoured 
sirs, I, begging in company, for my own advantage, am 
desirous of building a hut, it has no benefactor; honoured 
sirs, I beg the Order for inspection of the site for a 
hut.' A second time it. should be begged for, a third 
time [149] it should be begged for. If the whole Order* 
is able to inspect a site for a hut, it should be in- 
spected by the whole Order. But if the whole Order is 
not able to inspect a site for a hut, then those monks 
who are experienced and competent to know what in- 
volves destruction, what does not involve destruction, 
what has an open space round it, what does not have 

1 = below, p. 267, in definition oivihdra. 

2 Cf. below, p. 268. 

3 VA. 569, '* the Order should be spoken to thus by him." 
* I.e.y all the community of a district or of a vihara. 



VI. 2, 2] FORMAL MEETING 255 

an open space round it— begging these, they should 
depute (them). 

And thus, monks, should they depute (them): the 
Order should be informed by an experienced, com- 
petent monk : ' Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to 
me. Such and such a monk, begging in company, for 
his own advantage, desirous of building a hut which 
has no benefactor, begs the Order for inspection of 
the site for a hut. If it is the right time for the Order,^ 
the Order should depute such and such monks to in- 
spect a site for a hut for that monk. This is the motion. 
Let the Order listen to me, honoured sirs. Such and 
such a monk . . . site for a hut. The Order deputes 
such and such monks to inspect a site for a hut for such 
and such a monk. If it seems good to the venerable 
ones to depute the inspection of a site for a hut to such 
and such monks for that monk, be silent ; if it does not 
seem good, then you should speak. Such and such 
monks are deputed by the Order to inspect a site for 
a hut for such and such a monk. It seems good to 
the Order, therefore they are silent; thus do I under- 
stand.' 

These monks (thus) deputed, going there, a site for a 
hut should be inspected, it should be known whether 
it involves destruction, whether it does not involve 
destruction, whether it has an open space round it, 
whether it does not have an open space round it. If 
it involves destruction and has not an open space round 
it, it should be said : Do not build here. If it does not 
involve destruction and has an open space round it, 
the Order should be told that it does not involve destruc- 
tion and that it has an open space round it. The monk 
building the hut, going up to the Order, arranging his 
robe over one shoulder, honouring the feet of the senior 
monks, squatting down on his heels, and saluting with 
his palms outstretched, should speak thus: * I, honoured 
sirs, begging in company, am desirous of building a hut; 
it has no benefactor, it is for my own advantage. 

1 VA. 569, " for this inspection." 



256 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [111.150^151 

Honoured sirs, I beg the Order to mark out the site for 
a hut.' A second time it should be begged for, a third 
time it should be begged for. The Order should be 
informed by an experienced, competent monk: 'Hon- 
oured sirs, let the Order listen to me. Such and such 
a monk, begging in company, is desirous of building 
a hut, it has no benefactor, it is for his own advantage. 
He begs the Order to mark out a site for a hut. If it 
is the right time for the Order, the Order should mark 
out a site for a hut for such and such a monk. This is 
the motion. Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. 
Such and such a monk . . . site for a hut. [150] The 
Order marks out a site for a hut for such and such a 
monk. If the marking out of the site for a hut for such 
and such a monk seems good to the venerable ones, be 
silent; if it does not seem good, then speak. The site 
for a hut for such and such a monk is marked out by the 
Order. It seems good to the Order, therefore they are 
silent; thus do I understand.' i|2|| 

Involving destruction means: if it is the abode of ants 
or if it is the abode of termites or if it is the abode of 
rats or if it is the abode of snakes or if it is the abode of 
scorpions or if it is the abode of centipedes or if it is the 
abode of elephants or if it is the abode of horses or if it 
is the abode of lions or if it is the abode of tigers or if 
it is the abode of leopards or if it is the abode of bears 
or if it is the abode of hyenas^ or if it is the abode of 
any other animals or living creatures, or if it is connected 
with^ grain or if it is connected with vegetables, or if it 
is connected with the slaughtering-place^ or if it is con- 
nected with the execution-block or if it is connected 
with a cemetery or if it is connected with a pleasure- 
grove or if it is connected with the king's property or 
if it is connected with elephant-stables or if it is connected 

1 Cf. above, p. 98; A. iii. 101; Jd. v. 416. At Vin. i. 219-220 
it is a dukkata to eat the flesh of some of these animals. 

2 Nissita throughout. 

3 For thieves, VA. 570. 



VI. 2, 3-4] FORMAL MEETING 257 

with horses' stables or if it is connected with a prison 
or if it is connected with a tavern^ or if it is connected 
with a slaughter-house or if it is connected with a 
carriage road or if it is connected with a cross-road or 
if it is connected with a public rest-house or if it is 
connected with a meeting-place:^ this means involving 
destriiction. 

Not with an open space round it means: It is not 
possible to go round it even with a yoked wagon, to go 
round it everywhere with a ladder.^ This means not 
with an open space round it. 

Not involving destruction means: if it is nob the abode 
of ants nor is it the abode of termites . . . it is not 
connected with a meeting-place. This means not in- 
volving destruction. 

With an open space round it means: it is possible to 
go round it even with a yoked wagon, to go round it 
everyivhere with a ladder. This means with an open 
space round it. || 3 || 

Begging in company means: oneself begging saying: 
Give a man . . . give clay. 

A hut means: it is smeared inside or it is smeared 
outside or it is smeared inside and outside. 

Should build means: he builds or he causes to be 
built. 

// he should not bring the monks for marking out a 
site, or if he should exceed the measure means : not having 
caused the site for a hut to be marked out by a vote 
following upon the motion, he builds or causes to be built, 
exceeding the length or width by as much as even a 
hair's breadth, in each operation there is an offence 
of wrong-doing.-/ If one lump* is (still) to come there 
is a grave offence, but when that lump has come 

1 At Vin. iv. 267 nuns are forbidden to keep both such places. 

2 Text reads, samsarana; VA. 570 reads sancarana. 

^ VA. 570, " a ladder having been put up by those approving 
of the hut, it is not possible to go round it with a ladder (to lean 
a ladder on every poinl; of it). 

* Of plaster, F^. 571. 

L 17 



258 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 151-152 

there is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the 
Order.^ 

Offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order means : 
. . . because of this it is called an offence entailing a 
formal meeting of the Order. || 4 1| 2 1| [151] 



If a monk builds a hut, the site not having been 
marked out, involving destruction, not with an open 
space round it, there is an offence entailing a formal 
meeting of the Order together with two offences of 
wrong-doing. 

If a monk builds a hut, the site not having been 
marked out, involving destruction, with an open space 
round it, there is an offence entailing a formal meet- 
ing of the Order together with an offence of wrong- 
doing. 

If a monk builds a hut, the site not having been 
marked out, not involving destruction, not with an open 
space round it, there is an offence entailing a formal 
meeting of the Order together with an offence of wrong- 
doing. 

If a monk builds a hut, the site not having been 
marked out, not involving destruction, having an open 
space round it, there is an offence entailing a formal 
meeting of the Order. 

If a monk builds a hut, the site having been marked 
out, involving destruction, not with an open space 
round it, there are two offences of wrong-doing. 

If a monk builds a hut, the site having been marked 
out, involving destruction, having an open space round 
it, there is an offence of wrong-doing. 

If a monk builds a hut, the site having been marked 
out, not involving destruction, not with an open space 
round it, there is an offence of wrong-doing. 

If a monk builds a hut, the site having been marked 
out, not involving destruction, having an open space 
round it, there is no offence. || 1 1| 



1 Cf. below, p. 268. 



VI. 3, 2-3] FORMAL MEETING 259 

If a monk builds a hut, exceeding the measure, in- 
volving destruction, not with an open space round it, 
there is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the 
Order together with two offences of wrong-doing. 

If a monk builds a hut, exceeding the measure, in- 
volving destruction, with an open space round it, there 
is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order 
together with an offence of wrong-doing. 

If a monk builds a hut, exceeding the measure, not 
involving destruction, not with an open space round it, 
there is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the^ 
Order together with an offence of wrong-doing. 

If a monk builds a hut, exceeding the measure, not 
involving destruction, with an open space round it, 
there is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the 
Order. 

If a monk builds a hut to (the right) measure, involving 
destruction, not with an open space round it, there are 
two offences of wrong-doing. 

If a monk builds a hut to (the right) measure, involving 
destruction, with an open space round it, there is an 
offence of wrong-doing. 

If a monk builds a hut to (the right) measure, not 
involving destruction, not with an open space round it, 
there is an offence of wrong-doing. 

If a monk builds a hut to (the right) measure, not 
involving destruction, with an open space round it, 
there is no offence. || 2 || 

If a monk builds a hut, the site not having been marked 
out, exceeding the measure, involving destruction, not 
with an open space round it, there are two offences 
entailing a formal meeting of the Order together with 
two offences of wrong-doing. 

If a monk builds a hut, the site not having been 
marked out, exceeding the measure, involving destruc- 
tion, with an open space round it, there are two offences 
entailing a formal meeting of the Order together with 
an offence of wrong-doing. 

If a monk builds a hut, the site not having been 



26o BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 15^153 

marked out, exceeding the measure, not involving 
destruction, not with an open space round it, there arc 
two offences entailing a formai meeting of the Order 
together with an offence of wrong-doing. 

If a monk builds a hut, the site not having been 
marked out, exceeding the measure, not involving 
destruction, with an open space round it, there are two 
offences entailing a formal meeting of the Order. 
I|3il [152] 

If a monk builds a hut, the site having been marked 
out, to (the right) measure, involving destruction, not 
with an open space round it, there are two offences of 
wrong-doing. 

If a monk builds a hut, the site having been marked 
out, to (the right) measure, involving destruction, with 
an open space round it, there is an offence of wrong- 
doing. 

If a monk builds a hut, the site having been marked 
out, to (the right) measure, not involving destruction, 
not with an open space round it, there is an offence of 
wrong-doing. 

If a monk builds a hut, the site having been marked 
out, to (the right) measure, not involving destruction, 
with an open space round it, there is no offence. || 4 1| 

A monk commands: " Build a hut for me." If they 
build a hut for him, the site not having been marked 
out, involving destruction, not with an open space 
round it, there is an offence entailing a formal meeting 
of the Order together with two offences of wrong-doing 
... If they build a hut for him, the site having been 
marked out, to (the right) measure, not involving de- 
struction, with an open space round it, there is no 
offence. || 5 || 

A monk having commanded: " Build a hut for me," 
went away. But he did not command: " Let the site 
be marked out, and let it not involve destruction, and 
let it have an open space round it." They built a hut 
for him, the site not having been marked out, involving 



VI. 3, 6-9] FORMAL MEETING 261 

destruction, not with an open space round it: there is 
an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order 
together with two offences of wrong-doing . . . the 
site having been marked out, not involving destruction, 
with an open space round it: there is no offence. || 6 || 

A monk having commanded: " Build a hut for me," 
went away. But he did not command: *' Let it be to 
(the right) measure, and not involving destruction, and 
with an open space round it." They built a hut for him, 
exceeding the measure, involving destruction, not with 
an open space round it: there is an offence entailing a 
formal meeting of the Order together with two offences 
of wrong-doing ... to (the right) measure, not in- 
volving destruction, with an open space round it: there 
is no offence. || 7 || 

A monk having commanded: '' Build a hut for me," 
went away. But he did not command: " Let the site 
be marked out, and let it be to (the right) measure, 
and not involving destruction, and with an open space 
round it." They built a hut for him, the site not having 
been marked out, exceeding the measure, involving 
destruction, not with an open space raund it: there are 
two offences entailing a formal meeting of the Order 
together with two offences of wrong-doing . . . the 
site having been marked out, to (the right) measure, 
not involving destruction, with an open space round it : 
there is no offence. || 8 || 

A monk having commanded: " Build a hut for me," 
went away. And he commanded: "Let the site be 
marked out, and let it not involve destruction, and let 
it have an open space round it." They built a hut for 
him, the site not having been marked out, involving 
destruction, not with an open space round it. He 
heard and said: " They say that a hut was built for me, 
the site not having been marked out, involving destruc- 
tion, not with an open space round it." This monk 
should go himself or a messenger should be sent, saying : 



262 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 16a-164 

" Let the site be marked out, [153] and let it not in- 
volve destruction, and let it have an open space round 
it." If he should not go himself or send a messenger, 
there is an offence of wrong-doing. 

A monk having commanded: "Build a hut for 
me," . . . they built a hut for him, the site not having 
been marked out, involving destruction, with an open 
space round it. He heard ... or a messenger should 
be sent saying: " Let the site be marked out, and let 
it not involve destruction." If he should not go him- 
self nor send a messenger, there is an offence of wrong- 
doing. 

A monk having commanded: ..." Let the site be 
marked out, and with an open space round it . . . 
Let the site be marked out . . . Let it not involve 
destruction, and let there be an open space round 
it . . . Let it not involve destruction ... Let there 
be an open space round it " . . . there is an offence 
of wrong-doing. . . . They built a hut for him, the 
site not having been marked out, not involving destruc- 
tion, with an open space round it, there is no offence. || 9 || 

A monk having commanded: " Build a hut for me," 
went away. And he commanded: " Let it be to (the 
right) measure, and not involving destruction, and with 
an open space round it." They built a hut for him, 
exceeding the measure, involving destruction, not with 
an open space round it. He heard and said: '^ They 
say that a hut was built for me, exceeding the measure, 
involving destruction, not with an open space round 
it . " This monk should go himself or a messenger should 
be sent, sajang: " Let it be to (the right) measure, and 
not involving destruction, and with an open space round 
it . . . Let it be to (the right) measure, and not in- 
volving destruction . . . Let it be to (the right) 
measure, and with an open space round it . . . Let it 
be to (the right) measure . . . Let it not involve 
destruction, and let it have an open space round it . . . 
Let it not involve destruction . . . Let it have an 
open space round it " . . . there is no offence. || 10 1| 



VI. 3, 11-13] FORMAL MEETING 263 

A monk having commanded: " Build a hut for me," 
went away. He commanded: " Let the site be marked 
out, and let it be to (the right) measure, and let it not 
involve destruction, and let it have an open space 
round it." They built a hut for him, the site not having 
been marked out, exceeding the (right) measure involv- 
ing destruction, not with an open space round it. He 
heard . . . no offence. ||11|| 

A monk having commanded: '' Build a hut for me," 
went away. He commanded: " Let the site be marked 
out, and let it not involve destruction, and let there 
be an open space round it." They built the hut for 
him, the site not having been marked out, involving 
destruction, not with an open space round it : there are 
three offences of wrong-doing for the builders ... in- 
volving destruction, with an open space round it: there 
are two offences of wrong-doing for the builders . . . 
not involving destruction, not with an open space round 
it : there are two offences of wrong-doing for the builders 
. . . not involving destruction, with an open space 
round it, there is an offence of wrong-doing for the 
builders . . . the site having been marked out, in- 
volving destruction, not with an open space round it: 
there are two offences of wrong-doing for the builders 
. . . involving destruction, with an open space round 
it: there is an offence of wrong-doing for the builders 
. . . [154] not involving destruction, not with an open 
space round it: there is an offence of wrong-doing for 
the builders . . . not involving destruction, with an 
open space round it: there is no offence. || 12 1| 

A monk having commanded: " Build a hut for me," 
went away. He commanded: " Let it be to (the right) 
measure, and not involving destruction, and with an 
open space round it " . . . A monk having com- 
manded: ^' Build a hut for me," went away. He com- 
manded: " Let the site be marked out, and let it be 
to (the right) measure, and not involving destruction, 
and with an open space round it " . . . there is no 
offence. II 13 II 



264 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [HI. 166 

A monk having commanded: " Build a hut for me," 
went away. They built a hut for him, the site not 
having been . marked out, involving destruction, not 
with an open space round it. If he comes back (and 
finds that it is) imperfectly executed, the hut should 
be given by this monk to another, or being destroyed 
should be rebuilt. If he does not give it to another, or 
destroying it have it rebuilt, there are two offences of 
wrong-doing together with an offence entailing a formal 
meeting of the Order. . . . A monk having commanded : 
" Build a hut for me," went away. They built a hut 
for him, the site having been marked out, to (the right) 
measure, not involving destruction, with an open space 
round it: there is no offence. || 14 || 

If he finishes^ by himself what was imperfectly 
executed by himself, there is an offence entailing a 
formal meeting of the Order. If others finish what was 
imperfectly executed by himself, there is an offence 
... of the Order. If he finishes by himself what was 
imperfectly executed by others, there is an offence . . . 
of the Order. If others finish what was imperfectly 
executed by others, there is an offence entailing a formal 
meeting of the Order. || 15 1| 

There is no offence if it is (built) in a mountain- 
cave^ as a hut,^ as a hut of ^ma-grass,* for the good 

1 Cf. Yin. iii. 225, 229. 

« lenM. Vin. i. 206= iii. 248, trans, at Yin. Texts ii. 61, " cave 
dwelling-place." At Yin. ii. 146 it is given as the generic term for' 
five kinds of abode. 

3 guhd, YA. 573, " a hut of bricks or in a rock or of wood or of 
earth." Guha is mentioned at Yin. i. 58=96, with the four other 
abodes of Yin. ii. 146, as an allowance extra to that of dwelling at 
the foot of a tree. At Yin. i. 107 the Order is allowed to fix upon 
an Uposatha Hall in any one of these five dwelling-places, lind at 
Yin. i. 239 the Order is allowed to keep the stores in any one of them. 
Gf. Yin. i. 284. 

* " = a seven-storied palace if (only) the covering is of leaves 
or of tina-grass," YA. 573. A seven-storied (aattahhwnaka) hut is, 
I suppose, conceivable, but seems hardly possible. 



VI. 3, 16] FORMAL MEETING • 265 

of another^ except it be as a house, there is no 
offence in any of these circumstances,^ nor if he is out 
of his mind or a beginner.^ || 16 || 3 1| 

Told is the Sixth Offence entailing a Formal Meeting of 
the Order: that of building a hut* 

^ " If it is built for the benefit of a preceptor or teacher or for the 
Order," VA.5U. • 

* VA. 574, " except it be as a house (dwelling or home, agdra) for 
himself, he has it built, saying: ' It will become another hall for the 
recitation of the Patimokkha, or a hot room for bathing purposes, 
or a dining-room, or a warmed refectory ' ; in all these circumstances 
there is no ofFence. But if he says that it will become these things 
and that ' I will dwell in it,' there is an offence." 

3 For these exemptions cf. Vin. iv. 48; VA. 574 indicates that 
the monks of Alavi were beginners. 

* Probably nitthitam is omitted here by mistake. 



FORMAL MEETING (SANGHADISESA) VII 

... at Kosambi in Ghosita's Park.^ At that time a 
householder, the supporter^ of the venerable Channa,^ 
said to the venerable Channa : 

" Do find out a site for a vihara,* honoured sir. 
I will have a vihara built for the master." 

Tlien the venerable Channa, clearing a site for the 
vihara, had a tree cut down that was used as a shrine,^ 
revered by village, revered by little town, revered by 
town, revered by the country-side, revered by the 
kingdom. People became vexed, annoyed, angry, say- 
ing: ^' How can these recluses, sons of the Sakyans, 
have a tree cut down that is used as a shrine [155] 
revered by village . . . revered by the kingdom ? The 
recluses, sons of the Sakyans, are depriving a one- 
facultied thing* of life." The monks heard these people 
who were vexed, annoyed, angry. Those who were 
modest monks became vexed, annoyed, angry and said : 

^ YA. 574, " it was made, they say, by Ghosita, the great 
merchant." 

* \A. 574, " at the time of the hodhisatla Channa was his 
supporter." 

3 Cf. Vin. ii. 21 ff. ; at Vin. ii. 88, he took the side of the nuns 
in a quarrel with the monks; at Vin. ii. 290 the brahmadanda penalty 
was laid on him, but he attained arahanship [D. ii. 154). Cf. also 
Vin. iv. 35 f., 47, 113, 141 and below, p. 309. 

* VA. 574, " not a whole vihara, but one dwelling-place." Vihara 
originally was probably rather more than " cell," and " cell " would 
most likely have been called parivena, a monk's cell, cf. Vin. Texts iii. 
109, and above, p. 119. 

* VA. 575 explains cetiya by dftikata. This is from citti-karoti, 
to honour, to esteem. VA. 575 further says that " a cetiya is for 
the sake of honouring: the term is used of those worthy of worship, 
of sacred places. Cetiya means the honoured (or revered or selected) 
tree, it is a tree used (as a place) for honouring." See above, p. 243, 
n. 4, and p. 247, n. 2. 

* With body-sensibility — i.e., sense of touch. 



VII. 1-2] FORMAL MEETING 267 

" How can the venerable Channa have a tree cut down 
that was used as a shrine, revered by village . . .re- 
vered by the kingdom V Then these monks told this 
matter to the lord. He said : 

" Is it true, as is said, Channa, that you had a tree 
cut down that was used as a shrine, revered by village 
. . . revered by the kingdom ?" 

" It is true, lord," he said. 

The enlightened one, the lord, rebuked him, saying: 

" How can you, foolish man, have a tree cut down 
that was used as a shrine, revered by village . . . 
revered by the kingdom ? For, foolish man, in a tree 
are people having consciousness as living beings. This 
is not, foolish man, for the benefit of unbelievers . . , 
Thus, monks, this course of training should be set forth: 

If there is a monk building a large^ vihara for his own 
advantage, having a benefactor, monks should be 
brought for marking out a site. A site should be marked 
out by these monks, not involving destruction, with an 
open space round it. If a monk should build a large 
vihara on a site involving destruction, not with an open 
space round it, or if he should not bring monks to mark 
out a site, there is an offence entailing a formal meeting 
of the Order." 11 111 



Large means: it is called a vihara having a bene- 
factor.2 

Vihara means: it is smeared inside or it is smeared 
outside or it is smeared inside and outside.' 

^ Mahallaka, here not in the usual sense of " full of years," but 
=mahantabhdvo . . . pamdnainahantdya mahallaham . . . atthadas- 
sanattham mahallako ndma, VA. 575. But see Old Corny.' s definition 
below. Cf. Vin. ii. 166, where a vihara is also called mahallaka. 

2 Because then it can be made to the size of the approved measure, 
apparently meaning not smaller than this. 

3 Cf. above, p. 254, where hut, kuVi, is defined in these same 
terms. UlliUdvalitta, which I have rendered " smeared inside and 
outside," also occurs at A. i. 101=M. iii. 61, in the simile of the 
(wise and foolish) non-inflammable and inflammable house with 
gabled roofs. 



268 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 160-167 

Building means : building or causing to be built. 

Having a benefactor means: a certain person is the 
benefactor: a woman or a man or a householder or one 
who has gone forth.^ 

For his own advantage means : for his own good.^ 

Monks should be brought for marking out a site means : 
that monk building a vihara, clearing the site for a 
vihara . . . (see Formal Meeting VI. 2, 2) . . . should 
say: ' I, honoured sirs, am desirous of building a large 
vihara, having a benefactor, for my own advantage; 
honoured sirs, I beg the Order to inspect the site for a 
vihara . . . this is called having an open space round it. 

Large means: it is called a vihara having a bene- 
factor. 

Vihara means: it is smeared inside or it is smeared 
outside* or it is smeared inside arid outside. 

Should build means: he builds or he causes to be 
built. 

If he should not bring monks to mark out the site means : 
not having caused the site for a vihara to be marked out 
by a vote following directly upon the motion, he builds 
or causes to be built, [156] in each operation there is 
an offence of wrong-doing. If one lump (of plaster) is 
(still) to come, there is a grave offence ; when that lump 
has come there is an offence entailing a formal meeting 
oftheOrder.2 

Offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order means : 
... on account of this it is called an offence entailing 
a formal meeting of the Order. || 2 1| 



If a monk builds a vihara, the site not having been 
marked out, involving destruction, not with an open 
space round it . . . {see Formal Meeting VI. 3, 1. The 
sections which contain " exceeding the measure " and 
"to (the right) measure " are not repeated here) , . . the 
site having been marked out, involving no destruction, 
with an open space round it, there is no offence. || 1 1| 

1 Cf. above, p. 254. « Cf above, p. 258. 



VII. 3, 2-6] FORMAL MEETING 269 

A monk commanded: ''Build a vihara for me." 
They built a vihara for him, the site not having been 
marked out, involving destruction, not with an open 
space round it . . . the site not having been marked 
out, not involving destruction, with an open space 
round it, there is no offence. || 2 || 

A monk having commanded: "Build a vihara for 
me," went away. And he did not command: "Let 
there be marking out of the site, and let it not involve 
destruction, and let it have an open space round it." 
They built a vihara for him, the site not having been 
marked out, involving destruction, not with an open 
space round it . . . the site having been marked out, 
not involving destruction, with an open space round it, 
there is no offence. || 3 || 

A monk having commanded: "Build a vihara for 
me," went away. And he commanded: " Let there be 
marking out of the site, and not involving destruction, 
and with an open space round it." They built the 
vihara for him, the site not having been marked out, 
involving destruction, not with an open space round it. 
He heard and said: " They say that a vihara was built 
for me, the site not having been marked out, involving 
destruction, not with an open space round it." If this 
monk should go himself ... there is no offence. ||4|| 

A monk having commanded: "Build a vihara for 
me," went away. And he commanded: " Let there be 
marking out of the site, and let it not involve destruc- 
tion, and let there be an open space round it." They 
built a vihara for him, the site not having been marked 
out, involving destruction, not with an open space 
round it. For the builders there are three offences of 
Avrong-doing . , . the site marked out, not involving 
destruction, with an open space round it, there is no 
offence. || 5 || 

A monk having commanded: "Build a vihara for 
me," went away. They built a vihara for him, the site 



270 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 167 

not having been marked out, involving destruction, 
not with an open space round it. If he comes back 
there (and finds that it is) imperfectly executed . . . 
the site having been marked out, not involving destruc- 
tion, with an open space round it, there is no offence. 
I|6il 

If he finishes by himself what was imperfectly 
executed by himself . . . (= Formal Meeting, VI. 3, 15, 
16) . . . if he is a beginner. || 7 || 3 1| 



Told is the Seventh Offence entailing a Formal Meeting 
of the Order: that of building a vihara [167] 



\ 



FORMAL MEETING (SANGHADISESA) VIII 

At one time^ the enlightened one, the lord, was stay- 
ing at Rajagaha in the Bamboo Grove at the squirrels' 
feeding place. At that time perfection had been at- 
tained by the venerable Dabba,^ the Mallian,^ seven 
years after his birth. All that there is to be attained 
by a disciple had been fully attained by him*; for him 
there was nothing further to be done,^ no increase® to 
(be added to) that which had been done. Then the 
venerable Dabba, the Mallian, as he was meditating 
alone and in solitude, thought: " Perfection was realised 
by me seven years after my birth. Whatever there is 
to be attained by a disciple, all this has been fully 
attained by me; for me there is nothing further to be 
done, no increase (to be added) to that which has been 
done. What now if I should render a service to the 

^ From here to 1, 9 below=Fm. ii. 74-79; trans, at Vin. Texts iii. 
4-18. 

2 VA. 576, " he realised arahanship in the tonsure hall " — i.e., as 
his curls were being cut off. C/. Thag., verse 5, and Pss. Breth., 
p. 10 ; at ^.i. 24 he is called" chief among those who assign quarters." 

^ The son of the raja or chief of the Mallians. 

4 VA. 576, " the threefold wisdom, the four branches of logical 
analysis, the six super-knowings, the nine other-worldly matters." 

* VA. 576, "It is said that by him there is nothing further to 
be done in the four true things, the four Ways, owing to the com- 
mission of the sixteenfold thing that ought to be done." 

« paticaya. This is trans, at Vin. Texts iii. 4 as " nothing left 
that he ought to gather up as the fruit of his past labour." But 
this, I think, is reading more into these words than is justified. 
Bu. at VA. 576 says, " there is no increasing (vaddhana) of what 
ought to be done," such as cleansing (a cleaned bowl). I think that 
this is the right interpretation. Cf. Vin. i. 183, 185 ; A, iii. 376 ; iv. 355 
for phrase katassa vd paticayam. P(Ui° as at Vin. iii. 158 above is 
unusual. 

271 



272 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 168-159 

Order ?*' Then the venerable Dabba, the Mallian, 
thought: " What now if I should assign lodgings to the 
Order, and should distribute the meals ?" || 1 1| 

Then the venerable, Dabba, the Mallian, rising up 
from his meditation at evening time, approached the 
lord, and having approached him and greeted him, he 
sat down to one side. As he was sitting to one "side, 
the venerable Dabba, the Mallian, said to the lord: 
" Now, lord, as I was meditating alone and in solitude, 
I thought : ' . . . What now if I were to render a service 
to the Order V I thought of this, lord: ' What now if I 
were to assign lodgings to the Order ? What if I should 
distribute the meals ?' " 

" It is good, it is good, Dabba; then, you, Dabba, 
assign the lodgings to the Order and distribute the 
meals." 

'' Very well, lord," the reverend Dabba, the Mallian, 
answered the lord. ||2|| 

Then the lord on this occasion^ in this connection, 
having given dhamma-talk, addressed the monks: 
" Monks, let the Order consent that Dabba, the Mallian, 
should assign the lodgings, and should distribute the 
meals. Monks, this should be authorised thus: Dabba 
should first be asked and having been asked, the 
Order should be informed by an experienced, competent 
monk: ' Honoured sirs, let the Order hear me. If it 
is the right time for the Order, let the Order consent 
that the venerable Dabba, the Mallian, should assign 
the lodgings and distribute the meals. [158] That is 
the motion. Honoured sirs, let the Order hear me. 
The Order agrees that the venerable Dabba, the Mallian, 
should assign the lodgings and distribute the meals. 
If it pleases the venerable ones and there is permission 
that the venerable Dabba, the Mallian, should assign 
lodgings and distribute the meals, then be silent; if it 
does not seem good, then you should speak. It is 
agreed by the Order that the venerable Dabba, the 
Mallian, should assign the lodgings and distribute the 



VIII. 1, 3-4] FORMAL MEETING 273 

meals. It is agreed . . . Thus do I understand.' "* 

l|3|| 

Then the venerable Dabba, the Mallian, being so 
chosen, assigned one lodging in the same place for those 
monks who belonged to the same company. For those 
monks who knew the Suttantas he assigned a lodging in 
the same place, saying: *' These will be able to chant 
over^ the Suttantas to one another." For those monks 
versed in the Vinaya rules, he assigned a lodging in 
the same place, saying: "They will decide upon the 
Vinaya with one another." For those monks teaching 
dhamma he assigned a lodging in the same place, saying: 
" They will discuss dhamma with one another." For 
those monks who were musers he assigned a lodging 
in the same place, saying: "They will not disturb 
one another." For those monks who lived indulging 
in low talk^ and who were athletic he assigned a 
lodging in the same place, saying: "These reverend 
ones will live* according to their pleasure." For 
those monks who came in late at night^ he, having 
attained the condition of heat,* assigned a lodging by this 



^ Cf. Vin. n. 176, where it is said that " at that time there was no 
one who allotted lodgings for the Order," and Vin. ii. 175, where it 
is said that " at that time there was no one who distributed meals 
for the Order." 

' N.B. not to read: writing was apparently very little used at 
this date. 

* tiracchdnakathikdy lit. talkers about animals, so: talkers on low 
or childish subjects. 

* acchissanti ti viharissanti, VA. 579. 
^ vikdle. 

« tejodhdtum ^sarndpajjUvd. At Ud. 92 Dabba is credited with 
this same power, which he exerted at the time of his utter waning 
out. This power is also ascribed to Gotama at Vin. i. 25; and to 
Uppalavanna at ThigA. 190. See Minor Anthologies of the Pali 
Canon, ii. S.B.B. viii., p. 11, n. 1, where Mr. Woodward considers 
that this *' power over the fire-element is probably the basis of sakti 
(suttee) in India." I think, however, that suttee is connected 
with sail, the good, virtuous wife; while sakti is lit. ability, will- 
power, influence. Cf. S. i. 144 and K.S. i. 182, n. 2; also A. i. 176; 
ii. 165;Z). iii. 27 228,247. 

I. 18 



274 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 15&-160 

lifijht.^ So much so, that the monks came in late at 
night on purpose, (and) they thought: "We will see 
the wonder of the psychic potency of the venerable 
Dabba, the Mallian." And having approached the 
venerable Dabba, the Mallian, they spoke thus: 
" Reverend Dabba, assign a lodging to us." 

The venerable Dabba, the Mallian, spoke thus to 
them: "Where do your reverences desire it ? Where 
shall I assign it ?" 

Then these (monks) would quote a distant place on 
purpose, saying: " Reverend Dabba, assign us a lodging 
on the Vulture's Peak^; your reverence, assign us a 
lodging on the Robber's Cliff; your reverence, assign 
us a lodging on the slopes of Isigili HilP on the Black 
Rock ; your reverence, assign us a lodging on the slopes 
of Vebhara* at Sattapanni Cave; your reverence, assign 
us a lodging in Sita's Wood^ on the slopes of the 
Snake Pool; your reverence, assign us a lodging at 
the Gomata Glen; your reverence, assign us a lodging 
at the Tinduka Glen; your reverence, assign us a 
lodging at the Tapoda Glen^; your reverence, assign 
us a lodging at the Tapoda Park®; your reverence, 
assign us [159] a lodging at Jivaka's Mango Grove;' 

1 VA. 579, " having entered upon the fourth jhana by meditation 
ou fire, arising from that his fingers were glowing as a result of 
knowledge in the six super-knowings ": the "power of iddhij or psychic 
potency, was one of the six abhinnd. 

2 A mountain near Rajagaha. These place-names also occur 
atZ). ii. 116. 

3 Isigilipassa. Here at the Black Rock, Godhika took his own 
life, S. i. 120, and Vakkali, S. iii. 123. From here the other peaks 
round Rajagaha could be seen, M. iii. 68. 

* One of the mountains near Rajagaha. See Pss. Breth. p. 45, 
n., and illustrations facing p. 361. 

5 Vin. i. 182. 

« The river Tapoda (hot waters) ran beneath the Vebhara Hill. 
See above, p. 188, and n. 1. Samiddhi was tempted by a devata as 
he was bathing in the Tapoda, S, i. 8 ff., which is very similar to the 
Samiddhi Jataka, Jd. ii. 56. 

' A garden at Rajagaha belonging to the physician Ji vaka Koma- 
rabhacca. Mentioned at ikf. i. 368 (c/. ilf. 4. iii. 45). The Samaiiria- 
phala Suttanta was spoken here, D. i. 47; this is referred to at 
Vin. ii. 287. 



VIII. 1, 4-5] FORMAL MEETING 275 

your reverence, assign us a lodging in the deer-park 
at Maddakucchi."! 

The venerable Dabba, the Mallian, having attained 
the condition of heat for these (monks) went in front of 
each with his finger glowing; and they by the light of 
the venerable Dabba, the Mallian, went behind him. 
The venerable Dabba, the Mallian, assigned a lodging 
to them and said: " This is the couch, this the bed, 
this the bolster, this the pillow, this a privy, that a 
privy, this the drinking water, that the water for. 
washing, this the staff, this is (the form of) the Order's 
agreement, this is the time it should be entered upon, 
this the time it should be departed from." Then the 
venerable Dabba, the Mallian, having assigned a lodging 
to these (men), went back again to the Bamboo Grove.* 
I|4|| 

Now at that time the monks who were the followers 
of Mettiya and Bhummajaka^ were newly ordained and 
of little merit ; they obtained whatever inferior lodgings 
belonged to the Order and inferior meals. At that time 
the people in Rajagaha wished to give the Elder monks 
alms-food having a specially good seasoning,* and ghee 
and oil and dainties.^ But to the monks who were the 



1 At Vin. i. 105 the Bliagavan appeared to Mahakappina here 
and exhorted him to observe the Uposatha. At both S. i. 27 and 
110 it is said that in this garden Gotama's foot was hurt by a 
splinter. 

* VA. 579, *' talking to them with talk about the country, he 
did not sit down, .but returned to his own dwelling." 

3 VA. 579, " the chief men of the sixfold group." At VA. 614 
(on Vin. iii. 179) it is said that Assaji and Punabbasuka are the 
foremost in this group, and at MA. iii. 186, they are called " among 
these six, two teachers of the crowd." 

* abhisafjkhdnka pindapdta. Abhi° means what specially belongs 
to the sarjkhdras, merit-accumulating. P.T.S. Diet, suggests 
tentatively " specially prepared." The parallel passage at 
Vin. ii. 77 omits pindapdta. The reading there is probably defective, 
and has led translators of Fin. Texts iii., p. 9, to render abhi° as a 
" wishing-gift." See ibid., n. 3. 

* utiaribhanga\ also at Fin. iv. 259; J a. i. 349. Ghee, oil and 
uttari° are mentioned together at Vin. ii. 214. 



276 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 160-161 

followers of Mettiya and Bhummajaka they gave 
ordinary food, unseasoned porridge of broken rice^ ac- 
companied by sour gruel. These, after they had eaten 
and had returned from their meal, asked the Elder 
monks: *' What did you get, your reverences, at the 
refectory ? What did you ?" 

Some Elders spoke thus: " There was ghee for us, your 
reverences, there was oil for us, there were dainties 
for us." 

But the monks who were the followers of Mettiya and 
Bhummajaka spoke thus: ^' Your reverences, there was 
nothing for us, (only) ordinary food, unseasoned por- 
ridge of broken rice accompanied by sour gruel." || 5 || 

At that time a householder who had nice food gave 
to the Order in continuous food supply a meal for four 
monks. He, together with his wife and children, 
attended and served in the refectory. One offered 
boiled rice, another offered curry, another offered oil, 
another offered dainties. Now at that time a meal 
given by the householder who had nice food was 
apportioned for the following day to the monks who 
were the followers of Mettiya and Bhummajaka. Then 
the householder who had nice food went to the park 
on some business and approached the venerable Dabba, 
the Mallian, and having approached the venerable 
Dabba, the Mallian, and greeted him, he sat down to 
one side. As he was sitting to one side, [160] the 
venerable Dabba, the Mallian, rejoiced . . . gladdened 
with dhamma-talk the householder who had nice food. 
Then when the householder who had nice food had been 
rejoiced . . . gladdened with dhamma-talk by the 
venerable Dabba, the Mallian, he said to the venerable 
Dabba, the Mallian: " For whom, honoured sir, is the 
meal apportioned for tomorrow in our house ?" 

" Householder, the food apportioned in your house for 
tomorrow is for the monks who are the followers of 
Mettiya and Bhummajaka." 

^ kandjakam=sakundakabhaUam, a meal with husk-powder 
cake. Cf. Jd. v. 383.' * 



VIII. 1, 6-7] FORMAL MEETING 277 

Then the householder who had nice food was sorry 
and said: "How can these depraved monks^ enjoy 
themselves in our house V And going to his house, 
he gave orders to a female slave, saying: " Having pre- 
pared for those who come to eat tomorrow a seat in 
the store-room,^ serve them with porridge of broken rice 
accompanied by sour gruel." 

" Very well, master," the female slave answered the 
householder who had nice food. || 6 || 

Then the monks who were the followers of Mettiya 
and Bhummajaka said to one another: "Yesterday, 
your reverences, a meal was allotted to us by the house- 
holder who has nice food. Tomorrow the householder 
who has nice food, attending with his wife and children, 
will serve us. Some will offer boiled rice, some will 
offer curry, some will offer oil, some will offer dainties." 
These, because of their happiness, did not sleep that 
night as much as they had expected. 

Then the monks who were the followers of Mettiya 
and Bhummajaka, rising up early and setting' out 
taking their bowls and robes, approached the dwelling 
of the householder who had nice food. The female slave 
saw the monks who were followers of Mettiya and 
Bhummajaka coming from afar; and seeing them and 
making ready a seat in the store-room, she said to the 
monks who were followers of Mettiya and Bhumma- 
jaka: " Sit here, honoured sirs." 

Then the monks who were followers of Mettiya and 
Bhummajaka thought: " But undoubtedly the food will 



* This acquiescence in " pdpabhikkhu " is curious. It reminds one 
of the lax monks, not uncommon in Burma at the present day, 
wlio do not keep the Vinaya precepts. There are said to be good 
and earnest monks who do keep them, but who are not seen 
about much for the very reason that they lead the good life, as 
intended. 

^ koUhaka, a store-room for various things. At Vin. ii. 153 a 
kotihaka is allowed to the monks. It was usually built over the 
gateway. Here VA. 580, says it was outside the gateway of the 
vihara in the Bamboo Grove. See Vin. Texts iii. 109 for m.eanings 
and references. 



278 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 161-162 

not be ready ,^ since we are made to sit in the store- 
room." 

Then the female slave came up with the porridge 
of broken rice accompanied by sour gruel and said: 
" Eat, honoured sirs." 

'* But, sister, we are those who enjoy a continuous 
supply of food." 

'* I know that the masters enjoy a continuous supply 
of food. But yesterday I was ordered by the house- 
holder: ' Having prepared a seat in the store-room for 
those who come for a meal today, serve them with 
porridge of broken rice accompanied by sour gruel.' 
Eat, honoured sirs," she said. 

Then the monks who were the followers of Mettiya 
and Bhummajaka said: "Yesterday, your reverences, 
the householder who has nice things to eat went to 
Dabba, the Mallian,^ in the park; doubtless Dabba, 
the Mallian, set the householder at variance with us." 
These (monks) on account of their lamentations did not 
eat as much as was expected. 

Then the monks who were the followers of Mettiya 
and Bhummajaka, after [161] they had eaten and had 
returned from their meal, going to the park and putting 
aside their bowls, sat down outside the store-room of 
the park,^ squatting against their outer cloaks,* silent, 
abashed, their shoulders bent,^ their heads lowered, 
brooding, speechless.* |i 7 || 



' siddha. This is p.p. of (1) sijjati, to boil, to cook; (2) sijjhati, to 
be accomplished, (see P.E.D.). 

2 Note that the monks now drop the epithet " venerable " or 
" reverend " in speaking of Dabba. 

3 VA. 580, " outside the door of the store-room of the vihara 
of the Bamboo Grove." 

* sanghdti-pallatthikdya, a curious expression. PaUa° also means 
** lolling," c/. ^«^-iv. 129. 

5 pattakkhandhii. Khandha here, I think, in one of its crude 
meanings, of back or shoulder, and not as suggested at Vin. Texts 
iii. 13, n. 1, ^'faculties." See K.S. i. 155, n. 5. VA. 580=M^. ii. 
104 explains puttakkhandhu as patitakkhatidhd. 

« All this is stock. Cf. A. iii. 57; S. i. 124= If. i. 
258. 



VIII. 1, 8] FORMAL MEETING 279 

Then the nun Mettiya^ approached^ the monks Avho 
were followers of Mettiya and Bhummajaka, and having 
approached them she said to the monks who were 
followers of Mettiya and Bhummajaka: " I salute you, 
masters." When she had spoken thus the monks who 
were followers of Mettiya and Bhummajaka did not 
respond. A second time ... A third time the monks 
who were followers of Mettiya and Bhummajaka did 
not respond. 

'' Do I offend against the masters ? Why do the 
masters not respond to me ?" she said. 

" It is because you neglect us, sister, when we are got 
into difficulties by Dabba, the Mallian." 

" What can I do, masters ?" she said. 

*' If you would like, sister, this very day you could 
make the lord expel Dabba, the Mallian." 

" What can I do, masters ? How am I able to do 
that ?" she said. 

" Come, sister, go up to the lord, and having gone up, 
say to the lord: ' Now, lord, it is not suitable, it is not 
becoming that this quarter which should be without 
fear, secure, without danger is the very quarter which 
is full of fear, insecure, and full of danger. Where 
there was a calm, now there is a gale. It seems the very 
water is blazing. I have been assaulted by master^ 
Dabba, the Mallian.' " 

" Very well, masters," the nun Mettiya answered the 
monks who were followers of Mettiya and Bhummajaka, 
and she approached the lord. Having approached and 
greeted the lord, she stood to one side. As she was 
standing to one side, the nun Mettiya spoke thus to the 
lord: "Now, lord, it is not suitable ... by master 
Dabba, the Mallian." || 8 || 

1 The following narrative down to ||9|l=ym. ii. 78-79 and is 
almost exactly the same as that recorded at Vin. ii. 124-127, except 
that here the monks send Vaddha to the lord to say that Dabba 
has assaulted Vaddha's wife. 

2 ayi/ena, instrumentive, therefore not " lord " (vocative) as 
at Vi7i. Texts iii. 14. Ayj/a was a usual way in which the laity and 
nuns addressed the monks, but I do not think that anyone ever 
addressed the lord thus. 



28o BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 162-163 

Now the lord on this occasion and in this connection, 
having had the Order of monks convened, asked the 
venerable Dahba, the Mallian: 

" Dabba, do you remember doing as the nun Mettiya 
says ?" 

" Lord, the lord knows with regard to me," he said. 
A second time ... a third time the lord said to the 
venerable Dabba, the Mallian . . . *' with regard to 
me." 

** Dabba, the Dabbas^ do not give evasive answers 
like that. If what was done was done by you, say so; 
if it was not done by you, say it was not." 

" Lord, since I was born, I cannot call to mind^ ever 
indulging in sexual intercourse even in a dream; much 
less so when I was awake." 

Then the lord addressed the monks, saying: "Be- 
cause of this, expel the nun Mettiya,^ [162] and take 
these monks to task." 

Having spoken thus, the lord rising up from his 
seat entered the vihara. Then these monks expelled 
the nun Mettiya. Then the monks who were followers 
of Mettiya and Bhummajaka said to those monks: 

** Your reverences, do not expel the nun Mettiya; 
she has not committed any sin; she was urged on by us, 
because we were angry, displeased and wanted him out 
of the way." 

" But are not your reverences defaming the venerable 
Dabba, the Mallian, with an unfounded charge involving 
defeat ?" 

" It is so, your reverences," they said. 

Then those who were modest monks became annoyed, 
vexed and angry, and said: " How can the monks who 

* They are wise, VA. 581. ^ abhijdndmi. 

^ This is, I think, clear evidence of monkish gloss. In every case 
of supposed wrong-doing the lord has always asked the supposed 
wrongdoer " Is it true V* and has never condemned anyone without 
first hearing what he has to say. It is so noteworthy as to be sus- 
picious: where a woman is involved she is given no chance to excul- 
pate herself to the lord. See Horner, Women under Primitive 
Buddhism, p. 266. 



VIII. 1, 9—2] FORMAL MEETING 28t 

are followers of Mettiya and Bhummajaka defame the 
venerable Dabba, the Mallian, with an unfounded charge 
involving defeat ?" Then these monks told this matter 
to the lord. He said : 

" Is it true, as is said, monks, that you defamed Dabba, 
the Mallian, with an unfounded charge involving 
defeat ?" 

" It is true, lord," they said. 

Then the enlightened one, the lord, rebuked them, 
saying: " How can you, foolish men, defame Dabba, 
the Mallian, with an unfounded charge involving defeat ? 
It is not, foolish men, for the benefit of unbelievers. . . . 
Thus, monks, this course of training should be set 
forth: 

Whatever monk, malignant, malicious and ill-tem- 
pered, should defame a monk with an unfounded charge 
involving defeat, thinking: ' Thus perhaps may I drive 
him away from this Brahma-life,' then, if afterwards 
he, being pressed or not being pressed, the legal ques- 
tion turning out to be unfounded, if the monk confesses^ 
his malice, it is an offence entailing a formal meeting 
of the Order." 11 9 11 1 1| 



Whatever means: who ... 

Monk means: ... in this meaning monk is to be 
understood. 

Monk^ means: another monk. 

Malignanty malicious means: angry, displeased, dis- 
satisfied, the mind worsened, stubborn.^ 

Ill-tempered means : with this anger, with this hatred, 
and with this displeasure, and with this dissatisfaction 
he is angry. 

^ patittkdti with more general meaning of *' to stand fast." But 
here, judging by the Old Corny., see below at end of || 2 ||, it must 
mean " confess " with the sense that his words were standing 
on or founded in malice. The verb, however, in such meanings is 
followed by the loc. But pati governs the ace. 

2 ace. 

3 Cf. Vin. iv. 236, 238; Z>. iii. 238, M. i. 101 



282 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 163-164 



Unfounded means: unseen/ unheard, unsuspected. 

Involving defeat means: of one of the four (headings 
involving defeat). 

Should defame means : should reprove or should cause 
to reprove.^ 

Thus perhaps may I drive him aioayfrom this Brahma- 
life means: [163] I may drive (him) awayjfrom monkdom, 
I may drive (him) away from recluse-dhamma,^ I may 
drive (him) away from the aggregates of morality, I may 
drive (him) away from the advantage of religious 
austerity.* 

Afterwards means : in the moment in which he is de- 
famed that moment, that minute, that second has passed. 

Being pressed means: he is defamed in that matter 
in which he is pressed. 

Not heing^ pressed means : not being spoken to by any- 
one. 

A legal question^ means : there aye four legal questions : 
legal questions arising out of disputes, legal questions 
arising out of censure, legal questions arising out of 
transgressions, legal questions arising out of obligations. 

If the monk confesses his malice means : empty words 
have been spoken by me, a lie has been spoken by me, 
untruth has been spoken by me, it has been spoken by 
me not knowing. 

Offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order rnQd^n^ . . . 
on account of this it is called an offence entailing a formal 
meeting of the Order. || 2 || 

^ VA. 585, not seen by self or others, nor by the bodily eye., nor 
by clairvoyance. 

2 VA. 587, " should reprove means he reproves him himself 
with the words ' you have fallen into defeat ' . . . should cause 
to reprove means ... he enjoins another monk and this one 
reproves him with his {i.e., the enjoiner's) words." 

^ samana-dhamma, explained at A. iii. 371: therefore not "the 
ascetic's path " as at Jd. i. 31. 

* iapoguna. 

6 adhikarana. =Vin. iv. 126=238. Cf. Via. ii. 88 flf., where 
the nature of these questions is explained, and ii. 99 £f., which 
explains the ways of settling these questions. _ At M. ii. 247 ff» 
Gotama is represented as explaining all this to Ananda. 



VIII. 3, 1-2] FORMAL MEETING 283 

He is unseen by him committing^ an offence involving 
defeat,^ but if he reprimands him saying: " Seen by me, 
you are one who has committed' a matter involving 
defeat, you are not a (true) recluse, you are not a (true) 
son of the Sakyans, there is no (holding) the observance- 
day (ceremony),* or the ceremony held at the end of 
the rains,^ or the ceremony performed by a chapter of 
monks^ with you," — for each speech^ there is an offence 
entailing a formal meeting of the Order. ^ 

He is unheard by him committing an offence involving 
defeat, but if he reprimands him saying: " Heard by 
me, you are . . ." — for each speech there is an offence 
entailing a formal meeting of the Order. 

He is unsuspected by him of committing an offence 
involving defeat, but if he reprimands him saying: 
'' Suspected by me, you are . . ." — for each speech 
there is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the 
Order. |i 1 i| 

He is unseen by him committing an offence involving 
defeat, but if he reprimands him saying: *' Seen and 
heard by me, )^ou are one who has committed an offence 
involving defeat . . ." — for each speech there is an 
offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order. 

He is unseen by him committing an offence involving 
defeat, but if he reprimands him saying: "Seen and 
suspected by me . . . Seen, heard and suspected by 
me . . ." — for each speech there is an offence entailing 
a formal meeting of the Order. 

He is unheard by him committing an offence involving 
defeat, but if he reprimands him saying: " Heard and 

* ajjhdpajjanta, pres. part. ^ Pdrdjika dhamma. 
^ Ajjhdpanna, past part. 

* Uposafha, a chapter of monks meoting on the fifteenth day of 
each half-month to expound dhamma, Vin. i. 102. E. M. Hare, 
G.S. iv. 140, 170, gives " observance-day " for uposafha. 

* Pavdrand, when the monks invite one another to tell of anything 
seen, heard or suspected to be wrong, Vin. i. 160 and cf. Vin. ii. 32. 

« Sanghakamma, the monks being assembled together in solemn 
conclave. Cf. Vin. i. 123, 143. 

' Vdcdya vdcaya. * Cf. below, p. 292. 



284 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 104-165 

suspected by me . . . Heard and seen by me . . . 
Heard, seen and suspected by me . . ." — for each speech 
there is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the 
Order. 

He is unsuspected by him of committing an offence 
involving defeat, but if he reprimands him sayijtig: 
" Suspected and seen by me . . . Suspected and heard 
by me . . . Suspected, seen and heard by me . . ." — 
for each speech there is an offence entailing a formal 
meeting of the Order. || 2 1| [164] 

He is seen by him committing an offence involving 
defeat, but if he reprimands him saying: *' Heard by 
me . . . Suspected by me . . . Heard and suspected 
by me, you are one who has committed an offence in- 
volving defeat . ^ ." — for each speech there is an offence 
entailing a formal meeting of the Order. 

He is heard by him committing an offence involving 
defeat, but ii he reprimands him saying: "Suspected 
by me . . . Seen by me . . . Suspected and seen 
by me . . ." — for each speech there is an offence en- 
tailing a formal meeting of the Order. 

He is suspected by him of committing an offence in- 
volving defeat, but if he reprimands him saying: " Seen 
by me . . . Heard by me . . . Seen and heard by 
me . . ." — for each speech there is an offence entailing 
a foripial meeting of the Order. || 3 || 

He is seen by him committing an offence involving 
defeat; but he is in doubt as to the sight, he does not 
trust the sight, does not remember the sight, is con- 
fused as to the sight. He is in doubt as to what he has 
heard ... is confused as to what he heard. He is in 
doubt as to the suspicion ... he is confused as to 
what he suspected; yet he reprimands him saying: 
" Suspected and seen by me . . . Suspected and heard 
by me . . . Suspected and seen and heard by me . . ." 
— for each speech there is an offence entailing a formal 
meeting of the Order. || 4 || 



VIII. 3, 5—4, 1] FORMAL MEETING 285 

He is unseen by him committing an offence involving 
defeat, but if he causes him to be reprimanded saying: 
''You are seen, you are one who has committed an 
offence involving defeat . . ." — for each speech 
there is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the 
Order. 

He is unheard ... He is unsuspected . . . || 5 || 

He is unseen by him committing an offence involving 
defeat, but if he causes him to be reprimanded saying : 
" You are seen and heard . . . You are seen and sus- 
pected . . . You are seen and heard and suspected 
. . ." — for each speech there is an offence entailing 
a formal meeting of the Order. ||6|| 

He is seen by him committing an offence involving 
defeat, but if he causes him to be reprimanded saying : 
" You are heard . . . You are suspected . . . You 
are heard and suspected ..." 

He is heard by him ... He is suspected by 
him...||7|i 

He is seen by him committing an offence involving 
defeat ; he is in doubt as to the sight ... he is confused 
as to what he suspected, yet he causes him to be repri- 
manded saying: "You are suspected and seen . . ." 
... he is confused as to what he suspected, yet he 
causes him to be reprimanded saying: "You are sus- 
pected and heard ..." ... he is confused as to 
what he suspected, yet he causes him to be reprimanded 
saying: "You are suspected and seen and heard . . . 
involving defeat . . ." — ^for each speech there is an 
offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order. || 8 || 3 1| 
[165] 



There is a view of what is pure in what is impure, 
a view of what is impure in what is pure, there is a 
view of what is impure in what is impure, a view of 
what is pure in what is pure. || 1 1| 



286 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 166 

If a man is impure, committing a certain offence in- 
volving defeat, even though there exist a view of 
purity, if he speaks desiring his expulsion, but without 
having gained his leave,^ there is an offence of wrong- 
doing together with an offence requiring a formal -meet- 
ing of the Order. 

If a man is impure ... if he speaks desiring his 
expulsion, but having gained his leave, it is an offence 
requiring a formal meeting of the Order. 

If a man is impure . . . not having gained his leave, 
he spoke intending abuse, there is an offence of wrong- 
doing together with one of insulting speech. 

If a man is impure . . . having gained his leave, he 
spoke intending abuse, it is an offence of insulting 
speech. ||2|| 

If a man is pure, not committing a certain offence 
involving defeat, even though there exist a view of 
impurity, if he speaks desiring his expulsion, but 
without having gained his leave, there is an offence of 
wrong-doing. 

If a man is pure . . . having gained his leave, he 
speaks intending his expulsion, there is no offence. 

If it is a pure man . . . without having gained his 
leave, he speaks intending abuse, it is an offence of 
wrong-doing with one of insulting speech. 

If it is a pure man . . . having gained his leave, he 
speaks intending abuse, it is an offence of insulting 
speech. ||3|| 

If a man is impure, committing a certain offence 
involving defeat, even though there exist a view as 
to impurity, he speaks wishing his expulsion, but not 
having gained his leave, there is an offence of wrong- 
doing ... it is not an offence ... it is an offence of 
wrong-doing with one of insulting speech . . . it is an 
offence of insulting speech. || 4 || 

* See Vin. i. 114, where it is said that no monk who has not given 
leave may be reproved for an offence. 



VIII. 4, 5-6] FORMAL MEETING 287 

If a man is pure, not committing an offence leading 
to defeat, even though there exist a view as to 
purity . . . there is an offence of wrong-doing with an 
offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order ... it 
is an offence requiring a formal meeting of the Order 
... it is an offence of wrong-doing with one of insulting 
speech . . . it is an offence of insulting speech. || 5 || 

There is no offence if there is a view as to what 
is impure in what is pure, if there is a view as to 
what is impure in what is impure, if he is mad, if he is a 
beginner. || 6 || 4 || 

Told is the Eighth Offence entailing a Formal Meeting 
of the Order : that concerned with what is unfounded 



FORMAL MEETING (SANGHADISESA) IX 

... at Rajagaha in the Bamboo Grove at the 
squirrels' feeding-place. At that- time as the monks 
who were the followers of Mettiya and Bhummaja 
were descending from the slope of the Vulture's Peak, 
they saw a he-goat copulating with a nanny-goat; [166] 
seeing them they said: '* Look here, your reverences, 
let us call this he-goat Dabba, the Mallian, and this 
nanny-goat Mettiya, the nun; thus we will express it: 
' Formerly, your reverences, we spoke to Dabba, the 
Mallian, about what was heard, but now we have our- 
selves seen him sinning with the nun Mettiya." These 
gave that he-goat the name of Dabba, the Mallian, 
and called that nanny-goat Mettiya, the nun. 

These told the monks: " Formerly, your reverences, 
we spoke to Dabba, the Mallian, about what was heard, 
but now we ourselves have seen him sinning with 
Mettiya, the nun." 

The monks said: " Your reverences, do not speak like 
that; the venerable Dabba, the Mallian, would not do 
that." 

Then these monks told this matter to the lord. The 
lord,on that occasion, in that connection, having had the 
Order of monks convened, asked the venerable Dabba, 
the Mallian: 

" Do you remember,^ Dabba, to have done as these 
monks say ?" 

'* Lord, the lord knows with regard to me," he said. 

A second time, the lord ... a third time the lord 
said to the venerable Dabba, the Mallian ..." knows 
with regard to me," he said. 

1 Cf, above, p. 280. 
288 



IX. 1, 1-2] FORMAL MEETING 289 

" Do not, Dabba, ..." ..."... how much more 
when I was awake," he said. 

Then the lord addressed the monks: "Because of 
this, monks, you should put questions to these monks." 
Having spoken thus, the lord rising up from his seat, 
entered the vihara. || 1 1| 

Then these monks put questions^ to the monks who 
were followers of Mettiya and Bhummajaka. These, 
being questioned by the monks, told this matter to the 
monks. 

*' Did you not defame the venerable Dabba, the 
Mallian, your reverences, with a charge of falling into 
defeat, taking up some point as a pretext in a legal 
question really belonging to something else ?" 

" It is so, your reverences," they said. 

Then those who were modest monks became annoyed, 
vexed and angry, and said: " How can the monks who 
are followers of Mettiya and Bhummajaka defame the 
venerable Dabba, the Mallian, with ... to something 
else ?" 

Then these monks told this matter to the lord. He 
said: "Is it true as is said, that you, monks, defamed 
Dabba, the Mallian, with ... to something else ?" 

" It is true, lord," they said. 

The enlightened one, the lord, rebuked them, saying: 
" How can you, foolish men, defame Dabba, the Mallian, 
with ... to something else ? Foolish men, it is not 
for the benefit of unbelievers . . . And thus, monks, 
this course of training should be set forth : 

Whatever monk, malignant, malicious and ill-tem- 
pered, [167] should defame a monk with a charge in- 
volving defeat, taking up some point as a pretext in 
a legal question really belonging to something else, 
saying: ' Thus perhaps may I drive him away from 

^ VA. 598, " Where did you see Dabba with Mettiya ? ... at 
what time ? . . . where were you going then ? . . . Who knows you 
were at that time in the Bamboo Grove ? . . ." 

I. 19 



290 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 168 

this Brahma-life ' ; then, if afterwards, he, being pressed 
or not being pressed, the legal question turning out to 
belong to something different, if the monk confesses his 
nialice and (confesses) having taken up some point as a 
pretext: it is an offence entailing a formal meeting of 
the Order." 11 2 11 1 11 



Whatever means: . . . (= Formal Meeting VIII. 2) 
... is angry. || 1 || 

In a legal question really belonging to something else 
means: either it is an offence of a different kind ot it 
is a legal question of a different kind. 

How is a legal question connected with a different 
kind of legal question ? The legal question arising out 
of disputes may belong to something different : to a legal 
question arising out of censure, to a legal question 
arising out of transgressions, to a legal question arising 
out of obligations. A legal question arising out of 
censure ... a legal question arising out of trans- 
gressions ... a legal question arising out of obligations 
may belong to something different: to a legal question 
arising out of disputes, to a legal question arising out 
of transgressions, to a legal question arising out of 
obligations. Thus a legal question may belong to a 
different legal question. 

How is a legal question connected with a legal ques- 
tion ? A question arising out of disputes is connected 
with a question arising out of disputes. A question 
arising out of censure is connected with a question 
arising out of censure. A question arising out of 
transgression may be connected with a question arising 
out of transgression, or it may be connected with some- 
thing else. How is a question arising out of transgres- 
sion connected with something other than a question 
arising out of transgression ? An offence involving 
defeat through sexual intercourse may belong to some- 
thing else : to an offence involving defeat through taking 
something that was not given, to an offence involving 



IX. 2, 2-3] FORMAL MEETING 29I 

defeat through taking up human form, to an offence 
involving defeat through claiming states of further- 
men. An offence involving defeat through taking some- 
thing that was not given ... an offence involving 
defeat through taking up human form ... an ofTence 
involving defeat through claiming states of further-men 
may belong to something else: to an offence involving 
defeat through sexual intercourse, to an offence involving 
defeat through taking something that was not given, 
to an offence involving defeat through taking up human 
form. Thus a question arising out of transgression 
may belong to something other than a question arising 
out of transgression. And how can a question arising 
out of transgression belong to a question arising out 
of transgression ? An offence involving defeat through 
sexual intercourse may belong to an offence involving 
defeat through sexual intercourse ... an offence in- 
volving defeat through claiming states of further-men 
may belong to an offence involving defeat through 
claiming states of further-men. Thus does a question 
arising out of transgression belong to a question arising 
out of transgression. A question arising out of obliga- 
tions may belong to a question arising out of obligations. 
Thus may a legal question belong to a legal question. 

II 2 11 

Taking up some point as a pretext.^ A pretext means 
that there are ten pretexts: [168] the pretext of birth, 
the pretext of name, the pretext of family, the pretext 
of characteristic, the pretext of offence, the pretext of 
a bowl, the pretext of a robe, the pretext of a teacher, 
the pretext of a preceptor, the precept of lodgings. 

The pretext 'of birth means : A noble is seen committing^ 
a matter involving defeat; seeing another noble^ he 
reprimands him, saying: " A noble is seen by me; you 
are one who has committed* a matter involving defeat, 

* Lesa. ^ Ajjhdpajjanta. 

3 VA. 601, who was a monk, he seizes the pretext of his khattiya 
birth. 

* Ajjhdpanna. 



292 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 169 

you are not a (true) recluse, you are not a (true) son of 
the Sakyans; there is no (holding) the observance-day 
(ceremony) with you, or the ceremony at the termina- 
tion of the rains, or the ceremony performed by a chapter 
of monks " — for each speech there is an offence entailing 
a formal meeting of the Order.^ 

A brahmin is seen ... a merchant is seen ... a 
low-caste man is seen ... for each speech there is an 
offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order. 

The pretext of name means: one who is a Buddha- 
rakkhita is seen . . . one who is a Dhammarakkhita 
is seen . . . one who is a Sangharakkhita is seen com- 
mitting a matter involving defeat; seeing another 
Sangharakkhita ... for each speech there is an 
offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order. 

The pretext of family means : a Gotama is seen . . . 
a Moggallana is seen ... a Kaccana is seen ... a 
Vasittha is seen committing an offence involving defeat ; 
seeing another Vasittha ... for each speech there is an 
offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order. 

The pretext of characteristic means: a tall man is 
seen ... a short man is seen ... a dark man is 
seen ... a fair man is seen committing an offence 
involving defeat ... for each speech there is an offence 
entailing a formal meeting of the Order. 

The pretext of an offence means: one is seen com- 
mitting a slight offence, and if he reprimands him for 
a matter involving defeat, saying: "You are not a 
(true) recluse ..." ... for each speech there is an 
offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order. 

The pretext of a bowl means: one carrying a copper 
bowl is seen . . . one carrying a bowl of hide^ is seen 
. . . one carrying a cracked bowP is seen committing 
a matter involving defeat ... for each speech there 
is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order. 

1 CJ. above, p. 283. 

2 YA. 602, sdlakajyatta, " like the copper bowl it is well-turned, 
of beautiful liide, glossy, of black colour (lit. bee-coloured), it is 
called a clay bowl." 

« VA. 602, " it was an ordinary clay bow^l." 



IX. 2, 3 — 3, 1] FORMAL MEETING 293 

The pretext of a robe means : one wearing robes taken 
from the dust-heap is seen . . . one wearing house- 
holders' robes is seen committing a matter involving 
defeat ... for each speech there- is an offence entailing 
a formal meeting of the Order. 

The pretext of a teacher means : the pupil of such and 
such a one is seen committing a matter involving defeat 
... for each speech there is an offence entailing a 
formal meeting of the Order. 

The pretext of a preceptor means : the novice of such 
and such a one is seen committing a matter involving 
defeat ... for each speech there is an offence entailing 
a formal meeting of the Order. 

The pretext of lodgings means : a dweller in such and 
such lodgings is seen [169] committing a matter involv- 
ing defeat ... for each speech there is an offence entail- 
ing a formal meeting of the Order. || 3 || 

With a charge involving defeat means: one of the 
four . . . (= Formal Meeting VIII. 2 ) ... a question 
arising out of obligations. 

Taking up some point as a pretext means : taking up a 
certain pretext among these pretexts. 

If the monk confesses his malice mesms: . . . (= Formal 
Meeting VIII. 2) . . . because of this it is called an 
offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order. || 4 || 2 1| 



A monk is seen committing an offence which entails 
a formal meeting of the Order; in the offence which 
entails a formal meeting of the Order there is a wrong 
view as to an offence which entails a formal meeting of 
the Order. If he reprimands him for a matter involving 
defeat, saying: " You are not a (true) recluse . . . nor 
a ceremony performed by a chapter of monks/' thus it is 
connected with a different kind of offence and a pretext 
is taken up : for each speech there is an offence entailing 
a formal meeting of the Order. 

A monk is seen committing an offence which entails 
a formal meeting of the Order; in the offence which 



294 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 170 

entails a formal meeting of the Order there is the wrong 
view that it is a grave offence . . . there is the wrong 
view that it is an oifence requiring expiation . . . there 
is the wrong view that it is an offence which ought to 
be confessed . . . there is the wrong view that it is an 
offence of wrong-doing . . . there is the wrong view that 
it is an offence of evil speech. If he reprimands him 
... for each speech there is an offence entailing - a 
formal meeting of the Order. 

A monk is seen committing a grave offence ... an 
offence requiring expiation ... an offence which ought 
to be confessed ... an offence of wrong-doing ... an 
offence of evil speech; in the evil speech there is a wrong 
view of evil speech. If he reprimands him ... for 
each speech there is an offence entailing a formal 
nxeeting of the Order. 

A monk is seen committing an offence of evil speech; 
there is the wrong view that in the offence of evil speech 
there is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the 
Order; there is the wrong view that in the evil speech 
there is a grave offence, an offence requiring expiation, 
an offence which ought to be confessed, an offence of 
wrong-doing. If he reprimands him . . . for each 
speech there is an offence entailing a formal meeting 
of the Order. 

Beginning severally, the series, with this exception, 
should be put together. || 1 1| 

A monk is seen committing an offence entailing a 
formal meeting of the Order ; in the offence which entails 
a formal meeting of the Order there is a wrong view as 
to an offence which entails a formal meeting of the 
Order. If he causes him to be reprimanded for an 
offence involving defeat, saying: " You are not a (true) 
recluse ..." ... for each speech there is an offence 
entailing a formal meeting of the Order. 

A monk is seen committing an offence entailing a 
formal meeting of the Order ; in the offence which entails 
a formal meeting of the Order there is a wrong view 



IX. 8, 2-3] FORMAL MEETING 295 

that it is a grave offence ... a wrong view that it is 
an offence of evil speech . . : a monk is seen committing 
an offence of evil speech . . . there is a wrong view 
that it is an offence of wrong-doing. If he causes him 
to be reprimanded ... for each speech there is an 
offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order. || 2 1| 

There is no offence if, thinking what is true,^ he repri- 
mands him or causes him to be reprimanded, if he is 
out of his mind, if he is a beginner. || 3 || 3 1| 



Told^ is the Ninth Offence entailing a Formal Meeting 
of the Order [170] 

^ Tathdsafini, cf.tathagata, the " truth-finder." 
2 Samalla, instead of the more usual nitlhifa. 



FORMAL MEETING (SANGHADISESA) X 

... at Rajagaha in the Bamboo Grove at the 
squirrels' feeding place. And then Devadatta^ came up 
to Kokalika,^ and to Katamorakatissaka, and to the 
son of the lady Khanda, and to Samuddadatta, and 
having come up he said to Kokalika, Katamoraka- 
tissaka, and the son of the lady Khanda, and to 
Samuddadatta : " Now we, your reverences, will make 
a schism in the Order of the recluse Gotama, a breaking 
of the concord."^ 

When he had spoken thus Kokalika said to Devadatta : 
" Your reverence, the recluse Gotama has great psychic 
power, and great might. How can we make a schism in 
the Order of the recluse Gotama, a breaking of the 
concord ?" 

'^ Now we, your reverence, having approached the 
recluse Gotama, will beg for five items : ' Lord, the lord 
in many ways speaks in praise of desiring little, of being 
contented, of expunging (evil), of being punctilious, of 
what is gracious, of decrease (of the obstructions), of put- 
ting forth energy.* Lord, these five items are conducive 
in many ways to desiring little, to contentment, to 
expunging (evil), to being punctilious, to what is gracious, 

1 This story is given almost word for word at Vin. ii. 196 ff. 

2 These schismatics appear again in Formal Meeting XL 
Mentioned at Vin. iv. 66, 335. At S. i. 149=:^. v. 110=Sn., 
p. 123, Kokalika tried to defame the two chief disciples. 

3 Vin. Texts iii. 251, " let us stir up a division in the samana 
Gotama's sarigha and in the body of his adherents," with n. that 
"in cakka-bhedam the first word no doubt connotes 'kingship, 
lordship ' as in dharama-cakka, cakkavatti, etc." But it can also 
mean breaking a wheel, and symbolically cakkabheda has special 
meaning of " breaking up the peace, sowing discord." 

* =Vin. i. 45=ii. 2=iii. 21=iv. 213. ' 

296 



X. 1, 1-2] FORMAL MEETING 297 

to decrease (of the obstruction), to putting forth energy. 
It were good, lord, if th^ monks for as long as life lasted, 
should be forest-dwellers; whoever should betake him- 
self to the neighbourhood of a village, sin^ would 
besmirch^ him. For as long as life lasts let them be 
beggars for alms;^ whoever should accept an invitation, 
sin would besmirch him. For as long as life lasts let 
them be wearers of robes taken from the dust-heap; 
whoever should accept a robe given by a householder, 
sin would besmirch him.* For as long as life lasts let 
them live at the foot of a tree f whoever should go under 
cover, sin would besmirch him. For as long as life 
lasts let them not eat fish and flesh;® whoever should 
eat fish and flesh, sin would besmirch him." 

" The recluse Gotama will not allow these things. 
Then we. will win over the people by means of these five 
items." 

" It is possible, your reverence, with these five items, 
to make a schism in the Order of the recluse Gotama, 
a breaking of the concord. For, your reverence, people 
esteem austerity."^ || 1 1| 

Then Devadatta together with his friends went up 
to the lord, and having gone up and greeted the lord, 
he sat down to one side. As he was sitting to one side, 
Devadatta said to the lord: " Lord, the lord in many 

1 vajja. 

2 fhuseyya from phusati to touch, not from phusati to sprinkle. 
VA. 603, " let hatred touch that monk, let the lord deal with 
him for the offence.'* 

^ Those who only eat the alms received in the begging-bowl. 

* At Vin. i. 280 it is laid down that the monks may wear either 
the paijsukula robes or accept lay robes, as they please. 

^ At Vin. i. 152 monks are forbidden to spend vassa out in the 
open. 

« At Vin. i. 238 and below, p. 298, it is laid down that fish and 
meat are pure for the monks if they do not see, hear or suspect that 
it has been killed for them. Cf. pp. 98, 99 above, where there 
seems to be no offence in eating meat. 

' lakhappasanna, cf. A. ii. 71, where this is one of the four types 
of persons who estimate by and esteem outward form. Each type 
is explained at Pug. 53. 



298 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 171-172 

ways speaks in praise of desiring little . . . who should 
eat fish or flesh, sin would besmirch him/' 

" Enough, Deyadatta," he said. " Whoever wishes, 
let him be a forest-dweller; whoever wishes, let him 
dwell in the neighbourhood of a village ; whoever wishes, 
[171] let him be a beggar for alms; whoever wishes, 
let him accept an invitation; whoever wishes, let him 
wear rags taken from the dust-heap; whoever wishes, 
let him accept a householder's robes. For eight 
months, Devadatta, lodging at the foot of a tree is 
permitted by me.^ Fish and flesh are pure in respect 
of three points : if they are not seen, heard or suspected 
(to have been killed for him^)." 

Then Devadatta thinking: " The lord does not allow 
these *five items," was joyful and exultant.* He rose 
from his seat, and having greeted the lord, and paid 
homage to him keeping him on his right side, he de- 
parted together with his friends. Then Devadatta, 
entering Rajagaha, taught the people by means of the 
five items: "We, your reverences, having approached 
the recluse Gotama, begged for five items: 'Lord, 
the lord in various ways speaks in praise of desiring 
little . . . whoever should eat fish and flesh, sin 
would besmirch him.' The recluse Gotama does not 

^ I.e.y not in the four months of the rains. 

* VA. 604, *' not seen means, having killed deer and fish for the 
benefit of the monks, their being caught was not seen; not heard 
means, having killed ... of the monks, the taking (of them) was 
not heard "; not suspected means, if the monks see men going from 
a village to the jungle with nets and snares in their hands; and if 
on the next day they receive fish and flesh with their alms in the 
village they suspect: *' Was not this done for the benefit of the 
monks ?" They ask the men, who deny it, and say it was done 
for their own benefit. Or the monks may hear it said that men are 
going out to the jungle with nets and snares, or they may neither 
see the hunters nor hear it said they that have gone out, but simply 
receive fish and flesh in their begging-bowls. The same doubts 
assail them, and they ask if the killing took place for their benefit. 
But if it was not done expressly for the monks' benefit, inasmuch as 
there is no doubt as to this, everything is quite in order. 

^ VA. 606, says he was joyful and exultant because he now thought 
he could cause a schism. 



X. 1, 2-3] FORMAL MEETING 299 

allow these. But we live in conformity with these five 
items." II 2 II 

Then those who were men of no faith, not virtuous, 
and of poor enlightenment, said: " These recluses, sons 
of the Sakyans, are punctilious^ and practise the ex- 
punging of evil; but the recluse Gotama is luxurious 
and strives after abundance." 

Then those who were faithful, virtuous, clever, en- 
lightened people became vexed, annoyed, angry and 
said: "How can this Devadatta go forward with a 
schism in the Order of the lord, with a breaking of the 
concord ?" 

Then the monks heard these people who were vexed, 
annoyed, angry. Those who were modest monks were 
. . . angry, and said: "How can this Devadatta go 
forward with a schism, with a breaking of the con- 
cord ?" Then these monks told this matter to the 
lord. 

He said:. " Is it true, as is said, Devadatta, that you 
went forward with a schism in the Order, with a breaking 
of the concord ?" 

" It is true, lord," he said. 

The enlightened one, the lord, rebuked him, saying: 
" How can you, foolish man, go forward with a schism 
in the Order, with a breaking of the concord ? It is 
not, foolish man, for the benefit of unbelievers . . . 
Thus, monks, this course of training should be set 
forth: 

Whatever monk should go forward with a schism of 
the Order which is harmonious, or should persist in 
taking up some legal question leading to a dissension: 
that monk should be spoken to thus by the monks: 
' Do not, venerable one, go forward with a schism of the 
Order which is harmonious, or persist in taking up some 
legal question leading to a dissension. Let the venerable 



^ VA. 607, they are dhuta because they are endowed with the 
patipadd which shakes off the hilesas ; they are sallekhavtUtt because 
their course of life (vtUti) reduces the kilesas. 



300 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 172-178 

one be associated with the Order; for the Order is 
harmonious, on friendly terms, not quarrelsome, it 
dwells comfortably under a single rule.'^ And if that 
monk, after he has been spoken to thus by the monks, 
[172] should persist, that monk should be admonished 
up to three times by the monks together concerning 
his giving up such a course. Should he give it up after 
being admonished up to three times, this is good. 
Should he not give it up, there is an offence entailing 
a formal meeting of the Order." || 3 || || 1 1| 



Whatever means: he who ... 

Monk means: ... in this meaning is monk to be 
understood. 

Harmonious means: an Order belonging to the 
same community^ is established within the same 
boundary.^ * 

Should go forward with a schism means: saying, " How 
should these folk be separated, how should they be 
separated, how should they be at variance ?" seeking 
a faction, he gets a group together. 

A legal question leading to a dissension means: the 
eighteen ways of causing a division.* 

Taking up means: taking. 

Leading to means : kindling. 



^ I.e., not Gotama's authority, but that of tlie Patimokkha rules. 
This word, ekuddesa, occurs in the Parajikas in definition of samvasa^ 
communion. 

2 VA. 607. There is no separation as to mind. 

3 VA. 607. There is no separation as to body. Belonging to 
the same community means that there are none living together 
holding various heretical views or various religious proceedings; 
that there is no mental separation from those of the same mind. 
Within the same boundary means there is no bodily separation from 
those in bodily concord. For these expressions see also Vin. i. 
321. 

* These are given at Vin. ii. 204 and are the same as the eighteen 
things by which you may conclude that a monk is a speaker of 
what is not dhamma, Vin. i. 354. The first ten are also given at 
A, i. 19. 



X. 2] FORMAL MEETING 30I 

Should persist means : should not give up. 

That monk means: that schismatic monk. 

By the monks means: by other monks, whoever see, 
whoever hear; these should say: "Do not, venerable 
one, go forward with a schism of the Order which is 
harmonious, nor persist in taking up a legal question 
leading to a dissension. Let the venerable one be 
associated with the Order. The Order, harmonious, 
on friendly terms, not quarrelsome, dwells comfortably 
under a single rule," A second time they should say . . . 
A third time they should say ... If he gives it up, 
this is good. If he does not give it up, it is an offence 
of wrong-doing. If having heard, they do not speak, 
there is an offence of wrong-doing. That monk, having 
been pulled to the middle of the Order, they are to say: 
" Do not, venerable one, go forward with a schism of 
the Order, which is harmonious, nor persist in taking up 
a legal question leading to a dissension. Let the vener- 
able one be associated with the Order. The Order, 
harmonious . . . comfortably under a single rule." A 
second time they should say ... A third time they 
should say ... If he gives it up, that is good. If 
he does not give it up, there is an offence of wrong- 
doing. 

That 7nonk should be admonished. Thus, monks, 
should he be admonished : the Order should be informed 
by an experienced, competent monk: " Honoured sirs, 
let the Order listen to me. This monk, so and so, 
proceeds with a schism of the Order which is harmonious. 
He does not give up this course. If it is the right time 
for the Order, let the Order admonish this monk, so 
and so, so that he may give up his course. This is the 
motion. Honoured sirs, let the Order hear me. This 
monk, so and so . . . does not give up his course. 
The Order [173] together admonishes the monk, so and 
so, that he may give up his course. If it seems good 
to the venerable ones, together admonishing this monk, 
so and so, that he should give up his course, be silent; 
if it does not seem good, th^n you should speak. A 
second time I speak this matter ... A third time 



302 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 174 

I speak this matter . . . then you should speak. It 
has been said by the Order that the monk, so and so, 
should give up his course. It seems good to the Order 
. . . Thus do I understand." 

According to the motion there is an offence of wrong- 
doing ; according to the two resolutions^ there are grave 
offences ;2 according to the end of a resolution th^ere is 
an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order. If 
he is committing an offence entailing a formal meeting 
of the Order, the offence of wrong-doing according to 
the motion and the grave offences according to the two 
resolutions, subside.^ 

An offence entailing a formal meeting of ' the Order 
means : . . . because of this it is called an offence entail- 
ing a formal meeting of the Order. || 2 1| 



Thinking a legally valid act* to be a legally valid act, 
he does not give it up, there is a^i offence entailing a 
formal meeting of the Order. Being in doubt as to 
whether it is a legally valid act, he does not give it up, 
there is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the 
Order. Thinking an act wjiich is not legally valid to be 
an act which is legally valid, he does not give it up, 
there is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the 
Order. Thinking an act which is legally valid to be 
an act which is not legally valid, is an offence of wrong- 
doing. Being in doubt as to whether it is not a legally 
valid act, is an offence of wrong-doing. Not thinking 
an act which is legally valid to be an act which is not 
legally valid, is an offence of wrong-doing.^ || 1 1| 



^ kammavdcd, resolution; nalti, motion, cf. Vin. i. 317 and 
Vin, Texts i. 169, n. 2; ii. 265, n. 2. 

* VA. 609. He to whom these three offences do not seem good, 
should speak. 

3 =below, pp. 307, 313. 

* VA. 609, " a legally valid act, an act which has been repeated 
together." An unlawful act is explained at Vin. i. 317 f. It is 
connected with natti and kammavdcd. 

« ==below, pp. 307, 313. 



X. 3, 2] FORMAL MEETING 303 



There is no offence if he has not been admonished, if 
he gives it up, if he is mad, out of his mind, in pain, 
a.beginner.i ||2|| ||3|| 

Told is the Tenth Offence entailing a Formal Meeting 
of the Order : that of a schism in the Order 

1 =below, pp. 308, 313. 



1 



FORMAL MEETING (SANGHAdISESA) XI* 

... at Rajagaha in the Bamboo Grove at the 
squirrels' feeding-place. At that time Devadatta pro- 
ceeded to a schism in the Order, a breaking of the 
concord. The monks spoke thus: " Devadatta is not 
one who speaks dhamma, Devadatta is not one who 
speaks vinaya.^ How can this Devadatta proceed with 
a schism in the Order, with a breaking of the concord ?" 
Having spoken thus, Kokalika, Katamorakatissa, and 
the son of the lady Khanda and Samuddadatta^ said 
to these monks: 

"Do not speak thus, venerable ones; [174] Deva- 
datta is one who speaks dhamma, Devadatta is one who 
speaks vinaya, and Devadatta having adopted^ our 
desire and objective, gives expression to them; he knows 
that what he says for us* seems also good to us." 

Then those who were modest monks were . . . angry, 
and said : " How can these monks become those throwing 
in their lot with^ and taking part in^ Devadatta's pro- 
ceeding for a schism in the Order ?" Then these monks 
told this matter to the lord. 

"Is it true as they say, monks, that (these) monks 
are those who are throwing in their lot with and taking 
part in Devadatta's proceeding for a schism in the 
Order ?" 

1 At D. iii. 135 these words occur in a kind of definition of " Tatha- 
gata." 

2 The same monks as in Formal Meeting X, above. 

3 dddya, lit. having taken. 

* jdndti no bhdsati, VA. 611, he knows our desires, and so on. 

5 anuvattaka, VA. 611, " those following him by taking up (his) 
opinions, pleasures, approvals." 

* vaggavddaka. " They speak words not on the side of unanimity," 
VA. 611. 

304 



XI. 1-2] FORMAL MEETING 30 3 

" It is true, lord," they said. 

The enlightened one, the lord, rebuked them, saying : 
" How, monks, can these foolish men become those to 
throw in their lot with, to take part in Devadatta's 
proceeding for a schism in the Order ? It is not, monks, 
for the benefit of unbelievers . . . Thus, monks, this 
course of training should be set forth : 

If a monk has monks : one or two or three, who throw 
in their lot with him or take his part, and if these should 
speak thus : ' Do not, venerable ones, say anything 
against this monk ; this monk is one who speaks dhamma, 
this monk is one who speaks vinaya; and this monk, 
adopting our desire and objective, gives expression to 
them; he knows that what he says for us seems also 
good to us.' These monks should be spoken to thus by 
monks: 'Do not, venerable ones, speak thus. This 
monk is not one who speaks dhamma, this monk is 
not one who speaks vinaya. Please do not let a schism 
in the Order seem good to the venerable ones; let the 
venerable ones be at one with the Order, for the Order 
being harmonious and on friendly terms, not quarrel- 
some, dwells comfortably under one rule.' If these 
monks having been spoken to by the monks should 
persist, then these monks should be admonished up 
to three times by these monks in a body, for giving up 
their course. If these, having been admonished up 
to three times, should give it up, that is good; if they 
should not give it up, that is an offence entailing a 
formal meeting of the Order." || 1 1| 



// a monk means : if a schismatic monk. 

Has monks means: has other monks. 

Throio in their lot with means: he is one having that 
view, that allegiance, that objective; and these are those 
liaving that view, that allegiance, that objective.^ 

Take his part means: these are standing for his sort, 
his faction. 



Cf. above, p. 163, and D. i. 187; M. i. 487. 

20 



306 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 175 176 

One or two or three means: there are one or two or 
three. 

If these should speak thus means: " Do not, venerable 
ones, speak against this monk. This monk is one who 
speaks dhamma, and this monk is one who speaks 
vinaya, and this monk is one who having adopted our 
desire and allegiance, [175] gives expression to them. He 
knows that what he says for us seems also good to us." 

These monks means : these monks who throw in their 
lot with. 

By monks means: by other monks who see, and who 
hear. These should say: "Do not, venerable ones, 
speak thus. This monk is not one who speaks dhamma, 
and this monk is not one who speaks vinaya. Please 
do not let a schism in the Order seem good to the 
venerable ones. Let the venerable ones be at one with the 
Order; for the Order being harmonious and on friendly 
terms, not quarrelsome, dwells comfortably under one 
rule." A second time they should say . . . A third time 
they should say ... if they give it up, that is good; 
if they do not give it up, it is an offence of wrong-doing. 

These monks, having pulled them into the middle 
of the Order, should say: " Do not, venerable ones, speak 
thus. He is not . . . under one rule." A second 
time they should say ... a third time they should 
say ... if they give up their course it is good ; if they 
do not give it up there is an offence of wrong-doing. 

These monks should be admonished means: Thus, 
monks, they should be admonished . . . the Order 
should be informed by an experienced, competent monk : 
** Let the Order hear me, honoured sirs. Such and such 
monks, having thrown in their lot with such and such 
a monk, are taking his side in a proceeding for making 
a schism in the Order. These do not give up this 
course. If it is the right time for the Order, let the 
Order as a body admonish such and such monks about 
giving up this course. This is the motion. Honoured 
sirs, let the Order hear me: such and such monks . . . 
not give up the course. The Order as a body admonishes 
such and such monks about giving up this course. If 



XT. 2—3, 1] FORMAL MEETING 307 

it seems good to the venerable ones to admonish such 
and such monks for giving up this course, you should 
be silent ; if it does not seem good to you, you should 
speak. A second time I proclaim this matter. A third 
time I proclaim this matter . . . you should speak. 
Let the Order as a body admonish such and such monks 
for giving up this course. It seems good to the Order 
. . . Thus do 1 understand." 

According to the motion there is an offence of wrong- 
doing; according to two resolutions there are grave 
offences ; at the end of the resolution there is an offence 
entailing a formal meeting of the Order. If they are 
committing an offence entailing a formal meeting of the 
Order, the offence of wrong-doing according to the 
motion and the grave offences according to the two 
resolutions, subside.^ 

Two or three should be admonished together; further 
than that^ they should not be admonished. 

An offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order 
means: . . . because of that it is called an offence 
entailing a formal meeting of the Order. ||2|| [176] 



Thinking a legally valid act to be a legally valid 
act, they do not give it up, there is an offence entailing 
a formal meeting of the Order. Being in doubt as to 
whether it is a legally valid act, they do not give it up, 
there is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the 
Order. Thinking an act which is not legally valid to 
be an act which is legally valid, they do not give it 
up, there is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the 
Order. Thinking an act which is legally valid to be an 
act which is not a legally valid act, is an offence of wrong- 
doing. Being in doubt as to whether it is not a legally 
valid act, is an offence of wrong-doing. Not thinking 
an act which is legally valid to be an act which is not 
legally valid, is an offence of wrong-doing.^ || 1 1| 

1 =above, p. 302; below, pp. 313, 327. 

2 taduttari. ^ =above, p. 302; below, pp. 313, 3^7. 



308 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 177 

It is not an offence if they have not been admonished, 
if they give it up, if they are mad, out of their minds, 
in pain, beginners.^ II 2 || 3 1| 



Told is the Eleventh Offence entailing a Formal Meeting 
of the Order : that of siding in with a schism 

J Cf. above, p. 303; below, pp. 313, 327. 



FORMAL MEETING (SANGHADISESA) XII 

. . . at Kosambi in Ghosita's park. At that time the 
venerable Channa^ indulged in bad habits. The monks 
said: "Reverend Channa, do not do that, it is not 
suitable. "2 

He said : " What do you, your reverences, think should 
be said to me ? It is I who should tell you.^ The en- 
lightened one is for us, dhamma is for us, dhamma is 
realised for us by a master.* Just as a great wind blow- 
ing would raise up grass, sticks, ferns and rubbish 
together; or just as a mountain-born^ river would raise 
up various water plants* together, so you, having gone 
forth from various names, from various clans, from 
various lineages, from various families, are raised up 
together. What do you, your reverences, think should 
be said to me ? It is I who should tell you. The en- 
lightened one is for us, dhamma is for us, dhamma is 
realised for us by a master." 

Then those who were modest monks were . . . angry, 
and said: "How can the venerable Channa, himself 

1 =Vin. iv. 141. ^ ^igo in Formal Meeting VII. 

3 VA. 612, " I am worthy to say to you: ' Do this, do not do 
that. For when, as our enlightened one, mounting Kanthaka (his 
horse), left the household life with me, I went forth into home- 
lessness.' " 

* Ibid. " The fourfold true things having been penetrated for 
us by a master (ayyapiitta), dhamma is for us. But thinking that 
the Order was hostile to him, he did not say, ' The Order is for us.' " 

^ pabbateyya, ibid., " Its source is on a mountain." 

* sankha-sevdla-panaka : sahkha, a water-plant, probably un- 
identified; seya/«=Blyxa octandra moss; j9a/mAa or^«/i«a/:aa name 
of a water-plant, most likely a fern (so P.T.S. Diet.). VA. 612, 
" sahkha is called the leaf and the moss, with a long root; sevdla 
is dark sevdla (moss); the rest are water-plants, sesame plants and 
seeds; and everything that is to be styled a water-plant." 

309 



310 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 177-178 

being spoken to by the monks in accordance with 
dhamma, reckon himself as one not to be spoken to ?" 

Then these monks told this matter to the lord. He 
said : 

" Is it true, as they say, Channa, that you, yourself 
being spoken to by the monks in accordance with 
dhamma, reckon yourself as one not to be spoken to ?" 

" It is true, lord," he said. 

The enlightened one, the lord, rebuked him, saying: 

" How can you, foolish man, yourself being spoken 
to by the monks in accordance with dhamma, reckon 
yourself as one not to be spoken to ? It is not, foolish 
man, [177] for the benefit of unbelievers . . . Thus, 
monks, this course of training should be set forth : 

If a monk is one who is difficult to speak to,^ and if 
himself being spoken to by the monks according to 
dhamma^ concerning the courses of training included 
in the exposition,^ he reckons himself as one not to be 
spoken to, saying: ' Do not say anything to me, vener- 
able ones, either good or bad, and I will not say anything 
to the venerable ones, either good or bad; refrain, 
venerable ones, from speaking to me '^— (then) that monk 
should be spoken to thus by the monks: * Do not, 
venerable one, reckon yourself as one not to be spoken 
to; let the venerable one reckon himself as one to be 
spoken to; let the venerable one speak to the monks in 
accordance with dhamma,* and then the monks will 



^ Dubbacajdtika. VA. 612, says that dubbaca means that it is 
impossible to speak to him. Edd. Vin. Texts i. 12 get nearer to 
this in their note than in their trans., which reads: " refuses to listen 
to what is said to him." I follow trans, at G.S. ii. 151 (of A. ii. 
147) and at K.S. ii.l37 (of S, ii. 206). But at G.S. iii. 133 {A. iii. 
178) the reading is, " they are speakers of ill," and at G.S. v. 104 
(A. V. 152), " of foul speech." But Channa, above, has given no 
indication that his speech was evil. Chalmers, Fur. Dial. i. 69 
(M. i. 95), has " unruly," but MA- ii. 66 explains: so dukkhena 
vattabbo hoti, with which cf. SA. ii. 173, dukkham vattabbd. 

2 Sahadhammikam, here adverbial. VA. 613, " according to 
the courses of training made known by the enlightened one." For 
similar use, see Vin. i. 60; iv. 141. 

3 I.e., in the Patimokkha, see below, Old Corny. 
* Saha dhammena. 



XII. 1-2] FORMAL MEETING 3II 

speak to the venerable one in accordance with dhamma. 
Thus is the multitude increased for the lord, that is to 
say by speaking with one another, by assisting one 
another.^ And if that monk when he has been spoken 
to by the monks should persist as before, then that 
monk should be admonished up to three times by the 
monks together for giving up his course. And if after 
being admonished up to three times by the monks 
together, he gives up his course, that is good; if he does 
not give it up, there is an offence entailing a formal 
meeting of the Order." || 1 1| 



If a monk is one who is difficult to speak to means : he 
is difficult to speak to, endowed with qualities which 
make him difficult to speak to,^ intractable,^ incapable 
of being instructed.* 

In the courses of training included in the exposition 
means : in the courses of training included in the Pati- 
mokkha. 

By the monks means : by other monks. 

According to dhamma means: that course of training 
made known by the lord, this is called according to 
dhamma. 

Himself being spoken to he reckons himself as one not 
to he spoken to, saying : ''Do not, venerable ones, say 

^ Annamanna-vuUhdpanena, trans, at Vin. Texts i. 12, '' by mutual 
help." Vidthdpeti is also to ordain, to rehabilitate, cf. Vin. iv. 
226, 317, where vuUJidpeti=upasampddeti in Old Corny. 

2 VA. 612, " endowed with these conditions, they make a man 
difficult to talk to." There are said to be, loc. cit., nineteen such 
conditions enumerated here; sixteen at MA. ii. 66. 

3 Akkhama, VA. 613, " he does not submit to, does not endure 
the exhortation." 

^ Appadakkhinaggdhi anusdsanim, lit. a left-handed {i.e., un- 
skilled, clumsy) taker of the teaching. They do not take the 
teaching with deference, but disrespectfully {cf. VA. 613 and MA. ii. 
66), possibly also referring to the fact that they do not (depart) 
keeping the right side towards the teacher, which is padakkhinam 
karoti. 

This whole phrase is stock, occurring at, e.g., S. ii. 201; A. ii. 147; 
iii. 178;v. 152; Jf. i. 95. 



312 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 178-179 

anything to me, either good or had, and I ivill not say 
anything to the venerable ones, either good or bad ; refrain, 
venerable ones, from speaking to me ''■ — (then) that monk 
means: that monk who is difficult to speak to. 

By the monks means: by other monks, these see, 
these hear. He should be spoken to by these, saying: 
*' Venerable one, do not reckon yourself as one not 
to be spoken to, let the venerable one reckon himself 
as one to be spoken to, let the venerable one speak to 
the monks in accordance with dhamma, and then the 
monks will speak to the venerable one in accordance 
with dhamma. Thus is the multitude increased for 
the lord, that is to say by speaking to one another, by 
assisting one another." A second time he should be 
spoken to . . . A third time he should be spoken 
to . . . If [178] he gives it up, that is good; but if he 
does not give it up, there is an offence of wrong-doing. 
If, having heard, they do not speak, there is an offence 
of wrong-doing. That monk, having been pulled into 
the middle of the assembly, should be told: " Do not, 
venerable one, reckon yourself as one not to be spoken 
to ... by ordaining one another." . A second time he 
should be told ... A third time he should be told 
... If he gives it up, that is good; if he does not give 
it up, there is an offence of wrong-doing. That monk 
should be admonished. And thus, monks, should he 
be admonished. The Order should be informed by an 
experienced, competent monk :" Honoured sirs, let 
the Order hear me. This monk, so and so, being 
remonstrated with by the monks in accordance with 
dhamma, reckons himself as one not to be spoken to: 
he does not give up this course. If it is the right time 
for the Order, let the Order admonish this monk so that 
he may give up this course. That is the motion. 
Honoured sirs, let the Order hear me. This monk, 
so and so . . . Thus do I understand." 

According to the motion there is an offence of wrong- 
doing; according to the two resolutions there are grave 
offences; at the end of a resolution there is an offence 
entailing a formal meeting of the Order. If he is com- 



XII. 2-3^ 2] FORMAL MEETING 313 

mitting an offence entailing a formal meeting of the 
Order, the offence of wrong-doing according to the motion 
and the grave offences according to the two resolutions, 
subside.^ 

An offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order 
means: ... on account of this it is called an offence 
entailing a formal meeting of the Order. || 2 || 



Thinking a legally valid act to be a legally valid act, 
he does not give it up, there is an offence entailing a 
formal meeting of the Order. Being in doubt as to 
whether it is a legally valid act . . . Not thinking an 
act that is legally valid to be an act that is not legally 
valid is an offence of wrong-doing.^ || 1 1| 

There is no offence if he has not been admonished, if 
he gives it up, if he is mad, if he is a beginner.^ II 2 1| 3 || 



Told is the Twelfth Offence entailing a Formal Meeting 

of the Order : that concerning one to whom it is 

difficult to speak 

1 =above, pp. 302, 307; below, p. 327. 

2 Cf. above, pp. 302, 307; below, p. 327. 

3 Cf. above, pp. 303, 308; below, p. 327. 



FORMAL MEETING (SANGHADISESA) XIII 

... at Savatthi in the Jeta Grove in Anathapindika's 
park. Now at that time/ unscrupulous, depraved 
monks who were the followers of Assaji and Punabbasu^ 
were in residence^ at Kitagiri.* They indulged in the 
following kinds of bad habits : they planted and caused 
to be planted small flowering trees; they watered 
them [179] and caused them to be watered; they plucked 
them and caused them to be plucked; they tied them up 
into (garlands) and caused them to be tied up ; they made 
and caused to be made garlands having a stalk on one 
side^ ; they made and caused to bfe made garlands having 
a stalk on both sides^ ; they made and caused to be made 
a branching flower-stalk'; they made and caused to be 

1 This whole passage=Fm. ii. 10 ff. 

* VA. 614, " they were the foremost of the sixfold group of monks " 
— the bad group, often giving trouble. 'They say, ' alms in the 
countryside are now abundant, now short. Let us not live in one 
place but in three places.' So they chose KasI of the kingdom 
of Kosala, Anga of the kingdom of Magadha, and Kitagiri. They 
did things not to be done and neglected the courses of training 
which had been set forth. So they are called ' unscrupulous, evil 
monks. ^ " At VA. 579 (on Vin. in. 160) it is said that Mettiya 
and Bhummajaka are the leaders of the sixfold group. 

^ dvdsika. VA. 613, dvdso ti vihdro. ^' Avdsikd are those to 
whom this dvdsa belongs, for they have the care of the new 
buildings and the repairs to the old: these are the residents. Those 
who only stay in a vihara are called inmates {nevdsika), but these 
were residents {dvdsika^." MA. iii. 187 defines dvdsikd as nibandha- 
vdsino, " continual dwellers." 

* VA. 613, " that was the name of the countryside," while 
MA. iii. 186 says, " that was the name of the township." 

* ekatovantikamdla. VA. 617, " a garland made with the stalks 
on one side of the flowers." 

* ubhatovantikamdla. Ibid., " a garland made with the stalks of 
the flowers on both sides." 

' manjarika. Ibid., " an arrangement of flowers." 

314 



XIII. 1, 1] FORMAL MEETING 315 

made a wreath^; they made and caused to be made a 
garland worn round the forehead^ ; they made and caused 
to be made an ear-ornament; they made and caused to 
be made a breast-plate.^ These (monks) take or send 
garlands having a stalk on one side to wives of reputable 
families, to daughters of reputable families, to girls of 
reputable families, to daughters-in-law of reputable 
families, to female slaves of reputable families. They 
take or send garlands having a stalk on both sides; 
they take or send a branching flower-stalk; they take 
or send a wreath; they take or send a garland worn 
round the forehead; they take or send an ear-ornament; 
they take or send a breast-plate. These eat from one 
dish together with wives of reputable families, with 
daughters of reputable families, with girls of reputable 
families, with daughters-in-law of reputable families, 
with female slaves of reputable families. They drink 
from one beaker; they sit down on one seat; they share* 
one couch ; they share one mat^ ; they share one coverlet ; 
they share one mat and coverlet. They eat at the 
wrong time; they drink intoxicants; they wear gar- 
lands, (use) perfumes and cosmetics; they dance and 
sing and play musical instruments, and they sport. 
They dance when she dances,^ they sing when she 
dances, they play musical instruments when she dances, 
they sport when she dances; they dance when she sings 
. . . they dance when she plays musical instruments 
. . . they dance when she sports . . . they sport when 
she sports. || 1 1| 

1 vidhutika. Ibid., "It is done by piercing the flowers of the 
Vitex negundo tree [sinduvara] with a needle or small stick." 

2 vatamsaka. Corny, of no use here. Sometimes as at Vv. 38 
an ear-ornament=^awmA;a, VvA. 174. But here next item, dvela 
=kanmkd, VA. 617. 

3 uracchada. VA. 617, " floral garlands like a hdra to be put on 
the breast." 

* VA. 620, " they lie down on." 

* attharana, lit. strewing, spreading (neut.). Hence probably a 
mat or rug, or even something spread over them, some cover. 

« VA. 620, " when a nautch-girl dances, they go dancing in front 
of her or behind her." 



3l6 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 180 

They play^ on a chequered board for gambling^ ; they 
play on a draught-board^; they play with imaginmg 
such boards in the air*; they play a game of keeping 
stepping on to diagrams^ ; they play with spillikans' ; 
they play at dice ; they play tip-cat' ; they play brush- 
hand®; they play with a balP; they play at blowing 
through toy-pipes made of leaves^°; they play with a 
toy plough^^; they play at turning somersaults^^; they 
play with a toy windmilP^ ; they play with a toy measures 

1 For these games cf. D. i. 6 ff., and see Dial. i. 11 ff. for dis- 
cussions on the terms. 

2 atthapada. VA. 620, " they play at dice on the chequered 
board,'" having eight squares on each side. 

3 dasapada — i.e., a board with ten squares on each side. Corny. 
on this passage to " deformities," he\ow=DA. i. 85 f. 

* VA. 620, " as they play on the dice or draught board, so they 
play in space." 

5 parihdmpatha. VA. 621=DA. i. 85, " having drawn a circle 
with various lines on the ground, there they play avoiding the line 
to be avoided." * 

^ santikdya kilanti. VA. 621, " putting together chessmen and 
little stones into heaps, they move them away and put (new ones) 
with the nails without letting them trernble; but if one trembles 
there is defeat." 

' ghatikena kllar^i, VA. 621, " they move about hitting a short 
stick with a long stick." 

» saldkahatthena kilanti, VA. 621= moistening the brush-hand in 
crimson lac or in floury water, and beating it on the ground or on 
a wall, he says, " ' What shall it be ?' and they play showing the 
form required " — elephants and horses. 

" akkhena kilanti, VA. 621, gulena, with a ball. Tr. Crit. Pali 
Diet, says akkha is a die. 

^^ pangacirena kilanti, VA. 621, ''they play blowing that leafy 
pipe." 

" vankakena kilanti, VA. 621, " they play with the plaything, 
the small .plough of village boys." v.ll. cangakena, vangakena. 

12 mokkhacikdya kilanti, derivation extremely obscure, see art. 
P.T.S. Diet, and J.P'.T.S. 1885, p. 49. VA. 621 says " it is called 
a game of rolling about {sampirivattaka) " {cf. J a. ii. 142). " Holding 
a stick in the air, and putting the head on the ground, they play 
turning about by being upside down." At Vin. i. 275 the son of 
a great, merchant disabled himself by playing this way. See 
also Vin. Texts ii. 184, n. 

13 eingulakena kilanti, VA. 621, "a wheel that is made of the 
leaves of palm-trees and so on; the wheel reels round at a breath of 
wind — they play with this." On eihgulaka see J. P.T.S. 1885, p. 50. 



XIII. 1, 2] FORMAL MEETING 317 

of leaves^ ; they play with a toy cart^ ; they play with a 
toy bow^; they play a game of guessing at letters*; they 
play a mind-reading game^ ; they play a game of mimick- 
ing deformities* ; they train themselves in elephant lore' ; 
they train themselves in horse lore'; they train them- 
selves in cart lore; they train themselves in archery;, 
they train themselves in swordsmanship ; then they run 
in front of an elephant, they run in front of a horse and 
they run in front of a chariot; now they run backwards, 
now they run forwards,® and they whistle,^ and they 
snap their fingers,^ ° and they wrestle," and they fight 
with fists, and having spread out their upper robes as 



1 pattdlhaJcena ktlanti, V A. 621, pafidlhakamvucx(Uipannandlikd, 
and it also says, " they play measuring the leafy pipe with this 
sand and so on." On the measures, dlhaka and ndlikd, see above, 
p. 103. 

2 rathakena, VA. 621, with a little cart. 

3 dhanukena kilanti, VA. 621, " with a little bow." These last 
six and " tip-cat " are given as examples of childish ^ames at 
M. I 2m=A. V. 203==M^7?^. 230. 

* akkharikdya kilanti, VA. 621, " they play the game of recog- 
nising syllables in the air or on their backs." 

5 manesikdya, F^. 621, " they play the game of knowing the mind 
and thoughts." 

* yathdvajjena kilanti. This means the blind, the lame, the 
deformed and so on: imitating that which is a deformity, they play 
the game of exhibiting it. 

' VA. 621, " they learn the learning which is to be learnt for the 
(craft and care) of elephants " and horses. 

8 dhdvanti pi ddhdvanti, VA. 621, dhdvanti pi ti parammukhd gac- 
chantd dhdvanti. Adhdvanii pi ti yattakam dhdvanti tattakam eva 
abhimukhd puna dgacchantd ddhdvanti. 

» usselhenti. So far this word appears only to come here and 
at the parallel passage, Vin. ii. 10. The translators at Vin. Texts ii. 
349, n. 1, " are quite uncertain how to render this word." I admit 
I do not agree with their rendering, " they used to exhibit signs of 
anger," as I think that all these activities were entered upon in a 
friendly spirit. See P.T.S. Diet, under seleti; also Morris, J.P.T.S., 
1885, p. 54, who is inclined to think usselheti is connected with 
seleti, and signifies " to shout out." SnA. 485 (on Sn. 682) explains 
selenti as mukhena usselanasaddam muncanti. 

*i« Here, and at Vin. ii. 10, appothenti. P.T.S. Did. gives only 
apphoteti, with meaning of "to snap the fingers or clap the hands." 
But at Miln. 13, 20 appothe" is given as a variant reading, also 
apphothe°. ^^ VA. 622, " they make a wrestling contest." 



3l8 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 180-181 

a stage,' they say to a dancing girl: "Dance here, 
sister," and they applaud,^ and indulge in various bad 
habits. II 2 II 

At one time a certain monk, rising up from spending 
the rains among the people of Kasi, and going to Savatthi 
for the sake of seeing the lord, [180] arrived at Kitagiri. 
Then this monk getting up early and taking his bowl 
and robe entered Kitagiri for alms-food. He was pleasing 
whether he was approaching or departing, whether he 
was looking before or looking behind, whether he was 
drawing in or stretching out (his arm),^ his eyes were 
cast down, he was possessed of pleasant behaviour.* 

People seeing this monk, spoke thus : 

" Who can this be like an idiot of idiots, like a fool 
of fools, like a very supercilious person?^ Who will 
go up to him and give him alms ? Our masters, the 
followers of Assaji and Punabbasu are polite,* genial, 
pleasaijt of speech, beaming with smiles, saying: ' Co ne, 
you are welcome.' They are not supercilious, they are 
easily accessible, they are the first to speak.'' There- 
fore alms should be given to these." 

A certain lay follower saw that monk wandering in 
Kitagiri for alms ; seeing that monk he approached him, 
and having approached and greeted him, he said: 

** Honoured sir, are alms obtainable ?" 



^ rangamajjha; cf. S. iv. 306, Jd. iv. 495. 

2 naiktikam denti, which P.T.S. Diet, says, " gives a frown." 
But Bu. at VA. 622 says, *' they say, ' Very good, sister,' and placing 
their fingers on their own foreheads they then place them on her 
forehead." 

^ From " he was pleasing " is more or less stock, cf., e.g., M. iii. 35, 
90; D. i. 70; A. ii. 104, 106, 210. 

* iriydptUha can mean " good behaviour " besides the postures, 
of which there are four. 

« bhdkutikabfidkutiko. VA. 622, *' having frowned when he cast 
down his eyes, they say that he goes about like an angry man with 
his mouth clenched." These last two words are in Pali kutitamukha, 
for which there are v.ll. sankiUi°, sankuci°. 

• 'sanha=mpuna. " They greet a lay woman and are not like 
a fool of fools," so F^. 622. 

' Cy. Z). i. 116 for some of these words. 



XIII. 1, 3 5] FORMAL MEETING 319 

" Alms are not obtainable, your reverence," he said. 
" Come, honoured sir, we will go to my house." || 3 || 

Then the lay follower having taken this monk to his 
house and made him eat, said : 

" Where, honoured sir, will the master go ?" 

" I will go to Savatthi, your reverence, to see the 
lord," he said. 

" Then, honoured sir, in my name salute the lord's 
feet with your head and say : ' Lord, the residence at 
Kitagiri has been corrupted. At Kitagiri are residing 
unscrupulous, depraved monks who are the followers 
of Assaji and Punabbasu. These indulge in the follow- 
ing bad habits . . . they indulge in a variety of bad 
habits. Lord, those men who formerly had faith and 
were virtuous now have no faith and are not virtuous. 
Those who formerly were channels for gifts^ to the 
Order are now cut off; they neglect the well-behaved 
monks, and the depraved monks stay on. It were good, 
lord, if the lord would send monks to Kitagiri, so that 
this residence in Kitagiri may be settled. "^ ||4|| 

" Very well, your reverence," and that monk having 
answered and rising up from his seat, departed for 
Savatthi. In due course he approached Savatthi, the 
Jeta Grove and Anathapindika's park and the lord; 
and having approached and greeted the lord, he sat 
down to one side. It is usual for enlightened ones, for 
lords,, to exchange greetings with in-coming monks. 
So the lord said to this monk : 

" I hope, monk, that it is going well with you, I hope 
that you are keeping going, I hope that you have accom- 
plished your journey with but little fatigue. And 
where do you come from, monk ?" 

" Things go well, lord, I am keeping going, lord, and 
I, lord, [181] accomplished my journey with but little 



* ddnupatha. 



^ ddnupama. 

2 miiiihaheyya; or, may be put iu order, may continue, may be 
established. 



320 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [HI. 182 

fatigue. Now, I, lord, having spent the rains among 
the people of Kasi, and coming to Savatthi for the sake 
of seeing the lord, arrived at Kitagiri^. Then I, lord, 
rising up early, and taking my bowl and robe, entered 
Kitagiri for alms-food. Then, lord, a certain lay 
follower saw me as I was wandering in Kitagiri for 
alms-food, and seeing me he approached, and having 
approached and greeted me, he said: 'Are alms obtain- 
able, honoured sir ?' ' No, your reverence, alms are 
not obtainable,' I said. ' Come, honoured sir, we will 
go to my house,' he said. Then, lord, that lay follower, 
taking me to his house and feeding me, said: ' Where, 
honoured sir, w^\ the master go?' I said: 'Your 
reverence, I will go to Savatthi for the sake of seeing 
the lord.' Then he said ... ' may be settled.' 
Therefore, lord, do I come." || 5 || 

Then the lord, on that occasion, in that connection, 
having had the Order of monks convened, asked the 
monks : 

" Mqnks, is it true as is said, that the monks who 
are followers of Assaji and Punabbasu, residing in 
Kitagiri, are unscrupulous and depraved and indulge 
in the following bad habits: they plant small flowering 
trees . . . indulge in a variety of bad habits . . . and 
those men, monks . . . and the depraved monks 
stay on ?" 

" It is true, lord," they said. 

The enlightened one, the lord, rebuked them, 
saying: 

" How, monks, can these foolish men indulge in this 
kind of bad habit, how can they plant small flowering 
trees or cause them to be planted ? How can they water 
them or cause them to be watered ? How can they 
pluck them or cause them to be plucked ? How can 
they tie up garlands or cause them to be tied up ? How 
can they make or cause to be made . . . How can 
they take or send . . . How can they eat . . . How 
can they drink . . . sit . . . stand . . . eat . . . drink 
. . . run . . . dance and sing and play musical in- 



XIII. 1, 6-7] FORMAL MEETING 321 

struments and sport . . . play . . . train themselves 
. . . run . . . run round facing . . . how can they whistle 
and snap their fingers and wrestle and fight with fists, 
and having spread out their upper robes as a stage, 
say to a nautch girl: ' Dance here, sister,' and applaud 
and indulge in a variety of bad habits ? It is not, 
monks, for the benefit of unbelievers ..." and having 
rebuked them and given them talk on dhamma, he 
addressed Sariputta and Moggallana : 

"You go, Sariputta^ and Moggallana; and having 
gone to Kitagiri make an act of banishment^ from 
Kitagiri against those monks who are followers of 
Assaji and Punabbasu; these are fellow monks of 
yours. "^ 

They said: "Lord, how can we [182] ma'ke an act 
of banishment from Kitagiri against the monks who are 
followers of Assaji and Punabbasu ? These monks are 
violent and rough." 

" Then, Sariputta and Moggallana, go together with 
many monks." 

" Very well, lord," Sariputta and Moggallana answered 
the lord. || 6 || 

" And this, monks, is how it should be done. First, 
the monks who are the followers of Assaji and Punab- 
basu should be reproved; having been reproved they 
should be reminded ; having been reminded they should 
be accused of the offence; having been accused of the 
offence, the Order should be informed through an ex- 
perienced, competent monk: ' Let the Order listen to 
me, honoured sirs. These monks who are followers of 

. 1 Sariputta. Use of karotha and later karoma clearly indicates 
that both the chief disciples are meant. Cf. Vin. i. 351 for similar 
use of Anuruddhdl 

2 jpahhdjaniyakamtna. This is directed against those who bring 
families into disrepute. 

3 saddhivihdrino. At Vin. ii. 171 the followers of Assaji and 
Punabbasu refused to prepare lodgings for Sariputta and Moggallana 
saying that they were men of evil desires. This Assaji is not the same 
as he who converted Sariputta and Moggallana to the teaching of 
the lord. 

I 21 



322 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 183 

Assaji and Punabbasu are those who bring a family 
into disrepute, they are of evil conduct; their evil 
conduct is seen and also heard, and respectable families 
corrupted by them are seen and also heard. If it seems 
the right time for the Order, let the Order make an act 
of banishment from Kitagiri against the monks who 
are the followers of Assaji and Punabbasu, so that the 
monks who are the followers of Assaji and Punabbasu 
may not be in Kitagiri. This is the motion. Let the 
Order listen to me, honoured sirs. These monks who 
are . . . seen ^nd also heard. The Order issues an 
act of banishment from Kitagiri against the monks who 
are followers of Assaji and Punabbasu so that the monks 
who are followers of Assaji and Punabbasu may not 
be in Kitagiri. If it seems good to the venerable ones 
to make an act of banishment from Kitagiri against the 
monks who are followers of Assaji and Punabbasu so 
that the monks who are the followers of Assaji and 
Punabbasu may not be in Kitagiri, then be silent ; 
if it does not seem good (to you) then you should speak. 
A second time I speak forth this matter . . . And a 
third time do I speak forth this matter: Let the Order 
listen to me . . . should speak. By the Order there 
has been made an act of banishment from Kitagiri 
against the monks who are followers of Assaji and 
Punabbasu so that the monks who are followers of 
Assaji and Punabbasu may not be in Kitagiri. If it 
seems good to the Order, then be silent; so do I under- 
stand." II 7 II 

Then^ Sariputta and Moggallana, at the head of a 
company of monks, having gone to Kitagiri made an 
act of banishment from Kitagiri against the monks who 
were followers of Assaji and Punabbasu, so that the 
monks who were followers of Assaji and Punabbasu 
might not be in Kitagiri. The act of banishment having 
been made by the Order, these did not conduct them- 

1 Vin. ii. 13 here has some matter not given at Vin. iii. 183. 
But the story continues in Vin. ii. 14 as above. 



XIII. 1, 8] FORMAL MEETING 323 

selves properly/ nor did they become subdued,^ nor 
did they mend their ways,^ they did not ask the monks 
for forgiveness,* they cursed them,^ they reviled them,* 
they offended by following a wrong course through 
desire, by following a wrong course through hatred, by 
following a wrong course through stupidity, by follow- 
ing a wrong course through fear^ ; and they went away, 
and they left the Order.^ 

Those who were modest monks became angry . . . 
and annoyed, and said: " How can the monks who are 
followers of Assaji and Punabbasu, banished by the 

1 VA. 625, " they did not do well in the eighteen duties." 

2 " Through not following a suitable course they are not subdued," 
VA. 625, and taking the v.U. pannalomd, pannalotmi instead of pana 
na loma, as given in the printed edition of the VA. P.T.S. Diet. 
says, lomam pdteti means to let the hair drop, as a sign of modesty 
or subduedness. By this must be meant some analogy with an 
animal (such as a dog or cat) who, having raised the fur (Zowa), 
lets it fall back as a sign of good temper restored. Henc6 this 
phrase is almost certainly meant to be taken metaphorically. 
In Corny, on Vin. ii. 5 (see Vin. ii. 309), where this same ex- 
pression occurs, Bu. explains lomam pdfenti by pannalomd honti, 
which means those whose down is flat, not standing up in excitement, 
and whose minds are therefore subdued. Cf. "he takes up the 
wrong course," MA. ui. 153 on M. i. 442. 

3 Na netthdram vattanti. VA. 625, " they did not follow the way 
of the overcoming of self." Comy. on Vin. ii. 5, given at Vin. ii. 309, 
is fuller: netthdrain vattanti ti uittharantdnam etan ti netthdram yena 
sakkd nissdraiid nittharitum tarn atthdrasavidham samnidvattam 
vattanti ti aXtho. Same phrase occurs at M. i. 442, trans, at Fur. 
Dial. i. 316 " fails to atone," but this rendering is, I think, too 
Christian in tone to fit. MA. iii. 153 on if. i. 442 says: na nitthdram 
vattati ti nitthdranakavattam hi na vattati dpattivutthdnattham turi- 
taturito chandajdto na hoti. v.l. nitthdra, as at M. i. 442. 

* VA. 625, " ' we have done badly, we will not do so again, forgive 
us.' They did not ask for forgiveness." 

^ Ibid.f *' They swore at those who did the commission of the 
Order with the ten expressions of cursing." These are given at 
DhA. i. 211-212. 

• Ibid., " They made dread appear in these." 

' Thes^ are the four so-called agatis. At D. iii. 133 -^. iv. 370, 
they occur among the nine " Impossibles " (abhabbatthdna) for a 
monk who is khindsava. The agati- formula is stock; cf., e.g., Vin. i. 
283; ii. 167, 176,' 177; iii. 238, 246; D. iii. 182, 228; ^. i. 72; ii. 18; 
iii. 274. 

' vibbharnanti. VA. 625 says, ekaccegihihqnti. Qf. p. 60, n. 3. 



324 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 18a-184 

Order, not conduct themselves properly, not become 
subdued, not mend their ways ? [183] Why do they 
not ask for forgiveness from the monks ? Why do they 
curse and revile them ? Why do they, following a 
wrong course through desire, hatred, stupidity and 
fear, go away and leave the Order ?" Then these 
monks told this matter to the lord.^ 

He asked: "Is it true as is said, monks, that the 
monks who are the followers of Assaji and Punabbasu, 
having been banished by the Order, do not conduct 
themselves properly . . . leave the Order ?" 

" It is true, lord," they said. 

The enlightened one, the lord, rebuked them, saying 
..." And thus, monks, this course of training should 
be set forth : 

If a monk lives depending on a certain village or little 
town, and is one who brings a family into disrepute 
and is of depraved conduct, and if his evil conduct is 
seen and heard, and families corrupted by him are seen 
and also heard, let that monk be spoken to thus by the 
monks: ' The venerable one is one who brings families 
into disrepute, and is of depraved conduct. The vener- 
able one's depraved doings are seen and heard, and 
families corrupted by the venerable one are seen and 
also heard. Let the venerable one depart from this 
residence; you have lived here long enough.' And if 
this monk having been spoken to thus by the monks 
should say to these monks: ' The monks are followers 
of desire and the monks are followers of hatred and 
the monks are followers of stupidity and the monks are 
followers of fear; they banish some for such an offence, 
they do not banish others ' — this monk should be spoken 
to thus by the monks: ' Venerable one, do not speak 
thus. The monks are not followers of desire and the 
monks are not followers of hatred and the monks are 
not followers of stupidity and the monks are not fol- 

^ Here at Vin. iii. 181, the next normal step is omitted: " Then 
the lord on that occasion, in that connection, having convened 
the Order of monks, asked the monks." This is given at parallel 
passage, Vin. ii. 14, 



Xm. 1, 8—2] FORMAL MEETING 325 

lowers of fear. The venerable one is one who brings 
families into disrepute and is of depraved conduct. 
The depraved doings of the venerable one are seen and 
heard, and families corrupted by the venerable one are 
seen and also heard. Let the venerable one depart 
from this residence; the venerable one has dwelt in 
this residence long enough.' If this monk, when spoken 
to thus by the monks, should persist as before, that 
monk should be admonished up to three times by the 
monks for giving up his course. If after being admon- 
ished up to three times, he gives up that course, it is 
good. If he does not give it up, it is an offence entailing 
a formal meeting of the Order." || 8 || 1 1| 



A monk (is dependent on) a certain village or a little 
toivn means: a village and a little town and a city, and 
thus a village and a little town. 

Lives depending on means :. there they are dependent 
for the requisites of robes, alms-food, lodgings and 
medicine for the sick. 

A family means: there are four kinds of families: 
a noble family, a brahmin [184] family, a merchant 
family, a low-caste family.' 

One who brings a family into disrepute means : he brings 
families into disrepute by means of a flower^ or a fruit* 
or with chunam or clay or with a toothpick or with 
bamboo or with medical treatment* or with going 
messages on foot.^ 

• =Vin. iv. 272. 

^ VA. 626, a monk must not steal a flower from lay followers in 
order to make a gift or to offer in worship at a cetiya, or to give to 
people to use in worship; and it is not right to urge people to use 
flowers in worship. 

3 Ihid., a fruit means his own property, which he can give tq his 
parents and relations; but he must not give his own property or 
that of others to win favour with families, but to sick men or to lords 
who have arrived, or to those whose earnings are destroyed. 

* VA. 628, " here it is the art of medical treatment as explained 
in the Commentary on the Third Parajika." 

5 Ibid., " taking up a householder's order: — this should not be 
done; taking it up and going is a dukkata offence for each step." 



326 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 186 

Of depraved condiict means: he plants or causes 
to be planted a little flowering tree ; he waters it and 
causes it to be watered; he plucks it and causes it to 
be plucked ; he ties up garlands and causes them to be 
tied up. 

Are seen and also heard means : those who are face to 
face with them see ; those who are absent hear. 

Families corrupted by him means: formerly they had 
faith, now thanks to him they are without faith ; having 
been virtuous, now they are without virtue. 

Are seen and also heard means : those who are face to 
face with them see ; those who are absent hear. 

That monk means: that monk who brings a family 
into disrepute. 

By the monks means : by other monks ; these see, these 
hear; it should be said by these: * The venerable one 
is one who brings families into disrepute and is of 
depraved conduct; the venerable one's depraved con- 
duct . . . has lived here long enough.' And if the 
monk being spoken to thus by the monks should 
say : ' . . . they do not banish others ' ; this monk 
means, this monk against whom proceedings have been 
taken. 

By the monks means: by other monks; these see, these 
hear; it should be said by these: ' Do not, venerable 
one, speak thus . . . the venerable one has lived here 
long enough.' A second time should they say . . . 
A third time should they say ... if he gives up the 
course that is good; if he does not give it up it is an 
offence of wrong-doing. If, having heard, they do not 
speak, there is an offence of wrong-doing. That monk 
having been drawn into the middle of the Order, should 
be told : * Do not, venerable one, speak thus . . . you 
have lived here long enough.' A second time he should 
be told ... A third time he should be told ... if 
he gives up his course it is good, but if he does not give 
it up there is an offence of wrong-doing. 

That monk should be admonished. The Order should 
be informed thrqugh an experienced, competent monk: 
* Let the Order listen to me, honoured sirs. This monk, 



Xlll. 2—3, 2] FORMAL MEETING 327 

SO and so, banished by an act of the Order, makes the 
monks fall into wrong courses by following desire, by 
following hatred, by following confusion, by following 
fear; and he does not give up his course. If it seems 
the right time to the Order, let the Order admonish this 
monk for the sake of giving up his course. This is the 
motion. Let the Order listen to me . . . Thus do I 
understand. 

According to the motion there is an offence of wrong- 
doing . . . grave offences subside. 

An offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order 
means: the Order places him on probation on account 
of his offence, it sends him back to the beginning, it 
inflicts the manatta discipline, it rehabilitates; it is not 
many people, it is not [185] one man, therefore it is 
called an offence which in the earlier as well as in the 
later stages requires a formal meeting of the Order. 
A synonym for this class of offence is a work; there- 
fore, again, it is called an offence which in the earlier 
as well as in the later stages entails a formal meeting 
of the Order.i 11 2 II 



Thinking a legally valid act to be a legally valid act, 
he does not give it up — there is an offence entailing a 
formal meeting of the Order. Being in doubt as to 
whether it is a legally valid act . . . Not thinking an 
act which is legally valid to be an act which is not 
legally valid, is an offence of wrong-doing.^ || 1 1| 

It is not an offence if he is not admonished, if he gives 
it up, if he is mad, if he is a beginner. || 2 || 3 1| 



Told is the Thirteenth Offence entailing a Formal Meet- 
ing of the Order : that of bringing families into 
disrepute 



Cf. above, p. 196. ^ Cf. pp. 302. 307, 313. 



328 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 186 

The thirteen matters which require a formal meeting 
of the Order have been set down, venerable ones — nine 
which become offences at once,^ and four which are not 
completed until the third admonition. ^ 

If a monk offends against one or other of these, for 
as many days as he knowingly conceals his offence,^ for 
so many days should probation be spent by this monk, 
even against his will.* When this monk has spent his 
probation, a further six days are to be allowed for the 
monk's manatta discipline. If, when the monk has per- 
formed the manatta discipline, the company of monks 
numbers twenty, that monk may be rehabilitated.^ 
But if the Order of monks should rehabilitate that monk 
when numbering less than twenty even by one, that 
monk is not rehabilitated and these monks are blame- 
worthy. This is the proper course there. Now I ask 
the venerable ones : I hope that you are pure in this 
matter ?^ A second time I ask: I hope that you are 
pure in this matter ? A third time I ask: I hope that 
you are pure in this matter ? The venerable ones are 
pure in this matter, therefore they are silent. Thus 
do I understand.^ 

Told are the thirteen. The summary of this is: 

Emission and bodily contact; lewd talk and one's 

own pleasure. 
Acting as a go-between; and a hut, and a vihara; 

without foundation,/ 



1 pathamdpattikd. 

2 ydvalatiyakd : name of the last four Sanghadisesas, where before 
punishment can be inflicted, the monks must have been admonished 
so as to give up their wrong courses, even up to the third time. 

^ VA. 629, " for as many days as he knowingly conceals his 
offence, saying: ' I have fallen into such and such an offence,' and 
does not tell his co-religionists." 

* Ihid., taking up probation (parivdsa) it may be spent unwillingly, 
not under his power. 

* Abbheti, to rehabilitate after suspension for breach of rules. 

* I.e., of being at least a group of twenty. 
' For this passage cf. Yin. iv. 242. 



XIII. 3, 2] FORMAL MEETING 329 

And some point, and a schism, even siding in with. 
Difficult to speak to, and bringing a family into dis- 
repute — these are the thirteen offences entailing 
a formal meeting of the Order. 

Told are the thirteen sections [186] 



[These two Undetermined Matters, venerable ones, come 
up for exposition.] 

UNDETERMINED (ANIYATA) I 

At one time the enlightened one, the lord, was staying 
at Savatthi in Anathapindika's park in the Jeta Grove, 
At that time the venerable Udayin was dependent oh 
families in Savatthi and approached many families. 
Now at that time the young girl of a family who was 
supporting the venerable Udayin had been given (in 
m'arriage) to a boy of a certain family. Then the 
venerable Udayin, getting up early and taking his bowl 
and robe; approached that family, and having approached 
them he asked the people : 

" Where is (the girl) called so and so ?" They said: 
" Honoured sir, she was given to a boy of a certain 
family." Now this family supported the venerable 
Udayin. Then the venerable Udayin approached this 
family, and having approached them he asked the 
people: 

" Where is (the girl) called so and so ?'* They said: 
" Master, she is sitting in the inner room." 
Then * the venerable Udayin approached this girl, 
and having approached her, he sat down together with 
that girl, a man and a woman, in a secret place on a 
secluded, convenient seat,^ conversing at the right time, 
speaking dhamma at the right time.^ 

Now at that time Visakha, Migara's mother, had many 
children and many grandchildren.^ The children were 

* Old Corny., see below, p. 333, and VA. 631-632 explain that this 
means a seat where *' it is possible to indulge in sexual intercourse." 

* VA. 631, " talking for a time when anyone comes and goes in 
their presence, then he says : ' You should perform a seeming observ- 
ance-day, you should give food to be distributed by ticket.' " 

* VA. 631, " they say that she had ten sons and ten daughters 
. . . and that her sons and her daughters each had twenty children, 
so that in addition to her own, she had four hundred children." 

330 



I. 1] UNDETERMINED 33I 

healthy and the grandchildren were healthy and she 
was considered to be auspicious.^ People used to 
regale Visakha first at sacrifices, festivals^ and feasts.^ 
So Visakha, being invited, went to that family. Visakha 
saw the venerable Udayin sitting together with that 
girl, a man and a woman,* in a secret place on a secluded, 
convenient seat. Seeing this, she said to the venerable 
Udayin : 

" This is not proper, honoured sir, it is not suitable 
that the master should sit together with women-folk, 
a man and a woman, in a secret place on a secluded, 
convenient seat. [187] Although, honoured sir, the 
master has no desire for that thing,^ unbelieving people 
are difficult to convince."* 

But the venerable Udayin took no heed after he had 
been spoken to thus by Visakha. Then Visakha, when 
she had departed, told this matter to the monks. Those 
who were modest monks became annoyed, vexed, angry 
and said: 

" How can the venerable Udayin sit together with 
womenfolk, a man and a woman, in a secret place on 
a secluded, convenient seat ?" And these monks told 
this matter to the lord. He said: 

" Is it true, as is said, Udayin, that you sat together 
with womenfolk, a man and a woman, in a secret place 
on a secluded, convenient seat ?" 

" It is true, lord," he said. 

The enlightened one, the lord, rebuked hini, saying: 
, " How can you, foolish man, sit together with women- 
folk, a man with a woman, in a secret place on a secluded, 
convenient seat ? It is not, foolish man, for the bene- 
fit of unbelievers . . . And thus, monks, this course 
of training should be set forth : 

Whatever monk should sit down together with a 



1 Abhimangalasammata. 

2 VA. 631, " The blessings of leading the bride to one's own home 
and away from her own home " — i.e., wedding feasts. 

3 Feasts at the beginning and at the end of the rains. 

* Eko ekdya. * Tena dhamm^na. 

« I.e.y that he and the woman were on purely platonic terms. 



332 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 188 

woman, the one with the other, in a secret place on a 
secluded, convenient seat, and if a trustworthy^ woman 
lay-follower seeing him should speak concerning a certain 
one of three matters: either one involving defeat,^ or 
one entailing a formal meeting of the Order,* or one 
involving expiation,* and the monk himself acknowledg- 
ing that he was sitting down, should be dealt with 
according to a certain one of three matters: as to whether 
it is one involving defeat, or as to whether it is one 
entailing a formal meeting of the Order, or as to whether 
it is one involving expiation. Or that monk should be 
dealt with according to what that trustworthy woman 
lay-follower should say. This is an undetermined 
matter.''^ || l ll 



Whatever means: he who ... 

Monk means: this is how monk is to be understood 
in this sense. 

Woman means: a human woman, not a female yakkha, 
not a female departed one, not a female animal, even a 
girl born on this very day, much more an older one.® 

Together with means: together. "^ 

A man with a woman^ means : there is a monk and also 
a woman. 

A secret place means: secret from the eye, secret from 
the ear. Secret from the eye means: if covering the 
eye or raising the eyebrow or raising the head he is 
unable to see. Secret from the ear means : he is unable 
to hear ordinary speech. 

A secluded seat means: it is secluded by a wall built 
of wattle and daub, or by a door or [188] by a screen 
or by a screen wall or by a tree or by a pillar or by a 
sack or it is concealed by anything whatever.^ 

1 VA. 632, " one who has attained the fruit of stream-entry." 

2 The First Defeat. ^ The Second Formal Meeting. 

' Pac. 44, 45. ^ It depends upon circumstances. 

'■■ = above, p. 202. ' =above, p. 202. 

** Lit. one (masc.) with one (fern.). 

» Cf. Undetermined II. 2, 1 and Vin. iv. 269. 



I. 2, 1-2] UNDETERMINED 



333 



Convenient means: it is possible to indulge in sexual 
intercourse. 

Should sit down means: when the woman is sitting 
the monk is sitting or lying close to her ; when the monk 
is sitting the woman is sitting or lying close to him; both 
are sitting, or both are lying. 

Trustworthy means: (a woman who) has attained the 
fruit,^ one who possesses complete understanding,^ one 
who has learned the teaching. 

Female lay-follower means : one going to the enlightened 
one for refuge, one going to dhamma for refuge, one 
going to the Order for refuge. 

Seeing means: seeing.^ || 1 1| 

Should speak concerning a certain one of three matters : 
either one involving defeat, or one entailing a formal meet- 
ing of the Order, or one involving expiation, and the monk 
himself acknowledging that he was sitting do ton, should 
be dealt with according to a certain one of three matters : 
as to whether it is one involving defeat, or as to whether 
it is one entailing a formal meeting of the Order, or as to 
whether it is one involving expiation. Or that monk 
should be dealt with according to what that trustworthy 
woman lay-follower should say. 

If she should say this: " The master was seen by me 
sitting and indulging in sexual intercourse with a 
woman," and if he acknowledges this, he should be 
dealt with for an offence. 

If she should say this: " The master was seen by me 
sitting and indulging in sexual intercourse with a 
woman," and if he should say this: " It is true that I 
was sitting but I was not indulging in sexual inter- 
course," he should be dealt with for sitting down. 

If she should say this: " The master was seen by me 
sitting and indulging in sexual intercourse with a 
woman," and if he should say this: " I was not sitting 



^ Of stream-attainment, VA. 632. 

2 VA. 632, " one who has penetrated the four truths.' 

^ disvd ti passitvd. 



334 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 189-90 

but I was lying down," he should be dealt with for lying 
down. 

If she should say this: '* The master was seen by me 
sitting and indulging in sexual intercourse with a 
woman," and if he should say this: " I was not sitting 
but I was standing," he is not to be dealt with. 

If she should say this : " The master was seen by me lying down 
and indulging in sexual intercourse with a woman," if he aclcnow- 
ledges this, he should be dealt with for an offence. 

If she should say this: *' The master was seen . . . with a 
woman," and he should say this: " It is true that I was lying down 
but I was not indulging in sexual intercourse," he should be 
dealt with for lying down. 

If she should say this: "The master . . .with a woman," 
and if he should say this : " I was not lying down but I was 
sitting," he should be dealt with for sitting down. 

If she should say this:'* The master . . . [189] with a woman," 
and he should say this: " I was not lying down but I was 
standing," he should not be dealt with. 

If she should say this: " The master was seen by me sitting 
together with a woman and indulging in physical contact," and 
if he acknowledges this he should be dealt with for an offence. 
. . . "It is true that I was sitting, but I did not indulge in 
physical contact," he should be de^lt with for sitting down . . . 
" I was not sitting, but I was lying down," he should be dealt 
with for lying down. ... "I was not sitting but I was stand- 
ing," he should not be dealt with. 

If she should say this: " The master was seen by me lying 
down together with a woman and indulging in physical contact," 
and if he acknowledges this he should be dealt with for an 
offence ... " It is true that I was lying down, but I did not 
indulge in physical contact," he should be dealt with for lying 
down. ... "I was not lying down but I was sitting down " 
..." I was not lying down, I was standing," he should not be 
dealt with. 

If she should say this: " The master was seen by me sitting 
together with a woman, the one with the other, in a secret place 
on a secluded seat suitable (for sexual intercourse)," and if he 
acknowledges this he should be dealt with for sitting down . . . 
" I was not sitting down, but I was lying down," he should be 
dealt with for lying down ... "I was not sitting down, I was 
standing," he should not be dealt with. 

If she should say this: " The master was seen by me lying 
down ... on a secluded seat suitable (for sexual intercourse)," 



I. 2, 2—3] UNDETERMINED 335 

and if he acknowledges this he should be dealt with for lying down. 
... "I was not lying down, I was sitting down," he should 
be dealt with for sitting down ..." I was not lying down, 
I was standing," he should not be dealt with. 

Undetermined means: not determined as to whether 
it involves defeat, or formal meeting of the Order, or 
expiation. |i2||2|| 



He acknowledges going,^ he acknowledges sitting 
down, he acknowledges an offence,^ he should be dealt 
with for an offence.^ He acknowledges going, he does 
not acknowledge sitting down, but he acknowledges an 
offence, he should be dealt with for an offence. He 
acknowledges going, he acknowledges sitting down, 
but he does not acknowledge an offence, he should be 
dealt with for sitting down. He acknowledges going, 
he does not acknowledge sitting down and he does not 
acknowledge an offence, he should not be dealt with. 
He does not acknowledge going, but he acknowledges 
sitting down and he acknowledges an offence, he should 
be dealt with for an offence. He does not acknowledge 
going, he does not acknowledge sitting down, {190] but 
he acknowledges an offence, he should be dealt with 
for an offence. He does not acknowledge going, but 
he acknowledges sitting down, though he does not 
acknowledge an offence, he should be dealt with for 
sitting down. He does not acknowledge going, he does 
not acknowledge sitting down, he does not acknowledge 
an offence, he should not be dealt with. || 3 1| 



Told is the First Undetermined Offence 



1 VA. 633, " saying: ' I am going to a secret place for the sake of 
sitting down.' " 

2 VA. 633, " a certain offence among the three" — i.e., either a 
parajika or a sanghadisesa or a pacittiya. 

3 VA. 633, dpaUiyd kdretabbo, " he should be dealt with according 
to which of the three he acknowledges." 



UNDETERMINED (ANIYATA) II 

At one time the enlightened one, the lord, was staying 
at Savatthi in the Jeta Grove in Anathapindika's park. 
At that time the venerable Udayin said: " It has been 
forbidden by the lord to sit together with womenfolk, 
a man and a woman, in a secret place on a secluded, 
convenient seat," but he sat together with that young 
girl, the one with the other, in a secret place, conversing 
at the right time, talking dhamma at the right time. 
A second time did Visdkha, Migara's mother, being 
invited, come to that family. Visakha saw the vener- 
able Udayin sitting together with that girl, the one 
with the other, in a secret place, and seeing them she 
said to the venerable Udayin: 

" This, honoured sir, is not right, it is not suitable 
for the master to sit together with womenfolk, a man 
and a woman, in a secret place. Although, honoured 
sir, the master has no desire for that thing, unbelieving 
people are difficult to convince." 

But the venerable Udayin took no heed after he had 
been spoken to thus by Visakha. Then Visakha, when 
she had departed, told this matter to the monks. Those 
who were modest monks . . . (= Undetermined I.l;the 
words on a secluded, convenient seat are omitted here) 
..." And thus, monks, this course of training should 
be set forth: 

And furthermore, if there is not a seat which is 
secluded and convenient, but sufficiently so^ for speaking 
to a woman with lewd words,^ then whatever monk 
should sit down on such a seat together with a woman, 



Alap. 2 cf. Formal Meeting III. 

336 



II. 1—2, 1] UNDETERMINED 337 

the one with the other, in a secret place, and a trust- 
worthy woman lay-follower seeing him should speak 
concerning a certain one of two matters: either one 
entailing a formal meeting of the Order, or one involving 
expiation, and the monk himself acknowledging that he 
was sitting down, should be dealt with according to 
a certain one of two matters: as to whether it is one 
entailing a formal meeting of the Order, or as to whether 
it is one involving expiation. Or [191] that monk 
should be dealt with according to what that trustworthy 
woman lay-follower should say. This again is an unde- 
termined matter." 11 111 



And furthermore, if there is not a seat which' is secluded 
means : it is not secluded by a wall built of wattle and 
daub or by a door or by a screen or by a screen wall or 
by a tree or by a pillar or by a sack, or it is not secluded 
by anything whatever.^ 

Not convenient means: it is not possible to indulge 
in sexual intercourse.^ 

But sufficiently so for speaking to a woman with lewd 
words means: it is possible to speak to a woman with 
lewd words. 

Whatever means: he who. 

Monk means: . . . this is the sense in which monk 
is to be understood. 

On such a seat means : on a seat like that. 

Woman means : a human woman, not a female yakkha, 
not a female departed one, not a female animal,^ one 
who is learned and competent to know good and bad 
speech, and what is lewd and what is not lewd.^ 

Together with means: together.^ 

Should sit down means: when the woman is sit- 
ting . . .2 

Seeing means: seeing.^ || 1 1| 



1 Cf. Undetermined I. 2, 1 and Vin. iv. 269. 

2 Cf. Undetermined I. 2, 1. 

3 =above, p. 215. 

2? 



33^ BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 192-193 

Should sjpeah concerning a certain one of two matters : 
either one entailing a formal meeting of the Order, or one 
involving expiation, and the monk himself (icknoivledging 
that he was sitting down, should he dealt with according 
to a certain one of ttvo matters : as to whether it is one 
entailing a formal meeting of the Order , or as to whether 
it is one involving expiation. Or that monk should be 
dealt ivith according to tvhat that trusttvorthy woman lay- 
follower should say. 

If she should say this: " The master was seen by me 
when he was sitting down and coming into^ physical 
contact with a woman," if he acknowledges this he 
should be dealt with for an offence. 

If she should say this: " The master was seen by 
me . . . physical contact," and if he should say: " It 
is true that I was sitting, but I did not come into 
physical contact," he should be dealt with for sit- 
ting. ... "I was not sitting, but I was lying down," 
he should be dealt with for lying down. ... "I was 
not sitting, but I was standing," he should not be dealt 
with. 

If she should say this: "The master was seen by me lying 
down, and coming into physical contact with a woman," if he 
acknowledges this he should be dealt with for an offence. . . . 
"It is true that I was lying down, but I did not come into 
physical contact," he should be dealt with for lying down. . . . 
" I was not lying down, but I was sitting down," [192J he should 
be dealt with for sitting down. ... '* I was not lying down, 
but I was standing," he should not be dealt with. 

If she should say this: " The master was heard by 
me when he was sitting down and speaking lewd words 
to a woman," if he acknowledges this he should be dealt 
with for an offence. 

If she should say this: "The master ... to a woman," and 
if he should say: " It is true that I was sitting down but I did 
not speak lewd words to a woman," he should be dealt with for 
sitting down. ... "I was not sitting down but I was lying 
down," he should be dealt with for lying down. ..." I was not 
sitting down but I was standing," he should not be dealt with. 

^ Samdpajjanto. On samdpajjali, see above, p. 201, n. 3. 



II. 2, 2—3] UNDETERMINED 339 

If she should say this: " The master was heard ... as he was 
lying down and speaking lewd words to a woman "...'* but 
I was standing," he should not be dealt with. 

If she should say this: " The master was seen by me sitting 
together with a woman, the one with the other, in a secret 
place," and if he acknowledges this he should be dealt with for 
sitting down. ... "I was not sitting down, but I was lying 
down," he should be dealt with for lying down. ... "I was 
not sitting down, but I was standing," he should not be dealt 
with. 

If she should say this: " The master was seen by me lying 
down together with a woman, the one with the other, in a secret 
place," and if he acknowledges this, he should be dealt with for 
lying down. ... "I was not lying down, but I was sitting 
down," he should be dealt with for sitting down. ... "I was 
not sitting down, but I was standing," he should not be dealt with, 

This again means: it is called so with reference to 
the former. 

Undetermined means: not determined as to whether 
it involves a formal meeting of the Order, or expia- 
tion. 11 2 11 2 II 



He acknowledges going, he acknowledges sitting down, he 
acknowledges an offence, he should be dealt with for an offence. 
He acknowledges going, he does not acknowledge sitting down, 
he acknowledges an offence, he should be dealt with for an 
offence. He acknowledges going, he acknowledges sitting down, 
he does not acknowledge an offence, he should be dealt with for 
sitting down. He acknowledges going, he does not acknowledge 
sitting down, he does not acknowledge an offence, he should 
not be dealt with. He does not acknowledge going, he acknow- 
ledges sitting down, he acknowledges an offence, he should be 
dealt with for an offence. He does not acknowledge going, he 
does not acknowledge sitting down, but he acknowledges an 
offence, he should be dealt with for an offence. He does not 
acknowledge going, he acknowledges sitting, he does not acknow- 
ledge an offence, he should be dealt with for sitting down. He 
does not acknowledge going, he does not acknowledge sitting down, 
he does not acknowledge an offence, he should not be dealt 

with.Ml3ll 

Told is the Second Undetermined Offence [193] 



^ Of. above, Undetermined I. 3. 



340 BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE [III. 194 

Set forth, venerable ones, are the two undetermined 
matters. In this connection I ask the venerable ones: 
I hope that you are pure in this matter ? A second time 
I ask : I hope that you are pure in this matter ? A third 
time I ask: I hope that you are pure in this matter ? 
The venerable ones are pure in this matter, therefore 
they are silent. Thus do I understand. 

Its summary: 

Convenient and so and likewise, but not thus, 
Such undetermined matters are well pointed out by 
the best of buddhas. 



Told is the Undetermined 



APPENDIX OF UNTRANSLATED 
PASSAGES^ 

Page 38^* . . . makkatim amisena upalapetva tassa methu- 
nam dhammam patisevati ... 

Page 38^" . . . upasamkamitva tesam bhikkhunam purato 
katim pi calesi cheppam pi calesi katim pi oddi liimittam 
pi akasi. ... 

Page 39^ . . . so bhikkhu imissa makkatiya methunam 
dhammam patisevati ti. 

Page 39^ . . . sa makkati tarn pindam bhunjitva tassa 
bhikkhuno katim oddi ... 

Page 39" . . . makkatiya methunam dhammam patiseva- 
si ti . . . 

Page 39^^ . . . makkatiya methunam dhammam patise- 
vi ti . . . 

Page 48^^ . . . vaccamagge passavamagge mukhe . . . 

Page 48^5,28 vaccamagge mukhe . . . 

Page 48^ S 49^ . . . vaccamaggam — pa — passavamaggam — 
pa — mukham ... 

Page 49^-^^ . . . vaccamaggena — pa — passavamaggena — pa 
— mukhena . . . 

Page 49^^ Matam yebhuyyena khayitam bhikkhussa santike 
a netva vaccamaggena — pa — passavamaggena — pa — mukhena 
angajatam abhinisidenti . . . 

Page 52^ . . . methunam dhammam patisevi. 

Page 53^" . . . anguttham angajatam pavesesi . . . 

Page 55^^ . . . attano angajatam mukhena aggahesi. 

Page 55^^ . . . attano angajatam attano vaccamaggam 
pavesesi . . . 

Page 55^" . . . angajatasamanta vano hoti. So evam 
me anapatti bhavissati ti angajate angajatam pavesetva 
vanena nihari . . . 

Page 55^^ (as p. 55^") . . . bhavissati ti vane angajatam 
pavesetva angajatena nihari . . . 

Page 66^*'^^ . . . nimittam angajatena chupi . . . 
^ See Introduction, p. xxxvii. 



342 APPENDIX OF UNTRANSLATED PASSAGES 

Page 56* . . . mukhena angajatam aggahesi . . . 

Page 56^' . . . abbhantaram ghat^tetva bahi mocehi — pa — 
bahi ghattetva abbhantaram mocehi. . . . 

Page 57^^'^® . . . vattakate mukhe chupantam (I, 16 ac°) 
angajatam pavesesi . . . 

Page 57^^ . . . nimitte angajatam patipadesi. . . . 
Page 58^^, 59^, 60^^ angajate abhinisiditva . . . 

Page 58^" paiicahi bhikkhave akarehi angajatam kammani- 
yam hoti: ragena, vaccena, passavena, vatena, uccalinga- 
panakadatthena. Imehi kho bhikkhave pancah' akarehi 
angajatam kammaniyam hoti. Atthanam etam bhikkhave 
anavakaso yam tassa bhikkhuno ragena angajatam kammani- 
yam assa. . . . 

Page 58^6, 59i'i^-2s, 62^3 . . . angajate abhinisidi . . . 

Page 6P^' 3° . . . mocessami . . . 

Page 62^^ . . . migapotako tassa passavatthanam agantva 
passavam pivanto mukhena angajatam aggahesi. So bhik- 
khu sadiyi ... 

Page 196^* . . . dasa sukkani, nilam pitakam lohitakam 
odatam takkavannam dakavannam telavannam khiravannam 
dadhivannam sappivannam. 

Page 197® Ajjhattarupe moceti, bahiddharupe moceti, 
ajjhattabahiddhartipe moceti, akase katim kampento moceti, 
ragupatthambhe moceti, vaccupatthambhe moceti, passa- 
vupatthambhe moceti, vatupatthambhe moceti, uccalinga- 
panakadatthupatthambhe moceti^ arogatthaya moceti, sukhat- 
thaya moceti, bhesajjatthaya moceti, danatthaya moceti, [112] 
puniiatthaya moceti, yaiinatthaya moceti, saggatthaya moceti, 
bijatthaya moceti, vimamsatthaya moceti, davatthaya moceti. 

Nilam moceti, pitakam moceti, lohitakam moceti, odatam 
moceti, takkavannam moceti, dakavannam moceti, telavan- 
nam moceti, khiravannam moceti, dadhivannam moceti, 
sappivannam moceti. || 1 || 

Ajjhattariipe 'ti ajjhattam upadinnarupe. 

Bahiddhampe 'ti bahiddha upadinne va anupadinne va. 

Ajjhattabahiddhariipe 'ti tadubhaye. 

Akase katim kampento 'ti akase vayaman tassa angajatam 
kammaniyam hoti. 

Ragupatthambhe 'ti ragena pilitassa angajatam kammani- 
yam hoti. 

Vaccupatthambhe 'ti vaccena pilitassa angajatam kammani- 
yam hoti. 



APPENDIX OF UNTRANSLATED PASSAGES 343 



Passavupatthambhe 'ti passavena pilitassa ahgajatam 
kammaniyam hoti. 

Vatupatthambhe 'ti vatena pilitassa angajatam kammarii- 
yam hoti. 

Uccalingapanakadattliupatthambhe 'ti uccalihgapanakadat- 
thena angajatam kammaniyam hoti. 

Arogyatthaya 'ti arogo bhavissami ; sukhatthaya 'ti sukham 
vedanam uppadessami; bhesajjatthaya 'ti bhesajjam bhavis- 
sati; danatthaya 'ti danam dassami; puiinatthaya 'ti punnam 
bhavissati; yannatthaya 'ti yanfiam yajissami; saggatthaya 
'ti saggam gamissami; bijatthaya 'ti bijain bhavissati. 

Vimamsatthaya 'ti nilam bhavissati pitakam bhavissati . . . 
sappivannam bhavissati. 
Davatthaya 'ti khiddadhippayo. || 2 || 

Ajjhattarupe ceteti upakkamati muccati, apatti sangha- 
disesassa. Bahiddharupe ceteti . . . apatti sanghadisesassa. 
Ajjhattabahiddharupe ceteti . . . .apatti sanghadisesassa. 
Akase katim kampento ceteti . . . apatti sanghadisesassa. 
Ragupatthambhe ceteti ... vaccupatthambhe . . . davat- 
thaya ceteti upakkamati muccati, apatti sanghadisesassa. 

Nilam ceteti upakkamati muccati, apatti sanghadisesassa. 
Pitakam . . . sappivannam ceteti . . . apatti sanghadise- 
sassa. 

Suddhikam nitthitam. || 3 || [113] 

Arogyatthan ca sukhatthan ca ceteti . . . apatti sangha- 
disesassa. Arogyatthafi ca bhesajjatthan ca — pa — arogyat- 
than ca danatthan ca — pa — arogyatthan ca punnatthaii ca — 
pa — arogyatthan ca yannatthan ca — pa — arogyatthan ca 
saggatthan ca — pa — arogyatthan ca bijatthaii ca — pa — aro- 
gyatthan ca vimamsatthan ca — pa — arogyatthan ca davat- 
thaii ca ceteti upakkamati muccati, apatti sanghadisesassa. 
Ekamulakassa khandacakkam nitthitam. || 4 || 

Sukhatthan ca bhesajjatthan ca ceteti . . . apatti sangha- 
disesassa. Sukhatthan ca danatthan ca . . . sukhatthan ca 
davatthan ca ceteti . . . apatti sanghadisesassa. Sukhat- 
thaii ca arogyatthan ca ceteti . . . apatti sanghadisesassa. 

Bhesajjatthaii ca danatthan ca . . . ; davatthan ca vi- 
mamsatthan ca ceteti . . .apatti sanghadisesassa. 
Ekamulakassa baddhacakkam nitthitam. 
Dumulakadi pi evam eva netabbam. 

Arogyatthan ca sukhatthan ca bhesajjatthaii ca . . . davat- 
thaii ca ceteti upakkamati muccati, apatti sanghadisesassa. 
Sabbamulakam nitthitam. || 5 || 

Nilaii ca pitakaii ca ceteti upakkamati muccati, apatti sangha- 
disesassa, . . . nilaii ca sappivannan ca ceteti upakkamati 
muccati, apatti sanghadisesassa. 



344 APPENDIX OF UNTRANSLATED PASSAGES 



Ekamtilakassa khaiidacakkam nit^thitam. 
Pitakaii ca lohitakan ca . . . sappivanijan ca dadhivai;ii;ian 
ca ceteti upakkamati muccati, apatti sanghadisesassa. 
Ekamulakassa baddhacakkam nitthitam. 
Dumulakadi pi evam eva netabbam. 
Nilaii ca pitakan ca lohitakan ca . . . sappivani;ian ca ceteti 
upakkamati muccati, apatti sanghadisesassa. 

Sabbamulakam nitthitam. || 6 || 
Arogyatthaii ca nilan ca ceteti upakkamati muccati, apatti 



Arogyatthan ca sukhatthan ca nilan ca pitakan ca ceteti 
upakkamati muccati, apatti sanghadisesassa. 

Arogyatthan ca sukhatthan ca bhesajjatthan ca nilan ca 
pitakan ca lohitakan ca ceteti upakkamati muccati, apatti 
sanghadisesassa. 

Evam eva ubhato vaddhetabbam. [114] 

Arogyatthan ca sukhatthan ca bhesajjatthan ca . . . davat- 
than ca nilan ca pitakan ca . . . sappiva^naii ca ceteti upak- 
kamati muccati, apatti sanghadisesassa. 

Missakacakkam nitthitam. || 7 || 

Nilam mocessami ti ceteti upakkamati, pitakam muccati, 
apatti sanghadisesassa. Nilam mocessami ti ceteti upakka- 
mati, lohitakam . . . sappivannam muccati, apatti sanghadise- 
sassa. 

Khandacakkam. 

Pitakam mocessami ti ceteti upakkamati, lohitakam muccati, 
apatti sanghadisesassa. Pitakam mocessami ti ceteti upakka- 
mati, odatam . . . sappivannam — pa — nilam muccati, apatti 



Baddhacakkam miilam samkhittam. 
Sappivannam mocessami ti ceteti upakkamati, nilam muccati, 
apatti sanghadisesassa. Sappivannam mocessami ti ceteti 
upakkamati, dadhivannam muccati, apatti sanghadisesassa. 
Kucchicakkam. || 8 || 
Pitakam mocessami ti ceteti upakkamati, nilam muccati, 
apatti sanghadisesassa. Lohitakam mocessami ti ceteti upak- 
kamati, nilam muccati — pa — odatam mocessami ti ceteti upak- 
kamati, nilam muccati . . . sappivannam mocessami ti ceteti 
upakkamati, nilam muccati, apatti sanghadisesassa. 
Pitthicakkassa pathamam gamanam. 
Lohitakam mocessami ti ceteti upakkamati, pitakam muccati, 
apatti sanghadisesassa. Odatam . . . sappivannam — pa — nilam 
mocessami ti ceteti upakkamati, pitakam muccati, apatti sangha- 
disesassa. 

Pitthicakkassa dutiyam gamanam nitthitam. 
Odatam mocessami ti ceteti upakkamati, lohitakam muccati 



APPENDIX OF UNTRANSLATED PASSAGES 345 

. . . pitakam mocessami ti ceteti upakkamati, lohitakam muc- 
cati, apatti sahghadisesassa. 

Pitthicakkassa tatiyam gamanam. 



Nilam mocessami ti ceteti upakkamati, sappivannam muccati 
. . . dadhivannam mocessami ti ceteti upakkamati, sappivannam 
muccati, apatti sanghadisesassa. 

Pitthicakkassa dasamam gamanam. Pitthicakkapeyyalo 
nitthito. II 9 ||'3 || 

Page 198^ Teiia kho pana samayena annatarassa bhikkhuno 
uccaram karontassa asuci mucci. Tassa kukkuccam ahosi, 
Bhagavato etam attham arocesi. Kimcitto tvam bhikkhu 'ti. 
Naham bhagava mocanadhippayo ti. Anapatti bhikkhu na 
mocanadhippayassa ti. T.k.p.s. annatarassa bhikkhuno pas- 
savam karontassa . . . anapatti bhikkhu na mocanadhippa- 
yassa ti. II 2 II T.k.p.s.a.b. kamavitakkam vitakkentassa asuci 
mucci. Tassa kukkuccam ahosi — la— anapatti bhikkhu vitak- 
kentassa ti. II 3 II 

Tena kho pana samayena annatarassa bhikkhuno unhodakena 
nhayantassa asuci mucci. Tassa kukkuccam ahosi — la — 
kimcitto tvam bhikkhu ti. Naham bhagava mocanadhippayo 
ti. Anapatti bhikkhu na mocanadhippayassa ti. T.k.p.s.a.b. 
mocanadhippayassa unhodakena nhayantassa asuci mucci. 
Tassa [116] kukkuccam ahosi — la — apattim tvam bhikkhu 
apanno sanghadisesan ti. T.k.p.s.a.b. mocanadhippayassa unho- 
dakena nhayantassa asuci na mucci. Tassa kukkuccam ahosi 
— la — anapatti bhikkhu sanghadisesassa, apatti thuUaccayassa 
ti. II 4 II Tena kho pana samayena annatarassa bhikkhuno 
angajate vano hoti, bhesajjena alimpantassa asuci mucci. Tassa 
kukkuccam ahosi — la — anapatti bhikkhu na mocanadhippayassa 
ti. T.k.p.s.a.b. angajate vano hoti, mocanadhippayassa bhesaj- 
jena alimpantassa asuci mucci — pa — asuci na mucci. Tassa 
kukkuccam ahosi — pa — anapatti bhikkhu sahghadisesassa, apat- 
ti thuUaccayassa ti. || 5 || Tena kho pana samayena anna- 
tarassa bhikkhuno andam kanduvantassa asuci mucci. Tassa 
kukkuccam ahosi— la — anapatti bhikkhu na mocanadhippa- 
yassa ti. T.k.p.s.a.b. mocanadhippayassa andam kanduvantassa 
asuci mucci — la — asuci na mucci. Tassa kukkuccam ahosi — la — 
anapatti bhikkhu sanghadisesassa, apatti thuUaccayassa ti. 
II 6 II Tena kho pana samayena annatarassa bhikkhuno maggam 
gacchantassa asuci mucci. Tassa kukkuccam ahosi — la — ana- 
patti bhikkhu na mocanadhippayassa ti. T.k.p.s.a.b. mocana- 
dhippayassa maggam gacchantassa asuci mucci — ^la — asuci na 
mucci . . . thuUaccayassa ti. || 7 || Tena kho pana samayena 



346 APPENDIX OF UNTRANSLATED PASSAGES 

annatarassa bhikkhuno vatthim gahetva passavam karontassa 
. . . annatarassa bhikkhuno jantaghare udaravattim tapentassa 
. . . annatarassa bhikkhuno jantaghare upajjhayassa piti^hi- 
parikammam karontassa . . . annatarassa bhikkhuno urum 
ghattapentassa . . . (the same three cases as above) . .". apatti 
thuUaccayassa ti || 8 ||. 

Tena kho pana samayena annataro bhikkhu mocanadhippayo 
aiinataram samaneram etad avoca : ehi me tvam avuso samanera 
angajatam ganhahi ti. So tassa angajatam aggahesi, tassa asuci 
mucci. Tassa kukkuccam ahosi— la — ^apattim tvain bhikkhu 
apanno sanghadisesan ti. T.k.p.s.a.b. suttassa. samanerassa 
angajatam aggahesi. Tassa asuci mucci. Tassa kukkuccam 
[117] ahosi — la — anapatti bhikkhu sanghadhisesassa, apatti 
dukkatassa ti. || 9 || 

Tena kho pana samayena annatarassa bhikkhuno mocana- 
dhippayassa tiruhi angajatam pilentassa asuci mucci — la — 
asuci na mucci. Tassa kukkuccam . . . thullaccayassa ti. 
T.k.p.s.a.b. mocanadhippayassa mutthina angajatam pilentassa 
. . . mocanadhippayassa akase katim kampentassa asuci mucci 
* — la — asuci na mucci. Tassa kukkuccam . . . thullaccayassa 
ti. II 10 II Tena kho pana samayena annatarassa bhikkhuno 
kayam thambhentassa asuci mucci— la — ^asuci na mucci . . . 
thullaccayassa ti. || 11 || 

Tena kho paila samayena annataro bhikkhu saratto matuga- 
massa angajatam upanijjhayi, tassa asuci mucci. Tassa kuk- 
kuccam ahosi — ia— anapatti bhikkhu sanghadisesassa. Na ca 
bhikkhave sarattena matugamassa angajatam upanijjhayitab- 
bam. Yo upanijjhayeyya, apatti dukatassa ti. || 12 || 

Tena kho pana samayena annatarassa bhikkhuno mocanadhip- 
payassa talacchiddam angajatam pavesentassa asuci mucci — la 
— asuci na mucci. Tassa .kukkuccam ahosi — la — anapatti 
bhikkhu sanghadisesassa, apatti thullaccayassa ti. || 13 || 

Tena kho pana samayena aiiiiatarassa bhikkhuno mocana- 
dhippayassa katthena angajatam ghattentassa asuci mucci — la 
— asuci na mucci. Tassa kukloiccam . . . thullaccayassa ti. 
II 14 II Tena kho pana samayena annatarassa bhikkhuno 
patisote nhayantassa asuci . . . (the three cases as above) . . . 
thullaccayassa ti. || 15 || T.k.p.s.a.b. udaiijalam kilantassa . . . 
annatarassa bhikkhuno udake dhavantassa . . . annatarassa 
bhikkhuno pupphavaliyam kilantassa , . . annatarassa bhik- 
khuno pokkharavane dhavantassa asuci . . . (three cases as 
above) . . . thullaccayassa ti. || 16 || T.k.p.s.a.b. mocanadhip- 
payassa valikam angajatam pavesentassa asuci mucci — ^la — 
asuci na mucci. Tassa kukkuccam . . . thullaccayassa ti. 
T.k.p.s.a.b. mocanadhippayassa kaddamam angajatam pavesen- 
tassa asuci mucci — ^la — asuci na [118] mucci. Tassa kukkuccam 



APPENDIX OF UNTRANSLATED PASSAGES 347 



. . . thullaccayassa ti. Tena kho pana samayena annatarassa 
bhikkhuno udakena angajatam osincantassa asuci mucci . . . 
{three cases as above) . . . thullaccayassa ti. T.k.p.s.a.b. mo- 
canadhippayassa sayane angajatam ghattentassa asuci mucci 
— la — asuci na mucci. Tassa kukkuccam . . . thullaccayassa 
ti. T.k.p.s.a.b. mocanadhippayassa ahgutithena angajatam 
ghattentassa asuci mucci — la — asuci na mucci, Tassa kuk- 
kuccam . . . thullaccayassa ti. ||17 || 5 || 

Pathamasahghadisesam nitthitam. 



INDEXES 



I.— WORDS AND SUBJECTS 

[References to words commented upon in the Old Commentary are 
printed in heavy type.] 



Abortive preparation 144/. 

Abusers 40 

Abyss, the 9, 36, 155 

Admonish 300, 301, 305 /., 306 /., 

312,326/. 
Adulterer, -ess 172, 186 
Air, (being) in the 76, 79, 82 ff.; 

open 95 
Alms xlv, xlviii, 26, 100, 137, 156, 

171, 173, 247, 318jfir.; -food lljfir., 

20, 26, 99, 107, 116, 140, 15], 

154, 157, 170, 175, 181, 222, 226, 

247, 275, 318, 320; -tour 27, 155; 

beggar for 297 /. 
Almsman xl/., xUii, xlix 
Animal xlvi, lix, 48jOr., 132, 204 jgr., 

261, 256; -tamer 172, 185; -world 

92; female Ivii, 48 jfiT., 202, 212, 

215, 332, 337 
Aniyata rules xi, xx, xxxii /., 

XXXV. See also Undetermined 
Annihilation {ucchedavdda) 4 
Announcement (dcikkhana) 128, 135 
Appropriating (ddiyanla) 90 ff. 
Approval (khanti) 163 ff., 161 ff. 
Arahan. See Perfected man 
Ariyan (noun) 47 
Ariyan knowledge, sufficient {ala- 

mariyandna) 157, 159 
Ascetic(s) xxiii, xlvi, 1/., liii 
Attainment 159, 161, 164 ff. 
Austerity {tapas) li, 5; advantage of 

religious (tapoguna) 282; (lakha) 
.297 

Avuso xxxviii 
Ayasmd xxxviii, xl 
Ayya xxxviii /. 

Bamboo 80, 100, 156, 246, 253, 

325 
Banish 70 #., 75, 323 /., 326 /. 
Banishment, act of 321 /. 



Bark xxix, 82 ; -garment 53 

Basket-maker 142 

Bathroom 93, 98 

Beam (gopdnasi) 141 

3ears 256 

Beasts of prey 147 

Becoming(s) xxv, 6, 8, 35, 194 

Bedding (sendsana) 26, 153, 156. 

See Lodgings 
Beggar xl, xlviii 
Begging xliv, liv; in company 246, 

248, 253, 254, 255/., 257 
Benefactor {sdmika) 246, 248, 253, 

254,255/., 267,268 
Bhagavd xxxvii /. 
Bhaginl xxxviii/., xlii/, 
Bhante xxxvii/. 
Bhikkhu xxxixff., lix 
Bhikkhum xxxixff., xliijQf., xlix 
Bhiksu xlv/., liv/. 
Bho xxxviii 
Birds lix, 87, 251 /. 
Birth(s) ijati) 8; pretext of 291 
Blanket 219 
Bleachers 72, 94, 106/. 
Boast (samuddcarati) 157, 159 
Boat 80, 213; being in a 76, 80 
Body 7, 116, 122, 187, 204 jQT.; 

breaking up of 9, 36, 124, 155; 

oflferices of 4 /. (with speech and 

thought); praising by means of 

128,130 
Bourn, bad 9, 36, 155; good 9, 

225, 228; happy 124 
Bowl xlvii, 77, 80, 85, 96, 101, 

117, 123, 187, 213, 222, 247, 318 

pretext of a 292 
Brahma-cariya, -cdrin xviii, Iv /. 
Brahma-life xviii, xxviii, 2, 14 ff., 

22/., 31, 34, 36, 39, 41, 43, 46, 

67, 70, 125, 192, 200, 223, 225, 

225, 281, 282, 290 



348 



INDEXES 



349 



Brdhmana liii ff. 

Brahinin(8) xxiii /., xxix, li, liii ff., 

IjSr., 53/., 68/., 157, 178/., 172, 

186, 199j^., 292; lady 199/. 
Bread-fruit 101/., 108/. 
Breathing, in-, out- 121 /. 
Brick 141 
Bridegroom 229 
Bridge (setu) 13, 212 
Brother xl, xlii /., 44 /., 248; 

protected by 236, 237, 239jfir. 
Builders 263, 269 
Burden 76, 81, 95 
Butcher, cattle- 172, 183; pig- 113, 

172, 184; sheep- 172, 184 
Butter 133 

Cakes 98/. 

Camels 87 

Cankers ix, 10, 16, 18/., 38, 179 

Celibacy xxxvii, xliii 

Cell 113, 119, 199 

Cemetery 51, 56/., 97, 256 

Chair (pUha) 79, 96, 109, 137, 156, 

199 
Characteristic, pretext of {lingalesa) 

292 
Child 23/., 112/., 144, 153, 276/. 
Cistercians xlviii 
Cloak 78/., 96/., 103, 106/., 222, 

278 
Communion (samvdsa) xxvi /., 

xlviii, 38, 40, 48, 72, 75, 123, 

128, 158/., 161, 191 
Compassion 65, 105 
Concentration (samddhi) 159, 161, 

164 #. 
Confess [patitthdti) 281, 282, 290, 

293 
Confessed, offence to be 294. See 

also Patidesaniya. 
Conscience Ivi, lix 
Consort, chief 186 
Cord 80, 84, 211, 213 
Corruptions {kilesa) 159 jQT., 162 
Couch (marica) 79, 109, 156, 199, 

223, 275, 315 
Courtesan 230 jf. 
Cow 108, 246, 248; -herd 106, 113 

(woman), 142 
Creature 76, 87 
Cross {tarati, tareti) 118/. 
Crows 182 jSr. 

Cucumber 98, 101/., 108/. 
Customs-frontier lix, 76, 86; -house 

Ux, 104/. 



Daughter 44/., 55, 200/., 211, 230, 
315; -in-law 29, 200/., 231/., 315 

Death 36, 142/., 149, 155, 171, 176; 
inciting to xxiii, 126, 127; 
praising xxiii, 123 jQ^., 127, 137 

Deer 52, 62, 105; -hunter 172, 184; 
-park 275 

Defame {anuddhamaeti) xxviii, 280/. 
282, 289 

Defeat (parajika) 41, 280 /., 282, 
289, 292, 332/. ; offence involving 
xxii, XXV ff., 48 jfir., 52 ff., 77 #., 
94jOf., 113, 137 jgr., 158, 162 jfiT., 
173 jSr., 190, 283 ff., 290 ff. 
See also Parajika rules 

Defeated xlviii, 38, 40, 48, 72, 75, 
123, 127, 158 /., 160, 190 

Deliberately (iticittamano) 126, 127 

Departed one (peta) Ivii/., 97, 132; 
female Ivii /., 51, 57, 202, 215, 

332, 337; realm of 92 
Deposit (upanidhi) 76, 86 

Desire (dmnda) 323/., 327; affected 
by (otinrui) 201, 202, 215, 215, 224, 

Destruction, involving {sdrambha) 
253 J^., 256, 258 ff., 267 ff.; 
not involving {andrambha) 253 jf., 
257, 258jfir., 267jfir. 

Detests, one who 4 /. 

Deva(8) xlvi, Iv, Ivii, 1 /., 33, 92 n., 
127, 157 

Deva-like qualities {dibba guna) 124 

Deva-vision {dibba-cakkhu) 9 

Devata(s) Ivii, 47, 118, 174, 216, 
274 w. 

Dhamma vii, ix, x, xi, xvi, xlvi, 
Iv, Ivi, 2, 5, 11, 15, 17, 22 /., 
34 jQT., 39 ff., 67, 70, 154, 156, 
194, 201, 215, 218, 224, 273, 304, 

333, 336; according to (saha- 
dhammikam) 310, 311 ; -followers 
125, 200, 223; indeed [saddham- 
ma) 36, 38, 47; lord of 67; -talk 
20 ff., 37, 41, 73, 114, 155, 222, 
248, 272, 276; offering {dham- 
mupahdra) 128, 135; protected 
by 236, 237, 239 #.; village 
dhamma, etc. 36 /., 47 

Discipline 34, 36, 39, 41, 156 

Dog 117, 120 

Door (kavdta) 109, 199, 332, 337; 

(dvdra) 60, 246 /. 
Dream 51, 61, 195j5r., 280 

Earth, inversion of 14; (being) in 
the75, 76, 82jfir. 



350 



INDEXES 



Effort (padhdna) 161, 164/., 167 jQT. 
Elephant(8) 87, 172, 189, 266, 317 ; 

-tusk 80 
Endeavour {yoga) 177 
Energy 7, 37, 73, 171 /., 176 /., 

296/. 
Enjoyment (bhoga) 3 
Enlightenment 7, 19, 41, 162, 

164/., 167 jQT., 299 
Enough, one to be told {alarnva- 

caniyd) 244 
Eunuch 61 /., 68, 62, 204 ff.; 

211 jSr., 217 /., 226, 243 jQT.; 

three kinds of 48 
Executioner 148, 172, 187 
Exorcist 146 
Expelled, to be (ndseti) xxvii, 60/., 

62,279/. 
Expiation, offence requiring 98 /., 

Ill, 294, 332 /., 337, 338 ff. 

See also Pacittiya rules 
Exposition (vMesa) 43, 45, 310, 

311 
Expulsion {cdvand) 286 

Faculty 68, 162, 164 /., 167 ff.; 
one-facultied thing {ekindriya) 
266 

Fallen {dpanna) 168, 160 

Family 16 /., 26, 324, 325, 330 /., 
336; corrupted 324 /., 326; 
into disrepute, one who brings a 
xxix, 322, 324, 325; pretext of 
292; supporting a monk 102 /., 
144/., 222, 226/., 229, 330 

Famine 11, 14, 26, 161 

Father 27/., 30/., 44/., 138/., 216, 
252 /.; grand- 30; -in-law 233; 
protected by 236, 237, 239 ff. 

Fetters 36, 174, 194 

Field (khetta) 83, 220; being in a 
76,83 

Fish 80, 87, 93, 105, 188, 297 /. 

Flesh 105 /., 108, 183, 297 /. See 
also Meat 

Fletcher 172, 184 

Flog, 69, 71 /., 75 

Flower(s) lix, 82, 102, 326 

Food xxxvi, xlviii, 108, 110, 144, 
276 ff.; hard and soft 20 /., 31, 
98, 100/., 124, 153; -tickets 11, 
14, 26, 150 

Foot ipdda) 86/., 106/., 113, 213; 
-less 76, 87 ; two-, four-, many- 
footed 76, 87, 88; of a tree (mala) 
122, 297 



Forest 148; -dweller 297 /.; -tree 
76,86 

Formal Meeting of the Order xx, 
XXX, 63, 58, 61, 195 /., 196, 202, 
204 jQT., 211j5r., 216j5r.; and passim 
to 329, 332 /., 337, 338 ff. See 
also Saiighadisesa rules 

Forms of Address xxxvii jQT., li 

Fortune-teller 172, 186 

Fowler 172, 184 

Free, to be (vimuccati) xiii, 10, 16 

Freed xii, 10 {vimutta), 4&isumutta) 

Freedom {vimokkha) 159, 161, 164jgr. 

Friar xl, xliii/., xlvi, xlix 

Fruit(s), realisation of xxi, 169, 161, 
162, 165, 167 #.,333 

Further- men, state of {uttarimanus- 
sadhamma) xxiv /., 152, 157, 
159,161, lUff., 179, 182, 187 jQT., 
291 

Games, list of 316 

Garland(s) 51, 60, 203, 314/., 320, 

326 
Garment {dussa) 21, 94; inner- 

{antaravdsaka) 97 /. 
Ghee78, 103, 107, 133, 275/. 
Gift(s) xlviii, 20, 69, 112, 193, 221, 

227/., 319 
Girdle 78, 187 
Given, not xx jQT., xxiv, 71 jQT., 74, 

90 jO^., 113, 226, 290 
Go, gone forth xxiii, 22 /., 34, 166, 

264^268 
Goal (attha) xviii, 13 
Goat 288 
Go-between, act as a {sancarittam 

samdpajjati) 233 ff., 236, 246 
Gold 28, 30/., 44 /., 79, 203; coins 

28, 44/., 203; and silver 26, 30 ff. 
Goods in transit 76, 86 
Grasping (upddd-na) 16, 35, 194 
Grass xxii, 86, 93 /., 108 /., 156, 

246, 263, 264; gatherers of 64/., 

67 
Grave offence (thullaccaya) xxi, 

xxii w., xxxiv, 60, 57, 77 jfif., 94, 

129jer., UOff., I 70/., 113 ff., 178, 

204^., 209, 212/., 217/., 220, 242/. 

246, 294/., 302, 307, 312/., 326 
Greetings, to take {wito vadeti) 102/. 
Ground, (being) above 76, 79, 82j5r. ; 

(being) on firm 76, 78, 82 ff. 

Habits, bad {andcdra) 309, 314; 
.(Ustof), 319jer. 



INDEXES 



351 



Hair (kesa) 22, 203; -blanket 53; 

(lorm) 17, 31, 70, 119, 219 /.; 

braid of (veni) 202, 203 
Hand 202, 203 
Harlot 234/. 
Hawk 105/., lS2ff. 
Head 140/.; -ache 143 
Heat, condition of {tejodhdtu) 273, 

275 
Heaven 130 jfiT., 136, 148; -world 9, 

124 
Hell xiii, 9, 36, 135, 148, 155, 157, 

183, 188 
Hermaphrodite 217; three kinds 

of 48 
Highest {agga ) 225 . See Gift 
Himself {attd), with reference to 

157, 159; (sdmam) 65, 128, 129 
Hindrances 159, 161, 162, 165, 

167 #. 
Holy men (m) 248 jfif. 
Homelessness xxiii, 22 /., 34, 156 
Honey 78, 133 
Hor8e(s) 87, 256, 317; -dealers 11; 

-rings 12 
Hoiiseholder(s) 43 /., 46, 51 /., 

111/., 151/., 155/., 160,253/., 

266, 268, 276 jfir.; woman 62 
Human being, form {manussa- 

viygaha) 125, 126, 291 
Husband 214, 216 /., 220, 227, 

229, 233, 244 
Hut (kutl) xxviii, 64 ff., 246, 248, 

253, 254, 255 /., 257, 258 ffr, 

(guha) 264 
Hyena(s) 98, 256 

111 (dukkha) 10 ; (gildrm) 104, 137, 

143/., 176 jSr., 243 
Illness XV 

Immorality (abbvda) 19, 33 
Imprison 70jQr., 75 
Impure, the (astibha) 116, 120 
Indulges 47 

Inexistent (monk) {amulaka) 98 
Insight (dassana) 158/., 159, 161 
Instigator 129 /. 
Instruction 128, 135 
Insulting speech (omasavdda) 286 /. 
Intent (payutta) 172, 177 
Intention (cetand) 196; {bhdva) 

163 jQT. 
Intentional (sancetanika) 195, 196; 

un- (asancicca) 141 
Intentionally (sancicca) 125, 126 
Items (vatthu), five 296 ff. 



Jack-fruit 101 /., 108/. 

Jains viii, xxiii/., xxix, xxxviii n., 

xlix, liii 
Jatilas 180 n. 
Jewel 104/., 203, 249 jQT. 
Jungle 26, 69, 72 /., .74, 85, 121, 

171, 173, 199 /., 214; being in 

the 76, 85 

Kamma xxxi 

Keeper of a deposit 86; of entrusted 
wares 76, 88; of a mango-grove 
108; park- 43 jGT., 82, 160; shop- 
107 • 

Kidnapping lix, 112/. 

King(s) lix, 67 JSr., 74, 155, 256 

Knife {asi) 118 /., 133; -bringer 
(satthahdraka) 123, 126, 126 

Knowledge (ndna) 8 ^., 159, 161, 
182, 188; ariyan 157, 159; pro- 
found {annd) 120, 158, 173, 
176; sixfold {ahhinnd) 152; the 
three {tevijjd) 159, 161, 164 j^T. 

KiLsa garment 52; grass 93, 97 

tiady-bird 65 

Laity ix, xvi /., xix, xxviii /., 

xxxviii/., xliii, xlvi, xlviii, 1, lii. 

See. also Lay -followers 
Large {mahallaka) 267, 267 
Lay-follower(s) 43, 110, 123, 160, 

175, 234 /., 318 ff.; female 

xxxii /., xxxix, xliii, 61, 332, 

333, 337. See also Laity 
Legal question (adhikarana) 281, 

282 (four), 289, 290, 299, 300, 301 
Legally valid act {dhammakamma) 

302, 307, 313, 327 
Leopards 256 
Lie, deliberate, conscious {sampa- 

jdrujimtisdvdda) xxv, 98, 111, 

162 jgr. 

Life,, deprive of xx, xxii /., xxiv, 

117 ff., 123, 125, 126, 128 jQT., 

136, Ubff.,2Q6 
Life, evil difficult {pdpaka dujjtvita) 

124, 126, 127 
Limb 199/., 202,203 
Lineage (gotta) protected by 236, 

237, 239 ff. 
Lion(s) 98, 256 
Lodging(s) (sendsana) xlviii, 38, 

175, 222, 226; assigning 272 ff.; 

pretext of 291, 293. See also 

Bedding 
Lotus 80, 188 
Lying {musdvdda) xxiv/., 226 



352 



INDEXES 



Males, three kinds of 48 

Mdnatta xx, xxx, 196, 327 /. 

Mangoes 101, 108 

Marriage(s) xix, 230 

Mdsaka xxii, 72, 75, 77 /., 80, 82, 

84jOr., 90jOr., 102, 107/., 114 
Meals {hhatta), distributing 272, 276 
Measure Iviii, 246, 248, 253, 254, 

257,259ir. 
Meat 99, 139, 297 n. See also 

Flesh 
Medical treatment 143, 325 
Medicine xlviii, 128, 133, 145, 156, 

170/., 175, 193, 222, 226 
Meditation xli, xlv, li, 14, 60, 

116, 120, 272 
Mendicant xl/., xliii, xlix 
Merchant {vessa) 292 
Merit xliv, 41, 72, 118/., 275; -orious 

deeds24, 26, 30/.;de- 118 
Messenger 128, 231/., 234/., 261/.; 

praising by means of 128, 131 
Mind7jQr., 16, 122, 159, 161 jQT. 
Mindfulness 7, 121/., 161, 164^., 167 
Minister, chief 68; of justice 71 
Mistress {jdrd) 234, 236, 236 
Molasses 78, 133 
Monasticism xvii, xxxvii, xliv /., 

xlviii, Ixii 
Monk{8) vii, ix, xii, xiv /., 

xvii ff., xxiii/., xxviij^., xxxii jQT., 

xxxviii jr., li ff., Ivii /., bcii; 

1 passim, 42 passim; burning 

187; depraved 155 /., 187, 277, 

314, 319; group of seventeen 

145 /.; group of six 123, 142, 

145 /., 148, 316 n.; in-coming 

108, 154, 319; opponents of 49/., 

50 ; Western xliv ff., Lx 
Monkey 38/., 51/. 
Morality ix, lix; aggregates of 

(sllakkhandha) 282 
Mortar 12/., 138 
Mother 27, 30, 32 /., 44 /., 55, 

211, 216, 231, 244; -in-law 233; 

protected by 236, 237, 238 jO^. 
Motion (natti) 255 /., 272, 301 /., 

306 /., 312, 327; {-catuUha) 42; 

i-dutiya) 259, 268 
Murderer xxiii, 129/. 
Muser {jhdyin) 273 
Musing ijhdna) 7, 152, 159, 161, 

162 jgr. 

Ndga, -king 248 ff.; female Iviii, 
51,57 



Naked 61 /. 

Name, pretext of 292 

Nibbdna Iviii 

Nissaggiya Pacittiya rules xi, xxxiv 

Noble (khattiya) 292 

Non-action 4 

Non-human being 74, 147 

Non-retuhi 162, 165, 167; -er 152 

Nose 143 

Novice 43 ff., 51, 174, 187, 242 /., 

293; female 52, 62, 187/. • 
Nun(s) vii, ix, xi /., xiv /T, xviii, 

xxxiii, xxxviii ff, xliii /., xlix, 

liiV 52 ff., 62, 96, 110 /., 149 /., 

187, 279 /., 288 

Observance -day {uposatha) xi, 283, 

292 
Offence xv, xix ff., xxxiv ff.; 

pretext of an (dpaitilesa) 292. 

See also Confessed, Defeat, Ex- 
piation, Formal Meeting, Grave, 

Speech, Wrong-doing 
01178, 133, 144, 275j5r. 
Once-returner 152; -returning 

162, 164/., 167 
Open space, with, not with an 

{sa-, a-parikkatnana) 253 ff., 257, 

258 ff., 267 ff. 
Opinion (diUhi) 163 ff., 167 ff. 
Order of Monks and Nuns ix, xiiijO^., 

xviii ff., xxiv, xxvii ff., xlii /., 

xlvi 
Ordination xlvii, 26, 41, 54 

Pacittiya rules, offences x /., xx, 

XXV, xxxiv. See also Expiation 
PddalhUf. 
Palm-fruit 101 /., 108 /. 
Panther 98 
Parajika rules, offences x, xx ff., 

xxvi ff., xxxiv ff., lii. See also 

Defeat 
Parents 23 jO^., 153, 229; consent of 

23 ff.; protected by 236, 237, 

239 ff. 
Park {drama) x, 12, 76, 82, 156, 

200, 214, 276, 278; -keeper 43 ff., 

82, 160; being in a 82 
Partridge 79 
Passion 35, 39, 119. 165, 167, 169, 

192 ff., 201, 215, 224; {with 

hatred, confusion) ix, 4 /., 158, 

162, 165 jQT., 170, 323 
Patidesaniya rules, offences xi, 

xxxiv. See also Confessed 



INDEXES 



353 



Pdtimokkha viii jjjT., xii /., xviii /., 
xxiii /., xxvii, xxix, xxxii Jr., 
xlii, xlvii, 15, 17 jQT., 43, 45 /., 
191 n., 203 n., 301 »,, 310 w., 311 

PaWAa 12 

Peacock 79 

Peg 80 

Perfected man, men {arahan) 1 /., 
42, 51, 162, 172/., 175, 178jfir. 

Perfection (arahatta) ix, xvii, xliv, 
162, 165, 167, 169, 270 

Perverted heart {viparinata citta) 
201, 202, 216, 215, 224 

Physical contact 201, 202, 334, 338 

Pig 105, 108 

Pillow 109, 199, 275 

Pitfall {opdta) 128, 132 

Plaster decoration 61, 55 

Platform (aUaka) 141 /. 

Pleasure {ruci) 163 jQ^., 167 ^T. 

Pleasures of the senses 7, 35 /., 
39, 179, 201, 215 /., 224; for self 
224, 225, 226 

Poison 133, 140; -ed almsfood 140 

Powers (bcddni) 162, 164/., 167 jgr. 

Preceptor, pretext of a 293 

Pretext {lesa) 289, 291 ff. (ten), 293 

Probation {parivdm) 196, 327 

Probationer 160; female 52, 62, 172, 
187 

Property {vatthu) 84; being on a 76, 

Prostitute 52, 62 

Protected (rakkhita) 236, 237, 239 j0r. 
Protection, with 236, 237, 239jfir. 
Psychic potency (iddhi) 112 /. 
162, 164/., 167 jOr., 174, 274, 296, 
Purposefully {ciUaaamkappa) 126, 

Quail 79 

Raft 106 

Rags xlviii, 26, 92, 97, 101, 106, 108 

Rains xlvi, 11 /., 20, 151 jflT., 180, 
292,320 

Reclu8e(s) (samana) ix, xiv, xxiii, 
Ijfir., Ij^r., 43, 67, 69/., 73, 96/., 
101/., 104jer., 112jOr., 123,125, 
156, 167, 161, 194, 200 /., 216, 
223/., 231 /., 234, 266, 283, 292, 
296 jgr., 299; -dhamrm Iv, 282; 
female 96, 111; sham 117 jQ^. 

Refectory 138, 276 

Rehabilitate {abbheti) xxx /., 196, 
327/. 



Relations, protected by 236, 237, 
239 jQr. 

Rendezvous, making a 76, 88, 12», 
135 

Requisite(s) xxii, xlvii, 91, 99, 166, 
176, 222, 226 

Resolution {kanunavdcd) 302, 307, 
312/. 

Restrained {venayika) 5 

River 106, 113 

Robber 71 jOT., 147 

Robe(8) xlvi, xlviii, 17, 72, 95 jgT., 
110, 117, 123, 149, 166, 170, 
176, 187, 222, 226, 247, 254 f„ 
297 /., 317 /., 321; distribution 
of 97; householder's 293, 297 /.; 
making 100; pretext of a 293: 
threefold 21; yellow xlviii, 22 /., 
117 n., 167 

Rose-apple 101 /. 

Rule (uddesa) 48, 76, 300/., 305/. ; 
of life [sdjlva) 41, 43 

Sakya, Sakyan xi, xv, xx/., XTiii. 

XXV, xxxi, xli, xlvii, xlix, 1 Jf. 
Samanay iramana xxix, I ^, Sec 

also Recluse 
Sahghadisesa rules, offences xi, 

XX /., xxvii ff., xxxiv ff. See 

also Formal Meeting 
Sanyasins xxiii, xxix 
Schism xxviii, 296/., 299, 300, 301, 

304jfir. 
Seat {dsam) 29, 138, 277, 315; 

secluded 330/., 332, 334, 336, 337 
Secret, in 128, 130; place, in a 

330/., 332, 334, 336, 339 
Sects, other xi, xiv /., xx, xxvii, 

xli, xlix, Iv, 43/., 46, 61 
Seen, heard, suspected 283 jQT., 298 
Self xlvii, 8jOr., 224, 225, 226 
Sexual intercourse 33 /., 36, 40 //., 

47, 62 /., f>6 jQT., 113, 216, 221, 

222 /., 225 jr., 280, 290, 333 /.. 

337 
Shop-keeper 107 
Shrine {cetiya) 243, 247 {Alavl), 

266/. 
Sight, offering a {rapiipahdra) 128, 

133 
Sign, making of a 76, 89, 95, 99, 

128,136 
8lla xxiv 
Similes: chick from egg-shell 9, 

10; conch-shell 22 /.; flat stone 

127; great wind 309; hen with 

23 



354 



INDEXES 



chicks 6; honey-comb 14; lady- 
bird 65; man setting upright, etc. 

10; man with head cut off 48; 

mountain river 309 ; palm-tree 3, 

6/.; palmyra 160; storm out of 

season 121; tied flowers 16, 17; 

withered leaf 75; young person 

117, 120 
Sin {vajja) 297 /. 
Sister xxxix, xlii /., 31, 44 /., 55, 

56, 211, 219 ff., 222, 224, 227 /., 

278 /., 318, 321; protected by 

236, 237, 239 j^r. 
Site (vatihu) 140, 156, 253^., 257 ^f., 

2Q8ff; inspection of a 254/. ; mark 

out a 253, 254, 256, 257, 258 #., 

267, 268, 268 jQT. 
Skeleton 182 
Slanderer 172, 185 
Slave 153; female 27, 200/., 231 /., 
^ 277/., 315 
Smell, offering a (gandhupahdra) 

128, 134 
Snake(s) 87, 117, 120, 249, 251, 256 
Solitude 170/.; delight in 159, 161, 

162 
Son44/., 138/., 226/., 230 
Sound, offering a {saddupahara) 128, 

134 
Speak to, one who is difficult to 

{dubbacajdtika) xxviii, 310, 311, 

312 
Speech, offence of evil {duhbdsiia) 

XXXV, 294/. 
Spoken to, one not to be {avacanlya) 

310, 311, 312 
Spy 76, 88 

Stage {rangamajjha) 318, 321 
Stealing xxi ff. 
Stick 213; protected by 236, 237, 

239 #. 
Stone 12, 127, 133, 140, 142, 250 
Store-room {kotihaka) 211 f. 
Stories xxxiv /. 
Stream {sola) 19; -attainer 152; 

-attainment 162, 164/., 167, 333 n. 
Sugar 104; -cane 98, 101, 108/. 
Support {apassena) 128, 133 
Sutta X ; -vibhanga x 
Sutta(nta)s 15, 17, 273 

Take 74, 75. See also Given, not 
Taste 3; offering a (rasuj^hd^ct) 

128 134 
Tathdgata{s) Ivi, 2, 3, 5, 6, 12 /., 

18, 20, 23, 41, 154, 156 



Teacher (upajjhdya) 171, 173 /.; 

pretext of a 293; {satthd) 18/. 
Temporarily xxxvi, 1 10 
Theft, an arranged 76, 88 ; by means 

of 72/., 74, 157 
Thief, Thieves 72, 73, 75, 89 /., 

101 /., 107 /., 112 /., 155 jj. (five) 
Tiger(s) 98, 256 
Tooth-cleaner 76, 85 
Touch, offering a {phottabbupahdra) 

128, 135 
Training xlvii, 1, 42; disavowal of 

xxvii,4QjQr.,43,44j()r.,52 
Trap (upanikkhipana) 128, 133 
Tree lix, 80, 122, 148, 213, 266 /., 

297/., 314, 320, 326, 333, 337; 

forest- 76, 86 
Trust (vissdsa) 100 
Turban 78/., 97, 114 
Turtle 80, 188 

Unchastity xx/., xxiii/., xxxvii, Iv 
I Undetermined xx, 330 335, 339, 

340. See also Aniyata rules 
U^due estimate (adhimdna) 158 /., 

160, 171, 173 
Unfounded (amulaka) 280 /., 282 | 

(charge); 281 (legal question) * 

Vposatha. See Observance-day 

Vehicle xlvii, 76, 81, 105; being in 

a 81 
Vihara xxviii, xxxi, xlii, xlviii, 

38, 84, 95 /., 100, 109 /., 119, 

140 ff., 146, 156, 170 /., 175, 

266/., 267, 268, 268 jQT., 280, 289; 

being in a 83 
Village 72/., 74, 100, 102, 113, 155, 

230, 266 /., 297/., 324/.; being 

in a 84; -fraud 172, 185 
Vinaya vi/., ix, 273, 304 jQT. 
Virtuous (silavant) 125, 200, 223/., 

225 
Vision (cakkhu) 182, 188 
Voice, praising by means of, 128, 

131 
Volitional force {adhilthdya) 128, 

129 
Vows xlvi /. 
Vultures 182 jj. 

Wall (kuddu) 109, 140/., 322, 337 
Wanderer (paribbdjaka) xi, xxix, 
188 n.y 189 w.; female xxxix, 220 
Waste, the 9, 36, 155 



INDEXES 



355 



Water 85, 106, 109, 118, 188, 199, 

275, 279; being in 76, 80 
Way, the ix, 159, 161, 162, 164 /., 

167 jsr. 

Weakness, declaration of xxvii, 
40jfir.,43,44ir., 52 

Weights, measures Iviii 

Well-farer (sugata) 1, 18 

Whatever 42 

Widow 222 

Wife 30, 44 /., 153, 200, 234, 236, 
236, 238 j9^., 276 /., 315; former 
29j5r., 55, 60, 62, 211; man with 
two wives 144/. ; ten kinds of 237 

Will X, xxiii 

Wish 173/. 

Wolf 98 

Woman (itthi) xxviii, 39, 48 ff., 
56 j^r., 60, 123, 186, 202, 204 ff., 
212 jQT., 217 ff., 222 /., 226 /., 
234 ff., 24:2 f., 254, 268, 332, 337; 



three kinds of 48; ten kinds of 
236; [rrmtugama) Ivii, 201, 202, 
215, 215, 224, 225, 331, 332, 
333/., 336/., 337 

Woodendoll51, 55, 211/. 

Writing lix; praising by means of 
128,131 

Wrong course {agati) 323 /. 

Wrong-doing, offence of (dukkata) 
xxi, xxii n., xxxiv, 55, 57, 77 ff., 
94, 97, 103 /., 109 /., 129 ff., 
138, 142 /., 145, 149, 170 /., 
173 ff., 204 ff., 211 ff., 217 ff., 
226, 242, 244, 258 ff., 286 /., 
294 f., 301 /., 306 /., 312 /., 
326/. 

Wrong states 4/., 121 

Yakkha Ivii, 146; female 51, 57, 
132, 146, 183, 187, 202, 211, 215, 
332, 337; predatory, Ivii, 146 



II.— NAMES 



Abhidhamma-pitaka vii, xxxvi 

Aciravati 106 

Ajatasattu 68 n. 

Ajjuka 111 

Alavi, 247 /. ; monks of 140 ff., 

'148, 246, 248, 265 n.; shrine at 

247/. 
Ananda 12 /., 19 n., 20, 40 /., 97, 

112, 119 jf/., 158, 188 w., 282 n. 
Anathapindika's park 192, 199, 214, 

222,229,314,319,330,336 
Anesaki, M. Ivi 
Anga314w. 
Anumana Sutta xxviii 
Assaji275w., 314, 318/r. 

Bamboo Grove 180, 246, 271, 275, 

288, 296, 304 
Barua, B. M. xli, liii/. 
Benares 21, 112 
Bhaddiya 51, 58 
Bharukaccha monk 51, 60 
Bhikkhu-patimokkha xxix 
Bhikkhum-vibhahga xi 
Bhummajaka 275 J^T., 288/., 314 n. 
Bijaka 33 
Bijaka's father 34 
Bijaka 's mother 33 
Bimbisara 68/., 71, 112 n., 189 



Black Rock 274 

Book of the' Discipline y ff., xi 

Brahma xviii, Iv 

Brahma(s) 2, 33; -world 33, 157 

Buddhaghosa viii, xii, xxvi, xxix 

Buddharakkhita 292 

Burlingame, E. W. 11 w., 71 ??. 

Burma Iviii, 277 n. 

Burnouf, E. xxvi, xxx, xl n. 

Campa, 110 

Ceylon v, Iviii 

Chalmers, Lord xlii, Ivi 

Channa 266, 309 /. 

Childers, R. C. xii, xxvi, xxx /., 

38 n., 195 n. 
Cooke, A. M. Ix 
Coomaraswamy, A. Ivii n. 

Dabba 53 n., 193 n., 271 ff^ 

288/. 
Dalhika 113 

Dark Wood 53 ??., 58, 108 
Devadatta296j5r., 304 
Dhammapada liv 
Dhammarakkhita 292 
Dhaniya 64 ff. 
Dutt, S. viii n., xiii, xxxii 



356 



INDEXES 



Enlightened one {introduction to 
each rtUe) also 1, 40, 43 jQT., 61, 
65, 123, 154, 309, 319, 333 

Pausbdll, V. 12 »., 21 n. 
Franke, R. O. xxxviii n. 

Gabled Hall 21, 26, 60, 116, 151, 

163 
Ganges21, 31, 248jgr. 
Geiger, W. vii 
Gbosita's park 266, 309 
Godhika 274 7i. 
Gomata Glen 274 
Gotanla vii, xii, xiv ff., xxxviii jQT., 

li jgr., Iv/., 1 jQT., 19 n., 20, 275 w., 

282n., 296jer.;aG='292 
Great Wood 21, 26, 32 /., 69 /., 

116, 151, 153 

Harika 187 
Hira&laya8 251/. 

India Tviii, xxiii, xlvii, Iviii/., Ixii 
Isigili 64, 274 

Jacobi, H. viii »., xxiii w., liii n. 

Jatakas xlii 

Jatiya Grove 58 

Jeta Grove 192, 199, 214, 222, 229, 

314, 319, 330, 336 
Jivaka's Mango Grove 274 

Kaccana, a 292 

Kakusandha 15, 17 

Kalandaka 21 j^. 

Kalinga 186 

Kannakujja 21 

Kanthaka 309 n. 

Kapila 113 

Kasi 314 w., 318, 320 

Kassapa {t^^ddha) 15, 17, 172, 186/. 

Kassapa, Maha- (tJiera) 247 /. 

Katamorakatissaka 296, 304 

Kern, H. xxvi n., xxx 

Khandadevi, son of 296, 304 

Khema 54 n., 104 n. 

Kisagotami 53 n. 

Kitagiri314, 3i8jOr. 

Kokalika 296, 304 

Kokanuda 188 n. 

Konagamana 15, 17 

Kosala 314 n. 

Kosambi 113, 266, 309 

Lakkhana 180/. 
Laludayin 193 n. 



Law, B. C. viii n., xi w., xxvi, 
xxvii w., xxix, 11 n., 14 w., 247 n. 
Licchavis32/, 61/., 189 

Maddakucchi 275 

Madhura 1 n. 

Magadha 68/., 112 w., 189, 314 n. 

Mahapajapati 54 n. 

Mahavira xvii, liii, liv n. 

Mallian, the. See Dabba 

Manikantha248jgr. 

Mara(s) Ivii, 2, 38 n., 118, 157 

Mehta, R. N. liv n. 

Mettiya 275jfir., 288/, 314 n, 

Mettiya 279, 288 

Migalandika Ivii, 111 ff- 

Moggaliana xxv /., 13 /, 180 jQT., 

187jOr., 321/;aM°292 
Morris, R. 317 n. 

Naked Ascetics 230 jO^. 
Naleru's Nimba Tree 1 

Old Commentary xi, xxviii, xxxijfiT., 

xli, Hi, Ivii 
Oldenberg, H. v, vii /., xii, xxvi, 

xxxi, xxxiv, lix jQT. 

Pandaka 113 
Patacara 64 n. 
Pataligama 68 n, 
Payagapatitthana 21 
Pilindavaccha 112/. 
Przyluski, J. lix, 15 n. 
Punabbasu 175 n., 314, 318 jQT. 

Rahula 162 n. 

Rajagaha 56, 61, 64, 68, 71, 111, 

180 jSr., 246 jgr., 271, 274 «., 275, 

288, 296, 298, 304 
Rapson, E. J. lix 
Ratthapala252/. 
Rhys Davids, Mrs. vi, xxv, xxviii n., 

li, Ivi/., lix/., 13 n., 92 w., 157 w., 

162 «. 
Rhys Davids: T. W. v, viii, xii, 

xxvi, xxxi, xxxiv, lix, Ixi, 28 n., 

71 M 

Robbers Cliff 274 

Saddha 62, 61 

Sagala 113 

Sakyans, 80n(s) of the xxix. Hi /., 
1, 43 jO^., 48, 67, 70, 75. 125, 128, 
161, 200 /., 223, 234, 266, 283, 
292,299 



INDEXES 



357 



Samantapasadika viii 

Samiddhi 274 n. 

Samuddadatta 296, 304 

Sangharakkhita 292 

Sankassa 21 

Sagyntta xxv 

Sappinika 189 

Sariputta 13 n., 14 jQT., 321 /. 

Sattapanni Cave 274 

Savatthi 51, 63 w., 58, 61, 107 /., 

192, 199, 214, 222, 229, 231 /., 

314, 318 #.,330, 336 
Schrader, O. lix 
Seyyasaka 192 jQT. 
Siha 4 n. 
Sikhin 15, 17 
Sita's Wood 274 
Smith, Helmer lix 
Snake Pool 274 
Sobhita 172, 190 
Soreyya 21 
Squirrels' Feeding Place 180, 246, 

271, 288, 296, 304 
St. Francis xliii /. 
Sudinna Mi, 21 ff. 
Sundara 51, 56 
Sunidha 68 n. 
Supabba 52, 61 
Sutta-pitaka v, vii, ix /., xviii, xxv, 

xxxvi* 
Suttavibhanga vii jflf., xv /., xxv, 

xxvii, xxxiii, xxxvii, xl, li, liv /., 

lix 

Tapoda, Glen 274; Park 274; 

river 172, 188, 274 n. 
Theragatha xviii, xlii 
Thomas, E. J. viii n., x, xiii, xiv n., 

xxvi, 1 n., 15 »., 81 n. 



Thomas, F. W. lix 
Thullananda 110/. 
Tinduka Glen 274 
Trenckner, V. 12 n. 

Udayin xxxii, 192, 199 ff.y 211 n., 
214 /., 222 jQf., 226 n., 229 jfif., 
330/., 336 

Upali60, 112 

Upani^ads Iv 

Uppalavanna 51, 

tJttarakuru 14 

Uttarapatha 11 



53/., 104 n. 



Vaggumuda 118, 151, 164, 157, 

171 n. 
Vajji 151 

Vajji(an)8 26, 40/., 51 /., 68 n. 
Vakkali 274 w. 
Vasittha, a 292 
Vassakara 68 
Vebhara 274 
Veraiija 1 /., 11 ff., 21 ; brahmin of 

li, ljfir.,20/. 
Vesali 11 n., 21 jfif., 26 /., 38 jQT.. 

51, 59 jQT., Ill, 116, 120 /., 151, 

153 
Vessabhu 16jfir. 
Vinaya-pitaka v jfiT., x, xiii, xvi, 

xviii, XXV, xxxiii, xxxvi /., 

Iviii/., lixj^. 
Vinaya Texts v/., viii, x, xxx, Ixi 
Vipassin 15, 17 
Visakha xxxii/., 330/., 336 
Vulture's Peak 64/., 98, 142, 181 ff., 

274 

Wintemitz, M. viii n., xiii 
Woodward, F. L. Ivi, 41 w., 66 n. 



III.— SOME PALI WORDS IN THE NOTES 



Akkamati 59, 137 /. 
Akkharakkhara 132 
Angulipatodaka xxxvi 
Ajjhacara 202 
AMa 120 
Attakama 224 
Atta 117 
Attha 13 
Adhititthati 128 
Anabhirati 114 
Aparanna 83 
Appanihita 161 



! Abboharika 159 
Abhijjamana udaka 118 
Abhiratall4, 192 (an) 
Abhiramati 24, 114 
Amanussa 74, 147 
Appadakkhinaggahi anusasanim 

311 
Arasariipa 3 
Alamvacaniya 244 

Amasati 203 
Alhaka 12, 103 



358 



INDEXES 



Avasika 314 

Indagopaka 65 
Issara 109 

Uppalagandha 50 
Usselheti 317 

Ottharati 137 
Odakantika 37 

Kavatam panameti 199 
Karhapana 29, 71 
Kayapatibaddha 207, 218 
Kuddamula 27 

Cakkhubhuta 182 
Cetiya 243, 247, 266 

Jatarupa 28 

Tavakalika 110 
Tula 104 
I'ekatulayagu 111 

Ditthi, khanti, ruci, bhava 163 
Dukkata 77 
Dubbacajatika 310 
Dubbhikkha 11 
Dona 103 /. 
Dvihitika 11 

Nali(ka) 12, 103 
Nirabbuda 19 

Paccati 183 

Pacchima Janata 13, 66 



Pattena panameti 213 
Pattha 12, 103 
Parivasam deti 196 
Pasadabhanna 178 
Patavyata 66 
Pada 71 
Parajika 38 
Pubbanna 83 

Maha 247 
Masaka 29, 71, 72 

Yana 81 

Rajata 29, 71 
Rupiya 29, 71 

Lekham chindati 131 
Loma 70; lomam pateti 323 

Valayakkha 146 
Vippatisari 171, 177 
Vibbhamati 40, 60, 114 
Venayika 5 

Sanghadisesa 195 
Samapajjati 201 
Sampanna 2 
Salakavutta 11 
Sarathi 185 
Suvanna 28 
Setatthika 11 
Setughata 13 

Hiraniia 28 



IV.— TITLES OF WORKS ABBREVIATED IN 
FOOTNOTES 

A. = Anguttara-Nikaya. 
^-4. = Commentary on A. 
Asl. = Atthasalini. 
Chdnd. = Chandogya Upanisad. 
C.H.I. = Cambridge History of India. 
Corny. = Commentary. 
Crit. Pali Diet. = See Tr. Crit. Pali Diet. 
D. = Digha-Nikaya. 
Z>^. = Commentary on D. 
DA^. = Commentary on Dhp. 
Dhp. = Dhammapada. 
Dhs. = Dhammasafigani. 
Dial. = Dialogues of the Bvddha. 



INDEXES 359 



Fur. Dial. = Further Dialogues. 

Q.8. = Gradual Sayings. 

H.0.8. = Harvard Oriental Series. 

/<. = Itiyuttaka. 

/<^. = Commentary on It. 

Ja.=Jataka. 

J .P .T.S. = Journal of the Pali Text Society. 

K.S. = Kindred Sayings. 

KhA.y Khu A. = Comm.enta,ry on Khuddakapatha. 

Kvu. = Kathavatthu. 

ilf . = Majjhima-Nikaya. 

Jlf^. = Commentary on M. 

MUn. = Milindapanha. 

Nd. = Niddesa. 

Pdc. = Pacittiya* 

Pss. Breth. = Psalms of the Brethren. 

Pss. Sisters = Psalms of the Sisters. 

Pts. = Patisambhidamagga. 

Pis. Conir. = Points of Controversy. 

P.T.S. Did. = Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary (Rhys Davids 

and Stede). 
Pug. = Puggalapannati . 
PvA. = Commentary on Petavatthu. 
S. = Sagyutta-Nikaya. 
aS^. = Commentary on S. 
S.B.B. — Sacred Books of the Buddhists. 
S.B.E. = Sacred Books of the East. 
Sn. = Sutta-Nipata. 
/8'n^. = Commentary on Sn. 
Tcbit. Up. = Taittiriya Upani§ad. 
T^ogr. = Theragatha. 
T%. = Therigatha. 
ThigA. = Commentary on Thig. 
Tr. Grit. Pali Die/. = Critical Pali Dictiong-ry (Dines Andersen aijd Helmer 

'Smith). 
Ud. = Vda,na,. 

C7<i-4.= Commentary on Ud. 
Up. = Upani^ad. 
F^. = Commentary on Vin. 
F6A. = Vibhanga. 
F6A^. = Commentary on Vbh. 
Fiw. = Vinaya. 
Vin. Texts = Vinaya Texts, 
Vism. = Visuddhimagga. 
Vv. = Vimanavatthu. 
Fr^. = Commentary on Vv. 



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